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Sample records for postnatal environmental factors

  1. Measurement and Associations of Pregnancy Risk Factors with Genetic Influences, Postnatal Environmental Influences, and Toddler Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marceau, Kristine; Hajal, Nastassia; Leve, Leslie D.; Reiss, David; Shaw, Daniel S.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Mayes, Linda C.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2013-01-01

    This study demonstrates the unique contributions of perinatal risk and genetic and environmental influences on child behavior using data from 561 domestic US adoption triads (birth mothers, adopted child, and adoptive parents). Findings show distinct patterns of associations among genetic (birth mother psychopathology), prenatal (six maternal…

  2. Postnatal blues: a risk factor for postnatal depression.

    PubMed

    Henshaw, C; Foreman, D; Cox, J

    2004-01-01

    Postnatal blues have been regarded as brief, benign and without clinical significance. However, several studies have proposed a link between blues and subsequent depression but have methodological problems. We report a prospective, controlled study of postpartum women with severe blues which uses systematically devised and validated instruments for that purpose which tests the hypothesis that severe blues increases the risk of depression in the six months following childbirth. 206 first-time mothers were recruited in late pregnancy. Blues status was defined using the Blues Questionnaire and those with severe blues and their controls who had no blues (matched for age, marital status and social class) were followed for 6 months with postal Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. RDC diagnoses were made following SADS-L interview at the end of the protocol. Backwards stepwise Cox regression analysis found severe blues and past history of depression to be independent predictors each raising the risk by almost 3 times. Depression in those with severe blues onset sooner after delivery and lasted longer. The difference was largely accounted for by major depression. Severe postpartum blues are identified as an independent risk factor for subsequent postpartum depression. Screening and intervention programs could be devised.

  3. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, Bronwyn; Milgrom, Jeannette

    2008-01-01

    Background Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite the strong link with depression. The aim of this study was to further elucidate which of some previously identified risk factors are most predictive of three outcome measures: antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress and to examine the relationship between them. Methods Primipara and multiparae women were recruited antenatally from two major hoitals as part of the beyondblue National Postnatal Depression Program [1]. In this subsidiary study, 367 women completed an additional large battery of validated questionnaires to identify risk factors in the antenatal period at 26–32 weeks gestation. A subsample of these women (N = 161) also completed questionnaires at 10–12 weeks postnatally. Depression level was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results Regression analyses identified significant risk factors for the three outcome measures. (1). Significant predictors for antenatal depression: low self-esteem, antenatal anxiety, low social support, negative cognitive style, major life events, low income and history of abuse. (2). Significant predictors for postnatal depression: antenatal depression and a history of depression while also controlling for concurrent parenting stress, which was a significant variable. Antenatal depression was identified as a mediator between seven of the risk factors and postnatal depression. (3). Postnatal depression was the only significant predictor for parenting stress and also acted as a mediator for other risk factors

  4. Environmental factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michel, E. L.; Waligora, J. M.; Horrigan, D. J.; Shumate, W. H.

    1975-01-01

    The selection of an Apollo spacecraft atmosphere was based on the establishment of an acceptable range of atmospheric composition and pressure, the establishment of acceptable carbon dioxide levels, thermal comfort criteria, and acceleration and impact limits. The prime design requirements in a spacecraft system are minimum weight, volume, power usage, reliability, ease of maintenance, environmental compatibility, integration with other systems, and crew compatibility. The selection considerations are reviewed.

  5. Association of prenatal maternal or postnatal child environmental tobacco smoke exposure and neurodevelopmental and behavioral problems in children.

    PubMed Central

    Eskenazi, B; Castorina, R

    1999-01-01

    We review the potential neurodevelopmental and behavioral effects of children's prenatal and/or postnatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Children's exposure to ETS has been assessed in epidemiologic studies as a risk factor for a variety of behavioral and neurodevelopmental problems including reduced general intellectual ability, skills in language and auditory tasks, and academic achievement, and behavioral problems such as hyperactivity and decreased attention spans. We review 17 epidemiologic studies that have attempted to separate the effects of maternal active smoking during pregnancy from passive ETS smoke exposure by the pregnant mother or the child. Based on the available data, we found that ETS exposure could cause subtle changes in children's neurodevelopment and behavior. However, studies to date are difficult to interpret because of the unknown influence of uncontrolled confounding factors, imprecision in measurements of smoking exposure, and collinearity of pre- and postnatal maternal smoking. Although some evidence suggests that maternal smoking during pregnancy may be associated with deficits in intellectual ability and behavioral problems in children, the impact of prenatal or postnatal ETS exposure remains less clear. PMID:10585903

  6. Dynamic expression of neurotrophic factor receptors in postnatal spinal motoneurons and in mouse model of ALS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiasheng; Huang, Eric J

    2006-07-01

    Neurotrophic factors support the survival of spinal motoneurons (MNs) and have been considered as strong candidates for treating motoneuron diseases. However, it is unclear if the right combination of neurotrophic factor receptors is present in postnatal spinal MNs. In this study, we show that the level of c-ret expression remains relatively stable in embryonic and postnatal spinal MNs. In contrast, the mRNA and protein of GFRalpha1 and -2 are progressively down-regulated in postnatal life. By 3 and 6 months of age, both receptors are barely detectable in spinal MNs. The down-regulation of GFRalpha1 appears accelerated in transgenic mice expressing mutant SOD1(G93A). Despite the progressive loss of GFRalpha1 and -2, phosphorylation of c-ret shows no detectable reduction on tyrosine residues or on serine 696. In addition to the GFRalpha subunits, expression of TrkB also shows a dynamic change. During embryogenesis, there is twice as much full-length TrkB as the truncated TrkB isoform. However, this ratio is reversed in postnatal spinal cord. Expression of the mutant SOD1(G93A) appears to have no effect on the TrkB receptor ratio. Taken together, our data indicate that the expression of neurotrophic factor receptors, GFRalpha1, -2, and TrkB, is not static, but undergoes dynamic changes in postnatal spinal MNs. These results provide insights into the use of neurotrophic factors as therapeutic agents for ALS.

  7. Intrauterine growth correlation to postnatal growth--influence of risk factors and complications in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Larsen, T; Greisen, G; Petersen, S

    1997-01-20

    In a population of 616 pregnant women with increased risk of intrauterine growth retardation, we examined the relationship of third trimester fetal growth to maternal and pregnancy risk factors, the infants condition at birth, and postnatal growth. Intrauterine growth velocity was calculated from repeated estimations of fetal weight using ultrasound. Postnatal growth up to 3 months was measured in 313 of the infants. Intrauterine growth velocity was directly correlated to birth weight deviation (R = 0.35, P < 0.0001) and inversely correlated to postnatal growth (R = 0.21, P = 0.0001). Heavy smoking throughout pregnancy was the most pronounced factor associated with loss of fetal growth percentiles (P = 0.006), and it was also associated with postnatal catchup (P = 0.01). Infants who needed neonatal care had significantly lower intrauterine growth velocities compared to the rest of the study group; no correlation was found between intrauterine growth velocity and Apgar scores or umbilical pH. It is concluded that growth retardation in the third trimester can be identified by ultrasound fetometry, and is associated with maladaptation at birth and postnatal catchup. However, the correlations were weak suggesting that deviation at birth reflects, only to a limited degree, acceleration or deceleration of growth in the third trimester.

  8. Transcriptional Profiling of Intrinsic PNS Factors in the Postnatal Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Robin P.; Lerch-Haner, Jessica K.; Pardinas, Jose R.; Buchser, William J.; Bixby, John L.; Lemmon, Vance P.

    2010-01-01

    Neurons in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) display a higher capacity to regenerate after injury than those in the central nervous system, suggesting cell specific transcriptional modules underlying axon growth and inhibition. We report a systems biology based search for PNS specific transcription factors (TFs). Messenger RNAs enriched in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons compared to cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) were identified using subtractive hybridization and DNA microarray approaches. Network and transcription factor binding site enrichment analyses were used to further identify TFs that may be differentially active. Combining these techniques, we identified 32 TFs likely to be enriched and/or active in the PNS. Twenty-five of these TFs were then tested for an ability to promote CNS neurite outgrowth in an overexpression screen. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemical studies confirmed that one representative TF, STAT3, is intrinsic to PNS neurons, and that constitutively active STAT3 is sufficient to promote CGN neurite outgrowth. PMID:20696251

  9. Transcriptional profiling of intrinsic PNS factors in the postnatal mouse.

    PubMed

    Smith, Robin P; Lerch-Haner, Jessica K; Pardinas, Jose R; Buchser, William J; Bixby, John L; Lemmon, Vance P

    2011-01-01

    Neurons in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) display a higher capacity to regenerate after injury than those in the central nervous system, suggesting cell specific transcriptional modules underlying axon growth and inhibition. We report a systems biology based search for PNS specific transcription factors (TFs). Messenger RNAs enriched in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons compared to cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) were identified using subtractive hybridization and DNA microarray approaches. Network and transcription factor binding site enrichment analyses were used to further identify TFs that may be differentially active. Combining these techniques, we identified 32 TFs likely to be enriched and/or active in the PNS. Twenty-five of these TFs were then tested for an ability to promote CNS neurite outgrowth in an overexpression screen. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemical studies confirmed that one representative TF, STAT3, is intrinsic to PNS neurons, and that constitutively active STAT3 is sufficient to promote CGN neurite outgrowth.

  10. Environmental factors in autism.

    PubMed

    Grabrucker, Andreas M

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairments in communication and social behavior, and by repetitive behaviors. Although genetic factors might be largely responsible for the occurrence of autism they cannot fully account for all cases and it is likely that in addition to a certain combination of autism-related genes, specific environmental factors might act as risk factors triggering the development of autism. Thus, the role of environmental factors in autism is an important area of research and recent data will be discussed in this review. Interestingly, the results show that many environmental risk factors are interrelated and their identification and comparison might unveil a common scheme of alterations on a contextual as well as molecular level. For example, both, disruption in the immune system and in zinc homeostasis may affect synaptic transmission in autism. Thus, here, a model is proposed that interconnects the most important and scientifically recognized environmental factors. Moreover, similarities in how these risk factors impact synapse function are discussed and a possible influence on an already well described genetic pathway leading to the development of autism via zinc homeostasis is proposed.

  11. Environmental Factors in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Grabrucker, Andreas M.

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairments in communication and social behavior, and by repetitive behaviors. Although genetic factors might be largely responsible for the occurrence of autism they cannot fully account for all cases and it is likely that in addition to a certain combination of autism-related genes, specific environmental factors might act as risk factors triggering the development of autism. Thus, the role of environmental factors in autism is an important area of research and recent data will be discussed in this review. Interestingly, the results show that many environmental risk factors are interrelated and their identification and comparison might unveil a common scheme of alterations on a contextual as well as molecular level. For example, both, disruption in the immune system and in zinc homeostasis may affect synaptic transmission in autism. Thus, here, a model is proposed that interconnects the most important and scientifically recognized environmental factors. Moreover, similarities in how these risk factors impact synapse function are discussed and a possible influence on an already well described genetic pathway leading to the development of autism via zinc homeostasis is proposed. PMID:23346059

  12. Development and psychometric testing of the Chinese Postnatal Risk Factors Questionnaire (CPRFQ) for postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaoyu; Lu, Jun; Shi, Shenxun; Wang, Ximei; Zhao, Rui; Yan, Yuan; Chen, Gang

    2015-04-01

    This article describes the development and psychometric assessment of the Chinese Postnatal Risk Factors Questionnaire (CPRFQ). There were four phases in this process: (1) the items were generated using a literature review and a focus group, (2) content validity was evaluated by an expert panel, (3) a pilot study was conducted with 45 postpartum women to refine the scale, and (4) a convenience sample of 256 postpartum women in China was recruited to complete the questionnaire. Construct validity was established by exploratory factor analysis; a four-factor structure of the scale was accepted (social and family, personality and relationship, mother and infant, maternal feelings and 'doing the month'). These factors explained 47.46 % of the variance. Pearson's correlation coefficient was conducted to test convergent validity with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) (r = 0.54; p < 0.001). The Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the four subscales ranged from 0.58 to 0.71. The final 18-item version of the questionnaire is potentially a valuable tool for assessing postnatal risk factors in Chinese postpartum mothers.

  13. Effects of microgravity on myogenic factor expressions during postnatal development of rat skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inobe, Manabu; Inobe, Ikuko; Adams, Gregory R.; Baldwin, Kenneth M.; Takeda, Shin'Ichi

    2002-01-01

    To clarify the role of gravity in the postnatal development of skeletal muscle, we exposed neonatal rats at 7 days of age to microgravity. After 16 days of spaceflight, tibialis anterior, plantaris, medial gastrocnemius, and soleus muscles were removed from the hindlimb musculature and examined for the expression of MyoD-family transcription factors such as MyoD, myogenin, and MRF4. For this purpose, we established a unique semiquantitative method, based on RT-PCR, using specific primers tagged with infrared fluorescence. The relative expression of MyoD in the tibialis anterior and plantaris muscles and that of myogenin in the plantaris and soleus muscles were significantly reduced (P < 0.001) in the flight animals. In contrast, MRF4 expression was not changed in any muscle. These results suggest that MyoD and myogenin, but not MRF4, are sensitive to gravity-related stimuli in some skeletal muscles during postnatal development.

