Sample records for postmastectomy pain syndrome

  1. A review of the literature and discussion: establishing a consensus for the definition of post-mastectomy pain syndrome to provide a standardized clinical and research approach.

    PubMed

    Brackstone, Murial

    2016-09-01

    Chronic pain presents a management challenge for physicians and patients alike, and post-mastectomy pain is no exception. In this issue, Waltho and Rockwell present a review of post-mastectomy pain syndrome (PMPS) and propose a standard definition that should allow future studies to be comparable. The proposed definition of "post-breast surgery pain syndrome" includes pain after any type of breast surgery that is of at least moderate intensity and comprises neuropathic qualities, that is present in the ipsilateral breast/chest/arm, that lasts longer than 6 months and is present at least half the time. Further work is needed to clarify whether this pain syndrome is in fact driven by neuralgia resulting from the axillary dissection component of breast cancer surgery.

  2. "A Tale of Two Planes": Deep Versus Superficial Serratus Plane Block for Postmastectomy Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Piracha, Mohammad M; Thorp, Stephen L; Puttanniah, Vinay; Gulati, Amitabh

    Postmastectomy pain syndrome (PMPS) is a significant burden for breast cancer survivors. Although multiple therapies have been described, an evolving field of serratus anterior plane blocks has been described in this population. We describe the addition of the deep serratus anterior plane block (DSPB) for PMPS. Four patients with history of PMPS underwent DSPB for anterior chest wall pain. A retrospective review of these patients' outcomes was obtained through postprocedure interviews. Three of the patients previously had a superficial serratus anterior plane block, which was not as efficacious as the DSPB. The fourth patient had a superficial serratus anterior plane that was difficult to separate with hydrodissection but had improved pain control with a DSPB. We illustrate 4 patients who have benefitted from a DSPB and describe indications that this block may be more efficacious than a superficial serratus plane block. Further study is recommended to understand the intercostal nerve branches within the lateral and anterior muscular chest wall planes.

  3. Post-breast surgery pain syndrome: establishing a consensus for the definition of post-mastectomy pain syndrome to provide a standardized clinical and research approach - a review of the literature and discussion.

    PubMed

    Waltho, Daniel; Rockwell, Gloria

    2016-09-01

    Post-mastectomy pain syndrome (PMPS) is a frequent complication of breast surgery. There is currently no standard definition for this chronic pain syndrome. The purpose of this review was to establish a consensus for defining PMPS by identifying the various elements included in the definitions and how they vary across the literature, determining how these definitions affect the methodological components therein, and proposing a definition that appropriately encompasses all of the appropriate elements. We searched PubMed to retrieve all studies and case reports on PMPS, and we analyzed definitions of PMPS, inclusion/exclusion criteria, and methods of measuring PMPS. Twenty-three studies were included in this review. We identified 7 independent domains for defining PMPS: surgical breast procedure, neuropathic nature, pain of at least moderate intensity, protracted duration, frequent symptoms, appropriate location of the symptoms and exacerbation with movement. These domains were used with varying frequency. Inclusion/exclusion criteria and methods for assessing PMPS also varied markedly. To prevent future discrepancies in both the clinical and research settings, we propose a new and complete definition based on the results of our review: PMPS is pain that occurs after any breast surgery; is of at least moderate severity; possesses neuropathic qualities; is located in the ipsilateral breast/chest wall, axilla, and/or arm; lasts at least 6 months; occurs at least 50% of the time; and may be exacerbated by movements of the shoulder girdle.

  4. Effect of individualized physical rehabilitation programs on respiratory function in women with post-mastectomy syndrome.

    PubMed

    Odinets, Tatiana; Briskin, Yuriy; Pityn, Maryan

    2018-02-26

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an individualized physical rehabilitation programs aimed at improving respiratory function in women with post-mastectomy syndrome. In a randomized controlled trial 50 women with post-mastectomy syndrome were enrolled in the experimental group (EG, n = 25) or the comparison group (CG, n = 25). The program for the EG included: aqua aerobics (i.e. aqua jogging, aqua building, and aqua stretching); conditional swimming; and recreational aerobics. The program for the CG included: conditional swimming and Pilates exercises. Both intervention groups attended individualized physical rehabilitation programs three times per week for 48 weeks. The primary outcome measure was spirometry of the patients measured before, 6 and 12 months after the intervention. This study demonstrated that most of the respiratory function parameters increased significantly in both groups over the year of exercise training. After the year of training the individualized physical rehabilitation program for the EG was significantly better (p < 0.01) as compared with the CG, except for inspiratory reserve volume and maximal voluntary ventilation, which were not statistically different. The results of the study suggest that individual programs of physical rehabilitation could be considered effective for the improvement of respiratory function of the patients with post-mastectomy syndrome. The results obtained could serve as a basis for more widespread clinical program development.

  5. Postmastectomy Pain: A Cross-sectional Study of Prevalence, Pain Characteristics, and Effects on Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Beyaz, Serbülent Gökhan; Ergönenç, Jalan Şerbetçigil; Ergönenç, Tolga; Sönmez, Özlem Uysal; Erkorkmaz, Ünal; Altintoprak, Fatih

    2016-01-05

    Postmastectomy pain syndrome (PMPS) is defined as a chronic (continuing for 3 or more months) neuropathic pain affecting the axilla, medial arm, breast, and chest wall after breast cancer surgery. The prevalence of PMPS has been reported to range from 20% to 68%. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of PMPS among mastectomy patients, the severity of neuropathic pain in these patients, risk factors that contribute to pain becoming chronic, and the effect of PMPS on life quality. This cross-sectional study was approved by the Sakarya University, Medical Faculty Ethical Council and included 146 patients ranging in age from 18 to 85 years who visited the pain clinic, general surgery clinic, and oncology clinic and had breast surgery between 2012 and 2014. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether they met PMPS criteria: pain at axilla, arm, shoulder, chest wall, scar tissue, or breast at least 3 months after breast surgery. All patients gave informed consent prior to entry into the study. Patient medical records were collected, and pain and quality of life were evaluated by the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, a short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), douleur neuropathique-4 (DN-4), and SF-36. Patient mean age was 55.2 ± 11.8 years (33.0-83.0 years). PMPS prevalence was 36%. Mean scores on the VAS, SF-MPQ, and DN-4 in PMPS patients were 1.76 ± 2.38 (0-10), 1.73 ± 1.54 (0-5), and 1.64 ± 2.31 (0-8), respectively. Of these patients, 31 (23.7%) had neuropathic pain characteristics, and 12 (9.2%) had phantom pain according to the DN-4 survey. Patients who had modified radical mastectomy were significantly more likely to develop PMPS than patients who had breast-protective surgery (P = 0.028). Only 2 (2.4%) of PMPS patients had received proper treatment (anticonvulsants or opioids). PMPS seriously impacts patients' emotional situation, daily activities, and social relationships and is a major economic burden for health

  6. Prospective Evaluation of Severe Skin Toxicity and Pain During Postmastectomy Radiation Therapy

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Pignol, Jean-Philippe, E-mail: j.p.pignol@erasmusmc.nl; Vu, Thi Trinh Thuc; Mitera, Gunita

    Purpose: To prospectively capture acute toxicities and pain associated with postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT), to analyze patient and treatment risk factors for severe side effects. Methods and Materials: Women referred for PMRT were prospectively enrolled and assessed weekly during and after radiation therapy. The endpoint included severe National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Effects grade 3 moist desquamation, other skin symptoms, and pain. Results: Of 257 patients, 73 (28.4%) experienced extensive moist desquamation, 84 (32.7%) Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Effects skin toxicity grade 3, and 57 (22.2%) a pain impacting on daily life activities. Among symptoms only grademore » 3 moist desquamation was significantly associated with severe pain (P<.001). On multivariate analysis, smoking, high-energy photons, and skin bolus were significantly associated with severe moist desquamation. Skin toxicity doubled for smokers, with 40% severe pain, 48% grade 3 moist desquamation, and 64% grade 3 skin toxicity. Without skin bolus 4.2% had severe pain, none moist desquamation, and 2.1% grade 3 skin toxicity. When skin bolus was used on alternate days, the frequency increased to 15% for pain, 22% for moist desquamation, and 26% for grade 3 skin toxicity. When bolus was used daily, 32% had pain, 41% moist desquamation, and 47% grade 3 skin toxicity. Symptoms peaked 1 to 2 weeks after the end of PMRT. Conclusions: The present cohort study suggests excessive radiation toxicity after PMRT. Among factors associated with an increase of toxicity are smoking habits and the use of skin bolus.« less

  7. Persistent pain in postmastectomy patients: Comparison of psychophysical, medical, surgical, and psychosocial characteristics between patients with and without pain

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Kristin L.; Martel, Marc O.; Shnol, Helen; Shaffer, John R.; Greco, Carol; Viray, Nicole; Taylor, Lauren N.; McLaughlin, Meghan; Brufsky, Adam; Ahrendt, Gretchen; Bovbjerg, Dana; Edwards, Robert R.; Belfer, Inna

    2013-01-01

    Persistent postmastectomy pain (PPMP) is a major individual and public health problem. Increasingly, psychosocial factors such as anxiety and catastrophizing are being revealed as crucial contributors to individual differences in pain processing and outcomes. Furthermore, differences in patients’ responses to standardized quantitative sensory testing (QST) may aid in the discernment of who is at risk for acute and chronic pain after surgery. However, characterization of the variables that differentiate those with PPMP from those whose acute postoperative pain resolves is currently incomplete. The purpose of this study was to investigate important surgical, treatment-related, demographic, psychophysical, and psychosocial factors associated with PPMP by comparing PPMP cases with PPMP-free controls. Pain was assessed using the breast cancer pain questionnaire to determine the presence and extent of PPMP. Psychosocial and demographic information were gathered via phone interview, and women underwent a QST session. Consistent with most prior research, surgical and disease-related variables did not differ significantly between cases and controls. Furthermore, treatment with radiation, chemotherapy, or hormone therapy was also not more common among those with PPMP. In contrast, women with PPMP did show elevated levels of distress-related psychosocial factors such as anxiety, depression, catastrophizing, and somatization. Finally, QST in nonsurgical body areas revealed increased sensitivity to mechanical stimulation among PPMP cases, while thermal pain responses were not different between the groups. These findings suggest that an individual’s psychophysical and psychosocial profile may be more strongly related to PPMP than their surgical treatment. PMID:23290256

  8. Breast cancer survivors suffer from persistent postmastectomy pain syndrome and posttraumatic stress disorder (ORTHUS study): a study of the palliative care working committee of the Turkish Oncology Group (TOG).

    PubMed

    Alkan, Ali; Guc, Zeynep Gulsum; Senler, Filiz Cay; Yavuzsen, Tugba; Onur, Handan; Dogan, Mutlu; Karci, Ebru; Yasar, Arzu; Koksoy, Elif Berna; Tanriverdi, Ozgur; Turhal, Serdar; Urun, Yuksel; Ozkan, Asiye; Mizrak, Dilsa; Akbulut, Hakan

    2016-09-01

    Persistent postmastectomy pain syndrome (PMPS) is one of the most important disturbing symptoms. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder which is characterized by reactions to reminders of the trauma that has been experienced. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the predictors of PMPS and PTSD in Turkish breast cancer survivors and the correlation between PMPS and PTSD. The study is designed as a multicenter survey study. Breast cancer patients in remission were evaluated. Patients were evaluated with structured questionnaires to assess the PMPS and clinical parameters associated with it. The Turkish version of the posttraumatic stress disorder checklist-civilian version (PCL-C) was used. Between February 2015 and October 2015, 614 breast cancer survivors in outpatient clinics were evaluated. The incidence of PMPS documented is 45.1 %. In the multivariate analysis low income, presence of PTSD and <46 months after surgery were associated with increased risk of PMPS. PTSD was documented in 75 %, and the mean PCL-C score was 32.4 ± 11.1. PMPS and being married at the time of the evaluation were linked with PTSD. It is the first data about the association between PMPS and PTSD. The clinicians should be aware of PMPS and PTSD in breast cancer survivors.

  9. Focal Muscle Vibration and Physical Exercise in Postmastectomy Recovery: An Explorative Study

    PubMed Central

    Fara, Maria Antonietta; Filippi, Guido Maria; La Torre, Giuseppe; Tozzi, Roberto; Vanacore, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Background. Physical activity initiation and maintenance are particular challenges in the postmastectomy recovery and in particular Dragon Boat racing seems to be a useful sport activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of focal muscle vibration as a proprioceptive input to improve upper limb functioning in a group of “paddlers” patients. Methods. A group of paddlers has been evaluated before vibratory treatment (T0), immediately after therapy (T1), after one week (T2), and after one month (T3) with DASH questionnaire, Body Image Scale, McGill pain questionnaire, Constant Scale, and Short Form 36 questionnaire. Results. Fourteen patients showed a significant reduction in disability score (p = 0,001) using DASH scale, an improvement of upper limb function (p = 0,001) using the Constant scale, and a reduction of pain (p = 0,007) at the McGill pain questionnaire. The Mental Composite Score of the Short Form 36 questionnaire showed significant results (p = 0,04) while no significant results had been found regarding the physical mental score (p = 0,08). Conclusion. Focal muscle vibration may be a useful treatment in a postmastectomy recovery of upper limb functionality. PMID:28459068

  10. Loin pain hematuria syndrome.

    PubMed

    Taba Taba Vakili, Sahar; Alam, Tausif; Sollinger, Hans

    2014-09-01

    Loin pain hematuria syndrome is a rare disease with a prevalence of ∼0.012%. The most prominent clinical features include periods of severe intermittent or persistent unilateral or bilateral loin pain accompanied by either microscopic or gross hematuria. Patients with loin pain hematuria syndrome initially present with hematuria, flank pain, or most often both hematuria and flank pain. Kidney biopsies from patients with loin pain hematuria typically reveal only minor pathologic abnormalities. Further, loin pain hematuria syndrome is not associated with loss of kidney function or urinary tract infections. Loin pain hematuria syndrome-associated hematuria and pain are postulated to be linked to vascular disease of the kidney, coagulopathy, renal vasospasm with microinfarction, hypersensitivity, complement activation on arterioles, venocalyceal fistula, abnormal ureteral peristalsis, and intratubular deposition of calcium or uric acid microcrystals. Many patients with loin pain hematuria syndrome also meet criteria for a somatoform disorder, and analgesic medications, including narcotics, commonly are used to treat loin pain hematuria syndrome-associated pain. Interventional treatments include renal denervation, kidney autotransplantation, and nephrectomy; however, these methods should be used only as a last resort when less invasive measures have been tried unsuccessfully. In this review article, we discuss and critique current clinical practices related to loin pain hematuria syndrome pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other major and minor traumas — such as surgery, heart attacks, infections and even sprained ankles — can also lead to complex regional pain syndrome. It's not well-understood why these injuries can trigger complex regional pain syndrome. Not everyone who has ...

  12. Myofascial pain syndrome: a treatment review.

    PubMed

    Desai, Mehul J; Saini, Vikramjeet; Saini, Shawnjeet

    2013-06-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is defined as pain that originates from myofascial trigger points in skeletal muscle. It is prevalent in regional musculoskeletal pain syndromes, either alone or in combination with other pain generators. The appropriate evaluation and management of myofascial pain is an important part of musculoskeletal rehabilitation, and regional axial and limb pain syndromes. This article reviews the current hypotheses regarding the treatment modalities for myofascial trigger points and muscle pain. Through a critical evidence-based review of the pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatments, the authors aim to provide clinicians with a more comprehensive knowledge of the interventions for myofascial pain.

  13. Calcineurin-inhibitor pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Prommer, Eric

    2012-07-01

    There has been increased recognition of calcineurin, a phosphoprotein serine/threonine phosphatase enzyme, in the regulation of many physiologic systems. Calcineurin mediates activation of lymphocytes, which play a role in immune response. Widely distributed in the central nervous system, calcinuerin also plays an important role in sensory neural function, via its role in the regulation of newly discovered 2-pore potassium channels, which greatly influence neuronal resting membrane potentials. Calcinuerin inhibition is the mechanism of action of immunomodulatory drugs such as cyclosporine and tacrolimus, which are widely used in transplantation medicine to prevent rejection. While important for immunosuppression, the use of calcineurin inhibitors has been associated with the development of a new pain syndrome called the calcineurin pain syndrome, which appears to be an untoward complication of the interruption of the physiologic function of calcineurin. This is a narrative review focusing on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, characterization of a newly recognized pain syndrome associated with the use of calcineurin inhibitors. The use of immunosuppressants however is associated with several well-known toxicities to which the calcineurin pain syndrome can be added. The development of this syndrome most likely involves altered nociceptive processing due to the effect of calcineurin inhibition on neuronal firing, as well as effects of calcineurin on vascular tone. The most striking aspect of the treatment of this syndrome is the response to calcium channel blockers, which suggest that the effects of calcineurin inhibition on vascular tone play an important role in the development of the calcineurin pain syndrome. The calcineurin syndrome is a newly recognized complication associated with the use of calcineurin inhibitors. There is no standard therapy at this time but anecdotal reports suggest the effectiveness of calcium channel blockers.

  14. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition. It causes intense pain, usually in the arms, hands, legs, or feet. ... in skin temperature, color, or texture Intense burning pain Extreme skin sensitivity Swelling and stiffness in affected ...

  15. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Mallow, Michael; Nazarian, Levon N

    2014-05-01

    Lateral hip pain, or greater trochanteric pain syndrome, is a commonly seen condition; in this article, the relevant anatomy, epidemiology, and evaluation strategies of greater trochanteric pain syndrome are reviewed. Specific attention is focused on imaging of this syndrome and treatment techniques, including ultrasound-guided interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Loin pain hematuria syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zubair, Adeel S.; Salameh, Hassan; Erickson, Stephen B.; Prieto, Mikel

    2016-01-01

    Loin pain hematuria syndrome (LPHS), first described in 1967, is a rare pain syndrome, which is not well understood. The syndrome is characterized by severe intermittent or persistent flank pain, either unilateral or bilateral, associated with gross or microscopic hematuria. LPHS is a diagnosis of exclusion as there still is not a consensus of validated diagnostic criteria, though several criteria have been proposed. The wide differential diagnosis would suggest a meticulous yet specific diagnostic work-up depending on the individual clinical features and natural history. Several mechanisms regarding the pathophysiology of LPHS have been proposed but without pinpointing the actual causative etiology, the treatment remains symptomatic. Treatment modalities for LPHS are diverse including simple analgesia, opioid analgesic and kidney autotransplantation. This review article summarizes the current understanding regarding the pathophysiology of LPHS along with the steps required for proper diagnosis and a discussion of the different therapeutic approaches for LPHS. PMID:26798473

  17. Idiopathic ophthalmodynia and idiopathic rhinalgia: two topographic facial pain syndromes.

    PubMed

    Pareja, Juan A; Cuadrado, María L; Porta-Etessam, Jesús; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Gili, Pablo; Caminero, Ana B; Cebrián, José L

    2010-09-01

    To describe 2 topographic facial pain conditions with the pain clearly localized in the eye (idiopathic ophthalmodynia) or in the nose (idiopathic rhinalgia), and to propose their distinction from persistent idiopathic facial pain. Persistent idiopathic facial pain, burning mouth syndrome, atypical odontalgia, and facial arthromyalgia are idiopathic facial pain syndromes that have been separated according to topographical criteria. Still, some other facial pain syndromes might have been veiled under the broad term of persistent idiopathic facial pain. Through a 10-year period we have studied all patients referred to our neurological clinic because of facial pain of unknown etiology that might deviate from all well-characterized facial pain syndromes. In a group of patients we have identified 2 consistent clinical pictures with pain precisely located either in the eye (n=11) or in the nose (n=7). Clinical features resembled those of other localized idiopathic facial syndromes, the key differences relying on the topographic distribution of the pain. Both idiopathic ophthalmodynia and idiopathic rhinalgia seem specific pain syndromes with a distinctive location, and may deserve a nosologic status just as other focal pain syndromes of the face. Whether all such focal syndromes are topographic variants of persistent idiopathic facial pain or independent disorders remains a controversial issue.

  18. Characterization of pain, disability, and psychological burden in Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Speed, Traci J; Mathur, Vani A; Hand, Matthew; Christensen, Bryt; Sponseller, Paul D; Williams, Kayode A; Campbell, Claudia M

    2017-02-01

    The clinical manifestations of Marfan syndrome frequently cause pain. This study aimed to characterize pain in a cohort of adults with Marfan syndrome and investigate demographic, physical, and psychological factors associated with pain and pain-related disability. Two hundred and forty-five participants (73% female, 89% non-Hispanic white, 90% North American) completed an online questionnaire assessing clinical features of Marfan syndrome, pain severity, pain-related disability, physical and mental health, depressive symptoms, pain catastrophizing, and insomnia. Eighty-nine percent of respondents reported having pain with 28% of individuals reporting pain as a presenting symptom of Marfan syndrome. Almost half of individuals reported that pain has spread from its initial site. Participants in our study reported poor physical and mental health functioning, moderate pain-related disability, and mild levels of depressive symptoms, sleep disturbances, and pain catastrophizing. Those who identified pain as an initial symptom of Marfan syndrome and those who reported that pain had spread from its initial site reported greater psychological burden compared with those without pain as an initial symptom or pain spreading. Physical health is the largest predictor of pain severity and pain-related disability. While pain catastrophizing and worse mental health functioning are significant correlates of pain severity and pain-related disability, respectively. Pain is a significant and persistent problem in Marfan syndrome and is associated with profound disability and psychological burden. Further studies are indicated to better characterize the directionality of pain, pain-related disability, and psychological burden in Marfan syndrome. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The effect of kinesio taping with exercise compared with exercise alone on pain, range of motion, and disability of the shoulder in postmastectomy females: a randomized control trial

    PubMed Central

    Tantawy, Sayed A; Kamel, Dalia M

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of kinesio tape on pain, range of motion, and disability of the shoulder. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy-four female patients who underwent modified radical mastectomy participated in this study. They were randomly divided into two groups, an experimental group that received kinesio tape for the shoulder joint in addition to a conventional physiotherapy program and a control group that received the physiotherapy program only. Outcome measures included the Visual Analogue Scale, shoulder range of motion, and Shoulder Pain and Disability Index. [Results] The experimental group showed significant differences in all outcome measures both within and between groups. The control group only showed a significant within group difference in shoulder flexion. [Conclusion] Clinicians should be able to recognize the benefits achieved through the use of adjunct treatment options such as kinesio tape in comparison with benefits that can be obtained through the use of individual modalities in physical therapy. Kinesio tape can be suggested and recommended for postmastectomy patients, especially for shoulder pain, range of motion, and disability. PMID:28174439

  20. Myofascial Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... to develop trigger points in their muscles. One theory holds that these people may be more likely ... doctors believe myofascial pain syndrome may play a role in starting this process. By Mayo Clinic Staff . ...

  1. Fear of pain in children and adolescents with neuropathic pain and complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Simons, Laura E

    2016-02-01

    A significant proportion of children and adolescents with chronic pain endorse elevated pain-related fear. Pain-related fear is associated with high levels of disability, depressive symptoms, and school impairment. Because of faulty nerve signaling, individuals with neuropathic pain and complex regional pain syndrome may be more prone to develop pain-related fear as they avoid use of and neglect the affected body area(s), resulting in exacerbated symptoms, muscle atrophy, maintenance of pain signaling, and ongoing pain-related disability. Not surprisingly, effective treatments for elevated pain-related fears involve exposure to previously avoided activities to downregulate incorrect pain signaling. In the context of intensive interdisciplinary pain treatment of youth with neuropathic pain, decreasing pain-related fear is associated with improved physical and psychological functioning, whereas high initial pain-related fear is a risk factor for less treatment responsiveness. An innovative approach to targeting pain-related fear and evidence of a neural response to treatment involving decoupling of the amygdala with key fear circuits in youth with complex regional pain syndrome suggest breakthroughs in our ability to ameliorate these issues.

  2. Central poststroke pain: somatosensory abnormalities and the presence of associated myofascial pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Central post-stroke pain (CPSP) is a neuropathic pain syndrome associated with somatosensory abnormalities due to central nervous system lesion following a cerebrovascular insult. Post-stroke pain (PSP) refers to a broader range of clinical conditions leading to pain after stroke, but not restricted to CPSP, including other types of pain such as myofascial pain syndrome (MPS), painful shoulder, lumbar and dorsal pain, complex regional pain syndrome, and spasticity-related pain. Despite its recognition as part of the general PSP diagnostic possibilities, the prevalence of MPS has never been characterized in patients with CPSP patients. We performed a cross-sectional standardized clinical and radiological evaluation of patients with definite CPSP in order to assess the presence of other non-neuropathic pain syndromes, and in particular, the role of myofascial pain syndrome in these patients. Methods CPSP patients underwent a standardized sensory and motor neurological evaluation, and were classified according to stroke mechanism, neurological deficits, presence and profile of MPS. The Visual Analogic Scale (VAS), McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), and Beck Depression Scale (BDS) were filled out by all participants. Results Forty CPSP patients were included. Thirty-six (90.0%) had one single ischemic stroke. Pain presented during the first three months after stroke in 75.0%. Median pain intensity was 10 (5 to 10). There was no difference in pain intensity among the different lesion site groups. Neuropathic pain was continuous-ongoing in 34 (85.0%) patients and intermittent in the remainder. Burning was the most common descriptor (70%). Main aggravating factors were contact to cold (62.5%). Thermo-sensory abnormalities were universal. MPS was diagnosed in 27 (67.5%) patients and was more common in the supratentorial extra-thalamic group (P <0.001). No significant differences were observed among the different stroke location groups and pain questionnaires and

  3. Botulinum toxin treatment of pain syndromes -an evidence based review.

    PubMed

    Safarpour, Yasaman; Jabbari, Bahman

    2018-06-01

    This review evaluates the existing level of evidence for efficacy of BoNTs in different pain syndromes using the recommended efficacy criteria from the Assessment and Therapeutic Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. There is a level A evidence (effective) for BoNT therapy in post-herpetic neuralgia, trigeminal neuralgia, and posttraumatic neuralgia. There is a level B evidence (probably effective) for diabetic neuropathy, plantar fasciitis, piriformis syndrome, pain associated with total knee arthroplasty, male pelvic pain syndrome, chronic low back pain, male pelvic pain, and neuropathic pain secondary to traumatic spinal cord injury. BoNTs are possibly effective (Level C -one class II study) for female pelvic pain, painful knee osteoarthritis, post-operative pain in children with cerebral palsy after adductor release surgery, anterior knee pain with vastus lateralis imbalance. There is a level B evidence (one class I study) that BoNT treatment is probably ineffective in carpal tunnel syndrome. For myofascial pain syndrome, the level of evidence is U (undetermined) due to contradicting results. More high quality (Class I) studies and studies with different types of BoNTs are needed for better understanding of the role of BoNTs in pain syndromes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mental health diagnoses in patients with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: a case/control study.

    PubMed

    Clemens, J Quentin; Brown, Sheila O; Calhoun, Elizabeth A

    2008-10-01

    We compared the rate of mental health disorders in male and female patients with pelvic pain and control subjects. Male patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (174) and female patients with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (111) were identified from a urology tertiary care clinic population. A control group consisting of 72 men and 175 women was also recruited. Subjects completed self-administered questionnaires that included items about demographics, medical history, medication use and urological symptoms. The Patient Health Questionnaire was used to identify depression and panic disorder. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine odds ratios for the presence of a mental health diagnosis. Mental health disorders were identified in 13% of the chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome cases and 4% of male controls (OR 2.0, p = 0.04), as well as in 23% of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome cases and 3% of female controls (OR 8.2, p <0.0001). Disease status (case vs control) (OR 10.4, p = 0.001) and income greater than $50,000 (OR 0.34, p = 0.008) were the only 2 variables independently predictive of the presence of a mental health diagnosis. Age, gender, race/ethnicity and education were not predictive. Medications for anxiety, depression or stress were being taken by 18% of patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome, 37% of those with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome, 7% of male controls and 13% of female controls. Depression and panic disorder are significantly more common in men and women with pelvic pain conditions than in controls. Medication use data suggest that anxiety and depression may be more difficult to treat in patients with urological pain syndromes than in controls.

  5. The prevalence and overlap of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome in men: results of the RAND Interstitial Cystitis Epidemiology male study.

    PubMed

    Suskind, Anne M; Berry, Sandra H; Ewing, Brett A; Elliott, Marc N; Suttorp, Marika J; Clemens, J Quentin

    2013-01-01

    As part of the RICE (RAND Interstitial Cystitis Epidemiology) study, we developed validated case definitions to identify interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome in women and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome in men. Using population based screening methods, we applied these case definitions to determine the prevalence of these conditions in men. A total of 6,072 households were contacted by telephone to screen for men who had symptoms of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome or chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. An initial 296 men screened positive, of whom 149 met the inclusionary criteria and completed the telephone interview. For interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome 2 case definitions were applied (1 with high sensitivity and 1 with high specificity), while for chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome a single case definition (with high sensitivity and specificity) was used. These case definitions were used to classify subjects into groups based on diagnosis. The interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome weighted prevalence estimates for the high sensitivity and high specificity definitions were 4.2% (3.1-5.3) and 1.9% (1.1-2.7), respectively. The chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome weighted prevalence estimate was 1.8% (0.9-2.7). These values equate to 1,986,972 (95% CI 966,042-2,996,924) men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and 2,107,727 (95% CI 1,240,485-2,974,969) men with the high specificity definition of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome in the United States. The overlap between men who met the high specificity interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome case definition or the chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome case definition was 17%. Symptoms of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome are widespread among men in the United States. The prevalence of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain

  6. Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... But do this slowly, increasing the amount of time you do the sports activity a little at a time. Talk to ... 20 seconds. Do the exercise 6 to 10 times and then switch legs. Citations Management of Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome by S Dixit, M.D., ...

  7. [Botulinum toxin for the treatment of pain syndromes].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Joaquim J; Couto, Marina; Costa, João; Coelho, Miguel; Rosa, Mário M; Sampaio, Cristina

    2006-01-01

    Although botulinum toxin (BoNT) is being used for therapeutic purposes for more than 20 years, the list of potential new indications continues to increase and includes various pain syndromes. The pain relief experienced by patients with dystonia and spasticity from intramuscular BoNT injections suggested that other chronic skeletal-muscles pain conditions may also benefit. BoNT inhibits the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction thereby reducing striatal muscle contractions and the proposed analgesic property was initially attributed to muscular relaxation. A specific analgesic BoNT effect is difficult to conclude from studies where pain is conditioned by other associated symptoms like dystonia, muscle contraction or spasticity. One alternative is to critically appraise clinical trials where BoNT was studied as the active intervention and pain evaluated as an outcome. From this analysis there is convincing evidence for the effectiveness of BoNT in the treatment of pain associated with cervical dystonia. For all other pain syndromes there have been relatively few, small sized, placebo-controlled studies (myofascial pain syndrome, chronic neck and low back pain, piriformis syndrome and fibromyalgia) and the results of these studies have been contradictory or non conclusive. To establish the analgesic properties of BoNT there is a need for appropriately designed, exploratory randomized controlled studies in well accepted human models of nociceptive or neuropathic pain. This does not exclude the subsequent need to conduct pragmatic trials to evaluate the effectiveness of BoNT in conditions where the improvement of pain or any associated clinical sign or symptom may be of clinical relevance.

  8. Implications of proposed fibromyalgia criteria across other functional pain syndromes.

    PubMed

    Egloff, N; von Känel, R; Müller, V; Egle, U T; Kokinogenis, G; Lederbogen, S; Durrer, B; Stauber, S

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) proposed new criteria for the diagnosis of fibromyalgia (FM) in the context of objections to components of the criteria of 1990. The new criteria consider the Widespread Pain Index (WPI) and the Symptom Severity Score (SSS). This study evaluated the implications of the new diagnostic criteria for FM across other functional pain syndromes. A cohort of 300 consecutive in-patients with functional pain syndromes underwent a diagnostic screen according to the ACR 2010 criteria. Additionally, systematic pain assessment including algometric and psychometric data was carried out. Twenty-five patients (8.3%) had been diagnosed with FM according to the ACR 1990 criteria. Twenty-one of them (84%) also met the new ACR 2010 criteria. In total, 130 patients (43%) fulfilled the new ACR 2010 criteria. A comparison of new vs. old cases showed a high degree of conformity in most of the pain characteristics. The new FM cases, however, revealed a pronounced heterogeneity in the anatomical pain locations, including several types of localized pain syndromes. Furthermore, patients fulfilling the ACR 2010 FM criteria differed from those with other functional pain syndromes; they had increased pain sensitivity scores and increased psychometric values for depression, anxiety, and psychological distress (p<0.01). FM according to the ACR 2010 criteria describes the 'severe half' of the spectrum of functional pain syndromes. By dropping the requirement of 'generalized pain', these criteria result in a blurring of the distinction between FM and more localized functional pain syndromes.

  9. Efficacy of isokinetic exercise on functional capacity and pain in patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Alaca, Ridvan; Yilmaz, Bilge; Goktepe, A Salim; Mohur, Haydar; Kalyon, Tunc Alp

    2002-11-01

    To assess the effect of an isokinetic exercise program on symptoms and functions of patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. A total of 22 consecutive patients with the complaint of anterior knee pain who met the inclusion criteria were recruited to assess the efficacy of isokinetic exercise on functional capacity, isokinetic parameters, and pain scores in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. A total of 37 knees were examined. Six-meter hopping, three-step hopping, and single-limb hopping course tests were performed for each patient with the measurements of the Lysholm scale and visual analog scale. Tested parameters were peak torque, total work, average power, and endurance ratios. Statistical analyses revealed that at the end of the 6-wk treatment period, functional and isokinetic parameters improved significantly, as did pain scores. There was not statistically significant correlation between different groups of parameters. The isokinetic exercise treatment program used in this study prevented the extensor power loss due to patellofemoral pain syndrome, but the improvement in the functional capacity was not correlated with the gained power.

  10. Association of restless legs syndrome, pain, and mood disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Rana, Abdul Qayyum; Qureshi, Abdul Rehman M; Rahman, Labiba; Jesudasan, Ajantha; Hafez, Kevin K; Rana, Mohammad A

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to analyze the association between Parkinson's disease and restless legs syndrome, and to explore the relationship between mood disorder comorbidity (anxiety and depression), pain, and restless legs syndrome. This study included 123 Parkinson's disease patients and 123 non-Parkinson's disease patients matched for age and gender, and evaluated for anxiety severity, depression severity, pain severity, pain interference, pain disability, and restless legs syndrome prevalence. This was performed using semi-structured interviews and a neurological examination through the restless legs syndrome diagnostic criteria and the following inventories; Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Brief Pain Inventory, and Pain Disability Index. Parkinson's disease patients had significantly greater anxiety severity, depression severity, pain severity, pain interference, pain disability, and restless legs syndrome prevalence in comparison to controls. In addition, Parkinson's disease patients' comorbid for anxiety and depression had significantly greater pain severity, pain interference, and pain disability, but not RLS prevalence, in comparison to Parkinson's disease only, Parkinson's disease anxiety, and Parkinson's disease depression patients. Pain interference, pain severity, and pain disability is greater among Parkinson's disease patients with anxiety and depression, in comparison to Parkinson's disease patients without anxiety and depression. On the contrary, the prevalence of restless legs syndrome was not found to be relevant.

  11. Gender Differences in the Incidence and Prevalence of Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-14

    06-2009 journal article 2005-2008 Gender differences in the incidence and prevalence of patellofemoral pain syndrome Volume 20, Pages 725-730...this investigation was to determine the association between gender and the prevalence and incidence of patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). One...different between genders. epidemiology, chronic knee injury, patellofemoral pain syndrome, anterior knee pain, injury rate, males, females UU Unclassified

  12. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis: a sense of urgency.

    PubMed

    Hanno, Philip M; Chapple, Chris R; Cardozo, Linda D

    2009-12-01

    A classic triad of symptoms (bladder pain, urinary frequency, and urgency) has served to define bladder pain syndrome/painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/PBS/IC) syndrome. BPS/PBS/IC is a distinct condition and it is likely that the urgency experienced by these patients differs from that experienced by those with overactive bladder syndrome. It is unclear how best to define urgency in the BPS/PBS/IC setting. Differences in the other primary symptoms associated with these conditions probably influence how urgency is perceived. Advances in research into the pathophysiology of urgency and underlying disease processes will help to optimize both the diagnosis and treatment of BPS/PBS/IC.

  13. The Effect of Uncertainty Management Program on Quality of Life Among Vietnamese Women at 3 Weeks Postmastectomy.

    PubMed

    Ha, Xuan Thi Nhu; Thanasilp, Sureeporn; Thato, Ratsiri

    2018-05-10

    In Vietnam, breast cancer is a top contributor to cancer-related deaths in women. Evidence shows that, after mastectomy, women in Vietnam have a lower quality of life than women in other countries. In addition, high uncertainty is a predictor of low quality of life postmastectomy. Therefore, if nurses can manage uncertainty, the quality of life postmastectomy can improve. This study examined the effect of the Uncertainty Management Program (UMP) on quality of life at 3 weeks postmastectomy in Vietnamese women. This research was a quasi-experimental study using a "posttest only with control group" design. There were 115 subjects assigned to either the experimental group (n = 57), who participated in the UMP and routine care, or the control group (n = 58), who received only routine care. Participants were assessed 2 times postmastectomy using the modified Quality of Life Index Scale-Vietnamese version. The experimental group exhibited low uncertainty before discharge and significantly higher quality of life than the control group at 1 and 3 weeks postmastectomy, respectively (P < .05). Women's physical well-being, psychological well-being, body image concerns, and social concerns were significantly increased with UMP. The UMP was considered as a promising program that might benefit the QoL of women with breast cancer 3 weeks postmastectomy. The UMP appears feasible to apply for women with breast cancer to improve their QoL postmastectomy in various settings. Nurses can flexibility instruct women in their holistic care attention both in the hospital and at home.

  14. A subtype based analysis of urological chronic pelvic pain syndrome in men.

    PubMed

    Davis, Seth N P; Binik, Yitzchak M; Amsel, Rhonda; Carrier, Serge

    2013-07-01

    The current conceptualization of urological chronic pelvic pain syndrome in men recognizes a wide variety of pain, psychosocial, sexual and urological symptoms and markers that may contribute to decreased quality of life. Unfortunately, this syndrome is difficult to clearly define and treat due to heterogeneous symptom profiles. We systematically describe these heterogeneous symptoms and investigated whether they could be subtyped into distinct syndromes. A total of 171 men diagnosed with urological chronic pelvic pain syndrome completed validated questionnaires, a structured genital pain interview, digital pain threshold testing and urological assessment. Pain interview results are systematically presented as descriptive information. We used k-means cluster analysis to define subtypes. Seven homogenous, distinct clusters were defined, each with a remarkably different symptom presentation. These clusters were described and related to previous hypotheses of urological chronic pelvic pain syndrome etiology. These clusters may represent distinct subtypes of urological chronic pelvic pain syndrome that can be used to guide treatment more effectively. Defining subtypes may also improve our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of urological chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Treatment of orofacial pain in patients with stylomandibular ligament syndrome (Ernest Syndrome).

    PubMed

    Peñarrocha-Oltra, D; Ata-Ali, J; Ata-Ali, F; Peñarrocha-Diago, M A; Peñarrocha, M

    2013-06-01

    Ernest syndrome involves the stylomandibular ligament. It is characterised by pain in the preauricular area and mandibular angle, radiating to the neck, shoulder, and eye on the same side, and associated with pain during palpation of that ligament. The purpose of this study is to describe the clinical characteristics, treatment, and course of the disease in a series of patients with Ernest syndrome. Retrospective observational study covering the period from 1998 to 2008. We recorded patients' age, sex, duration of the disorder, and pain characteristics. All patients were injected with 40mg triamcinolone acetonide at the mandibular insertion of the stylomandibular ligament. The study included a total of 6 patients. Mean age was 40.3 years (range, 35-51). All of the subjects were women. Four patients had undergone lengthy dental treatments in the month prior to onset of the pain. The mean time between pain onset and first consultation was 23 months. The syndrome resolved completely in all cases after treatment, with a minimum follow-up period of 12 months. We analysed the clinical characteristics, treatment, and course of disease in 6 patients with Ernest syndrome. Correct diagnosis is the key to being able to provide proper treatment. This disorder is sometimes confused with other types of orofacial pain, and may therefore be more prevalent than the literature would indicate. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and myofascial pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Buskila, D

    2001-03-01

    The prevalence of chronic widespread pain in the general population in Israel was comparable with reports from the USA, UK, and Canada. Comorbidity with fibromyalgia (FM) resulted in somatic hyperalgesia in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. One sixth of the subjects with chronic widespread pain in the general population were also found to have a mental disorder. Mechanisms involved in referred pain, temporal summation, muscle hyperalgesia, and muscle pain at rest were attenuated by the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist, ketamine, in FM patients. Delayed corticotropin release, after interleukin-6 administration, in FM was shown to be consistent with a defect in hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone neural function. The basal autonomic state of FM patients was characterized by increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic systems tones. The severity of functional impairment as assessed by the Medical Outcome Survey Short Form (SF-36) discriminated between patients with widespread pain alone and FM patients. Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) occurred in about 0.42% of a random community-based sample of 28,673 adults in Chicago, Illinois. A significant clinical overlap between CFS and FM was reported. Cytokine dysregulation was not found to be a singular or dominant factor in the pathogenesis of CFS. A favorable outcome of CFS in children was reported; two thirds recovered and resumed normal activities. No major therapeutic trials in FM and CFS were reported over the past year.

  17. Fibromyalgia and Myofascial Pain Syndrome-A Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Chandola, H C; Chakraborty, Arunangshu

    2009-01-01

    Summary Pain and fatigue associated to the musculoskeletal system are among the leading causes of patients to visit their physicians and nearly one-third of such patients suffer from fibromyalgia. Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic debilitating disorder characterized by widespread pain with tenderness in specific areas, leading to fatigue, headache and sleep disorder. Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS), is also a localized musculoskeletal pain producing condition whose diagnostic and management criteria differ from FMS but still considered by many only a subtype of FMS. Till date no exact cause has been held responsible for these painful conditions, therefore treatment of these disorders is always a challenge. The therapies are not precise but multimodal including pharmacological and alternative approaches. This article describes the existing knowledge pertaining to these conditions in regard of causative factors diagnosis and management. PMID:20640108

  18. Scalene Myofascial Pain Syndrome Mimicking Cervical Disc Prolapse: A Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Abd Jalil, Nizar; Awang, Mohammad Saufi; Omar, Mahamarowi

    2010-01-01

    Scalene myofascial pain syndrome is a regional pain syndrome wherein pain originates over the neck area and radiates down to the arm. This condition may present as primary or secondary to underlying cervical pathology. Although scalene myofascial pain syndrome is a well known medical entity, it is often misdiagnosed as being some other neck pain associated with radiculopathy, such as cervical disc prolapse, cervical spinal stenosis and thoracic outlet syndrome. Because scalene myofascial pain syndrome mimics cervical radiculopathy, this condition often leads to mismanagement, which can, in turn, result in persistent pain and suffering. In the worst-case scenarios, patients may be subjected to unjustifiable surgical intervention. Because the clinical findings in scalene myofascial pain syndrome are “pathognomonic”, clinicians should be aware of ways to recognize this disorder and be able to differentiate it from other conditions that present with neck pain and rediculopathy. We present two cases of unilateral scalene myofascial pain syndrome that significantly impaired the patients’ functioning and quality of life. This case report serves to create awareness about the existence of the syndrome and to highlight the potential morbidity due to clinical misdiagnosis. PMID:22135529

  19. Memantine before Mastectomy Prevents Post-Surgery Pain: A Randomized, Blinded Clinical Trial in Surgical Patients.

    PubMed

    Morel, Véronique; Joly, Dominique; Villatte, Christine; Dubray, Claude; Durando, Xavier; Daulhac, Laurence; Coudert, Catherine; Roux, Delphine; Pereira, Bruno; Pickering, Gisèle

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathic pain following surgical treatment for breast cancer with or without chemotherapy is a clinical burden and patients frequently report cognitive, emotional and quality of life impairment. A preclinical study recently showed that memantine administered before surgery may prevent neuropathic pain development and cognitive dysfunction. With a translational approach, a clinical trial has been carried out to evaluate whether memantine administered before and after mastectomy could prevent the development of neuropathic pain, the impairment of cognition and quality of life. A randomized, pilot clinical trial included 40 women undergoing mastectomy in the Oncology Department, University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand, France. Memantine (5 to 20 mg/day; n = 20) or placebo (n = 20) was administered for four weeks starting two weeks before surgery. The primary endpoint was pain intensity measured on a (0-10) numerical rating scale at three months post-mastectomy. Data analyses were performed using mixed models and the tests were two-sided, with a type I error set at α = 0.05. Compared with placebo, patients receiving memantine showed at three months a significant difference in post-mastectomy pain intensity, less rescue analgesia and a better emotional state. An improvement of pain symptoms induced by cancer chemotherapy was also reported. This study shows for the first time the beneficial effect of memantine to prevent post-mastectomy pain development and to diminish chemotherapy-induced pain symptoms. The lesser analgesic consumption and better well-being of patients for at least six months after treatment suggests that memantine could be an interesting therapeutic option to diminish the burden of breast cancer therapy. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01536314.

  20. Memantine before Mastectomy Prevents Post-Surgery Pain: A Randomized, Blinded Clinical Trial in Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Morel, Véronique; Joly, Dominique; Villatte, Christine; Dubray, Claude; Durando, Xavier; Daulhac, Laurence; Coudert, Catherine; Roux, Delphine; Pereira, Bruno; Pickering, Gisèle

    2016-01-01

    Background Neuropathic pain following surgical treatment for breast cancer with or without chemotherapy is a clinical burden and patients frequently report cognitive, emotional and quality of life impairment. A preclinical study recently showed that memantine administered before surgery may prevent neuropathic pain development and cognitive dysfunction. With a translational approach, a clinical trial has been carried out to evaluate whether memantine administered before and after mastectomy could prevent the development of neuropathic pain, the impairment of cognition and quality of life. Method A randomized, pilot clinical trial included 40 women undergoing mastectomy in the Oncology Department, University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand, France. Memantine (5 to 20 mg/day; n = 20) or placebo (n = 20) was administered for four weeks starting two weeks before surgery. The primary endpoint was pain intensity measured on a (0–10) numerical rating scale at three months post-mastectomy. Results Data analyses were performed using mixed models and the tests were two-sided, with a type I error set at α = 0.05. Compared with placebo, patients receiving memantine showed at three months a significant difference in post-mastectomy pain intensity, less rescue analgesia and a better emotional state. An improvement of pain symptoms induced by cancer chemotherapy was also reported. Conclusions This study shows for the first time the beneficial effect of memantine to prevent post-mastectomy pain development and to diminish chemotherapy-induced pain symptoms. The lesser analgesic consumption and better well-being of patients for at least six months after treatment suggests that memantine could be an interesting therapeutic option to diminish the burden of breast cancer therapy. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01536314 PMID:27050431

  1. Association of smoking and chronic pain syndromes in Kentucky women.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Michael D; Mannino, David M; Steinke, Douglas T; Kryscio, Richard J; Bush, Heather M; Crofford, Leslie J

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the relationship between cigarette smoking and the reporting of chronic pain syndromes among participants in the Kentucky Women's Health Registry. Data was analyzed on 6,092 women over 18 years of age who responded to survey questions on pain and smoking. The chronic pain syndromes included in the analysis were fibromyalgia, sciatica, chronic neck pain, chronic back pain, joint pain, chronic head pain, nerve problems, and pain all over the body. Analyses controlled for age, body mass index, and Appalachian versus non-Appalachian county of residence. Results showed that women who were daily smokers reported more chronic pain (defined as the presence of any reported chronic pain syndromes) than women who were never smokers (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.04 and 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.67, 2.49). An increased risk was also seen for "some-day" smokers (aOR 1.68, 95% CI 1.24, 2.27), and former smokers (aOR 1.20, 95% CI 1.06, 1.37), though with less of an association in the latter group. This study provides evidence of an association between chronic pain and cigarette smoking that is reduced in former smokers. This paper presents the association between smoking and musculoskeletal pain syndromes among Kentucky women. This finding may provide additional opportunities for intervention in patients with chronic pain. Copyright © 2011 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Post-traumatic external nasal pain syndrome (a trigeminal based pain disorder).

    PubMed

    Rozen, Todd

    2009-09-01

    Little has been written about persistent external nasal pain after injury to the nose in the neurologic or headache literature. In clinical practice, this can be a disabling and treatment refractory condition. The external portion of the nose is highly innervated by branches of the ophthalmic and maxillary divisions of the trigeminal nerve including the nasociliary nerve, external nasal nerve, infratrochlear nerve, anterior ethmoidal nerve, and infraorbital nerve. As these nerves are located on the external portion of the nose just deep enough to the skin they can be easily traumatized with any impact to the nose. Four patients with what is termed the post-traumatic external nasal pain syndrome are reported in this paper, describing the clinical presentation of the disorder and providing treatment options. Post-traumatic external nasal pain syndrome appears to be a novel form of trigeminal-based pain not previously reported in the neurologic literature.

  3. [Urethral pain syndrome: fact or fiction--an update].

    PubMed

    Dreger, N M; Degener, S; Roth, S; Brandt, A S; Lazica, D A

    2015-09-01

    Urethral pain syndrome is a symptom complex including dysuria, urinary urgency and frequency, nocturia and persistent or intermittent urethral and/or pelvic pain in the absence of proven infection. These symptoms overlap with several other conditions, such as interstitial cystitis bladder pain syndrome and overactive bladder. Urethral pain syndrome may occur in men but is more frequent in women. The exact etiology is unknown but infectious and psychogenic factors, urethral spasms, early interstitial cystitis, hypoestrogenism, squamous metaplasia as well as gynecological risk factors are discussed. These aspects should be ruled out or confirmed in the diagnostic approach. Despite the assumption of a multifactorial etiology, pathophysiologically there is a common pathway: dysfunctional epithelium of the urethra becomes leaky which leads to bacterial and abacterial inflammation and ends in fibrosis due to the chronic impairment. The therapeutic approach should be multimodal using a trial and error concept: general treatment includes analgesia, antibiotics, alpha receptor blockers and muscle relaxants, antimuscarinic therapy, topical vaginal estrogen, psychological support and physical therapy. In cases of nonresponding patients intravesical and/or surgical therapy should be considered. The aim of this review is to summarize the preliminary findings on urethral pain syndrome and to elucidate the diagnostic and therapeutic options.

  4. Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Offiah, I; McMahon, S B; O'Reilly, B A

    2013-08-01

    The bladder pain syndrome (BPS) is a spectrum of urological symptoms characterised by bladder pain with typical cystoscopic features. Diagnosis and management of this syndrome may be difficult. There is no evidence-based management approach for the diagnosis or treatment of BPS. The objective of this study was to critically review and summarise the evidence relating to the diagnosis and treatment of the bladder pain syndrome. A review of published data on the diagnosis and treatment of the BPS was performed. Our search was limited to English-language articles, on the "diagnosis", and "management" or "treatment" of "interstitial cystitis" and the "bladder pain syndrome" in "humans." Frequency, urgency and pain on bladder filling are the most common symptoms of BPS. All urodynamic volumes are reduced in patients with BPS. Associated conditions include psychological distress, depression, history of sexual assault, irritable bowel syndrome and fibromyalgia. Cystoscopy remains the test for definitive diagnosis, with visualisation of haemorrhage on cystoreduction. A multidisciplinary treatment approach is essential in the management of this condition. Orally administered amitriptyline is an efficacious medical treatment for BPS. Intravesical hyaluronic acid and local anaesthetic, with/without hydrodistension are among new treatment strategies. Sacral or pudendal neuromodulation is effective, minimally invasive and safe. Surgery is reserved for refractory cases. There remains a paucity of evidence for the diagnosis and treatment of BPS. We encountered significant heterogeneity in the assessment of symptoms, duration of treatment and follow up of patients in our literature review.

  5. Sympathetic blocks for the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome: A case series.

    PubMed

    Gungor, Semih; Aiyer, Rohit; Baykoca, Buse

    2018-05-01

    To present the successful treatment of complex regional pain syndrome type -1 utilizing sympathetic blocks. Severe pain interfering with activities of daily living and temporary disability secondary to complex regional pain syndrome. Complex regional pain syndrome type-1 with involvement of lower extremity (2 patients), and upper extremity (1 patient). We report the management of 3 patients with diagnosis of complex regional pain syndrome type-1 by early institution of sympathetic blocks for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. All 3 patients were able to tolerate physical therapy only after adequate pain relief had been achieved with institution of sympathetic blocks. All 3 patients responded very favorably to sympathetic blocks with dramatic reversal of pathology. All patients reported almost complete resolution of pain, symptoms, and signs within 6 months duration after diagnosis of complex regional pain syndrome. All 3 patients were able to wean their pain medications and achieve normal activities of daily living without any significant limitations. All patients were able to return to full-time employment. Treatment options are limited and there is lack of high quality research regarding the efficacy of sympathetic blocks in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome. As presented in this case series, sympathetic blocks maybe very effective in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome in a subset of patients. Thus, early institution of sympathetic blocks should be considered in complex regional pain syndrome prior to physical therapy and consideration of more invasive pain management interventions.

  6. [Features of autonomic dysfunction in myofascial pain syndromes cervicobrachial localization].

    PubMed

    Морозова, О Г; Ярошевский, А А; Липинская, Я В

    2015-01-01

    The relevance of this study is due to the prevalence of autonomic disorders and musculoskeletal pain, especially among the young people of working age. In recent years, many authors in scientific works have been highlighted aspects of mutual development myofascial and autonomic dysfunction, which is caused by neurophysiological preconditions and anatomical and topographical relationships that need to be considered in the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. To study the characteristics of the formation and flow of autonomic dysfunction syndrome with paroxysmal and permanent types of flow in patients with myofascial pain syndromes cervicobrachial localization. Using clinical neurological, vertebral neurological, neuropsychological methods of studying the severity of pain (visual analogue scale and Pain questionnaire of Mac Gill) examined 84 patients suffering from autonomic dysfunction on the background of myofascial pain syndromes cervicobrachial localization. To identify the features of vegetative regulation of patients were divided into two groups: group 1 (51 people) - with a permanent type of course; group 2 (33 patients) - a type of paroxysmal of course of autonomic dysfunction. It was found more pronounced disturbances in patients with paroxysmal type of course of autonomic dysfunction. The frequency and severity of autonomic paroxysms associated with the severity of musculo-tonic syndrome and location of active trigger points in the muscles of the neck and shoulder girdle, due to anatomic and topographic features of these muscles, namely the proximity of their location to the sympathetic formations neck. The formation and development of emotional and affective disorders in both groups played a significant role of pain and musculo-tonic syndrome. The syndrome of autonomic dysfunction, in particular its paroxysmal type of flow, on the one hand is a response to the development of myofascial pain syndromes cervicobrachial localization, with another - a factor

  7. Review article: the functional abdominal pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sperber, A D; Drossman, D A

    2011-03-01

    Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is a debilitating disorder with constant or nearly constant abdominal pain, present for at least 6 months and loss of daily functioning. To review the epidemiology, pathophysiology and treatment of FAPS. A literature review using the keywords: functional abdominal pain, chronic abdominal pain, irritable bowel syndrome and functional gastrointestinal disorders. No epidemiological studies have focused specifically on FAPS. Estimates of prevalence range from 0.5% to 1.7% and tend to show a female predominance. FAPS pathophysiology appears unique in that the pain is caused primarily by amplified central perception of normal visceral input, rather than by enhanced peripheral stimulation from abdominal viscera. The diagnosis of FAPS is symptom-based in accordance with the Rome III diagnostic criteria. These criteria are geared to identify patients with severe symptoms as they require constant or nearly constant abdominal pain with loss of daily function and are differentiated from IBS based on their non-association with changes in bowel habit, eating or other gut-related events. As cure is not feasible, the aims of treatment are reduced suffering and improved quality of life. Treatment is based on a biopsychosocial approach with a therapeutic patient-physician partnership at its base. Therapeutic options include central nonpharmacological and pharmacological modalities and peripheral modalities. These can be combined to produce an augmentation effect. Although few studies have assessed functional abdominal pain syndrome or its treatment specifically, the treatment strategies outlined in this paper appear to be effective. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. The DSM-IV nosology of chronic pain: a comparison of pain disorder and multiple somatization syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hiller, W; Heuser, J; Fichter, M M

    2000-01-01

    This study evaluates the classification of pain from the perspective of the DSM-IV system. Of 60 in-patients with long-standing and disabling pain syndromes, 29 with pain disorder (PD) and 31 with pain as part of a multiple somatization syndrome (MSS) were compared before and after a structured cognitive-behavioral treatment. It was hypothesized that MSS patients show more psychological distress, are more severely disabled, and respond less to the treatment. Both groups were similar with respect to sociodemographic status, history of pain symptomatology and comorbidity with DSM-IV mental disorders. The results show that MSS patients had higher levels of affective and sensoric pain sensations as well as more pain-related disabilities. They were also less successful during treatment to reduce their pain-related depression and anxiety. Psychosocial functioning was improved only by PD patients, but remained almost unchanged in the MSS group. However, there were no group differences concerning general depression and hypochondriasis, dysfunctional attitudes towards body and health, and use of pain coping strategies. It is concluded that the DSM-IV distinction between 'pure' pain disorder and syndromes involving pain plus multiple somatoform symptoms cannot generally be confirmed, but further studies of validation are needed. Copyright 2000 European Federation of Chapters of the International Association for the Study of Pain.

  9. Pain Part 8: Burning Mouth Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Beneng, Kiran; Renton, Tara

    2016-04-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a rare but impactful condition affecting mainly post-menopausal women resulting in constant pain and significant difficulty with eating, drinking and daily function. The aetiology of BMS remains an enigma. Recent evidence suggests it likely to be neuropathic in origin, the cause of which remains unknown. There is no cure for this condition and the unfortunate patients remain managed on a variety of neuropathic pain medication, salivary substitutes and other non-medical interventions that help the patient 'get through the day'. Some simple strategies can assist both clinician and patient to manage this debilitating condition. CPD/Clinical Relevance: The dental team will recognize patients presenting with burning mouth syndrome. They are difficult patients to manage and are often referred to secondary care and, ultimately, depend on their general medical practitioners for pain management.

  10. Chronic Pain Syndromes in Gynaecological Practice: Endometriosis and Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Siedentopf, F.

    2012-01-01

    As gynaecologists frequently function as “general practitioners” for women, gynaecologists are frequently confronted with questions which initially appear to have only a tenuous connection to their field. Chronic pain syndromes represent a particular challenge, especially as pain syndromes are often associated with severe psychosocial stress for the affected woman. This article discusses some of the psychometric aspects of chronic pain in endometriosis and fibromyalgia together with practical therapeutic approaches. PMID:26640283

  11. Loin Pain Haematuria Syndrome - A Narrative Review of Pain Management Strategies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Loin pain haematuria syndrome (LPHS) is an uncommon clinical entity that has divided renal physicians, pain practitioners, and even psychiatrists since its initial description. A relative paucity of data exists regarding the condition, with best practice guidelines lacking amid the existing threads of anecdotal experiences and variable follow-up observations. The aim of this article was to review the cumulative published experience of pain relief strategies for LPHS. PMID:27103962

  12. An unusual case of calcineurine inhibitor pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nickavar, Azar; Mehrazma, Mitra; Hallaji, Farideh

    2014-09-01

    Cyclosporine induced pain syndrome (CIPS) is a newly diagnosed complication of calcineurine inhibitors, mainly observed in solid organ and hematopoetic transplantations. The present case is a male child with steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome on low therapeutic level cyclosporine treatment. He presented with intractable and debilitating leg pain, with no reported history of previous injury or trauma. The pain was reluctant to antimicrobial and sedative treatment. MRI revealed bone marrow and soft tissue edema in the mid shaft of patient's right leg. Inspite of unusual manifestations, CIPS was suggested and cyclosporine discontinued. However, the pain did not improve and was resistant to calcium blocker. Subsequently, core decompression was performed as an unusual treatment of CIPS, revealing normal bone morphology. The pain improved rapidly and the patient was discharged a few days later.

  13. Pain management in Guillain-Barre syndrome: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Peña, L; Moreno, C B; Gutierrez-Alvarez, A M

    2015-09-01

    Pain is a common symptom in patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome. Intensity is moderate to severe in most cases and pain may persist after resolution of the disease. Identify the most appropriate analgesic therapy for pain management in patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome. Systematic review and selection of scientific articles on treatment of pain in Guillain-Barre syndrome patients, published between January 1985 and December 2012. We included only randomised, double-blind, controlled trials assessing the effectiveness of drugs for pain management in these patients. Four articles met the inclusion criteria. One evaluated the use of gabapentin, another evaluated carbamazepine, a third compared gabapentin to carbamazepine, and the last evaluated use of methylprednisolone. Both carbamazepine and gabapentin were useful for pain management. Patients experienced lower-intensity pain with gabapentin treatment in the study comparing that drug to carbamazepine. Methylprednisolone was not shown to be effective for reducing pain. The published data did not permit completion of a meta-analysis. There is no robust evidence at present that would point to a single treatment option for this disorder. Further clinical studies of larger patient samples and with a longer duration are needed to characterise types of pain for each patient and measure pain intensity in an objective way. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Behavioral Concepts in the Analysis of Chronic Pain Syndromes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Francis J.; Gil, Karen M.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews behavioral and psychological concepts currently applied to the assessment and treatment of chronic pain syndromes, including operant conditioning and psychophysiologic concepts such as the stress-pain hypothesis, the pain-muscle spasm-pain cycle, and the neuromuscular pain model. Discusses relaxation and biofeedback training and concepts…

  15. Headache and Pain in Guillain-Barré Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Farmakidis, Constantine; Inan, Seniha; Milstein, Mark; Herskovitz, Steven

    2015-08-01

    While moderate and severe back or extremity pain is frequent in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), headache appears to be uncommon. Most of the reports of headache in GBS place it in the context of the posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) which is increasingly recognized as a likely dysautonomia-related GBS complication. There are also a few reports of headache in the setting of increased CSF pressure and papilledema and in association with the Miller Fisher GBS variant. In comparison, back and extremity pain is highly prevalent. Aching muscle pain and neuropathic pain are the two most common of several pain types. Pain may be a heralding feature and has been described in patients as long as 2 years after disease onset. Pain management is a major axis of treatment in GBS. Gabapentin is a reasonable first-line choice, and opioid medications can be added for more severe pain but there are few clinical trials to inform specific recommendations. While the understanding of pain pathophysiology in GBS is incomplete, its prevalence and clinical impact are increasingly recognized and studied. Pain should be considered a cardinal manifestation of GBS along with acute, mostly symmetric weakness and diminished reflexes.

  16. Postmastectomy radiotherapy with integrated scar boost using helical tomotherapy.

    PubMed

    Rong, Yi; Yadav, Poonam; Welsh, James S; Fahner, Tasha; Paliwal, Bhudatt

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate helical tomotherapy dosimetry in postmastectomy patients undergoing treatment for chest wall and positive nodal regions with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) in the scar region using strip bolus. Six postmastectomy patients were scanned with a 5-mm-thick strip bolus covering the scar planning target volume (PTV) plus 2-cm margin. For all 6 cases, the chest wall received a total cumulative dose of 49.3-50.4 Gy with daily fraction size of 1.7-2.0 Gy. Total dose to the scar PTV was prescribed to 58.0-60.2 Gy at 2.0-2.5 Gy per fraction. The supraclavicular PTV and mammary nodal PTV received 1.7-1.9 dose per fraction. Two plans (with and without bolus) were generated for all 6 cases. To generate no-bolus plans, strip bolus was contoured and overrode to air density before planning. The setup reproducibility and delivered dose accuracy were evaluated for all 6 cases. Dose-volume histograms were used to evaluate dose-volume coverage of targets and critical structures. We observed reduced air cavities with the strip bolus setup compared with what we normally see with the full bolus. The thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) in vivo dosimetry confirmed accurate dose delivery beneath the bolus. The verification plans performed on the first day megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) image verified that the daily setup and overall dose delivery was within 2% accuracy compared with the planned dose. The hotspot of the scar PTV in no-bolus plans was 111.4% of the prescribed dose averaged over 6 cases compared with 106.6% with strip bolus. With a strip bolus only covering the postmastectomy scar region, we observed increased dose uniformity to the scar PTV, higher setup reproducibility, and accurate dose delivered beneath the bolus. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using a strip bolus over the scar using tomotherapy for SIB dosimetry in postmastectomy treatments. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Postmastectomy radiotherapy with integrated scar boost using helical tomotherapy

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Rong Yi, E-mail: rong@humonc.wisc.edu; University of Wisconsin Riverview Cancer Center, Wisconsin Rapids, WI; Yadav, Poonam

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate helical tomotherapy dosimetry in postmastectomy patients undergoing treatment for chest wall and positive nodal regions with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) in the scar region using strip bolus. Six postmastectomy patients were scanned with a 5-mm-thick strip bolus covering the scar planning target volume (PTV) plus 2-cm margin. For all 6 cases, the chest wall received a total cumulative dose of 49.3-50.4 Gy with daily fraction size of 1.7-2.0 Gy. Total dose to the scar PTV was prescribed to 58.0-60.2 Gy at 2.0-2.5 Gy per fraction. The supraclavicular PTV and mammary nodal PTVmore » received 1.7-1.9 dose per fraction. Two plans (with and without bolus) were generated for all 6 cases. To generate no-bolus plans, strip bolus was contoured and overrode to air density before planning. The setup reproducibility and delivered dose accuracy were evaluated for all 6 cases. Dose-volume histograms were used to evaluate dose-volume coverage of targets and critical structures. We observed reduced air cavities with the strip bolus setup compared with what we normally see with the full bolus. The thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) in vivo dosimetry confirmed accurate dose delivery beneath the bolus. The verification plans performed on the first day megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) image verified that the daily setup and overall dose delivery was within 2% accuracy compared with the planned dose. The hotspot of the scar PTV in no-bolus plans was 111.4% of the prescribed dose averaged over 6 cases compared with 106.6% with strip bolus. With a strip bolus only covering the postmastectomy scar region, we observed increased dose uniformity to the scar PTV, higher setup reproducibility, and accurate dose delivered beneath the bolus. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using a strip bolus over the scar using tomotherapy for SIB dosimetry in postmastectomy treatments.« less

  18. Functional abdominal pain syndrome treated with Korean medication.

    PubMed

    Son, Chang-Gue

    2014-06-01

    A 37-year-old female patient with chronic and stubborn abdominal pain had been hospitalized five times in three Western hospitals, but no effects were observed. No abnormalities were found in blood tests, gastrointestinal endoscopy, sonogram, and computed tomography of the abdomen, except mild paralytic ileus. The patient decided to rely on Korean medicine as an inpatient. She was diagnosed with functional abdominal pain syndrome, and her symptom differentiation was the " Yang deficiency of spleen and kidney ." A herbal drug, Hwangikyeji-tang , along with moxibustion and acupuncture, was given to the patient. Abdominal pain and related symptoms were reduced radically within 16 days of treatment. This report shows a therapeutic potential of Korean medicine-based treatment for functional abdominal pain syndrome.

  19. Metabolic syndrome in women with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Loevinger, Barbara L; Muller, Daniel; Alonso, Carmen; Coe, Christopher L

    2007-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a prevalent syndrome characterized by chronic pain, fatigue, and insomnia. Patients with fibromyalgia commonly have an elevated body mass index and are physically inactive, 2 major risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Yet little is known about the relationship between chronic pain conditions and metabolic disturbances. Our study evaluated the risk for, and neuroendocrine correlates of, metabolic syndrome in this patient population. Women with fibromyalgia (n = 109) were compared with control healthy women (n = 46), all recruited from the community. Metabolic syndrome was identified by using criteria from the Adult Treatment Panel III with glycosylated hemoglobin concentrations substituted for serum glucose. Catecholamine and cortisol levels were determined from 12-hour overnight urine collections. Women with fibromyalgia were 5.56 times more likely than healthy controls to have metabolic syndrome (95% confidence interval, 1.25-24.74). Fibromyalgia was associated with larger waist circumference (P = .04), higher glycosylated hemoglobin (P = .01) and serum triglyceride (P < .001) levels, and higher systolic (P = .003) and diastolic (P = .002) blood pressure. Total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were also significantly higher in women with fibromyalgia (P = .001 and .02, respectively), although high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was in the reference range. These associations were not accounted for by age or body mass index. Meeting criteria for more metabolic syndrome components was related to higher urinary norepinephrine (NE)/epinephrine and NE/cortisol ratios (P < .001 and P = .009, respectively). Women with chronic pain from fibromyalgia are at an increased risk for metabolic syndrome, which may be associated with relatively elevated NE levels in conjunction with relatively reduced epinephrine and cortisol secretion.

