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Sample records for postmastectomy pain syndrome

  1. Autologous fat graft in postmastectomy pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Caviggioli, Fabio; Maione, Luca; Forcellini, Davide; Klinger, Francesco; Klinger, Marco

    2011-08-01

    Mastectomy with axillary dissection is still one of the most common procedures in oncologic surgery. Unfortunately, a condition of neuropathic pain, termed postmastectomy pain syndrome, can appear after mastectomy. Although evidence regarding the epidemiology of postmastectomy pain syndrome is well researched, an effective therapy is still unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical effectiveness of lipoaspirate graft in the treatment of postmastectomy pain syndrome. From February of 2006 to August of 2008, a total of 113 patients affected by postmastectomy pain syndrome and severe scar retractions were enrolled for this clinical study. Seventy-two patients were treated with autologous fat grafted in painful scars, and 41 patients did not undergo any further surgical procedure. Pain assessment was performed using a visual analogue scale before and after treatment, with a mean follow-up of 13 months. In addition, antalgic drug intake was recorded in the 34 patients who received a surgical treatment. Results were analyzed using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. A significant decrease in pain according to the visual analogue scale was detected in patients treated with autologous fat graft (3.23-point reduction, p = 0.0005). Twenty-eight of 34 patients stopped their analgesic therapy with a significant follow-up (13 months). Autologous fat grafting is a safe, relatively noninvasive, and rapid surgical procedure. The authors' results suggest its effectiveness for treatment of postmastectomy pain syndrome. Therapeutic, II.

  2. [Postmastectomy pain syndrome evidence based guidelines and decision trees].

    PubMed

    Labrèze, Laurent; Dixmérias-Iskandar, Florence; Monnin, Dominique; Bussières, Emmanuel; Delahaye, Evelyne; Bernard, Dominique; Lakdja, Fabrice

    2007-03-01

    A multidisciplinary expert group had reviewed all scientific data available of post mastectomy pain syndrome. Seventy six publications were retained and thirty evidence based diagnosis, treatment and follow-up recommendations are listed. Few of theses recommendations are classed level A. Datas analysis make possible to propose a strategy based on systematic association of drugs, kinesitherapy and psychological support. Evaluation and closer follow-up are necessary. Several decisional trees are proposed.

  3. Autologous fat graft in postmastectomy pain syndrome following breast conservative surgery and radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Maione, Luca; Vinci, Valeriano; Caviggioli, Fabio; Klinger, Francesco; Banzatti, Barbara; Catania, Barbara; Lisa, Andrea; Klinger, Marco

    2014-06-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide, affecting one in eight women. Breast-conserving surgery (BCS) has become a well-established alternative to mastectomy in the treatment of breast cancer, providing a less invasive treatment. Just as life expectancy after breast cancer has improved, so has morbidity increased. One of the most relevant and debilitating consequences of oncological breast surgery is postmastectomy pain syndrome (PMPS). Our results published in 2011 on the treatment of PMPS in patients who had undergone mastectomy and radiotherapy and our experience in scar treatment with fat grafts were the theoretical bases for this prospective study. From April 2011 to April 2012 a total of 96 patients, who had undergone lumpectomy and radiation therapy, with the diagnosis of PMPS were considered for fat grafts. We performed autologous fat grafting in 59 patients (study group), whereas 37 patients did not receive any further surgical procedure (control group). Pain assessment was performed using the visual analog scale (VAS) before and after treatment in the treated group and in the control group at the first visit and the control visit, with a mean follow-up of 10 months. Results were analyzed using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. Four patients were lost to follow-up (two patients in the control group and two patients in the treated group). A significant VAS pain decrease was detected in patients treated with autologous fat grafting (3.1 point reduction, p ≤ 0.005). Because of the safety, efficacy, and optimal tolerability of the procedure, we believe that fat grafting can be considered useful in treating PMPS in patients who have undergone BCS and radiotherapy. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  4. Ultrasound-Guided Serratus Plane Block for Treatment of Postmastectomy Pain Syndromes in Breast Cancer Patients: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Zocca, Jennifer A; Chen, Grant H; Puttanniah, Vinay G; Hung, Joseph C; Gulati, Amitabh

    2017-01-01

    Postmastectomy pain syndrome is common after surgical treatment for breast cancer and may be challenging to manage. Currently, there are a wide variety of approaches to treat this type of pain, including medications, physical therapy, and interventional procedures. However, because of the complexity of innervation of the breast, the serratus plane block may better target the web of nerves innervating the anterior chest wall including the breast. We present a case series of 8 patients who were successfully treated with serratus plane block for pain after treatment for breast cancer. We feel that this particular application for the serratus plane block deserves further investigation, as it is relatively easy to perform and has good clinical utility for this type of pain.

  5. A retrospective study of postmastectomy pain syndrome: incidence, characteristics, risk factors, and influence on quality of life.

    PubMed

    Meijuan, Yang; Zhiyou, Peng; Yuwen, Tang; Ying, Feng; Xinzhong, Chen

    2013-01-01

    The underlying cause for postmastectomy pain syndrome (PMPS) and its impact on quality of life remain unclear. The objective of this study aims to determine retrospectively the prevalence of PMPS, its predicting risk factors, and its impact on quality of life. In this survey, 225 women completed a battery of questionnaires. The questionnaires comprised the short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) exploring the characteristics and the description of the pain, and a Short Form-36 (SF-36) Health Survey evaluating quality of life. Logistic regression analyses were subsequently performed to identify risk factors for PMPS. 62 women (27.6%) reported PMPS as a consequence of surgery, and the pain was generally mild, mostly localized in breast area and intermittent. The pain was mainly described as aching (62.9%). 144 women reported sensory disturbance. We found that only the younger age is the predictive factor for PMPS (P < 0.05). Compared to the patients who did not experience PMPS, those who suffered from PMPS had significantly worse scores in role limitations due to physical problems (role physical, RP), body pain (BP), general health (GH), vitality (VT), role limitations due to emotional problems (role emotional, RE), and mental health (MH) (P < 0.05). PMPS is a significant problem, and the possible risk factors should be further explored. Patients with PMPS have significant worse quality of life, suggesting that patients should be well informed about the likelihood of experiencing the pain, and they may be afforded greater predictability and higher perceived control to enhance their quality of life.

  6. Predictors and consequences of multiple persistent postmastectomy pains.

    PubMed

    Kudel, Ian; Edwards, Robert R; Kozachik, Sharon; Block, Brian M; Agarwal, Shefali; Heinberg, Leslie J; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer; Raja, Srinivasa N

    2007-12-01

    Persistent postmastectomy pain is quite common and has been classified into several distinct types. Few studies, however, have investigated either the predictors or functional impact of multiple types of post mastectomy pain. In this investigation, 278 women, who were, on average, several years post mastectomy, completed questionnaires assessing pain, pain-related physical function, and psychosocial distress. We assessed three distinct categories of postmastectomy pain: phantom breast pain, scar pain, and other mastectomy-related pain. Each of the three types of postmastectomy pain was strongly related to one another (i.e., women reporting one type of pain were more likely to report the other types as well). In general, the more types of postmastectomy pain a woman reported, the greater the degree of disability and distress. Collectively, the presence of "other mastectomy-related pain" was a stronger unique predictor of disability and distress than were the other two categories of pain. Interestingly, demographic and surgical factors, including time since surgery, were not consistent predictors of pain or function. The findings suggest that the assessment of postmastectomy pain should include formal evaluation of multiple types of pain, with additional attention paid to the category of "other mastectomy-related pains," and that the number of types of pain reported by women after surgery may be important in predicting functional outcomes.

  7. Post–breast surgery pain syndrome: establishing a consensus for the definition of post-mastectomy pain syndrome to provide a standardized clinical and research approach — a review of the literature and discussion

    PubMed Central

    Waltho, Daniel; Rockwell, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Background Post-mastectomy pain syndrome (PMPS) is a frequent complication of breast surgery. There is currently no standard definition for this chronic pain syndrome. The purpose of this review was to establish a consensus for defining PMPS by identifying the various elements included in the definitions and how they vary across the literature, determining how these definitions affect the methodological components therein, and proposing a definition that appropriately encompasses all of the appropriate elements. Methods We searched PubMed to retrieve all studies and case reports on PMPS, and we analyzed definitions of PMPS, inclusion/exclusion criteria, and methods of measuring PMPS. Results Twenty-three studies were included in this review. We identified 7 independent domains for defining PMPS: surgical breast procedure, neuropathic nature, pain of at least moderate intensity, protracted duration, frequent symptoms, appropriate location of the symptoms and exacerbation with movement. These domains were used with varying frequency. Inclusion/exclusion criteria and methods for assessing PMPS also varied markedly. Conclusion To prevent future discrepancies in both the clinical and research settings, we propose a new and complete definition based on the results of our review: PMPS is pain that occurs after any breast surgery; is of at least moderate severity; possesses neuropathic qualities; is located in the ipsilateral breast/chest wall, axilla, and/or arm; lasts at least 6 months; occurs at least 50% of the time; and may be exacerbated by movements of the shoulder girdle. PMID:27668333

  8. [Treatment of persistent postmastectomy pain with 5% Lidocaine medicated plaster].

    PubMed

    Cruto, M E; Baricocchi, E; Battistella, M; Bona, F; Giacoletto, G; Iacobellis, A; Moselli, N; Palomba, G; Sardo, E; Savojardo, M; Suita, L; Zocca, E; Debernardi, F

    2015-04-01

    Persistent postmastectomy pain (PPMP) syndrome is characterized by neuropathic pain that develops following surgery in breast cancer patients. The reported incidence of PPMP ranges between 30% and 50% and is estimated to increase as the number of women surviving cancer continues to rise. Though effective, today's drug treatments are poorly tolerated, limiting their use and reducing adherence to therapy. Since neuropathic pain is localized, international guidelines suggest that topical treatment with 5% Lidocaine medicated plaster either alone or combined with systemic drugs can be considered for pain management. In this retrospective study we reviewed the medical records of 11 patients treated with 5% lidocaine medicated plaster for moderate-to-severe PPMP at our institute between November 2013 and October 2014. Analysis showed that treatment with 5% Lidocaine medicated plaster, either alone or in combination with systemic drugs, achieved significant pain control already after the first week of therapy. The effectiveness and tolerability of 5% Lidocaine medicated plaster we observed suggests that it is a viable option in the management of PPMP.

  9. Long-term effect of pulsed high-intensity laser therapy in the treatment of post-mastectomy pain syndrome: a double blind, placebo-control, randomized study.

    PubMed

    Ebid, Anwar Abdelgayed; El-Sodany, Ahmed Mohamed

    2015-08-01

    We assess the long-term effect of pulsed high-intensity laser therapy (HILT) in the treatment of the post-mastectomy pain syndrome (PMPS). A total of 61 women participated in this study (30 in the laser group and 31 in the placebo laser group), with a mean age of 53.56 ± 1.11 years. Patients who were randomly assigned to the laser group received HILT three times per week for 4 weeks, plus a routine physical therapy program (RPTP). The placebo laser group received placebo HILT plus RPTP. The outcomes measured were pain level by visual analog scale (VAS), shoulder range of motion (ROM), and quality of life (QOL). Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA with repeated measures to compare the differences between baseline and post-treatment measurements and after 12 weeks of follow-up for both groups. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Shoulder ROM significantly increased in the laser group after 4 weeks of treatment and after 12 weeks of follow-up compared with the placebo group. VAS results showed a significant decrease post-treatment in the laser group relative to the placebo group, and QOL results showed a significant improvement in the laser group compared with the placebo group and still improved after 12 weeks of follow-up. HILT combined with an RPTP appears to be more effective in patients with PMPS than a placebo laser procedure with RPTP.

  10. [Postmastectomy syndrome after the radical treatment of the breast cancer with the preservation of the intercostal nerve].

    PubMed

    Iarygin, M L; Obmanov, I V; Iarygin, L M; Khokhlov, A A; Shmyrev, V I

    2013-01-01

    Postmastectomy syndrome often follows the radical surgery oа the breast cancer. The intersection of the branches of the intercostal nerve is an infrequent cause of the postmastectomy syndrome development. We studied the long-term follow up results in 30 patients after radical mastectomy by Madden with preservation of the branches of the intercostal nerve on the level of Th1-Th3. The method demonstrated the decrease of the postmastectomy syndrome and the improvement of quality of life.

  11. Postmastectomy Pain: A Cross-sectional Study of Prevalence, Pain Characteristics, and Effects on Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Beyaz, Serbülent Gökhan; Ergönenç, Jalan Şerbetçigil; Ergönenç, Tolga; Sönmez, Özlem Uysal; Erkorkmaz, Ünal; Altintoprak, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Background: Postmastectomy pain syndrome (PMPS) is defined as a chronic (continuing for 3 or more months) neuropathic pain affecting the axilla, medial arm, breast, and chest wall after breast cancer surgery. The prevalence of PMPS has been reported to range from 20% to 68%. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of PMPS among mastectomy patients, the severity of neuropathic pain in these patients, risk factors that contribute to pain becoming chronic, and the effect of PMPS on life quality. Methods: This cross-sectional study was approved by the Sakarya University, Medical Faculty Ethical Council and included 146 patients ranging in age from 18 to 85 years who visited the pain clinic, general surgery clinic, and oncology clinic and had breast surgery between 2012 and 2014. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether they met PMPS criteria: pain at axilla, arm, shoulder, chest wall, scar tissue, or breast at least 3 months after breast surgery. All patients gave informed consent prior to entry into the study. Patient medical records were collected, and pain and quality of life were evaluated by the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, a short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), douleur neuropathique-4 (DN-4), and SF-36. Results: Patient mean age was 55.2 ± 11.8 years (33.0–83.0 years). PMPS prevalence was 36%. Mean scores on the VAS, SF-MPQ, and DN-4 in PMPS patients were 1.76 ± 2.38 (0–10), 1.73 ± 1.54 (0–5), and 1.64 ± 2.31 (0–8), respectively. Of these patients, 31 (23.7%) had neuropathic pain characteristics, and 12 (9.2%) had phantom pain according to the DN-4 survey. Patients who had modified radical mastectomy were significantly more likely to develop PMPS than patients who had breast-protective surgery (P = 0.028). Only 2 (2.4%) of PMPS patients had received proper treatment (anticonvulsants or opioids). Conclusions: PMPS seriously impacts patients’ emotional situation, daily activities, and social

  12. Postmastectomy Pain: A Cross-sectional Study of Prevalence, Pain Characteristics, and Effects on Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Beyaz, Serbülent Gökhan; Ergönenç, Jalan Şerbetçigil; Ergönenç, Tolga; Sönmez, Özlem Uysal; Erkorkmaz, Ünal; Altintoprak, Fatih

    2016-01-05

    Postmastectomy pain syndrome (PMPS) is defined as a chronic (continuing for 3 or more months) neuropathic pain affecting the axilla, medial arm, breast, and chest wall after breast cancer surgery. The prevalence of PMPS has been reported to range from 20% to 68%. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of PMPS among mastectomy patients, the severity of neuropathic pain in these patients, risk factors that contribute to pain becoming chronic, and the effect of PMPS on life quality. This cross-sectional study was approved by the Sakarya University, Medical Faculty Ethical Council and included 146 patients ranging in age from 18 to 85 years who visited the pain clinic, general surgery clinic, and oncology clinic and had breast surgery between 2012 and 2014. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether they met PMPS criteria: pain at axilla, arm, shoulder, chest wall, scar tissue, or breast at least 3 months after breast surgery. All patients gave informed consent prior to entry into the study. Patient medical records were collected, and pain and quality of life were evaluated by the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, a short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), douleur neuropathique-4 (DN-4), and SF-36. Patient mean age was 55.2 ± 11.8 years (33.0-83.0 years). PMPS prevalence was 36%. Mean scores on the VAS, SF-MPQ, and DN-4 in PMPS patients were 1.76 ± 2.38 (0-10), 1.73 ± 1.54 (0-5), and 1.64 ± 2.31 (0-8), respectively. Of these patients, 31 (23.7%) had neuropathic pain characteristics, and 12 (9.2%) had phantom pain according to the DN-4 survey. Patients who had modified radical mastectomy were significantly more likely to develop PMPS than patients who had breast-protective surgery (P = 0.028). Only 2 (2.4%) of PMPS patients had received proper treatment (anticonvulsants or opioids). PMPS seriously impacts patients' emotional situation, daily activities, and social relationships and is a major economic burden for health

  13. Angiosarcoma (Stewart-Treves syndrome) in postmastectomy patients: report of 10 cases and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lifang; Zhang, Jixin; Zhang, Xinmin; Chang, Hong; Qu, Congling; Zhang, Jiangying; Zhong, Dingrong

    2015-01-01

    To study the clinicopathologic features of Stewart-Treves syndrome (STS) in postmastectomy patients including the epidemiology, presentation, morphology, differentiation, pathogenesis and therapeutic options. Ten cases of STS in postmastectomy patients were retrospectively identified in our archives, and immunohistochemistry for CD34, CD31, D2-40, HHV-8, CK, EMA and Ki-67 was performed. All ten patients presented with lymphedema after mastectomy as the first sign. Physical examination revealed multiple raised, pinkish-red papulo-vesicular lesions or ulceration as the early evidence of tumor in the field where radiation therapy was introduced. Microscopic examination revealed infiltrative proliferation of vessels and the heteromorphic tumor cells expressed CD34, CD31 and D2-40. Despite the various treatment modalities, 5 patients died in an average of 19 months, 4 patients survived to the last follow-up (9-31 months), and 1 patient got lost. STS is a fatal complication of postmastectomy lymphedema. Patients with STS have very poor prognosis. The key to improve patient's survival is the early diagnosis through a high alert of this disease by primary care physicians and comprehensive physical examination of patients with pertinent history and suspicious clinical presentations followed by prompt biopsy for definitive diagnosis.

  14. Prospective Evaluation of Severe Skin Toxicity and Pain During Postmastectomy Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Pignol, Jean-Philippe; Vu, Thi Trinh Thuc; Mitera, Gunita; Bosnic, Sandy; Verkooijen, Helena M.; Truong, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively capture acute toxicities and pain associated with postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT), to analyze patient and treatment risk factors for severe side effects. Methods and Materials: Women referred for PMRT were prospectively enrolled and assessed weekly during and after radiation therapy. The endpoint included severe National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Effects grade 3 moist desquamation, other skin symptoms, and pain. Results: Of 257 patients, 73 (28.4%) experienced extensive moist desquamation, 84 (32.7%) Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Effects skin toxicity grade 3, and 57 (22.2%) a pain impacting on daily life activities. Among symptoms only grade 3 moist desquamation was significantly associated with severe pain (P<.001). On multivariate analysis, smoking, high-energy photons, and skin bolus were significantly associated with severe moist desquamation. Skin toxicity doubled for smokers, with 40% severe pain, 48% grade 3 moist desquamation, and 64% grade 3 skin toxicity. Without skin bolus 4.2% had severe pain, none moist desquamation, and 2.1% grade 3 skin toxicity. When skin bolus was used on alternate days, the frequency increased to 15% for pain, 22% for moist desquamation, and 26% for grade 3 skin toxicity. When bolus was used daily, 32% had pain, 41% moist desquamation, and 47% grade 3 skin toxicity. Symptoms peaked 1 to 2 weeks after the end of PMRT. Conclusions: The present cohort study suggests excessive radiation toxicity after PMRT. Among factors associated with an increase of toxicity are smoking habits and the use of skin bolus.

  15. Prospective evaluation of severe skin toxicity and pain during postmastectomy radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Pignol, Jean-Philippe; Vu, Thi Trinh Thuc; Mitera, Gunita; Bosnic, Sandy; Verkooijen, Helena M; Truong, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    To prospectively capture acute toxicities and pain associated with postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT), to analyze patient and treatment risk factors for severe side effects. Women referred for PMRT were prospectively enrolled and assessed weekly during and after radiation therapy. The endpoint included severe National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Effects grade 3 moist desquamation, other skin symptoms, and pain. Of 257 patients, 73 (28.4%) experienced extensive moist desquamation, 84 (32.7%) Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Effects skin toxicity grade 3, and 57 (22.2%) a pain impacting on daily life activities. Among symptoms only grade 3 moist desquamation was significantly associated with severe pain (P<.001). On multivariate analysis, smoking, high-energy photons, and skin bolus were significantly associated with severe moist desquamation. Skin toxicity doubled for smokers, with 40% severe pain, 48% grade 3 moist desquamation, and 64% grade 3 skin toxicity. Without skin bolus 4.2% had severe pain, none moist desquamation, and 2.1% grade 3 skin toxicity. When skin bolus was used on alternate days, the frequency increased to 15% for pain, 22% for moist desquamation, and 26% for grade 3 skin toxicity. When bolus was used daily, 32% had pain, 41% moist desquamation, and 47% grade 3 skin toxicity. Symptoms peaked 1 to 2 weeks after the end of PMRT. The present cohort study suggests excessive radiation toxicity after PMRT. Among factors associated with an increase of toxicity are smoking habits and the use of skin bolus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Persistent pain in postmastectomy patients: Comparison of psychophysical, medical, surgical, and psychosocial characteristics between patients with and without pain

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Kristin L.; Martel, Marc O.; Shnol, Helen; Shaffer, John R.; Greco, Carol; Viray, Nicole; Taylor, Lauren N.; McLaughlin, Meghan; Brufsky, Adam; Ahrendt, Gretchen; Bovbjerg, Dana; Edwards, Robert R.; Belfer, Inna

    2013-01-01

    Persistent postmastectomy pain (PPMP) is a major individual and public health problem. Increasingly, psychosocial factors such as anxiety and catastrophizing are being revealed as crucial contributors to individual differences in pain processing and outcomes. Furthermore, differences in patients’ responses to standardized quantitative sensory testing (QST) may aid in the discernment of who is at risk for acute and chronic pain after surgery. However, characterization of the variables that differentiate those with PPMP from those whose acute postoperative pain resolves is currently incomplete. The purpose of this study was to investigate important surgical, treatment-related, demographic, psychophysical, and psychosocial factors associated with PPMP by comparing PPMP cases with PPMP-free controls. Pain was assessed using the breast cancer pain questionnaire to determine the presence and extent of PPMP. Psychosocial and demographic information were gathered via phone interview, and women underwent a QST session. Consistent with most prior research, surgical and disease-related variables did not differ significantly between cases and controls. Furthermore, treatment with radiation, chemotherapy, or hormone therapy was also not more common among those with PPMP. In contrast, women with PPMP did show elevated levels of distress-related psychosocial factors such as anxiety, depression, catastrophizing, and somatization. Finally, QST in nonsurgical body areas revealed increased sensitivity to mechanical stimulation among PPMP cases, while thermal pain responses were not different between the groups. These findings suggest that an individual’s psychophysical and psychosocial profile may be more strongly related to PPMP than their surgical treatment. PMID:23290256

  17. [Evaluation of the objectivity of data obtained in direct lymphography in patients with post-mastectomy syndrome].

    PubMed

    Krylov, V; Milanov, N; Sadovnilov, V; Abalmassov, K

    1988-01-01

    The post-mastectomy syndrome in 151 patients was investigated by direct lymphography with intra-operative determination of endolymphatic pressure and lymph node biopsy in 42 cases. Results allowed classification into 4 groups as a function of course of lymphatic lesions and selection of patients for either bypass or resection surgery.

  18. Persistent pain in postmastectomy patients: comparison of psychophysical, medical, surgical, and psychosocial characteristics between patients with and without pain.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Kristin L; Martel, Marc O; Shnol, Helen; Shaffer, John R; Greco, Carol; Viray, Nicole; Taylor, Lauren N; McLaughlin, Meghan; Brufsky, Adam; Ahrendt, Gretchen; Bovbjerg, Dana; Edwards, Robert R; Belfer, Inna

    2013-05-01

    Persistent postmastectomy pain (PPMP) is a major individual and public health problem. Increasingly, psychosocial factors such as anxiety and catastrophizing are being revealed as crucial contributors to individual differences in pain processing and outcomes. Furthermore, differences in patients' responses to standardized quantitative sensory testing (QST) may aid in the discernment of who is at risk for acute and chronic pain after surgery. However, characterization of the variables that differentiate those with PPMP from those whose acute postoperative pain resolves is currently incomplete. The purpose of this study was to investigate important surgical, treatment-related, demographic, psychophysical, and psychosocial factors associated with PPMP by comparing PPMP cases with PPMP-free controls. Pain was assessed using the breast cancer pain questionnaire to determine the presence and extent of PPMP. Psychosocial and demographic information were gathered via phone interview, and women underwent a QST session. Consistent with most prior research, surgical and disease-related variables did not differ significantly between cases and controls. Furthermore, treatment with radiation, chemotherapy, or hormone therapy was also not more common among those with PPMP. In contrast, women with PPMP did show elevated levels of distress-related psychosocial factors such as anxiety, depression, catastrophizing, and somatization. Finally, QST in nonsurgical body areas revealed increased sensitivity to mechanical stimulation among PPMP cases, while thermal pain responses were not different between the groups. These findings suggest that an individual's psychophysical and psychosocial profile may be more strongly related to PPMP than their surgical treatment. Copyright © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition. It causes intense pain, usually in the arms, hands, legs, or feet. ... in skin temperature, color, or texture Intense burning pain Extreme skin sensitivity Swelling and stiffness in affected ...

  20. Myofascial Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... worsens. Treatment options for myofascial pain syndrome include physical therapy and trigger point injections. Pain medications and relaxation ... syndrome typically includes medications, trigger point injections or physical therapy. No conclusive evidence supports using one therapy over ...

  1. Central Neuropathic Pain Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Watson, James C; Sandroni, Paola

    2016-03-01

    Chronic pain is common in patients with neurologic complications of a central nervous system insult such as stroke. The pain is most commonly musculoskeletal or related to obligatory overuse of neurologically unaffected limbs. However, neuropathic pain can result directly from the central nervous system injury. Impaired sensory discrimination can make it challenging to differentiate central neuropathic pain from other pain types or spasticity. Central neuropathic pain may also begin months to years after the injury, further obscuring recognition of its association with a past neurologic injury. This review focuses on unique clinical features that help distinguish central neuropathic pain. The most common clinical central pain syndromes-central poststroke pain, multiple sclerosis-related pain, and spinal cord injury-related pain-are reviewed in detail. Recent progress in understanding of the pathogenesis of central neuropathic pain is reviewed, and pharmacological, surgical, and neuromodulatory treatments of this notoriously difficult to treat pain syndrome are discussed.

  2. Loin pain hematuria syndrome.

    PubMed

    Taba Taba Vakili, Sahar; Alam, Tausif; Sollinger, Hans

    2014-09-01

    Loin pain hematuria syndrome is a rare disease with a prevalence of ∼0.012%. The most prominent clinical features include periods of severe intermittent or persistent unilateral or bilateral loin pain accompanied by either microscopic or gross hematuria. Patients with loin pain hematuria syndrome initially present with hematuria, flank pain, or most often both hematuria and flank pain. Kidney biopsies from patients with loin pain hematuria typically reveal only minor pathologic abnormalities. Further, loin pain hematuria syndrome is not associated with loss of kidney function or urinary tract infections. Loin pain hematuria syndrome-associated hematuria and pain are postulated to be linked to vascular disease of the kidney, coagulopathy, renal vasospasm with microinfarction, hypersensitivity, complement activation on arterioles, venocalyceal fistula, abnormal ureteral peristalsis, and intratubular deposition of calcium or uric acid microcrystals. Many patients with loin pain hematuria syndrome also meet criteria for a somatoform disorder, and analgesic medications, including narcotics, commonly are used to treat loin pain hematuria syndrome-associated pain. Interventional treatments include renal denervation, kidney autotransplantation, and nephrectomy; however, these methods should be used only as a last resort when less invasive measures have been tried unsuccessfully. In this review article, we discuss and critique current clinical practices related to loin pain hematuria syndrome pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.

  3. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... regional pain syndrome is an uncommon form of chronic pain that usually affects an arm or a ... I need? Is my condition likely temporary or chronic? What types of treatments are available? Which do ...

  4. Patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Collado, Hervé; Fredericson, Michael

    2010-07-01

    Patellofemoral pain (PFP) syndrome is a frequently encountered overuse disorder that involves the patellofemoral region and often presents as anterior knee pain. PFP can be difficult to diagnose. Not only do the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment remain challenging, but the terminology used to describe PFP is used inconsistently and can be confusing. Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) seems to be multifactorial, resulting from a complex interaction among intrinsic anatomic and external training factors. Although clinicians frequently make the diagnosis of PFPS, no consensus exists about its etiology or the factors most responsible for causing pain. This article discusses the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of PFP.

  5. Regional cancer pain syndromes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Victor T; Janjan, Nora; Jain, Subash; Chau, Chi

    2006-12-01

    Cancer pain often presents in a body region. This review summarizes articles from 1999-2004 relevant to cancer pain syndromes in the head and neck, chest, back, abdomen, pelvis, and limbs. Although the evidence is limited, progress is being made in further development of the evidence base to support and guide current practice.

  6. Pain and musculoskeletal pain syndromes in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Aura Ligia; Moraes, Ana Julia Pantoja; Leone, Claudio; Doria-Filho, Ulysses; Silva, Clovis Artur Almeida

    2006-06-01

    The presence of musculoskeletal pain was evaluated in adolescents. Pain was reported by 40% of respondents, benign joint hypermobility syndrome by 10%, myofascial syndrome by 5%, tendonitis by 2%, and fibromialgia by 1%. Logistical regression analysis indicated that sex and age were predictive of pain.

  7. [Psychophysiology of visceral pain syndromes].

    PubMed

    Häuser, W; Grandt, D

    2002-12-01

    Psychosomatics of visceral pain syndromes. From a psychosomatic point of view visceral pain syndromes can be classified into nociceptive (somatic and visceral) pain syndromes without and with maladaptive pain coping resp.psychic comorbidity, functional pain syndromes (typical symptom clusters without biochemical or structural abnormalities in clinical routine diagnostics) and psychic disorders with pain as main symptom. With regard to the etiology and the course of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) as representatives of somatic pain syndromes and of irritable bowel syndrome/chronic pelvic pain as representatives of functional pain syndromes empirically validated psychosocial aspects are summarized: Personality traits, illness behavior, daily hassles, life events and psychic comorbidity and effects of psychotherapy. Psychosocial factors are decisive in the etiology and the course of functional pain syndromes as determinants of their severity (psychosomatic disease in a narrow sense). Psychosocial factors are not decisive for the etiology, but for the course of IBD (psychosomatic disease in a broader sense). Within general pain therapy of visceral pain syndromes a biopsychosocial approach should be applied right from the beginning (psychosomatic basic care). Within special pain therapy of visceral pain syndromes a qualified psychiatric - psychotherapeutic diagnostics and co-therapy should be mandatory.

  8. [Myofascial pain syndrome].

    PubMed

    Novikova, L B; Akopyan, A P

    2015-01-01

    To analyze clinical characteristics of pain syndrome in patients with dorsalgia. Authors studied 43 patients (mean age 41.9±1.2 years), 34 women and 9 men, with acute and subacute chronic back pain. The study included neurological examination, MRI and/or CT of the spine, measurement of anxiety and depression with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), The Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) and the McGill Pain Inventory. Chronic myofascial pain syndrome (MFPS) was frequently associated with anxiety-depressive disorders found in patients with cervical and cervical/pectoral pain, fibromyalgia with minimal neurological symptoms and no signs of neural structure compression according to MRI and CT. The results of the study of chronic MFPS should be taken into account in the choice of tactics of treatment of MFPS patients. The use of amelotex in the combination with compligam B in patients with dorsopathy and MFPS is effective together with correction of emotional disorders and treatment with chondroprotectors.

  9. Complex regional pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sebastin, Sandeep J

    2011-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) previously known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy is a chronic neurological disorder involving the limbs characterized by disabling pain, swelling, vasomotor instability, sudomotor abnormality, and impairment of motor function. CRPS is not uncommon after hand surgery and may complicate post-operative care. There is no specific diagnostic test for CRPS and the diagnosis is based on history, clinical examination, and supportive laboratory findings. Recent modifications to diagnostic criteria have enabled clinicians to diagnose this disease more consistently. This review gives a synopsis of CRPS and discusses the diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment options based on the limited evidence in the literature. PMID:22022040

  10. Myofascial pain syndrome treatments.

    PubMed

    Borg-Stein, Joanne; Iaccarino, Mary Alexis

    2014-05-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a regional pain disorder caused by taut bands of muscle fibers in skeletal muscles called myofascial trigger points. MPS is a common disorder, often diagnosed and treated by physiatrists. Treatment strategies for MPS include exercises, patient education, and trigger point injection. Pharmacologic interventions are also common, and a variety of analgesics, antiinflammatories, antidepressants, and other medications are used in clinical practice. This review explores the various treatment options for MPS, including those therapies that target myofascial trigger points and common secondary symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Intravenous lidocaine for post-mastectomy pain treatment: randomized, blind, placebo controlled clinical trial].

    PubMed

    Couceiro, Tania Cursino de Menezes; Lima, Luciana Cavalcanti; Burle, Léa Menezes Couceiro; Valença, Marcelo Moraes

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative pain treatment in mastectomy remains a major challenge despite the multimodal approach. The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic effect of intravenous lidocaine in patients undergoing mastectomy, as well as the postoperative consumption of opioids. After approval by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira in Recife, Pernambuco, a randomized, blind, controlled trial was conducted with intravenous lidocaine at a dose of 3 mg/kg infused over one hour in 45 women undergoing mastectomy under general anesthesia. One patient from placebo group was Groups were similar in age, body mass index, type of surgery, and postoperative need for opioids. Two of 22 patients in lidocaine group and three of 22 patients in placebo group requested opioid (p=0.50). Pain on awakening was identified in 4/22 of lidocaine group and 5/22 of placebo group (p=0.50); in the post-anesthetic recovery room in 14/22 and 12/22 (p=0.37) of lidocaine and placebo groups, respectively. Pain evaluation 24hours after surgery showed that 2/22 and 3/22 patients (p=0.50) of lidocaine and placebo groups, respectively, complained of pain. Intravenous lidocaine at a dose of 3 mg/kg administered over a period of an hour during mastectomy did not promote additional analgesia compared to placebo in the first 24hours, and has not decreased opioid consumption. However, a beneficial effect of intravenous lidocaine in selected and/or other therapeutic regimens patients can not be ruled out. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Intravenous lidocaine for postmastectomy pain treatment: randomized, blind, placebo controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Couceiro, Tania Cursino de Menezes; Lima, Luciana Cavalcanti; Burle, Léa Menezes Couceiro; Valença, Marcelo Moraes

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative pain treatment in mastectomy remains a major challenge despite the multimodal approach. The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic effect of intravenous lidocaine in patients undergoing mastectomy, as well as the postoperative consumption of opioids. After approval by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira in Recife, Pernambuco, a randomized, blind, controlled trial was conducted with intravenous lidocaine at a dose of 3mg/kg infused over 1h in 45 women undergoing mastectomy under general anesthesia. One patient from placebo group was. Groups were similar in age, body mass index, type of surgery, and postoperative need for opioids. Two of 22 patients in lidocaine group and three of 22 patients in placebo group requested opioid (p=0.50). Pain on awakening was identified in 4/22 of lidocaine group and 5/22 of placebo group (p=0.50); in the post-anesthetic recovery room in 14/22 and 12/22 (p=0.37) of lidocaine and placebo groups, respectively. Pain evaluation 24h after surgery showed that 2/22 and 3/22 patients (p=0.50) of lidocaine and placebo groups, respectively, complained of pain. Intravenous lidocaine at a dose of 3mg/kg administered over a period of an hour during mastectomy did not promote additional analgesia compared to placebo in the first 24h, and has not decreased opioid consumption. However, a beneficial effect of intravenous lidocaine in selected and/or other therapeutic regimens patients cannot be ruled out. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Eric J; Nho, Shane J; Kelly, Bryan T

    2010-06-01

    Originally defined as "tenderness to palpation over the greater trochanter with the patient in the side-lying position," greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS) as a clinical entity, has expanded to include a number of disorders of the lateral, peritrochanteric space of the hip, including trochanteric bursitis, tears of the gluteus medius and minimus and external coxa saltans (snapping hip). Typically presenting with pain and reproducible tenderness in the region of the greater trochanter, buttock, or lateral thigh, GTPS is relatively common, reported to affect between 10% and 25% of the general population. Secondary to the relative paucity of information available on the diagnosis and management of components of GTPS, the presence of these pathologic entities may be underrecognized, leading to extensive workups and delays in appropriate treatment. This article aims to review the present understanding of the lesions that comprise GTPS, discussing the relevant anatomy, diagnostic workup and recommended treatment for trochanteric bursitis, gluteus medius and minimus tears, and external coxa saltans.

  14. Complex regional pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Emily S.; De La Cerda, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a neurologic disorder that often results in debilitating chronic pain, but the diagnosis may elude providers as it is one of exclusion. A history of trauma may be elucidated. We report a case of CRPS and review the clinical findings, appropriate workup, and treatment options for the patient. The patient we describe went through an extensive workup before receiving the correct diagnosis. Delay in diagnosis leads to prolonged suffering for the patient and, at times, unnecessary invasive debridement procedures. Raising awareness of this entity may help physicians make the correct diagnosis early, as well as initiate a collaborative effort between neurology, anesthesiology, and dermatology to provide the patient the most favorable outcome. PMID:27365892

  15. Diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gerwin, Robert D

    2014-05-01

    Myofascial pain is one of the most common causes of pain. The diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is made by muscle palpation. The source of the pain in MPS is the myofascial trigger point, a very localized region of tender, contracted muscle that is readily identified by palpation. The trigger point has well-described electrophysiologic properties and is associated with a derangement of the local biochemical milieu of the muscle. A proper diagnosis of MPS includes evaluation of muscle as a cause of pain, and assessment of associated conditions that have an impact on MPS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of kinesio taping with exercise compared with exercise alone on pain, range of motion, and disability of the shoulder in postmastectomy females: a randomized control trial

    PubMed Central

    Tantawy, Sayed A; Kamel, Dalia M

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of kinesio tape on pain, range of motion, and disability of the shoulder. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy-four female patients who underwent modified radical mastectomy participated in this study. They were randomly divided into two groups, an experimental group that received kinesio tape for the shoulder joint in addition to a conventional physiotherapy program and a control group that received the physiotherapy program only. Outcome measures included the Visual Analogue Scale, shoulder range of motion, and Shoulder Pain and Disability Index. [Results] The experimental group showed significant differences in all outcome measures both within and between groups. The control group only showed a significant within group difference in shoulder flexion. [Conclusion] Clinicians should be able to recognize the benefits achieved through the use of adjunct treatment options such as kinesio tape in comparison with benefits that can be obtained through the use of individual modalities in physical therapy. Kinesio tape can be suggested and recommended for postmastectomy patients, especially for shoulder pain, range of motion, and disability. PMID:28174439

  17. The effect of kinesio taping with exercise compared with exercise alone on pain, range of motion, and disability of the shoulder in postmastectomy females: a randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Tantawy, Sayed A; Kamel, Dalia M

    2016-12-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of kinesio tape on pain, range of motion, and disability of the shoulder. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy-four female patients who underwent modified radical mastectomy participated in this study. They were randomly divided into two groups, an experimental group that received kinesio tape for the shoulder joint in addition to a conventional physiotherapy program and a control group that received the physiotherapy program only. Outcome measures included the Visual Analogue Scale, shoulder range of motion, and Shoulder Pain and Disability Index. [Results] The experimental group showed significant differences in all outcome measures both within and between groups. The control group only showed a significant within group difference in shoulder flexion. [Conclusion] Clinicians should be able to recognize the benefits achieved through the use of adjunct treatment options such as kinesio tape in comparison with benefits that can be obtained through the use of individual modalities in physical therapy. Kinesio tape can be suggested and recommended for postmastectomy patients, especially for shoulder pain, range of motion, and disability.

  18. Complex regional pain syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin temperature, switching between warm or cold Faster growth of nails and hair Muscle spasms and joint pain Severe burning, aching pain ... easily Pain that is becoming worse Slower hair growth Stiff joints and weak muscles Stage 3 (irreversible changes can be seen) Limited ...

  19. Central Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... cord. This syndrome can be caused by stroke, multiple sclerosis, tumors, epilepsy, brain or spinal cord trauma, or ... cord. This syndrome can be caused by stroke, multiple sclerosis, tumors, epilepsy, brain or spinal cord trauma, or ...

  20. Melatonin in Chronic Pain Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Danilov, Andrei; Kurganova, Julia

    2016-06-01

    Melatonin is a neurohormone secreted by epiphysis and extrapineal structures. It performs several functions including chronobiotic, antioxidant, oncostatic, immune modulating, normothermal, and anxiolytic functions. Melatonin affects the cardiovascular system and gastrointestinal tract, participates in reproduction and metabolism, and body mass regulation. Moreover, recent studies have demonstrated melatonin efficacy in relation to pain syndromes. The present paper reviews the studies on melatonin use in fibromyalgia, headaches, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic back pain, and rheumatoid arthritis. The paper discusses the possible mechanisms of melatonin analgesic properties. On one hand, circadian rhythms normalization results in sleep improvement, which is inevitably disordered in chronic pain syndromes, and activation of melatonin adaptive capabilities. On the other hand, there is evidence of melatonin-independent analgesic effect involving melatonin receptors and several neurotransmitter systems.

  1. Fibromyalgia and Chronic Pain Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Choy, Ernest; Clauw, Daniel J.; Goldenberg, Don L.; Harris, Richard E.; Helfenstein, Milton; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Noguchi, Koichi; Silverman, Stuart L.; Ushida, Takahiro; Wang, Guochun

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript, developed by a group of chronic pain researchers and clinicians from around the world, aims to address the state of knowledge about fibromyalgia (FM) and identify ongoing challenges in the field of FM and other chronic pain syndromes that may be characterized by pain centralization/amplification/hypersensitivity. There have been many exciting developments in research studies of the pathophysiology and treatment of FM and related syndromes that have the potential to improve the recognition and management of patients with FM and other conditions with FM-like pain. However, much of the new information has not reached all clinicians, especially primary care clinicians, who have the greatest potential to use this new knowledge to positively impact their patients’ lives. Furthermore, there are persistent misconceptions about FM and a lack of consensus regarding the diagnosis and treatment of FM. This paper presents a framework for future global efforts to improve the understanding and treatment of FM and other associated chronic pain syndromes, disseminate research findings, identify ways to enhance advocacy for these patients, and improve global efforts to collaborate and reach consensus about key issues related to FM and chronic pain in general. PMID:27022674

  2. Myofascial pain syndrome: an overview.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Anudeep; Chansoria, Mayank; Tomar, Gaurav; Kumar, Abhyuday

    2015-03-01

    Over the last few decades, advances have been made in the understanding of myofascial pain syndromes (MPSs). In spite of its high prevalence in the society, it is not a commonly established diagnosis. MPS is said to be the great imitator. This article puts some light on the various clinical presentations of the syndrome, on the various tools to reach to a diagnosis for commencing the treatment and on the treatment modalities that have been used so far.

  3. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Mallow, Michael; Nazarian, Levon N

    2014-05-01

    Lateral hip pain, or greater trochanteric pain syndrome, is a commonly seen condition; in this article, the relevant anatomy, epidemiology, and evaluation strategies of greater trochanteric pain syndrome are reviewed. Specific attention is focused on imaging of this syndrome and treatment techniques, including ultrasound-guided interventions.

  4. Myofascial pain syndrome: a treatment review.

    PubMed

    Desai, Mehul J; Saini, Vikramjeet; Saini, Shawnjeet

    2013-06-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is defined as pain that originates from myofascial trigger points in skeletal muscle. It is prevalent in regional musculoskeletal pain syndromes, either alone or in combination with other pain generators. The appropriate evaluation and management of myofascial pain is an important part of musculoskeletal rehabilitation, and regional axial and limb pain syndromes. This article reviews the current hypotheses regarding the treatment modalities for myofascial trigger points and muscle pain. Through a critical evidence-based review of the pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatments, the authors aim to provide clinicians with a more comprehensive knowledge of the interventions for myofascial pain.

  5. Myofascial Trigger Point Pain Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Gerwin, Robert D

    2016-10-01

    Myofascial pain syndromes caused by trigger points (TrPs) in muscle are a common cause of local and generalized pain. Trigger points are hyperirritable zones in contracted bands of muscle, thought to be caused by muscle overload or stress. Stress TrPs have characteristic electromyographic features, and can be visualized with ultrasound and magnetic resonance elastography. Trigger point needling or injection can be effective in inactivating TrP, but correcting triggers is also critical. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. Otolaryngic myofascial pain syndromes.

    PubMed

    Teachey, William S

    2004-12-01

    It has been long recognized in the otolaryngic community that despite great effort dedicated to the physiology and pathology of the ear, nose, throat/head and neck, there are a number of symptoms, including pain in various locations about the head and neck, which cannot be explained by traditional otolaryngic principles. The tenets of myofascial dysfunction, however, as elucidated by Dr. Janet Travell, explain most of these previously unexplained symptoms; furthermore, treatment based on Dr. Travell's teachings is effective in relieving these symptoms.

  7. Pain management in cryoglobulinaemic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Scarpato, Salvatore; Atzeni, Fabiola; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Brucato, Antonio; Quartuccio, Luca; Pietrogrande, Maurizio; Monti, Giuseppe; Galli, Massimo

    2015-02-01

    Cryoglobulinaemic syndrome (CS) includes clinical signs and symptoms that range from the classic triad of Meltzer and Franklin (purpura, weakness and arthralgias) to multiple organ involvement, and it may be characterised by nociceptive or neuropathic pain. Both types of pain use the same pathways and neurotransmitters, but nociceptive pain has an adaptive system and biological function whereas neuropathic pain does not. Managing CS means dealing with often very different clinical patterns, activity and severity with the aim of preventing irreversible organ damage, reducing pain, improving the patients' quality of life and reducing social costs. However, treatment is still largely empirical, and it is often delayed. The Italian Group for the Study of Cryoglobulinaemia (GISC) strongly recommended a low-antigen-content diet and colchicine for all symptomatic CS patients. Patients with mild-moderate symptoms (such as purpura, weakness, arthralgia and initial neuropathy) have been treated with low or medium doses of steroids, and, in the presence of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related hepatitis, an attempt has been made to eradicate HCV with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin. In the case of severe or rapidly progressive disease (glomerulonephritis, neuropathy, leg ulcers, widespread vasculitis or hyperviscosity syndrome), more aggressive treatment should be used (e.g., high doses of corticosteroids, plasma exchange plus cyclophosphamide or rituximab). Pain management in CS therefore depends on the type of pain (nociceptive, neuropathic or mixed), the characteristics of the patients and their co-morbidities. Drug therapy should be carefully monitored in order to obtain prompt and beneficial results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fibromyalgia as a sympathetically maintained pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Lavin, Manuel

    2004-10-01

    Abnormal activity of the sympathetic nervous system may be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic pain syndromes. This article reviews the animal studies of sympathetically induced pain behavior, the controversy of sympathetically maintained pain in clinical practice, and the dysautonomic nature of fibromyalgia (FM). FM has neuropathic pain features (stimuli-independent pain state accompanied by allodynia and paresthesias). The proposal of FM as a sympathetically maintained pain syndrome is based on the controlled studies showing that patients with FM display signs of relentless sympathetic hyperactivity and that the pain is submissive to sympathetic blockade and is rekindled by norepinephrine injections. Dysautonomia also may explain the multisystem features of FM.

  9. The complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Oaklander, Anne Louise; Horowitz, Steven H

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is the current consensus-derived name for a syndrome usually triggered by limb trauma. Required elements include prolonged, disproportionate distal-limb pain and microvascular dysregulation (e.g., edema or color changes) or altered sweating. CRPS-II (formerly "causalgia") describes patients with identified nerve injuries. CRPS-I (formerly "reflex sympathetic dystrophy") describes most patients who lack evidence of specific nerve injuries. Diagnosis is clinical and the pathophysiology involves combinations of small-fiber axonopathy, microvasculopathy, inflammation, and brain plasticity/sensitization. Females have much higher risk and workplace accidents are a well-recognized cause. Inflammation and dysimmunity, perhaps facilitated by injury to the blood-nerve barrier, may contribute. Most patients, particularly the young, recover gradually, but treatment can speed healing. Evidence of efficacy is strongest for rehabilitation therapies (e.g., graded-motor imagery), neuropathic pain medications, and electric stimulation of the spinal cord, injured nerve, or motor cortex. Investigational treatments include ketamine, botulinum toxin, immunoglobulins, and transcranial neuromodulation. Nonrecovering patients should be re-evaluated for neurosurgically treatable causal lesions (nerve entrapment, impingement, infections, or tumors) and treatable potentiating medical conditions, including polyneuropathy and circulatory insufficiency. Earlier impressions that CRPS represents malingering or psychosomatic illness have been replaced by evidence that CRPS is a rare complication of limb injury in biologically susceptible individuals. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Management of patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Sameer; DiFiori, John P; Burton, Monique; Mines, Brandon

    2007-01-15

    Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is the most common cause of knee pain in the outpatient setting. It is caused by imbalances in the forces controlling patellar tracking during knee flexion and extension, particularly with overloading of the joint. Risk factors include overuse, trauma, muscle dysfunction, tight lateral restraints, patellar hypermobility, and poor quadriceps flexibility. Typical symptoms include pain behind or around the patella that is increased with running and activities that involve knee flexion. Findings in patients with PFPS range from limited patellar mobility to a hypermobile patella. To confirm the diagnosis, an examination of the knee focusing on the patella and surrounding structures is essential. For many patients with the clinical diagnosis of PFPS, imaging studies are not necessary before beginning treatment. Radiography is recommended in patients with a history of trauma or surgery, those with an effusion, those older than 50 years (to rule out osteoarthritis), and those whose pain does not improve with treatment. Recent research has shown that physical therapy is effective in treating PFPS. There is little evidence to support the routine use of knee braces or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Surgery should be considered only after failure of a comprehensive rehabilitation program. Educating patients about modification of risk factors is important in preventing recurrence.

  11. Anterior throat pain syndromes: causes for undiagnosed craniofacial pain.

    PubMed

    Shankland, Wesley E

    2010-01-01

    It is not uncommon for practitioners who treat craniofacial pain to see patients with undiagnosed throat and submandibular pain. Usually, these patients will already have been seen by their primary care physician and frequently, several others doctors including otolaryngologists, oral and maxillofacial surgeons, and even neurologists. Far too often these patients have three common features: 1. they have endured multiple expensive diagnostic tests; 2. they have received treatment of multiple courses of antibiotics; and 3. no specific diagnosis for their pain complaints has been determined and their pain persists. In this article, five disorders, Ernest syndrome, Eagle's syndrome, carotid artery syndrome, hyoid bone syndrome and superior pharyngeal constrictor syndrome are briefly described. All five produce common symptoms, making diagnosis difficult, which is often followed by ineffective or no treatment being provided to the patient. Diagnostic criteria and suggested treatment modalities are also presented.

  12. Update in cancer pain syndromes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Victor T; Janjan, Nora; Jain, Subash; Chau, Chi

    2006-12-01

    Cancer pain assessment and management are integral to palliative medicine. This paper reviews recent publications in the period 1999-2004 in the broad categories of epidemiology, pain assessment, nonpharmacologic approaches to cancer pain (radiation therapy, anesthetic blocks, palliative surgery and chemotherapy, complementary and alternative medicine), and in nociceptive pain, neuropathic pain, visceral pain, and bone pain.

  13. [Postmastectomy pain syndrome in our region: characteristics, treatment, and experience with gabapentin].

    PubMed

    de Miguel-Jimeno, Juan M; Forner-Cordero, Isabel; Zabalza-Azparren, Marta; Matute-Tobias, Belinda

    2016-03-16

    Introduccion. El sindrome de dolor posmastectomia puede afectar a mas de la mitad de pacientes intervenidas por cancer de mama. Objetivos. Revisar las caracteristicas clinicas de este sindrome y su evolucion, y evaluar la respuesta al tratamiento farmacologico. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio retrospectivo de 65 pacientes con un seguimiento superior a cinco años. Resultados. El 88% de las pacientes estaba sin diagnosticar. Su edad media era de 56,49 años y permanecieron con dolor un promedio de 29,15 meses. En el 71%, las alteraciones neurologicas correspondieron al segundo nervio intercostobraquial. La media en la puntuacion de dolor antes del tratamiento fue de 66,5 puntos en la escala analogica visual y de 13,14 en el indice de Lattinen. El tratamiento con gabapentina (dosis media: 1.135 mg/dia; duracion media: 14 semanas) disminuyo el dolor en el 80% de las pacientes (p < 0,0001). La mejoria se mantuvo a largo plazo. Un 10% continuo en tratamiento y el 10% debio suspenderlo por efectos secundarios. El numero necesario de pacientes que hubo que tratar fue de 2,13. Recidivo el 35% y preciso cambiar de farmaco el 15,68% de las tratadas con gabapentina, frente al 50% de las tratadas con otros farmacos (p = 0,046). No se encontraron diferencias en la eficacia entre ambos grupos. Conclusiones. El dolor posmastectomia es una patologia infradiagnosticada. El tratamiento (en especial con gabapentina) puede ser eficaz y bien tolerado hasta en el 90% de las pacientes de forma significativa.

  14. Pain in Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ropper, A H; Shahani, B T

    1984-05-01

    The clinical features of pain were prospectively analyzed in 29 consecutive patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Sixteen (55%) had characteristic pain early in the illness described as similar to the muscular discomfort following exercise ("charley horse"). Pain preceded weakness by one to five days in four patients. The anterior and posterior aspects of the thighs, the buttocks, and the low part of the back were most frequently affected. Pain was frequently worse at night. Specific clinical signs or electrophysiologic abnormalities were not associated with pain, but serum creatine kinase level was elevated in ten of 13 patients with pain and only one of eight without pain. A review of previously reported pathologic material in five patients with GBS failed to disclose a relation between inflammation of dorsal root ganglia and pain. These results suggest that alterations in muscle related to neurogenic changes may cause the typical pain of GBS.

  15. Application of Ultrasound-Guided Trigger Point Injection for Myofascial Trigger Points in the Subscapularis and Pectoralis Muscles to Post-Mastectomy Patients: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyuk Jai; Shin, Ji Cheol; Kim, Wan Sung; Chang, Won Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the therapeutic effectiveness of ultrasound (US)-guided trigger point injection for myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in the internal rotator muscles of the shoulder in post-mastectomy patients. Materials and Methods This pilot study was a non-controlled, prospective, clinical trial. Nineteen post-mastectomy patients with a diagnosis of at least one active MTrP in the subscapularis and/or pectoralis muscles were included. We performed trigger point injections into the subscapularis muscle deep behind the scapula as well as the pectoralis muscle for diagnostic and therapeutic purpose by the newly developed US-guided method. Results Visual analogue scale and range of motion of the shoulder for external rotation and of abduction showed significant improvement immediately after the first injection and 3 months after the last injection compared with baseline (p<0.05 for both). Duration from onset to surgery and duration of myofascial pain syndrome in the good responder group were significantly shorter than in the bad responder group (p<0.05). Patients did not report any complications related to the procedure or serious adverse events attributable to the treatment. Conclusion In post-mastectomy patients with shoulder pain, US-guided trigger point injections of the subscapularis and/or pectoralis muscles are effective for both diagnosis and treatment when the cause of shoulder pain is suspected to originate from active MTrPs in these muscles, particularly, the subscapularis. PMID:24719150

  16. Application of ultrasound-guided trigger point injection for myofascial trigger points in the subscapularis and pectoralis muscles to post-mastectomy patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyuk Jai; Shin, Ji Cheol; Kim, Wan Sung; Chang, Won Hyuk; Lee, Sang Chul

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effectiveness of ultrasound (US)-guided trigger point injection for myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in the internal rotator muscles of the shoulder in post-mastectomy patients. This pilot study was a non-controlled, prospective, clinical trial. Nineteen post-mastectomy patients with a diagnosis of at least one active MTrP in the subscapularis and/or pectoralis muscles were included. We performed trigger point injections into the subscapularis muscle deep behind the scapula as well as the pectoralis muscle for diagnostic and therapeutic purpose by the newly developed US-guided method. Visual analogue scale and range of motion of the shoulder for external rotation and of abduction showed significant improvement immediately after the first injection and 3 months after the last injection compared with baseline (p<0.05 for both). Duration from onset to surgery and duration of myofascial pain syndrome in the good responder group were significantly shorter than in the bad responder group (p<0.05). Patients did not report any complications related to the procedure or serious adverse events attributable to the treatment. In post-mastectomy patients with shoulder pain, US-guided trigger point injections of the subscapularis and/or pectoralis muscles are effective for both diagnosis and treatment when the cause of shoulder pain is suspected to originate from active MTrPs in these muscles, particularly, the subscapularis.

  17. Patellofemoral pain syndrome in Tibetan Buddhist monks.

    PubMed

    Koehle, Michael Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Patellofemoral pain syndrome is a common diagnosis in athletes and especially runners. This article discusses 3 cases of patellofemoral pain caused by pronounced inactivity and prolonged knee hyperflexion at altitude in a unique population of Tibetan Buddhist monks. In this case, the monks responded well to a program of activity modification and exercises.

  18. Identifying and treating myofascial pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fomby, E W; Mellion, M B

    1997-02-01

    Though common, myofascial pain syndrome can be difficult to recognize and distinguish from underlying entities. It is often confused with fibromyalgia. Diagnosis hinges on the identification of painful muscle trigger points that, when palpated, create local twitch responses and refer pain in predictable patterns. With appropriate treatment, such as stretch and spray, trigger point injections, or massage therapy, prognosis is good. Perpetuating factors, such as poor posture or workplace ergonomics, also need to be addressed.

  19. [Pain, from symptom to syndrome].

    PubMed

    Piano, Virginie

    2017-05-01

    Acute pain is a symptom enabling us to implement a response when faced with an attack. Chronic pain is complex and multifactorial. The care of the patient by a multidisciplinary team comprises the diagnosis of the pain and the putting in place of a treatment for each of its components. This includes physical reconditioning, adaptation strategies and work on the psychological elements relating to the representation of the pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Myofascial Pain Syndrome in Chronic Back Pain Patients

    PubMed Central

    Nizar, Abd Jalil

    2011-01-01

    Background Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a regional musculoskeletal pain disorder that is caused by myofascial trigger points. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of MPS among chronic back pain patients, as well as to identify risk factors and the outcome of this disorder. Methods This was a prospective observational study involving 126 patients who attended the Pain Management Unit for chronic back pain between 1st January 2009 and 31st December 2009. Data examined included demographic features of patients, duration of back pain, muscle(s) involved, primary diagnosis, treatment modality and response to treatment. Results The prevalence of MPS among chronic back pain patients was 63.5% (n = 80). Secondary MPS was more common than primary MPS, making up 81.3% of the total MPS. There was an association between female gender and risk of developing MPS (χ2 = 5.38, P = 0.02, O.R. = 2.4). Occupation, body mass index and duration of back pain were not significantly associated with MPS occurrence. Repeated measures analysis showed significant changes (P < 0.001) in Visual Analogue Score (VAS) and Modified Oswestry Disability Score (MODS) with standard management during three consecutive visits at six-month intervals. Conclusions MPS prevalence among chronic back pain patients was significantly high, with female gender being a significant risk factor. With proper diagnosis and expert management, MPS has a favourable outcome. PMID:21716607

  1. [Complex regional pain syndrome versus chronic regional pain syndrome (Hand-Finger Syndrome)].

    PubMed

    Wulle, C

    2010-02-01

    Dystrophy is a main factor of CRPS. A large number of patients do not develop dystrophy but, instead, they suffer from pain with limitation in movement, possible paraesthesia and/or swelling. This is then a chronic regional pain syndrome or (shoulder-arm-) hand-finger syndrome. These patients should never be confronted with the diagnosis Morbus Sudeck or algodystrophy, which are today also well known among non-professionals, to avoid pushing them into a status of constant severe invalidity. Histories, clinical examination, as well as a good personal understanding of the patient are indispensable. Knowing that pain, or the extent of pain, remains subjective until today, the clinical diagnosis depends on the absence of side differences in: a) the circumference of soft tissues of both upper extremities; b) the callosity of the palm; c) the bone-density. These three parameters allow verification of the consequences of the pain complaints (indirect pain verification). It is essential to find the cause for their suffering and to treat it as far as possible: 1) Too long and inappropriate immobilisation (patient's suffering not considered sufficiently). These patients can recover quickly when the right diagnosis is made in good time. 2) Limitation of movement due to scar, neuroma, or elongation pain: a) bizarre functional disabilities can develop; b) due to the patient's complaints, one or several operations would finally be performed, which will not lead to an improvement but rather to an aggravation of the pain; c) socially-induced purposeful pain increase, the typical statement of the patient will be: "I can't stand it any longer". Patients who are socially over-burdened, or have psycho-social problems, may experience a decline of performance or a post-traumatic stress disorder. Several patients will be introduced as illustrations for each of the relevant groups.

  2. Fear of pain in children and adolescents with neuropathic pain and complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Simons, Laura E

    2016-02-01

    A significant proportion of children and adolescents with chronic pain endorse elevated pain-related fear. Pain-related fear is associated with high levels of disability, depressive symptoms, and school impairment. Because of faulty nerve signaling, individuals with neuropathic pain and complex regional pain syndrome may be more prone to develop pain-related fear as they avoid use of and neglect the affected body area(s), resulting in exacerbated symptoms, muscle atrophy, maintenance of pain signaling, and ongoing pain-related disability. Not surprisingly, effective treatments for elevated pain-related fears involve exposure to previously avoided activities to downregulate incorrect pain signaling. In the context of intensive interdisciplinary pain treatment of youth with neuropathic pain, decreasing pain-related fear is associated with improved physical and psychological functioning, whereas high initial pain-related fear is a risk factor for less treatment responsiveness. An innovative approach to targeting pain-related fear and evidence of a neural response to treatment involving decoupling of the amygdala with key fear circuits in youth with complex regional pain syndrome suggest breakthroughs in our ability to ameliorate these issues.

  3. Patellofemoral pain syndrome in Iranian female athletes.

    PubMed

    Nejati, Parisa; Forogh, Bijan; Moeineddin, Reza; Baradaran, Hamid Reza; Nejati, Mina

    2011-01-01

    Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is the most common overuse syndrome in athletes. It is one of the causes of anterior knee pain in athletic population who come to the sports medicine clinic. Patellofemoral pain is more common among female athletes especially adolescents and young adults. Symptoms include: persistent pain behind the patella or peripatella. Pain increases on ascending and descending stairs and squatting and prolonged sitting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of PFPS in Iranian female athletes. 418 female athletes aged 15-35 years were examined in five sports: Soccer (190), volleyball (103), running (42), fencing (45) and rock climbing (38). The athletes who had non- traumatic onset anterior knee pain of at least 3 months that increased in descending and ascending stairs and squatting, had no other causes of anterior knee pain such as ligament instability, bursitis, meniscal injury, tendonitis and arthritis and no history of knee surgery during the one past year were diagnosed as PFPS. 26/190 (13.68 %) soccer players, 21/103(20.38 %) volleyball players, 7/42 (16.66 %) runners, 6/45(13.33 %) fencers and 10/38 (26.31%) rock climbers had patellofemoral pain. Among the 418 female athletes who were evaluated 70 had PFPS. Rock climbers were the most common athletes with PFPS followed by volleyball players and runners.

  4. The words of pain in complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Casale, Roberto; Atzeni, Fabiola; Masala, Ignazio Francesco; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo

    2015-02-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) encompasses a wide range of painful conditions, but it is characterised by continuing (spontaneous and/or evoked) limb pain that is seemingly disproportionate in time or degree to the usual course of any known trauma or other lesion. The pain is regional, with distal predominance usually but not related to a specific nerve territory or dermatome, and it is usually associated with abnormal sensory, motor, sudomotor, vasomotor and/or trophic findings. The complexity of the aetiopathogenetic factors making up the clinical picture of CRPS is mirrored by the inconsistency of almost all of the monotherapies used to treat it so far. Motor and sensory symptoms significantly interfere with the patients' daily function and quality of life, and almost all of them report substantial disability in their working and recreational activities, mood and mobility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Painful leg and moving toes syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Painful leg and moving toes (PLMT) syndrome is a distinct clinical entity and in majority of the patients there are some underlying causes related to spinal cord, cauda equina, or peripheral neuropathy. However, some cases are cryptogenic with no identifiable underlying cause. Response to treatment is disappointing in most of the cases. We report a 60-year-old lady who presented with very severe type of painful legs and moving toes (PLMT) with no underlying cause. PMID:26713024

  6. Educational program for myofascial pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shun-Yuan; Neoh, Choo-Aun; Huang, Yuan-Ting; Wang, Kuo-Yang; Ng, Ho-Fu; Shi, Hon-Yi

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a program for managing myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). The study design was a randomized controlled trial. The setting was the pain clinic of an academic hospital in Taiwan. Sixty-two (62) patients with a 3-month or longer history of MPS who were treated at this institution from July to November 2007 were included in the study. The participants were randomized to an experimental group (n = 32) or a control group (n = 30). Both groups underwent trigger-point dry needling and muscle-stretch exercise regimen for passively stretching the affected muscles to their normal lengths; the experimental group then watched an 8-minute multimedia instructional video about MPS with supplemental handouts. The Brief Pain Inventory-Taiwan was administered at baseline and 1 month thereafter. The effect size model was used to measure the effects of Brief Pain Inventory-Taiwan. Bootstrap estimation was used to derive 95% confidence intervals for group differences. Compared to the control group, the experimental group had significantly less interference of pain, lower intensity of present pain, and least pain (p < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis of patients with shoulder pain revealed significantly improved pain intensity and interference of pain (p < 0.05). The findings emphasize the importance of including patient education programs in MPS intervention.

  7. Imaging study of the painful heel syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, P.L.; Smibert, J.G.; Cox, R.; Mitchell, R.; Klenerman, L.

    1987-06-01

    A total of 45 patients with the painful heel syndrome without evidence of an associated inflammatory arthritis, seven of whom had pain in both heels, were studied using technetium-99 isotope bone scans and lateral and 45 degrees medial oblique radiographs of both feet. Of the 52 painful heels 31 (59.6%) showed increased uptake of tracer at the calcaneum. Patients with scans showing increased uptake tended to have more severe heel pain and responded more frequently to a local hydrocortisone injection. On plain x-ray, 39 of 52 painful heels (75%) and 24 of the 38 opposite nonpainful heels (63%) showed plantar spurs, compared with five of 63 (7.9%) heels in 59 age- and sex-matched controls. No evidence of stress fractures was seen.