  14. Individual and Area Level Factors Associated with Prenatal, Delivery, and Postnatal Care in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Budhwani, Henna; Hearld, Kristine Ria; Harbison, Hanne

    2015-10-01

    This research examines individual and area level factors associated with maternal health care utilization in Pakistan. The 2012-2013 Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys data was used to model five outcomes: prenatal care within the first trimester, four plus prenatal visits, birth attendance by a skilled attendant, birth in a medical facility, and receipt of postnatal care. Less than half of births were to mothers receiving prenatal care in the first trimester, and approximately 57 % had trained personnel at delivery. Over half were born to mothers who received postnatal care. Evidence was found to support the positive effect of individual level variables, education and wealth, on the utilization of maternal health care across all five measures. Although, this study did not find unilateral differences between women residing in rural and urban settings, rural women were found to have lower odds of utilizing prenatal services as compared to mothers in urban environments. Additionally, women who cited distance as a barrier, had lower odds of receiving postnatal health care, but still engaged in prenatal services and often had a skilled attendant present at delivery. The odds of utilizing prenatal care increased when women resided in an area where prenatal utilization was high, and this variability was found across measures across provinces. The results found in this paper highlight the uneven progress made around improving prenatal, delivery, and postnatal care in Pakistan; disparities persist which may be attributed to factors both at the individual and community level, but may be addressed through a consorted effort to change national policy around women's health which should include the promotion of evidence based interventions such as incentivizing health care workers, promoting girls' education, and improving transportation options for pregnant women and recent mothers with the intent of ultimately lowering the Maternal Mortality Rate as recommended in the U

  15. Developmental role of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 in mitigating methamphetamine fetal toxicity and postnatal neurodevelopmental deficits.

    PubMed

    Ramkissoon, Annmarie; Wells, Peter G

    2013-12-01

    Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that mediates protective responses to oxidative stress, but its developmental role is unknown. Herein, we treated pregnant Nrf2-deficient knockout mice with methamphetamine (METH) (5-40 mg/kg ip), which increases fetal reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidatively damaged DNA in fetal brain tissue. METH-exposed Nrf2(-/-) fetuses were unable to increase mRNA levels of ROS-protective heme oxygenase-1, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase, or oxoguanine glycosylase 1, unlike wild-type controls, and exhibited enhanced DNA oxidation, fetal resorption, edema, and reduced fetal weight, with greater toxicity in female Nrf2(-/-) fetuses. Postnatal neurodevelopmental deficits in activity and olfactory function were exacerbated, with gender-dependent differences, and the olfactory bulb GABAergic marker GAD-65 was decreased in Nrf2(-/-) offspring exposed in utero to METH. In utero METH-initiated olfactory deficits may be a sensitive postnatal functional test for long-term neurotoxicity, and indicated a broad fetal role for Nrf2. The results show that fetal Nrf2 deficiency enhances METH-initiated oxidative DNA damage and toxicity, suggesting that Nrf2 activation of cytoprotective proteins mitigates the effects of ROS and their oxidative damage to cellular macromolecules, thereby protecting the developing fetus from adverse structural and postnatal neurodevelopmental consequences.

  16. Environmental factors and aggressive behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, A.C.

    1982-07-01

    This paper briefly reviews some of the research areas which indicate a correlation between environmental factors and initiation of aggressive behavior. Environmental factors including lunar influences, month of birth, climate and the effects of crowding and certain chemicals are discussed.

  17. Connective tissue growth factor is required for skeletal development and postnatal skeletal homeostasis in male mice.

    PubMed

    Canalis, Ernesto; Zanotti, Stefano; Beamer, Wesley G; Economides, Aris N; Smerdel-Ramoya, Anna

    2010-08-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a member of the cysteine-rich 61 (Cyr 61), CTGF, nephroblastoma overexpressed (NOV) (CCN) family of proteins, is synthesized by osteoblasts, and its overexpression inhibits osteoblastogenesis and causes osteopenia. The global inactivation of Ctgf leads to defective endochondral bone formation and perinatal lethality; therefore, the consequences of Ctgf inactivation on the postnatal skeleton are not known. To study the function of CTGF, we generated Ctgf(+/LacZ) heterozygous null mice and tissue-specific null Ctgf mice by mating Ctgf conditional mice, where Ctgf is flanked by lox sequences with mice expressing the Cre recombinase under the control of the paired-related homeobox gene 1 (Prx1) enhancer (Prx1-Cre) or the osteocalcin promoter (Oc-Cre). Ctgf(+/LacZ) heterozygous mice exhibited transient osteopenia at 1 month of age secondary to decreased trabecular number. A similar osteopenic phenotype was observed in 1-month-old Ctgf conditional null male mice generated with Prx1-Cre, suggesting that the decreased trabecular number was secondary to impaired endochondral bone formation. In contrast, when the conditional deletion of Ctgf was achieved by Oc-Cre, an osteopenic phenotype was observed only in 6-month-old male mice. Osteoblast and osteoclast number, bone formation, and eroded surface were not affected in Ctgf heterozygous or conditional null mice. In conclusion, CTGF is necessary for normal skeletal development but to a lesser extent for postnatal skeletal homeostasis.

  18. Conditional overexpression of connective tissue growth factor disrupts postnatal lung development.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shu; Platteau, Astrid; Chen, Shaoyi; McNamara, George; Whitsett, Jeffrey; Bancalari, Eduardo

    2010-05-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a member of an emerging family of immediate-early gene products that coordinates complex biological processes during development, differentiation, and tissue repair. Overexpression of CTGF is associated with mechanical ventilation with high tidal volume and oxygen exposure in newborn lungs. However, the role of CTGF in postnatal lung development and remodeling is not well understood. In the present study, a double-transgenic mouse model was generated with doxycycline-inducible overexpression of CTGF in respiratory epithelial cells. Overexpression of CTGF from Postnatal Days 1-14 resulted in thicker alveolar septa and decreased secondary septal formation. This is correlated with increased myofibroblast differentiation and disorganized elastic fiber deposition in alveolar septa. Overexpression of CTGF also decreased alveolar capillary network formation. There were increased alpha-smooth muscle actin expression and collagen deposition, and dramatic thickening in the peribronchial/peribronchiolar and perivascular regions in the double-transgenic lungs. Furthermore, overexpression of CTGF increased integrin-linked kinase expression, activated its downstream signaling target, Akt, as well as increased mRNA expression of fibronectin. These data demonstrate that overexpression of CTGF disrupts alveologenesis and capillary formation, and induces fibrosis during the critical period of alveolar development. These histologic changes are similar to those observed in lungs of infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

  19. Factors that affect postnatal bone growth retardation in the twitcher murine model of Krabbe disease.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Miguel Agustin; Ries, William Louis; Shanmugarajan, Srinivasan; Arboleda, Gonzalo; Singh, Inderjit; Singh, Avtar Kaur

    2010-01-01

    Krabbe disease is an inherited lysosomal disorder in which galactosylsphingosine (psychosine) accumulates mainly in the central nervous system. To gain insight into the possible mechanism(s) that may be participating in the inhibition of the postnatal somatic growth described in the animal model of this disease (twitcher mouse, twi), we studied their femora. This study reports that twi femora are smaller than of those of wild type (wt), and present with abnormality of marrow cellularity, bone deposition (osteoblastic function), and osteoclastic activity. Furthermore, lipidomic analysis indicates altered sphingolipid homeostasis, but without significant changes in the levels of sphingolipid-derived intermediates of cell death (ceramide) or the levels of the osteoclast-osteoblast coupling factor (sphingosine-1-phosphate). However, there was significant accumulation of psychosine in the femora of adult twi animals as compared to wt, without induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha or interleukin-6. Analysis of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) plasma levels, a liver secreted hormone known to play a role in bone growth, indicated a drastic reduction in twi animals when compared to wt. To identify the cause of the decrease, we examined the IGF-1 mRNA expression and protein levels in the liver. The results indicated a significant reduction of IGF-1 mRNA as well as protein levels in the liver from twi as compared to wt littermates. Our data suggest that a combination of endogenous (psychosine) and endocrine (IGF-1) factors play a role in the inhibition of postnatal bone growth in twi mice; and further suggest that derangements of liver function may be contributing, at least in part, to this alteration.

  20. Combined pre- and postnatal environmental enrichment programs the HPA axis differentially in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Welberg, L; Thrivikraman, K V; Plotsky, P M

    2006-06-01

    Experimental environmental enrichment (EE) is usually applied in adulthood or immediately after weaning, with robust effects on physiology and behaviour. To investigate the effects of EE earlier in life, female rats were maintained under moderate enrichment during pregnancy and, together with their pups, during lactation until weaning. A separate group of dams housed under standard conditions during pregnancy and lactation served as controls. Dams housed under EE exhibited fewer nursing episodes and were off the nest more often, but the frequency of pup licking was not affected on postnatal days 3-5. EE effects on hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to an acute stressor were determined in adult male and female offspring with and without previous exposure to the chronic stressor of constant light. In female offspring, chronic stress significantly increased basal corticosterone (CORT) levels, but not if rats had been exposed to early EE. Furthermore, while control females exposed to chronic stress showed a greatly reduced adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) response to an acute stressor, EE females did not display this desensitization. There was no significant effect of EE on basal ACTH and CORT levels in adult male offspring, nor did it alter their response to acute stress. Maternal licking frequency was moderately but significantly correlated with net corticosterone increases in response to acute stress, the direction of the correlation crucially depending on the offspring's sex and stress conditions. This study shows that EE during pregnancy and lactation has long-lasting effects on reactivity to acute and chronic stress in offspring and that these effects are dependent on the offspring's sex but not greatly on early postpartum maternal behaviour.

  1. Prevalence of and factors influencing postnatal depression in a rural community in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Abrahams, Johanna M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Knowledge about postnatal depression (PND) and associated risk factors which influence the development of PND is vital for early detection, intervention and prevention. Setting The study was conducted in primary health care clinics (PHC) in the Witzenberg subdistrict, a rural community in South Africa. Objectives Objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of PND and to identify the contributing risk factors associated with PND. Methods A descriptive cross sectional research design with a quantitative approach was applied. The target population was mothers, 18 years and older. A convenience sampling method was used to select a sample of 159 (10%) from a population of 1605 live births. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), two validated self-rating questionnaires, including a questionnaire based on demographical, psychosocial and obstetrical data, were applied. The data was analysed using various statistical tests to determine statistical associations between variables using a 95% confidence interval. Results PND was a serious health problem with 50.3% of the mothers who suffered from PND. A BDI analysis showed that of the participants who had PND, 28.8% was severe, 48.8% moderate and 22.5% mild. Factors influencing the development of PND included most participants (63.5%) were unmarried, 61.3% were unemployed and the majority (53.8%) had a history of a psychiatric illness. Significant associations between PND and unplanned and unwelcome babies (p < 0.01); partner relationship (p < 0.01); were identified. Conclusion Prevention, early detection, appropriate referral and treatment of PND are critical in managing maternal, child and family well-being. PMID:26842515

  2. Myogenic regulatory factor (MRF) expression is affected by exercise in postnatal chicken skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Yin, Huadong; Li, Diyan; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Xiaoling; Liu, Yiping; Yang, Zhiqin; Zhu, Qing

    2015-05-01

    The MyoD1, MyoG, Myf5, and Mrf4 proteins belong to the family of muscle regulatory factors (MRFs) and play important roles in skeletal muscle hyperplasia and hypertrophy. We hypothesized that exercise would affect MRF mRNA and protein abundance in postnatal chicken skeletal muscle driving molecular changes that could ultimately lead to increased muscle fiber diameter. At day (d) 43, twelve hundred chickens with similar body weight were randomly assigned to cage, pen, and free-range groups. The MRF mRNA abundance was measured in the pectoralis major and thigh muscle at d56, d70, and d84, and the protein levels of MRFs were determined from the thigh muscle at d84. The results showed no significant difference in mRNA of the MRFs among the three groups at d56 (P>0.05). At d84, chicken in the pen and free-range group showed higher MyoD1, MyoG, Myf5, and Mrf4 mRNA abundance compared to the caged chickens (P<0.05). Free-range chickens had higher Mrf4 and MyoG expression than those in penned ones (P<0.05). Protein abundances of all four factors were lowest in the caged group, and Mrf4 and MyoG protein quantities were greatest in free-range chickens (P<0.05), but Myf5 and MyoD1 protein abundance did not differ between penned and caged groups. The results suggested that exercise up-regulated MRF expression in the postnatal skeletal muscles, which led to an increase in muscle fiber diameter, and eventually affected the meat quality of the skeletal muscles in adult chickens.

  3. Meat science and muscle biology symposium: In utero factors that influence postnatal muscle growth, carcass composition, and meat quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium titled “In utero factors that influence postnatal muscle growth, carcass composition, and meat quality” was held at the Joint Annual Meeting in Phoenix, AZ, July 15 to 19, 2012. The goal of this symposium was to highlight research on the impact of fetal...

  4. Refugee, asylum seeker, immigrant women and postnatal depression: rates and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Collins, Catherine H; Zimmerman, Cathy; Howard, Louise M

    2011-02-01

    Postnatal depression (PND) is recognised as a common maternal health problem, but little evidence examines PND among refugee, asylum seeker and immigrant women in developed country settings. This review aimed to identify the rates of PND and highlight common risk factors among this group of women. An iterative and dynamic literature search was conducted across ten databases to identify published articles on PND among immigrant, asylum-seeking and refugee women in developed country settings. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and 'free text' search terms, as well as thesaurus terms, acronyms and truncation were used where appropriate. Findings suggest that PND may affect up to 42% of migrant women, compared to around 10-15% of native-born women. Common risk factors for PND among migrant women include history of stressful life events, lack of social support and cultural factors. With a growing number of babies born to immigrant mothers, greater awareness of PND among this group is needed in order to respond to their particular maternal mental health needs. Maternity care providers should regard all recent immigrants as at high risk of PND and give closer observation and support as necessary.