  20. Algodystrophy: complex regional pain syndrome and incomplete forms

    PubMed Central

    Giannotti, Stefano; Bottai, Vanna; Dell’Osso, Giacomo; Bugelli, Giulia; Celli, Fabio; Cazzella, Niki; Guido, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Summary The algodystrophy, also known as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), is a painful disease characterized by erythema, edema, functional impairment, sensory and vasomotor disturbance. The diagnosis of CRPS is based solely on clinical signs and symptoms, and for exclusion compared to other forms of chronic pain. There is not a specific diagnostic procedure; careful clinical evaluation and additional test should lead to an accurate diagnosis. There are similar forms of chronic pain known as bone marrow edema syndrome, in which is absent the history of trauma or triggering events and the skin dystrophic changes and vasomotor alterations. These incomplete forms are self-limited, and surgical treatment is generally not needed. It is still controversial, if these forms represent a distinct self-limiting entity or an incomplete variant of CRPS. In painful unexplained conditions such as frozen shoulder, post-operative stiff shoulder or painful knee prosthesis, the algodystrophy, especially in its incomplete forms, could represent the cause. PMID:27252736

  1. Functional abdominal pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Clouse, Ray E; Mayer, Emeran A; Aziz, Qasim; Drossman, Douglas A; Dumitrascu, Dan L; Mönnikes, Hubert; Naliboff, Bruce D

    2006-04-01

    Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) differs from the other functional bowel disorders; it is less common, symptoms largely are unrelated to food intake and defecation, and it has higher comorbidity with psychiatric disorders. The etiology and pathophysiology are incompletely understood. Because FAPS likely represents a heterogeneous group of disorders, peripheral neuropathic pain mechanisms, alterations in endogenous pain modulation systems, or both may be involved in any one patient. The diagnosis of FAPS is made on the basis of positive symptom criteria and a longstanding history of symptoms; in the absence of alarm symptoms, an extensive diagnostic evaluation is not required. Management is based on a therapeutic physician-patient relationship and empirical treatment algorithms using various classes of centrally acting drugs, including antidepressants and anticonvulsants. The choice, dose, and combination of drugs are influenced by psychiatric comorbidities. Psychological treatment options include psychotherapy, relaxation techniques, and hypnosis. Refractory FAPS patients may benefit from a multidisciplinary pain clinic approach.

  2. External breast prostheses in post-mastectomy care: women's qualitative accounts.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, P; Buckmaster, A; O'Carroll, S; Kiernan, G; Geraghty, J

    2010-01-01

    A good-quality external breast prosthesis and prosthesis-fitting service is an integral part of the recovery process post-mastectomy. However, this is an area of care that has minimal information or research available. The aim of this research was to investigate women's experience of the provision, fitting, supply and use of breast prostheses in Ireland. To ascertain women's own personal and subjective experiences, five focus groups with 47 women recruited through national cancer advocacy/support organizations and four Follow-up Breast Clinics throughout Ireland were conducted. As a result, five main themes emerged: (1) The fitting experience--Fitting? (2) Post-mastectomy products--Having? (3) Cost--Affording? (4) Information--Knowing? and (5) Adaptation--Accepting? The emerging themes pinpointed the impact of the fitting experience, fitting environment and the qualities of a prosthesis fitter on a woman's experience in obtaining a first or replacement breast prosthesis; the importance of the physical characteristics of the prosthesis and mastectomy bras; cost, affordability and entitlements; a lack of and perceived difficulty in getting information; and the myriad of personal and social impacts of a breast prosthesis for the woman. These findings are integral for the development of standards of practice in the fitting and supply of external breast prostheses in post-mastectomy care.

  3. Stabilisation splint therapy for temporomandibular pain dysfunction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Al-Ani, M Z; Davies, S J; Gray, R J M; Sloan, P; Glenny, A M

    2004-01-01

    Pain dysfunction syndrome (PDS) is the most common temporomandibular disorder (TMD). There are many synonyms for this condition including facial arthromylagia, TMJ dysfunction syndrome, myofacial pain dysfunction syndrome, craniomandibular dysfunction and myofacial pain dysfunction. The aetiology of PDS is multifactorial and many different therapies have been advocated. To establish the effectiveness of stabilisation splint therapy in reducing symptoms in patients with pain dysfunction syndrome. Electronic databases (including the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); The Cochrane Library Issue 2, 2003; MEDLINE (1966 to June 2001); EMBASE (1966 to June 2001)) were searched. Handsearching of relevant journals was undertaken and reference lists of included studies screened. Experts in the field were contacted to identify unpublished articles. There was no language restriction. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials (RCTs), in which splint therapy was compared concurrently to no treatment, other occlusal appliances, or any other active intervention. Data extraction was carried out independently and in duplicate. Validity assessment of the included trials was carried out at the same time as data extraction. Discrepancies were discussed and a third reviewer consulted. The author of the primary study was contacted where necessary. The studies were grouped according to treatment type and duration of follow up. Twenty potentially relevant RCTs were identified. Eight trials were excluded leaving 12 RCTs for analysis. Stabilisation splint therapy was compared to: acupuncture, bite plates, biofeedback/stress management, visual feedback, relaxation, jaw exercises, non-occluding appliance and minimal/no treatment. There was no evidence of a statistically significant difference in the effectiveness of stabilisation splint therapy (SS) in reducing symptoms in patients with pain dysfunction syndrome

  4. Painful Bladder Filling and Painful Urgency Are Distinct Characteristics in Men and Women with Urologic Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndromes – A MAPP Research Network Study

    PubMed Central

    Lai, H. Henry; Krieger, John N.; Pontari, Michel A.; Buchwald, Dedra; Hou, Xiaoling; Landis, J. Richard

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe bladder-associated symptoms in patients with urologic chronic pelvic pain syndromes (UCPPS) and to correlate these symptoms with urologic, non-urologic, psychosocial, and quality of life measures. Methods Participants were 233 women and 191 men with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome or chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome in a multi-center study. They completed a battery of measures, including items asking if their pain worsened with bladder filling (“painful filling”) or if their urge to urinate was due to pain, pressure, or discomfort (“painful urgency”). Participants were categorized into 3 groups: 1) “both” painful filling and painful urgency, 2) “either” painful filling or painful urgency, or 3) “neither.” Results Seventy-five percent of men and 88% of women were categorized as “both” or “either.” These bladder characteristics were associated with more severe urologic symptoms (increased pain, frequency, urgency), higher somatic symptom burden, depression, and worse quality of life (all p<0.01, 3-group trend test). A gradient effect was observed across groups (both > either > neither). Compared to those in the “neither” group, men categorized as “both” or “either” reported more frequent UCPPS symptom flares, catastrophizing, and irritable bowel syndrome, and women categorized as “both” or “either” were more likely to have negative affect and chronic fatigue syndrome. Conclusions Men and women with bladder symptoms characterized as painful filling or painful urgency had more severe urologic symptoms, more generalized symptoms, and worse quality of life than participants who reported neither characteristic, suggesting that these symptom characteristics might represent important subsets of UCPPS patients. PMID:26192257

  5. [Gallbladder contractility in children with functional abdominal pain or irritable bowel syndrome].

    PubMed

    Iwańczak, Franciszek; Siedlecka-Dawidko, Jolanta; Iwanczak, Barbara

    2013-07-01

    III Rome Criteria of functional gastrointestinal disorders in children, distinguished the disturbances with abdominal pain, to which irritable bowel syndrome, functional abdominal pains, functional dyspepsia and abdominal migraine were included. THE AIM OF THE STUDY was sonographic assessment of the gallbladder and its contractility in functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome in children. The study comprised 96 children aged 6 to 18 years, 59 girls and 37 boys. Depending on diagnosis, the children were divided into three groups. 38 children with functional abdominal pain constituted the first group, 26 children with irritable bowel syndrome were included to the second group, the third group consisted of 32 healthy children (control group). Diagnosis of functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome was made based on the III Rome Criteria. In irritable bowel syndrome both forms with diarrhea (13) and with constipation (13) were observed. Anatomy and contractility of the gallbladder were assessed by ultrasound examination. The presence of septum, wall thickness, thick bile, vesicle volume in fasting state and 30th and 60th minute after test meal were taken into consideration. Test meal comprised about 15% of caloric requirement of moderate metabolism. Children with bile stones and organic diseases were excluded from the study. Thickened vesicle wall and thick bile were present more frequently in children with irritable bowel syndrome and functional abdominal pain than in control group (p < 0.02). Fasting vesicle volume was significantly greater in children with functional abdominal pain than in irritable bowel syndrome and control group (p = 0.003, p = 0.05). Vesicle contractility after test meal was greatest in children with functional abdominal pain. Evaluation of diminished (smaller than 30%) and enlarged (greater then 80%) gallbladder contractility at 30th and 60th minute after test meal demonstrated disturbances of contractility in children

  6. A rare cause of acute abdominal pain: Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Ramazan; Ozdemir, Ayse Zehra; Ozturk, Bahadir; Bilgici, Meltem Ceyhan; Tosun, Migraci

    2014-01-01

    Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich (HWW) syndrome is a rare müllerian duct anomaly with uterus didelphys, unilateral obstructed hemivagina, and ipsilateral renal agenesis. Patients with this syndrome generally present after menarche with pelvic pain and mass and, rarely, primary infertility in later years. Strong suspicion and knowledge of this syndrome are mandatory for an accurate diagnosis. A 14-year-old female patient presented with acute retention of urine and abdominopelvic pain. Her condition was diagnosed with the use ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging as a case of HWW syndrome. She was treated with vaginal hemiseptal resection. The HWW syndrome should be considered among the differential diagnoses in girls with renal anomalies presenting with pelvic mass, symptoms of acute abdominal pain, and acute urinary retention.

  7. Dutch Multidisciplinary Guideline for Invasive Treatment of Pain Syndromes of the Lumbosacral Spine.

    PubMed

    Itz, Coen J; Willems, Paul C; Zeilstra, Dick J; Huygen, Frank J

    2016-01-01

    When conservative therapies such as pain medication or exercise therapy fail, invasive treatment may be indicated for patients with lumbosacral spinal pain. The Dutch Society of Anesthesiologists, in collaboration with the Dutch Orthopedic Association and the Dutch Neurosurgical Society, has taken the initiative to develop the guideline "Spinal low back pain," which describes the evidence regarding diagnostics and invasive treatment of the most common spinal low back pain syndromes, that is, facet joint pain, sacroiliac joint pain, coccygodynia, pain originating from the intervertebral disk, and failed back surgery syndrome. The aim of the guideline is to determine which invasive treatment intervention is preferred for each included pain syndrome when conservative treatment has failed. Diagnostic studies were evaluated using the EBRO criteria, and studies on therapies were evaluated with the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. For the evaluation of invasive treatment options, the guideline committee decided that the outcome measures of pain, function, and quality of life were most important. The definition, epidemiology, pathophysiological mechanism, diagnostics, and recommendations for invasive therapy for each of the spinal back pain syndromes are reported. The guideline committee concluded that the categorization of low back pain into merely specific or nonspecific gives insufficient insight into the low back pain problem and does not adequately reflect which therapy is effective for the underlying disorder of a pain syndrome. Based on the guideline "Spinal low back pain," facet joint pain, pain of the sacroiliac joint, and disk pain will be part of a planned nationwide cost-effectiveness study. © 2015 World Institute of Pain.

  8. Are Pain-Related Fears Mediators for Reducing Disability and Pain in Patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1? An Explorative Analysis on Pain Exposure Physical Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Barnhoorn, Karlijn J.; Staal, J. Bart; van Dongen, Robert T. M.; Frölke, Jan Paul M.; Klomp, Frank P.; van de Meent, Henk; Samwel, Han; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether pain-related fears are mediators for reducing disability and pain in patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 when treating with Pain Exposure Physical Therapy. Design An explorative secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial. Participants Fifty-six patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1. Interventions The experimental group received Pain Exposure Physical Therapy in a maximum of five treatment sessions; the control group received conventional treatment following the Dutch multidisciplinary guideline. Outcome measures Levels of disability, pain, and pain-related fears (fear-avoidance beliefs, pain catastrophizing, and kinesiophobia) were measured at baseline and after 3, 6, and 9 months follow-up. Results The experimental group had a significantly larger decrease in disability of 7.77 points (95% CI 1.09 to 14.45) and in pain of 1.83 points (95% CI 0.44 to 3.23) over nine months than the control group. The potential mediators pain-related fears decreased significantly in both groups, but there were no significant differences between groups, which indicated that there was no mediation. Conclusion The reduction of pain-related fears was comparable in both groups. We found no indication that pain-related fears mediate the larger reduction of disability and pain in patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 treated with Pain Exposure Physical Therapy compared to conventional treatment. Trial registration International Clinical Trials Registry NCT00817128 PMID:25919011

  9. Pain perception in people with Down syndrome: a synthesis of clinical and experimental research

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Brian E.; Defrin, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    People with an intellectual disability experience both acute and chronic pain with at least the same frequency as the general population. However, considerably less is known about the pain perception of people with Down syndrome. In this review paper, we evaluated the available clinical and experimental evidence. Some experimental studies of acute pain have indicated that pain threshold was higher than normal but only when using a reaction time method to measure pain sensitivity. However, when reaction time is not part of the calculation of the pain threshold, pain sensitivity in people with Down syndrome is in fact lower than normal (more sensitive to pain). Clinical studies of chronic pain have shown that people with an intellectual disability experience chronic pain and within that population, people with Down syndrome also experience chronic pain, but the precise prevalence of chronic pain in Down syndrome has yet to be established. Taken together, the literature suggests that people with Down syndrome experience pain, both acute and chronic, with at least the same frequency as the rest of the population. Furthermore, the evidence suggests that although acute pain expression appears to be delayed, once pain is registered, there appears to be a magnified pain response. We conclude by proposing an agenda for future research in this area. PMID:26283936

  10. Hypermobility, the Ehlers-Danlos syndromes and chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Syx, Delfien; De Wandele, Inge; Rombaut, Lies; Malfait, Fransiska

    2017-01-01

    Chronic widespread pain is a common complaint among individuals affected by generalised joint hypermobility. In the absence of other conditions that cause chronic pain, these individuals are usually diagnosed with joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS). JHS is a multifactorial trait with a strong genetic basis, but no specific genetic markers. Clinical overlap of JHS is seen with heritable connective tissue disorders, particularly with the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobile type (hEDS). The Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS) comprise a heterogeneous group of rare monogenic conditions that are characterised by joint hypermobility, skin and vascular fragility and generalised connective tissue friability, and are caused by genetic defects in an array of extracellular matrix genes. The genetic basis of hEDS remains however unknown, in contrast to other well-described EDS subtypes. In view of the considerable clinical overlap with JHS, many consider it and hEDS to be a single clinical entity. Clinical experience and a limited number of clinical studies show that chronic pain also is common in EDS patients, especially in hEDS. The specific underlying causes and mechanisms of pain in JHS and EDS remain poorly understood. Factors likely contributing to the generation and chronicity of pain include nociceptive pain, directly based on structural changes in affected joints, muscle and connective tissue; neuropathic pain; impaired proprioception and muscle weakness; and central sensitisation. These mechanisms are not mutually exclusive, and likely more than one mechanism may be present. Furthermore, anxiety, depression, and other variables may influence the phenotype. Chronic pain in JHS and EDS patients often is inadequately controlled by traditional analgesics and physical therapy. In view of the high prevalence of these underrecognised conditions, future studies addressing the nature and mediators of chronic pain are needed in order to potentially identify novel targets for

  11. Pain Amplification Syndrome: A Biopsychosocial Approach.

    PubMed

    Namerow, Lisa B; Kutner, Emily C; Wakefield, Emily C; Rzepski, Barbara R; Sahl, Robert A

    2016-08-01

    Pediatric neurologists frequently encounter patients who present with significant musculoskeletal pain that cannot be attributed to a specific injury or illness, which can often be defined as pain amplification syndrome (PAS). PAS in children and adolescents is the result of a heightened pain sensitivity pathway, which is intensified by significant biological, psychological, and social contributors. Appropriate assessment and multimodal intervention of PAS are crucial to treatment success, including neurology and behavioral health collaborative treatment plans to restore patient function and reduce pain perception. Pediatric neurologists are imperative in the identification of patients with PAS, providing the family assurance in diagnosis and validation of pain, and directing patients to the appropriate multidisciplinary treatment pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Trigeminal Neuralgia, Glossopharyngeal Neuralgia, and Myofascial Pain Dysfunction Syndrome: An Update.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad; Nishi, Shamima Easmin; Hassan, Siti Nazihahasma; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua

    2017-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is a common phenomenon that affects millions of people worldwide. Maxillofacial structures consist of various tissues that receive frequent stimulation during food digestion. The unique functions (masticatory process and facial expression) of the maxillofacial structure require the exquisite organization of both the peripheral and central nervous systems. Neuralgia is painful paroxysmal disorder of the head-neck region characterized by some commonly shared features such as the unilateral pain, transience and recurrence of attacks, and superficial and shock-like pain at a trigger point. These types of pain can be experienced after nerve injury or as a part of diseases that affect peripheral and central nerve function, or they can be psychological. Since the trigeminal and glossopharyngeal nerves innervate the oral structure, trigeminal and glossopharyngeal neuralgia are the most common syndromes following myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome. Nevertheless, misdiagnoses are common. The aim of this review is to discuss the currently available diagnostic procedures and treatment options for trigeminal neuralgia, glossopharyngeal neuralgia, and myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome.

  13. A possible case of complex regional pain syndrome of the nose?

    PubMed

    Faraj-Hakim, S; Bleys, R L A W; Buwalda, J; de Ru, J A

    2012-01-01

    We present a case report of a patient with a putative diagnosis of complex regional pain syndrome of the nose. We would like to bring this disorder to the attention of rhinologists. A 53-year-old man presented with a history of extreme, constant, debilitating pain in his nose that started after he underwent several extensive nasal surgeries. Examination revealed atrophic nasal mucous membranes at the nasal septum. No other abnormalities were found. The pain did not diminish despite administration of analgesics and neuropathic pain medications. We propose a diagnosis of complex regional pain syndrome of the nose. The large number of nasal surgeries performed worldwide and the far reaching consequences of this debilitating syndrome indicate that it merits further investigation to determine whether it is a distinct disorder that should be recognized as such.

  14. Role of Alternative Therapies for Chronic Pain Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Donna-Ann; Maslin, Benjamin; Legler, Aron; Springer, Erin; Asgerally, Abbas; Vadivelu, Nalini

    2016-05-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of complimentary and alternative medicine (CAM) for the treatment of chronic pain. This review examines alternative and complimentary therapies, which can be incorporated as part of a biopsychosocial approach in the treatment of chronic pain syndromes. In the present investigation, literature from articles indexed on PubMed was evaluated including topics of alternative therapies, complimentary therapies, pain psychology, biofeedback therapy, physical exercise therapies, acupuncture, natural and herbal supplements, whole-body cryotherapy, and smartphone technologies in the treatment of chronic pain syndromes. This review highlights the key role of psychology in the treatment of chronic pain. Cognitive behavior therapy appears to be the most impactful while biofeedback therapy has also been shown to be effective for chronic pain. Exercise therapy has been shown to be effective in short-, intermediate-, and long-term pain states. When compared to that in sham controls, acupuncture has shown some benefit for neck pain immediately after the procedure and in the short term and improvement has also been demonstrated in the treatment of headaches. The role of smartphones and whole-body cryotherapy are new modalities and further studies are needed. Recent literature suggests that several alternate therapies could play a role in the treatment of chronic pain, supporting the biopsychosocial model in the treatment of pain states.

  15. Pain and pain behavior in burning mouth syndrome: a pain diary study.

    PubMed

    Forssell, Heli; Teerijoki-Oksa, Tuija; Kotiranta, Ulla; Kantola, Rosita; Bäck, Marjaliina; Vuorjoki-Ranta, Tiina-Riitta; Siponen, Maria; Leino, Ari; Puukka, Pauli; Estlander, Ann-Mari

    2012-01-01

    To characterize pain related to primary burning mouth syndrome (BMS) in terms of intensity, interference, and distress caused by the pain, as well as factors influencing the pain across a period of 2 weeks, and to study the use of coping and management strategies on a daily basis. Fifty-two female patients with primary BMS completed a 2-week pain diary. Pain intensity, interference, distress, and mood on a 0 to 10 numeric rating scale (NRS), as well as pain amplifying and alleviating factors, were recorded three times a day. The use of treatments (medication or other means) and coping strategies were recorded at the end of each day. Coefficient of variation, repeated measures analysis of variance, and correlative methods were used to assess the between- and within-subject variation, pain patterns, and associations between various pain scores. The overall mean pain intensity score of the 14 diary days was 3.1 (SD: 1.7); there was considerable variation in pain intensity between patients. Most patients experienced intermittent pain. On average, pain intensity increased from the morning to the evening. Intercorrelations between pain intensity, interference, distress, and mood were high, varying between rs = .75 and rs = .93 (P < .001). Pungent or hot food or beverages, stress, and tiredness were the most frequently mentioned pain-amplifying factors. The corresponding pain-alleviating factors were eating, sucking pastilles, drinking cold beverages, and relaxation. Thirty (58%) patients used pain medication and 35% reported using other means to alleviate their BMS pain. There was large variation in the use of coping strategies -between subjects. There were considerable differences in pain, in factors influencing the pain, and in pain behavior across BMS patients. This indicates that patient information and education as well as treatment of BMS pain should be individualized.

  16. A common pronociceptive pain modulation profile typifying subgroups of chronic pelvic pain syndromes is interrelated with enhanced clinical pain.

    PubMed

    Grinberg, Keren; Granot, Michal; Lowenstein, Lior; Abramov, Liora; Weissman-Fogel, Irit

    2017-06-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) and painful bladder syndrome (PBS), subgroups of chronic pelvic pain syndromes (CPPS), are considered to share common biophysiological peripheral mechanisms. In addition, indications of a pronociceptive pain profile coexisting with psychological vulnerability suggest common dysfunctional pain processing and pain modulation in these 2 subgroups of CPPS. We therefore aimed at comparing the pain profile and psychological traits of patients with PVD and PBS to see whether the pain profile contributes to intersubject variability of clinical pain symptoms. Patients with PVD (n = 18) and PBS (n = 21) were compared with healthy controls (n = 20) in their responses to (1) pain psychophysical tests applied to both referred (suprapubis) and remote (hand) body areas and (2) pain-related psychological factors (pain catastrophizing, depression, anxiety, and somatization). We found a similar pronociceptive pain profile in the 2 subgroups of CPPS-enhanced facilitation (ie, hyperalgesia in the referred body area [P < 0.001]) and inefficient inhibition (ie, reduced conditioned pain modulation [P < 0.001] that were associated with both enhanced pain ratings evoked during trigger point examination [P < 0.037]) and higher Brief Pain Inventory ratings (P = 0.002). The latter was also correlated with pain catastrophizing (r = 0.504, P = 0.001) and depression symptoms (r = 0.361, P = 0.024). The findings suggest common mechanisms underlying a dysfunctional nociceptive system in both PVD and PBS. The intersubject variability in the level of dysfunction and its association with disease severity recommends a personalized pain treatment that may alleviate daily pain and dysfunction in patients with CPPS.

  17. Conditioned pain modulation in women with irritable bowel syndrome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Evidence suggests that patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are more vigilant to pain-associated stimuli. The aims of this study were to compare women with IBS (n = 20) to healthy control (HC, n = 20) women on pain sensitivity, conditioned pain modulation (CPM) efficiency, and salivary corti...

  18. Trigeminal Neuralgia, Glossopharyngeal Neuralgia, and Myofascial Pain Dysfunction Syndrome: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Nishi, Shamima Easmin; Hassan, Siti Nazihahasma

    2017-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is a common phenomenon that affects millions of people worldwide. Maxillofacial structures consist of various tissues that receive frequent stimulation during food digestion. The unique functions (masticatory process and facial expression) of the maxillofacial structure require the exquisite organization of both the peripheral and central nervous systems. Neuralgia is painful paroxysmal disorder of the head-neck region characterized by some commonly shared features such as the unilateral pain, transience and recurrence of attacks, and superficial and shock-like pain at a trigger point. These types of pain can be experienced after nerve injury or as a part of diseases that affect peripheral and central nerve function, or they can be psychological. Since the trigeminal and glossopharyngeal nerves innervate the oral structure, trigeminal and glossopharyngeal neuralgia are the most common syndromes following myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome. Nevertheless, misdiagnoses are common. The aim of this review is to discuss the currently available diagnostic procedures and treatment options for trigeminal neuralgia, glossopharyngeal neuralgia, and myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome. PMID:28827979

  19. Somatic syndromes and chronic pain in women with overactive bladder

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, W. Stuart; Mock, Stephen; Zhang, Xuechao; Kaufman, Melissa; Wein, Alan; Bruehl, Stephen; Dmochowski, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Aims Mechanisms underlying pain perception and afferent hypersensitivity, such as central sensitization, may impact overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms. However, little is known about associations between OAB symptom severity, pain experience, and presence of comorbid chronic pain syndromes. This study examined relationships between OAB symptoms, somatic symptoms, and specific chronic pain conditions in which central sensitization is believed to play a primary role, in a community-based sample of adult women with OAB Methods We recruited adult women with OAB to complete questionnaires assessing urinary symptoms, pain and somatic symptoms, and preexisting diagnoses of central sensitivity syndromes. We analyzed the effects of overall bodily pain intensity, general somatic symptoms, and diagnoses of central sensitivity syndromes on OAB symptom bother and health-related quality of life. Results Of the 116 women in this study, over half (54%) stated their urge to urinate was associated with pain, pressure, or discomfort. Participants reported a wide range of OAB symptoms and health-related quality of life. There was a significant, positive correlation between OAB symptoms and somatic symptoms as well as overall pain intensity. Only 7% of women met diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia; yet these women demonstrated significantly increased OAB symptom burden and decreased OAB quality of life compared to those without fibromyalgia. Conclusion Women with more severe OAB symptoms reported increased general somatic symptom burden and increased overall body pain intensity, especially women with fibromyalgia. These findings suggest that attributes of pain and co-morbidity with chronic pain conditions may impact the experience of OAB symptoms for many women. PMID:27367486

  20. Groin Pain Syndrome Italian Consensus Conference on terminology, clinical evaluation and imaging assessment in groin pain in athlete

    PubMed Central

    Bisciotti, G N; Volpi, P; Zini, R; Auci, A; Aprato, A; Belli, A; Bellistri, G; Benelli, P; Bona, S; Bonaiuti, D; Carimati, G; Canata, G L; Cassaghi, G; Cerulli, S; Delle Rose, G; Di Benedetto, P; Di Marzo, F; Di Pietto, F; Felicioni, L; Ferrario, L; Foglia, A; Galli, M; Gervasi, E; Gia, L; Giammattei, C; Guglielmi, A; Marioni, A; Moretti, B; Niccolai, R; Orgiani, N; Pantalone, A; Parra, F; Quaglia, A; Respizzi, F; Ricciotti, L; Pereira Ruiz, M T; Russo, A; Sebastiani, E; Tancredi, G; Tosi, F; Vuckovic, Z

    2016-01-01

    The nomenclature and the lack of consensus of clinical evaluation and imaging assessment in groin pain generate significant confusion in this field. The Groin Pain Syndrome Italian Consensus Conference has been organised in order to prepare a consensus document regarding taxonomy, clinical evaluation and imaging assessment for groin pain. A 1-day Consensus Conference was organised on 5 February 2016, in Milan (Italy). 41 Italian experts with different backgrounds participated in the discussion. A consensus document previously drafted was discussed, eventually modified, and finally approved by all members of the Consensus Conference. Unanimous consensus was reached concerning: (1) taxonomy (2) clinical evaluation and (3) imaging assessment. The synthesis of these 3 points is included in this paper. The Groin Pain Syndrome Italian Consensus Conference reached a consensus on three main points concerning the groin pain syndrome assessment, in an attempt to clarify this challenging medical problem. PMID:28890800

  1. Mycoplasmataceae Colonizations in Women With Urethral Pain Syndrome: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Kyndel, Anna; Elmér, Caroline; Källman, Owe; Altman, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    To determine if Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and Ureaplasma parvum are more common in premenopausal women with urethral pain syndrome than in asymptomatic controls. We used a case-control study design to compare the prevalence of M. genitalium, U. urealyticum, and U. parvum using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis in urine. Urethral pain syndrome was defined as localized urethral pain with or without accompanying lower urinary tract symptoms during the past month or longer and at least one negative urine culture. Among the 28 cases, 46% carried Ureaplasma species compared with 64% of the 92 controls overall (P = 0.09). There were no significant differences in the prevalence of U. parvum and U. urealyticum among controls than in patients with urethral pain syndrome (P = 0.35 and P = 0.33, respectively). Co-colonization with U. parvum and urealyticum was infrequent, and there was only one case of M. genitalium colonization, which occurred among the controls. The symptomatic profile of Ureaplasma carriers with urethral pain syndrome was heterogeneous with no clear pattern and did not differ significantly compared with patients negative for Ureaplasma. We found no evidence to support the notion that M. genitalium, U. parvum, and U. urealyticum are more prevalent in women with urethral pain syndrome than in women without lower urinary tract symptoms.

  2. Psychosocial profiles of people with pain associated with spinal cord injury: identification and comparison with other chronic pain syndromes.

    PubMed

    Widerström-Noga, Eva G; Duncan, Robert; Turk, Dennis C

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to: (1) identify psychosocial profiles of people with pain associated with spinal cord injuries (SCI), and (2) compare the psychosocial profiles with other chronic pain syndromes. History questionnaires and the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI) were mailed to 159 persons with chronic pain and SCIs (SCICP) and 120 (75.5%) agreed to participate. Cluster analysis of MPI scores identified 2 subgroups of SCICP. One (42.5%) was characterized by high Pain Severity (PS), Affective Distress (AD), Life Interference (LI), and low Life Control (LC) similar to a previously identified cluster labeled Dysfunctional. The second (57.5%) was characterized by low PS, AD, LI, and high levels of LC and activity (GA), similar to the Adaptive Copers (AC) cluster identified in previous studies with the exception that the scores were lower on Support (S), Solicitous Responses (SR), and Negative Responses (NR) and higher on Distracting Responses (DR). Both subgroups were similar to those observed in other chronic pain syndromes (CPSs). People with SCIs differed significantly from heterogeneous chronic pain and chronic headaches in that they indicated less inference of pain with activities. They also scored lower on S. SCICP reported comparable levels of LI, LC, AD, S, SR, but greater levels of PS compared with a group of people with post-polio syndrome. The similarities and differences between SCI and other CPSs suggest that although a general measure assessing psychosocial impact can be used across pain syndromes, it is important to use different norms for comparison of particular pain syndromes. The failure to identify a subgroup of patients characterized by low levels of S and high levels of NR, and the low SR and DR for SCICP compared with other CPSs warrants examination.

  3. Relationship between chronic nonurological associated somatic syndromes and symptom severity in urological chronic pelvic pain syndromes: baseline evaluation of the MAPP study.

    PubMed

    Krieger, John N; Stephens, Alisa J; Landis, J Richard; Clemens, J Quentin; Kreder, Karl; Lai, H Henry; Afari, Niloofar; Rodríguez, Larissa; Schaeffer, Anthony; Mackey, Sean; Andriole, Gerald L; Williams, David A

    2015-04-01

    We used MAPP data to identify participants with urological chronic pelvic pain syndromes only or a chronic functional nonurological associated somatic syndrome in addition to urological chronic pelvic pain syndromes. We characterized these 2 subgroups and explored them using 3 criteria, including 1) MAPP eligibility criteria, 2) self-reported medical history or 3) RICE criteria. Self-reported cross-sectional data were collected on men and women with urological chronic pelvic pain syndromes, including predominant symptoms, symptom duration and severity, nonurological associated somatic syndrome symptoms and psychosocial factors. Of 424 participants with urological chronic pelvic pain syndromes 162 (38%) had a nonurological associated somatic syndrome, including irritable bowel syndrome in 93 (22%), fibromyalgia in 15 (4%), chronic fatigue syndrome in 13 (3%) and multiple syndromes in 41 (10%). Of 233 females 103 (44%) had a nonurological associated somatic syndrome compared to 59 of 191 males (31%) (p = 0.006). Participants with a nonurological associated somatic syndrome had more severe urological symptoms and more frequent depression and anxiety. Of 424 participants 228 (54%) met RICE criteria. Of 228 RICE positive participants 108 (47%) had a nonurological associated somatic syndrome compared to 54 of 203 RICE negative patients (28%) with a nonurological associated somatic syndrome (p < 0.001). Nonurological associated somatic syndromes represent important clinical characteristics of urological chronic pelvic pain syndromes. Participants with a nonurological associated somatic syndrome have more severe symptoms, longer duration and higher rates of depression and anxiety. RICE positive patients are more likely to have a nonurological associated somatic syndrome and more severe symptoms. Because nonurological associated somatic syndromes are more common in women, future studies must account for this potential confounding factor in urological chronic pelvic pain

  4. Patient satisfaction with postmastectomy breast reconstruction: a comparison of saline and silicone implants.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Colleen M; Klassen, Anne F; Cano, Stefan J; Scott, Amie; Vanlaeken, Nancy; Lennox, Peter A; Alderman, Amy K; Mehrara, Babak J; Disa, Joseph J; Cordeiro, Peter G; Pusic, Andrea L

    2010-12-15

    At a time when the safety and effectiveness of breast implants remains under close scrutiny, it is important to provide reliable and valid evidence regarding patient outcomes. In the setting of postmastectomy reconstruction, patient satisfaction and quality of life may be the most significant outcome variables when evaluating surgical success. The objective of the current study was to identify predictors of patient satisfaction with breast appearance, including implant type, in a large sample of women who underwent breast reconstruction surgery using implants. A multicenter, cross-sectional study design was used. A total of 672 women who had completed postmastectomy, implant-based reconstruction at 1 of 3 centers in North America were asked to complete the BREAST-Q (Reconstruction Module). Multivariate linear regression modeling was performed. Completed questionnaire data were available for 482 of the 672 patients. In 176 women, silicone implants were placed and in 306, saline implants were used. The multivariate model confirmed that patients' satisfaction with their breasts was significantly higher in patients with silicone implants (P = .016). The receipt of postmastectomy radiotherapy was found to have a significant, negative effect on breast satisfaction (P<.000) in both silicone and saline implant recipients. In addition, for women who received either silicone or saline implants, satisfaction diminished over time (P = .017). In the setting of postmastectomy reconstruction, patients who received silicone breast implants reported significantly higher satisfaction with the results of reconstruction than those who received saline implants. This information can be used to optimize shared medical decision-making by providing patients with realistic postoperative expectations. Copyright © 2010 American Cancer Society.

  5. [Analgesic efficacy of magnetoledotherapy in patients with low back pain syndromes].

    PubMed

    Krukowska, Jolanta; Woldańska-Okońska, Marta; Jankowska, Katarzyna; Kwiecień-Czerwieniec, Ilona; Czernicki, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Low back pain syndromes most often occur due to overloading of the musculoskeletal system. The cause is a frequent, improper lifting of heavy objects, most commonly by those working physically, with repetitive movements of bending and straightening of the trunk (turning and bending with load). This problem affects not only adults but also children and adolescents. There is a growing interest in new forms of analgesic therapy nowadays, especially in those that exhibit synergistic therapeutic effects. The aim of this work is to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of magnetoledotherapy in patients with lumbar--sacrum spinal pain syndromes caused by joints degenerative changes. The examination was carried out in 66 patients of both sexes aged 30 to 76 (average 54.7 +/- 13.8) with low back pain syndrome caused by spinal degenerative changes. The patients were divided into three groups according to the applied analgesic therapy (magnetoledotherapy, magnetostimulation, TENS currents). Level of pain has been evaluated four times in all patients--before the start of therapy and after 5, 10 and 15 applications with the use of the modified Laitinen Questionnaire and Visual-Analoque Scale (VAS). Post therapy levels of pain in the studied patients decreased significantly. According to Laitinen questionnaire, the greatest improvement was observed in the group treated with magnetoledotherapy and TENS currents and the smallest improvement was observed in the group treated with magnetostimulation. 1. Magnetoledotherapy shows significant analgesic efficacy in patients with low back pain syndrome and shows no side effects. 2. Concurrent application of both the infrared radiation generated by LED's and magnetostimulation synergistically reinforces analgesic effect in patients with low back pain syndrome, especially in level of pain and frequency of its occurrence, which results in the increase of movement activity and decrease in administration of analgesics.

  6. [Characteristics of pain syndrome in patients with upper limbs occupational polyneuropathies].

    PubMed

    Kochetova, O A; Mal'kova, N Yu

    2015-01-01

    Pain syndrome accompanies various diseases of central and peripheral nervous system--that is one of the most important problems in contemporary neurology. Many scientists are in search for effective diagnostic and therapeutic tools. The article covers characteristics of the pain syndrome and its mechanisms in patients with upper limbs occupational polyneuropathies.

  7. [Treatment of functional somatic syndrome with abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Abe, Tetsuya; Kanbara, Kenji; Mizuno, Yasuyuki; Fukunaga, Mikihiko

    2009-09-01

    Functional somatic syndrome (FSS) with abdominal pain include functional gastrointestinal disorder, chronic pancreatitis, chronic pelvic pain syndrome, which generally contain autonomic dysfunction. Regarding the treatment of FSS, it is important to know about FSS for a therapist at first. Secondly, the therapist should find out physical dysfunction of patients positively, and confirm objectively the hypotheses about both peripheral and central pathophysiological mechanisms as much as possible. Heart rate variability is an easy method, and useful to assess autonomic function. After grasping the patient's explanatory model about the illness, the therapist showes the most acceptable treatment for the patient at last.

  8. Comparison between newer local anesthetics for myofascial pain syndrome management.

    PubMed

    Zaralidou, A Th; Amaniti, E N; Maidatsi, P G; Gorgias, N K; Vasilakos, D F

    2007-06-01

    Myofascial pain syndromes are characterized by the presence of painful loci within muscles, tendons or ligaments, called trigger points. Infiltration of these points with local anesthetics is often used as a treatment modality. The aim of the study was to comparatively evaluate 0.25% levobupivacaine and 0.25% ropivacaine for trigger point injection regarding pain on injection, treatment efficacy and duration of symptoms remission. Sixty-eight patients, suffering from myofascial pain syndromes, were randomly assigned to two groups to receive either levobupivacaine or ropivacaine for trigger-point injection. After completion of the procedure, patients were asked to rate pain during injection and efficacy of the treatment, based on immediate relief. Two weeks later, they were asked about the duration of this relief. Statistical analysis did not reveal significant differences between groups with respect to pain during injection, efficacy of the treatment and duration of pain relief. The two local anesthetics seem to be equally effective for trigger point infiltration. (c) 2007 Prous Science. All rights reserved.

  9. [Irritable bowel syndrome, levator ani syndrome, proctalgia fugax and chronic pelvic and perineal pain].

    PubMed

    Watier, Alain; Rigaud, Jérôme; Labat, Jean-Jacques

    2010-11-01

    To define functional gastrointestinal pain, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), levator ani syndrome, proctalgia fugax, the pathophysiology of these syndromes and the treatments that can be proposed. Review of articles published on the theme based on a Medline (PubMed) search and consensus conferences selected according to their scientific relevance. IBS is very common. Patients report abdominal pain and/or discomfort, bloating, and abnormal bowel habit (diarrhoea, constipation or both), in the absence of any structural or biochemical abnormalities. IBS has a complex, multifactorial pathophysiology, involving biological and psychosocial interactions resulting in dysregulation of the brain-gut axis associated with disorders of intestinal motility, hyperalgesia, immune disorders and disorders of the intestinal bacterial microflora and autonomic and hormonal dysfunction. Many treatments have been proposed, ranging from diet to pharmacology and psychotherapy. Patients with various types of chronic pelvic and perineal pain, especially those seen in urology departments, very often report associated IBS. This syndrome is also part of a global and integrated concept of pelviperineal dysfunction, avoiding a rigorous distinction between the posterior segment and the midline and anterior segments of the perineum. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Male breast cancer: 20-year survival data for post-mastectomy radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Eggemann, Holm; Ignatov, Atanas; Stabenow, Roland; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Röhl, Friedrich Wilhelm; Hass, Peter; Costa, Serban-Dan

    2013-08-01

    The goal of this population-based study was to determine the impact of post-mastectomy radiation therapy on long-term overall survival (OS) of male patients with breast cancer. We investigated 20-year OS rates of 664 patients diagnosed with primary stage I-III breast cancer in former East Germany between 1970 and 1989. Patients had a radical mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection without systemic adjuvant therapy. Median follow-up time was 26.2 years (range 19-38 years). 52.4% of the patients had post-mastectomy radiotherapy. Radiotherapy showed different effects in each stage group after 20 years. Whereas there was an OS trend for radiotherapy to harm patients with stage I disease (hazard ratio (HR) 1.45; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.98-2.15; p = 0.065), radiotherapy showed no benefit in patients with stage II disease (HR 0.82; 95% CI 0.62-1.1; p = 0.15). There was a significant survival benefit for patients with stage III disease receiving radiotherapy (HR 0.60; 95% CI 0.41-0.88; p = 0.008). Post-mastectomy radiotherapy is associated with longer OS in male patients with stage III breast cancer. Male breast cancer patients at stages I and II do not seem to benefit from radiotherapy, but obsolete irradiation techniques might explain adverse long-term effects in earlier stages.

  11. Rethinking the Psychogenic Model of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: Somatoform Disorders and Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Renee J.; Chopra, Pradeep; Richardi, Toni

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Explaining the etiology of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) from the psychogenic model is exceedingly unsophisticated, because neurocognitive deficits, neuroanatomical abnormalities, and distortions in cognitive mapping are features of CRPS pathology. More importantly, many people who have developed CRPS have no history of mental illness. The psychogenic model offers comfort to physicians and mental health practitioners (MHPs) who have difficulty understanding pain maintained by newly uncovered neuro inflammatory processes. With increased education about CRPS through a biopsychosocial perspective, both physicians and MHPs can better diagnose, treat, and manage CRPS symptomatology. PMID:24223338

  12. Neuropathic ocular pain due to dry eye is associated with multiple comorbid chronic pain syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Galor, Anat; Covington, Derek; Levitt, Alexandra E.; McManus, Katherine T.; Seiden, Benjamin; Felix, Elizabeth R.; Kalangara, Jerry; Feuer, William; Patin, Dennis J.; Martin, Eden R.; Sarantopoulos, Konstantinos D.; Levitt, Roy C.

    2015-01-01

    Recent data demonstrate that dry eye (DE) susceptibility and other chronic pain syndromes (CPS) such as chronic widespread pain, irritable bowel syndrome and pelvic pain, may share common heritable factors. Previously, we showed that DE patients describing more severe symptoms tended to report features of neuropathic ocular pain (NOP). We hypothesize that patients with a greater number of CPS would have a different DE phenotype compared to those with fewer CPS. We recruited a cohort of 154 DE patients from the Miami Veterans Affairs Hospital and defined high and low CPS groups by cluster analysis. In addition to worse non-ocular pain complaints and higher PTSD and depression scores (P<0.01), we found that the high CPS group reported more severe neuropathic-type DE symptoms compared to the low CPS group, including worse ocular pain assessed via 3 different pain scales (P<0.05), with similar objective corneal DE signs. This is the first study to demonstrate DE patients who manifest a greater number of comorbid CPS report more severe DE symptoms and features of NOP. These findings provide further evidence that NOP may represent a central pain disorder, and that shared mechanistic factors may underlie vulnerability to some forms of DE and other comorbid CPS. PMID:26606863

  13. Unimpaired endogenous pain inhibition in the early phase of complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kumowski, N; Hegelmaier, T; Kolbenschlag, J; Maier, C; Mainka, T; Vollert, J; Enax-Krumova, E

    2017-05-01

    The complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is characterized by distal generalisation of pain beyond the initial trauma. This might be the result of impaired endogenous pain inhibition. We compared Conditioned Pain Modulation (CPM) between patients with CRPS (n = 24; pain: 4.5 ± 2.2, NRS 0-10; disease duration <1 year), neuralgia (n = 17; pain: 5.5 ± 1.1) and healthy subjects (n = 23) and its correlation with loss and gain of function as assessed by Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST). CPM was assessed with heat as test stimulus (TS) and cold water as conditioning stimulus (CS). The early CPM-effect was calculated as difference between heat pain during and before conditioning, the late CPM-effect, 5 minutes after and before conditioning, respectively. Heat pain decreased comparably after CS in all groups, resulting in a significant CPM-effect (healthy: -12.5 ± 12.4, NRS 0-100; CRPS: -14.7 ± 15.7; neuralgia: -7.9 ± 9.8; p < 0.001). When compared to healthy subjects, heat pain declined significantly steeper in CRPS patients (healthy: -2.0 ± 5.5, NRS 0-100/10 s; CRPS: -6.3 ± 8.1; p < 0.05). Only CRPS patients demonstrated a late CPM effect (-6.0 ± 9.0, p < 0.005). Neither spontaneous pain nor any QST parameter correlated with CPM, with the exception of a decreased cold pain threshold, which correlated with an enhanced CPM in CRPS patients only (r = -0.456, p < 0.05). An impairment of endogenous pain inhibition does not explain the extent of pain in the early stage of CRPS or in neuralgia. The unexpectedly high CPM in CRPS patients might result from activation of the intact descending pathways in response to central sensitization, as cold hyperalgesia correlated with the CPM-effect. Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) is not impaired in the early phase of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and neuralgia. Only in CRPS higher CPM was associated with lower cold pain thresholds. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  14. Pathophysiology of Trigger Points in Myofascial Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Money, Sarah

    2017-06-01

    Questions from patients about pain conditions and analgesic pharmacotherapy and responses from authors are presented to help educate patients and make them more effective self-advocates. Trigger point pathophysiology in myofascial pain syndrome, which involves muscle stiffness, tenderness, and pain that radiates to other areas of the body, is considered. The causes of trigger points and several theories about how they develop are reviewed, and treatment approaches, including stretching, physical therapy, dry needling, and injections, are offered.

  15. TEMPOROMANDIBULAR PAIN DYSFUNCTION SYNDROME IN PATIENTS ATTENDING LAGOS UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL, LAGOS, NIGERIA.

    PubMed

    Eweka, O M; Ogundana, O M; Agbelusi, G A

    2016-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint pain dysfunction syndrome (TMJPDS) is the most common temporomandibular disorder. This condition presents with symptoms of pain, restricted jaw movement and joint noise. Other symptoms include otalgia, headache, neck pain and trismus. To determine the pattern of Temporomandibular joint pain dysfunction syndrome patients managed at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria. A descriptive study of patients with signs and symptoms of Temporomandibular joint pain dysfunction syndrome attending the Oral Medicine Clinic of Lagos University Teaching Hospital. Twenty-one patients with Temporomandibular joint pain dysfunction syndrome were enrolled into the study, out of which 10(48%) were females and 11(52%) were males. The age range was 23-81years with a mean of 45.2 ± 18.9 years. Majority of the patients 20(95.2%) complained of pain around the joint, in the pre-auricular region, in the muscles of mastication and the ear. While 7(35%) complained of clicking sounds, 10(47.6%) complained of pain on mouth opening and during mastication only. In all 5(23.8%) had impaired movement of the jaws, mouth opening was normal in 18(85.7%) but reduced in 3(14.3%) patients. Over half of patients 12(57%) experienced clicking sounds, there was tenderness around the temporomandibular joint in 16(76.2%) cases, pain in the ear of 7(33.3%) patients and 13(61.9%) people presented with tenderness of the muscles of mastication. Conservative management of all the cases resulted in resolution of the symptoms. Temporomandibular joint pain dysfunction syndrome has diverse clinical presentation and though distressing, it responds to prompt and effective conservative management.

  16. Chronic pain in Noonan Syndrome: A previously unreported but common symptom.

    PubMed

    Vegunta, Sravanthi; Cotugno, Richard; Williamson, Amber; Grebe, Theresa A

    2015-12-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is a multiple malformation syndrome characterized by pulmonic stenosis, cardiomyopathy, short stature, lymphatic dysplasia, craniofacial anomalies, cryptorchidism, clotting disorders, and learning disabilities. Eight genes in the RAS/MAPK signaling pathway are implicated in NS. Chronic pain is an uncommon feature. To investigate the prevalence of pain in NS, we distributed a two-part questionnaire about pain among NS individuals at the Third International Meeting on Genetic Syndromes of the Ras/MAPK Pathway. The first part of the questionnaire queried demographic information among all NS participants. The second part was completed by individuals with chronic pain. Questions included musculoskeletal problems and clinical features of pain. Forty-five questionnaires were analyzed; 53% of subjects were female. Mean age was 17 (2-48) years; 47% had a PTPN11 mutation. Sixty-two percent (28/45) of individuals with NS experienced chronic pain. There was a significant relationship between prevalence of pain and residing in a cold climate (P = 0.004). Pain occurred commonly in extremities/joints and head/trunk, but more commonly in extremities/joints (P = 0.066). Subjects with hypermobile joints were more likely to have pain (P = 0.052). Human growth hormone treatment was not statistically significant among subjects without chronic pain (P = 0.607). We conclude that pain is a frequent and under-recognized clinical feature of NS. Chronic pain may be associated with joint hypermobility and aggravated by colder climate. Our study is a preliminary investigation that should raise awareness about pain as a common symptom in children and adults with NS. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Imaging study of the painful heel syndrome

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Williams, P.L.; Smibert, J.G.; Cox, R.

    1987-06-01

    A total of 45 patients with the painful heel syndrome without evidence of an associated inflammatory arthritis, seven of whom had pain in both heels, were studied using technetium-99 isotope bone scans and lateral and 45 degrees medial oblique radiographs of both feet. Of the 52 painful heels 31 (59.6%) showed increased uptake of tracer at the calcaneum. Patients with scans showing increased uptake tended to have more severe heel pain and responded more frequently to a local hydrocortisone injection. On plain x-ray, 39 of 52 painful heels (75%) and 24 of the 38 opposite nonpainful heels (63%) showed plantarmore » spurs, compared with five of 63 (7.9%) heels in 59 age- and sex-matched controls. No evidence of stress fractures was seen.« less

  18. Parent-reported pain in Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Symons, Frank J; Byiers, Breanne; Tervo, Raymond C; Beisang, Arthur

    2013-08-01

    Clinical reports suggest that patients with Rett syndrome (RTT) live with significant chronic health issues as well as severe motor and communication impairments. Consequently, patients with RTT may be at risk for living with pain but not having it recognized. The purpose of this preliminary study was to document parent reported estimates of pain frequency, pain communication, and pain source. Caregivers of 44 patients with clinically diagnosed RTT (mean RTT age = 21.5, SD = 13.5) completed a health survey about their daughter that contained a number of items specific to pain from the Non-Communicating Children's Pain Checklist - Revised Among survey responders, 24% reported that their child had experienced pain on 8 or more days (> 1 week) in the previous 30 days. The most frequent form of pain communication was facial expression (85%) and vocalization (82%, eg, moan, cry). The most commonly reported pain source was gastro-intestinal (66%). Pain frequency was significantly (P<0.05) correlated with age (0.41), number of pain sources (0.72), and number of health problems (0.45); and the number pain sources was significantly (P<0.05) correlated with number of health problems (0.67). These preliminary results suggest that pain is a problem for a significant subgroup of patients with RTT. Almost one quarter of respondents indicated their daughters experience over a week of pain per month. The frequent health and communication issues associated with RTT suggest an increased risk that pain may be overlooked or discounted in this vulnerable population.

  19. [Myofascial pain syndrome--frequent occurrence and often misdiagnosed].

    PubMed

    Pongratz, D E; Späth, M

    1998-09-30

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a very common localized--sometimes also polytopic--painful musculoskeletal condition associated with trigger points, for which, however, diagnostic criteria established in well-designed studies are still lacking. These two facts form the basis for differentiating between MPS and the fibromyalgia syndrome. The difference between trigger points (MPS) and tender points (fibromyalgia) is of central importance--not merely in a linguistic sense. A knowledge of the signs and symptoms typically associated with a trigger point often obviates the need for time-consuming and expensive technical diagnostic measures. The assumption that many cases of unspecific complaints affecting the musculoskeletal system may be ascribed to MPS makes clear the scope for the saving of costs.

  20. Reduction of central neuropathic pain with ketamine infusion in a patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lo, Tony Chung Tung; Yeung, Stephen Tung; Lee, Sujin; Skavinski, Kira; Liao, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome frequently causes acute and chronic pain because of joint subluxations and dislocations secondary to hypermobility. Current treatments for pain related to Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and central pain syndrome are inadequate. This case report discusses the therapeutic use of ketamine intravenous infusion as an alternative. A 27-year-old Caucasian female with a history of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and spinal cord ischemic myelopathy resulting in central pain syndrome, presented with severe generalized body pain refractory to multiple pharmacological interventions. After a 7-day course of ketamine intravenous infusion under controlled generalized sedation in the intensive care unit, the patient reported a dramatic reduction in pain levels from 7-8 out of 10 to 0-3 out of 10 on a numeric rating scale and had a significant functional improvement. The patient tolerated a reduction in her pain medication regimen, which originally included opioids, gabapentin, pregabalin, tricyclic antidepressants, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Ketamine infusion treatment has been used in various pain syndromes, including central neuropathic pain, ischemic pain, and regional pain syndrome. Reports have suggested that ketamine modulates pain by the regression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor to a resting state. As such, propagation of nociceptive signal to brain is interrupted allowing for the restoration of physiological balance between pain inhibition and facilitation. The present report shows that this treatment option can be used in patients with refractory central pain syndrome in the setting of spinal cord myelopathy secondary to Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. In addition, as seen in this case, this protocol can potentially decrease the chronic use of pain medication, such as opioids.

  1. Correlation of gene expression with bladder capacity in interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Colaco, Marc; Koslov, David S; Keys, Tristan; Evans, Robert J; Badlani, Gopal H; Andersson, Karl-Erik; Walker, Stephen J

    2014-10-01

    Interstitial cystitis and bladder pain syndrome are terms used to describe a heterogeneous chronic pelvic and bladder pain disorder. Despite its significant prevalence, our understanding of disease etiology is poor. We molecularly characterized interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and determined whether there are clinical factors that correlate with gene expression. Bladder biopsies from female subjects with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and female controls without signs of the disease were collected and divided into those with normal and low anesthetized bladder capacity, respectively. Samples then underwent RNA extraction and microarray assay. Data generated by these assays were analyzed using Omics Explorer (Qlucore, Lund, Sweden), GeneSifter® Analysis Edition 4.0 and Ingenuity® Pathway Analysis to determine similarity among samples within and between groups, and measure differentially expressed transcripts unique to each phenotype. A total of 16 subjects were included in study. Principal component analysis and unsupervised hierarchical clustering showed clear separation between gene expression in tissues from subjects with low compared to normal bladder capacity. Gene expression in tissue from patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome who had normal bladder capacity did not significantly differ from that in controls without interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. Pairwise analysis revealed that pathways related to inflammatory and immune response were most involved. Microarray analysis provides insight into the potential pathological condition underlying interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. This pilot study shows that patients with this disorder who have low compared to normal bladder capacity have significantly different molecular characteristics, which may reflect a difference in disease pathophysiology. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc

  2. Sonography of greater trochanteric pain syndrome and the rarity of primary bursitis.

    PubMed

    Long, Suzanne S; Surrey, David E; Nazarian, Levon N

    2013-11-01

    Greater trochanteric pain syndrome is a common condition with clinical features of pain and tenderness at the lateral aspect of the hip. Diagnosing the origin of greater trochanteric pain is important because the treatment varies depending on the cause. We hypothesized that sonographic evaluation of sources for greater trochanteric pain syndrome would show that bursitis was not the most commonly encountered abnormality. We performed a retrospective review of musculoskeletal sonographic examinations performed at our institution over a 6-year period for greater trochanteric pain syndrome; completed a tabulation of the sonographic findings; and assessed the prevalence of trochanteric bursitis, gluteal tendon abnormalities, iliotibial band abnormalities, or a combination of findings. Prevalence of abnormal findings, associations of bursitis, gluteal tendinosis, gluteal tendon tears, and iliotibial band abnormalities were calculated. The final study population consisted of 877 unique patients: 602 women, 275 men; average age, 54 years; and age range, 15-87 years). Of the 877 patients with greater trochanteric pain, 700 (79.8%) did not have bursitis on ultrasound. A minority of patients (177, 20.2%) had trochanteric bursitis. Of the 877 patients with greater trochanteric pain, 438 (49.9%) had gluteal tendinosis, four (0.5%) had gluteal tendon tears, and 250 (28.5%) had a thickened iliotibial band. The cause of greater trochanteric pain syndrome is usually some combination of pathology involving the gluteus medius and gluteus minimus tendons as well as the iliotibial band. Bursitis is present in only the minority of patients. These findings have implications for treatment of this common condition.

  3. Alpha-1 adrenoceptor hyperresponsiveness in three neuropathic pain states: complex regional pain syndrome 1, diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain and central pain states following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Teasell, Robert W; Arnold, J Malcolm O

    2004-01-01

    The pathophysiology of the pain associated with complex regional pain syndrome, spinal cord injury and diabetic peripheral neuropathy is not known. The pain of complex regional pain syndrome has often been attributed to abnormal sympathetic nervous system activity based on the presence of vasomotor instability and a frequently reported positive response, albeit a temporary response, to sympathetic blockade. In contrast, the pain below the level of spinal cord injury and diabetic peripheral neuropathy are generally seen as deafferentation phenomena. Each of these pain states has been associated with abnormal sympathetic nervous system function and increased peripheral alpha-1 adrenoceptor activity. This increased responsiveness may be a consequence of alpha-1 adrenoceptor postsynaptic hypersensitivity, or alpha-2 adrenoceptor presynaptic dysfunction with diminished noradrenaline reuptake, increased concentrations of noradrenaline in the synaptic cleft and increased stimulation of otherwise normal alpha-1 adrenoceptors. Plausible mechanisms based on animal research by which alpha-1 adrenoceptor hyperresponsiveness can lead to chronic neuropathic-like pain have been reported. This raises the intriguing possibility that sympathetic nervous system dysfunction may be an important factor in the generation of pain in many neuropathic pain states. Although results to date have been mixed, there may be a greater role for new drugs which target peripheral alpha-2 adrenoceptors (agonists) or alpha-1 adrenoceptors (antagonists).

  4. Cytokine expression in patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis ESSIC type 3C.

    PubMed

    Logadottir, Yr; Delbro, Dick; Fall, Magnus; Gjertsson, Inger; Jirholt, Pernilla; Lindholm, Catharina; Peeker, Ralph

    2014-11-01

    Bladder wall nitric oxide production in patients with bladder pain syndrome type 3C is increased compared to undetectable nitric oxide in patients with nonHunner bladder pain syndrome and healthy controls. However, the underlying mechanism/s of the increased nitric oxide production is largely unknown. We compared mRNA expression of a select group of cytokines in patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis type 3C and in pain-free controls. Cold cup biopsies from 7 patients with bladder pain syndrome type 3C and 6 healthy subjects were analyzed. mRNA expression of IL-4, 6, 10 and 17A, iNOS, TNF-α, TGF-β and IFN-γ was estimated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. IL-17 protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. Mast cells were labeled with tryptase to evaluate cell appearance and count. IL-6, 10 and 17A, and iNOS mRNA levels as well as the number of mast cells infiltrating the bladder mucosa were significantly increased in patients with bladder pain syndrome type 3C compared to healthy controls. TNF-α, TGF-β and IFN-γ mRNA levels were similar in patients and controls. IL-17A expression at the protein level was up-regulated and localized to inflammatory cells and urothelium in patients with bladder pain syndrome type 3C. Patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis had increased mRNA levels of IL-17A, 10 and 6, and iNOS. IL-17A might be important in the inflammatory process. To our knowledge the increase in IL-17A is a novel finding that may have new treatment implications. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of squatting velocity on hip muscle latency in women with patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Orozco-Chavez, Ignacio; Mendez-Rebolledo, Guillermo

    2018-03-01

    [Purpose] Neuromuscular activity has been evaluated in patellofemoral pain syndrome but movement velocity has not been considered. The aim was to determine differences in onset latency of hip and knee muscles between individuals with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome during a single leg squat, and whether any differences are dependent on movement velocity. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four females with patellofemoral pain syndrome and 24 healthy females participated. Onset latency of gluteus maximus, anterior and posterior gluteus medius, rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis and biceps femoris during a single leg squat at high and low velocity were evaluated. [Results] There was an interaction between velocity and diagnosis for posterior gluteus medius. Healthy subjects showed a later posterior gluteus medius onset latency at low velocity than high velocity; and also later than patellofemoral pain syndrome subjects at low velocity and high velocity. [Conclusion] Patellofemoral pain syndrome subjects presented an altered latency of posterior gluteus medius during a single leg squat and did not generate adaptations to velocity variation, while healthy subjects presented an earlier onset latency in response to velocity increase.

  6. Groin pain syndrome: an association of different pathologies and a case presentation

    PubMed Central

    Bisciotti, Gian Nicola; Auci, Alessio; Di Marzo, Francesco; Galli, Roberto; Pulici, Luca; Carimati, Giulia; Quaglia, Alessandro; Volpi, Piero

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background groin pain affects all types of athletes, especially soccer players. Many diseases with different etiologies may cause groin pain. Purpose offer a mini review of groin pain in soccer accompanied by the presentation of a case report highlighting the possible association of more clinical frameworks into the onset of groin pain syndrome, in order to recommend that clinical evaluations take into account possible associations between bone, muscle and tendon such as inguinal canal disease. Conclusion the multifactorial etiology of groin pain syndrome needs to be examined with a comprehensive approach, with standardized clinical evaluation based on an imaging protocol in order to evaluate all possible diseases. Study design Mini review- Case report (Level V). PMID:26605198

  7. Thoracolumbar Junction Syndrome Causing Pain around Posterior Iliac Crest: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Ryu; Lee, Min-Ji; Lee, Seung-Jun; Suh, Young-Sung; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Hong, Ji-Hee

    2013-03-01

    Thoracolumbar junction syndrome is characterized by referred pain which may originate at the thoracolumbar junction, which extends from 12th thoracic vertebra to 2nd lumbar vertebra, due to functional abnormalities. Clinical manifestations include back pain, pseudo-visceral pain and pseudo-pain on the posterior iliac crest, as well as irritable bowel symptoms. During clinical examination, pain can be demonstrated by applying pressure on the facet joints or to the sides of the spinous processes. Radiological studies show only mild and insignificant degenerative changes in most cases. We report a 42-year-old female patient with osteogenesis imperfecta who suffered from chronic low back pain. Under the diagnosis of thoracolumbar junction syndrome, she was treated with an epidural block and a sympathetic nerve block, which improved her symptoms.

  8. [Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) : An update].

    PubMed

    Dimova, V; Birklein, F

    2018-04-17

    The acute phase of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is pathophysiologically characterized by an activation of the immune system and its associated inflammatory response. During the course of CRPS, central nervous symptoms like mechanical hyperalgesia, loss of sensation, and body perception disorders develop. Psychological factors such as pain-related anxiety and traumatic events might have a negative effect on the treatment outcome. While the visible inflammatory symptoms improve, the pain often persists. A stage adapted, targeted treatment could improve the prognosis. Effective multidisciplinary treatment includes the following: pharmacotherapy with steroids, bisphosphonates, or dimethylsulfoxide cream (acute phase), and antineuropathic analgesics (all phases); physiotherapy and behavioral therapy for pain-related anxiety and avoidance of movement; and interventional treatment like spinal cord or dorsal root ganglion stimulation if noninvasive options failed.

  9. Novel Treatment of Chronic Bladder Pain Syndrome and Other Pelvic Pain Disorders by OnabotulinumtoxinA Injection.

    PubMed

    Jhang, Jia-Fong; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2015-06-18

    Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is defined as pain in the pelvic organs and related structures of at least 6 months' duration. The pathophysiology of CPP is uncertain, and its treatment presents challenges. Botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A), known for its antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and muscle relaxant activity, has been used recently to treat refractory CPP with promising results. In patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome, most studies suggest intravesical BoNT-A injection reduces bladder pain and increases bladder capacity. Repeated BoNT-A injection is also effective and reduces inflammation in the bladder. Intraprostatic BoNT-A injection could significantly improve prostate pain and urinary frequency in the patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Animal studies also suggest BoNT-A injection in the prostate decreases inflammation in the prostate. Patients with CPP due to pelvic muscle pain and spasm also benefit from localized BoNT-A injections. BoNT-A injection in the pelvic floor muscle improves dyspareunia and decreases pelvic floor pressure. Preliminary studies show intravesical BoNT-A injection is useful in inflammatory bladder diseases such as chemical cystitis, radiation cystitis, and ketamine related cystitis. Dysuria is the most common adverse effect after BoNT-A injection. Very few patients develop acute urinary retention after treatment.

  10. Central sensitization as the mechanism underlying pain in joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type.

    PubMed

    Di Stefano, G; Celletti, C; Baron, R; Castori, M; Di Franco, M; La Cesa, S; Leone, C; Pepe, A; Cruccu, G; Truini, A; Camerota, F

    2016-09-01

    Patients with joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type (JHS/EDS-HT) commonly suffer from pain. How this hereditary connective tissue disorder causes pain remains unclear although previous studies suggested it shares similar mechanisms with neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia. In this prospective study seeking information on the mechanisms underlying pain in patients with JHS/EDS-HT, we enrolled 27 consecutive patients with this connective tissue disorder. Patients underwent a detailed clinical examination, including the neuropathic pain questionnaire DN4 and the fibromyalgia rapid screening tool. As quantitative sensory testing methods, we included thermal-pain perceptive thresholds and the wind-up ratio and recorded a standard nerve conduction study to assess non-nociceptive fibres and laser-evoked potentials, assessing nociceptive fibres. Clinical examination and diagnostic tests disclosed no somatosensory nervous system damage. Conversely, most patients suffered from widespread pain, the fibromyalgia rapid screening tool elicited positive findings, and quantitative sensory testing showed lowered cold and heat pain thresholds and an increased wind-up ratio. While the lack of somatosensory nervous system damage is incompatible with neuropathic pain as the mechanism underlying pain in JHS/EDS-HT, the lowered cold and heat pain thresholds and increased wind-up ratio imply that pain in JHS/EDS-HT might arise through central sensitization. Hence, this connective tissue disorder and fibromyalgia share similar pain mechanisms. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY ADD?: In patients with JHS/EDS-HT, the persistent nociceptive input due to joint abnormalities probably triggers central sensitization in the dorsal horn neurons and causes widespread pain. © 2016 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  11. Construct validity of an instrument to measure neuropathic pain in women with bladder pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Arya, Lily A; Harvie, Heidi S; Andy, Uduak U; Cory, Lori; Propert, Kathleen J; Whitmore, Kristene

    2013-06-01

    To determine the construct validity of an instrument to measure neuropathic pain in women with bladder pain syndrome (BPS). Our hypothesis is that neuropathic, bladder, and bowel pain represent different constructs in women with BPS. Secondary planned analysis of a prospective cross-sectional study of 150 women with BPS. The relationship between neuropathic pain, urinary, and bowel symptoms was assessed. The correlation of the total neuropathic pain score with total urinary and bowel symptom scores was low to moderate (r = 0.28-0.49). The correlation of specific neuropathic pain items with bladder and bowel pain was also low to moderate (r = 0.12-0.36). Women with neuropathic pain had significantly higher scores for urinary urgency, bladder pain, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and constipation than women with non-neuropathic pain (all P < 0.0001). Somatosensory neuropathic pain and "visceral" bladder and bowel pain represent separate but related constructs in women with BPS. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Chronic pain in hypermobility syndrome and Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (hypermobility type): it is a challenge

    PubMed Central

    Scheper, Mark C; de Vries, Janneke E; Verbunt, Jeanine; Engelbert, Raoul HH

    2015-01-01

    Generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) is highly prevalent among patients diagnosed with chronic pain. When GJH is accompanied by pain in ≥4 joints over a period ≥3 months in the absence of other conditions that cause chronic pain, the hypermobility syndrome (HMS) may be diagnosed. In addition, GJH is also a clinical sign that is frequently present in hereditary diseases of the connective tissue, such as the Marfan syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta, and the Ehlers–Danlos syndrome. However, within the Ehlers–Danlos spectrum, a similar subcategory of patients having similar clinical features as HMS but lacking a specific genetic profile was identified: Ehlers–Danlos syndrome hypermobility type (EDS-HT). Researchers and clinicians have struggled for decades with the highly diverse clinical presentation within the HMS and EDS-HT phenotypes (Challenge 1) and the lack of understanding of the pathological mechanisms that underlie the development of pain and its persistence (Challenge 2). In addition, within the HMS/EDS-HT phenotype, there is a high prevalence of psychosocial factors, which again presents a difficult issue that needs to be addressed (Challenge 3). Despite recent scientific advances, many obstacles for clinical care and research still remain. To gain further insight into the phenotype of HMS/EDS-HT and its mechanisms, clearer descriptions of these populations should be made available. Future research and clinical care should revise and create consensus on the diagnostic criteria for HMS/EDS-HT (Solution 1), account for clinical heterogeneity by the classification of subtypes within the HMS/EDS-HT spectrum (Solution 2), and create a clinical core set (Solution 3). PMID:26316810

  13. Chronic pain in hypermobility syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (hypermobility type): it is a challenge.