  8. A Review of Select Centralized Pain Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Aparna; McCroskey, Aidan L.; Ahmadi, Tamana; Simmelink, Drew; Oldfield, Edward C.; Pryor, Christopher R.; Faschan, Michael; Raulli, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    Pain can be broadly divided into 3 classes, including nociceptive or inflammatory pain (protective), neuropathic (pathological, occurring after damage to the nervous system), or centralized (pathological, due to abnormal function but with no damage or inflammation to the nervous system). The latter has been posited to occur when descending analgesic pathways are attenuated and/or glutamatergic transmission is facilitated. Additionally, this “pain prone phenotype” can be associated with early life trauma and a suboptimal response to opiates. This article will review the relationships between centralized pain syndromes (ie, fibromyalgia, chronic low back pain), childhood sexual abuse, and opiate misuse. Finally, treatment implications, potentially effecting primary care physicians, will be discussed. PMID:28462250

  9. Relationships between psychological factors, pain, and disability in complex regional pain syndrome and low back pain.

    PubMed

    Bean, Debbie J; Johnson, Malcolm H; Kydd, Robert R

    2014-08-01

    Cognitive and emotional factors are known to influence peoples' pain experiences in many conditions, including low back pain. However, in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), their role is unclear. This study aimed to assess the relationships between psychological factors, pain, and disability in CRPS, compared with low back pain. This could help to identify target variables for psychological treatment. A total of 88 CRPS patients and 88 low back pain patients completed measures of pain, disability, depression, anxiety, and fear of movement and reinjury (kinesiophobia). Mean scores between the 2 groups were compared, and correlations between psychological factors, pain, and disability were compared between the 2 groups. Predictors of pain and disability were assessed using multiple regression analyses. The 2 groups had remarkably similar scores on measures of pain, disability, depression, anxiety, and kinesiophobia. In both groups, those who were more depressed, anxious, and kinesiophobic were more disabled. For the CRPS group (but not the low back pain group), pain intensity significantly correlated with distress. Multivariate analyses showed that the unique predictors of disability for the 2 groups were pain and depression, and that depression had a stronger relationship with disability for the CRPS group. For both groups, pain intensity was predicted by kinesiophobia, and anxiety was a unique predictor in the CRPS group only. In CRPS, disability and pain severity were more strongly associated with psychological factors than they were in low back pain. Cause and effect relationships could not be established by this cross-sectional study.

  10. Body posture and syndromes of back pain.

    PubMed

    Nowotny, Janusz; Nowotny-Czupryna, Olga; Brzęk, Anna; Kowalczyk, Anna; Czupryna, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    The effects of faulty postures include disturbances of the symmetric distribution of compressive and tensile forces acting on both sides of the body axis and the emergence of harmful shear forces. The torques of antigravity muscles also change unfavourably. This may lead to the development of a repetitive strain syndrome, stenosis of intervertebral foramina, compression of nerve roots and back pain. The development of back pain syndromes is significantly affected by the performance of various work-related tasks in non-ergonomic positions. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between back pain syndromes and the quality of body posture, especially in the context of work ergonomics. The study enrolled 125 persons: 39 adults with a childhood history of scoliosis, 39 midwives, and 47 physiotherapists. Body posture was assessed in all participants. In midwives and physiotherapists, body position during the performance of work-related tasks was also evaluated. The frequency and severity of pain was assessed with the Jackson-Moskowitz measure. The study revealed that over 80% of the participants suffered from spinal pain. In most cases, the pain was intermittent and was felt in the lumbar spine. The occurrence of pain among midwives and physiotherapists was not directly dependent on the predominant type of abnormal spinal position assumed during the performance of occupational tasks or the quality of body posture. The complaint was also reported by ca. 85% of persons with a history of scoliosis. An incorrect body posture (especially scoliosis) and performance of work-related tasks in non-ergonomic positions increase the probability of back pain.

  11. Pain Part 8: Burning Mouth Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Beneng, Kiran; Renton, Tara

    2016-04-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a rare but impactful condition affecting mainly post-menopausal women resulting in constant pain and significant difficulty with eating, drinking and daily function. The aetiology of BMS remains an enigma. Recent evidence suggests it likely to be neuropathic in origin, the cause of which remains unknown. There is no cure for this condition and the unfortunate patients remain managed on a variety of neuropathic pain medication, salivary substitutes and other non-medical interventions that help the patient 'get through the day'. Some simple strategies can assist both clinician and patient to manage this debilitating condition. CPD/Clinical Relevance: The dental team will recognize patients presenting with burning mouth syndrome. They are difficult patients to manage and are often referred to secondary care and, ultimately, depend on their general medical practitioners for pain management.

  12. Pain insensitivity syndrome misinterpreted as inflicted burns.

    PubMed

    van den Bosch, Gerbrich E; Baartmans, Martin G A; Vos, Paul; Dokter, Jan; White, Tonya; Tibboel, Dick

    2014-05-01

    We present a case study of a 10-year-old child with severe burns that were misinterpreted as inflicted burns. Because of multiple injuries since early life, the family was under suspicion of child abuse and therefore under supervision of the Child Care Board for 2 years before the boy was burned. Because the boy incurred the burns without feeling pain, we conducted a thorough medical examination and laboratory testing, evaluated detection and pain thresholds, and used MRI to study brain morphology and brain activation patterns during pain between this patient and 3 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. We found elevated detection and pain thresholds and lower brain activation during pain in the patient compared with the healthy controls and reference values. The patient received the diagnosis of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV on the basis of clinical findings and the laboratory testing, complemented with the altered pain and detection thresholds and MRI findings. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy IV is a very rare congenital pain insensitivity syndrome characterized by the absence of pain and temperature sensation combined with oral mutilation due to unawareness, fractures, and anhidrosis caused by abnormalities in the peripheral nerves. Health care workers should be aware of the potential presence of this disease to prevent false accusations of child abuse.

  13. Characterization of pain, disability, and psychological burden in Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Speed, Traci J; Mathur, Vani A; Hand, Matthew; Christensen, Bryt; Sponseller, Paul D; Williams, Kayode A; Campbell, Claudia M

    2017-02-01

    The clinical manifestations of Marfan syndrome frequently cause pain. This study aimed to characterize pain in a cohort of adults with Marfan syndrome and investigate demographic, physical, and psychological factors associated with pain and pain-related disability. Two hundred and forty-five participants (73% female, 89% non-Hispanic white, 90% North American) completed an online questionnaire assessing clinical features of Marfan syndrome, pain severity, pain-related disability, physical and mental health, depressive symptoms, pain catastrophizing, and insomnia. Eighty-nine percent of respondents reported having pain with 28% of individuals reporting pain as a presenting symptom of Marfan syndrome. Almost half of individuals reported that pain has spread from its initial site. Participants in our study reported poor physical and mental health functioning, moderate pain-related disability, and mild levels of depressive symptoms, sleep disturbances, and pain catastrophizing. Those who identified pain as an initial symptom of Marfan syndrome and those who reported that pain had spread from its initial site reported greater psychological burden compared with those without pain as an initial symptom or pain spreading. Physical health is the largest predictor of pain severity and pain-related disability. While pain catastrophizing and worse mental health functioning are significant correlates of pain severity and pain-related disability, respectively. Pain is a significant and persistent problem in Marfan syndrome and is associated with profound disability and psychological burden. Further studies are indicated to better characterize the directionality of pain, pain-related disability, and psychological burden in Marfan syndrome. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Idiopathic ophthalmodynia and idiopathic rhinalgia: two topographic facial pain syndromes.

    PubMed

    Pareja, Juan A; Cuadrado, María L; Porta-Etessam, Jesús; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Gili, Pablo; Caminero, Ana B; Cebrián, José L

    2010-09-01

    To describe 2 topographic facial pain conditions with the pain clearly localized in the eye (idiopathic ophthalmodynia) or in the nose (idiopathic rhinalgia), and to propose their distinction from persistent idiopathic facial pain. Persistent idiopathic facial pain, burning mouth syndrome, atypical odontalgia, and facial arthromyalgia are idiopathic facial pain syndromes that have been separated according to topographical criteria. Still, some other facial pain syndromes might have been veiled under the broad term of persistent idiopathic facial pain. Through a 10-year period we have studied all patients referred to our neurological clinic because of facial pain of unknown etiology that might deviate from all well-characterized facial pain syndromes. In a group of patients we have identified 2 consistent clinical pictures with pain precisely located either in the eye (n=11) or in the nose (n=7). Clinical features resembled those of other localized idiopathic facial syndromes, the key differences relying on the topographic distribution of the pain. Both idiopathic ophthalmodynia and idiopathic rhinalgia seem specific pain syndromes with a distinctive location, and may deserve a nosologic status just as other focal pain syndromes of the face. Whether all such focal syndromes are topographic variants of persistent idiopathic facial pain or independent disorders remains a controversial issue.

  15. Behavioral Concepts in the Analysis of Chronic Pain Syndromes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Francis J.; Gil, Karen M.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews behavioral and psychological concepts currently applied to the assessment and treatment of chronic pain syndromes, including operant conditioning and psychophysiologic concepts such as the stress-pain hypothesis, the pain-muscle spasm-pain cycle, and the neuromuscular pain model. Discusses relaxation and biofeedback training and concepts…

  16. Behavioral Concepts in the Analysis of Chronic Pain Syndromes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Francis J.; Gil, Karen M.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews behavioral and psychological concepts currently applied to the assessment and treatment of chronic pain syndromes, including operant conditioning and psychophysiologic concepts such as the stress-pain hypothesis, the pain-muscle spasm-pain cycle, and the neuromuscular pain model. Discusses relaxation and biofeedback training and concepts…

  17. Cutaneous silent period in myofascial pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kilinc, Ozden; Sencan, Savas; Ercalik, Tulay; Koytak, Pinar Kahraman; Alibas, Hande; Gunduz, Osman Hakan; Tanridag, Tulin; Uluc, Kayihan

    2017-09-06

    An increased response to painful stimuli without spontaneous pain suggests a role of central hyperexcitability of pain pathways in the pathogenesis of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). In this study we aimed to test the hypothesis that spinal pain pathways are affected in MPS. We used cutaneous silent period (CSP) parameters to demonstrate the hyperexcitability of spinal pain pathways in MPS. Twenty-nine patients diagnosed with MPS and 30 healthy volunteers were included in the study. The CSP recordings were performed in the right upper and left lower extremities. In both upper and lower extremities, patients had prolonged CSP latencies (P = 0.034 and P = 0.049 respectively) and shortened CSP durations (P = 0.009 and P = 0.008, respectively). Delayed and shortened CSP in MPS patients implies dysfunction in the inhibitory mechanism of the spinal/supraspinal pain pathways, suggesting central sensitization in the pathogenesis of MPS and supporting our research hypothesis. Muscle Nerve, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Fascial components of the myofascial pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Stecco, Antonio; Gesi, Marco; Stecco, Carla; Stern, Robert

    2013-08-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is described as the muscle, sensory, motor, and autonomic nervous system symptoms caused by stimulation of myofascial trigger points (MTP). The participation of fascia in this syndrome has often been neglected. Several manual and physical approaches have been proposed to improve myofascial function after traumatic injuries, but the processes that induce pathological modifications of myofascial tissue after trauma remain unclear. Alterations in collagen fiber composition, in fibroblasts or in extracellular matrix composition have been postulated. We summarize here recent developments in the biology of fascia, and in particular, its associated hyaluronan (HA)-rich matrix that address the issue of MPS.

  19. Shared genetic factors underlie chronic pain syndromes.

    PubMed

    Vehof, Jelle; Zavos, Helena M S; Lachance, Genevieve; Hammond, Christopher J; Williams, Frances M K

    2014-08-01

    Chronic pain syndromes (CPS) are highly prevalent in the general population, and increasingly the evidence points to a common etiological pathway. Using a large cohort of twins (n=8564) characterized for chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain (CWP), chronic pelvic pain (PP), migraine (MIG), dry eye disease, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), we explored the underlying genetic and environmental factors contributing to CPS and the correlation between them. The sample was predominantly female (87.3%), with a mean age of 54.7 (±14.7) years. Prevalence of the different CPS ranged from 7.4% (PP) to 15.7% (MIG). For all CPS the within-twin correlation in monozygotic twin pairs was higher than in dizygotic pairs, suggesting a heritable component. Estimated heritability ranged from 19% (IBS) to 46% (PP). Except for MIG, we found significant pairwise phenotypic correlations between the CPS. The phenotypic correlation was highest between CWP and IBS (0.40; 95% confidence interval: 0.27 to 0.46). Excluding MIG from further analyses, cross-twin cross-trait correlations were higher in monozygotic compared with dizygotic twin pairs, suggestive of shared genetic factors between CWP, PP, IBS, and dry eye disease. Twin modeling analysis revealed the common pathway model as the model best explaining the observed pattern of correlation between the traits, with an estimated heritability of 66% of the underlying latent variable. These results are evidence of shared genetic factors in conditions manifesting chronic pain and justify the search for underlying genetic variants.

  20. Immune mediators of chronic pelvic pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Stephen F.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Thumbikat, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    The cause of chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) has yet to be established. Since the late 1980s, cytokine, chemokine, and immunological classification studies using human samples have focused on identifying biomarkers for CPPS, but no diagnostically beneficial biomarkers have been identified, and these studies have done little to deepen our understanding of the mechanisms underlying chronic prostatic pain. Given the large number of men thought to be affected by this condition and the ineffective nature of current treatments, there is a pressing need to elucidate these mechanisms. Prostatitis types IIIa and IIIb are classified according to the presence of pain without concurrent presence of bacteria; however, it is becoming more evident that, although levels of bacteria are not directly associated with levels of pain, the presence of bacteria might act as the initiating factor that drives primary activation of mast-cell-mediated inflammation in the prostate. Mast cell activation is also known to suppress regulatory T cell (Treg) control of self-tolerance and also activate neural sensitization. This combination of established autoimmunity coupled with peripheral and central neural sensitization can result in the development of multiple symptoms, including pelvic pain and bladder irritation. Identifying these mechanisms as central mediators in CPPS offers new insight into the prospective treatment of the disease. PMID:24686526

  1. Stroke, complex regional pain syndrome and phantom limb pain: can commonalities direct future management?

    PubMed

    Acerra, Nicole E; Souvlis, Tina; Moseley, G Lorimer

    2007-03-01

    Despite being different conditions, complex regional pain syndrome type 1, phantom limb pain and stroke share some potentially important similarities. This report examines experimental and clinical findings from each patient population. It identifies common aspects of symptomatic presentation, sensory phenomena and patterns of cortical reorganization. Based on these common findings, we argue that established principles of stroke rehabilitation are also applicable to rehabilitation of complex regional pain syndrome type 1 and phantom limb pain. In addition, we contend that promising treatment approaches for complex regional pain syndrome type 1 and phantom limb pain may be helpful in stroke rehabilitation. Examples of emerging supportive evidence for these hypotheses are provided and discussed.

  2. Complex regional pain syndrome following transfemoral catheterization.

    PubMed

    Saad, Andre; Knolla, Raelene; Gupta, Kamal

    2011-11-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) (previously reflex sympathetic dystrophy) is a chronic pain condition usually resulting as a consequence of trauma or surgery. Though described occasionally after vascular surgery, it is distinctly rare after percutaneous cardiovascular procedures. We report a case of CRPS following trans- femoral catheterization-related groin pseudoaneurysm. To our knowledge, this is the first such report following transfemoral catheterization. A 36-year-old female underwent an electrophysiological study and AV node re-entry tachycardia ablation using the left femoral vein approach. One month later she presented complaining of numbness and tingling in her left foot with swelling and mild groin discomfort. A lower extremity duplex scan showed a left common femoral artery pseudoaneurysm that was partially thrombosed and subsequently resolved spontaneously. The patient had intractable symptoms of pain, temperature changes, color changes, and trophic changes of the left foot. Conventional angiography was done to rule out occlusive arterial disease but just showed very sluggish flow. Further evaluation with transcutaneous oxymetry and 3-phase bone scan was consistent with microvascular dysfunction and poor cutaneous blood flow suggestive of cold-type CRPS. In this case report, we also review the clinical features and the vascular changes associated with CRPS and discuss the pathophysiology of the syndrome from a cardiovascular specialist's perspective. Interventionalists should be aware that CRPS is a possible, albeit rare, condition that may follow many vascular procedures that they perform on a daily basis.

  3. The idiopathic musculoskeletal pain syndromes in childhood.

    PubMed

    Sherry, David D; Malleson, Peter N

    2002-08-01

    Idiopathic musculoskeletal pain syndromes in children have a variety of manifestations; they can be diffuse or well localized, constant or intermittent, with or without autonomic symptoms and signs, completely incapacitating or not limiting activities, and they can tax the physician's diagnostic skill. A careful history and examination is usually all that is needed to make a diagnosis, although the differential diagnosis is large and might require laboratory and radiographic investigation. Pain and functional assessment help track the progress with therapy. Intense exercise therapy is associated with the best outcome. Psychologic issues should be evaluated to determine if further psychologic intervention is indicated. The medium-term outcome is probably good for most of these children, but the long-term prognosis is unknown. One must be aware that other manifestations of psychologic problems might emerge. By the time these children and their families see the rheumatologist they are desperate and can be frustrating to work with due to their difficulty in accepting any kind of psychologic element to the pain and its associated disability. Nevertheless, it is rewarding to help the children understand and work through their pain so they can resume normal lives.

  4. [Painful ophthalmoplegia--Tolosa-Hunt syndrome].

    PubMed

    Arar, Zeljka Vuković; Janjetović, Zeljka; Marinić, Miljenko; Sekelj, Sandra; Lezaić, Zeljka; Dikanović, Marinko

    2007-09-01

    Tolosa Hunt syndrome is a rare disorder caused by nonspecific inflammation in the cavernous sinus/superior orbital fissure and/or orbital apex. It is clinically characterized by alternating remissions and exacerbations, and manifested as diplopia associated with unilateral periorbital hemicranial headache. The symptoms include blepharoptosis, which is usually mild if present, bulbomotor paresis involving the pupil, and loss of sensation in the area supplied by the first division of the trigeminal nerve. Therapy for Tolosa-Hunt syndrome are systemic steroids. The course of disease in a 25-year-old man hospitalized for painful ophthalmoplegia and diplopia is presented. The history included severe pain on rightward eye movement and parabulbarly on the right, considerable defect in the area supplied by the first division of the trigeminal nerve, right hemicrania, and diplopia on looking to the left, right, upward and downward that developed after four days. A month before, the patient was observed at neurology department for severe right hemicrania. Current status included severe pain parabulbarly on the right, discrete proptosis with mild ptosis on the right eye, restricted right eye bulbar motoricity on looking nasally, nasally upward and downward, and loss of sensation in the area supplied by the first division of the trigeminal nerve. Pupilar motoricity was normal. Upon admission, neuroradiologic examination (orbit CT) and brain MR were performed, and therapy with systemic corticosteroids was initiated ex iuvantibus, in consultation with a neurologist. At 24 hours of corticosteroid therapy, the pain subsided, whereas diplopia disappeared almost completely after 5 days, now being only occasionally recorded on looking to the left and upward.

  5. Pain and anxiety control in Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cetrullo, N; Cocchi, S; Guadagni, M G; Piana, G

    2004-01-01

    The most recent pain and anxiety control techniques employed in patients with Down syndrome are described in relation to how cooperative the patient is and what assessment is made of his or her general condition. The growing deinstitutionalization of these patients and the growing social opportunities for them are matched by an increasing demand for dental treatment. Down syndrome is thus one of the disabilities with which the dentist is most likely to come into contact in his own surgery. Pain control is one of the keys to building the relationship between physician and patient and obtaining patient compliance in the conviction that only regular controls can maintain the oral health of these patients. A local anaesthetic, combined when possible with psychological techniques, remains the approach of choice and only a level of compliance that is really wanting or the need to carry out numerous operations in a single session should lead the dentist to choose conscious sedation or a general anaesthetic. The choice of technique, however, should take into account any systemic disease present, such as congenital heart and neurological diseases, bearing in mind that conscious or deep sedation and general anaesthesia should only be adopted in a hospital environment and require the presence of an anaesthesiologist.

  6. Chronic Pain Syndromes in Gynaecological Practice: Endometriosis and Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Siedentopf, F.

    2012-01-01

    As gynaecologists frequently function as “general practitioners” for women, gynaecologists are frequently confronted with questions which initially appear to have only a tenuous connection to their field. Chronic pain syndromes represent a particular challenge, especially as pain syndromes are often associated with severe psychosocial stress for the affected woman. This article discusses some of the psychometric aspects of chronic pain in endometriosis and fibromyalgia together with practical therapeutic approaches. PMID:26640283

  7. Conditioned pain modulation in women with irritable bowel syndrome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Evidence suggests that patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are more vigilant to pain-associated stimuli. The aims of this study were to compare women with IBS (n = 20) to healthy control (HC, n = 20) women on pain sensitivity, conditioned pain modulation (CPM) efficiency, and salivary corti...

  8. Rethinking the Psychogenic Model of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: Somatoform Disorders and Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Renee J.; Chopra, Pradeep; Richardi, Toni

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Explaining the etiology of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) from the psychogenic model is exceedingly unsophisticated, because neurocognitive deficits, neuroanatomical abnormalities, and distortions in cognitive mapping are features of CRPS pathology. More importantly, many people who have developed CRPS have no history of mental illness. The psychogenic model offers comfort to physicians and mental health practitioners (MHPs) who have difficulty understanding pain maintained by newly uncovered neuro inflammatory processes. With increased education about CRPS through a biopsychosocial perspective, both physicians and MHPs can better diagnose, treat, and manage CRPS symptomatology. PMID:24223338

  9. Rethinking the psychogenic model of complex regional pain syndrome: somatoform disorders and complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hill, Renee J; Chopra, Pradeep; Richardi, Toni

    2012-01-01

    Explaining the etiology of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) from the psychogenic model is exceedingly unsophisticated, because neurocognitive deficits, neuroanatomical abnormalities, and distortions in cognitive mapping are features of CRPS pathology. More importantly, many people who have developed CRPS have no history of mental illness. The psychogenic model offers comfort to physicians and mental health practitioners (MHPs) who have difficulty understanding pain maintained by newly uncovered neuro inflammatory processes. With increased education about CRPS through a biopsychosocial perspective, both physicians and MHPs can better diagnose, treat, and manage CRPS symptomatology.

  10. Slipping Rib Syndrome as Persistent Abdominal and Chest Pain.

    PubMed

    Bolaños-Vergaray, Juan Javier; de la Gala García, Francisco; Obaya Rebollar, Juan Carlos; Bové Alvarez, Maria

    2015-11-01

    Slipping rib syndrome is an overlooked cause of persistent abdominal or chest pain. The etiology of this syndrome is not well understood, but the characteristic pain is from hypermobility of the false ribs. Although it is a diagnosis of exclusion, misdiagnosis may lead to an excessive workup. A simple clinical examination via the hooking maneuver is the most significant feature of its diagnosis. We describe the case of a 41-year-old woman with slipping rib syndrome.

  11. Pain Threshold Tests in Patients With Heel Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Saban, Bernice; Masharawi, Youssef

    2016-07-01

    Pressure pain threshold (PPT) is a useful tool for evaluating mechanical sensitivity in patients suffering from various musculoskeletal disorders. However, no previous study has investigated PPT in the heel of patients experiencing plantar heel pain syndrome (PHPS). The aim of this study was to compare PPT levels and topographic presentation of sensitivity in the heel of patients with PHPS and in healthy controls. The reliability of PPT testing in patients with PHPS was assessed for intra- and interrater recordings. The PPT levels of 40 feet in each group were then assessed on 5 predetermined sites in the heel using a standardized measurement protocol. Patient functional status (FS) as measured by the Foot & Ankle Computerized Adaptive Test was employed as an external reference. Multivariate analysis of covariance revealed no group differences for PPTs at all sites (P = .406). Age (P = .099) or BMI (P = .510) did not affect PPT values, although there was an effect on gender (P = .006). The analysis revealed significant differences between sites (P < .001) demonstrating a diverse topographic distribution. In the PHPS group, PPT levels at the anterior/medial, posterior/medial and central sites were significantly lower than at the posterior/lateral and anterior/lateral sites (P < .05). For the control group, PPT levels at the anterior/medial site were significantly lower than all other sites (P < .001). No significant differences were found between PPT of the PHPS patients and controls, therefore, PPT cannot be recommended as an assessment tool for these patients. The topographic distribution indicated low PPT levels at the anterior/medial area of the heel in patients with PHPS and controls. Level II, comparative study. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Yoga intervention and functional pain syndromes: a selective review.

    PubMed

    Sutar, Roshan; Yadav, Suresh; Desai, Geetha

    2016-06-01

    The definition of functional pain syndromes is varied across literature. No effort has been made to see all functional pain disorder groups under broad nomenclature which would exclude conditions for which pathophysiology is strongly known. Since these disorders are commonly treated with alternative treatment modalities and impose significant burden on health utilization, an effort to look into studies on yoga-based interventions on 'functional pain syndromes' (FPS) was made. This study defined FPS as 'Chronic relapsing remitting pain conditions, the origin of which is difficult to trace with no definite physical pathology on clinical suspicion or available laboratory measures and are valid based on subjective pain reporting, associated distress and socio-occupational dysfunction'. Chronic headache, neck pain, back pain, fibromyalgia, pelvic pain, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, and somatoform pain disorders were included for this review. The review found four meta-analyses on the selected topic both indicating modest efficacy and benefit of yoga in these disorders. Future efforts should be directed to do a large meta-analysis of functional pain syndromes.

  13. [Pathogenetic mechanisms of phantom-pain syndrome].

    PubMed

    Reshetnyak, V K; Kukushkin, M L; Gurko, N C

    2015-01-01

    This review considers the literature data on the epidemiology of phantom-pain syndrome (PPS) presents the results of numerous clinical studies demonstrating the lack of effectiveness of the vast majority of modem non-pharmacological and pharmacological methods of treatment of PPS. Detail presents data on the patho genetic mechanisms underlying the PPS. According to most researchers, the major role in the patho genesis of the PPS has the reorganization of the somatosensory area of the cerebral cortex of the brain. At the same time discusses the views of researchers who believe that the main reason PPS is to strengthen nociceptive and nonnociceptive afferentation in the peripheral newous system. The comparison of these conflicting data it is concluded that in the genesis of the PPS plays the role of both primary and secondary sensitization. Leading important dysfunction of the central nervous system. Details the modern understanding of the mechanisms underlying the high efficiency of suppression of PPS during stimulation of motor cortex.

  14. Treatment of complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Resmini, Giuseppina; Ratti, Chiara; Canton, Gianluca; Murena, Luigi; Moretti, Antimo; Iolascon, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a multifactorial and disabling disorder with complex etiology and pathogenesis. Goals of therapy in CRPS should be pain relief, functional restoration, and psychological stabilization, but early interventions are needed in order to achieve these objectives. Several drugs have been used to reduce pain and to improve functional status in CRPS, despite the lack of scientific evidence supporting their use in this scenario. They include anti-inflammatory drugs, analgesics, anesthetics, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, oral muscle relaxants, corticosteroids, calcitonin, bisphosphonates, calcium channel blockers and topical agents. NSAIDs showed no value in treating CRPS. Glucocorticoids are the only anti-inflammatory drugs for which there is direct clinical trial evidence in early stage of CRPS. Opioids are a reasonable second or third-line treatment option, but tolerance and long term toxicity are unresolved issues. The use of anticonvulsants and tricyclic antidepressants has not been well investigated for pain management in CRPS. During the last years, bisphosphonates have been the mostly studied pharmacologic agents in CRPS treatment and there are good evidence to support their use in this condition. Recently, the efficacy of intravenous (IV) administration of neridronate has been reported in a randomized controlled trial. Significant improvements in VAS score and other indices of pain and quality of life in patients who received four 100 mg IV doses of neridronate versus placebo were reported. These findings were confirmed in the open-extension phase of the study, when patients formerly enrolled in the placebo group received neridronate at the same dosage, and these results were maintained at 1 year follow-up. The current literature concerning sympathetic blocks and sympathectomy techniques lacks evidence of efficacy. Low evidence was recorded for a free radical scavenger, dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) cream (50%). The same level

  15. Pain in primary Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vitali, Claudio; Del Papa, Nicoletta

    2015-02-01

    Joint and muscle pain are commonly observed in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Different types of pain can be distinguished, that is, articular pain, neuropathic pain and widespread pain. Articular pain is due to more or less evident synovitis, usually involving peripheral joints such as hand joints, wrists, knees and ankles. Drugs used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, or lupus synovitis, are also employed for articular involvement in pSS. Pure sensory neuropathies and, more often, small fibre neuropathies are responsible for neuropathic pain in pSS. This is usually localised in the legs and arms with a characteristic glove or sock distribution. Widespread pain, often assuming the features of fibromyalgia, has also been reported in patients with pSS. The pathological mechanisms underlying both neuropathic pain and widespread (fibromyalgia) pain in pSS have not been so far completely clarified.

  16. Increased Risk of Myofascial Pain Syndrome Among Patients with Insomnia.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei-Chen; Shen, Cheng-Che; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Yang, Albert C

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the risk of developing myofascial pain syndrome among patients diagnosed with insomnia. We conducted a population-based longitudinal study of a matched cohort with 7,895 participants (1,579 patients with insomnia and 6,316 controls) who were selected from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The patients were observed for a maximum of 10 years to determine the incidence of newly diagnosed myofascial pain syndrome. A Cox regression analysis was performed to identify the risk factors associated with myofascial pain syndrome in patients with insomnia. During the 10-year follow-up period, 182 insomnia patients (14.9 per 1,000 person-years) and 379 controls (7.5 per 1,000 person-years) were diagnosed with myofascial pain syndrome. The incidence risk ratio of myofascial pain syndrome between the insomnia and control patients was 2.00 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.67-2.38, P  < 0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, monthly income, urbanization, and comorbidities, the insomnia patients were 1.93 times more likely to develop myofascial pain syndrome (95% CI = 1.62-2.31, P  < .001) than the control patients. Malignant neoplasm (hazard ratio = 3.08) and living in urban areas (hazard ratio = 3.05) were identified as independent risk factors for myofascial pain syndrome in patients with insomnia. Patients with insomnia had a higher risk of developing myofascial pain syndrome than controls. This study adds to the understanding of the complex relationship between sleep disturbance and pain.

  17. Pain and musculoskeletal pain syndromes related to computer and video game use in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Aura Ligia; Moraes, Ana Julia Pantoja; Leone, Claudio; Doria-Filho, Ulysses; Silva, Clovis Artur Almeida

    2006-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the presence of pain and musculoskeletal pain syndromes in adolescents and associate them to computer and video game use. A cross-sectional study was performed on the entire adolescent population (n=833) of a private situated in the city of São Paulo. The research included a questionnaire and physical examination of the musculoskeletal system. Statistical analysis was carried out with Fisher, chi-square, Mann Whitney tests and logistic regression. A total of 791 adolescent was evaluated. A computer was used by 99% and video games by 58%. Pain was reported by 312 (39.4%) students: 23% complained of back pain, 9% of upper limb pain, 4% of diffuse pain and 4% of pain in the trapezium muscle. A clinical examination was carried out in 359 students, and one or more musculoskeletal pain syndromes were present in 56 students (15.6%): benign joint hypermobility syndrome in 10%, myofascial syndrome in 5%, tendonitis in 2% and fibromyalgia in 1%. In the multivariate analysis, the logistical regression showed that the independent variables in the prediction of pain were sex [odds ratio (OR): 2.19, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.33-3.61] and age (OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07-1.28) and that the prediction of musculoskeletal pain syndromes were sex (OR: 3.17, 95% CI: 1.69-6.22) and number of days a week using the computer (OR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.05-1.42). However, the variations in the dependent variables by the mathematical regression models were low. Despite the frequent use of computer and video games among adolescents, this was not associated with the presence of pain and musculoskeletal pain syndromes.

  18. [Features of autonomic dysfunction in myofascial pain syndromes cervicobrachial localization].

    PubMed

    Морозова, О Г; Ярошевский, А А; Липинская, Я В

    2015-01-01

    The relevance of this study is due to the prevalence of autonomic disorders and musculoskeletal pain, especially among the young people of working age. In recent years, many authors in scientific works have been highlighted aspects of mutual development myofascial and autonomic dysfunction, which is caused by neurophysiological preconditions and anatomical and topographical relationships that need to be considered in the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. To study the characteristics of the formation and flow of autonomic dysfunction syndrome with paroxysmal and permanent types of flow in patients with myofascial pain syndromes cervicobrachial localization. Using clinical neurological, vertebral neurological, neuropsychological methods of studying the severity of pain (visual analogue scale and Pain questionnaire of Mac Gill) examined 84 patients suffering from autonomic dysfunction on the background of myofascial pain syndromes cervicobrachial localization. To identify the features of vegetative regulation of patients were divided into two groups: group 1 (51 people) - with a permanent type of course; group 2 (33 patients) - a type of paroxysmal of course of autonomic dysfunction. It was found more pronounced disturbances in patients with paroxysmal type of course of autonomic dysfunction. The frequency and severity of autonomic paroxysms associated with the severity of musculo-tonic syndrome and location of active trigger points in the muscles of the neck and shoulder girdle, due to anatomic and topographic features of these muscles, namely the proximity of their location to the sympathetic formations neck. The formation and development of emotional and affective disorders in both groups played a significant role of pain and musculo-tonic syndrome. The syndrome of autonomic dysfunction, in particular its paroxysmal type of flow, on the one hand is a response to the development of myofascial pain syndromes cervicobrachial localization, with another - a factor

  19. Pain management in Guillain-Barre syndrome: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Peña, L; Moreno, C B; Gutierrez-Alvarez, A M

    2015-09-01

    Pain is a common symptom in patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome. Intensity is moderate to severe in most cases and pain may persist after resolution of the disease. Identify the most appropriate analgesic therapy for pain management in patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome. Systematic review and selection of scientific articles on treatment of pain in Guillain-Barre syndrome patients, published between January 1985 and December 2012. We included only randomised, double-blind, controlled trials assessing the effectiveness of drugs for pain management in these patients. Four articles met the inclusion criteria. One evaluated the use of gabapentin, another evaluated carbamazepine, a third compared gabapentin to carbamazepine, and the last evaluated use of methylprednisolone. Both carbamazepine and gabapentin were useful for pain management. Patients experienced lower-intensity pain with gabapentin treatment in the study comparing that drug to carbamazepine. Methylprednisolone was not shown to be effective for reducing pain. The published data did not permit completion of a meta-analysis. There is no robust evidence at present that would point to a single treatment option for this disorder. Further clinical studies of larger patient samples and with a longer duration are needed to characterise types of pain for each patient and measure pain intensity in an objective way. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Chronic visceral pain secondary to ventral disc herniation: Development of visceral complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lauretti, Gabriela Rocha; de Oliveira, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    When an organ disease is ruled out as the origin of pelvic pain, the superior hypogastric plexus (SHP) injury and consequent dysfunction could be the mechanism of visceral chronic pain perpetuation. As much as a dorsal discus herniation may harm the dorsal or ventral roots, a ventral discus herniation at L4-L5 or L5-S1 may result in direct physical trauma to the SHP, maintaining chronic visceral pain mediated by sympathetic dysfunction, conceivably also afferent fibers dysfunction. We propose that similarly to nociceptive somatic dysfunction named complex regional pain syndrome, the maintained sympathetic pelvic pain secondary to straight physical damage to the SHP characterize in fact the same disease, but in nociceptive visceral tissue, named visceral complex regional pain syndrome, a concept constructed based on the International Association for the Study of Pain criteria (1994).

  1. Are pain-related fears mediators for reducing disability and pain in patients with complex regional pain syndrome type 1? An explorative analysis on pain exposure physical therapy.

    PubMed

    Barnhoorn, Karlijn J; Staal, J Bart; van Dongen, Robert T M; Frölke, Jan Paul M; Klomp, Frank P; van de Meent, Henk; Samwel, Han; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2014-01-01

    To investigate whether pain-related fears are mediators for reducing disability and pain in patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 when treating with Pain Exposure Physical Therapy. An explorative secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial. Fifty-six patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1. The experimental group received Pain Exposure Physical Therapy in a maximum of five treatment sessions; the control group received conventional treatment following the Dutch multidisciplinary guideline. Levels of disability, pain, and pain-related fears (fear-avoidance beliefs, pain catastrophizing, and kinesiophobia) were measured at baseline and after 3, 6, and 9 months follow-up. The experimental group had a significantly larger decrease in disability of 7.77 points (95% CI 1.09 to 14.45) and in pain of 1.83 points (95% CI 0.44 to 3.23) over nine months than the control group. The potential mediators pain-related fears decreased significantly in both groups, but there were no significant differences between groups, which indicated that there was no mediation. The reduction of pain-related fears was comparable in both groups. We found no indication that pain-related fears mediate the larger reduction of disability and pain in patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 treated with Pain Exposure Physical Therapy compared to conventional treatment. International Clinical Trials Registry NCT00817128.

  2. Algodystrophy: complex regional pain syndrome and incomplete forms

    PubMed Central

    Giannotti, Stefano; Bottai, Vanna; Dell’Osso, Giacomo; Bugelli, Giulia; Celli, Fabio; Cazzella, Niki; Guido, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Summary The algodystrophy, also known as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), is a painful disease characterized by erythema, edema, functional impairment, sensory and vasomotor disturbance. The diagnosis of CRPS is based solely on clinical signs and symptoms, and for exclusion compared to other forms of chronic pain. There is not a specific diagnostic procedure; careful clinical evaluation and additional test should lead to an accurate diagnosis. There are similar forms of chronic pain known as bone marrow edema syndrome, in which is absent the history of trauma or triggering events and the skin dystrophic changes and vasomotor alterations. These incomplete forms are self-limited, and surgical treatment is generally not needed. It is still controversial, if these forms represent a distinct self-limiting entity or an incomplete variant of CRPS. In painful unexplained conditions such as frozen shoulder, post-operative stiff shoulder or painful knee prosthesis, the algodystrophy, especially in its incomplete forms, could represent the cause. PMID:27252736

  3. [The treatment of the phantom pain syndrome with tizanidine].

    PubMed

    Vorobeĭchik, Ia M; Kukushkin, M L; Reshetniak, V K; Ovechkin, A M; Gnezdilov, A V

    1997-01-01

    The authors carried out estimation of analgetic effect of tisanidin by double blind test in patients with phantom limb pain syndrome. 14 patients took the medicine in a dose of 12 mg/day and 5 patients took placebo at the same dose. Characteristics and intensity of pain were estimated in accordance with McGill pain questionnaire and visual analogue scale. Pain possessed more than one sensory characteristics in the majority of patients. Tisanidin had a significant analgetic influence on all type of phantom limb pain: "neuralgic"--acute, shooting, transitory, "causalgic"--hot, burning, searing, "cramping" pain. Pain sensation did not decrease only in one of 14 patients treated with tisanidin. The authors explain the effectivity of the drug for treatment of phantom limb pain of different sensory modality by variety of the mechanisms of its therapeutic action, the capacity to decrease the releasing of excitatory neurotransmitter amino acids and the influence on alpha 2-adrenoceptors.

  4. Free flap transfer for complex regional pain syndrome type II

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Ken; Kikuchi, Mamoru; Murase, Tsuyoshi; Hosokawa, Ko; Shibata, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A patient with complex regional pain syndrome type II was successfully treated using free anterolateral thigh flap transfer with digital nerve coaptation to the cutaneous nerve of the flap. Release of the scarred tissue and soft tissue coverage with targeted sensory nerve coaptation were useful in relieving severe pain. PMID:27252946

  5. Inflammation in cold complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dirckx, M; Stronks, D L; van Bodegraven-Hof, E A M; Wesseldijk, F; Groeneweg, J G; Huygen, F J P M

    2015-07-01

    In patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), the temperature of the affected side often differs from that of the contralateral side. In the acute phase, the affected side is usually warmer than the contralateral side, the so-called 'warm' CRPS. This thermal asymmetry can develop into a colder affected side, the so-called 'cold' CRPS. In contrast to cold CRPS, in warm CRPS, inflammation is generally assumed to be present. However, there are reports of cold CRPS patients, successfully treated with vasodilatation therapy, who subsequently displayed warm CRPS. It seems that inflammation could be 'hidden' behind vasomotor disturbance. This study was designed to test this hypothesis. A retrospective analysis was made of patients in our CRPS database. We defined three types of CRPS: cold CRPS, neither cold nor warm (intermediate) CRPS, and warm CRPS. Of these patients, the difference between the level of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 (Δ IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (Δ TNF-α) in the affected extremity and that in the contralateral extremity was determined. The bilateral difference of the level of these cytokines did not differ among patients with cold CRPS, intermediate CRPS, or those with warm CRPS. Inflammation may be involved in cold CRPS. © 2015 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Pain in Persons With Postpolio Syndrome: Frequency, Intensity, and Impact

    PubMed Central

    Stoelb, Brenda L.; Carter, Gregory T.; Abresch, Richard T.; Purekal, Sophia; McDonald, Craig M.; Jensen, Mark P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To describe the frequency, intensity, and impact of pain in persons with postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS). Design Retrospective, cross-sectional survey. Setting Community-based survey. Participants Convenience sample of people with PPS. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Overall intensity and duration of pain, pain sites, pain interference, pain treatments, and relief provided by pain treatments. Results A total of 91% (n=57) of the study participants (N=63) reported pain. The most frequently reported pain sites were the shoulders, lower back, legs, and hips. Participants reported pain intensity to be the greatest in the knees, legs, wrists, lower back, and head. Pain interfered most with sleep and with activities requiring a high level of musculoskeletal involvement. Respondents also reported pain problems that were more severe than those of the general population and than those of a sample of people with multiple sclerosis. Many treatments had been tried previously for pain, but continued use of treatments was reported by relatively few participants at the time of the survey. Conclusions The findings indicate that pain is a persistent and common problem in persons with PPS, highlighting the need for effective and accessible pain treatments for this population. PMID:18929021

  7. Pathophysiology of Trigger Points in Myofascial Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Money, Sarah

    2017-06-01

    Questions from patients about pain conditions and analgesic pharmacotherapy and responses from authors are presented to help educate patients and make them more effective self-advocates. Trigger point pathophysiology in myofascial pain syndrome, which involves muscle stiffness, tenderness, and pain that radiates to other areas of the body, is considered. The causes of trigger points and several theories about how they develop are reviewed, and treatment approaches, including stretching, physical therapy, dry needling, and injections, are offered.

  8. Interventional modalities in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nambi-Joseph, Pushpa; Stanton-Hicks, Michael; Sferra, James J

    2004-06-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) applies to a variety of conditions in which symptoms such as allodynia and hyperalgesia predominate along with hyperpathia and vasomotor/sudomotor disturbances. The incidence of CRPS in the chronic pain population varies and is difficult to determine, though it appears to affect women more than men. Treatment is multidisciplinary, and recovery of function and the reduction of pain are the main goals of treatment;this article addresses some of the interventional modalities that are used.

  9. Fibromyalgia syndrome and myofascial pain syndrome. Do they exist?

    PubMed

    Bohr, T W

    1995-05-01

    "It is in the healing business that the temptations of junk science are the strongest and the controls against it the weakest." Despite their subjective nature, these syndromes (particularly MPS) have little reliability and validity, and advocates paint them as "objective." Despite a legacy of poor-quality science, enthusiasts continue to cite small, methodologically flawed studies purporting to show biologic variables for these syndromes. Despite a wealth of traditional pain research, disciples continue to ignore the placebo effect, demonstrating a therapeutic hubris despite studies showing a dismal natural history for FS. In reviewing the literature on MPS and FS, F.M.R. Walshe's sage words come to mind that the advocates of these syndromes are "better armed with technique than with judgment." A sympathic observer might claim that labeling patients with monikers of nondiseases such as FS and MPS may not be such a bad thing. After all, there is still a stigma for psychiatric disease in our society, and even telling a sufferer that this plays only a partial role may put that patient on the defensive. Labeling may have iatrogenic consequences, however, particularly in the setting of the work place. Furthermore, review of a typical support group newsletter gives ipso facto proof of this noxious potential. The author of a flyer stuffed inside the newsletter complains that getting social security and disability benefits for "the invisible disability" can be "an uphill battle. But don't loose (sic) hope." Apparently the "seriousness of the condition" is not appreciated by the medical community at large, and "clinician bias may well be the largest threat," according to Boston epidemiologist Dr. John Mason. Sufferers are urged to trek to their local medical library and pull four particular articles claiming FS patients have more "stress," "daily hassles," and difficulty working compared with arthritis patients. If articles can't be located, patients are told to ask their

  10. Central poststroke pain: somatosensory abnormalities and the presence of associated myofascial pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Central post-stroke pain (CPSP) is a neuropathic pain syndrome associated with somatosensory abnormalities due to central nervous system lesion following a cerebrovascular insult. Post-stroke pain (PSP) refers to a broader range of clinical conditions leading to pain after stroke, but not restricted to CPSP, including other types of pain such as myofascial pain syndrome (MPS), painful shoulder, lumbar and dorsal pain, complex regional pain syndrome, and spasticity-related pain. Despite its recognition as part of the general PSP diagnostic possibilities, the prevalence of MPS has never been characterized in patients with CPSP patients. We performed a cross-sectional standardized clinical and radiological evaluation of patients with definite CPSP in order to assess the presence of other non-neuropathic pain syndromes, and in particular, the role of myofascial pain syndrome in these patients. Methods CPSP patients underwent a standardized sensory and motor neurological evaluation, and were classified according to stroke mechanism, neurological deficits, presence and profile of MPS. The Visual Analogic Scale (VAS), McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), and Beck Depression Scale (BDS) were filled out by all participants. Results Forty CPSP patients were included. Thirty-six (90.0%) had one single ischemic stroke. Pain presented during the first three months after stroke in 75.0%. Median pain intensity was 10 (5 to 10). There was no difference in pain intensity among the different lesion site groups. Neuropathic pain was continuous-ongoing in 34 (85.0%) patients and intermittent in the remainder. Burning was the most common descriptor (70%). Main aggravating factors were contact to cold (62.5%). Thermo-sensory abnormalities were universal. MPS was diagnosed in 27 (67.5%) patients and was more common in the supratentorial extra-thalamic group (P <0.001). No significant differences were observed among the different stroke location groups and pain questionnaires and

  11. Neuropathic Pain in Patients with Burning Mouth Syndrome Evaluated Using painDETECT.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Jornet, Pia; Molino-Pagan, Diana; Parra-Perez, Paco; Valenzuela, Sara

    2017-01-04

    OBJECTIVE : This study set out to identify the neuropathic component of pain experienced by burning mouth syndrome (BMS) patients evaluated using painDETECT, a diagnostic tool that could easily be introduced into clinical practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS : This study included 64 patients (33 BMS and 31 suffering nociceptive pain). Each completed the painDETECT neuropathic pain questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and pain intensity was also measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS). RESULTS : Pain among BMS patients (evaluated by VAS) was 6.1 ± 1.9, and 4.3 ± 1.7 among nociceptive patients (P < 0.001). PainDETECT obtained total scores ≥ 19 in 21% of BMS patients, indicating the presence of neuropathic pain. When painDETECT pain descriptors were analyzed comparing the BMS group with nociceptive pain subjects, statistically significant differences were found for burning sensation (P < 0.010), prickling (P < 0.001), electric shock-like sensation (P = 0.046), thermal sensation (P < 0.001), and numbness (P = 0.002). Logistic regression analysis found that VAS scoring was the strongest determinant predicting neuropathic pain. CONCLUSION : The present study suggests that almost a third of BMS patients present neuropathic pain, which is strongly associated with the intensity of pain measured using VAS. These data could provide the basis for further research.

  12. [Painful legs and moving toes syndrome associated with lumbar radiculopathy].

    PubMed

    El Otmani, H; Moutaouakil, F; Fadel, H; Slassi, I

    2009-11-01

    Painful legs and moving toes (PLMT) is a rare syndrome characterized by spontaneous neuropathic pain in the lower limbs associated with peculiar involuntary movements of the toes. It has been associated with a variety of peripheral and central nervous system diseases. Pathophysiology is unclear and treatment approaches remain largely empirical. We report a case of a 42-year-old women with typical presentation of PLMT syndrome, associated with lumbar (L5) disc prolapse. Oxcarbazepine gave a partial improvement. Clinical presentations and etiological aspects of the PLMT syndrome are described and pathophysiological mechanisms and therapeutic possibilities discussed.

  13. Painful legs and moving toes syndrome responsive to pregabalin

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, FH; Liu, W; Geigel, E; Castaneda, S; Rossi, EM; Schnacky, K

    2015-01-01

    Report three cases of painful legs and moving toes (PLMT) syndrome responsive to pregabalin along with a review of its literature. Three patients with PLMT syndrome improved with pregabalin. The first and third patient reported improvement in pain scores, quality of life, and quality of sleep sustained over time. The second and third patient had near complete remission of toe movements, but pregabalin was discontinued in the second patient due to aggravation of leg edema. PLMT is a rare and debilitating disorder characterized by lower limb pain and involuntary toes or feet movements. Its pathophysiology remains unknown and its therapy refractory to most drugs, except for pregabalin, as shown in this case series. PLMT is a rare and incapacitating syndrome due to the lack of an effective pain therapy. We report three patients with PLMT who favorable responded to pregabalin. We propose pregabalin be considered in the management of PLMT. PMID:25766346

  14. Carpal tunnel syndrome, diabetic neuropathy, fibromyalgia, glucosamine and chondroitin, hypnosis in pain management, marijuana for pain.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Scott M

    2007-01-01

    This feature presents information for patients in a question and answer format. It is written to simulate actual questions that many pain patients ask and to provide answers in a context and language that most pain patients will comprehend. Issues addressed in this issue are carpel tunnel syndrome, fibromyalgia, glucosamine and chondroitin, hypnosis, marijuana.

  15. Role of Alternative Therapies for Chronic Pain Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Donna-Ann; Maslin, Benjamin; Legler, Aron; Springer, Erin; Asgerally, Abbas; Vadivelu, Nalini

    2016-05-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of complimentary and alternative medicine (CAM) for the treatment of chronic pain. This review examines alternative and complimentary therapies, which can be incorporated as part of a biopsychosocial approach in the treatment of chronic pain syndromes. In the present investigation, literature from articles indexed on PubMed was evaluated including topics of alternative therapies, complimentary therapies, pain psychology, biofeedback therapy, physical exercise therapies, acupuncture, natural and herbal supplements, whole-body cryotherapy, and smartphone technologies in the treatment of chronic pain syndromes. This review highlights the key role of psychology in the treatment of chronic pain. Cognitive behavior therapy appears to be the most impactful while biofeedback therapy has also been shown to be effective for chronic pain. Exercise therapy has been shown to be effective in short-, intermediate-, and long-term pain states. When compared to that in sham controls, acupuncture has shown some benefit for neck pain immediately after the procedure and in the short term and improvement has also been demonstrated in the treatment of headaches. The role of smartphones and whole-body cryotherapy are new modalities and further studies are needed. Recent literature suggests that several alternate therapies could play a role in the treatment of chronic pain, supporting the biopsychosocial model in the treatment of pain states.

  16. Loin Pain Haematuria Syndrome - A Narrative Review of Pain Management Strategies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Loin pain haematuria syndrome (LPHS) is an uncommon clinical entity that has divided renal physicians, pain practitioners, and even psychiatrists since its initial description. A relative paucity of data exists regarding the condition, with best practice guidelines lacking amid the existing threads of anecdotal experiences and variable follow-up observations. The aim of this article was to review the cumulative published experience of pain relief strategies for LPHS. PMID:27103962

  17. Fibromyalgia and Myofascial Pain Syndrome-A Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Chandola, H C; Chakraborty, Arunangshu

    2009-01-01

    Summary Pain and fatigue associated to the musculoskeletal system are among the leading causes of patients to visit their physicians and nearly one-third of such patients suffer from fibromyalgia. Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic debilitating disorder characterized by widespread pain with tenderness in specific areas, leading to fatigue, headache and sleep disorder. Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS), is also a localized musculoskeletal pain producing condition whose diagnostic and management criteria differ from FMS but still considered by many only a subtype of FMS. Till date no exact cause has been held responsible for these painful conditions, therefore treatment of these disorders is always a challenge. The therapies are not precise but multimodal including pharmacological and alternative approaches. This article describes the existing knowledge pertaining to these conditions in regard of causative factors diagnosis and management. PMID:20640108

  18. Prospective Predictors of Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, Evangelos; Wong-Tom, Wing M.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is one of the most common overuse injuries. Objective: To assess the collective evidence of predisposing factors to PFPS. Data Sources: MEDLINE (1960–June 2010), EMBASE (1980–June 2010), and CINAHL (1982–June 2010). Study Selection: Studies were included if patients were asymptomatic at baseline testing (free of PFPS) and were prospectively followed for the development of the disorder. Only studies that assessed at least 1 variable that can be measured at a typical clinic were included. After duplicates were removed, 973 studies were assessed from their titles or abstracts, 20 from the full text, and from these, 7 met the inclusion criteria. Data Extraction: Data were extracted for age, weight, height, sample size, patient type (military vs civilian), follow-up periods, diagnostic methods, and diagnostic criteria. Means and standard deviations were extracted for all outcome variables. Results: Meta-analyses were performed for height, weight, leanness, Q angle, number of sit-ups, knee extension strength, and peak knee valgus angle during landing. Lower knee extension strength was the only variable that was predictive of PFPS (P < 0.01). Other variables that were identified as predictive of PFPS by single studies were vertical jump, push-ups, knee flexion and hip abduction strength, thumb-to-forearm flexibility, quadriceps and gastrocnemius flexibility, genu varum, navicular drop, knee valgus moment at initial contact during landing, social support, and palliative reaction. Conclusions: It appears that anthropometric variables are not associated with PFPS, while knee extension strength deficits appear to be predictors of PFPS. PMID:23016077

  19. Antecedent nonbladder syndromes in case-control study of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome.

    PubMed

    Warren, John W; Howard, Fred M; Cross, Raymond K; Good, Janine L; Weissman, Myrna M; Wesselmann, Ursula; Langenberg, Patricia; Greenberg, Patty; Clauw, Daniel J

    2009-01-01

    Probing for clues to the pathogenesis of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS), we sought antecedent nonbladder syndromes that distinguished incident IC/PBS cases from matched controls. Female incident IC/PBS cases were recruited nationally, and their IC/PBS onset date (index date) was established. The controls were recruited by national random digit dialing and matched to the cases by sex, age, region, and interval between the (assigned) index date and interview. The prevalence of 24 nonbladder syndromes before the index date was assessed, 7 by multiple methods. The cases with IC/PBS had greater antecedent prevalence of 11 syndromes, and 243 of 313 cases (78%) vs 145 of 313 controls (45%) had multiple syndromes (P < .001). Fibromyalgia-chronic widespread pain (FM-CWP), chronic fatigue syndrome, sicca syndrome, and irritable bowel syndrome were associated with each other by pairwise and factor analyses using numerous assumptions. Cases with FM-CWP, chronic fatigue syndrome, sicca syndrome, and/or irritable bowel syndrome (n = 141, 45%) were more likely to have other syndromes (ie, migraine, chronic pelvic pain, depression, and allergy). Three other syndrome clusters were identified; each was associated with this FM-CWP cluster. Eleven antecedent syndromes were more often diagnosed in those with IC/PBS, and most syndromes appeared in clusters. The most prominent cluster comprised FM-CWP, chronic fatigue syndrome, sicca syndrome, and irritable bowel syndrome; most of the other syndromes and identified clusters were associated with it. Among the hypotheses generated was that some patients with IC/PBS have a systemic syndrome and not one confined to the bladder.

  20. Thalamic Pain Syndrome (Central Post-Stroke Pain) in a patient presenting with right upper limb pain: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Tuling, Jeffrey R; Tunks, Eldon

    1999-01-01

    In the elderly, pain of a widespread nature can often be debilitating. It is not uncommon to attribute this widespread pain to osteoarthritis within the spinal column structures and peripheral joints or to other musculoskeletal etiology. However, chiropractors should remain wary regarding pain experienced by the elderly, especially if pain is widespread and exhibits neuropathic features. Common features of neuropathic pain involve the presence of allodynia, hyperpathia and hyperalgesia. This characteristic widespread pain can sometimes be the sequelae of a central nervous system lesion such as a “Thalamic Pain Syndrome”, or “Central Post-Stroke Pain”, which are terms commonly used to describe pain that originates in the central nervous system. Following is the case of a 90-year-old patient presenting with widespread pain attributed to Thalamic Pain Syndrome or Central Post-Stroke Pain. Discussion of the characteristics of neuropathic pain and bedside testing techniques are presented to help the chiropractor identify a patient who may be presenting with Central Post-Stroke Pain.

  1. Outcome After Pituitary Radiosurgery for Thalamic Pain Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Motohiro Chernov, Mikhail F.; Taira, Takaomi; Ochiai, Taku; Nakaya, Kotaro; Tamura, Noriko; Goto, Shinichi; Yomo, Shoji; Kouyama, Nobuo; Katayama, Yoko; Kawakami, Yoriko; Izawa, Masahiro; Muragaki, Yoshihiro

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate outcomes after pituitary radiosurgery in patients with post-stroke thalamic pain syndrome. Methods and Materials: From 2002 to 2006, 24 patients with thalamic pain syndrome underwent pituitary radiosurgery at Tokyo Women's Medical University and were followed at least 12 months thereafter. The radiosurgical target was defined as the pituitary gland and its connection with the pituitary stalk. The maximum dose varied from 140 to 180 Gy. Mean follow-up after treatment was 35 months (range, 12-48 months). Results: Initial pain reduction, usually within 48 h after radiosurgery, was marked in 17 patients (71%). However, in the majority of cases the pain recurred within 6 months after treatment, and at the time of the last follow-up examination durable pain control was marked in only 5 patients (21%). Ten patients (42%) had treatment-associated side effects. Anterior pituitary abnormalities were marked in 8 cases and required hormonal replacement therapy in 3; transient diabetes insipidus was observed in 2 cases, transient hyponatremia in 1, and clinical deterioration due to increase of the numbness severity despite significant reduction of pain was seen once. Conclusions: Pituitary radiosurgery for thalamic pain results in a high rate of initial efficacy and is accompanied by acceptable morbidity. It can be used as a primary minimally invasive management option for patients with post-stroke thalamic pain resistant to medical therapy. However, in the majority of cases pain recurrence occurs within 1 year after treatment.

  2. Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Offiah, I; McMahon, S B; O'Reilly, B A

    2013-08-01

    The bladder pain syndrome (BPS) is a spectrum of urological symptoms characterised by bladder pain with typical cystoscopic features. Diagnosis and management of this syndrome may be difficult. There is no evidence-based management approach for the diagnosis or treatment of BPS. The objective of this study was to critically review and summarise the evidence relating to the diagnosis and treatment of the bladder pain syndrome. A review of published data on the diagnosis and treatment of the BPS was performed. Our search was limited to English-language articles, on the "diagnosis", and "management" or "treatment" of "interstitial cystitis" and the "bladder pain syndrome" in "humans." Frequency, urgency and pain on bladder filling are the most common symptoms of BPS. All urodynamic volumes are reduced in patients with BPS. Associated conditions include psychological distress, depression, history of sexual assault, irritable bowel syndrome and fibromyalgia. Cystoscopy remains the test for definitive diagnosis, with visualisation of haemorrhage on cystoreduction. A multidisciplinary treatment approach is essential in the management of this condition. Orally administered amitriptyline is an efficacious medical treatment for BPS. Intravesical hyaluronic acid and local anaesthetic, with/without hydrodistension are among new treatment strategies. Sacral or pudendal neuromodulation is effective, minimally invasive and safe. Surgery is reserved for refractory cases. There remains a paucity of evidence for the diagnosis and treatment of BPS. We encountered significant heterogeneity in the assessment of symptoms, duration of treatment and follow up of patients in our literature review.

  3. Greater trochanter bursitis pain syndrome in females with chronic low back pain and sciatica.

    PubMed

    Sayegh, Fares; Potoupnis, Michael; Kapetanos, George

    2004-10-01

    Trochanteric bursitis is a clinical condition which simulates major hip diseases and low back pain, it may also mimic nerve root pressure syndrome. Patients with greater trochanteric bursitis pain syndrome (GTBPS) usually suffer from pain radiating to the posterolateral aspect of the thigh, paraesthesiae in the legs, and tenderness over the iliotibial tract.. The purpose of this study is to indicate the similarity between the clinical features of the GTBPS and those of chronic low back pain, and to highlight the importance of diagnosing GTBPS in patients complaining of low back conditions. Three hundred female patients were included in this prospective study. All patients complained about chronic low back pain or sciatica and had a failed long term conservative treatment. Local injection of the tender peritrochanteric area was only done in half of the patients (group 1). Patients were required to answer the Oswestry Disability Index Questionnaire during all periods of follow-up. Patients of group 1 had a better clinical outcome (p < 0.0005) than the patients in group 2 where no injection was done. We conclude that greater trochanter bursitis pain syndrome is a frequent syndrome which may be associated with low back symptoms. Patients with a long standing history of low back pain and sciatica should be routinely checked for GTBPS. GTBPS is easy to diagnose and can be treated. Peritrochanteric infiltration with glucocorticoids mixed with 2% lidocaine relieves patients from their symptoms for a long period of time. Recurrence should always be expected, but treatment may be repeated.

  4. [Medically unexplained persistent pain syndrome: psychoanalytic approach].

    PubMed

    Davoine, Georges-André; Godinat, Gilles; Petite, Dominique; Saurer, Andreas

    2013-06-26

    Chronic persistant pain is very challenging as the patient and his/her therapist are confronted with a lack of explanation about the origin of pain. The relationship has also to face many obstacles such as psychological strain or psychosocial tensions such as disagreements about the patients working capacity. Nevertheless continuing attention from a solid and secure therapist may progressively lead to changes in pain experience, the emergence of emotions and improved therapist patient interactions.

  5. Management of chronic pain syndromes: issues and interventions.

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    Treatment of chronic, nonmalignant pain syndromes has been largely suboptimal and the most debilitating conditions--such as LBP, arthritis, and neuropathic pain--continue to pose a significant burden to individuals and society. Although significant scientific advances in delineating pathophysiologic mechanisms have facilitated the development of targeted pharmacologic and interventional treatments, the integral role played by psychologic, behavioral, and social factors in generating, perpetuating, and individualizing the pain experience has been largely ignored. Consequently, adequate pain relief may still be an achievable goal, but one that is often realized only with a concomitant, cognitive, behaviorally based, functional restoration approach. A multidisciplinary integrative approach that places equal emphasis on understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying pain, as well as the multidimensional interplay of cognitive, behavioral, and environmental influences is essential to improving outcomes. Although there are presently a paucity of data that identify specific characteristics that define which individuals will benefit from any particular modality, evidence clearly demonstrates that the MPC setting offers patients an opportunity to achieve both adequate pain relief and improved physical, behavioral, and psychologic function. A key challenge for clinicians lies in changing the approach to pain "treatment" and in bridging the gap between the current evolving understanding of pain mechanisms and clinical management. Physiatrists' focus on maximal functional restoration is a critical contribution to cost-effective pain medicine practice. Wisely combining effective pain management techniques within a functional restoration program has the best chance of improving the quality of life for patients with chronic pain disorders and diseases.

  6. Incidence of myofascial pain syndrome in breast cancer surgery: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Torres Lacomba, María; Mayoral del Moral, Orlando; Coperias Zazo, José Luís; Gerwin, Robert D; Goñí, Alvaro Zapico

    2010-05-01

    Pain after breast cancer therapy is a recognized complication found to have an adverse impact on patient's quality of life, increasing psychosocial distress. In recent years, case reports about myofascial pain syndrome are emerging in thoracic surgery as a cause of postsurgery pain. Myofascial pain syndrome is a regional pain syndrome characterized by myofascial trigger points in palpable taut bands of skeletal muscle that refers pain a distance, and that can cause distant motor and autonomic effects. The objective of this study was to assess the incidence of myofascial pain syndrome prospectively 12 months after breast cancer surgery. Each participant was assessed preoperatively, postoperatively between day 3 and day 5, and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. A physical therapist, expert in the diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome, performed follow-up assessments. Pain descriptions by the patients and pain pattern drawings in body forms guided the physical examination. The patients were not given any information concerning myofascial pain or other muscle pain syndromes. One year follow-up was completed by 116 women. Of these, 52 women developed myofascial pain syndrome (44.8%, 95% confidence interval: 35.6, 54.3). Myofascial pain syndrome is a common source of pain in women undergoing breast cancer surgery that includes axillary lymph node dissection at least during the first year after surgery. Myofascial pain syndrome is one potential cause of chronic pain in breast cancer survivors who have undergone this kind of surgery.

  7. The biochemical origin of pain: the origin of all pain is inflammation and the inflammatory response. Part 2 of 3 - inflammatory profile of pain syndromes.

    PubMed

    Omoigui, Sota

    2007-01-01

    Every pain syndrome has an inflammatory profile consisting of the inflammatory mediators that are present in the pain syndrome. The inflammatory profile may have variations from one person to another and may have variations in the same person at different times. The key to treatment of Pain Syndromes is an understanding of their inflammatory profile. Pain syndromes may be treated medically or surgically. The goal should be inhibition or suppression of production of the inflammatory mediators and inhibition, suppression or modulation of neuronal afferent and efferent (motor) transmission. A successful outcome is one that results in less inflammation and thus less pain. We hereby briefly describe the inflammatory profile for several pain syndromes including arthritis, back pain, neck pain, fibromyalgia, interstitial cystitis, migraine, neuropathic pain, complex regional pain syndrome/reflex sympathetic dystrophy (CRPS/RSD), bursitis, shoulder pain and vulvodynia. These profiles are derived from basic science and clinical research performed in the past by numerous investigators and serve as a foundation to be built upon by other researchers and will be updated in the future by new technologies such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Our unifying theory or law of pain states: the origin of all pain is inflammation and the inflammatory response. The biochemical mediators of inflammation include cytokines, neuropeptides, growth factors and neurotransmitters. Irrespective of the type of pain whether it is acute or chronic pain, peripheral or central pain, nociceptive or neuropathic pain, the underlying origin is inflammation and the inflammatory response. Activation of pain receptors, transmission and modulation of pain signals, neuro plasticity and central sensitization are all one continuum of inflammation and the inflammatory response. Irrespective of the characteristic of the pain, whether it is sharp, dull, aching, burning, stabbing, numbing or tingling, all pain

  8. Neuromodulation of neuropathic pain syndrome induced by elapidae (cobra) envenomation.

    PubMed

    Stretanski, Michael F

    2009-01-01

    Objectives.  This study aims to demonstrate the utility of spinal cord stimulation in a neuropathic pain syndrome and overall decline in health and functional independence following elapid envenomation in a morbidly obese, insulin-dependent diabetic. Materials and Methods.  A two-lead, 16-electrode constant-current, independently controlled system is placed in the mid-cervical spine. Results.  Noted were a improvement in overall health status with better glycemic control and return to work status in response to adequate pain control. Conclusions.  The case serves as a model for other orphan pain cases with a seemingly esoteric etiology and adds to the existing body of literature that spinal cord stimulation and neuromodulation, in general, has a wide-ranging applicability peripheral neuropathic pain syndromes.