  5. Factors modulating supernumerary hair cell production in the postnatal rat cochlea in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chardin, S; Romand, R

    1997-07-01

    It has been shown in the past that extra hair cells or supernumerary cells can be produced when neonatal cochleae are maintained in vitro. In this report, we investigated the effects of the culture methods, molecules and growth factors that are thought to be involved in cell proliferation. Quantitative studies of supernumerary hair cells were made by measuring the cell density over the entire spiral lamina at two postnatal stages: birth and 3 days after birth. With a standard feeding solution without serum, a difference in cell density was observed between the two methods of culture. Cochlear explants in a standard feeding solution supplemented with serum showed an increase of cell density only when the explantation is made at birth. Retinoic acid added to the standard feeding solution did not increase the hair cell density, while insulin induced an increase, especially at 5 micrograms/ml. Several growth factors were tested. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) presented a dose dependent effect with an increase of up to 30% of hair cell density that was observed in the basal region when the explantation was made at birth. Transforming growth factor-alpha did not induce an increase of cell density, whereas transforming growth factor-beta presented an effect on hair cell density, with a dose dependent effect reaching 37.4% for the basal inner hair cells. Interpretation of these results is limited because of the lack of data concerning the presence of specific membrane receptors. One possibility is that insulin stimulates hair cell differentiation from existing undifferentiated cells. Another hypothesis may be related to the EGF and transforming growth factor-beta, where these molecules might induce transdifferentiation of cells by acting on the transmembrane molecules and the extracellular matrix.

  6. Postnatal expression of nerve growth factor receptors in the rat testis.

    PubMed

    Djakiew, D; Pflug, B; Dionne, C; Onoda, M

    1994-08-01

    Because nerve growth factor beta (NGF beta) and its corresponding receptors have been implicated in the paracrine regulation of spermatogenesis, we examined the postnatal developmental expression of the low- and high-affinity NGF receptors in the rat testis, and localized their expression to specific testicular cell types. The neurotropin receptors consist of a low-affinity p75 nerve growth factor receptor (LNGFR) and a family of high-affinity tyrosine receptor kinases (trk). Both the p75 LNGFR gene product and the trk receptor gene product were detected in immature rat testes, with maximal expression in 10- and 20-day-old rats. Expression of the testicular p75 LNGFR and the trk receptor progressively declined in older animals so that they were barely detectable in 90-day-old adult rats. The 75-kDa LNGFR was detected in membrane fractions of Sertoli cells, whereas the p75 LNGFR was not detected by Western blot in membrane fractions of round spermatids and primary spermatocytes. Interestingly, microsomal fractions of peritubular myoid cells were immunoreactive for a 65-kDa band on Western blots with the p75 LNGFR monoclonal antibody. Immunoblot analysis of the trk receptor in cell lysates of isolated cell types was inconclusive. Excess NGF beta and round spermatid protein, which is known to contain a NGF-like protein, were both capable of displacing the binding of 125I-NGF beta from the surface of Sertoli cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Overview of environmental factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purvis, C. K.

    1989-01-01

    The orbital environment is complex, dynamic, and comprised of both natural and system-induced components. Several environment factors are important for materials. Materials selection/suitability determination requires consideration of each and all factors, including synergisms among them. Understanding and evaluating these effects will require ground testing, modeling, and focused flight experimentation.

  8. Factors influencing attempted and completed suicide in postnatal women: A population-based study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Shu-Chuan; Chang, Jung-Chen; Yeh, Ming-Kung; Wang, Shun-Mu; Chen, Yi-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The aims of study were to investigate risk factors associated with attempted and completed suicide. This nested case–control study was conducted using the medical and death data of nearly all pregnant women for the period 2002–2012 in Taiwan. A total of 139 cases of attempted suicide and 95 cases of completed suicide were identified; for each case, 10 controls were randomly selected and matched to the cases according to age and year of delivery. A conditional logistic regression model was used. The mean attempted and completed suicide rates were 9.91 and 6.86 per 100,000 women with live births, respectively. Never having married and postpartum depression also increased the risk of attempted suicide (OR = 2.06; 95% CI = 1.09–3.88 and OR = 2.51; 95% CI = 1.10–5.75, respectively) and completed suicide (OR = 20.27; 95% CI = 8.99–45.73 and OR = 21.72; 95% CI = 8.08–58.37, respectively). Other factors for attempted suicide included being widowed or divorced, and having a caesarean delivery or suicide history. Other factors for completed suicide included lower education level, low infant birth weight, and diagnosis of anxiety or mood disorder. These results suggest that people should appropriately assess potential risk factors and provide assistance for postnatal women to reduce the occurrence of suicide events. PMID:27173845

  9. Resveratrol improves postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis and brain derived neurotrophic factor in prenatally stressed rats.

    PubMed

    Madhyastha, Sampath; Sekhar, Sudhanshu; Rao, Gayathri

    2013-11-01

    Prenatal stress induced neuronal dysfunction is multifactorial, including suppressed neurogenesis in developing brain. Resveratrol is known to exert its neuroprotective potential by enhancing neurogenesis. But the efficacy of resveratrol against prenatal stress was not addressed in detail. Hence in the present study we evaluated the neuroprotective action of resveratrol on prenatal stress-induced impaired neurogenesis. Pregnant rats were subjected to restraint stress during early or late gestational period. Another sets of rats received resveratrol during entire gestational period along with early or late gestational stress. The study parameters included neuronal assay of doublecortin positive neurons (DCX +ve) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) estimations in 40th postnatal day rat brain. Both early and late gestational stress resulted in significant decrease in generation of new born neurons and BDNF expression in hippocampus. The decrease in number of DCX +ve neurons and hippocampal BDNF expression was more profound in the offspring who received late gestational stress compared to early gestational stress. Resveratrol treatment has improved the expression of DCX +ve neurons and BDNF expression. These data suggest the neuroprotective efficacy of resveratrol against prenatal stress induced impaired neurogenesis.

  10. HIV-1 and HIV-2 prevalence and associated risk factors among postnatal women in Harare, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, J H; Nathoo, K J; Hargrove, J W; Iliff, P J; Mutasa, K E; Moulton, L H; Chidawanyika, H; Malaba, L C; Zijenah, L S; Zvandasara, P; Ntozini, R; Zunguza, C D; Ward, B J

    2007-08-01

    Studies of antenatal women form the predominant source of data on HIV-1 prevalence in Africa. Identifying factors associated with prevalent HIV is important in targeting diagnostic services and care. Between November 1997 and January 2000, 14,110 postnatal women from Harare, Zimbabwe were tested by ELISAs reactive to both HIV-1 and HIV-2; a subset of positive samples was confirmed with assays specific for HIV-1 and HIV-2. Baseline characteristics were elicited and modelled to identify risk factors for prevalent HIV infection. HIV-1 and HIV-2 prevalences were 32.0% (95% CI 31.2-32.8) and 1.3% (95% CI 1.1-1.5), respectively; 4% of HIV-1-positive and 99% of HIV-2-positive women were co-infected. HIV-1 prevalence increased from 0% among 14-year-olds to >45% among women aged 29-31 years, then fell to <20% among those aged>40 years. In multivariate analyses, prevalence increased with parity, was lower in married women than in single women, divorcees and widows, and higher in women with the lowest incomes and those professing no religion. Adjusted HIV-1 prevalence increased during 1998 and decreased during 1999. Age modified the effects of parity, home ownership and parental education. Among older women, prevalence was greater for women who were not homeowners. Among younger women, prevalence increased with parity and low parental education. None of these factors distinguished women co-infected with HIV-2 from those infected with HIV-1 alone. Prevalent HIV-1 infection is associated with financial insecurity and weak psychosocial support. The ZVITAMBO study apparently spanned the peak of the HIV-1 epidemic among reproductive women in Harare.

  11. Selective Endothelin-B Receptor Stimulation Increases Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in the Rat Brain during Postnatal Development.

    PubMed

    Leonard, M G; Prazad, P; Puppala, B; Gulati, A

    2015-11-01

    Endothelin, vascular endothelial growth factor and nerve growth factor play important roles in development of the central nervous system. ET(B) receptors have been shown to promote neurovascular remodeling in the adult ischemic brain through an increase in VEGF and NGF. It is possible that ET(B) receptors may be involved in postnatal development of the brain through VEGF and NGF. In the present study, the brains of male rat pups on postnatal days 1, 7, 14 and 28 were analyzed for expression of ET(B) receptors, VEGF and NGF. In order to determine the effect of ET(B) receptor stimulation, a separate group of pups were administered saline or ET(B) receptor agonist, IRL-1620, on day 21, and their brains were analyzed on day 28. The intensity of ET(B) receptor and VEGF staining in the vasculature as well as the number of blood vessels of normal pups increased with age and was significantly higher on postnatal day 14 compared to day 1 and day 7. In contrast, both ET(B) and NGF staining intensity in the cortex and subventricular zones decreased (P<0.01) at postnatal day 14 compared to earlier time points. Stimulation of ET(B) receptors resulted in a significant increase in VEGF and ET(B) intensity both in the vasculature and the brain (P<0.05), however, IRL-1620 did not produce any change in NGF expression. Results indicate that ET(B) receptors appear to play a role in the development of the CNS and selective stimulation of ET(B) receptors enhances VEGF but not NGF in the postnatal rat brain.

  12. Environmental factors associated with asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Bailus; Stokes, Lynette D.; Warren, Rueben

    2003-01-01

    Asthma, a disease of attacks and remission, continues to account for substantial morbidity and direct economic costs. Numerous studies--epidemiologic, toxicologic and clinical--present evidence for a broad spectrum of environmental risk factors associated with asthma. This review summarizes current thinking on a subset of these factors. Knowledge of potential environmental determinants of asthma is important to both the patient and healthcare professional in the application of multiple modalities of medical and environmental intervention for management of the development, and exacerbation of this chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways. PMID:12760611

  13. Factors associated with the timeliness of postnatal surgical repair of spina bifida

    PubMed Central

    Cassell, Cynthia H.; Laditka, Sarah B.; Thibadeau, Judy K.; Correia, Jane; Grosse, Scott D.; Kirby, Russell S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Clinical guidelines recommend repair of open spina bifida (SB) prenatally or within the first days of an infant’s life. We examined maternal, infant, and health care system factors associated with time-to-repair among infants with postnatal repair. Methods This retrospective, statewide, population-based study examined infants with SB born in Florida 1998–2007, ascertained by the Florida Birth Defects Registry. We used procedure codes from hospital discharge records to identify the first recorded myelomeningocele repair (ICD-9 CM procedure code 03.52) among infants with birth hospitalizations. Using Poisson multivariable regression, we examined time-to-repair by hydrocephalus, SB type (isolated [no other coded major birth defect] versus non-isolated), and other selected factors. Results Of 199 infants with a recorded birth hospitalization and coded myelomeningocele repair, 87.9 % had hydrocephalus and 19.6 % had non-isolated SB. About 76.4 % of infants had repair by day 2 of life. In adjusted analyses, infants with hydrocephalus were more likely to have timely repair (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) = 1.48, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.02–2.14) than infants without hydrocephalus. SB type was not associated with repair timing. Infants born in lower level nursery care hospitals with were less likely to have timely repairs (aPR = 0.71, 95 % CI 0.52–0.98) than those born in higher level nursery care hospitals. Conclusions Most infants with SB had surgical repair in the first 2 days of life. Lower level birth hospital nursery care was associated with later repairs. Prenatal diagnosis can facilitate planning for a birth hospital with higher level of nursery care, thus improving opportunities for timely repair. PMID:27179533

  14. Environmental risk factors for osteoporosis

    SciTech Connect

    Goyer, R.A.; Korach, K.S. ); Epstein, S. ); Bhattacharyya, M. ); Pounds, J. )

    1994-04-01

    Environmental risk factors for osteoporosis were reviewed at a conference held at the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences 8-9 November 1993. The conference was co-sponsored by the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disease and the NIH Office of Research in Women's Health. The objective of the conference was to review what is known about risk factors for osteoporosis and to identify gaps in the present state of knowledge that might be addressed by future research. The conference was divided into two broad themes. The first session focused on current knowledge regarding etiology, risk factors, and approaches to clinical and laboratory diagnosis. This was followed by three sessions in which various environmental pollutants were discussed. Topics selected for review included environmental agents that interfere with bone and calcium metabolism, such as the toxic metals lead, cadmium, aluminum, and fluoride, natural and antiestrogens, calcium, and vitamin D.

  15. Environmental Factors Inducing Human Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Parsa, N

    2012-01-01

    Background An explosion of research has been done in discovering how human health is affected by environmental factors. I will discuss the impacts of environmental cancer causing factors and how they continue to cause multiple disruptions in cellular networking. Some risk factors may not cause cancer. Other factors initiate consecutive genetic mutations that would eventually alter the normal pathway of cellular proliferations and differentiation. Genetic mutations in four groups of genes; (Oncogenes, Tumor suppressor genes, Apoptosis genes and DNA repairing genes) play a vital role in altering the normal cell division. In recent years, molecular genetics have greatly increased our understanding of the basic mechanisms in cancer development and utilizing these molecular techniques for cancer screening, diagnosis, prognosis and therapies. Inhibition of carcinogenic exposures wherever possible should be the goal of cancer prevention programs to reduce exposures from all environmental carcinogens. PMID:23304670

  16. Environmental enrichment rescues postnatal neurogenesis defect in the male and female Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Lina; Scafidi, Joseph; Gallo, Vittorio; Haydar, Tarik F

    2011-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS), the most frequent genetic cause of intellectual disability and developmental delay, results from impaired neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation. Impaired neurogenesis in the neocortex, hippocampus and cerebellum is believed to be the underlying cause of learning and behavioral deficits in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS. Aggressive sensorimotor and cognitive therapies have shown promise in mitigating the cognitive disabilities in DS but these behavioral therapies have not yet been investigated at the cellular level. Here, using the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS, we demonstrate that a combination of environmental enrichment and physical exercise starting in juvenile mice (postnatal day 18) markedly increases cell proliferation, neurogenesis and gliogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and the forebrain subventricular zone (SVZ) of both male and female mice. Enrichment and exercise increased the rate of Ts65Dn DG neurogenesis to be comparable to that of the nonenriched euploid group, while the effect on SVZ neurogenesis was reduced and seen only after prolonged exposure. These results clearly indicate that in a comprehensive stimulatory environment, the postnatal DS brain has the intrinsic capability of improving neurogenesis and gliogenesis to the levels of normal matched controls and that this cellular response underlies the cognitive improvement seen following behavioral therapies.