    PubMed

    Scheper, Mark C; de Vries, Janneke E; Verbunt, Jeanine; Engelbert, Raoul Hh

    2015-01-01

    Generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) is highly prevalent among patients diagnosed with chronic pain. When GJH is accompanied by pain in ≥4 joints over a period ≥3 months in the absence of other conditions that cause chronic pain, the hypermobility syndrome (HMS) may be diagnosed. In addition, GJH is also a clinical sign that is frequently present in hereditary diseases of the connective tissue, such as the Marfan syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta, and the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. However, within the Ehlers-Danlos spectrum, a similar subcategory of patients having similar clinical features as HMS but lacking a specific genetic profile was identified: Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type (EDS-HT). Researchers and clinicians have struggled for decades with the highly diverse clinical presentation within the HMS and EDS-HT phenotypes (Challenge 1) and the lack of understanding of the pathological mechanisms that underlie the development of pain and its persistence (Challenge 2). In addition, within the HMS/EDS-HT phenotype, there is a high prevalence of psychosocial factors, which again presents a difficult issue that needs to be addressed (Challenge 3). Despite recent scientific advances, many obstacles for clinical care and research still remain. To gain further insight into the phenotype of HMS/EDS-HT and its mechanisms, clearer descriptions of these populations should be made available. Future research and clinical care should revise and create consensus on the diagnostic criteria for HMS/EDS-HT (Solution 1), account for clinical heterogeneity by the classification of subtypes within the HMS/EDS-HT spectrum (Solution 2), and create a clinical core set (Solution 3).

  14. Temporal profile of pain and other sensory manifestations in Guillain-Barre' syndrome during ten days of hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Karkare, K; Taly, Arun B; Sinha, Sanjib; Rao, S

    2011-01-01

    Focused studies on sensory manifestations, especially pain and paresthesia in Guillain-Barre' (GB) syndrome are few and far between. To study the sensory manifestations in GB syndrome during 10 days of hospitalization with clinico-electrophysiological correlation. The study included 60 non-consecutive patients with GB syndrome, fulfilling National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke (NINCDS) criteria for GB syndrome. Data especially related to clinical and electrophysiological evidence of sensory involvement were analyzed. Pain was assessed using a) visual analogue paraesthesias (Vapar), b) visual analogue for pain (Vap) and c) verbal rating scale for pain (Verp). Sensory symptoms were widely prevalent: paraesthesia in 45 (75%) patients and pain in 30 (50%) patients. Impairment of different sensory modalities included: pain in 8 (13.3%), joint position sense in 14 (23.3%), and vibration in 11 (18.3%). Electrophysiological evidence of abnormal sensory nerve conduction was noted in 35 (58.3%) patients. Pain assessment using Vapar, Vap and Verp for from Day 1 to Day 10 of hospitalization revealed that from Day 7 onwards the degree and frequency of sensory symptoms and signs decreased. On comparing various clinico-electrophysiological parameters among patients of GB syndrome with and without pain and paresthesia. Presence of respiratory distress correlated with pain and paresthesia (P=0.02). Sensory manifestations in GB syndrome are often under-recognized and under-emphasized. This study analyzed the evolution and the profile of pain and paresthesia in GB syndrome during hospitalization. Knowledge, especially about evolution of pain and paresthesia during hospitalization might improve understanding and patient care.

  15. Parsonage-Turner syndrome in a patient with bilateral shoulder pain: A case report.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Ryuichi; Shimabukuro, Akira

    2017-11-01

    Objective: Parsonage-Turner syndrome is a peripheral neuropathy characterized by acute onset shoulder pain, myalgia, and sensory disturbances. The present report discusses a rare case of Parsonage-Turner syndrome and highlights the importance of accurate history recording and thorough physical examination for the diagnosis of the disease in rural areas. Patient: A 28-year-old woman presented to our clinic with acute bilateral shoulder pain and difficulty moving her right arm. A diagnosis of Parsonage-Turner syndrome was suspected based on the progression of symptoms, severity of pain, and lack of musculoskeletal inflammation. The diagnosis was confirmed by neurological specialists, and the patient was treated with methylprednisolone, after which her symptoms gradually improved. Discussion: The differential diagnosis of shoulder pain is complicated due to the wide variety of conditions sharing similar symptoms. Accurate history recording and thorough physical examination are required to differentiate among conditions involving the central nerves, peripheral nerves, and nerve plexuses. Conclusion: Although the symptoms of Parsonage-Turner syndrome vary based on disease progression and the location of impairment, proper diagnosis of acute shoulder pain without central neurological symptoms can be achieved in rural areas via thorough examination.

  16. [Nonspecific symptoms of pain syndromes of cervicobrachial localization and their dynamics under the influence of non - pharmacological treatment].

    PubMed

    Ярошевський, Олександр Анатолійович

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of this study is caused by the wide spread of musculoskeletal pain, particularly among young people of working age and lack of effectiveness of drug treatment. To study the capability of non-pharmacological treatment in patients with myofascial pain syndrome of cervicobrachial localization considering the influence to nonspecific symptoms of myofascial pain syndrome (autonomic dysfunctions and emotional disorders). We studied 115 patients aged from 18 to 44 years with myofascial pain syndrome of cervicobrachial localization. We used neurological, vertebral- neurological, neuropsychological examination. The severity of pain was assessed by the Visual analog scale for pain (VAS pain). Patients were divided into two groups. The first group of patients (59 individuals) received the complex of manual therapy. The second group of patients (56 individuals) received the complex of manual therapy combined with acupuncture. Non-pharmacological treatment was effective in patients with myofascial pain syndrome of cervicobrachial localization. Application of manual therapy methods in the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome of cervicobrachial localization leading to the reduction of severity of pain, emotional disorders and autonomic dysfunctions. The combination of manual therapy with acupuncture increases the effectiveness of treatment of myofascial pain syndrome of cervicobrachial localization by reducing the emotional disorders and autonomic dysfunctions. Patients with myofascial pain syndrome of cervicobrachial localization need the complex of manual therapy combined with acupuncture. The manual therapy corrects abnormal biomechanical pattern while acupuncture corrects autonomic dysfunctions and emotional disorders.

  17. Racial disparities in postmastectomy breast reconstruction: National trends in utilization from 2005 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Sherise; Tran, Bao N; Cohen, Justin B; Lin, Samuel J; Singhal, Dhruv; Lee, Bernard T

    2018-04-16

    Evidence of racial disparities in the receipt of postmastectomy breast reconstruction is well documented. The objective of this study was to describe trends in racial disparities overall and by reconstructive technique. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was used to identify women who underwent mastectomy and/or breast reconstruction from 2005 to 2014. Patient demographics were recorded, and cases were grouped by reconstructive status and technique. Trends were assessed with the Cochran-Armitage test and the index of disparity. Over the study period, 92,960 postmastectomy patients were identified (77,049 white women, 10,396 black women, 4939 Asian women, and 576 Native American women), of whom 46,931 underwent reconstruction. Of these, 7692 women underwent autologous reconstructions (3913 free flaps and 3696 pedicled flaps). From 2005 to 2014, receipt of breast reconstruction by postmastectomy patients rose from 33.2% to 60.0%, receipt of autologous reconstruction by patients who underwent breast reconstruction fell from 30.4% to 15.9%, and receipt of free-flap reconstruction by patients who underwent autologous reconstruction rose from 15.0% to 70.8%. These trends were significant in all racial subgroups (P < .001), except for Native Americans (P = .269). The index of disparity decreased from 51.4% to 22.6% for overall receipt of breast reconstruction, decreased from 10.7% to 7.0% for tissue expander and implant-based reconstruction, increased from 18.0% to 27.3% for autologous reconstruction, and decreased from 66.7% to 4.3% for free-flap reconstruction. The use of postmastectomy breast reconstruction is steadily rising in the United States. Racial disparities persist, but progress has been made. Further efforts are needed to reduce racial disparities. Cancer 2018. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  18. Toll-like Receptor 4 and Comorbid Pain in Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome: A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain Research Network Study

    PubMed Central

    Schrepf, Andrew; Bradley, Catherine S.; O'Donnell, Michael; Luo, Yi; Harte, Steven E.; Kreder, Karl; Lutgendorf, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome (IC/BPS) is a condition characterized by pelvic pain and urinary symptoms. Some IC/BPS patients have pain confined to the pelvic region, while others suffer widespread pain. Inflammatory processes have previously been linked to pelvic pain in IC/BPS, but their association with widespread pain in IC/BPS has not been characterized. Methods Sixty-six women meeting criteria for IC/BPS completed self-report measures of pain as part of the Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP), collected 3 days of saliva for cortisol assays, and provided blood samples. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated with Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) 2 and 4 agonists and cytokines were measured in supernatant; IL-6 was also measured in plasma. Associations between inflammatory variables and the likelihood of endorsing extra-pelvic pain, or the presence of a comorbid syndrome, were tested by logistic regression and General Linear Models, respectively. A subset of patients (n=32) completed Quantitative Sensory Testing. Results A one standard deviation increase in TLR-4 inflammatory response was associated with a 1.59 greater likelihood of endorsing extra-pelvic pain (p = .019). Participants with comorbid syndromes also had higher inflammatory responses to TLR-4 stimulation in PBMCs (p = .016). Lower pressure pain thresholds were marginally associated with higher TLR-4 inflammatory responses (p = .062), and significantly associated with higher IL-6 in plasma (p = .031). Conclusions TLR-4 inflammatory responses in PBMCs are a marker of widespread pain in IC/BPS, and should be explored in other conditions characterized by medically unexplained pain. PMID:25771510

  19. Coracoid syndrome: a neglected cause of anterior shoulder pain.

    PubMed

    Gigante, Antonio; Bottegoni, Carlo; Barbadoro, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    the present prospective open-label study was designed to gain further insights into a condition thought to constitute a neglected but not uncommon syndrome characterized by anterior shoulder pain and tenderness to palpation over the apex of the coracoid process, not related to rotator cuff or pectoralis minor tendinopathy, long head of the biceps tendon disorders, or instability. The aim was to clarify its prevalence, clinical characteristics, differential diagnosis and response to corticosteroid injections. patients with primary anterior shoulder pain precisely reproduced by deep pressure on the apex of the coracoid process were recruited. Patients with clinical or instrumental signs of other shoulder disorders were excluded. Patients were given an injection of triamcinolone acetonide 40 mg/ml 1 ml at the coracoid trigger point. They were evaluated after 15, 30 and 60 days and at 2 years using Equal Visual Analog Scale (EQ-VAS) and the Italian version of the Simple Shoulder Test (SST). between January 1 and December 31 2010, we treated 15 patients aged 26-66 years. The majority were women (86.67%). At 15 days, 6 (40%) patients reported complete resolution of their symptoms, while 9 (60%) complained of residual symptoms and received another injection. At 30 days, 14 (93.33%) patients were pain-free and very satisfied. At 2 years, the 14 patients who had been asymptomatic at 30 days reported that they had experienced no further pain or impaired shoulder function. The analysis of variance for repeated measures showed a significant effect of time on EQ-VAS and SST scores. the present study documents the existence, and characteristics, of a "coracoid syndrome" characterized by anterior shoulder pain and tenderness to palpation over the apex of the coracoid process and showed that the pain is usually amenable to steroid treatment. This syndrome should be clearly distinguished from anterior shoulder pain due to other causes, in order to avoid inappropriate conservative

  20. Botulinum toxin for myofascial pain syndromes in adults.

    PubMed

    Soares, Adriana; Andriolo, Régis B; Atallah, Alvaro N; da Silva, Edina M K

    2014-07-25

    This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 4, 2012. Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a regional muscular pain syndrome characterised by the presence of trigger points, which are painful points in one or more muscles. The pain can be felt at the site where the trigger point is located or it can be felt away from that place when the muscle is pressed (referred pain). Botulinum toxin is a protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and is a potent neurotoxin that eventually inhibits muscle contractions. It is capable of selectively weakening painful muscles and interrupting the pain cycle. To assess the effectiveness and safety of botulinum toxin A (BTXA) in the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS), excluding MPS in neck and head muscles. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 4, 2012. The search strategy for the update was the same as in the original review and we searched CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library (2013, Issue 11 of 12), MEDLINE (Ovid) (2012 to 29 November 2013) and EMBASE (Ovid) (2012 to 27 November 2013). The search strategy was composed of terms for myofascial pain and botulinum toxin. For the original review, we also searched the Cochrane Pain, Palliative and Supportive Care (PaPaS) Review Group Specialised Register until December 2011, PubMed (from 1966 to 2011) and LILACS (from 1982 to 2011). There was no language restriction. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving botulinum toxin for treating participants with MPS. We excluded studies with MPS of the neck and head from this review as they have already been assessed in existing systematic reviews. We considered a diagnosis of MPS to be based on the identification of trigger points in the taut band through palpation of sensitive nodules, local twitch response and specific patterns of referred pain associated with each trigger point. Two review authors independently screened identified studies

  1. Guillain-Barré Syndrome presenting as unilateral hip pain in a child.

    PubMed

    Neocleous, Charalambos; Diakolios, Konstandinos; Adramerina, Alkistis; Varveris, Evangelos; Tsioni, Vasiliki; Machairidou, Konstandina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this report is to highlight the importance of close observation and follow-up in children who present with an acutely irritable hip. This is because hip pain is a symptom of not only benign but also severe conditions. Thus, at the time of the initial presentation, hip pain can be misdiagnosed. This report serves as an example for a wide range of doctors such as orthopaedic surgeons, paediatricians, emergency room physicians or primary care physicians, because these are the first-line doctors who treat patients with a painful hip. We herein present a three-year-old child who was admitted to our hospital with pain in the right leg and initially diagnosed with transient synovitis of the hip. An additional examination two days later, after severe deterioration of the clinical picture, revealed that our patient was actually suffering from Guillain-Barré syndrome. Failure to diagnose Guillain-Barré syndrome and initiating prompt treatment is potentially life-threatening. Clinicians should be aware that hip pain could be the presenting complaint of Guillain-Barré syndrome, a syndrome that has many clinical features. Even when all the clinical and laboratory findings indicate a benign condition, Guillain- Barré syndrome should still be considered. Therefore, close observation and follow-up in children who present with an acutely irritable hip is highly recommended. In this way, the potentially catastrophic consequences of more severe conditions can be avoided. Copyright © 2015 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  2. New Concepts in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tajerian, Maral; Clark, J David

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Despite the severe pain and disability associated with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS), our lack of understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms supporting this enigmatic condition prevents the rational design of new therapies, a situation that is frustrating both to the physician and the patient. The following review will highlight some of the mechanisms thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of CRPS in preclinical models and CRPS patients, with the ultimate goal that understanding these mechanisms will lead to the design of efficacious, mechanism-based treatments available to the clinic. PMID:26611388

  3. Space-based bias of covert visual attention in complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bultitude, Janet H; Walker, Ian; Spence, Charles

    2017-09-01

    See Legrain (doi:10.1093/awx188) for a scientific commentary on this article. Some patients with complex regional pain syndrome report that movements of the affected limb are slow, more effortful, and lack automaticity. These symptoms have been likened to the syndrome that sometimes follows brain injury called hemispatial neglect, in which patients exhibit attentional impairments and problems with movements affecting the contralesional side of the body and space. Psychophysical testing of patients with complex regional pain syndrome has found evidence for spatial biases when judging visual targets distanced at 2 m, but not in directions that indicate reduced attention to the affected side. In contrast, when judging visual or tactile stimuli presented on their own body surface, or pictures of hands and feet within arm's reach, patients with complex regional pain syndrome exhibited a bias away from the affected side. What is not yet known is whether patients with complex regional pain syndrome only have biased attention for bodily-specific information in the space within arm's reach, or whether they also show a bias for information that is not associated with the body, suggesting a more generalized attention deficit. Using a temporal order judgement task, we found that patients with complex regional pain syndrome processed visual stimuli more slowly on the affected side (relative to the unaffected side) when the lights were projected onto a blank surface (i.e. when no bodily information was visible), and when the lights were projected onto the dorsal surfaces of their uncrossed hands. However, with the arms crossed (such that the left and right lights projected onto the right and left hands, respectively), patients' responses were no different than controls. These results provide the first demonstration of a generalized attention bias away from the affected side of space in complex regional pain syndrome patients that is not specifically related to bodily

  4. Comprehensive Locoregional Treatment and Systemic Therapy for Postmastectomy Isolated Locoregional Recurrence

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kuo, S.-H.; Cancer Research Center, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan

    2008-12-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of comprehensive locoregional therapy and systemic therapy on disease control and survival for postmastectomy patients with isolated locoregional recurrence (ILRR). Methods and Materials: A total of 115 postmastectomy breast cancer patients treated for ILRR were included. Of the patients, 98 underwent comprehensive locoregional treatment (local tumor excision plus postoperative radiotherapy), and 17 received definitive radiotherapy alone. Involved-field radiotherapy was given to 69 patients, whereas entire-field radiotherapy (both involved-field and elective-field, involving the chest wall and regional lymphatics) was given to 46 patients. Systemic therapy consisting of hormone therapy, chemotherapy, or both was given to 69%more » of patients. Results: Patients treated with comprehensive locoregional treatment had a significantly better 5-year invasive disease-free survival (IDFS) and overall survival (OS) after ILRR than patients treated with definitive radiotherapy alone (IDFS rate, 51% vs. 16%, p = 0.006; OS rate, 62% vs. 37%, p = 0.017). Patients with the most comprehensive locoregional treatment (recurrent tumor excision and entire-field radiotherapy) and systemic therapy had a significantly better 5-year IDFS and OS than patients given either treatment or neither treatment (IDFS rate, 52% vs. 39%, p = 0.011; OS rate, 63% vs. 50%, p = 0.026). Multivariate analysis revealed that positive axillary lymph nodes, Grade III tumor, negative estrogen and progesterone receptor status at primary diagnosis, disease-free interval of less than 2 years, and less comprehensive locoregional treatment were significantly associated with worse IDFS and OS. Conclusions: Use of comprehensive locoregional therapy and systemic therapy can achieve good survival outcome in a substantial proportion of postmastectomy patients with ILRR.« less

  5. Seizures and pain uncertainty associated with parenting stress and Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Byiers, Breanne J; Tervo, Raymond C; Feyma, Timothy J; Symons, Frank J

    2014-04-01

    Data were collected parenting stress, adaptive behavior, pain, and health issues from the caregivers of 35 girls and women with Rett syndrome (mean age = 20.3). A majority (60%) of parents reported stress in the clinical range on at least 1 subscale of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form. Seizures and uncertainty about their daughter's gastrointestinal pain experience were significantly associated with higher levels of parenting stress. No other child factors (adaptive behavior, age, residential status) were significantly related to parenting stress. Factors related to chronic health concerns (seizures, ambiguous pain presentation) may be important when considering family stress issues in relation to general outcomes for girls with Rett syndrome and related developmental disorders.

  6. Annual Costs of Care for Pediatric Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Functional Abdominal Pain, and Functional Abdominal Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hoekman, Daniël R; Rutten, Juliette M T M; Vlieger, Arine M; Benninga, Marc A; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G W

    2015-11-01

    To estimate annual medical and nonmedical costs of care for children diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or functional abdominal pain (syndrome; FAP/FAPS). Baseline data from children with IBS or FAP/FAPS who were included in a multicenter trial (NTR2725) in The Netherlands were analyzed. Patients' parents completed a questionnaire concerning usage of healthcare resources, travel costs, out-of-pocket expenses, productivity loss of parents, and supportive measures at school. Use of abdominal pain related prescription medication was derived from case reports forms. Total annual costs per patient were calculated as the sum of direct and indirect medical and nonmedical costs. Costs of initial diagnostic investigations were not included. A total of 258 children, mean age 13.4 years (±5.5), were included, and 183 (70.9%) were female. Total annual costs per patient were estimated to be €2512.31. Inpatient and outpatient healthcare use were major cost drivers, accounting for 22.5% and 35.2% of total annual costs, respectively. Parental productivity loss accounted for 22.2% of total annual costs. No difference was found in total costs between children with IBS or FAP/FAPS. Pediatric abdominal pain related functional gastrointestinal disorders impose a large economic burden on patients' families and healthcare systems. More than one-half of total annual costs of IBS and FAP/FAPS consist of inpatient and outpatient healthcare use. Netherlands Trial Registry: NTR2725. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. New paradigms in understanding chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Konkle, Katy S; Clemens, J Quentin

    2011-08-01

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a common male pain condition that is associated with significant discomfort and disability. Despite significant efforts, there remains no definitive etiology or treatment of the spectrum of pelvic symptoms reported by these patients. The purpose of this review is to summarize important clinical and scientific findings related to CP/CPPS from the previous 2 years, and to evaluate their impact on our understanding of, and approach to, the disease.

  8. Chronic proctalgia and chronic pelvic pain syndromes: New etiologic insights and treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Chiarioni, Giuseppe; Asteria, Corrado; Whitehead, William E

    2011-01-01

    This systematic review addresses the pathophysiology, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of several chronic pain syndromes affecting the pelvic organs: chronic proctalgia, coccygodynia, pudendal neuralgia, and chronic pelvic pain. Chronic or recurrent pain in the anal canal, rectum, or other pelvic organs occurs in 7% to 24% of the population and is associated with impaired quality of life and high health care costs. However, these pain syndromes are poorly understood, with little research evidence available to guide their diagnosis and treatment. This situation appears to be changing: A recently published large randomized, controlled trial by our group comparing biofeedback, electrogalvanic stimulation, and massage for the treatment of chronic proctalgia has shown success rates of 85% for biofeedback when patients are selected based on physical examination evidence of tenderness in response to traction on the levator ani muscle-a physical sign suggestive of striated muscle tension. Excessive tension (spasm) in the striated muscles of the pelvic floor appears to be common to most of the pelvic pain syndromes. This suggests the possibility that similar approaches to diagnostic assessment and treatment may improve outcomes in other pelvic pain disorders. PMID:22110274

  9. Co-occurrence of Pain Symptoms and Somatosensory Sensitivity in Burning Mouth Syndrome: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Moisset, Xavier; Calbacho, Valentina; Torres, Pilar; Gremeau-Richard, Christelle; Dallel, Radhouane

    2016-01-01

    Background Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic and spontaneous oral pain with burning quality in the tongue or other oral mucosa without any identifiable oral lesion or laboratory finding. Pathogenesis and etiology of BMS are still unknown. However, BMS has been associated with other chronic pain syndromes including other idiopathic orofacial pain, the dynias group and the family of central sensitivity syndromes. This would imply that BMS shares common mechanisms with other cephalic and/or extracephalic chronic pains. The primary aim of this systematic review was to determine whether BMS is actually associated with other pain syndromes, and to analyze cephalic and extracephalic somatosensory sensitivity in these patients. Methods This report followed the PRISMA Statement. An electronic search was performed until January 2015 in PubMed, Cochrane library, Wiley and ScienceDirect. Searched terms included “burning mouth syndrome OR stomatodynia OR glossodynia OR burning tongue OR oral burning”. Studies were selected according to predefined inclusion criteria (report of an association between BMS and other pain(s) symptoms or of cutaneous cephalic and/or extracephalic quantitative sensory testing in BMS patients), and a descriptive analysis conducted. Results The search retrieved 1512 reports. Out of these, twelve articles met criteria for co-occurring pain symptoms and nine studies for quantitative sensory testing (QST) in BMS patients. The analysis reveals that in BMS patients co-occurring pain symptoms are rare, assessed by only 0.8% (12 of 1512) of the retrieved studies. BMS was associated with headaches, TMD, atypical facial pain, trigeminal neuralgia, post-herpetic facial pain, back pain, fibromyalgia, joint pain, abdominal pain, rectal pain or vulvodynia. However, the prevalence of pain symptoms in BMS patients is not different from that in the age-matched general population. QST studies reveal no or inconsistent evidence of abnormal cutaneous cephalic

  10. Lifestyle and Risk of Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome in a Cohort of United States Male Health Professionals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ran; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Giovannucci, Edward; Willett, Walter C; Platz, Elizabeth A; Rosner, Bernard A; Dimitrakoff, Jordan D; Wu, Kana

    2015-11-01

    Although chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome is a prevalent urological disorder among men of all ages, its etiology remains unknown. Only a few previous studies have examined associations between lifestyle factors and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome, of which most were limited by the cross-sectional study design and lack of control for possible confounders. To address these limitations we performed a cohort study of major lifestyle factors (obesity, smoking and hypertension) and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome risk in the HPFS (Health Professionals Follow-up Study), a large ongoing cohort of United States based male health professionals. The HPFS includes 51,529 men who were 40 to 75 years old at baseline in 1986. At enrollment and every 2 years thereafter participants have completed questionnaires on lifestyle and health conditions. In 2008 participants completed an additional set of questions on recent chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome pain symptoms modified from the NIH (National Institutes of Health)-CPSI (Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index) as well as questions on approximate date of symptom onset. The 653 participants with NIH-CPSI pain scores 8 or greater who first experienced symptoms after 1986 were considered incident chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome cases and the 19,138 who completed chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome questions but did not report chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome related pain were considered noncases. No associations were observed for baseline body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, cigarette smoking and hypertension with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome risk (each OR ≤1.34). In this large cohort study none of the lifestyle factors examined was associated with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome risk. As the etiology of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome remains unknown

  11. Lifestyle and Risk of Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome in a Cohort of United States Male Health Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ran; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Giovannucci, Edward; Willett, Walter C.; Platz, Elizabeth A.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Dimitrakoff, Jordan D.; Wu, Kana

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Although chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome is a prevalent urological disorder among men of all ages, its etiology remains unknown. Only a few previous studies have examined associations between lifestyle factors and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome, of which most were limited by the cross-sectional study design and lack of control for possible confounders. To address these limitations we performed a cohort study of major lifestyle factors (obesity, smoking and hypertension) and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome risk in the HPFS (Health Professionals Follow-up Study), a large ongoing cohort of United States based male health professionals. Materials and Methods The HPFS includes 51,529 men who were 40 to 75 years old at baseline in 1986. At enrollment and every 2 years thereafter participants have completed questionnaires on lifestyle and health conditions. In 2008 participants completed an additional set of questions on recent chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome pain symptoms modified from the NIH (National Institutes of Health)-CPSI (Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index) as well as questions on approximate date of symptom onset. The 653 participants with NIH-CPSI pain scores 8 or greater who first experienced symptoms after 1986 were considered incident chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome cases and the 19,138 who completed chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome questions but did not report chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome related pain were considered noncases. Results No associations were observed for baseline body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, cigarette smoking and hypertension with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome risk (each OR ≤1.34). Conclusions In this large cohort study none of the lifestyle factors examined was associated with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome risk. As the etiology of chronic

  12. [A rare cause of oral pain: The pterygoid hamulus syndrome].

    PubMed

    Bandini, M; Corre, P; Huet, P; Khonsari, R H

    2015-12-01

    Pterygoid hamulus syndrome (PHS) is a rare cause of orofacial and oropharyngeal pain. PHS can be associated with a hamulus hypertrophy or with a bursitis of the palatosalpingeus but it has not always an anatomic cause. A 36-year-old woman was seen for a constant posterior palatal pain spreading towards oropharynx, increasing during swallowing and lasting for more than 6 months. Physical examination showed an erythema of the soft palate, medially to the hamulus. Hamulus palpation was painful and revealed hamulus hypertrophia on both sides. A bilateral PHS was evocated. This observation is typical of a PHS. We propose a review of the literature of this little-known syndrome. Treatment is initially conservative (corticosteroids) but surgery can be proposed in case of morphological anomalies of the hamulus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Neuroleptic-induced "painful legs and moving toes" syndrome: successful treatment with clonazepam and baclofen.

    PubMed

    Sandyk, R

    1990-12-01

    The syndrome of "painful legs and moving toes" is characterised by spontaneous causalgic pain in the lower extremities associated with peculiar involuntary movements of the toes and feet. It has been observed after a variety of lesions affecting the posterior nerve roots, the spinal ganglia and the peripheral nerves. The pathophysiology of the syndrome is unknown. I report a patient who developed the syndrome during treatment for schizophrenia with the antipsychotic agent molindone hydrochloride. The patient's response to the combination of clonazepam and baclofen suggests that the pathophysiology of the "painful legs and moving toes" may be linked to impairment of spinal serotonergic and GABA functions.

  14. Post-traumatic complex regional pain syndrome: clinical features and epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Ratti, Chiara; Nordio, Andrea; Resmini, Giuseppina; Murena, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Summary Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition that occurs after a tissue injury (fractures, sprain, surgery) of the upper or lower extremities. A clear pathophysiological mechanism has not been established yet and different patterns are considered to play a role in the genesis of the disease. The diagnosis is made by different diagnosis criteria and a gold standard has not been established yet. Incidence of CRPS is unclear and large prospective studies on the incidence and prevalence of CRPS are scarce. The aim of this review is to give an overview on the prevalent data regarding this chronic syndrome. PMID:27134626

  15. [The treatment of the phantom pain syndrome with tizanidine].

    PubMed

    Vorobeĭchik, Ia M; Kukushkin, M L; Reshetniak, V K; Ovechkin, A M; Gnezdilov, A V

    1997-01-01

    The authors carried out estimation of analgetic effect of tisanidin by double blind test in patients with phantom limb pain syndrome. 14 patients took the medicine in a dose of 12 mg/day and 5 patients took placebo at the same dose. Characteristics and intensity of pain were estimated in accordance with McGill pain questionnaire and visual analogue scale. Pain possessed more than one sensory characteristics in the majority of patients. Tisanidin had a significant analgetic influence on all type of phantom limb pain: "neuralgic"--acute, shooting, transitory, "causalgic"--hot, burning, searing, "cramping" pain. Pain sensation did not decrease only in one of 14 patients treated with tisanidin. The authors explain the effectivity of the drug for treatment of phantom limb pain of different sensory modality by variety of the mechanisms of its therapeutic action, the capacity to decrease the releasing of excitatory neurotransmitter amino acids and the influence on alpha 2-adrenoceptors.

  16. Bilateral widespread mechanical pain sensitivity in carpal tunnel syndrome: evidence of central processing in unilateral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; de la Llave-Rincón, Ana Isabel; Fernández-Carnero, Josué; Cuadrado, María Luz; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Pareja, Juan A

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether bilateral widespread pressure hypersensitivity exists in patients with unilateral carpal tunnel syndrome. A total of 20 females with carpal tunnel syndrome (aged 22-60 years), and 20 healthy matched females (aged 21-60 years old) were recruited. Pressure pain thresholds were assessed bilaterally over median, ulnar, and radial nerve trunks, the C5-C6 zygapophyseal joint, the carpal tunnel and the tibialis anterior muscle in a blinded design. The results showed that pressure pain threshold levels were significantly decreased bilaterally over the median, ulnar, and radial nerve trunks, the carpal tunnel, the C5-C6 zygapophyseal joint, and the tibialis anterior muscle in patients with unilateral carpal tunnel syndrome as compared to healthy controls (all, P < 0.001). Pressure pain threshold was negatively correlated to both hand pain intensity and duration of symptoms (all, P < 0.001). Our findings revealed bilateral widespread pressure hypersensitivity in subjects with carpal tunnel syndrome, which suggest that widespread central sensitization is involved in patients with unilateral carpal tunnel syndrome. The generalized decrease in pressure pain thresholds associated with pain intensity and duration of symptoms supports a role of the peripheral drive to initiate and maintain central sensitization. Nevertheless, both central and peripheral sensitization mechanisms are probably involved at the same time in carpal tunnel syndrome.

  17. Electroencephalographic evoked pain response is suppressed by spinal cord stimulation in complex regional pain syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hylands-White, Nicholas; Duarte, Rui V; Beeson, Paul; Mayhew, Stephen D; Raphael, Jon H

    2016-12-01

    Pain is a subjective response that limits assessment. The purpose of this case report was to explore how the objectivity of the electroencephalographic response to thermal stimuli would be affected by concurrent spinal cord stimulation. A patient had been implanted with a spinal cord stimulator for the management of complex regional pain syndrome of both hands for 8 years. Following ethical approval and written informed consent we induced thermal stimuli using the Medoc PATHWAY Pain & Sensory Evaluation System on the right hand of the patient with the spinal cord stimulator switched off and with the spinal cord stimulator switched on. The patient reported a clinically significant reduction in thermal induced pain using the numerical rating scale (71.4 % reduction) with spinal cord stimulator switched on. Analysis of electroencephalogram recordings indicated the occurrence of contact heat evoked potentials (N2-P2) with spinal cord stimulator off, but not with spinal cord stimulator on. This case report suggests that thermal pain can be reduced in complex regional pain syndrome patients with the use of spinal cord stimulation and offers objective validation of the reported outcomes with this treatment.

  18. [Differential diagnosis of polyarthritis pain syndrome of the locomotor apparatus].

    PubMed

    Menninger, H

    1998-02-28

    Widespread pain syndromes of the musculoskeletal system present to general practitioners, internists, neurologists and orthopedic surgeons every day. The syndromes may result both from organic diseases (inflammatory joint diseases, rheumatic manifestations of organ diseases) as well as dysfunctional syndromes, the latter including mainly biomechanically induced syndromes and fibromyalgia. The approach is predominantly clinically oriented and requires laboratory means or technical procedures only in a limited extend. The duration of history, the recognition of synovitis and of myofascial trigger points or of integumental tender points allow in most patients to achieve appropriate diagnostic criteria.

  19. Bertolotti's syndrome. A cause of back pain in young people.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, J F; Duke, D; Eustace, S

    2006-09-01

    Bertolotti's syndrome is characterised by anomalous enlargement of the transverse process(es) of the most caudal lumbar vertebra which may articulate or fuse with the sacrum or ilium and cause isolated L4/5 disc disease. We analysed the elective MR scans of the lumbosacral spine of 769 consecutive patients with low back pain taken between July 2003 and November 2004. Of these 568 showed disc degeneration. Bertolotti's syndrome was present in 35 patients with a mean age of 32.7 years (15 to 60). This was a younger age than that of patients with multiple disc degeneration, single-level disease and isolated disc degeneration at the L4/5 level (p syndrome in our study was 4.6% (35 of 769). It was present in 11.4% (20 patients) of the under-30 age group. Our findings suggest that Bertolotti's syndrome must form part of a list of differential diagnoses in the investigation of low back pain in young people.

  20. Update on the efficacy of extracorporeal shockwave treatment for myofascial pain syndrome and fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Ramon, Silvia; Gleitz, Markus; Hernandez, Leonor; Romero, Luis David

    2015-12-01

    Chronic muscle pain syndrome is one of the main causes of musculoskeletal pathologies requiring treatment. Many terms have been used in the past to describe painful muscular syndromes in the absence of evident local nociception such as myogelosis, muscle hardening, myalgia, muscular rheumatism, fibrositis or myofascial trigger point with or without referred pain. If it persists over six months or more, it often becomes therapy resistant and frequently results in chronic generalized pain, characterized by a high degree of subjective suffering. Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is defined as a series of sensory, motor, and autonomic symptoms caused by a stiffness of the muscle, caused by hyperirritable nodules in musculoskeletal fibers, known as myofascial trigger points (MTP), and fascial constrictions. Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic condition that involves both central and peripheral sensitization and for which no curative treatment is available at the present time. Fibromyalgia shares some of the features of MPS, such as hyperirritability. Many treatments options have been described for muscle pain syndrome, with differing evidence of efficacy. Extracorporeal Shockwave Treatment (ESWT) offers a new and promising treatment for muscular disorders. We will review the existing bibliography on the evidence of the efficacy of ESWT for MPS, paying particular attention to MTP (Myofascial Trigger Point) and Fibromyalgia (FM). Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bladder pain in an LL-37 interstitial cystitis and painful bladder syndrome model.

    PubMed

    Jia, Wanjian; Schults, Austin J; Jensen, Mark Martin; Ye, Xiangyang; Alt, Jeremiah A; Prestwich, Glenn D; Oottamasathien, Siam

    2017-01-01

    Our goal was to evaluate the pain response in an LL-37 induced murine model for interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS). In particular, we sought to characterize the dose dependence, time-course, and relationship of LL-37 induced bladder inflammation and pain. The IC/PBS model was induced in C57Bl/6 mice by instilling 50 μL of LL-37, an immunomodulatory human cathelicidin (anti-microbial peptide), in the bladder for 1 hr. Pain responses were measured using von Frey filaments (0.04 gm to 4.0 gm) before and after LL-37 instillation. Inflammation was evaluated using tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay, gross inspection, and microscopic histologic examination. The dose response experiment demonstrated a graded pain response, with higher concentrations of LL-37 challenge yielding higher pain responses across all stimuli tested. Statistical significance was seen when comparing 1.0 gm von Frey filament results at 320 μM (68 ± 8% response) vs. 0 μM (38 ± 6% response). Interestingly, pain responses did not attenuate across time but increased significantly after 5 (p=0.0012) and 7 days (p=0.0096). Comparison with MPO data suggested that pain responses could be independent of inflammation. We demonstrated within our LL-37 induced IC/PBS model pain occurs in a dose-dependent fashion, pain responses persist beyond the initial point of insult, and our dose response and time course experiments demonstrated that pain was independent of inflammation.

  2. Impact of pregabalin on the occurrence of postthoracotomy pain syndrome: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Brulotte, Véronique; Ruel, Monique M; Lafontaine, Edwin; Chouinard, Philippe; Girard, François

    2015-01-01

    Postthoracotomy pain syndrome (PTPS) is a frequent cause of chronic postoperative pain. Pregabalin might reduce the incidence of chronic postoperative pain. The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of perioperative pregabalin on the occurrence of PTPS, defined as any surgical site pain 3 months after surgery. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial in patients undergoing elective thoracotomy. Patients received either pregabalin 150 mg orally twice a day initiated 1 hour before thoracotomy and continued until 4 days after thoracotomy (10 doses total) or a placebo using the same protocol. All patients received preincision thoracic epidural analgesia. Postthoracotomy pain syndrome was evaluated using the Brief Pain Inventory questionnaire through a telephone interview. Secondary outcomes included evaluation of neuropathic characteristics through the Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs questionnaire, analgesic use 3 months after surgery, and evaluation of acute postoperative pain and opioid consumption. One hundred fourteen patients were randomized, and 99 patients completed the study (placebo, n = 49; pregabalin, n = 50). Postthoracotomy pain syndrome occurred in 49 (49.5%) of 99 patients and more frequently in the pregabalin group (31/50 [62%] vs 18/49 [37%] in the placebo group, P = 0.01). However, among patients with PTPS, those in the pregabalin group required significantly less analgesics, reported less moderate to severe average pain, and presented significantly less neuropathic characteristics than patients in the placebo group 3 months after surgery. Pregabalin did not reduce the incidence of PTPS in this study. Future research on PTPS should focus on the impact of regional analgesia on central sensitization.

  3. [A commonly seen cause of abdominal pain: abdominal cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome].

    PubMed

    Solmaz, Ilker; Talay, Mustafa; Tekindur, Şükrü; Kurt, Ercan

    2012-01-01

    Although abdominal cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES) is accepted as a rare condition, it is a syndrome that should be diagnosed more commonly when the clinical signs cannot explain the cause of abdominal pain. Abdominal pain is commonly considered by physicians to be based on intra-abdominal causes. Consequently, redundant tests and consultations are requested for these patients, and unnecessary surgical procedures may be applied. Patients with this type of pain are consulted to many clinics, and because their definitive diagnoses cannot be achieved, they are assessed as psychiatric patients. Actually, a common cause of abdominal wall pain is nerve entrapment on the lateral edge of the rectus abdominis muscle. In this paper, we would like to share information about the diagnosis and treatment of a patient who, prior to presenting to us, had applied to different clinics for chronic abdominal pain and had undergone many tests and consultations; abdominal surgery was eventually decided.

  4. Quantitative sensory studies in complex regional pain syndrome type 1/RSD.

    PubMed

    Tahmoush, A J; Schwartzman, R J; Hopp, J L; Grothusen, J R

    2000-12-01

    Patients with complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPSD1) may have thermal allodynia after application of a non-noxious thermal stimulus to the affected limb. We measured the warm, cold, heat-evoked pain threshold and the cold-evoked pain threshold in the affected area of 16 control patients and patients with complex regional pain syndrome type 1/RSD to test the hypothesis that allodynia results from an abnormality in sensory physiology. A contact thermode was used to apply a constant 1 degrees C/second increasing (warm and heat-evoked pain) or decreasing (cold and cold-evoked pain) thermal stimulus until the patient pressed the response button to show that a temperature change was felt by the patient. Student t test was used to compare thresholds in patients and control patients. The cold-evoked pain threshold in patients with CRPSD1/RSD (p <0.001) was significantly decreased when compared with the thresholds in control patients (i.e., a smaller decrease in temperature was necessary to elicit cold-pain in patients with CRPSD1/RSD than in control patients). The heat-evoked pain threshold in patients with CRPS1/RSD was (p <0.05) decreased significantly when compared with thresholds in control patients. The warm- and cold-detection thresholds in patients with CRPS1/RSD were similar to the thresholds in control patients. This study suggests that thermal allodynia in patients with CRPS1/RSD results from decreased cold-evoked and heat-evoked pain thresholds. The thermal pain thresholds are reset (decreased) so that non-noxious thermal stimuli are perceived to be pain (allodynia).

  5. Pain Management of Malignant Psoas Syndrome Under Epidural Analgesia During Palliative Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ota, Takayo; Makihara, Masaru; Tsukuda, Hiroshi; Kajikawa, Ryuji; Inamori, Masayuki; Miyatake, Nozomi; Tanaka, Noriko; Tokunaga, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Yoshikazu; Tada, Takuhito; Fukuoka, Masahiro

    2017-06-01

    Malignant psoas syndrome is a rare malignant condition presenting as lumbosacral plexopathy and painful fixed flexion of the hip. Metastasis to the psoas muscle is observed, which damages the nerve bundles in the lumbosacral plexuses. The syndrome presents as refractory lower back pain with several other neurological symptoms. The pain is difficult to control because it is a mixture of nociceptive and neuropathic pain, which indicates that treatment requires a versatile approach. The authors report a case of severe back pain caused by metastasis to the psoas muscle of advanced gastric cancer in a patient who underwent palliative radiotherapy under epidural analgesia. Despite conventional analgesics and subcutaneous oxycodone, he had difficulties in maintaining supine position because of the back pain and had a problem to receive radiotherapy, which required him to stay still in the same position during the treatment. By epidural analgesia, he could remain in supine position and complete radiotherapy without increasing opioid administration. His back pain was improved after the radiotherapy. Epidural analgesia is an effective treatment choice for a patient who is unable to keep the position during palliative radiotherapy.

  6. Subcostal closure technique for prevention of postthoracotomy pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hong, Kipyo; Bae, Mikyung; Han, Sora

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of our subcostal closure technique in prevention of postthoracotomy pain syndrome. From July 2012 to March 2015, 29 patients in whom a lobectomy was indicated underwent a thoracotomy. The thoracotomy wounds were closed using a subcostal closure technique (subcostal closure group) and outcomes were compared with 31 patients who underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (thoracoscopy group). The duration of oral opioid consumption was evaluated from medical records, and postoperative pain was evaluated by telephone interview conducted by a trained nurse practitioner who was unaware of the patient's group. Pain scores were higher in the thoracoscopy group compared to the subcostal closure group, reaching statistical significance (Numeric Rating Scale 0.55 ± 0.948 in the subcostal closure group vs. 1.84 ± 1.614 in the thoracoscopy group; p < 0.001, Clinical Pain Scale 0.24 ± 0.435 in the subcostal closure group vs. 0.81 ± 0.703 in the thoracoscopy group; p < 0.001). The number of patients who consumed oral opioids for longer than 2 months after the operation was significantly greater in the thoracoscopy group than the subcostal closure group (6.9% in the subcostal closure group vs. 32.3% in the thoracoscopy group; p = 0.022). The subcostal closure technique is useful to prevent postthoracotomy pain syndrome. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. The Rare Painful Phenomena - Chronic Paroxysmal Hemicrania-tic Syndrome as a Clinically Isolated Syndrome of the Central Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Ljubisavljevic, Srdjan; Prazic, Ana; Lazarevic, Miodrag; Stojanov, Dragan; Savic, Dejan; Vojinovic, Slobadan

    2017-02-01

    The association of paroxysmal hemicrania with trigeminal neuralgia (TN) has been described and called paroxysmal hemicrania-tic syndrome (PH-tic). We report the case of a patient diagnosed as having chronic PH-tic (CPH-tic) syndrome as a clinically isolated syndrome of the central nervous system (CNS) (CIS).A forty year old woman was admitted to our hospital suffering from right facial pain for the last 2 years. The attacks were paroxysmal, neuralgiform, consisting of throb-like sensations, which developed spontaneously or were triggered by different stimuli in right facial (maxilar and mandibular) areas. Parallel with those, she felt a throbbing orbital and frontal pain with homolateral autonomic symptoms such as conjunctival injection, lacrimation, and the feeling that the ear on the same side was full. This pain lasted most often between 15 and 20 minutes. Beyond hemifacial hypoesthesia in the region of right maxilar and mandibular nerve, the other neurological finding was normal. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study showed a T2-weighted multiple hyperintense paraventricular lesion and hyperintense lesion in the right trigeminal main sensory nucleus and root inlet, all of them being hypointense on T1-weighted image. All of these lesions were hypointense in gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images. Neurophysiological studies of trigeminal nerve (somatosensory evoked potentials and blink reflex) correlated with MRI described lesions. The patient's pain bouts were improved immediately after treatment with indomethacin, and were completely relieved with lamotrigine for a longer period. According to the actual McDonald's criteria, clinical state was defined as CIS which was clinically presented by CPH-tic syndrome.Even though it is a clinical rarity and its etiology is usually idiopathic, CPH-tic syndrome can also be symptomatic. When dealing with symptomatic cases, like the one described here, when causal therapy is not possible due to the nature of the primary

  8. Genome-Wide Expression Profiling of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Eun-Heui; Zhang, Enji; Ko, Youngkwon; Sim, Woo Seog; Moon, Dong Eon; Yoon, Keon Jung; Hong, Jang Hee; Lee, Won Hyung

    2013-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic, progressive, and devastating pain syndrome characterized by spontaneous pain, hyperalgesia, allodynia, altered skin temperature, and motor dysfunction. Although previous gene expression profiling studies have been conducted in animal pain models, there genome-wide expression profiling in the whole blood of CRPS patients has not been reported yet. Here, we successfully identified certain pain-related genes through genome-wide expression profiling in the blood from CRPS patients. We found that 80 genes were differentially expressed between 4 CRPS patients (2 CRPS I and 2 CRPS II) and 5 controls (cut-off value: 1.5-fold change and p<0.05). Most of those genes were associated with signal transduction, developmental processes, cell structure and motility, and immunity and defense. The expression levels of major histocompatibility complex class I A subtype (HLA-A29.1), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), alanine aminopeptidase N (ANPEP), l-histidine decarboxylase (HDC), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor 3 receptor (G-CSF3R), and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) genes selected from the microarray were confirmed in 24 CRPS patients and 18 controls by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). We focused on the MMP9 gene that, by qRT-PCR, showed a statistically significant difference in expression in CRPS patients compared to controls with the highest relative fold change (4.0±1.23 times and p = 1.4×10−4). The up-regulation of MMP9 gene in the blood may be related to the pain progression in CRPS patients. Our findings, which offer a valuable contribution to the understanding of the differential gene expression in CRPS may help in the understanding of the pathophysiology of CRPS pain progression. PMID:24244504

  9. Nociceptive transmission and modulation via P2X receptors in central pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Yung-Hui; Shyu, Bai-Chuang

    2016-05-26

    Painful sensations are some of the most frequent complaints of patients who are admitted to local medical clinics. Persistent pain varies according to its causes, often resulting from local tissue damage or inflammation. Central somatosensory pathway lesions that are not adequately relieved can consequently cause central pain syndrome or central neuropathic pain. Research on the molecular mechanisms that underlie this pathogenesis is important for treating such pain. To date, evidence suggests the involvement of ion channels, including adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-gated cation channel P2X receptors, in central nervous system pain transmission and persistent modulation upon and following the occurrence of neuropathic pain. Several P2X receptor subtypes, including P2X2, P2X3, P2X4, and P2X7, have been shown to play diverse roles in the pathogenesis of central pain including the mediation of fast transmission in the peripheral nervous system and modulation of neuronal activity in the central nervous system. This review article highlights the role of the P2X family of ATP receptors in the pathogenesis of central neuropathic pain and pain transmission. We discuss basic research that may be translated to clinical application, suggesting that P2X receptors may be treatment targets for central pain syndrome.

  10. Burning Eye Syndrome: Do Neuropathic Pain Mechanisms Underlie Chronic Dry Eye?

    PubMed

    Kalangara, Jerry P; Galor, Anat; Levitt, Roy C; Felix, Elizabeth R; Alegret, Ramon; Sarantopoulos, Constantine D

    2016-04-01

    Dry eye is a multi-factorial disorder that manifests with painful ocular symptoms and visual disturbances, which can only be partly attributed to tear dysfunction. This disorder may also involve neuroplasticity in response to neuronal injury. This review will emphasize the key characteristics of dry eye pain and its pathologic mechanisms, making the argument that a subset of dry eye represents a neuropathic pain disorder of the eye, more appropriately called "burning eye syndrome." A literature review was conducted using a PubMed search focusing on dry eye, corneal nociception, and neuropathic pain. Articles were reviewed and those discussing clinical course, pathophysiology, and neuronal regulation of chronic ocular pain as related to dry eye were summarized. We found that there is a discordance between ocular pain and dryness on the ocular surface. Although tear dysfunction may be one of the initial insults, its persistence may be associated with repeated ocular sensory nerve injury leading to an acute-to-chronic pain transition associated with neuropathologic changes (peripheral and central sensitization), neuronal dysfunction, and spontaneous ocular pain. Dry eye is becoming a major health concern due to its increasing incidence, significant morbidity, and economic burden. Recent evidence suggests that a subset of dry eye may be better represented as a chronic neuropathic pain disorder due to its features of dysesthesia, spontaneous pain, allodynia, and hyperalgesia. Future therapies targeted at the underlying neuroplasticity may yield improved efficacy for patients with this subset of dry eye, which we term "burning eye syndrome." © 2015 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Rectal sensory threshold for pain is a diagnostic marker of irritable bowel syndrome and functional abdominal pain in children.

    PubMed

    Halac, Ugur; Noble, Angela; Faure, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of the rectal sensory threshold for pain (RSTP) in children and adolescents with chronic abdominal pain. Fifty-one patients (25 girls; median age 14.2 years; range 8.4-17.6) with abdominal pain >2 months underwent a series of rectal distensions with an electronic barostat. RSTP and viscerosomatic referrals were assessed. Three months after the barostat, the final diagnosis was documented. Thirty-five patients had a functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID) (irritable bowel syndrome or functional abdominal pain), and 16 had an organic disease. RSTP was lower in the FGID group than in the organic disease group (25.4mm Hg vs 37.1mm Hg; P = .0002). At the cutoff of 30mm Hg, the RSTP measurement for the diagnosis of FGID had a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 77%. Both groups similarly reported aberrant viscerosomatic projections. In children, RSTP is a diagnostic marker of irritable bowel syndrome and functional abdominal pain. Viscerosomatic referrals are similar in children with FGID and organic diseases.

  12. Evaluation of embolization for periuterine varices involving chronic pelvic pain secondary to pelvic congestion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Flavio Meirelles; Monsignore, Lucas Moretti; Rosa-E-Silva, Julio Cesar; Poli-Neto, Omero Benedicto; Castro-Afonso, Luis Henrique de; Nakiri, Guilherme Seizem; Muglia, Valdair Francisco; Abud, Daniel Giansante

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the clinical response and success rate after periuterine varices embolization in patients with chronic pelvic pain secondary to pelvic congestion syndrome and to report the safety of endovascular treatment and its rate of complications. Retrospective cohort of patients undergoing endovascular treatment of pelvic congestion syndrome in our department from January 2012 to November 2015. Data were analyzed based on patient background, imaging findings, embolized veins, rate of complications, and clinical response as indicated by the visual analog pain scale. We performed periuterine varices embolization in 22 patients during the study, four of which required a second embolization. Seventeen patients reported a reduction in pelvic pain after the first embolization and three patients reported a reduction in pelvic pain after the second embolization. Minor complications were observed in our patients, such as postural hypotension, postoperative pain, and venous perforation during the procedure, without clinical repercussion. Periuterine varices embolization in patients with chronic pelvic pain secondary to pelvic congestion syndrome appears to be an effective and safe technique.

  13. Minimally Invasive Microendoscopic Resection of the Transverse Process for Treatment of Low Back Pain with Bertolotti's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Toshinori; Higashino, Kosaku; Goda, Yuichiro; Mineta, Kazuaki; Sairyo, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Bertolotti's syndrome is characterized by anomalous enlargement of the transverse process of the most caudal lumbar segment, causing chronic and persistent low back pain or sciatica. We describe the case of a 45-year-old woman who presented with left sciatic pain and low back pain due to a recurrent lumbar disc herniation at L4-5 with Bertolotti's syndrome. Selective L5 nerve root block and local injection of lidocaine into the articulation between the transverse process and sacral ala temporarily relieved the left sciatic pain and low back pain, respectively. To confirm the effect of local injection on low back pain, we gave a second local injection, which once again relieved the low back pain. Microendoscopic resection of the pseudoarticulation region and discectomy successfully relieved all symptoms. This report illustrates the effectiveness of minimally invasive resection of the transverse process for the treatment of low back pain with Bertolotti's syndrome. PMID:25045566

  14. Minimally Invasive Microendoscopic Resection of the Transverse Process for Treatment of Low Back Pain with Bertolotti's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Takata, Yoichiro; Sakai, Toshinori; Higashino, Kosaku; Goda, Yuichiro; Mineta, Kazuaki; Sugiura, Kosuke; Sairyo, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Bertolotti's syndrome is characterized by anomalous enlargement of the transverse process of the most caudal lumbar segment, causing chronic and persistent low back pain or sciatica. We describe the case of a 45-year-old woman who presented with left sciatic pain and low back pain due to a recurrent lumbar disc herniation at L4-5 with Bertolotti's syndrome. Selective L5 nerve root block and local injection of lidocaine into the articulation between the transverse process and sacral ala temporarily relieved the left sciatic pain and low back pain, respectively. To confirm the effect of local injection on low back pain, we gave a second local injection, which once again relieved the low back pain. Microendoscopic resection of the pseudoarticulation region and discectomy successfully relieved all symptoms. This report illustrates the effectiveness of minimally invasive resection of the transverse process for the treatment of low back pain with Bertolotti's syndrome.

  15. Comorbidity of fibromyalgia and cervical myofascial pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cakit, Burcu Duyur; Taskin, Suhan; Nacir, Baris; Unlu, Irem; Genc, Hakan; Erdem, Hatice Rana

    2010-04-01

    The aims of this study are to determine the frequency of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) in patients with chronic cervical myofascial pain (CMP) and to investigate the FMS characteristics in CMP patients. Ninty-three patients with CMP and 30 age-matched healthy women were included in this study. Main outcome measures included visual analog scale (VAS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and pain pressure thresholds. CMP patients were evaluated for the existence of FMS. The severity of FMS was assessed with total myalgic score (TMS) and control point score (CPS). Most common clinical characteristics of FMS were noted. Of the 93 CMP subjects, 22 (23.6%) patients fulfilled the classification criteria for FMS. Number of tender points were higher (p=0.0), while TMS (p=0.0) and CPS (p=0.0) values were lower in comorbid CMP and FMS patients than regional CMP group. There were statistically significant differences between regional CMP patients and comorbid CMP and FMS patients regarding presence of fatigue (p=0.0) and irritable bowel syndrome (p=0.022). There was no statistically significant difference between patient groups regarding VAS values (p>0.05). BDI values of the regional CMP were significantly lower than comorbid CMP and FMS patients (p=0.011). In conclusion, we found that nearly a quarter of CMP patients were comorbid with FMS, and psychological and comorbid symptoms were more prominent in comorbid patients. We thought that, these two syndromes might be overlapping conditions and as a peripheral pain generator or inducer of central sensitisation, MPS might lead to FMS or precipitate and worsen the FMS symptoms.

  16. The Incidence and Severity of Physical Pain Symptoms in Marfan Syndrome: A Survey of 993 Patients.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Ariana M; Walega, David R; McCarthy, Robert J

    2015-12-01

    To characterize the incidence, severity, quality, and treatment of pain in a large cohort of Marfan patients. A web-based survey was distributed to all individuals on the Marfan Foundation listserv. Respondents who endorsed a diagnosis of Marfan syndrome were queried as to the presence, frequency, severity, location, and quality of their pain and were asked to describe the specific treatments used to manage pain. The primary outcome was the presence of pain symptoms in respondents during the 7-day period preceding completion of the survey. Of the 993 patients with a verified diagnosis of Marfan syndrome, 67% (95% confidence interval, 64%-69%) reported pain in the preceding 7 days. Median (interquartile range) "average daily pain" was 4 (3 to 5) on the numeric rating scale; "worst pain" was 7 (5 to 8). "Worst pain experienced" was ≥4 in 93% of respondents. Analgesic use to control pain related to Marfan syndrome was reported in 56% of respondents with 55% reporting <50% pain relief with this modality. Few patients underwent interventional procedures for pain control, despite intractable back and joint pain being common. A majority (52%) of respondents rated "chronic pain care" from their physicians as either "poor" or "fair." Our findings suggest that pain symptoms in Marfan patients are underestimated and likely undertreated. We propose a need for improved patient and medical provider awareness of pain management options in this population, including the development of effective algorithms to treat pain in Marfan patients.

  17. Urological symptoms in a subset of patients with urological chronic pelvic pain syndrome and a polysymptomatic, polysyndromic pattern of presentation.

    PubMed

    Lai, H Henry; North, Carol S; Andriole, Gerald L; Cupps, Lori; Song, David; Ness, Timothy J; Hong, Barry A

    2014-06-01

    We characterized urological symptoms in a subset of patients with urological chronic pelvic pain syndrome who have a high somatic symptom burden and a wide symptom distribution fitting a polysymptomatic, polysyndromic presentation pattern. A total of 81 patients with urological chronic pelvic pain syndrome enrolled in the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases MAPP Research Network Study at Washington University in St. Louis and University of Alabama at Birmingham sites. They completed a symptom questionnaire to assess the somatic symptom burden and its distribution, and GUPI (Genitourinary Pain Index) to assess urological chronic pelvic pain syndrome symptoms, impact on quality of life and self-reported treatment seeking behaviors for urological chronic pelvic pain symptoms. The polysymptomatic, polysyndromic symptom pattern was defined by self-report of numerous painful and nonpainful somatic symptoms across many organ systems and by symptom categories on the polysymptomatic, polysyndromic questionnaire. Patients with urological chronic pelvic pain syndrome and the symptom pattern reported more severe genitourinary pain on a Likert scale, more frequent pain in the last week and more widespread pain distribution in the genital and pelvic areas than patients with urological chronic pelvic pain syndrome without the pattern. Patients with the symptom pattern also had significantly higher scores on the GUPI pain subscale, quality of life subscale (worse) and total questionnaire scores than patients without the pattern. Patients with the pattern reported significantly more treatment seeking behavior than others. The polysymptomatic, polysyndromic pattern might be an important phenotypic factor to assess in the evaluation of urological chronic pelvic pain syndrome with clinical and research implications. This may be a distinct clinical subgroup among patients with urological chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Copyright © 2014 American Urological

  18. Painful legs and moving toes syndrome: a 76-patient case series.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Anhar; Mateen, Farrah J; Coon, Elizabeth A; Ahlskog, J Eric

    2012-08-01

    To better characterize the clinical features, electrophysiologic features, and treatment outcomes of painful legs and moving toes (PLMT) syndrome. Large case series. Neurology outpatient clinic at a tertiary referral center, 1983-2011. All cases of PLMT seen at our institution during an 18-year period were identified using our medical record linkage system. Key demographic, clinical, imaging, and electrophysiologic features of PLMT. Treatment outcomes and long-term follow-up are also reported. Of 76 cases identified (including 50 women [66%]), the mean age at onset was 58 years (range, 24-86 years) and at neurologic evaluation was 63 years (range, 26-88 years). Pure lower limb involvement was most common (69 patients [91%]), and 44 cases (58%) were bilateral. The most frequently diagnosed causes were peripheral neuropathy (21 cases [28%]), previous trauma (8 [11%]), and radiculopathy (7 [9%]); 32 cases (42%) were cryptogenic. Electromyography consistently showed irregular 50-millisecond to 1-second bursts of normal motor unit potential firing at 2 to 200 Hz accompanying the movements. Pain occurred first in nearly all cases and was more distressing to patients than the movements. Both components were difficult to treat, with no consistent benefit from a variety of drugs and therapeutic modalities. The syndrome persisted in most patients (83%) during the mean follow-up of 4.6 years, suggesting low likelihood of spontaneous resolution. Painful legs and moving toes syndrome is a debilitating clinical syndrome, not because of the movements but rather because of the pain, which often is refractory to treatment. Segmental lower limb involvement is most common, and neurophysiologic findings support a pathophysiologic process localizing to a central generator at the spinal cord or brainstem level.

  19. [The prevalence of low back pain in hospital staff and its relationship with chronic fatigue syndrome and occupational factors].

    PubMed

    Terzi, Rabia; Altın, Firuzan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of low back pain in hospital employees during the previous year and its correlation with demographic data, occupational factors and chronic fatigue syndrome. All participants provided information on their socio-demographic background, occupational characteristics, their experience of low back pain during the previous year, and chronic fatigue syndrome. The study included 365 volunteers (221 male and 144 female). The mean age was 33.1 ± 7.2. Of the 365 participants, 218 (59.7%) had experienced low back pain in the last year. No statistically significant difference was detected in age, height, weight, level of education, smoking habits, occupation, professional working hours, shift work or levels of income between the groups with and without low back pain. Low back pain was more frequent (p<0.05) in male workers. Chronic fatigue syndrome was statistically significant in the group suffering from low back pain (p<0.05), of whom 21.5% had chronic fatigue syndrome. We detected a statistically significant relationship (p<0.05) between chronic fatigue syndrome, occupational duration and shift work. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first to show the relationship between low back pain and chronic fatigue syndrome in hospital employees. Shift work and length of time in occupation are risk factors for chronic fatigue syndrome.

  20. Immune mediators of chronic pelvic pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Stephen F.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Thumbikat, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    The cause of chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) has yet to be established. Since the late 1980s, cytokine, chemokine, and immunological classification studies using human samples have focused on identifying biomarkers for CPPS, but no diagnostically beneficial biomarkers have been identified, and these studies have done little to deepen our understanding of the mechanisms underlying chronic prostatic pain. Given the large number of men thought to be affected by this condition and the ineffective nature of current treatments, there is a pressing need to elucidate these mechanisms. Prostatitis types IIIa and IIIb are classified according to the presence of pain without concurrent presence of bacteria; however, it is becoming more evident that, although levels of bacteria are not directly associated with levels of pain, the presence of bacteria might act as the initiating factor that drives primary activation of mast-cell-mediated inflammation in the prostate. Mast cell activation is also known to suppress regulatory T cell (Treg) control of self-tolerance and also activate neural sensitization. This combination of established autoimmunity coupled with peripheral and central neural sensitization can result in the development of multiple symptoms, including pelvic pain and bladder irritation. Identifying these mechanisms as central mediators in CPPS offers new insight into the prospective treatment of the disease. PMID:24686526

  1. Evaluation of electromagnetic fields in the treatment of pain in patients with lumbar radiculopathy or the whiplash syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thuile, Ch; Walzl, M

    2002-01-01

    Back pain and the whiplash syndrome are very common diseases involving tremendous costs and extensive medical effort. A quick and effective reduction of symptoms, especially pain, is required. In two prospective randomized studies, patients with either lumbar radiculopathy in the segments L5/S1 or the whiplash syndrome were investigated. Inclusion criteria were as follows: either clinically verified painful lumbar radiculopathy in the segments L5/S1 and a Laségue's sign of 30 degrees (or more), or typical signs of the whiplash syndrome such as painful restriction of rotation and flexion/extension. Exclusion criteria were prolapsed intervertebral discs, systemic neurological diseases, epilepsy, and pregnancy. A total of 100 patients with lumbar radiculopathy and 92 with the whiplash syndrome were selected and entered in the study following a 1:1 ratio. Both groups (magnetic field treatment and controls) received standard medication consisting of diclofenac and tizanidine, while the magnetic field was only applied in group 1, twice a day, for a period of two weeks. In patients suffering from radiculopathy, the average time until pain relief and painless walking was 8.2 +/- 0.5 days in the magnetic field group, and 11.7 +/- 0.5 days in controls p < 0.04). In patients with the whiplash syndrome, pain was measured on a ten-point scale. Pain in the head was on average 4.6 before and 2.1 after treatment in those receiving magnetic field treatment, and 4.2/3.5 in controls. Neck pain was on average 6.3/1.9 as opposed to 5.3/4.6, and pain in the shoulder/arm was 2.4/0.8 as opposed to 2.8/2.2 (p < 0.03 for all regions). Hence, magnetic fields appear to have a considerable and statistically significant potential for reducing pain in cases of lumbar radiculopathy and the whiplash syndrome.

  2. Endoscopic thoracic sympathicotomy for the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bosco Vieira Duarte, João; Kux, Peter; Duarte, Denise França Magalhães

    2003-12-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a neurological syndrome that usually affects one or more extremities, and can cause chronic pain and permanent deformities. This study aimed to analyze the efficacy of endoscopic thoracic sympathicotomy (ETS) in the treatment of pain in patients with CRPS stage II and III operated on in our clinic. Seven patients (four males and three females; mean age 34.7 years; American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1 and 3; post-operative follow-up from 5 to 49, mean 33.6 months), with diagnoses of CRPS type I and II, stages II and III, were operated on as outpatients. The sympathetic chain was severed over the ribs from T2 to T5, along with the communicating rami of these segments, including the Kuntz nerve. The ETS was performed bilaterally in four patients. Pain was assessed using a visual analogic scale (VAS) from 0 to 10. Pain disappeared in all patients operated on during rest (VAS = 0). Four patients reported pain during repeated movement of the affected limb, the intensity being lower than before surgery (mean VAS = 2.62 vs 8.46). Analgesics were no longer needed after surgery. All patients had their quality of life improved. According to the present investigation, ETS, as described, was efficient for the relief of pain and improvement of the quality of life in patients with CRPS stage II and III.