  9. Children and adolescents with complex regional pain syndrome: more psychologically distressed than other children in pain?

    PubMed

    Logan, Deirdre E; Williams, Sara E; Carullo, Veronica P; Claar, Robyn Lewis; Bruehl, Stephen; Berde, Charles B

    2013-01-01

    Historically, in both adult and pediatric populations, a lack of knowledge regarding complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and absence of clear diagnostic criteria have contributed to the view that this is a primarily psychiatric condition. To test the hypothesis that children with CRPS are more functionally disabled, have more pain and are more psychologically distressed than children with other pain conditions. A total of 101 children evaluated in a tertiary care pediatric pain clinic who met the International Association for the Study of Pain consensus diagnostic criteria for CRPS participated in the present retrospective study. Comparison groups included 103 children with abdominal pain, 291 with headache and 119 with back pain. Children and parents completed self-report questionnaires assessing disability, somatization, pain coping, depression, anxiety and school attendance. Children with CRPS reported higher pain intensity and more recent onset of pain at the initial tertiary pain clinic evaluation compared with children with other chronic pain conditions. They reported greater functional disability and more somatic symptoms than children with headaches or back pain. Scores on measures of depression and anxiety were within normal limits and similar to those of children in other pain diagnostic groups. As a group, clinic-referred children with CRPS may be more functionally impaired and experience more somatic symptoms compared with children with other pain conditions. However, overall psychological functioning as assessed by self-report appears to be similar to that of children with other chronic pain diagnoses. Comprehensive assessment using a biopsychosocial framework is essential to understanding and appropriately treating children with symptoms of CRPS.

  10. Children and adolescents with complex regional pain syndrome: More psychologically distressed than other children in pain?

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Deirdre E; Williams, Sara E; Carullo, Veronica P; Claar, Robyn Lewis; Bruehl, Stephen; Berde, Charles B

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Historically, in both adult and pediatric populations, a lack of knowledge regarding complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and absence of clear diagnostic criteria have contributed to the view that this is a primarily psychiatric condition. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that children with CRPS are more functionally disabled, have more pain and are more psychologically distressed than children with other pain conditions. METHODS: A total of 101 children evaluated in a tertiary care pediatric pain clinic who met the International Association for the Study of Pain consensus diagnostic criteria for CRPS participated in the present retrospective study. Comparison groups included 103 children with abdominal pain, 291 with headache and 119 with back pain. Children and parents completed self-report questionnaires assessing disability, somatization, pain coping, depression, anxiety and school attendance. RESULTS: Children with CRPS reported higher pain intensity and more recent onset of pain at the initial tertiary pain clinic evaluation compared with children with other chronic pain conditions. They reported greater functional disability and more somatic symptoms than children with headaches or back pain. Scores on measures of depression and anxiety were within normal limits and similar to those of children in other pain diagnostic groups. CONCLUSIONS: As a group, clinic-referred children with CRPS may be more functionally impaired and experience more somatic symptoms compared with children with other pain conditions. However, overall psychological functioning as assessed by self-report appears to be similar to that of children with other chronic pain diagnoses. Comprehensive assessment using a biopsychosocial framework is essential to understanding and appropriately treating children with symptoms of CRPS. PMID:23662291

  11. Horner's syndrome in a patient presenting with chest pain.

    PubMed

    van Bree, S H W; van Bree, M D R; Somsen, G A

    2015-07-01

    An altered mental status and peripheral nerve dysfunction are alarming signs in a patient presenting with chest pain. If complicated by acute myocardial infarction, this raises the suspicion of aortic dissection and warrants immediate CT angiography. We report a dramatic case of chest pain in a 79-year-old man with somnolence and Horner's syndrome, subsequently complicated by myocardial infarction. Autopsy demonstrated a type A aortic dissection involving the carotid arteries and the right coronary artery.

  12. Case study: Gluteal compartment syndrome as a cause of lumbosacral radiculoplexopathy and complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lederman, Andrew; Turk, David; Howard, Antonio; Reddy, Srinivas; Stern, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 24 yr old male who was diagnosed with gluteal compartment syndrome and was subsequently found to have developed lumbosacral radiculoplexopathy and complex regional pain syndrome. The patient's gluteal compartment syndrome was diagnosed within 24 h of presentation to the emergency room, and he underwent emergent compartment release. While recovering postoperatively, persistent weakness was noted in the right lower limb. Results of electrodiagnostic testing were consistent with a lumbosacral radiculoplexopathy. After admission to inpatient rehabilitation, the patient complained of pain, burning sensation, and numbness in the distal right lower limb. Based on clinical findings, he was diagnosed with complex regional pain syndrome type II, or causalgia, and was referred for a lumbar sympathetic block under fluoroscopic guidance. Sympathetic block resulted in relief of the patient's symptoms. He was discharged home with good pain control on oral medications.

  13. Similarities between interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and vulvodynia: implications for patient management

    PubMed Central

    Moldwin, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) and vulvodynia are chronic pain syndromes that appear to be intertwined from the perspectives of embryology, pathology and epidemiology. These associations may account for similar responses to various therapies. PMID:26816866

  14. Informational Needs of Postmastectomy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yeşilyurt, Duygu Soydaş; Fındık, Ümmü Yıldız

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine informational needs of postmastectomy patients. Materials and Methods This descriptive study was conducted in the general surgery clinics of a university health center for medical research and practice with 72 voluntary patients. For data collection, a patient identification form was used, which was prepared by the researchers in accordance with the literature. Results The mean age of the patients was 52.66±13.39 years, 87% were married, 58% had primary school education, 76% had moderate economic status, and 53% had undergone simple mastectomy. It was determined that 83% of the patients wanted to be informed about hospital and home care interventions, 82% about symptoms and prevention of post-surgical problems, 76% regarding breast cancer and treatment options, and in the range of 54–68%, patients wanted information on the effects of surgery on the body, shoulder and arm exercises, breast self-examination, the effects of breast cancer on family and work life, lymphedema and prevention interventions. Conclusion We recommend that patients with mastectomy should be informed about topics including care interventions, breast cancer and treatment options, effects of surgery, and reducing these effects.

  15. [Cyriax's syndrome. A cause of diagnostic error in abdominal pains].

    PubMed

    Monnin, J L; Pierrugues, R; Bories, P; Michel, H

    The slipping rib syndrome is characterized by upper abdominal pain due to irritation of the intercostal nerve by incomplete dislocation of the costal cartilage of the 8th, 9th, or 10th ribs. Twenty-three new cases are reported and the literature is reviewed. Diagnosis is only clinical. The pain is precipitated by movement and certain postures; it is faithfully reproduced by pressure on one particular point of the costal margin and is relieved by local injection of an anaesthetic. Pain from a slipping rib is usually attributed to visceral causes, which is a source of diagnostic errors.

  16. Enlargement of choroid plexus in complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guangyu; Hotta, Jaakko; Lehtinen, Maria K; Forss, Nina; Hari, Riitta

    2015-09-21

    The choroid plexus, located in brain ventricles, has received surprisingly little attention in clinical neuroscience. In morphometric brain analysis, we serendipitously found a 21% increase in choroid plexus volume in 12 patients suffering from complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) compared with age- and gender-matched healthy subjects. No enlargement was observed in a group of 8 patients suffering from chronic pain of other etiologies. Our findings suggest involvement of the choroid plexus in the pathogenesis of CRPS. Since the choroid plexus can mediate interaction between peripheral and brain inflammation, our findings pinpoint the choroid plexus as an important target for future research of central pain mechanisms.

  17. Neuropathic ocular pain due to dry eye is associated with multiple comorbid chronic pain syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Galor, Anat; Covington, Derek; Levitt, Alexandra E.; McManus, Katherine T.; Seiden, Benjamin; Felix, Elizabeth R.; Kalangara, Jerry; Feuer, William; Patin, Dennis J.; Martin, Eden R.; Sarantopoulos, Konstantinos D.; Levitt, Roy C.

    2015-01-01

    Recent data demonstrate that dry eye (DE) susceptibility and other chronic pain syndromes (CPS) such as chronic widespread pain, irritable bowel syndrome and pelvic pain, may share common heritable factors. Previously, we showed that DE patients describing more severe symptoms tended to report features of neuropathic ocular pain (NOP). We hypothesize that patients with a greater number of CPS would have a different DE phenotype compared to those with fewer CPS. We recruited a cohort of 154 DE patients from the Miami Veterans Affairs Hospital and defined high and low CPS groups by cluster analysis. In addition to worse non-ocular pain complaints and higher PTSD and depression scores (P<0.01), we found that the high CPS group reported more severe neuropathic-type DE symptoms compared to the low CPS group, including worse ocular pain assessed via 3 different pain scales (P<0.05), with similar objective corneal DE signs. This is the first study to demonstrate DE patients who manifest a greater number of comorbid CPS report more severe DE symptoms and features of NOP. These findings provide further evidence that NOP may represent a central pain disorder, and that shared mechanistic factors may underlie vulnerability to some forms of DE and other comorbid CPS. PMID:26606863

  18. Orofacial complex regional pain syndrome: pathophysiologic mechanisms and functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeon-Hee; Lee, Kyung Mi; Kim, Hyug-Gi; Kang, Soo-Kyung; Auh, Q-Schick; Hong, Jyung-Pyo; Chun, Yang-Hyun

    2017-08-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is one of the most challenging chronic pain conditions and is characterized by burning pain, allodynia, hyperalgesia, autonomic changes, trophic changes, edema, and functional loss involving mainly the extremities. Until recently, very few reports have been published concerning CRPS involving the orofacial area. We report on a 50-year-old female patient who presented with unbearable pain in all of her teeth and hypersensitivity of the facial skin. She also reported intractable pain in both extremities accompanied by temperature changes and orofacial pain that increased when the other pains were aggravated. In the case of CRPS with trigeminal neuropathic pain, protocols for proper diagnosis and prompt treatment have yet to be established in academia or in the clinical field. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging for a thorough analysis of the cortical representation of the affected orofacial area immediately before and immediately after isolated light stimulus of the affected hand and foot and concluded that CRPS can be correlated with trigeminal neuropathy in the orofacial area. Furthermore, the patient was treated with carbamazepine administration and stellate ganglion block, which can result in a rapid improvement of pain in the trigeminal region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. What is Complex Regional Pain Syndrome?

    MedlinePlus

    ... out other conditions, such as arthritis, Lyme disease, generalized muscle diseases, a clotted vein, or small fiber ... Friedreich's Ataxia Information Page Gaucher Disease Information Page Generalized Gangliosidoses Information Page Gerstmann's Syndrome Information Page Gerstmann- ...

  20. The effectiveness of Kinesio Taping on pain and disability in cervical myofascial pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ay, Saime; Konak, Hatice Ecem; Evcik, Deniz; Kibar, Sibel

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of Kinesio Taping and sham Kinesio Taping on pain, pressure pain threshold, cervical range of motion, and disability in cervical myofascial pain syndrome patients (MPS). This study was designed as a randomized, double-blind placebo controlled study. Sixty-one patients with MPS were randomly assigned into two groups. Group 1 (n=31) was treated with Kinesio Taping and group 2 (n=30) was treated sham taping five times by intervals of 3 days for 15 days. Additionally, all patients were given neck exercise program. Patients were evaluated according to pain, pressure pain threshold, cervical range of motion and disability. Pain was assessed by using Visual Analog Scale, pressure pain threshold was measured by using an algometer, and active cervical range of motion was measured by using goniometry. Disability was assessed with the neck pain disability index disability. Measurements were taken before and after the treatment. At the end of the therapy, there were statistically significant improvements on pain, pressure pain threshold, cervical range of motion, and disability (p<0.05) in both groups. Also there was a statistical difference between the groups regarding pain, pressure pain threshold, cervical flexion-extension (p<0.05); except cervical rotation, cervical lateral flexion and disability (p>0.05). This study shows that Kinesio Taping leads to improvements on pain, pressure pain threshold and cervical range of motion, but not disability in short time. Therefore, Kinesio Taping can be used as an alternative therapy method in the treatment of patients with MPS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. The effectiveness of kinesio taping on pain and disabilty in cervical myofascial pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ay, Saime; Konak, Hatice Ecem; Evcik, Deniz; Kibar, Sibel

    2016-03-09

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of Kinesio Taping and sham Kinesio Taping on pain, pressure pain treshold, cervical range of motion, and disability in cervical myofascial pain syndrome patients (MPS). This study was designed as a randomized, double-blind placebo controlled study. Sixty one patients with MPS were randomly assigned into two groups. Group 1 (n=31) were treated with kinesio taping and group 2 (n=30) were treated sham taping five times by intervals of 3 days for 15 days. Additionally, all patients were given neck exercise program. Patients were evaluated according to pain, pressure pain treshold, cervical range of motion and disability. Pain was assessed by using Visual Analog Scale, pressure pain treshold was measured by using an algometer, and active cervical range of motion was measured by using goniometry. Disability was assessed with the neck pain disability index disability. Measurements were taken before and after the treatment. At the end of the therapy, there were statistically significant improvements on pain, pressure pain treshold, cervical range of motion, and disability (p<0.05) in both groups. Also there was a statistical difference between the groups regarding pain, pressure pain treshold, cervical flexion-extension (p<0.05); except cervical rotation, cervical lateral flexion and disability(p>0.05). This study shows that Kinesio Taping leads to improvements on pain, pressure pain treshold and cervical range of motion, but not disability in short time. Therefore, Kinesio Taping can be used as an alternative therapy method in the treatment of patients with MPS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Percutaneous renal sympathetic nerve ablation for loin pain haematuria syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gambaro, Giovanni; Fulignati, Pierluigi; Spinelli, Alessio; Rovella, Valentina; Di Daniele, Nicola

    2013-09-01

    Loin pain haematuria syndrome (LPHS) is a severe renal pain condition of uncertain origin and often resistant to treatment. Nephrectomy and renal autotrasplantation have occasionally been performed in very severe cases. Its pathogenesis is controversial. A 40-year-old hypertensive lady was diagnosed with LPHS after repeated diagnostic imaging procedures had ruled out any renal, abdominal or spinal conditions to justify pain. Notwithstanding treatment with three drugs, she had frequent hypertensive crises during which the loin pain was dramatically exacerbated. Vascular causes of the pain and hypertension were investigated and excluded. Her renal function was normal. The patient was referred to a multidisciplinary pain clinic, but had no significant improvement in her pain symptoms despite the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, adjuvant antidepressants and opioid-like agents. The pain and the discomfort were so severe that her quality of life was very poor, and her social and professional activities were compromised. Nephrectomy and renal autotransplantation have occasionally been performed in these cases. Since visceral pain signals flow through afferent sympathetic fibres, we felt that percutaneous catheter-based radiofrequency ablation of the renal sympathetic nerve fibres (recently introduced for the treatment of drug-resistant hypertension) could be valuable for pain relief. We treated the patient with radiofrequency ablation (Medtronic Symplicity Catheter) applied only to the right renal artery. After a 6-month follow-up, the patient is pain free and normotensive with all drugs withdrawn. She has experienced no hypertensive crises in the meantime. This observation suggests that percutaneous sympathetic denervation could prove to be an effective mini-invasive strategy for the treatment of chronic renal pain, and LPHS in particular.

  3. [Cervical myofascial pain syndrome. Narrative review of physiotherapeutic treatment].

    PubMed

    Capó-Juan, M A

    2015-01-01

    Pain is a complex and multifactorial phenomenon that depends on the interaction of biopsychosocial factors. Between 15-25% of adults suffer from chronic pain at some point in their lives. Cervical chronic pain is considered a public health problem affecting 9.6% men and 21.9% women, according to the latest National Health Survey 2011-12. A high percentage of medical consultations due to muscle pain turn out to be myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). Its existence implies the presence of myofascial trigger points which can be latent or active throughout the whole population. The aim of this review is to update knowledge in the various therapies applied by the physiotherapist in the treatment of this syndrome at cervical level. From the review it appears that some of the most used techniques that may be useful in the short or medium term are: ischemic compression and/or trigger point pressure release and dry needling. Furthermore, various combinations of treatment modalities are used to treat this syndrome, taking other aspects into account, such as education.

  4. Co-existing carpal tunnel syndrome in complex regional pain syndrome after hand trauma.

    PubMed

    Koh, S M; Moate, F; Grinsell, D

    2010-03-01

    This study highlights the benefits of carpal tunnel release (CTR) in four patients presenting with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) after hand surgery who also had carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) diagnosed clinically and by nerve conduction studies. Three of the patients underwent pre- and postoperative volumetric, circumference, grip strength and range of motion measurements. The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) functional outcome measure and pain scores were also used. There was almost complete resolution of CRPS symptoms in all four patients, with notable reductions in oedema and improvements in grip strength and range of motion. There were also improvements in DASH outcome scores and pain scores after CTR.

  5. Painful Os Peroneum Syndrome: Underdiagnosed Condition in the Lateral Midfoot Pain

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Barbara Nogueira Caracas

    2016-01-01

    Os peroneum is an accessory ossicle located within the peroneus longus tendon. The painful os peroneum syndrome (POPS) results from a wide spectrum of conditions, including fractures, diastases, and other causes. POPS can result in tenosynovitis or discontinuity of the peroneus longus tendon with a clinical presentation of pain in the lateral aspect of the midfoot. Authors report a typical case of POPS, illustrating this entity through different imaging methods (radiographs, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging). We emphasize the prevalence of this ossicle and discuss painful complications. PMID:27478674

  6. A Rare Cause for Cervical Pain: Eagle's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Politi, Massimo; Toro, Corrado; Tenani, Giulia

    2009-01-01

    Patients with pharyngodynia and neck pain symptoms can lead to an extensive differential diagnosis. Eagle's syndrome must be taken in account. Eagle defined “stylalgia” as an autonomous entity related to abnormal length of the styloid process or to mineralization of the stylohyoid ligament complex. The stylohyoid complex derives from Reichert's cartilage of the second branchial arch. The styloyd process is an elongated conical projection of the temporal bone that lies anteriorly to the mastoid process. The incidence of Eagle's syndrome varies among population. Usually asymptomatic, it occurs in adult patients. It is characterized by pharyngodynia localized in the tonsillar fossa and sometimes accompanied by disphagia, odynophagia, foreign body sensation, and temporary voice changes. In some cases, the stylohyoid apparatus compresses the internal and/or the external carotid arteries and their perivascular sympathetic fibers, resulting in a persistent pain irradiating in the carotid territory. The pathogenesis of the syndrome is still under discussion. PMID:20339566

  7. A Rare Cause for Cervical Pain: Eagle's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Politi, Massimo; Toro, Corrado; Tenani, Giulia

    2009-01-01

    Patients with pharyngodynia and neck pain symptoms can lead to an extensive differential diagnosis. Eagle's syndrome must be taken in account. Eagle defined "stylalgia" as an autonomous entity related to abnormal length of the styloid process or to mineralization of the stylohyoid ligament complex. The stylohyoid complex derives from Reichert's cartilage of the second branchial arch. The styloyd process is an elongated conical projection of the temporal bone that lies anteriorly to the mastoid process. The incidence of Eagle's syndrome varies among population. Usually asymptomatic, it occurs in adult patients. It is characterized by pharyngodynia localized in the tonsillar fossa and sometimes accompanied by disphagia, odynophagia, foreign body sensation, and temporary voice changes. In some cases, the stylohyoid apparatus compresses the internal and/or the external carotid arteries and their perivascular sympathetic fibers, resulting in a persistent pain irradiating in the carotid territory. The pathogenesis of the syndrome is still under discussion.

  8. Chronic abdominal pain in a patient with escobar syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ural, Ülkü Mete; Tekın, Yeşim Bayoğlu; Kir Şahın, Figen; Erdıvanli, Başar; Kazdal, Hızır

    2015-01-01

    Escobar syndrome is characterized with multiple pterygia or webs of the skin and multiple congenital anomalies. We present a 15-year-old patient with Escobar syndrome who complained of persistent blunt abdominal pain for 1 year. Preoperative evaluation confirmed the diagnosis of imperforate hymen, and the patient underwent hymenectomy under intravenous sedation. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful and her complaints resolved completely. After a 3-month follow-up, she reported having normal menstrual bleeding intervals each month without any complications. Patients with Escobar syndrome may suffer from abdominal pain due to imperforate hymen. Careful evaluation of these patients must include a complete gynaecological assessment and, if indicated, surgical treatment must be performed without delay. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Botulinum Toxin A for Bladder Pain Syndrome/Interstitial Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Bin; Tai, Huai-Ching; Chung, Shiu-Dong; Birder, Lori A.

    2016-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT-A), derived from Clostridium botulinum, has been used clinically for several diseases or syndrome including chronic migraine, spasticity, focal dystonia and other neuropathic pain. Chronic pelvic or bladder pain is the one of the core symptoms of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC). However, in the field of urology, chronic bladder or pelvic pain is often difficult to eradicate by oral medications or bladder instillation therapy. We are looking for new treatment modality to improve bladder pain or associated urinary symptoms such as frequency and urgency for patients with BPS/IC. Recent studies investigating the mechanism of the antinociceptive effects of BoNT A suggest that it can inhibit the release of peripheral neurotransmitters and inflammatory mediators from sensory nerves. In this review, we will examine the evidence supporting the use of BoNTs in bladder pain from basic science models and review the clinical studies on therapeutic applications of BoNT for BPS/IC. PMID:27376330

  10. Patellar taping for patellofemoral pain syndrome in adults.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Michael J; Selfe, James

    2012-04-18

    Patellofemoral pain syndrome refers to the clinical presentation of knee pain related to changes in the patellofemoral joint. Patellofemoral pain syndrome usually has a gradual onset of pain with none of the features associated with other knee diseases or trauma. It is often treated by physiotherapists, who use a variety of techniques including patellar taping. This involves the application of adhesive sports medical tape applied directly to the skin over the patella on the front of the knee. Patients often report an instantaneous improvement in pain and function after the tape is applied, but its longer term effects are uncertain. The objective was to assess the effects, primarily on pain and function, of patellar taping for treating patellofemoral pain syndrome in adults. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PEDro, SPORTDiscus, AMED, reference lists of articles, trial registers and conference proceedings. All were searched to August 2011. Randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised controlled trials testing the effects of patellar taping on clinically relevant outcomes, pain and function, in adults with patellofemoral pain syndrome. We excluded studies testing only the immediate effects of tape application. Both review authors independently performed study selection, data extraction and assessment of risk of bias. Trialists were contacted for more information. Data were pooled where possible. Five small heterogeneous randomised controlled trials, all at high risk of performance bias and most at risk of at least one other type of bias, were included. These involved approximately 200 participants with a diagnosis of patellofemoral pain syndrome. All compared taping versus control (no or placebo taping) and all included one or more co-interventions given to both taping and control group participants; this was prescribed exercise in four

  11. Conditioned Pain Modulation in Women with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, Monica E.; Shulman, Robert J.; Cain, Kevin C.; Deechakawan, Wimon; Smith, Lynne T.; Richebé, Philippe; Eugenio, Margaret; Heitkemper, Margaret M.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are more vigilant to pain-associated stimuli. The aims of this study were to compare women with IBS (n = 20) to healthy control (HC, n = 20) women on pain sensitivity, conditioned pain modulation (CPM) efficiency and salivary cortisol levels before and after the CPM test; and examine the relationship of CPM efficiency with gastrointestinal, somatic pain, and psychological distress symptoms in each group. Women, ages 20–42, gave consent, completed questionnaires and kept a symptom diary for 2 weeks. CPM efficiency was tested with a heat test stimulus and cold water condition stimulus in a laboratory between 8 and 10 a.m. on a follicular phase day. Salivary cortisol samples were collected just before and after the experimental testing. Compared to the HC group, women with IBS reported more days with gastrointestinal and somatic pain/discomfort, psychological distress, fatigue, and feeling stressed. During the CPM baseline testing women with IBS reported greater pain sensitivity compared to the HC group. In the IBS group, CPM efficiency was associated with the pain impact (PROMIS) measure, daily abdominal pain/discomfort, psychological distress, in particular anxiety. There was no group difference in salivary cortisol levels. Overall, women with IBS exhibit an increased sensitivity to thermal stimuli. Impaired CPM was present in a subset of women with IBS. PMID:24463504

  12. Systematic review of chronic pain in persons with Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Velvin, G; Bathen, T; Rand-Hendriksen, S; Geirdal, A Ø

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the literature on chronic pain in adults with Marfan syndrome (MFS), critically appraising and synthesizing relevant literature. A systematic review was conducted by searching the published literature databases using available medical, physical, psychological, social databases and other sources. All studies that addressed pain in MFS, published in peer-reviewed journals were assessed. Of 351 search results, 18 articles satisfied the eligibility criteria. All studies were cross-sectional and quantitative; no randomized controlled trials or intervention studies were found. Most studies had small sample sizes, low response rates and mainly dealt with other aspects of the diagnosis than pain. Only one article dealt mainly with pain. The research on chronic pain in MFS is limited in size and quality. Despite these limitations, studies describe that the prevalence of pain in patients with MFS is high, varying from 47 to 92% and affecting several anatomic sites. In addition, chronic pain limits daily function and few studies describe treatment options for pain in patients with MFS. Research is needed to obtain more evidence-based knowledge for developing more appropriate rehabilitation programs for people with MFS. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Defining the Urological Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    From an international symposium by the National Institutes of Health, June 16–17, 2008, the mechanisms around urogenital pain (UGP) are now much more clearly understood, with a move away from considering the ‘end-organ’ as being responsible towards a central neuroplasticity theory and as a consequence both a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary approach to management. PMID:26526548

  14. Arthrocentesis for temporomandibular joint pain dysfunction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Peter A; Ilankovan, Vellupillai

    2006-06-01

    The management of refractory temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain is both challenging and controversial. A number of simple, noninvasive approaches have been used in the management of this condition with variable success. In patients who fail to respond to conventional conservative measures, in a joint that is not deemed to be grossly mechanically deranged, we advocate the use of TMJ arthrocentesis. In our practice, this is followed by intra-articular morphine infusion in an attempt to give long-term pain relief. Arthrocentesis is a simple technique with minimal morbidity that can be tried instead of more invasive procedures. To date we have used arthrocentesis of the upper joint space, with intra-articular morphine injection in over 500 TMJs. Approximately 90% of patients have found the procedure beneficial, with pain often being reduced 1 year after the procedure. We recommend arthrocentesis as an effective, minimally invasive technique in patients with continuing pain in the TMJ that is unresponsive to conservative management. We additionally advocate the use of intra-articular morphine as a long acting analgesic in these patients. Although arthrocentesis is a well documented technique and there have been many studies published in relation to the use of intra-articular morphine in orthopedic surgery, further research is required, to delineate its use in the TMJ more fully.

  15. Safety of "pain exposure" physical therapy in patients with complex regional pain syndrome type 1.

    PubMed

    van de Meent, Hendrik; Oerlemans, Margreet; Bruggeman, Almar; Klomp, Frank; van Dongen, Robert; Oostendorp, Rob; Frölke, Jan Paul

    2011-06-01

    "Pain exposure" physical therapy (PEPT) is a new treatment for patients with complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1) that consists of a progressive-loading exercise program and management of pain-avoidance behavior without the use of specific CRPS-1 medication or analgesics. The aim of this study was to investigate primarily whether PEPT could be applied safely in patients with CRPS-1. Twenty patients with CRPS-1 were consecutively enrolled in the study after giving informed consent. The diagnosis of CRPS-1 was defined using the Bruehl and Harden/IASP diagnostic criteria. CRPS-1 was diagnosed between 3 and 18 months after the inciting event (trauma). According to a multiple single-case design (baseline [A1], treatment [B], follow-up [A2]), multiple baseline and follow-up measurements were performed to evaluate changes in CRPS signs and symptoms and to assess functional parameters. When comparing the baseline with the follow-up phase, patients improved significantly with respect to pain on the visual analogue scale (57%), pain intensity (48%), muscle strength (52%), arm/shoulder/hand disability (36%), 10-meter walking speed (29%), pain disability index (60%), kinesiophobia (18%), and the domains of perceived health change in the SF-36 survey (269%). Three patients initially showed increased vegetative signs but improved in all other CRPS parameters and showed good functional recovery at follow-up. We conclude that PEPT is a safe and effective treatment for patients with CRPS-1. A progressive-loading exercise program and management of pain-avoidance behavior without the use of specific medication ("pain exposure" physical therapy) is safe and effective for patients with complex regional pain syndrome. Copyright © 2011 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Surveillance case definitions for work related upper limb pain syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, J. M.; Carter, J. T.; Birrell, L.; Gompertz, D.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish consensus case definitions for several common work related upper limb pain syndromes for use in surveillance or studies of the aetiology of these conditions. METHODS: A group of healthcare professionals from the disciplines interested in the prevention and management of upper limb disorders were recruited for a Delphi exercise. A questionnaire was used to establish case definitions from the participants, followed by a consensus conference involving the core group of 29 people. The draft conclusions were recirculated for review. RESULTS: Consensus case definitions were agreed for carpal tunnel syndrome, tenosynovitis of the wrist, de Quervain's disease of the wrist, epicondylitis, shoulder capsulitis (frozen shoulder), and shoulder tendonitis. The consensus group also identified a condition defined as "non-specific diffuse forearm pain" although this is essentially a diagnosis made by exclusion. The group did not have enough experience of the thoracic outlet syndrome to make recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: There was enough consensus between several health professionals from different disciplines to establish case definitions suitable for use in the studies of several work related upper limb pain syndromes. The use of these criteria should allow comparability between studies and centres and facilitate research in this field. The criteria may also be useful in surveillance programmes and as aids to case management.   PMID:9624281

  17. Sensitization of the Nociceptive System in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Diedrichs, Carolina; Baron, Ralf; Gierthmühlen, Janne

    2016-01-01

    Background Complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) is characterized by sensory, motor and autonomic abnormalities without electrophysiological evidence of a nerve lesion. Objective Aims were to investigate how sensory, autonomic and motor function change in the course of the disease. Methods 19 CRPS-I patients (17 with acute, 2 with chronic CRPS, mean duration of disease 5.7±8.3, range 1–33 months) were examined with questionnaires (LANSS, NPS, MPI, Quick DASH, multiple choice list of descriptors for sensory, motor, autonomic symptoms), motor and autonomic tests as well as quantitative sensory testing according to the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain at two visits (baseline and 36±10.6, range 16–53 months later). Results CRPS-I patients had an improvement of sudomotor and vasomotor function, but still a great impairment of sensory and motor function upon follow-up. Although pain and mechanical detection improved upon follow-up, thermal and mechanical pain sensitivity increased, including the contralateral side. Increase in mechanical pain sensitivity and loss of mechanical detection were associated with presence of ongoing pain. Conclusions The results demonstrate that patients with CRPS-I show a sensitization of the nociceptive system in the course of the disease, for which ongoing pain seems to be the most important trigger. They further suggest that measured loss of function in CRPS-I is due to pain-induced hypoesthesia rather than a minimal nerve lesion. In conclusion, this article gives evidence for a pronociceptive pain modulation profile developing in the course of CRPS and thus helps to assess underlying mechanisms of CRPS that contribute to the maintenance of patients’ pain and disability. PMID:27149519

  18. Efficacy of dry needling for treatment of myofascial pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fogelman, Yacov; Kent, John

    2015-01-01

    Myofascial pain is a major cause of musculoskeletal regional pain. Myofascial pain, which is a high-prevalence but eminently treatable condition, is almost universally underdiagnosed by physicians and undertreated by physical therapy modalities. Large numbers of patients can be left suffering in chronic pain for years. Dry needling, also referred to as Intramuscular Stimulation, is a method in the arsenal of pain management which has been known for almost 200 years in Western medicine, yet has been almost completely ignored. With the increase in research in this field over the past two decades, there are many high-quality studies that demonstrate dry needling to be an effective and safe method for the treatment of myofascial pain when diagnosed and treated by adequately-trained physicians or physical therapists. This article provides an overview of recent literature regarding the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome, evidence for the efficacy of dry needling as a central component of its management, and a glimpse at developments in recent imaging methods to aid in the treatment of these problems.

  19. Multicultural influences on pain medication attitudes and beliefs in patients with nonmalignant chronic pain syndromes.

    PubMed

    Monsivais, Diane; McNeill, Jeanette

    2007-06-01

    The objective was to develop an integrated review of quantitative and qualitative research regarding the influence of patients' beliefs and attitudes toward pain medication prescribed for the treatment of nonmalignant chronic pain on use of the pain medication. Studies involving patients at least 18 years old with nonmalignant chronic pain were included. Studies of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome, cancer, and acute pain were excluded. Medline, CINAHL, PsychInfo, and Cochrane databases from 1985 to 2005 were searched. Reference lists were screened for relevant articles. Abstracts were screened for compliance with the study criteria, and the articles were obtained for those that met criteria. By using a systematic process, each article was subjected to repeated review and data abstracted to the collection sheets. Evidence tables were created to assist with data review. High levels of concern positively correlate with nonadherence, preconceived ideas about when the drug should start working can cause the patient to discontinue it before it begins to work, and patients may perceive that if medication is taken on a regular basis to control pain it may not be effective in the future if the pain increases. Research also showed that if patients perceived the benefits of taking the pain medication to be high, they were willing to risk the side effects.

  20. Expanding the differential of shoulder pain: Parsonage-Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Adam L; Abramov, Ronnen; Fried, Guy W; Herbison, Gerald J

    2009-08-01

    A 44-year-old man was in his car when it was rear-ended in a minor motor vehicle collision, during which his right forearm contacted the steering wheel. Shortly thereafter, pain in his right shoulder developed, but initial work-up was unremarkable. His pain progressed to shoulder girdle weakness over several months and did not improve after 2.5 years. At the time of consultation, he complained of right-sided neck pain radiating to the right deltoid muscle and axilla as well as right shoulder blade pain with shoulder girdle weakness. Repeated electrodiagnostic studies revealed denervation limited to the serratus anterior and right deltoid muscles without evidence of cervical radiculopathy. He was diagnosed with Parsonage-Turner syndrome, which is a neurologic condition characterized by acute onset of shoulder and arm pain followed by weakness and sensory disturbance. The authors review patient presentation, physical examination, and work-up needed for diagnosis of this syndrome to help physicians avoid administering unnecessary tests and treatment.

  1. [Patellofemoral pain syndrome: understand better in order to treat better].

    PubMed

    Saubade, M; Martin, R; Becker, A; Gremion, G

    2014-07-16

    Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is one of the most frequent cause of anterior knee pain in adolescents and adults. Due to its complex etiology, which is multifactorial and still poorly understood, its management is a major challenge for the practitioner. The diagnosis is made primarily on the history and clinical examination of the knee, but also of the entire lower limb, which may sometimes require the completion of imaging. The treatment is mostly conservative, focussing on rehabilitation with targeted and personalized therapy. Surgical treatment is reserved for cases with a causal structural lesion.

  2. Physical therapy in the management of myofacial pain dysfunction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Talaat, A M; el-Dibany, M M; el-Garf, A

    1986-01-01

    A study of the effectiveness of physical therapy for patients with myofacial pain dysfunction syndrome was performed. Clinical evaluation of 120 patients revealed marked male preponderance, distribution according to age showed a great prevalence of the third decade, and most common chief complaints were pain and muscle tenderness. Patients were classified randomly into three equal groups treated by muscle relaxant drugs, shortwave diathermy, and ultrasonic therapy, respectively. Regular follow-up was carried out for 6 to 12 months to assess patients' responses to different forms of treatment. Evaluation revealed marked relief of symptoms by the use of physical therapy, and the best results were obtained by the use of ultrasonic therapy.

  3. Cervico-thoracic or lumbar sympathectomy for neuropathic pain and complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Straube, Sebastian; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; Cole, Peter

    2013-09-02

    This review is an update of a review first published in Issue 2, 2003, which was substantially updated in Issue 7, 2010. The concept that many neuropathic pain syndromes (traditionally this definition would include complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS)) are "sympathetically maintained pains" has historically led to treatments that interrupt the sympathetic nervous system. Chemical sympathectomies use alcohol or phenol injections to destroy ganglia of the sympathetic chain, while surgical ablation is performed by open removal or electrocoagulation of the sympathetic chain or by minimally invasive procedures using thermal or laser interruption. To review the evidence from randomised, double blind, controlled trials on the efficacy and safety of chemical and surgical sympathectomy for neuropathic pain, including complex regional pain syndrome. Sympathectomy may be compared with placebo (sham) or other active treatment, provided both participants and outcome assessors are blind to treatment group allocation. On 2 July 2013, we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Oxford Pain Relief Database. We reviewed the bibliographies of all randomised trials identified and of review articles and also searched two clinical trial databases, ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, to identify additional published or unpublished data. We screened references in the retrieved articles and literature reviews and contacted experts in the field of neuropathic pain. Randomised, double blind, placebo or active controlled studies assessing the effects of sympathectomy for neuropathic pain and CRPS. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and validity, and extracted data. No pooled analysis of data was possible. Only one study satisfied our inclusion criteria, comparing percutaneous radiofrequency thermal lumbar sympathectomy with lumbar sympathetic neurolysis using phenol in 20 participants with CRPS. There was no comparison of

  4. Poststernotomy neuralgia: a new pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Defalque, R J; Bromley, J J

    1989-07-01

    Fifty-four patients developed severe intercostal neuralgia a few weeks after sternotomy. Immediate relief afforded by parasternal nerve blocks confirmed that the pain derived from scar-entrapped neuromas of the anterior rami of the first 4-6 intercostal nerves in the upper (and mainly left) interchondral spaces after insertion of the sternal wires. Permanent relief (i.e., over 6 months) followed repeated bupivacaine blocks in 57.4% of the patients, phenol blocks in another 22.2%, and alcohol blocks in a remaining 9%. Treatment was successful in 87% of the patients.

  5. [Pellegrini-Stieda syndrome as a cause of knee pain].

    PubMed

    Santos Sánchez, J A; Ramos Pascua, L R; García Casado, D; Bermúdez López, C

    2012-01-01

    Calcification in the soft tissue next to the medial femoral condyle after a history of trauma around the knee is a recognized radiographic finding-PS (Pellegrini-Stieda) sign. When this is associated with pain and a restricted range of motion it is known as the PS syndrome. We describe two cases of PS syndrome, treated conservatively with rest and physiotherapy, as well as the radiographic and ultrasound findings, and the many theories proposed in attempts to explain the pathogenesis of PS disease.

  6. Genome-Wide Expression Profiling of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Eun-Heui; Zhang, Enji; Ko, Youngkwon; Sim, Woo Seog; Moon, Dong Eon; Yoon, Keon Jung; Hong, Jang Hee; Lee, Won Hyung

    2013-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic, progressive, and devastating pain syndrome characterized by spontaneous pain, hyperalgesia, allodynia, altered skin temperature, and motor dysfunction. Although previous gene expression profiling studies have been conducted in animal pain models, there genome-wide expression profiling in the whole blood of CRPS patients has not been reported yet. Here, we successfully identified certain pain-related genes through genome-wide expression profiling in the blood from CRPS patients. We found that 80 genes were differentially expressed between 4 CRPS patients (2 CRPS I and 2 CRPS II) and 5 controls (cut-off value: 1.5-fold change and p<0.05). Most of those genes were associated with signal transduction, developmental processes, cell structure and motility, and immunity and defense. The expression levels of major histocompatibility complex class I A subtype (HLA-A29.1), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), alanine aminopeptidase N (ANPEP), l-histidine decarboxylase (HDC), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor 3 receptor (G-CSF3R), and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) genes selected from the microarray were confirmed in 24 CRPS patients and 18 controls by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). We focused on the MMP9 gene that, by qRT-PCR, showed a statistically significant difference in expression in CRPS patients compared to controls with the highest relative fold change (4.0±1.23 times and p = 1.4×10−4). The up-regulation of MMP9 gene in the blood may be related to the pain progression in CRPS patients. Our findings, which offer a valuable contribution to the understanding of the differential gene expression in CRPS may help in the understanding of the pathophysiology of CRPS pain progression. PMID:24244504

  7. [Pain in the Guillain-Barré syndrome in children].

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Rebolledo, F; Rendón-Macías, M E; Escobar-Barrios, E

    1997-01-01

    In Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) painful involvement has not been considered as a major clinical manifestation for diagnostic criteria among children. Was to evaluate whether clinical our purpose painful sensations are the main manifestations in pediatric patients with GBS. Twenty patients that fulfilled the Asbury criteria for diagnosis of GBS were studied prospectively from January, 1992 to June, 1994. Painful sensations were evaluated considering segmentary level with special focus in intensity, modality, topography distribution from the beginning to the resolution of the paralysis and effect to analgesic therapy every day for the first week and weekly thereafter. Patients had a mean age of 9.6 years (SD 5.4). Twelve patients were males and eight were females. All the patients but one complained of pain during some time of the course of illness, (19/20, 95%). At the illness onset, pain sensations were spontaneously referred in 12/20 (60%) of the cases, after anamnesis in 3/20 (15%) and physical exam in 4/20 (20%). Pain distribution during acme occurred in feet, thighs and legs in 95% of patients; back, arms and forearms in 65%, buttocks, shoulders and hands in 35%. The highest intensity of pain took place the first week of the illness course, and the mean time of decreasing occurred with a median of three days after onset with complete resolution three weeks later. We report that pain was an early and main clinical manifestation of GBS in children. We suggest that pain must be considered as a relevant criterium for GBS diagnosis in pediatric patients.

  8. [Adequacy of amputation analgesia as a factor preventing the triggering of pain memory in the genesis of phantom pain syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ovechkin, A M; Kukushkin, M L; Gnezdilov, A V; Reshetniak, V K

    1995-01-01

    Examinations of 72 patients with a history of amputation of the lower limb showed that preamputation pain may be transformed into phantom pain via "pain memory" mechanisms. This fact is confirmed by similarity of the verbal structure of preamputation pain and phantom pain syndrome, which are particularly expressed in the patients operated on under total anesthesia. At the same time, the share of patients considering phantom pain identical to preamputation pain is much lower among those operated on under prolonged perioperative epidural anesthesia, and no "pain memory" phenomena are observed in this group 6 months after surgery. Prolonged epidural anesthesia provides a pain-free period before surgery by disrupting the time relationship between nociceptive impulsation entry in the CNS structures and amputation, thus preventing fixation of 'pain experience' survived in the memory. The adequacy of intraoperative analgesia attained by prolonged epidural anesthesia plays the crucial role in prevention of realization of the "pain memory" effect.

  9. Pain and neuroma formation in Wallenberg's lateral medullary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Moffie, D; Hamburger, H L

    1986-01-01

    We report a patient with a Wallenberg's lateral medullary syndrome in which pain was a prominent feature. This led to substitution of the original and correct diagnosis by that of a thalamic syndrome for which a prefrontal leucotomy was performed. The patient died some years later from a myocardial infarction and autopsy was performed. In the dorsolateral part of the medulla oblongata a cavity was found in which aberrant nerve fibres with neuroma-like formations could be seen. These fibres coursed along blood vessels, and penetrated from the surface of the medulla oblongata. On the base of the clinico-pathological correlations, it is conjectured that destruction of the lateral reticular formation cannot be the sole cause of the severe pain.

  10. Increased bladder permeability in interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley; Wisniewski, Amy B.; VanGordon, Samuel; Lin, HsuehKung; Kropp, Bradley P.; Towner, Rheal A.

    2015-01-01

    The definition of interstitial cystitis (IC) has evolved over the years from being a well-defined entity characterized by diagnostic lesion (Hunner’s ulcer) in the urothelium to a clinical diagnosis by exclusion [painful bladder syndrome (PBS)]. Although the etiology is unknown, a central theme has been an association with increased permeability of the bladder. This article reviews the evidence for increased permeability being important to the symptoms of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) and in treating the disorder. Recent work showing cross-communication among visceral organs is also reviewed to provide a basis for understanding IC/PBS as a systemic disorder of a complex, interconnected system consisting of the bladder, bowel and other organs, nerves, cytokine-responding cells and the nervous system. PMID:26751576

  11. Association of restless legs syndrome, pain, and mood disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Rana, Abdul Qayyum; Qureshi, Abdul Rehman M; Rahman, Labiba; Jesudasan, Ajantha; Hafez, Kevin K; Rana, Mohammad A

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to analyze the association between Parkinson's disease and restless legs syndrome, and to explore the relationship between mood disorder comorbidity (anxiety and depression), pain, and restless legs syndrome. This study included 123 Parkinson's disease patients and 123 non-Parkinson's disease patients matched for age and gender, and evaluated for anxiety severity, depression severity, pain severity, pain interference, pain disability, and restless legs syndrome prevalence. This was performed using semi-structured interviews and a neurological examination through the restless legs syndrome diagnostic criteria and the following inventories; Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Brief Pain Inventory, and Pain Disability Index. Parkinson's disease patients had significantly greater anxiety severity, depression severity, pain severity, pain interference, pain disability, and restless legs syndrome prevalence in comparison to controls. In addition, Parkinson's disease patients' comorbid for anxiety and depression had significantly greater pain severity, pain interference, and pain disability, but not RLS prevalence, in comparison to Parkinson's disease only, Parkinson's disease anxiety, and Parkinson's disease depression patients. Pain interference, pain severity, and pain disability is greater among Parkinson's disease patients with anxiety and depression, in comparison to Parkinson's disease patients without anxiety and depression. On the contrary, the prevalence of restless legs syndrome was not found to be relevant.

  12. Association of anxiety with intracortical inhibition and descending pain modulation in chronic myofascial pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to answer three questions related to chronic myofascial pain syndrome (MPS): 1) Is the motor cortex excitability, as assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation parameters (TMS), related to state-trait anxiety? 2) Does anxiety modulate corticospinal excitability changes after evoked pain by Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST)? 3) Does the state-trait anxiety predict the response to pain evoked by QST if simultaneously receiving a heterotopic stimulus [Conditional Pain Modulation (CPM)]? We included females with chronic MPS (n = 47) and healthy controls (n = 11), aged 19 to 65 years. Motor cortex excitability was assessed by TMS, and anxiety was assessed based on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The disability related to pain (DRP) was assessed by the Profile of Chronic Pain scale for the Brazilian population (B:PCP:S), and the psychophysical pain measurements were measured by the QST and CPM. Results In patients, trait-anxiety was positively correlated to intracortical facilitation (ICF) at baseline and after QST evoked pain (β = 0.05 and β = 0.04, respectively) and negatively correlated to the cortical silent period (CSP) (β = -1.17 and β = -1.23, respectively) (P <0.05 for all comparisons). After QST evoked pain, the DRP was positively correlated to ICF (β = 0.02) (P < 0.05). Pain scores during CPM were positively correlated with trait-anxiety when it was concurrently with high DRP (β = 0.39; P = 0.02). Controls’ cortical excitability remained unchanged after QST. Conclusions These findings suggest that, in chronic MPS, the imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory descending systems of the corticospinal tract is associated with higher trait-anxiety concurrent with higher DRP. PMID:24645677

  13. Immunological Mechanisms Underlying Chronic Pelvic Pain and Prostate Inflammation in Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Breser, María L; Salazar, Florencia C; Rivero, Viginia E; Motrich, Rubén D

    2017-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is the most common urologic morbidity in men younger than 50 years and is characterized by a diverse range of pain and inflammatory symptoms, both in type and severity, that involve the region of the pelvis, perineum, scrotum, rectum, testes, penis, and lower back. In most patients, pain is accompanied by inflammation in the absence of an invading infectious agent. Since CP/CPPS etiology is still not well established, available therapeutic options for patients are far from satisfactory for either physicians or patients. During the past two decades, chronic inflammation has been deeply explored as the cause of CP/CPPS. In this review article, we summarize the current knowledge regarding immunological mechanisms underlying chronic pelvic pain and prostate inflammation in CP/CPPS. Cumulative evidence obtained from both human disease and animal models indicate that several factors may trigger chronic inflammation in the form of autoimmunity against prostate, fostering chronic prostate recruitment of Th1 cells, and different other leukocytes, including mast cells, which might be the main actors in the consequent development of chronic pelvic pain. Thus, the local inflammatory milieu and the secretion of inflammatory mediators may induce neural sensitization leading to chronic pelvic pain development. Although scientific advances are encouraging, additional studies are urgently needed to establish the relationship between prostatitis development, mast cell recruitment to the prostate, and the precise mechanisms by which they would induce pelvic pain.

  14. Immunological Mechanisms Underlying Chronic Pelvic Pain and Prostate Inflammation in Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Breser, María L.; Salazar, Florencia C.; Rivero, Viginia E.; Motrich, Rubén D.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is the most common urologic morbidity in men younger than 50 years and is characterized by a diverse range of pain and inflammatory symptoms, both in type and severity, that involve the region of the pelvis, perineum, scrotum, rectum, testes, penis, and lower back. In most patients, pain is accompanied by inflammation in the absence of an invading infectious agent. Since CP/CPPS etiology is still not well established, available therapeutic options for patients are far from satisfactory for either physicians or patients. During the past two decades, chronic inflammation has been deeply explored as the cause of CP/CPPS. In this review article, we summarize the current knowledge regarding immunological mechanisms underlying chronic pelvic pain and prostate inflammation in CP/CPPS. Cumulative evidence obtained from both human disease and animal models indicate that several factors may trigger chronic inflammation in the form of autoimmunity against prostate, fostering chronic prostate recruitment of Th1 cells, and different other leukocytes, including mast cells, which might be the main actors in the consequent development of chronic pelvic pain. Thus, the local inflammatory milieu and the secretion of inflammatory mediators may induce neural sensitization leading to chronic pelvic pain development. Although scientific advances are encouraging, additional studies are urgently needed to establish the relationship between prostatitis development, mast cell recruitment to the prostate, and the precise mechanisms by which they would induce pelvic pain. PMID:28824626

  15. Stress and visceral pain: focusing on irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fukudo, Shin

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in brain science have shown that the brain function encoding emotion depends on interoceptive signals such as visceral pain. Visceral pain arose early in our evolutionary history. Bottom-up processing from gut-to-brain and top-down autonomic/neuroendocrine mechanisms in brain-to-gut signaling constitute a circuit. Brain imaging techniques have enabled us to depict the visceral pain pathway as well as the related emotional circuit. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is characterized by chronic recurrent abdominal pain or abdominal discomfort associated with bowel dysfunction. It is also thought to be a disorder of the brain-gut link associated with an exaggerated response to stress. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), a major mediator of the stress response in the brain-gut axis, is an obvious candidate in the pathophysiology of IBS. Indeed, administration of CRH has been shown to aggravate the visceral sensorimotor response in IBS patients, and the administration of peptidergic CRH antagonists seems to alleviate IBS pathophysiology. Serotonin (5-HT) is another likely candidate associated with brain-gut function in IBS, as 5-HT3 antagonists, 5-HT4 agonists, and antidepressants were demonstrated to regulate 5-HT neurotransmission in IBS patients. Autonomic nervous system function, the neuroimmune axis, and the brain-gut-microbiota axis show specific profiles in IBS patients. Further studies on stress and visceral pain neuropathways in IBS patients are warranted. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Treatment of pain symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vishal; Moshiree, Baharak; Verne, G Nicholas

    2004-10-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome represents a common gastrointestinal disorder that significantly impacts patients' lives. It is defined by Rome II criteria and characterized by abdominal pain and bloating associated with changes in bowel habit. Visceral hypersensitivity is currently considered a biological marker for the disease. Current therapeutic treatments include the use of fiber supplements, antidiarrheal agents, laxatives, antispasmodics, tricyclic antidepressants and serotonergic agents. Through a proper understanding of the diagnostic criteria, pathophysiology and treatment options, this disorder can be treated effectively in many patients.

  17. Complementary therapies for bladder pain syndrome: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Verghese, Tina S; Riordain, Richael Ni; Champaneria, Rita; Latthe, Pallavi M

    2016-08-01

    Bladder pain syndrome is a difficult condition to treat. The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the effectiveness of various complementary therapies available for treatment. This review was conducted in adherence with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews. Citations were retrieved using a comprehensive database search (from inception to July 2014: CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE, Medline and SIGEL and grey literature). Studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were selected. Eligibility consisted of women with bladder pain syndrome, an intervention of alternative/complementary therapies and an outcome of improvement of symptoms. Information regarding study characteristics and primary outcomes was collated. The Cochrane risk of bias scale was used to evaluate the quality of the studies included. A total of 1,454 citations were identified, 11 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria (4 randomised control trials [RCTs] and 7 prospective studies). The key interventions studied were acupuncture, relaxation therapy, physical therapy, hydrogen-rich therapy, diet and nitric oxide synthetase. Therapies with the potential for benefit in patients with bladder pain syndrome are dietary management, acupuncture and physical therapy. These findings were obtained from small studies and hence caution is advised. Robustly designed multicentre RCTs on these complementary therapies are needed to guide patients and clinicians.

  18. Iliotibial band syndrome: a common source of knee pain.

    PubMed

    Khaund, Razib; Flynn, Sharon H

    2005-04-15

    Iliotibial band syndrome is a common knee injury. The most common symptom is lateral knee pain caused by inflammation of the distal portion of the iliotibial band. The iliotibial band is a thick band of fascia that crosses the hip joint and extends distally to insert on the patella, tibia, and biceps femoris tendon. In some athletes, repetitive flexion and extension of the knee causes the distal iliotibial band to become irritated and inflamed resulting in diffuse lateral knee pain. Iliotibial band syndrome can cause significant morbidity and lead to cessation of exercise. Although iliotibial band syndrome is easily diagnosed clinically, it can be extremely challenging to treat. Treatment requires active patient participation and compliance with activity modification. Most patients respond to conservative treatment involving stretching of the iliotibial band, strengthening of the gluteus medius, and altering training regimens. Corticosteroid injections should be considered if visible swelling or pain with ambulation persists for more than three days after initiating treatment. A small percentage of patients are refractory to conservative treatment and may require surgical release of the iliotibial band.

  19. Pain perception in people with Down syndrome: a synthesis of clinical and experimental research

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Brian E.; Defrin, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    People with an intellectual disability experience both acute and chronic pain with at least the same frequency as the general population. However, considerably less is known about the pain perception of people with Down syndrome. In this review paper, we evaluated the available clinical and experimental evidence. Some experimental studies of acute pain have indicated that pain threshold was higher than normal but only when using a reaction time method to measure pain sensitivity. However, when reaction time is not part of the calculation of the pain threshold, pain sensitivity in people with Down syndrome is in fact lower than normal (more sensitive to pain). Clinical studies of chronic pain have shown that people with an intellectual disability experience chronic pain and within that population, people with Down syndrome also experience chronic pain, but the precise prevalence of chronic pain in Down syndrome has yet to be established. Taken together, the literature suggests that people with Down syndrome experience pain, both acute and chronic, with at least the same frequency as the rest of the population. Furthermore, the evidence suggests that although acute pain expression appears to be delayed, once pain is registered, there appears to be a magnified pain response. We conclude by proposing an agenda for future research in this area. PMID:26283936

  20. Crowned dens syndrome: a rare cause of acute neck pain.

    PubMed

    Uh, Mitchell; Dewar, Catharine; Spouge, David; Blocka, Kenneth

    2013-05-01

    Crowned dens syndrome (CDS) is a rare but underrecognized cause of severe neck pain in older adults. It is characterized by acute onset pain and stiffness of the cervical spine. Accompanying fever and elevated inflammatory markers often lead to misdiagnosis. It is frequently associated with calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease, hydroxyapatite crystals, and sometimes other inflammatory conditions. Periodontoid calcification is seen on cervical computed tomography (CT) scan but is not typically visible on plain radiographs, making CT scanning invaluable in diagnosis. We describe a case of CDS in a 59-year-old woman, who presented with severe neck pain, elevated inflammatory markers, and progressive evolution in the appearance of her CT scans. The pathophysiology, clinical and radiographic findings, and dramatic response to corticosteroid therapy are reviewed.

  1. Bracing and Taping Techniques and Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jessee, April D.; Gourley, Meganne M.; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C.

    2012-01-01

    Reference/Citation: D'hondt NE, Struijs PA, Kerkhoffs GM, et al. Orthotic devices for treating patellofemoral pain syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(2):CD002267. Clinical Question: Is there an effective bracing or taping technique for treating patellofemoral pain? Data Sources: The authors searched the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Injuries Group specialized register (December 2001), the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (2000, issue 2), MEDLINE (January 1966 to March 2000), EMBASE (January 1988 to March 2000), CINAHL (January 1982 to March 2000), and PEDro (up to March 2000) without language limitations. They also contacted relevant orthotic companies and searched the included reference lists of the retrieved articles. The search terms for MEDLINE were anterior knee pain, arthralgia, knee joint, patella, and patellofemoral pain. The search terms for EMBASE were brace, chondropathy, dynamic splint, knee, orthosis, orthotics, patella, patella chondromalacia, patellofemoral joint, randomized control trial, and strap. The search terms for CINAHL were anterior knee pain, brace, orthot, orthos, randomi, strap, tape, patell, and patellofemoral. In PEDro, the subsequent composite of search terms was therapy: manipulation, massage, mobilization, orthoses, splinting, stretching, strength training, taping; subdiscipline: musculoskeletal, orthopaedics, sports; method: clinical trial; problem: muscle weakness, pain, reduced joint compliance; body part: foot or ankle, lower leg or knee. Study Selection: All randomized and quasi-randomized trials comparing the effectiveness of knee or foot orthotics for treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome were included. Any trials that described the use of orthotic devices in conjunction with operative treatment were excluded from this review. Using these inclusion criteria, 2 reviewers independently assessed the potentially eligible studies and resolved any disagreements through conversation and negotiation by a third reviewer

  2. Briquet syndrome in a man with chronic intractable pain.

    PubMed

    de Figueiredo, J M; Baiardi, J J; Long, D M

    1980-09-01

    A 51-year-old man was admitted for evaluation and treatment of scrotal pain of 20 years' duration following unilateral orchiectomy for right testicular injury. Past attempts had failed to provide definitive or persistent relief. Physical examination and investigations were unremarkable. Psychiatric assessment revealed an angry, depressed man with a drasmatic, hypermasculine manner and hysterical and obsessive personality traits. Review of systems with a structured interview indicated that the patient had numerous medically unexplained symptoms and that he fulfilled both the Feighner and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 3rd edition (DSM-III) diagnostic criteria for Briquet syndrome. The case is important because it demonstrates the usefulness of recognizing Briquet syndrome in patients with the single presenting complaint of chronic, intractable pain, and the fact that Briquet syndrome, commonly considered a female disorder, can occur in men regardless of sexual orientation and in the absence of expected compensation. In addition, the case confirms the utility of a structured interview and defined criteria for making the diagnosis of Briquet syndrome.

  3. Complex regional pain syndromes: the influence of cutaneous and deep somatic sympathetic innervation on pain.

    PubMed

    Schattschneider, Jörn; Binder, Andreas; Siebrecht, Dieter; Wasner, Gunnar; Baron, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS) can be relieved by sympathetic blockade. Different sympathetic efferent output channels innervate distinct effector organs (ie, cutaneous vasoconstrictor, muscle vasoconstrictor. and sudomotor neurons, as well as neurons innervating deep somatic tissues like bone, joints, and tendons). The aim of the present study was to elucidate in CRPS patients the sympathetically maintained pain (SMP) component that exclusively depends on cutaneous sympathetic activity compared with the SMP depending on the sympathetic innervation of deep somatic tissues. The sympathetic outflow to the painful skin was modulated selectively in awake humans. High and low cutaneous vasoconstrictor activity was produced in 12 CRPS type 1 patients by whole-body cooling and warming (thermal suit). Spontaneous pain was quantified during high and low cutaneous vasoconstrictor activity. By comparing the cutaneous SMP component with the change in pain that was achieved by modulation of the entire sympathetic outflow (sympathetic ganglion block), the SMP component originating in deep somatic structures was estimated. The relief of spontaneous pain after sympathetic blockade was more pronounced than changes in spontaneous pain that could be induced by selective sympathetic cutaneous modulation. The entire SMP component (cutaneous and deep) changes considerably over time. It is most prominent in the acute stages of CRPS. Sympathetic afferent coupling takes place in the skin and in the deep somatic tissues, but especially in the acute stages of CRPS, the pain component that is influenced by the sympathetic innervation of deep somatic structures is more important than the cutaneous activation. The entire sympathetic maintained pain component is not constant in the course of the disease but decreases over time.

  4. The chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and pain catastrophizing: a vicious combination.

    PubMed

    Hedelin, Hans

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the presence and importance of pain catastrophizing among men diagnosed with chronic abacterial prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) in a routine clinical setting. 61 men, mean age 46 ± 11 years, with a mean CP/CPPS history of 11 ± 11 years, completed the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI), Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) and Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ) to evaluate pain catastrophizing, and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5). They were also scored according to the UPOINT system. The patients' mean scores were: IEEF-5 17.6 ± 7.3, NIH-CPSI pain subscale 11.1 ± 4.4, quality of life question 2.7 ± 1.6, quality of life impact subscale 6.9 ± 2.7 and CSQ catastrophizing score 15.3 ± 9.1. Patients with a high tendency for catastrophizing (CSQ score ≥20) (28%) had higher UPOINT and pain scores, worse quality of life and quality of life impact, but did not stand out regarding voiding dysfunction and ejaculatory pain. Two distinctly different cohorts could be identified: a smaller cohort with a high degree of catastrophizing, severe pain and poor quality of life, and a larger one with a low degree of catastrophizing, less severe pain and moderately reduced quality of life. It is important in clinical practice to distinguish between the two groups since they require different therapeutic approaches.

  5. Associates of Physical Function and Pain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Piva, Sara R.; Fitzgerald, G. Kelley; Irrgang, James J.; Fritz, Julie M.; Wisniewski, Stephen; McGinty, Gerald T.; Childs, John D.; Domenech, Manuel A.; Jones, Scott; Delitto, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore whether impairment of muscle strength, soft tissue length, movement control, postural and biomechanic alterations, and psychologic factors are associated with physical function and pain in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Rehabilitation outpatient. Participants Seventy-four patients diagnosed with PFPS. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Measurements were self-reported function and pain; strength of quadriceps, hip abduction, and hip external rotation; length of hamstrings, quadriceps, plantar flexors, iliotibial band/tensor fasciae latae complex, and lateral retinaculum; foot pronation; Q-angle; tibial torsion; visual observation of quality of movement during a lateral step-down task; anxiety; and fear-avoidance beliefs. Results After controlling for age and sex, anxiety and fear-avoidance beliefs about work and physical activity were associated with function, while only fear-avoidance beliefs about work and physical activity were associated with pain. Conclusions Psychologic factors were the only associates of function and pain in patients with PFPS. Factors related to physical impairments did not associate to function or pain. Our results should be validated in other samples of patients with PFPS. Further studies should determine the role of other psychologic factors, and how they relate to anxiety and fear-avoidance beliefs in these patients. PMID:19236982

  6. Patellofemoral pain syndrome: a review of current issues.

    PubMed

    Thomeé, R; Augustsson, J; Karlsson, J

    1999-10-01

    There is no clear consensus in the literature concerning the terminology, aetiology and treatment for pain in the anterior part of the knee. The term 'anterior knee pain' is suggested to encompass all pain-related problems. By excluding anterior knee pain due to intra-articular pathology, peripatellar tendinitis or bursitis, plica syndromes, Sinding Larsen's disease, Osgood Schlatter's disease, neuromas and other rarely occurring pathologies, it is suggested that remaining patients with a clinical presentation of anterior knee pain could be diagnosed with patello-femoral pain syndrome (PFPS). Three major contributing factors of PFPS are discussed: (i) malalignment of the lower extremity and/or the patella; (ii) muscular imbalance of the lower extremity; and (iii) overactivity. The significance of lower extremity alignment factors and pathological limits needs further investigation. It is possible that the definitions used for malalignment should be re-evaluated, as the scientific support is very weak for determining when alignment is normal and when there is malalignment. Consequently, pathological limits must be clarified, along with evaluation of risk factors for acquiring PFPS. Muscle tightness and muscular imbalance of the lower extremity muscles with decreased strength due to hypotrophy or inhibition have been suggested, but remain unclear as potential causes of PFPS. Decreased knee extensor strength is a common finding in patients with PFPS. Various patterns of weaknesses have been reported, with selective weakness in eccentric muscle strength, within the quadriceps muscle and in terminal knee extension. The significance of muscle function in a closed versus open kinetic chain has been discussed, but is far from well investigated. It is clear that further studies are necessary in order to establish the significance of various strength deficits and muscular imbalances, and to clarify whether a specific disturbance in muscular activation is a cause or an effect

  7. Plasma Amino Acids Changes in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Guillermo M.; Reichenberger, Erin; Peterlin, B. Lee; Perreault, Marielle J.; Grothusen, John R.; Schwartzman, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a severe chronic pain condition that most often develops following trauma. Blood samples were collected from 220 individuals, 160 CRPS subjects, and 60 healthy pain-free controls. Plasma amino acid levels were compared and contrasted between groups. L-Aspartate, L-glutamate, and L-ornithine were significantly increased, whereas L-tryptophan and L-arginine were significantly decreased in CRPS subjects as compared to controls. In addition, the L-kynurenine to L-tryptophan ratio demonstrated a significant increase, whereas the global arginine bioavailability ratio (GABR) was significantly decreased in the CRPS subjects. The CRPS subjects demonstrated a significant correlation between overall pain and the plasma levels of L-glutamate and the L-kynurenine to L-tryptophan ratio. CRPS subjects also showed a correlation between the decrease in plasma L-tryptophan and disease duration. This study shows that CRPS subjects exhibit significant changes in plasma levels of amino acids involved in glutamate receptor activation and in amino acids associated with immune function as compared to healthy pain-free controls. A better understanding of the role plasma amino acids play in the pathophysiology of CRPS may lead to novel treatments for this crippling condition. PMID:24303215

  8. Plasma amino acids changes in complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Guillermo M; Reichenberger, Erin; Peterlin, B Lee; Perreault, Marielle J; Grothusen, John R; Schwartzman, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a severe chronic pain condition that most often develops following trauma. Blood samples were collected from 220 individuals, 160 CRPS subjects, and 60 healthy pain-free controls. Plasma amino acid levels were compared and contrasted between groups. L-Aspartate, L-glutamate, and L-ornithine were significantly increased, whereas L-tryptophan and L-arginine were significantly decreased in CRPS subjects as compared to controls. In addition, the L-kynurenine to L-tryptophan ratio demonstrated a significant increase, whereas the global arginine bioavailability ratio (GABR) was significantly decreased in the CRPS subjects. The CRPS subjects demonstrated a significant correlation between overall pain and the plasma levels of L-glutamate and the L-kynurenine to L-tryptophan ratio. CRPS subjects also showed a correlation between the decrease in plasma L-tryptophan and disease duration. This study shows that CRPS subjects exhibit significant changes in plasma levels of amino acids involved in glutamate receptor activation and in amino acids associated with immune function as compared to healthy pain-free controls. A better understanding of the role plasma amino acids play in the pathophysiology of CRPS may lead to novel treatments for this crippling condition.