  17. Postnatal treatment factors affecting craniofacial morphology of unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) patients in a Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Alam, M K; Iida, J; Sato, Y; Kajii, Takashi S

    2013-12-01

    We have evaluated the craniofacial morphology of Japanese patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and assessed the various postnatal factors that affect it. Lateral cephalograms of 140 subjects (mean (SD) aged 7 (2) years) with UCLP were taken before orthodontic treatment. Surgeons from Hokkaido University Hospital had done the primary operations. The craniofacial morphology was assessed by angular and linear cephalometric measurements. Cheiloplasty, palatoplasty, and preoperative orthopaedic treatment were chosen as postnatal factors. To compare the assessments of the postnatal factors, we made angular and linear cephalometric measurements for each subject and converted them into Z scores in relation to the mean (SD) of the two variables. Subjects treated by the modified Millard cheiloplasty had larger sella-nasion-point A (SNA) and nasion-point A-pogonion (NA-POG) measurements than subjects treated by the modified Millard with a vomer flap cheiloplasty. Two-stage palatoplasty showed consistently better craniofacial morphology than the other palatoplasty. Subjects who had preoperative orthopaedic treatment with a Hotz plate had significantly larger upper incisor/sella-nasion (U1-SN) measurements than who had no preoperative orthopaedic treatment or an active plate. We conclude that in subjects treated by a modified Millard type of cheiloplasty, a two-stage palatoplasty, and a Hotz plate there were fewer adverse effects on craniofacial morphology.

  18. Effect of Maternal Factors and Fetomaternal Glucose Homeostasis on Birth Weight and Postnatal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Özbörü Aşkan, Öykü; Bozaykut, Abdülkadir; Sezer, Rabia Gönül; Güran, Tülay; Bereket, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Objective: It is important to identify the possible risk factors for the occurrence of large for gestational age (LGA) in newborns and to determine the effect of birth weight and metabolic parameters on subsequent growth. We aimed to determine the effects of maternal weight, weight gain during pregnancy, maternal hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), C-peptide and insulin as well as cord C-peptide and insulin levels on birth weight and postnatal growth during the first two years of life. Methods: Healthy, non-diabetic mothers and term singleton newborns were included in this prospective case-control cohort study. Fasting maternal glucose, HbA1c, C-peptide and insulin levels were studied. Cord blood was analyzed for C-peptide and insulin. At birth, newborns were divided into two groups according to birth size: LGA and appropriate for GA (AGA). Infants were followed at six-month intervals for two years and their length and weight were recorded. Results: Forty LGA and 43 AGA infants were included in the study. Birth weight standard deviation score (SDS) was positively correlated with maternal body mass index (BMI) before delivery (r=0.2, p=0.04) and with weight gain during pregnancy (r=0.2, p=0.04). In multivariate analyses, the strongest association with macrosomia was a maternal C-peptide level >3.85 ng/mL (OR=20). Although the LGA group showed decreased growth by the 6-month of follow-up, the differences between the LGA and AGA groups in weight and length SDS persisted over the 2 years of follow-up. Conclusion: The control of maternal BMI and prevention of overt weight gain during pregnancy may prevent excessive birth weight. The effect of the in utero metabolic environment on the weight and length SDS of infants born LGA persists until at least two years of age. PMID:26831549

  19. The impact of environmental factors in severe psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Andrea; Malchow, Berend; Hasan, Alkomiet; Falkai, Peter

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades, schizophrenia has been regarded as a developmental disorder. The neurodevelopmental hypothesis proposes schizophrenia to be related to genetic and environmental factors leading to abnormal brain development during the pre- or postnatal period. First disease symptoms appear in early adulthood during the synaptic pruning and myelination process. Meta-analyses of structural MRI studies revealing hippocampal volume deficits in first-episode patients and in the longitudinal disease course confirm this hypothesis. Apart from the influence of risk genes in severe psychiatric disorders, environmental factors may also impact brain development during the perinatal period. Several environmental factors such as antenatal maternal virus infections, obstetric complications entailing hypoxia as common factor or stress during neurodevelopment have been identified to play a role in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, possibly contributing to smaller hippocampal volumes. In major depression, psychosocial stress during the perinatal period or in adulthood is an important trigger. In animal studies, chronic stress or repeated administration of glucocorticoids have been shown to induce degeneration of glucocorticoid-sensitive hippocampal neurons and may contribute to the pathophysiology of affective disorders. Epigenetic mechanisms altering the chromatin structure such as histone acetylation and DNA methylation may mediate effects of environmental factors to transcriptional regulation of specific genes and be a prominent factor in gene-environmental interaction. In animal models, gene-environmental interaction should be investigated more intensely to unravel pathophysiological mechanisms. These findings may lead to new therapeutic strategies influencing epigenetic targets in severe psychiatric disorders. PMID:24574956

  20. Gestational and Early Postnatal Exposure to an Environmentally Relevant Mixture of Brominated Flame Retardants: General Toxicity and Skeletal Variations.

    PubMed

    Tung, Emily W Y; Yan, Han; Lefèvre, Pavine L C; Berger, Robert G; Rawn, Dorothea F K; Gaertner, Dean W; Kawata, Alice; Rigden, Marc; Robaire, Bernard; Hales, Barbara F; Wade, Michael G

    2016-06-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are stable environmental contaminants known to exert endocrine-disrupting effects. Developmental exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) is correlated with impaired thyroid hormone signaling, as well as estrogenic and anti-androgenic effects. As previous studies have focused on a single congener or technical mixture, the purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of gestational and early postnatal exposure to an environmentally relevant mixture of BFRs designed to reflect house dust levels of PBDEs and hexabromocyclododecane on postnatal developmental outcomes. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to the PBDE mixture from preconception to weaning (PND 21) through the diet containing 0, 0.75, 250, and 750 mg mixture/kg diet. BFR exposure induced transient reductions in body weight at PND 35 in male and from PND 30-45 in female offspring (250 and 750 mg/kg). Liver weights (PND 21) and xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme activities (PND 21 and 46) were increased in both male and female offspring exposed to 250 and 750 mg/kg diets. Furthermore, serum T4 levels were reduced at PND 21 in both,male and female offspring (250 and 750 mg/kg). At PND 21, Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was decreased in males exposed to 750 mg/kg dietat, and females exposed to 250 and 750 mg/kg diets. At PND 46 ALP was significantly elevated in males (250 and 750 mg/kg). Variations in the cervical vertebrae and phalanges were observed in pups at PND 4 (250 and 750 mg/kg). Therefore, BFR exposure during gestation through to weaning alters developmental programming in the offspring. The persistence of BFRs in the environment remains a cause for concern with regards to developmental toxicity.

  1. Expression of transcripts for fibroblast growth factor 18 and its possible receptors during postnatal dentin formation in rat molars.

    PubMed

    Baba, Otto; Ota, Masato S; Terashima, Tatsuo; Tabata, Makoto J; Takano, Yoshiro

    2015-05-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) regulate the proliferation and differentiation of various cells via their respective receptors (FGFRs). During the early stages of tooth development in fetal mice, FGFs and FGFRs have been shown to be expressed in dental epithelia and mesenchymal cells at the initial stages of odontogenesis and to regulate cell proliferation and differentiation. However, little is known about the expression patterns of FGFs in the advanced stages of tooth development. In the present study, we focused on FGF18 expression in the rat mandibular first molar (M1) during the postnatal crown and root formation stages. FGF18 signals by RT-PCR using cDNAs from M1 were very weak at postnatal day 5 and were significantly up-regulated at days 7, 9 and 15. Transcripts were undetectable by in situ hybridization (ISH) but could be detected by in situ RT-PCR in the differentiated odontoblasts and cells of the sub-odontoblastic layer in both crown and root portions of M1 at day 15. The transcripts of FGFR2c and FGFR3, possible candidate receptors of FGF18, were detected by RT-PCR and ISH in differentiated odontoblasts throughout postnatal development. These results suggest the continual involvement of FGF18 signaling in the regulation of odontoblasts during root formation where it may contribute to dentin matrix formation and/or mineralization.

  2. Oxygen-sensitive regulation and neuroprotective effects of growth hormone-dependent growth factors during early postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Jung, Susan; Boie, Gudrun; Doerr, Helmuth-Guenther; Trollmann, Regina

    2017-04-01

    Perinatal hypoxia severely disrupts metabolic and somatotrophic development, as well as cerebral maturational programs. Hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) represent the most important endogenous adaptive mechanisms to hypoxia, activating a broad spectrum of growth factors that contribute to cell survival and energy homeostasis. To analyze effects of systemic hypoxia and growth hormone (GH) therapy (rhGH) on HIF-dependent growth factors during early postnatal development, we compared protein (using ELISA) and mRNA (using quantitative RT PCR) levels of growth factors in plasma and brain between normoxic and hypoxic mice (8% O2, 6 h; postnatal day 7, P7) at P14. Exposure to hypoxia led to reduced body weight (P < 0.001) and length (P < 0.04) compared with controls and was associated with significantly reduced plasma levels of mouse GH (P < 0.01) and IGF-1 (P < 0.01). RhGH abrogated these hypoxia-induced changes of the GH/IGF-1 axis associated with normalization of weight and length gain until P14 compared with controls. In addition, rhGH treatment increased cerebral IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP-2, and erythropoietin mRNA levels, resulting in significantly reduced apoptotic cell death in the hypoxic, developing mouse brain. These data indicate that rhGH may functionally restore hypoxia-induced systemic dysregulation of the GH/IGF-1 axis and induce upregulation of neuroprotective, HIF-dependent growth factors in the hypoxic developing brain.

  3. Expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in the mouse neocortex and posterior piriform cortices during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Li, Lingling; Wang, Jiutao; An, Lei; Hu, Xinde; Xie, Jiongfang; Yan, Runchuan; Chen, Shulin; Zhao, Shanting

    2014-11-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) functions as a pleiotropic protein, participating in a vast array of cellular and biological processes. Abnormal expression of MIF has been implicated in many neurological diseases, including Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, Alzheimer's Disease, stroke, and neuropathic pain. However, the expression patterns of mif transcript and MIF protein from the early postnatal period through adulthood in the mouse brain are still poorly understood. We therefore investigated the temporal and spatial expression of MIF in the mouse neocortex during postnatal development in detail and partially in posterior piriform cortices (pPC). As determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), mif transcript gradually increased during development, with the highest level noted at postnatal day 30 (P30) followed by a sharp decline at P75. In contrast, Western blotting results showed that MIF increased constantly from P7 to P75. The highest level of MIF was at P75, while the lowest level of MIF was at P7. Immunofluorescence histochemistry revealed that MIF-immunoreactive (ir) cells were within the entire depth of the developed neocortex, and MIF was heterogeneously distributed among cortical cells, especially at P7, P14, P30, and P75; MIF was abundant in the pyramidal layer within pPC. Double immunostaining showed that all the mature neurons were MIF-ir and all the intensely stained MIF-ir cells were parvalbumin positive (Pv +) at adult. Moreover, it was demonstrated that MIF protein localized in the perikaryon, processes, presynaptic structures, and the nucleus in neurons. Taken together, the developmentally regulated expression and the subcellular localization of MIF should form a platform for an analysis of MIF neurodevelopmental biology and MIF-related nerve diseases.

  4. [Environmental factors in Asperger syndrome].

    PubMed

    Abe, Takaaki; Kato, Satoshi

    2007-03-01

    This paper reviews what is currently known about the environmental factors in Asperger syndrome that is a neurodevelopmental disorder of genetic origins. Its characteristics tend to occur in families of those with the syndrome. The rate of complications during pregnancy or the neonatal period in the patients with Asperger syndrome was about the same as that in the control group. It is true that their involvement in their outer world could not influence the core social deficits very much. But it might facilitate the appearance of the second symptoms such as dissociation, anxiety, depression, persecutory delusion as well as antisocial behavior including serious criminal acts.

  5. [Environmental factors in juvenile delinquency].

    PubMed

    Barbagallo, A; Bellia, A; Benvenuto, G; Contiguglia, M A; Cosentino, F

    1975-09-12

    Experimental data are cited for the proposition that the complicated aspects of juvenile delinquency can only be understood and explained by adopting a simultaneous psychological and sociological approach. It is also shown that the manifestations of delinquency, though not its actual presence, may be influenced by sex and a depressed city or rural background. Environmental factors serving as stimulating features and hereditary (i.e. predisposing) factors undoubtedly contribute to the formation of the Ego. The former, however, are elaborated by their receipient and are not sufficient to explain a certain type of behaviour. The influence of cultural models should not be underestimated. These, where predominant, tend to render normative what may be considered as deviant.