  3. Foot orthoses and physiotherapy in the treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome: A randomised clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Vicenzino, Bill; Collins, Natalie; Crossley, Kay; Beller, Elaine; Darnell, Ross; McPoil, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Background Patellofemoral pain syndrome is a highly prevalent musculoskeletal overuse condition that has a significant impact on participation in daily and physical activities. A recent systematic review highlighted the lack of high quality evidence from randomised controlled trials for the conservative management of patellofemoral pain syndrome. Although foot orthoses are a commonly used intervention for patellofemoral pain syndrome, only two pilot studies with short term follow up have been conducted into their clinical efficacy. Methods/design A randomised single-blinded clinical trial will be conducted to investigate the clinical efficacy and cost effectiveness of foot orthoses in the management of patellofemoral pain syndrome. One hundred and seventy-six participants aged 18–40 with anterior or retropatellar knee pain of non-traumatic origin and at least six weeks duration will be recruited from the greater Brisbane area in Queensland, Australia through print, radio and television advertising. Suitable participants will be randomly allocated to receive either foot orthoses, flat insoles, physiotherapy or a combined intervention of foot orthoses and physiotherapy, and will attend six visits with a physiotherapist over a 6 week period. Outcome will be measured at 6, 12 and 52 weeks using primary outcome measures of usual and worst pain visual analogue scale, patient perceived treatment effect, perceived global effect, the Functional Index Questionnaire, and the Anterior Knee Pain Scale. Secondary outcome measures will include the Lower Extremity Functional Scale, McGill Pain Questionnaire, 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Patient-Specific Functional Scale, Physical Activity Level in the Previous Week, pressure pain threshold and physical measures of step and squat tests. Cost-effectiveness analysis will be based on treatment effectiveness against resource usage recorded in treatment logs and self-reported diaries

  4. Bertolotti's syndrome: A commonly missed cause of back pain in young patients.

    PubMed

    Manmohan, S; Dzulkarnain, A; Nor Azlin, Z A; Fazir, M

    2015-01-01

    Bertolotti's syndrome must be considered as a differential diagnosis for lower back pain in young people. Treatment, whether conservative or operative, is still debatable. In this paper, we report a case of a 20-year-old girl presenting with lower back pain for 8 years. We administered injection with local anaesthetic and steroid injections within the pseudo-articulation; however, the pain was relieved for 3 weeks. Surgical excision of the pseudo-articulation successfully treated her back pain and the sciatica.

  5. Resting-state functional connectivity predicts longitudinal pain symptom change in urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome: a MAPP network study.

    PubMed

    Kutch, Jason J; Labus, Jennifer S; Harris, Richard E; Martucci, Katherine T; Farmer, Melissa A; Fenske, Sonja; Fling, Connor; Ichesco, Eric; Peltier, Scott; Petre, Bogdan; Guo, Wensheng; Hou, Xiaoling; Stephens, Alisa J; Mullins, Chris; Clauw, Daniel J; Mackey, Sean C; Apkarian, A Vania; Landis, J Richard; Mayer, Emeran A

    2017-06-01

    Chronic pain symptoms often change over time, even in individuals who have had symptoms for years. Studying biological factors that predict trends in symptom change in chronic pain may uncover novel pathophysiological mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets. In this study, we investigated whether brain functional connectivity measures obtained from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging at baseline can predict longitudinal symptom change (3, 6, and 12 months after scan) in urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome. We studied 52 individuals with urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome (34 women, 18 men) who had baseline neuroimaging followed by symptom tracking every 2 weeks for 1 year as part of the Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP) Research Network study. We found that brain functional connectivity can make a significant prediction of short-term (3 month) pain reduction with 73.1% accuracy (69.2% sensitivity and 75.0% precision). In addition, we found that the brain regions with greatest contribution to the classification were preferentially aligned with the left frontoparietal network. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging measures seemed to be less informative about 6- or 12-month symptom change. Our study provides the first evidence that future trends in symptom change in patients in a state of chronic pain may be linked to functional connectivity within specific brain networks.

  6. Pain increases during sympathetic arousal in patients with complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Drummond, P D; Finch, P M; Skipworth, S; Blockey, P

    2001-10-09

    To investigate the effect of sympathetic arousal on pain and vasomotor responses in healthy control subjects and patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), and to determine whether pain increases in patients with particular symptoms. In experiments 1 and 2, capsaicin was applied to the forearm of 24 healthy subjects to induce thermal hyperalgesia. Vascular responses were monitored and subjects rated thermal hyperalgesia before and after being startled (experiment 1), and before, during, and after mental arithmetic, breath holding, forehead cooling, the Valsalva maneuver, and a cold pressor test in experiment 2. In a third experiment, sensitivity to heat, cold, and mechanical stimulation was investigated in 61 patients with CRPS. Pain ratings and vascular and electrodermal responses were recorded after patients were startled and during forehead cooling. In experiment 1, thermal hyperalgesia decreased in healthy control subjects after they were startled, and digital blood vessels constricted symmetrically. In experiment 2, thermal hyperalgesia decreased during and after other forms of sympathetic arousal. However, in experiment 3, ratings of clinical pain increased during forehead cooling or after being startled in over 70% of patients with CRPS. Pain increased most consistently during forehead cooling in patients with cold allodynia or punctate allodynia. Digital blood vessels constricted more intensely on the symptomatic than the nonsymptomatic side in patients with CRPS during sympathetic arousal. Normal inhibitory influences on pain during sympathetic arousal are compromised in the majority of patients with CRPS. The augmented vasoconstrictor response in the symptomatic limb during sympathetic arousal is consistent with adrenergic supersensitivity. An adrenergic sensitivity in nociceptive afferents might contribute to pain and hyperalgesia during sympathetic arousal in certain patients with CRPS.

  7. The effectiveness of Kinesio Taping on pain and disability in cervical myofascial pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ay, Saime; Konak, Hatice Ecem; Evcik, Deniz; Kibar, Sibel

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of Kinesio Taping and sham Kinesio Taping on pain, pressure pain threshold, cervical range of motion, and disability in cervical myofascial pain syndrome patients (MPS). This study was designed as a randomized, double-blind placebo controlled study. Sixty-one patients with MPS were randomly assigned into two groups. Group 1 (n=31) was treated with Kinesio Taping and group 2 (n=30) was treated sham taping five times by intervals of 3 days for 15 days. Additionally, all patients were given neck exercise program. Patients were evaluated according to pain, pressure pain threshold, cervical range of motion and disability. Pain was assessed by using Visual Analog Scale, pressure pain threshold was measured by using an algometer, and active cervical range of motion was measured by using goniometry. Disability was assessed with the neck pain disability index disability. Measurements were taken before and after the treatment. At the end of the therapy, there were statistically significant improvements on pain, pressure pain threshold, cervical range of motion, and disability (p<0.05) in both groups. Also there was a statistical difference between the groups regarding pain, pressure pain threshold, cervical flexion-extension (p<0.05); except cervical rotation, cervical lateral flexion and disability (p>0.05). This study shows that Kinesio Taping leads to improvements on pain, pressure pain threshold and cervical range of motion, but not disability in short time. Therefore, Kinesio Taping can be used as an alternative therapy method in the treatment of patients with MPS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Treatment of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) using low dose naltrexone (LDN).

    PubMed

    Chopra, Pradeep; Cooper, Mark S

    2013-06-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a neuropathic pain syndrome, which involves glial activation and central sensitization in the central nervous system. Here, we describe positive outcomes of two CRPS patients, after they were treated with low-dose naltrexone (a glial attenuator), in combination with other CRPS therapies. Prominent CRPS symptoms remitted in these two patients, including dystonic spasms and fixed dystonia (respectively), following treatment with low-dose naltrexone (LDN). LDN, which is known to antagonize the Toll-like Receptor 4 pathway and attenuate activated microglia, was utilized in these patients after conventional CRPS pharmacotherapy failed to suppress their recalcitrant CRPS symptoms.

  9. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS/RSD) and neuropathic pain: role of intravenous bisphosphonates as analgesics.

    PubMed

    Yanow, Jennifer; Pappagallo, Marco; Pillai, Letha

    2008-02-25

    Neuropathic pain is a sequela of dysfunction, injuries, or diseases of the peripheral and/or central nervous system pain pathways, which has historically been extremely difficult to treat. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) types 1 and 2 are neuropathic pain conditions that have a long history in the medical literature but whose pathophysiology remains elusive and whose available treatment options remain few. While an exact animal model for CRPS doesn't yet exist, there are several animal models of neuropathic pain that develop behaviors of hypersensitivity, one of the hallmark signs of neuropathic pain in humans. Bisphosphonates have been used for pathologic conditions associated with abnormal bone metabolism, such as osteoporosis, Paget's disease and cancer-related bone pain for many years. More recently, results of clinical trials have indicated the potential role of bisphosphonates in the treatment of CRPS/RSD. In this paper we will review the preclinical studies regarding the use of bisphosphonates as analgesics in animal models of neuropathic pain, and also summarize the clinical trials that have been done to date. We will give an overview of bisphosphonate pharmacology and discuss several potential mechanisms by which bisphosphonates may be analgesic in CRPS/RSD and bone pain of noncancer origin.

  10. Medial abrasion syndrome: a neglected cause of knee pain in middle and old age.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Shaw-Ruey; Lee, Ching-Chih; Hsu, Chia-Chen

    2015-04-01

    Knee pain is a prevailing health problem of middle and old age. Medial plica-related medial abrasion syndrome (MAS), although a well-known cause of knee pain in younger individuals, has rarely been investigated in older individuals. This prospective study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and clinical manifestations of this syndrome as a cause of knee pain in middle and old age. The outcomes of arthroscopic treatment for this syndrome were also evaluated.A total of 232 knees of 169 patients >40 years of age (41-82, median: 63 years old) suffering from chronic knee pain were analyzed. The clinical diagnosis, predisposing factors, presenting symptoms, and physical signs were investigated. The sensitivity and specificity of each parameter of the clinical presentation for the diagnosis of MAS were evaluated after confirmation by arthroscopy. For patients with MAS, the roentgenographic and arthroscopic manifestations were investigated, and arthroscopic medial release (AMR) was performed. The outcomes were evaluated by the changes in the pain domain of the Knee Society scoring system and by patient satisfaction. The prevalence of medial plica was 95%, and osteoarthritis (OA) was the most common clinical diagnosis. Symptoms of pain and crepitus in motion and local tenderness during physical examination were the most sensitive parameters for the diagnosis. A history of a single knee injury combined with local tenderness and a palpable band found during physical examination were the most specific parameters for the diagnosis. The majority of patients suffering from this syndrome were successfully treated using AMR, yielding a satisfaction rate of 85.5% after a minimum of 3 years.MAS is a common cause of knee pain in middle and old age and can be effectively treated by AMR. Its concomitance with OA warrants further investigation.

  11. Pain from distension of the pelvic colon by inflating a balloon in the irritable colon syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, J

    1973-02-01

    The effects of inflating a balloon introduced through a sigmoidoscope to 35 cm in the pelvic colon have been observed and compared in 67 patients with the irritable colon syndrome and in 16 normal and constipated subjects acting as controls. Inflation to 60 ml caused pain in 6% of the controls at a mean diameter of 3.8 cm and in 55% of patients with the irritable colon syndrome (diameter 3.4 cm). An estimate of gut wall tension at this volume of inflation showed it to be normal in patients with the irritable colon syndrome; the incidence of pain in relation to wall tension was increased nearly tenfold in the irritable colon group. Inflation of the balloon to different volumes was normally painless to a maximum acceptable diameter which remained constant for each study under constant conditions; continued inflation eventually gave rise to pain without increasing the diameter. The pain was felt in the hypogastrium in 40%, in one or both iliac fossae in 31%, and in the rectum in 21%; the other 8% felt pain in the back or elsewhere and there were no significant differences between clinical groups. Exceptionally, in 6% of the controls, and in 52% of patients with the irritable colon syndrome, pain occurred at balloon diameters that could still be increased by 10% or more with further inflation. This was probably the outcome of a low threshold for visceral pain in the section of bowel in contact with the balloon. Colonic hyperalgesia of this kind, possibly a random occurrence, may be an important contributory factor in the aetiology of the irritable colon syndrome.

  12. Anterior Cutaneous Nerve Entrapment Syndrome in a Pediatric Patient Previously Diagnosed With Functional Abdominal Pain: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    DiGiusto, Matthew; Suleman, M-Irfan

    2018-03-23

    Chronic abdominal pain is common in children and adolescents but challenging to diagnose, because practitioners may be concerned about missing serious occult disease. Abdominal wall pain is an often ignored etiology for chronic abdominal pain. Anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome causes abdominal wall pain but is frequently overlooked. Correctly diagnosing patients with anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome is important because nerve block interventions are highly successful in the remittance of pain. Here, we present the case of a pediatric patient who received a diagnosis of functional abdominal pain but experienced pain remittance after receiving a trigger-point injection and transverse abdominis plane block.

  13. Chronic bacterial prostatitis and chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Diana K; Dielubanza, Elodi; Schaeffer, Anthony J

    2015-08-27

    Chronic prostatitis can cause pain and urinary symptoms, and can occur either with an active infection (chronic bacterial prostatitis [CBP]) or with only pain and no evidence of bacterial causation (chronic pelvic pain syndrome [CPPS]). Bacterial prostatitis is characterised by recurrent urinary tract infections or infection in the prostate with the same bacterial strain, which often results from urinary tract instrumentation. However, the cause and natural history of CPPS are unknown and not associated with active infection. We conducted a systematic overview and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for chronic bacterial prostatitis? What are the effects of treatments for chronic pelvic pain syndrome? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to February 2014 (Clinical Evidence overviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this overview). At this update, searching of electronic databases retrieved 131 studies. After deduplication and removal of conference abstracts, 67 records were screened for inclusion in the overview. Appraisal of titles and abstracts led to the exclusion of 51 studies and the further review of 16 full publications. Of the 16 full articles evaluated, three systematic reviews and one RCT were included at this update. We performed a GRADE evaluation for 14 PICO combinations. In this systematic overview, we categorised the efficacy for 12 interventions based on information relating to the effectiveness and safety of 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors, allopurinol, alpha-blockers, local injections of antimicrobial drugs, mepartricin, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), oral antimicrobial drugs, pentosan polysulfate, quercetin, sitz baths, transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT), and transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP).

  14. Treatment of neck and shoulder pain in whip-lash syndrome patients with intracutaneous sterile water injections.

    PubMed

    Byrn, C; Borenstein, P; Linder, L E

    1991-01-01

    Ten whip-lash syndrome patients treated with intracutaneous triggerpoint injections with sterile water for pain relief were followed for 2 months. Pain intensity was evaluated with the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Eight patients became free from pain (VAS 0) and two patients improved to VAS 2 immediately after the treatment. Nine patients remained free from pain, three of them after one treatment, while six patients needed 2-4 treatments. One patient responded only a few hours after each of three treatments. Remarkably, with the relief of pain mobility was normalised in all patients. The method is suggested to be a first choice in the treatment of not only whip-lash patients but also for most acute and chronic musculo-skeletal triggerpoint pain syndromes.

  15. Interventions for treating pain and disability in adults with complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Neil E; Wand, Benedict M; McAuley, James; Marston, Louise; Moseley, G Lorimer

    2013-04-30

    There is currently no strong consensus regarding the optimal management of complex regional pain syndrome although a multitude of interventions have been described and are commonly used. To summarise the evidence from Cochrane and non-Cochrane systematic reviews of the effectiveness of any therapeutic intervention used to reduce pain, disability or both in adults with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). We identified Cochrane reviews and non-Cochrane reviews through a systematic search of the following databases: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS and PEDro. We included non-Cochrane systematic reviews where they contained evidence not covered by identified Cochrane reviews. The methodological quality of reviews was assessed using the AMSTAR tool.We extracted data for the primary outcomes pain, disability and adverse events, and the secondary outcomes of quality of life, emotional well being and participants' ratings of satisfaction or improvement. Only evidence arising from randomised controlled trials was considered. We used the GRADE system to assess the quality of evidence. We included six Cochrane reviews and 13 non-Cochrane systematic reviews. Cochrane reviews demonstrated better methodological quality than non-Cochrane reviews. Trials were typically small and the quality variable.There is moderate quality evidence that intravenous regional blockade with guanethidine is not effective in CRPS and that the procedure appears to be associated with the risk of significant adverse events.There is low quality evidence that bisphosphonates, calcitonin or a daily course of intravenous ketamine may be effective for pain when compared with placebo; graded motor imagery may be effective for pain and function when compared with usual care; and that mirror therapy may be effective for pain in post-stroke CRPS compared with a 'covered mirror' control. This evidence should

  16. Ureteric bupivicaine infusion for loin pain haematuria syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, M; Acher, P; Deane, A M

    2010-03-01

    Loin pain haematuria syndrome is a common problem with complications including opiate dependence. Morbidity treatments include intra-ureteric capsaicin infusion, nephrectomy, autotransplantation and nephrolysis. We explored the use of flexible cystoscopic infusion of intra-ureteric bupivicaine. Patients presenting with chronic loin pain underwent urological and nephrological evaluation. Bupivicaine (0.5%, 20 ml) was infused via an intra-ureteric catheter under flexible cystoscopic guidance. Repeat infusions were offered if indicated. Sixteen of 17 patients with 1-year follow-up responded and were satisfied. Twelve of these required repeat infusions (mean, 2.9 infusions). The procedures were well tolerated by all patients without adverse effects. Intra-ureteric bupivicaine infusion has a place in the management of patients with chronic renal pain. It offers a minimally invasive alternative to other treatments. This procedure warrants further investigation within a randomised, controlled trial setting.

  17. Complex regional pain syndrome of the upper extremity.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Ryan W; Li, Zhongyu; Smith, Beth P; Smith, Thomas L; Koman, L Andrew

    2011-09-01

    The diagnosis and management of complex regional pain syndrome is often challenging. Early diagnosis and intervention improve outcomes in most patients; however, some patients will progress regardless of intervention. Multidisciplinary management facilitates care in complex cases. The onset of signs and symptoms may be obvious or insidious; temporal delay is a frequent occurrence. Difficulty sleeping, pain unresponsive to narcotics, swelling, stiffness, and hypersensitivity are harbingers of onset. Multimodal treatment with hand therapy, sympatholytic drugs, and stress loading may be augmented with anesthesia blocks. If the dystrophic symptoms are controllable by medications and a nociceptive focus or nerve derangement is correctable, surgery is an appropriate alternative. Chronic sequelae of contracture may also be addressed surgically in patients with controllable sympathetically maintained pain. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Clinical application of "categorization by analogy" in acupuncture for pain syndromes].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojun

    2018-03-12

    The"categorization by analogy"is one of the most primitive thinking methods for ancient people to explore the world, which has exerted far-reaching impact on the origin and development of TCM. With examples of Sanjian (LI 3) for neck pain, Chize (LU 5) for low back pain and Chengshan (BL 57) for dysmenorrhea, the clinical application of"categorization by analogy"in acupuncture for pain syndromes was discussed, hoping more acupuncturists will pay attention to the guiding role of"categorization by analogy"in acupuncture clinical treatment.

  19. Impaired spatial body representation in complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS I).

    PubMed

    Reinersmann, Annika; Landwehrt, Julia; Krumova, Elena K; Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Güntürkün, Onur; Maier, Christoph

    2012-11-01

    Recently, a shift of the visual subjective body midline (vSM), a correlate of the egocentric reference frame, towards the affected side was reported in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). However, the specificity of this finding is as yet unclear. This study compares 24 CRPS patients to 21 patients with upper limb pain of other origin (pain control) and to 24 healthy subjects using a comprehensive test battery, including assessment of the vSM in light and dark, line bisection, hand laterality recognition, neglect-like severity symptoms, and motor impairment (disability of the arm, shoulder, and hand). 1-way analysis of variance, t-tests, significance level: 0.05. In the dark, CRPS patients displayed a significantly larger leftward spatial bias when estimating their vSM, compared to pain controls and healthy subjects, and also reported lower motor function than pain controls. For right-affected CRPS patients only, the deviation of the vSM correlated significantly with the severity of distorted body perception. Results confirm previous findings of impaired visuospatial perception in CRPS patients, which might be the result of the involvement of supraspinal mechanisms in this pain syndrome. These mechanisms might accentuate the leftward bias that results from a right-hemispheric dominance in visuospatial processing and is known as pseudoneglect. Pseudoneglect reveals itself in the tendency to perceive the midpoint of horizontal lines or the subjective body midline left of the centre. It was observable in all 3 groups, but most pronounced in CRPS patients, which might be due to the cortical reorganisation processes associated with this syndrome. Copyright © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Possible Role of Meditation in Myofascial Pain Syndrome: A New Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Panta, Prashanth

    2017-01-01

    Background of Hypothesis: Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is the most common musculoskeletal pain disorder of the head and neck area. In the past, several theories were put forth to explain its origin and nature, but none proved complete. Myofascial pain responds to changing psychological states and stress, anxiety, lack of sleep, anger, depression and chronic pain are direct contributional factors. Myofascial pain syndrome may be considered as a psychosomatic disorder. There are numerous accepted palliative approaches, but of all, relaxation techniques stand out and initiate healing at the base level. In this article, the connection between mental factors, MPS and meditation are highlighted. Recent literature has shed light on the fundamental role of free radicals in the emergence of myofascial pain. The accumulating free radicals disrupt mitochondrial integrity and function, leading to sustenance and progression of MPS. Meditation on the other hand was shown to reduce free radical load and can result in clinical improvement. ‘Mindfulness’ is the working principle behind the effect of all meditations, and I emphasize that it can serve as a potential tool to reverse the neuro-architectural, neurobiological and cellular changes that occur in MPS. Conclusions: The findings described in this paper were drawn from studies on myofascial pain, fibromyalgia, similar chronic pain models and most importantly from self experience (experimentation). Till date, no hypothesis is available connecting MPS and meditation. Mechanisms linking MPS and meditation were identified, and this paper can ignite novel research in this direction. PMID:28503039

  1. When is irritable bowel syndrome not irritable bowel syndrome? Diagnosis and treatment of chronic functional abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Grover, Madhusudan

    2012-08-01

    Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is a distinct chronic gastrointestinal (GI) pain disorder characterized by the presence of constant or frequently recurring abdominal pain that is not associated with eating, change in bowel habits, or menstrual periods. The pain experience in FAPS is predominantly centrally driven as compared to other chronic painful GI conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease and chronic pancreatitis where peripherally acting factors play a major role in driving the pain. Psychosocial factors are often integrally associated with the disorder and can pose significant challenges to evaluation and treatment. Patients suffer from considerable loss of function, which can drive health care utilization. Treatment options are limited at best with most therapeutic regimens extrapolated from pain management of other functional GI disorders and chronic pain conditions. A comprehensive approach to management using a biopsychosocial construct and collaboration with pain specialists and psychiatry is most beneficial to the management of this disorder.

  2. Chronic Localized Back Pain Due to Posterior Cutaneous Nerve Entrapment Syndrome (POCNES): A New Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Boelens, Oliver B; Maatman, Robert C; Scheltinga, Marc R; van Laarhoven, Kees; Roumen, Rudi M

    2017-03-01

    Most patients with chronic back pain suffer from degenerative thoracolumbovertebral disease. However, the following case illustrates that a localized peripheral nerve entrapment must be considered in the differential diagnosis of chronic back pain. We report the case of a 26-year-old woman with continuous excruciating pain in the lower back area. Previous treatment for nephroptosis was to no avail. On physical examination the pain was present in a 2 x 2 cm area overlying the twelfth rib some 4 cm lateral to the spinal process. Somatosensory testing using swab and alcohol gauze demonstrated the presence of skin hypo- and dysesthesia over the painful area. Local pressure on this painful spot elicited an extreme pain response that did not irradiate towards the periphery. These findings were highly suggestive of a posterior version of the anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES), a condition leading to a severe localized neuropathic pain in anterior portions of the abdominal wall. She demonstrated a beneficial albeit temporary response after lidocaine infiltration as dictated by an established diagnostic and treatment protocol for ACNES. She subsequently underwent a local neurectomy of the involved superficial branch of the intercostal nerve. This limited operation had a favorable outcome resulting in a pain-free return to normal activities up to this very day (follow-up of 24 months).We propose to name this novel syndrome "posterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome" (POCNES). Each patient with chronic localized back pain should undergo simple somatosensory testing to detect the presence of overlying skin hypo- and dysesthesia possibly reflecting an entrapped posterior cutaneous nerve.Key words: Chronic pain, back pain, posterior cutaneous nerve entrapment, peripheral nerve entrapment, surgical treatment for pain, anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment.

  3. Renal Denervation in Patients With Loin Pain Hematuria Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Bhanu; Giebel, Shelley; Garcia, Francisco; Goyal, Kunal; St Onge, Jennifer Rose

    2017-01-01

    Loin pain hematuria syndrome (LPHS) is a painful and incapacitating condition that typically affects young women. Treatment options, including opiates and/or surgical denervation of the renal nerves by autotransplantation, have variable success. In this report, we describe the successful use of endovascular renal nerve ablation in this population. Four women with LPHS and intractable pain unresponsive to conservative measures underwent endovascular ablation of the renal nerves between July and November 2015 using the Vessix renal denervation system. The number and frequency of pain medications and responses to the EQ-5D, McGill Pain Questionnaire, Geriatric Depression Score, 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, and Oswestry Disability Index were measured at baseline and 3 and 6 months postprocedure to evaluate changes in pain, disability, quality of life, and mood. There were improvements in pain, disability, and quality of life from baseline to 6 months postprocedure. By 6 months, 2 of 4 patients had discontinued all pain medications, whereas the other 2 had reduced their doses of these medications by 75%. These results suggest that percutaneous catheter-based renal nerve ablation with radiofrequency energy may be a treatment option for some patients with LPHS. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Transitional lumbosacral vertebrae and low back pain: diagnostic pitfalls and management of Bertolotti's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Daniel Benzecry de; Mattei, Tobias Alécio; Sória, Marília Grando; Prandini, Mirto Nelso; Leal, André Giacomelli; Milano, Jerônimo Buzzeti; Ramina, Ricardo

    2009-06-01

    Bertolotti's syndrome is a spine disorder characterized by the occurrence of a congenital lumbar transverse mega-apophysis in a transitional vertebral body that usually articulates with the sacrum or the iliac bone. It has been considered a possible cause of low back pain. We analyzed the cases of Bertolotti's syndrome that failed clinical treatment and reviewed the literature concerning this subject. Five patients in our series had severe low back pain due to the neo-articulation and two of them were successfully submitted to surgical resection of the transverse mega-apophysis. Taking into account the clinical and surgical experience acquired with these cases, we propose a diagnostic-therapeutic algorithm. There is still no consensus about the most appropriate therapy for Bertolotti's syndrome. In patients in whom the mega-apophysis itself may be the source of back pain, surgical resection may be a safe and effective procedure.

  5. Does this case hold the answer to one of the worse types of pain in medicine--that of loin pain haematuria syndrome (LPHS).

    PubMed

    Russell, Alan; Chatterjee, Suman; Seed, Michael

    2015-04-26

    A patient with loin pain haematuria syndrome suffering chronic throbbing pulsing pain overlaid with prolonged periods of incapacitating colic and overnight vomiting was presented 10 months following diagnosis. Ultrasound was normal. No renal or ureteral stones, or filling defects were seen on CT. At cytoscopy, bladder and urethra were normal, and bloody urine effluxed from the left ureteric orifice. The ureters were normal at diagnosis, and developed new abutting non-penetrating calcifications by 8 months. Pain episodes of complete incapacitating intensity of 2-4 h duration were reduced to 10 min with 5 mg crushed tadalafil administered at onset. If tadalafil was delayed to after onset, the original course of agony resulted. Daily tadalafil reduced loin pain intensity, but not the exacerbations. Tadalafil efficacy may indicate that the pain exacerbations are due to spasm of ureter smooth muscle. 5 mg tadalafil taken at onset alleviated severe loin pain exacerbations in this case of loin pain haematuria syndrome. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  6. Infantile Pain Episodes Associated with Novel Nav1.9 Mutations in Familial Episodic Pain Syndrome in Japanese Families.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Hiroko; Noguchi, Atsuko; Kobayashi, Hatasu; Kondo, Daiki; Harada, Kouji H; Youssefian, Shohab; Shioi, Hirotomo; Kabata, Risako; Domon, Yuki; Kubota, Kazufumi; Kitano, Yutaka; Takayama, Yasunori; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Ohno, Kousaku; Saito, Yoshiaki; Asano, Takeshi; Tominaga, Makoto; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Koizumi, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Painful peripheral neuropathy has been correlated with various voltage-gated sodium channel mutations in sensory neurons. Recently Nav1.9, a voltage-gated sodium channel subtype, has been established as a genetic influence for certain peripheral pain syndromes. In this study, we performed a genetic study in six unrelated multigenerational Japanese families with episodic pain syndrome. Affected participants (n = 23) were characterized by infantile recurrent pain episodes with spontaneous mitigation around adolescence. This unique phenotype was inherited in an autosomal-dominant mode. Linkage analysis was performed for two families with 12 affected and nine unaffected members, and a single locus was identified on 3p22 (LOD score 4.32). Exome analysis (n = 14) was performed for affected and unaffected members in these two families and an additional family. Two missense variants were identified: R222H and R222S in SCN11A. Next, we generated a knock-in mouse model harboring one of the mutations (R222S). Behavioral tests (Hargreaves test and cold plate test) using R222S and wild-type C57BL/6 (WT) mice, young (8-9 weeks old; n = 10-12 for each group) and mature (36-38 weeks old; n = 5-6 for each group), showed that R222S mice were significantly (p < 0.05) more hypersensitive to hot and cold stimuli than WT mice. Electrophysiological studies using dorsal root ganglion neurons from 8-9-week-old mice showed no significant difference in resting membrane potential, but input impedance and firing frequency of evoked action potentials were significantly increased in R222S mice compared with WT mice. However, there was no significant difference among Nav1.9 (WT, R222S, and R222H)-overexpressing ND7/23 cell lines. These results suggest that our novel mutation is a gain-of-function mutation that causes infantile familial episodic pain. The mouse model developed here will be useful for drug screening for familial episodic pain syndrome associated with SCN11A mutations.

  7. Management of pain secondary to temporomandibular joint syndrome with peripheral nerve stimulation.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Lopez, Manuel J; Fernandez-Baena, Mariano; Aldaya-Valverde, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint syndrome, or Costen syndrome, is a clinically diagnosed disorder whose most common symptoms include joint pain and clicking, difficulty opening the mouth, and temporomandibular joint discomfort. The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is supplied by the auriculotemporal nerve, a collateral branch of the mandibular nerve (the V3 branch of the trigeminal nerve). The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness and safety of permanent peripheral nerve stimulation to relieve TMJ pain. This case series is a prospective study. Pain Unit of a regional universitary hospital. The study included 6 female patients with temporomandibular pain lasting from 2 to 8 years that did not respond to intraarticular local anesthetic and corticoid injections. After a positive diagnostic block test, the patients were implanted with quadripolar or octapolar leads in the affected preauricular region for a 2-week stimulation test phase, after which the leads were connected to a permanent implanted pulse generator. Results of the visual analog scale, SF-12 Health Survey, Brief Pain Inventory, and drug intake were recorded at baseline and at 4, 12, and 24 weeks after the permanent implant. Five out of 6 patients experienced pain relief exceeding 80% (average 72%) and received a permanent implant. The SF-12 Health Survey results were very positive for all specific questions, especially items concerning the physical component. Patients reported returning to normal physical activity and rest at night. Four patients discontinued their analgesic medication and 1 patient reduced their gabapentin dose by 50%. Sample size; impossibility of placebo control. Patients affected with TMJ syndrome who do not respond to conservative treatments may find a solution in peripheral nerve stimulation, a simple technique with a relatively low level of complications.

  8. Endogenous inhibition of somatic pain is impaired in girls with irritable bowel syndrome compared with healthy girls

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Endogenous pain inhibition is often deficient in adults with chronic pain conditions including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). It is unclear whether deficiencies in pain inhibition are present in young children with IBS. The present study compared endogenous pain inhibition, somatic pain threshold, ...

  9. Bertolotti syndrome: a diagnostic and management dilemma for pain physicians.

    PubMed

    Jain, Anuj; Agarwal, Anil; Jain, Suruchi; Shamshery, Chetna

    2013-10-01

    Bertolotti's syndrome (BS), a form of lumbago in lumbosacral transitional vertebrae, is an important cause of low back pain in young patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the etiology of low back pain and the efficacy of treatment offered to patients with BS. All patients of BS Castellvi type1a during a period of 6 months were enrolled in the study. The patients underwent interventional pain procedures for diagnosis and pain relief. Response to the therapy was assessed based on VAS and ODI scores. A 50% decrease in VAS score or a VAS score less than 3 would be considered adequate pain relief. All 20 patients diagnosed with BS during the 6-month observation period had scoliosis. Common causes of back pain were the ipsilateral L5-S1 facet joint, neoarticulation, the SI joint, and disc degeneration. Responses to various interventions for pain relief were different and inconsistent from patient to patient. In particular, responses to interventions for neoarticular pain were generally poor. Pain in patients with BS does not usually respond to interventional pain treatment. A very dynamic treatment approach must be pursued while managing BS patients, and the treatment plan must be individualized at various stages in order to obtain satisfactory pain relief.

  10. Optimizing Results of Postmastectomy Radiation Therapy Utilizing the Latissimus Dorsi Flap and Tissue Expander Technique: A Single-Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Chevrollier, Guillaume S.; Greaney, Patrick J.; Jenkins, Matthew P.; Copit, Steven E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Postmastectomy radiation therapy is a well-established risk factor for complications after breast reconstruction. Even if the surgeon has a suspicion that radiation therapy may be needed, it may be beneficial to place tissue expanders during the mastectomy procedure as a temporizing measure, complete radiation therapy, and then reconstruct the breast with a latissimus flap. The purpose of this study was to examine the complication rates of the latissimus dorsi flap as compared with the complication rates of implant-based reconstruction in the setting of radiation therapy. Methods: A 16-year retrospective chart review from 2000 to 2016 was conducted. All patients who underwent temporizing tissue expander placement for radiotherapy with subsequent latissimus flap reconstruction were included in the study. Patients who did not follow up for implant exchange were excluded from the study. Results: Fifty-five patients were identified with an average age of 46.0 years (range, 27-67 years) and an average body mass index of 24.2 (range, 18.9-31.9). Five patients (9.1%) developed capsular contractures amenable to surgical intervention. One patient (1.8%) developed infection of the tissue expander, requiring removal. There were no incidences of flap failure or wound dehiscence. The average follow-up after latissimus flap reconstruction was 25.3 months (range, 3.7-121.6 months). Conclusions: We feel that the latissimus dorsi flap after postmastectomy radiation therapy represents the preferred implant-based reconstruction option to consider when the need for postmastectomy radiation therapy is anticipated. The latissimus dorsi flap remains a safe, effective solution to postmastectomy radiation therapy that every plastic surgeon should offer. PMID:29308108

  11. Optimizing Results of Postmastectomy Radiation Therapy Utilizing the Latissimus Dorsi Flap and Tissue Expander Technique: A Single-Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Mohiuddin, Waseem; Chevrollier, Guillaume S; Greaney, Patrick J; Jenkins, Matthew P; Copit, Steven E

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Postmastectomy radiation therapy is a well-established risk factor for complications after breast reconstruction. Even if the surgeon has a suspicion that radiation therapy may be needed, it may be beneficial to place tissue expanders during the mastectomy procedure as a temporizing measure, complete radiation therapy, and then reconstruct the breast with a latissimus flap. The purpose of this study was to examine the complication rates of the latissimus dorsi flap as compared with the complication rates of implant-based reconstruction in the setting of radiation therapy. Methods: A 16-year retrospective chart review from 2000 to 2016 was conducted. All patients who underwent temporizing tissue expander placement for radiotherapy with subsequent latissimus flap reconstruction were included in the study. Patients who did not follow up for implant exchange were excluded from the study. Results: Fifty-five patients were identified with an average age of 46.0 years (range, 27-67 years) and an average body mass index of 24.2 (range, 18.9-31.9). Five patients (9.1%) developed capsular contractures amenable to surgical intervention. One patient (1.8%) developed infection of the tissue expander, requiring removal. There were no incidences of flap failure or wound dehiscence. The average follow-up after latissimus flap reconstruction was 25.3 months (range, 3.7-121.6 months). Conclusions: We feel that the latissimus dorsi flap after postmastectomy radiation therapy represents the preferred implant-based reconstruction option to consider when the need for postmastectomy radiation therapy is anticipated. The latissimus dorsi flap remains a safe, effective solution to postmastectomy radiation therapy that every plastic surgeon should offer.

  12. Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy Versus Trigger Point Injection in the Treatment of Myofascial Pain Syndrome in the Quadratus Lumborum

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objective To compare the effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) and trigger point injection (TPI) for the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome in the quadratus lumborum. Methods In a retrospective study at our institute, 30 patients with myofascial pain syndrome in the quadratus lumborum were assigned to ESWT or TPI groups. We assessed ESWT and TPI treatment according to their affects on pain relief and disability improvement. The outcome measures for the pain assessment were a visual analogue scale score and pain pressure threshold. The outcome measures for the disability assessment were Oswestry Disability Index, Roles and Maudsley, and Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale scores. Results Both groups demonstrated statistically significant improvements in pain and disability measures after treatment. However, in comparing the treatments, we found ESWT to be more effective than TPI for pain relief. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups with respect to disability. Conclusion Compared to TPI, ESWT showed superior results for pain relief. Thus, we consider ESWT as an effective treatment for myofascial pain syndrome in the quadratus lumborum. PMID:28971042

  13. Two- and three-dimensional ultrasound imaging to facilitate detection and targeting of taut bands in myofascial pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Hariharan; Reddy, Sapna

    2012-07-01

    Ultrasound imaging has gained acceptance in pain management interventions. Features of myofascial pain syndrome have been explored using ultrasound imaging and elastography. There is a paucity of reports showing the benefit clinically. This report provides three-dimensional features of taut bands and highlights the advantages of using two-dimensional ultrasound imaging to improve targeting of taut bands in deeper locations. Fifty-eight-year-old man with pain and decreased range of motion of the right shoulder was referred for further management of pain above the scapula after having failed conservative management for myofascial pain syndrome. Three-dimensional ultrasound images provided evidence of aberrancy in the architecture of the muscle fascicles around the taut bands compared to the adjacent normal muscle tissue during serial sectioning of the accrued image. On two-dimensional ultrasound imaging over the palpated taut band, areas of hyperechogenicity were visualized in the trapezius and supraspinatus muscles. Subsequently, the patient received ultrasound-guided real-time lidocaine injections to the trigger points with successful resolution of symptoms. This is a successful demonstration of utility of ultrasound imaging of taut bands in the management of myofascial pain syndrome. Utility of this imaging modality in myofascial pain syndrome requires further clinical validation. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Relationship between premature ejaculation and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Ho; Lee, Sung Won

    2015-03-01

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a common etiology of premature ejaculation (PE). However, the current data are insufficient to explain this relationship and to support routine screening of men with PE. This study aims to evaluate the relationship between PE and CP/CPPS. A cross-sectional study was conducted that included 8,261 men who had participated in a health examination. The Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT), the National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI), and the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF) were used for assessment of symptoms. A full metabolic work-up and serum testosterone level checks were also performed. We then investigated the relationship using the Spearman correlation test, multiple linear regression, and logistic regression analyses. Associations of PEDT with NIH-CPSI. The mean age was 50.4 ± 5.5 years. In total, 2,205 (24.9%) men had prostatitis-like symptoms (NIH-CPSI pain score of ≥4 and perineal or ejaculatory pain), and 618 (7.0%) men had moderate to severe symptoms (NIH-CPSI pain score of ≥8). Additionally, 2,144 men (24.2%) were classified as demonstrating PE (PEDT > 10). The PEDT score was found to have a significant positive correlation with the NIH-CPSI pain domain score (correlation coefficient = 0.206; P < 0.001). After adjusting for age, metabolic syndrome status, testosterone level, and IIEF score, there was no change in the positive correlation between the NIH-CPSI pain domain score and PEDT score (Beta = 0.175; P < 0.001). After adjusting for age, testosterone level, metabolic syndrome, and IIEF score, the odds ratio (OR) for PE significantly increased with the severity of pelvic pain (mild prostatitis-like symptoms, OR for PE: 1.269, 95% confidence interval: 1.113-1.447; moderate to severe symptoms, OR for PE: 2.134: 95% confidence interval: 1.782-2.557). Our data showed a significant correlation between the

  15. Ureteric bupivicaine infusion for loin pain haematuria syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, P; Acher, P; Deane, AM

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Loin pain haematuria syndrome is a common problem with complications including opiate dependence. Morbidity treatments include intra-ureteric capsaicin infusion, nephrectomy, autotransplantation and nephrolysis. We explored the use of flexible cystoscopic infusion of intra-ureteric bupivicaine. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients presenting with chronic loin pain underwent urological and nephrological evaluation. Bupivicaine (0.5%, 20 ml) was infused via an intra-ureteric catheter under flexible cystoscopic guidance. Repeat infusions were offered if indicated. RESULTS Sixteen of 17 patients with 1-year follow-up responded and were satisfied. Twelve of these required repeat infusions (mean, 2.9 infusions). The procedures were well tolerated by all patients without adverse effects. CONCLUSIONS Intra-ureteric bupivicaine infusion has a place in the management of patients with chronic renal pain. It offers a minimally invasive alternative to other treatments. This procedure warrants further investigation within a randomised, controlled trial setting. PMID:20353642

  16. Pharmacological Approach for Managing Pain in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Review Article

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Longtu; Ilham, Sheikh J.; Feng, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Context Visceral pain is a leading symptom for patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) that affects 10% - 20 % of the world population. Conventional pharmacological treatments to manage IBS-related visceral pain is unsatisfactory. Recently, medications have emerged to treat IBS patients by targeting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and peripheral nerves to alleviate visceral pain while avoiding adverse effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Several investigational drugs for IBS also target the periphery with minimal CNS effects. Evidence of Acquisition In this paper, reputable internet databases from 1960 - 2016 were searched including Pubmed and ClinicalTrials.org, and 97 original articles analyzed. Search was performed based on the following keywords and combinations: irritable bowel syndrome, clinical trial, pain, visceral pain, narcotics, opioid, chloride channel, neuropathy, primary afferent, intestine, microbiota, gut barrier, inflammation, diarrhea, constipation, serotonin, visceral hypersensitivity, nociceptor, sensitization, hyperalgesia. Results Certain conventional pain managing drugs do not effectively improve IBS symptoms, including NSAIDs, acetaminophen, aspirin, and various narcotics. Anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs (Benzodiazepines, TCAs, SSRI and SNRI) can attenuate pain in IBS patients with relevant comorbidities. Clonidine, gabapentin and pregabalin can moderately improve IBS symptoms. Lubiprostone relieves constipation predominant IBS (IBS-C) while loperamide improves diarrhea predominant IBS (IBS-D). Alosetron, granisetron and ondansetron can generally treat pain in IBS-D patients, of which alosetron needs to be used with caution due to cardiovascular toxicity. The optimal drugs for managing pain in IBS-D and IBS-C appear to be eluxadoline and linaclotide, respectively, both of which target peripheral GI tract. Conclusions Conventional pain managing drugs are in general not suitable for treating IBS pain. Medications that target

  17. Descending pain modulation in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chakiath, Rosemary J; Siddall, Philip J; Kellow, John E; Hush, Julia M; Jones, Mike P; Marcuzzi, Anna; Wrigley, Paul J

    2015-12-10

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder. While abdominal pain is a dominant symptom of IBS, many sufferers also report widespread hypersensitivity and present with other chronic pain conditions. The presence of widespread hypersensitivity and extra-intestinal pain conditions suggests central nervous dysfunction. While central nervous system dysfunction may involve the spinal cord (central sensitisation) and brain, this review will focus on one brain mechanism, descending pain modulation. We will conduct a comprehensive search for the articles indexed in the databases Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid PsycINFO and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trial (CENTRAL) from their inception to August 2015, that report on any aspect of descending pain modulation in irritable bowel syndrome. Two independent reviewers will screen studies for eligibility, assess risk of bias and extract relevant data. Results will be tabulated and, if possible, a meta-analysis will be carried out. The systematic review outlined in this protocol aims to summarise current knowledge regarding descending pain modulation in IBS. PROSPERO CRD42015024284.

  18. Circadian rhythms variation of pain in burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Jornet, Pia; Molino Pagan, Diana; Andujar Mateos, Paz; Rodriguez Agudo, Consuelo; Pons-Fuster, Alvaro

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the intensity of pain and levels of disability at different times through the day in patients with burning mouth syndrome (BMS) over a 14-day period. This was a prospective clinical study of 30 patients with BMS, 26 of whom completed the study. The parameters studied were pain intensity (using a visual analog scale), Disability Index (in the morning, afternoon and night), quality of life (using the Oral Health Impact Profile-14) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD). Mean pain was 5.1 ± 1.8 and disability was 2.09 ± 1.40. There were significant differences between the three pain measurements taken at different times of day: between morning and afternoon (P ≤ 0.001), morning and evening (P ≤ 0.001), and afternoon and evening (P ≤ 0.001). Regression analysis found that the mean Pain Disability Index (R(2) corrected = 0.329; F = 3.44; P = 0.02) was also affected by anxiety (P = 0.036). Pain and disability increase as the day progresses in patients with BMS, and are influenced by anxiety. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  19. A multidisciplinary protocol for planned skin-preserving delayed breast reconstruction for patients with locally advanced breast cancer requiring postmastectomy radiation therapy: 3-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Kronowitz, Steven J; Lam, Candace; Terefe, Welela; Hunt, Kelly K; Kuerer, Henry M; Valero, Vicente; Lance, Samuel; Robb, Geoffrey L; Feng, Lei; Buchholz, Thomas A

    2011-06-01

    The authors examined the safety of a protocol for planned skin-preserving delayed breast reconstruction after postmastectomy radiotherapy with placement of a tissue expander for patients with locally advanced breast cancer (stages IIB and III). The authors compared 47 patients treated according to the protocol between December 2003 and May 2008 with 47 disease-stage-matched control patients who underwent standard delayed reconstruction after postmastectomy radiotherapy (no skin preservation or tissue expander) during the same period. Protocol-group complication rates were 21 percent for skin-preserving mastectomy and placement of the expander (stage 1), 5 percent for postmastectomy radiotherapy, 25 percent for expander reinflation after radiotherapy, and 24 percent for skin-preserving delayed reconstruction. The complication rate for standard delayed reconstruction was 38 percent. Tissue-expander loss rates were 32 percent overall, 9 percent for stage 1, 5 percent for postmastectomy radiotherapy, and 22 percent for reinflation. Wound-healing complications after reconstruction occurred in 3 percent of protocol-group and 10 percent of control-group patients. The median follow-up time for patients still alive at last follow-up was 40 months (range, 8.5 to 85.3 months). Three-year recurrence-free survival rates were 92 percent (95 percent CI, 83 to 100 percent) and 86 percent (95 percent CI, 76 to 98 percent) for the protocol and control groups, respectively (p = 0.87). In patients with locally advanced breast cancer, skin-preserving mastectomy with a deflated tissue expander on the chest wall during postmastectomy radiotherapy does not increase locoregional recurrence risk and is associated with lower complication rates of definitive reconstruction.

  20. Prevalence and psychosocial correlates of symptoms suggestive of painful bladder syndrome: results from the Boston area community health survey.

    PubMed

    Link, Carol L; Pulliam, Samantha J; Hanno, Philip M; Hall, Susan A; Eggers, Paul W; Kusek, John W; McKinlay, John B

    2008-08-01

    We estimated the prevalence of symptoms suggestive of painful bladder syndrome defined as pain increasing as the bladder fills and/or pain relieved by urination for at least 3 months, and its association with sociodemographics (gender, age, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status), lifestyle (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity) and psychosocial variables (sexual, physical, emotional abuse experienced as a child or as an adult, worry, trouble paying for basics, depression). The data used come from the Boston Area Community Health Survey, an epidemiological study of 5,506 randomly selected adults 30 to 79 years old of 3 race/ethnic groups (black, Hispanic, white). The overall prevalence of symptoms suggestive of painful bladder syndrome was 2% (1.3% in men and 2.6% in women) with increased prevalence in middle-aged adults and those of lower socioeconomic status. Symptoms suggestive of painful bladder syndrome were more common in those who experienced abuse, in those who were worried about someone close to them and in those who were having trouble paying for basics. This pattern held even after adjusting for depression. Painful bladder syndrome is associated with a number of lifestyle and psychosocial correlates. This suggests that the treatment of patients with painful bladder syndrome (physical symptoms) may benefit from a multifaceted approach of combining medical, psychological and cognitive treatment.

  1. Central Sensitivity Syndromes: Mounting Pathophysiologic Evidence to Link Fibromyalgia with other Common Chronic Pain Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kindler, Lindsay L.; Bennett, Robert M.; Jones, Kim D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To review emerging data from the fields of nursing, rheumatology, dentistry, gastroenterology, gynecology, neurology, and orthopedics that supports or disputes pathophysiologic similarities in pain syndromes studied by each specialty. Methods A literature search was performed through PubMed and Ovid using the terms fibromyalgia, temporomandibular joint disorder, irritable bowel syndrome, irritable bladder/interstitial cystitis, headache, chronic low back pain, chronic neck pain, functional syndromes and somatization. Each term was linked with pathophysiology and/or central sensitization. This paper presents a review of relevant articles with a specific goal of identifying pathophysiological findings related to nociceptive processing. Results The extant literature presents considerable overlap in the pathophysiology of these diagnoses. Given the psychosomatic lens through which many of these disorders are viewed, demonstration of evidence based links supporting shared pathophysiology between these disorders could provide direction to clinicians and researchers working to treat these diagnoses. Conclusions Central sensitivity syndromes denotes an emerging nomenclature that could be embraced by researchers investigating each of these disorders. Moreover, a shared paradigm would be useful in promoting cross-fertilization between researchers. Scientists and clinicians could most effectively forward the understanding and treatment of fibromyalgia and other common chronic pain disorders through an appreciation of their shared pathophysiology. PMID:21349445

  2. [Physiotherapeutic assessment of chronic pelvic pain syndrome : Development of a standardized physiotherapeutic assessment instrument for interprofessional cooperation in patients with chronic pelvic pain syndrome].

    PubMed

    Klotz, S G R; Ketels, G; Richardsen, B; Löwe, B; Brünahl, C A

    2018-04-24

    The chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) can be associated with physiotherapeutic findings. An interprofessional approach is recommended for patients with CPPS; however, no standardized physiotherapeutic assessment and documentation instrument for specific physiotherapeutic assessments exist, which is not only the foundation for physiotherapy but also for interprofessional communication. The aim was the development of a physiotherapeutic assessment instrument for patients with CPPS and therefore, to create a tool for clinical use, research and interprofessional communication. Based on an explorative literature search and an expert consensus, the first version of the instrument was developed as part of a specialized outpatient clinic. This version was applied clinically for 13 months, edited and finalized after another expert consensus. The developed instrument Physical Therapy Assessment for Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (PTA-CPPS) lists external and internal groups of muscles for a systematic assessment of myofascial findings. Functional capacity, breathing movements as well as scars and regions of pain are recorded. A manual for the assessment protocol was developed as accompanying material. The developed instrument provides for the first time a physiotherapeutic assessment tool for patients with CPPS for interprofessional clinical and scientific use.

  3. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is associated with hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Chung, Shiu-Dong; Liu, Shih-Ping; Lin, Ching-Chun; Li, Hsien-Chang; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Although the etiology of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is still unclear, a common theme with BPS/IC patients is comorbid disorders which are related to the autonomic nervous system that connects the nervous system to end-organs. Nevertheless, no study to date has reported the association between hyperthyroidism and BPS/IC. In this study, we examined the association of IC/BPS with having previously been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism in Taiwan. Data in this study were retrieved from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database. Our study consisted of 736 female cases with BPS/IC and 2208 randomly selected female controls. We performed a conditional logistic regression to calculate the odds ratio (OR) for having previously been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism between cases and controls. Of the 2944 sampled subjects, there was a significant difference in the prevalence of prior hyperthyroidism between cases and controls (3.3% vs. 1.5%, p<0.001). The conditional logistic regression analysis revealed that compared to controls, the OR for prior hyperthyroidism among cases was 2.16 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.27∼3.66). Furthermore, the OR for prior hyperthyroidism among cases was 2.01 (95% CI: 1.15∼3.53) compared to controls after adjusting for diabetes, coronary heart disease, obesity, hyperlipidemia, chronic pelvic pain, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, depression, panic disorder, migraines, sicca syndrome, allergies, endometriosis, and asthma. Our study results indicated an association between hyperthyroidism and BPS/IC. We suggest that clinicians treating female subjects with hyperthyroidism be alert to urinary complaints in this population.

  4. Cold Pressor Pain Sensitivity in Twins Discordant for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ullrich, Phil; Afari, Niloofar; Jacobsen, Clemma; Goldberg, Jack; Buchwald, Dedra

    2010-01-01

    Objective Individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) experience many pain symptoms. The present study examined whether pain and fatigue ratings and pain threshold and tolerance levels for cold pain differed between twins with CFS and their cotwins without CFS. Design Cotwin control design to assess cold pain sensitivity, pain, and fatigue in monozygotic twins discordant for CFS. Patients and Setting Fifteen twin pairs discordant for CFS recruited from the volunteer Chronic Fatigue Twin Registry at the University of Washington. Results Although cold pain threshold and tolerance levels were slightly lower in twins with CFS than their cotwins without CFS, these differences failed to reach statistical significance. Subjective ratings of pain and fatigue at multiple time points during the experimental protocol among twins with CFS were significantly higher than ratings of pain (p = 0.003) and fatigue (p < 0.001) by their cotwins without CFS. Conclusions These results, while preliminary, highlight the perceptual and cognitive components to the pain experience in CFS. Future studies should focus on examining the heritability of pain sensitivity and the underlying mechanisms involved in the perception of pain sensitivity in CFS. PMID:17371408

  5. Conditioned Pain Modulation in Women with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, Monica E.; Shulman, Robert J.; Cain, Kevin C.; Deechakawan, Wimon; Smith, Lynne T.; Richebé, Philippe; Eugenio, Margaret; Heitkemper, Margaret M.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are more vigilant to pain-associated stimuli. The aims of this study were to compare women with IBS (n = 20) to healthy control (HC, n = 20) women on pain sensitivity, conditioned pain modulation (CPM) efficiency and salivary cortisol levels before and after the CPM test; and examine the relationship of CPM efficiency with gastrointestinal, somatic pain, and psychological distress symptoms in each group. Women, ages 20–42, gave consent, completed questionnaires and kept a symptom diary for 2 weeks. CPM efficiency was tested with a heat test stimulus and cold water condition stimulus in a laboratory between 8 and 10 a.m. on a follicular phase day. Salivary cortisol samples were collected just before and after the experimental testing. Compared to the HC group, women with IBS reported more days with gastrointestinal and somatic pain/discomfort, psychological distress, fatigue, and feeling stressed. During the CPM baseline testing women with IBS reported greater pain sensitivity compared to the HC group. In the IBS group, CPM efficiency was associated with the pain impact (PROMIS) measure, daily abdominal pain/discomfort, psychological distress, in particular anxiety. There was no group difference in salivary cortisol levels. Overall, women with IBS exhibit an increased sensitivity to thermal stimuli. Impaired CPM was present in a subset of women with IBS. PMID:24463504

  6. [Visceral pain--a neglected phenomenon in pain therapy and research?].

    PubMed

    Häuser, W; Lempa, M; Jänig, W

    2002-12-01

    The topic "visceral pain"is hardly covered in basic research and pain therapy. After low back pain, headache and musculosceletal pain is abdominal pain the 4th frequent chronic pain syndrome in the general population with considerable direct and indirect disease related costs.An interdisciplinary multimodal treatment of chronic abdominal pain syndromes is rarely practiced in clinical care.

  7. Abnormal Pain Modulation in Patients with Spatially Distributed Chronic Pain: Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Staud, Roland

    2009-01-01

    Many chronic pain syndromes including fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome, migraine headache, chronic back pain, and complex regional pain syndrome are associated with hypersensitivity to painful stimuli and with reduced endogenous pain inhibition. These findings suggest that modulation of pain-related information may be related to the onset and/or maintenance of chronic pain. Although pain sensitivity and pain inhibition are normally distributed in the general population, they are not useful as reliable predictors of future pain. The combination of heightened pain sensitivity and reduced pain-inhibition, however, appears to predispose individuals to greater risk for increased acute clinical pain (e.g., postoperative pain). It is unknown at this time whether such pain processing abnormalities may also place individuals at increased risk for chronic pain. Psychophysical methods, including heat sensory and pressure pain testing have become increasingly available and can be used for the evaluation of pain sensitivity and pain inhibition. However, long-term prospective studies in the general population are lacking which could yield insight into the role of heightened pain sensitivity and pain disinhibition for the development of chronic pain disorders like fibromyalgia. PMID:19647141

  8. Normal sensorimotor plasticity in complex regional pain syndrome with fixed posture of the hand.

    PubMed

    Morgante, Francesca; Naro, Antonino; Terranova, Carmen; Russo, Margherita; Rizzo, Vincenzo; Risitano, Giovanni; Girlanda, Paolo; Quartarone, Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Movement disorders associated with complex regional pain syndrome type I have been a subject of controversy over the last 10 years regarding their nature and pathophysiology, with an intense debate about the functional (psychogenic) nature of this disorder. The aim of this study was to test sensorimotor plasticity and cortical excitability in patients with complex regional pain syndrome type I who developed a fixed posture of the hand. Ten patients with complex regional pain syndrome type I in the right upper limb and a fixed posture of the hand (disease duration less than 24 months) and 10 age-matched healthy subjects were enrolled. The following parameters of corticospinal excitability were recorded from the abductor pollicis brevis muscle of both hands by transcranial magnetic stimulation: resting and active motor thresholds, short-interval intracortical inhibition and facilitation, cortical silent period, and short- and long-latency afferent inhibition. Sensorimotor plasticity was tested using the paired associative stimulation protocol. Short-interval intracortical inhibition and long-latency afferent inhibition were reduced only in the affected right hand of patients compared with control subjects. Sensorimotor plasticity was comparable to normal subjects, with a preserved topographic specificity. Our data support the view that motor disorder in complex regional pain syndrome type I is not associated with abnormal sensorimotor plasticity, and it shares pathophysiological abnormalities with functional (psychogenic) dystonia rather than with idiopathic dystonia. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  9. Excruciating Low Back Pain After Strenuous Exertion: Beware of Lumbar Paraspinal Compartment Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vanbrabant, Peter; Moke, Lieven; Meersseman, Wouter; Vanderschueren, Geert; Knockaert, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Low back pain is extremely common and usually a minor self-limiting condition. Rarely, however, it is a harbinger of serious medical illness. Paraspinal compartment syndrome is a rare condition, but its timely recognition is important to allow adequate treatment. A 16-year-old boy presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with severe low back pain, necessitating intravenous opioids. Laboratory results showed severe rhabdomyolysis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine showed diffuse edema and swelling in the paraspinal muscles. Aggressive fluid therapy was started but despite narcotic analgesia the pain persisted and creatine kinase (CK) levels increased. Compartment pressures of the erector spinae were found to be increased. The decision was made to proceed with bilateral paraspinal fasciotomies. Postoperatively, the patient noted immediate pain relief with rapid decrease of CK level. The patient is pain free and resumed running and swimming 3 months after admission in the ED. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Although paraspinal compartment syndrome is a rare condition, its recognition is of paramount importance to allow adequate surgical treatment, preventing muscle necrosis. Although back pain most often has a benign course, a careful history and physical examination in patients presenting with low back pain allows determination of "red flags." Mandatory further diagnostic tests can identify underlying serious illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bertolotti Syndrome: A Diagnostic and Management Dilemma for Pain Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Anil; Jain, Suruchi; Shamshery, Chetna

    2013-01-01

    Background Bertolotti's syndrome (BS), a form of lumbago in lumbosacral transitional vertebrae, is an important cause of low back pain in young patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the etiology of low back pain and the efficacy of treatment offered to patients with BS. Methods All patients of BS Castellvi type1a during a period of 6 months were enrolled in the study. The patients underwent interventional pain procedures for diagnosis and pain relief. Response to the therapy was assessed based on VAS and ODI scores. A 50% decrease in VAS score or a VAS score less than 3 would be considered adequate pain relief. Results All 20 patients diagnosed with BS during the 6-month observation period had scoliosis. Common causes of back pain were the ipsilateral L5-S1 facet joint, neoarticulation, the SI joint, and disc degeneration. Responses to various interventions for pain relief were different and inconsistent from patient to patient. In particular, responses to interventions for neoarticular pain were generally poor. Conclusions Pain in patients with BS does not usually respond to interventional pain treatment. A very dynamic treatment approach must be pursued while managing BS patients, and the treatment plan must be individualized at various stages in order to obtain satisfactory pain relief. PMID:24156003

  11. Patellofemoral pain syndrome: electromyography in a frequency domain analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catelli, D. S.; Kuriki, H. U.; Polito, L. F.; Azevedo, F. M.; Negrão Filho, R. F.; Alves, N.

    2011-09-01

    The Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS), has a multifactorial etiology and affects approximately 7 to 15% of the population, mostly women, youth, adults and active persons. PFPS causes anterior or retropatelar pain that is exacerbated during functional motor gestures, such as up and down stairs or spending long periods of time sitting, squatting or kneeling. As the diagnostic evaluation of this syndrome is still indirect, different mechanisms and methodologies try to make a classification that distinguishes patients with PFPS in relation to asymptomatic. Thereby, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the characteristics of the electromyographic (EMG) signal in the frequency domain of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO) and vastus lateralis (VL) in patients with PFPS, during the ascent of stairs. 33 young women (22 control group and 11 PFPS group), were evaluated by EMG during ascent of stairs. The VMO mean power frequency (MPF) and the VL frequency 95% (F95) were lower in symptomatic individuals. This may be related to the difference in muscle recruitment strategy exerted by each muscle in the PFPS group compared to the control group.

  12. Immunological Mechanisms Underlying Chronic Pelvic Pain and Prostate Inflammation in Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Breser, María L.; Salazar, Florencia C.; Rivero, Viginia E.; Motrich, Rubén D.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is the most common urologic morbidity in men younger than 50 years and is characterized by a diverse range of pain and inflammatory symptoms, both in type and severity, that involve the region of the pelvis, perineum, scrotum, rectum, testes, penis, and lower back. In most patients, pain is accompanied by inflammation in the absence of an invading infectious agent. Since CP/CPPS etiology is still not well established, available therapeutic options for patients are far from satisfactory for either physicians or patients. During the past two decades, chronic inflammation has been deeply explored as the cause of CP/CPPS. In this review article, we summarize the current knowledge regarding immunological mechanisms underlying chronic pelvic pain and prostate inflammation in CP/CPPS. Cumulative evidence obtained from both human disease and animal models indicate that several factors may trigger chronic inflammation in the form of autoimmunity against prostate, fostering chronic prostate recruitment of Th1 cells, and different other leukocytes, including mast cells, which might be the main actors in the consequent development of chronic pelvic pain. Thus, the local inflammatory milieu and the secretion of inflammatory mediators may induce neural sensitization leading to chronic pelvic pain development. Although scientific advances are encouraging, additional studies are urgently needed to establish the relationship between prostatitis development, mast cell recruitment to the prostate, and the precise mechanisms by which they would induce pelvic pain. PMID:28824626

  13. Orofacial complex regional pain syndrome: pathophysiologic mechanisms and functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeon-Hee; Lee, Kyung Mi; Kim, Hyug-Gi; Kang, Soo-Kyung; Auh, Q-Schick; Hong, Jyung-Pyo; Chun, Yang-Hyun

    2017-08-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is one of the most challenging chronic pain conditions and is characterized by burning pain, allodynia, hyperalgesia, autonomic changes, trophic changes, edema, and functional loss involving mainly the extremities. Until recently, very few reports have been published concerning CRPS involving the orofacial area. We report on a 50-year-old female patient who presented with unbearable pain in all of her teeth and hypersensitivity of the facial skin. She also reported intractable pain in both extremities accompanied by temperature changes and orofacial pain that increased when the other pains were aggravated. In the case of CRPS with trigeminal neuropathic pain, protocols for proper diagnosis and prompt treatment have yet to be established in academia or in the clinical field. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging for a thorough analysis of the cortical representation of the affected orofacial area immediately before and immediately after isolated light stimulus of the affected hand and foot and concluded that CRPS can be correlated with trigeminal neuropathy in the orofacial area. Furthermore, the patient was treated with carbamazepine administration and stellate ganglion block, which can result in a rapid improvement of pain in the trigeminal region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Children and adolescents with complex regional pain syndrome: More psychologically distressed than other children in pain?

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Deirdre E; Williams, Sara E; Carullo, Veronica P; Claar, Robyn Lewis; Bruehl, Stephen; Berde, Charles B

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Historically, in both adult and pediatric populations, a lack of knowledge regarding complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and absence of clear diagnostic criteria have contributed to the view that this is a primarily psychiatric condition. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that children with CRPS are more functionally disabled, have more pain and are more psychologically distressed than children with other pain conditions. METHODS: A total of 101 children evaluated in a tertiary care pediatric pain clinic who met the International Association for the Study of Pain consensus diagnostic criteria for CRPS participated in the present retrospective study. Comparison groups included 103 children with abdominal pain, 291 with headache and 119 with back pain. Children and parents completed self-report questionnaires assessing disability, somatization, pain coping, depression, anxiety and school attendance. RESULTS: Children with CRPS reported higher pain intensity and more recent onset of pain at the initial tertiary pain clinic evaluation compared with children with other chronic pain conditions. They reported greater functional disability and more somatic symptoms than children with headaches or back pain. Scores on measures of depression and anxiety were within normal limits and similar to those of children in other pain diagnostic groups. CONCLUSIONS: As a group, clinic-referred children with CRPS may be more functionally impaired and experience more somatic symptoms compared with children with other pain conditions. However, overall psychological functioning as assessed by self-report appears to be similar to that of children with other chronic pain diagnoses. Comprehensive assessment using a biopsychosocial framework is essential to understanding and appropriately treating children with symptoms of CRPS. PMID:23662291

  15. Brain processing of pain in patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Markl, Alexandra; Yu, Tao; Vogel, Dominik; Müller, Friedemann; Kotchoubey, Boris; Lang, Simone

    2013-01-01

    By definition, patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) do not experience pain, but it is still not completely understood how far their brain can process noxious stimuli. The few positron emission tomography studies that have examined pain processing did not yield a clear and consistent result. We performed an functional magnetic resonance imaging scan in 30 UWS patients of nontraumatic etiology and 15 age- and sex-matched healthy control participants (HC). In a block design, noxious electrical stimuli were presented at the patients' left index finger, alternating with a resting baseline condition. Sixteen of the UWS patients (53%) showed neural activation in at least one subsystem of the pain-processing network. More specifically, 15 UWS patients (50%) showed responses in the sensory-discriminative pain network, 30% in the affective pain network. The data indicate that some patients completely fulfilling the clinical UWS criteria have the neural substrates of noxious stimulation processing, which resemble that in control individuals. We therefore suppose that at least some of these patients can experience pain. PMID:23533065

  16. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) with resistance to local anesthetic block: a case report.

    PubMed

    Maneksha, F R; Mirza, H; Poppers, P J

    2000-02-01

    We present a case of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) Type 1 in a 12-year-old girl. The patient did not respond to the usual therapeutic modalities used to treat CRPS, including physical therapy, lumbar sympathetic block, epidural local anesthetic block, intravenous lidocaine infusion, or other oral medications. Of note is the fact that, during epidural block, the patient demonstrated a resistance to local anesthetic neural blockade in the area of the body involved with the pain problem. The mechanism of this resistance could be related to the changes in the dorsal horn cells of the spinal cord, secondary to activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, which may play a role in the pathophysiology of this pain syndrome.