  9. Cervico-thoracic or lumbar sympathectomy for neuropathic pain and complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Straube, Sebastian; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J

    2010-07-07

    This review is an update on 'Sympathectomy for neuropathic pain' originally published in Issue 2, 2003. The concept that many neuropathic pain syndromes (traditionally this definition would include complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS)) are "sympathetically maintained pains" has historically led to treatments that interrupt the sympathetic nervous system. Chemical sympathectomies use alcohol or phenol injections to destroy ganglia of the sympathetic chain, while surgical ablation is performed by open removal or electrocoagulation of the sympathetic chain, or minimally invasive procedures using thermal or laser interruption. To review the evidence from randomised, double blind, controlled trials on the efficacy and safety of chemical and surgical sympathectomy for neuropathic pain. Sympathectomy could be compared with placebo (sham) or other active treatment. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library to May 2010. We screened references in the retrieved articles and literature reviews, and contacted experts in the field of neuropathic pain. Randomised, double blind, placebo or active controlled studies assessing the effects of sympathectomy for neuropathic pain and CRPS. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and validity, and extracted data. No pooled analysis of data was possible. Only one study satisfied our inclusion criteria, comparing percutaneous radiofrequency thermal lumbar sympathectomy with lumbar sympathetic neurolysis using phenol in 20 participants with CRPS. There was no comparison of sympathectomy versus sham or placebo. No dichotomous pain outcomes were reported. Average baseline scores of 8-9/10 on several pain scales fell to about 4/10 initially (1 day) and remained at 3-5/10 over four months. There were no significant differences between groups, except for "unpleasant sensation", which was higher with radiofrequency ablation. One participant in the phenol group experienced postsympathectomy neuralgia, while two in the

  10. Sneddon's syndrome presenting with neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Dag, Ersel; Gokce, Burcu; Kocak, Mukadder

    2013-01-01

    A 55-year-old man was admitted to us with a sense of numbness, tingling, and burning in his feet and headache, characterized as a feeling of pressure all around his head, for 1 year and aggravated in the past 3 months. The patient's neurologic examination was normal and he had no other known diseases except for hypertension according to his medical history. During the examination, we recognized purplish lesions on the patient's body. His kidney, liver, and thyroid function test results and vitamin B12 levels were all normal. His hematocrit level was 41.8%, platelet value was 234,000 (150,000-500,000); and sedimentation rate was 9 mm/h (0-20). Electromyography was performed and results were found to be normal. The patient was diagnosed as having small fiber neuropathy. Dermatologic examination revealed reddish blue mottling of the skin with fishnet reticular pattern on his back, on the front side of the body, and on both arms and legs, and the lesions were classified as livedo racemosa (Figure 1). Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed subcortical hyperintense ischemic-gliotic signal changes on T2-FLAIR in the deep white matter of bilateral frontoparietal vertex, centrum semiovale, and corona radiata (Figure 2). FLAIR sequence axial MRI of the brain of our patient showed subcortical hyperintense lesions in both cerebral hemispheres. His cardiac examination was normal and minimal aortic regurgitation was seen on echocardiography. His cognitive assessment Minimental Test Score was 22, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment score was 18. Laboratory values for inflammatory markers and autoimmune antibodies including syphilis serology, lupus anticoagulants, and anticardiolipin antibodies were negative. Factor V Leiden mutation was not detected in the patient. The patient was diagnosed with Sneddon's syndrome with the above signs and symptoms and small fiber neuropathy. Clopidogrel 75 mg and gabapentin 1200 mg was started once a day and blood pressure regulation was

  11. Lumbopelvic manipulation in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Crowell, Michael S; Wofford, Nancy H

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: A recent clinical prediction rule (CPR) identified characteristics that may predict an immediate reduction in pain following lumbopelvic manipulation in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. The purpose of this single-arm cohort study was to replicate the proposed CPR in a different population and investigate changes in self-reported pain, hip range of motion, strength, and function immediately following lumbopelvic manipulation. Methods: Forty-four subjects (63·6% female; mean age 27·4 years) met inclusion criteria. Hip internal rotation range of motion, lower extremity strength using a handheld dynamometer, and single/triple hop tests were assessed prior to and immediately following a spinal manipulation. A global rating of change questionnaire was administered after testing and telephonically at 1 week. Paired t-tests compared pre- and post-manipulation range of motion, strength, and hop test limb symmetry indices (α = 0·05). Results: Fifty-seven percent of subjects had a successful outcome measured by the numerical pain rating scale immediately following manipulation. Twenty-five of subjects experienced a successful outcome as measured by the global rating of change questionnaire at 1 week. No single individual or combination of predictor variables predicted a positive outcome immediately following the lumbopelvic manipulation (+likelihood ratio 0·7 with three of five predictor variables present). Statistically significant differences (P<0·05) were found in hip extension and abduction strength and hip internal rotation symmetry post-manipulation, but do not appear to be clinically meaningful. Discussion: The previously identified CPR was not able to be replicated and no clinically meaningful changes in range of motion, strength, or function were apparent. Future research should focus on a comprehensive impairment-based treatment approach in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. PMID:23904749

  12. Assess pain intensity using photoplethysmography signal in chronic myofascial pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jing-Jhao; Lee, Kuan-Ting; Chou, Ying-Yu; Sie, Hung-Hai; Huang, Ju-Nan; Chuang, Chiung-Cheng

    2017-05-14

    Efficacy of pain assessment is the basis for effective therapy. Clinically, assessing pain is by subjective scale, but these methods have some shortcomings. Therefore, studies have been conducted on assessment of pain using physiological signals. Photoplethysmography (PPG) signal provides much information about the cardiovascular system. PPG- derived parameters (PPG parameters) reflect nociceptive stimulation, and obtain an approximation of the R-R interval from PPG period. The aim of this study was to evaluate PPG signal for assessment of pain intensity in chronic myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) patients. This study recruited 37 patients with chronic MPS, all of them were treated with electrotherapy and thermotherapy. The difference of PPG parameters between pre- and post- therapy, and correlation between pulse rate variability (PRV) and heart rate variability (HRV) were determined. We also obtained patients' pain intensity scores by Visual analogue scale (VAS), visual rating scale (VRS) and Wong-Banker face pain rating scale (Wong-Banker). PPG and PRV/HRV parameters showed significant difference between pre- and post-treatment. The variation trend of PRV was similar with HRV in heart rate (HR), R-R interval (RRI), low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), and LF/HF; in addition, a high correlation between the parameters was observed either in the pre- or post-therapy. PPG parameters indicated increased sympathetic tone. The results of the study indicated that PRV may substitute for HRV in assessment of pain intensity in chronic MPS reflected parasympathetic nervous tone increase, and PPG parameters might reflect stress stimulation on skin. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Visceral pain-associated disability syndrome: a descriptive analysis.

    PubMed

    Hyman, Paul E; Bursch, Brenda; Sood, Manu; Schwankovsky, Lenore; Cocjin, Jose; Zeltzer, Lonnie K

    2002-11-01

    Pain-associated disability syndrome (PADS) is a recently defined term that describes patients with chronic pain whose restriction in daily activities appears disproportionately severe for the observable pathology. The aim of this study is to describe the features of a group of pediatric patients with abdominal symptoms fitting this diagnosis. To identify factors associated with visceral PADS, we reviewed the records of 40 patients (18 males; age range, 7-21 years) with gastrointestinal symptoms severe enough to prevent school attendance or eating for 2 months or more. These patients, in whom pain was neither feigned nor self-induced, met the diagnostic criteria for visceral PADS, including failure of usual treatments and lack of a satisfactory organic explanation for the severity of the pain. The dominant symptom was abdominal pain in 30 patients, regurgitation in 5 patients, nausea in 3 patients, and chest pain in 2 patients. All patients complained of pain or discomfort, and all met symptom-based criteria for one or more functional gastrointestinal disorder. Disordered sleep was a problem for 39 patients. Factors associated with PADS included learning disabilities, unrealistic goals in a perfectionist, high-achieving child, early pain experiences, passive or dependent coping style, marital problems in the home, and chronic illness in a parent. All patients had at least two associated factors, and a majority had four or more associated factors. Possible triggering events included an acute febrile illness in 20 patients, school change in 11 patients, trauma in 2 patients, death of a loved one in 2 patients, and sexual abuse in 2 patients. Before diagnosis, all patients underwent extensive negative evaluations. Nearly all patients had mental health evaluations that ruled out eating disorder and psychosis. Medical management had failed, and surgeries worsened symptoms. In a majority of patients, we identified a comorbid psychiatric disorder. Evaluation of preteens

  14. [Clinical practice guideline 'Complex regional pain syndrome type I'].

    PubMed

    Perez, R S G M; Zollinger, P E; Dijkstra, P U; Thomassen-Hilgersom, I L; Zuurmond, W W A; Rosenbrand, C J G M; Geertzen, J H B

    2007-07-28

    The development and treatment ofthe complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) are a subject of much discussion. Using the method for the development ofevidence-based guidelines, a multidisciplinary guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of this syndrome has been drawn up. The diagnosis of CRPS-I is based on the clinical observation of signs and symptoms. For pain treatment, the WHO analgesic ladder is advised up to step z. In case of pain ofa neuropathic nature, anticonvulsants and tricyclic antidepressants may be considered. For the treatment ofinflammatory symptoms, free-radical scavengers (dimethylsulphoxide or acetylcysteine) are advised. In order to enhance peripheral blood flow, vasodilatory medication may be considered. Percutaneous sympathetic blockades may be used for a cold extremity ifvasodilatory medication produces insufficient effect. To decrease functional limitations, standardised physiotherapy and occupational therapy are advised. To prevent the occurrence of CRPS-I after wrist fractures, the use of vitamin C is recommended. Adequate perioperative analgesia, limitation of operation time and limited use of bloodlessness are advised for the secondary prevention of CRPS-I. Use of regional anaesthetic techniques can also be considered in this connection.

  15. Scalene myofascial pain syndrome mimicking cervical disc prolapse: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Abd Jalil, Nizar; Awang, Mohammad Saufi; Omar, Mahamarowi

    2010-01-01

    Scalene myofascial pain syndrome is a regional pain syndrome wherein pain originates over the neck area and radiates down to the arm. This condition may present as primary or secondary to underlying cervical pathology. Although scalene myofascial pain syndrome is a well known medical entity, it is often misdiagnosed as being some other neck pain associated with radiculopathy, such as cervical disc prolapse, cervical spinal stenosis and thoracic outlet syndrome. Because scalene myofascial pain syndrome mimics cervical radiculopathy, this condition often leads to mismanagement, which can, in turn, result in persistent pain and suffering. In the worst-case scenarios, patients may be subjected to unjustifiable surgical intervention. Because the clinical findings in scalene myofascial pain syndrome are "pathognomonic", clinicians should be aware of ways to recognize this disorder and be able to differentiate it from other conditions that present with neck pain and rediculopathy. We present two cases of unilateral scalene myofascial pain syndrome that significantly impaired the patients' functioning and quality of life. This case report serves to create awareness about the existence of the syndrome and to highlight the potential morbidity due to clinical misdiagnosis.

  16. Evaluation and management of greater trochanter pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Edward P; Middleton, Emily F; Brunette, Meredith

    2015-08-01

    Greater trochanteric pain syndrome is an enigmatic but common cause of lateral hip symptoms in middle-aged active women. The most common manifestation of this syndrome is a degenerative tendinopathy of the hip abductors similar to the intrinsic changes seen with rotator cuff pathology in the shoulder. There are no definitive tests to isolate the underlying pathology and palpation is a non-specific means by which to differentiate the source of the pain generator. The physical examination must comprehensively evaluate for a cluster of potential impairments and contributing factors that will need to be addressed to effectively manage the likely functional limitations and activity challenges the syndrome presents to the patient. Compressive forces through increased tension in the iliotibial band should be avoided. Intervention strategies should include education regarding postural avoidance, activity modifications, improvement of lumbopelvic control, and a patient approach to resolving hip joint restrictions and restoring the tensile capabilities of the deep rotators and abductors of the hip. A number of reliable and validated hip-specific self-report outcome tools are available to baseline a patient's status and monitor their progress. Further investigations to identify the epidemiological risk factors, establish effective treatment strategies, and predict prognosis are warranted.

  17. [Long term effect of spinal cord stimulation in a patient with complex regional pain syndrome and phantom pain syndrome type 1 after amputation].

    PubMed

    Enggaard, Thomas Peter; Scherer, Christian; Nikolajsen, Lone; Andersen, Claus

    2008-02-04

    The development of stump and phantom pain after limb amputation in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is very frequent. Stump pain is typically recurred CRPS and the possibilities for effective pharmacological pain relief are often limited. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has a well-documented pain relieving effect in patients with CRPS. This case story summarises the long term effect of SCS in a patient with CRPS after two amputations of the right leg. Pharmacological pain therapies as well as Guanethidine blockade were found to be ineffective.

  18. Intrathecal glycine for pain and dystonia in complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Munts, Alexander G; van der Plas, Anton A; Voormolen, Joan H; Marinus, Johan; Teepe-Twiss, Irene M; Onkenhout, Willem; van Gerven, Joop M; van Hilten, Jacobus J

    2009-11-01

    Since glycinergic neurotransmission plays an important inhibitory role in the processing of sensory and motor information, intrathecal glycine (ITG) administration may be a potential therapy for both pain and movement disorders in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Aims of the current study, which is the first report on ITG in humans, were to evaluate its safety and efficacy. ITG treatment during 4 weeks was studied in CRPS patients with dystonia in the period before they received intrathecal baclofen treatment. Twenty patients were assessed and after exclusion of one patient, the remaining 19 patients were randomized in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study. Safety was assessed by clinical evaluation, blood examinations and electrocardiograms. Efficacy measures involved pain (numeric rating scale, McGill pain questionnaire), movement disorders (Burke-Fahn-Marsden dystonia rating scale, unified myoclonus rating scale, tremor research group rating scale), activity (Radboud skills questionnaire, walking ability questionnaire), and a clinical global impression (CGI) and patient's global impression score (PGI). Treatment-emergent adverse events were generally mild to moderate and not different from placebo treatment. During ITG treatment growth hormone levels were slightly increased. Although there was a trend to worsening on the CGI and PGI during ITG treatment, there were no significant differences between ITG and placebo treatment in any of the outcomes. ITG given over 4 weeks was ineffective for pain or dystonia in CRPS. Although no serious adverse events occurred, further studies are required to rule out potential neurotoxicity of ITG.

  19. Coracoid syndrome: a neglected cause of anterior shoulder pain

    PubMed Central

    GIGANTE, ANTONIO; BOTTEGONI, CARLO; BARBADORO, PAMELA

    2016-01-01

    Purpose the present prospective open-label study was designed to gain further insights into a condition thought to constitute a neglected but not uncommon syndrome characterized by anterior shoulder pain and tenderness to palpation over the apex of the coracoid process, not related to rotator cuff or pectoralis minor tendinopathy, long head of the biceps tendon disorders, or instability. The aim was to clarify its prevalence, clinical characteristics, differential diagnosis and response to corticosteroid injections. Methods patients with primary anterior shoulder pain precisely reproduced by deep pressure on the apex of the coracoid process were recruited. Patients with clinical or instrumental signs of other shoulder disorders were excluded. Patients were given an injection of triamcinolone acetonide 40 mg/ml 1 ml at the coracoid trigger point. They were evaluated after 15, 30 and 60 days and at 2 years using Equal Visual Analog Scale (EQ-VAS) and the Italian version of the Simple Shoulder Test (SST). Results between January 1 and December 31 2010, we treated 15 patients aged 26–66 years. The majority were women (86.67%). At 15 days, 6 (40%) patients reported complete resolution of their symptoms, while 9 (60%) complained of residual symptoms and received another injection. At 30 days, 14 (93.33%) patients were pain-free and very satisfied. At 2 years, the 14 patients who had been asymptomatic at 30 days reported that they had experienced no further pain or impaired shoulder function. The analysis of variance for repeated measures showed a significant effect of time on EQ-VAS and SST scores. Conclusions the present study documents the existence, and characteristics, of a “coracoid syndrome” characterized by anterior shoulder pain and tenderness to palpation over the apex of the coracoid process and showed that the pain is usually amenable to steroid treatment. This syndrome should be clearly distinguished from anterior shoulder pain due to other causes, in

  20. Intrathecal ziconotide for complex regional pain syndrome: seven case reports.

    PubMed

    Kapural, Leonardo; Lokey, Kristi; Leong, Michael S; Fiekowsky, Sharon; Stanton-Hicks, Michael; Sapienza-Crawford, Anne J; Webster, Lynn R

    2009-01-01

    Ziconotide is a nonopioid analgesic currently indicated as monotherapy, but frequently used in combination with opioids, for the management of severe chronic pain in patients for whom intrathecal (IT) therapy is warranted and who are intolerant of, or whose pain is, refractory to other treatments. There is a paucity of information regarding ziconotide use in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Seven cases in which IT ziconotide was used in patients with CRPS were analyzed. All patients (4 male, 3 female; age range, 14 to 52 years) had experienced inadequate pain relief with multiple conventional and interventional treatments. Three patients received ziconotide monotherapy exclusively; 4 patients received ziconotide monotherapy initially, then combination IT therapy. The mean ziconotide dose was 5.2 mcg/d (range, 0.5 to 13 mcg/d) at initiation and 24.7 mcg/d (range, 0.06 to 146 mcg/d) at the last available assessment. The mean duration of ziconotide therapy was 3.1 years (range, 26 days to 8 years). At ziconotide initiation, the mean visual analog scale (VAS) score was 89.3 mm (range, 75 to 100 mm); VAS scores decreased by a mean of 47.5% (range, 5% to 100%) at last assessment. Of the 5 patients who experienced substantial improvement in pain, edema, skin abnormalities, and/or mobility with ziconotide therapy, 2 have discontinued ziconotide and are pain free. Another patient experienced marked reversal of both edema and advanced skin trophic changes. Adverse events included urinary retention, depression, anxiety, and hallucinations. Adverse events generally resolved spontaneously, with treatment, or with ziconotide discontinuation/dose reduction. Although further studies are required, ziconotide holds promise as an effective treatment for CRPS.

  1. A Multimodal Approach for Myofascial Pain Syndrome: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Segura-Pérez, María; Hernández-Criado, M Teresa; Calvo-Lobo, César; Vega-Piris, Lorena; Fernández-Martín, Raquel; Rodríguez-Sanz, David

    The purpose of this study was to analyze pain intensity in patients with myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) following a multimodal rehabilitation protocol. A prospective study was carried out following the Template for Intervention Description and Replication criteria. Patients were recruited from the rehabilitation unit of a university hospital in Spain between 2009 and 2013. Patients were included if they had a medical diagnosis of MPS in any of the following regions: cervicobrachial (n = 102), lumbosacral (n = 30), elbow (n = 14), ankle and foot (n = 10), and temporomandibular jaw (n = 1). The multimodal rehabilitation protocol included myofascial trigger point dry needling, spray and stretching, Kinesio taping, eccentric exercise, and patient education. The protocol was applied for 4 weeks (5 sessions) for the active and/or latent myofascial trigger points in each body region. Pain intensity was measured by using the visual analog scale (VAS) immediately before beginning of the study and 1 week after completion of the protocol. The study sample comprised 150 patients (mean ± standard deviation age, 51.5 ± 1.19 years). Statistically significant differences were obtained for reduction in pain intensity (4 ± 2.03; P = .002). Clinically relevant reductions (VAS ≥30 mm; P < .001) were obtained in 78.7% of the interventions. Four treatment sessions reduced the VAS score by 10 mm in 83.55% of the sample. There were no statistically significant differences (P = .064) for reduction in pain intensity in the different body regions. A multimodal rehabilitation protocol showed clinically relevant differences in the reduction in pain intensity in different body regions in patients with MPS. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Intravesical chondroitin sulphate for interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hennessy, DB; Curry, D; Cartwright, C; Downey, P; Pahuja, A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the bladder. Bladder instillation is one avenue of treatment but evidence for its effectiveness is limited. Chondroitin sulphate solution 2.0% (Urocyst) is a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) replenishment therapy instilled for patients with IC/PBS. We assessed its effectiveness for treating IC/PBS in Northern Ireland. Methods Patients with IC/PBS were assessed with the O'Leary-Sant interstitial cystitis index score and global response assessment questionnaire prior to commencing treatment. Assessment with these questionnaires was performed after 6 treatments (10 weeks) and again after 10 treatments (24 weeks). Assessment end points were pain, urgency, symptom score and problem score. Results Data was collected on 10 patients, 9 female and 1 male. 6 patients had failed RIMSO-50 dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) 50% treatment prior. At baseline the mean pain score was 6.6, urgency score 7.00, symptom score 13.5 and problem score 12.5. After 24 weeks the mean pain score fell to 2.0, urgency score to 1.80, symptom score to 6.89 and problem score to 5.67. At 10 weeks the global response to treatment was 100%. Nocturia was the first symptom to improve with urgency and pain following. No side effects were noted during instillation and all patients tolerated the treatments. Conclusion IC/PBS is a difficult disease to treat. It requires a multimodal approach. We found that intravesical chondroitin sulphate reduced pain, urgency and O'Leary-Sant symptom and problem scores in patients with IC/PBS. All patients tolerated the treatment and no side effects were reported. PMID:26668417

  3. Effect of Therapeutic Modalities on Patients With Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lake, David A.; Wofford, Nancy H.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is a common orthopaedic condition for which operative and nonoperative treatments have been used. Therapeutic modalities have been recommended for the treatment of patients with PFPS—including cold, ultrasound, phonophoresis, iontophoresis, neuromuscular electrical stimulation, electrical stimulation for pain control, electromyographic biofeedback, and laser. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of therapeutic modalities for the treatment of patients with PFPS. Data Sources: In May and August 2010, Medline was searched using the following databases: PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science Citation Index, Science Direct, ProQuest Nursing & Allied Health, and Your Journals@OVID. Study Selection: Selected studies were randomized controlled trials that used a therapeutic modality to treat patients with PFPS. The review included articles with all outcome measures relevant for the PFPS patient: knee extension and flexion strength (isokinetic and isometric), patellofemoral pain assessment during activities of daily life, functional tests (eg, squats), Kujala patellofemoral score, and electromyographic recording from knee flexors and extensors and quadriceps femoris cross-sectional areas. Data Extraction: Authors conducted independent quality appraisals of studies using the PEDro Scale and a system designed for analysis of studies on interventions for patellofemoral pain. Results: Twelve studies met criteria: 1 on the effects of cold and ultrasound together, ice alone, iontophoresis, and phonophoresis; 3, neuromuscular electrical stimulation; 4, electromyographic biofeedback; 3, electrical stimulation for control of pain; and 1, laser. Discussion: Most studies were of low to moderate quality. Some reported that therapeutic modalities, when combined with other treatments, may be of some benefit for pain management or other symptoms. There was no consistent evidence of any beneficial effect when a therapeutic modality was used alone

  4. Treatment of abdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vanuytsel, Tim; Tack, Jan F; Boeckxstaens, Guy E

    2014-08-01

    Functional abdominal pain in the context of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a challenging problem for primary care physicians, gastroenterologists and pain specialists. We review the evidence for the current and future non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment options targeting the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. Cognitive interventions such as cognitive behavioral therapy and hypnotherapy have demonstrated excellent results in IBS patients, but the limited availability and labor-intensive nature limit their routine use in daily practice. In patients who are refractory to first-line therapy, tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are both effective to obtain symptomatic relief, but only TCAs have been shown to improve abdominal pain in meta-analyses. A diet low in fermentable carbohydrates and polyols (FODMAP) seems effective in subgroups of patients to reduce abdominal pain, bloating, and to improve the stool pattern. The evidence for fiber is limited and only isphagula may be somewhat beneficial. The efficacy of probiotics is difficult to interpret since several strains in different quantities have been used across studies. Antispasmodics, including peppermint oil, are still considered the first-line treatment for abdominal pain in IBS. Second-line therapies for diarrhea-predominant IBS include the non-absorbable antibiotic rifaximin and the 5HT3 antagonists alosetron and ramosetron, although the use of the former is restricted because of the rare risk of ischemic colitis. In laxative-resistant, constipation-predominant IBS, the chloride-secretion stimulating drugs lubiprostone and linaclotide, a guanylate cyclase C agonist that also has direct analgesic effects, reduce abdominal pain and improve the stool pattern.

  5. Characterization of Whole Body Pain in Urologic Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome at Baseline – A MAPP Research Network Study

    PubMed Central

    Lai, H. Henry; Jemielita, Thomas; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Bradley, Catherine S.; Naliboff, Bruce; Williams, David A.; Gereau, Robert W.; Kreder, Karl; Clemens, J. Quentin; Rodriguez, Larissa V.; Krieger, John N.; Farrar, John T.; Robinson, Nancy; Landis, J. Richard

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We characterized the location and spatial distribution of whole body pain among patients with urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome (UCPPS) using a body map; and compared the severity of urinary symptoms, pelvic pain, non-pelvic pain, and psychosocial health among patients with different pain patterns. Methods 233 women and 191 men with UCPPS enrolled in a multi-center, one-year observational study completed a battery of baseline measures, including a body map describing the location of pain during the past week. Participants were categorized as having “pelvic pain only” if they reported pain in the abdomen and pelvis only. Participants who reported pain beyond the pelvis were further divided into two sub-groups based on the number of broader body regions affected by pain: an “intermediate” group (1–2 additional regions outside the pelvis) and a “widespread pain” group (3–7 additional regions). Results Of the 424 enrolled patients 25% reported pelvic pain only, and 75% reported pain beyond the pelvis of which 38% reported widespread pain. Participants with greater number of pain locations had greater non-pelvic pain severity (p<0.0001), sleep disturbance (p=0.035), depression (p=0.005), anxiety (p=0.011), psychological stress (p=0.005), negative affect scores (p=0.0004), and worse quality of life (p≤0.021). No difference in pelvic pain and urinary symptom severity were observed by increasing pain distribution. Conclusions Three-quarters of men and women with UCPPS reported pain outside the pelvis. Widespread pain was associated with greater severity of non-pelvic pain symptoms, poorer psychosocial health and worse quality of life, but not worse pelvic pain or urinary symptoms. PMID:28373134

  6. [Effectiveness of physiotherapy on painful shoulder impingement syndrome].

    PubMed

    Gomora-García, Mónica; Rojano-Mejía, David; Solis-Hernández, José Luis; Escamilla-Chávez, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Painful shoulder impingement syndrome is one of the first reasons for care in rehabilitation centres. As the evidence regarding the effectiveness of physical measures as adjuvant treatment is limited, the aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of physiotherapy on shoulder pain. A retrospective and analytical study was conducted using the medical records of patients with shoulder pain who attended in a rehabilitation centre from October 2010 to September 2011. The demographic and clinical data were collected, and the clinical improvement was determined as: complete, incomplete, or no improvement. Chi squared was used to determine whether there were differences between the different modalities of physiotherapy, as well as the level of improvement. The study included a total of 181 patients, with a mean age of 54.3 years, and a mean of 4.6 months of onset of pain. The physiotherapy treatments included: warm compresses plus interferential current (60.2%), and warm compresses plus ultrasound (17.1%). Just over half (53.6%) obtained a moderate recovery, 36.4% slight improvement, and 9.9% no improvement. No significant differences were found between the different forms of therapy. The supervised rehabilitation program consists of 9 sessions of physiotherapy. A functional improvement of 90% was obtained, without finding any statistical differences between the therapies used. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  7. Chronic Orofacial Pain: Burning Mouth Syndrome and Other Neuropathic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tait, Raymond C; Ferguson, McKenzie; Herndon, Christopher M

    2017-01-01

    Chronic orofacial pain is a symptom associated with a wide range of neuropathic, neurovascular, idiopathic, and myofascial conditions that affect a significant proportion of the population. While the collective impact of the subset of the orofacial pain disorders involving neurogenic and idiopathic mechanisms is substantial, some of these are relatively uncommon. Hence, patients with these disorders can be vulnerable to misdiagnosis, sometimes for years, increasing the symptom burden and delaying effective treatment. This manuscript first reviews the decision tree to be followed in diagnosing any neuropathic pain condition, as well as the levels of evidence needed to make a diagnosis with each of several levels of confidence: definite, probable, or possible. It then examines the clinical literature related to the idiopathic and neurogenic conditions that can occasion chronic orofacial pain, including burning mouth syndrome, trigeminal neuralgia, glossopharyngeal neuralgia, post-herpetic neuralgia, and atypical odontalgia. Temporomandibular disorders also are examined as are other headache conditions, even though they are not neurologic conditions, because they are common and can mimic symptoms of the latter disorders. For each of these conditions, the paper reviews literature regarding incidence and prevalence, physiologic and other contributing factors, diagnostic signs and symptoms, and empirical evidence regarding treatments. Finally, in order to improve the quality and accuracy of clinical diagnosis, as well as the efficiency with which effective treatment is initiated and delivered, criteria are offered that can be instrumental in making a differential diagnosis. PMID:28638895

  8. Sensory symptoms in restless legs syndrome: the enigma of pain.

    PubMed

    Winkelman, John W; Gagnon, Alison; Clair, Andrew G

    2013-10-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common sensorimotor condition characterized by an urge to move the legs, worsening of symptoms at rest and during the evening/night, and improvement of symptoms with movement. Our review explores the role and impact of sensory symptoms in RLS. The phenomenology of RLS is discussed, highlighting the difficulty patients have in describing their sensations and in differentiating between sensory and motor symptoms. Sensory symptoms have a significant impact on quality of life but remain much less well understood than motor symptoms and sleep disturbances in RLS. Although RLS symptoms usually are not described as painful, sensory manifestations in RLS do share some similarities with chronic pain sensations, and RLS frequently occurs in chronic pain and neuropathic conditions. Peripheral neuropathies may account for some of the sensory disturbances in secondary RLS, while alterations in central somatosensory processing may be a more viable explanation for the sensory disturbances in primary RLS. The effectiveness of analgesics in treating RLS supports the concept of abnormal sensory modulation in RLS and suggests an overlap between pain modulatory pathways and sensory disturbances. Future studies are needed to better understand the experiential and biologic aspects of altered sensory experiences in RLS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. New treatments for chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Adam C.; Dimitrakov, Jordan D.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a common condition among men of a wide age range, with detrimental effects on quality of life. The etiology, pathogenesis, and optimal treatment of CP/CPPS remain unknown, although progress has been made in these domains in recent years. A wide variety of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapies have been studied in clinical trials, but most have shown limited efficacy in symptom alleviation. CP/CPPS is increasingly viewed as a condition that involves variable degrees of neuropathic pain. Medications such as gabapentin, pregabalin, memantine, and tricyclic antidepressants are often used in other neuropathic pain conditions and, therefore, are considered potential treatments for CP/CPPS. Few studies of these agents in patients with CP/CPPS have been reported, but future clinical trials should help to determine their utility and to characterize the pathogenetic mechanisms of pain in CP/CPPS. Combining treatment trials with biomarker, genomic, and imaging studies, in addition to epidemiologic and symptom-based assessments, will maximize the ability to probe disease etiology and pathogenesis, as well as identify effective treatment. PMID:20142810

  10. Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome: appropriate diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Dell, Jeffrey R

    2007-10-01

    Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) is characterized by urinary frequency, urgency, and pelvic pain in the absence of any other identifiable pathology. Initial identification of IC/PBS is challenging, as patients may have a range of symptoms that overlap with other disorders, including urinary tract infection (UTI). These patients may be treated empirically with antibiotics; however, many patients with such symptoms are actually culture negative and are later diagnosed with IC/PBS. This review describes the importance of recognizing the symptom overlap between IC/PBS and UTI and focuses on approaches to the diagnosis and management of IC/PBS. Physicians can improve patient care by considering IC/PBS early in the differential diagnosis.

  11. Clinical outcomes of management of myofacial pain dysfunction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Khatun, S; Huq, M Z; Islam, M A; Uddin, M W; Asaduzzaman, M; Hossain, M M

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate two years clinical outcome of patients having myofacial pain dysfunction syndrome (MPDS). A total of 50 patients (male: 15, Female: 35, age: raged from 20 to 65 years) were included for this study. Clinical diagnosis for the assessment of anxiety and depression of each patient was performed by Hospital anxiety and depression (HAD) scale. Patients were then received either one of the following treatments: Occlusion correction only (n=14), Muscle Relaxant + anti-depressant drug (n=26), Physiotherapy + antidepressant drug + muscle relaxant (n=6) and Appliance + muscle relaxant (n= 4). Following two years observation, it was revealed that the treatment was apparently successful in 95% case; only 5% case was not successful due to their irregular visit. It can be concluded that MPDS is not primarily related to occlusal factors and a complex psycho physiological mechanism is involved in this type of pain problems.

  12. Zinner syndrome: an uncommon cause of painful ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Sundar, Raghav; Sundar, Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    Zinner syndrome refers to the triad of ipsilateral renal agenesis, seminal vesicle cysts and ejaculatory duct obstruction. Ipsilateral renal agenesis may be associated with seminal vesicle cysts in 70% of cases, but a remnant ureteral bud has been shown to coexist in only 27% of these cases. While some patients may remain asymptomatic and are discovered incidentally, others present with symptoms related to seminal vesicle cysts or ejaculatory duct obstruction: voiding or ejaculatory difficulty or pain. The diagnosis is made with imaging findings, and differentiation from other pelvic cysts requires a multimodality approach. In this report, we present typical imaging findings of a patient who presented with painful ejaculation where there was a congenital seminal vesicle cyst with ipsilateral renal agenesis associated with a remnant ureteral bud draining into the seminal vesicle cyst and also associated with a cyst of the prostatic utricle. We discuss the relevant embryological basis for this unusual combination of findings. PMID:25750220

  13. Neurogenic neuroinflammation in fibromyalgia and complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Littlejohn, Geoffrey

    2015-11-01

    Although fibromyalgia and complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) have distinct clinical phenotypes, they do share many other features. Pain, allodynia and dysaesthesia occur in each condition and seem to exist on a similar spectrum. Fibromyalgia and CRPS can both be triggered by specific traumatic events, although fibromyalgia is most commonly associated with psychological trauma and CRPS is most often associated with physical trauma, which is frequently deemed routine or minor by the patient. Fibromyalgia and CRPS also seem to share many pathophysiological mechanisms, among which the most important are those involving central effects. Nonetheless, peripheral effects, such as neurogenic neuroinflammation, are also important contributors to the clinical features of each of these disorders. This Review highlights the differing degrees to which neurogenic neuroinflammation might contribute to the multifactorial pathogenesis of both fibromyalgia and CRPS, and discusses the evidence suggesting that this mechanism is an important link between the two disorders, and could offer novel therapeutic targets.

  14. Groin Pain Syndrome Italian Consensus Conference on terminology, clinical evaluation and imaging assessment in groin pain in athlete

    PubMed Central

    Bisciotti, G N; Volpi, P; Zini, R; Auci, A; Aprato, A; Belli, A; Bellistri, G; Benelli, P; Bona, S; Bonaiuti, D; Carimati, G; Canata, G L; Cassaghi, G; Cerulli, S; Delle Rose, G; Di Benedetto, P; Di Marzo, F; Di Pietto, F; Felicioni, L; Ferrario, L; Foglia, A; Galli, M; Gervasi, E; Gia, L; Giammattei, C; Guglielmi, A; Marioni, A; Moretti, B; Niccolai, R; Orgiani, N; Pantalone, A; Parra, F; Quaglia, A; Respizzi, F; Ricciotti, L; Pereira Ruiz, M T; Russo, A; Sebastiani, E; Tancredi, G; Tosi, F; Vuckovic, Z

    2016-01-01

    The nomenclature and the lack of consensus of clinical evaluation and imaging assessment in groin pain generate significant confusion in this field. The Groin Pain Syndrome Italian Consensus Conference has been organised in order to prepare a consensus document regarding taxonomy, clinical evaluation and imaging assessment for groin pain. A 1-day Consensus Conference was organised on 5 February 2016, in Milan (Italy). 41 Italian experts with different backgrounds participated in the discussion. A consensus document previously drafted was discussed, eventually modified, and finally approved by all members of the Consensus Conference. Unanimous consensus was reached concerning: (1) taxonomy (2) clinical evaluation and (3) imaging assessment. The synthesis of these 3 points is included in this paper. The Groin Pain Syndrome Italian Consensus Conference reached a consensus on three main points concerning the groin pain syndrome assessment, in an attempt to clarify this challenging medical problem. PMID:28890800

  15. Cervico-thoracic or lumbar sympathectomy for neuropathic pain and complex regional pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Straube, Sebastian; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    Background This review is an update on ‘Sympathectomy for neuropathic pain’ originally published in Issue 2, 2003. The concept that many neuropathic pain syndromes (traditionally this definition would include complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS)) are “sympathetically maintained pains” has historically led to treatments that interrupt the sympathetic nervous system. Chemical sympathectomies use alcohol or phenol injections to destroy ganglia of the sympathetic chain, while surgical ablation is performed by open removal or electrocoagulation of the sympathetic chain, or minimally invasive procedures using thermal or laser interruption. Objectives To review the evidence from randomised, double blind, controlled trials on the efficacy and safety of chemical and surgical sympathectomy for neuropathic pain. Sympathectomy could be compared with placebo (sham) or other active treatment. Search methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library to May 2010. We screened references in the retrieved articles and literature reviews, and contacted experts in the field of neuropathic pain. Selection criteria Randomised, double blind, placebo or active controlled studies assessing the effects of sympathectomy for neuropathic pain and CRPS. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and validity, and extracted data. No pooled analysis of data was possible. Main results Only one study satisfied our inclusion criteria, comparing percutaneous radiofrequency thermal lumbar sympathectomy with lumbar sympathetic neurolysis using phenol in 20 participants with CRPS. There was no comparison of sympathectomy versus sham or placebo. No dichotomous pain outcomes were reported. Average baseline scores of 8-9/10 on several pain scales fell to about 4/10 initially (1 day) and remained at 3-5/10 over four months. There were no significant differences between groups, except for “unpleasant sensation”, which was higher with

  16. [Sanatorium-based treatment of lumbar quadrate myofascial pain syndrome].

    PubMed

    Avershin, V A; Oleĭnikov, B V; Pil'kevich, R P; Sofel', S A; Kniazhishche, A N; Grebenkin, S S

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes experience gained in the Central Military Sanatorium, Sochi, in the field of diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of patients with myofascial pain syndrome affecting the quadratum lumborum muscle. Conditions facilitating development of triggering myofascial structures in these muscles are analysed and methods of their diagnosis are discussed. The proposed compression test allows active trigger structures to be identified in the quadratum lumborum muscle. Detailed description of the method of myofascial meridional reflexotherapy is presented (ischemic compression of condensed trigger structures or points with dry needling, taking account of the breathing act). The authors emphasize the importance of correction of structural disproportions responsible for the formation of myofascial trigger structures.

  17. Work-Related Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome can be a debilitating disorder, which, in its earliest stages, can be prevented by aggressive rehabilitation based on reactivation. It is critical to follow international criteria on making the diagnosis; overdiagnosis can lead to inappropriate interventions and further disability. When present, early recognition with reactivation is the cornerstone of treatment. This article presents a phased approach to treatment that suggests movements of nonresponders quickly to more integrated levels of care. Some commonly used invasive interventions, such as sympathectomy and spinal cord stimulation, have not been proved effective; these unproven and potentially harmful therapies should be avoided.

  18. The Incidence and Severity of Physical Pain Symptoms in Marfan Syndrome: A Survey of 993 Patients.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Ariana M; Walega, David R; McCarthy, Robert J

    2015-12-01

    To characterize the incidence, severity, quality, and treatment of pain in a large cohort of Marfan patients. A web-based survey was distributed to all individuals on the Marfan Foundation listserv. Respondents who endorsed a diagnosis of Marfan syndrome were queried as to the presence, frequency, severity, location, and quality of their pain and were asked to describe the specific treatments used to manage pain. The primary outcome was the presence of pain symptoms in respondents during the 7-day period preceding completion of the survey. Of the 993 patients with a verified diagnosis of Marfan syndrome, 67% (95% confidence interval, 64%-69%) reported pain in the preceding 7 days. Median (interquartile range) "average daily pain" was 4 (3 to 5) on the numeric rating scale; "worst pain" was 7 (5 to 8). "Worst pain experienced" was ≥4 in 93% of respondents. Analgesic use to control pain related to Marfan syndrome was reported in 56% of respondents with 55% reporting <50% pain relief with this modality. Few patients underwent interventional procedures for pain control, despite intractable back and joint pain being common. A majority (52%) of respondents rated "chronic pain care" from their physicians as either "poor" or "fair." Our findings suggest that pain symptoms in Marfan patients are underestimated and likely undertreated. We propose a need for improved patient and medical provider awareness of pain management options in this population, including the development of effective algorithms to treat pain in Marfan patients.

  19. Bladder Pain Syndrome/Interstitial Cystitis Is Associated with Hyperthyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shih-Ping; Lin, Ching-Chun; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the etiology of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is still unclear, a common theme with BPS/IC patients is comorbid disorders which are related to the autonomic nervous system that connects the nervous system to end-organs. Nevertheless, no study to date has reported the association between hyperthyroidism and BPS/IC. In this study, we examined the association of IC/BPS with having previously been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism in Taiwan. Design Data in this study were retrieved from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database. Our study consisted of 736 female cases with BPS/IC and 2208 randomly selected female controls. We performed a conditional logistic regression to calculate the odds ratio (OR) for having previously been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism between cases and controls. Results Of the 2944 sampled subjects, there was a significant difference in the prevalence of prior hyperthyroidism between cases and controls (3.3% vs. 1.5%, p<0.001). The conditional logistic regression analysis revealed that compared to controls, the OR for prior hyperthyroidism among cases was 2.16 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.27∼3.66). Furthermore, the OR for prior hyperthyroidism among cases was 2.01 (95% CI: 1.15∼3.53) compared to controls after adjusting for diabetes, coronary heart disease, obesity, hyperlipidemia, chronic pelvic pain, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, depression, panic disorder, migraines, sicca syndrome, allergies, endometriosis, and asthma. Conclusions Our study results indicated an association between hyperthyroidism and BPS/IC. We suggest that clinicians treating female subjects with hyperthyroidism be alert to urinary complaints in this population. PMID:23991081

  20. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is associated with hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Chung, Shiu-Dong; Liu, Shih-Ping; Lin, Ching-Chun; Li, Hsien-Chang; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Although the etiology of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is still unclear, a common theme with BPS/IC patients is comorbid disorders which are related to the autonomic nervous system that connects the nervous system to end-organs. Nevertheless, no study to date has reported the association between hyperthyroidism and BPS/IC. In this study, we examined the association of IC/BPS with having previously been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism in Taiwan. Data in this study were retrieved from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database. Our study consisted of 736 female cases with BPS/IC and 2208 randomly selected female controls. We performed a conditional logistic regression to calculate the odds ratio (OR) for having previously been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism between cases and controls. Of the 2944 sampled subjects, there was a significant difference in the prevalence of prior hyperthyroidism between cases and controls (3.3% vs. 1.5%, p<0.001). The conditional logistic regression analysis revealed that compared to controls, the OR for prior hyperthyroidism among cases was 2.16 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.27∼3.66). Furthermore, the OR for prior hyperthyroidism among cases was 2.01 (95% CI: 1.15∼3.53) compared to controls after adjusting for diabetes, coronary heart disease, obesity, hyperlipidemia, chronic pelvic pain, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, depression, panic disorder, migraines, sicca syndrome, allergies, endometriosis, and asthma. Our study results indicated an association between hyperthyroidism and BPS/IC. We suggest that clinicians treating female subjects with hyperthyroidism be alert to urinary complaints in this population.

  1. Effectiveness of core muscle strengthening for improving pain and dynamic balance among female patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chevidikunnan, Mohamed Faisal; Al Saif, Amer; Gaowgzeh, Riziq Allah; Mamdouh, Khaled A

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] Patellofemoral pain syndrome is a frequent musculoskeletal disorder, which can result from core muscles instability that can lead to pain and altered dynamic balance. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of core muscle strengthening on pain and dynamic balance in female patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty female patients with age ranging from 16 to 40 years with patellofemoral pain syndrome were divided into study (N=10) and control (N=10) groups. Both groups were given 4 weeks of conventional physical therapy program and an additional core muscle strengthening for the study group. The tools used to assess the outcome were Visual Analogue Scale and Star Excursion Balance Test. [Results] The results of the study show that participants in the study group revealed a significantly greater improvement in the intensity of pain and dynamic balance as compared to the control group. [Conclusion] Adding a core muscle-strengthening program to the conventional physical therapy management improves pain and dynamic balance in female patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome.

  2. Effectiveness of core muscle strengthening for improving pain and dynamic balance among female patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chevidikunnan, Mohamed Faisal; Al Saif, Amer; Gaowgzeh, Riziq Allah; Mamdouh, Khaled A

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Patellofemoral pain syndrome is a frequent musculoskeletal disorder, which can result from core muscles instability that can lead to pain and altered dynamic balance. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of core muscle strengthening on pain and dynamic balance in female patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty female patients with age ranging from 16 to 40 years with patellofemoral pain syndrome were divided into study (N=10) and control (N=10) groups. Both groups were given 4 weeks of conventional physical therapy program and an additional core muscle strengthening for the study group. The tools used to assess the outcome were Visual Analogue Scale and Star Excursion Balance Test. [Results] The results of the study show that participants in the study group revealed a significantly greater improvement in the intensity of pain and dynamic balance as compared to the control group. [Conclusion] Adding a core muscle-strengthening program to the conventional physical therapy management improves pain and dynamic balance in female patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. PMID:27313363

  3. Painful vascular compression syndrome of the sciatic nerve caused by gluteal varicosities.

    PubMed

    Bendszus, M; Rieckmann, P; Perez, J; Koltzenburg, M; Reiners, K; Solymosi, L

    2003-10-14

    The authors report three patients with chronic sciatic pain without focal neurologic deficit. Sitting or lying on the affected side provoked pain, and standing and walking relieved it. MRI revealed varicotic gluteal vessels compressing the sciatic nerve. Decompression of the nerve resulted in complete and permanent pain relief. Sciatic or buttock pain in patients with varicosities and pain provocation in the sitting or lying position suggests this neurovascular compression syndrome.

  4. Dutch Multidisciplinary Guideline for Invasive Treatment of Pain Syndromes of the Lumbosacral Spine.

    PubMed

    Itz, Coen J; Willems, Paul C; Zeilstra, Dick J; Huygen, Frank J

    2016-01-01

    When conservative therapies such as pain medication or exercise therapy fail, invasive treatment may be indicated for patients with lumbosacral spinal pain. The Dutch Society of Anesthesiologists, in collaboration with the Dutch Orthopedic Association and the Dutch Neurosurgical Society, has taken the initiative to develop the guideline "Spinal low back pain," which describes the evidence regarding diagnostics and invasive treatment of the most common spinal low back pain syndromes, that is, facet joint pain, sacroiliac joint pain, coccygodynia, pain originating from the intervertebral disk, and failed back surgery syndrome. The aim of the guideline is to determine which invasive treatment intervention is preferred for each included pain syndrome when conservative treatment has failed. Diagnostic studies were evaluated using the EBRO criteria, and studies on therapies were evaluated with the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. For the evaluation of invasive treatment options, the guideline committee decided that the outcome measures of pain, function, and quality of life were most important. The definition, epidemiology, pathophysiological mechanism, diagnostics, and recommendations for invasive therapy for each of the spinal back pain syndromes are reported. The guideline committee concluded that the categorization of low back pain into merely specific or nonspecific gives insufficient insight into the low back pain problem and does not adequately reflect which therapy is effective for the underlying disorder of a pain syndrome. Based on the guideline "Spinal low back pain," facet joint pain, pain of the sacroiliac joint, and disk pain will be part of a planned nationwide cost-effectiveness study. © 2015 World Institute of Pain.

  5. Improvement in Anxiety and Pain After Whole Body Whirlpool Hydrotherapy Among Patients With Myofascial Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Im, Sang Hee

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of the Whirlpool hydrotherapy on pain and anxiety in chronic myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) patients, compared to the conventional hydrocollator pack therapy. Methods Forty-one subjects who have MPS in the upper trapezius muscles without depression were recruited. The patients were randomly assigned into two groups: the whirlpool therapy group whose bodies were immersed in a whirlpool bath at 34℃-36℃ for 30 minutes; the hydrocollator group who took a 30-minute application of a standard hot hydrocollator pack. Patients in both groups received therapy three days a week for 2 weeks and underwent several evaluations at baseline and after treatment. The variables we analyzed during evaluations were as follows: the primary outcome we considered was pain severity using a visual analogue scale. And the secondary outcomes examined included anxiety using the Korean version of the Beck Anxiety Inventory and quality of life (QoL) using the Korean version of the World Health Organization QoL Assessment, Brief Form. All follow-up values were compared with the baseline values. Results The baseline parameters did not show significant differences between two groups. And after 2-week treatment, both groups revealed significant improvement in anxiety levels and QoL, as well as in pain. However, the improvement on pain (p=0.002) and anxiety (p=0.010) was significantly greater in the whirlpool group, compared to the hydrocollator group. Conclusion The whirlpool hydrotherapy can be used as a more effective therapeutic method to reduce pain and anxiety in chronic MPS patients without depression. PMID:24020034

  6. The role of myofascial trigger points in musculoskeletal pain syndromes of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Simons, David; Cuadrado, Maria Luz; Pareja, Juan

    2007-10-01

    Neck and head pain syndromes are common problems seen in clinical practice. Pain features of commonly designated idiopathic neck pain and some primary headaches (ie, tension-type headache or migraine) fit the descriptions of referred pain originating in muscle trigger points (TrPs). This article discusses the scientific evidence supporting the role of muscle TrPs in chronic musculo-skeletal disorders of the neck and head. The relevance of referred pain elicited by muscle TrPs in patients with neck pain has been investigated in few studies. Some authors found that both muscle TrPs in neck-shoulder muscles and cervical joint dysfunctions contribute at the same time to neck pain perception. Furthermore, it seems that referred pain originated in muscle TrPs could also contribute to neck symptoms perceived by subjects after a rear-end crash. In addition, several recent studies reported that both TTH and migraine are associated with referred pain from TrPs in the suboccipital, upper trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, temporalis, or superior oblique muscles. Referred pain elicited by active TrPs mimics the pain areas observed during head pain attacks in these primary headaches. Based on available data, it seems that the pain profile of neck and head syndromes may be provoked referred pain from TrPs in the posterior cervical, head, and shoulder muscles. Additional studies are needed to delineate more information on the relation between muscle TrPs and musculoskeletal pain syndromes of the head and neck.

  7. Venipuncture Induced Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Presenting as Inflammatory Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Pramod; Mittal, Manoj; Nair, Anugrah; Sultana, Waqia

    2016-01-01

    Venipuncture is one of the most commonly done medical procedures. We report a unique case of a 23-year-old young male who presented with features suggestive of inflammatory arthritis. The symptoms, which initially started on the right side, also involved the other side after a few weeks. Although the patient's symptoms and signs were simulating inflammatory arthritis, he had atypical features like poor response to anti-inflammatory medicines and normal laboratory parameters. His musculoskeletal ultrasonography was also not suggestive of arthritis. His history was reviewed and on direct questioning he revealed a history of venipuncture for blood sample withdrawal, done from right antecubital region for routine health check on the day prior to the onset of symptoms. Complex regional pain syndrome was suspected and triple-phase radioisotope bone scan was done which was highly suggestive of this diagnosis. The patient was managed with multidimensional approach and responded very well to the treatment. Complex regional pain syndrome is usually not thought of in the initial differential diagnosis of inflammatory arthritis. In this report we highlight the need to elicit the often overlooked history of trivial trauma like venipuncture, especially in atypical cases of arthritis. Also the role of newer diagnostic modalities in such cases is emphasized. PMID:27891152

  8. Patellofemoral pain syndrome: electromyography in a frequency domain analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catelli, D. S.; Kuriki, H. U.; Polito, L. F.; Azevedo, F. M.; Negrão Filho, R. F.; Alves, N.

    2011-09-01

    The Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS), has a multifactorial etiology and affects approximately 7 to 15% of the population, mostly women, youth, adults and active persons. PFPS causes anterior or retropatelar pain that is exacerbated during functional motor gestures, such as up and down stairs or spending long periods of time sitting, squatting or kneeling. As the diagnostic evaluation of this syndrome is still indirect, different mechanisms and methodologies try to make a classification that distinguishes patients with PFPS in relation to asymptomatic. Thereby, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the characteristics of the electromyographic (EMG) signal in the frequency domain of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO) and vastus lateralis (VL) in patients with PFPS, during the ascent of stairs. 33 young women (22 control group and 11 PFPS group), were evaluated by EMG during ascent of stairs. The VMO mean power frequency (MPF) and the VL frequency 95% (F95) were lower in symptomatic individuals. This may be related to the difference in muscle recruitment strategy exerted by each muscle in the PFPS group compared to the control group.

  9. Pain sensitivity of children with Down syndrome and their siblings: quantitative sensory testing versus parental reports.

    PubMed

    Valkenburg, Abraham J; Tibboel, Dick; van Dijk, Monique

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare thermal detection and pain thresholds in children with Down syndrome with those of their siblings. Sensory detection and pain thresholds were assessed in children with Down syndrome and their siblings using quantitative testing methods. Parental questionnaires addressing developmental age, pain coping, pain behaviour, and chronic pain were also utilized. Forty-two children with Down syndrome (mean age 12y 10mo) and 24 siblings (mean age 15y) participated in this observational study. The different sensory tests proved feasible in 13 to 29 (33-88%) of the children with Down syndrome. These children were less sensitive to cold and warmth than their siblings, but only when measured with a reaction time-dependent method, and not with a reaction time-independent method. Children with Down syndrome were more sensitive to heat pain, and only 6 (14%) of them were able to adequately self-report pain, compared with 22 (92%) of siblings (p<0.001). Children with Down syndrome will remain dependent on pain assessment by proxy, since self-reporting is not adequate. Parents believe that their children with Down syndrome are less sensitive to pain than their siblings, but this was not confirmed by quantitative sensory testing. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  10. Current diagnosis and therapy of complex regional pain syndrome: refining diagnostic criteria and therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Burton, Allen W; Bruehl, Stephen; Harden, R Norman

    2005-09-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome is a clinically challenging entity both in terms of accurate diagnosis and effective treatment. Complex regional pain syndrome is a post-traumatic painful neurologic syndrome involving the somatosensory, sympathetic and often the somatomotor systems. This complex condition consists of local neurogenic inflammation out of proportion to injury; severe pain in the skin, subcutaneous tissues and joints; and a central hyperexcitability that is often compounded with a sympathetic component. The syndrome is multifaceted manifesting both central and peripheral neurologic pathophysiology, frequently including a prominent psychosocial component. The wide array of possible patient presentations and antecedent pathologies also complicate successful treatment. To further add to the clinical challenges of complex regional pain syndrome, the epidemiology and natural history of complex regional pain syndrome are only partially known; evidence concerning complex regional pain syndrome treatment has grown slowly, due in large part to the vagaries of diagnosis; and research data--when they are available--are difficult to interpret. Thus, in spite of our evolving understanding of this neurologic disorder, in many cases complex regional pain syndrome remains difficult to diagnose and treat successfully.

  11. Mental health diagnoses in patients with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: a case/control study.

    PubMed

    Clemens, J Quentin; Brown, Sheila O; Calhoun, Elizabeth A

    2008-10-01

    We compared the rate of mental health disorders in male and female patients with pelvic pain and control subjects. Male patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (174) and female patients with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (111) were identified from a urology tertiary care clinic population. A control group consisting of 72 men and 175 women was also recruited. Subjects completed self-administered questionnaires that included items about demographics, medical history, medication use and urological symptoms. The Patient Health Questionnaire was used to identify depression and panic disorder. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine odds ratios for the presence of a mental health diagnosis. Mental health disorders were identified in 13% of the chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome cases and 4% of male controls (OR 2.0, p = 0.04), as well as in 23% of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome cases and 3% of female controls (OR 8.2, p <0.0001). Disease status (case vs control) (OR 10.4, p = 0.001) and income greater than $50,000 (OR 0.34, p = 0.008) were the only 2 variables independently predictive of the presence of a mental health diagnosis. Age, gender, race/ethnicity and education were not predictive. Medications for anxiety, depression or stress were being taken by 18% of patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome, 37% of those with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome, 7% of male controls and 13% of female controls. Depression and panic disorder are significantly more common in men and women with pelvic pain conditions than in controls. Medication use data suggest that anxiety and depression may be more difficult to treat in patients with urological pain syndromes than in controls.

  12. Low back pain associated with internal snapping hip syndrome in a competitive cyclist.

    PubMed

    Little, T L; Mansoor, J

    2008-04-01

    Low back pain is a common complaint among cyclists. Here we present the case of a competitive master cyclist with low back pain and whose symptoms ultimately resolved when he was treated for internal snapping hip syndrome. Internal snapping hip syndrome is a painful lesion of the iliopsoas caused by snapping of the tendon over the iliopectineal eminence or anterior femoral head when the femur is extended from a flexed position. This is the first published report that we are aware of that describes this syndrome as a potential cause of low back pain in a competitive cyclist.

  13. Movement, Function, Pain, and Postoperative Edema in Axillary Web Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Blaes, Anne H.; Haddad, Tuffia C.; Hunter, David W.; Hirsch, Alan T.; Ludewig, Paula M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Axillary web syndrome (AWS) is a condition that may develop following breast cancer surgery and that presents as a palpable axillary cord of tissue. Objective The purposes of this study were: (1) to determine the clinical characteristics of AWS related to movement, function, pain, and postoperative edema and (2) to define the incidence of and risk factors for AWS within the first 3 months following breast cancer surgery. Design This was a prospective cohort study with a repeated-measures design. Methods Women who underwent breast cancer surgery with sentinel node biopsy or axillary lymph node dissection (N=36) were assessed for AWS, shoulder range of motion, function, pain, and postoperative edema (using girth measurements, bioimpedance, and tissue dielectric constant) at 2, 4, and 12 weeks. Demographic characteristics were used for risk analysis. Results Seventeen women (47.2%) developed AWS, and AWS persisted in 10 participants (27.8%) at 12 weeks. Abduction range of motion was significantly lower in the AWS group compared with the non-AWS group at 2 and 4 weeks. There were no differences between groups in measurements of function, pain, or edema at any time point. Trunk edema measured by dielectric constant was present in both groups, with an incidence of 55%. Multivariate analysis determined lower body mass index as being significantly associated with AWS (odds ratio=0.86; 95% confidence interval=0.74, 1.00). Limitations Limitations included a short follow-up time and a small sample size. Conclusion Axillary web syndrome is prevalent following breast/axilla surgery for early-stage breast cancer and may persist beyond 12 weeks. The early consequences include movement restriction, but the long-term effects of persistent AWS cords are yet unknown. Low body mass index is considered a risk factor for AWS. PMID:25977305

  14. [Abdominal pain syndrome recurring after 40 years: critical revision].

    PubMed

    Zancan, L; Guariso, G; Gobber, D

    1996-01-01

    Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) syndrome is described by Apley 40 years ago. The definition of condition, still generally accepted, is at least three episodes of abdominal pain over a period of three months, with pain of intensity which affects the behaviour of the child. The prevalence of condition among school children is 10-15%. Apley's classic studies demonstrated organic disease in only 10% of the children. Apley's conclusions have dominated pediatric writing through present era. In recent years, however, a number of reports have appeared in the medical literature that have suggested that careful investigation of children with RAP may reveal previously unsuspected functional or morphologic abnormalities of the gastrointestinal tract. These have included reports of peptic disease and Helicobacter Pylori infection, abnormal antro-duodenal motility, lactase malabsorption, gastro-esophageal reflux. Nevertheless these abnormalities cannot be correlated always with specific complaints. Therefore pathogenetic background is not clarified. Despite greater understanding of these disorders the enigme remains. There is a need for controlled studies in non selected patients.

  15. Static Balance in Patients With Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Citaker, Seyit; Kaya, Defne; Yuksel, Inci; Yosmaoglu, Baran; Nyland, John; Atay, Ozgur Ahmet; Doral, Mahmut Nedim

    2011-01-01

    Background: The relationship between one-leg static standing balance (OLSSB) and patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is unknown. Hypothesis: OLSSB decreases in patients with PFPS. Design: Prospective case series. Methods: Fifty-two women with unilateral PFPS were enrolled in this study. OLSSB was evaluated with a stabilometer. Q angle was measured with a lengthened-arm universal goniometer. Lower extremity alignment was analyzed with full-length standing anteroposterior teleroentgenograms. Quadriceps and hamstring strength was measured on an isokinetic dynamometer. Results: There were significant differences in OLSSB, Q angle, and strength of quadriceps and hamstring between the symptomatic and asymptomatic sides. There was a correlation between the strength of the quadriceps and hamstring and OLSSB, while there was no correlation between OLSSB and the severity of pain, lower extremity alignment, and Q angle on the symptomatic side. Conclusions: OLSSB and quadriceps and hamstring strength decreased and Q angle increased on the symptomatic side in PFPS patients. A relationship between OLSSB and pain, Q angle, and lower extremity alignment was not detected, while there was a correlation between the strength of the quadriceps and hamstring and OLSSB. Clinical Relevance: A quadriceps and hamstring strengthening may be beneficial to improve OLSSB in patients with PFPS. PMID:23016053

  16. Fibromyalgia syndrome and temporomandibular disorders with muscular pain. A review.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Fernández, Ana Maria; Jiménez-Castellanos, Emilio; Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Bueso-Madrid, Débora; Fernández-Rodríguez, Ana; de Miguel, Manuel

    2017-03-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) refer to a group of clinical picture affecting the masticatory muscles and temporomandibular joint that are characterized by muscular or joint pain, dysfunction (limited or altered functions) and joint noises, as well as other associated symptoms, such as tension headaches, otalgia, dizziness, tinnitus, and others. Fibromyalgia (FM) is a syndrome of unknown etiology involving generalized chronic pain accompanied, in a high percentage of cases, by other symptoms such as asthenia, anxiety, depression, sleep disturbances, and other less frequent symptoms, such as temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Data were compiled by two experienced examiners following a specific form. An electronic search was carried out in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PUBMED, and SCOPUS electronic databases (up to April 2016, unrestricted by date or language). Comparative clinical studies with patients with both clinical pictures involving the study of pathogenic processes. Fibromyalgia and temporomandibular disorders with muscle pain both have profiles that affect the muscular system and therefore share many epidemiological, clinical, and physiopathological symptoms. Because of this, we are led to think that there is, if not a common etiology, at least a common pathogenesis. This article revises the physiopathological processes of both clinical pictures in an attempt to determine their similarities and likenesses. This would undoubtedly help in providing a better therapeutic approach.

  17. Oral pain perception and taste in burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Just, T; Steiner, S; Pau, H W

    2010-01-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the effect of idiopathic burning mouth syndrome (BMS) on both, the pain perception within trigeminal lingual nerve distribution and gustatory sensitivity using capsaicin threshold test, and regional taste tests, respectively. Pain thresholds for capsaicin were assessed using capsaicin-impregnated filter-paper strips. The strips were placed midline on the tongue tip for whole mouth testing with the mouth closed, and on the left or right edge of the extended anterior tongue for lateralized testing. Measures of gustatory function were obtained by validated "taste strips" test kit and electrogustometry. The tests were applied to 13 patients with BMS. Results were compared with those from 28 healthy subjects. Patients with BMS exhibited a decreased gustatory and somatosensory perception compared with healthy controls. These changes were found for lateralized tests but not for the whole mouth test procedure. Duration of disorder showed an effect on the capsaicin threshold, with patients being less sensitive to capsaicin exhibiting an increased duration of disorder. Both pain-related and gustatory sensitivies of the tongue are found to be decreased in BMS.

  18. Evidence based guidelines for complex regional pain syndrome type 1

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Treatment of complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) is subject to discussion. The purpose of this study was to develop multidisciplinary guidelines for treatment of CRPS-I. Method A multidisciplinary task force graded literature evaluating treatment effects for CRPS-I according to their strength of evidence, published between 1980 to June 2005. Treatment recommendations based on the literature findings were formulated and formally approved by all Dutch professional associations involved in CRPS-I treatment. Results For pain treatment, the WHO analgesic ladder is advised with the exception of strong opioids. For neuropathic pain, anticonvulsants and tricyclic antidepressants may be considered. For inflammatory symptoms, free-radical scavengers (dimethylsulphoxide or acetylcysteine) are advised. To promote peripheral blood flow, vasodilatory medication may be considered. Percutaneous sympathetic blockades may be used to increase blood flow in case vasodilatory medication has insufficient effect. To decrease functional limitations, standardised physiotherapy and occupational therapy are advised. To prevent the occurrence of CRPS-I after wrist fractures, vitamin C is recommended. Adequate perioperative analgesia, limitation of operating time, limited use of tourniquet, and use of regional anaesthetic techniques are recommended for secondary prevention of CRPS-I. Conclusions Based on the literature identified and the extent of evidence found for therapeutic interventions for CRPS-I, we conclude that further research is needed into each of the therapeutic modalities discussed in the guidelines. PMID:20356382

  19. [The effect of fenazepam and sidnocarb in the phantom pain syndrome].

    PubMed

    Danilova, E I; Grafova, V N; Reshetnik, V K

    1994-01-01

    The phantom-pain syndrome model was used to examine the effects of phenazepam, sydnocarb and their combination in chronic oral administration. Phenazepam was shown to have no effects on the development of the phantom-pain syndrome. Sydnocarb arrested the progression of the pain syndrome, reduced its symptoms, alleviated inflammatory manifestations and extremity edema. The agent increased animals' excitability. When their combination was used, the clinical signs of the pain syndrome developed in the same way as with sydnocarb alone. At the same time phenazepam decreased the animals' aggression and excitability caused by sydnocarb. It is suggested that enhancing the efficiency of inhibitory GABAergic processes may result in lower clinical signs of the phantom-pain syndrome in case of involvement of brain catecholaminergic systems whose activation increases the inhibitory functions of its related GABA. The sympathomimetic action of sydnocarb induces an elevation of norepinephrine concentrations in the nerve endings and postsynaptic receptors, resulting in trophic improvement and restoration of tissue viability.