  6. Neurodevelopmental Plasticity in Pre- and Postnatal Environmental Interactions: Implications for Psychiatric Disorders from an Evolutionary Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-A; Yamaguchi, Yoshie; Goto, Yukiori

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are disadvantageous behavioral phenotypes in humans. Accordingly, a recent epidemiological study has reported decreased fecundity in patients with psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. Moreover, the fecundity of the relatives of these patients is not exceedingly higher compared to the fecundity of the relatives of normal subjects. Collectively, the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among humans is expected to decrease over generations. Nevertheless, in reality, the prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in humans either have been constant over a long period of time or have even increased more recently. Several attempts to explain this fact have been made using biological mechanisms, such as de novo gene mutations or variants, although none of these explanations is fully comprehensive. Here, we propose a hypothesis towards understanding the biological mechanisms of psychiatric disorders from evolutionary perspectives. This hypothesis considers that behavioral phenotypes associated with psychiatric disorders might have emerged in the evolution of organisms as a neurodevelopmental adaptation against adverse environmental conditions associated with stress. PMID:26060583

  7. Neurodevelopmental Plasticity in Pre- and Postnatal Environmental Interactions: Implications for Psychiatric Disorders from an Evolutionary Perspective.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-A; Yamaguchi, Yoshie; Goto, Yukiori

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are disadvantageous behavioral phenotypes in humans. Accordingly, a recent epidemiological study has reported decreased fecundity in patients with psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. Moreover, the fecundity of the relatives of these patients is not exceedingly higher compared to the fecundity of the relatives of normal subjects. Collectively, the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among humans is expected to decrease over generations. Nevertheless, in reality, the prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in humans either have been constant over a long period of time or have even increased more recently. Several attempts to explain this fact have been made using biological mechanisms, such as de novo gene mutations or variants, although none of these explanations is fully comprehensive. Here, we propose a hypothesis towards understanding the biological mechanisms of psychiatric disorders from evolutionary perspectives. This hypothesis considers that behavioral phenotypes associated with psychiatric disorders might have emerged in the evolution of organisms as a neurodevelopmental adaptation against adverse environmental conditions associated with stress.

  8. Association between Molar Incisor Hypomineralization in Schoolchildren and Both Prenatal and Postnatal Factors: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; Bendo, Cristiane Baccin; Zarzar, Patrícia Maria; Vale, Miriam Pimenta

    2016-01-01

    Background Although studies throughout the world have investigated potential factors involved in the occurrence of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH), the findings are varied and inconclusive. Objective The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of MIH and identify associated prenatal, perinatal and postnatal factors among Brazilian schoolchildren aged 8 and 9 years. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with a randomly selected population-based sample of 1181 schoolchildren. Information on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics as well as prenatal, perinatal and postnatal aspects was obtained through questionnaires. The clinical examination included the investigation of MIH based on the criteria of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry. Dental caries in the permanent dentition and developmental defects of enamel (DDE) on the primary second molars were also recorded. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics, bivariate tests and Poisson regression with robust variance. Results The prevalence of MIH was 20.4%. MIH was more frequent among children with dental caries in the permanent dentition (PR: 2.67; 95% CI: 1.98–3.61), those with DDE on the primary second molars (PR: 2.54; 95% CI: 1.87–3.45) and those who experienced asthma/bronchitis in the first four years of life (PR: 1.93; 95% CI: 1.45–2.56). Conclusions The prevalence of MIH was high and was associated with dental caries, the presence of DDE on primary second molars and the experience of asthma/bronchitis in early life. These findings could be useful in the identification of children in need of shorter recall intervals to prevent the consequences of MIH, such as enamel breakdown dental caries. PMID:27280451

  9. Environmental Volunteers: Factors Influencing Their Involvement in Environmental Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liarakou, Georgia; Kostelou, Eleni; Gavrilakis, Costas

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the factors that influence volunteers to become involved in environmental action. The research focused on volunteers undertaking action in summer camps organised by an environmental non-governmental organisation (NGO) in Greece. The results suggest that the environmental issues addressed in volunteer…

  10. Postnatal developmental expression of the PDZ scaffolds Na+-H+ exchanger regulatory factors 1 and 2 in the rat cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Kanjhan, Refik; Hryciw, Deanne H.; Bellingham, Mark C.; Poronnik, Philip; Yun, C. Chris

    2006-01-01

    Sensory transduction in the mammalian cochlea requires the maintenance of specialized fluid compartments with distinct ionic compositions. This is achieved by the concerted action of diverse ion channels and transporters, some of which can interact with the PDZ scaffolds, Na+-H+ exchanger regulatory factors 1 and 2 (NHERF-1, NHERF-2). Here, we report that NHERF-1 and NHERF-2 are widely expressed in the rat cochlea, and that their expression is developmentally regulated. Reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting initially confirmed the RNA and protein expression of NHERFs. We then performed immunohistochemistry on cochlea during various stages of postnatal development. Prior to the onset of hearing (P8), NHERF-1 immunolabeling was prominently polarized to the apical membrane of cells lining the endolymphatic compartment, including the stereocilia and cuticular plates of the inner and outer hair cells, marginal cells of the stria vascularis, Reissner’s epithelia, and tectorial membrane. With maturation (P21, P70), NHERF-1 immunolabeling was reduced in the above structures, whereas labeling increased in the apical membrane of the interdental cells of the spiral limbus and the inner and outer sulcus cells, Hensen’s cells, the inner and outer pillar cells, Deiters cells, the inner border cells, spiral ligament fibrocytes, and spiral ganglion neurons (particularly type II). NHERF-1 expression in strial basal and intermediate cells was persistent. NHERF-2 immunolabeling was similar to that for NHERF-1 during postnatal development, with the exception of expression in the synaptic regions beneath the outer hair cells. NHERF-1 and NHERF-2 co-localized with glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin in glia. The cochlear localization of NHERF scaffolds suggests that they play important roles in the developmental regulation of ion transport, homeostasis, and auditory neurotransmission. PMID:16160858

  11. Overweight at age two years in a multi-ethnic cohort (ABCD study): the role of prenatal factors, birth outcomes and postnatal factors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Childhood overweight/obesity is a major public health problem worldwide which disproportionally affects specific ethnic groups. Little is known about whether such differences already exist at an early age and which factors contribute to these ethnic differences. Therefore, the present study assessed possible ethnic differences in overweight at age 2 years, and the potential explanatory role of prenatal factors, birth outcomes and postnatal factors. Methods Data were derived from a multi-ethnic cohort in the Netherlands (the ABCD study). Weight and height data of 3,156 singleton infants at age 2 years were used. Five ethnic populations were distinguished: Dutch native (n = 1,718), African descent (n = 238), Turkish (n = 162), Moroccan (n = 245) and other non-Dutch (n = 793). Overweight status was defined by the International Obesity Task Force guidelines. The explanatory role of prenatal factors, birth outcomes and postnatal factors in ethnic disparities in overweight (including obesity) was assessed by logistic regression analysis. Results Compared to the native Dutch (7.1%), prevalence of overweight was higher in the Turkish (19.8%) and Moroccan (16.7%) group, whereas the prevalence was not increased in the African descent (9.2%) and other non-Dutch (8.8%) group. Although maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index partly explained the ethnic differences, the odds ratio (OR) of being overweight remained higher in the Turkish (OR: 2.66; 95%CI: 1.56-4.53) and Moroccan (OR: 2.11; 95%CI: 1.31-3.38) groups after adjusting for prenatal factors. The remaining differences were largely accounted for by weight gain during the first 6 months of life (postnatal factor). Maternal height, birth weight and gender were independent predictors for overweight at age 2 years, but did not explain the ethnic differences. Conclusion Turkish and Moroccan children in the Netherlands have 2- to 3-fold higher odds for being overweight at age 2 years, which is largely attributed to

  12. Developmental effects of exposures to environmental factors: the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Polanska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech; Sobala, Wojciech; Trzcinka-Ochocka, Malgorzata; Ligocka, Danuta; Brzeznicki, Slawomir; Strugala-Stawik, Halina; Magnus, Per

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates the effects of exposure to environmental factors, including lead, mercury, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), on child psychomotor development. The study population consists of mother-child pairs in the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to environmental factors was determined from biomarker measurements as follows: for lead exposure--cord blood lead level, for mercury--maternal hair mercury level, for ETS--cotinine level in saliva and urine, and for PAH--1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP) in urine. At the age of 12 (406 subjects) and 24 months (198 subjects) children were assessed using Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. There were no statistically significant effects of prenatal exposure to mercury or 1-HP on child psychomotor development. After adjusting for potential confounders, adverse effects of prenatal exposure to ETS on motor development ( β = -2.6; P = 0.02) and postnatal exposure to ETS on cognitive ( β = -0.2; P = 0.05) and motor functions ( β = -0.5; P = 0.01) were found. The adverse effect of prenatal lead exposure on cognitive score was of borderline significance ( β = -6.2; P = 0.06). The study underscores the importance of policies and public health interventions that aim to reduce prenatal and postnatal exposure to lead and ETS.

  13. Effects of visual experience on vascular endothelial growth factor expression during the postnatal development of the rat visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Bengoetxea, Harkaitz; Argandoña, Enrike G; Lafuente, José V

    2008-07-01

    The development of the cortical vascular network depends on functional maturation. External inputs are an essential requirement in the modeling of the visual cortex, mainly during the critical period, when the functional and structural properties of visual cortical neurons are particularly susceptible to alterations. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the major angiogenic factor, a key signal in the induction of vessel growth. Our study focused on the role of visual stimuli on the development of the vascular pattern correlated with VEGF levels. Vascular density and the expression of VEGF were examined in the primary visual cortex of rats reared under different visual environments (dark rearing, dark-rearing in conditions of enriched environment, enriched environment, and laboratory standard conditions) during postnatal development (before, during, and after the critical period). Our results show a restricted VEGF cellular expression to astroglial cells. Quantitative differences appeared during the critical period: higher vascular density and VEGF protein levels were found in the enriched environment group; both dark-reared groups showed lower vascular density and VEGF levels, which means that enriched environment without the physical exercise component does not exert effects in dark-reared rats.

  14. Effects of Visual Experience on Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression during the Postnatal Development of the Rat Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Argandoña, Enrike G.; Lafuente, José V.

    2008-01-01

    The development of the cortical vascular network depends on functional maturation. External inputs are an essential requirement in the modeling of the visual cortex, mainly during the critical period, when the functional and structural properties of visual cortical neurons are particularly susceptible to alterations. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the major angiogenic factor, a key signal in the induction of vessel growth. Our study focused on the role of visual stimuli on the development of the vascular pattern correlated with VEGF levels. Vascular density and the expression of VEGF were examined in the primary visual cortex of rats reared under different visual environments (dark rearing, dark-rearing in conditions of enriched environment, enriched environment, and laboratory standard conditions) during postnatal development (before, during, and after the critical period). Our results show a restricted VEGF cellular expression to astroglial cells. Quantitative differences appeared during the critical period: higher vascular density and VEGF protein levels were found in the enriched environment group; both dark-reared groups showed lower vascular density and VEGF levels, which means that enriched environment without the physical exercise component does not exert effects in dark-reared rats. PMID:17986606

  15. Revisiting the dimensional structure of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS): empirical evidence for a general factor

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) has been proposed as a one-dimensional instrument and used as a single 10-item scale. This might be considered questionable since repeated psychometric studies have shown multi-dimensionality, which would entail using separate component subscales. This study reappraised the dimensional structure of the EPDS, with a focus on the extent of factor correlations and related factor-based discriminant validity as a foundation for deciding how to effectively scale the component items. Methods The sample comprised 811 randomly selected mothers of children up to 5 months attending primary health services of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Strict Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and Exploratory Factor Analysis modeled within a CFA framework (E/CFA) were sequentially used to identify best fitting and parsimonious model(s), including a bifactor analysis to evaluate the existence of a general factor. Properties concerning the related 10-item raw-score scale were also investigated using non-parametric items response theory methods (scalability and monotonicity). Results An initial CFA rejected the one-dimensional structure, while an E/CFA subscribed a three-dimensional solution. Yet, factors were highly correlated (0.66, 0.75 and 0.82). The ensuing CFA showed poor discriminant validity (some square-roots of average variance extracted below the factor correlations). A general bifactor CFA was then fit. Results suggested that, although still weakly encompassing three specific factors, the EPDS might be better described by a model encompassing a general factor (loadings ranging from 0.51 to 0.81). The related 10-item raw score showed adequate scalability (Loevinger's H coefficient = 0.4208), monotonicity e partial double monotonicity (nonintersections of Item Step Response Functions). Conclusion Although the EPDS indicated the presence of specific factors, they do not qualify as independent dimensions if used separately and should

  16. Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers' Motor Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…

  17. Postnatal Care Service Utilization and Associated Factors among Women Who Gave Birth in the Last 12 Months prior to the Study in Debre Markos Town, Northwestern Ethiopia: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Limenih, Miteku Andualem; Endale, Zerfu Mulaw; Dachew, Berihun Assefa

    2016-01-01

    Improving maternal and newborn health through proper postnatal care services under the care of skilled health personnel is the key strategy to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality. However, there were limited evidences on utilization of postnatal care services in Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Debremarkos town, Northwest Ethiopia. Cluster sampling technique was used to select 588 study participants. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression model was fitted to identify factors associated with postnatal care utilization. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was computed to determine the level of significance. Postnatal care service utilization was found to be 33.5%. Awareness about maternal complication (AOR: 2.72, 95% CI (1.71, 4.34)), place of delivery of last child (AOR: 1.68, 95% CI: (1.01, 2.79)), outcome of birth (AOR: 2.71, 95% CI (1.19, 6.19)), delivery by cesarean section (AOR: 4.82, 95% CI (1.86, 12.54)), and delivery complication that occurred during birth (AOR: 2.58, 95% CI (1.56, 4.28)) were factors associated with postnatal care service utilization. Postnatal care service utilization was found to be low. Increasing awareness about postnatal care, preventing maternal and neonatal complication, and scheduling mothers based on the national postnatal care follow-up protocol would increase postnatal care service utilization. PMID:27433481

  18. The expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor (EGFR) during post-natal testes development in the yak.