  17. Asymmetries in reciprocal baroreflex mechanisms and chronic pain severity: Focusing on irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Davydov, D M; Naliboff, B; Shahabi, L; Shapiro, D

    2018-02-01

    Objective measures of pain severity remain ill defined, although its accurate measurement is critical. Reciprocal baroreflex mechanisms of blood pressure (BP) control were found to impact differently on pain regulation, and thus their asymmetry was hypothesized to also connect to chronic pain duration and severity. Seventy-eight female patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and 27 healthy women were assessed for IBS severity and chronicity, negative affect, and various measures of resting autonomic function including BP, heart rate and its variability (HRV), baroreceptor-sensitivity to activations and inhibitions, gains of brady- and tachy-cardiac baro-responses, gains of BP falls/rises, and BP start points for these spontaneous baroreflexes. IBS directly and indirectly (through increased negative affect) was associated with asymmetry between baroreceptor activations/inhibitions compared to symmetrical baroreflex reciprocity in the healthy women. In the IBS group, independently of specific IBS symptoms, pain chronicity was associated with (i) decreased BP falls coupled with either (a) decreased tachycardia associated with lower disease severity (earlier "pain resilience" mechanism), or (b) decreased bradycardia associated with higher disease severity (later "pain decompensation" mechanism), or (ii) increased BP start point for baroreceptor activations coupled with either (a) BP increase (delayed "pain adaptation" mechanism) or (b) affect-related HRV decrease (delayed "pain aggravation" mechanism). We anticipate the findings to be a starting point for validating these autonomic metrics of pain suffering and pain coping mechanisms in other chronic pain syndromes to suggest them as biomarkers of its severity and duration for profiling and correct management of chronic pain patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Search for Microorganisms in Men with Urologic Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome: A Culture-Independent Analysis in the MAPP Research Network.

    PubMed

    Nickel, J Curtis; Stephens, Alisa; Landis, J Richard; Chen, Jun; Mullins, Chris; van Bokhoven, Adrie; Lucia, M Scott; Melton-Kreft, Rachael; Ehrlich, Garth D

    2015-07-01

    We used next-generation, state-of-the-art, culture independent methodology to survey urine microbiota of males with urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome and control participants enrolled in the MAPP Network to investigate a possible microbial etiology. Male patients with urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome and matched controls were asked to provide initial, midstream and post-prostatic massage urine specimens. Specimens were analyzed with Ibis T-5000 Universal Biosensor technology to provide comprehensive identification of bacterial and select fungal species. Differences between urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome and control study participants for the presence of species or species variation in a higher taxonomic grouping (genus) were evaluated using permutational multivariate analysis of variance and logistic regression. Initial and midstream urine specimens were obtained from 110 (post-prostatic massage urine in 67) participants with urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome and 115 (post-prostatic massage urine in 62) controls. Overall 78, 73 and 54 species (42, 39 and 27 genera) were detected in initial, midstream and post-prostatic massage urine specimens, respectively. Mean (SD) initial, midstream and post-prostatic massage urine species count per person was 1.62 (1.28), 1.38 (1.36) and 1.33 (1.24) for cases, and 1.75 (1.32), 1.23 (1.15) and 1.56 (0.97) for controls, respectively. Overall species and genus composition differed significantly between participants with urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome and controls in initial stream urine (p=0.002 species level, p=0.004 genus level), with Burkholderia cenocepacia overrepresented in urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome. No significant differences were observed at any level in midstream or post-prostatic massage urine samples. Assessment of baseline culture-independent microbiological data from male subjects enrolled in the MAPP Network has identified overrepresentation of B. cenocepacia in urologic chronic

  19. Bullous Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A description of the clinical and histopathologic features.

    PubMed

    Ho, J D; Al-Haseni; Smith, S; Bhawan, J; Sahni, D

    2018-04-27

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS, formerly reflex sympathetic dystrophy) is a poorly understood syndrome occurring most commonly after peripheral trauma.(1) Diagnostic features include pain, autonomic dysregulation, sensory/motor abnormalities and trophic changes involving the affected limb.(1,2) Dermatologic findings include erythema, atrophy, xerosis, erosive disease, and reticulated erythematous patches.(3,4) Exceptionally, blistering has been reported.(5-7) Given its rarity, the clinical and histopathologic findings of bullous CRPS are not well described. We report a case of bullous CRPS in a patient with mycosis fungoides (MF), describing the clinical and histopathologic features of this uncommon entity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Arthroscopic treatment of painful Sinding-Larsen-Johansson syndrome in a professional handball player.

    PubMed

    Kajetanek, C; Thaunat, M; Guimaraes, T; Carnesecchi, O; Daggett, M; Sonnery-Cottet, B

    2016-09-01

    Sinding-Larsen-Johansson (SLJ) syndrome is a type of osteochondrosis of the distal pole of the patella most often caused by repeated microtrauma. Here, we describe the case of a professional athlete with painful SLJ syndrome treated arthroscopically. A 29-year-old male professional handball player presented with anterior knee pain that persisted after 4 months of an eccentric rehabilitation protocol and platelet-rich plasma injections. Despite this conservative treatment, the patient could not participate in his sport. The SLJ lesion was excised arthroscopically, which led to complete disappearance of symptoms and return to competitive sports after 5 months. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Hand pain other than carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS): the role of occupational factors.

    PubMed

    Andréu, José-Luis; Otón, Teresa; Silva-Fernández, Lucía; Sanz, Jesús

    2011-02-01

    Some occupational factors have been implicated in the development of disorders manifested as hand pain. The associations seem to be well documented in processes such as hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) or writer's cramp. There are contradictory data in the literature about the relationships of trigger finger, De Quervain's tenosynovitis (DQT) and tenosynovitis of the wrist with occupational factors. In this article, we review current knowledge about clinical manifestations, case definition, implicated occupational factors, diagnosis and treatment of the most relevant hand pain disorders that have been associated with occupational factors, excluding carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pain and Cognitive Functioning in Adults with Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    de Knegt, Nanda C; Lobbezoo, Frank; Schuengel, Carlo; Evenhuis, Heleen M; Scherder, Erik J A

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether cognitive functioning (i.e., memory and executive functioning) is related to self-reported presence of pain (i.e., affirmative answer to the question whether the individual feels pain) and experience of pain (i.e., intensity and affect) in adults with Down syndrome (DS). Cross-sectional study of 224 adults with DS (mean age = 38.1 years, mild-severe intellectual disabilities) in the Netherlands. File-based medical information was evaluated. Self-reported presence and experience of pain were assessed during a test session, both in rest and after movement (affect with the facial affective scale [FAS], intensity with the numeric rating scale [NRS]). Neuropsychological tests for memory and executive functioning were used. Participants with lower memory scores were more likely to report the presence of pain, while controlling for age, gender, physical conditions that may cause pain, language comprehension, and vocabulary ( p  = .030, 58.4% classification rate, N  = 154). No statistically significant associations were found between executive functioning and self-reported presence of pain or between cognitive functioning and self-reported pain experience. Memory seems to be related to the self-reported presence of pain in adults with DS after explicit inquiry, although the clinical use of this model is yet limited. Therefore, further research is needed for insight into the role of cognitive processes in self-report (e.g., involving aspects such as acquiescence and repeated measurements) to evaluate whether neuropsychological examination could contribute to pain assessment in DS. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  3. Bladder Pain Syndrome/Interstitial Cystitis Is Associated with Hyperthyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shih-Ping; Lin, Ching-Chun; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the etiology of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is still unclear, a common theme with BPS/IC patients is comorbid disorders which are related to the autonomic nervous system that connects the nervous system to end-organs. Nevertheless, no study to date has reported the association between hyperthyroidism and BPS/IC. In this study, we examined the association of IC/BPS with having previously been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism in Taiwan. Design Data in this study were retrieved from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database. Our study consisted of 736 female cases with BPS/IC and 2208 randomly selected female controls. We performed a conditional logistic regression to calculate the odds ratio (OR) for having previously been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism between cases and controls. Results Of the 2944 sampled subjects, there was a significant difference in the prevalence of prior hyperthyroidism between cases and controls (3.3% vs. 1.5%, p<0.001). The conditional logistic regression analysis revealed that compared to controls, the OR for prior hyperthyroidism among cases was 2.16 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.27∼3.66). Furthermore, the OR for prior hyperthyroidism among cases was 2.01 (95% CI: 1.15∼3.53) compared to controls after adjusting for diabetes, coronary heart disease, obesity, hyperlipidemia, chronic pelvic pain, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, depression, panic disorder, migraines, sicca syndrome, allergies, endometriosis, and asthma. Conclusions Our study results indicated an association between hyperthyroidism and BPS/IC. We suggest that clinicians treating female subjects with hyperthyroidism be alert to urinary complaints in this population. PMID:23991081

  4. Category III chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: insights from the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Collaborative Research Network studies.

    PubMed

    Nickel, J Curtis; Alexander, Richard B; Anderson, Rodney; Berger, Richard; Comiter, Craig V; Datta, Nand S; Fowler, Jackson E; Krieger, John N; Landis, J Richard; Litwin, Mark S; McNaughton-Collins, Mary; O'Leary, Michael P; Pontari, Michel A; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Shoskes, Daniel A; White, Paige; Kusek, John; Nyberg, Leroy

    2008-07-01

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome remains an enigmatic medical condition. Creation of the National Institutes of Health-funded Chronic Prostatitis Collaborative Research Network (CPCRN) has stimulated a renewed interest in research on and clinical aspects of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Landmark publications of the CPCRN document a decade of progress. Insights from these CPCRN studies have improved our management of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and offer hope for continued progress.

  5. Systematic review of chronic pain in persons with Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Velvin, G; Bathen, T; Rand-Hendriksen, S; Geirdal, A Ø

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the literature on chronic pain in adults with Marfan syndrome (MFS), critically appraising and synthesizing relevant literature. A systematic review was conducted by searching the published literature databases using available medical, physical, psychological, social databases and other sources. All studies that addressed pain in MFS, published in peer-reviewed journals were assessed. Of 351 search results, 18 articles satisfied the eligibility criteria. All studies were cross-sectional and quantitative; no randomized controlled trials or intervention studies were found. Most studies had small sample sizes, low response rates and mainly dealt with other aspects of the diagnosis than pain. Only one article dealt mainly with pain. The research on chronic pain in MFS is limited in size and quality. Despite these limitations, studies describe that the prevalence of pain in patients with MFS is high, varying from 47 to 92% and affecting several anatomic sites. In addition, chronic pain limits daily function and few studies describe treatment options for pain in patients with MFS. Research is needed to obtain more evidence-based knowledge for developing more appropriate rehabilitation programs for people with MFS. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. New developments in the diagnosis and treatment of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pontari, Michel; Giusto, Laura

    2013-11-01

    To describe new developments in the diagnosis and treatment of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS). Symptoms in men with chronic prostatitis/CPPS appear to cluster into a group with primarily pelvic or localized disease, and a group with more systemic symptoms. Several other chronic pain conditions can be associated with chronic prostatitis/CPPS, including irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, and chronic fatigue syndrome. Markers of neurologic inflammation and autoimmune disease parallel changes in symptoms after treatment. Treatment options include new alpha-blockers, psychological intervention, and prostate-directed therapy. The areas of acupuncture and pelvic floor physical therapy/myofascial release have received increased recent attention and appear to be good options in these patients. Future therapy may include antibodies to mediators of neurogenic inflammation and even treatment of bacteria in the bowel. The diagnosis of chronic prostatitis/CPPS must include conditions traditionally outside the scope of urologic practice but important for the care of men with chronic pelvic pain. The treatment is best done using multiple simultaneous therapies aimed at the different aspects of the condition.

  7. Altered structural connectivity of pain-related brain network in burning mouth syndrome-investigation by graph analysis of probabilistic tractography.

    PubMed

    Wada, Akihiko; Shizukuishi, Takashi; Kikuta, Junko; Yamada, Haruyasu; Watanabe, Yusuke; Imamura, Yoshiki; Shinozaki, Takahiro; Dezawa, Ko; Haradome, Hiroki; Abe, Osamu

    2017-05-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic intraoral pain syndrome featuring idiopathic oral pain and burning discomfort despite clinically normal oral mucosa. The etiology of chronic pain syndrome is unclear, but preliminary neuroimaging research has suggested the alteration of volume, metabolism, blood flow, and diffusion at multiple brain regions. According to the neuromatrix theory of Melzack, pain sense is generated in the brain by the network of multiple pain-related brain regions. Therefore, the alteration of pain-related network is also assumed as an etiology of chronic pain. In this study, we investigated the brain network of BMS brain by using probabilistic tractography and graph analysis. Fourteen BMS patients and 14 age-matched healthy controls underwent 1.5T MRI. Structural connectivity was calculated in 83 anatomically defined regions with probabilistic tractography of 60-axis diffusion tensor imaging and 3D T1-weighted imaging. Graph theory network analysis was used to evaluate the brain network at local and global connectivity. In BMS brain, a significant difference of local brain connectivity was recognized at the bilateral rostral anterior cingulate cortex, right medial orbitofrontal cortex, and left pars orbitalis which belong to the medial pain system; however, no significant difference was recognized at the lateral system including the somatic sensory cortex. A strengthened connection of the anterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex with the basal ganglia, thalamus, and brain stem was revealed. Structural brain network analysis revealed the alteration of the medial system of the pain-related brain network in chronic pain syndrome.

  8. Evaluation of the impact of the urinary symptoms on quality of life of patients with painful bladder syndrome/chronic pelvic pain and radiation cystitis: EURCIS study.

    PubMed

    Rapariz-González, M; Castro-Díaz, D; Mejía-Rendón, D

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the impact of urinary symptoms of Painful Bladder/Pelvic Pain Syndrome and Radiation Cystitis (PBCPPS) on the Quality of Life, and self-esteem of the patient. An observational, multicenter, epidemiological and cross-sectional study was performed on patients with Painful Bladder/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome and Radiation Cystitis. Data was recorded on severity of urinary symptoms and QoL impairment using the PUF Score. The patients evaluated the QoL deterioration grade through the King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ), and the level of their anxiety and self-esteem with the Goldberg's Anxiety Scale (GAS) and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), respectively. Post-hoc comparisons were performed between the results of the KHQ of this study and a sample of patients with urinary incontinence (UI). Results on RSES were analyzed with data from the general population and from patients with erectile dysfunction. A total of 530 cases, mostly female patients, who had been diagnosed with PBCPPS, were analyzed. High levels of deterioration in QoL were described: KHQ scores were significantly higher when compared with patients with UI (P<.01). Involvement of self-esteem was higher in patients with RC and men, who obtained scores similar to those of patients with erectile dysfunction. Patients with Painful Bladder Syndrome/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome and Radiation Cystitis present high levels of anxiety, and significant reductions in both quality of life and self-esteem. Especially for men, this affectation is similar to that caused by erectile dysfunction. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Chronic abdominal wall pain misdiagnosed as functional abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    van Assen, Tijmen; de Jager-Kievit, Jenneke W A J; Scheltinga, Marc R; Roumen, Rudi M H

    2013-01-01

    The abdominal wall is often neglected as a cause of chronic abdominal pain. The aim of this study was to identify chronic abdominal wall pain syndromes, such as anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES), in a patient population diagnosed with functional abdominal pain, including irritable bowel syndrome, using a validated 18-item questionnaire as an identification tool. In this cross-sectional analysis, 4 Dutch primary care practices employing physicians who were unaware of the existence of ACNES were selected. A total of 535 patients ≥18 years old who were registered with a functional abdominal pain diagnosis were approached when they were symptomatic to complete the questionnaire (maximum 18 points). Responders who scored at least the 10-point cutoff value (sensitivity, 0.94; specificity, 0.92) underwent a diagnostic evaluation to establish their final diagnosis. The main outcome was the presence and prevalence of ACNES in a group of symptomatic patients diagnosed with functional abdominal pain. Of 535 patients, 304 (57%) responded; 167 subjects (31%) recently reporting symptoms completed the questionnaire. Of 23 patients who scored above the 10-point cutoff value, 18 were available for a diagnostic evaluation. In half of these subjects (n = 9) functional abdominal pain (including IBS) was confirmed. However, the other 9 patients were suffering from abdominal wall pain syndrome, 6 of whom were diagnosed with ACNES (3.6% prevalence rate of symptomatic subjects; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-7.6), whereas the remaining 3 harbored a painful lipoma, an abdominal herniation, and a painful scar. A clinically relevant portion of patients previously diagnosed with functional abdominal pain syndrome in a primary care environment suffers from an abdominal wall pain syndrome such as ACNES.

  10. The MAPP research network: a novel study of urologic chronic pelvic pain syndromes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome (UCPPS) may be defined to include interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). The hallmark symptom of UCPPS is chronic pain in the pelvis, urogenital floor, or external genitalia often accompanied by lower urinary tract symptoms. Despite numerous past basic and clinical research studies there is no broadly identifiable organ-specific pathology or understanding of etiology or risk factors for UCPPS, and diagnosis relies primarily on patient reported symptoms. In addition, there are no generally effective therapies. Recent findings have, however, revealed associations between UCPPS and “centralized” chronic pain disorders, suggesting UCPPS may represent a local manifestation of more widespread pathology in some patients. Here, we describe a new and novel effort initiated by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) of the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) to address the many long standing questions regarding UCPPS, the Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP) Research Network. The MAPP Network approaches UCPPS in a systemic manner, in which the interplay between the genitourinary system and other physiological systems is emphasized. The network’s study design expands beyond previous research, which has primarily focused on urologic organs and tissues, to utilize integrated approaches to define patient phenotypes, identify clinically-relevant subgroups, and better understand treated natural history and pathophysiology. Thus, the MAPP Network provides an unprecedented, multi-layered characterization of UCPPS. Knowledge gained is expected to provide important insights into underlying pathophysiology, a foundation for better segmenting patients for future clinical trials, and ultimately translation into improved clinical management. In addition, the MAPP Network’s integrated multi

  11. Glomus tumor presenting as complex regional pain syndrome of the left upper limb: a case report.

    PubMed

    Macharia, Chege; Nthumba, Peter M

    2015-12-29

    Glomus tumors of the hand are rare, benign but debilitating neoplasms arising from the neuromyoarterial glomus body. They may present a diagnostic dilemma, and take years with multiple consultations and investigations before an appropriate diagnosis is made, but once a diagnosis is made, surgical excision is curative. This is a case presentation of a 35-year-old African man who presented with complex regional pain syndrome of his left upper extremity, whose genesis was found to be a glomus tumor of the pulp of his left middle finger. Surgical excision resulted in resolution of the chronic regional pain syndrome and a return to a normal lifestyle. Chronic regional pain syndrome is a rare presentation of a glomus tumor, which has only been previously reported in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1, and one patient who did not have neurofibromatosis. Patients with glomus tumors may spend many years in pain and distress because of misdiagnosis. Sensitization and education of both the public and health care workers will help in early diagnosis and treatment of this otherwise potentially disabling pathology for which surgical excision is curative.

  12. Imaging findings in a child with calcineurin inhibitor-induced pain syndrome after bone marrow transplant for beta thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Ayyala, Rama S; Arnold, Staci D; Bhatia, Monica; Dastgir, Jahannaz

    2016-10-01

    Calcineurin inhibitor-induced pain syndrome is an entity recognized in patients on immunosuppressive therapy after transplantation. Diagnosis is characterized by onset of pain beginning in the setting of an elevated calcineurin-inhibitor trough level. Reducing the medication dose relieves symptoms. Imaging findings can be nonspecific, including bone marrow edema and periosteal reaction. We present the unique case of calcineurin inhibitor-induced pain syndrome in a child and review the imaging findings.

  13. Incidence of tempero-mandibular joint pain dysfunction syndrome in rural population.

    PubMed

    Rao, M B; Rao, C B

    1981-08-01

    The incidence and clinical course of the tempero-mandibular joint dysfunction syndrome was studied among 1187 subjects over the age of 16, who attended the rural dental consultations held at various places in the State of Karnataka, India. The study revealed an incidence of 20.3%. Contracy to earlier reports, the incidence was higher in males than in females and more married females were affected than unmarried. Clicking appeared to be the predominant symptom in all age groups. The incidence of pain increased with age. Of all patients 43.75% were not aware of a clicking joint; 53.7% persons with clicking and 14% with pain were not disturbed by their symptoms. The findings of the study failed to establish any relationship between unilateral missing teeth and the occurrence of the pain dysfunction syndrome (PDS). The chewing habits (betel leaf, tobacco, betel nut) which are prevalent in India appeared to have no effect on the incidence of PDS. It is suggested that more epidemiological studies should be carried out in different parts of the world with varying social, political and economic systems to enable better understanding of the global incidence of PDS.

  14. The Expression of Inflammatory Mediators in Bladder Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Offiah, Ifeoma; Didangelos, Athanasios; Dawes, John; Cartwright, Rufus; Khullar, Vik; Bradbury, Elizabeth J; O'Sullivan, Suzanne; Williams, Dic; Chessell, Iain P; Pallas, Kenny; Graham, Gerry; O'Reilly, Barry A; McMahon, Stephen B

    2016-08-01

    Bladder pain syndrome (BPS) pathology is poorly understood. Treatment strategies are empirical, with limited efficacy, and affected patients have diminished quality of life. We examined the hypothesis that inflammatory mediators within the bladder contribute to BPS pathology. Fifteen women with BPS and 15 women with stress urinary incontinence without bladder pain were recruited from Cork University Maternity Hospital from October 2011 to October 2012. During cystoscopy, 5-mm bladder biopsies were taken and processed for gene expression analysis. The effect of the identified genes was tested in laboratory animals. We studied the expression of 96 inflammation-related genes in diseased and healthy bladders. We measured the correlation between genes and patient clinical profiles using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Analysis revealed 15 differentially expressed genes, confirmed in a replication study. FGF7 and CCL21 correlated significantly with clinical outcomes. Intravesical CCL21 instillation in rats caused increased bladder excitability and increased c-fos activity in spinal cord neurons. CCL21 atypical receptor knockout mice showed significantly more c-fos upon bladder stimulation with CCL21 than wild-type littermates. There was no change in FGF7-treated animals. The variability in patient samples presented as the main limitation. We used principal component analysis to identify similarities within the patient group. Our study identified two biologically relevant inflammatory mediators in BPS and demonstrated an increase in nociceptive signalling with CCL21. Manipulation of this ligand is a potential new therapeutic strategy for BPS. We compared gene expression in bladder biopsies of patients with bladder pain syndrome (BPS) and controls without pain and identified two genes that were increased in BPS patients and correlated with clinical profiles. We tested the effect of these genes in laboratory animals, confirming their role in bladder pain. Manipulating

  15. A standard for terminology in chronic pelvic pain syndromes: A report from the chronic pelvic pain working group of the international continence society.

    PubMed

    Doggweiler, Regula; Whitmore, Kristene E; Meijlink, Jane M; Drake, Marcus J; Frawley, Helena; Nordling, Jørgen; Hanno, Philip; Fraser, Matthew O; Homma, Yukio; Garrido, Gustavo; Gomes, Mario J; Elneil, Sohier; van de Merwe, Joop P; Lin, Alex T L; Tomoe, Hikaru

    2017-04-01

    Terms used in the field of chronic pelvic pain (CPP) are poorly defined and often confusing. An International Continence Society (ICS) Standard for Terminology in chronic pelvic pain syndromes (CPPS) has been developed with the aim of improving diagnosis and treatment of patients affected by chronic pelvic pain syndromes. The standard aims to facilitate research, enhance therapy development and support healthcare delivery, for healthcare providers, and patients. This document looks at the whole person and all the domains (organ systems) in a systematic way. A dedicated working group (WG) was instituted by the ICS Standardisation Steering Committee according to published procedures. The WG extracted information from existing relevant guidelines, consensus documents, and scientific publications. Medline and other databases were searched in relation to each chronic pelvic pain domain from 1980 to 2014. Existing ICS Standards for terminology were utilized where appropriate to ensure transparency, accessibility, flexibility, and evolution. Consensus was based on majority agreement. The multidisciplinary CPPS Standard reports updated consensus terminology in nine domains; lower urinary tract, female genital, male genital, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, neurological aspects, psychological aspects, sexual aspects, and comorbidities. Each is described in terms of symptoms, signs and further evaluation. The document presents preferred terms and definitions for symptoms, signs, and evaluation (diagnostic work-up) of female and male patients with chronic pelvic pain syndromes, serving as a platform for ongoing development in this field. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:984-1008, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Treatment of abdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vanuytsel, Tim; Tack, Jan F; Boeckxstaens, Guy E

    2014-08-01

    Functional abdominal pain in the context of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a challenging problem for primary care physicians, gastroenterologists and pain specialists. We review the evidence for the current and future non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment options targeting the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. Cognitive interventions such as cognitive behavioral therapy and hypnotherapy have demonstrated excellent results in IBS patients, but the limited availability and labor-intensive nature limit their routine use in daily practice. In patients who are refractory to first-line therapy, tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are both effective to obtain symptomatic relief, but only TCAs have been shown to improve abdominal pain in meta-analyses. A diet low in fermentable carbohydrates and polyols (FODMAP) seems effective in subgroups of patients to reduce abdominal pain, bloating, and to improve the stool pattern. The evidence for fiber is limited and only isphagula may be somewhat beneficial. The efficacy of probiotics is difficult to interpret since several strains in different quantities have been used across studies. Antispasmodics, including peppermint oil, are still considered the first-line treatment for abdominal pain in IBS. Second-line therapies for diarrhea-predominant IBS include the non-absorbable antibiotic rifaximin and the 5HT3 antagonists alosetron and ramosetron, although the use of the former is restricted because of the rare risk of ischemic colitis. In laxative-resistant, constipation-predominant IBS, the chloride-secretion stimulating drugs lubiprostone and linaclotide, a guanylate cyclase C agonist that also has direct analgesic effects, reduce abdominal pain and improve the stool pattern.

  17. Comparison of effectiveness of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation and Kinesio Taping added to exercises in patients with myofascial pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Azatcam, Gokmen; Atalay, Nilgun Simsir; Akkaya, Nuray; Sahin, Fusun; Aksoy, Sibel; Zincir, Ozge; Topuz, Oya

    2017-01-01

    Although there are several studies of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) and exercise in myofascial pain syndrome, there are no studies comparing the effectiveness of Kinesio Taping (KT) and TENS in myofascial pain syndrome patients. To compare the early and late effects of TENS and KT on pain, disability and range of motion in myofascial pain syndrome patients. Sixty-nine patients were divided into three groups randomly as TENS+Exercise, KT+Exercise and exercise groups. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), pain threshold, Neck Disability Index and cervical contralateral lateral flexion were employed in the evaluation of the patients performed before treatment, after treatment and 3rd month after treatment. The VAS, pain threshold, Neck Disability Index and contralateral lateral flexion values were improved in all groups both in after treatment and 3rd month after treatment (p< 0.01). In the comparison of after treatment vs. before treatment evaluations, VAS score was decreased in KT group compared to the TENS and control group (p= 0.001), in the TENS group compared to control group (p= 0.011). In the comparison of 3rd month and before treatment evaluations, VAS score was decreased in the TENS group compared to control group (p= 0.001) and in the KT group compared to the control group (p= 0.001). There was no significant difference between TENS and KT groups. All other parameters did not differ between the groups. TENS and KT added exercises can decrease pain severity and increase pain threshold, function and cervical range of motion in myofascial pain syndrome patients. Addition of TENS or KT to the exercise therapy resulted in more significant improvement compared to exercise therapy alone with a more pronounced improvement in KT group compared to the TENS group in the early period. Because KT was found to be more effective in decreasing the pain and had the advantage of being used in every 3 days, it seems to be beneficial in acute painful periods in

  18. Case report: Long-standing complex regional pain syndrome relieved by a cephalosporin antibiotic.

    PubMed

    Ware, Mark A; Bennett, Gary J

    2014-07-01

    We describe a young woman who had had treatment-refractory complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) for 6 years before receiving antibiotic treatment with cefadroxil (a cephalosporin derivative) for a minor infection. Cefadroxil reduced the patient's pain and motor dysfunction (dystonia and impaired voluntary movement) within days; the pain and motor disorder returned when cefadroxil was discontinued; and both again abated when cefadroxil was re-instituted. The patient has now had symptom relief for more than 3 years on continuing cefadroxil therapy. We discuss this case in the context of previous reports of antibiotic treatment relieving neuropathic pain in experimental animals. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Depression masquerading as chest pain in a patient with Wolff Parkinson White syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Madabushi, Rajashree; Agarwal, Anil; Gautam, Sujeet K S; Khuba, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Wolff Parkinson White (WPW) syndrome is a condition in which there is an aberrant conduction pathway between the atria and ventricles, resulting in tachycardia. A 42-year-old patient, who was treated for WPW syndrome previously, presented with chronic somatic pain. With her cardiac condition in mind, she was thoroughly worked up for a recurrence of disease. As part of routine screening of all patients at our pain clinic, she was found to have severe depression as per the Patient Health Questionnaire–9 (PHQ–9) criteria. After ruling out sinister causes, she was treated for depression using oral Duloxetine and counselling. This led to resolution of symptoms, and improved her mood and functional capability. This case highlights the use of psychological screening tools and diligent examination in scenarios as confusing as the one presented here. Addressing the psychological aspects of pain and adopting a holistic approach are as important as treatment of the primary pathology. PMID:27738505

  20. Impaired insula functional connectivity associated with persistent pain perception in patients with complex regional pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Joon Hwan; Lee, Do-Hyeong; Lee, Kyung-Jun; Lee, Won Joon; Moon, Jee Youn; Kim, Yong Chul

    2017-01-01

    Given that the insula plays a contributory role in the perception of chronic pain, we examined the resting-state functional connectivity between the insular cortex and other brain regions to investigate neural underpinnings of persisting perception of background pain in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). A total of 25 patients with CRPS and 25 matched healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging at rest. With the anterior and posterior insular cortices as seed regions, we compared the strength of the resting-state functional connectivity between the two groups. Functional connectivity between the anterior and posterior insular cortices and the postcentral and inferior frontal gyri, cingulate cortices was reduced in patients with CRPS compared with controls. Additionally, greater reductions in functional connectivity between the anterior insula and right postcentral gyrus were associated with more severe sensory pain in patients with CRPS (short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire sensory subscores, r = -.517, P = .023). The present results imply a possible role of the insula in aberrant processing of pain information in patients with CRPS. The findings suggest that a functional derangement of the connection between one of the somatosensory cortical functions of perception and one of the insular functions of awareness can play a significant role in the persistent experience of regional pain that is not confined to a specific nerve territory. PMID:28692702

  1. Stool-based biomarkers of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Braundmeier-Fleming, A; Russell, Nathan T; Yang, Wenbin; Nas, Megan Y; Yaggie, Ryan E; Berry, Matthew; Bachrach, Laurie; Flury, Sarah C; Marko, Darlene S; Bushell, Colleen B; Welge, Michael E; White, Bryan A; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Klumpp, David J

    2016-05-18

    Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC) is associated with significant morbidity, yet underlying mechanisms and diagnostic biomarkers remain unknown. Pelvic organs exhibit neural crosstalk by convergence of visceral sensory pathways, and rodent studies demonstrate distinct bacterial pain phenotypes, suggesting that the microbiome modulates pelvic pain in IC. Stool samples were obtained from female IC patients and healthy controls, and symptom severity was determined by questionnaire. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified by16S rDNA sequence analysis. Machine learning by Extended Random Forest (ERF) identified OTUs associated with symptom scores. Quantitative PCR of stool DNA with species-specific primer pairs demonstrated significantly reduced levels of E. sinensis, C. aerofaciens, F. prausnitzii, O. splanchnicus, and L. longoviformis in microbiota of IC patients. These species, deficient in IC pelvic pain (DIPP), were further evaluated by Receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) analyses, and DIPP species emerged as potential IC biomarkers. Stool metabolomic studies identified glyceraldehyde as significantly elevated in IC. Metabolomic pathway analysis identified lipid pathways, consistent with predicted metagenome functionality. Together, these findings suggest that DIPP species and metabolites may serve as candidates for novel IC biomarkers in stool. Functional changes in the IC microbiome may also serve as therapeutic targets for treating chronic pelvic pain.

  2. Alfuzosin and symptoms of chronic prostatitis-chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nickel, J Curtis; Krieger, John N; McNaughton-Collins, Mary; Anderson, Rodney U; Pontari, Michel; Shoskes, Daniel A; Litwin, Mark S; Alexander, Richard B; White, Paige C; Berger, Richard; Nadler, Robert; O'Leary, Michael; Liong, Men Long; Zeitlin, Scott; Chuai, Shannon; Landis, J Richard; Kusek, John W; Nyberg, Leroy M; Schaeffer, Anthony J

    2008-12-18

    In men with chronic prostatitis-chronic pelvic pain syndrome, treatment with alpha-adrenergic receptor blockers early in the course of the disorder has been reported to be effective in some, but not all, relatively small randomized trials. We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of alfuzosin, an alpha-adrenergic receptor blocker, in reducing symptoms in men with chronic prostatitis-chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Participation in the study required diagnosis of the condition within the preceding 2 years and no previous treatment with an alpha-adrenergic receptor blocker. Men were randomly assigned to treatment for 12 weeks with either 10 mg of alfuzosin per day or placebo. The primary outcome was a reduction of at least 4 points (from baseline to 12 weeks) in the score on the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) (range, 0 to 43; higher scores indicate more severe symptoms). A 4-point decrease is the minimal clinically significant difference in the score. A total of 272 eligible participants underwent randomization, and in both study groups, 49.3% of participants had a decrease of at least 4 points in their total NIH-CPSI score (rate difference associated with alfuzosin, 0.1%; 95% confidence interval, -11.2 to 11.0; P=0.99). In addition, a global response assessment showed similar response rates at 12 weeks: 33.6% in the placebo group and 34.8% in the alfuzosin group (P=0.90). The rates of adverse events in the two groups were also similar. Our findings do not support the use of alfuzosin to reduce the symptoms of chronic prostatitis-chronic pelvic pain syndrome in men who have not received prior treatment with an alpha-blocker. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00103402.) 2008 Massachusetts Medical Society

  3. Alfuzosin and Symptoms of Chronic Prostatitis–Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Nickel, J. Curtis; Krieger, John N.; McNaughton-Collins, Mary; Anderson, Rodney U.; Pontari, Michel; Shoskes, Daniel A.; Litwin, Mark S.; Alexander, Richard B.; White, Paige C.; Berger, Richard; Nadler, Robert; O'Leary, Michael; Liong, Men Long; Zeitlin, Scott; Chuai, Shannon; Landis, J. Richard; Kusek, John W.; Nyberg, Leroy M.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.

    2009-01-01

    Background In men with chronic prostatitis–chronic pelvic pain syndrome, treatment with alpha-adrenergic receptor blockers early in the course of the disorder has been reported to be effective in some, but not all, relatively small randomized trials. Methods We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of alfuzosin, an alpha-adrenergic receptor blocker, in reducing symptoms in men with chronic prostatitis–chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Participation in the study required diagnosis of the condition within the preceding 2 years and no previous treatment with an alpha-adrenergic receptor blocker. Men were randomly assigned to treatment for 12 weeks with either 10 mg of alfuzosin per day or placebo. The primary outcome was a reduction of at least 4 points (from baseline to 12 weeks) in the score on the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) (range, 0 to 43; higher scores indicate more severe symptoms). A 4-point decrease is the minimal clinically significant difference in the score. Results A total of 272 eligible participants underwent randomization, and in both study groups, 49.3% of participants had a decrease of at least 4 points in their total NIH-CPSI score (rate difference associated with alfuzosin, 0.1%; 95% confidence interval, −11.2 to 11.0; P = 0.99). In addition, a global response assessment showed similar response rates at 12 weeks: 33.6% in the placebo group and 34.8% in the alfuzosin group (P = 0.90). The rates of adverse events in the two groups were also similar. Conclusions Our findings do not support the use of alfuzosin to reduce the symptoms of chronic prostatitis–chronic pelvic pain syndrome in men who have not received prior treatment with an alpha-blocker. PMID:19092152

  4. The COMFORT-behavior scale is useful to assess pain and distress in 0- to 3-year-old children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Valkenburg, Abraham J; Boerlage, Anneke A; Ista, Erwin; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; Tibboel, Dick; van Dijk, Monique

    2011-09-01

    Many pediatric intensive care units use the COMFORT-Behavior scale (COMFORT-B) to assess pain in 0- to 3-year-old children. The objective of this study was to determine whether this scale is also valid for the assessment of pain in 0- to 3-year-old children with Down syndrome. These children often undergo cardiac or intestinal surgery early in life and therefore admission to a pediatric intensive care unit. Seventy-six patients with Down syndrome were included and 466 without Down syndrome. Pain was regularly assessed with the COMFORT-B scale and the pain Numeric Rating Scale (NRS). For either group, confirmatory factor analyses revealed a 1-factor model. Internal consistency between COMFORT-B items was good (Cronbach's α=0.84-0.87). Cutoff values for the COMFORT-B set at 17 or higher discriminated between pain (NRS pain of 4 or higher) and no pain (NRS pain below 4) in both groups. We concluded that the COMFORT-B scale is also valid for 0- to 3-year-old children with Down syndrome. This makes it even more useful in the pediatric intensive care unit setting, doing away with the need to apply another instrument for those children younger than 3. Copyright © 2011 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Mechanisms of Stress-Induced Visceral Pain: Implications in Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Greenwood-Van Meerveld, B; Moloney, R D; Johnson, A C; Vicario, M

    2016-08-01

    Visceral pain is a term describing pain originating from the internal organs of the body and is a common feature of many disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Stress is implicated in the development and exacerbation of many visceral pain disorders. Recent evidence suggests that stress and the gut microbiota can interact through complementary or opposing factors to influence visceral nociceptive behaviours. The Young Investigator Forum at the International Society of Psychoneuroendocrinology (ISPNE) annual meeting reported experimental evidence suggesting the gut microbiota can affect the stress response to affect visceral pain. Building upon human imaging data showing abnormalities in the central processing of visceral stimuli in patients with IBS and knowledge that the amygdala plays a pivotal role in facilitating the stress axis, the latest experimental evidence supporting amygdala-mediated mechanisms in stress-induced visceral pain was reviewed. The final part of the session at ISPNE reviewed experimental evidence suggesting that visceral pain in IBS may be a result, at least in part, of afferent nerve sensitisation following increases in epithelial permeability and mucosal immune activation. © 2016 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  6. Effectiveness of hip muscle strengthening in patellofemoral pain syndrome patients: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Santos, Thiago R T; Oliveira, Bárbara A; Ocarino, Juliana M; Holt, Kenneth G; Fonseca, Sérgio T

    2015-01-01

    Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is characterized by anterior knee pain, which may limit the performance of functional activities. The influence of hip joint motion on the development of this syndrome has already been documented in the literature. In this regard, studies have investigated the effectiveness of hip muscle strengthening in patients with PFPS. The aims of this systematic review were (1) to summarize the literature related to the effects of hip muscle strengthening on pain intensity, muscle strength, and function in individuals with PFPS and (2) to evaluate the methodological quality of the selected studies. A search for randomized controlled clinical trials was conducted using the following databases: Google Scholar, MEDLINE, PEDro, LILACS, and SciELO. The selected studies had to distinguish the effects of hip muscle strengthening in a group of patients with PFPS, as compared to non-intervention or other kinds of intervention, and had to investigate the following outcomes: pain, muscle strength, and function. The methodological quality of the selected studies was analyzed by means of the PEDro scale. Seven studies were selected. These studies demonstrated that hip muscle strengthening was effective in reducing pain. However, the studies disagreed regarding the treatments' ability to improve muscle strength. Improvement in functional capabilities after hip muscle strengthening was found in five studies. Hip muscle strengthening is effective in reducing the intensity of pain and improving functional capabilities in patients with PFPS, despite the lack of evidence for its ability to increase muscle strength.

  7. Use of hypofractionated post-mastectomy radiotherapy reduces health costs by over $2000 per patient: An Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Joshua W; McLachlan, Craig S; Hansen, Carmen J; Assareh, Hassan; Last, Andrew; McKay, Michael J; Shakespeare, Thomas P

    2016-02-01

    The most recent clinical practice guidelines released by Cancer Australia draw attention to unanswered questions concerning the health economic considerations associated with hypofractionated radiotherapy. This study aimed to quantify and compare the healthcare costs at a regional Australian radiotherapy institute with respect to conventionally fractionated post-mastectomy radiotherapy (Cf-PMRT) versus hypofractionated post-mastectomy radiotherapy (Hf-PMRT) administration. Medical records of 196 patients treated with post-mastectomy radiotherapy at the NSW North Coast Cancer Institute from February 2008 to June 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Australian Medicare item numbers billed for patients receiving either Cf-PMRT of 50 Gy in 25 daily fractions or Hf-PMRT of 40.05 Gy in 15 daily fractions were calculated. Decision tree analysis was used to model costs. Independent-samples t-tests and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used to compare crude average costs for Cf-PMRT and Hf-PMRT and determine which treatment components accounted for any differences. Hf-PMRT, with or without irradiation to the regional lymph nodes, was associated with significantly reduced Medicare costs ($5613 AUD per patient for Hf-PMRT vs $8272 AUD per patient for Cf-PMRT; P < 0.001). Savings associated with Hf-PMRT ranged from $1353 (22.1%) for patients receiving no regional irradiation to $2898 (32.0%) for patients receiving both axillary and supraclavicular therapy. Hf-PMRT results in a significant reduction in the financial costs associated with treating breast cancer patients in a regional Australian setting when compared with Cf-PMRT. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  8. Percutaneous renal sympathetic nerve ablation for loin pain haematuria syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gambaro, Giovanni; Fulignati, Pierluigi; Spinelli, Alessio; Rovella, Valentina; Di Daniele, Nicola

    2013-09-01

    Loin pain haematuria syndrome (LPHS) is a severe renal pain condition of uncertain origin and often resistant to treatment. Nephrectomy and renal autotrasplantation have occasionally been performed in very severe cases. Its pathogenesis is controversial. A 40-year-old hypertensive lady was diagnosed with LPHS after repeated diagnostic imaging procedures had ruled out any renal, abdominal or spinal conditions to justify pain. Notwithstanding treatment with three drugs, she had frequent hypertensive crises during which the loin pain was dramatically exacerbated. Vascular causes of the pain and hypertension were investigated and excluded. Her renal function was normal. The patient was referred to a multidisciplinary pain clinic, but had no significant improvement in her pain symptoms despite the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, adjuvant antidepressants and opioid-like agents. The pain and the discomfort were so severe that her quality of life was very poor, and her social and professional activities were compromised. Nephrectomy and renal autotransplantation have occasionally been performed in these cases. Since visceral pain signals flow through afferent sympathetic fibres, we felt that percutaneous catheter-based radiofrequency ablation of the renal sympathetic nerve fibres (recently introduced for the treatment of drug-resistant hypertension) could be valuable for pain relief. We treated the patient with radiofrequency ablation (Medtronic Symplicity Catheter) applied only to the right renal artery. After a 6-month follow-up, the patient is pain free and normotensive with all drugs withdrawn. She has experienced no hypertensive crises in the meantime. This observation suggests that percutaneous sympathetic denervation could prove to be an effective mini-invasive strategy for the treatment of chronic renal pain, and LPHS in particular.

  9. Cardiovascular risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome are more prevalent in people reporting chronic pain: results from a cross-sectional general population study.

    PubMed

    Goodson, Nicola J; Smith, Blair H; Hocking, Lynne J; McGilchrist, Mark M; Dominiczak, Anna F; Morris, Andrew; Porteous, David J; Goebel, Andreas

    2013-09-01

    To explore whether chronic pain is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and identify whether increased distribution or intensity of pain is associated with cardiovascular risk, participants in Generation Scotland: The Scottish Family Health study completed pain questionnaires recording the following: presence of chronic pain, distribution of pain, and intensity of chronic pain. Blood pressure, lipids, blood glucose, smoking history, waist-hip ratio, and body mass index were recorded; Framingham 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD) risk scores were calculated and a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome derived. Associations between chronic pain and cardiovascular risk were explored. Of 13,328 participants, 1100 (8.3%) had high CHD risk. Chronic pain was reported by 5209 (39%), 1294 (9.7%) reported widespread chronic pain, and 707 (5.3%) reported high-intensity chronic pain. In age- and gender-adjusted analyses, chronic pain was associated with elevated CHD risk scores (odds ratio 1.11, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.23) and the metabolic syndrome (odds ratio 1.42, 95% confidence interval 1.24-1.62). Multivariate analyses identified dyslipidaemia, age, gender, smoking, obesity, and high waist-hip ratio as independently associated with chronic pain. Within the chronic pain subgroup, widespread pain did not confer any additional cardiovascular disease risk. However, cardiovascular disease risk factors contributing to metabolic syndrome were more prevalent in those reporting high-intensity chronic pain. This large population-based study has demonstrated that chronic pain, and in particular high-intensity chronic pain, is associated with an increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome. The 10-year CHD risk score and metabolic syndrome correlate well with increased pain intensity, but not with widespread pain. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Ultrasound Guided Transversus Thoracic Plane block, Parasternal block and fascial planes hydrodissection for internal mammary post thoracotomy pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Piraccini, E; Biondi, G; Byrne, H; Calli, M; Bellantonio, D; Musetti, G; Maitan, S

    2018-05-16

    Pectoral Nerves Block (PECS) and Serratus Plane Block (SPB) have been used to treat persistent post-surgical pain after breast and thoracic surgery; however, they cannot block the internal mammary region, so a residual pain may occur in that region. Parasternal block (PSB) and Thoracic Transversus Plane Block (TTP) anaesthetize the anterior branches of T2-6 intercostal nerves thus they can provide analgesia to the internal mammary region. We describe a 60-year-old man suffering from right post-thoracotomy pain syndrome with residual pain located in the internal mammary region after a successful treatment with PECS and SPB. We performed a PSB and TTP and hydrodissection of fascial planes with triamcinolone and Ropivacaine. Pain disappeared and the result was maintained 3 months later. This report suggests that PSB and TTP with local anaesthetic and corticosteroid with hydrodissection of fascial planes might be useful to treat a post thoracotomy pain syndrome located in the internal mammary region. The use of Transversus Thoracic Plane and Parasternal Blocks and fascial planes hydrodissection as a novel therapeutic approach to treat a residual post thoracotomy pain syndrome even when already treated with Pectoral Nerves Block and Serratus Plane Block. © 2018 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  11. The sodium pentothal hypnosis interview with follow-up treatment for complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Simon, E P; Dahl, L F

    1999-08-01

    A patient who was unresponsive to multiple conservative medical treatments for complex regional pain syndrome was assessed using a novel approach--the sodium pentothal hypnosis interview. The interview suggested that his pain was centrally generated. The patient's pain symptoms resolved with hypnotherapeutic treatment. Indications for this procedure and implications for assessment and treatment are discussed. This case raises more questions than it answers, and leaves the reader to struggle with current difficulties in diagnostic decision-making.

  12. Low-level laser therapy of myofascial pain syndromes of patients with osteoarthritis of knee and hip joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparyan, Levon V.

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of the given research is the comparison of efficiency of conventional treatment of myofascial pain syndromes of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of hip and knee joints and therapy with additional application of low level laser therapy (LLLT) under dynamic control of clinical picture, rheovasographic, electromyographic examinations, and parameters of peroxide lipid oxidation. The investigation was made on 143 patients with OA of hip and knee joints. Patients were randomized in 2 groups: basic group included 91 patients, receiving conventional therapy with a course of LLLT, control group included 52 patients, receiving conventional treatment only. Transcutaneous ((lambda) equals 890 nm, output peak power 5 W, frequency 80 - 3000 Hz) and intravenous ((lambda) equals 633 nm, output 2 mW in the vein) laser irradiation were used for LLLT. Studied showed, that clinical efficiency of LLLT in the complex with conventional treatment of myofascial pain syndromes at the patients with OA is connected with attenuation of pain syndrome, normalization of parameters of myofascial syndrome, normalization of the vascular tension and parameters of rheographic curves, as well as with activation of antioxidant protection system.

  13. Radiofrequency thermocoagulation of the thoracic splanchnic nerve in functional abdominal pain syndrome -A case report-.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji-Won; Joo, Eun-Young; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Chul-Joong; Kim, Tae-Hyeong; Sim, Woo-Seok

    2011-07-01

    The thoracic splanchnic nerve block has been used in managing abdominal pain, especially for pains arising from abdominal cancers. A 27-year-old male patient who had a constant abdominal pain was referred to our clinic for pain management but had no organic disease. The numeric rating scale (NRS) for pain scored 7/10. We applied a diagnostic thoracic splanchnic nerve block under the diagnosis of functional abdominal pain syndrome. Since the block reduced the pain, we applied a radiofrequency thermocoagulation at the T11 and T12 vertebral level. Thereafter, his symptoms improved markedly with pain decreasing to an NRS score of 2-3/10. Hereby, we report a successful management of functional abdominal pain via radiofrequency thermocoagulation of the thoracic splanchnic nerves.

  14. Chronic pain in a patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (hypermobility type): The role of myofascial trigger point injections.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Saipriya; Madabushi, Rajashree; Agarwal, Anil; Gautam, Sujeet K; Khuba, Sandeep

    2017-01-01

    Chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain is a cardinal symptom in hypermobility type of Ehler Danlos Syndrome (EDS type III). The management of pain in EDS, however, has not been studied in depth. A 30 year old female, known case of EDS, presented to the pain clinic with complaints of severe upper back pain for 6 months. Physical examination of the back revealed two myofascial trigger points over the left rhomboids and the left erector spinae. Local anaesthetic trigger point injections were given at these points, followed by stretching exercises under analgesic cover for the first week. After 1 week the patient reported 60-80% pain relief. This case highlights that we must keep a high index of suspicion for the more treatable causes of pain like myofascial pain syndrome in patients suffering from EDS, and should address it promptly and appropriately in order to maximise patient comfort. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Non-Acute Coronary Syndrome Anginal Chest Pain

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Megha; Mehta, Puja K.; Merz, C. Noel Bairey

    2010-01-01

    Anginal chest pain is one of the most common complaints in the outpatient setting. While much of the focus has been on identifying obstructive atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD) as the cause of anginal chest pain, it is clear that microvascular coronary dysfunction (MCD) can also cause anginal chest pain as a manifestation of ischemic heart disease (IHD), and carries an increased cardiovascular risk. Epicardial coronary vasospasm, aortic stenosis, left ventricular hypertrophy, congenital coronary anomalies, mitral valve prolapse and abnormal cardiac nociception can also present as angina of cardiac origin. For non-acute coronary syndrome (ACS) stable chest pain, exercise treadmill testing (ETT) remains the primary tool for diagnosis of ischemia and cardiac risk stratification; however, in certain subsets of patients, such as women, ETT has a lower sensitivity and specificity for identifying obstructive CAD. When combined with an imaging modality, such as nuclear perfusion or echocardiography testing, the sensitivity and specificity of stress testing for detection of obstructive CAD improves significantly. Advancements in stress cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables detection of perfusion abnormalities in a specific coronary artery territory, as well as subendocardial ischemia associated with MCD. Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) enables visual assessment of obstructive CAD, albeit with a higher radiation dose. Invasive coronary angiography (CA) remains the gold standard for diagnosis and treatment of obstructive lesions that cause medically refractory stable angina. Furthermore, in patients with normal coronary angiograms, the addition of coronary reactivity testing (CRT) can help diagnose endothelial dependent and independent microvascular dysfunction. Life-style modification and pharmacologic intervention remains the cornerstone of therapy to reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with stable angina. This review focuses on

  16. Stress and visceral pain: focusing on irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fukudo, Shin

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in brain science have shown that the brain function encoding emotion depends on interoceptive signals such as visceral pain. Visceral pain arose early in our evolutionary history. Bottom-up processing from gut-to-brain and top-down autonomic/neuroendocrine mechanisms in brain-to-gut signaling constitute a circuit. Brain imaging techniques have enabled us to depict the visceral pain pathway as well as the related emotional circuit. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is characterized by chronic recurrent abdominal pain or abdominal discomfort associated with bowel dysfunction. It is also thought to be a disorder of the brain-gut link associated with an exaggerated response to stress. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), a major mediator of the stress response in the brain-gut axis, is an obvious candidate in the pathophysiology of IBS. Indeed, administration of CRH has been shown to aggravate the visceral sensorimotor response in IBS patients, and the administration of peptidergic CRH antagonists seems to alleviate IBS pathophysiology. Serotonin (5-HT) is another likely candidate associated with brain-gut function in IBS, as 5-HT3 antagonists, 5-HT4 agonists, and antidepressants were demonstrated to regulate 5-HT neurotransmission in IBS patients. Autonomic nervous system function, the neuroimmune axis, and the brain-gut-microbiota axis show specific profiles in IBS patients. Further studies on stress and visceral pain neuropathways in IBS patients are warranted. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Altered attentional control over the salience network in complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungyoon; Kang, Ilhyang; Chung, Yong-An; Kim, Tae-Suk; Namgung, Eun; Lee, Suji; Oh, Jin Kyoung; Jeong, Hyeonseok S; Cho, Hanbyul; Kim, Myeong Ju; Kim, Tammy D; Choi, Soo Hyun; Lim, Soo Mee; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Yoon, Sujung

    2018-05-10

    The degree and salience of pain have been known to be constantly monitored and modulated by the brain. In the case of maladaptive neural responses as reported in centralized pain conditions such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), the perception of pain is amplified and remains elevated even without sustained peripheral pain inputs. Given that the attentional state of the brain greatly influences the perception and interpretation of pain, we investigated the role of the attention network and its dynamic interactions with other pain-related networks of the brain in CRPS. We examined alterations in the intra- and inter-network functional connectivities in 21 individuals with CRPS and 49 controls. CRPS-related reduction in intra-network functional connectivity was found in the attention network. Individuals with CRPS had greater inter-network connectivities between the attention and salience networks as compared with healthy controls. Furthermore, individuals within the CRPS group with high levels of pain catastrophizing showed greater inter-network connectivities between the attention and salience networks. Taken together, the current findings suggest that these altered connectivities may be potentially associated with the maladaptive pain coping as found in CRPS patients.

  18. Pain in interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome: do characteristics differ in ulcerative and non-ulcerative subtypes?

    PubMed

    Killinger, Kim A; Boura, Judith A; Peters, Kenneth M

    2013-08-01

    Key differences between interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) subtypes (with and without Hunner's ulcer) have been noted. We hypothesized that pain characteristics in women grouped by IC/BPS subtype would differ. A survey was mailed to 749 women to assess IC/BPS pain and other characteristics. Cystoscopy/hydrodistention reports were reviewed for presence/absence of Hunner's ulcer. The McGill Pain Questionnaire Short Form© (MPQ-SF), Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), and Interstitial Cystitis Symptom and Problem Indices (ICSI-PI) assessed symptoms. Data were analyzed with Pearson's chi-square, Fisher's exact, t tests, and Wilcoxon rank tests. Of the 214 women that returned a survey (36 ulcerative and 178 non-ulcerative IC/BPS), similar proportions in each group reported that certain foods, exercise, and/or stress triggered symptoms. Fewer ulcerative patients reported pain with vaginal penetration than non-ulcerative (5/33, 15.2 % vs 76/160, 47.5 %; p = 0.0006). On the BPI, the ulcerative and non-ulcerative groups reported similar numbers of painful areas (mean 4.1 ± 6.1 and 4.1 ± 3.8; p = 0.33), and lower abdominal/pelvic pain was reported most (13/35, 37 % vs 79/172, 46 %; p = 0.34) followed by lower back pain (12/35, 34 % vs 69/172, 40 %; p = 0.52). Even though ICSI-PI, MPQ-SF, and BPI scores/responses did not differ, on the MPQ-SF the three words most frequently used by ulcerative patients to describe their pain were sharp, stabbing, and hot burning, and in non-ulcerative were aching, cramping, and tender. These measures did not reveal any significant differences in pain between subtypes. More research is needed in larger samples to determine whether differences exist.

  19. Pain in hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy: an association with fibromyalgia syndrome?

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ugur; Bird, Thomas T; Carter, Gregory T; Wang, Leo H; Weiss, Michael D

    2015-03-01

    This study characterizes the nature of pain in hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy (HNPP). This retrospective study was performed to assess duration, nature, location, and intensity of pain on initial presentation of subjects with HNPP, including the degree and type of analgesic medication use and electrodiagnostic characteristics. Subjects who met the American College of Rheumatology criteria for fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) were also identified. Of 32 HNPP subjects, 24 (75%) had symptoms of pain, and 4 (12%) had pain as an initial symptom. Of subjects who described pain, 9 (28%) reported only musculoskeletal pain, 10 (31%) only neuropathic pain, and 5 (16%) both musculoskeletal and neuropathic pain. All 9 subjects with only musculoskeletal pain met criteria for FMS. Neuropathic and musculoskeletal pain occur commonly in HNPP and may be a presenting symptom. Additionally, HNPP with predominantly musculoskeletal pain may meet criteria for FMS and potentially delay the diagnosis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: a review of evaluation and therapy.

    PubMed

    Polackwich, A S; Shoskes, D A

    2016-06-01

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), also known as NIH Category III Prostatitis is a highly prevalent syndrome with significant impact on quality of life. As a heterogeneous syndrome, there exists no 'one size fits all' therapy with level 1 evidence to guide therapy. This often leads to a nihilistic approach to patients and clinical outcomes are poor. In this review, we examine the evidence for CP/CPPS therapies and discuss our technique of clinical phenotyping combined with multimodal therapy. Review of Medline articles with terms 'non-bacterial prostatitis', 'abacterial prostatitis' and 'chronic pelvic pain syndrome'. Many individual therapies have been evaluated in the treatment of CP/CPPS; antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications (including bioflavonoids), neuromodulators, alpha blockers, pelvic floor physical therapy and cognitive behavior therapy. Each of these has been found to have varying success in alleviating symptoms. UPOINT is a system of clinical phenotyping for CP/CPPS patients that has 6 defined domains, which guide multimodal therapy. It has been validated to correlate with symptom burden and therapy guided by UPOINT leads to significant symptom improvement in 75-84% of patients based on three independent studies. CP/CPPS is a heterogeneous condition and, much like with prostate cancer, optimal therapy can only be achieved by classifying patients into clinically meaningful phenotypic groups (much like TNM) and letting the phenotype drive therapy.

  1. Increased gastrointestinal permeability and gut inflammation in children with functional abdominal pain and Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To determine gastrointestinal (GI) permeability and fecal calprotectin concentration in children 7 to 10 years of age with functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome (FAP/IBS) versus control subjects and ascertain potential relationships with pain symptoms and stooling, GI permeability a...

  2. Voiding diary might serve as a useful tool to understand differences between bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis and overactive bladder.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Han; Oh, Shin Ah; Oh, Seung-June

    2014-02-01

    To identify the voiding characteristics of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis and overactive bladder. Between September 2005 and June 2010, 3-day voiding diaries of 49 consecutive bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis patients and 301 overactive bladder patients were prospectively collected at an outpatient clinic and retrospectively analyzed. The characteristics of the two groups were not significantly different. However, all voiding variables including volume and frequency were significantly different except for the total voided volume: patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis showed significantly higher voiding frequencies, smaller maximal and mean voided volume, and more constant and narrower ranges of voided volume compared with overactive bladder patients (P < 0.005). Furthermore, mean intervals between voiding in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis were shorter and more consistent during the day and night (P < 0.001), although mean night-time variances were greater than daytime variances. Logistic regression analysis showed that total night-time frequency, maximal night-time voided volume and mean variance of daytime voiding intervals most significantly differentiated the two groups. Some voiding characteristics of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis and overactive bladder patients differ significantly according to 3-day voiding diary records. These findings provide additional information regarding the differences between these two diseases in the outpatient clinical setting. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  3. Spinal cord stimulation to abort painful spasms of atypical stiff limb syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ughratdar, I; Sivakumar, G; Basu, S

    2010-01-01

    Stiff limb syndrome (SLS) is a rare chronic condition which can result in significant debility. We report the case of a 44-year-old man suffering from severe painful spasms in his right leg with a diagnosis of SLS. He had been initially treated for his pain with a spinal cord stimulator but presented with exacerbation of pain secondary to a lead fracture for which he underwent revision of the stimulator. Postoperative programming unexpectedly resulted in not only control of his pain but also an ability to abort his spasmodic episodes related to SLS. To our knowledge, spinal cord stimulation has not been previously used for SLS and our report opens up another avenue for this rare condition. We provide a brief overview of SLS and propose an underlying mechanism for the observed phenomenon.

  4. Sensitization of the Nociceptive System in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Diedrichs, Carolina; Baron, Ralf; Gierthmühlen, Janne

    2016-01-01

    Background Complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) is characterized by sensory, motor and autonomic abnormalities without electrophysiological evidence of a nerve lesion. Objective Aims were to investigate how sensory, autonomic and motor function change in the course of the disease. Methods 19 CRPS-I patients (17 with acute, 2 with chronic CRPS, mean duration of disease 5.7±8.3, range 1–33 months) were examined with questionnaires (LANSS, NPS, MPI, Quick DASH, multiple choice list of descriptors for sensory, motor, autonomic symptoms), motor and autonomic tests as well as quantitative sensory testing according to the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain at two visits (baseline and 36±10.6, range 16–53 months later). Results CRPS-I patients had an improvement of sudomotor and vasomotor function, but still a great impairment of sensory and motor function upon follow-up. Although pain and mechanical detection improved upon follow-up, thermal and mechanical pain sensitivity increased, including the contralateral side. Increase in mechanical pain sensitivity and loss of mechanical detection were associated with presence of ongoing pain. Conclusions The results demonstrate that patients with CRPS-I show a sensitization of the nociceptive system in the course of the disease, for which ongoing pain seems to be the most important trigger. They further suggest that measured loss of function in CRPS-I is due to pain-induced hypoesthesia rather than a minimal nerve lesion. In conclusion, this article gives evidence for a pronociceptive pain modulation profile developing in the course of CRPS and thus helps to assess underlying mechanisms of CRPS that contribute to the maintenance of patients’ pain and disability. PMID:27149519

  5. Effectiveness of hip muscle strengthening in patellofemoral pain syndrome patients: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Thiago R. T.; Oliveira, Bárbara A.; Ocarino, Juliana M.; Holt, Kenneth G.; Fonseca, Sérgio T.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is characterized by anterior knee pain, which may limit the performance of functional activities. The influence of hip joint motion on the development of this syndrome has already been documented in the literature. In this regard, studies have investigated the effectiveness of hip muscle strengthening in patients with PFPS. Objectives: The aims of this systematic review were (1) to summarize the literature related to the effects of hip muscle strengthening on pain intensity, muscle strength, and function in individuals with PFPS and (2) to evaluate the methodological quality of the selected studies. Method: A search for randomized controlled clinical trials was conducted using the following databases: Google Scholar, MEDLINE, PEDro, LILACS, and SciELO. The selected studies had to distinguish the effects of hip muscle strengthening in a group of patients with PFPS, as compared to non-intervention or other kinds of intervention, and had to investigate the following outcomes: pain, muscle strength, and function. The methodological quality of the selected studies was analyzed by means of the PEDro scale. Results: Seven studies were selected. These studies demonstrated that hip muscle strengthening was effective in reducing pain. However, the studies disagreed regarding the treatments' ability to improve muscle strength. Improvement in functional capabilities after hip muscle strengthening was found in five studies. Conclusion: Hip muscle strengthening is effective in reducing the intensity of pain and improving functional capabilities in patients with PFPS, despite the lack of evidence for its ability to increase muscle strength. PMID:26039034

  6. SHORT-TERM EFFECTS OF INSTRUMENT-ASSISTED SOFT TISSUE MOBILIZATION ON PAIN FREE RANGE OF MOTION IN A WEIGHTLIFTER WITH SUBACROMIAL PAIN SYNDROME.

    PubMed

    Coviello, Joseph Paul; Kakar, Rumit Singh; Reynolds, Timothy James

    2017-02-01

    While there is limited evidence supporting the use of soft tissue mobilization techniques for Subacromial Pain Syndrome (SAPS), synonymous with subacromial impingement syndrome, previous studies have reported successful outcomes using soft tissue mobilization as a treatment technique. The purpose of this case report is to document the results of Instrument-Assisted Soft Tissue Mobilization (IASTM) for the treatment of SAPS. Diagnosis was reached based on the subject's history, tenderness to palpation, and four out of five positive tests in the diagnostic cluster. Treatment consisted of three visits where the IASTM technique was applied to the pectoral muscles as well as periscapular musculature followed by retesting pain-free shoulder flexion active range of motion (AROM) and Numerical Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) during active shoulder flexion. Scapulothoracic mobilization and stretching were performed after AROM measurement. The subject reported an NPRS of 0/10 and demonstrated improvements in pain free flexion AROM in each of the three treatment sessions post-IASTM: 85 ° to 181 °, 110 ° to 171 °, and 163 ° to 174 ° with some carryover in pain reduction and pain free AROM to the next treatment. Through three treatments, DASH score improved by 17.34%, Penn Shoulder Score improved 29%, worst NPRS decreased from 4/10 to 0/10, and a GROC score of 6. IASTM may have a beneficial acute effect on pain free shoulder flexion. In conjunction with scapulothoracic mobilizations and stretching, IASTM may improve function, decrease pain, and improve patient satisfaction. While this technique will not ameliorate the underlying pathomechanics contributing to SAPS, it may serve as a valuable tool to restore ROM and decrease pain allowing the patient to reap the full benefits of a multi-modal treatment approach. 5.

  7. Contemporary Management of Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Magistro, Giuseppe; Wagenlehner, Florian M E; Grabe, Magnus; Weidner, Wolfgang; Stief, Christian G; Nickel, J Curtis

    2016-02-01

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a common condition that causes severe symptoms, bother, and quality-of-life impact in the 8.2% of men who are believed to be affected. Research suggests a complex pathophysiology underlying this syndrome that is mirrored by its heterogeneous clinical presentation. Management of patients diagnosed with CP/CPPS has always been a formidable task in clinical practice. Due to its enigmatic etiology, a plethora of clinical trials failed to identify an efficient monotherapy. A comprehensive review of published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the treatment of CP/CPPS and practical best evidence recommendations for management. Medline and the Cochrane database were screened for RCTs on the treatment of CP/CPPS from 1998 to December 2014, using the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index as an objective outcome measure. Published data in concert with expert opinion were used to formulate a practical best evidence statement for the management of CP/CPPS. Twenty-eight RCTs identified were eligible for this review and presented. Trials evaluating antibiotics, α-blockers, anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating substances, hormonal agents, phytotherapeutics, neuromodulatory drugs, agents that modify bladder function, and physical treatment options failed to reveal a clear therapeutic benefit. With its multifactorial pathophysiology and its various clinical presentations, the management of CP/CPPS demands a phenotypic-directed approach addressing the individual clinical profile of each patient. Different categorization algorithms have been proposed. First studies applying the UPOINTs classification system provided promising results. Introducing three index patients with CP/CPPS, we present practical best evidence recommendations for management. Our current understanding of the pathophysiology underlying CP/CPPS resulting in this highly variable syndrome does not speak in favor of a

  8. Personality assessment of patients with complex regional pain syndrome type I.

    PubMed

    Monti, D A; Herring, C L; Schwartzman, R J; Marchese, M

    1998-12-01

    There is controversy regarding the importance of psychological/psychiatric factors in the development of the Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS). Our objective was to determine whether CRPS type I patients were psychiatrically different from other chronic pain patients, with particular attention to personality pathology. A standardized clinical assessment of all major psychiatric categories, including personality disorders, was performed on 25 CRPS type I patients and a control group of 25 patients with chronic low back pain from disc-related radiculopathy. Both sections of the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (3rd ed., rev.) and the visual analog scale. Both groups were similar in terms of pain intensity and duration. Statistical analysis showed both groups to have a significant amount of major psychiatric comorbidity, in particular major depressive disorder, and a high incidence of personality disorders. Therefore, intense chronic pain was associated with significant psychiatric comorbidity in both groups and in similar proportions. The high incidence of personality pathology in both groups may represent an exaggeration of maladaptive personality traits and coping styles as a result of a chronic, intense, state of pain.