  20. Complex regional pain syndrome: observations on diagnosis, treatment and definition of a new subgroup.

    PubMed

    Żyluk, A; Puchalski, P

    2013-07-01

    Several definitions and sets of diagnostic criteria of complex regional pain syndrome have been proposed, but to date none has been accepted completely. This article presents a specific subtype of the disease, called 'chronic, refractory complex regional pain syndrome' which is extremely severe, disabling and resistant to treatment. It also emphasizes difficulties with diagnosing complex regional pain syndrome because of its variable clinical presentation and diagnostic criteria being insufficiently precise. The necessity to distinguish between criteria for clinical use and for scientific purposes is suggested with a proposal of practical guideline for diagnosing acute complex regional pain syndrome. A review of treatments for complex regional pain syndrome is presented, with opinion on their effectiveness: good in an early stage, less well in chronic and generally poor in the chronic, refractory subtype.

  1. Effectiveness of therapeutic physical exercise in the treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Alba-Martín, Pablo; Gallego-Izquierdo, T; Plaza-Manzano, Gustavo; Romero-Franco, Natalia; Núñez-Nagy, Susana; Pecos-Martín, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of conservative treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome with physical exercise. [Subjects and Methods] A computer-based review conducted of four databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Library, PEDro, and the University Library) was completed based on the inclusion criteria of patellofemoral pain syndrome patients treated with physical exercise methods and examination with self-reported pain and/or functional questionnaires. [Results] The findings of ten clinical trials of moderate to high quality were evaluated to determine the effectiveness of physical exercise as conservative management for patellofemoral pain syndrome. [Conclusion] The intervention programs that were most effective in relieving pain and improving function in patellofemoral pain syndrome included proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching and strengthening exercises for the hip external rotator and abductor muscles and knee extensor muscles.

  2. Chronic pain in hypermobility syndrome and Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (hypermobility type): it is a challenge

    PubMed Central

    Scheper, Mark C; de Vries, Janneke E; Verbunt, Jeanine; Engelbert, Raoul HH

    2015-01-01

    Generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) is highly prevalent among patients diagnosed with chronic pain. When GJH is accompanied by pain in ≥4 joints over a period ≥3 months in the absence of other conditions that cause chronic pain, the hypermobility syndrome (HMS) may be diagnosed. In addition, GJH is also a clinical sign that is frequently present in hereditary diseases of the connective tissue, such as the Marfan syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta, and the Ehlers–Danlos syndrome. However, within the Ehlers–Danlos spectrum, a similar subcategory of patients having similar clinical features as HMS but lacking a specific genetic profile was identified: Ehlers–Danlos syndrome hypermobility type (EDS-HT). Researchers and clinicians have struggled for decades with the highly diverse clinical presentation within the HMS and EDS-HT phenotypes (Challenge 1) and the lack of understanding of the pathological mechanisms that underlie the development of pain and its persistence (Challenge 2). In addition, within the HMS/EDS-HT phenotype, there is a high prevalence of psychosocial factors, which again presents a difficult issue that needs to be addressed (Challenge 3). Despite recent scientific advances, many obstacles for clinical care and research still remain. To gain further insight into the phenotype of HMS/EDS-HT and its mechanisms, clearer descriptions of these populations should be made available. Future research and clinical care should revise and create consensus on the diagnostic criteria for HMS/EDS-HT (Solution 1), account for clinical heterogeneity by the classification of subtypes within the HMS/EDS-HT spectrum (Solution 2), and create a clinical core set (Solution 3). PMID:26316810

  3. Chronic pain in hypermobility syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (hypermobility type): it is a challenge.

    PubMed

    Scheper, Mark C; de Vries, Janneke E; Verbunt, Jeanine; Engelbert, Raoul Hh

    2015-01-01

    Generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) is highly prevalent among patients diagnosed with chronic pain. When GJH is accompanied by pain in ≥4 joints over a period ≥3 months in the absence of other conditions that cause chronic pain, the hypermobility syndrome (HMS) may be diagnosed. In addition, GJH is also a clinical sign that is frequently present in hereditary diseases of the connective tissue, such as the Marfan syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta, and the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. However, within the Ehlers-Danlos spectrum, a similar subcategory of patients having similar clinical features as HMS but lacking a specific genetic profile was identified: Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type (EDS-HT). Researchers and clinicians have struggled for decades with the highly diverse clinical presentation within the HMS and EDS-HT phenotypes (Challenge 1) and the lack of understanding of the pathological mechanisms that underlie the development of pain and its persistence (Challenge 2). In addition, within the HMS/EDS-HT phenotype, there is a high prevalence of psychosocial factors, which again presents a difficult issue that needs to be addressed (Challenge 3). Despite recent scientific advances, many obstacles for clinical care and research still remain. To gain further insight into the phenotype of HMS/EDS-HT and its mechanisms, clearer descriptions of these populations should be made available. Future research and clinical care should revise and create consensus on the diagnostic criteria for HMS/EDS-HT (Solution 1), account for clinical heterogeneity by the classification of subtypes within the HMS/EDS-HT spectrum (Solution 2), and create a clinical core set (Solution 3).

  4. Pain extent is associated with pain intensity but not with widespread pressure or thermal pain sensitivity in women with fibromyalgia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Barbero, Marco; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Palacios-Ceña, María; Cescon, Corrado; Falla, Deborah

    2017-06-01

    Widespread pain is considered a sign of central sensitization in people with chronic pain. Our aim was to examine whether pain extent, assessed from the pain drawing, relates to measures from quantitative sensory testing in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Thirty women with FMS and no other co-morbid conditions completed pain drawings (dorsal and ventral views) and clinical and related disability questionnaires. Pain extent and pain frequency maps were obtained from the pain drawings using a novel customized software. Pressure pain thresholds were assessed over the 18 tender points considered by the 1990 American College of Rheumatology criteria for FMS diagnosis and over two additional standardized points. Heat and cold pain thresholds were also assessed on the dorsal aspect of the neck, the dorsal aspect of the wrist, and the tibialis anterior. Spearman's correlation coefficients were used to assess the relationship between pain extent and quantitative sensory testing outcomes as well as clinical symptoms. Larger extent of pain was associated with a higher pain intensity (dorsal area: r s = 0.461, P = 0.010; total area: r s = 0.593, P = 0.001), younger age (ventral area: r s = -0.544, P = 0.002; total area: r s = -0.409, P = 0.025), shorter history of pain (ventral area: r s = -0.367, P = 0.046), and higher cold pain thresholds over the tibialis anterior muscle (r s = -0.406, P = 0.001). No significant association was observed between pain extent and the remaining outcomes. Pain drawings constitute an easy and accurate approach to quantify widespread pain. Larger pain extent is associated with pain intensity but not with signs of central sensitization in women with FMS.

  5. [Restless legs syndrome and nocturnal leg pain : Differential diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Hornyak, M; Stiasny-Kolster, K; Evers, S; Happe, S

    2011-09-01

    Pain in the legs belongs to the five most frequent regional pain symptoms. Restless legs syndrome (RLS) presents a particular differential diagnosis for pain in the legs, which is characterized by a nocturnal urge to move the legs often associated with painful sensations in the legs. It is one of the most common neurological disorders and probably the leading cause of nocturnal pain in the legs. In this overview, the diagnosis and therapy of RLS as well as aspects of pain therapy of the disorder are presented. In addition, the differential diagnoses for exclusion of other specific causes of nocturnal pain in the legs are discussed.

  6. Contemporary Management of Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Magistro, Giuseppe; Wagenlehner, Florian M E; Grabe, Magnus; Weidner, Wolfgang; Stief, Christian G; Nickel, J Curtis

    2016-02-01

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a common condition that causes severe symptoms, bother, and quality-of-life impact in the 8.2% of men who are believed to be affected. Research suggests a complex pathophysiology underlying this syndrome that is mirrored by its heterogeneous clinical presentation. Management of patients diagnosed with CP/CPPS has always been a formidable task in clinical practice. Due to its enigmatic etiology, a plethora of clinical trials failed to identify an efficient monotherapy. A comprehensive review of published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the treatment of CP/CPPS and practical best evidence recommendations for management. Medline and the Cochrane database were screened for RCTs on the treatment of CP/CPPS from 1998 to December 2014, using the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index as an objective outcome measure. Published data in concert with expert opinion were used to formulate a practical best evidence statement for the management of CP/CPPS. Twenty-eight RCTs identified were eligible for this review and presented. Trials evaluating antibiotics, α-blockers, anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating substances, hormonal agents, phytotherapeutics, neuromodulatory drugs, agents that modify bladder function, and physical treatment options failed to reveal a clear therapeutic benefit. With its multifactorial pathophysiology and its various clinical presentations, the management of CP/CPPS demands a phenotypic-directed approach addressing the individual clinical profile of each patient. Different categorization algorithms have been proposed. First studies applying the UPOINTs classification system provided promising results. Introducing three index patients with CP/CPPS, we present practical best evidence recommendations for management. Our current understanding of the pathophysiology underlying CP/CPPS resulting in this highly variable syndrome does not speak in favor of a

  7. Knee kinetic pattern during gait and anterior knee pain before and after rehabilitation in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Claudon, B; Poussel, M; Billon-Grumillier, C; Beyaert, C; Paysant, J

    2012-05-01

    Patellofemoral pain is likely due to compressive force acting on the patella related in turn to knee extension moment. The latter variable was assumed to be (i) reduced during short-distance free walking in case of patellofemoral pain syndrome and (ii) increased after therapeutic pain reduction. Peak knee extension moment at beginning of stance phase was recorded by three-dimensional gait analysis in 22 controls and in 23 patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome before and after rehabilitation of knee extensors and flexors to reduce the pain. Pain would occur mainly in stressful activities such as stair negotiation or squatting and was quantified by the anterior knee pain scale. Peak knee extension moment was significantly reduced in all the patients before treatment (n=23) compared to controls, although no one had pain during free walking. In the 17 patients who experienced significant post-rehabilitation pain reduction in their stressful activities, the peak knee extension moment was significantly reduced before treatment compared to controls and significantly increased after treatment, reaching values similar to control values. The peak knee extension moment during free walking appears to be a good kinetic variable related to a compensatory mechanism limiting or avoiding anterior knee pain and may be of interest in assessing knee dynamics alteration in patients with PFPS.

  8. Development, validation and testing of an epidemiological case definition of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome.

    PubMed

    Berry, Sandra H; Bogart, Laura M; Pham, Chau; Liu, Karin; Nyberg, Leroy; Stoto, Michael; Suttorp, Marika; Clemens, J Quentin

    2010-05-01

    No standard case definition exists for interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome for patient screening or epidemiological studies. As part of the RAND Interstitial Cystitis Epidemiology study, we developed a case definition for interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome with known sensitivity and specificity. We compared this definition with others used in interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome epidemiological studies. We reviewed the literature and performed a structured, expert panel process to arrive at an interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome case definition. We developed a questionnaire to assess interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome symptoms using this case definition and others used in the literature. We administered the questionnaire to 599 women with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome, overactive bladder, endometriosis or vulvodynia. The sensitivity and specificity of each definition was calculated using physician assigned diagnoses as the reference standard. No single epidemiological definition had high sensitivity and high specificity. Thus, 2 definitions were developed. One had high sensitivity (81%) and low specificity (54%), and the other had the converse (48% sensitivity and 83% specificity). These values were comparable or superior to those of other epidemiological definitions used in interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome prevalence studies. No single case definition of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome provides high sensitivity and high specificity to identify the condition. For prevalence studies of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome the best approach may be to use 2 definitions that would yield a prevalence range. The RAND Interstitial Cystitis Epidemiology interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome case definitions, developed through structured consensus and validation, can be used for this purpose. 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research

  9. Impact of pain on quality of life in patients with post-polio syndrome.

    PubMed

    Werhagen, Lars; Borg, Kristian

    2013-02-01

    Post-polio syndrome is a neurological disorder occurring several years after an acute polio infection. The main symptoms are increased muscular weakness and atrophy, fatigue and pain. Pain is present more often in younger individuals and in females and, according to the visual analogue scale (VAS), the intensity of pain is relatively high. The aim of the present study was to analyse the impact of pain on quality of life in patients with post-polio syndrome. Transversal study. Patients with post-polio syndrome underwent a thorough neurological and general examination. They were interviewed about the presence and intensity of pain during the previous 3 months, then completed the quality of life inventory Short-Form 36 (SF-36), which included questions about pain during the previous 4 weeks, and rated their pain intensity during the previous 24 h according to the VAS. Seventy-seven of the patients (68%) experienced pain at the examination. Pain was found to have a significant impact on the SF-36 subdomains Vitality and General health. A correlation was found between pain during the previous 3 months, the previous 4 weeks, and the previous 24 h. Pain is common in patients with post-polio syndrome. Although patients have a high mean VAS score the pain only affects quality of life for Vitality and General Health, but not for other physical and mental domains.

  10. [Infrared laser radiation in the treatment of low back pain syndrome].

    PubMed

    Mika, T; Orłow, H; Kuszelewski, Z

    1990-06-01

    The effectiveness was estimated of infrared laser radiation in the treatment of low back pain syndrome. The patients received irradiation from a semiconductor laser. The results were evaluated in 82 patients using a questionnaire of pain, taking into account its intensity, frequency, taking of analgesics, and the motor activity of the patient. The results suggest a favourable effect of infrared laser radiation on pain.

  11. Characteristics of Myofascial Pain Syndrome of the Infraspinatus Muscle.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Junbeom; Kim, Hyoung Seop; Chang, Won Hyuk; Park, Chunung; Lee, Sang Chul

    2017-08-01

    To report the characteristics of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in the infraspinatus muscle and evaluate the therapeutic effect of trigger-point injections. Medical records of 297 patients (221 women; age, 53.9±11.3 years) with MTrPs in the infraspinatus muscle were reviewed retrospectively. Because there were 83 patients with MTrPs in both infraspinatus muscles, the characteristics of total 380 infraspinatus muscles with MTrPs (214 one side, 83 both sides) were investigated. Specific characteristics collected included chief complaint area, referred pain pattern, the number of local twitch responses, and distribution of MTrPs in the muscle. For statistical analysis, the paired t-test was used to compare a visual analogue scale (VAS) before and 2 weeks after the first injection. The most common chief complaint area of MTrPs in the infraspinatus muscle was the scapular area. The most common pattern of referred pain was the anterolateral aspect of the arm (above the elbow). Active MTrPs were multiple rather than single in the infraspinatus muscle. MTrPs were frequently in the center of the muscle. Trigger-point injection of the infraspinatus muscle significantly decreased the pain intensity. Mean VAS score decreased significantly after the first injection compared to the baseline (7.11 vs. 3.74; p<0.001). Characteristics of MTrPs and the therapeutic effects of trigger-point injections of the infraspinatus muscle were assessed. These findings could provide clinicians with useful information in diagnosing and treating myofascial pain syndrome of the infraspinatus muscle.

  12. Guideline for diagnosis and treatment of subacromial pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Diercks, Ron; Bron, Carel; Dorrestijn, Oscar; Meskers, Carel; Naber, René; de Ruiter, Tjerk; Willems, Jaap; Winters, Jan; van der Woude, Henk Jan

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of “subacromial impingement syndrome” of the shoulder has changed drastically in the past decade. The anatomical explanation as “impingement” of the rotator cuff is not sufficient to cover the pathology. “Subacromial pain syndrome”, SAPS, describes the condition better. A working group formed from a number of Dutch specialist societies, joined by the Dutch Orthopedic Association, has produced a guideline based on the available scientific evidence. This resulted in a new outlook for the treatment of subacromial pain syndrome. The important conclusions and advice from this work are as follows: (1) The diagnosis SAPS can only be made using a combination of clinical tests. (2) SAPS should preferably be treated non-operatively. (3) Acute pain should be treated with analgetics if necessary. (4) Subacromial injection with corticosteroids is indicated for persistent or recurrent symptoms. (5) Diagnostic imaging is useful after 6 weeks of symptoms. Ultrasound examination is the recommended imaging, to exclude a rotator cuff rupture. (6) Occupational interventions are useful when complaints persist for longer than 6 weeks. (7) Exercise therapy should be specific and should be of low intensity and high frequency, combining eccentric training, attention to relaxation and posture, and treatment of myofascial trigger points (including stretching of the muscles) may be considered. (8) Strict immobilization and mobilization techniques are not recommended. (9) Tendinosis calcarea can be treated by shockwave (ESWT) or needling under ultrasound guidance (barbotage). (10) Rehabilitation in a specialized unit can be considered in chronic, treatment resistant SAPS, with pain perpetuating behavior. (11) There is no convincing evidence that surgical treatment for SAPS is more effective than conservature management. (12) There is no indication for the surgical treatment of asymptomatic rotator cuff tears. PMID:24847788

  13. Effect of yoga on the Myofascial Pain Syndrome of neck

    PubMed Central

    Sharan, D; Manjula, M; Urmi, D; Ajeesh, PS

    2014-01-01

    Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS) refers to pain attributed to muscle and its surrounding fascia, which is associated with “myofascial trigger points” (MTrPs). MTrPs in the trapezius has been proposed as the main cause of temporal and cervicogenic headache and neck pain. Literature shows that the prevalence of various musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) among physiotherapists is high. Yoga has traditionally been used to treat MSDs in various populations. But there is scarcity of literature which explains the effects of yoga on reducing MPS of the neck in terms of various physical parameters and subjective responses. Therefore, a pilot study was done among eight physiotherapists with minimum six months of experience. A structured yoga protocol was designed and implemented for five days in a week for four weeks. The outcome variables were Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hands (DASH) score, Neck Disability Index (NDI), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Pressure Pain Threshold (PPT) for Trigger Points, Cervical Range of Motion (CROM) - active & passive, grip and pinch strengths. The variables were compared before and after the intervention. Finally, the result revealed that all the variables (DASH: P<0.00, NDI: P<0.00, VAS: P<0.00, PPT: Left: P<0.00, PPT: Right: P<0.00, Grip strength: left: P<0.00, Grip strength: right: P<0.01, Key pinch: left: P<0.01, Key pinch: right: P<0.01, Palmar pinch: left: P<0.01, Palmar pinch: right: P<0.00, Tip pinch: left: P<0.01, Tip pinch: Right: P<0.01) improved significantly after intervention. PMID:25035608

  14. Effect of intravenous immunoglobulin on pain in patients with post-polio syndrome.

    PubMed

    Werhagen, Lars; Borg, Kristian

    2011-11-01

    Pain is a common symptom that affects quality of life in patients with post-polio syndrome. An increase in cytokine in the cerebrospinal fluid suggests that inflammation is pathophysiologically important in post-polio syndrome. Intravenous immunoglobulin might therefore be a therapeutic option. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of intravenous immunoglobulin treatment on pain in post-polio syndrome. An uncontrolled clinical study. Patients with post-polio syndrome and pain (n = 45) underwent a neurological examination and were interviewed about pain before and 6 months after treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin. Pain intensity was measured on a visual analogue scale. The pain was classified according to the International Association for the Study of Pain criteria as neuropathic when it occurred in an area with decreased sensibility, or nociceptive when signs of inflammation and/or painful joints movements were present. After treatment 31/45 (69%) patients were improved, with a mean visual analogue scale decrease from 53 to 42 (p = 0.001). Eighteen patients (40%) had a decrease of 20 or more points on the visual analogue scale. The effect of treatment did not differ regarding age, gender and severity of disability. Two-thirds of 45 patients with post-polio syndrome and pain reported a decrease on the visual analogue scale for pain after treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin, and 40% reported a decrease of 20 or more points on the visual analogue scale.

  15. Implementation of a portable electronic system for providing pain relief to patellofemoral pain syndrome patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang Chien, Jia-Ren; Lin, Guo-Hong; Hsu, Ar-Tyan

    2011-10-01

    In this study, a portable electromyogram (EMG) system and a stimulator are developed for patellofemoral pain syndrome patients, with the objective of reducing the pain experienced by these patients; the patellar pain is caused by an imbalance between the vastus medialis obliquus (VMO) and the vastus lateralis (VL). The EMG measurement circuit and the electrical stimulation device proposed in this study are specifically designed for the VMO and the VL; they are capable of real-time waveform recording, possess analyzing functions, and can upload their measurement data to a computer for storage and analysis. The system can calculate and record the time difference between the EMGs of the VMO and the VL, as well as the signal strengths of both the EMGs. As soon as the system detects the generation of the EMG of the VL, it quickly calculates and processes the event and stimulates the VMO as feedback through electrical stimulation units, in order to induce its contraction. The system can adjust the signal strength, time length, and the sequence of the electrical stimulation, both manually and automatically. The output waveform of the electrical stimulation circuit is a dual-phase asymmetrical pulse waveform. The primary function of the electrical simulation circuit is to ensure that the muscles contract effectively. The performance of the device can be seen that the width of each pulse is 20-1000 μs, the frequency of each pulse is 10-100 Hz, and current strength is 10-60 mA.

  16. Kaposi sarcoma following postmastectomy lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Montero Pérez, Iria; Rodríguez-Pazos, Laura; Álvarez-Pérez, Adriana; Ferreirós, M Mercedes Pereiro; Aliste, Carlos; Suarez-Peñaranda, Jose Manuel; Toribio, Jaime

    2015-11-01

    Classical Kaposi sarcoma (KS) usually appears on lower extremities accompanied or preceded by local lymphedema. However, the development in areas of chronic lymphedema of the arms following mastectomy, mimicking a Stewart-Treves syndrome, has rarely been described. We report an 81-year-old woman who developed multiple, erythematous to purple tumors, located on areas of post mastectomy lymphedema. Histopathological examination evidenced several dermal nodules formed by spindle-shaped cells that delimitated slit-like vascular spaces with some red cell extravasation. Immunohistochemically, the human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8) latent nuclear antigen-1 was detected in the nuclei of most tumoral cells confirming the diagnosis of KS. Lymphedema could promote the development of certain tumors by altering immunocompetence. Although angiosarcoma (AS) is the most frequent neoplasia arising in the setting of chronic lymphedema, other tumors such as benign lymphangiomatous papules (BLAP) or KS can also develop in lymphedematous limbs. It is important to establish the difference between AS and KS because their prognosis and treatment are very different. Identification by immunohistochemistry of HHV-8 is useful for the distinction between KS and AS or BLAP.

  17. Toll-like Receptor 4 and Comorbid Pain in Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome: A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain Research Network Study

    PubMed Central

    Schrepf, Andrew; Bradley, Catherine S.; O'Donnell, Michael; Luo, Yi; Harte, Steven E.; Kreder, Karl; Lutgendorf, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome (IC/BPS) is a condition characterized by pelvic pain and urinary symptoms. Some IC/BPS patients have pain confined to the pelvic region, while others suffer widespread pain. Inflammatory processes have previously been linked to pelvic pain in IC/BPS, but their association with widespread pain in IC/BPS has not been characterized. Methods Sixty-six women meeting criteria for IC/BPS completed self-report measures of pain as part of the Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP), collected 3 days of saliva for cortisol assays, and provided blood samples. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated with Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) 2 and 4 agonists and cytokines were measured in supernatant; IL-6 was also measured in plasma. Associations between inflammatory variables and the likelihood of endorsing extra-pelvic pain, or the presence of a comorbid syndrome, were tested by logistic regression and General Linear Models, respectively. A subset of patients (n=32) completed Quantitative Sensory Testing. Results A one standard deviation increase in TLR-4 inflammatory response was associated with a 1.59 greater likelihood of endorsing extra-pelvic pain (p = .019). Participants with comorbid syndromes also had higher inflammatory responses to TLR-4 stimulation in PBMCs (p = .016). Lower pressure pain thresholds were marginally associated with higher TLR-4 inflammatory responses (p = .062), and significantly associated with higher IL-6 in plasma (p = .031). Conclusions TLR-4 inflammatory responses in PBMCs are a marker of widespread pain in IC/BPS, and should be explored in other conditions characterized by medically unexplained pain. PMID:25771510

  18. Juvenile Fibromyalgia: Different from the Adult Chronic Pain Syndrome?

    PubMed

    Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; King, Christopher; Ting, Tracy V; Arnold, Lesley M

    2016-04-01

    While a majority of research has focused on adult fibromyalgia (FM), recent evidence has provided insights into the presence and impact of FM in children and adolescents. Commonly referred as juvenile fibromyalgia (JFM), youths, particularly adolescent girls, present with persistent widespread pain and cardinal symptoms observed in adult FM. A majority of youth with JFM continue to experience symptoms into adulthood, which highlights the importance of early recognition and intervention. Some differences are observed between adult and juvenile-onset FM syndrome with regard to comorbidities (e.g., joint hypermobility is common in JFM). Psychological comorbidities are common but less severe in JFM. Compared to adult FM, approved pharmacological treatments for JFM are lacking, but non-pharmacologic approaches (e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy and exercise) show promise. A number of conceptual issues still remain including (1) directly comparing similarities and differences in symptoms and (2) identifying shared and unique mechanisms underlying FM in adults and youths.

  19. [Pharmacological sympathetic block in complex regional pain syndrome].

    PubMed

    Verre, M; De Santis, F; Glyronakis, S; Grande, A M; Renzi, A; Santangelo, E; Tortorella, V; Varano, M

    2002-01-01

    The Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain state provoked by lesions of the soft tissues or of the bony tissues (type CRPS-I or reflex sympathetic dystrophy-RSD) or by lesions of the nerves (type CRPS-II or causalgia) with vegetative alterations (perspiration, vasomotory alterations) and trophic alterations (bony cutaneous atrophy, alopecia, articular contractures). The pharmacological block of the sympathetic nerves through a peripheral vein is inserted in the multidisciplinary approach that characterizes the therapy of this syndrome. A retrospective survey was carried out on a group of 185 patients affected by RDS/CRPS with block of the sympathetic nerves through a peripheral vein with guanethidine. Superior limb: Inflation of the tourniquet till disappearance of the radial wrist. Cannulation of a peripheral vein with Butterfly needle n. 23. Guanethidine 10 mg, lidocaine 20 mg, sodic heparin 500 u.i, NaCl 0.9% 20 ml. Injection in 5 minutes. Permanence of the pneumatic tourniquet inflated above systolic blood pressure for 15 minutes. Deflation slowly. Inferior limb: Inflation of the tourniquet till disappearance of the pedidium wrist. Cannulation of a peripheral vein with Butterfly needle n. 23. Guanethidine 20 mg, lidocaine 40 mg, sodic heparin 1000 u.i, NaCl 0.9% 40 ml. Injection in 5 minutes. Permanence of the pneumatic tourniquet inflated above systolic blood pressure for 15 minutes. Deflation slowly. The first stage (hyperemic) showed the highest incidence of remissions: (83, 33%). Even in the second stage (dystrophic) the answer to the therapy has been fundamentally positive: (53, 68%). In the third stage (atrophic) the results have been more modest: (8, 33%). The block of sympathetic system with guanethidine is still an important method in the therapy of the CRPS; in fact it is surely less invading than the blocks of the stellate ganglion or of the lumbar sympathetic.

  20. Optical diagnosis of internal cystitis / painful bladder syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadgan, Babak; Macnab, Andrew; Stothers, Lynn

    Background: Painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis (PBS/IC) is defined as a syndrome of urgency, frequency, and suprapubic pain in the absence of positive urine culture or obvious bladder pathology. As no specific etiology has been identified yet, no specific methodology exists for diagnosis of this condition. One potential etiology of PBS/IC is inflammation of the bladder mucosa associated with abnormal angiogenesis and ulcerative lesions. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of using transcutaneous near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) of the bladder to monitor tissue oxygenation and hemodynamics as a means of differentiating subjects diagnosed with PBS/IC from those with other bladder conditions. Methods: Twenty-four adult patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction were divided into 2 groups, PBS/IC and non-PBS/IC after standard diagnostic investigations. Detrusor oxygen saturation percentage (TSI%) was measured in all subjects while they were at rest in a supine position, using a spatially resolved (SR) NIRS instrument. Mean values of detrusor TSI% were significantly different between the two groups (74.2%+/-4.9 in PBS/IC vs. 63.6%+/-5.5 in non-PBS/IC, P<0.0005). Results: Noninvasive NIRS interrogation of the bladder demonstrated that patients diagnosed as having PBS/IC had significantly higher detrusor oxygen saturation at rest. Conclusions: SR-NIRS as a feasible non-noninvasive entity for use in the evaluation of patients for the presence or absence of physiologic changes associated with PBS/IC.

  1. Unusual Pharyngeal Pain Caused by Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Report of Three Cases

    PubMed Central

    Anzai, Takashi; Hiroshige, Yuu; Nakamura, Masahiro; Iizuka, Takashi; Nakazato, Yuji; Ikeda, Katsuhisa

    2017-01-01

    Most patients complaining of pharyngeal pain have an upper respiratory tract infection or other local explanation for their pain. Here we show 3 rare cases of patients visiting our Otorhinolaryngology Department who had an initial symptom of pharyngeal pain caused by acute coronary syndrome (ACS). An electrocardiogram and a cardiac biomarker test are recommended to exclude ACS with atypical presentation in cases without pharyngolaryngeal findings comparable to pharyngeal pain. PMID:28243429

  2. How can we strengthen the quadriceps femoris in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Defne; Doral, Mahmut Nedim; Callaghan, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Summary Purpose: the aim of this article was to review the clinical approach of quadriceps strengthening programmes. Methods: a literature search was carried out from 1980 up to September 2011. Eligible studies were those that: (1) evaluated the patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome (not healthy or asymptomatic subjects) (2) examined the effect of kinetic chain exercises (3) examined the effect of weight-bearing exercises (4) compared the effect of the combined exercises programme in the treatment of patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Results and conclusion: patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome may tolerate a closed kinetic chain exercises programme better than open kinetic chain. Weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing quadriceps exercises can significantly improve subjective and clinical outcomes in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Combining treatments as an initial approach to treating patellofemoral pain but developing individualized more functional, global treatments are essential. PMID:23738270

  3. An overview of the management of post-vasectomy pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wei Phin; Levine, Laurence A

    2016-01-01

    Post-vasectomy pain syndrome remains one of the more challenging urological problems to manage. This can be a frustrating process for both the patient and clinician as there is no well-recognized diagnostic regimen or reliable effective treatment. Many of these patients will end up seeing physicians across many disciplines, further frustrating them. The etiology of post-vasectomy pain syndrome is not clearly delineated. Postulations include damage to the scrotal and spermatic cord nerve structures via inflammatory effects of the immune system, back pressure effects in the obstructed vas and epididymis, vascular stasis, nerve impingement, or perineural fibrosis. Post-vasectomy pain syndrome is defined as at least 3 months of chronic or intermittent scrotal content pain. This article reviews the current understanding of post-vasectomy pain syndrome, theories behind its pathophysiology, evaluation pathways, and treatment options.

  4. Formation of a chronic pain syndrome due to mesh shrinkage after laparoscopic intraperitoneal onlay mesh (IPOM).

    PubMed

    Klein, Fritz; Ospina, Carlos; Rudolph, Birgit; Wüstefeld, Joost; Denecke, Timm; Neuhaus, Peter; Schmidt, Sven-Christian

    2012-10-01

    The case of a 58-year-old male patient who developed a chronic pain syndrome after laparoscopic intraperitoneal onlay mesh for treatment of a large symptomatic umbilical hernia combined with rectus diastasis is reported. Twelve months after an uncomplicated initial surgery, the patient presented with progressive signs of a foreign body sensation and pain in the anterior abdominal wall. Computed tomography examination revealed no pathologic findings but a marked shrinkage of the mesh implant. Because of further progressive symptoms, explorative laparotomy was performed. Mesh shrinkage and adhesions with a surrounding chronic tissue reaction were found as the cause of the pain syndrome. This case demonstrates a case of a chronic pain syndrome due to mesh shrinkage 12 months after initial ventral hernia repair. Mesh shrinkage should therefore be taken into consideration in patients with progressive pain chronic syndromes after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair.

  5. An overview of the management of post-vasectomy pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wei Phin; Levine, Laurence A

    2016-01-01

    Post-vasectomy pain syndrome remains one of the more challenging urological problems to manage. This can be a frustrating process for both the patient and clinician as there is no well-recognized diagnostic regimen or reliable effective treatment. Many of these patients will end up seeing physicians across many disciplines, further frustrating them. The etiology of post-vasectomy pain syndrome is not clearly delineated. Postulations include damage to the scrotal and spermatic cord nerve structures via inflammatory effects of the immune system, back pressure effects in the obstructed vas and epididymis, vascular stasis, nerve impingement, or perineural fibrosis. Post-vasectomy pain syndrome is defined as at least 3 months of chronic or intermittent scrotal content pain. This article reviews the current understanding of post-vasectomy pain syndrome, theories behind its pathophysiology, evaluation pathways, and treatment options. PMID:26952956

  6. Myofacial pain dysfunction syndrome: a clinical study of asymptomatic subjects.

    PubMed

    Cooper, B C; Rabuzzi, D D

    1984-01-01

    The diagnosis of myofacial pain dysfunction (MPD), commonly called temporomandibular joint syndrome, has traditionally been made on the presence of a group of clinical symptoms that produce pain and limitation of movement. The cause of this common illness has been the subject of controversy for over half a century. There has been a lack of agreement on diagnosis, a cause, and treatment. Advanced bioelectronic technology now makes an accurate diagnosis possible, based not merely on clinical symptoms, but on reproducible scientific data. A cause of MPD is discernable and reliable treatment possible, as well as long lasting resolution objectively monitorable with the Mandibular Kinesiograph (MKG 5-R) and Bioelectric Processor (EMIR). A study of mandibular movement and masticular muscle function of 26 "normal" subjects (i.e., clinically asymptomatic) revealed that the overwhelming majority did indeed have dysfunction of the muscles which move and posture the mandible. The significance of this study is twofold. First it demonstrates a valid testing procedure for measuring mandibular movement and muscle function. Second it establishes the fact that most individuals have a physical predisposition to MPD. Changes in the adaptive capacity of the neuromusculature by physical or emotional trauma could then precipitate MPD.

  7. The role of patellar alignment and tracking in vivo: the potential mechanism of patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Song, Chen-Yi; Lin, Jiu-Jenq; Jan, Mei-Hwa; Lin, Yeong-Fwu

    2011-08-01

    Lateral patellar malalignment and maltracking are commonly believed to be associated with patellofemoral pain. In the current review, a computerized and manual search of English-language articles was performed using multiple combinations of the following keywords: 'patellofemoral pain syndrome' or 'patellofemoral pain', and 'patellar alignment' or 'patellar tracking'. The role of patellar alignment and tracking in vivo is discussed via a review of papers regarding the differences in asymptomatic and symptomatic patella. An attempt is made to identify the potential mechanism of patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). Evidence suggests that symptomatic patella do not consistently demonstrate lateral malalignment or tracking in patellar tilt and translation. Abnormal patellar alignment and tracking may be potential risk factors that are associated with patellofemoral pain. Other contributing factors should be considered in dealing with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Further studies are required to determine what normal patella alignment and tracking is before going on to define how these are altered in subjects with patellofemoral pain. Furthermore, prospective studies are needed to identify the alteration of patellofemoral kinematics, if any, and whether these are the causative factor or the consequence of the patellofemoral pain syndrome, as well as to determine the risk of development of patellofemoral pain syndrome in individuals with and without abnormal patellar tracking. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Physical Activity and Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ran; Chomistek, Andrea K.; Dimitrakoff, Jordan D.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Willett, Walter C.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Wu, Kana

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a prevalent urologic disorder among men, but its etiology is still poorly understood. Our objective was to examine the relationship between physical activity and incidence of CP/CPPS in a large cohort of male health professionals. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study among men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study followed from 1986 to 2008. The study population included 20,918 men who completed all CP/CPPS questions on the 2008 questionnaire. Leisure-time physical activity, including type and intensity of activity, was measured by questionnaire in 1986. A National Institute of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index pain score was calculated based on the responses on the 2008 questionnaire. Participants with pain scores ≥ 8 were considered CP/CPPS cases (n=689). Results Higher leisure-time physical activity was associated with lower risk of CP/CPPS. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) comparing >35.0 to ≤3.5 MET-h/wk of physical activity was 0.72 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.56, 0.92, p for trend <0.001). Observed inverse associations between physical activity and CP/CPPS were similar for both moderate- and vigorous-intensity activities. Sedentary behavior, measured as time spent watching television, was not associated with risk of CP/CPPS (p for trend 0.64). Conclusions Findings from this study, the first large scale and most comprehensive study to date on this association, suggest that higher levels of leisure-time physical activity may lower risk of CP/CPPS in middle-aged and older men. PMID:25116086

  9. Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and glycosaminoglycans replacement therapy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a debilitating chronic disease characterized by discomfort or recurrent abdominal and pelvic pains in the absence of urinary tract infections. Its symptomatology includes discomfort, increased bladder pressure, sensitivity and intense pain in the bladder and pelvic areas, increased voiding frequency and urgency, or a combination of these symptoms. For these reasons, this pathology has a very negative impact on quality of life. The etiology of IC/BPS is still not well understood and different hypotheses have been formulated, including autoimmune processes, allergic reactions, chronic bacterial infections, exposure to toxins or dietary elements, and psychosomatic factors. The finding of an effective and specific therapy for IC/BPS remains a challenge for the scientific community because of the lack of a consensus regarding the causes and the inherent difficulties in the diagnosis. The last recent hypothesis is that IC/BPS could be pathophysiologically related to a disruption of the bladder mucosa surface layer with consequent loss of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). This class of mucopolysaccharides has hydrorepellent properties and their alteration expose the urothelium to many urinary toxic agents. It has been hypothesized that when these substances penetrate the bladder wall a chain is triggered in the submucosa. In order to improve the integrity and function of the bladder lining, GAG layer replenishment therapy is widely accepted as therapy for patients with IC/BPS who have poor or inadequate response to conventional therapy. Currently, Chondroitin sulfate (CS), heparin, hyaluronic acid (HA), and pentosan polysulphate (PPS), and combinations of two GAGs (CS and HA) are the available substances with different effectiveness rates in patients with IC/BPS. There are four different commercially available products for GAG replenishment including CS, heparin, HA and PPS. Each product has different concentrations and

  10. Intrathecal baclofen for dystonia of complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    van Rijn, M A; Munts, A G; Marinus, J; Voormolen, J H C; de Boer, K S; Teepe-Twiss, I M; van Dasselaar, N T; Delhaas, E M; van Hilten, J J

    2009-05-01

    Dystonia in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) responds poorly to treatment. Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) may improve this type of dystonia, but information on its efficacy and safety is limited. A single-blind, placebo-run-in, dose-escalation study was carried out in 42 CRPS patients to evaluate whether dystonia responds to ITB. Thirty-six of the 38 patients, who met the responder criteria received a pump for continuous ITB administration, and were followed up for 12 months to assess long-term efficacy and safety (open-label study). Primary outcome measures were global dystonia severity (both studies) and dystonia-related functional limitations (open-label study). The dose-escalation study showed a dose-effect of baclofen on dystonia severity in 31 patients in doses up to 450 microg/day. One patient did not respond to treatment in the dose-escalation study and three patients dropped out. Thirty-six patients entered the open-label study. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed a substantial improvement in patient and assessor-rated dystonia scores, pain, disability and quality-of-life (Qol) at 12 months. The response in the dose-escalation study did not predict the response to ITB in the open-label study. Eighty-nine adverse events occurred in 26 patients and were related to baclofen (n=19), pump/catheter system defects (n=52), or could not be specified (n=18). The pump was explanted in six patients during the follow-up phase. Dystonia, pain, disability and Qol all improved on ITB and remained efficacious over a period of one year. However, ITB is associated with a high complication rate in this patient group, and methods to improve patient selection and catheter-pump integrity are warranted.

  11. Misconceived Retropharyngeal Calcific Tendinitis during Management of Myofascial Neck Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ji Youn; Lim, Jin Hun; Kim, Yong Seok; Kwon, Young Eun; Yu, Jae Yong; Lee, Jun Hak

    2016-01-01

    Differential diagnosis of posterior neck pain is very challenging based on symptoms and physical examination only. Retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis is a rare and frequently misdiagnosed entity in various causes of neck pain. It results from calcium hydroxyapatite deposition in the longus colli muscle which is characterized by severe neck pain, painful restriction of neck movement, dysphagia, and odynophagia. We herein report a case of a patient with acute retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis, who complained of posterior neck pain, initially diagnosed and treated as a myofascial neck pain syndrome.

  12. Protracted refractory pain post-TEVAR: post-implantation syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Waweru, Peter; Gill, Hardeep; Abeid, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Aortic dissection is a life-threatening condition and has one of the highest mortality rates of cardiovascular diseases. It remains a devastating disease; with multiple unanswered questions concerning treatment modalities. The role of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) in these patients; especially those with uncomplicated acute aortic Type B dissections (AAD-B) is especially controversial although it has been shown to have better long-term outcomes compared to medical therapy alone. For those who have TEVAR, up to 60% may develop an acute, transient systemic inflammatory response syndrome that remains vaguely defined. The role of local inflammation in this post-implantation syndrome (PIS) has not been highlighted. We present a case of a 57-year-old male patient with an uncomplicated AAD-B who developed an ‘atypical’ PIS post-TEVAR with severe refractory abdominal pains; leukocytosis and raised C-reactive protein. The role of local inflammation in PIS is highlighted. PMID:28344762

  13. Neuropsychological deficits associated with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Libon, David J; Schwartzman, Robert J; Eppig, Joel; Wambach, Denene; Brahin, Eric; Peterlin, B Lee; Alexander, Guillermo; Kalanuria, Atul

    2010-05-01

    We sought to elucidate the existence of neuropsychological subtypes in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS). One hundred thirty seven patients with CRPS were administered tests that assess executive control, naming/lexical retrieval, and declarative memory. A 2-step cluster analysis that does not require any a priori specification regarding the number of clusters, classified patients into three groups. Group 1 obtained scores that were in the average range on all tests (n = 48; normal CRSP group). Group 2 (n = 58; dysexecutive CRSP group) presented with mild impairment or statistically low average test performance on working memory/verbal fluency tests. Group 3 (n = 31; global CRSP group) produced scores in the statistically low average/borderline range on all tests with particularly reduced scores on naming/declarative memory tests. Between-group analyses found that the CRPS group 1 obtained higher scores than CRPS groups 2 and 3 on all tests. However, groups 2 and 3 were equally impaired on executive tests. CRPS group 3 was impaired on tests of naming/memory tests compared to the other groups. Significant neuropsychological deficits are present in 65% of patients, with many patients presenting with elements of a dysexecutive syndrome and some patients presenting with global cognitive impairment.

  14. Tarsal tunnel syndrome masked by painful diabetic polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Ormeci, Tugrul; Mahirogulları, Mahir; Aysal, Fikret

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Various causes influence the etiology of tarsal tunnel syndrome including systemic diseases with progressive neuropathy, such as diabetes. Presentation of case We describe a 52-year-old male patient with complaints of numbness, burning sensation and pain in both feet. The laboratory results showed that the patient had uncontrolled diabetes, and the EMG showed distal symmetrical sensory-motor neuropathy and nerve entrapment at the right. Ultrasonography and MRI showed the cyst in relation to medial plantar nerve, and edema- moderate atrophy were observed at the distal muscles of the foot. Discussion Foot neuropathy in diabetic patients is a complex process. So, in planning the initial treatment, medical or surgical therapy is selected based on the location and type of the pathology. Foot deformities can be corrected with resting, anti-inflammatory treatment, appropriate shoes, orthesis and socks, and if required, ankle stabilization can be attempted. If the patient is still unresponsive, surgical treatment may be applied. Conclusion It is essential to investigate more localized reasons like tarsal tunnel syndrome that may mimic diabetic neuropathy, should be treated primarily. PMID:26333036

  15. Chronic musculoskeletal pain in patients with the chronic fatigue syndrome: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Meeus, Mira; Nijs, Jo; Meirleir, Kenny De

    2007-05-01

    In addition to debilitating fatigue the majority of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) experience chronic widespread pain. Conducting a systematic review to critically assess the existing knowledge on chronic pain in CFS. We focussed on the definition, the prevalence and incidence, the aetiology, the relevance and the therapy strategy for chronic musculoskeletal pain and post-exertional pain in CFS. To identify relevant articles, we searched eight medical search engines. The search terms "chronic fatigue syndrome" AND "pain", "nociception", "arthralgia" and "myalgia", were used to identify articles concerning pain in CFS. Included articles were reviewed by two blinded researchers. Twenty-five articles and two abstract were identified and selected for further appraisal. Only 11 search results focussed on musculoskeletal pain in CFS patients. Regarding the standardized review of the articles, a 96% agreement between the researchers was observed. There is no consensus in defining chronic widespread pain in CFS, and although there is little or no strong proof for the exact prevalence, chronic pain is strongly disabling in CFS. Aetiological theories are proposed (sleep abnormalities, tryptophan, parovirus-B, hormonal and brain abnormalities and central sensitisation) and a reduction of pain threshold after exercise has been shown. Furthermore depression seemed not related to pain in CFS and a staphylococcus toxoid vaccine caused no significant pain reduction. The results from the systematic review highlight the clinical importance of chronic pain in CFS, but only few studies addressing the aetiology or treatment of chronic pain in CFS are currently available.

  16. Sodium-24 studies in postmastectomy lymphedema

    SciTech Connect

    Scanlon, E.F.; Milland, F.P.; Hellman, L. )

    1990-05-01

    Seven patients were studied with {sup 24}Na to determine the relative disappearance time of the isotope from the postmastectomy lymphedematous arm as compared to the normal side. The results tend to confirm previously held convictions that the edema is usually confined to the subcutaneous fat and skin. The disappearance time (T1/2) of the radioactive sodium from the muscle of the edematous side was usually comparable to that of the control side. The data also indicate that the impairment of fluid drainage from other areas, such as the lateral chest wall, that normally drain into the axilla, is impaired similarly to that of the subcutaneous fat of the arm. Operative procedures designed to relieve the edema of the arm by providing an alternate route of drainage should provide a conduit for the fluid to an area that does not normally drain to the axilla of the affected side.

  17. Intrathecal clonidine and adenosine: effects on pain and sensory processing in patients with chronic regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rauck, Richard L; North, James; Eisenach, James C

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pain may be accompanied by hyperalgesia and allodynia, and analgesic interventions may reduce these hypersensitivity phenomena. Preclinical data suggest that intrathecal clonidine and adenosine reduce hypersensitivity, but only clonidine reduces pain; therefore, we tested the effects of these interventions in patients with chronic pain. Twenty-two subjects with pain and hyperalgesia in a lower extremity from complex regional pain syndrome were recruited in a double-blind crossover study to receive intrathecal clonidine, 100 μg, or adenosine, 2 mg. Primary outcome measure was proportion with ≥30% reduction in pain 2 hours after injection, and secondary measures were pain report, areas of hypersensitivity, and temporal summation to heat stimuli. Treatments did not differ in the primary outcome measure (10 met success criterion after clonidine administration and 5 after adenosine administration), although they did differ in pain scores over time, with clonidine having a 3-fold greater effect (P = 0.014). Both drugs similarly reduced areas of hyperalgesia and allodynia by approximately 30% and also inhibited temporal summation. The percentage change in pain report did not correlate with the percentage change in areas of hyperalgesia (P = 0.09, r = 0.08) or allodynia (P = 0.24, r = 0.24) after drug treatment. Both intrathecal clonidine and adenosine acutely inhibit experimentally induced and clinical hypersensitivity in patients with chronic regional pain syndrome. Although these drugs do not differ in analgesia by the primary outcome measure, their difference in effect on pain scores over time and lack of correlation between effect on pain and hypersensitivity suggest that analgesia does not parallel antihyperalgesia with these treatments.

  18. Connective tissue, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome(s), and head and cervical pain.

    PubMed

    Castori, Marco; Morlino, Silvia; Ghibellini, Giulia; Celletti, Claudia; Camerota, Filippo; Grammatico, Paola

    2015-03-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is an umbrella term for a growing group of hereditary disorders of the connective tissue mainly manifesting with generalized joint hypermobility, skin hyperextensibility, and vascular and internal organ fragility. In contrast with other well known heritable connective tissue disorders with severe cardiovascular involvement (e.g., Marfan syndrome), most EDS patients share a nearly normal life span, but are severely limited by disabling features, such as pain, fatigue and headache. In this work, pertinent literature is reviewed with focus on prevalence, features and possible pathogenic mechanisms of headache in EDSs. Gathered data are fragmented and generally have a low level of evidence. Headache is reported in no less than 1/3 of the patients. Migraine results the most common type in the hypermobility type of EDS. Other possibly related headache disorders include tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache, headache attributed to spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leakage, headache secondary to Chiari malformation, cervicogenic headache and neck-tongue syndrome, whose association still lacks of reliable prevalence studies. The underlying pathogenesis seems complex and variably associated with cardiovascular dysautonomia, cervical spine and temporomandibular joint instability/dysfunction, meningeal fragility, poor sleep quality, pain-killer drugs overuse and central sensitization. Particular attention is posed on a presumed subclinical cervical spine dysfunction. Standard treatment is always symptomatic and usually unsuccessful. Assessment and management procedures are discussed in order to put some basis for ameliorating the actual patients' needs and nurturing future research.

  19. Use of an artificial neural network for diagnosis of facial pain syndromes: an update.

    PubMed

    McCartney, Shirley; Weltin, Markus; Burchiel, Kim J

    2014-01-01

    Based on a classification scheme for facial pain syndromes and a binomial (yes/no) facial pain questionnaire, we previously reported on the ability of an artificial neural network (ANN) to recognize and correctly diagnose patients with different facial pain syndromes. We now report on an updated questionnaire, the development of a secure web-based neural network application and details of ANNs trained to diagnose patients with different facial pain syndromes. Online facial pain questionnaire responses collected from 607 facial pain patients (395 female, 65%, ratio F/M 1.86/1) over 5 years and 7 months were used for ANN training. Sensitivity and specificity of the currently running ANN for trigeminal neuralgia type 1 and trigeminal neuralgia type 2 are 92.4 and 62.5% and 87.8 and 96.4%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity are 86.7 and 95.2% for trigeminal neuropathic pain, 0 and 100% for trigeminal deafferentation pain and 100% for symptomatic trigeminal neuralgia and postherpetic neuralgia. Sensitivity is 50% for nervus intermedius neuralgia (NIN) and 0% for atypical facial pain (AFP), glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GPN) and temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJ). Specificity for AFP, NIN and TMJ is 99% and for GPN, 100%. We demonstrate the utilization of question-based historical self-assessment responses used as inputs to design an ANN for the purpose of diagnosing facial pain syndromes (outputs) with high accuracy.

  20. Use of Postmastectomy Radiotherapy in Older Women

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Benjamin D. Haffty, Bruce G.; Smith, Grace L.; Hurria, Arti; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Gross, Cary P.

    2008-05-01

    Purpose: Clinical trials and guidelines published between 1997 and 2001 concluded that postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) improves overall survival for women with high-risk breast cancer. However, the effect of these findings on current practice is not known. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare cohort, we sought to characterize the adoption of PMRT from 1992 to 2002 and identify risk factors for PMRT omission among high-risk older patients. Methods and Materials: We identified 28,973 women aged {>=}66 years who had been treated with mastectomy for invasive breast cancer between 1992 and 2002. Trends in the adoption of PMRT for low- (T1-T2N0), intermediate- (T1-T2N1), and high- (T3-T4 and/or N2-N3) risk patients were characterized using a Monte Carlo permutation algorithm. Multivariate logistic regression identified the risk factors for PMRT omission and calculated the adjusted use rates. Results: Postmastectomy radiotherapy use increased gradually and consistently for low-risk (+2.16%/y) and intermediate-risk (+7.20%/y) patients throughout the study interval. In contrast, PMRT use for high-risk patients increased sharply between 1996 and 1997 (+30.99%/y), but subsequently stabilized. Between 1998 and 2002, only 53% of high-risk patients received PMRT. The risk factors for PMRT omission included advanced age, moderate to severe comorbidity, smaller tumor size, fewer positive lymph nodes, and geographic region, with adjusted use rates ranging from 63.5% in San Francisco to 44.9% in Connecticut. Conclusion: Among the high-risk patients, PMRT use increased sharply in 1997 after the initial clinical trial publication. Despite subsequent guidelines recommending the use of PMRT, no further increase in PMRT use has occurred, and nearly 50% of high-risk patients still do not receive PMRT.

  1. Neuroleptic-induced "painful legs and moving toes" syndrome: successful treatment with clonazepam and baclofen.

    PubMed

    Sandyk, R

    1990-12-01

    The syndrome of "painful legs and moving toes" is characterised by spontaneous causalgic pain in the lower extremities associated with peculiar involuntary movements of the toes and feet. It has been observed after a variety of lesions affecting the posterior nerve roots, the spinal ganglia and the peripheral nerves. The pathophysiology of the syndrome is unknown. I report a patient who developed the syndrome during treatment for schizophrenia with the antipsychotic agent molindone hydrochloride. The patient's response to the combination of clonazepam and baclofen suggests that the pathophysiology of the "painful legs and moving toes" may be linked to impairment of spinal serotonergic and GABA functions.

  2. An Uncommon Manifestation of Fitz-Hugh-Curtis Syndrome with Right-side Chest Pain.

    PubMed

    Harada, Ko; Iwamuro, Masaya; Hanayama, Yoshihisa; Otsuka, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome is characterized by an inflammation of the perihepatic capsules associated with pelvic inflammatory disease. The typical symptom is severe right upper quadrant abdominal pain. We report a patient with Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome who presented with an atypical chief complaint of right-side chest pain unaccompanied by symptoms specific to pelvic inflammatory disease. This case indicates that Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis of right-side chest pain in young women, because early diagnosis and treatment of the disease are essential to prevent chronic complications.

  3. Reduced pressure pain thresholds in response to exercise in chronic fatigue syndrome but not in chronic low back pain: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Meeus, Mira; Roussel, Nathalie A; Truijen, Steven; Nijs, Jo

    2010-10-01

    The aims of this study were to examine: (i) baseline pressure pain thresholds in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and those with chronic low back pain compared with healthy subjects; (ii) the change in mean pain threshold in response to exercise; and (iii) associations with exercise-induced increase in nitric oxide. Twenty-six patients with chronic fatigue syndrome suffering of chronic pain, 21 patients with chronic low back pain and 31 healthy subjects. Participants underwent a submaximal aerobic exercise protocol on a bicycle ergometer, preceded and followed by venous blood sampling (nitric oxide) and algometry (hand, arm, calf, low back). Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome presented overall lower pain thresholds compared with healthy subjects and patients with chronic low back pain (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found between healthy subjects and patients with chronic low back pain. After submaximal aerobic exercise, mean pain thresholds decreased in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, and increased in the others (p < 0.01). At baseline, nitric oxide levels were significantly higher in the chronic low back pain group. After controlling for body mass index, no significant differences were seen between the groups at baseline or in response to exercise. Nitric oxide was not related to pain thresholds in either group. The results suggest hyperalgesia and abnormal central pain processing during submaximal aerobic exercise in chronic fatigue syndrome, but not in chronic low back pain. Nitric oxide appeared to be unrelated to pain processing.

  4. Endogenous inhibition of somatic pain is impaired in girls with irritable bowel syndrome compared with healthy girls

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Endogenous pain inhibition is often deficient in adults with chronic pain conditions including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). It is unclear whether deficiencies in pain inhibition are present in young children with IBS. The present study compared endogenous pain inhibition, somatic pain threshold, ...

  5. Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome: Epidemiology and Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Neil A.; Felson, David T.; Torner, James C.; Zhu, Yanyan; Curtis, Jeffrey R.; Niu, Jingbo; Nevitt, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To describe the prevalence of greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS); to determine whether GTPS is associated with iliotibial band (ITB) tenderness, knee osteoarthritis (OA), body mass index (BMI), or low back pain (LBP); and to assess whether GTPS is associated with reduced hip internal rotation, physical activity, and mobility. Design Cross-sectional, population-based study. Setting Multicenter observational study. Participants Community-dwelling adults (N=3026) ages 50 to 79 years. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Greater trochanteric tenderness to palpation in subjects with complaints of hip pain and no signs of hip OA or generalized myofascial tenderness. Results The prevalence of unilateral and bilateral GTPS was 15.0% and 8.5% in women and 6.6% and 1.9% men. Odds ratio (OR) for women was 3.37 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.67–4.25), but age and race were not significantly associated with GTPS. In a multivariate model, adjusting for age, sex, ITB tenderness, ipsilateral and contralateral knee OA, BMI, and LBP, ITB tenderness (OR=1.72; 95% CI, 1.34–2.19), knee OA ipsilaterally (OR=3.47; 95% CI, 2.72–4.42) and con-tralaterally (OR=1.74; 95% CI, 1.32–2.28), and LBP (OR=2.79; 95% CI, 2.22–3.50) were positively related to GTPS. In this complete model, BMI was not associated with GTPS (OR=1.10; 95% CI, 0.80–1.52 when comparing ≥ 30 with <25kg/m2). Hip internal rotation range of motion did not differ based on GTPS status. After multivariate adjustment, GTPS did not alter physical activity score, but bilateal GTPS was significantly associated with a higher 20-meter walk time and chair stand time. Conclusions The higher prevalence of GTPS in women and in adults with ITB pain or knee OA indicates that altered lower-limb biomechanics may be related to GTPS. Slower functional performance in those with GTPS suggests that the study of targeted rehabilitation may be useful. A longitudinal study will be necessary to identify

  6. [Symptomatic approach to chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome].

    PubMed

    Delavierre, D; Rigaud, J; Sibert, L; Labat, J-J

    2010-11-01

    To review the diagnosis and pathogenesis of chronic prostatitis (CP) and chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS). A review of the literature was performed by searching the Medline database (National Library of Medicine). Search terms were either medical subject heading (MeSH) keywords (microbiology, pelvic pain, prostatitis) or terms derived from the title or abstract. Search terms were used alone or in combinations by using the "AND" operator. The literature search was conducted from 1990 to the present time. Chronic bacterial prostatitis is a chronic, recurrent bacterial infection of the prostate, accounting for about 5 to 10% of all cases of chronic prostatitis (CP). CPPS is nonbacterial genitourinary pelvic pain present for at least 3 months, sometimes associated with sexual and voiding disorders. Although the prostate does not appear to be involved in all cases of chronic pelvic pain in men, the term CP usually remains associated with CPPS (CP/CPPS). CP/CPPS has a negative impact on quality of life. The precise pathogenesis of CP/CPPS has not been elucidated, but prostatic infection and inflammation could be involved, not as direct causes, but as initiating factors of a neurological hypersensitization phenomenon. Evaluation of CP/CPPS comprises clinical interview completed by the National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index questionnaire (NIH-CPSI), physical examination, urine culture and uroflowmetry combined with determination of the post-voiding residual volume. The other investigations are optional and are designed to exclude other urological diagnoses. The Meares-Stamey four-glass test should be abandoned in favour of a simplified test comprising urine analysis before and after prostatic massage. However, the indications for this test are limited to patients in whom chronic bacterial prostatitis is suspected or with bacteriuria on urine culture. Chronic bacterial prostatitis represents only about 5 to 10% of all cases of CP. The usual

  7. Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome: treatment of lower extremity pain with a spinal cord stimulator.

    PubMed

    Franz, Randall W; Prok, Aleksey

    2009-01-01

    A young adult man with Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome presented to our pain management service with complaints of severe lower extremity neuropathic pain (pain scale 8 of 10 on the left and 4 of 10 on the right). The pain in his left leg was so severe that he wanted to undergo a left lower extremity amputation. The patient declined chronic use of narcotic medications for pain relief, believing that this would interfere with his educational and lifestyle pursuits. After a complete evaluation for possible sources of pain, we performed a trial placement of a spinal cord stimulator at the T9 level, which relieved his pain. We then placed a stimulator at the T10 level. At 1 year postimplantation, he was pain free (pain scale 1 of 10 bilaterally) and was able to function normally without narcotic support. We believe this to be the first use of a spinal cord stimulator for lower extremity pain resulting from Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome. We also discuss the clinical evaluation and treatment of a Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome patient with chronic pain.

  8. Evaluation of metabolic syndrome in patients with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Duruöz, Mehmet Tuncay; Turan, Yasemin; Gürgan, Alev; Deveci, Hülya

    2012-03-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the frequency of the metabolic syndrome in chronic low back pain and evaluate the differences in clinical and functional parameters in chronic low back pain patients with and without metabolic syndrome. Patients complaining of low back pain complaint lasting for at least 2 months were included in the study. In order to establish functional deficiency, Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, Istanbul Low Back Pain Disability Index and Oswestry Disability Index were used. To evaluate depression, Beck's depression scale was used. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was made according to the criteria of National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) defined in 2001. For this; lumbar circumference around anterior iliac spine, arterial blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, plasma triglyceride levels and HDL cholesterol levels were noted down. Sixty patients (51 women) were included in the study. There was significant difference in terms of BMI (P = 0.034), age (P = 0.001), waist circumference (P = 0.048) and disease duration (P = 0.005) between chronic low back pain patients with and without metabolic syndrome. There was no significant difference in other parameters. Low back pain is a frequent complaint amongst people with obesity in the abdominal area. According to our results, elderly people, people with chronic low back pain and patients with high BMI are under risk for metabolic syndrome. For this reason this group of patients can be screened for metabolic syndrome and preventive measures can be taken.

  9. Pain.

    PubMed

    Melzack, Ronald; Katz, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Pain has many valuable functions. It often signals injury or disease, generates a wide range of adaptive behaviors, and promotes healing through rest. Despite these beneficial aspects of pain, there are negative features that challenge our understanding of the puzzle of pain, including persistent phantom limb pain after amputation or total spinal cord transection. Pain is a personal, subjective experience influenced by cultural learning, the meaning of the situation, attention, and other psychological variables. Pain processes do not begin with the stimulation of receptors. Rather, injury or disease produces neural signals that enter an active nervous system that (in the adult organism) is the substrate of past experience, culture, and a host of other environmental and personal factors. These brain processes actively participate in the selection, abstraction, and synthesis of information from the total sensory input. Pain is not simply the end product of a linear sensory transmission system; it is a dynamic process that involves continuous interactions among complex ascending and descending systems. The neuromatrix theory guides us away from the Cartesian concept of pain as a sensation produced by injury, inflammation, or other tissue pathology and toward the concept of pain as a multidimensional experience produced by multiple influences. These influences range from the existing synaptic architecture of the neuromatrix-which is determined by genetic and sensory factors-to influences from within the body and from other areas in the brain. Genetic influences on synaptic architecture may determine-or predispose toward-the development of chronic pain syndromes. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:1-15. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1201 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  10. Palmitoylethanolamide, a neutraceutical, in nerve compression syndromes: efficacy and safety in sciatic pain and carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Keppel Hesselink, Jan M; Kopsky, David J

    2015-01-01

    Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endogenous lipid modulator in animals and humans, and has been evaluated since the 1970s as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug in more than 30 clinical trials, in a total of ~6,000 patients. PEA is currently available worldwide as a nutraceutical in different formulations, with and without excipients. Here we describe the results of all clinical trials evaluating PEA's efficacy and safety in nerve compression syndromes: sciatic pain and pain due to carpal tunnel syndrome, and review preclinical evidence in nerve impingement models. Both the pharmacological studies as well as the clinical trials supported PEA's action as an analgesic compound. In total, eight clinical trials have been published in such entrapment syndromes, and 1,366 patients have been included in these trials. PEA proved to be effective and safe in nerve compression syndromes. In one pivotal, double blind, placebo controlled trial in 636 sciatic pain patients, the number needed to treat to reach 50% pain reduction compared to baseline was 1.5 after 3 weeks of treatment. Furthermore, no drug interactions or troublesome side effects have been described so far. Physicians are not always aware of PEA as a relevant and safe alternative to opioids and co-analgesics in the treatment of neuropathic pain. Especially since the often prescribed co-analgesic pregabaline has been proven to be ineffective in sciatic pain in a double blind enrichment trial, PEA should be considered as a new and safe treatment option for nerve compression syndromes.

  11. Failed back surgery pain syndrome: therapeutic approach descriptive study in 56 patients.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Yeng, Lin Tchia; Garcia, Oliver Garcia; Fonoff, Erich Talamoni; Paiva, Wellingson Silva; Araujo, Joaci O

    2011-01-01

    The authors show the clinical evaluation and follow-up results in 56 patients diagnosed with a failed back surgery pain syndrome. Descriptive and prospective study conducted over a one-year period. In this study, 56 patients with a failed back surgery pain syndrome were assessed in our facility. The age ranged from 28 to 76 years (mean, 48.8 ± 13.9 years). The pain was assessed through a Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Postoperative pain was more severe (mean VAS score 8.3) than preoperative pain (7.2). Myofascial pain syndromes (MPS) were diagnosed in 85.7% of patients; neuropathic abnormalities associated or not with MPS were found in 73.3%. Drug therapy associated with physical medicine treatment provided > 50% pain improvement in 57.2% of cases; trigger point injection in 60.1%, and epidural infusion of morphine with lidocaína in 69.3% of refractory cases. In patients with a post-laminectomy syndrome, postoperative pain was more severe than preoperative pain from a herniated disk. A miofascial component was found in most patients.

  12. Pain experience and expression in Rett syndrome: Subjective and objective measurement approaches

    PubMed Central

    Barney, Chantel C.; Feyma, Timothy; Beisang, Arthur; Symons, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is associated with myriad debilitating health issues and significant motor and communicative impairments. Because of the former there is concern about the possibility of recurrent and chronic pain but because of the latter it remains difficult to determine what pain ‘looks like’ in RTT. This study investigated pain experience and expression using multiple complementary subjective and objective approaches among a clinical RTT sample. Following informed consent, 18 participants (all female) with RTT (mean age= 12.8 years, SD= 6.32) were characterized in terms of pain experience and interference, typical pain expression, and elicited pain behavior during a passive range of motion-like examination procedure. Parents completed the Dalhousie Pain Interview (DPI; pain type, frequency, duration, intensity), the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI; pain interference), and the Non-Communicating Children’s Pain Checklist – Revised (NCCPC-R; typical pain expression). A Pain Examination Procedure (PEP) was conducted and scored using the Pain and Discomfort Scale (PADS). The majority of the sample (89%) were reported to experience pain in the previous week which presented as gastrointestinal (n=8), musculoskeletal (n=5), and seizure related pain (n=5) that was intense (scored 0–10; M= 5.67, SD= 3.09) and long in duration (M= 25.22 hours, SD= 53.52). Numerous pain-expressive behaviors were inventoried (e.g., vocal, facial, mood/interaction changes) when parents reported their child’s typical pain behaviors and based on independent direct observation during a reliably coded pain exam. This study provides subjective and objective evidence that individuals with RTT experience recurring and chronic pain for which pain expression appears intact. PMID:26425056

  13. Resting-state functional connectivity predicts longitudinal pain symptom change in urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome: a MAPP network study.