    PubMed

    Pan, Y; Cui, Y; Yu, S; Zhang, Q; Fan, J; Abdul Rasheed, B; Yang, K

    2014-12-01

    Growth factors play critical role in cell proliferation, regulate tissue differentiation and modulate organogenesis. Several growth factors have been identified in the testes of various mammalian species in last few years. In present investigation, the objective was to determine the expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in yak testicular tissue by relative quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot (WB) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) from mRNA and protein levels. The testicular tissues were collected from male yak at 6 and 24 months old. Results of RT-PCR and WB showed that the expression quantity of EGF and EGFR at 24 months of age was higher than at 6 months, and the increase rate of EGFR on mRNA and protein levels was higher than the increase rate EGF during post-natal testes development. Positive staining for EGF and EGFR was very low and mainly localized to Leydig cells testes at 6 months of age with immunohistochemistry, and seminiferous tubules were not observed. At 24 month of age, both the EGF and EGFR could be detected in Leydig cells, peritubular myoid cells, sertoli cells and germ cells of the yak testes. However, EGF and EGFR were localized to preferential adluminal compartment and basal compartment in the seminiferous tubules, respectively. In conclusion, the findings in present studies suggest that EGF and EGFR as important paracrine and/or autocrine regulators in yak testes development and spermatogenesis.

  19. Why Aren't Identical Twins Linguistically Identical? Genetic, Prenatal and Postnatal Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromswold, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Results of twin studies clearly demonstrate that genetic factors play an important role in the rate of language acquisition and linguistic proficiency attained by normal and impaired children and adults [see Stromswold, K. (2001). The heritability of language: A review and meta-analysis of twin, adoption and linkage studies. "Language," 77,…

  20. Pre and post-natal risk and determination of factors for child obesity

    PubMed Central

    Trandafir, LM; Temneanu, OR

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is considered a condition presenting a complex, multi-factorial etiology that implies genetic and non-genetic factors. The way the available information should be efficiently and strategically used in the obesity and overweight prohylaxisprogrammes for children all over the world is still unclear for most of the risk factors. Mothers’ pre-conception weight and weight gain during pregnancy are two of the most important prenatal determinants of childhood obesity. Maternal obesity and gestational weight gain are associated with foetal macrosomia and childhood obesity, and this effect extends into adulthood. Obesity and the metabolic syndrome in children originate in intrauterine life. The current obesity epidemic is probably the result of our evolutive inheritance associated with the consumption of highly processed food with an increased calorific value. The determination of risk factors involved in child obesity are: genetic predisposition, diet, sedentary behaviors, socioeconomic position, ethnic origin, microbiota, iatrogenic, endocrine diseases, congenital and acquired hypothalamic defects, usage of medications affecting appetite. However, the vast majority of patients will not have any of these identifiable conditions. Regardless of the aetiology, all the patients should be considered for modifiable lifestyle risk factors and screened for the complications of obesity. PMID:27928443

  1. Pre and post-natal risk and determination of factors for child obesity.

    PubMed

    Trandafir, L M; Temneanu, O R

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is considered a condition presenting a complex, multi-factorial etiology that implies genetic and non-genetic factors. The way the available information should be efficiently and strategically used in the obesity and overweight prohylaxisprogrammes for children all over the world is still unclear for most of the risk factors. Mothers' pre-conception weight and weight gain during pregnancy are two of the most important prenatal determinants of childhood obesity. Maternal obesity and gestational weight gain are associated with foetal macrosomia and childhood obesity, and this effect extends into adulthood. Obesity and the metabolic syndrome in children originate in intrauterine life. The current obesity epidemic is probably the result of our evolutive inheritance associated with the consumption of highly processed food with an increased calorific value. The determination of risk factors involved in child obesity are: genetic predisposition, diet, sedentary behaviors, socioeconomic position, ethnic origin, microbiota, iatrogenic, endocrine diseases, congenital and acquired hypothalamic defects, usage of medications affecting appetite. However, the vast majority of patients will not have any of these identifiable conditions. Regardless of the aetiology, all the patients should be considered for modifiable lifestyle risk factors and screened for the complications of obesity.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH MENTAL RETARDATION AND DEVELOPMENT DISABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    A number of environmental agents have been shown to demonstrate neurotoxic effects either in human or laboratory animal studies. Critical windows of vulnerability to the effects of these agents occur both pre- and postnatally. The nervous system is relatively un...

  3. Vascular endothelial growth factor mediates reactive angiogenesis in the postnatal developing brain.

    PubMed

    Ment, L R; Stewart, W B; Fronc, R; Seashore, C; Mahooti, S; Scaramuzzino, D; Madri, J A

    1997-05-20

    Although chronic sublethal hypoxia has been shown to promote angiogenesis in the developing brain, the pathogenesis of this response is unknown. We hypothesized that this response may be mediated in part by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We reared newborn rats (P3) in a chamber with FIO2 of 9.5 +/- 1% (exposed, E). At P33, the animals were removed from the chamber and the brains prepared for immunohistochemistry, mRNA extraction, or horseradish peroxidase (HRP) permeability studies. We also isolated beagle brain germinal matrix endothelial cells from PND 1 beagle pups and placed them in three-dimensional (3-D) coculture with PND 1 rat forebrain astrocytes. Cultures were grown for 6 days in 11% O2 and compared to control 3-D cocultures. When compared to age-matched controls, the experimental rats had significantly increased cortical vascular density (vessels/mm2: 518 +/- 18 vs. 400 +/- 15, P = 0.025). HRP studies demonstrated significantly increased permeability in all cortical vessels examined in experimental rats compared to controls. Compared to controls, VEGF mRNA from hypoxic pups was increased 2.4 times, and immunohistochemical studies of VEGF protein confirmed this finding. Similarly, when compared to controls, hypoxic cocultures of brain microvascular endothelial cells and astrocytes demonstrated significant increase in tubelike structures representing in vitro angiogenesis. Additionally, astrocyte VEGF protein levels increased 4.4-fold in hypoxic compared to control astrocyte cultures and VEGF protein levels increased 1.7-fold in hypoxic compared to control cocultures. Finally, addition of VEGF (10 ng/ml culture medium) to BBMEC alone in 3-D culture elicited not only significant proliferation (P = 0.001) but also increased tube formation. These data demonstrate that the developing brain responds to chronic sublethal hypoxia with increases in permeability and angiogenesis and suggest that VEGF mediates this response.

  4. Convergence of genetic and environmental factors on parvalbumin-positive interneurons in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhihong; Cowell, Rita M.; Nakazawa, Kazu

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia etiology is thought to involve an interaction between genetic and environmental factors during postnatal brain development. However, there is a fundamental gap in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which environmental factors interact with genetic susceptibility to trigger symptom onset and disease progression. In this review, we summarize the most recent findings implicating oxidative stress as one mechanism by which environmental insults, especially early life social stress, impact the development of schizophrenia. Based on a review of the literature and the results of our own animal model, we suggest that environmental stressors such as social isolation render parvalbumin-positive interneurons (PVIs) vulnerable to oxidative stress. We previously reported that social isolation stress exacerbates many of the schizophrenia-like phenotypes seen in a conditional genetic mouse model in which NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are selectively ablated in half of cortical and hippocampal interneurons during early postnatal development (Belforte et al., 2010). We have since revealed that this social isolation-induced effect is caused by impairments in the antioxidant defense capacity in the PVIs in which NMDARs are ablated. We propose that this effect is mediated by the down-regulation of PGC-1α, a master regulator of mitochondrial energy metabolism and anti-oxidant defense, following the deletion of NMDARs (Jiang et al., 2013). Other potential molecular mechanisms underlying redox dysfunction upon gene and environmental interaction will be discussed, with a focus on the unique properties of PVIs. PMID:24027504

  5. Early postnatal handling and environmental enrichment improve the behavioral responses of 17-month-old 3xTg-AD and non-transgenic mice in the Forced Swim Test in a gender-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Torres-Lista, Virginia; Giménez-Llort, Lydia

    2015-11-01

    Forced Swimming Test (FST) models behavioural despair in animals by loss of motivation to respond or the refusal to escape. The present study was aimed at characterizing genetic (genotype and gender) and environmental factors (age/stage of disease and rearing conditions: C, standard; H, early postnatal handling; EE, environmental enrichment consisting in physical exercise as well as social and object enrichment) that may modulate the poor behavioural and cognitive flexibility response we have recently described in 12-month-old male 3xTg-AD mice in the FST. The comprehensive analysis of the ethogram shown in the FST considered the intervals of the test (0-2 and 2-6min), all the elicited behavioural responses (immobility, swimming and climbing) and their features (total duration and frequency of episodes). The long persistence of behaviours found in 17-month-old (late-stages of disease) 3xTg-AD mice was comparable to that recently described in males at 12 months of age (beginning of advanced stages) but also suggested increased age-dependent frailty in both genotypes. The poor behavioral flexibility of 3xTg-AD mice to elicit the behavioural despair shown by the NTg mice, was also found in the female gender. Finally, the present work demonstrates that early-life interventions were able to improve the time and frequency of episodes of immobility, being more evident in the female gender of both old NTg and 3xTg-AD mice. Ontogenic modulation by early-postnatal handling resulted in a more effective long-term improvement of the elicited behaviours in the FST than that achieved by environmental enrichment. The results talk in favor of the beneficence of early-life interventions on ageing in both healthy and disease conditions.

  6. Parkinson's disease: evidence for environmental risk factors.

    PubMed

    Kieburtz, Karl; Wunderle, Kathryn B

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) has no known cause. Although recent research has focused particularly on genetic causes of PD, environmental causes also play a role in developing the disease. This article reviews environmental factors that may increase the risk of PD, as well as the evidence behind those factors. Enough evidence exists to suggest that age has a causal relationship to PD. Significant evidence exists that gender, tobacco use, and caffeine consumption are also associated with the development of PD. Other environmental factors (pesticide exposure, occupation, blood urate levels, NSAID use, brain injury, and exercise) have limited or conflicting evidence of a relationship to PD. Future research must not neglect the impact of these environmental factors on the development of PD, especially with respect to potential gene-environment interactions.

  7. Environmental Factors Influencing Epidemic Cholera

    PubMed Central

    Jutla, Antarpreet; Whitcombe, Elizabeth; Hasan, Nur; Haley, Bradd; Akanda, Ali; Huq, Anwar; Alam, Munir; Sack, R. Bradley; Colwell, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Cholera outbreak following the earthquake of 2010 in Haiti has reaffirmed that the disease is a major public health threat. Vibrio cholerae is autochthonous to aquatic environment, hence, it cannot be eradicated but hydroclimatology-based prediction and prevention is an achievable goal. Using data from the 1800s, we describe uniqueness in seasonality and mechanism of occurrence of cholera in the epidemic regions of Asia and Latin America. Epidemic regions are located near regional rivers and are characterized by sporadic outbreaks, which are likely to be initiated during episodes of prevailing warm air temperature with low river flows, creating favorable environmental conditions for growth of cholera bacteria. Heavy rainfall, through inundation or breakdown of sanitary infrastructure, accelerates interaction between contaminated water and human activities, resulting in an epidemic. This causal mechanism is markedly different from endemic cholera where tidal intrusion of seawater carrying bacteria from estuary to inland regions, results in outbreaks. PMID:23897993

  8. Environmental factors influencing epidemic cholera.

    PubMed

    Jutla, Antarpreet; Whitcombe, Elizabeth; Hasan, Nur; Haley, Bradd; Akanda, Ali; Huq, Anwar; Alam, Munir; Sack, R Bradley; Colwell, Rita

    2013-09-01

    Cholera outbreak following the earthquake of 2010 in Haiti has reaffirmed that the disease is a major public health threat. Vibrio cholerae is autochthonous to aquatic environment, hence, it cannot be eradicated but hydroclimatology-based prediction and prevention is an achievable goal. Using data from the 1800s, we describe uniqueness in seasonality and mechanism of occurrence of cholera in the epidemic regions of Asia and Latin America. Epidemic regions are located near regional rivers and are characterized by sporadic outbreaks, which are likely to be initiated during episodes of prevailing warm air temperature with low river flows, creating favorable environmental conditions for growth of cholera bacteria. Heavy rainfall, through inundation or breakdown of sanitary infrastructure, accelerates interaction between contaminated water and human activities, resulting in an epidemic. This causal mechanism is markedly different from endemic cholera where tidal intrusion of seawater carrying bacteria from estuary to inland regions, results in outbreaks.

  9. Environmental factors that shape biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Toyofuku, Masanori; Inaba, Tomohiro; Kiyokawa, Tatsunori; Obana, Nozomu; Yawata, Yutaka; Nomura, Nobuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Cells respond to the environment and alter gene expression. Recent studies have revealed the social aspects of bacterial life, such as biofilm formation. Biofilm formation is largely affected by the environment, and the mechanisms by which the gene expression of individual cells affects biofilm development have attracted interest. Environmental factors determine the cell's decision to form or leave a biofilm. In addition, the biofilm structure largely depends on the environment, implying that biofilms are shaped to adapt to local conditions. Second messengers such as cAMP and c-di-GMP are key factors that link environmental factors with gene regulation. Cell-to-cell communication is also an important factor in shaping the biofilm. In this short review, we will introduce the basics of biofilm formation and further discuss environmental factors that shape biofilm formation. Finally, the state-of-the-art tools that allow us investigate biofilms under various conditions are discussed.

  10. Environmental Risk Factors for ARDS

    PubMed Central

    Moazed, Farzad; Calfee, Carolyn S.