  9. Therapeutic efficacy of narrow band imaging-assisted transurethral electrocoagulation for ulcer-type interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Mitsuru; Inoue, Shougo; Kobayashi, Kanao; Ohara, Shinya; Teishima, Jun; Matsubara, Akio

    2014-04-01

    Narrow band imaging cystoscopy can increase the visualization and detection of Hunner's lesions. A single-center, prospective clinical trial was carried out aiming to show the effectiveness of narrow band imaging-assisted transurethral electrocoagulation for ulcer-type interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome. A total of 23 patients (19 women and 4 men) diagnosed as having ulcer-type interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome were included. All typical Hunner's lesions and suspected areas identified by narrow band imaging were electrocoagulated endoscopically after the biopsy of those lesions. Therapeutic efficacy was assessed prospectively by using visual analog scale score of pain, O'Leary-Sant's symptom index, O'Leary-Sant's problem index and overactive bladder symptom score. The mean follow-up period was 22 months. All patients (100%) experienced a substantial improvement in pain. The average visual analog scale pain scores significantly decreased from 7.3 preoperatively to 1.2 1 month postoperatively. A total of 21 patients (91.3%) who reported improvement had at least a 50% reduction in bladder pain, and five reported complete resolution. Daytime frequency was significantly decreased postoperatively. O'Leary-Sant's symptom index, O'Leary-Sant's problem index and overactive bladder symptom score were significantly decreased postoperatively. However, during the follow-up period, a total of six patients had recurrence, and repeat narrow band imaging-assisted transurethral electrocoagulation of the recurrent lesions was carried out for five of the six patients, with good response in relieving bladder pain. Our results showed that narrow band imaging-assisted transurethral electrocoagulation could be a valuable therapeutic alternative in patients with ulcer-type interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome, with good efficacy and reduction of recurrence rate. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  10. Optical diagnosis of interstitial cystitis / painful bladder syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadgan, Babak; Macnab, Andrew; Stothers, Lynn

    2013-03-01

    Background: Painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis (PBS/IC) is defined as a syndrome of urgency, frequency, and suprapubic pain in the absence of positive urine culture or obvious bladder pathology. As no specific etiology has been identified yet, no specific methodology exists for diagnosis of this condition. One potential etiology of PBS/IC is inflammation of the bladder mucosa associated with abnormal angiogenesis and ulcerative lesions. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of using transcutaneous near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) of the bladder to monitor tissue oxygenation and hemodynamics as a means of differentiating subjects diagnosed with PBS/IC from those with other bladder conditions. Methods: Twenty-four adult patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction were divided into 2 groups, PBS/IC and non-PBS/IC after standard diagnostic investigations. Detrusor oxygen saturation percentage (TSI%) was measured in all subjects while they were at rest in a supine position, using a spatially resolved (SR) NIRS instrument. Mean values of detrusor TSI% were significantly different between the two groups (74.2%+/-4.9 in PBS/IC vs. 63.6%+/-5.5 in non-PBS/IC, P<0.0005). Results: Noninvasive NIRS interrogation of the bladder demonstrated that patients diagnosed as having PBS/IC had significantly higher detrusor oxygen saturation at rest. Conclusions: SR-NIRS as a feasible non-noninvasive entity for use in the evaluation of patients for the presence or absence of physiologic changes associated with PBS/IC.

  11. Does This Older Adult With Lower Extremity Pain Have the Clinical Syndrome of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis?

    PubMed Central

    Suri, Pradeep; Rainville, James; Kalichman, Leonid; Katz, Jeffrey N.

    2012-01-01

    Context The clinical syndrome of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is a common diagnosis in older adults presenting with lower extremity pain. Objective To systematically review the accuracy of the clinical examination for the diagnosis of the clinical syndrome of LSS. Data Sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL searches of articles published from January 1966 to September 2010. Study Selection Studies were included if they contained adequate data on the accuracy of the history and physical examination for diagnosing the clinical syndrome of LSS, using a reference standard of expert opinion with radiographic or anatomic confirmation. Data Extraction Two authors independently reviewed each study to determine eligibility, extract data, and appraise levels of evidence. Data Synthesis Four studies evaluating 741 patients were identified. Among patients with lower extremity pain, the likelihood of the clinical syndrome of LSS was increased for individuals older than 70 years (likelihood ratio [LR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6–2.5), and was decreased for those younger than 60 years (LR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.29–0.57). The most useful symptoms for increasing the likelihood of the clinical syndrome of LSS were having no pain when seated (LR, 7.4; 95% CI, 1.9–30), improvement of symptoms when bending forward (LR, 6.4; 95% CI, 4.1–9.9), the presence of bilateral buttock or leg pain (LR, 6.3; 95% CI, 3.1–13), and neurogenic claudication (LR, 3.7; 95% CI, 2.9–4.8). Absence of neurogenic claudication (LR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.17–0.31) decreased the likelihood of the diagnosis. A wide-based gait (LR, 13; 95% CI, 1.9–95) and abnormal Romberg test result (LR, 4.2; 95% CI, 1.4–13) increased the likelihood of the clinical syndrome of LSS. A score of 7 or higher on a diagnostic support tool including history and examination findings increased the likelihood of the clinical syndrome of LSS (LR, 3.3; 95% CI, 2.7–4.0), while a score lower than 7 made the diagnosis much less

  12. Immunological aspects of the complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS).

    PubMed

    Krämer, Heidrun H

    2012-01-01

    Limb trauma can lead to the development of a complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). CRPS is a descriptive term of a variety of different symptoms. According to the current IASP-approved criteria, human CRPS can be diagnosed if a combination of signs is present: continuing pain and hyperalgesia, disproportionate to the initial trauma, skin temperature and colour asymmetry, sweating asymmetry, edema, decreased range of motion, and trophic changes. The diagnosis and treatment of human CRPS can be demanding and the pathophysiology underlying the disease is still under investigation. Immunological aspects are considered to play an important role in the development of CRPS. The impact of elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines systemically as well as locally, increased neurogenic inflammation and auto-antibodies in the pathophysiological development of CRPS are discussed in this review.

  13. A proof-of-concept trial of protein kinase C iota inhibition with auranofin for the paclitaxel-induced acute pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jatoi, Aminah; Grudem, Megan E; Dockter, Travis J; Block, Matthew S; Villasboas, Jose C; Tan, Angelina; Deering, Erin; Kasi, Pashtoon M; Mansfield, Aaron S; Botero, Juliana Perez; Okuno, Scott H; Smith, Deanne R; Fields, Alan P

    2017-03-01

    Paclitaxel causes the paclitaxel-induced acute pain (PIAP) syndrome. Based on preclinical data, we hypothesized that the protein kinase C (PKC) iota inhibitor, auranofin (a gold salt used for other pain conditions), palliates this pain. In a randomized, double-blinded manner, patients who had suffered this syndrome were assigned a one-time dose of auranofin 6 mg orally on day #2 of the chemotherapy cycle (post-paclitaxel) versus placebo. Patients completed the Brief Pain Inventory and a pain diary on days 2 through 8 and at the end of the cycle. The primary endpoint was pain scores, as calculated by area under the curve, in response to "Please rate your pain by circling the one number that best describes your pain at its worse in the last 24 hours." Thirty patients were enrolled. For the primary endpoint, mean area under the curve of 55 units (standard deviation 19) and 61 units (standard deviation 22) were observed in auranofin-treated and placebo-exposed patients, respectively (p = 0.44). On day 8 and at the end of the cycle, pain scores in auranofin-treated patients were more favorable, although differences were not statistically significant. In the dose schedule studied, auranofin did not palliate the PIAP syndrome, but delayed beneficial trends suggest further study for this indication.

  14. Prevalence of rheumatic regional pain syndromes in adults from Mexico: a community survey using COPCORD for screening and syndrome-specific diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Nemegyei, Jose; Peláez-Ballestas, Ingris; Rodríguez-Amado, Jacqueline; Sanin, Luz Helena; Garcia-Garcia, Conrado; Garza-Elizondo, Mario A; Loyola-Sanchez, Adalberto; Burgos-Vargas, Rubén; Goycochea-Robles, Maria-Victoria

    2011-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of rheumatic regional pain syndromes (RRPS) in 3 geographical areas of México using the Community Oriented Program in the Rheumatic Diseases (COPCORD) screening methodology and validate by expert consensus on case-based definitions. By means of an address-based sample generated through a multistage, stratified, randomized method, a cross-sectional survey was performed on adult residents (n = 12,686; age 43.6 ± 17.3 yrs; women 61.9%) of the states of Nuevo León, Yucatán, and México City. Diagnostic criteria for specific upper (Southampton group criteria) and lower limb (ad hoc expert consensus) RRPS were applied to all subjects with limb pain as detected by COPCORD questionnaire. The overall prevalence of RRPS was 5.0% (95% CI 4.7-5.4). The most frequent syndrome was rotator cuff tendinopathy (2.36%); followed by inferior heel pain (0.64%); lateral epicondylalgia (0.63%); medial epicondylalgia (0.52%); trigger finger (0.42%); carpal tunnel syndrome (0.36%); anserine bursitis (0.34%); de Quervain's tendinopathy (0.30%); shoulder bicipital tendinopathy (0.27%); trochanteric syndrome (0.11%); and Achilles tendinopathy (0.10%). There were anatomic regional variations in the prevalence of limb pain: Yucatán 3.1% (95% CI 2.5-3.6); Nuevo León 7.0% (95% CI 6.3-7.7); and México City 10.8% (95% CI 9.8-11.8). Similarly, the prevalence of RRPS showed marked geographical variation: Yucatán 2.3% (95% CI 1.8-2.8); Nuevo León 5.6% (95% CI 5.0-6.3); and México City 6.9% (95% CI 6.2-7.7). The overall prevalence of RRPS in México was 5.0%. Geographical variations raise the possibility that the prevalence of RRPS is influenced by socioeconomic, ethnic, or demographic factors.

  15. Characterization of Whole Body Pain in Urologic Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome at Baseline – A MAPP Research Network Study

    PubMed Central

    Lai, H. Henry; Jemielita, Thomas; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Bradley, Catherine S.; Naliboff, Bruce; Williams, David A.; Gereau, Robert W.; Kreder, Karl; Clemens, J. Quentin; Rodriguez, Larissa V.; Krieger, John N.; Farrar, John T.; Robinson, Nancy; Landis, J. Richard

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We characterized the location and spatial distribution of whole body pain among patients with urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome (UCPPS) using a body map; and compared the severity of urinary symptoms, pelvic pain, non-pelvic pain, and psychosocial health among patients with different pain patterns. Methods 233 women and 191 men with UCPPS enrolled in a multi-center, one-year observational study completed a battery of baseline measures, including a body map describing the location of pain during the past week. Participants were categorized as having “pelvic pain only” if they reported pain in the abdomen and pelvis only. Participants who reported pain beyond the pelvis were further divided into two sub-groups based on the number of broader body regions affected by pain: an “intermediate” group (1–2 additional regions outside the pelvis) and a “widespread pain” group (3–7 additional regions). Results Of the 424 enrolled patients 25% reported pelvic pain only, and 75% reported pain beyond the pelvis of which 38% reported widespread pain. Participants with greater number of pain locations had greater non-pelvic pain severity (p<0.0001), sleep disturbance (p=0.035), depression (p=0.005), anxiety (p=0.011), psychological stress (p=0.005), negative affect scores (p=0.0004), and worse quality of life (p≤0.021). No difference in pelvic pain and urinary symptom severity were observed by increasing pain distribution. Conclusions Three-quarters of men and women with UCPPS reported pain outside the pelvis. Widespread pain was associated with greater severity of non-pelvic pain symptoms, poorer psychosocial health and worse quality of life, but not worse pelvic pain or urinary symptoms. PMID:28373134

  16. The application of neuropathic pain questionnaires in burning mouth syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jun-Young; Ok, Soo-Min; Ahn, Yong-Woo; Ko, Myung-Yun; Jeong, Sung-Hee

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the validity of the PainDETECT, DN4, and abbreviated DN4 (DN4i) neuropathic pain questionnaires for primary burning mouth syndrome (BMS), which is a burning sensation in the oral mucosa in the absence of any identifiable organic etiology. Eighty-one patients (42 with primary BMS and 39 with nociceptive pain) complaining of a burning sensation and pain in their oral mucosa were enrolled in this study. All of the patients completed the neuropathic pain questionnaires. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were estimated. Then the relationship between pain intensity and total neuropathic pain score was investigated. Data were analyzed with the chi-square test and independent t test for subjects' baseline characteristic differences, and with Pearson correlation coefficients for the relationship of variables. The mean area under the ROC curves (AUCs) for PainDETECT, DN4, and DN4i were 0.81, 0.79, and 0.81, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the AUCs among the questionnaires. PainDETECT, DN4, and DN4i had a lower sensitivity and specificity for BMS compared to previous validation studies. The total scores for PainDETECT, DN4, and DN4i in the primary BMS group were significantly associated with pain intensity. Although the results of this study suggest that neuropathic pain questionnaires, such as PainDETECT and DN4, are not ideal principal screening tools for BMS patients, a substantial proportion of neuropathic symptoms in primary BMS patients were identified.

  17. [Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome and Personality--Association of Somatic Symptoms and Psychic Structure].

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Rebecca; Löwe, Bernd; A Brünahl, Christian; Riegel, Björn

    2015-11-01

    Despite its high prevalence, little is known about the aetiology and maintenance of Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CPPS). CPPS is is considered to be a multi-causal syndrome with discomfort and pain in the pelvis. Recent literature suggests that psychosocial factors are important for understanding CPPS. For example, CPPS has been associated with deficits in mentalization and bonding experiences. Our study aims to characterize features of personality disorders according to DSM-IV and psychic structure according to OPD-2 in CPPS patients. Furthermore, we examine the association of personality aspects with urological symptoms (NIH Questionnaire) and pain perception (MPQ Questionnaire). Personality aspects were assessed in a total of 109 patients from our CPPS outpatient clinic using standardized questionnaires. To characterize CPPS patients, we compared the sample's scores with reference groups, mostly the general population. In addition, the associations between personality aspects and both the urologic symptoms and pain perception were assessed using correlations. Missing data were replaced using multiple imputation methods. Compared to reference values, we found 'experiencing emotions' and 'creating relationships' as specific deficits in CPPS patients. Furthermore, patients' self-image (more dominant, higher depressive mood) differs from the general population. A higher pain perception was correlated with deficits in most personality aspects we measured. However, this was not the case for the severity of urological symptoms. Compared to the reference values, only a few personality aspects differed in CPPS patients but there was a correlational association between different personality traits and pain perception. Despite the extend of symptoms, pain perception is associated with difficulty (emotional ability) in dealing with emotions, self-management and relationships. These personality aspects should be taken into account when planning therapy. © Georg Thieme

  18. Stakeholders’ Perspectives on Postmastectomy Breast Reconstruction: Recognizing Ways to Improve Shared Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Hasak, Jessica M.; Myckatyn, Terence M.; Grabinski, Victoria F.; Philpott, Sydney E.; Parikh, Rajiv P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Postmastectomy breast reconstruction (PMBR) is an elective, preference-sensitive decision made during a stressful, time-pressured period after a cancer diagnosis. Shared decision making (SDM) can improve decision quality about preference-sensitive choices. Stakeholders’ perspectives on ways to support PMBR decision-making were explored. Methods: Forty semi-structured interviews with stakeholders (20 postmastectomy patients, 10 PMBR surgeons, 10 PMBR nurses) were conducted. Clinicians were recruited from diverse practices across the United States. Patients were recruited using purposive sampling with varying PMBR experiences, including no reconstruction. The interview guide was based on an implementation research framework. Themes were identified using grounded theory approach, based on frequency and emotive force conveyed. Results: Engagement in SDM was variable. Some patients wanted more information about PMBR from clinicians, particularly about risks. Some clinicians acknowledged highlighting benefits and downplaying risks. Many patients felt pressured to make a choice by their clinicians. Clinicians who successfully engaged patients through decisions often used outside resources to supplement conversations. Conclusions: Patient–clinician trust was critical to high-quality decisions, and many patients expressed decision regret when they were not engaged in PMBR discussions. Patients often perceived a race- or age-related bias in clinician information sharing. Interventions to support SDM may enhance decision quality and reduce decision regret about PMBR, ultimately improving patient-centered care for women with breast cancer. PMID:29263969

  19. Involvement of peripheral artemin signaling in tongue pain: possible mechanism in burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shinoda, Masamichi; Takeda, Mamoru; Honda, Kuniya; Maruno, Mitsuru; Katagiri, Ayano; Satoh-Kuriwada, Shizuko; Shoji, Noriaki; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Iwata, Koichi

    2015-12-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is characterized by altered sensory qualities, namely tongue pain hypersensitivity. We found that the mRNA expression of Artemin (Artn) in the tongue mucosa of patients with burning mouth syndrome was significantly higher than that of control subjects, and we developed a mouse model of burning mouth syndrome by application of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) diluted with 50% ethanol to the dorsum of the tongue. TNBS treatment to the tongue induced persistent, week-long, noninflammatory tongue pain and a significant increase in Artn expression in the tongue mucosa and marked tongue heat hyperalgesia. Following TNBS treatment, the successive administration of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) antagonist SB366791 or neutralizing anti-Artn antibody completely inhibited the heat hyperalgesia. The number of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family receptor α3 (GFRα3)-positive and TRPV1-positive trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons innervating the tongue significantly increased following TNBS treatment and was significantly reduced by successive administration of neutralizing anti-Artn antibody. The capsaicin-induced current in TG neurons innervating the tongue was enhanced following TNBS treatment and was inhibited by local administration of neutralizing anti-Artn antibody to the tongue. These results suggest that the overexpression of Artn in the TNBS-treated tongue increases the membrane excitability of TG neurons innervating the tongue by increasing TRPV1 sensitivity, which causes heat hyperalgesia. This model may be useful for the study of tongue pain hypersensitivity associated with burning mouth syndrome.

  20. [Effectiveness of physiotherapy on painful shoulder impingement syndrome].

    PubMed

    Gomora-García, Mónica; Rojano-Mejía, David; Solis-Hernández, José Luis; Escamilla-Chávez, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Painful shoulder impingement syndrome is one of the first reasons for care in rehabilitation centres. As the evidence regarding the effectiveness of physical measures as adjuvant treatment is limited, the aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of physiotherapy on shoulder pain. A retrospective and analytical study was conducted using the medical records of patients with shoulder pain who attended in a rehabilitation centre from October 2010 to September 2011. The demographic and clinical data were collected, and the clinical improvement was determined as: complete, incomplete, or no improvement. Chi squared was used to determine whether there were differences between the different modalities of physiotherapy, as well as the level of improvement. The study included a total of 181 patients, with a mean age of 54.3 years, and a mean of 4.6 months of onset of pain. The physiotherapy treatments included: warm compresses plus interferential current (60.2%), and warm compresses plus ultrasound (17.1%). Just over half (53.6%) obtained a moderate recovery, 36.4% slight improvement, and 9.9% no improvement. No significant differences were found between the different forms of therapy. The supervised rehabilitation program consists of 9 sessions of physiotherapy. A functional improvement of 90% was obtained, without finding any statistical differences between the therapies used. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  1. Effectiveness of manual therapy versus surgery in pain processing due to carpal tunnel syndrome: A randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, C; Cleland, J; Palacios-Ceña, M; Fuensalida-Novo, S; Alonso-Blanco, C; Pareja, J A; Alburquerque-Sendín, F

    2017-08-01

    People with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) exhibit widespread pressure pain and thermal pain hypersensitivity as a manifestation of central sensitization. The aim of our study was to compare the effectiveness of manual therapy versus surgery for improving pain and nociceptive gain processing in people with CTS. The trial was conducted at a local regional Hospital in Madrid, Spain from August 2014 to February 2015. In this randomized parallel-group, blinded, clinical trial, 100 women with CTS were randomly allocated to either manual therapy (n = 50), who received three sessions (once/week) of manual therapies including desensitization manoeuvres of the central nervous system, or surgical intervention (n = 50) group. Outcomes including pressure pain thresholds (PPT), thermal pain thresholds (HPT or CPT), and pain intensity which were assessed at baseline, and 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after the intervention by an assessor unaware of group assignment. Analysis was by intention to treat with mixed ANCOVAs adjusted for baseline scores. At 12 months, 95 women completed the follow-up. Patients receiving manual therapy exhibited higher increases in PPT over the carpal tunnel at 3, 6 and 9 months (all, p < 0.01) and higher decrease of pain intensity at 3 month follow-up (p < 0.001) than those receiving surgery. No significant differences were observed between groups for the remaining outcomes. Manual therapy and surgery have similar effects on decreasing widespread pressure pain sensitivity and pain intensity in women with CTS. Neither manual therapy nor surgery resulted in changes in thermal pain sensitivity. The current study found that manual therapy and surgery exhibited similar effects on decreasing widespread pressure pain sensitivity and pain intensity in women with carpal tunnel syndrome at medium- and long-term follow-ups investigating changes in nociceptive gain processing after treatment in carpal tunnel syndrome. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  2. Relationships of abdominal pain, reports to visceral and temperature pain sensitivity, conditioned pain modulation, and heart rate variability in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, M E; Han, C J; Cain, K C; Burr, R L; Shulman, R J; Barney, P G; Naliboff, B D; Zia, J; Heitkemper, M M

    2016-07-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a heterogeneous condition with a number of pathophysiological mechanisms that appear to contribute to symptom chronicity. One of these is altered pain sensitivity. Women between ages 18-45 were recruited the community. Of those enrolled, 56 had IBS and 36 were healthy control (HC) women. Participants completed questionnaires, kept a 4-week symptom diary and had a 12-h Holter placed to assess nighttime heart rate variability including high frequency power (HF), low frequency power (LF), and total power (TP). At mid-follicular phase approximately 80% of women completed a thermal pain sensitivity test with conditioned pain modulation and visceral pain sensitivity using a water load symptom provocation (WLSP) test. As expected, daily abdominal pain was significantly higher in the IBS compared to HC group. There were no differences between the bowel pattern subgroups (IBS-diarrhea [IBS-D], IBS-constipation plus mixed [IBS-CM]). Thermal pain sensitivity did not differ between the IBS and the HC groups, but was significantly higher in the IBS-CM group than the IBS-D group. In the WLSP test, the IBS group experienced significantly more symptom distress than HCs and the IBS-CM group was higher than the IBS-D group. Heart rate variability indicators did not differ between the groups or IBS subgroups. Daily abdominal pain was positively correlated with LF and TP in the IBS group. Despite similar levels of abdominal pain in IBS, the IBS-CM group demonstrated greater sensitivity to both thermal and visceral testing procedures. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Quality of information on the internet related to bladder pain syndrome: a systematic review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Tirlapur, S A; Leiu, C; Khan, K S

    2013-08-01

    Bladder pain syndrome (BPS) has an impact on quality of life and available treatments often only provide temporary symptomatic relief. The information provided by websites can be valuable for patient education and management. The hypothesis was to assess medical information available on the internet related to bladder pain syndrome in terms of accuracy, credibility, readability and quality. A search was performed in the meta-search engine Copernic Agent, using the search terms "bladder pain syndrome, interstitial cystitis, painful bladder syndrome and pelvic pain", which simultaneously captured websites from a range of engines. Websites in the English language that were open-access were included. The four quality assessments used were: credibility using a ten-point scale, accuracy based on the American Urological Association guidelines, quality using the DISCERN questionnaire and readability using the Flesch Reading Ease Score. Inter-rater agreement was tested by intra-class coefficient (ICC). Eighteen suitable websites were identified; 7 (39%) were specialist or specific to BPS. The combined mean scores for accuracy, quality, credibility and readability ranged from 83 to 144 for specialist websites and 76 to 137 for non-specialist ones, with a maximum possible score of 208. There was good inter-observer agreement for the assessments performed with an ICC ranging from 0.80 for DISCERN to 0.53 for readability. Specialist websites had higher quality scores (median difference 10, p = 0.07) and readability scores (median difference 5.4, p = 0.05) compared with non-specialist websites whereas credibility and accuracy scores were no different. We found four websites that fulfilled our criteria for good quality information.

  4. [Combined surgical and physical treatment in traumatic painful syndromes of the cervical spine].

    PubMed

    Stachowski, B; Kaczmarek, J; Nosek, A; Kocur, L

    1976-01-01

    Clinical observations suggest the need for changing therapeutic management to a more active one in cases of cervical spine injury with damage to the spinal cord and nerve roots or brachial plexus. In 248 patients with these injuries treated initially conservatively the incidence of cervicobrachial pain was analysed. Neuralgic pains were present in 31.5% of cases, causalgic pains in 2.4% and sympathalgic pains in 2%. Conservative treatment conducted in these patients (89 cases) during many months after trauma had no effect on return of mobility. Long-term application of physioterapy prevented only temporarily the development of trophic changes and only partially relieved pains. Only surgical decompression of the spinal cord or spinal nerves with stabilization of damaged vertebrae caused disappearance of painful syndromes and improvement in the motor activity of the extremities. These observations show that early surgical intervention for decompression of the spinal cord, roots or brachial plexus should be advocated in these cases.

  5. Pain syndromes in competitive elite level female artistic gymnasts. Role of specific preventive-compensative activity.

    PubMed

    Marini, Mirca; Mirca, Marini; Sgambati, Eleonora; Eleonora, Sgambati; Barni, Edy; Edy, Barni; Piazza, Marina; Marina, Piazza; Monaci, Marco; Marco, Monaci

    2008-01-01

    The pain is a serious problem in advanced level female artistic gymnasts because it decreases the performance. The pain is due to the high numbers of hours spent in training sessions and may be associated to injuries that have relatively high incidence and severity in these athletes. We investigated the role of a preventive-compensative physical activity program, implemented in the warm-up and the cool-down session of standard training, in the prevention and reduction of the pain syndromes, evaluated in elite level young female artistic gymnasts. Thirty elite level female athletes, 10-14 years old, participated in this study and were followed for 12 weeks during the competition preparation period. Fifteen athletes were trained with preventive-compensative motory program implemented in the ordinary training (intervention group) and fifteen (control group) followed the standard training. All athletes completed a self-administered questionnaire regarding the pain intensity on the basis of a Visual Analogue Scale pre- and post- intervention. The experimental protocol consisted of three steps: the treatment of the shortened muscle chains according to Active Posture Reeducation method, the propriocettive-coordinative training with wobble board and the mobilization and stretching of back using fitball. Before intervention, the pain in practicing this sport was reported by 83% of all the athletes. The most common primary pain sites were the ankle and low back; the pain anatomical location was correlated to the training. After intervention, low back pain assessment showed a decrease of pain identified as mild (from 56% to 44%) or moderate (from 33% to 22%) and a disappearance of severe pain (from 11% to 0%). Ankle pain decreased and/or disappeared: the mild pain from 33% to 27%, moderate from 27% to 13% and severe from 13% to 0%. The pain analysis did not show different results in the control group. Our results indicated that the performed preventive-compensative training

  6. Pain Information Brochure

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Information Page ... ACTTION Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks. Date last modified: Contact Us ...

  7. [The semiotics of the pain and dyspeptic syndromes in motor disorders of the digestive organs in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Dmytriieva, S M

    1999-06-01

    Overall 304 children and adolescents with gastro-duodenal pathology were studied for some aspects of clinical manifestations of the pain and dyspeptic syndromes as related to the character of disordered gastroduodenal motility by making use of techniques of phase polygastroduodenometry. Pathogenetic interrelationship was disclosed of clinical manifestations of the pain and dyspeptic syndromes according to the variant of gastroduodenal dysmotility (dysphasic hyper- or hypomotile dyskinesia of the stomach and duodenum).

  8. [Clinical Results of Endoscopic Treatment of Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome].

    PubMed

    Zeman, P; Rafi, M; Skala, P; Zeman, J; Matějka, J; Pavelka, T

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY This retrospective study aims to present short-term clinical outcomes of endoscopic treatment of patients with greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS). MATERIAL AND METHODS The evaluated study population was composed of a total of 19 patients (16 women, 3 men) with the mean age of 47 years (19-63 years). In twelve cases the right hip joint was affected, in the remaining seven cases it was the left side. The retrospective evaluation was carried out only in patients with greater trochanteric pain syndrome caused by independent chronic trochanteric bursitis without the presence of m. gluteus medius tear not responding to at least 3 months of conservative treatment. In patients from the followed-up study population, endoscopic trochanteric bursectomy was performed alone or in combination with iliotibial band release. The clinical results were evaluated preoperatively and with a minimum follow-up period of 1 year after the surgery (mean 16 months). The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for assessment of pain and WOMAC (Western Ontario MacMaster) score were used. In both the evaluated criteria (VAS and WOMAC score) preoperative and postoperative results were compared. Moreover, duration of surgery and presence of postoperative complications were assessed. Statistical evaluation of clinical results was carried out by an independent statistician. In order to compare the parameter of WOMAC score and VAS pre- and post-operatively the Mann-Whitney Exact Test was used. The statistical significance was set at 0.05. RESULTS The preoperative VAS score ranged 5-9 (mean 7.6) and the postoperative VAS ranged 0-5 (mean 2.3). The WOMAC score ranged 56.3-69.7 (mean 64.2) preoperatively and 79.8-98.3 (mean 89.7) postoperatively. When both the evaluated parameters of VAS and WOMAC score were compared in time, a statistically significant improvement (p<0.05) was achieved postoperatively. The mean duration of surgical procedure was 68 minutes. Moreover, in peritrochanteric

  9. Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Electrolysis and Eccentric Exercises for Subacromial Pain Syndrome: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Buría, José L.; Truyols-Domínguez, Sebastián; Valero-Alcaide, Raquel; Salom-Moreno, Jaime; Atín-Arratibel, María A.; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To compare effects of ultrasound- (US-) guided percutaneous electrolysis combined with an eccentric exercise program of the rotator cuff muscles in subacromial pain syndrome. Methods. Thirty-six patients were randomized and assigned into US-guided percutaneous electrolysis (n = 17) group or exercise (n = 19) group. Patients were asked to perform an eccentric exercise program of the rotator cuff muscles twice every day for 4 weeks. Participants assigned to US-guided percutaneous electrolysis group also received the application of galvanic current through acupuncture needle on each session once a week (total 4 sessions). Shoulder pain (NPRS) and disability (DASH) were assessed at baseline, after 2 sessions, and 1 week after the last session. Results. The ANOVA revealed significant Group∗Time interactions for shoulder pain and disability (all, P < 0.01): individuals receiving US-guided percutaneous electrolysis combined with the eccentric exercises experienced greater improvement than those receiving eccentric exercise alone. Conclusions. US-guided percutaneous electrolysis combined with eccentric exercises resulted in small better outcomes at short term compared to when only eccentric exercises were applied in subacromial pain syndrome. The effect was statistically and clinically significant for shoulder pain but below minimal clinical difference for function. Future studies should investigate the long-term effects and potential placebo effect of this intervention. PMID:26649058

  10. Period Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... cycle. Many women have painful periods, also called dysmenorrhea. The pain is most often menstrual cramps, which ... as lower back pain, nausea, diarrhea, and headaches. Period pain is not the same as premenstrual syndrome (PMS). ...

  11. Comparison of the Efficacy of Dry Needling and High-Power Pain Threshold Ultrasound Therapy with Clinical Status and Sonoelastography in Myofascial Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aridici, Rifat; Yetisgin, Alparslan; Boyaci, Ahmet; Tutoglu, Ahmet; Bozdogan, Erol; Sen Dokumaci, Dilek; Kilicaslan, Nihat; Boyaci, Nurefsan

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the therapeutic efficacy of high-power pain threshold (HPPT) ultrasound therapy applied to the trigger points and dry needling (DN) in myofascial pain syndrome. Sixty-one patients were randomly assigned to an HPPT (n = 30) and dry needling (n = 31) groups. The primary outcome measures were the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Neck Pain and Disability Scale (NPDS), both at 1 week and 4 weeks after treatment. The secondary outcome measures were the number of painful trigger points, range of the tragus-acromioclavicular joint, the Short Form-36, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and sonoelastographic tests after a 1-week treatment. More improvement was seen in anxiety in the HPPT group (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences were found between the groups with regard to other parameters (P > 0.05). A decrease in tissue stiffness was only seen in the HPPT group (P < 0.05). Significant posttreatment improvements were seen on all clinical scales in both groups (P < 0.05). After a treatment period of 4 weeks, a significant improvement was also observed on the visual analog scale and NPDS (P < 0.05). Our study favors the efficacy of both treatment methods in myofascial pain syndrome. Although a significant decrease was shown in tissue stiffness with HPPT, neither of these treatments had an apparent superiority.

  12. Fatigue in adults with Marfan syndrome, occurrence and associations to pain and other factors.

    PubMed

    Bathen, Trine; Velvin, Gry; Rand-Hendriksen, Svend; Robinson, Hilde Stendal

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to investigate how fatigue affects adults with verified Marfan syndrome (MFS) in their daily lives, by examining fatigue levels and prevalence of severe fatigue compared to the general Norwegian population and individuals with other comparable chronic conditions. We investigated associations between socio-demographic characteristics, Marfan-related health problems, pain and fatigue. A cross-sectional study was conducted, using a postal questionnaire including the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) and questions on socio-demographic characteristics, Marfan-related health problems and pain. One hundred seventeen persons with MFS were invited to participate, 73 answered (62%). Participants reported significantly higher FSS scores and prevalence of severe fatigue compared to the general Norwegian population and patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but lower than for other chronic conditions. Participants with chronic pain reported higher fatigue scores than those without chronic pain. Participants on disability benefits reported higher fatigue scores than participants who were working or enrolled in higher education. Marfan-related health problems like aortic dissection and use of blood pressure medication were not significantly associated with fatigue. In multivariable regression analyses chronic pain and employment status were significantly associated with fatigue. The final multivariable model explained 24% of the variance in fatigue scores. Our results show that fatigue is common in MFS patients and that it interferes with their daily lives. Chronic pain and employment status show significant associations to fatigue. This implies that fatigue is important to address when meeting MFS patients in clinical practice. There is need for more research on fatigue in Marfan syndrome. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Lower limb and back pain in Guillain-Barré syndrome and associated contrast enhancement in MRI of the cauda equina.

    PubMed

    Wilmshurst, J M; Thomas, N H; Robinson, R O; Bingham, J B; Pohl, K R

    2001-06-01

    This study assesses the frequency of lower limb and back pain in children with Guillain-Barré syndrome and reviews the magnetic resonance imaging results of those undergoing spinal imaging. Over an 8-y period, nine children presented with various combinations of severe back pain, leg pains, impairment of gait and bladder dysfunction. Guillain-Barré syndrome was confirmed on clinical examination and peripheral electrophysiology (n = 8). Magnetic resonance imaging in four patients, following contrast injection, showed enhancement of the cauda equine and, additionally, of the cervical nerve roots in one of the patients. A further patient, who was not scanned with contrast, had abnormal thickening of the lumbar roots. Carbamazepine and steroids were effectively used for analgesia in three cases. All the patients recovered. Guillain-Barré syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis of children presenting with back and/or leg pain. Early diagnosis ensures prompt monitoring for autonomic dysfunction and respiratory compromise.

  14. Short-Term Functional, Emotional, and Pain Outcomes of Patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Treated in a Comprehensive Interdisciplinary Pain Management Program.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Zachary L; Gagnon, Christine M; Caldwell, Mary; Patel, Jaymin; Kornfeld, Sarah; Atchison, James; Stanos, Steven; Harden, R Norman; Calisoff, Randy

    2015-12-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is difficult to effectively treat with unimodal approaches. To investigate whether CRPS can be effectively treated in a comprehensive interdisciplinary pain management program. Observational cohort study of 49 patients aged 18-89 who fulfilled 'Budapest Criteria' for CRPS and completed an interdisciplinary pain management program. Preprogram to postprogram changes in physical functioning, perceived disability, emotional functioning, acceptance, coping, and pain were assessed. The measures used included: Pain Disability Index, Six minute walk test, 2-minute sit-to-stand, Numerical Rating Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale, Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire, Coping Strategies Questionnaire-Revised, RIC- Multidimensional Patient Global Impression of Change (RIC-MPGIC), and Medication Quantification Scale. For worker's compensation patients, the rate of successful release to work at the end of the program was calculated. Results indicated significant improvements in physical functioning and perceived disability (P's<0.001). Patients reported increased usage of an adaptive coping strategy, distraction (P = 0.010), and decreased usage of maladaptive and passive strategies (P's < 0.001). Patients showed greater chronic pain acceptance (P's ≤ 0.010) and reductions in emotional distress (P's < 0.001). Medication usage at 1-month follow-up was significantly reduced compared to program start (P < 0.001) and discharge (P = 0.004). Patients reported "much improvement" in overall functioning, physical functioning, mood, and their ability to cope with pain and flare-ups (RIC-MPGIC). Patient report of pain was not significantly reduced at discharge (P =0.078). Fourteen (88%) of 16 total worker's compensation patients were successfully released to work at the end of the program. This study demonstrates short-term improvements in physical and emotional functioning

  15. Efficient conditioned pain modulation despite pain persistence in painful diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Granovsky, Yelena; Nahman-Averbuch, Hadas; Khamaisi, Mogher; Granot, Michal

    2017-05-01

    Alleviation of pain, by either medical or surgical therapy, is accompanied by transition from less efficient, or pro-nociceptive, to efficient conditioned pain modulation (CPM). Spontaneous decrease or resolution of pain with disease progression is reported for some patients with painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN). To explore whether CPM changes similarly in parallel to spontaneous resolution of pain in PDN patients. In this cross-sectional study, thirty-three patients with PDN underwent psychophysical assessment of pain modulation on the forearm, remote from the clinical pain. Pain duration was not correlated with neuropathic pain intensity, yet, it correlated with CPM efficiency; patients with longer pain duration had same pain level, but more efficient CPM than those with short-pain duration (ρ = -0.417; P = 0.025, Spearman correlation). Patients with pain more than 2 years (median split) expressed efficient CPM that was not different from that of healthy controls. These patients also had lower temporal summation of pain than the short-pain duration patients group ( P < 0.05). The 2 patient groups did not differ in clinical pain characteristics or use of analgesics. Pro-nociception, expressed by less efficient CPM and high temporal summation that usually accompanies clinical painful conditions, seems to "normalize" with chronicity of the pain syndrome. This is despite continuing pain, suggesting that pro-nociceptivity in pain syndromes is multifactorial. Because the pain modulation profile affects success of therapy, this suggests that different drugs might express different efficacy pending on duration of the pain in patients with PDN.

  16. Efficient conditioned pain modulation despite pain persistence in painful diabetic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Granovsky, Yelena; Nahman-Averbuch, Hadas; Khamaisi, Mogher; Granot, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Alleviation of pain, by either medical or surgical therapy, is accompanied by transition from less efficient, or pro-nociceptive, to efficient conditioned pain modulation (CPM). Spontaneous decrease or resolution of pain with disease progression is reported for some patients with painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN). Objectives: To explore whether CPM changes similarly in parallel to spontaneous resolution of pain in PDN patients. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, thirty-three patients with PDN underwent psychophysical assessment of pain modulation on the forearm, remote from the clinical pain. Results: Pain duration was not correlated with neuropathic pain intensity, yet, it correlated with CPM efficiency; patients with longer pain duration had same pain level, but more efficient CPM than those with short-pain duration (ρ = −0.417; P = 0.025, Spearman correlation). Patients with pain more than 2 years (median split) expressed efficient CPM that was not different from that of healthy controls. These patients also had lower temporal summation of pain than the short-pain duration patients group (P < 0.05). The 2 patient groups did not differ in clinical pain characteristics or use of analgesics. Conclusion: Pro-nociception, expressed by less efficient CPM and high temporal summation that usually accompanies clinical painful conditions, seems to “normalize” with chronicity of the pain syndrome. This is despite continuing pain, suggesting that pro-nociceptivity in pain syndromes is multifactorial. Because the pain modulation profile affects success of therapy, this suggests that different drugs might express different efficacy pending on duration of the pain in patients with PDN. PMID:29392208

  17. Effects of physical therapist-guided quadriceps-strengthening exercises for the treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kooiker, Laura; Van De Port, Ingrid G L; Weir, Adam; Moen, Maarten H

    2014-06-01

    Systematic literature review. To summarize the evidence for physical therapist-guided quadriceps-strengthening exercises as a treatment for patellofemoral pain syndrome. Although quadriceps strengthening is often included in the plan of care for patellofemoral pain syndrome, a systematic review published in 2003 found only limited evidence that exercise was more effective than no exercise for this common condition. The PubMed, Embase/MEDLINE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases, from inception to January 9, 2014, were searched for randomized controlled trials comparing the use of quadriceps-strengthening exercises to interventions consisting of advice/information or a placebo. Outcomes of interest were pain measures and function, as measured with self-report questionnaires. The methodological quality of the randomized controlled trials was assessed with the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale. Results were summarized using a best-evidence synthesis and graphically illustrated using forest plots without meta-analysis. Seven studies were included in the literature review. These studies reported strong evidence that isolated quadriceps strengthening is more effective in reducing pain and improving function than advice and information alone. In addition, compared to advice and information or placebo, there was strong evidence that quadriceps-strengthening exercises combined with other interventions may be more effective in reducing pain immediately postintervention and after 12 months, but not in improving function. The literature provides strong evidence for the use of quadriceps-strengthening exercises, with or without other interventions, for the treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome.

  18. Eagle's syndrome veiling as pain of odontogenic origin: Report of two cases with cone beam computed tomography illustration

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, Vikash; Rai, Shalu; Misra, Deepankar; Panjwani, Sapna

    2015-01-01

    Eagle's syndrome, also known as an elongated styloid process, is a condition that may be the source of craniofacial and cervical pain. It is infrequently reported but is probably more common than generally considered. The symptoms related to Eagle's syndrome can be confused with those attributed to a wide variety of facial neuralgia and or oral, dental, and temporomandibular joint diseases. In this paper, there are two cases, which reported to the Department of Oral Medicine, Diagnosis, and Maxillofacial Radiology, with a chief complaint of radiating pain in the preauricular region of the face. After radiographic investigation, these cases are considered as a case of Eagle's syndrome because of increase in the size of the styloid process. PMID:27390501

  19. Improvement in Anxiety and Pain After Whole Body Whirlpool Hydrotherapy Among Patients With Myofascial Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Im, Sang Hee

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of the Whirlpool hydrotherapy on pain and anxiety in chronic myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) patients, compared to the conventional hydrocollator pack therapy. Methods Forty-one subjects who have MPS in the upper trapezius muscles without depression were recruited. The patients were randomly assigned into two groups: the whirlpool therapy group whose bodies were immersed in a whirlpool bath at 34℃-36℃ for 30 minutes; the hydrocollator group who took a 30-minute application of a standard hot hydrocollator pack. Patients in both groups received therapy three days a week for 2 weeks and underwent several evaluations at baseline and after treatment. The variables we analyzed during evaluations were as follows: the primary outcome we considered was pain severity using a visual analogue scale. And the secondary outcomes examined included anxiety using the Korean version of the Beck Anxiety Inventory and quality of life (QoL) using the Korean version of the World Health Organization QoL Assessment, Brief Form. All follow-up values were compared with the baseline values. Results The baseline parameters did not show significant differences between two groups. And after 2-week treatment, both groups revealed significant improvement in anxiety levels and QoL, as well as in pain. However, the improvement on pain (p=0.002) and anxiety (p=0.010) was significantly greater in the whirlpool group, compared to the hydrocollator group. Conclusion The whirlpool hydrotherapy can be used as a more effective therapeutic method to reduce pain and anxiety in chronic MPS patients without depression. PMID:24020034

  20. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... an anesthetic (pain reliever) into certain nerves. This blocks the pain signals. If the injection relieves the pain, it may be repeated. It is not a cure. Sympathectomy of the injured nerve. A surgeon will cut or clamp the nerve chain. This has been reported to improve pain caused ...

  1. Assessing urgency in interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome.

    PubMed

    Diggs, Christina; Meyer, Walter A; Langenberg, Patricia; Greenberg, Patty; Horne, Linda; Warren, John W

    2007-02-01

    Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) at present is a symptom-based diagnosis. The Interstitial Cystitis Symptom Index (ICSI), also known as the O'Leary-Sant Symptom Index, is a widely used scale that assesses the four cardinal symptoms of IC/PBS (ie, bladder pain, urgency, frequency, and nocturia), by asking how often each is experienced. In an ongoing case-control study of recent-onset IC/PBS, we compared the ICSI with a series of questions that addressed the severity of these symptoms. Recruiting nationally, we enrolled women with IC/PBS symptoms of 12 months' duration or less. We assessed the severity of pain, frequency, and urgency using Likert and categorical scales, and how often these symptoms were experienced using the ICSI. We compared these scales by frequency distributions and interscale correlations. In 138 women with recent-onset IC/PBS, the scores for frequency were correlated and, for pain, appeared to be complementary. However, for urgency, the ICSI question of "the strong need to urinate with little or no warning" consistently yielded lower scores than the severity question of "the compelling urge to urinate that is difficult to postpone." Some patients denied urgency to the ICSI question yet reported intense urgency to the severity question. Compared with the severity question, the ICSI underestimated the prevalence and degree of urgency. This observation is consistent with the views of others that sudden urgency does not define the sensation experienced by many patients with IC/PBS. Clarifying this symptom description may assist in developing a usable case definition for IC/PBS.

  2. Chronic pelvic pain syndrome: role of a thorough clinical assessment.

    PubMed

    Quaghebeur, Jörgen; Wyndaele, Jean-Jacques

    2015-04-01

    Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) presents with a variety of symptoms affecting multiple systems. There is no universal treatment that can be given to all patients with CPPS. The results of treatment depend greatly on an accurate diagnosis. A thorough clinical assessment, including a "four-step plan", should include paying special attention to the musculoskeletal system. This assessment is not difficult to perform and provides valuable information on possible muscular problems and neuropathy.

  3. Rehabilitation of a female dancer with patellofemoral pain syndrome: applying concepts of regional interdependence in practice.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Caitlyn; Hanney, William J; Podschun, Laura; Kolber, Morey J

    2010-06-01

    Due to complex movements and high physical demands, dance is often associated with a multitude of impairments including pain of the low back, pelvis, leg, knee, and foot. This case report provides an exercise progression, emphasizing enhancement of strength and neuromuscular performance using the concept of regional interdependence in a 17 year old female dancer with patellofemoral pain syndrome.

  4. Nutcracker syndrome in adolescent with perineal pain: An interesting case of an adolescent with perineal pain due to pelvic congestion from nutcracker syndrome with relief after balloon venoplasty and sclerotherapy.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Kathleen; Filan, Eamon; Ching, Brian; Rooks, Veronica; Kellicut, Dwight

    2018-02-01

    Nutcracker phenomenon is the descriptor for a patient's anatomy whenever the left renal vein becomes compressed between the abdominal aorta and the superior mesenteric artery. Nutcracker syndrome is the terminology used when the nutcracker phenomenon is accompanied by symptoms including pain (abdominal, flank, pelvic), hematuria, and orthostatic proteinuria. Diagnosis can be made with Doppler ultrasound, venography, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging. This case demonstrates some of the typical findings of nutcracker syndrome. The limited clinical features and interesting imaging findings, in addition to the young age of the patient, make this a notable case.

  5. Enhanced pain and autonomic responses to ambiguous visual stimuli in chronic Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) type I.

    PubMed

    Cohen, H E; Hall, J; Harris, N; McCabe, C S; Blake, D R; Jänig, W

    2012-02-01

    Cortical reorganisation of sensory, motor and autonomic systems can lead to dysfunctional central integrative control. This may contribute to signs and symptoms of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS), including pain. It has been hypothesised that central neuroplastic changes may cause afferent sensory feedback conflicts and produce pain. We investigated autonomic responses produced by ambiguous visual stimuli (AVS) in CRPS, and their relationship to pain. Thirty CRPS patients with upper limb involvement and 30 age and sex matched healthy controls had sympathetic autonomic function assessed using laser Doppler flowmetry of the finger pulp at baseline and while viewing a control figure or AVS. Compared to controls, there were diminished vasoconstrictor responses and a significant difference in the ratio of response between affected and unaffected limbs (symmetry ratio) to a deep breath and viewing AVS. While viewing visual stimuli, 33.5% of patients had asymmetric vasomotor responses and all healthy controls had a homologous symmetric pattern of response. Nineteen (61%) CRPS patients had enhanced pain within seconds of viewing the AVS. All the asymmetric vasomotor responses were in this group, and were not predictable from baseline autonomic function. Ten patients had accompanying dystonic reactions in their affected limb: 50% were in the asymmetric sub-group. In conclusion, there is a group of CRPS patients that demonstrate abnormal pain networks interacting with central somatomotor and autonomic integrational pathways. © 2011 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  6. Athletes' leg pains.

    PubMed Central

    Orava, S.; Puranen, J.

    1979-01-01

    The frequency and nature of exertion pains of the leg in athletes were studied in 2,750 cases of overuse injuries treated at the Sports Clinic of the Deaconess Institute of Oulu, Finland, during the years 1972-1977. 465 cases of exertion pain (18%) were located in the shin. The medial tibial syndrome was the most common overuse injury among these athletes, comprising 9.5% of all exertion injuries and 60% of the leg exertion pains. Together with stress fracture of the tibia, the second most common exertion pain of the leg, it accounted for 75% of the total leg pains. There are certain difficulties in differentiating between the medial tibial syndrome and stress fracture of the tibia. They both occur at the same site with similar symptoms. Radiological examination and isotope scanning are needed. The medial tibial syndrome is an overuse injury at the medial tibial border caused by running exercises. The pain is elicited by exertional ischaemia. The pathogenesis is explained by increased pressure in the fascial compartment of the deep flexor muscles due to prolonged exercise. Similar chronic ischaemic pains from exercise are also found in other fascial compartments of the leg, especially in the anterior compartment. The only treatment needed for stress fractures is rest from training. Fascial compartment pains also usually subside. If chronic fascial syndromes prevent training, fasciotomy is recommended as a reliable method to restore the athlete to normal training without pains. PMID:486888

  7. [HEART RHYTHM VARIABILITY ANALYSIS AND ASSESSMENT OF THE SPINAL PAIN SYNDROME DURING DRY IMMERSION].

    PubMed

    Sun, I; Voronkov, Yu I; Ardashev, V N; Glukhova, S I

    2015-01-01

    The spinal pain syndrome appears in cosmonauts on both short and long-duration missions. This untoward factor may affect body systems functioning and complicate the successful accomplishment of space mission. Purpose of the investigation was to examine the lumbar spine and to elucidate whether its condition relates to the spinal pain development and changes in heart rate variability (HRV) in the microgravity environment. The experiment was conducted in dry immersion as a method of microgravity effects simulation. It was shown that in dry immersion locomotion reproduces the patterns peculiar for significant gravitational unloading. Spinal pain intensity, angles and heights of the lumbar intervertebral discs and HRV were measured in 19 selected volunteers. During the experiment, all the volunteers developed pains in the back that abated gradually. Pain dependence on the height of intervertebral discs and cardiac regulatory mechanisms were investigated.

  8. Molecular signature of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and its analysis.

    PubMed

    König, Simone; Schlereth, Tanja; Birklein, Frank

    2017-10-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a rare, but often disabling pain disease. Biomarkers are lacking, but several inflammatory substances have been associated with the pathophysiology. This review outlines the current knowledge with respect to target biomolecules and the analytical tools available to measure them. Areas covered: Targets include cytokines, neuropeptides and resolvins; analysis strategies are thus needed for different classes of substances such as proteins, peptides, lipids and small molecules. Traditional methods like immunoassays are of importance next to state-of-the art high-resolution mass spectrometry techniques and 'omics' approaches. Expert commentary: Future biomarker studies need larger cohorts, which improve subgrouping of patients due to their presumed pathophysiology, and highly standardized workflows from sampling to analysis.

  9. Self-Reported Presence and Experience of Pain in Adults with Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    de Knegt, Nanda C; Lobbezoo, Frank; Schuengel, Carlo; Evenhuis, Heleen M; Scherder, Erik J A

    2017-07-01

    The aim was to examine whether the presence of pain (based on physical conditions and participants' report) and self-reported pain experience in adults with Down syndrome (DS) differ from general population controls. Cross-sectional study of 224 adults with DS (mean age = 38.1 years, mild-severe intellectual disabilities) and 142 age-matched controls (median age = 40.5 years, mean estimated IQ = 105.7) in the Netherlands. File-based medical information was evaluated. Self-reported presence and experience of pain were assessed in rest and after movement during a test session (affect with facial affective scale (FAS: 0.04-0.97), intensity assessed with numeric rating scale (NRS: 0-10). Compared with controls, more DS participants had physical conditions that may cause pain and/or discomfort ( p  = .004, 50% vs 35%), but fewer DS participants reported pain during the test session ( p  = .003, 58% vs 73%). Of the participants who indicated pain and comprehended self-reporting scales ( n  = 198 FAS, n  = 161 NRS), the DS group reported a higher pain affect and intensity than the controls ( p  < .001, FAS: 0.75-0.85 vs 0.50-0.59, NRS: 6.00-7.94 vs 2.00-3.73). Not all adults with DS and painful/discomforting physical conditions reported pain. Those who did indicated a higher pain experience than adults from the general population. Research into spontaneous self-report of pain, repeated pain assessment, and acute pain is needed in people with DS for more insight into pain experience and mismatches between self-report and medical information. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Supraspinatus tendon micromorphology in individuals with subacromial pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, Federico; Seitz, Amee L; Plummer, Hillary A; Chow, Kira; Bashford, Gregory R; Michener, Lori A

    Cross-sectional cohort. Tendon collagen organization can be estimated by peak spatial frequency radius (PSFR) on ultrasound images. Characterizing PSFR can define the contribution of collagen disruption to shoulder symptoms. The purpose of this was to characterize the (1) supraspinatus tendon PSFR in participants with subacromial pain syndrome (SPS) and healthy controls; (2) PSFR between participants grouped on a tendon visual quality score; and (3) relationship between PSFR with patient-reported pain, function, and shoulder strength. Participants with SPS (n = 20) and age, sex, and arm-dominance-matched healthy controls (n = 20) completed strength testing in scaption and external rotation, and patient-reported pain, and functional outcomes. Supraspinatus tendon ultrasound images were acquired, and PSFR was calculated for a region of interest 15 mm medial to the supraspinatus footprint. PSFR was compared between groups using an independent t-test and an analysis of variance to compare between 3 groups for visually qualitatively rated tendon abnormalities. Relationships between PSFR with pain, function, and strength were assessed using Pearson correlation coefficient. Supraspinatus tendon PSFR was not different between groups (P = .190) or tendon qualitative ratings (P = .556). No relationship was found between PSFR and pain, functional loss, and strength (P > .05). Collagen disruption (PSFR) measured via ultrasound images of the supraspinatus tendon was not different between participants with SPS or in those with visually rated tendon defects. PSFR is not related to shoulder pain, function, and strength, suggesting that supraspinatus tendon collagen disorganization may not be a contributing factor to shoulder SPS. However, collagen disruption may not be isolated to a single region of interest. 3b: case-control study. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Slipping rib syndrome: a place for sonography in the diagnosis of a frequently overlooked cause of abdominal or low thoracic pain.

    PubMed

    Meuwly, Jean-Yves; Wicky, Stephan; Schnyder, Pierre; Lepori, Domenico

    2002-03-01

    To describe the sonographic appearance of a poorly recognized cause of low thoracic or upper abdominal pain. Three sonographic descriptions of slipping rib syndrome are presented. The 3 patients had abnormal mobility of a cartilaginous rib, which could slip over an adjacent rib during abdominal muscle contraction. Slipping rib syndrome should be considered in patients with histories of upper abdominal or low thoracic pain of unknown origin. We suggest that high-resolution sonography of the costal margin should be added to abdominal sonography in cases of nonspecific abdominal pain.

  12. Common Soft Tissue Musculoskeletal Pain Disorders.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Matthew J; Hildebrand, Bernard A; Battafarano, Monica M; Battafarano, Daniel F

    2018-06-01

    Soft tissue musculoskeletal pain disorders are common in the primary care setting. Early recognition and diagnosis of these syndromes minimizes patient pain and disability. This article gives a brief overview of the most common soft tissue musculoskeletal pain syndromes. The authors used a regional approach to organize the material, as providers will encounter these syndromes with complaints of pain referring to an anatomic location. The covered disorders include myofascial pain syndrome, rotator cuff tendinopathy, bicipital tendinopathy, subacromial bursitis, olecranon bursitis, epicondylitis, De Quervain disease, trigger finger, trochanteric bursitis, knee bursitis, pes anserine bursitis, Baker cyst, plantar fasciitis, and Achilles tendinopathy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Psychological distress and stressful life events in pediatric complex regional pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wager, Julia; Brehmer, Hannah; Hirschfeld, Gerrit; Zernikow, Boris

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is little knowledge regarding the association between psychological factors and complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) in children. Specifically, it is not known which factors precipitate CRPS and which result from the ongoing painful disease. OBJECTIVES: To examine symptoms of depression and anxiety as well as the experience of stressful life events in children with CRPS compared with children with chronic primary headaches and functional abdominal pain. METHODS: A retrospective chart study examined children with CRPS (n=37) who received intensive inpatient pain treatment between 2004 and 2010. They were compared with two control groups (chronic primary headaches and functional abdominal pain; each n=37), who also received intensive inpatient pain treatment. Control groups were matched with the CRPS group with regard to admission date, age and sex. Groups were compared on symptoms of depression and anxiety as well as stressful life events. RESULTS: Children with CRPS reported lower anxiety and depression scores compared with children with abdominal pain. A higher number of stressful life events before and after the onset of the pain condition was observed for children with CRPS. CONCLUSIONS: Children with CRPS are not particularly prone to symptoms of anxiety or depression. Importantly, children with CRPS experienced more stressful life events than children with chronic headaches or abdominal pain. Prospective long-term studies are needed to further explore the potential role of stressful life events in the etiology of CRPS. PMID:26035287

  14. Pain evaluation during gynaecological surveillance in women with Lynch syndrome.

    PubMed

    Helder-Woolderink, Jorien; de Bock, Geertruida; Hollema, Harry; van Oven, Magda; Mourits, Marian

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate perceived pain during repetitive annual endometrial sampling at gynaecologic surveillance in asymptomatic women with Lynch syndrome (LS) over time and in addition to symptomatic women without LS, undergoing single endometrial sampling. In this prospective study, 52 women with LS or first degree relatives who underwent repetitive annual gynaecological surveillance including endometrial sampling of which 33 were evaluated twice or more and 50 symptomatic women without LS who had single endometrial sampling, were included. Pain intensity was registered with VAS scores. Differences in pain intensities between subsequent visits (in LS) and between the two groups were evaluated. The use of painkillers before endometrial sampling was registered. If women with LS decided for preventive surgery, the reason was recorded. The LS group reported a median VAS score of 5.0 (range 0-10) at the first surveillance (n = 52) and at the second visit (n = 24). Women who repeatedly underwent endometrial sampling more often used painkillers for this procedure. During the study period 7/52 (13 %) women with LS choose for preventive surgery, another 4/52 (8 %) refused further endometrial sampling. Painful endometrial sampling was mentioned as main reason to quit screening. The median VAS score of the 50 symptomatic women was 5.0 (range 1-9). Endometrial sampling, irrespective of indication, is a painful procedure, with a median VAS score of 5.0. During subsequent procedures in women with LS, the median pain score does not aggravate although one in five women chose an alternative for endometrial sampling.

  15. Correlation Between Bladder Pain Syndrome/Interstitial Cystitis and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Shiu-Dong; Chang, Chao-Hsiang; Hung, Peir-Haur; Chung, Chi-Jung; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Huang, Chao-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) has been investigated in Western countries and identified to be associated with chronic pelvic pain and inflammation. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is a complex syndrome that is significantly more prevalent in women than in men. Chronic pelvic pain is a main symptom of BPS/IC, and chronic inflammation is a major etiology of BPS/IC. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between BPS/IC and PID using a population-based dataset. We constructed a case–control study from the Taiwan National Health Insurance program. The case cohort comprised 449 patients with BPS/IC, and 1796 randomly selected subjects (about 1:4 matching) were used as controls. A Multivariate logistic regression model was constructed to estimate the association between BPS/IC and PID. Of the 2245 sampled subjects, a significant difference was observed in the prevalence of PID between BPS/IC cases and controls (41.7% vs 15.4%, P < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratio (OR) for PID among cases was 3.69 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.89–4.71). Furthermore, the ORs for PID among BPS/IC cases were 4.52 (95% CI: 2.55–8.01), 4.31 (95% CI: 2.91–6.38), 3.00 (95% CI: 1.82–4.94), and 5.35 (95% CI: 1.88–15.20) in the <35, 35–49, 50–64, and >65 years age groups, respectively, after adjusting for geographic region, irritable bowel syndrome, and hypertension. Joint effect was also noted, specifically when patients had both PID and irritable bowel disease with OR of 10.5 (95% CI: 4.88–22.50). This study demonstrated a correlation between PID and BPS/IC. Clinicians treating women with PID should be alert to BPS/IC-related symptoms in the population. PMID:26579800

  16. Two years of debilitating pain in a football spearing victim: slipping rib syndrome.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Laurie L; Cavanaugh, Daniel G

    2003-10-01

    Blunt chest trauma can occur in a variety of sports, and lead to rib fractures and less commonly known and diagnosed injuries. We report the case of a 14-yr-old student athlete who was speared (helmet tackled) in a practice scrimmage sustaining a painful injury that eluded diagnosis and treatment for more than 2 yr. The case history of pain treatments and radiological evaluations is presented. Ultimately, a definitive diagnosis of "slipping rib syndrome" was achieved through a simple clinical manipulation (the hooking maneuver), combined with a history of symptomatic relief provided with costochondral blockade. Surgical resection of the slipping rib provided total resolution of the problem. Very few clinicians are aware either of the syndrome or the maneuver used to diagnose this condition. Although spearing has been outlawed in American football for years, it remains a commonplace occurrence, and sports physicians should be aware of the potential consequences to the victim as well as those to the perpetrator.

  17. Ultrasound-Guided Application of Percutaneous Electrolysis as an Adjunct to Exercise and Manual Therapy for Subacromial Pain Syndrome: a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    de-Miguel-Valtierra, Lorena; Salom-Moreno, Jaime; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Cleland, Joshua A; Arias-Buría, José L

    2018-05-16

    This randomized clinical trial compared the effects of adding US-guided percutaneous electrolysis into a program consisting of manual therapy and exercise on pain, related-disability, function and pressure sensitivity in subacromial pain syndrome. Fifty patients with subacromial pain syndrome were randomized into manual therapy and exercise or percutaneous electrolysis group. All patients received the same manual therapy and exercise program, one session per week for 5 consecutive weeks. Patients assigned to the electrolysis group also received the application of percutaneous electrolysis at each session. The primary outcome was Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH). Secondary outcomes included pain, function (Shoulder Pain and Disability Index-SPADI) pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) and Global Rating of Change (GROC). They were assessed at baseline, post-treatment, and 3, and 6 months after treatment. Both groups showed similar improvements in the primary outcome (DASH) at all follow-ups (P=0.051). Subjects receiving manual therapy, exercise, and percutaneous electrolysis showed significantly greater changes in shoulder pain (P<0.001) and SPADI (P<0.001) than those receiving manual therapy and exercise alone at all follow-ups. Effect sizes were large (SMD>0.91) for shoulder pain and function at 3 and 6 months in favour of the percutaneous electrolysis group. No between-groups differences in PPT were found. The current clinical trial found that the inclusion of US-guided percutaneous electrolysis in combination with manual therapy and exercise resulted in no significant differences for related-disability (DASH) than the application of manual therapy and exercise alone in patients with subacromial pain syndrome. Nevertheless, differences were reported for some secondary outcomes such as shoulder pain and function (SPADI). Whether or not these effects are reliable should be addressed in future studies Perspective This study found that the inclusion of US

  18. Pain Threshold Tests in Patients With Heel Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Saban, Bernice; Masharawi, Youssef

    2016-07-01

    Pressure pain threshold (PPT) is a useful tool for evaluating mechanical sensitivity in patients suffering from various musculoskeletal disorders. However, no previous study has investigated PPT in the heel of patients experiencing plantar heel pain syndrome (PHPS). The aim of this study was to compare PPT levels and topographic presentation of sensitivity in the heel of patients with PHPS and in healthy controls. The reliability of PPT testing in patients with PHPS was assessed for intra- and interrater recordings. The PPT levels of 40 feet in each group were then assessed on 5 predetermined sites in the heel using a standardized measurement protocol. Patient functional status (FS) as measured by the Foot & Ankle Computerized Adaptive Test was employed as an external reference. Multivariate analysis of covariance revealed no group differences for PPTs at all sites (P = .406). Age (P = .099) or BMI (P = .510) did not affect PPT values, although there was an effect on gender (P = .006). The analysis revealed significant differences between sites (P < .001) demonstrating a diverse topographic distribution. In the PHPS group, PPT levels at the anterior/medial, posterior/medial and central sites were significantly lower than at the posterior/lateral and anterior/lateral sites (P < .05). For the control group, PPT levels at the anterior/medial site were significantly lower than all other sites (P < .001). No significant differences were found between PPT of the PHPS patients and controls, therefore, PPT cannot be recommended as an assessment tool for these patients. The topographic distribution indicated low PPT levels at the anterior/medial area of the heel in patients with PHPS and controls. Level II, comparative study. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Visceral sensation and irritable bowel syndrome; with special reference to comparison with functional abdominal pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nozu, Tsukasa; Okumura, Toshikatsu

    2011-04-01

    Stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity may play an important role in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) but not in functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS). We examined rectal sensation in those patients. Experiment 1: Rectal thresholds of pain (PT) and maximum tolerance were assessed by barostat with ramp distention before and after repetitive rectal painful distention (RRD). Experiment 2, PT was measured in basal state and after intravenous CRF (100 µg) or vehicle, together with or without RRD. Experiment 3: Three phasic distentions at physiological range were randomly loaded. The subjects were asked to mark the visual analogue scale (VAS) in reference to subjective intensity of sensation. Experiment 1: Majority of IBS patients showed rectal hypersensitivity before RRD in contrast to FAPS. All IBS patients developed hypersensitivity after RRD, however, none of the FAPS patients did. RRD significantly reduced both thresholds in IBS (n=7) but did not change in controls (n=14) and FAPS (n=6). Experiment 2: PT was not modified by RRD in placebo group (n=6), while it was significantly reduced in CRF-treated group (n=5). On the other hand, CRF (n=5) or vehicle (n=5) without RRD did not alter PT. Experiment 3: The VAS ratings were increased in IBS (n=7) but significantly decreased in FAPS (n=6) as compared to controls (n=14). RRD-induced rectal hypersensitivity seems to be reliable marker for IBS, and CRF may contribute to this response. FAPS patients may have hyposensitivity to non-noxious physiological distention, suggesting FAPS has different pathogenesis from IBS. © 2011 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. The Effect of Diacutaneous Fibrolysis on Patellar Position Measured Using Ultrasound Scanning in Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome Patients.

    PubMed

    Fanlo-Mazas, Pablo; Bueno-Gracia, Elena; de Escudero-Zapico, Alazne Ruiz; Tricás-Moreno, José Miguel; Lucha-López, María Orosia

    2018-04-13

    Tightness or lack of flexibility of flexibility of several muscles of the thigh has been associated with patellofemoral-join pain. A tight iliotibial band can lead to laterally located patella and an abnormal patellar tracking pattern. Diacutaneous fibrolysis is commonly used to reduce muscle tightness, but no studies have evaluated the effects of this technique in the treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome patients. To assess the effect of diacutaneous fibrolysis on patellar position in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. A single-group, pretest-posttest clinical trial. University of Zaragoza. 46 subjects with patellofemoral pain (20 males, 26 females (age 27.8 ± 6.9 years)). 3 sessions of diacutaneous fibrolysis. Patellar position measurement using real time ultrasound scanning, pain intensity measured with visual analogue scale and function measured with the Anterior Knee Pain Scale. The application of three sessions of diacutaneous fibrolysis significantly increased the patellar position at post-treatment evaluation (p<0.001) and at one-week follow-up (p<0.001). There was not a significance difference on patellar position between post-treatment and follow-up measurements (p=0.283). There were also a statistically significant decrease in pain and increase in function at post-treatment and at one-week follow-up measurements (p<0.001). This study found that patellar position, pain intensity and function were significantly improved after three sessions of diacutaneous fibrolysis and at one week follow up.