    PubMed

    Kutch, Jason J; Labus, Jennifer S; Harris, Richard E; Martucci, Katherine T; Farmer, Melissa A; Fenske, Sonja; Fling, Connor; Ichesco, Eric; Peltier, Scott; Petre, Bogdan; Guo, Wensheng; Hou, Xiaoling; Stephens, Alisa J; Mullins, Chris; Clauw, Daniel J; Mackey, Sean C; Apkarian, A Vania; Landis, J Richard; Mayer, Emeran A

    2017-06-01

    Chronic pain symptoms often change over time, even in individuals who have had symptoms for years. Studying biological factors that predict trends in symptom change in chronic pain may uncover novel pathophysiological mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets. In this study, we investigated whether brain functional connectivity measures obtained from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging at baseline can predict longitudinal symptom change (3, 6, and 12 months after scan) in urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome. We studied 52 individuals with urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome (34 women, 18 men) who had baseline neuroimaging followed by symptom tracking every 2 weeks for 1 year as part of the Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP) Research Network study. We found that brain functional connectivity can make a significant prediction of short-term (3 month) pain reduction with 73.1% accuracy (69.2% sensitivity and 75.0% precision). In addition, we found that the brain regions with greatest contribution to the classification were preferentially aligned with the left frontoparietal network. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging measures seemed to be less informative about 6- or 12-month symptom change. Our study provides the first evidence that future trends in symptom change in patients in a state of chronic pain may be linked to functional connectivity within specific brain networks.

  14. Novel Treatment of Chronic Bladder Pain Syndrome and Other Pelvic Pain Disorders by OnabotulinumtoxinA Injection

    PubMed Central

    Jhang, Jia-Fong; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is defined as pain in the pelvic organs and related structures of at least 6 months’ duration. The pathophysiology of CPP is uncertain, and its treatment presents challenges. Botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A), known for its antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and muscle relaxant activity, has been used recently to treat refractory CPP with promising results. In patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome, most studies suggest intravesical BoNT-A injection reduces bladder pain and increases bladder capacity. Repeated BoNT-A injection is also effective and reduces inflammation in the bladder. Intraprostatic BoNT-A injection could significantly improve prostate pain and urinary frequency in the patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Animal studies also suggest BoNT-A injection in the prostate decreases inflammation in the prostate. Patients with CPP due to pelvic muscle pain and spasm also benefit from localized BoNT-A injections. BoNT-A injection in the pelvic floor muscle improves dyspareunia and decreases pelvic floor pressure. Preliminary studies show intravesical BoNT-A injection is useful in inflammatory bladder diseases such as chemical cystitis, radiation cystitis, and ketamine related cystitis. Dysuria is the most common adverse effect after BoNT-A injection. Very few patients develop acute urinary retention after treatment. PMID:26094697

  15. Gut microbiome and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Hans C.; Eng, Charis

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of the human microbiome continues to reveal new and previously unrealized associations between microbial dysbiosis and disease. Novel approaches to bacterial identification using culture-independent methods allow practitioners to discern the presence of alterations in the taxa and diversity of the microbiome and identify correlations with disease processes. While some of these diseases that have been extensively studied are well-defined in their etiology and treatment methods (colorectal cancer), others have provided much more significant challenges in both diagnosis and treatment. One such condition, chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), has several etiological and potentiating contributions from infection, inflammation, central nervous system (CNS) changes, stress, and central sensitization—all factors that play important roles in the crosstalk between the human body and its microbiome. No singular cause of CP/CPPS has been identified and it is most likely a syndrome with multifactorial causes. This heterogeneity and ambiguity are sources of significant frustration for patients and providers alike. Despite multiple attempts, treatment of chronic prostatitis with monotherapy has seen limited success, which is thought to be due to its heterogeneous nature. Phenotypic approaches to both classify the disease and direct treatment for CP/CPPS have proven beneficial in these patients, but questions still remain regarding etiology. Newer microbiome research has found correlations between symptom scores and disease severity and the degree of dysbiosis in urine and gut (stool) microbiomes in these patients as compared to un-afflicted controls. These findings present potential new diagnostic and therapeutic targets in CP/CPPS patients. PMID:28217695

  16. Gut microbiome and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Arora, Hans C; Eng, Charis; Shoskes, Daniel A

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of the human microbiome continues to reveal new and previously unrealized associations between microbial dysbiosis and disease. Novel approaches to bacterial identification using culture-independent methods allow practitioners to discern the presence of alterations in the taxa and diversity of the microbiome and identify correlations with disease processes. While some of these diseases that have been extensively studied are well-defined in their etiology and treatment methods (colorectal cancer), others have provided much more significant challenges in both diagnosis and treatment. One such condition, chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), has several etiological and potentiating contributions from infection, inflammation, central nervous system (CNS) changes, stress, and central sensitization-all factors that play important roles in the crosstalk between the human body and its microbiome. No singular cause of CP/CPPS has been identified and it is most likely a syndrome with multifactorial causes. This heterogeneity and ambiguity are sources of significant frustration for patients and providers alike. Despite multiple attempts, treatment of chronic prostatitis with monotherapy has seen limited success, which is thought to be due to its heterogeneous nature. Phenotypic approaches to both classify the disease and direct treatment for CP/CPPS have proven beneficial in these patients, but questions still remain regarding etiology. Newer microbiome research has found correlations between symptom scores and disease severity and the degree of dysbiosis in urine and gut (stool) microbiomes in these patients as compared to un-afflicted controls. These findings present potential new diagnostic and therapeutic targets in CP/CPPS patients.

  17. Serum and salivary oxidative analysis in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Elon; Shtahl, Shalom; Geller, Rimma; Reznick, Abraham Z; Sharf, Ordi; Ravbinovich, Meirav; Erenreich, Adam; Nagler, Rafael M

    2008-08-15

    Although both inflammatory and neural mechanisms have been suggested as potential contributors to Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I (CRPS-I), the pathogenesis of the syndrome is still unclear. Clinical trials have shown that free radical scavengers can reduce signs and symptoms of CRPS-I, indirectly suggesting that free radicals and increased oxidative stress are involved in the pathogenesis of CRPS-I. This study investigated this premise by determining the levels of antioxidants in the serum and saliva of 31 patients with CRPS-I and in a control group of 21 healthy volunteers. Serum lipid peroxidation products (MDA) and all antioxidative parameters analyzed were significantly elevated in CRPS-I patients: median salivary peroxidase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity values, uric acid (UA) concentration and total antioxidant status (TAS) values were higher in CRPS-I patients by 150% (p=0.01), 280% (p=0.04), 60% (p=0.0001), and 200% (p=0.0003), respectively, as compared with controls. Similar although not as extensive pattern of oxidative changes were found in the serum: mean serum UA and MDA concentrations and TAS value in the CRPS-I patients were higher by 16% (p=0.04), 25% (p=0.02), and 22% (p=0.05), respectively, than in the controls. Additionally, median salivary albumin concentration and median salivary LDH activities in the patients were 2.5 times (p=0.001) and 3.1 (p=0.004) times higher than in the controls. The accumulated data show that free radicals are involved in the pathophysiology of CRPS-I, which is reflected both in serum and salivary analyses. These data could be used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in CRPS-I patients.

  18. [Unsatisfactory long-term prognosis of conservative treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome].

    PubMed

    Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Rasmussen, Sten; Olesen, Jens Lykkegaard

    2012-04-09

    This review overviews the long-term prognosis of conservatively treated patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). Median values of the 16 included studies show that 29% of soldiers, 27.8% of sports active and 24,7% of the general public will become pain free after they are diagnosed with PFPS. 21.5% of sports active and 23% of the general public diagnosed with PFPS will stop participating in sports because of knee pain. There is an indication that around one third diagnosed with PFPS will become pain free and one fourth will stop participating in sports because of knee pain.

  19. Successful management of complex regional pain syndrome type 1 using single injection interscalene brachial plexus block

    PubMed Central

    Fallatah, Summayah M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type 1 of the upper limb is a painful and debilitating condition. Interscalene brachial plexus block (ISB) in conjugation with other modalities was shown to be a feasible therapy with variable success. We reported a case of CRPS type 1 as diagnosed by International Association for the Study of Pain criteria in which pharmacological approaches failed to achieve adequate pain relief and even were associated with progressive dysfunction of the upper extremity. Single injection ISB, in combination with physical therapy and botulinum toxin injection, was successful to alleviate pain with functional restoration. PMID:25422619

  20. Bilateral widespread mechanical pain sensitivity in carpal tunnel syndrome: evidence of central processing in unilateral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; de la Llave-Rincón, Ana Isabel; Fernández-Carnero, Josué; Cuadrado, María Luz; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Pareja, Juan A

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether bilateral widespread pressure hypersensitivity exists in patients with unilateral carpal tunnel syndrome. A total of 20 females with carpal tunnel syndrome (aged 22-60 years), and 20 healthy matched females (aged 21-60 years old) were recruited. Pressure pain thresholds were assessed bilaterally over median, ulnar, and radial nerve trunks, the C5-C6 zygapophyseal joint, the carpal tunnel and the tibialis anterior muscle in a blinded design. The results showed that pressure pain threshold levels were significantly decreased bilaterally over the median, ulnar, and radial nerve trunks, the carpal tunnel, the C5-C6 zygapophyseal joint, and the tibialis anterior muscle in patients with unilateral carpal tunnel syndrome as compared to healthy controls (all, P < 0.001). Pressure pain threshold was negatively correlated to both hand pain intensity and duration of symptoms (all, P < 0.001). Our findings revealed bilateral widespread pressure hypersensitivity in subjects with carpal tunnel syndrome, which suggest that widespread central sensitization is involved in patients with unilateral carpal tunnel syndrome. The generalized decrease in pressure pain thresholds associated with pain intensity and duration of symptoms supports a role of the peripheral drive to initiate and maintain central sensitization. Nevertheless, both central and peripheral sensitization mechanisms are probably involved at the same time in carpal tunnel syndrome.

  1. Massage Therapy Protocol for Post–Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Zalta, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Background: The intent of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of massage therapy in the rehabilitation of post–anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction patellofemoral pain syndrome. The primary complications following surgical repair of the anterior cruciate ligament—classified as patellofemoral pain syndrome—are hamstring flexion contracture and quadriceps weakness, leading to patellofemoral dysfunction and retropatellar pain. Methods: Treatment included lymphatic drainage, myofascial release, neuromuscular techniques including trigger point release, muscle energy techniques and cross-fiber friction. Orthopedic physical assessment tests were used to chart changes in patellofemoral function and changes in range of motion in the knee during the course of the massage interventions. Subjective reporting on pain level and function were also documented. Results: A decrease in pain level, hamstring flexion contracture and lateral tracking of the patella were documented. Conclusion: Massage therapy was determined to be an effective complementary therapy in the treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome. PMID:21589717

  2. Neurofeedback therapy in patients with acute and chronic pain syndromes--literature review and own experience.

    PubMed

    Kubik, Alicja; Biedroń, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    Pain management is based mainly on pharmacotherapy which has many limitations. Non-pharmacological techniques, like neurofeedback (EEG-biofeedback) are alternative methods of pain treatment. Data from literature confirm high efficacy of neurofeedback in pain syndromes treatment, chronic and acute as well. Neurofeedback plays an important role in management of post stroke, post traumatic headaches and in primary headaches like tension type headaches or migraine. Literature review and own experience indicate importance of number and frequency of performed neurofeedback trainings on treatment effectiveness. Satisfactory results have already been observed after 30 trainings however usually 40-60 training have to be performed. Effectiveness of such therapy in pain syndromes is usually good or less often acceptable (50% reduction of headaches). Children with tension type headaches (differently than adults) need reminder therapy every 6-12 months, otherwise recurrence of headaches is observed. Based on our own experience neurofeedback therapy seems to play role in neuropathic pain and cancer pain management.

  3. Subtypes of irritable bowel syndrome based on abdominal pain/discomfort severity and bowel pattern

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has traditionally been classified by stooling pattern (e.g., diarrhea-predominant). However, other patterns of symptoms have long been recognized, e.g., pain severity. Our objective was to examine the utility of subtyping women with IBS based on pain/discomfort severit...

  4. Rehabilitation of a Female Dancer with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: Applying Concepts of Regional Interdependence in Practice

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, Caitlyn; Podschun, Laura; Kolber, Morey J.

    2010-01-01

    Due to complex movements and high physical demands, dance is often associated with a multitude of impairments including pain of the low back, pelvis, leg, knee, and foot. This case report provides an exercise progression, emphasizing enhancement of strength and neuromuscular performance using the concept of regional interdependence in a 17 year old female dancer with patellofemoral pain syndrome. PMID:21589665

  5. Increased gastrointestinal permeability and gut inflammation in children with functional abdominal pain and Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To determine gastrointestinal (GI) permeability and fecal calprotectin concentration in children 7 to 10 years of age with functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome (FAP/IBS) versus control subjects and ascertain potential relationships with pain symptoms and stooling, GI permeability a...

  6. Abdominal pain and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion as clinical presentation of acute intermittent porphyria.

    PubMed

    Valle Feijóo, M L; Bermúdez Sanjurjo, J R; González Vázquez, L; Rey Martínez, M; de la Fuente Aguado, J

    2015-01-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is a rare condition characterized by abdominal pain and a wide range of nonspecific symptoms. We report the case of a woman with abdominal pain and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) as clinical presentation of AIP. The diagnosis was achieved through the etiologic study of the SIADH.

  7. Factors associated with patellofemoral pain syndrome: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lankhorst, Nienke E; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A; van Middelkoop, Marienke

    2013-03-01

    This review systematically summarises factors associated with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). A systematic literature search was conducted. Studies including ≥20 patients with PFPS that examined ≥1 possible factor associated with PFPS were included. A meta-analysis was performed, clinical heterogeneous data were analysed descriptively. The 47 included studies examined 523 variables, eight were pooled. Pooled data showed a larger Q-angle, sulcus angle and patellar tilt angle (weighted mean differences (WMD) 2.08; 95% CI 0.64, 3.63 and 1.66; 95% CI 0.44, 2.77 and 4.34; 95% CI 1.16 to 7.52, respectively), less hip abduction strength, lower knee extension peak torque and less hip external rotation strength (WMD -3.30; 95% CI -5.60, -1.00 and -37.47; 95% CI -71.75, -3.20 and -1.43; 95% CI -2.71 to -0.16, respectively) in PFPS patients compared to controls. Foot arch height index and congruence angle were not associated with PFPS. Six out of eight pooled variables are associated with PFPS, other factors associated with PFPS were based on single studies. Further research is required.

  8. Treatment of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Nickel, J. Curtis

    2008-01-01

    Acceptance of the National Institutes of Health definition of Category III Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CP/CPPS) and the development and validation of the Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index has stimulated significant research into treatment of this condition. Evidence-based suggestions for treatment include the following. (i) Antimicrobials cannot be recommended for men with longstanding, previously treated CP/CPPS. (ii) Alpha-blockers can be recommended as first-line medical therapy, particularly in alpha-blocker-naïve men with moderately severe symptoms who have relatively recent onset of symptoms. (iii) Alpha-blockers cannot be recommended in men with longstanding CP/CPPS who have tried and failed alpha-blockers in the past. And (iv) anti-inflammatory therapy, finasteride and pentosan polysulfate are not recommended as primary treatment; however, they may have a useful adjunctive role in a multimodal therapeutic regimen. Early data on herbal therapies, particularly quercetin and cernilton, are intriguing, but larger multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled trials are required before a high level of evidence recommendation can be made on its use. At this time, surgery (including minimally invasive) is recommended only for definitive indications and not generally for CP/CPPS. PMID:17954024

  9. [Therapy of pain syndromes in multiple sclerosis -- an overview with evidence-based recommendations].

    PubMed

    Pöllmann, W; Feneberg, W; Steinbrecher, A; Haupts, M R; Henze, T

    2005-05-01

    While pain is a common problem in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, it is frequently overlooked and has to be asked for actively. Pain can be classified into 4 diagnostically and therapeutically relevant categories. 1. PAIN DIRECTLY RELATED TO MS: Painful paroxysmal symptoms like trigeminal neuralgia or painful tonic spasms are treated with carbamazepine as first choice, or lamotrigine, gabapentin, oxcarbazepine and other anticonvulsants. Painful "burning" dysaesthesia, the most frequent chronic pain syndrome, are treated with tricyclic antidepressants or carbamazepine, further options include gabapentin or lamotrigine. While escalation therapy may require opioids, the role of cannabinoids in the treatment of pain still has to be determined. 2. PAIN INDIRECTLY RELATED TO MS: Pain related to spasticity often improves with adequate physiotherapy. Drug treatment includes antispastic agents like baclofen or tizanidine, alternatively gabapentin. In severe cases botulinum toxin injections or intrathecal baclofen merit consideration. Physiotherapy and physical therapy may ameliorate malposition-induced joint and muscle pain. Moreover, painful pressure lesions should be avoided using optimally adjusted aids. 3. Treatment-related pain can occur with subcutaneous injections of beta interferons or glatiramer acetate and may be reduced by optimizing the injection technique and by local cooling. Systemic side effects of interferons like myalgias can be reduced by paracetamol or ibuprofen. 4. Pain unrelated to MS such as back pain or headache are frequent in MS patients and may be worsened by the disease. Treatment should be follow established guidelines. In summary, a careful analysis of the pain syndrome will allow the design of the appropriate treatment plan using various medical and non-medical options and thus will help to ameliorate the patients' quality of life.

  10. Co-occurrence of Pain Symptoms and Somatosensory Sensitivity in Burning Mouth Syndrome: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Moisset, Xavier; Calbacho, Valentina; Torres, Pilar; Gremeau-Richard, Christelle; Dallel, Radhouane

    2016-01-01

    Background Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic and spontaneous oral pain with burning quality in the tongue or other oral mucosa without any identifiable oral lesion or laboratory finding. Pathogenesis and etiology of BMS are still unknown. However, BMS has been associated with other chronic pain syndromes including other idiopathic orofacial pain, the dynias group and the family of central sensitivity syndromes. This would imply that BMS shares common mechanisms with other cephalic and/or extracephalic chronic pains. The primary aim of this systematic review was to determine whether BMS is actually associated with other pain syndromes, and to analyze cephalic and extracephalic somatosensory sensitivity in these patients. Methods This report followed the PRISMA Statement. An electronic search was performed until January 2015 in PubMed, Cochrane library, Wiley and ScienceDirect. Searched terms included “burning mouth syndrome OR stomatodynia OR glossodynia OR burning tongue OR oral burning”. Studies were selected according to predefined inclusion criteria (report of an association between BMS and other pain(s) symptoms or of cutaneous cephalic and/or extracephalic quantitative sensory testing in BMS patients), and a descriptive analysis conducted. Results The search retrieved 1512 reports. Out of these, twelve articles met criteria for co-occurring pain symptoms and nine studies for quantitative sensory testing (QST) in BMS patients. The analysis reveals that in BMS patients co-occurring pain symptoms are rare, assessed by only 0.8% (12 of 1512) of the retrieved studies. BMS was associated with headaches, TMD, atypical facial pain, trigeminal neuralgia, post-herpetic facial pain, back pain, fibromyalgia, joint pain, abdominal pain, rectal pain or vulvodynia. However, the prevalence of pain symptoms in BMS patients is not different from that in the age-matched general population. QST studies reveal no or inconsistent evidence of abnormal cutaneous cephalic

  11. Nociceptive transmission and modulation via P2X receptors in central pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Yung-Hui; Shyu, Bai-Chuang

    2016-05-26

    Painful sensations are some of the most frequent complaints of patients who are admitted to local medical clinics. Persistent pain varies according to its causes, often resulting from local tissue damage or inflammation. Central somatosensory pathway lesions that are not adequately relieved can consequently cause central pain syndrome or central neuropathic pain. Research on the molecular mechanisms that underlie this pathogenesis is important for treating such pain. To date, evidence suggests the involvement of ion channels, including adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-gated cation channel P2X receptors, in central nervous system pain transmission and persistent modulation upon and following the occurrence of neuropathic pain. Several P2X receptor subtypes, including P2X2, P2X3, P2X4, and P2X7, have been shown to play diverse roles in the pathogenesis of central pain including the mediation of fast transmission in the peripheral nervous system and modulation of neuronal activity in the central nervous system. This review article highlights the role of the P2X family of ATP receptors in the pathogenesis of central neuropathic pain and pain transmission. We discuss basic research that may be translated to clinical application, suggesting that P2X receptors may be treatment targets for central pain syndrome.

  12. Analysis of long-standing nociceptive and neuropathic pain in patients with post-polio syndrome.

    PubMed

    Werhagen, Lars; Borg, Kristian

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze pain, both nociceptive and neuropathic, in patients with post-polio syndrome (PPS) and relate the pain to age at the initial polio infection, age at examination, to gender and disability. The study was conducted in a university hospital department. Patients with PPS were interviewed at their regular visits about pain, its character, intensity and localization. A clinical examination, including a thorough neurological examination, was performed. Data included age at time of polio infection, age at time of examination and gender. Pain intensity was measured with the VAS-scale and walking capability by the WISCI-scale. One hundred sixty-three (88 women, 75 men) patients were included in the study. Pain was present in 109 (67%). Pain was more frequently reported by women (82%) than by men (49%). 96 patients experienced nociceptive pain, 10 patients both neuropathic and nociceptive pain and three experienced pure neuropathic pain. Half of the patients with pain experienced pain in more than one body region. When neuropathic pain was present, another additional neurological disorder was diagnosed. Pain was more often found in younger patients (around 70%) than in older patients (around 50%). In summary pain is common in patients with PPS and most patients experienced nociceptive pain. Women have pain more often than men. Older patients experience pain more seldom than younger patients. Age at time of primary polio infection is important for the development of pain. When neuropathic pain is present, it is important to proceed with neurological examination to find an adequate diagnosis.

  13. Pilot study: alleviation of pain in burning mouth syndrome with topical sucralose.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Alan R; Ziad, Alhumayyd; Kim, Ah Young; Lail, Navdeep Singh; Sharma, Sameer

    2011-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome affects 1-3% of the population The exact mechanism is unknown. Bartoshuk has demonstrated sweet hypogeusia in those with burning mouth syndrome. Intensification of sweet taste may compensate for this deficit and reduce the pain. © 2011 American Headache Society.

  14. Controllability and hippocampal activation during pain expectation in fibromyalgia syndrome.

    PubMed

    González-Roldán, Ana María; Bomba, Isabelle C; Diesch, Eugen; Montoya, Pedro; Flor, Herta; Kamping, Sandra

    2016-12-01

    To examine the role of perceived control in pain perception, fibromyalgia patients and healthy controls participated in a reaction time experiment under different conditions of pain controllability. No significant differences between groups were found in pain intensity and unpleasantness ratings. However, during the expectation of uncontrollable pain, patients compared to controls showed higher hippocampal activation. In addition, hippocampal activity during the pain expectation period predicted activation of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), precuneus and hippocampus during pain stimulation in fibromyalgia patients. The increased activation of the hippocampus during pain expectation and subsequent activation of the PCC/precuneus during the lack of control phase points towards an influence of pain perception through heightening of alertness and anxiety responses to pain in fibromyalgia patients.

  15. Electroencephalographic evoked pain response is suppressed by spinal cord stimulation in complex regional pain syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hylands-White, Nicholas; Duarte, Rui V; Beeson, Paul; Mayhew, Stephen D; Raphael, Jon H

    2016-12-01

    Pain is a subjective response that limits assessment. The purpose of this case report was to explore how the objectivity of the electroencephalographic response to thermal stimuli would be affected by concurrent spinal cord stimulation. A patient had been implanted with a spinal cord stimulator for the management of complex regional pain syndrome of both hands for 8 years. Following ethical approval and written informed consent we induced thermal stimuli using the Medoc PATHWAY Pain & Sensory Evaluation System on the right hand of the patient with the spinal cord stimulator switched off and with the spinal cord stimulator switched on. The patient reported a clinically significant reduction in thermal induced pain using the numerical rating scale (71.4 % reduction) with spinal cord stimulator switched on. Analysis of electroencephalogram recordings indicated the occurrence of contact heat evoked potentials (N2-P2) with spinal cord stimulator off, but not with spinal cord stimulator on. This case report suggests that thermal pain can be reduced in complex regional pain syndrome patients with the use of spinal cord stimulation and offers objective validation of the reported outcomes with this treatment.

  16. [Gallbladder contractility in children with functional abdominal pain or irritable bowel syndrome].

    PubMed

    Iwańczak, Franciszek; Siedlecka-Dawidko, Jolanta; Iwanczak, Barbara

    2013-07-01

    III Rome Criteria of functional gastrointestinal disorders in children, distinguished the disturbances with abdominal pain, to which irritable bowel syndrome, functional abdominal pains, functional dyspepsia and abdominal migraine were included. THE AIM OF THE STUDY was sonographic assessment of the gallbladder and its contractility in functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome in children. The study comprised 96 children aged 6 to 18 years, 59 girls and 37 boys. Depending on diagnosis, the children were divided into three groups. 38 children with functional abdominal pain constituted the first group, 26 children with irritable bowel syndrome were included to the second group, the third group consisted of 32 healthy children (control group). Diagnosis of functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome was made based on the III Rome Criteria. In irritable bowel syndrome both forms with diarrhea (13) and with constipation (13) were observed. Anatomy and contractility of the gallbladder were assessed by ultrasound examination. The presence of septum, wall thickness, thick bile, vesicle volume in fasting state and 30th and 60th minute after test meal were taken into consideration. Test meal comprised about 15% of caloric requirement of moderate metabolism. Children with bile stones and organic diseases were excluded from the study. Thickened vesicle wall and thick bile were present more frequently in children with irritable bowel syndrome and functional abdominal pain than in control group (p < 0.02). Fasting vesicle volume was significantly greater in children with functional abdominal pain than in irritable bowel syndrome and control group (p = 0.003, p = 0.05). Vesicle contractility after test meal was greatest in children with functional abdominal pain. Evaluation of diminished (smaller than 30%) and enlarged (greater then 80%) gallbladder contractility at 30th and 60th minute after test meal demonstrated disturbances of contractility in children

  17. Touch the pain away: new research on therapeutic touch and persons with fibromyalgia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Denison, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    This pilot study tested the effectiveness of 6 therapeutic touch treatments on the experience of pain and quality of life for persons with fibromyalgia syndrome. Its findings support that subjects who received therapeutic touch had a statistically significant decrease in pain for each pretherapeutic to posttherapeutic touch treatment, as well as significant improvement in quality of life from pre-first to pre-sixth treatment. Therapeutic touch may be an effective treatment for relieving pain and improving quality of life in this specific population of persons with fibromyalgia syndrome.

  18. Retroauricular pain caused by Eagle syndrome: A rare presentation due to compression by styloid process elongation.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Aline Lariessy Campos; Araujo, João Luiz Vitorino; Lovato, Renan Maximilian; Teixeira, Joel Augusto Ribeiro; Miura, Flávio Key; Guirado, Vinicius Monteiro de Paula; Veiga, José Carlos Esteves

    2017-03-01

    Eagle syndrome is a rare condition presenting with retroauricular pain (usually as main symptom) associated with dysphagia, headache, neck pain on rotation and, much rarelier, stroke. This occurs due to styloid process elongation. Sometimes, there is also styloid ligament calcification, which can cause compression of nerves and arteries and the symptoms above. Treatment can be conservative with pain modulators (e.g. pregabalin) or infiltrations (steroids or anesthetics drugs). In refractory cases, surgical approach aiming to reduce the size of the styloid process can be performed. We present a rare case of Eagle syndrome (documented by computed tomography) with good response to clinical treatment.

  19. Chronic pain in Noonan Syndrome: A previously unreported but common symptom.

    PubMed

    Vegunta, Sravanthi; Cotugno, Richard; Williamson, Amber; Grebe, Theresa A

    2015-12-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is a multiple malformation syndrome characterized by pulmonic stenosis, cardiomyopathy, short stature, lymphatic dysplasia, craniofacial anomalies, cryptorchidism, clotting disorders, and learning disabilities. Eight genes in the RAS/MAPK signaling pathway are implicated in NS. Chronic pain is an uncommon feature. To investigate the prevalence of pain in NS, we distributed a two-part questionnaire about pain among NS individuals at the Third International Meeting on Genetic Syndromes of the Ras/MAPK Pathway. The first part of the questionnaire queried demographic information among all NS participants. The second part was completed by individuals with chronic pain. Questions included musculoskeletal problems and clinical features of pain. Forty-five questionnaires were analyzed; 53% of subjects were female. Mean age was 17 (2-48) years; 47% had a PTPN11 mutation. Sixty-two percent (28/45) of individuals with NS experienced chronic pain. There was a significant relationship between prevalence of pain and residing in a cold climate (P = 0.004). Pain occurred commonly in extremities/joints and head/trunk, but more commonly in extremities/joints (P = 0.066). Subjects with hypermobile joints were more likely to have pain (P = 0.052). Human growth hormone treatment was not statistically significant among subjects without chronic pain (P = 0.607). We conclude that pain is a frequent and under-recognized clinical feature of NS. Chronic pain may be associated with joint hypermobility and aggravated by colder climate. Our study is a preliminary investigation that should raise awareness about pain as a common symptom in children and adults with NS.

  20. Chronic Localized Back Pain Due to Posterior Cutaneous Nerve Entrapment Syndrome (POCNES): A New Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Boelens, Oliver B; Maatman, Robert C; Scheltinga, Marc R; van Laarhoven, Kees; Roumen, Rudi M

    2017-03-01

    Most patients with chronic back pain suffer from degenerative thoracolumbovertebral disease. However, the following case illustrates that a localized peripheral nerve entrapment must be considered in the differential diagnosis of chronic back pain. We report the case of a 26-year-old woman with continuous excruciating pain in the lower back area. Previous treatment for nephroptosis was to no avail. On physical examination the pain was present in a 2 x 2 cm area overlying the twelfth rib some 4 cm lateral to the spinal process. Somatosensory testing using swab and alcohol gauze demonstrated the presence of skin hypo- and dysesthesia over the painful area. Local pressure on this painful spot elicited an extreme pain response that did not irradiate towards the periphery. These findings were highly suggestive of a posterior version of the anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES), a condition leading to a severe localized neuropathic pain in anterior portions of the abdominal wall. She demonstrated a beneficial albeit temporary response after lidocaine infiltration as dictated by an established diagnostic and treatment protocol for ACNES. She subsequently underwent a local neurectomy of the involved superficial branch of the intercostal nerve. This limited operation had a favorable outcome resulting in a pain-free return to normal activities up to this very day (follow-up of 24 months).We propose to name this novel syndrome "posterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome" (POCNES). Each patient with chronic localized back pain should undergo simple somatosensory testing to detect the presence of overlying skin hypo- and dysesthesia possibly reflecting an entrapped posterior cutaneous nerve.Key words: Chronic pain, back pain, posterior cutaneous nerve entrapment, peripheral nerve entrapment, surgical treatment for pain, anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment.

  1. [Nonspecific symptoms of pain syndromes of cervicobrachial localization and their dynamics under the influence of non - pharmacological treatment].

    PubMed

    Ярошевський, Олександр Анатолійович

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of this study is caused by the wide spread of musculoskeletal pain, particularly among young people of working age and lack of effectiveness of drug treatment. To study the capability of non-pharmacological treatment in patients with myofascial pain syndrome of cervicobrachial localization considering the influence to nonspecific symptoms of myofascial pain syndrome (autonomic dysfunctions and emotional disorders). We studied 115 patients aged from 18 to 44 years with myofascial pain syndrome of cervicobrachial localization. We used neurological, vertebral- neurological, neuropsychological examination. The severity of pain was assessed by the Visual analog scale for pain (VAS pain). Patients were divided into two groups. The first group of patients (59 individuals) received the complex of manual therapy. The second group of patients (56 individuals) received the complex of manual therapy combined with acupuncture. Non-pharmacological treatment was effective in patients with myofascial pain syndrome of cervicobrachial localization. Application of manual therapy methods in the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome of cervicobrachial localization leading to the reduction of severity of pain, emotional disorders and autonomic dysfunctions. The combination of manual therapy with acupuncture increases the effectiveness of treatment of myofascial pain syndrome of cervicobrachial localization by reducing the emotional disorders and autonomic dysfunctions. Patients with myofascial pain syndrome of cervicobrachial localization need the complex of manual therapy combined with acupuncture. The manual therapy corrects abnormal biomechanical pattern while acupuncture corrects autonomic dysfunctions and emotional disorders.

  2. Assessing local tissue edema in postmastectomy lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Mayrovitz, H N

    2007-06-01

    Overall limb lymphedema can be assessed by several methods but none are suitable to determine local edema. Quantifying local edema could provide important information not previously available. Our goal was to determine the suitability of using the tissue dielectric constant (TDC) as and index of local tissue water to detect and quantify edema in postmastectomy patients with unilateral arm lymphedema. Segmental arm volume and TDC were measured in both arms of 18 women with unilateral lymphedema, and in 15 premenopausal and 15 postmenopausal controls. TDC was measured at a frequency of 300 MHz using open-ended coaxial probes with effective measuring depths of 0.5, 1.5, 2.5 and 5.0 mm. For patients and controls, absolute TDC depended on measurement depth but for any depth the TDC of lymphedematous segments was significantly greater than for non-affected contralateral arms (p<0.001). At a depth of 2.5 mm, the TDC ratio between arms for patients was 1.64+/-0.30 vs.1.04+/-0.04 for both control groups (p<0.001). No patient's TDC ratio was as low as 1.2 and no control subject's TDC ratio was as great as 1.2. Results suggest that this method is a good quantitative discriminator of the presence of lymphedema in patients with unilateral limb lymphedema.

  3. Postmastectomy educational needs and social support.

    PubMed

    Feather, B L; Wainstock, J M; Remington, A; Ringenberg, Q S

    1988-01-01

    Due to shorter hospitalization periods and changes in surgical procedures, breast cancer patients have less inpatient contact with rehabilitation resources. A questionnaire related to educational needs and social support was mailed statewide to 2,000 postmastectomy women who had received a Reach to Recovery visit. The findings are based on quantitative data reported by 933 women and from 27 women in follow-up interviews. Respondents ranked their educational needs in six categories from greatest to least importance as follows: (1) information about breast cancer, (2/3) personal hygiene/exercise and nutrition/weight control (both ranked of equal importance), (4) prosthesis/clothing information, (5) social support, and (6) sexual issues. Performance on the knowledge assessment correlated directly with the amount of educational experience and inversely with age. Respondents who lived in communities of less than 2,500 were less informed than those from other locations. Participation in formalized support groups was infrequent (11%). The major source of information was the media, with 88% indicating they would watch television programs about breast cancer. Thirty-three percent of the respondents indicated they owned a video cassette recorder (VCR); about 93% said VCRs were available for rent in their community. Work associates were identified as a group that encouraged information seeking; health care professionals were the most successful in motivating women to participate in support groups.

  4. Relationship between chronic nonurological associated somatic syndromes and symptom severity in urological chronic pelvic pain syndromes: baseline evaluation of the MAPP study.

    PubMed

    Krieger, John N; Stephens, Alisa J; Landis, J Richard; Clemens, J Quentin; Kreder, Karl; Lai, H Henry; Afari, Niloofar; Rodríguez, Larissa; Schaeffer, Anthony; Mackey, Sean; Andriole, Gerald L; Williams, David A

    2015-04-01

    We used MAPP data to identify participants with urological chronic pelvic pain syndromes only or a chronic functional nonurological associated somatic syndrome in addition to urological chronic pelvic pain syndromes. We characterized these 2 subgroups and explored them using 3 criteria, including 1) MAPP eligibility criteria, 2) self-reported medical history or 3) RICE criteria. Self-reported cross-sectional data were collected on men and women with urological chronic pelvic pain syndromes, including predominant symptoms, symptom duration and severity, nonurological associated somatic syndrome symptoms and psychosocial factors. Of 424 participants with urological chronic pelvic pain syndromes 162 (38%) had a nonurological associated somatic syndrome, including irritable bowel syndrome in 93 (22%), fibromyalgia in 15 (4%), chronic fatigue syndrome in 13 (3%) and multiple syndromes in 41 (10%). Of 233 females 103 (44%) had a nonurological associated somatic syndrome compared to 59 of 191 males (31%) (p = 0.006). Participants with a nonurological associated somatic syndrome had more severe urological symptoms and more frequent depression and anxiety. Of 424 participants 228 (54%) met RICE criteria. Of 228 RICE positive participants 108 (47%) had a nonurological associated somatic syndrome compared to 54 of 203 RICE negative patients (28%) with a nonurological associated somatic syndrome (p < 0.001). Nonurological associated somatic syndromes represent important clinical characteristics of urological chronic pelvic pain syndromes. Participants with a nonurological associated somatic syndrome have more severe symptoms, longer duration and higher rates of depression and anxiety. RICE positive patients are more likely to have a nonurological associated somatic syndrome and more severe symptoms. Because nonurological associated somatic syndromes are more common in women, future studies must account for this potential confounding factor in urological chronic pelvic pain

  5. Psychologic factors in the development of complex regional pain syndrome: history, myth, and evidence.

    PubMed

    Feliu, Miriam H; Edwards, Christopher L

    2010-01-01

    The present paper examines the literature that addresses psychologic aspects involved in complex regional pain syndrome from a historic perspective to provide a rationale for the emergence of psychologic theories to explain its pathogenesis. The support of such perspective is then analyzed through the review of evidence-based studies. A review of the literature from a historic perspective was presented since its first description to the present time, including the clinical presentation and associated symptoms. An evidence-based approach was used to review the literature on complex regional pain syndrome and psychologic factors associated with the etiology or as predictors in the development of the disorder. After reviewing the literature on the history and the myths associated with complex regional pain syndrome, a hypothesis is provided based on an analysis of the Zeitgeist in the development of the psychologic theory associated with the disorder. We also concluded there is no evidence to support a linear relationship that establishes a psychologic predisposition to develop the disorder. An analysis of the Zeitgeist when complex regional pain syndrome was first described helps to understand the long-standing theories associated with a psychological theory of its etiology. This understanding should help to undermine the perpetuation of such claims which may contribute to undertreatment and misdiagnosis. To be consistent with todays Zeitgeist we must incorporate psychologic aspects, which while not causal in nature or exclusive of complex regional pain syndrome, are strongly associated with a wide spectrum of chronic pain disorders.

  6. Regulation of peripheral blood flow in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: clinical implication for symptomatic relief and pain management

    PubMed Central

    Groeneweg, George; Huygen, Frank JPM; Coderre, Terence J; Zijlstra, Freek J

    2009-01-01

    Background During the chronic stage of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS), impaired microcirculation is related to increased vasoconstriction, tissue hypoxia, and metabolic tissue acidosis in the affected limb. Several mechanisms may be responsible for the ischemia and pain in chronic cold CPRS. Discussion The diminished blood flow may be caused by either sympathetic dysfunction, hypersensitivity to circulating catecholamines, or endothelial dysfunction. The pain may be of neuropathic, inflammatory, nociceptive, or functional nature, or of mixed origin. Summary The origin of the pain should be the basis of the symptomatic therapy. Since the difference in temperature between both hands fluctuates over time in cold CRPS, when in doubt, the clinician should prioritize the patient's report of a persistent cold extremity over clinical tests that show no difference. Future research should focus on developing easily applied methods for clinical use to differentiate between central and peripheral blood flow regulation disorders in individual patients. PMID:19775468

  7. [Perspectives of prevention of postoperative neuropathic pain syndrome in cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Osipova, N A; Petrova, V V; Abuzarova, G R; Edeleva, N V; Belov, A V

    2005-01-01

    The paper deals with the anesthesiological problems in the prevention and therapy of neuropathic pain syndrome (NPS), including phantom pain syndrome (PPS) at different stages of surgical treatment in a cancer patient. A prospective study has been conducted; a protocol has been elaborated for the management of patients with preoperative chronic pain syndrome and those at a high risk for NPS after cancer operations associated with damage to nerve structures. A clinical case of successful therapy for severe NPS in a female patient after 4 surgical interventions, including exarticulation of the upper limb, is described. The undertaken prevention of NPS and its treatment policy that is based on the current views of the mechanisms responsible for this type of pain and included, in addition to opioid analgesics, different types of antineuropathic agents, including the recent generation anticonvulsant gabapentin (neurontin), are analyzed and investigated in detail.

  8. Clinical approach to visceral pain in irritable bowel syndrome - pathophysiology, symptoms, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Prystupa, Andrzej; Mróz, Tomasz; Wojciechowska, Katarzyna; Mróz, Katarzyna; Prystupa, Tomasz; Nowicki, Grzegorz; Załuska, Wojciech; Filip, Rafał

    2013-01-01

    Visceral pain has been defined as a pain resulting from activation of pain receptors localized in mucous membrane, serous membrane, and smooth muscles of hollow organs. The great majority of these organs are innervated by parasympathetic and sympathetic outflows. Afferent nerve fibres are involved in conduction of both acute and persistent pain and hyperalgesia. Visceral pain differs significantly from other types of pain in the way it originates and in clinical presentation. It can be misleading as a symptom, producing several problems in the diagnostic process. Sometimes, severe visceral pain is observed in the course of non-lifethreatening functional gastrointestinal disorders, while slight abdominal discomfort may be a first symptom of malignant tumours. For many years, the treatment of visceral pain has been considered as not satisfactory enough and covered a wide variety of pharmacological substances. For example, the complex therapy of pain and other manifestations associated with irritable bowel syndrome include psychotherapy/behavioural therapy, bulk-forming agents, probiotics, laxatives, antidiarrheals, antibacterial agents, antispasmodics, and antidepressants. The current knowledge about the pathogenesis of visceral pain gives a rationale for the development of new, more efficacious drugs with a positive benefit/risk ratio. Unfortunately, experience gained so far with the use of some agents affecting serotoninergic transmission in the gastrointestinal tract have shown a serious danger associated with their administration for patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

  9. Relationships between family and parent characteristics and functional abilities in children with recurrent pain syndromes: an investigation of moderating effects on the pathway from pain to disability.

    PubMed

    Logan, Deirdre E; Scharff, Lisa

    2005-12-01

    To identify family characteristics associated with children's ability to function with recurrent pain. Seventy-eight children ages 7-17 years with recurrent pain syndromes [migraine headache or recurrent abdominal pain (RAP)] were recruited from clinic settings. Children completed pain diaries and the Functional Disability Inventory (FDI). Mothers and fathers completed self-report measures of psychological distress, and mothers reported on family environment. Controlling for the influence of pain intensity, family environment and parental distress jointly predicted children's ability to function with pain. Among children with migraine, family environment moderated the relationship between pain and functional disability; in this group, greater pain associated with more functional disability in children from disruptive family environments, but not in children from more adaptive family environments. For some pediatric recurrent pain sufferers, family characteristics associate with the extent of pain-related disability and may help identify children likely to experience more impaired functioning in response to recurrent pain.

  10. Reduction of central neuropathic pain with ketamine infusion in a patient with Ehlers–Danlos syndrome: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Tony Chung Tung; Yeung, Stephen Tung; Lee, Sujin; Skavinski, Kira; Liao, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    Objective Ehlers–Danlos syndrome frequently causes acute and chronic pain because of joint subluxations and dislocations secondary to hypermobility. Current treatments for pain related to Ehlers–Danlos syndrome and central pain syndrome are inadequate. This case report discusses the therapeutic use of ketamine intravenous infusion as an alternative. Case report A 27-year-old Caucasian female with a history of Ehlers–Danlos syndrome and spinal cord ischemic myelopathy resulting in central pain syndrome, presented with severe generalized body pain refractory to multiple pharmacological interventions. After a 7-day course of ketamine intravenous infusion under controlled generalized sedation in the intensive care unit, the patient reported a dramatic reduction in pain levels from 7–8 out of 10 to 0–3 out of 10 on a numeric rating scale and had a significant functional improvement. The patient tolerated a reduction in her pain medication regimen, which originally included opioids, gabapentin, pregabalin, tricyclic antidepressants, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Conclusion Ketamine infusion treatment has been used in various pain syndromes, including central neuropathic pain, ischemic pain, and regional pain syndrome. Reports have suggested that ketamine modulates pain by the regression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor to a resting state. As such, propagation of nociceptive signal to brain is interrupted allowing for the restoration of physiological balance between pain inhibition and facilitation. The present report shows that this treatment option can be used in patients with refractory central pain syndrome in the setting of spinal cord myelopathy secondary to Ehlers–Danlos syndrome. In addition, as seen in this case, this protocol can potentially decrease the chronic use of pain medication, such as opioids. PMID:27695362

  11. Neuroleptics as a cause of painful legs and moving toes syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Azzi, Jacques; Atweh, Samir; Saade, Nayef; Jabbour, Rosette

    2014-01-01

    Painful legs and moving toes syndrome is rare. It is predominantly diagnosed in middle-aged adults following a history of spinal cord surgery or trauma. The syndrome consists of abnormal repetitive movements, most commonly in the lower extremities, accompanied by pain in the affected limb. Pain usually precedes the movements. We report a case in a young patient that we believe was induced by the intake of a low-potency neuroleptic, which was prescribed to him for anxiety. The patient was treated with carbamazepine with mild relief of pain and later on with botulinum injection, which significantly reduced the movements and mildly improved the pain. After stopping the treatment, the beneficial effect lasted for about 3 months after which his condition gradually returned to its initial state. PMID:25535220

  12. Malignancy as a possible complication of complex regional pain syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Rick; Hester, Joan; Simon, Dominic W N

    2010-01-01

    A synovial sarcoma presented in the knee of a young woman 20 years after the onset of pain which was attributed to complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Was this a chance occurrence, or could there be any link between the two conditions? Did the pain itself and the persistent inflammatory and immunological response to pain contribute to the development of malignancy, or could the malignancy have been present subclinically for many years and have contributed to the ongoing pain syndrome? This case report looks into the diagnosis of synovial sarcoma and CRPS and the relationship between the neurogenic inflammation seen in CRPS and that seen in malignancies. The diagnosis of CRPS is a diagnosis of exclusion. Constant vigilance of patients with this unpleasant condition is necessary.

  13. Successful Treatment of Lower Limb Complex Regional Pain Syndrome following Three Weeks of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Katznelson, Rita; Segal, Shira C.; Clarke, Hance

    2016-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is a treatment that delivers 100% oxygen at increased atmospheric pressures. The efficacy of HBOT for treating pain has been described in various animal pain models and may have clinical efficacy in the treatment of human chronic pain syndromes. We present our experience with posttraumatic Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) type 2 in a patient who underwent 15 sessions of HBOT. A 41-year-old male with one-year history of CRPS of left foot followed by left ankle fracture demonstrated less pain, decreased swelling, less allodynia, and improvement in skin color and range of motion of the lower limb after 3 weeks of HBOT. Patient was back to work for the first time in over a year. HBOT may be considered as a valuable therapeutic tool in the treatment of long-standing CRPS. PMID:27445607

  14. Groin pain syndrome: an association of different pathologies and a case presentation

    PubMed Central

    Bisciotti, Gian Nicola; Auci, Alessio; Di Marzo, Francesco; Galli, Roberto; Pulici, Luca; Carimati, Giulia; Quaglia, Alessandro; Volpi, Piero

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background groin pain affects all types of athletes, especially soccer players. Many diseases with different etiologies may cause groin pain. Purpose offer a mini review of groin pain in soccer accompanied by the presentation of a case report highlighting the possible association of more clinical frameworks into the onset of groin pain syndrome, in order to recommend that clinical evaluations take into account possible associations between bone, muscle and tendon such as inguinal canal disease. Conclusion the multifactorial etiology of groin pain syndrome needs to be examined with a comprehensive approach, with standardized clinical evaluation based on an imaging protocol in order to evaluate all possible diseases. Study design Mini review- Case report (Level V). PMID:26605198

  15. Reliability of measures of impairments associated with patellofemoral pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Piva, Sara R; Fitzgerald, Kelley; Irrgang, James J; Jones, Scott; Hando, Benjamin R; Browder, David A; Childs, John D

    2006-01-01

    Background The reliability and measurement error of several impairment measures used during the clinical examination of patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) has not been established. The purpose was to determine the inter-tester reliability and measurement error of measures of impairments associated with PFPS in patients with PFPS. Methods A single group repeated measures design was used. Two pairs of physical therapists participated in data collection. Examiners were blinded to each others' measurements. Results Thirty patients (age 29 +/- 8; 17 female) with PFPS participated in this study. Inter-tester reliability coefficients were substantial for measures of hamstrings, quadriceps, plantarflexors, and ITB/TFL complex length, hip abductors strength, and foot pronation (ICCs from .85 to .97); moderate for measures of Q-angle, tibial torsion, hip external rotation strength, lateral retinacular tightness, and quality of movement during a step down task (ICCs from .67 to .79); and poor for femoral anteversion (ICC of .45). Standard error of measurement (SEM) for measures of muscle length ranged from 1.6 degrees to 4.3 degrees. SEM for Q-angle, tibial torsion, and femoral anteversion were 2.4 degrees, 2.9 degrees, and 4.5 degrees respectively. SEM for foot pronation was 1 mm. SEM for measures of muscle strength was 1.8 Kg for abduction and 2.4 Kg for external rotation. Conclusion Several of the impairments associated with PFPS had sufficient reliability and low measurement error. Further investigation is needed to test if these impairment measurements are related to physical function and whether or not they are useful for decision-making. PMID:16579850

  16. Treatment of refractory ischemic pain from chemotherapy-induced Raynaud's syndrome with spinal cord stimulation.

    PubMed

    Ting, Joseph C; Fukshansky, Mikhail; Burton, Allen W

    2007-06-01

    We report the successful treatment of refractory ischemic pain from cisplatin-induced Raynaud's syndrome with spinal cord stimulation after failed pharmacologic management and surgical sympathectomy. A 48-year-old man developed ischemic pain of the hands while undergoing cisplatin and gemcitabine chemotherapy for metastatic pancreatic carcinoma. After extensive pharmacologic management and surgical sympathectomy failed to provide adequate analgesia, the patient underwent a percutaneous spinal cord stimulation trial followed by permanent implantation and received significant pain relief prior to succumbing to his illness. Spinal cord stimulation provided effective therapy for refractory ischemic pain, even after failed sympathectomy.

  17. Laparoscopic Treatment of Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome: A Rare Cause of Chronic Severe Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Divarci, Emre; Celtik, Ulgen; Dokumcu, Zafer; Celik, Ahmet; Ergun, Orkan

    2017-01-01

    Median arcuate ligament syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by chronic postprandial abdominal pain and weight loss caused by compression on celiac artery. A 17-year-old girl with chronic severe abdominal pain and weight loss was referred to our clinic. Other causes of chronic abdominal pain were investigated and excluded. The compression on celiac artery was detected on Doppler ultrasound and diagnosis was confirmed by computed tomography angiography. The patient underwent laparoscopic release of median arcuate ligament. There were no intraoperative complications; however, partial pain response was observed postoperatively that necessitated para-spinal ganglion blockage. The patient is symptom-free in 1-year follow-up period. PMID:28082779

  18. Pulsatile Mass Sensation with Intense Abdominal Pain; Atypical Presentation of the Nutcracker Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Aslan, Ahmet; Barutca, Hakan; Kocaaslan, Cemal; Orman, Süleyman; Şahin, Sinan

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Patients with Nutcracker syndrome generally present with nonspecific abdominal pain, with the left renal vein (LRV) lodged between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery. In rare cases this can result in atypical gastrointestinal symptoms, making the diagnosis of Nutcracker syndrome challenging. Case Report A 28-year-old female patient presented with complaints of severe abdominal pain and palpable pulsatile abdominal mass located in the left epigastric area. Computed tomography angiography revealed that the LRV was lodged in the aortomesenteric region with a dilated left ovarian vein and pelvic varicose veins. The upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy were normal. The patient was diagnosed as Nutcracker syndrome and discharged to be treated with analgesics. Conclusions Nutcracker syndrome can be seen with atypical gastrointestinal and vascular symptoms. Computed tomography angiography is a reliable and robust technique to prove the diagnosis of nutcracker syndrome. PMID:28058069

  19. Fibromyalgia syndrome, idiopathic widespread persistent pain or syndrome of myalgic encephalomyelopathy (SME): what is its nature?

    PubMed

    Mehendale, Anand W; Goldman, Mark P

    2002-03-01

    Fibromyalgia is a disorder that is appearing more and more in the clinical practice but is poorly understood. This paper attempts to look at all available and reliable data on these conditions and will outline current, scientifically sound understanding of these disorders, treatment modalities and future directions for research. It also attempts to analyze the social and cultural implications. Various terms used to describe these syndromes are fibromyalgia (FMS), and myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME). PubMed search was performed. Pertinent articles published in past 25 years and The National Academy of Sciences colloquium on Neurobiology of Pain was also reviewed. In addition, news-articles in the lay press as well as the Internet were monitored for material posted by sufferers of these disorders. Studies were reviewed for clinical presentations, history of these disorders, comorbid conditions, etiology, biochemical and microbiologic abnormalities, abnormalities found on neuroimaging and functional neurophysiologic techniques. In addition patient postings on the Internet and articles appearing in lay press were reviewed and social implications are discussed. Upon analysis of these materials the review was organized based on the quality of data and it's contextual scientific, cultural and political meaning for this disorder. This review appears to be pointing towards an entirely new paradigm in pain disorders; therefore, a hypothesis and future direction of research is repeatedly suggested. This study proposes an entirely new paradigm in these disorders based on scientific and cultural data.

  20. Palmitoylethanolamide, a neutraceutical, in nerve compression syndromes: efficacy and safety in sciatic pain and carpal tunnel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Keppel Hesselink, Jan M; Kopsky, David J

    2015-01-01

    Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endogenous lipid modulator in animals and humans, and has been evaluated since the 1970s as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug in more than 30 clinical trials, in a total of ~6,000 patients. PEA is currently available worldwide as a nutraceutical in different formulations, with and without excipients. Here we describe the results of all clinical trials evaluating PEA’s efficacy and safety in nerve compression syndromes: sciatic pain and pain due to carpal tunnel syndrome, and review preclinical evidence in nerve impingement models. Both the pharmacological studies as well as the clinical trials supported PEA’s action as an analgesic compound. In total, eight clinical trials have been published in such entrapment syndromes, and 1,366 patients have been included in these trials. PEA proved to be effective and safe in nerve compression syndromes. In one pivotal, double blind, placebo controlled trial in 636 sciatic pain patients, the number needed to treat to reach 50% pain reduction compared to baseline was 1.5 after 3 weeks of treatment. Furthermore, no drug interactions or troublesome side effects have been described so far. Physicians are not always aware of PEA as a relevant and safe alternative to opioids and co-analgesics in the treatment of neuropathic pain. Especially since the often prescribed co-analgesic pregabaline has been proven to be ineffective in sciatic pain in a double blind enrichment trial, PEA should be considered as a new and safe treatment option for nerve compression syndromes. PMID:26604814

  1. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome: a review of anatomy, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Williams, Bryan S; Cohen, Steven P

    2009-05-01

    Greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS) is a term used to describe chronic pain overlying the lateral aspect of the hip. This regional pain syndrome, once described as trochanteric bursitis, often mimics pain generated from other sources, including, but not limited to myofascial pain, degenerative joint disease, and spinal pathology. The incidence of greater trochanteric pain is reported to be approximately 1.8 patients per 1000 per year with the prevalence being higher in women, and patients with coexisting low back pain, osteoarthritis, iliotibial band tenderness, and obesity. Symptoms of GTPS consist of persistent pain in the lateral hip radiating along the lateral aspect of the thigh to the knee and occasionally below the knee and/or buttock. Physical examination reveals point tenderness in the posterolateral area of the greater trochanter. Most cases of GTPS are self-limited with conservative measures, such as physical therapy, weight loss, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and behavior modification, providing resolution of symptoms. Other treatment modalities include bursa or lateral hip injections performed with corticosteroid and local anesthetic. More invasive surgical interventions have anecdotally been reported to provide pain relief when conservative treatment modalities fail.

  2. Trigeminal neuropathic pain in a patient with progressive facial hemiatrophy (parry-romberg syndrome).

    PubMed

    Viana, Michele; Glastonbury, Christine M; Sprenger, Till; Goadsby, Peter J

    2011-07-01

    We reviewed the literature on published cases of progressive facial hemiatrophy (Parry-Romberg syndrome) to identify possible pathophysiological mechanisms of the syndrome. To describe the somatosensory phenotype of a previously unreported patient with progressive facial hemiatrophy and facial pain. Case report and 4-month follow-up period. University-based tertiary referral headache center. A 37-year-old woman with progressive facial hemiatrophy and strictly left-sided facial pain over 12 years. Greater occipital nerve blockade with lidocaine, 2% (2 mL), and methylprednisolone sodium phosphate (80 mg). Trigeminal sensory phenotype on quantitative sensory testing using thermal threshold and Von Frey hairs. The case report includes patient photographs, neuroimaging, and neurophysiological findings. On the left side, there was continuous pain in V(1) and V(2) and intermittent sharp shooting pains in V(3). The sensory examination showed areas on the left side with pinprick hyperalgesia, cold and heat hyperalgesia, and dynamic mechanical allodynia. The pain in V(1) and V(3) and the allodynia dramatically improved after greater occipital nerve blockade. In the cases reported in the literature, a constant component of the pain was always part of the phenotype, and positive or negative trigeminal sensory signs were frequently described. The phenotype of our patient suggests neuropathic pain involving all 3 branches of the trigeminal nerve, and the patient fulfills newly defined stricter criteria for neuropathic pain. Similar to our case, phenotypes of the other published cases seem to agree with trigeminal neuropathic pain rather than trigeminal neuralgia specifically.

  3. Lumbar facet injection for the treatment of chronic piriformis myofascial pain syndrome: 52 case studies.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jen-Ting; Chen, Han-Yu; Hong, Chang-Zern; Lin, Ming-Ta; Chou, Li-Wei; Chen, Hsin-Shui; Tsai, Chien-Tsung; Chang, Wen-Dien

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of lumbar facet joint injection for piriformis myofascial pain syndrome. Fifty-two patients with chronic myofascial pain in the piriformis muscle each received a lumbar facet injection into the ipsilateral L5-S1 facet joint region, using the multiple insertion technique. Subjective pain intensity, trunk extension range, and lumbar facet signs were measured before, immediately after, and 2 weeks after injection. Thirty-six patients received follow-up for 6 months. Immediately after the injection, 27 patients (51.9%) had complete pain subsidence, 19 patients (36.5%) had pain reduction to a tolerable level, and only 6 patients (11.5%) had no pain relief to a tolerable level. Mean pain intensity was reduced from 7.4±0.9 to 1.6±2.1 after injection (P<0.01). This effectiveness lasted for 2 weeks in 49 patients (94.2%), and lasted for approximately 6 months in 35 (97.2%) of 36 patients. The mean range of motion increased from 13.4±6.8 degrees to 22.1±6.0 degrees immediately after injection, and further increased 2 weeks and 6 months later. Immediately after injection, 45 patients (86.5%) had no facet sign. In addition, 90.4% and 94.4% of patients had no facet sign after 2 weeks and after 6 months, respectively. It is important to identify the possible cause of piriformis myofascial pain syndrome. If this pain is related to lumbar facet lesions, lumbar facet joint injection can immediately suppress piriformis myofascial pain symptoms. This effectiveness may last for at least 6 months in most patients. This study further supports the importance of eliminating the underlying etiological lesion for complete and effective relief of myofascial pain syndrome.

  4. Lumbar facet injection for the treatment of chronic piriformis myofascial pain syndrome: 52 case studies

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jen-Ting; Chen, Han-Yu; Hong, Chang-Zern; Lin, Ming-Ta; Chou, Li-Wei; Chen, Hsin-Shui; Tsai, Chien-Tsung; Chang, Wen-Dien

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of lumbar facet joint injection for piriformis myofascial pain syndrome. Methods Fifty-two patients with chronic myofascial pain in the piriformis muscle each received a lumbar facet injection into the ipsilateral L5–S1 facet joint region, using the multiple insertion technique. Subjective pain intensity, trunk extension range, and lumbar facet signs were measured before, immediately after, and 2 weeks after injection. Thirty-six patients received follow-up for 6 months. Results Immediately after the injection, 27 patients (51.9%) had complete pain subsidence, 19 patients (36.5%) had pain reduction to a tolerable level, and only 6 patients (11.5%) had no pain relief to a tolerable level. Mean pain intensity was reduced from 7.4±0.9 to 1.6±2.1 after injection (P<0.01). This effectiveness lasted for 2 weeks in 49 patients (94.2%), and lasted for approximately 6 months in 35 (97.2%) of 36 patients. The mean range of motion increased from 13.4±6.8 degrees to 22.1±6.0 degrees immediately after injection, and further increased 2 weeks and 6 months later. Immediately after injection, 45 patients (86.5%) had no facet sign. In addition, 90.4% and 94.4% of patients had no facet sign after 2 weeks and after 6 months, respectively. Conclusions It is important to identify the possible cause of piriformis myofascial pain syndrome. If this pain is related to lumbar facet lesions, lumbar facet joint injection can immediately suppress piriformis myofascial pain symptoms. This effectiveness may last for at least 6 months in most patients. This study further supports the importance of eliminating the underlying etiological lesion for complete and effective relief of myofascial pain syndrome. PMID:25170256

  5. A critical review of controlled clinical trials for peripheral neuropathic pain and complex regional pain syndromes.

    PubMed

    Kingery, W S

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this review was to identify and analyze the controlled clinical trial data for peripheral neuropathic pain (PNP) and complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS). A total of 72 articles were found, which included 92 controlled drug trials using 48 different treatments. The methods of these studies were critically reviewed and the results summarized and compared. The PNP trial literature gave consistent support (two or more trials) for the analgesic effectiveness of tricyclic antidepressants, intravenous and topical lidocaine, intravenous ketamine, carbamazepine and topical aspirin. There was limited support (one trial) for the analgesic effectiveness of oral, topical and epidural clonidine and for subcutaneous ketamine. The trial data were contradictory for mexiletine, phenytoin, topical capsaicin, oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication, and intravenous morphine. Analysis of the trial methods indicated that mexiletine and intravenous morphine were probably effective analgesics for PNP, while non-steroidals were probably ineffective. Codeine, magnesium chloride, propranolol, lorazepam, and intravenous phentolamine all failed to provide analgesia in single trials. There were no long-term data supporting the analgesic effectiveness of any drug and the etiology of the neuropathy did not predict treatment outcome. Review of the controlled trial literature for CRPS identified several potential problems with current clinical practices. The trial data only gave consistent support for analgesia with corticosteroids, which had long-term effectiveness. There was limited support for the analgesic effectiveness of topical dimethylsulfoxyde (DMSO), epidural clonidine and intravenous regional blocks (IVRBs) with bretylium and ketanserin. The trial data were contradictory for intranasal calcitonin and intravenous phentolamine and analysis of the trial methods indicated that both treatments were probably ineffective for most patients. There were consistent trial

  6. The Effect of the Kinesio Taping and Spiral Taping on Menstrual Pain and Premenstrual Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chaegil; Park, Yongnam; Bae, Youngsook

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Kinesio taping and spiral taping on menstrual pain and premenstrual syndrome, to investigate the efficacy of the two types of taping as methods for alleviating menstrual pain and premenstrual syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 34 unmarried women. The subjects were randomly divided into a Kinesio taping group, a spiral taping group and a control group. Subjects with a regular menstrual cycle underwent taping a total of six times; twice a week for about three weeks, starting from 14 days before menstruation and continuing until its end. Degrees of menstrual pain and premenstrual syndrome were measured before the application of taping. [Results] The results revealed that Kinesio taping had significant effects on menstrual pain, while spiral taping was effective at alleviating both menstrual pain and premenstrual syndrome. [Conclusion] Both taping methods before menstruation brought significant relief to menstrual pain, which suggests that spiral taping is an effective method of alleviating premenstrual symptoms. PMID:24259847

  7. Update on the efficacy of extracorporeal shockwave treatment for myofascial pain syndrome and fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Ramon, Silvia; Gleitz, Markus; Hernandez, Leonor; Romero, Luis David

    2015-12-01

    Chronic muscle pain syndrome is one of the main causes of musculoskeletal pathologies requiring treatment. Many terms have been used in the past to describe painful muscular syndromes in the absence of evident local nociception such as myogelosis, muscle hardening, myalgia, muscular rheumatism, fibrositis or myofascial trigger point with or without referred pain. If it persists over six months or more, it often becomes therapy resistant and frequently results in chronic generalized pain, characterized by a high degree of subjective suffering. Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is defined as a series of sensory, motor, and autonomic symptoms caused by a stiffness of the muscle, caused by hyperirritable nodules in musculoskeletal fibers, known as myofascial trigger points (MTP), and fascial constrictions. Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic condition that involves both central and peripheral sensitization and for which no curative treatment is available at the present time. Fibromyalgia shares some of the features of MPS, such as hyperirritability. Many treatments options have been described for muscle pain syndrome, with differing evidence of efficacy. Extracorporeal Shockwave Treatment (ESWT) offers a new and promising treatment for muscular disorders. We will review the existing bibliography on the evidence of the efficacy of ESWT for MPS, paying particular attention to MTP (Myofascial Trigger Point) and Fibromyalgia (FM).