    2014-01-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Over the past several decades, alcohol abuse and cigarette smoke exposure have been identified as risk factors for the development of ARDS. The mechanisms underlying these relationships are complex and remain under investigation but are thought to involve pulmonary immune impairment as well as alveolar epithelial and endothelial dysfunction. This review summarizes the epidemiologic data supporting links between these exposures and ARDS susceptibility and outcomes and highlights key mechanistic investigations that provide insight into the pathways by which each exposure is linked to ARDS. PMID:25453414

  11. The hypoxia-inducible factors HIF1α and HIF2α are dispensable for embryonic muscle development but essential for postnatal muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin; Yang, Shiqi; Wang, Chao; Kuang, Shihuan

    2017-04-07

    Muscle satellite cells are myogenic stem cells whose quiescence, activation, self-renewal, and differentiation are influenced by oxygen supply, an environmental regulator of stem cell activity. Accordingly, stem cell-specific oxygen signaling pathways precisely control the balance between muscle growth and regeneration in response to oxygen fluctuations, and hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are central mediators of these cellular responses. However, the in vivo roles of HIFs in quiescent satellite cells and activated satellite cells (myoblasts) are poorly understood. Using transgenic mouse models for cell-specific HIF expression, we show here that HIF1α and HIF2α are preferentially expressed in pre- and post-differentiation myoblasts, respectively. Interestingly, double knockouts of HIF1α and HIF2α (HIF1α/2α dKO) generated with the MyoD(Cre) system in embryonic myoblasts resulted in apparently normal muscle development and growth. However, HIF1α/2α dKO produced with the tamoxifen-inducible, satellite cell-specific Pax7(CreER) system in postnatal satellite cells delayed injury-induced muscle repair due to a reduced number of myoblasts during regeneration. Analysis of satellite cell dynamics on myofibers confirmed that HIF1α/2α dKO myoblasts exhibit reduced self-renewal but more pronounced differentiation under hypoxic conditions. Mechanistically, the HIF1α/2α dKO blunted hypoxia-induced activation of Notch signaling, a key determinant of satellite cell self-renewal. We conclude that HIF1α and HIF2α are dispensable for muscle stem cell function under normoxia but are required for maintaining satellite cell self-renewal in hypoxic environments. Our insights into a critical mechanism in satellite cell homeostasis during muscle regeneration could help inform research efforts to treat muscle diseases or improve muscle function.

  12. The Role of Pre- and Postnatal Timing of Family Risk Factors on Child Behavior at 36 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bekkhus, Mona; Rutter, Michael; Barker, Edward D.; Borge, Anne I. H.

    2011-01-01

    Children growing up in disharmonious families with anxious/depressed mothers are at risk for emotional and behavioral difficulties, however whether these associations reflect postnatal environment, prenatal exposure, or an overall liability is still unclear. This study used prospectively collected data from 24,259 participants of the Norwegian…

  13. Dorsal raphe serotonin neurons in mice: immature hyperexcitability transitions to adult state during first three postnatal weeks suggesting sensitive period for environmental perturbation.

    PubMed

    Rood, Benjamin D; Calizo, Lyngine H; Piel, David; Spangler, Zachary P; Campbell, Kaitlin; Beck, Sheryl G

    2014-04-02

    Trauma during early life is a major risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders and suggests that the developing brain may be particularly sensitive to perturbation. Increased vulnerability most likely involves altering neural circuits involved in emotional regulation. The role of serotonin in emotional regulation is well established, but little is known about the postnatal development of the raphe where serotonin is made. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recording and immunohistochemistry, we tested whether serotonin circuitry in the dorsal and median raphe was functionally mature during the first 3 postnatal weeks in mice. Serotonin neurons at postnatal day 4 (P4) were hyperexcitable. The increased excitability was due to depolarized resting membrane potential, increased resistance, increased firing rate, lack of 5-HT1A autoreceptor response, and lack of GABA synaptic activity. Over the next 2 weeks, membrane resistance decreased and resting membrane potential hyperpolarized due in part to potassium current activation. The 5-HT1A autoreceptor-mediated inhibition did not develop until P21. The frequency of spontaneous inhibitory and excitatory events increased as neurons extended and refined their dendritic arbor. Serotonin colocalized with vGlut3 at P4 as in adulthood, suggesting enhanced release of glutamate alongside enhanced serotonin release. Because serotonin affects circuit development in other brain regions, altering the developmental trajectory of serotonin neuron excitability and release could have many downstream consequences. We conclude that serotonin neuron structure and function change substantially during the first 3 weeks of life during which external stressors could potentially alter circuit formation.

  14. [Environmental factors and primary biliary cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Chen, L P; Zhao, H; Lyu, B; Cheng, J L

    2016-07-20

    The complex interplay between immune factors and genetic susceptibility plays an essential role in autoimmune diseases. This is especially true for primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). PBC is an autoimmune cholestatic liver disease characterized by the destruction of the small intrahepatic bile ducts and the presence of high-titer antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA). Among the currently known risk factors, genetic predisposition remains to be the dominant one. However, it is insufficient to explain the different geographic distributions of PBC and the incomplete concordance in identical twins. This suggests an association between specific environmental factors and the development of PBC. Nevertheless, a clear and rational association of environmental factors with primary biliary cirrhosis has not yet been fully elucidated. Our current understanding of the environmental triggers of PBC is limited to numerous suspected factors involved in its development, such as xenobiotics, electrophilic drugs, infection, and other physical, chemical, and even biological factors. Although the factors leading to the breakdown of immune tolerance in PBC are still largely unknown, related geoepidemiological studies may help us better understand the impact of the environment. In addition, a better understanding of the interplay between environmental factors and PBC is the critical step toward improving our management and control of PBC and autoimmunity in general.

  15. Factors Contributing to Institutions Achieving Environmental Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Matthew; Card, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine what factors contributed to three universities achieving environmental sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A case study methodology was used to determine how each factor contributed to the institutions' sustainability. Site visits, fieldwork, document reviews, and interviews with…

  16. A missense mutation in the transcription factor ETV5 leads to sterility, increased embryonic and perinatal death, postnatal growth restriction, renal asymmetry and polydactyly in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Jamsai, Duangporn; Clark, Brett J; Smith, Stephanie J; Whittle, Belinda; Goodnow, Christopher C; Ormandy, Christopher J; O'Bryan, Moira K

    2013-01-01

    ETV5 (Ets variant gene 5) is a transcription factor that is required for fertility. In this study, we demonstrate that ETV5 plays additional roles in embryonic and postnatal developmental processes in the mouse. Through a genome-wide mouse mutagenesis approach, we generated a sterile mouse line that carried a nonsense mutation in exon 12 of the Etv5 gene. The mutation led to the conversion of lysine at position 412 into a premature termination codon (PTC) within the ETS DNA binding domain of the protein. We showed that the PTC-containing allele produced a highly unstable mRNA, which in turn resulted in an undetectable level of ETV5 protein. The Etv5 mutation resulted in male and female sterility as determined by breeding experiments. Mutant males were sterile due to a progressive loss of spermatogonia, which ultimately resulted in a Sertoli cell only phenotype by 8 week-of-age. Further, the ETV5 target genes Cxcr4 and Ccl9 were significantly down-regulated in mutant neonate testes. CXCR4 and CCL9 have been implicated in the maintenance and migration of spermatogonia, respectively. Moreover, the Etv5 mutation resulted in several developmental abnormalities including an increased incidence of embryonic and perinatal lethality, postnatal growth restriction, polydactyly and renal asymmetry. Thus, our data define a physiological role for ETV5 in many aspects of development including embryonic and perinatal survival, postnatal growth, limb patterning, kidney development and fertility.

  17. Environmental Factors in the Physiology of Abscission

    PubMed Central

    Addicott, Fredrick T.

    1968-01-01

    This paper reviews the physiological effects of the principal environmental factors which can influence the process of leaf abscission. The factors include temperature, light, water, gases, mineral elements, soil conditions, and parasitic organisms. These factors influence a variety of internal physiological conditions and processes which in turn may either accelerate or retard the process of abscission. The most important internal factors include A) sugar, pectin, cellulose, and other carbohydrates; B) energy-yielding respiration; C) enzymic reactions; D) amino acids, purines, and other nitrogenous substances; E) levels of plant hormones; and F) the molecular biological pathway. The current information is consistent with the hypothesis that the environmental factors act in leaf abscission via direct or indirect influences on the synthesis or reaction rate of enzymes. PMID:16657013

  18. Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of English and Spanish Versions of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale Among Hispanic Women in a Primary Care Setting

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Chelsey M.; Barroso, Nicole; Rey, Yasmin; Pettit, Jeremy W.; Bagner, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although a number of studies have examined the factor structure of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in predominately White or African American samples, no published research has reported on the factor structure among Hispanic women who reside in the United States. Objective The current study examined the factor structure of the EPDS among Hispanic mothers in the United States. Method Among 220 Hispanic women, drawn from a pediatric primary care setting, with an infant aged 0 to 10 months, 6 structural models guided by the empirical literature were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis. Results Results supported a 2-factor model of depression and anxiety as the best fitting model. Multigroup models supported the factorial invariance across women who completed the EDPS in English and Spanish. Conclusion These findings provide initial support for the 2-factor structure of the EPDS among Hispanic women in the United States. PMID:24807217

  19. Geographic and environmental factors in pediatric cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Gordis, L.

    1986-07-15

    It is important to determine the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to the etiology of childhood cancer in order to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms involved and to develop effective means of primary prevention. Geographic differences in cancer incidence as well as changes in incidence over calendar time have long been used to generate clues to possible etiologic agents. The important role of genetic factors in childhood cancer is clear, and is exemplified by the observations in retinoblastoma. The importance of the contributions of environmental factors in general and of specific factors in particular, to the etiology of cancers in children, has proven more difficult to determine. A variety of environmental factors have been implicated to varying degrees in the etiology of different childhood cancers. These factors include physical agents such as radiation, chemical agents such as nitrosamines, and organic solvents, and infectious agents such as the Epstein-Barr virus. The observations that certain compounds may act as teratogens when a prenatal exposure occurs early in pregnancy and as carcinogens when the exposure occurs late in pregnancy, suggests that there may be a continuum of teratogenesis and carcinogenesis. This finding has major implications for the possible biologic mechanisms that could be involved in childhood cancers and for the design of future research of their etiology and prevention. The etiology of childhood cancer should be viewed as an interaction of environmental factors to which the child or his parent were exposed together with varying degrees of genetically determined susceptibility of the child to the carcinogenic effects of these factors.

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Factors Affecting Breast Cancer Susceptibility
    Suzanne. E. Fenton
    US EPA, ORD, MD-67 NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711.

    Breast cancer is still the most common malignancy afflicting women in the Western world. Alt...

  1. Environmental risk factors for heart disease.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Timothy E; Conklin, Daniel J; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2008-01-01

    In this review, we discuss current evidence linking environmental pollutants to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Extensive evidence indicates that environmental factors contribute to CVD risk, incidence, and severity. Migrant studies show that changes in the environment could substantially alter CVD risk in a genetically stable population. Additionally, CVD risk is affected by changes in nutritional and lifestyle choices. Recent studies in the field of environmental cardiology suggest that environmental toxins also influence CVD. Exposure to tobacco smoke is paradigmatic of such environmental risk and is strongly and positively associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In animal models of exposure, tobacco smoke induces endothelial dysfunction and prothrombotic responses and exacerbates atherogenesis and myocardial ischemic injury. Similar mechanism may be engaged by other pollutants or food constituents. Several large population-based studies indicate that exposure to fine or ultrafine particulate air pollution increases CVD morbidity and mortality, and the plausibility of this association is supported by data from animal studies. Exposure to other chemicals such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, and metals has also been reported to elevate CVD risk by affecting atherogenesis, thrombosis, or blood pressure regulation. Maternal exposure to drugs, toxins, and infection has been linked with cardiac birth defects and premature CVD in later life. Collectively, the data support the notion that chronic environmental stress is an important determinant of CVD risk. Further work is required to assess the magnitude of this risk fully and to delineate specific mechanisms by which environmental toxins affect CVD.

  2. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Bozzoni, Virginia; Pansarasa, Orietta; Diamanti, Luca; Nosari, Guido; Cereda, Cristina; Ceroni, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Summary Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder that affects central and peripheral motor neuron cells. Its etiology is unknown, although a relationship between genetic background and environmental factors may play a major role in triggering the neurodegeneration. In this review, we analyze the role of environmental factors in ALS: heavy metals, electromagnetic fields and electric shocks, pesticides, β-N-methylamino-L-alanine, physical activity and the controversial role of sports. The literature on the single issues is analyzed in an attempt to clarify, as clearly as possible, whether each risk factor significantly contributes to the disease pathogenesis. After summarizing conflicting observations and data, the authors provide a final synthetic statement. PMID:27027889

  3. Remote sensing of environmental factors affecting health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanovic, Petar

    The purpose of this paper is to present the results of research to identify, by satellite imagery, parameters of the environment affecting health on Earth. Thus, we suggest expanding the application of space technology to preventive medicine, as a new field in the peaceful uses of outer space. The scope of the study includes all parts of the environment, natural and man-made, and all kinds of protection of life: human, animal and vegetation health. The general objective is to consider and classify those factors, detectable from space, that affect or are relevant to health and may be found in the air, water, sea, soil, land, vegetation, as well as those linked to climate, industry, energy production, development works, irrigation systems, and human settlements. The special objective is the classification of environmental factors detectable from space, that are linked to communicable or chronic endemic diseases or health problems. The method of identifying the factors affecting health was the parallel study of environmental epidemiological and biological parameters. The role of environmental factors common to both human and animal populations is discussed. Conclusive findings are formulated and possible applications, both scientific and practical, in other sectors are also discussed.

  4. Cohort variation in offspring growth and survival: prenatal and postnatal factors in a late-maturing viviparous snake.