  1. Rehabilitation of a Female Dancer with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: Applying Concepts of Regional Interdependence in Practice

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, Caitlyn; Podschun, Laura; Kolber, Morey J.

    2010-01-01

    Due to complex movements and high physical demands, dance is often associated with a multitude of impairments including pain of the low back, pelvis, leg, knee, and foot. This case report provides an exercise progression, emphasizing enhancement of strength and neuromuscular performance using the concept of regional interdependence in a 17 year old female dancer with patellofemoral pain syndrome. PMID:21589665

  2. Comparison among pain, depression, and quality of life in cases with failed back surgery syndrome and non-specific chronic back pain

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Nilay; Karahan, Ali Yavuz; Devrimsel, Gul; Gezer, Ilknur Albayrak

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study is to compare patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) with those with non-specific chronic back pain (NSCBP) in terms of pain, depression, and quality of life levels to explain the effects of surgery experience on low-back pain. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 50 patients with FBSS and 51 patients with NSCBP who consecutively applied to the outpatient clinic from September 2012 to April 2013 were included in the study. Patients completed questionnaires on demographics, body mass index, education level, work history, and pain duration (in months). Lumbar pain at rest, during movement, and at night were measured with a visual analogue scale (VAS). The Short Form 36 scale was used for evaluating quality of life, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used for assessing depression. [Results] VAS scores reporting pain at rest and at night and BDI scores were significantly higher in the FBSS group than in the NSCBP group. Role limitations due to physical functioning, which is one of the measures of quality of life, were significantly higher in the FBSS group than in the NSCBP group. [Conclusion] These assessments show that surgery experience in patients with ongoing low-back pain makes their pain and depression worse. PMID:28603366

  3. Psychological aspects of Recurrent Abdominal Pain Syndrome in children.

    PubMed

    Moayedi, A; Moayedi, F

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Intermittent visceral distress syndrome is described as "at least three scenes of visceral distress, sufficiently severe to hinder their actions over a time longer than 3 months, continuing from the preceding year". Organic factors causing abdominal pain are rare, so most of the children with an intermittent visceral distress are designated to have a functional abdominal pain. This study was designed to evaluate psychological problems such as anxiety and distress in children with functional intestinal distress. Method. 120 children (50 boys and 70 girls) with an age range of 5-18 years, who complained of abdominal pain among other things, were included in this cross-sectional case-control study (forty with an organic etiology, 38 diagnosed as RAPS and 42 healthy controls). Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS) questionnaire and Depression Self-Rated Scale (DSRS) questionnaire were used to determine the level of anxiety. A 28-question General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) was also used to investigate the general mental health of their mothers. Result. In the present study, organic and functional etiology of abdominal pain was significantly different with regard to the anxiety score. However, this was not seen as far as depression was concerned. The total GHQ score of mothers was not significantly different between the three groups. ANOVA was used to compare groups. Conclusion. As shown in the present study, that is consistent with most other studies, psychological factors were seen in RAP and need a more in depth investigation to be resolved.

  4. Patellofemoral pain syndrome in female athletes: A review of diagnoses, etiology and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Vora, Molly; Curry, Emily; Chipman, Amanda; Matzkin, Elizabeth; Li, Xinning

    2017-12-14

    Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is one of the most common causes of knee pain and is present in females disproportionately more relative to males. PFPS causes tend to be multifactorial in nature and are described in this review. From a review of the current literature, it is clear that there needs to be further research on PFPS in order to better understand the complex etiology of this disorder in both males and females. It is known that females with patellofemoral pain syndrome demonstrate a decrease in abduction, external rotation and extension strength of the affected side compared with healthy patients. Conservative management, including optimizing muscle balance between the vastus medialis and lateralis around the patella along with formal therapy should be the first line of treatment in patients presenting with PFPS. Surgery should be reserved for patients in which all conservative management options have failed. This review aims to guide physicians in accurate clinicaldecision making regarding conservative and surgical treatment options when specifically faced with PFPS in a female athlete. Furthermore, we will discuss the anatomic variants, incidence and prevalence, etiology, diagnosis and treatment of PFPS.

  5. Patellofemoral pain syndrome in female athletes: A review of diagnoses, etiology and treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Molly; Curry, Emily; Chipman, Amanda; Matzkin, Elizabeth; Li, Xinning

    2018-01-01

    Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is one of the most common causes of knee pain and is present in females disproportionately more relative to males. PFPS causes tend to be multifactorial in nature and are described in this review. From a review of the current literature, it is clear that there needs to be further research on PFPS in order to better understand the complex etiology of this disorder in both males and females. It is known that females with patellofemoral pain syndrome demonstrate a decrease in abduction, external rotation and extension strength of the affected side compared with healthy patients. Conservative management, including optimizing muscle balance between the vastus medialis and lateralis around the patella along with formal therapy should be the first line of treatment in patients presenting with PFPS. Surgery should be reserved for patients in which all conservative management options have failed. This review aims to guide physicians in accurate clinicaldecision making regarding conservative and surgical treatment options when specifically faced with PFPS in a female athlete. Furthermore, we will discuss the anatomic variants, incidence and prevalence, etiology, diagnosis and treatment of PFPS. PMID:29564075

  6. Correlates and importance of neglect-like symptoms in complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wittayer, Matthias; Dimova, Violeta; Birklein, Frank; Schlereth, Tanja

    2018-05-01

    Neglect-like symptoms (NLS) are frequently observed in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). The clinical meaning of NLS, however, is largely unknown. Therefore, this study sets out to assess the importance of NLS for patient outcome and to explore their clinical correlates. We assessed NLS in a group of 53 patients with CRPS and compared the results to 28 healthy volunteers. To define the origin of the NLS reports, we tested the subjective visual midline, performed a limb-laterality recognition test, and quantitative sensory testing. In addition, psychological and pain assessment scales were completed. Tests were analyzed with univariate and multivariate approaches. After 6 months, patients were reassessed and the influence of NLS on pain outcome was determined. Most patients reported NLS in the questionnaire, whereas subjective visual midline and limb-laterality recognition test in contrast to previous studies did not reveal perceptual disturbances. Neglect-like symptom scores were associated with pain and pain catastrophizing in acute CRPS and anxiety and thermal sensory loss in chronic CRPS. Furthermore, high NLS scores had a negative impact on pain outcome after 6 months. Our results indicate that NLS have a different meaning in acute and chronic CRPS and might be of prognostic value. Possibly, treatment should focus on reducing NLS.

  7. Chronic Pain Syndrome Caused by a Bird's Nest Filter: First Case Report

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Al-Basheer, Mamoun Ahmad, E-mail: drbasheer30@yahoo.co; Hamilton, Mark; Holdaway, Chris

    2008-07-15

    AimTo report the first case of a Bird's Nest IVC filter causing a chronic pain syndrome lasting 13 years through IVC wall penetration and subsequent break off of one of the filter struts.Materials and ResultsA 43-year-old female presented with a 13-year history of abdominal pain following uneventful insertion of a Bird's Nest vena cava filter through a right internal jugular percutanous approach. A year following the procedure, CT scan revealed one arm of the filter to be outside IVC borders. Nine years from the date of insertion the nature of the pain changed acutely following a five feet jump tomore » more localized RUQ pain worse with twisting movements. A CT scan showed the strut to have pierced the IVC wall and penetrated the Unicate process of pancreas. Plain x-rays taken at different times in February 2006 showed one of the struts to be free floating in the peritoneal cavity. The floating strut was removed surgically from the wall of the Ileum. Postoperative recovery was uneventful and the patient was discharged pain free three days later.ConclusionChronic pain is an added complication of BNF devices. Although rare, it further emphasizes the need for long-term follow up of patients with IVC filters.« less

  8. Pediatric irritable bowel syndrome and other functional abdominal pain disorders: an update of non-pharmacological treatments.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shivani; Schaffer, Gilda; Saps, Miguel

    2018-05-01

    Functional abdominal pain disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome, are common in children and treatment can often be difficult. Pharmacological therapies and complementary treatments are widely used, despite the limited data in pediatrics. Areas covered: This review provides an overview of the available data for the use of diet, probiotics, percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, and psychosocial interventions, including hypnotherapy, yoga, cognitive and behavioral therapy, and mind-body interventions for the treatment of functional abdominal pain disorders in children. The literature review included a PubMed search by each therapy, children, abdominal pain, and irritable bowel syndrome. Relevant articles to this review are discussed. Expert commentary: The decision on the use of pharmacological and complementary therapies should be based on clinical findings, evidence, availability, and in-depth discussion with the patient and family. The physician should provide education on the different interventions and their role on the treatment in an empathetic and warm manner providing ample time for the family to ask questions.

  9. Acute Coronary Syndrome Pain and Anxiety in a Rural Emergency Department: Patient and Nurse Perspectives.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe-McCarthy, Sheila; McGillion, Michael; Nelson, Sioban; Clarke, Sean P; Jones, Jeremy; Rizza, Sheila; McFetridge-Durdle, Judith

    2014-03-01

    Rural patients can wait up to 32 hours for transfer to cardiac catheterization (CATH) for events related to acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Pain arising from myocardial ischemia can be severe and anxiety-provoking. Pain management during this time should be optimized in order to preserve vulnerable myocardial muscle. This qualitative focus group study solicited the perspectives of ACS patients and emergency staff nurses on the rural patient experience of cardiac pain and anxiety and priorities and barriers to optimal assessment and management of ACS pain. Patients described ACS pain as moderate to severe, with pain in the chest, arms, back, shoulders, and jaw. Pain was well assessed and managed upon arrival in the emergency department but anxiety was not routinely assessed or treated. Barriers identified were poor management of patients with different acuity levels, high patient volumes, and assumptions regarding patients' communication about pain. Research related to ACS pain and anxiety management in the rural context is recommended. Copyright© by Ingram School of Nursing, McGill University.

  10. [The application of combined physical therapy for the treatment of women with pelvic pain syndrome].

    PubMed

    Tkachenko, L V; Raĭgorodskiĭ, Iu M; Tarasenko, Iu N; Tikhaeva, K Iu; Kurushina, O V

    2011-01-01

    A total of 98 women presenting with pelvic pain syndrome of different etiology (inflammatory diseases of small pelvic organs following surgical interventions, dysmenorrhoea, ovulatory syndrome) were enrolled in this study with an object of estimating the efficacy of the combined central and local application of physiotherapeutic techniques. An AVIM-1 apparatus was used to cause vibration in and apply a magnetic field to the perineal region. Transcranial magnetotherapy and electrostimulation were applied centrally using an AMO-ATOS-E device. The study has demonstrated that the combined central and local application of physiotherapeutic techniques supplemented by medicamental treatment according to the indications made it possible to attenuate pain syndrome by 64.6% and improve the vegetative nervous function and cerebral blood circulation by 30% and 18% respectively compared with the women in the control group. Moreover, the 1.5-2-fold improvement of the main characteristics of microcirculation was achieved. The overall resistance increased under the influence of physiotherapy in 71% of the women which promoted their reproductive potential and enhanced the probability of pregnancy.

  11. Posttraumatic mid-facial pain and Meige's syndrome relieved by pressure on the nasion and retrocollis.

    PubMed

    Jacome, Daniel E

    2010-07-01

    A 42-year-old farmer developed persistent mid-facial segmental pain and Meige's syndrome several months after suffering facial trauma and a fracture of the nose. He was not afflicted by systemic ailments, had no family history of movement disorder and no history of exposure to neuroleptic drugs. He was capable of suppressing his facial pain by performing a ritual that included forcefully tilting his head backwards, lowering of his eyelids and applying strong pressure to his nasion. Exceptionally dystonic movements and elaborate behavioral rituals may serve as a mechanism of pain suppression. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Predictors of satisfaction and quality of life following post-mastectomy breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Hannah; Carroll, Natalie; Renshaw, Derek; Turner, Andrew; Park, Alan; Skillman, Jo; McCarthy, Kate; Grunfeld, Elizabeth A

    2017-11-01

    Breast reconstruction is associated with multiple psychological benefits. However, few studies have identified clinical and psychological factors associated with improved satisfaction and quality of life. This study examined factors, which predict satisfaction with breast appearance, outcome satisfaction and quality of life following post-mastectomy breast reconstruction. Women who underwent post-mastectomy breast reconstruction between 2010 and 2016 received a postal questionnaire consisting of The BREAST-Q Patient Reported Outcomes Instrument, The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-30 Questionnaire, The Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale, and a series of Visual-Analogue Scales. One hundredforty-eight women completed the questionnaire, a 56% response rate. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed psychosocial factors accounted for 75% of the variance in breast satisfaction, 68% for outcome satisfaction, and 46% forquality of life. Psychosocial well-being emerged as a significant predictor of satisfaction with breast appearance (β = .322) and outcome satisfaction (β = .406). Deep inferior epigastric perforator flap patients reported greater satisfaction with breast appearance (β = .120) and outcome satisfaction (β = .167). This study extends beyond the limited research by distinguishing between satisfaction with breast appearance and outcome satisfaction. The study provides evidence for the role of psychosocial factors predicting key patient reported outcomes and demonstrates the importance of psychosocial well-being and reconstruction type. The findings also highlight the need for healthcare providers to consider the psychosocial well-being of patients both preoperatively and post operatively and provide preliminary evidence for the use of deep inferior epigastric perforator reconstructions over other types of reconstructive procedures. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Cost Utility Analysis of Percutaneous Adhesiolysis in Managing Pain of Post-lumbar Surgery Syndrome and Lumbar Central Spinal Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Helm, Standiford; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Racz, Gabor B

    2015-06-01

    The increase in the number of interventions for the management of chronic pain and associated escalation of healthcare costs has captured the attention of health policymakers, in no small part due to the lack of documentation of efficacy, cost-effectiveness, or cost utility analysis. A recent cost utility analysis of caudal epidural injections in managing chronic low back pain of various pathologies showed a high cost utility with improvement in quality of life years, competitive with various other modalities of treatments. However, there are no analyses derived from high-quality controlled studies related to the cost utility of percutaneous adhesiolysis in the treatment of post-lumbar surgery syndrome or lumbar central spinal stenosis. This analysis is based on 2 previously published controlled studies. To assess the cost utility of percutaneous adhesiolysis procedures in managing chronic low back and lower extremity pain secondary to post-lumbar surgery syndrome and lumbar central spinal stenosis. A private, specialty referral interventional pain management center in the United States. Two controlled studies were conducted assessing the clinical effectiveness of percutaneous adhesiolysis for post-lumbar surgery syndrome and lumbar central spinal stenosis in an interventional pain management setting utilizing contemporary interventional pain management practices. A cost utility analysis was performed with direct payment data for a total of 130 patients in treatment groups over a 2-year period. Various outcome measures were included with significant improvement, defined as at least 50% improvement with reduction in pain and disability status. The results of 2 controlled studies of low back pain with 60 and 70 patients and a 2-year follow-up with the actual reimbursement data showed cost utility for 1 year of quality-adjusted life year (QALY) of USD $2,652 for post-lumbar surgery syndrome and USD $2,649 for lumbar central spinal stenosis. The results of this

  14. Relationship between sleep and pain in adolescents with juvenile primary fibromyalgia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Margaret N; Sherry, David D; Boyne, Kathleen; McCue, Rebecca; Gallagher, Paul R; Brooks, Lee J

    2013-04-01

    To investigate sleep quality in adolescents with juvenile primary fibromyalgia syndrome (JPFS) and determine whether sleep abnormalities, including alpha-delta sleep (ADS), correlate with pain intensity. We hypothesized that successful treatment for pain with exercise therapy would reduce ADS and improve sleep quality. Single-center preintervention and postintervention (mean = 5.7 ± 1.0 weeks; range = 4.0-7.3 weeks) observational study. Ten female adolescents (mean age = 16.2 ± 0.65 SD yr) who met criteria for JPFS and completed treatment. Multidisciplinary pain treatment, including intensive exercise therapy. Pain and disability were measured by a pain visual analog scale (VAS) and the functional disability inventory. Subjective sleep measures included a sleep VAS, an energy VAS, and the School Sleep Habits Survey. Objective sleep measures included actigraphy, polysomnography (PSG), and the Multiple Sleep Latency Test. Baseline PSG was compared with that of healthy age- and sex-matched control patients. At baseline, patients had poorer sleep efficiency, more arousals/awakenings, and more ADS (70.3% of total slow wave sleep [SWS] versus 21.9% SWS, P = 0.002) than controls. ADS was unrelated to pain, disability, or subjective sleep difficulty. After treatment, pain decreased (P = 0.000) and subjective sleep quality improved (P = 0.008). Objective sleep quality, including the amount of ADS, did not change. Although perceived sleep quality improved in adolescents with JPFS after treatment, objective measures did not. Our findings do not suggest exercise therapy for pain improves sleep by reducing ADS, nor do they support causal relationships between ADS and chronic pain or subjective sleep quality.

  15. Central Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... cord. This syndrome can be caused by stroke, multiple sclerosis, tumors, epilepsy, brain or spinal cord trauma, or ... cord. This syndrome can be caused by stroke, multiple sclerosis, tumors, epilepsy, brain or spinal cord trauma, or ...

  16. [Pain syndromes in tick-borne neuroborreliosis. Clinical aspects and differential diagnosis.].

    PubMed

    Kohler, J; Thoden, U

    1987-09-01

    Tick-borne borreliosis (Borrelia burgdorferi) is a common and complex disorder affecting the skin, the joints and the nervous system. It progresses through different clinical stages. The clinical spectrum of neuroborreliosis has expanded since the introduction and widespread application of specific serological tests. We have investigated 41 patients with Bannwarth's meningopolyneuritis (MPN) as the classical form of neuroborreliosis, in a prospective (26 patients) and a retrospective (15 patients) study. When questioned, 19/41 patients reported a tick bite and only 15/41, erythema migrans as the characteristic early skin lesion. In 34/41 patients typical MPN characterized by painful radiculoneuritis and/or cranial neuritis, especially facial palsy, were seen. Among these, 3 had a complicated form with a progressive remitting relapsing course or focal central nervous system involvement (hemiparesis, cerebellar syndrome); 2 had mild meningitis and facial nerve palsy bilaterally without radicular pain; and in 5 radicular pain was the only symptom. MPN associated with Lyme arthritis was observed only once. In 2 patients in the retrospective study (no antibiotics in the acute stage) we saw a chronic spinal cord disorder with spastic paresis several years after uncomplicated MPN, accompanied in 1 of them by acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (ACA), the typical late-onset borrelia-induced dermatosis. In the acute stage of the disease 40/41 patients had a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) syndrome compatible with MPN (mononuclear pleocytosis, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, elevated IgG and/or oligoclonal bands). IgG antibody titers against borrelia antigen were elevated in all patients in the serum and in 21/30 also in the CSF. In all patients pain was an early and prominent symptom; the first symptoms are usually felt in the region of the tick bite or the erythema, initially as diffuse myalgia, arthralgia or pain in the connective tissue. In the further course the migrating

  17. Painful neurotrophins and their role in visceral pain.

    PubMed

    López-Pérez, Ana E; Nurgali, Kulmira; Abalo, Raquel

    2018-04-01

    Beyond their well-known role in embryonic development of the central and peripheral nervous system, neurotrophins, particularly nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, exert an essential role in pain production and sensitization. This has mainly been studied within the framework of somatic pain, and even antibodies (tanezumab and fasinumab) have recently been developed for their use in chronic somatic painful conditions, such as osteoarthritis or low back pain. However, data suggest that neurotrophins also exert an important role in the occurrence of visceral pain and visceral sensitization. Visceral pain is a distressing symptom that prompts many consultations and is typically encountered in both 'organic' (generally inflammatory) and 'functional' (displaying no obvious structural changes in routine clinical evaluations) disorders of the gut, such as inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome, respectively. The present review provides a summary of neurotrophins as a molecular family and their role in pain in general and addresses recent investigations of the involvement of nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in visceral pain, particularly that associated with inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome.

  18. Measurement properties of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMS) in Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Green, Andrew; Liles, Clive; Rushton, Alison; Kyte, Derek G

    2014-12-01

    This systematic review investigated the measurement properties of disease-specific patient-reported outcome measures used in Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome. Two independent reviewers conducted a systematic search of key databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINHAL+ and the Cochrane Library from inception to August 2013) to identify relevant studies. A third reviewer mediated in the event of disagreement. Methodological quality was evaluated using the validated COSMIN (Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments) tool. Data synthesis across studies determined the level of evidence for each patient-reported outcome measure. The search strategy returned 2177 citations. Following the eligibility review phase, seven studies, evaluating twelve different patient-reported outcome measures, met inclusion criteria. A 'moderate' level of evidence supported the structural validity of several measures: the Flandry Questionnaire, Anterior Knee Pain Scale, Functional Index Questionnaire, Eng and Pierrynowski Questionnaire and Visual Analogue Scales for 'usual' and 'worst' pain. In addition, there was a 'Limited' level of evidence supporting the test-retest reliability and validity (cross-cultural, hypothesis testing) of the Persian version of the Anterior Knee Pain Scale. Other measurement properties were evaluated with poor methodological quality, and many properties were not evaluated in any of the included papers. Current disease-specific outcome measures for Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome require further investigation. Future studies should evaluate all important measurement properties, utilising an appropriate framework such as COSMIN to guide study design, to facilitate optimal methodological quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pregabalin for the Treatment of Men With Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pontari, Michel A.; Krieger, John N.; Litwin, Mark S.; White, Paige C.; Anderson, Rodney U.; McNaughton-Collins, Mary; Nickel, J. Curtis; Shoskes, Daniel A.; Alexander, Richard B.; O'Leary, Michael; Zeitlin, Scott; Chuai, Shannon; Landis, J. Richard; Cen, Liyi; Propert, Kathleen J.; Kusek, John W.; Nyberg, Leroy M.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that the urogenital pain of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) may be neuropathic. Methods This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted across 10 tertiary care centers in North America to determine whether pregabalin, which has been proved effective in other chronic pain syndromes, is effective in reducing CP/CPPS symptoms. In 2006–2007, 324 men with pelvic pain for at least 3 of the previous 6 months were enrolled in this study. Men were randomly assigned to receive pregabalin or placebo in a 2:1 ratio and were treated for 6 weeks. Pregabalin dosage was increased from 150 to 600 mg/d during the first 4 weeks. The primary outcome was a 6-point decrease in the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) total score. Multiple secondary outcomes were assessed. Results Of 218 men assigned to receive pregabalin, 103 (47.2%) reported at least a 6-point decrease in the NIHCPSI total score at 6 weeks compared with 35.8% (38 of 106 men) assigned to receive placebo (P = .07, exact Mantel-Haenszel test, adjusting for clinical sites). Compared with the placebo group, men assigned to receive pregabalin experienced reductions in the NIH-CPSI total score and sub-scores (P < .05), a higher Global Response Assessment response rate (31.2% and 18.9%; P = .02), and improvement in total McGill Pain Questionnaire score (P = .01). Results for the other outcomes did not differ between groups. Conclusion Pregabalin therapy for 6 weeks was not superior to placebo use in the rate of a 6-point decrease (improvement) in the NIH-CPSI total score in men with CP/CPPS. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00371033 PMID:20876412

  20. Mesothalamic discharge in a chronic pain, allergy and fluid retention syndrome (case report).

    PubMed

    Andy, O J; Nicholas, W; Dearman, C

    1995-01-01

    A 32-year-old woman was bedridden for a year because of chronic pain and headaches. She had insomnia, depression, suicidal thoughts and a severe chemical allergy. She had been on steroid therapy for two years and became Cushingoid with striae in the arm pits, groins and abdomen. However, she had no hypertension, nor the buffalo fat and hirsutism. She was very edematous, with a weight gain from 112 to 180 lbs. The fluid retention did not conform to the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone. Studies revealed abnormal scalp EEG discharges and high-voltage seizure discharges in the posterior thalamus. Electrothalamic stimulation suppressed the thalamic discharges and relieved the patient's pelvic pain and headaches. After one month of several thalamic stimulations per day, she was able to get out of bed and ambulate. In addition, the patient no longer was edematous and was tolerating perfumes and floor detergents. Steroids were progressively reduced without complications of withdrawal. She went from a completely steroid dependent state to independent during the first 1-1/2 yrs of thalamic stimulation. With continued thalamic stimulation she has done well for 8-1/2 yrs, weighs 112 lbs, keeps house and drives a car. It's speculated the illness is a chronic pain multiple syndrome predominantly due to mesothalamic discharges and body infirmities. The mesothalamic discharge implicated neural networks, which represent biologic systems, i.e. pain, sleep, fluid retention, etc. Therapeutic stimulation attenuates the discharges and the neural networks return to their normal set points of homeostasis.

  1. Effects of Mirror Therapy in Stroke Patients With Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Pervane Vural, Secil; Nakipoglu Yuzer, Guldal Funda; Sezgin Ozcan, Didem; Demir Ozbudak, Sibel; Ozgirgin, Nese

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the effects of mirror therapy on upper limb motor functions, spasticity, and pain intensity in patients with hemiplegia accompanied by complex regional pain syndrome type 1. Randomized controlled trial. Training and research hospital. Adult patients with first-time stroke and simultaneous complex regional pain syndrome type 1 of the upper extremity at the dystrophic stage (N=30). Both groups received a patient-specific conventional stroke rehabilitation program for 4 weeks, 5 d/wk, for 2 to 4 h/d. The mirror therapy group received an additional mirror therapy program for 30 min/d. We evaluated the scores of the Brunnstrom recovery stages of the arm and hand for motor recovery, wrist and hand subsections of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) and motor items of the FIM-motor for functional status, Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) for spasticity, and visual analog scale (VAS) for pain severity. After 4 weeks of rehabilitation, both groups had significant improvements in the FIM-motor and VAS scores compared with baseline scores. However, the scores improved more in the mirror therapy group than the control group (P<.001 and P=.03, respectively). Besides, the patients in the mirror therapy arm showed significant improvement in the Brunnstrom recovery stages and FMA scores (P<.05). No significant difference was found for MAS scores. In patients with stroke and simultaneous complex regional pain syndrome type 1, addition of mirror therapy to a conventional stroke rehabilitation program provides more improvement in motor functions of the upper limb and pain perception than conventional therapy without mirror therapy. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationship between Chronic Non-Urological Associated Somatic Syndromes (NUAS) and Symptom Severity in Urological Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndromes: Baseline Evaluation of the Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP) Study

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, John N.; Stephens, Alisa J.; Landis, J. Richard; Clemens, J. Quentin; Kreder, Karl; Lai, H. Henry; Afari, Niloofar; Rodriguez, Larissa; Schaeffer, Anthony; Mackey, Sean; Andriole, Gerald L.; Williams, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We report data from the Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP) network to: (1) identify participants having either (a) urologic chronic pelvic pain syndromes (UCPPS) only or (b) chronic functional non-urological associated somatic syndromes (NUAS) in addition to UCPPS, (2) characterize these two subgroups, and (3) explore these two subgroups using three criteria: (a) the MAPP eligibility criteria, (b) self-reported medical history, or (c) RAND interstitial cystitis epidemiologic (RICE) criteria. Materials and Methods Self-reported cross-sectional data were collected from men and women with UCPPS including: predominant symptoms, symptom duration and severity, NUAS symptoms, and psychosocial factors. Results Of 424 UCPPS participants, 162 (38%) had NUAS: 93 (22%) irritable bowel syndrome, 15 (4%) fibromyalgia, 13 (3%) chronic fatigue syndrome, and 41 (10%) with multiple syndromes. Among 233 females, 103 (44%) had NUAS compared to 59 (31%) of 191 males (p = 0.006). Participants with NUAS had more severe urological symptoms, and more frequent depression and anxiety. Of 424 participants, 228 (54%) met RICE criteria. Among 228 RICE-positive participants, 108 (47%) had NUAS compared to 54 (28%) of 203 RICE-negative patients with NUAS (p < 0.001). Conclusions NUAS represent important clinical characteristics of UCPPS. Participants with NUAS have more severe symptoms, longer duration and higher rates of depression and anxiety. RICE-positive patients are more likely to have NUAS and more severe symptoms. Because NUAS are more common in women, future studies need to account for this potential confounding factor in UCPPS. PMID:25444992

  3. Gorlin-Goltz Syndrome: An Uncommon Cause of Facial Pain and Asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Pickrell, Brent B; Nguyen, Harrison P; Buchanan, Edward P

    2015-10-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is an underdiagnosed autosomal dominant disorder with variable expressivity that is characterized by an increased predisposition to tumorigenesis of multiple types. The major clinical features include multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) appearing in early childhood, palmar and plantar pits, odontogenic keratocysts of the oral cavity, skeletal defects, craniofacial dysmorphism, and ectopic intracranial calcification. The authors present the clinical course of a 12-year-old girl presenting with facial asymmetry and pain because of previously undiagnosed Gorlin-Goltz syndrome. Early diagnosis and attentive management by a multidisciplinary team are paramount to improving outcomes in patients with this disorder, and this report serves as a paradigm for maintaining a high clinical suspicion, which must be accompanied by an appropriate radiologic workup.

  4. Chronic pelvic pain.

    PubMed

    Wozniak, Slawomir

    2016-06-02

    Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) affects about 10-40% of women presenting to a physician, and is characterised by pain within the minor pelvis persisting for over 6 months. The Medline database was searched using the key words 'chronic pelvic pain' and 'pelvic congestion syndrome', published in English during the past 15 years. The condition markedly deteriorates the quality of life of the affected. Its aetiology has not been fully described and elucidated, although organic, functional and psychosomatic factors are implicated. Pain associated with parametrial varices was defined as pelvis congestion syndrome (PCS). Since the aetiology of CPP is complex, multi-directional diagnostic procedures are required. The main diagnostic methods employed are imaging examinations (ultrasound, computer tomography, magnetic resonance). Advances in interventional radiology considerably contributed to the CPP treatment. Currently, embolization of parametrial vessels is one of the most effective methods to relieve pain associated with pelvic congestion syndrome. Due to the complex aetiology of chronic pelvic pain, the most beneficial effects are obtained when the therapy is based on cooperation of the gynaecologist, physiotherapist, psychologist and interventional radiologist.

  5. Stress-Induced Visceral Pain: Toward Animal Models of Irritable-Bowel Syndrome and Associated Comorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Moloney, Rachel D.; O’Mahony, Siobhain M.; Dinan, Timothy G.; Cryan, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Visceral pain is a global term used to describe pain originating from the internal organs, which is distinct from somatic pain. It is a hallmark of functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable-bowel syndrome (IBS). Currently, the treatment strategies targeting visceral pain are unsatisfactory, with development of novel therapeutics hindered by a lack of detailed knowledge of the underlying mechanisms. Stress has long been implicated in the pathophysiology of visceral pain in both preclinical and clinical studies. Here, we discuss the complex etiology of visceral pain reviewing our current understanding in the context of the role of stress, gender, gut microbiota alterations, and immune functioning. Furthermore, we review the role of glutamate, GABA, and epigenetic mechanisms as possible therapeutic strategies for the treatment of visceral pain for which there is an unmet medical need. Moreover, we discuss the most widely described rodent models used to model visceral pain in the preclinical setting. The theory behind, and application of, animal models is key for both the understanding of underlying mechanisms and design of future therapeutic interventions. Taken together, it is apparent that stress-induced visceral pain and its psychiatric comorbidities, as typified by IBS, has a multifaceted etiology. Moreover, treatment strategies still lag far behind when compared to other pain modalities. The development of novel, effective, and specific therapeutics for the treatment of visceral pain has never been more pertinent. PMID:25762939

  6. Anorectal and Pelvic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Bharucha, Adil E.; Lee, Tae Hee

    2016-01-01

    Although pelvic pain is a symptom of several structural anorectal and pelvic disorders (eg, anal fissure, endometriosis, and pelvic inflammatory disease), this comprehensive review will focus on the three most common nonstructural, or functional, disorders associated with pelvic pain: functional anorectal pain (ie, levator ani syndrome, unspecified anorectal pain, and proctalgia fugax), interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome, and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. The first two conditions occur in both sexes, while the latter occurs only in men. They are defined by symptoms, supplemented with levator tenderness (levator ani syndrome) and bladder mucosal inflammation (interstitial cystitis). Although distinct, these conditions share several similarities, including associations with dysfunctional voiding or defecation, comorbid conditions (eg, fibromyalgia, depression), impaired quality of life, and increased health care utilization. Several factors, including pelvic floor muscle tension, peripheral inflammation, peripheral and central sensitization, and psychosocial factors, have been implicated in the pathogenesis. The management is tailored to symptoms, is partly supported by clinical trials, and includes multidisciplinary approaches such as lifestyle modifications and pharmacologic, behavioral, and physical therapy. Opioids should not be avoided, and surgery has a limited role, primarily in refractory interstitial cystitis. PMID:27712641

  7. Bisphosphonates for treatment of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials versus placebo.

    PubMed

    Chevreau, Maxime; Romand, Xavier; Gaudin, Philippe; Juvin, Robert; Baillet, Athan

    2017-07-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 is a severely disabling pain syndrome with no definite established treatment. We have performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials to assess the benefit of bisphosphonates on pain and function in patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1. A systematic literature search was performed in the Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases. Two authors selected independently blinded randomized trials comparing bisphosphonates to placebo on short-term (J30 to J40) and medium term pain (M2-M3), safety and function in patients with CRPS 1. The methodological quality of the studies was analyzed. Data were aggregated using the method of the inverse of the variance. 258 articles were identified. Four trials of moderate to good quality comprising 181 patients (90 in the bisphosphonate group and 91 in the placebo group) were included in this meta-analysis. Short-term pain Visual Analog Scale was significantly lower in the bisphosphonate group versus the placebo group (SMD=-2.6, 95%CI [-1.8, -3.4], P<0.001), as well as the medium term Visual Analog Scale pain (SMD=-2.5, 95%CI [-1.4, -3.6], P<0.001). There were more adverse events in the bisphosphonate group (35.5%) than in the placebo group (16.4%) with a relative risk of 2.1 (95%CI [1.3, 3.5], P=0.004) and a number needed to harm of 4.6, (95%CI [2.4, 168.0]) but no serious side effects. Our results suggest that bisphosphonates reduce pain in patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1. Other studies are needed to determine their effectiveness. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  8. Chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and the relationship between sleep disorder and pain level, quality of life, and disability.

    PubMed

    Aytekin, Ebru; Demir, Saliha Eroglu; Komut, Ece Akyol; Okur, Sibel Caglar; Burnaz, Ozer; Caglar, Nil Sayiner; Demiryontar, Dilay Yilmaz

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and to assess the relationship between sleep disorder and pain, quality of life, and disability. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy-four patients were included in the study and classified as having mild, moderate, or severe obstructive sleep apnea. Chronic widespread pain, quality of life, and disability were evaluated. [Results] Forty-one patients (55.4%) had chronic widespread pain. Female patients had a higher incidence of chronic pain, and female patients with chronic pain had higher body mass indexes, pain levels, and disability scores than did male patients. Physical component scores of female patients with chronic pain were lower than those of male patients. No correlation was observed between the degree of sleep disorder and severity of pain, pain duration, disability, or quality of life in obstructive sleep apnea patients with pain. [Conclusion] This study showed a 55.4% prevalence of chronic widespread pain in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and a greater risk of chronic pain in female than in male patients. Female patients with obstructive sleep apnea and chronic pain have higher pain and disability levels and a lower quality of life.

  9. Rational pain management in complex regional pain syndrome 1 (CRPS 1)--a network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wertli, Maria M; Kessels, Alphons G H; Perez, Roberto S G M; Bachmann, Lucas M; Brunner, Florian

    2014-09-01

    Guidelines for complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) 1 advocate several substance classes to reduce pain and support physical rehabilitation, but guidance about which agent should be prioritized when designing a therapeutic regimen is not provided. Using a network meta-analytic approach, we examined the efficacy of all agent classes investigated in randomized clinical trials of CRPS 1 and provide a rank order of various substances stratified by length of illness duration. In this study a network meta-analysis was conducted. The participants of this study were patients with CRPS 1. Searches in electronic, previous systematic reviews, conference abstracts, book chapters, and the reference lists of relevant articles were performed. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials comparing at least one analgesic agent with placebo or with another analgesic and reporting efficacy in reducing pain. Summary efficacy stratified by symptom duration and length of follow-up was computed across all substance classes. Two authors independently extracted data. In total, 16 studies were included in the analysis. Bisphosphonates appear to be the treatment of choice in early stages of CRPS 1. The effects of calcitonin surpass that of bisphosphonates and other substances as a short-term medication in more chronic stages of the illness. While most medications showed some efficacy on short-term follow-up, only bisphosphonates, NMDA analogs, and vasodilators showed better long-term pain reduction than placebo. For some drug classes, only a few studies were available and many studies included a small group of patients. Insufficient data were available to analyze efficacy on disability. This network meta-analysis indicates that a rational pharmacological treatment strategy of pain management should consider bisphosphonates in early CRPS 1 and a short-term course of calcitonin in later stages. While most medications showed some efficacy on short-term follow-up, only bisphosphonates

  10. Post-Mastectomy and Phantom Pain: Risk Factors, Natural History, and Impact on Quality of Life

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-07-01

    significantly disabled by their chronic pain and can suffer from substantial reductions in quality of life . The primary aims of this research project are to... of life , and psychosocial variables. This allows risk factors for chronic pain to be identified and its impact on quality of life to be determined. The... of life using a prospective research design. To date, 83 women scheduled for breast cancer surgery have been assessed with respect to hypothesized

  11. Advances in translational neuropathic research: example of enantioselective pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling of ketamine-induced pain relief in complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sabia, Michael; Hirsh, Robert A; Torjman, Marc C; Wainer, Irving W; Cooper, Niti; Domsky, Richard; Goldberg, Michael E

    2011-06-01

    Historically, complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) was poorly defined, which meant that scientists and clinicians faced much uncertainty in the study, diagnosis, and treatment of the syndrome. The problem could be attributed to a nonspecific diagnostic criteria, unknown pathophysiologic causes, and limited treatment options. The two forms of CRPS still are painful, debilitating disorders whose sufferers carry heavy emotional burdens. Current research has shown that CRPS I and CRPS II are distinctive processes, and the presence or absence of a partial nerve lesion distinguishes them apart. Ketamine has been the focus of various studies involving the treatment of CRPS; however, currently, there is incomplete data from evidence-based studies. The question as to why ketamine is effective in controlling the symptoms of a subset of patients with CRPS and not others remains to be answered. A possible explanation to this phenomenon is pharmacogenetic differences that may exist in different patient populations. This review summarizes important translational work recently published on the treatment of CRPS using ketamine. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

  12. Pediatric Chronic Abdominal Pain and Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome: A Review and Psychosocial Comparison.

    PubMed

    Mak, Grace Zee; Lucchetti, Amanda R; Drossos, Tina; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Accurso, Erin C; Stiles-Shields, Colleen; Newman, Erika A; Skelly, Christopher L

    2016-07-01

    Chronic abdominal pain (CAP) occurs in children and adolescents with a reported prevalence of 4% to 41% with significant direct and indirect costs to the child, family, and society. Median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS) is a vascular compression syndrome of the celiac artery that may cause symptoms of epigastric pain and weight loss and is a frequently overlooked cause of CAP in the pediatric population. We have observed that the psychosocial presentation of patients with MALS is notable for various psychiatric comorbidities. In this article, we review MALS as well as our study results of the psychosocial profile of 30 MALS patients. Our data suggest that children and adolescents with MALS have similar psychosocial profiles to children with other gastrointestinal disorders resulting in CAP. The overlap of physical and psychosocial symptoms of patients who have MALS with other CAP disorders leads us to recommend that patients with CAP should be evaluated for MALS. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(7):e257-e264.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Complex regional pain syndrome type 1: Analysis of 108 patients.

    PubMed

    Pendón, Gisela; Salas, Adrian; García, Mercedes; Pereira, Dora

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type 1 is characterized by the presence of pain, edema, functional impotence, impaired mobility, trophic changes, vasomotor instability and bone demineralization. We carried out a retrospective and prospective, descriptive, observational study of 108 patients over 18 years of age with suspected CRPS who met Doury's criteria. We recorded demographic data, clinical characteristics, comorbidities, previous predisposing conditions and triggering factors, such as injury or fracture. We evaluated laboratory data, serial plain X-rays, 3-phase bone scintigraphy with technetium 99 and bone density scan, as well as drug treatment, rehabilitation and disease course. In all, 89% of the 108 patients were women with an average age of 54.8±12.4 years. The time between the onset of the symptoms and the first visit to a physician was 3.1 months. The most common triggering factor was injury (91.7%). The most frequent psychological factor was anxiety (42.6%). All the patients reported pain and 99.07% had impaired mobility. The most frequently affected part of the body was the hand (75%; 81/108 patients) followed by the shoulder, in the shoulder-hand syndrome. All the patients had serial X-rays and changes were observed in 93.5%. Three-phase bone scintigraphy revealed evidence of disease in all 32 of the patients who underwent this study. Bone density scanning was performed in 54 patients (50%). All the patients were treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, mainly diclofenac (60%). Calcium therapy was initiated in 106 patients (98.2%) and vitamin D3 therapy in 97.2%. All the patients received bisphosphonates, primarily alendronate and ibandronate (67.6% and 27.8%, respectively). Thirty-six patients (33.3%) received corticosteroids. All of the evaluated patients underwent rehabilitation involving occupational therapy. The average time to recovery was 6.31 months (range, 4-24). The outcome was favorable in 88.9% of the patients. This

  14. Understanding pain and coping in women with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Katz, Laura; Tripp, Dean A; Carr, Lesley K; Mayer, Robert; Moldwin, Robert M; Nickel, J Curtis

    2017-08-01

    To examine a self-regulation and coping model for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) that may help us understand the pain experience of patients with chronic IC/BPS. The model tested illness perceptions, illness-focused coping, emotional regulation, mental health and disability in a stepwise method using factor analysis and structural equation modelling. Step 1, explored the underlying constructs. Step 2, confirmed the measurement models to determine the structure/composition of the main constructs. Step 3, evaluated the model fit and specified pathways in the proposed IC/BPS self-regulation model. In all, 217 female patients with urologist diagnosed IC/BPS were recruited and diagnosed across tertiary care centres in North America. The data were collected through self-report questionnaires. An IC/BPS self-regulation model was supported. Physical disability was worsened by patient's negative perception of their illness, attempts to cope using illness-focused coping and poorer emotional regulation. Mental health was supported by perceptions that individuals could do something about their illness, using wellness-focused behavioural strategies and adaptive emotion regulation. The results clarify the complex and unique process of self-regulation in women with IC/BPS, implicating cognitive and coping targets, and highlighting emotional regulation. This knowledge should help clinicians understand and manage these patients' distress and disability. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Predictors of physical therapy clinic performance in the treatment of patients with low back pain syndromes.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Linda; Liu, Dawei; Mor, Vince; Hart, Dennis L

    2008-09-01

    Little is known about organizational and service delivery factors related to quality of care in physical therapy. This study sought to identify characteristics related to differences in practice outcomes and service utilization. The sample comprised 114 outpatient clinics and 1,058 therapists who treated 16,281 patients with low back pain syndromes during the period 2000-2001. Clinics participated with the Focus on Therapeutic Outcomes, Inc (FOTO) database. Hierarchical linear models were used to risk adjust treatment outcomes and number of visits per treatment episode. Aggregated residual scores from these models were used to classify each clinic into 1 of 3 categories in each of 3 types of performance groups: (1) effectiveness, (2) utilization, and (3) overall performance (ie, composite measure of effectiveness and utilization). Relationships between clinic classification and the following independent variables were examined by multinomial logistic regression: years of therapist experience, number of physical therapists, ratio of physical therapists to physical therapist assistants, proportion of patients with low back pain syndromes, number of new patients per physical therapist per month, utilization of physical therapist assistants, and setting. Clinics that were lower utilizers of physical therapist assistants were 6.6 times more likely to be classified into the high effectiveness group compared with the low effectiveness group, 6.7 times more likely to be classified in the low utilization group compared with the high utilization group, and 12.4 times more likely to be classified in the best performance group compared with the worst performance group. Serving a higher proportion of patients with low back pain syndromes was associated with an increased likelihood of being classified in the lowest or middle group. Years of physical therapist experience was inversely associated with being classified in the middle utilization group compared with the highest

  16. Fibromyalgia syndrome and myofascial pain syndrome. Do they exist?

    PubMed

    Bohr, T W

    1995-05-01

    "It is in the healing business that the temptations of junk science are the strongest and the controls against it the weakest." Despite their subjective nature, these syndromes (particularly MPS) have little reliability and validity, and advocates paint them as "objective." Despite a legacy of poor-quality science, enthusiasts continue to cite small, methodologically flawed studies purporting to show biologic variables for these syndromes. Despite a wealth of traditional pain research, disciples continue to ignore the placebo effect, demonstrating a therapeutic hubris despite studies showing a dismal natural history for FS. In reviewing the literature on MPS and FS, F.M.R. Walshe's sage words come to mind that the advocates of these syndromes are "better armed with technique than with judgment." A sympathic observer might claim that labeling patients with monikers of nondiseases such as FS and MPS may not be such a bad thing. After all, there is still a stigma for psychiatric disease in our society, and even telling a sufferer that this plays only a partial role may put that patient on the defensive. Labeling may have iatrogenic consequences, however, particularly in the setting of the work place. Furthermore, review of a typical support group newsletter gives ipso facto proof of this noxious potential. The author of a flyer stuffed inside the newsletter complains that getting social security and disability benefits for "the invisible disability" can be "an uphill battle. But don't loose (sic) hope." Apparently the "seriousness of the condition" is not appreciated by the medical community at large, and "clinician bias may well be the largest threat," according to Boston epidemiologist Dr. John Mason. Sufferers are urged to trek to their local medical library and pull four particular articles claiming FS patients have more "stress," "daily hassles," and difficulty working compared with arthritis patients. If articles can't be located, patients are told to ask their

  17. Effectiveness of Manual Therapy Combined With Physical Therapy in Treatment of Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Espí-López, Gemma Victoria; Arnal-Gómez, Anna; Balasch-Bernat, Mercè; Inglés, Marta

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine the treatment effectiveness of the combination of manual therapy (MT) with other physical therapy techniques. Systematic searches of scientific literature were undertaken on PubMed and the Cochrane Library (2004-2014). The following terms were used: "patellofemoral pain syndrome," "physical therapy," "manual therapy," and "manipulation." RCTs that studied adults diagnosed with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) treated by MT and physical therapy approaches were included. The quality of the studies was assessed by the Jadad Scale. Five RCTs with an acceptable methodological quality (Jadad ≥ 3) were selected. The studies indicated that MT combined with physical therapy has some effect on reducing pain and improving function in PFPS, especially when applied on the full kinetic chain and when strengthening hip and knee muscles. The different combinations of MT and physical therapy programs analyzed in this review suggest that giving more emphasis to proximal stabilization and full kinetic chain treatments in PFPS will help better alleviation of symptoms.

  18. SU-F-T-323: A Post-Mastectomy Radiation Therapy Dose Distribution Study Using Nanodots and Films

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Qian, X; Vaidya, K; Puckett, L

    Purpose: In post-mastectomy radiation therapy (RT), skin dose must be accurately estimated to assess skin reactions such as erythema, desquamation and necrosis. Planning systems cannot always provide accurate dosimetry for target volumes distal to skin. Therefore, in-vivo dosimetry is necessary. A female anthropomorphic phantom was used with optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (nanoDots) to measure dose to chest wall skin. In addition, EBT2 films was employed to measure dose to left lung and heart in post-mastectomy RT. Methods: Films and nanoDots were calibrated under full buildup conditions at 100cm SAD for 6MV photons. Five pieces of films were placed between slabsmore » of Rando phantom to assess dose to left lung and heart. Two layers of 0.5cm thick bolus were used to cover the whole left chest. Six pairs of nanoDots were placed at medical and lateral aspects on the bolus surface, between the 0.5cm bolus layers, and under the bolus. Three control nanoDots were placed on chest wall to quantify imaging dose. The phantom was CT scanned with all dosimeters in place, and treatment planning was performed with tangential fields (200cGy). All dosimeters were contoured on CT and dose was extracted. NanoDots were read using nanoDot reader and films were scanned using film scanner. The measured and calculated doses were tabulated. Results: Dose to 12 nanoDots were evaluated. Dose variance for surface nanoDots were +3.8%, +2.7%, −5% and −9.8%. Those at lateral positions, with greater beam obliquity had larger variance than the medial positions. A similar trend was observed for other nanoDots (Table1). Point doses from films for heart and the left lung were 112.7cGy and 108.7cGy, with +10.2% and +9.04% deviation from calculated values, respectively. Conclusion: Dosimetry provided by the advanced planning system was verified using NanoDots and films. Both nanoDots and films provided good estimation of dose distribution in post-mastectomy RT.« less

  19. [Local and general humoral immunity in patients with migraine, Horton's syndrome and autonomic pain].

    PubMed

    Puzin, M N; Kulakov, A V; Balashov, K E; Sharov, M N; Vodop'ianov, N P

    1989-01-01

    Patients with migraines, Horton syndrome and autonomic pains were subjected to immunological investigation that revealed different degrees of local and general immunity disorders: increase in blood serum IfA and salival IgAc concentrations. These changes are believed to be capable of serving as diagnostic and prognostic indices.

  20. Comparison of Bladder Directed and Pelvic Floor Therapy in Women With Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-09-01

    PROJECT NUMBER Kenneth M. Peters 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0307 TITLE: Comparison of Bladder-Directed and Pelvic Floor Therapy in Women With Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain...Pelvic Floor Therapy in Women With Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  1. Lubiprostone does not influence visceral pain thresholds in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, W E; Palsson, O S; Gangarosa, L; Turner, M; Tucker, J

    2011-10-01

    In clinical trials, lubiprostone reduced the severity of abdominal pain. The primary aim was to determine whether lubiprostone raises the threshold for abdominal pain induced by intraluminal balloon distention. A secondary aim was to determine whether changes in pain sensitivity influence clinical pain independently of changes in transit time. Sixty-two patients with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C) participated in an 8-week cross-over study. All subjects completed a 14-day baseline ending with a barostat test of pain and urge sensory thresholds. Half, randomly selected, then received 48 μg day(-1) of lubiprostone for 14 days ending with a pain sensitivity test and a Sitzmark test of transit time. This was followed by a 14-day washout and then a crossover to 14 days of placebo with tests of pain sensitivity and transit time. The other half of the subjects received placebo before lubiprostone. All kept symptom diaries. Stools were significantly softer when taking lubiprostone compared to placebo (Bristol Stool scores 4.20 vs 3.44, P < 0.001). However, thresholds for pain (17.36 vs 17.83 mmHg, lubiprostone vs placebo) and urgency to defecate (14.14 vs 14.53 mmHg) were not affected by lubiprostone. Transit time was not significantly different between lubiprostone and placebo (51.27 vs 51.81 h), and neither pain sensitivity nor transit time was a significant predictor of clinical pain. Lubiprostone has no effect on visceral sensory thresholds. The reductions in clinical pain that occur while taking lubiprostone appear to be secondary to changes in stool consistency. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Lubiprostone does not Influence Visceral Pain Thresholds in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, William E.; Palsson, Olafur S.; Gangarosa, Lisa; Turner, Marsha; Tucker, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Background In clinical trials, lubiprostone reduced the severity of abdominal pain. Aims The primary aim was to determine whether lubiprostone raises the threshold for abdominal pain induced by intraluminal balloon distention. A secondary aim was to determine whether changes in pain sensitivity influence clinical pain independently of changes in transit time. Methods Sixty-two patients with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C) participated in an 8-week crossover study. All subjects completed a 14-day baseline ending with a barostat test of pain and urge sensory thresholds. Half, randomly selected, then received 48 ug/day of lubiprostone for 14 days ending with a pain sensitivity test and a Sitzmark test of transit time. This was followed by a 14-day washout and then a crossover to 14 days of placebo with tests of pain sensitivity and transit time. The other half of the subjects received placebo before lubiprostone. All kept symptom diaries. Results Stools were significantly softer when taking lubiprostone compared to placebo (Bristol Stool scores 4.20 vs. 3.44, p<0.001). However, thresholds for pain (17.36 vs. 17.83 mmHg, lubiprostone vs. placebo) and urgency to defecate (14.14 vs. 14.53 mmHg) were not affected by lubiprostone. Transit time was not significantly different between lubiprostone and placebo (51.27 vs. 51.81 hours), and neither pain sensitivity nor transit time was a significant predictor of clinical pain. Conclusions Lubiprostone has no effect on visceral sensory thresholds. The reductions in clinical pain that occur while taking lubiprostone appear to be secondary to changes in stool consistency. PMID:21914041

  3. Anorectal and Pelvic Pain.

    PubMed

    Bharucha, Adil E; Lee, Tae Hee

    2016-10-01

    Although pelvic pain is a symptom of several structural anorectal and pelvic disorders (eg, anal fissure, endometriosis, and pelvic inflammatory disease), this comprehensive review will focus on the 3 most common nonstructural, or functional, disorders associated with pelvic pain: functional anorectal pain (ie, levator ani syndrome, unspecified anorectal pain, and proctalgia fugax), interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome, and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. The first 2 conditions occur in both sexes, while the latter occurs only in men. They are defined by symptoms, supplemented with levator tenderness (levator ani syndrome) and bladder mucosal inflammation (interstitial cystitis). Although distinct, these conditions share several similarities, including associations with dysfunctional voiding or defecation, comorbid conditions (eg, fibromyalgia, depression), impaired quality of life, and increased health care utilization. Several factors, including pelvic floor muscle tension, peripheral inflammation, peripheral and central sensitization, and psychosocial factors, have been implicated in the pathogenesis. The management is tailored to symptoms, is partly supported by clinical trials, and includes multidisciplinary approaches such as lifestyle modifications and pharmacological, behavioral, and physical therapy. Opioids should be avoided, and surgical treatment has a limited role, primarily in refractory interstitial cystitis. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Supporting Self-management of Chronic Pain

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-04

    Chronic Pain Syndrome; Chronic Pain; Chronic Pain Due to Injury; Chronic Pain Due to Trauma; Chronic Pain Due to Malignancy (Finding); Chronic Pain Post-Procedural; Chronic Pain Hip; Chronic Pain, Widespread

  5. [Prevalence and Co-prevalence of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) in Hand Rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Neubrech, F; Gentzsch, T; Kotsougiani, D; Bickert, B; Kneser, U; Harhaus, L

    2016-06-01

    In the current literature, there are reports of associations between complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS) and carpal tunnel syndromes (CTS). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of both disease patterns in hand rehabilitation patients and to investigate whether there is a correlation between CTS and CRPS. Furthermore, differences in the healing process of patients with and without additional CTS, and the effectiveness of the rehabilitative therapy for both diseases, were investigated. The computerised medical records of 791 patients in the years 2009-2015 who had been in hand rehabilitation were retrospectively analysed. At the beginning and end of rehabilitation, measurements were made of pain by visual analogue scales (VAS, 0-10), grip strength and finger mobility (mean distance from finger pulp to palmar D2-D5). The clinical course was statistically analysed. CRPS diagnosis was confirmed clinically by a pain therapist, CTS diagnosis was confirmed by neurological and neurophysiological examination. Surgical therapy was performed despite CRPS diagnosis. The prevalence of CRPS was 161/1000 and of CTS 62/1000; the co-prevalence of the 2 diagnoses was 24/1000 (p<0.0001). In the CRPS group, after a mean of 8 (1-21) weeks of rehabilitative therapy, mean pain was reduced from 5 (1-10) to 3 (0-9), grip strength improved from 10 (0-39)kg to 18.5 (2.5-45.5)kg and finger mobility increased from 2.9 (0-7.6)cm to 1.8 (0-7.8)cm. In the CRPS+CTS group, after a mean of 6.8 (3-23) weeks of rehabilitative therapy, mean pain was reduced from 5 (0-8) to 2.6 (0-5), grip strength improved from 9.7 (2.4-25.5)kg to 17.4 (0.9-47.4)kg and finger mobility increased from 2.7 (0-5.3)cm to 1.7 (0-5.3)cm. Improvement over the period of rehabilitation was significant in both groups, though the period of therapy was significantly shorter in the CRPS+CTS group. CRPS and CTS are often associated. Rehabilitative therapy was effective for CRPS- and CRPS+CTS patients. © Georg

  6. Psychological Resilience as a Protective Factor for the Body Image in Post-Mastectomy Women with Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Izydorczyk, Bernadetta; Kwapniewska, Anna; Lizinczyk, Sebastian; Sitnik-Warchulska, Katarzyna

    2018-06-05

    European statistics confirm a rise in breast cancer among contemporary women. Those suffering from cancer and undergoing a surgery (mastectomy) are undoubtedly considered to be in difficult situations. The range of the numerous negative and/or positive emotions, thoughts, and behaviours depend on many psychological factors such as psychological resilience. The authors are currently drawing a report on their own studies where they are trying to determine factors that protect body image resilience in women suffering from breast cancer after mastectomies. The research group consisted of 120 women after a short (up to 2 years) or a long (over 2 years) duration having elapsed since their mastectomy. The results of the research groups show that psychological resilience is a significant protecting factor for the body image that prevents the excessive development of negative self-esteem in post-mastectomy women. Female patients ought to be provided aid in the short time immediately after the procedure and afterwards, when they are less capable of tolerating negative emotions. In order to significantly improve the general body image resilience to emotional and cognitive distortions in post-mastectomy women who experienced breast cancer, it is recommended that psychological interventions (from psychoeducation to psychological assistance and specialist psychotherapy) are conducted systematically throughout the course of treatment.

  7. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis as a functional somatic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Warren, John W

    2014-12-01

    To determine whether bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) has the characteristics of a functional somatic syndrome (FSS). There is no accepted definition of an FSS. Consequently, this paper reviewed the literature for common FSS characteristics and for reports that BPS/IC has these characteristics. Eleven articles met inclusion and exclusion criteria and yielded 18 FSS characteristics. BPS/IC patients manifest all but two: the exceptions were normal light microscopic anatomy (after hydrodistention under anesthesia, some BPS/IC bladders have Hunner's lesions and most have petechial hemorrhages) and normal laboratory tests (many BPS/IC patients have hematuria). Petechial hemorrhages and hematuria are probably related and may appear during naturally-occurring bladder distention. Without such distention, then, the 90% of BPS/IC patients without a Hunner's lesion have all the characteristics of an FSS. Comparisons in the opposite direction were consistent: several additional features of BPS/IC were found in FSSs. This systematic but untested method is consistent with but does not test the hypothesis that BPS/IC in some patients might best be understood as an FSS. Like most conditions, BPS/IC is probably heterogeneous; hence only a proportion of BPS/IC cases are likely to be manifestations of an FSS. This hypothesis has several implications. Explorations of processes that connect the FSSs might contribute to understanding the pathogenesis of BPS/IC. Patients with FSSs are at risk for BPS/IC and may benefit from future preventive strategies. Therapies that are useful in FSSs also may be useful in some cases of BPS/IC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pain, opioids, and sleep: implications for restless legs syndrome treatment.

    PubMed

    Trenkwalder, Claudia; Zieglgänsberger, Walter; Ahmedzai, Sam H; Högl, Birgit

    2017-03-01

    Opioid receptor agonists are known to relieve restless legs syndrome (RLS) symptoms, including both sensory and motor events, as well as improving sleep. The mechanisms of action of opioids in RLS are still a matter of speculation. The mechanisms by which endogenous opioids contribute to the pathophysiology of this polygenetic disorder, in which there are a number of variants, including developmental factors, remains unknown. A summary of the cellular mode of action of morphine and its (partial) antagonist naloxone via α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors and the involvement of dendritic spine activation is described. By targeting pain and its consequences, opioids are the first-line treatment in many diseases and conditions with both acute and chronic pain and have thus been used in both acute and chronic pain conditions over the last 40 years. Addiction, dependence, and tolerability of opioids show a wide variability interindividually, as the response to opioids is influenced by a complex combination of genetic, molecular, and phenotypic factors. Although several trials have now addressed opioid treatment in RLS, hyperalgesia as a complication of long-term opioid treatment, or opioid-opioid interaction have not received much attention so far. Therapeutic opioids may act not only on opioid receptors but also via histamine or N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. In patients with RLS, one of the few studies investigating opioid bindings found that possible brain regions involved in the severity of RLS symptoms are similar to those known to be involved in chronic pain, such as the medial pain system (medial thalamus, amygdala, caudate nucleus, anterior cingulate gyrus, insular cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex). The results of this diprenorphine positron emission tomography study suggested that the more severe the RLS, the greater the release of endogenous opioids. Since 1993, when the first small controlled study was performed with

  9. Five Patients With Burning Mouth Syndrome in Whom an Antidepressant (Serotonin-Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitor) Was Not Effective, but Pregabalin Markedly Relieved Pain.

    PubMed

    Ito, Mikiko; Tokura, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Keizo; Nagashima, Wataru; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Umemura, Eri; Tachibana, Masako; Miyauchi, Tomoya; Kobayashi, Yuka; Arao, Munetaka; Ozaki, Norio; Kurita, Kenichi

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) causes idiopathic pain or a burning sensation in clinically normal oral mucosa. Burning mouth syndrome is a chronic disease with an unknown etiology. Burning mouth syndrome is also idiopathic, and a consensus regarding diagnosis/treatment has not been reached yet. Recent studies have supported the suggestion that BMS is a neuropathic pain disorder in which both the peripheral and central nervous systems are involved. Tricyclic antidepressants (nortriptyline and amitriptyline), serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) (duloxetine and milnacipran), and antiepileptic drugs, potential-dependent calcium channel α2δ subunit ligands (gabapentine and pregabalin), are currently recommended as the first-choice drugs for neuropathic pain. In this study, we report 5 patients with BMS in whom there was no response to SNRI (milnacipran or duloxetine), or administration was discontinued because of adverse reactions, but in whom pregabalin therapy markedly reduced or led to the disappearance of pain in a short period. Pregabalin, whose mechanism of action differs from that of SNRIs, may become a treatment option for BMS patients who are not responsive to or are resistant to SNRIs.

  10. American Pain Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2014 News Releases Press Room - Pain Education in Physical Therapy Schools Press Room - Misuse of Therapeutic Opioids Press ... of Chronic or Severe Pain in U.S. Adults Physical Therapy for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Pain Often As Effective ...

  11. Chronic Orofacial Pain: Burning Mouth Syndrome and Other Neuropathic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Tait, Raymond C; Ferguson, McKenzie; Herndon, Christopher M

    2017-03-01

    Chronic orofacial pain is a symptom associated with a wide range of neuropathic, neurovascular, idiopathic, and myofascial conditions that affect a significant proportion of the population. While the collective impact of the subset of the orofacial pain disorders involving neurogenic and idiopathic mechanisms is substantial, some of these are relatively uncommon. Hence, patients with these disorders can be vulnerable to misdiagnosis, sometimes for years, increasing the symptom burden and delaying effective treatment. This manuscript first reviews the decision tree to be followed in diagnosing any neuropathic pain condition, as well as the levels of evidence needed to make a diagnosis with each of several levels of confidence: definite, probable, or possible. It then examines the clinical literature related to the idiopathic and neurogenic conditions that can occasion chronic orofacial pain, including burning mouth syndrome, trigeminal neuralgia, glossopharyngeal neuralgia, post-herpetic neuralgia, and atypical odontalgia. Temporomandibular disorders also are examined as are other headache conditions, even though they are not neurologic conditions, because they are common and can mimic symptoms of the latter disorders. For each of these conditions, the paper reviews literature regarding incidence and prevalence, physiologic and other contributing factors, diagnostic signs and symptoms, and empirical evidence regarding treatments. Finally, in order to improve the quality and accuracy of clinical diagnosis, as well as the efficiency with which effective treatment is initiated and delivered, criteria are offered that can be instrumental in making a differential diagnosis.

  12. Chronic Orofacial Pain: Burning Mouth Syndrome and Other Neuropathic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tait, Raymond C; Ferguson, McKenzie; Herndon, Christopher M

    2017-01-01

    Chronic orofacial pain is a symptom associated with a wide range of neuropathic, neurovascular, idiopathic, and myofascial conditions that affect a significant proportion of the population. While the collective impact of the subset of the orofacial pain disorders involving neurogenic and idiopathic mechanisms is substantial, some of these are relatively uncommon. Hence, patients with these disorders can be vulnerable to misdiagnosis, sometimes for years, increasing the symptom burden and delaying effective treatment. This manuscript first reviews the decision tree to be followed in diagnosing any neuropathic pain condition, as well as the levels of evidence needed to make a diagnosis with each of several levels of confidence: definite, probable, or possible. It then examines the clinical literature related to the idiopathic and neurogenic conditions that can occasion chronic orofacial pain, including burning mouth syndrome, trigeminal neuralgia, glossopharyngeal neuralgia, post-herpetic neuralgia, and atypical odontalgia. Temporomandibular disorders also are examined as are other headache conditions, even though they are not neurologic conditions, because they are common and can mimic symptoms of the latter disorders. For each of these conditions, the paper reviews literature regarding incidence and prevalence, physiologic and other contributing factors, diagnostic signs and symptoms, and empirical evidence regarding treatments. Finally, in order to improve the quality and accuracy of clinical diagnosis, as well as the efficiency with which effective treatment is initiated and delivered, criteria are offered that can be instrumental in making a differential diagnosis. PMID:28638895

  13. Appearance of burning abdominal pain during cesarean section under spinal anesthesia in a patient with complex regional pain syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kato, Jitsu; Gokan, Dai; Hirose, Noriya; Iida, Ryoji; Suzuki, Takahiro; Ogawa, Setsuro

    2013-02-01

    The mechanism of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) was reported as being related to both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Recurrence of CRPS was, reportedly, induced by hand surgery in a patient with upper limb CRPS. However, there is no documentation of mechanical allodynia and burning abdominal pain induced by Cesarean section under spinal anesthesia in patients with upper limb CRPS. We report the case of a patient who suffered from burning abdominal pain during Cesarean section under spinal anesthesia 13 years after the occurrence of venipuncture-induced CRPS of the upper arm. The patient's pain characteristics were similar to the pain characteristics of her right arm during her previous CRPS episode 13 years earlier. In addition, mechanical allodynia around the incision area was confirmed after surgery. We provided ultrasound-guided rectus sheath block using 20 mL of 0.4% ropivacaine under ultrasound guidance twice, which resulted in the disappearance of the spontaneous pain and allodynia. The pain relief was probably related to blockade of the peripheral input by this block, which in turn would have improved her central sensitization. Our report shows that attention should be paid to the appearance of neuropathic pain of the abdomen during Cesarean section under spinal anesthesia in patients with a history of CRPS. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Intrinsic brain networks normalize with treatment in pediatric complex regional pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Becerra, Lino; Sava, Simona; Simons, Laura E.; Drosos, Athena M.; Sethna, Navil; Berde, Charles; Lebel, Alyssa A.; Borsook, David

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric complex regional pain syndrome (P-CRPS) offers a unique model of chronic neuropathic pain as it either resolves spontaneously or through therapeutic interventions in most patients. Here we evaluated brain changes in well-characterized children and adolescents with P-CRPS by measuring resting state networks before and following a brief (median = 3 weeks) but intensive physical and psychological treatment program, and compared them to matched healthy controls. Differences in intrinsic brain networks were observed in P-CRPS compared to controls before treatment (disease state) with the most prominent differences in the fronto-parietal, salience, default mode, central executive, and sensorimotor networks. Following treatment, behavioral measures demonstrated a reduction of symptoms and improvement of physical state (pain levels and motor functioning). Correlation of network connectivities with spontaneous pain measures pre- and post-treatment indicated concomitant reductions in connectivity in salience, central executive, default mode and sensorimotor networks (treatment effects). These results suggest a rapid alteration in global brain networks with treatment and provide a venue to assess brain changes in CRPS pre- and post-treatment, and to evaluate therapeutic effects. PMID:25379449

  15. Consciousness and body image: lessons from phantom limbs, Capgras syndrome and pain asymbolia.

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, V S

    1998-01-01

    Words such as 'consciousness' and 'self' actually encompass a number of distinct phenomena that are loosely lumped together. The study of neurological syndromes allows us to explore the neural mechanisms that might underlie different aspects of self, such as body image and emotional responses to sensory stimuli, and perhaps even laughter and humour. Mapping the 'functional logic' of the many different attributes of human nature on to specific neural circuits in the brain offers the best hope of understanding how the activity of neurons gives rise to conscious experience. We consider three neurological syndromes (phantom limbs, Capgras delusion and pain asymbolia) to illustrate this idea. PMID:9854257

  16. Bertolotti's syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Raj; Carlisle, Mark

    2009-01-01

    A case report and literature review is presented. To review relevant data for the management of Bertolotti's syndrome and to determine whether the transverse process-ilium articulation may be a pain generator. Bertolotti's syndrome is associated with axial low back pain secondary to arthritic changes; the pain generator in the disorder is unclear. We present a case report of symptomatic Bertolotti's syndrome managed with intra-articular steroid injections. A patient with Bertolotti's syndrome had significant relief of axial pain after steroid injection of the ilium-transverse process articulation. Steroid therapy may be a non-surgical alternative for the treatment of symptomatic Bertolotti's syndrome.