  8. Correlation of gene expression with bladder capacity in interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Colaco, Marc; Koslov, David S; Keys, Tristan; Evans, Robert J; Badlani, Gopal H; Andersson, Karl-Erik; Walker, Stephen J

    2014-10-01

    Interstitial cystitis and bladder pain syndrome are terms used to describe a heterogeneous chronic pelvic and bladder pain disorder. Despite its significant prevalence, our understanding of disease etiology is poor. We molecularly characterized interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and determined whether there are clinical factors that correlate with gene expression. Bladder biopsies from female subjects with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and female controls without signs of the disease were collected and divided into those with normal and low anesthetized bladder capacity, respectively. Samples then underwent RNA extraction and microarray assay. Data generated by these assays were analyzed using Omics Explorer (Qlucore, Lund, Sweden), GeneSifter® Analysis Edition 4.0 and Ingenuity® Pathway Analysis to determine similarity among samples within and between groups, and measure differentially expressed transcripts unique to each phenotype. A total of 16 subjects were included in study. Principal component analysis and unsupervised hierarchical clustering showed clear separation between gene expression in tissues from subjects with low compared to normal bladder capacity. Gene expression in tissue from patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome who had normal bladder capacity did not significantly differ from that in controls without interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. Pairwise analysis revealed that pathways related to inflammatory and immune response were most involved. Microarray analysis provides insight into the potential pathological condition underlying interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. This pilot study shows that patients with this disorder who have low compared to normal bladder capacity have significantly different molecular characteristics, which may reflect a difference in disease pathophysiology. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc

  9. Relationship between electrodiagnostic severity and neuropathic pain assessed by the LANSS pain scale in carpal tunnel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gürsoy, Azize Esra; Kolukısa, Mehmet; Yıldız, Gülsen Babacan; Kocaman, Gülşen; Çelebi, Arif; Koçer, Abdülkadir

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between the presence of neuropathic pain assessed by the Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (LANSS) scale and electrophysiological findings in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Methods We studied 124 hands with idiopathic CTS with pain complaints involving hand and wrist. All hands were assessed by the LANSS with which a score of 12 or more is defined as pain dominated by neuropathic mechanisms. These hands were assigned to minimal, mild, moderate, severe, or extreme severe groups according to the results of the median nerve conduction studies. Results A LANSS score ≥ 12, suggestive of pain dominated by neuropathic mechanisms, was defined in 59 (47.6%) CTS hands. Pain intensity was significantly higher in CTS hands with a LANSS score ≥ 12 (P < 0.001). Among electrophysiological findings, compound muscle action potential amplitude was significantly lower in hands with a LANSS score ≥ 12 compared with hands with a LANSS score < 12 (P = 0.020). Severity of CTS was not significantly different between LANSS ≥ 12 and LANSS < 12 groups. Electrophysiological severity was significantly higher in CTS hands with evoked pain (P = 0.005) and allodynia (P < 0.001) in LANSS subscore analysis. Conclusion We suggest that the presence of pain dominated by neuropathic mechanisms in CTS is not related to electrophysiological CTS severity. Neuropathic pain should be assessed carefully in patients with CTS, and an appropriate treatment plan should be chosen, taking into account the clinical and electrophysiological findings together with the true pain classification. PMID:23326196

  10. Trigeminal Neuralgia, Glossopharyngeal Neuralgia, and Myofascial Pain Dysfunction Syndrome: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Nishi, Shamima Easmin; Hassan, Siti Nazihahasma

    2017-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is a common phenomenon that affects millions of people worldwide. Maxillofacial structures consist of various tissues that receive frequent stimulation during food digestion. The unique functions (masticatory process and facial expression) of the maxillofacial structure require the exquisite organization of both the peripheral and central nervous systems. Neuralgia is painful paroxysmal disorder of the head-neck region characterized by some commonly shared features such as the unilateral pain, transience and recurrence of attacks, and superficial and shock-like pain at a trigger point. These types of pain can be experienced after nerve injury or as a part of diseases that affect peripheral and central nerve function, or they can be psychological. Since the trigeminal and glossopharyngeal nerves innervate the oral structure, trigeminal and glossopharyngeal neuralgia are the most common syndromes following myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome. Nevertheless, misdiagnoses are common. The aim of this review is to discuss the currently available diagnostic procedures and treatment options for trigeminal neuralgia, glossopharyngeal neuralgia, and myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome. PMID:28827979

  11. Trigeminal Neuralgia, Glossopharyngeal Neuralgia, and Myofascial Pain Dysfunction Syndrome: An Update.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad; Nishi, Shamima Easmin; Hassan, Siti Nazihahasma; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua

    2017-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is a common phenomenon that affects millions of people worldwide. Maxillofacial structures consist of various tissues that receive frequent stimulation during food digestion. The unique functions (masticatory process and facial expression) of the maxillofacial structure require the exquisite organization of both the peripheral and central nervous systems. Neuralgia is painful paroxysmal disorder of the head-neck region characterized by some commonly shared features such as the unilateral pain, transience and recurrence of attacks, and superficial and shock-like pain at a trigger point. These types of pain can be experienced after nerve injury or as a part of diseases that affect peripheral and central nerve function, or they can be psychological. Since the trigeminal and glossopharyngeal nerves innervate the oral structure, trigeminal and glossopharyngeal neuralgia are the most common syndromes following myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome. Nevertheless, misdiagnoses are common. The aim of this review is to discuss the currently available diagnostic procedures and treatment options for trigeminal neuralgia, glossopharyngeal neuralgia, and myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome.

  12. Insomnia and limb pain in hemodialysis patients: what is the share of restless leg syndrome?

    PubMed

    Malaki, Majid; Mortazavi, Fakhr Sadat; Moazemi, Sussan; Shoaran, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Insomnia and limb pain are common problems in dialysis patients. In addition, restless leg syndrome (RLS) as a specific cause of insomnia and limb pain has been reported in many studies. The purpose of this study was to estimate incidence of insomnia and RLS as a cause of insomnia in these patients. Twenty-six patients undergoing hemodialysis were investigated for insomnia, limb pain and RLS as per the defined criteria. They were evaluated for dialysis quality, dialysis duration, hemoglobin, serum phosphorous, ionized calcium, iron and ferritin levels. These variables between patients with insomnia and those with normal sleep were evaluated by independent "t" test. Without considering the etiology or pathogenesis of insomnia, we evaluated the occurrence of insomnia and limb pain in these patients, and specifically, restless leg syndrome. Insomnia and limb pain were common in dialytic patients. 46% of patients had insomnia. 91% of sleepless group had limb pain as a persistent, annoying complaint. Limb pain was not seen in groups with a normal sleep pattern. Restless leg syndrome was found in 8% of total cases (2 out of 26) and 17% among the insomnia group (2 out of 12). In spite of high incidence of insomnia among patients undergoing regular hemodialysis, role of RLS is trivial. There is a strong relationship between hemoglobin levels and duration of renal replacement therapy to insomnia occurrence.

  13. Piriformis syndrome and low back pain: a new classification and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Elias C; Khan, Safdar N

    2004-01-01

    Piriformis syndrome is a common cause of low back pain. It is often not included in the differential diagnosis of back, buttock, and leg pain. Additionally it has received minimal recognition because it is often seen as a diagnosis of exclusion. Familiarity with the common elements of the syndrome should increase its recognition and facilitate the appropriate treatment. These include buttock pain and tenderness with or without electrodiagnostic or neurologic signs. Pain is exacerbated in prolonged sitting. Specific physical findings are tenderness in the sciatic notch and buttock pain in flexion, adduction, and internal rotation (FADIR) of the hip. Imaging modalities are rarely helpful, but electrophysiologic studies should confirm the diagnosis, if not immediately, then certainly in a patient re-evaluation and as such should be sought persistently. Physical therapy aims at stretching the muscle and reducing the vicious cycle of pain and spasm. It is a mainstay of conservative treatment, usually enhanced by local injections. Surgery should be reserved as a last resort in case of failure of all conservative modalities. Piriformis syndrome may constitute up to 5% of cases of low back, buttock, and leg pain. Recognition and widespread appreciation of the clinical presentation improves its early detection and accurate treatment.

  14. Stress-induced visceral pain: toward animal models of irritable-bowel syndrome and associated comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Moloney, Rachel D; O'Mahony, Siobhain M; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2015-01-01

    Visceral pain is a global term used to describe pain originating from the internal organs, which is distinct from somatic pain. It is a hallmark of functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable-bowel syndrome (IBS). Currently, the treatment strategies targeting visceral pain are unsatisfactory, with development of novel therapeutics hindered by a lack of detailed knowledge of the underlying mechanisms. Stress has long been implicated in the pathophysiology of visceral pain in both preclinical and clinical studies. Here, we discuss the complex etiology of visceral pain reviewing our current understanding in the context of the role of stress, gender, gut microbiota alterations, and immune functioning. Furthermore, we review the role of glutamate, GABA, and epigenetic mechanisms as possible therapeutic strategies for the treatment of visceral pain for which there is an unmet medical need. Moreover, we discuss the most widely described rodent models used to model visceral pain in the preclinical setting. The theory behind, and application of, animal models is key for both the understanding of underlying mechanisms and design of future therapeutic interventions. Taken together, it is apparent that stress-induced visceral pain and its psychiatric comorbidities, as typified by IBS, has a multifaceted etiology. Moreover, treatment strategies still lag far behind when compared to other pain modalities. The development of novel, effective, and specific therapeutics for the treatment of visceral pain has never been more pertinent.

  15. Stress-Induced Visceral Pain: Toward Animal Models of Irritable-Bowel Syndrome and Associated Comorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Moloney, Rachel D.; O’Mahony, Siobhain M.; Dinan, Timothy G.; Cryan, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Visceral pain is a global term used to describe pain originating from the internal organs, which is distinct from somatic pain. It is a hallmark of functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable-bowel syndrome (IBS). Currently, the treatment strategies targeting visceral pain are unsatisfactory, with development of novel therapeutics hindered by a lack of detailed knowledge of the underlying mechanisms. Stress has long been implicated in the pathophysiology of visceral pain in both preclinical and clinical studies. Here, we discuss the complex etiology of visceral pain reviewing our current understanding in the context of the role of stress, gender, gut microbiota alterations, and immune functioning. Furthermore, we review the role of glutamate, GABA, and epigenetic mechanisms as possible therapeutic strategies for the treatment of visceral pain for which there is an unmet medical need. Moreover, we discuss the most widely described rodent models used to model visceral pain in the preclinical setting. The theory behind, and application of, animal models is key for both the understanding of underlying mechanisms and design of future therapeutic interventions. Taken together, it is apparent that stress-induced visceral pain and its psychiatric comorbidities, as typified by IBS, has a multifaceted etiology. Moreover, treatment strategies still lag far behind when compared to other pain modalities. The development of novel, effective, and specific therapeutics for the treatment of visceral pain has never been more pertinent. PMID:25762939

  16. Interactions between Pain and the Motor Cortex: Insights from Research on Phantom Limb Pain and Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Léonard, Guillaume

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Pain is a significantly disabling problem that often interacts with other deficits during the rehabilitation process. The aim of this paper is to review evidence of interactions between pain and the motor cortex in order to attempt to answer the following questions: (1) Does acute pain interfere with motor-cortex activity? (2) Does chronic pain interfere with motor-cortex activity, and, conversely, does motor-cortex plasticity contribute to chronic pain? (3) Can the induction of motor plasticity by means of motor-cortex stimulation decrease pain? (4) Can motor training result in both motor-cortex reorganization and pain relief? Summary of Key Points: Acute experimental pain has been clearly shown to exert an inhibitory influence over the motor cortex, which can interfere with motor learning capacities. Current evidence also suggests a relationship between chronic pain and motor-cortex reorganization, but it is still unclear whether one causes the other. However, there is growing evidence that interventions aimed at normalizing motor-cortex organization can lead to pain relief. Conclusions: Interactions between pain and the motor cortex are complex, and more studies are needed to understand these interactions in our patients, as well as to develop optimal rehabilitative strategies. PMID:22654236

  17. Fibromyalgia and myofascial pain syndromes and the workers' compensation environment: an update.

    PubMed

    Hayden, Radford J; Louis, Dean S; Doro, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Fibromyalgia and myofascial pain syndromes are terms used to describe a constellation of complaints ranging from generalized aches to specific tender trigger points often accompanied by fatigue, depression, and sleep disturbances. In the past 5 years, research has been directed primarily at determining the pathophysiology of fibromyalgia and myofascial pain syndromes and the treatment of patients' comorbidities to alleviate their symptomatology. Controversy exists as to whether fibromyalgia and myofascial pain syndromes represent a specific pathology or are merely terms to describe clinical conditions that provide patients with the reassurance that their symptoms are real and help clinicians with therapeutic direction. In the occupational health setting, this uncertainty can lead to significant difficulty in determining short- and long-term disability and assigning culpability to an individual's work environment.

  18. Minimally Invasive Microendoscopic Resection of the Transverse Process for Treatment of Low Back Pain with Bertolotti's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Toshinori; Higashino, Kosaku; Goda, Yuichiro; Mineta, Kazuaki; Sairyo, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Bertolotti's syndrome is characterized by anomalous enlargement of the transverse process of the most caudal lumbar segment, causing chronic and persistent low back pain or sciatica. We describe the case of a 45-year-old woman who presented with left sciatic pain and low back pain due to a recurrent lumbar disc herniation at L4-5 with Bertolotti's syndrome. Selective L5 nerve root block and local injection of lidocaine into the articulation between the transverse process and sacral ala temporarily relieved the left sciatic pain and low back pain, respectively. To confirm the effect of local injection on low back pain, we gave a second local injection, which once again relieved the low back pain. Microendoscopic resection of the pseudoarticulation region and discectomy successfully relieved all symptoms. This report illustrates the effectiveness of minimally invasive resection of the transverse process for the treatment of low back pain with Bertolotti's syndrome. PMID:25045566

  19. Ultrasound-Guided Trigger Point Injection for Serratus Anterior Muscle Pain Syndrome: Description of Technique and Case Series.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Schaffer, Grisell; Nowakowsky, Michal; Eghtesadi, Marzieh; Cogan, Jennifer

    2015-09-15

    Chronic chest pain is a challenge, and serratus anterior muscle pain syndrome (SAMPS) is often overlooked. We have developed an ultrasound-guided technique for infiltrating local anesthetics and steroids in patients with SAMPS. In 8 patients, the duration of chronic pain was approximately 19 months. Three months after treatment, all patients had experienced a significant reduction in pain. Infiltration for SAMPS confirms the diagnosis and provides adequate pain relief.

  20. The effect of real-time gait retraining on hip kinematics, pain and function in subjects with patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Noehren, B; Scholz, J; Davis, I

    2011-07-01

    Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is the most common overuse injury in runners. Recent research suggests that hip mechanics play a role in the development of this syndrome. Currently, there are no treatments that directly address the atypical mechanics associated with this injury. The purpose of this study was to determine whether gait retraining using real-time feedback improves hip mechanics and reduces pain in subjects with PFPS. Ten runners with PFPS participated in this study. Real-time kinematic feedback of hip adduction (HADD) during stance was provided to the subjects as they ran on a treadmill. Subjects completed a total of eight training sessions. Feedback was gradually removed over the last four sessions. Variables of interest included peak HADD, hip internal rotation (HIR), contralateral pelvic drop, as well as pain on a verbal analogue scale and the lower-extremity function index. We also assessed HADD, HIR and contralateral pelvic drop during a single leg squat. Comparisons of variables of interest were made between the initial, final and 1-month follow-up visit. Following the gait retraining, there was a significant reduction in HADD and contralateral pelvic drop while running. Although not statistically significant, HIR decreased by 23% following gait retraining. The 18% reduction in HADD during a single leg squat was very close to significant. There were also significant improvements in pain and function. Subjects were able to maintain their improvements in running mechanics, pain and function at a 1-month follow-up. An unexpected benefit of the retraining was an 18% and 20% reduction in instantaneous and average vertical load rates, respectively. Gait retraining in individuals with PFPS resulted in a significant improvement of hip mechanics that was associated with a reduction in pain and improvements in function. These results suggest that interventions for PFPS should focus on addressing the underlying mechanics associated with this injury

  1. The Possible Role of Meditation in Myofascial Pain Syndrome: A New Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Panta, Prashanth

    2017-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is the most common musculoskeletal pain disorder of the head and neck area. In the past, several theories were put forth to explain its origin and nature, but none proved complete. Myofascial pain responds to changing psychological states and stress, anxiety, lack of sleep, anger, depression and chronic pain are direct contributional factors. Myofascial pain syndrome may be considered as a psychosomatic disorder. There are numerous accepted palliative approaches, but of all, relaxation techniques stand out and initiate healing at the base level. In this article, the connection between mental factors, MPS and meditation are highlighted. Recent literature has shed light on the fundamental role of free radicals in the emergence of myofascial pain. The accumulating free radicals disrupt mitochondrial integrity and function, leading to sustenance and progression of MPS. Meditation on the other hand was shown to reduce free radical load and can result in clinical improvement. 'Mindfulness' is the working principle behind the effect of all meditations, and I emphasize that it can serve as a potential tool to reverse the neuro-architectural, neurobiological and cellular changes that occur in MPS. The findings described in this paper were drawn from studies on myofascial pain, fibromyalgia, similar chronic pain models and most importantly from self experience (experimentation). Till date, no hypothesis is available connecting MPS and meditation. Mechanisms linking MPS and meditation were identified, and this paper can ignite novel research in this direction.

  2. Comparison of dry needling and physiotherapy in treatment of myofascial pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rayegani, Seyed Mansoor; Bayat, Masume; Bahrami, Mohammad Hasan; Raeissadat, Seyed Ahmad; Kargozar, Elham

    2014-06-01

    To compare the effects of dry needling and physiotherapy in treatment of myofascial pain syndrome, a randomized controlled trial was performed on 28 patients with myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) of upper trapezius muscle in the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Center of Shohadaye Tajrish Hospital from April 2009 to April 2010. After matching the age, sex, duration of symptoms, pain severity, and quality of life measures, subjects were randomly assigned into two subgroups of case (dry needling) and control (physiotherapy). One week and 1 month after receiving standard therapeutic modalities, outcomes and intragroup and intergroup changes in pain severity, pressure pain of trigger point (TP), and quality of life measures were evaluated and compared. After 1 month, both the physiotherapy and dry needling groups had decreased resting, night, and activity pain levels (p<0.05). Pressure pain threshold of TP and some scores of quality of life (SF-36) were improved (p<0.05). Overall results were similar in both groups. It seems that both physiotherapy modalities and dry needling have equal effect on myofascial pain of the upper trapezius muscle.

  3. The Possible Role of Meditation in Myofascial Pain Syndrome: A New Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Panta, Prashanth

    2017-01-01

    Background of Hypothesis: Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is the most common musculoskeletal pain disorder of the head and neck area. In the past, several theories were put forth to explain its origin and nature, but none proved complete. Myofascial pain responds to changing psychological states and stress, anxiety, lack of sleep, anger, depression and chronic pain are direct contributional factors. Myofascial pain syndrome may be considered as a psychosomatic disorder. There are numerous accepted palliative approaches, but of all, relaxation techniques stand out and initiate healing at the base level. In this article, the connection between mental factors, MPS and meditation are highlighted. Recent literature has shed light on the fundamental role of free radicals in the emergence of myofascial pain. The accumulating free radicals disrupt mitochondrial integrity and function, leading to sustenance and progression of MPS. Meditation on the other hand was shown to reduce free radical load and can result in clinical improvement. ‘Mindfulness’ is the working principle behind the effect of all meditations, and I emphasize that it can serve as a potential tool to reverse the neuro-architectural, neurobiological and cellular changes that occur in MPS. Conclusions: The findings described in this paper were drawn from studies on myofascial pain, fibromyalgia, similar chronic pain models and most importantly from self experience (experimentation). Till date, no hypothesis is available connecting MPS and meditation. Mechanisms linking MPS and meditation were identified, and this paper can ignite novel research in this direction. PMID:28503039

  4. Slipping rib syndrome as a cause of chest pain in children.

    PubMed

    Taubman, B; Vetter, V L

    1996-08-01

    Four patients with the slipping rib syndrome presenting as chest pain are described, and the appropriate literature is reviewed. In two of the patients the physicians caring for the children were initially concerned that a cardiac condition was the cause of the chest pain, and a cardiac evaluation was done. In one patient an emotional cause for the pain was first considered and then a cardiac cause was pursued. In the last patient esophagitis was thought to be the cause and the child was referred to a gastroenterologist. It is suggested that slipping rib syndrome should be considered by physicians when evaluating children with a complaint of chest pain. The condition can be easily diagnosed on physical examination and therefore may save some patients from an unnecessary cardiac or gastroentestinal evaluation.

  5. [Multimodal pain therapy for treatment of chronic pain syndrome. Consensus paper of the ad hoc commission on multimodal interdisciplinary pain management of the German Pain Society on treatment contents].

    PubMed

    Arnold, B; Brinkschmidt, T; Casser, H-R; Diezemann, A; Gralow, I; Irnich, D; Kaiser, U; Klasen, B; Klimczyk, K; Lutz, J; Nagel, B; Pfingsten, M; Sabatowski, R; Schesser, R; Schiltenwolf, M; Seeger, D; Söllner, W

    2014-10-01

    Multimodal pain management is a comprehensive treatment of complex chronic pain syndromes. In addition to medical therapy various other specialized therapeutic interventions based on the biopsychosocial model of pain origin and chronic pain development, are added. During the last few years treatment centers for chronic pain have been established throughout Germany. Multimodal pain management has been included in the official catalogue of the recognized medical procedures for day clinic units as well as for inpatient pain management. In daily practice there is, however, still a lack of clarity and of consistency about the components that multimodal pain management should contain. This is the reason for the ad hoc commission on multimodal interdisciplinary pain management of the German Pain Society to propose the following position paper that has been worked out in a multilevel and interdisciplinary consensus process. The paper describes the mandatory treatment measures in the four core disciplines of multimodal pain management, pain medicine, psychotherapy, exercise therapy including physiotherapy and assistant medical professions including nurses.

  6. Sonography of greater trochanteric pain syndrome and the rarity of primary bursitis.

    PubMed

    Long, Suzanne S; Surrey, David E; Nazarian, Levon N

    2013-11-01

    Greater trochanteric pain syndrome is a common condition with clinical features of pain and tenderness at the lateral aspect of the hip. Diagnosing the origin of greater trochanteric pain is important because the treatment varies depending on the cause. We hypothesized that sonographic evaluation of sources for greater trochanteric pain syndrome would show that bursitis was not the most commonly encountered abnormality. We performed a retrospective review of musculoskeletal sonographic examinations performed at our institution over a 6-year period for greater trochanteric pain syndrome; completed a tabulation of the sonographic findings; and assessed the prevalence of trochanteric bursitis, gluteal tendon abnormalities, iliotibial band abnormalities, or a combination of findings. Prevalence of abnormal findings, associations of bursitis, gluteal tendinosis, gluteal tendon tears, and iliotibial band abnormalities were calculated. The final study population consisted of 877 unique patients: 602 women, 275 men; average age, 54 years; and age range, 15-87 years). Of the 877 patients with greater trochanteric pain, 700 (79.8%) did not have bursitis on ultrasound. A minority of patients (177, 20.2%) had trochanteric bursitis. Of the 877 patients with greater trochanteric pain, 438 (49.9%) had gluteal tendinosis, four (0.5%) had gluteal tendon tears, and 250 (28.5%) had a thickened iliotibial band. The cause of greater trochanteric pain syndrome is usually some combination of pathology involving the gluteus medius and gluteus minimus tendons as well as the iliotibial band. Bursitis is present in only the minority of patients. These findings have implications for treatment of this common condition.

  7. [Pronator teres syndrome is a rare but important cause of pain in the forearm].

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Mathias Bæk; Deutch, Søren Rasmussen

    2016-11-14

    Pronator teres syndrome is a rare but clinically important condition which can cause pain in the forearm. It is a com-pression neuropathy due to compression of the median nerve proximal in the forearm. In this case report we de-scribe a 69-year-old male patient with pain in both forearms in more than ten years. After surgical decompression of the median nerve in both arms he experienced almost complete relief of his symptoms.

  8. Uterine remnants and pelvic pain in females with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Courtney A; Will, Matthew A; Smorgick, Noam; Quint, Elisabeth H; Hussain, Hero; Smith, Yolanda R

    2013-06-01

    To assess the association between pelvic pain and uterine remnants and review the management of pelvic pain in females with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome. Retrospective cohort. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at a tertiary referring medical center. Forty-eight females with MRKH presenting from 1997 to 2011 with anatomy confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). None. Prevalence Of uterine remnants and the association of uterine remnants with pelvic pain in females with MRKH. Of the 48 females with MRKH, 23 (48%) had uterine remnants and 22 (46%) had pelvic pain. Presence of endometrium was associated with pelvic pain (RR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.2-4.7) in females with MRKH. Of the females with MKRH and pain, 9/22 had laparoscopy, with endometriosis seen in 5/9 of the uterine remnants at stages higher than are usually seen in teenagers (56%). Nine patients with pain and uterine remnants (8 with endometrium, 1 without) had laparoscopic removal of uterine remnants with resolution of pain. Given the high prevalence of uterine remnants in females with MRKH, anatomic evaluation with MRI should be considered when assessing the etiology of pelvic pain. Presence of endometrium within uterine remnants, and subsequent endometriosis, in females with MRKH may be associated with pelvic pain necessitating surgical or medical management.

  9. Decreased pulsatile blood flow in the patella in patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Näslund, Jan; Waldén, Markus; Lindberg, Lars-Göran

    2007-10-01

    Anterior knee pain without clinical and radiologic abnormalities has primarily been explained from a purely structural view. A recently proposed biologic and homeostatic explanation questions the malalignment theory. No objective measurement of the pathophysiology responsible for changes in local homeostasis has been presented. Flexing the knee joint interferes with the perfusion of the patellar bone in patellofemoral pain syndrome. Case control study; Level of evidence, 4. Pulsatile blood flow in the patella was measured continuously and noninvasively using photoplethysmography. Measurements were made with the patient in a resting position with knee flexion of 20 degrees and after passive knee flexion to 90 degrees. In total, 22 patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome were examined bilaterally, and 33 subjects with healthy knees served as controls. The pulsatile blood flow in the patient group decreased after passive knee flexion from 20 degrees to 90 degrees (systematic change in position, or relative position [RP] = -0.32; 95% confidence interval for RP, -0.48 to -0.17), while the response in the control group showed no distinct pattern (RP = 0.17; 95% confidence interval for RP, -0.05 to 0.31). The difference between the groups was significant (P = .0002). The median change in patients was -26% (interquartile range, 37). Pulsatile patellar blood flow in patellofemoral pain syndrome patients is markedly reduced when the knee is being flexed, which supports the previous notion of an ischemic mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of this pain syndrome.

  10. Arthroscopic treatment of painful Sinding-Larsen-Johansson syndrome in a professional handball player.

    PubMed

    Kajetanek, C; Thaunat, M; Guimaraes, T; Carnesecchi, O; Daggett, M; Sonnery-Cottet, B

    2016-09-01

    Sinding-Larsen-Johansson (SLJ) syndrome is a type of osteochondrosis of the distal pole of the patella most often caused by repeated microtrauma. Here, we describe the case of a professional athlete with painful SLJ syndrome treated arthroscopically. A 29-year-old male professional handball player presented with anterior knee pain that persisted after 4 months of an eccentric rehabilitation protocol and platelet-rich plasma injections. Despite this conservative treatment, the patient could not participate in his sport. The SLJ lesion was excised arthroscopically, which led to complete disappearance of symptoms and return to competitive sports after 5 months. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Treatment of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) using low dose naltrexone (LDN).

    PubMed

    Chopra, Pradeep; Cooper, Mark S

    2013-06-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a neuropathic pain syndrome, which involves glial activation and central sensitization in the central nervous system. Here, we describe positive outcomes of two CRPS patients, after they were treated with low-dose naltrexone (a glial attenuator), in combination with other CRPS therapies. Prominent CRPS symptoms remitted in these two patients, including dystonic spasms and fixed dystonia (respectively), following treatment with low-dose naltrexone (LDN). LDN, which is known to antagonize the Toll-like Receptor 4 pathway and attenuate activated microglia, was utilized in these patients after conventional CRPS pharmacotherapy failed to suppress their recalcitrant CRPS symptoms.

  12. [Progress of research on acupuncture at trigger point for myofascial pain syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ma, Yao; Bu, He; Jia, Ji-rong; Zhang, Xue

    2012-06-01

    To review the literature of acupuncture at trigger point for myofascial pain syndrome from the main selected points (trigger point), the mechanism of Chinese medicine and modern research and its clinical application. The results show that acupuncture at trigger point has significant effect on the myofascial pain syndrome, which could be influenced by the type of needle, manipulation, insertion angle and depth of the needles. However, the involved studies at present are still far from enough and lack of systematic study with multivariate analysis, it is needed to be improved that some problems about the clinical diagnosis and basic research.

  13. Hand pain other than carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS): the role of occupational factors.

    PubMed

    Andréu, José-Luis; Otón, Teresa; Silva-Fernández, Lucía; Sanz, Jesús

    2011-02-01

    Some occupational factors have been implicated in the development of disorders manifested as hand pain. The associations seem to be well documented in processes such as hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) or writer's cramp. There are contradictory data in the literature about the relationships of trigger finger, De Quervain's tenosynovitis (DQT) and tenosynovitis of the wrist with occupational factors. In this article, we review current knowledge about clinical manifestations, case definition, implicated occupational factors, diagnosis and treatment of the most relevant hand pain disorders that have been associated with occupational factors, excluding carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS).

  14. Goldenhar Syndrome and Pain-Related Temporomandibular Disorders. A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Khawaja, Shehryar Nasir; Crow, Heidi; Gonzalez, Yoly

    2016-04-01

    Goldenhar syndrome (GS) is a development syndrome, characterized by incomplete development of the craniofacial region. The involvement is mainly unilateral; it varies from being mild to severe; and it can range from malocclusion and facial asymmetry to a more complex phenotype with complete absence of the mandibular ramus and temporomandibular joint. However, orthopedic symptoms of orofacial pain and dysfunction have not generally been considered as part of the symptom complex in GS cases. The case presented here is of a 15-year-old Caucasian patient, who was referred for evaluation because of bilateral pain in the masticatory muscles and temporomandibular joints.

  15. Post-traumatic complex regional pain syndrome: clinical features and epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Ratti, Chiara; Nordio, Andrea; Resmini, Giuseppina; Murena, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Summary Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition that occurs after a tissue injury (fractures, sprain, surgery) of the upper or lower extremities. A clear pathophysiological mechanism has not been established yet and different patterns are considered to play a role in the genesis of the disease. The diagnosis is made by different diagnosis criteria and a gold standard has not been established yet. Incidence of CRPS is unclear and large prospective studies on the incidence and prevalence of CRPS are scarce. The aim of this review is to give an overview on the prevalent data regarding this chronic syndrome. PMID:27134626

  16. Widespread hypersensitivity is related to altered pain inhibition processes in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Piché, Mathieu; Arsenault, Marianne; Poitras, Pierre; Rainville, Pierre; Bouin, Mickael

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms of chronic pain in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have been widely investigated but remain unclear. The present study investigated the relation between visceral hypersensitivity, cutaneous thermal sensitivity, and central pain mechanisms. Rectal sensitivity was assessed with a barostat, and forearm and calf sensitivity with a contact thermode. Central mechanisms were assessed by counterirritation using sustained cold-pain to the hand and painful electric shocks to the ankle. Psychological symptoms were also assessed, using questionnaires. Female volunteers with diarrhea-predominant IBS (n=27) and healthy controls (n=25) participated in the study. IBS patients had lower rectal and calf pain thresholds compared to controls (p's<0.05). IBS patients also reported more pain than controls for rectal distensions, and heat pain on the calf and forearm (all p's<0.001). Cold-pain inhibited shock-pain in controls but not IBS patients (controls: -13.5+/-5.3 vs IBS: +1.9+/-10.5; p<0.01). In addition, visceral hypersensitivity was significantly correlated to cutaneous thermal hypersensitivity and pain inhibition deficits, although effects were only weak and moderate, respectively. Furthermore, covariance analyses indicated that psychological factors accounted for group differences in visceral hypersensitivity and pain inhibition deficits. In conclusion, this study confirms the relation between altered pain inhibition processes and widespread hypersensitivity in IBS. The present results also suggests that psychological symptoms and altered pain processing in IBS patients may reflect at least in part, common underlying mechanisms. Copyright 2009 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Chronic pain and fatigue syndromes: overlapping clinical and neuroendocrine features and potential pathogenic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Clauw, D J; Chrousos, G P

    1997-01-01

    Patients with unexplained chronic pain and/or fatigue have been described for centuries in the medical literature, although the terms used to describe these symptom complexes have changed frequently. The currently preferred terms for these syndromes are fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome, names which describe the prominent clinical features of the illness without any attempt to identify the cause. This review delineates the definitions of these syndromes, and the overlapping clinical features. A hypothesis is presented to demonstrate how genetic and environmental factors may interact to cause the development of these syndromes, which we postulate are caused by central nervous system dysfunction. Various components of the central nervous system appear to be involved, including the hypothalamic pituitary axes, pain-processing pathways, and autonomic nervous system. These central nervous system changes lead to corresponding changes in immune function, which we postulate are epiphenomena rather than the cause of the illnesses.

  18. [Clinical and rheovasographic correlations in patients with lumbosacral pain syndrome in the complex treatment using underwater vertical extension].

    PubMed

    Sunychuk, M M

    2004-01-01

    The article presents the findings of using underwater vertical extension in a complex treatment of patients with lumbosacral pain syndromes. The rheovasography method has been applied. Underwater vertical extension method in a complex treatment of patients with lumbosacral pain syndromes was found to be effective according to clinical data and positive dynamics of rheovasography's indices.

  19. Fibromyalgia and Chronic Pain Syndromes: A White Paper Detailing Current Challenges in the Field.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Lesley M; Choy, Ernest; Clauw, Daniel J; Goldenberg, Don L; Harris, Richard E; Helfenstein, Milton; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Noguchi, Koichi; Silverman, Stuart L; Ushida, Takahiro; Wang, Guochun

    2016-09-01

    This manuscript, developed by a group of chronic pain researchers and clinicians from around the world, aims to address the state of knowledge about fibromyalgia (FM) and identify ongoing challenges in the field of FM and other chronic pain syndromes that may be characterized by pain centralization/amplification/hypersensitivity. There have been many exciting developments in research studies of the pathophysiology and treatment of FM and related syndromes that have the potential to improve the recognition and management of patients with FM and other conditions with FM-like pain. However, much of the new information has not reached all clinicians, especially primary care clinicians, who have the greatest potential to use this new knowledge to positively impact their patients' lives. Furthermore, there are persistent misconceptions about FM and a lack of consensus regarding the diagnosis and treatment of FM. This paper presents a framework for future global efforts to improve the understanding and treatment of FM and other associated chronic pain syndromes, disseminate research findings, identify ways to enhance advocacy for these patients, and improve global efforts to collaborate and reach consensus about key issues related to FM and chronic pain in general.

  20. REHABILITATION OF SUBACROMIAL PAIN SYNDROME EMPHASIZING SCAPULAR DYSKINESIS IN AMATEUR ATHLETES: A CASE SERIES

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Katherinne F.; Monteiro, Renan L.; Lucareli, Paulo R.G.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Study design Case series Background and Purpose Scapular dyskinesis has been associated with several shoulder injuries. Recent literature has suggested that a greater activation of the scapular muscles can play an important role in reducing subacromial impingement in patients with shoulder pain. Thus, the purpose of this case series was to describe a rehabilitation program that emphasizes scapular dyskinesis correction for those with clinical evidence of subacromial pain syndrome. Case Descriptions The four amateur athletes in this series showed clinical evidence of subacromial pain syndrome and scapular dyskinesis and each underwent a treatment protocol consisting of three phases. Phase 1 emphasized pain relief, scapular control, and recovery of normal range of motion (ROM), Phase 2 focused on muscular strengthening, and Phase 3 emphasized sensory motor training. Outcomes All subjects demonstrated decreased pain, improved sports performance and function, increased muscular strength for shoulder elevation and external rotation, and increased ROM for internal rotation. Improvement in serratus anterior (SA) activation was also noted. Discussion The results of this case series suggest that subjects with clinical tests positive for subacromial pain syndrome can show significant improvement with an intervention focused on scapular dyskinesis correction. SA activation can play an important role in this process given that all subjects presented with better recruitment after rehabilitation, as measured by electromyography. Levels of Evidence Level 4 PMID:27525180

  1. Evaluation of embolization for periuterine varices involving chronic pelvic pain secondary to pelvic congestion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Siqueira, Flavio Meirelles; Monsignore, Lucas Moretti; Rosa-e-Silva, Julio Cesar; Poli-Neto, Omero Benedicto; de Castro-Afonso, Luis Henrique; Nakiri, Guilherme Seizem; Muglia, Valdair Francisco; Abud, Daniel Giansante

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical response and success rate after periuterine varices embolization in patients with chronic pelvic pain secondary to pelvic congestion syndrome and to report the safety of endovascular treatment and its rate of complications. METHODS: Retrospective cohort of patients undergoing endovascular treatment of pelvic congestion syndrome in our department from January 2012 to November 2015. Data were analyzed based on patient background, imaging findings, embolized veins, rate of complications, and clinical response as indicated by the visual analog pain scale. RESULTS: We performed periuterine varices embolization in 22 patients during the study, four of which required a second embolization. Seventeen patients reported a reduction in pelvic pain after the first embolization and three patients reported a reduction in pelvic pain after the second embolization. Minor complications were observed in our patients, such as postural hypotension, postoperative pain, and venous perforation during the procedure, without clinical repercussion. CONCLUSION: Periuterine varices embolization in patients with chronic pelvic pain secondary to pelvic congestion syndrome appears to be an effective and safe technique. PMID:28076514

  2. Chronic proctalgia and chronic pelvic pain syndromes: New etiologic insights and treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Chiarioni, Giuseppe; Asteria, Corrado; Whitehead, William E

    2011-01-01

    This systematic review addresses the pathophysiology, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of several chronic pain syndromes affecting the pelvic organs: chronic proctalgia, coccygodynia, pudendal neuralgia, and chronic pelvic pain. Chronic or recurrent pain in the anal canal, rectum, or other pelvic organs occurs in 7% to 24% of the population and is associated with impaired quality of life and high health care costs. However, these pain syndromes are poorly understood, with little research evidence available to guide their diagnosis and treatment. This situation appears to be changing: A recently published large randomized, controlled trial by our group comparing biofeedback, electrogalvanic stimulation, and massage for the treatment of chronic proctalgia has shown success rates of 85% for biofeedback when patients are selected based on physical examination evidence of tenderness in response to traction on the levator ani muscle-a physical sign suggestive of striated muscle tension. Excessive tension (spasm) in the striated muscles of the pelvic floor appears to be common to most of the pelvic pain syndromes. This suggests the possibility that similar approaches to diagnostic assessment and treatment may improve outcomes in other pelvic pain disorders. PMID:22110274

  3. Intervention for erythromelalgia, a chronic pain syndrome: comprehensive pain rehabilitation center, Mayo Clinic.

    PubMed

    Durosaro, Olayemi; Davis, Mark D P; Hooten, W Michael; Kerkvliet, Jennifer L

    2008-12-01

    To describe the response in patients with erythromelalgia to the pain rehabilitation program at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. Retrospective case series. Comprehensive Pain Rehabilitation Center at a tertiary referral medical center. Patients Eight patients with erythromelalgia admitted to the pain rehabilitation program from January 1, 2002, through June 30, 2007. The Multidimensional Pain Inventory, the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale were administered at admission and dismissal from the program. Mean differences in scores were compared using 2-sided paired t tests. Scores for the life interference, life control, and general activity subscales of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory showed significant improvement from admission to dismissal (all P < .05). Similarly, the scores of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and the physical functioning and emotional role limitation subscales of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey were significantly improved after intervention (all P < .01). Conclusion The results of our study indicate that pain rehabilitation is a useful method for managing pain-related impairment in physical and emotional functioning in patients with erythromelalgia.

  4. Pathophysiological characterisation of back pain generators in failed back surgery syndrome (part B).

    PubMed

    Rigoard, P; Blond, S; David, R; Mertens, P

    2015-03-01

    Low back surgery, including as many type of spine procedures as the multitude of failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) etiologies, is not always the answer for patients with chronic low back pain. Paradoxically, although a patient is considered to present FBSS because he has already undergone spinal surgery, any new symptom in the back or deterioration of back pain must not be immediately attributed to FBSS, but could be related to another cause independently of the initial mechanical problem. The aim of this paper is to extensively review the potential back pain generators in FBSS patients and to discuss their respective roles and interactions in back pain pathophysiology. Literature searches included an exhaustive review of 643 references and 74 book chapters updated by searching the major electronic databases from 1930 to August 2013. Nociceptive fibres innervating any of the back anatomical structures can all play a part in the pathogenesis of the low back pain component in FBSS. The main spinal pain generators are not only myofascial syndrome or muscle spasm but also the facets, the disc complex or a sagittal imbalance and should therefore be carefully reviewed. Only after these steps and appropriate imaging, would it be justified to irremediably diagnose the patient with a refractory chronic condition, requiring no further spine surgery and to propose "palliative" pain treatment options. Clinical investigations of the low back pain component in FBSS patients should be based on meticulous dissection of all potential triggers that could be a source of the nociceptive pain characteristics and possibly amenable to further aetiological treatment. Clinicians should therefore refine pain management strategies to ensure that the chronic nature of the pain becomes the guiding principle for multidisciplinary assessment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Pain reduction due to novel sensory-motor training in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome I - A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Anne-Christine; Schwarz, Anja; Gustin, Sylvia M; Greenspan, Joel D; Hummel, Friedhelm C; Birbaumer, Niels

    2017-04-01

    Patients suffering from Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) of the upper limb show a changed cortical representation of the affected hand. The lip area invades the former hand area contralateral to the affected hand. This change in cortical representation is correlated to the intensity of ongoing pain in patients with CRPS. Further studies revealed that restoration of the original representation coincides with a decrease of pain. Sensory-motor training protocols can increase and/or relocate cortical somatosensory and motor representation areas of the fingers, as shown, for example, in Braille reading individuals and professional violin players. Further, there is evidence that sensory-motor discrimination training has a beneficial effect on both the intensity of pain and the mislocalization of sensory-motor cortical areas in CRPS patients. Based on these propositions, we developed a novel sensory-motor self-training paradigm for CRPS patients to use in a home-based manner. Ten CRPS patients performed the sensory-motor training for 2weeks. The training consists of a braille-like haptic task with different training modes (bi-manual, speed and memory training). During the training, as well as 1week before and after, patients were asked to fill out pain diaries. Furthermore, measures of impairment were acquired at baseline and post training. Patients showed significant pain reduction after the 2week training period. The overall disability as well as the depression scores showed a trend to improve after the 2week training. The reduction in pain was correlated with the total amount of training performed. This is a first proof of principle study of a novel sensory-motor self-training protocol to reduce pain in CRPS patients. The more consistent the patients trained the larger the pain reduction. Sensory-motor training, which can be performed on a regular basis at home might provide a novel interventional strategy to improve symptoms of CRPS. Although a larger study needs

  6. Long-Term Function, Pain and Medication Use Outcomes of Radiofrequency Ablation for Lumbar Facet Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, Zachary L.; Marshall, Benjamin; Walker, Jeremy; McCarthy, Robert; Walega, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of the medial branch nerves for facet-mediated low back pain demonstrates clinical benefit for 6–12 months and possibly up to 2 years. This study investigated function, pain, and medication use outcomes of RFA for lumbar facet syndrome in a cohort with long-term follow-up. Methods Individuals evaluated in a tertiary academic pain practice between January, 2007–December, 2013, 18–60 years of age, with a clinical and radiologic diagnosis of lumbar facet syndrome, who underwent ≥1set of diagnostic medial branch blocks with resultant >75% pain relief and subsequent RFA were included. Outcomes measured were the proportion of individuals who reported ≥50% improvement in function, ≥50% improvement in pain; change in median NRS pain score, daily morphine equivalent consumption (DME), Medication Quantification Scale III (MSQ III) score and procedure complications. Results Sixty-two consecutive individuals with a median age and 25%–75% interquartile range (IQR) of 34 years (35, 52) met inclusion criteria. Seven individuals were lost to follow-up. Duration of pain was <2 years in 42%, 2–5 years in 40%, >5 years in 18% of individuals. Median duration of follow-up was 39 months (16, 60). Function and pain improved by ≥50% in 58% (CI 45%, 71%) and 53% (CI 40%, 66%) of individuals, respectively. The median reduction in MQS III score was 3.4 points (0, 8.8). No complications occurred in this cohort. Conclusions This study demonstrates a durable treatment effect of RFA for lumbar facet syndrome at long-term follow-up, as measured by improvement in function, pain, and analgesic use. PMID:26005713

  7. Bladder pain syndrome: validation of simple tests for diagnosis in women with chronic pelvic pain: BRaVADO study protocol.

    PubMed

    Tirlapur, Seema A; Priest, Lee; Wojdyla, Daniel; Khan, Khalid S

    2013-12-04

    Bladder pain syndrome (BPS), a condition with no gold standard diagnosis, comprises of a cluster of signs and symptoms. Bladder filling pain and bladder wall tenderness are two basic clinical features, present in a high number of sufferers. This study will validate the performance of these simple tests for BPS in women with chronic pelvic pain (CPP). We will conduct a prospective test validation study amongst women with unexplained CPP presenting to gynaecology outpatient clinics. Two index tests will be performed: patient reported bladder filling pain and bladder wall tenderness on internal pelvic bimanual examination. A final diagnosis of BPS will be made by expert consensus panel. We will assess the rates of index tests in women with CPP; evaluate the correlation between index tests and Pelvic Pain Urgency/ Frequency (PUF) questionnaire results; and determine index test sensitivity and specificity using a range of analytical methods. Assuming a 50% prevalence of BPS and an 80% power approximately 152 subjects will be required exclude sensitivity of < 55% at 70% sensitivity. The results of this test validation study will be used to identify whether a certain combination of signs and symptoms can accurately diagnose BPS.

  8. [New options in the treatment of painful shoulder syndrome].

    PubMed

    Esparza Miñana, J M; Londoño Parra, M; Villanueva Pérez, V L; De Andrés Ibáñez, J

    2012-01-01

    Shoulder pain is a common complaint in clinical practice in Primary Care and affects 20% of the general population. The usual form of treatment is based on NSAIDs, rest, rehabilitation and, as an alternative, a local injection into the joint. There are also radiofrequency techniques on the suprascapular nerve in the cases of refractory pain to these therapies. Radiofrequency can be used in two ways: Conventional Radiofrequency, using high temperatures to the target tissue with the aim of producing a thermal neurolysis and Pulsed Radiofrequency where the temperatures are lower and produces a temporary non-destructive blockage; the latter being the most common technique in the management of shoulder pain. Although the analgesic mechanism of action of Radiofrequency is unknown, recent studies have shown that it is safe, effective and Lasting. Radiofrequency of the suprascapular nerve is a valid, effective and with few complications in the treatment of shoulder pain refractory to other therapies.

  9. Occupational Overuse Syndrome (Technological Diseases): Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, a Mouse Shoulder, Cervical Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tiric-Campara, Merita; Krupic, Ferid; Biscevic, Mirza; Spahic, Emina; Maglajlija, Kerima; Masic, Zlatan; Zunic, Lejla; Masic, Izet

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Technological diseases are diseases of the modern era. Some are caused by occupational exposures, and are marked with direct professional relation, or the action of harmful effects in the workplace. Due to the increasing incidence of these diseases on specific workplaces which may be caused by one or more causal factors present in the workplace today, these diseases are considered as professional diseases. Severity of technological disease usually responds to the level and duration of exposure, and usually occurs after many years of exposure to harmful factor. Technological diseases occur due to excessive work at the computer, or excessive use of keyboards and computer mice, especially the non-ergonomic ones. This paper deals with the diseases of the neck, shoulder, elbow and wrist (cervical radiculopathy, mouse shoulder and carpal tunnel syndrome), as is currently the most common diseases of technology in our country and abroad. These three diseases can be caused by long-term load and physical effort, and are tied to specific occupations, such as occupations associated with prolonged sitting, working at the computer and work related to the fixed telephone communication, as well as certain types of sports (tennis, golf and others). PMID:25568584

  10. Effect of dry needling on myofascial pain syndrome of the quadratus femoris: A case report.

    PubMed

    Anandkumar, Sudarshan

    2017-09-18

    This case report describes a 40-year-old male who presented with posterior thigh pain managed unsuccessfully with massage therapy, chiropractic adjustments, and physical therapy. The diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) involving the quadratus femoris (QF) was purely clinical, based on palpatory findings and ruling out other conditions through deductive reasoning. This is potentially a first time report, describing the successful management of MPS of the QF with dry needling (DN) using a recently published DN grading system. Immediate improvements were noted in all the outcome measures after the first treatment, with complete pain-resolution maintained at a 4-month follow-up.

  11. A case of facial myofascial pain syndrome presenting as trigeminal neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seung Zhoo; Lee, Sang Ik; Choi, Sung Uk; Shin, Hye Won; Lee, Hye Won; Lim, Hae Ja; Chang, Seong Ho

    2009-03-01

    Facial pain has many causes, including idiopathic factors, trigeminal neuralgia, dental problems, temporomandibular joint disorders, cranial abnormalities, and infections. However, the clinical diagnosis of facial pain is sometimes difficult to establish because clinical manifestations commonly overlap. The diagnosis of trigeminal neuralgia is based solely on clinical findings. Therefore, a careful evaluation of the patient history and a thorough physical examination are essential. This case describes a patient with facial myofascial pain syndrome involving the right zygomaticus, orbicularis oculi, and levator labii muscles, which presented as trigeminal neuralgia.

  12. Review of intravesical therapies for bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Rosamilia, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is a chronic pain condition characterised by urinary frequency, urgency and pain or discomfort which the patient attributes to the bladder. It is a complex condition to manage and treat and requires a multi-disciplinary and multi-modal approach. As well as lifestyle and behavioural modifications, physical therapy and oral medications, intravesical treatments can be used in the treatment algorithm for BPS/IC. A number of intravesical agents are reviewed in this paper along with the available evidence for their use. PMID:26816864

  13. Associations Between Cognitive Performance and Pain in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Comorbidity with Fibromyalgia Does Matter.

    PubMed

    Ickmans, Kelly; Meeus, Mira; De Kooning, Margot; Lambrecht, Luc; Pattyn, Nathalie; Nijs, Jo

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the frequently reported pain complaints, performance-based cognitive capabilities in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) with and without comorbid fibromyalgia (FM) are significantly worse than those of healthy controls. In various chronic pain populations, cognitive impairments are known to be related to pain severity. However, to the best of our knowledge, the association between cognitive performance and experimental pain measurements has never been examined in CFS patients. This study aimed to examine the association between cognitive performance and self-reported as well as experimental pain measurements in CFS patients with and without FM. Observational study. The present study took place at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel and the University of Antwerp. Forty-eight (18 CFS-only and 30 CFS+FM) patients and 30 healthy controls were studied. Participants first completed 3 performance-based cognitive tests designed to assess selective and sustained attention, cognitive inhibition, and working memory capacity. Seven days later, experimental pain measurements (pressure pain thresholds [PPT], temporal summation [TS], and conditioned pain modulation [CPM]) took place and participants were asked to fill out 3 questionnaires to assess self-reported pain, fatigue, and depressive symptoms. In the CFS+FM group, the capacity of pain inhibition was significantly associated with cognitive inhibition. Self-reported pain was significantly associated with simple reaction time in CFS-only patients. The CFS+FM but not the CFS-only group showed a significantly lower PPT and enhanced TS compared with controls. The cross-sectional nature of this study does not allow for inferences of causation. The results underline disease heterogeneity in CFS by indicating that a measure of endogenous pain inhibition might be a significant predictor of cognitive functioning in CFS patients with FM, while self-reported pain appears more appropriate to predict cognitive

  14. Excruciating Low Back Pain After Strenuous Exertion: Beware of Lumbar Paraspinal Compartment Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vanbrabant, Peter; Moke, Lieven; Meersseman, Wouter; Vanderschueren, Geert; Knockaert, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Low back pain is extremely common and usually a minor self-limiting condition. Rarely, however, it is a harbinger of serious medical illness. Paraspinal compartment syndrome is a rare condition, but its timely recognition is important to allow adequate treatment. A 16-year-old boy presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with severe low back pain, necessitating intravenous opioids. Laboratory results showed severe rhabdomyolysis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine showed diffuse edema and swelling in the paraspinal muscles. Aggressive fluid therapy was started but despite narcotic analgesia the pain persisted and creatine kinase (CK) levels increased. Compartment pressures of the erector spinae were found to be increased. The decision was made to proceed with bilateral paraspinal fasciotomies. Postoperatively, the patient noted immediate pain relief with rapid decrease of CK level. The patient is pain free and resumed running and swimming 3 months after admission in the ED. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Although paraspinal compartment syndrome is a rare condition, its recognition is of paramount importance to allow adequate surgical treatment, preventing muscle necrosis. Although back pain most often has a benign course, a careful history and physical examination in patients presenting with low back pain allows determination of "red flags." Mandatory further diagnostic tests can identify underlying serious illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cortical neuroplastic changes to painful colon stimulation in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Rössel, Petra; Le Pera, Domenica; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Valeriani, Massimiliano

    2005-03-03

    The aim of this study was to model the cerebral generators following painful electrical stimulation of the sigmoid colon in 10 healthy controls and 10 patients with visceral pain due to the irritable bowel syndrome. The evoked brain potentials to 30 painful electrical stimuli from the sigmoid colon were recorded from 31 surface electrodes and subjected to electrical dipole source modelling. Two dipoles in the bilateral insular cortex, one dipole in the anterior cingulate gyrus and two dipoles in the bilateral second somatosensory area were found. The anterior cingulate dipole showed a more posterior position in patients than in control subjects. This finding suggests that the cortical representation of painful stimuli can be modified in presence of chronic visceral pain and that this change involves the anterior cingulate gyrus.

  16. [Pain and numbness in the arms and hands and carpal tunnel syndrome diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Valéria Ribeiro Nogueira; Dantas, Fábio Galvão; Cardoso, Maria Aparecida Alves; de Medeiros, Jovany Luis Alves

    2006-12-01

    We studied the frequency and localization of pain and numbness in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), in comparison with individuals of the general population, matched for sex and age, and we determined the sensitivity and the specificity of these symptoms for the CTS diagnosis. Pain was a common symptom in the two groups of patients. Numbness occurred more frequently in CTS group (p<0.05). In CTS patients, pain complaints were present in neck (42.8%), arms (36.8%) and hands (82.8%). Among controls, pain was more common in head (11.4%), trunk (37.1%), legs (22.8%). In our casuistics, in relation to the CTS diagnosis, the presence of pain and numbness have low sensitivity and high specificity when they occur in the arms, and high sensitivity and specificity when they occur in the hands.

  17. The Effect of Premenstrual Syndrome and Menstrual Phase on Postoperative Pain

    PubMed Central

    Arab, Maliheh; Mirkheshti, Alireza; Noghabaei, Giti; Ashori, Adeleh; Ghasemi, Tahereh; Hosseini-Zijoud, Seyed Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a common finding in luteal phase of menstrual cycle resulting in several changes in woman life including pain sensation. Objectives: This study evaluated the alterations of postoperative pain sensation in those with and without a history of PMS. Patients and Methods: A total of 140 women in in postoperative period were assigned to four groups regarding luteal or follicular phase of menstrual cycle and the history of PMS and were evaluated regarding scale of pain sensation and morphine demand in recovery room. To evaluate the difference among the groups, Mann Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis, and Bonferroni tests were used. Results: Patients with PMS presented higher pain sensation and analgesia request (P = 0.003). Patients in luteal phase showed less pain and analgesia request in two out of five studied outcomes (P = 0.075). Conclusions: The most comfortable postoperative women were those in luteal phase without history of PMS group. PMID:25893183

  18. Ultrasonography-guided pulsed radiofrequency of sciatic nerve for the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome Type II

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yi Hwa; Chang, Dong Jin; Hwang, Woon Suk; Chung, Jin Hwan

    2017-01-01

    Although the major mechanism of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) involves dysfunctional central or sympathetic nervous system activation, the peripheral nervous system also contributes significantly to its clinical manifestations. Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) is a recently developed treatment option for neuropathic pain syndromes. Here, we report a case of CRPS Type II after a femur fracture and sciatic nerve injury, in which the pain was treated successfully with ultrasonography-guided selective sciatic nerve PRF application. PMID:28217060

  19. Medial abrasion syndrome: a neglected cause of knee pain in middle and old age.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Shaw-Ruey; Lee, Ching-Chih; Hsu, Chia-Chen

    2015-04-01

    Knee pain is a prevailing health problem of middle and old age. Medial plica-related medial abrasion syndrome (MAS), although a well-known cause of knee pain in younger individuals, has rarely been investigated in older individuals. This prospective study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and clinical manifestations of this syndrome as a cause of knee pain in middle and old age. The outcomes of arthroscopic treatment for this syndrome were also evaluated.A total of 232 knees of 169 patients >40 years of age (41-82, median: 63 years old) suffering from chronic knee pain were analyzed. The clinical diagnosis, predisposing factors, presenting symptoms, and physical signs were investigated. The sensitivity and specificity of each parameter of the clinical presentation for the diagnosis of MAS were evaluated after confirmation by arthroscopy. For patients with MAS, the roentgenographic and arthroscopic manifestations were investigated, and arthroscopic medial release (AMR) was performed. The outcomes were evaluated by the changes in the pain domain of the Knee Society scoring system and by patient satisfaction. The prevalence of medial plica was 95%, and osteoarthritis (OA) was the most common clinical diagnosis. Symptoms of pain and crepitus in motion and local tenderness during physical examination were the most sensitive parameters for the diagnosis. A history of a single knee injury combined with local tenderness and a palpable band found during physical examination were the most specific parameters for the diagnosis. The majority of patients suffering from this syndrome were successfully treated using AMR, yielding a satisfaction rate of 85.5% after a minimum of 3 years.MAS is a common cause of knee pain in middle and old age and can be effectively treated by AMR. Its concomitance with OA warrants further investigation.

  20. Short-Term Functional, Emotional, and Pain Outcomes of Patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Treated in a Comprehensive Interdisciplinary Pain Management Program.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Zachary L; Gagnon, Christine M; Caldwell, Mary; Patel, Jaymin; Kornfeld, Sarah; Atchison, James; Stanos, Steven; Harden, R Norman; Calisoff, Randy

    2015-12-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is difficult to effectively treat with unimodal approaches. To investigate whether CRPS can be effectively treated in a comprehensive interdisciplinary pain management program. Observational cohort study of 49 patients aged 18-89 who fulfilled 'Budapest Criteria' for CRPS and completed an interdisciplinary pain management program. Preprogram to postprogram changes in physical functioning, perceived disability, emotional functioning, acceptance, coping, and pain were assessed. The measures used included: Pain Disability Index, Six minute walk test, 2-minute sit-to-stand, Numerical Rating Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale, Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire, Coping Strategies Questionnaire-Revised, RIC- Multidimensional Patient Global Impression of Change (RIC-MPGIC), and Medication Quantification Scale. For worker's compensation patients, the rate of successful release to work at the end of the program was calculated. Results indicated significant improvements in physical functioning and perceived disability (P's<0.001). Patients reported increased usage of an adaptive coping strategy, distraction (P = 0.010), and decreased usage of maladaptive and passive strategies (P's < 0.001). Patients showed greater chronic pain acceptance (P's ≤ 0.010) and reductions in emotional distress (P's < 0.001). Medication usage at 1-month follow-up was significantly reduced compared to program start (P < 0.001) and discharge (P = 0.004). Patients reported "much improvement" in overall functioning, physical functioning, mood, and their ability to cope with pain and flare-ups (RIC-MPGIC). Patient report of pain was not significantly reduced at discharge (P =0.078). Fourteen (88%) of 16 total worker's compensation patients were successfully released to work at the end of the program. This study demonstrates short-term improvements in physical and emotional functioning

  1. Tryptase-PAR2 axis in experimental autoimmune prostatitis, a model for chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Roman, Kenny; Done, Joseph D; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Murphy, Stephen F; Thumbikat, Praveen

    2014-07-01

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) affects up to 15% of the male population and is characterized by pelvic pain. Mast cells are implicated in the murine experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP) model as key to chronic pelvic pain development. The mast cell mediator tryptase-β and its cognate receptor protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) are involved in mediating pain in other visceral disease models. Prostatic secretions and urines from CP/CPPS patients were examined for the presence of mast cell degranulation products. Tryptase-β and PAR2 expression were examined in murine EAP. Pelvic pain and inflammation were assessed in the presence or absence of PAR2 expression and upon PAR2 neutralization. Tryptase-β and carboxypeptidase A3 were elevated in CP/CPPS compared to healthy volunteers. Tryptase-β was capable of inducing pelvic pain and was increased in EAP along with its receptor PAR2. PAR2 was required for the development of chronic pelvic pain in EAP. PAR2 signaling in dorsal root ganglia led to extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 phosphorylation and calcium influx. PAR2 neutralization using antibodies attenuated chronic pelvic pain in EAP. The tryptase-PAR2 axis is an important mediator of pelvic pain in EAP and may play a role in the pathogenesis of CP/CPPS.

  2. Tryptase - PAR2 axis in Experimental Autoimmune Prostatitis, a model for Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Kenny; Done, Joseph D.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Murphy, Stephen F.; Thumbikat, Praveen

    2014-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis/Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) affects up to 15% of the male population and is characterized by pelvic pain. Mast cells are implicated in the murine experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP) model as key to chronic pelvic pain development. The mast cell mediator tryptase-β and its cognate receptor protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) are involved in mediating pain in other visceral disease models. Prostatic secretions and urines from CP/CPPS patients were examined for the presence of mast cell degranulation products. Tryptase-β and PAR2 expression were examined in murine experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP). Pelvic pain and inflammation were assessed in the presence or absence of PAR2 expression and upon PAR2 neutralization. Tryptase-β and carboxypeptidase A3 were elevated in CP/CPPS compared to healthy volunteers. Tryptase-β was capable of inducing pelvic pain and was increased in EAP along with its receptor PAR2. PAR2 was required for the development of chronic pelvic pain in EAP. PAR2 signaling in dorsal root ganglia lead to ERK1/2 phosphorylation and calcium influx. PAR2 neutralization using antibodies attenuated chronic pelvic pain in EAP. The tryptase-PAR2 axis is an important mediator of pelvic pain in EAP and may play a role in the pathogenesis of CP/CPPS. PMID:24726923

  3. Depression, anhedonia and anxiety in temporomandibular joint and other facial pain syndromes.

    PubMed

    Marbach, J J; Lund, P

    1981-08-01

    Depression, anhedonia, state anxiety (A-state), trait anxiety (A-trait), and self-reported pain estimate were measured in almost 500 facial pain patients. These patients were divided into 3 diagnostic categories: myofacial pain dysfunction syndrome (MPD) [18], arthritis of the temporomandibular joints (TMJ arthritis), and trigeminal neuralgia. Three control groups were measured for comparison. They consisted of an normal, or non-patient group, a group of arthritis patients, and a group of movement disorder patients attending a neurology clinic. Among the facial pain patients and the normal controls few differences were found with regard to anhedonia and depression, The arthritis and neurology patients produced significantly higher depression and anhedonia scores than did several of the facial pain groups. Pain estimate ranged from 0 for control, to a mean of 67.6 +/- 31.3 for the trigeminal neuralgia patients with the MPD (means = 56.2 +/- 32.5) and the TMJ arthritis patients (means = 46.7 +/- 30.8) somewhat lower. Clinical variables such as duration of pain, help seeking behavior and total number of symptoms were correlated with depression but not with anhedonia scores, It is hypothesized that anhedonia is a measure separate from depression and may be more closely linked to suffering behavior that to pain behavior. Psychological variables did not discriminate among facial pain patients and in particular did not distinguish between so-called functional and organic illness.

  4. Foot orthoses and physiotherapy in the treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome: A randomised clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Vicenzino, Bill; Collins, Natalie; Crossley, Kay; Beller, Elaine; Darnell, Ross; McPoil, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Background Patellofemoral pain syndrome is a highly prevalent musculoskeletal overuse condition that has a significant impact on participation in daily and physical activities. A recent systematic review highlighted the lack of high quality evidence from randomised controlled trials for the conservative management of patellofemoral pain syndrome. Although foot orthoses are a commonly used intervention for patellofemoral pain syndrome, only two pilot studies with short term follow up have been conducted into their clinical efficacy. Methods/design A randomised single-blinded clinical trial will be conducted to investigate the clinical efficacy and cost effectiveness of foot orthoses in the management of patellofemoral pain syndrome. One hundred and seventy-six participants aged 18–40 with anterior or retropatellar knee pain of non-traumatic origin and at least six weeks duration will be recruited from the greater Brisbane area in Queensland, Australia through print, radio and television advertising. Suitable participants will be randomly allocated to receive either foot orthoses, flat insoles, physiotherapy or a combined intervention of foot orthoses and physiotherapy, and will attend six visits with a physiotherapist over a 6 week period. Outcome will be measured at 6, 12 and 52 weeks using primary outcome measures of usual and worst pain visual analogue scale, patient perceived treatment effect, perceived global effect, the Functional Index Questionnaire, and the Anterior Knee Pain Scale. Secondary outcome measures will include the Lower Extremity Functional Scale, McGill Pain Questionnaire, 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Patient-Specific Functional Scale, Physical Activity Level in the Previous Week, pressure pain threshold and physical measures of step and squat tests. Cost-effectiveness analysis will be based on treatment effectiveness against resource usage recorded in treatment logs and self-reported diaries

  5. Relationship between Sleep and Pain in Adolescents with Juvenile Primary Fibromyalgia Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Margaret N.; Sherry, David D.; Boyne, Kathleen; McCue, Rebecca; Gallagher, Paul R.; Brooks, Lee J.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate sleep quality in adolescents with juvenile primary fibromyalgia syndrome (JPFS) and determine whether sleep abnormalities, including alpha-delta sleep (ADS), correlate with pain intensity. We hypothesized that successful treatment for pain with exercise therapy would reduce ADS and improve sleep quality. Design: Single-center preintervention and postintervention (mean = 5.7 ± 1.0 weeks; range = 4.0-7.3 weeks) observational study. Patients: Ten female adolescents (mean age = 16.2 ± 0.65 SD yr) who met criteria for JPFS and completed treatment. Interventions: Multidisciplinary pain treatment, including intensive exercise therapy. Measurements and Results: Pain and disability were measured by a pain visual analog scale (VAS) and the Functional Disability Inventory. Subjective sleep measures included a sleep VAS, an energy VAS, and the School Sleep Habits Survey. Objective sleep measures included actigraphy, polysomnography (PSG), and the Multiple Sleep Latency Test. Baseline PSG was compared with that of healthy age- and sex-matched control patients. At baseline, patients had poorer sleep efficiency, more arousals/awakenings, and more ADS (70.3% of total slow wave sleep [SWS] versus 21.9% SWS, P = 0.002) than controls. ADS was unrelated to pain, disability, or subjective sleep difficulty. After treatment, pain decreased (P = 0.000) and subjective sleep quality improved (P = 0.008). Objective sleep quality, including the amount of ADS, did not change. Conclusions: Although perceived sleep quality improved in adolescents with JPFS after treatment, objective measures did not. Our findings do not suggest exercise therapy for pain improves sleep by reducing ADS, nor do they support causal relationships between ADS and chronic pain or subjective sleep quality. Citation: Olsen MN; Sherry DD; Boyne K; McCue R; Gallagher PR; Brooks LJ. Relationship between sleep and pain in adolescents with juvenile primary fibromyalgia syndrome. SLEEP 2013

  6. Myofascial pain syndrome after head and neck cancer treatment: Prevalence, risk factors, and influence on quality of life.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Leticia Rodrigues; Rizzo, Cláudia Carvalho; de Oliveira, Cleyton Zanardo; dos Santos, Carlos Roberto; Carvalho, André Lopes

    2015-12-01

    Patients undergoing treatment for head and neck cancer may develop myofascial pain syndrome as sequelae. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence, risk factors, and quality of life (QOL) related to myofascial pain syndrome. This was a prospective study including patients with head and neck cancer with at least a 1-year disease-free interval. One hundred sixty-seven patients were analyzed, and myofascial pain syndrome was diagnosed in 20 (11.9%). In the multivariate analysis, hypopharyngeal tumors (odds ratio [OR] = 6.35; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.58-25.56) and neck dissection (OR = 3.43; 95% CI = 1.16-10.17) were independent factors for myofascial pain syndrome. The pain (p < .001) and shoulder domain (p < .001) as well as overall University of Washington Quality of Life (UW-QOL) score (p = .006) were significantly lower in the patients with myofascial pain syndrome. Myofascial pain syndrome was observed in 1 of 9 patients after head and neck cancer treatment and a worse QOL was observed among them. Tumor site and neck dissection were found to be risk factors for myofascial pain syndrome. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Infantile Pain Episodes Associated with Novel Nav1.9 Mutations in Familial Episodic Pain Syndrome in Japanese Families

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Daiki; Harada, Kouji H.; Youssefian, Shohab; Shioi, Hirotomo; Kabata, Risako; Domon, Yuki; Kubota, Kazufumi; Kitano, Yutaka; Takayama, Yasunori; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Ohno, Kousaku; Saito, Yoshiaki; Asano, Takeshi; Tominaga, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Painful peripheral neuropathy has been correlated with various voltage-gated sodium channel mutations in sensory neurons. Recently Nav1.9, a voltage-gated sodium channel subtype, has been established as a genetic influence for certain peripheral pain syndromes. In this study, we performed a genetic study in six unrelated multigenerational Japanese families with episodic pain syndrome. Affected participants (n = 23) were characterized by infantile recurrent pain episodes with spontaneous mitigation around adolescence. This unique phenotype was inherited in an autosomal-dominant mode. Linkage analysis was performed for two families with 12 affected and nine unaffected members, and a single locus was identified on 3p22 (LOD score 4.32). Exome analysis (n = 14) was performed for affected and unaffected members in these two families and an additional family. Two missense variants were identified: R222H and R222S in SCN11A. Next, we generated a knock-in mouse model harboring one of the mutations (R222S). Behavioral tests (Hargreaves test and cold plate test) using R222S and wild-type C57BL/6 (WT) mice, young (8–9 weeks old; n = 10–12 for each group) and mature (36–38 weeks old; n = 5–6 for each group), showed that R222S mice were significantly (p < 0.05) more hypersensitive to hot and cold stimuli than WT mice. Electrophysiological studies using dorsal root ganglion neurons from 8–9-week-old mice showed no significant difference in resting membrane potential, but input impedance and firing frequency of evoked action potentials were significantly increased in R222S mice compared with WT mice. However, there was no significant difference among Nav1.9 (WT, R222S, and R222H)-overexpressing ND7/23 cell lines. These results suggest that our novel mutation is a gain-of-function mutation that causes infantile familial episodic pain. The mouse model developed here will be useful for drug screening for familial episodic pain syndrome associated with SCN11A mutations

  8. The Rare Painful Phenomena - Chronic Paroxysmal Hemicrania-tic Syndrome as a Clinically Isolated Syndrome of the Central Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Ljubisavljevic, Srdjan; Prazic, Ana; Lazarevic, Miodrag; Stojanov, Dragan; Savic, Dejan; Vojinovic, Slobadan

    2017-02-01

    The association of paroxysmal hemicrania with trigeminal neuralgia (TN) has been described and called paroxysmal hemicrania-tic syndrome (PH-tic). We report the case of a patient diagnosed as having chronic PH-tic (CPH-tic) syndrome as a clinically isolated syndrome of the central nervous system (CNS) (CIS).A forty year old woman was admitted to our hospital suffering from right facial pain for the last 2 years. The attacks were paroxysmal, neuralgiform, consisting of throb-like sensations, which developed spontaneously or were triggered by different stimuli in right facial (maxilar and mandibular) areas. Parallel with those, she felt a throbbing orbital and frontal pain with homolateral autonomic symptoms such as conjunctival injection, lacrimation, and the feeling that the ear on the same side was full. This pain lasted most often between 15 and 20 minutes. Beyond hemifacial hypoesthesia in the region of right maxilar and mandibular nerve, the other neurological finding was normal. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study showed a T2-weighted multiple hyperintense paraventricular lesion and hyperintense lesion in the right trigeminal main sensory nucleus and root inlet, all of them being hypointense on T1-weighted image. All of these lesions were hypointense in gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images. Neurophysiological studies of trigeminal nerve (somatosensory evoked potentials and blink reflex) correlated with MRI described lesions. The patient's pain bouts were improved immediately after treatment with indomethacin, and were completely relieved with lamotrigine for a longer period. According to the actual McDonald's criteria, clinical state was defined as CIS which was clinically presented by CPH-tic syndrome.Even though it is a clinical rarity and its etiology is usually idiopathic, CPH-tic syndrome can also be symptomatic. When dealing with symptomatic cases, like the one described here, when causal therapy is not possible due to the nature of the primary

  9. Characteristics of the pain observed in the focal vulvodynia syndrome (VVS).

    PubMed

    Donders, Gilbert; Bellen, Gert

    2012-01-01

    Symptoms and signs of patients with focal vulvodynia or vulvo-vestibulitis syndrome (VVS) are variable in location and severity. It is not known whether the location of the most severe pain in the vestibulum is linked to the complaints and perhaps a different entity. A clinical gut feeling suggests that two distinct varieties of focal vulvodynia may be either focused at 2 points (5 and 7 o' clock) or at 4 points (5, 7, 1 and 11 o' clock). A questionnaire was filled out by 30 women with focal vulvodynia during 147 visits and checked for completeness by an independent study nurse. Another investigator to evaluated the clinical signs of VVS, blinded to the patients history or complaints. The visual analogue score (VAS) of pain experienced upon attempt of sexual contact was used as a marker of severity. Focal vulvar pain was assessed using Q-tip with a score from 1 to 10 on 7 areas of the vestibulum. Besides pain during sexual contact, 47% also had pain on inserting a tampon. More than 40% of women suffer since more than 3 years, 70% had to interrupt the act of sexual intercourse mostly or always due to unbearable pain and 25% never had satisfactory sex due to this pain. Feeling deep pain, burning lasting for 12-24h after sexual contact, and stopping the attempt of intercourse were more prominent in women with high pain scores (VAS): 26% of women with VAS>7 had no sex during the last year versus 6% in the group with low pain score (p=0.004). Patients suffering from para-urethral pain zones at 1 and 11 o' clock, have more often pain upon deep penetration, and experienced more pain when inserting tampons than patients with only painful areas at 5 and 7 o' clock (p=0.001). We conclude that patients with severe disease display a different panel of complaints than women with less pain. Patients with focal pain at 1 and 11 o' clock have more deep pain sensations, but feel less pain during insertion of tampons. Hence disease with bi-focal disease may have a different

  10. The measurement of patellar alignment in patellofemoral pain syndrome: are we confusing assumptions with evidence?

    PubMed

    Wilson, Tony

    2007-06-01

    Patellofemoral pain syndrome is one of the most common orthopaedic complaints presenting to physical therapists. Although its etiology is uncertain, the cause is most often considered to be malalignment or lateral tracking of the patella. Consequently, measurement of patellar alignment has come to be accepted as an integral part of the examination of patellofemoral pain syndrome. Various measurement techniques exist, both clinical and radiological, and these have been frequently used in the diagnosis and treatment of the condition. As a corollary, the widespread use of such measurements has also lent weight to the theory that patellar malalignment is one of the primary causes of patellofemorai pain syndrome. However, an analysis of the literature reveals that the vast majority of these measurement procedures lack the appropriate scientific qualities to be considered acceptable measurement tools, including questionable reliability and validity, and an absence of appropriate normative data and a gold standard. This paper assesses the evidence for the usefulness of the most commonly used measures of patellar alignment and concludes that many of the beliefs of the clinical community with regard to the existence and measurement of patellar malalignment in patellofemoral pain syndrome may be based largely on assumptions and not on evidence.

  11. Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome: a diagnosis to consider in women with right upper quadrant pain.

    PubMed

    Peter, Nadja G; Clark, Liana R; Jaeger, Jeffrey R

    2004-03-01

    Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome--inflammation of the liver capsule associated with genital tract infection--occurs in up to one fourth of patients with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Classically presenting as sharp, pleuritic right upper quadrant pain, usually but not always accompanied by signs of salpingitis, it can mimic many other common disorders such as cholecystitis and pyelonephritis.

  12. [Local and general humoral immunity in patients with migraine, Horton's syndrome and autonomic pain].

    PubMed

    Puzin, M N; Kulakov, A V; Balashov, K E; Sharov, M N; Vodop'ianov, N P

    1989-01-01

    Patients with migraines, Horton syndrome and autonomic pains were subjected to immunological investigation that revealed different degrees of local and general immunity disorders: increase in blood serum IfA and salival IgAc concentrations. These changes are believed to be capable of serving as diagnostic and prognostic indices.

  13. Chronic Pelvic Pain due to Pelvic Congestion Syndrome: The Role of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Ganeshan, Arul; Upponi, Sara; Hon, Lye-Quen; Uthappa, M. C.; Warakaulle, Dinuke R.; Uberoi, Raman

    2007-11-15

    Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is a common cause of gynecologic referral. Pelvic congestion syndrome, which is said to occurs due to ovarian vein incompetence, is a recognized cause of CPP. The aim of this paper is to briefly describe the clinical manifestations, and to review the role of diagnostic and interventional radiology in the management of this probably under-diagnosed condition.

  14. Role of cystoscopy and hydrodistention in the diagnosis of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ens, Gisela

    2015-01-01

    There are controversies about whether cystoscopy with or without hydrodistention (HD) plays a role in the diagnosis and treatment of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS). We reviewed the recommendations of various societies and associations of greater impact in this complex disease, analyzing the indications, technique, findings and complications of this procedure. PMID:26816863

  15. Multi-Modal Treatment Approach to Painful Rib Syndrome: Case Series and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Germanovich, Andrew; Ferrante, Francis Michael

    2016-03-01

    Mechanical chest wall pain is a common presenting complaint in the primary care office, emergency room, and specialty clinic. Diagnostic testing is often expensive due to similar presenting symptoms that may involve the heart or lungs. Since the chest wall biomechanics are poorly understood by many clinicians, few effective treatments are offered to patients with rib-related acute pain, which may lead to chronic pain. This case series and literature review illustrates biomechanics involved in the pathogenesis of rib-related chest wall pain and suggests an effective multi-modal treatment plan using interventional techniques with emphasis on manual manipulative techniques. Case series and literature review. Pain clinic in an academic medical center. This is a case series of 3 patients diagnosed with painful rib syndrome using osteopathic palpatory physical examination techniques. Ultrasound-guided intercostal nerve blocks were followed by manual manipulation of mechanically displaced ribs as a part of our multi-modal treatment plan. A review of the literature was undertaken to clarify nomenclature used in the description of rib-related pain, to describe the biomechanics involved in the pathogenesis of mechanical rib pain, and to illustrate the use of effective manual manipulation techniques. This review is introductory and not a complete review of all manual or interventional pain management techniques applicable to the treatment of mechanical rib-related pain. Manual diagnostic and therapeutic skills can be learned by physicians to treat biomechanically complex rib-related chest wall pain in combination with interventional image-guided techniques. Pain physicians should learn certain basic manual manipulation skills both for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

  16. Variability of criteria used to diagnose myofascial trigger point pain syndrome--evidence from a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tough, Elizabeth A; White, Adrian R; Richards, Suzanne; Campbell, John

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the literature review was to investigate the criteria adopted by "experts" to diagnose myofascial trigger point (MTrP) pain syndrome. Experts were defined as being either researchers investigating MTrP pain syndrome or the "authority" the researchers cited as a source of reference for MTrP pain syndrome diagnosis. We searched electronic databases to identify relevant empirical research (excluding studies not in English and those relating to dental pathology). Of 607 possibly relevant publications 93 met our inclusion criteria. We recorded (1) the individual criterion and criteria combinations used to diagnose MTrP pain syndrome; (2) the cited "authoritative" publications and (3) the criteria recommended by the authoritative publications as being essential for MTrP pain syndrome diagnosis. The review identified 19 different diagnostic criteria. The 4 most commonly applied criteria were: "tender spot in a taut band" of skeletal muscle, "patient pain recognition," "predicted pain referral pattern," and "local twitch response." There was no consistent pattern to the choice of specific diagnostic criteria or their combinations. However, one pair of criteria "tender point in a taut band" and "predicted or recognized pain referral" were used by over half the studies. The great majority of studies cited publications by Travell and more recently Simons as a principal authoritative source for MTrP pain syndrome diagnosis, yet most of these studies failed to apply the diagnostic criteria as described by these authorities. We conclude that there is as yet limited consensus on case definition in respect of MTrP pain syndrome. Further research is needed to test the reliability and validity of diagnostic criteria. Until reliable diagnostic criteria have been established, there is a need for greater transparency in research papers on how a case of MTrP pain syndrome is defined, and claims for effective interventions in treating the condition should be viewed with

  17. Postmastectomy radiotherapy with integrated scar boost using helical tomotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Rong Yi; Yadav, Poonam; Welsh, James S.; Fahner, Tasha; Paliwal, Bhudatt

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate helical tomotherapy dosimetry in postmastectomy patients undergoing treatment for chest wall and positive nodal regions with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) in the scar region using strip bolus. Six postmastectomy patients were scanned with a 5-mm-thick strip bolus covering the scar planning target volume (PTV) plus 2-cm margin. For all 6 cases, the chest wall received a total cumulative dose of 49.3-50.4 Gy with daily fraction size of 1.7-2.0 Gy. Total dose to the scar PTV was prescribed to 58.0-60.2 Gy at 2.0-2.5 Gy per fraction. The supraclavicular PTV and mammary nodal PTV received 1.7-1.9 dose per fraction. Two plans (with and without bolus) were generated for all 6 cases. To generate no-bolus plans, strip bolus was contoured and overrode to air density before planning. The setup reproducibility and delivered dose accuracy were evaluated for all 6 cases. Dose-volume histograms were used to evaluate dose-volume coverage of targets and critical structures. We observed reduced air cavities with the strip bolus setup compared with what we normally see with the full bolus. The thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) in vivo dosimetry confirmed accurate dose delivery beneath the bolus. The verification plans performed on the first day megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) image verified that the daily setup and overall dose delivery was within 2% accuracy compared with the planned dose. The hotspot of the scar PTV in no-bolus plans was 111.4% of the prescribed dose averaged over 6 cases compared with 106.6% with strip bolus. With a strip bolus only covering the postmastectomy scar region, we observed increased dose uniformity to the scar PTV, higher setup reproducibility, and accurate dose delivered beneath the bolus. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using a strip bolus over the scar using tomotherapy for SIB dosimetry in postmastectomy treatments.

  18. Trends and Concepts in Post-Mastectomy Breast Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Farhangkhoee, Hana; Matros, Evan; Disa, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    A number of factors have contributed to a paradigm shift in US post-mastectomy breast reconstruction. The increasing numbers of contralateral prophylactic mastectomies strongly correlated to a rise in implant-based reconstructions. Autologous reconstruction, however, has faced a number of barriers including technically complicated perforator flaps and declining reimbursements. As such, a market concentration has developed within high volume microsurgical centers. As more patients receive radiation, the timing and method of reconstruction has become a controversial topic. PMID:26876921

  19. Differential Effects of Painful and Non-Painful Stimulation on Tactile Processing in Fibromyalgia Syndrome and Subjects with Masochistic Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Pollok, Bettina; Krause, Vanessa; Legrain, Valery; Ploner, Markus; Freynhagen, Rainer; Melchior, Ilka; Schnitzler, Alfons

    2010-01-01

    Background In healthy subjects repeated tactile stimulation in a conditioning test stimulation paradigm yields attenuation of primary (S1) and secondary (S2) somatosensory cortical activation, whereas a preceding painful stimulus results in facilitation. Methodology/Principal Findings Since previous data suggest that cognitive processes might affect somatosensory processing in S1, the present study aims at investigating to what extent cortical reactivity is altered by the subjective estimation of pain. To this end, the effect of painful and tactile stimulation on processing of subsequently applied tactile stimuli was investigated in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and in subjects with masochistic behaviour (MB) by means of a 122-channel whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) system. Ten patients fulfilling the criteria for the diagnosis of FMS, 10 subjects with MB and 20 control subjects matched with respect to age, gender and handedness participated in the present study. Tactile or brief painful cutaneous laser stimuli were applied as conditioning stimulus (CS) followed by a tactile test stimulus (TS) 500 ms later. While in FMS patients significant attenuation following conditioning tactile stimulation was evident, no facilitation following painful stimulation was found. By contrast, in subjects with MB no attenuation but significant facilitation occurred. Attenuation as well as facilitation applied to cortical responses occurring at about 70 ms but not to early S1 or S2 responses. Additionally, in FMS patients the amount of attenuation was inversely correlated with catastrophizing tendency. Conclusion The present results imply altered cortical reactivity of the primary somatosensory cortex in FMS patients and MB possibly reflecting differences of individual pain experience. PMID:21203391

  20. [Evaluation of the effectiveness of transcutaneous electroneuroanalgesia in phantom pain syndrome].

    PubMed

    Gnezdilov, A V; Syrovegin, A V; Plaksin, S E; Ovechkin, A M; Ivanov, A M; Sul'timov, S A

    1995-01-01

    Transcutaneous electroneurostimulation carried out in 24 patients with phantom pain syndrome completely relieved pain in only 25% of patients. A possible cause of poor efficacy of this method is depletion of the endorphin antinociceptive mechanisms. EEG findings indicated a possibility of objectively controlling the course of analgesia. Specific EEG signs of phantom pain syndrome were distinguished: polymorphism of EEG fluctuations, high-frequency rapid or slow electrical activity of the brain, and paroxysmal activity. Normalization of EEG, i.e. appearance of manifest alpha-rhythm, reduction of the intensities of slow-wave and rapid activities with the relevant spectral changes, are signs of a positive effect of the analgesic method used, as exemplified by transcutaneous electroneurostimulation.

  1. Seizures and pain uncertainty associated with parenting stress and Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Byiers, Breanne J; Tervo, Raymond C; Feyma, Timothy J; Symons, Frank J

    2014-04-01

    Data were collected parenting stress, adaptive behavior, pain, and health issues from the caregivers of 35 girls and women with Rett syndrome (mean age = 20.3). A majority (60%) of parents reported stress in the clinical range on at least 1 subscale of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form. Seizures and uncertainty about their daughter's gastrointestinal pain experience were significantly associated with higher levels of parenting stress. No other child factors (adaptive behavior, age, residential status) were significantly related to parenting stress. Factors related to chronic health concerns (seizures, ambiguous pain presentation) may be important when considering family stress issues in relation to general outcomes for girls with Rett syndrome and related developmental disorders.

  2. Three cases of type-1 complex regional pain syndrome after elective total hip replacement

    PubMed Central

    Zanotti, Gerardo; Slullitel, Pablo Ariel; Comba, Fernando Martín; Buttaro, Martín Alejandro; Piccaluga, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) constitutes an atypical cause of pain after orthopaedic procedures. To our knowledge, there is a paucity of literature reporting this syndrome after total hip arthroplasty (THR), since only two case reports have been published. We thenceforth describe the clinical outcome of three cases of type-1 CRPS developed after elective THR, two of them initially diagnosed with secondary osteoarthritis whereas the remaining one presented a sequel of a failed osteosynthesis that required conversion to THR. Remission of disease was found at an average seven months (range: 4–9). Medical treatment involved a combined therapy of pain management, bisphosphonates and intense physical therapy. One patient was additionally treated with a corticosteroid blockade of his right sympathetic lumbar ganglia. None of the patients required surgical treatment. At final follow-up, physical examinations and imaging were negative for disease. PMID:28862131

  3. Pain syndromes in competitive elite level female artistic gymnasts. Role of specific preventive-compensative activity.

    PubMed

    Marini, Mirca; Mirca, Marini; Sgambati, Eleonora; Eleonora, Sgambati; Barni, Edy; Edy, Barni; Piazza, Marina; Marina, Piazza; Monaci, Marco; Marco, Monaci

    2008-01-01

    The pain is a serious problem in advanced level female artistic gymnasts because it decreases the performance. The pain is due to the high numbers of hours spent in training sessions and may be associated to injuries that have relatively high incidence and severity in these athletes. We investigated the role of a preventive-compensative physical activity program, implemented in the warm-up and the cool-down session of standard training, in the prevention and reduction of the pain syndromes, evaluated in elite level young female artistic gymnasts. Thirty elite level female athletes, 10-14 years old, participated in this study and were followed for 12 weeks during the competition preparation period. Fifteen athletes were trained with preventive-compensative motory program implemented in the ordinary training (intervention group) and fifteen (control group) followed the standard training. All athletes completed a self-administered questionnaire regarding the pain intensity on the basis of a Visual Analogue Scale pre- and post- intervention. The experimental protocol consisted of three steps: the treatment of the shortened muscle chains according to Active Posture Reeducation method, the propriocettive-coordinative training with wobble board and the mobilization and stretching of back using fitball. Before intervention, the pain in practicing this sport was reported by 83% of all the athletes. The most common primary pain sites were the ankle and low back; the pain anatomical location was correlated to the training. After intervention, low back pain assessment showed a decrease of pain identified as mild (from 56% to 44%) or moderate (from 33% to 22%) and a disappearance of severe pain (from 11% to 0%). Ankle pain decreased and/or disappeared: the mild pain from 33% to 27%, moderate from 27% to 13% and severe from 13% to 0%. The pain analysis did not show different results in the control group. Our results indicated that the performed preventive-compensative training

  4. Guillain-Barré Syndrome presenting as unilateral hip pain in a child.

    PubMed

    Neocleous, Charalambos; Diakolios, Konstandinos; Adramerina, Alkistis; Varveris, Evangelos; Tsioni, Vasiliki; Machairidou, Konstandina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this report is to highlight the importance of close observation and follow-up in children who present with an acutely irritable hip. This is because hip pain is a symptom of not only benign but also severe conditions. Thus, at the time of the initial presentation, hip pain can be misdiagnosed. This report serves as an example for a wide range of doctors such as orthopaedic surgeons, paediatricians, emergency room physicians or primary care physicians, because these are the first-line doctors who treat patients with a painful hip. We herein present a three-year-old child who was admitted to our hospital with pain in the right leg and initially diagnosed with transient synovitis of the hip. An additional examination two days later, after severe deterioration of the clinical picture, revealed that our patient was actually suffering from Guillain-Barré syndrome. Failure to diagnose Guillain-Barré syndrome and initiating prompt treatment is potentially life-threatening. Clinicians should be aware that hip pain could be the presenting complaint of Guillain-Barré syndrome, a syndrome that has many clinical features. Even when all the clinical and laboratory findings indicate a benign condition, Guillain- Barré syndrome should still be considered. Therefore, close observation and follow-up in children who present with an acutely irritable hip is highly recommended. In this way, the potentially catastrophic consequences of more severe conditions can be avoided. Copyright © 2015 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  5. Prognostic value of coronary computed tomography angiography in diabetic patients without chest pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    van den Hoogen, Inge J; de Graaf, Michiel A; Roos, Cornelis J; Leen, Aukelien C; Kharagjitsingh, Aan V; Wolterbeek, Ron; Kroft, Lucia J; Wouter Jukema, J; Bax, Jeroen J; Scholte, Arthur J

    2016-02-01

    Diabetic patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) are often free of chest pain syndrome. A useful modality for non-invasive assessment of CAD is coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). However, the prognostic value of CAD on coronary CTA in diabetic patients without chest pain syndrome is relatively unknown. Therefore, the aim was to investigate the long-term prognostic value of coronary CTA in a large population diabetic patients without chest pain syndrome. Between 2005 and 2013, 525 diabetic patients without chest pain syndrome were prospectively included to undergo coronary artery calcium (CAC)-scoring followed by coronary CTA. During follow-up, the composite endpoint of all-cause mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), and late revascularization (>90 days) was registered. In total, CAC-scoring was performed in 410 patients and coronary CTA in 444 patients (431 interpretable). After median follow-up of 5.0 (IQR 2.7-6.5) years, the composite endpoint occurred in 65 (14%) patients. Coronary CTA demonstrated a high prevalence of CAD (85%), mostly non-obstructive CAD (51%). Furthermore, patients with a normal CTA had an excellent prognosis (event-rate 3%). An incremental increase in event-rate was observed with increasing CAC-risk category or coronary stenosis severity. Finally, obstructive (50-70%) or severe CAD (>70%) was independently predictive of events (HR 11.10 [2.52;48.79] (P = .001), HR 15.16 [3.01;76.36] (P = .001)). Obstructive (50-70%) or severe CAD (>70%) provided increased value over baseline risk factors. Coronary CTA provided prognostic value in diabetic patients without chest pain syndrome. Most importantly, the prognosis of patients with a normal CTA was excellent.

  6. AUA guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hanno, Philip M; Burks, David Allen; Clemens, J Quentin; Dmochowski, Roger R; Erickson, Deborah; Fitzgerald, Mary Pat; Forrest, John B; Gordon, Barbara; Gray, Mikel; Mayer, Robert Dale; Newman, Diane; Nyberg, Leroy; Payne, Christopher K; Wesselmann, Ursula; Faraday, Martha M

    2011-06-01

    To provide a clinical framework for the diagnosis and treatment of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. A systematic review of the literature using the MEDLINE® database (search dates 1/1/83-7/22/09) was conducted to identify peer reviewed publications relevant to the diagnosis and treatment of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. Insufficient evidence-based data were retrieved regarding diagnosis and, therefore, this portion of the Guideline is based on Clinical Principles and Expert Opinion statements. The review yielded an evidence base of 86 treatment articles after application of inclusion/exclusion criteria. These publications were used to create the majority of the treatment portion of the Guideline. When sufficient evidence existed, the body of evidence for a particular treatment was assigned a strength rating of A (high), B (moderate) or C (low). Additional treatment information is provided as Clinical Principles and Expert Opinion when insufficient evidence existed. See text and algorithm for definitions, and detailed diagnostic management, and treatment frameworks. The evidence-based guideline statements are provided for diagnosis and overall management of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome as well as for various treatments. The panel identified first through sixth line treatments as well as developed guideline statements on treatments that should not be offered. Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome is best identified and managed through use of a logical algorithm such as is presented in this Guideline. In the algorithm the panel identifies an overall management strategy for the interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome patient. Diagnosis and treatment methodologies can be expected to change as the evidence base grows in the future. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Descending pain modulation in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chakiath, Rosemary J; Siddall, Philip J; Kellow, John E; Hush, Julia M; Jones, Mike P; Marcuzzi, Anna; Wrigley, Paul J

    2015-12-10

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder. While abdominal pain is a dominant symptom of IBS, many sufferers also report widespread hypersensitivity and present with other chronic pain conditions. The presence of widespread hypersensitivity and extra-intestinal pain conditions suggests central nervous dysfunction. While central nervous system dysfunction may involve the spinal cord (central sensitisation) and brain, this review will focus on one brain mechanism, descending pain modulation. We will conduct a comprehensive search for the articles indexed in the databases Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid PsycINFO and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trial (CENTRAL) from their inception to August 2015, that report on any aspect of descending pain modulation in irritable bowel syndrome. Two independent reviewers will screen studies for eligibility, assess risk of bias and extract relevant data. Results will be tabulated and, if possible, a meta-analysis will be carried out. The systematic review outlined in this protocol aims to summarise current knowledge regarding descending pain modulation in IBS. PROSPERO CRD42015024284.

  8. Effectiveness of hip muscle strengthening in patellofemoral pain syndrome patients: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Thiago R. T.; Oliveira, Bárbara A.; Ocarino, Juliana M.; Holt, Kenneth G.; Fonseca, Sérgio T.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is characterized by anterior knee pain, which may limit the performance of functional activities. The influence of hip joint motion on the development of this syndrome has already been documented in the literature. In this regard, studies have investigated the effectiveness of hip muscle strengthening in patients with PFPS. Objectives: The aims of this systematic review were (1) to summarize the literature related to the effects of hip muscle strengthening on pain intensity, muscle strength, and function in individuals with PFPS and (2) to evaluate the methodological quality of the selected studies. Method: A search for randomized controlled clinical trials was conducted using the following databases: Google Scholar, MEDLINE, PEDro, LILACS, and SciELO. The selected studies had to distinguish the effects of hip muscle strengthening in a group of patients with PFPS, as compared to non-intervention or other kinds of intervention, and had to investigate the following outcomes: pain, muscle strength, and function. The methodological quality of the selected studies was analyzed by means of the PEDro scale. Results: Seven studies were selected. These studies demonstrated that hip muscle strengthening was effective in reducing pain. However, the studies disagreed regarding the treatments' ability to improve muscle strength. Improvement in functional capabilities after hip muscle strengthening was found in five studies. Conclusion: Hip muscle strengthening is effective in reducing the intensity of pain and improving functional capabilities in patients with PFPS, despite the lack of evidence for its ability to increase muscle strength. PMID:26039034

  9. [Anal stretching device for patients with chronic prostatitis and chronic pelvic pain syndrome].

    PubMed

    Itza, Fernandok; Zarza, Daniel; Salinas, Jesus; Gómez-Sancha, Fernando; Ximénez, Carmen

    2013-03-01

    Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) is a poorly understood and ill-treated condition. It is accompanied by the shortening and increase in tone of the pelvic floor muscles and is closely related to myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). This study aims to evaluate the utility of an anal stretching device (ASD) for improving the pain manifestations of chronic prostatitis (CP) and CPPS. Thirty-one men(38.6 years ± 8.2) were consecutively recruited with an average monitoring period of 14.4 months (± 8.2). The treatment duration was between six months and three years. A clinical history was compiled along with a physical examination and neurophysiological tests. To evaluate pain, the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was used before and after treatment; at the final visit, the Clinical Global Impression of Improvement scale (CGI-I) was administered. The ASD is a device that is commercially available in different diameters and lengths. Patients were diagnosed with MPS using neurophysiological tests. Significant differences were found before and after the treatment when evaluating the intensity of the pain using the VAS (6.1±2.1 vs. 1.9±1.3; p < .001). The CGI-I showed a total of 21 patients (70%) whose symptoms were improved or very much improved. Only one patient was worse after the treatment. ASD appears to be a safe and useful tool to treat the pain manifestations of CPPS without notable side effects.

  10. Increased pain sensitivity is not associated with electrodiagnostic findings in women with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    de la Llave-Rincón, Ana Isabel; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Laguarta-Val, Sofia; Alonso-Blanco, Cristina; Martínez-Perez, Almudena; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Pareja, Juan A

    2011-01-01

    To determine the differences in widespread pressure pain and thermal hypersensitivity in women with minimal, moderate, and severe carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and healthy controls. A total of 72 women with CTS (19 with minimal, 18 with moderate, and 35 with severe) and 19 healthy age-matched women participated. Pressure pain thresholds were bilaterally assessed over the median, ulnar, and radial nerves, the C5 to C6 zygapophyseal joint, the carpal tunnel, and the tibialis anterior muscle. In addition, warm and cold detection thresholds and heat and cold pain thresholds were bilaterally assessed over the carpal tunnel and the thenar eminence. All outcome parameters were assessed by an assessor blinded to the participant's condition. No significant differences in pain parameters among patients with minimal, moderate, and severe CTS were found. The results showed that PPT were significantly decreased bilaterally over the median, ulnar, and radial nerve trunks, the carpal tunnel, C5 to C6 zygapophyseal joint, and the tibialis anterior muscle in patients with minimal, moderate, or severe CTS as compared with healthy controls (all, P<0.001). In addition, patients with CTS also showed lower heat pain threshold and reduced cold pain threshold compared with controls (P<0.001). No significant sensory differences between minimal, moderate, or severe CTS were found. The similar widespread pressure and thermal hypersensitivity in patients with minimal, moderate, or severe CTS and pain intensity suggests that increased pain sensitivity is not related to electrodiagnostic findings.

  11. Perineal pain secondary to tethered cord syndrome: retrospective review of single institution experience.

    PubMed

    Robbins, J Will; Lundy, Paige A; Gard, Andrew P; Puccioni, Mark J

    2015-11-01

    Tethered cord syndrome (TCS) encompasses a spectrum of neurological dysfunction related to excessive tension on the distal spinal cord resulting in anatomic deformation and metabolic disturbance. Symptoms typically manifest as back/leg pain, neurogenic bladder dysfunction, constipation, sphincter abnormalities, and scoliosis. To date, among the least well-described symptoms of TCS is pain or hypersensitivity in the perineal region. The authors reviewed their experience with spinal cord detethering to identify and further characterize those who present with perineal pain or hypersensitivity. Cases of spinal cord detethering at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were initially identified by procedural codes. Cases were reviewed for presenting symptoms, specifically perineal pain or hypersensitivity. Magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings, clinical outcome, and length of follow-up were also noted. Of the 491 patients identified, seven patients (1.4%) were identified as having preoperative perineal pain or hypersensitivity. All of these patients had complete resolution of perineal pain/hypersensitivity at the time of last follow-up. Furthermore, five (71%) of these patients experienced resolution of all initial symptoms. Perineal pain or hypersensitivity can be an important symptom of spinal cord tethering. Spinal cord detethering may result in a good outcome and relief of perineal pain or hypersensitivity.

  12. Recurrent abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome in children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recurrent abdominal pain continues to be one of the most ubiquitous conditions faced by the healthcare team, and has a significant emotional and economic impact. We have moved from considering it a psychological condition to recognizing the physiological and environmental contributions, and consider...

  13. Prevalence of Myofascial Pain Syndrome in Chronic Non-Specific Neck Pain: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study.

    PubMed

    Cerezo-Téllez, Ester; Torres-Lacomba, María; Mayoral-Del Moral, Orlando; Sánchez-Sánchez, Beatriz; Dommerholt, Jan; Gutiérrez-Ortega, Carlos

    2016-06-20

    Chronic non-specific neck pain is a frequent complaint. It is a recognized medical and socioeconomic problem and a frequent cause of job absenteeism. In recent years, case reports about myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) are emerging among patients suffering from pain. MPS is a regional pain syndrome characterized by myofascial trigger points (MTrP) in palpable taut bands of skeletal muscle that refer pain to a distance, and that can cause distant motor and autonomic effects. To assess the prevalence of active and latent MTrPs in subjects suffering from chronic non-specific neck pain. A population-based cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out from January 2012 to December 2014. Three primary healthcare centers in Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain). Two hundred and twenty-four participants diagnosed by their family doctor with chronic non-specific neck pain. Participants were examined by a physical therapist to determine the presence of MPS. Pain descriptions from the subjects and pain body diagrams guided the physical examination. The subjects were not given any information concerning MPS or other muscle pain syndromes. All participants presented with MPS. MTrPs of the trapezius muscles were the most prevalent, in 93.75% of the participants. The most prevalent active MTrPs were located right (82.1%) and left (79%) in the nearly-horizontal fibers of the upper trapezius muscle. Furthermore, active MTrPs in the levator scapulae, multifidi, and splenius cervicis muscles reached a prevalence of 82.14%, 77.68%, and 62.5%, respectively. MPS is a common source of pain in subjects presenting chronic non-specific neck pain. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Prevalence of Myofascial Pain Syndrome in Chronic Non-Specific Neck Pain: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study.

    PubMed

    Cerezo-Téllez, Ester; Torres-Lacomba, María; Mayoral-Del Moral, Orlando; Sánchez-Sánchez, Beatriz; Dommerholt, Jan; Gutiérrez-Ortega, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    Chronic non-specific neck pain is a frequent complaint. It is a recognized medical and socioeconomic problem and a frequent cause of job absenteeism. In recent years, case reports about myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) are emerging among patients suffering from pain. MPS is a regional pain syndrome characterized by myofascial trigger points (MTrP) in palpable taut bands of skeletal muscle that refer pain to a distance, and that can cause distant motor and autonomic effects. To assess the prevalence of active and latent MTrPs in subjects suffering from chronic non-specific neck pain. A population-based cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out from January 2012 to December 2014. Three primary healthcare centers in Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain). Two hundred and twenty-four participants diagnosed by their family doctor with chronic non-specific neck pain. Participants were examined by a physical therapist to determine the presence of MPS. Pain descriptions from the subjects and pain body diagrams guided the physical examination. The subjects were not given any information concerning MPS or other muscle pain syndromes. All participants presented with MPS. MTrPs of the trapezius muscles were the most prevalent, in 93.75% of the participants. The most prevalent active MTrPs were located right (82.1%) and left (79%) in the nearly-horizontal fibers of the upper trapezius muscle. Furthermore, active MTrPs in the levator scapulae, multifidi, and splenius cervicis muscles reached a prevalence of 82.14%, 77.68%, and 62.5%, respectively. MPS is a common source of pain in subjects presenting chronic non-specific neck pain. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Potential therapeutic effect of intravesical botulinum toxin type A on bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Jhang, Jia-Fong; Jiang, Yuan-Hong; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2014-04-01

    Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is characterized by bladder pain associated with urgency, frequency, nocturia, dysuria and sterile urine. Recent studies have shown that these bladder dysfunctions could originate from chronic inflammation or urothelial insult and proceed to a cascade of tissue reactions, which finally ascends to the central nervous system. Pilot studies of intravesical injection of botulinum toxin type A for bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis had been introduced since 2005 with a promising result. Recent evidence suggests that botulinum toxin type A could significantly improve symptoms such as daytime frequency, nocturia, pain, quality of life and bladder capacity in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis patients. Single injection of botulinum toxin could not achieve long-term successful therapeutic result, and repeat injections could provide a better long-term success rate. However, patients with ulcer type bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis might not gain a benefit from botulinum toxin type A injection. Laboratory evidence showed that botulinum toxin type A for bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis injection could induce peripheral desensitization, reduces bladder chronic inflammation and decreases apoptotic signal molecules in the urothelium. The present article reviewed the recent advances of botulinum toxin type A on bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis.

  16. [The prevalence of low back pain in hospital staff and its relationship with chronic fatigue syndrome and occupational factors].

    PubMed

    Terzi, Rabia; Altın, Firuzan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of low back pain in hospital employees during the previous year and its correlation with demographic data, occupational factors and chronic fatigue syndrome. All participants provided information on their socio-demographic background, occupational characteristics, their experience of low back pain during the previous year, and chronic fatigue syndrome. The study included 365 volunteers (221 male and 144 female). The mean age was 33.1 ± 7.2. Of the 365 participants, 218 (59.7%) had experienced low back pain in the last year. No statistically significant difference was detected in age, height, weight, level of education, smoking habits, occupation, professional working hours, shift work or levels of income between the groups with and without low back pain. Low back pain was more frequent (p<0.05) in male workers. Chronic fatigue syndrome was statistically significant in the group suffering from low back pain (p<0.05), of whom 21.5% had chronic fatigue syndrome. We detected a statistically significant relationship (p<0.05) between chronic fatigue syndrome, occupational duration and shift work. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first to show the relationship between low back pain and chronic fatigue syndrome in hospital employees. Shift work and length of time in occupation are risk factors for chronic fatigue syndrome.

  17. [Myofascial pain syndrome treated with sparrow-pecking moxibustion at trigger points: a randomized controlled trial].

    PubMed

    Ma, Yao; Bu, He; Jia, Ji-rong; Liu, Zheng

    2014-11-01

    To compare the efficacy difference in treatment of myofasical pain syndrome between sparrow-pecking moxibustion and acupuncture at trigger points so as to provide the reference of the effective therapeutic method for myofascial pain syndrome. Ninety patients were randomized into a sparrow-pecking moxibustion group and an acupuncture group, 45 cases in each one. The trigger points were selected in pain areas in the two groups. In the sparrow-pecking moxibustion group, the sparrow-pecking moxibustion was applied, 30 min in each time. In the acupuncture group, the filiform needles were inserted obliquely at 45 degrees and retained for 40 min in each treatment. The treatment was given once a day and 10 treatments made one session in the two groups. The short-form McGill pain questionnaire was used as the observation index, and the changes in pain rating index (PRI), present pain intensity (PPI) and visual analogue scale (VAS) before and after treatment were used for efficacy assessment. The results of PRI, PPI and VAS after treatment were reduced apparently as compared with those before treatment in the sparrow-pecking moxibustion group and the acupuncture group (all P<0.001). The differences in PRI, PPI and VAS after treatment were not significant in comparison of the two groups (both P>0.05). The curative and remarkably effective rate was 80.0% (36/45) in the sparrow-pecking moxibustion group, which was better than 40.0% (18/45, P<0.001) in the acupuncture group. Sparrow-pecking moxibustion at trigger points achieves the superior efficacy on myofascial pain syndrome as compared with acupuncture at trigger points. This therapy is simpler in operation additionally.

  18. Therapeutic Evaluation of Cervical Dysfunction in Patients with Myofascial Pain Dysfunction Syndrome: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Jagdhari, B Smriti; Mukta, Motwani; Saket, A Golhar; Golhar, Anil V

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the therapeutic correlation between cervical dysfunction and myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome (MPDS). The study included 46 patients out of which 23 had MPDS with cervical pain (group I), and 23 patients had only MPDS (group II). Detailed history and examination of the patients were carried out, and the factors taken into consideration were pain and tenderness of muscles of mastication and neck muscles, maximum comfortable mouth opening, and cervical range of motion. All the patients were randomly divided and advised physical exercises, light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (LASER) therapy, and the combination of both exercise and LASER. Patients were assessed for the relief of signs and symptoms of myofascial pain and cervical pain posttreatment, every month for 2 months. Both the groups showed a similar response to all the different treatment modalities. In group I, the patients also had relief in their cervical pain although the treatment was directed for MPDS. Patients from both the groups who were advised LASER and combination of both exercise and LASER showed better response in terms of reduction in visual analog scale, number of tender muscles, and increased maximum comfortable mouth opening posttreatment and during the follow-up, as compared with the patients who were advised only exercise. Patients having cervical pain showed significant improvement comparable with patients having no cervical pain. Hence, the conclusion drawn was that there is a positive interrelationship between MPDS and cervical (neck) pain; MPDS may act as a catalyst for precipitating cervical pain. Cervical pain showed significant improvement to physiotherapy in the form of exercise, LASER, and combination treatment, though the effective modality was LASER and combination of exercise and LASER therapy.

  19. Brain White Matter Abnormalities in Female Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome: A MAPP Network Neuroimaging Study.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Melissa A; Huang, Lejian; Martucci, Katherine; Yang, Claire C; Maravilla, Kenneth R; Harris, Richard E; Clauw, Daniel J; Mackey, Sean; Ellingson, Benjamin M; Mayer, Emeran A; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Apkarian, A Vania

    2015-07-01

    Several chronic pain conditions may be distinguished by condition specific brain anatomical and functional abnormalities on imaging, which are suggestive of underlying disease processes. We present what is to our knowledge the first characterization of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome associated white matter (axonal) abnormalities based on multicenter neuroimaging from the MAPP Research Network. We assessed 34 women with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and 32 healthy controls using questionnaires on pain, mood and daily function. White matter microstructure was evaluated by diffusion tensor imaging to model directional water flow along axons or fractional anisotropy. Regions correlating with clinical parameters were further examined for gender and syndrome dependence. Women with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome showed numerous white matter abnormalities that correlated with pain severity, urinary symptoms and impaired quality of life. Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome was characterized by decreased fractional anisotropy in aspects of the right anterior thalamic radiation, the left forceps major and the right longitudinal fasciculus. Increased fractional anisotropy was detected in the right superior and bilateral inferior longitudinal fasciculi. To our knowledge we report the first characterization of brain white matter abnormalities in women with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. Regional decreases and increases in white matter integrity across multiple axonal tracts were associated with symptom severity. Given that white matter abnormalities closely correlated with hallmark symptoms of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome, including bladder pain and urinary symptoms, brain anatomical alterations suggest that there are neuropathological contributions to chronic urological pelvic pain. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  20. Motor Imagery and Its Effect on Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: An Integrative Review

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Nélio Silva; Martins, Ana Carolina Gomes; Bastos, Victor Hugo do Vale; Leite, Marco Antônio A.; Teixeira, Silmar; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Bittencourt, Juliana; Matta, André Palma da Cunha; Filho, Pedro Moreira

    2015-01-01

    The motor imagery (MI) has been proposed as a treatment in the complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1), since it seems to promote a brain reorganization effect on sensory-motor areas of pain perception. The aim of this paper is to investigate, through an integrative critical review, the influence of MI on the CRPS-1, correlating their evidence to clinical practice. Research in PEDro, Medline, Bireme and Google Scholar databases was conducted. Nine randomized controlled trials (level 2), 1 non-controlled clinical study (level 3), 1 case study (level 4), 1 systematic review (level 1), 2 review articles and 1 comment (level 5) were found. We can conclude that MI has shown effect in reducing pain and functionality that remains after 6 months of treatment. However, the difference between the MI strategies for CRPS-1 is unknown as well as the intensity of mental stress influences the painful response or effect of MI or other peripheral neuropathies. PMID:26788264

  1. Does This Older Adult With Lower Extremity Pain Have the Clinical Syndrome of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis?

    PubMed Central

    Suri, Pradeep; Rainville, James; Kalichman, Leonid; Katz, Jeffrey N.

    2012-01-01

    Context The clinical syndrome of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is a common diagnosis in older adults presenting with lower extremity pain. Objective To systematically review the accuracy of the clinical examination for the diagnosis of the clinical syndrome of LSS. Data Sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL searches of articles published from January 1966 to September 2010. Study Selection Studies were included if they contained adequate data on the accuracy of the history and physical examination for diagnosing the clinical syndrome of LSS, using a reference standard of expert opinion with radiographic or anatomic confirmation. Data Extraction Two authors independently reviewed each study to determine eligibility, extract data, and appraise levels of evidence. Data Synthesis Four studies evaluating 741 patients were identified. Among patients with lower extremity pain, the likelihood of the clinical syndrome of LSS was increased for individuals older than 70 years (likelihood ratio [LR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6–2.5), and was decreased for those younger than 60 years (LR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.29–0.57). The most useful symptoms for increasing the likelihood of the clinical syndrome of LSS were having no pain when seated (LR, 7.4; 95% CI, 1.9–30), improvement of symptoms when bending forward (LR, 6.4; 95% CI, 4.1–9.9), the presence of bilateral buttock or leg pain (LR, 6.3; 95% CI, 3.1–13), and neurogenic claudication (LR, 3.7; 95% CI, 2.9–4.8). Absence of neurogenic claudication (LR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.17–0.31) decreased the likelihood of the diagnosis. A wide-based gait (LR, 13; 95% CI, 1.9–95) and abnormal Romberg test result (LR, 4.2; 95% CI, 1.4–13) increased the likelihood of the clinical syndrome of LSS. A score of 7 or higher on a diagnostic support tool including history and examination findings increased the likelihood of the clinical syndrome of LSS (LR, 3.3; 95% CI, 2.7–4.0), while a score lower than 7 made the diagnosis much less

  2. Does vitamin C prevent the occurrence of complex regional pain syndrome in patients with extremity trauma requiring surgery?

    PubMed

    Cabrolier, Jorge; Molina, Marcelo

    2015-07-29

    The complex regional pain syndrome is a neuroinflammatory pathology that affects the central and peripheral nervous system, characterized by disproportional pain in relation to the trauma experimented by the patient. It has been proposed that vitamin C could prevent the development of this syndrome in patients with limb trauma and surgery. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified two systematic reviews that indentified four primary studies, including one randomized controlled trial. We generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We concluded it is uncertain whether vitamin C prevents complex regional pain syndrome because the certainty of the evidence is very low.

  3. Painful legs and moving toes syndrome in a 16-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung Soo; Hwang, Yong Seung

    2016-01-01

    Painful legs and moving toes (PLMT) syndrome is characterized by spontaneous movements of the digits and pain in one or both lower extremities. Of the reported cases, a majority of the patients was female, and the mean age of onset was 58 years. Only one pediatric case has been reported so far. Herein, we report the first adolescent case of PLMT in Korea. A 16-year-old girl complained of tingling pain in the left leg and involuntary movement of the ipsilateral great toe one month after a second untethering surgery. Three years ago, she had undergone untethering surgery to correct lipomeningomyelocele at the S2 level of the conus medullaris. At that time, she was diagnosed with polyradiculopathy at the left L5 level with axonal involvement. We diagnosed her with PLMT syndrome and prescribed gabapentin. Her symptoms diminished within a day. Complete relief from involuntary movement of the toe was achieved within four months. PLMT is a rare syndrome but it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of children and adolescents with limb pain and spontaneous movement in their toes. PMID:27721843

  4. Painful legs and moving toes syndrome in a 16-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Soo; Hwang, Yong Seung; Kim, Young Chang

    2016-09-01

    Painful legs and moving toes (PLMT) syndrome is characterized by spontaneous movements of the digits and pain in one or both lower extremities. Of the reported cases, a majority of the patients was female, and the mean age of onset was 58 years. Only one pediatric case has been reported so far. Herein, we report the first adolescent case of PLMT in Korea. A 16-year-old girl complained of tingling pain in the left leg and involuntary movement of the ipsilateral great toe one month after a second untethering surgery. Three years ago, she had undergone untethering surgery to correct lipomeningomyelocele at the S2 level of the conus medullaris. At that time, she was diagnosed with polyradiculopathy at the left L5 level with axonal involvement. We diagnosed her with PLMT syndrome and prescribed gabapentin. Her symptoms diminished within a day. Complete relief from involuntary movement of the toe was achieved within four months. PLMT is a rare syndrome but it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of children and adolescents with limb pain and spontaneous movement in their toes.

  5. Pathomechanism of Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome and Mapping the Heterogeneity of Disease

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a heterogeneous syndrome which is usually characterized by urinary frequency, nocturia, and bladder pain. Several pathomechanisms have been proposed, including uroepithelial dysfunction, mast cell activation, neurogenic inflammation, autoimmunity, and occult urinary tract infections. It is possible that an inflammatory process alters regulation of urothelial homeostasis and results in dysfunction of the bladder epithelium. Different phenotypes of IC/BPS have been explored including Hunner and non-Hunner type IC, hypersensitive bladder, and bladder pain both with and without functional somatic syndrome. Different gene expressions have also been found in different IC phenotypes. Abnormal expressions of uroplakin, chondroitin sulfate and adhesive protein E-cadherin, tight junction protein zonula occludens-1 in IC/BPS bladder suggest abnormal epithelial differentiation in this bladder disease. Analysis of inflammatory proteins, or cytokines in the urine or serum provides another diagnostic foundation forIC/BPS subtypes. The involvement of IC/BPS in systemic functional somatic syndrome and other pelvic organ diseases might also subdivide subtypes of IC/BPS. Chronic inflammation, increased urothelial apoptosis, and abnormal urothelial function are closely associated in IC bladders. This article reviews recent research on the pathomechanisms of IC, which might help us in mapping the heterogeneity of the disease. PMID:27915472

  6. [Frequency of hospitalization due to low back pain syndrome in Poland and European countries].

    PubMed

    Michalik, Rafał; Kowalska, Małgorzata; Kotyla, Przemysław; Owczarek, Aleksander J

    2015-01-01

    Back pain is one of the most frequently diagnosed diseases of the osteoarticular system. It has been estimated that 50-80% of the population has experienced at least one episode of back pain. The aim of the study was to present the epidemiology data on back pain in Poland based on secondary epidemiological data collected in national and international databases. The study was based on the data provided by the National Institute of Health under the framework of the National Hospital Morbidity Research, and the data collected in the Eurostat database. Currently, the highest prevalence rates of hospital admission due to back pain are found in the oldest women (over 65 years) and slightly younger men (between 55 and 64 years of age). In the group of people older than 45 years the incidence of pain episodes increases to about threefold compared to younger people. Moreover, it is noted that the higher number of hospitalizations due to low back pain syndrome concerns rural residents. The analysis of the Eurostat data indicates a large variation in rates of hospitalization due to lower back pain and a slightly different course of disease in other countries. In Poland, for both women and men, there has been a steady increase in the number of patients hospitalized due to lower back pain. The hospitalization rate due to back pain in Poland is one of the lowest in Europe, but the observed increase in the number of hospitalized patients in recent years has created a significant economic burden in the healthcare system. It is worth noting that an average length of hospitalization of patients with lower back pain is slightly longer in Poland (on average 4 days longer) than in Western European countries.

  7. Efficacy of an out-patient pain management programme for people with joint hypermobility syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Anisur; Daniel, Clare; Grahame, Rodney

    2014-11-01

    Joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS) is common in patients presenting to rheumatologists and can cause a range of symptoms leading to physical and psychological distress. Chronic musculoskeletal pain in patients with JHS often responds poorly to analgesics, and a pain management approach may be helpful. Since patients with JHS often have beliefs and experiences different to those of other chronic pain patients, they could fare better in JHS-specific programmes. Here, we report on the outcomes of patients in a JHS cognitive behavioural pain management programme. Patients fulfilling the Brighton criteria for JHS, who had suffered pain for at least 3 months, were assessed by a psychologist and physiotherapist for suitability for this programme. Those accepted took part in a programme of 8 days spread over 6 weeks, delivered by a multidisciplinary team and incorporating a cognitive behavioural approach. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, 1- and 5-month post-programme using validated outcome measures. Outcome measures at baseline and 1-month were available for 87 patients (96 % female, mean age 35 years). There were significant improvements in self-efficacy, pain catastrophising, depression, anxiety, frustration, impact of pain and average pain intensity (all P < 0.001). Although by 5 months all these outcomes had regressed towards pre-programme levels there remained significant improvements compared to baseline in all except average pain intensity. This open study shows that patients with JHS experienced significant benefits after attending a JHS-specific pain management programme, which were still evident 5 months later. Longer-term controlled studies are required.

  8. Exertion and pain do not alter coordination variability in runners with iliotibial band syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hafer, Jocelyn F; Brown, Allison M; Boyer, Katherine A

    2017-08-01

    Iliotibial band syndrome is a common overuse running injury which results in altered mechanics. While injuries alter discrete mechanics, they may also cause a change in coordination variability, the stride-to-stride organization of runners' movement patterns. Uninjured and injured runners may experience a change in coordination variability during a run to exertion due to fatigue, pain, or a combination of these factors. The aim of the current study was to determine if runners with iliotibial band syndrome and uninjured runners display different segment coordination variability across the course of a run to exertion. 3D kinematics were collected as 13 uninjured runners and 12 runners with iliotibial band syndrome ran on a treadmill. A modified vector coding technique was used to calculate coordination variability during stance for segment couples of interest. Coordination variability was compared between uninjured and injured runners at the beginning and end of the run. The influence of pain on coordination variability was also examined. There were no differences in coordination variability at the beginning or end of the run between uninjured runners and those with iliotibial band syndrome. The change in coordination variability due to the run was not different between uninjured runners, injured runners who experienced no change in pain, and injured runners who did experience a change in pain. Runners do not constrain the patterns of segment motion they use in response to exertion nor does it appear that occurrence of pain during running results in a differential change in coordination variability. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Chronic pain in a patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (hypermobility type): The role of myofascial trigger point injections.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Saipriya; Madabushi, Rajashree; Agarwal, Anil; Gautam, Sujeet K; Khuba, Sandeep

    2017-01-01

    Chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain is a cardinal symptom in hypermobility type of Ehler Danlos Syndrome (EDS type III). The management of pain in EDS, however, has not been studied in depth. A 30 year old female, known case of EDS, presented to the pain clinic with complaints of severe upper back pain for 6 months. Physical examination of the back revealed two myofascial trigger points over the left rhomboids and the left erector spinae. Local anaesthetic trigger point injections were given at these points, followed by stretching exercises under analgesic cover for the first week. After 1 week the patient reported 60-80% pain relief. This case highlights that we must keep a high index of suspicion for the more treatable causes of pain like myofascial pain syndrome in patients suffering from EDS, and should address it promptly and appropriately in order to maximise patient comfort.

  10. Acute abdominal pain in a man with Cushing syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rahmanian, M; Nedooshan, J J; Rafat, S; Rafie, R; Rafiei, M; Moghadam, R N

    2015-10-01

    Arterial thrombosis or emboli have rarely been reported in Cushing syndrome (CS). Here we describe the first case of mesenteric ischaemia secondary to ventricular emboli in a patient with CS. Laboratory evaluation showed increased fibrinogen and factor VIII. Previous studies showed that venous thromboembolism (VTE) increases in CS. This case for the first time described arterial system thrombosis and emboli in a patient with adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)-dependent CS.

  11. Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Electrolysis and Eccentric Exercises for Subacromial Pain Syndrome: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Buría, José L.; Truyols-Domínguez, Sebastián; Valero-Alcaide, Raquel; Salom-Moreno, Jaime; Atín-Arratibel, María A.; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To compare effects of ultrasound- (US-) guided percutaneous electrolysis combined with an eccentric exercise program of the rotator cuff muscles in subacromial pain syndrome. Methods. Thirty-six patients were randomized and assigned into US-guided percutaneous electrolysis (n = 17) group or exercise (n = 19) group. Patients were asked to perform an eccentric exercise program of the rotator cuff muscles twice every day for 4 weeks. Participants assigned to US-guided percutaneous electrolysis group also received the application of galvanic current through acupuncture needle on each session once a week (total 4 sessions). Shoulder pain (NPRS) and disability (DASH) were assessed at baseline, after 2 sessions, and 1 week after the last session. Results. The ANOVA revealed significant Group∗Time interactions for shoulder pain and disability (all, P < 0.01): individuals receiving US-guided percutaneous electrolysis combined with the eccentric exercises experienced greater improvement than those receiving eccentric exercise alone. Conclusions. US-guided percutaneous electrolysis combined with eccentric exercises resulted in small better outcomes at short term compared to when only eccentric exercises were applied in subacromial pain syndrome. The effect was statistically and clinically significant for shoulder pain but below minimal clinical difference for function. Future studies should investigate the long-term effects and potential placebo effect of this intervention. PMID:26649058

  12. Opiates for chronic nonmalignant pain syndromes: can appropriate candidates be identified for outpatient clinic management?

    PubMed

    White, Kevin T; Dillingham, Timothy R; González-Fernández, Marlís; Rothfield, Linda

    2009-12-01

    To better define patients appropriate for opiate management for chronic pain syndromes. Retrospective study of 65 patients with noncancerous pain syndromes who were on or being considered for opiates and who were transitioned into a structured outpatient clinic with close monitoring and management. Noncompliance with this outpatient pain management program was the primary outcome. Noncompliance was defined as (1) receipt of prescriptions from providers outside of this clinic, (2) increase in medication dosage without proper approval, (3) refusing toxicology screening on entrance into the program, (4) negative toxicology tests for prescribed medications, (5) positive toxicology tests for psychoactive medications not prescribed, or (6) discovery on toxicology tests of the presence of illicit substances. There were 24 cases of noncompliance (37%), with age <56 yrs old demonstrating significant (P = 0.02) association with persons who were noncompliant with the outpatient program. Forty-three percent of those younger than 56 yrs were noncompliant with program, yet no patient older than 56 yrs was noncompliant. Working status approached significance (P = 0.07) with those patients out of work demonstrating a greater likelihood of noncompliance. There were no correlations found between other patient characteristics and the level of compliance with the program. When considering opiates as a treatment option, pain clinics should have a heightened suspicion for younger and unemployed patients. Although these findings should be examined in larger studies, they suggest that nonmedical factors play a substantial role regarding success in such a structured opiate pain program.

  13. Measurement properties of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMS) in Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Green, Andrew; Liles, Clive; Rushton, Alison; Kyte, Derek G

    2014-12-01

    This systematic review investigated the measurement properties of disease-specific patient-reported outcome measures used in Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome. Two independent reviewers conducted a systematic search of key databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINHAL+ and the Cochrane Library from inception to August 2013) to identify relevant studies. A third reviewer mediated in the event of disagreement. Methodological quality was evaluated using the validated COSMIN (Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments) tool. Data synthesis across studies determined the level of evidence for each patient-reported outcome measure. The search strategy returned 2177 citations. Following the eligibility review phase, seven studies, evaluating twelve different patient-reported outcome measures, met inclusion criteria. A 'moderate' level of evidence supported the structural validity of several measures: the Flandry Questionnaire, Anterior Knee Pain Scale, Functional Index Questionnaire, Eng and Pierrynowski Questionnaire and Visual Analogue Scales for 'usual' and 'worst' pain. In addition, there was a 'Limited' level of evidence supporting the test-retest reliability and validity (cross-cultural, hypothesis testing) of the Persian version of the Anterior Knee Pain Scale. Other measurement properties were evaluated with poor methodological quality, and many properties were not evaluated in any of the included papers. Current disease-specific outcome measures for Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome require further investigation. Future studies should evaluate all important measurement properties, utilising an appropriate framework such as COSMIN to guide study design, to facilitate optimal methodological quality.

  14. Successful Treatment of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome with Pseudoaneurysm Excision and Median Nerve Neurolysis.

    PubMed

    Gillick, John L; Cooper, Jared B; Babu, Sateesh; Das, Kaushik; Murali, Raj

    2016-08-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), formerly referred to as reflex sympathetic dystrophy, is a pain syndrome characterized by severe pain, altered autonomic and motor function, and trophic changes. CRPS is usually associated with soft tissue injury or trauma. It has also been described as a rare complication of arterial access for angiography secondary to pseudoaneurysm formation. A 73-year-old woman underwent catheterization of the left brachial artery for angiography of the celiac artery. The following day, the patient noticed numbness and severe pain in the median nerve distribution of the left upper extremity. Over the next 6 months, the patient developed CRPS in the left hand with pain and signs of autonomic dysfunction. Further work-up revealed the formation of a left brachial artery pseudoaneurysm with impingement on the median nerve. She underwent excision of the pseudoaneurysm with decompression and neurolysis of the left median nerve. Approximately 6 weeks after surgery, the patient had noticed significant improvement in autonomic symptoms. This case involves a unique presentation of CRPS caused by brachial artery angiography and pseudoaneurysm formation. In addition, the case demonstrates the efficacy of pseudoaneurysm excision and median nerve neurolysis in the treatment of CRPS as a rare complication of arterial angiography. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A gain-of-function mutation in TRPA1 causes familial episodic pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kremeyer, Barbara; Lopera, Francisco; Cox, James J; Momin, Aliakmal; Rugiero, Francois; Marsh, Steve; Woods, C Geoffrey; Jones, Nicholas G; Paterson, Kathryn J; Fricker, Florence R; Villegas, Andrés; Acosta, Natalia; Pineda-Trujillo, Nicolás G; Ramírez, Juan Diego; Zea, Julián; Burley, Mari-Wyn; Bedoya, Gabriel; Bennett, David L H; Wood, John N; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2010-06-10

    Human monogenic pain syndromes have provided important insights into the molecular mechanisms that underlie normal and pathological pain states. We describe an autosomal-dominant familial episodic pain syndrome characterized by episodes of debilitating upper body pain, triggered by fasting and physical stress. Linkage and haplotype analysis mapped this phenotype to a 25 cM region on chromosome 8q12-8q13. Candidate gene sequencing identified a point mutation (N855S) in the S4 transmembrane segment of TRPA1, a key sensor for environmental irritants. The mutant channel showed a normal pharmacological profile but altered biophysical properties, with a 5-fold increase in inward current on activation at normal resting potentials. Quantitative sensory testing demonstrated normal baseline sensory thresholds but an enhanced secondary hyperalgesia to punctate stimuli on treatment with mustard oil. TRPA1 antagonists inhibit the mutant channel, promising a useful therapy for this disorder. Our findings provide evidence that variation in the TRPA1 gene can alter pain perception in humans.

  16. [Adult type tethered cord syndrome with chronic attackwise pain in the bilateral feet].

    PubMed

    Harashima, Shiho; Taira, Takaomi; Hori, Tomokatsu

    2004-05-01

    The authors report a case of chronic attackwise pain in the bilateral feet for five years due to tethered cord syndrome. Despite extensive examinations, this condition had been overlooked. The patient is a 21-year-old man. He had suffered attackwise pain resembling sticking a thumbtack in the soles of his feet, since he was 16 years old. The pain appeared several times a day and continued for 30 seconds to 30 minutes for 5 years. Physical examination revealed hammer toes and high-arched feet. The fingers and knee joints showed hyperextension. The neurological findings showed weakness of toe extension, hyporeflexia of deep tendon reflexes in the leg. Mild hypesthesia was seen in the bilateral soles. Myelography showed sacral dural ectasia. Magnetic resonance images showed dorsal displacement of the conus medullaris, the filum terminale and the cauda equina. A computed tomographic scan after myelography also showed a dorsally located thick filum terminale (the diameter is 2 mm). Surgery disclosed thick and tight filum terminale directly under the dura mater. Its flexibility was diminished. Abnormal lesions such as lipoma, spinal dysraphysm, diastematomyelia, myelomeningocele were not observed. After the untethering operation, the pain attacks decreased dramatically. The condition of the present case is adult onset tethered cord Group 2 described by Yamada. When unusual pain is manifested, we always have to keep this syndrome in mind.

  17. Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Electrolysis and Eccentric Exercises for Subacromial Pain Syndrome: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Arias-Buría, José L; Truyols-Domínguez, Sebastián; Valero-Alcaide, Raquel; Salom-Moreno, Jaime; Atín-Arratibel, María A; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To compare effects of ultrasound- (US-) guided percutaneous electrolysis combined with an eccentric exercise program of the rotator cuff muscles in subacromial pain syndrome. Methods. Thirty-six patients were randomized and assigned into US-guided percutaneous electrolysis (n = 17) group or exercise (n = 19) group. Patients were asked to perform an eccentric exercise program of the rotator cuff muscles twice every day for 4 weeks. Participants assigned to US-guided percutaneous electrolysis group also received the application of galvanic current through acupuncture needle on each session once a week (total 4 sessions). Shoulder pain (NPRS) and disability (DASH) were assessed at baseline, after 2 sessions, and 1 week after the last session. Results. The ANOVA revealed significant Group∗Time interactions for shoulder pain and disability (all, P < 0.01): individuals receiving US-guided percutaneous electrolysis combined with the eccentric exercises experienced greater improvement than those receiving eccentric exercise alone. Conclusions. US-guided percutaneous electrolysis combined with eccentric exercises resulted in small better outcomes at short term compared to when only eccentric exercises were applied in subacromial pain syndrome. The effect was statistically and clinically significant for shoulder pain but below minimal clinical difference for function. Future studies should investigate the long-term effects and potential placebo effect of this intervention.

  18. Diagnosis and treatment of myofacial pain-dysfunction (MPD) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Laskin, D M; Block, S

    1986-07-01

    The successful management of patients with MPD syndrome is dependent on establishing an accurate diagnosis and using proper therapy based on an understanding of the etiology of the disorder. Establishing an accurate diagnosis is accomplished by taking a careful history, doing a thorough examination, and having a knowledge of the various other conditions that can produce signs and sympto