  17. Short-term effects of kinesio tape on joint position sense, isokinetic measurements, and clinical parameters in patellofemoral pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kurt, Emine Eda; Büyükturan, Öznur; Erdem, Hatice Rana; Tuncay, Figen; Sezgin, Hicabi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate the short-term effects of kinesio tape on joint position sense, isokinetic measurements, kinesiophobia, symptoms, and functional limitations in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 90 patients (112 knees) with patellofemoral pain syndrome were randomized into a kinesio tape group (n=45) or placebo kinesio tape group (n=45). Baseline isokinetic quadriceps muscle tests and measurements of joint position sense were performed in both groups. Pain was measured with a Visual Analog Scale, kinesiophobia with the Tampa kinesiophobia scale, and symptoms and functional limitations with the Kujala pain scale. Measurements were repeated 2 days after kinesio tape application. [Results] No differences were found between baseline isokinetic muscle measurements and those taken 2 days after application. However, significant improvements were observed in the kinesio tape group, with regard to joint position sense, pain, kinesiophobia, symptoms, and functional limitations after treatment. Examination of the differences between pre- and post-treatment values in both groups revealed that the kinesio tape group demonstrated greater improvements compared to the placebo kinesio tape group. [Conclusion] Although short-term kinesio tape application did not increase hamstring muscle strength, it may have improved joint position sense, pain, kinesiophobia, symptoms, and daily limitations. PMID:27512259

  18. Brain white matter changes associated with urological chronic pelvic pain syndrome: multisite neuroimaging from a MAPP case-control study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lejian; Kutch, Jason J; Ellingson, Benjamin M; Martucci, Katherine T; Harris, Richard E; Clauw, Daniel J; Mackey, Sean; Mayer, Emeran A; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Apkarian, A Vania; Farmer, Melissa A

    2016-12-01

    Clinical phenotyping of urological chronic pelvic pain syndromes (UCPPSs) in men and women have focused on end organ abnormalities to identify putative clinical subtypes. Initial evidence of abnormal brain function and structure in male pelvic pain has necessitated large-scale, multisite investigations into potential UCPPS brain biomarkers. We present the first evidence of regional white matter (axonal) abnormalities in men and women with UCPPS, compared with positive (irritable bowel syndrome, IBS) and healthy controls. Epidemiological and neuroimaging data were collected from participants with UCPPS (n = 52), IBS (n = 39), and healthy sex- and age-matched controls (n = 61). White matter microstructure, measured as fractional anisotropy (FA), was examined by diffusion tensor imaging. Group differences in regional FA positively correlated with pain severity, including segments of the right corticospinal tract and right anterior thalamic radiation. Increased corticospinal FA was specific and sensitive to UCPPS, positively correlated with pain severity, and reflected sensory (not affective) features of pain. Reduced anterior thalamic radiation FA distinguished patients with IBS from those with UCPPS and controls, suggesting greater microstructural divergence from normal tract organization. Findings confirm that regional white matter abnormalities characterize UCPPS and can distinguish between visceral diagnoses, suggesting that regional axonal microstructure is either altered with ongoing pain or predisposes its development.

  19. Hormones in pain modulation and their clinical implications for pain control: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xueyin; Zhang, Jinyuan; Wang, Xiangrui

    2016-07-01

    Recently, more and more studies have found that pain generation, transmission and modulation are under hormonal regulation. Indeed, hormonal dysregulation is a common component of chronic pain syndromes. Studies have attempted to determine whether the relationship between the pain and its perception and hormones is a causative relationship and how these processes interrelate. This review summarizes and analyzes the current experimental data and provides an overview of the studies addressing these questions. The relationship between pain perception and endocrine effects suggests that hormones can be used as important biomarkers of chronic pain syndromes and/or be developed into therapeutic agents in the fight against pain.

  20. AAPT Diagnostic Criteria for Chronic Abdominal, Pelvic, and Urogenital Pain: Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhou, QiQi; Wesselmann, Ursula; Walker, Lynn; Lee, Linda; Zeltzer, Lonnie; Verne, G Nicholas

    2018-03-01

    In conjunction with the Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks public-private partnership with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the American Pain Society, the Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks-American Pain Society Pain Taxonomy (AAPT) initiative strove to develop the characteristics of a diagnostic system useful for clinical and research purposes across disciplines and types of chronic pain conditions. After the establishment of these characteristics, a working group of clinicians and clinical and basic scientists with expertise in abdominal, pelvic, and urogenital pain began generating core diagnostic criteria and defining the related extraintestinal somatic pain and other symptoms experienced by patients. Systematic diagnostic criteria for several common abdominal, pelvic, and urogenital pain conditions are in development. In this report, we present the proposed AAPT criteria for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), the most common chronic, noncancer abdominal pain condition. A systematic review and synthesis was conducted to complement the Rome IV Diagnostic Criteria for IBS. Future efforts will subject these proposed AAPT criteria to systematic empirical evaluation of their feasibility, reliability, and validity. The AAPT IBS criteria are part of an evidence-based classification system that provides a consistent vocabulary regarding diagnostic criteria, common features, comorbidities, consequences, and putative mechanisms of the disorder. A similar approach is being applied to other chronic and often debilitating abdominal, pelvic, and urogenital pain conditions. The AAPT's goal is to develop an evidence-based taxonomy for chronic pain on the basis of a consistently applied multidimensional framework, and encourage experts to apply this taxonomy to specific chronic pain conditions. In this report, the taxonomy is

  1. [Morphological substrate and pathogenetic mechanisms of pelvic pain syndrome in endometriosis. Part II. Peripheral nerve tissue remodeling in the foci of endometriosis].

    PubMed

    Kogan, E A; Ovakimyan, A S; Paramonova, N B; Faizullina, N M; Kazachenko, I F; Adamyan, L V

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis (EM) is morphologically characterized by the development of extrauterine endometrioid heterotopies, the major clinical symptoms of which is chronic pelvic pain, which is a serious problem not only in modern gynecology, but also in public health as a whole. to investigate neurogenic markers in the foci of EM of various sites and histological structure in women with and without pain syndrome. The investigation was performed using the operative material (resected segments of the intestine, bladder, rectovaginal septum, and small pelvic peritoneum) obtained from 52 women with an intraoperative and morphologically verified diagnosis of EM and (Group 1) and without (Group 2) pain syndrome. Immunohistochemical examination was made on paraffin-embedded tissue sections in accordance with the standard protocols, by using the antibodies: 1) anti-PGP 9.5 polyclonal rabbit antibodies; 2) mouse anti-human neurofilament (NF) protein monoclonal antibodies (Clone 2F1); 3) mouse anti-nerve growth factor (NGF) monoclonal antibodies; 4) monoclonal mouse anti-human NGF receptor p75 (NGFRp75) antibodies (Dako, Denmark). Our findings demonstrate differences in the expression of PGP 9.5, NFs, NGF, and NGFRp75 in the foci and adjacent tissue in painful and painless EM irrespective of the locations of heterotopies. The found molecular features are a manifestation of the remodeling of nerve fibers and nerve endings in the foci of EM and PGP9.5, NGF, and NGFRp75 give rise to nerve fiber neoformation and pain syndrome in EM. At the same time, the immunohistochemical phenotype of EM foci does not depend on their site and reflects the presence or absence of pain syndrome.

  2. Closed kinetic chain exercises with or without additional hip strengthening exercises in management of patellofemoral pain syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ismail, M M; Gamaleldein, M H; Hassa, K A

    2013-10-01

    Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is a common musculoskeletal pain condition, especially in females. Decreased hip muscle strength has been implicated as a contributing factor. Isolated open kinetic chain hip abductors and lateral rotators exercises were added by many authors to the rehabilitation program. However, Closed Kinetic Chain (CKC) exercises focusing on hip and knee muscles were not investigated if they can produce similar effect of hip strengthening and decreasing pain without the need of isolated exercises for hip musculature. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a CKC exercises program with or without additional hip strengthening exercises on pain and hip abductors and lateral rotators peak torque. Prospective randomized clinical trial. Patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome referred to the outpatient physical therapy clinic of the faculty of physical therapy, cairo university. Thirty two patients who had patellofemoral pain syndrome with age ranged from eighteen to thirty years. Patients were randomly assigned into two groups: CKC group and CKC with hip muscles strengthening exercises as a control (CO) group. Treatment was given 3 times/week, for 6 weeks. Patients were evaluated pre- and post-treatment for their pain severity using VAS, function of knee joint using Kujala questionnaire, hip abductors and external rotators concentric/eccentric peak torque. There were significant improvements in pain, function and hip muscles peak torque in both groups (P<0.05). However, there was no statistically significant difference between groups in hip muscles torque (P<0.05) but pain and function improvements were significantly greater in the CO group (P<0.05). Six weeks CKC program focusing on knee and hip strengthening has similar effect in improving hip muscles torque in patients with PFPS as a CKC exercises with additional hip strengthening exercises. However, adding isolated hip strengthening exercises has the advantage of more

  3. Association of Neglect-Like Symptoms with Anxiety, Somatization, and Depersonalization in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Michal, Matthias; Adler, Julia; Reiner, Iris; Wermke, Andreas; Ackermann, Tatiana; Schlereth, Tanja; Birklein, Frank

    2017-04-01

    Many patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) report some foreignness of the affected limb, which is referred to as "neglect-like symptoms" (NLS). Despite similarities of the NLS reports to symptoms of body image disturbances in mental disorders, no study has been conducted to examine such associations. We investigated 50 patients with CRPS and 45 pain control patients (N = 27, chronic limb pain; N = 18, migraine headache). NLS, anxiety, depression, depersonalization, and somatization were assessed using validated questionnaires. Seventy-two percent of the CRPS patients reported at least one NLS vs 29.6% and 33.3% in the two patient control groups. In limb pain controls, NLS correlated with pain intensity. In CRPS patients, NLS correlated with anxiety (rho = 0.658, P  < 0.001), somatization (rho = 0.616, P  < 0.001), depersonalization (rho = 0.634, P  < 0.001), and pain catastrophizing (rho = 0.456, P  < 0.01), but not with intensity of pain, duration of pain, or pain disability. In CRPS patients, NLS could be a result of somatization, depression, anxiety, and depersonalization, but probably not of pain. Whether these associations are causative must be clarified in longitudinal psychological studies. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. Anorectal pain and irritation: anal fissure, levator syndrome, proctalgia fugax, and pruritus ani.

    PubMed

    Vincent, C

    1999-03-01

    Anal fissures, proctalgia fugax, levator ani syndrome, and pruritus ani are common causes of anorectal pain and irritation. The clinician who obtains a thorough history and performs a complete examination can accurately diagnose these disorders. Ancillary tests seldom are helpful and rarely are necessary. Most patients suffering from these conditions readily respond to conservative therapy provided in the primary care practitioner's office.

  5. Inflammatory arthritis mimicking Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) in a child: A case report.

    PubMed

    Egilmez, Zeliha; Turgut, Selin Turan; Icagasioglu, Afitap; Bicakci, Irem

    2016-01-01

    Joint complaints in childhood are seen frequently and differential diagnosis can be difficult. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatological disease of childhood. It involves peripheral joint arthritis, chronic synovitis, and extra-articular manifestations. Accurate diagnosis can take a long time and sometimes multiple diagnoses are used while following the patient until a final diagnosis can be reached. Arthritis may be triggered by trauma and confused with other diseases like complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), in which trauma plays a role in the etiology. In the present case, ankle pain in an 8-year-old girl was misdiagnosed as CRPS.

  6. Electrocortical Analysis of Patients with Intercostobrachial Pain Treated with TENS after Breast Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Julio Guilherme; Santana, Camila Gonçalves; Inocêncio, Kelly Rosane; Orsini, Marco; Machado, Sergio; Bergmann, Anke

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Among the physical therapeutic procedures to decrease pain, there is transcutaneous electrical neural stimulation (TENS). There is no consensus about its efficacy for oncological patients, especially for post-mastectomy pain and eletrocortical changes in somatosensory areas. The aim of this study was to analyze acute electrocortical changes after TENS treatment of patients with intercostobrachial post mastectomy pain. [Subjects] Eighteen patients were divided into acupuncture (A) and burst (B) group. [Methods] In this pre and post-intervention study each group was measured for EEG analysis in absulte power in alpha band (8–14 Hz). Outcomes variables were the alpha waveband in the sensorymotor cortex and pain pre-and-post TENS intervention. Data were analyzed using ANOVA to compare times (rest, 10 and 15 min), group and electrodes. Pain was analyzed using percentual pain evaluation (PPE) in both groups. [Results] Outcomes indicate main effects of time and electrodes because of slow (8–10 Hz) and fast alpha (10–12 Hz) wavebands decreased. PPE reduced 88.4% in A and 66.3% in G. [Conclusion] TENS promoted electrical modification in the parietal region and a decrease in pain. Future studies should investigate other wave must be proposed for other bands and use different methods of EEG analysis to elucidate the actual mechanisms behind the efficacy of TENS treatment. PMID:24707082

  7. Electrocortical Analysis of Patients with Intercostobrachial Pain Treated with TENS after Breast Cancer Surgery.

    PubMed

    Silva, Julio Guilherme; Santana, Camila Gonçalves; Inocêncio, Kelly Rosane; Orsini, Marco; Machado, Sergio; Bergmann, Anke

    2014-03-01

    [Purpose] Among the physical therapeutic procedures to decrease pain, there is transcutaneous electrical neural stimulation (TENS). There is no consensus about its efficacy for oncological patients, especially for post-mastectomy pain and eletrocortical changes in somatosensory areas. The aim of this study was to analyze acute electrocortical changes after TENS treatment of patients with intercostobrachial post mastectomy pain. [Subjects] Eighteen patients were divided into acupuncture (A) and burst (B) group. [Methods] In this pre and post-intervention study each group was measured for EEG analysis in absulte power in alpha band (8-14 Hz). Outcomes variables were the alpha waveband in the sensorymotor cortex and pain pre-and-post TENS intervention. Data were analyzed using ANOVA to compare times (rest, 10 and 15 min), group and electrodes. Pain was analyzed using percentual pain evaluation (PPE) in both groups. [Results] Outcomes indicate main effects of time and electrodes because of slow (8-10 Hz) and fast alpha (10-12 Hz) wavebands decreased. PPE reduced 88.4% in A and 66.3% in G. [Conclusion] TENS promoted electrical modification in the parietal region and a decrease in pain. Future studies should investigate other wave must be proposed for other bands and use different methods of EEG analysis to elucidate the actual mechanisms behind the efficacy of TENS treatment.

  8. Randomized Multicenter Feasibility Trial of Myofascial Physical Therapy for Treatment of Urologic Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    FitzGerald, Mary P; Anderson, Rodney U; Potts, Jeannette; Payne, Christopher K; Peters, Kenneth M; Clemens, J Quentin; Kotarinos, Rhonda; Fraser, Laura; Cosby, Annamarie; Fortman, Carole; Neville, Cynthia; Badillo, Suzanne; Odabachian, Lisa; Sanfield, Anna; O’Dougherty, Betsy; Halle-Podell, Rick; Cen, Liyi; Chuai, Shannon; Landis, J Richard; Kusek, John W; Nyberg, Leroy M

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine the feasibility of conducting a randomized clinical trial designed to compare two methods of manual therapy (myofascial physical therapy (MPT) and global therapeutic massage (GTM)) among patients with urologic chronic pelvic pain syndromes. Materials and Methods Our goal was to recruit 48 subjects with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome or interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome at six clinical centers. Eligible patients were randomized to either MPT or GTM and were scheduled to receive up to 10 weekly treatments, each 1 hour in duration. Criteria to assess feasibility included adherence of therapists to prescribed therapeutic protocol as determined by records of treatment, adverse events which occurred during study treatment, and rate of response to therapy as assessed by the Patient Global Response Assessment (GRA). Primary outcome analysis compared response rates between treatment arms using Mantel-Haenszel methods. Results Twenty-three (49%) men and 24 (51%) women were randomized over a six month period. Twenty-four (51%) patients were randomized to GTM, 23 (49%) to MPT; 44 (94%) patients completed the study. Therapist adherence to the treatment protocols was excellent. The GRA response rate of 57% in the MPT group was significantly higher than the rate of 21% in the GTM treatment group (p=0.03). Conclusions The goals to judge feasibility of conducting a full-scale trial of physical therapy methods were met. The preliminary findings of a beneficial effect of MPT warrants further study. PMID:19535099

  9. Lower extremity thrust and non-thrust joint mobilization for patellofemoral pain syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Brad G; Simon, Corey B

    2014-05-01

    A 40-year old female presented to physical therapy with a one-year history of insidious right anteromedial and anterolateral knee pain. Additionally, the patient had a history of multiple lateral ankle sprains bilaterally, the last sprain occurring on the right ankle 1 year prior to the onset of knee pain. The patient was evaluated and given a physical therapy diagnosis of patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS), with associated talocrural and tibiofemoral joint hypomobility limiting ankle dorsiflexion and knee extension, respectively. Treatment included a high-velocity low amplitude thrust manipulation to the talocrural joint, which helped restore normal ankle dorsiflexion range of motion. The patient also received tibiofemoral joint non-thrust manual therapy to regain normal knee extension mobility prior to implementing further functional progression exercises to her home program (HEP). This case report highlights the importance of a detailed evaluation of knee and ankle joint mobility in patients presenting with anterior knee pain. Further, manual physical therapy to the lower extremity was found to be successful in restoring normal movement patterns and pain-free function in a patient with chronic anterior knee pain.

  10. The No!—Or the Yes and the How—of Sex for Patients with Neck, Back and Radicular Pain Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, David

    1970-01-01

    The restrictions imposed upon sexual activity by neck, back and radicular pain syndromes are of serious concern to the patient. In recent years the subject of When, and even How is raised with increasing frequency, and the patient expects the physician to reply with appropriate answers. The reply must be tempered by the level of the patient's recovery, the evaluation of what other activities the patient can perform without pain or with minimal pain and the method to be used. Sexual activity may precipitate recurrent pain or aggravate existing pain in the same manner as lifting, pushing, pulling or any other physical activity, if performed too early or too vigorously in the course of recovery from neck, back or radicular pain syndromes. In dealing with the problem of recovery from painful musculoskeletal or neuromuscular states, timing is of the utmost importance. Unless a timetable is specifically outlined, recurrences are common, and the condition may become chronic. The inability of the patient to deal satisfactorily with the sexual aspect of his daily living may, in itself, lead to emotional tensions and guilt feelings which may delay or prevent recovery. There is need to handle this problem at every level of the involvement in order to achieve a desirable end result—namely, the absence of pain and its replacement with pleasure. PMID:4249673

  11. Eagle's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Thaís Gonçalves; Soares, Vítor Yamashiro Rocha; Ferreira, Denise Bastos Lage; Raymundo, Igor Teixeira; Nascimento, Luiz Augusto; Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Costa Pires de

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Eagle's syndrome is characterized by cervicopharyngeal signs and symptoms associated with elongation of the styloid apophysis. This elongation may occur through ossification of the stylohyoid ligament, or through growth of the apophysis due to osteogenesis triggered by a factor such as trauma. Elongation of the styloid apophysis may give rise to intense facial pain, headache, dysphagia, otalgia, buzzing sensations, and trismus. Precise diagnosis of the syndrome is difficult, and it is generally confounded by other manifestations of cervicopharyngeal pain. Objective: To describe a case of Eagle's syndrome. Case Report: A 53-year-old man reported lateral pain in his neck that had been present for 30 years. Computed tomography (CT) of the neck showed elongation and ossification of the styloid processes of the temporal bone, which was compatible with Eagle's syndrome. Surgery was performed for bilateral resection of the stylohyoid ligament by using a transoral and endoscopic access route. The patient continued to present pain laterally in the neck, predominantly on his left side. CT was performed again, which showed elongation of the styloid processes. The patient then underwent lateral cervicotomy with resection of the stylohyoid process, which partially resolved his painful condition. Final Comments: Patients with Eagle's syndrome generally have a history of chronic pain. Appropriate knowledge of this disease is necessary for adequate treatment to be provided. The importance of diagnosing this uncommon and often unsuspected disease should be emphasized, given that correct clinical-surgical treatment is frequently delayed. The diagnosis of Eagle's syndrome is clinical and radiographic, and the definitive treatment in cases of difficult-to-control pain is surgical. PMID:25992033

  12. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) or continuous unilateral distal experimental pain stimulation in healthy subjects does not bias visual attention towards one hemifield.

    PubMed

    Filippopulos, Filipp M; Grafenstein, Jessica; Straube, Andreas; Eggert, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    In natural life pain automatically draws attention towards the painful body part suggesting that it interacts with different attentional mechanisms such as visual attention. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) patients who typically report on chronic distally located pain of one extremity may suffer from so-called neglect-like symptoms, which have also been linked to attentional mechanisms. The purpose of the study was to further evaluate how continuous pain conditions influence visual attention. Saccade latencies were recorded in two experiments using a common visual attention paradigm whereby orientating saccades to cued or uncued lateral visual targets had to be performed. In the first experiment saccade latencies of healthy subjects were measured under two conditions: one in which continuous experimental pain stimulation was applied to the index finger to imitate a continuous pain situation, and one without pain stimulation. In the second experiment saccade latencies of patients suffering from CRPS were compared to controls. The results showed that neither the continuous experimental pain stimulation during the experiment nor the chronic pain in CRPS led to an unilateral increase of saccade latencies or to a unilateral increase of the cue effect on latency. The results show that unilateral, continuously applied pain stimuli or chronic pain have no or only very limited influence on visual attention. Differently from patients with visual neglect, patients with CRPS did not show strong side asymmetries of saccade latencies or of cue effects on saccade latencies. Thus, neglect-like clinical symptoms of CRPS patients do not involve the allocation of visual attention.

  13. Systematic reviews of physical and rehabilitation medicine Cochrane contents. Part 1. Disabilities due to spinal disorders and pain syndromes in adults.

    PubMed

    Negrini, S; Imperio, G; Villafañe, J H; Negrini, F; Zaina, F

    2013-08-01

    This article is the first in a series presenting the strongest published evidence for physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) to date coming from the Cochrane Collaboration. The intent of the series is to stimulate ideas for reviews and research in neglected areas of PRM. To systematically review the rehabilitation contents of the Cochrane Collaboration on disabilities due to spinal disorders or pain syndromes in adults. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was searched at the end of June 2013 for articles relevant for PRM about disabilities resulting from spinal disorders or pain syndromes in adults. Retrieved papers were classified according to the PRM approach: active therapies, which require active participation by patients to achieve treatment goals, and passive treatments, which rely on the application of external forces. The quality of the reviews was checked against the AMSTAR checklist. Reviews on spinal disorders or pain syndromes were found in the Cochrane Back Group (CBG) and in the Pain, Palliative and Supportive Care Group (CPPSCG). Thirty-eight (42.8%) of 89 Cochrane reviews in the CBG and 7 (2.4%) of 293 Cochrane reviews in the CPPSCG were included. All were of high quality (range, 8-11 points out of 11 on the AMSTAR checklist). The contents of the reviews are given in detail. This review presents an overview of the current evidence for PRM in the treatment of disabilities due to spinal disorders or pain syndromes in adults. Within PRM there is ample space for research in the Cochrane Collaboration and for producing original studies (randomized controlled trials [RCTs]). To apply evidence-based clinical practice, clinicians must be familiar with the current best evidence.

  14. Impairments of postural stability, core endurance, fall index and functional mobility skills in patients with patello femoral pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz Yelvar, Gul Deniz; Çirak, Yasemin; Dalkilinç, Murat; Demir, Yasemin Parlak; Baltaci, Gul; Kömürcü, Mahmut; Yelvar, Gul Deniz Yilmaz

    2016-06-30

    Postural control allows performance of daily and sports activities. The previous studies show that postural sway inceases in orthopaedic injuries such as osteoarthritis and total knee arthroplasty. To compare postural sway, risk of falling and function between individuals with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFS). This study included 22 subjects with patellofemoral pain syndrome, age-matched pain-free 22 females serving as a control group. Visual anolog scale and Kujala were used to evaluate the pain. Posturographic assesment was performed by Tetrax posturographic device. Biering Modified Sorenson test for extensor endurance and sit-up test for flexor endurance were used for the evaluation of trunk endurance. Timed get-up and go test was used for lower extremity function. The Student's t Test was used to compare variables between the groups. The Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to examine correlation between the quantitative variables. Postural sway included eyes open without pillow, eyes open on pillow, eyes closed on pillow, risk of falling, function and postural stabilization included flexor endurance, extansor endurance are impared in patient with patellofemoral pain syndrome when compare to controls. In subjects with PFPS increased postural sway significantly associated with body mass index (r= 0.52), pain duration (r= 0.43), postural control (extansor endurance) (r= -0.50) and risk of falling (r= 0.62) on pillow with open eyes. In addition we found function significantly related with postural control (extansor endurance and flexor endurance) (r= -0.59 and r= -0.59) and risk of falling (r= 0.77)CONCLUSIONS: Decreased neuromuscular control of the trunk core and increased postural sway and falling risk were found in patients with PFPS. Patients may be evaluated for deficits in postural control and falling risk before treatment.

  15. Implementation of a portable electronic system for providing pain relief to patellofemoral pain syndrome patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang Chien, Jia-Ren; Lin, Guo-Hong; Hsu, Ar-Tyan

    2011-10-01

    In this study, a portable electromyogram (EMG) system and a stimulator are developed for patellofemoral pain syndrome patients, with the objective of reducing the pain experienced by these patients; the patellar pain is caused by an imbalance between the vastus medialis obliquus (VMO) and the vastus lateralis (VL). The EMG measurement circuit and the electrical stimulation device proposed in this study are specifically designed for the VMO and the VL; they are capable of real-time waveform recording, possess analyzing functions, and can upload their measurement data to a computer for storage and analysis. The system can calculate and record the time difference between the EMGs of the VMO and the VL, as well as the signal strengths of both the EMGs. As soon as the system detects the generation of the EMG of the VL, it quickly calculates and processes the event and stimulates the VMO as feedback through electrical stimulation units, in order to induce its contraction. The system can adjust the signal strength, time length, and the sequence of the electrical stimulation, both manually and automatically. The output waveform of the electrical stimulation circuit is a dual-phase asymmetrical pulse waveform. The primary function of the electrical simulation circuit is to ensure that the muscles contract effectively. The performance of the device can be seen that the width of each pulse is 20-1000 μs, the frequency of each pulse is 10-100 Hz, and current strength is 10-60 mA.

  16. Position Statement of the Israeli Society for Musculoskeletal Medicine on Intramuscular Stimulation for Myofascial Pain Syndrome-A Delphi Process.

    PubMed

    Ratmansky, Motti; Minerbi, Amir; Kalichman, Leonid; Kent, John; Wende, Osnat; Finestone, Aharon S; Vulfsons, Simon

    2017-04-01

    To develop consensus on a position paper on the use of intramuscular stimulation (IMS) for the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) by physicians in Israel. The Israeli Society of Musculoskeletal Medicine ran a modified Delphi process to gather opinions from a multidisciplinary expert panel. Eight experts in the treatment of MPS were chosen and asked to participate, and six participated. The position paper was iterated three times. After three iterations, general consensus was reached by all six experts. The general statement that was agreed on was: "IMS is one of the preferred treatments for myofascial pain syndrome. The treatment is evidence-based, effective, safe, and inexpensive. The position of the Israeli Society of Musculoskeletal Medicine is that the treatment should be taught and used by all primary care physicians and those physicians in other areas of medicine who deal with pain in their work." The position paper is a basis for clinical work and education programs for physicians interested in a better understanding and ability to treat patients with a musculoskeletal complaint or manifestation of disease. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.

  17. Characteristics of referred muscle pain to the head from active trigger points in women with myofascial temporomandibular pain and fibromyalgia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Blanco, Cristina; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; de-la-Llave-Rincón, Ana Isabel; Zarco-Moreno, Pedro; Galán-Del-Río, Fernando; Svensson, Peter

    2012-11-01

    pain syndrome in spite of overlaps in pain areas.

  18. Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment of the complex regional pain syndrome: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Goebel, Andreas; Baranowski, Andrew; Maurer, Konrad; Ghiai, Artemis; McCabe, Candy; Ambler, Gareth

    2010-02-02

    Treatment of long-standing complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is empirical and often of limited efficacy. Preliminary data suggest that the immune system is involved in sustaining this condition and that treatment with low-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) may substantially reduce pain in some patients. To evaluate the efficacy of IVIG in patients with longstanding CRPS under randomized, controlled conditions. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial. (National Research Registry number: N0263177713; International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Registry: 63918259) University College London Hospitals Pain Management Centre. Persons who had pain intensity greater than 4 on an 11-point (0 to 10) numerical rating scale and had CRPS for 6 to 30 months that was refractory to standard treatment. IVIG, 0.5 g/kg, and normal saline in separate treatments, divided by a washout period of at least 28 days. The primary outcome was pain intensity 6 to 19 days after the initial treatment and the crossover treatment. 13 eligible participants were randomly assigned between November 2005 and May 2008; 12 completed the trial. The average pain intensity was 1.55 units lower after IVIG treatment than after saline (95% CI, 1.29 to 1.82; P < 0.001). In 3 patients, pain intensity after IVIG was less than after saline by 50% or more. No serious adverse reactions were reported. The trial was small, and recruitment bias and chance variation could have influenced results and their interpretation. IVIG, 0.5 g/kg, can reduce pain in refractory CRPS. Studies are required to determine the best immunoglobulin dose, the duration of effect, and when repeated treatments are needed. Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland, University College London Hospitals Charity, and CSL-Behring.

  19. Changes in shoulder pain and disability after thrust manipulation in subjects presenting with second and third rib syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dunning, James; Mourad, Firas; Giovannico, Giuseppe; Maselli, Filippo; Perreault, Thomas; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to investigate changes in shoulder pain, disability, and perceived level of recovery after 2 sessions of upper thoracic and upper rib high-velocity low-amplitude (HVLA) thrust manipulation in patients with shoulder pain secondary to second and third rib syndrome. This exploratory study evaluated 10 consecutive individuals with shoulder pain, with or without brachial pain, and a negative Neer impingement test, who completed the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI), the numeric pain rating scale (NPRS), and the global rating of change. Patients received 2 sessions of HVLA thrust manipulation targeting the upper thoracic spine bilaterally and the second and third ribs on the symptomatic side. Outcome measures were completed after the first treatment session, at 48 hours, 1 month, and 3 months. Patients showed a significant decrease in SPADI (F = 59.997; P = .001) and significant decrease in resting shoulder NPRS (F = 63.439; P = .001). For both NPRS and SPADI, there were significant differences between the pretreatment scores and each of the postintervention scores through 3-month follow-up (P < .05). Large within-group effect sizes (Cohen's d ≥ 0.8) were found between preintervention data and all postintervention assessments in both outcomes. Mean global rating of change scores (+6.8 at 3 months) indicated "a very great deal better" outcome at long-term follow-up. This group of patients with shoulder pain secondary to second and third rib syndrome who received upper thoracic and upper rib HVLA thrust manipulations showed significant reductions in pain and disability and improvement in perceived level of recovery. Copyright © 2015 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pain symptoms and stooling patterns do not drive diagnostic costs for children with functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome in primary or tertiary care.

    PubMed

    Lane, Mariella M; Weidler, Erica M; Czyzewski, Danita I; Shulman, Robert J

    2009-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) compare the cost of medical evaluation for children with functional abdominal pain or irritable bowel syndrome brought to a pediatric gastroenterologist versus children who remained in the care of their pediatrician, (2) compare symptom characteristics for the children in primary versus tertiary care, and (3) examine if symptom characteristics predicted the cost of medical evaluation. Eighty-nine children aged 7 to 10 years with functional abdominal pain or irritable bowel syndrome seen by a gastroenterologist (n = 46) or seen only by a pediatrician (n = 43) completed daily pain and stool diaries for 2 weeks. Mothers provided retrospective reports of their children's symptoms in the previous year. Cost of medical evaluation was calculated via chart review of diagnostic tests and application of prices as if the patients were self-pay. Child-reported diary data reflected no significant group differences with respect to pain, interference with activities, or stool characteristics. In contrast, mothers of children evaluated by a gastroenterologist viewed their children as having higher maximum pain intensity in the previous year. Excluding endoscopy costs, cost of medical evaluation was fivefold higher for children evaluated by a gastroenterologist, with higher cost across blood work, stool studies, breath testing, and diagnostic imaging. Symptom characteristics did not predict cost of care for either group. Despite the lack of difference in symptom characteristics between children in primary and tertiary care, a notable differential in cost of evaluation exists in accordance with level of care. Symptom characteristics do not seem to drive diagnostic evaluation in either primary or tertiary care. Given the lack of differences in child-reported symptoms and the maternal perspective that children evaluated by a gastroenterologist had more severe pain, we speculate that parent perception of child symptoms may be a primary factor in

  1. Brain neuroplastic changes accompany anxiety and memory deficits in a model of complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tajerian, Maral; Leu, David; Zou, Yani; Sahbaie, Peyman; Li, Wenwu; Khan, Hamda; Hsu, Vivian; Kingery, Wade; Huang, Ting Ting; Becerra, Lino; Clark, J David

    2014-10-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a painful condition with approximately 50,000 annual new cases in the United States. It is a major cause of work-related disability, chronic pain after limb fractures, and persistent pain after extremity surgery. Additionally, CRPS patients often experience cognitive changes, anxiety, and depression. The supraspinal mechanisms linked to these CRPS-related comorbidities remain poorly understood. The authors used a previously characterized mouse model of tibia fracture/cast immobilization showing the principal stigmata of CRPS (n = 8 to 20 per group) observed in humans. The central hypothesis was that fracture/cast mice manifest changes in measures of thigmotaxis (indicative of anxiety) and working memory reflected in neuroplastic changes in amygdala, perirhinal cortex, and hippocampus. The authors demonstrate that nociceptive sensitization in these mice is accompanied by altered thigmotactic behaviors in the zero maze but not open field assay, and working memory dysfunction in novel object recognition and social memory but not in novel location recognition. Furthermore, the authors found evidence of structural changes and synaptic plasticity including changes in dendritic architecture and decreased levels of synaptophysin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in specific brain regions. The study findings provide novel observations regarding behavioral changes and brain plasticity in a mouse model of CRPS. In addition to elucidating some of the supraspinal correlates of the syndrome, this work supports the potential use of therapeutic interventions that not only directly target sensory input and other peripheral mechanisms, but also attempt to ameliorate the broader pain experience by modifying its associated cognitive and emotional comorbidities.

  2. Prevalence of rheumatic regional pain syndromes in Latin-American indigenous groups: a census study based on COPCORD methodology and syndrome-specific diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Nemegyei, José; Peláez-Ballestas, Ingris; Goñi, Mario; Julián-Santiago, Flor; García-García, Conrado; Quintana, Rosana; Silvestre, Adriana M R; García-Olivera, Imelda; Mathern, Nora A; Loyola-Sanchez, Adalberto; Conti, Silvana; Sanabria, Alvaro J; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A

    2016-07-01

    This study assessed the overall and specific prevalence of the main rheumatic regional pain syndromes (RRPS) in four Latin-American indigenous groups. A Community Oriented Program for Control of Rheumatic Diseases (COPCORD) methodology-based census study was performed in 4240 adults (participation rate: 78.88 %) in four indigenous groups: Chontal (Oaxaca, Mexico, n = 124), Mixteco (Oaxaca, Mexico; n = 937), Maya-Yucateco (Yucatán, Mexico; n = 1523), and Qom (Rosario, Argentina; n = 1656). Subjects with musculoskeletal pain were identified using a cross-cultural, validated COPCORD questionnaire administered by bilingual personnel, and reviewed by general practitioners or rheumatologists using standardized case definitions for the 12 most frequent RRPS. The overall prevalence of RRPS was confirmed in 239 cases (5.64 %, 95 % CI: 4.98-6.37). The prevalence in each group was Chontal n = 19 (15.32 %, 95 % CI: 10.03-22.69); Maya-Yucateco n = 165 (10.83 %, 95 % CI: 9.37-12.49); Qom n = 48 (2.90 %, 95 % CI: 2.19-3.82); and Mixteco n = 7 (0.75 %, 95 % CI: 0.36-1.53). In the whole sample, the syndrome-specific prevalence was rotator cuff tendinopathy: 1.98 % (95 % CI: 1.60-2.45); lateral epicondylalgia: 0.83 % (95 % CI: 0.59-1.15); medial epicondylalgia: 0.73 % (95 % CI: 0.52-1.04); biceps tendinopathy: 0.71 % (95 % CI: 0.50-1.01); anserine syndrome: 0.64 % (95 % CI: 0.44-0.92); inferior heel pain: 0.61 % (95 % CI: 0.42-0.90); trochanteric syndrome: 0.49 % (95 % CI: 0.25-0.64); de Quervain's tendinopathy: 0.45 % (95 % CI: 0.29-0.70); trigger finger: 0.42 % (95 % CI: 0.27-0.67); carpal tunnel syndrome: 0.28 % (95 % CI: 0.16-0.49); Achilles tendinopathy (insertional): 0.12 % (95 % CI: 0.05-0.28); and Achilles tendinopathy (non-insertional): 0.07 % (95 % CI: 0.02-0.21). Leaving aside the comparison between Maya-Yucateco and Chontal groups (p = 0.18), we found significant differences (p < 0.001) in

  3. Menopause affects pain depending on pain type and characteristics.

    PubMed

    Meriggiola, Maria Cristina; Nanni, Michela; Bachiocco, Valeria; Vodo, Stellina; Aloisi, Anna M

    2012-05-01

    Women are more affected than men by many chronic pain conditions, suggesting the effect of sex-related mechanisms in their occurrence. The role of gonadal hormones has been studied but with contrasting results depending on the pain syndrome, reproductive status, and hormone considered. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pain changes related to the menopausal transition period. In this observational study, postmenopausal women were asked to evaluate the presence of pain in their life during the premenopausal and postmenopausal periods and its modification with menopause. One hundred one women were enrolled and completed questionnaires on their sociodemographic status, pain characteristics, and evolution. The most common pain syndromes were headache (38%), osteoarticular pain (31%), and cervical/lumbar pain (21%). Pain was present before menopause in 66 women, ceased with menopause in 17, and started after menopause in 18. Data were used for cluster analysis, which allowed the division of participants into four groups. In the first, all women experienced headaches that disappeared or improved with menopause. The second group included osteoarticular pain; the pain improved in half of these women and remained stable in the other half. The third group had cervical/lumbar pain, which disappeared or improved with menopause in all. The fourth group presented different kinds of moderate pain, which worsened in all. The present study provides preliminary data suggesting that menopause can affect pain depending on the painful condition experienced by the woman. This underlines the different interactions of menopause-related events with body structures involved in pain.

  4. Efficacy of pulsed low-intensity electric neuromuscular stimulation in reducing pain and disability in patients with myofascial syndrome.

    PubMed

    Iodice, P; Lessiani, G; Franzone, G; Pezzulo, G

    2016-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is characterized by chronic pain in multiple myofascial trigger points and fascial constrictions. In recent years, the scientific literature has recognized the need to include the patient with MPS in a multidimensional rehabilitation project. At the moment, the most widely recognized therapeutic methods for the treatment of myofascial syndrome include the stretch and spray pressure massage. Microcurrent electric neuromuscular stimulation was proposed in pain management for its effects on normalizing bioelectricity of cells and for its sub-sensory application. In this study, we tested the efficacy of low-intensity pulsed electric neuromuscular stimulus (PENS) on pain in patients with MPS of cervical spine muscles. We carried out a prospective-analytic longitudinal study at an outpatient clinic during two weeks. Forty subjects (mean age 42±13 years) were divided into two groups: treatment (TrGr, n=20) and control group (CtrlGr, n=20). Visual-analog scale (VAS) values, concerning the spontaneous and movement-related pain in the cervical-dorsal region at baseline (T0) and at the end of the study (T1), showed a reduction from 7 to 3.81 (p < 0.001) in TrGr. In the CtrlGr, VAS was reduced from 8.2 to 7.2 (n.s.). Moreover, the pressure pain threshold at T0 was 2.1 vs 4.2 at T1 (p < 0.001) in TrG. In the CtrlGR we observed no significant changes. Modulated low-intensity PENS is an innovative therapy permitting to act on the transmission of pain and on the restoration of tissue homeostasis. It seems to affect the transmission of pain through the stimulation of A-beta fibers. The above results show that low-intensity PENS can be considered as an effective treatment to reduce pain and disability in patients with MPS.

  5. [Pain, from symptom to syndrome].

    PubMed

    Piano, Virginie

    2017-05-01

    Acute pain is a symptom enabling us to implement a response when faced with an attack. Chronic pain is complex and multifactorial. The care of the patient by a multidisciplinary team comprises the diagnosis of the pain and the putting in place of a treatment for each of its components. This includes physical reconditioning, adaptation strategies and work on the psychological elements relating to the representation of the pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Endogenous Inhibition of Somatic Pain is Impaired in Girls with Irritable Bowel Syndrome Compared with Healthy Girls

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Amy E.; Heitkemper, Margaret; Self, Mariella M.; Czyzewski, Danita I.; Shulman, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Endogenous pain-inhibition is often deficient in adults with chronic pain conditions including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). It is unclear whether deficiencies in pain-inhibition are present in young children with IBS. The present study compared endogenous pain-inhibition, somatic pain threshold, and psychosocial distress in young girls with IBS versus controls. Girls with IBS did not show significant endogenous pain-inhibition of heat pain-threshold during a cold-pressor task in contrast to controls who had significant pain-inhibition. Girls with IBS did not differ from peers on measures of somatic pain but had more symptoms of depression, somatization, and anxiety than controls. When psychological variables were included as covariates the difference in pain-inhibition was no longer significant, although poor achieved power limits interpretation of these results. Higher-order cognitive processes including psychological variables may be contributing to observed pain-inhibition. In girls with IBS, pain-inhibition was positively related to the number of days without a bowel movement. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate deficiencies of endogenous pain-inhibition in young children with IBS. Findings have implications for better understanding of onset and maintenance of IBS and other chronic pain conditions. PMID:23685184

  7. Impact of prognostic factors for postmastectomy radiation therapy of breast cancer patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonov, K. A.; Startseva, Zh. A.; Slonimskaya, E. M.; Velikaya, V. V.

    2017-09-01

    The study included 196 breast cancer patients with stages T1-3N0-3M0. The comprehensive therapy for breast cancer included surgical operation, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Multivariate analysis showed that multifocality growth of tumor (p = 0.004), high grade III (p = 0.008), two metastatic lymph nodes (p = 0.02) were associated with an increased risk of regional node failure in the patients with one to three positive lymph nodes. The prognostic models describing the probability of local recurrences of breast cancer were developed for individualization of the radiation therapy tactics. Postmastectomy radiation therapy in the patients with high-risk breast cancer treated with modified radical mastectomy improves locoregional control, breast cancer-specific survival, does not increase late toxicity.

  8. Post-Mastectomy and Phantom Breast Pain: Risk Factors, Natural History, and Impact on Quality of Life

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-07-01

    be significantly disabled by their chronic pain and can suffer from substantial reductions in quality of life . The primary aims of this research...and examine their impact on quality of life using a prospective research design. To date, 40 women scheduled for surgical procedures for breast cancer...with periodic assessments of pain, health-related quality of life , and psychosocial variables. This allows risk factors for PMPS and phantom breast

  9. Impact of reassurance on pain perception in patients with primary burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brailo, V; Firić, M; Vučićević Boras, V; Andabak Rogulj, A; Krstevski, I; Alajbeg, I

    2016-09-01

    In spite of extensive research, no effective treatment of primary burning mouth syndrome (BMS) still exists. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of informative intervention/reassurance on pain perception and quality of life in patients with primary BMS. Informative intervention/reassurance was undertaken in 28 patients diagnosed with primary BMS. Patients received information about all aspects of BMS verbally and in an informative leaflet. Numerical scale (0-10), Pain Catastrophizing Scale and Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14) were used to assess pain intensity, pain perception, and quality of life before the intervention and 6 months after. No other treatment was given to the patients. Significant reduction in symptom intensity, pain catastrophizing along with positive increase in the quality of life compared with baseline, was observed on a follow-up examination 6 months after the informative intervention (P < 0.001). The results of this study confirm that objective informing/reassurance of patients with primary BMS can result in decreased catastrophizing and improvement in the quality of life. By eliminating/changing negative patterns of behavior, a reduction in symptoms comparable with pharmacological treatment can be achieved. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Guideline for diagnosis and treatment of subacromial pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Diercks, Ron; Bron, Carel; Dorrestijn, Oscar; Meskers, Carel; Naber, René; de Ruiter, Tjerk; Willems, Jaap; Winters, Jan; van der Woude, Henk Jan

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of “subacromial impingement syndrome” of the shoulder has changed drastically in the past decade. The anatomical explanation as “impingement” of the rotator cuff is not sufficient to cover the pathology. “Subacromial pain syndrome”, SAPS, describes the condition better. A working group formed from a number of Dutch specialist societies, joined by the Dutch Orthopedic Association, has produced a guideline based on the available scientific evidence. This resulted in a new outlook for the treatment of subacromial pain syndrome. The important conclusions and advice from this work are as follows: (1) The diagnosis SAPS can only be made using a combination of clinical tests. (2) SAPS should preferably be treated non-operatively. (3) Acute pain should be treated with analgetics if necessary. (4) Subacromial injection with corticosteroids is indicated for persistent or recurrent symptoms. (5) Diagnostic imaging is useful after 6 weeks of symptoms. Ultrasound examination is the recommended imaging, to exclude a rotator cuff rupture. (6) Occupational interventions are useful when complaints persist for longer than 6 weeks. (7) Exercise therapy should be specific and should be of low intensity and high frequency, combining eccentric training, attention to relaxation and posture, and treatment of myofascial trigger points (including stretching of the muscles) may be considered. (8) Strict immobilization and mobilization techniques are not recommended. (9) Tendinosis calcarea can be treated by shockwave (ESWT) or needling under ultrasound guidance (barbotage). (10) Rehabilitation in a specialized unit can be considered in chronic, treatment resistant SAPS, with pain perpetuating behavior. (11) There is no convincing evidence that surgical treatment for SAPS is more effective than conservature management. (12) There is no indication for the surgical treatment of asymptomatic rotator cuff tears. PMID:24847788

  11. Functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chiou, Eric; Nurko, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Functional abdominal pain (FAP) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are both associated with recurrent abdominal pain and are among the most commonly diagnosed medical problems in pediatrics. The majority of patients with mild complaints improve with reassurance and time. For a distinct subset of patients with more severe and disabling illness, finding effective treatment for these disorders remains a challenge. Based on the biopsychosocial model of functional disease, the Rome III criteria have helped frame FAP and IBS in terms of being a positive diagnosis and not a diagnosis of exclusion. However, the lack of a single, proven intervention highlights the complex interplay of pathologic mechanisms likely involved in the development of childhood FAP and IBS and the need for a multidisciplinary, integrated approach. This article discusses the epidemiology, proposed mechanisms, clinical approach and therapeutic options for the management of FAP and IBS in children and adolescents. PMID:21731470

  12. Objective sensory evaluation of the spread of complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Edinger, Lara; Schwartzman, Robert J; Ahmad, Ayesha; Erwin, Kirsten; Alexander, Guillermo M

    2013-01-01

    The spread of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) has been well documented. Many severe refractory long-standing patients have total body pain (TBP) that evolved from a single extremity injury. The purpose of this study was to document by objective sensory threshold testing the extent of body area involvement in 20 long-standing patients with CRPS who have TBP. A comparison of sensory threshold testing parameters between 20 long-standing refractory patients with CRPS who have TBP versus 10 healthy participants. Twenty patients with CRPS who stated that they suffered from total body pain were chosen from the Drexel University College of Medicine CRPS database. They were compared to 10 healthy participants that were age and gender matched to the patients with CRPS. The sensory parameters tested were: skin temperature; static and mechanical allodynia; thermal allodynia; mechanical hyperalgesia; after sensations following all sensory tests. The sites chosen for testing in the patients with CRPS were the most painful area in each of 8 body regions that comprised the total body area. Five patients with CRPS had signs of CRPS over 100% of their body (20%). One patient had pain over 87% and another had pain over 90% of their body area. The average percentage of body involvement was 62% (range 37% - 100%). All patients with CRPS had at least one sensory parameter abnormality in all body regions. All patients with CRPS had lower pain thresholds for static allodynia in all body areas, while 50% demonstrated a lower threshold for dynamic allodynia in all body regions compared to the healthy participants. Cold allodynia had a higher median pain rating on the Likert pain scale in all body areas versus healthy participants except for the chest, abdomen, and back. Eighty-five percent of the patients with CRPS had a significantly lower pain threshold for mechanical hyperalgesia in all body areas compared to the healthy participants. After sensations occurred after all sensory

  13. Brain white matter changes associated with urological chronic pelvic pain syndrome: Multi-site neuroimaging from a MAPP case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lejian; Kutch, Jason J.; Ellingson, Benjamin M.; Martucci, Katherine T.; Harris, Richard E.; Clauw, Daniel J.; Mackey, Sean; Mayer, Emeran A.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Apkarian, A. Vania; Farmer, Melissa A.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical phenotyping of urological chronic pelvic pain syndromes (UCPPS) in men and women has focused on end-organ abnormalities to identify putative clinical subtypes. Initial evidence of abnormal brain function and structure in male pelvic pain has necessitated large-scale, multi-site investigations into potential UCPPS brain biomarkers. We present the first evidence of regional white matter (axonal) abnormalities in men and women with UCPPS, compared to positive (irritable bowel syndrome, IBS) and healthy controls. Epidemiological and neuroimaging data was collected from participants with UCPPS (n=52), IBS (n=39), and healthy, sex- and age-matched controls (n=61). White matter microstructure, measured as fractional anisotropy (FA), was examined with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Group differences in regional FA positively correlated with pain severity, including segments of the right corticospinal tract and right anterior thalamic radiation. Increased corticospinal FA was specific and sensitive to UCPPS, positively correlated with pain severity, and reflected sensory (not affective) features of pain. Reduced anterior thalamic radiation FA distinguished IBS from UCPPS patients and controls, suggesting greater microstructural divergence from normal tract organization. Findings confirm that regional white matter abnormalities characterize UCPPS and can distinguish between visceral diagnoses, suggesting that regional axonal microstructure is either altered with ongoing pain or predisposes its development. PMID:27842046

  14. Tryptase - PAR2 axis in Experimental Autoimmune Prostatitis, a model for Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Kenny; Done, Joseph D.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Murphy, Stephen F.; Thumbikat, Praveen

    2014-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis/Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) affects up to 15% of the male population and is characterized by pelvic pain. Mast cells are implicated in the murine experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP) model as key to chronic pelvic pain development. The mast cell mediator tryptase-β and its cognate receptor protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) are involved in mediating pain in other visceral disease models. Prostatic secretions and urines from CP/CPPS patients were examined for the presence of mast cell degranulation products. Tryptase-β and PAR2 expression were examined in murine experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP). Pelvic pain and inflammation were assessed in the presence or absence of PAR2 expression and upon PAR2 neutralization. Tryptase-β and carboxypeptidase A3 were elevated in CP/CPPS compared to healthy volunteers. Tryptase-β was capable of inducing pelvic pain and was increased in EAP along with its receptor PAR2. PAR2 was required for the development of chronic pelvic pain in EAP. PAR2 signaling in dorsal root ganglia lead to ERK1/2 phosphorylation and calcium influx. PAR2 neutralization using antibodies attenuated chronic pelvic pain in EAP. The tryptase-PAR2 axis is an important mediator of pelvic pain in EAP and may play a role in the pathogenesis of CP/CPPS. PMID:24726923

  15. Spatially defined modulation of skin temperature and hand ownership of both hands in patients with unilateral complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Moseley, G Lorimer; Gallace, Alberto; Iannetti, Gian Domenico

    2012-12-01

    Numerous clinical conditions, including complex regional pain syndrome, are characterized by autonomic dysfunctions (e.g. altered thermoregulation, sometimes confined to a single limb), and disrupted cortical representation of the body and the surrounding space. The presence, in patients with complex regional pain syndrome, of a disruption in spatial perception, bodily ownership and thermoregulation led us to hypothesize that impaired spatial perception might result in a spatial-dependent modulation of thermoregulation and bodily ownership over the affected limb. In five experiments involving a total of 23 patients with complex regional pain syndrome of one arm and 10 healthy control subjects, we measured skin temperature of the hand with infrared thermal imaging, before and after experimental periods of either 9 or 10 min each, during which the hand was held on one or the other side of the body midline. Tactile processing was assessed by temporal order judgements of pairs of vibrotactile stimuli, delivered one to each hand. Pain and sense of ownership over the hand were assessed by self-report scales. Across experiments, when kept on its usual side of the body midline, the affected hand was 0.5 ± 0.3°C cooler than the healthy hand (P < 0.02 for all, a common finding in cold-type complex regional pain syndrome), and tactile stimuli delivered to the healthy hand were prioritized over those delivered to the affected hand. Simply crossing both hands over the midline resulted in (i) warming of the affected hand (the affected hand became 0.4 ± 0.3°C warmer than when it was in the uncrossed position; P = 0.01); (ii) cooling of the healthy hand (by 0.3 ± 0.3°C; P = 0.02); and (iii) reversal of the prioritization of tactile processing. When only the affected hand was crossed over the midline, it became warmer (by 0.5 ± 0.3°C; P = 0.01). When only the healthy hand was crossed over the midline, it became cooler (by 0.3 ± 0.3°C; P = 0.01). The temperature change of

  16. Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... including rotator cuff injuries, cervical disc disorders, fibromyalgia, multiple sclerosis, complex regional pain syndrome, and tumors of the ... including rotator cuff injuries, cervical disc disorders, fibromyalgia, multiple sclerosis, complex regional pain syndrome, and tumors of the ...

  17. Deficiency in endogenous modulation of prolonged heat pain in patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Temporomandibular Disorder

    PubMed Central

    King, Christopher D.; Wong, Fong; Currie, Tom; Mauderli, Andre P.; Fillingim, Roger B.; Riley, Joseph L.

    2013-01-01

    Females with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and Temporomandibular Disorder (TMD) are characterized by enhanced sensitivity to experimental pain. One possible explanation for this observation is deficiencies in pain modulation systems like Diffuse Noxious Inhibitory Control (DNIC). In a few studies that used brief stimuli, chronic pain patients demonstrate reduced DNIC. The purpose of this study was to compare sensitivity to prolonged heat pain and the efficacy of DNIC in controls to IBS and TMD patients. Heat pain (experimental stimulus; 44.0-49.0°C), which was applied to left palm, was continuously rated during three 30-second trials across three separate testing sessions under the following conditions: without a conditioning stimulus; during concurrent immersion of the right foot in a 23.0°C (control); and during noxious cold immersion in a (DNIC; 8.0-16.0°C) water bath. Compared to controls, IBS and TMD patients reported increased sensitivity to heat pain and failed to demonstrate pain inhibition due to DNIC. Controls showed a significant reduction in pain during the DNIC session. These findings support the idea that chronic pain patients are not only more pain sensitive and demonstrate reduced pain inhibition by pain, possibly because of dysfunction of endogenous pain inhibition systems. PMID:19278784

  18. Potential Mechanisms Underlying Centralized Pain and Emerging Therapeutic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Eller-Smith, Olivia C.; Nicol, Andrea L.; Christianson, Julie A.

    2018-01-01

    Centralized pain syndromes are associated with changes within the central nervous system that amplify peripheral input and/or generate the perception of pain in the absence of a noxious stimulus. Examples of idiopathic functional disorders that are often categorized as centralized pain syndromes include fibromyalgia, chronic pelvic pain syndromes, migraine, and temporomandibular disorder. Patients often suffer from widespread pain, associated with more than one specific syndrome, and report fatigue, mood and sleep disturbances, and poor quality of life. The high degree of symptom comorbidity and a lack of definitive underlying etiology make these syndromes notoriously difficult to treat. The main purpose of this review article is to discuss potential mechanisms of centrally-driven pain amplification and how they may contribute to increased comorbidity, poorer pain outcomes, and decreased quality of life in patients diagnosed with centralized pain syndromes, as well as discuss emerging non-pharmacological therapies that improve symptomology associated with these syndromes. Abnormal regulation and output of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is commonly associated with centralized pain disorders. The HPA axis is the primary stress response system and its activation results in downstream production of cortisol and a dampening of the immune response. Patients with centralized pain syndromes often present with hyper- or hypocortisolism and evidence of altered downstream signaling from the HPA axis including increased Mast cell (MC) infiltration and activation, which can lead to sensitization of nearby nociceptive afferents. Increased peripheral input via nociceptor activation can lead to “hyperalgesic priming” and/or “wind-up” and eventually to central sensitization through long term potentiation in the central nervous system. Other evidence of central modifications has been observed through brain imaging studies of functional connectivity and

  19. Manipulative management of the temporomandibular joint pain-dysfunction syndrome: a report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Nykoliation, J. W.; Cassidy, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    The temporomandibular pain-dysfunction syndrome (TMJ-PDS) is a frequent but often unappreciated cause of head, neck, and facial pain. Information regarding its etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment is fragmentary, and often reflects an approach influenced by the background specialty of the involved practitioner. Current treatment is often multidisciplinary, involving the use of various dental splints in conjunction with physiotherapy, psychotherapy, and analgesic medication. This paper suggests that chiropractic manipulation to the temporomandibular joints (TMJ) may be an effective approach to treatment of TJM-PDS. Illustrative cases are presented. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9

  20. Benign painful elbow syndrome. First results of a single center prospective randomized radiotherapy dose optimization trial.

    PubMed

    Ott, O J; Hertel, S; Gaipl, U S; Frey, B; Schmidt, M; Fietkau, R

    2012-10-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of two different dose-fractionation schedules for radiotherapy (RT) of patients with painful elbow syndrome. Between February 2006 and February 2010, 199 consecutive evaluable patients were recruited for this prospective randomized trial. All patients received RT in orthovoltage technique. One RT course consisted of 6 single fractions/3 weeks. In case of insufficient remission of pain after 6 weeks a second radiation series was performed. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either single doses of 0.5 or 1.0 Gy. Endpoint was pain reduction. Pain was measured before, right after, and 6 weeks after RT by a visual analogue scale (VAS) and a comprehensive pain score (CPS). The overall response rate for all patients was 80% direct after and 91% 6 weeks after RT. The mean VAS values before, after and 6 weeks after treatment for the 0.5 and 1.0 Gy groups were 59.6 ± 20.2 and 55.7 ± 18.0 (p = 0.463), 32.1 ± 24.5 and 34.4 ± 22.5 (p = 0.256), and 27.0 ± 27.7 and 23.5 ± 21.6 (p = 0.818). The mean CPS before, after, and 6 weeks after treatment was 8.7 ± 2.9 and 8.1 ± 3.1 (p = 0.207), 4.5 ± 3.2 and 5.0 ± 3.4 (p = 0.507), 3.9 ± 3.6 and 2.8 ± 2.8 (p = 0.186), respectively. No statistically significant differences between the two single dose trial arms for early (p = 0.103) and delayed response (p = 0.246) were found. RT is an effective treatment option for the management of benign painful elbow syndrome. For radiation protection reasons the dose for a RT series is recommended not to exceed 3.0 Gy.

  1. Low-dose intravenous immunoglobulin treatment for complex regional pain syndrome (LIPS): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Goebel, Andreas; Shenker, Nicholas; Padfield, Nick; Shoukrey, Karim; McCabe, Candida; Serpell, Mick; Sanders, Mark; Murphy, Caroline; Ejibe, Amaka; Milligan, Holly; Kelly, Joanna; Ambler, Gareth

    2014-10-24

    Longstanding complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is refractory to treatment with established analgesic drugs in most cases, and for many patients, alternative pain treatment approaches, such as with neuromodulation devices or rehabilitation methods, also do not work. The development of novel, effective treatment technologies is, therefore, important. There are preliminary data suggesting that low-dose immunoglobulin treatment may significantly reduce pain from longstanding CRPS. LIPS is a multicentre (United Kingdom), double-blind, randomised parallel group, placebo-controlled trial, designed to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) 0.5 g/kg plus standard treatment, versus matched placebo plus standard treatment in 108 patients with longstanding complex regional pain syndrome. Participants with moderate or severe CRPS of between 1 and 5 years duration will be randomly allocated to receive IVIg 0.5 g/kg (IntratectTM 50 g/l solution for infusion) or matching placebo administered day 1 and day 22 after randomisation, followed by two optional doses of open-label medication on day 43 after randomisation and on day 64 after randomisation. The primary outcome is the patients' pain intensity in the IVIG group compared with the placebo group, between 6 and 42 days after randomisation. The primary trial objective is to confirm the efficacy and confidently determine the effect size of the IVIG treatment technology in this group of patients. ISRCTN42179756 (Registered 28 June 13).

  2. Childhood bladder and bowel dysfunction predicts irritable bowel syndrome phenotype in adult interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Doiron, R Christopher; Kogan, Barry A; Tolls, Victoria; Irvine-Bird, Karen; Nickel, J Curtis

    2017-08-01

    Many clinicians have suggested that a history of bladder and bowel dysfunction (BBD) in childhood predisposes to the development of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) or irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in adulthood. We hypothesized that BBD symptoms in childhood would predict the IBS-associated phenotype in adult IC/BPS patients. Consecutive female patients (n=190) with a diagnosis of IC/BPS were administered a modified form of a clinical BBD questionnaire (BBDQ) to capture childhood BBD-like symptoms, as well as Interstitial Cystitis Symptoms Index (ICSI), Interstitial Cystitis Problem Index (ICPI), Pelvic Pain and Urgency/Frequency (PUF) questionnaires and UPOINT categorization. Patients were stratified to IBS-positive or IBS-negative according to clinical assessment of IBS-like symptoms. The 127 patients (67%) identified with IBS-like symptoms recalled significantly higher BBDQ scores than the 63 patients (33%) who were IBS-negative (2.8 vs. 2.3; p=0.05). The IBS-positive patients also reported a higher number of UPOINT domains than their non-IBS counterparts (3.8 vs. 2.9; p=0.0001), while their PUF total scores were significantly higher (13.6 vs. 12.3; p=0.04). IBS-positive patients more often recalled that in childhood they did not have a daily bowel movement (BM) (p=0.04) and had "to push for a BM" (p=0.009). In childhood, they "urinated only once or twice per day" (p=0.03) and recalled "painful urination" more than those without IBS (p=0.03). There were no significant differences between the groups in answers to the other five questions of the BBDQ. Our symptom recollection survey was able to predict the IBS phenotype of IC/BPS based on a childhood BBDQ. Further prospective studies are needed to further evaluate these novel findings.

  3. Cognitive, emotional, and behavioral considerations for chronic pain management in the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility-type: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Baeza-Velasco, Carolina; Bulbena, Antonio; Polanco-Carrasco, Roberto; Jaussaud, Roland

    2018-01-22

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) hypermobility-type is the most common hereditary disorder of the connective tissue. The tissue fragility characteristic of this condition leads to multi-systemic symptoms in which pain, often severe, chronic, and disabling, is the most experienced. Clinical observations suggest that the complex patient with EDS hypermobility-type is refractory toward several biomedical and physical approaches. In this context and in accordance with the contemporary conceptualization of pain (biopsychosocial perspective), the identification of psychological aspects involved in the pain experience can be useful to improve interventions for this under-recognized pathology. Review of the literature on joint hypermobility and EDS hypermobility-type concerning psychological factors linked to pain chronicity and disability. A comprehensive search was performed using scientific online databases and references lists, encompassing publications reporting quantitative and qualitative research as well as unpublished literature. Despite scarce research, psychological factors associated with EDS hypermobility-type that potentially affect pain chronicity and disability were identified. These are cognitive problems and attention to body sensations, negative emotions, and unhealthy patterns of activity (hypo/hyperactivity). As in other chronic pain conditions, these aspects should be more explored in EDS hypermobility-type, and integrated into chronic pain prevention and management programs. Implications for Rehabilitation Clinicians should be aware that joint hypermobility may be associated with other health problems, and in its presence suspect a heritable disorder of connective tissue such as the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) hypermobility-type, in which chronic pain is one of the most frequent and invalidating symptoms. It is necessary to explore the psychosocial functioning of patients as part of the overall chronic pain management in the EDS hypermobility

  4. Chronic Pain Patients: Implications for Rehabilitation Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Lori T.

    Chronic pain syndrome appears to have certain dimensions which make it unique as a disabling condition. When pain persists, the resulting anxiety and depression, others' reactions to the patient's sick role behaviors, and situational variables such as disability benefits may all contribute to the pain syndrome and complicate the rehabilitation…

  5. Fibromyalgia syndrome and temporomandibular disorders with muscular pain. A review.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Fernández, Ana Maria; Jiménez-Castellanos, Emilio; Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Bueso-Madrid, Débora; Fernández-Rodríguez, Ana; de Miguel, Manuel

    2017-03-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) refer to a group of clinical picture affecting the masticatory muscles and temporomandibular joint that are characterized by muscular or joint pain, dysfunction (limited or altered functions) and joint noises, as well as other associated symptoms, such as tension headaches, otalgia, dizziness, tinnitus, and others. Fibromyalgia (FM) is a syndrome of unknown etiology involving generalized chronic pain accompanied, in a high percentage of cases, by other symptoms such as asthenia, anxiety, depression, sleep disturbances, and other less frequent symptoms, such as temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Data were compiled by two experienced examiners following a specific form. An electronic search was carried out in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PUBMED, and SCOPUS electronic databases (up to April 2016, unrestricted by date or language). Comparative clinical studies with patients with both clinical pictures involving the study of pathogenic processes. Fibromyalgia and temporomandibular disorders with muscle pain both have profiles that affect the muscular system and therefore share many epidemiological, clinical, and physiopathological symptoms. Because of this, we are led to think that there is, if not a common etiology, at least a common pathogenesis. This article revises the physiopathological processes of both clinical pictures in an attempt to determine their similarities and likenesses. This would undoubtedly help in providing a better therapeutic approach.

  6. Lower extremity thrust and non-thrust joint mobilization for patellofemoral pain syndrome: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Brad G; Simon, Corey B

    2014-01-01

    A 40-year old female presented to physical therapy with a one-year history of insidious right anteromedial and anterolateral knee pain. Additionally, the patient had a history of multiple lateral ankle sprains bilaterally, the last sprain occurring on the right ankle 1 year prior to the onset of knee pain. The patient was evaluated and given a physical therapy diagnosis of patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS), with associated talocrural and tibiofemoral joint hypomobility limiting ankle dorsiflexion and knee extension, respectively. Treatment included a high-velocity low amplitude thrust manipulation to the talocrural joint, which helped restore normal ankle dorsiflexion range of motion. The patient also received tibiofemoral joint non-thrust manual therapy to regain normal knee extension mobility prior to implementing further functional progression exercises to her home program (HEP). This case report highlights the importance of a detailed evaluation of knee and ankle joint mobility in patients presenting with anterior knee pain. Further, manual physical therapy to the lower extremity was found to be successful in restoring normal movement patterns and pain-free function in a patient with chronic anterior knee pain. PMID:24976753

  7. A pilot study of yoga treatment in children with functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brands, Marion M M G; Purperhart, Helen; Deckers-Kocken, Judith M

    2011-06-01