    PubMed

    Baron, Jean-Pierre; Le Galliard, Jean-François; Tully, Thomas; Ferrière, Régis

    2010-05-01

    1. Recruitment to adulthood plays an important role in the population dynamics of late-maturing organisms as it is usually variable. Compared to birds and mammals, few studies assessing the contributions to this variation of environmental factors, offspring traits and maternal traits have been carried out for late-maturing snakes. 2. Cohort variation in recruitment through offspring growth and survival in the meadow viper (Vipera ursinii ursinii) was evaluated from 13 years of mark-recapture data collected at Mont Ventoux, France. In this species, females are mature at the age of 4-6 years and adult survival and fecundity rates are high and constant over time. 3. Offspring were difficult to catch during the first 3 years of their lives, but their mean annual probability of survival was reasonably high (0.48 +/- 0.11 SE). Mass and body condition at birth (mass residuals) varied significantly between years, decreased with litter size, and increased with maternal length. 4. Cohorts of offspring in better condition at birth grew faster, but offspring growth was not affected by sex, habitat or maternal traits. 5. Survival varied considerably between birth cohorts, some cohorts having a high-survival rate and others having essentially no survivors. No difference in mass or body condition at birth was found between cohorts with 'no survival' and 'good survival'. However, offspring survival in cohorts with good survival was positively correlated with mass at birth and negatively correlated with body condition at birth. 6. Thus, variation in offspring performance was influenced by direct environmental effects on survival and indirect environmental effects on growth, mediated by body condition at birth. Effects of maternal traits were entirely channelled through offspring traits.

  5. The Genetic and Environmental Factors for Keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Gordon-Shaag, Ariela; Millodot, Michel; Shneor, Einat; Liu, Yutao

    2015-01-01

    Keratoconus (KC) is the most common cornea ectatic disorder. It is characterized by a cone-shaped thin cornea leading to myopia, irregular astigmatism, and vision impairment. It affects all ethnic groups and both genders. Both environmental and genetic factors may contribute to its pathogenesis. This review is to summarize the current research development in KC epidemiology and genetic etiology. Environmental factors include but are not limited to eye rubbing, atopy, sun exposure, and geography. Genetic discoveries have been reviewed with evidence from family-based linkage analysis and fine mapping in linkage region, genome-wide association studies, and candidate genes analyses. A number of genes have been discovered at a relatively rapid pace. The detailed molecular mechanism underlying KC pathogenesis will significantly advance our understanding of KC and promote the development of potential therapies. PMID:26075261

  6. The Genetic and Environmental Factors Underlying Hypospadias

    PubMed Central

    Pask, Andrew; Heloury, Yves; Sinclair, Andrew H.

    2016-01-01

    Hypospadias results from a failure of urethral closure in the male phallus and affects 1 in 200–300 boys. It is thought to be due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The development of the penis progresses in 2 stages: an initial hormone-independent phase and a secondary hormone-dependent phase. Here, we review the molecular pathways that contribute to each of these stages, drawing on studies from both human and mouse models. Hypospadias can occur when normal development of the phallus is disrupted, and we provide evidence that mutations in genes underlying this developmental process are causative. Finally, we discuss the environmental factors that may contribute to hypospadias and their potential immediate and transgen erational epigenetic impacts. PMID:26613581

  7. Expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the rat forebrain and upper brain stem during postnatal development: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Kim, J K; Jeon, S M; Lee, K M; Park, E S; Cho, H J

    2007-05-25

    The present study was undertaken to characterize the regional and temporal patterns of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the rat forebrain and upper brain stem during postnatal development using an immunohistochemical approach. Results indicated that BDNF-immunoreactive (IR) cells could be divided into three groups based on their postnatal developmental patterns: (group 1) BDNF-IR cells were first detected between postnatal days (PND) 1 and 7, and thereafter they increased in number and remained stable during later stages of ontogeny; (group 2) BDNF-IR cells progressively increased in number with age, and then decreased in adults; (group 3) numerous BDNF-IR cells detected between PND 1 and 7 showed a dramatic reductions in number with few IR cells in adults. In contrast, the developmental pattern of most BDNF-IR fibers differed from that of IR neurons, i.e. they appeared between PND 1-28 and thereafter continued to increase in number showing a maximum level in adults. Additionally, BDNF-IR cells in the superficial layer of the neocortex and IR fibers in the stratum oriens of CA2 first appeared as late as PND 28 and in adults, respectively. After colchicine treatment, reexpression or a marked increase in the number of BDNF-IR neurons was observed in many areas of the adult brain where a progressive decrease in BDNF-IR cell numbers during development and scant or some IR neurons in adults were shown. These results showed both transient and persistent expression of BDNF in various regions of the developing rat brain.

  8. Environmental and genetic risk factors in obesity.

    PubMed

    Hebebrand, Johannes; Hinney, Anke

    2009-01-01

    Because of its high prevalence and the associated medical and psychosocial risks, research into the causes of childhood obesity has experienced a tremendous upswing. Formal genetic data based on twin, adoption, and family studies lead to the conclusion that at least 50% of the interindividual variance of the body mass index (BMI; defined as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) is due to genetic factors. As a result of the recent advent of genome-wide association studies, the first polygenes involved in body weight regulation have been detected. Each of the predisposing alleles explain a few hundred grams of body weight. More polygenes will be detected in the near future, thus for the first time allowing in-depth analyses of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. They also will enable developmental studies to assess the effect of such alleles throughout childhood and adulthood. The recent increase in obesity prevalence rates illustrates the extreme relevance of environmental factors for body weight. Similar to polygenes, the effect sizes of most such environmental factors are likely to be small, thus rendering their detection difficult. In addition, the validation of the true causality of such factors is not a straightforward task. Important factors are socioeconomic status and television consumption. The authors conclude by briefly assessing implications for treatment and prevention of childhood obesity.

  9. Environmental Factors Impacting Bone-Relevant Chemokines

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Justin T.; Schneider, Andrew D.; Katchko, Karina M.; Yun, Chawon; Hsu, Erin L.

    2017-01-01

    Chemokines play an important role in normal bone physiology and the pathophysiology of many bone diseases. The recent increased focus on the individual roles of this class of proteins in the context of bone has shown that members of the two major chemokine subfamilies—CC and CXC—support or promote the formation of new bone and the remodeling of existing bone in response to a myriad of stimuli. These chemotactic molecules are crucial in orchestrating appropriate cellular homing, osteoblastogenesis, and osteoclastogenesis during normal bone repair. Bone healing is a complex cascade of carefully regulated processes, including inflammation, progenitor cell recruitment, differentiation, and remodeling. The extensive role of chemokines in these processes and the known links between environmental contaminants and chemokine expression/activity leaves ample opportunity for disruption of bone healing by environmental factors. However, despite increased clinical awareness, the potential impact of many of these environmental factors on bone-related chemokines is still ill defined. A great deal of focus has been placed on environmental exposure to various endocrine disruptors (bisphenol A, phthalate esters, etc.), volatile organic compounds, dioxins, and heavy metals, though mainly in other tissues. Awareness of the impact of other less well-studied bone toxicants, such as fluoride, mold and fungal toxins, asbestos, and chlorine, is also reviewed. In many cases, the literature on these toxins in osteogenic models is lacking. However, research focused on their effects in other tissues and cell lines provides clues for where future resources could be best utilized. This review aims to serve as a current and exhaustive resource detailing the known links between several classes of high-interest environmental pollutants and their interaction with the chemokines relevant to bone healing. PMID:28261155

  10. Environmental pollutants and lifestyle factors induce oxidative stress and poor prenatal development.

    PubMed

    Al-Gubory, Kaïs H

    2014-07-01

    Developmental toxicity caused by exposure to a mixture of environmental pollutants has become a major health concern. Human-made chemicals, including xenoestrogens, pesticides and heavy metals, as well as unhealthy lifestyle behaviours, mainly tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and medical drug abuse, are major factors that adversely influence prenatal development and increase susceptibility of offspring to diseases. There is evidence to suggest that the developmental toxicological mechanisms of chemicals and lifestyle factors involve the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cellular oxidative damage. Overproduction of ROS induces oxidative stress, a state where increased ROS generation overwhelms antioxidant protection and subsequently leads to oxidative damage of cellular macromolecules. Data on the involvement of oxidative stress in the mechanism of developmental toxicity following exposure to environmental pollutants are reviewed in an attempt to provide an updated basis for future studies on the toxic effect of such pollutants, particularly the notion of increased risk for developmental toxicity due to combined and cumulative exposure to various environmental pollutants. The aims of such studies are to better understand the mechanisms by which environmental pollutants adversely affect conceptus development and to elucidate the impact of cumulative exposures to multiple pollutants on post-natal development and health outcomes. Developmental toxicity caused by exposure to mixture of environmental pollutants has become a major health concern. Human-made chemicals, including xenoestrogens, pesticides and heavy metals, as well as unhealthy lifestyle behaviors, mainly tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and medical drug abuse, are major factors that adversely influence prenatal development and increase the susceptibility of offspring to development complications and diseases. There is evidence to suggest that the developmental toxicological mechanisms

  11. Elevation of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 level in Pallister-Killian syndrome: implications for the postnatal growth retardation phenotype.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Kosuke; Kellogg, Emily; Fujiki, Katsunori; Kaur, Maninder; Tilton, Richard K; Noon, Sarah; Wilkens, Alisha; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Krantz, Ian D

    2015-06-01

    Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a multi-system developmental disorder caused by tetrasomy 12p that exhibits tissue-limited mosaicism. Probands with PKS often demonstrate a unique growth profile consisting of macrosomia at birth with deceleration of growth postnatally. We have previously demonstrated that cultured skin fibroblasts from PKS probands have significantly elevated expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP2). To further evaluate the role of IGFBP2 in PKS, the amount of IGFBP2 secreted from cultured skin fibroblast cell lines and serum IGFBP2 levels were measured in probands with PKS. Approximately 60% of PKS fibroblast cell lines secreted higher levels of IGFBP2 compared to control fibroblasts, although the remaining 40% of PKS samples produced comparable level of IGFBP2 to that of control fibroblasts. Serum IGFBP2 levels were also measured in PKS probands and were elevated in 40% of PKS probands. PKS probands with elevated IGFBP2 manifested with severe postnatal growth retardation. IGFBPs are the family of related proteins that bind IGFs with high affinity and are typically thought to attenuate IGF action. We suggest that elevated IGFBP2 levels might play a role in the growth retardation phenotype of PKS.

  12. Temporal profile of nerve growth factor expression in the partial central nervous system of the Yangtze alligator Alligator sinensis (Reptilia,Crocodylia) during early postnatal growth.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lanrong; Chen, Fangfang; Wang, Renping; Zhou, Yongkang; Wu, Xiaobing

    2013-05-01

    Expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) in structures of the partial central nervous system of the Yangtze alligator, Alligator sinensis (Reptilia, Crocodylia) was examined during early postnatal growth using immunohistochemistry and Western blot assays. In animals 0-2 years of age NGF-positive cells in the cerebral cortex increased gradually in number and size, and were predominantly distributed in the molecular layer. NGF-positive cells in the midbrain showed similar increases but with predominant distribution in the ependymal layer. NGF-positive cells increased in the cerebellum between 0 and 1 years of age, with increased NGF expression being seen during the first 2 years of life mostly in the ependymal layer. NGF-positive cells were mainly found in the gray matter of the spinal cord with decreasing cell numbers, NGF expression levels being seen from 0 to 2 years and small processes without synaptic connection from 1 to 2 years. These results suggest that NGF is involved in the early postnatal growth of several structures of Yangtze alligator partial central nervous system, suggesting a possible role of NGF in the Yangtze alligator partial central nervous system.

  13. The influence of ovarian factors on the somatostatin-growth hormone system during the postnatal growth and sexual development in lambs.

    PubMed

    Wańkowska, Marta; Polkowska, Jolanta; Misztal, Tomasz; Romanowicz, Katarzyna

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate the effects of ovarian hormones on somatostatin in the hypothalamic neurons and growth hormone (GH) secretion during the postnatal growth and development of sheep. The study was performed on 9-week-old (infantile) lambs that were ovary-intact (OVI) or ovariectomized (OVX) at 39 days of age, and on 16-week-old (juvenile) lambs that were OVI or OVX at 88 days of age. Hormones in neurons and somatotropic cells were assayed with immunohistochemistry and radioimmunoassay. Following ovariectomy, immunoreactive somatostatin was more abundant (p<0.05) in the hypothalamus of infantile lambs, whereas in juvenile lambs it was more abundant (p<0.05) in the periventricular nucleus but reduced (p<0.01) in the median eminence. In contrast to somatostatin in the hypothalamus, the content of immunoreactive GH in the hypophysis was less in OVX infantile lambs, but greater in OVX juvenile lambs (p<0.05). Basal blood serum concentrations of GH were greater (p<0.05) in OVX infantile lambs, whereas in OVX juvenile lambs, mean and basal concentrations of GH and amplitude of GH pulses were less than in OVI lambs (p<0.05). The postnatal increase in body weight was greatest in middle-late infancy (p<0.01). The body weight did not differ (p>0.05) between OVI and OVX lambs. In conclusion, ovarian factors may inhibit the GH secretion in infantile lambs but enhance the GH secretion in juvenile lambs. Transition to puberty, as related to the growth rate, appears to be due mainly to change in gonadal influence on the somatostatin neurosecretion. A stimulation of somatostatin output in the median eminence by gonadal factors in infancy is followed by a stimulation of somatostatin accumulation after infancy. Thus, ovarian factors modulate mechanisms within the somatotropic system of lambs to synchronize the somatic growth with sexual development.

  14. Cardiac risk factors: environmental, sociodemographic, and behavioral cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Anthony, David; George, Paul; Eaton, Charles B

    2014-06-01

    Several environmental exposures are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Exposure to secondhand smoke may increase the risk by as much as 25% to 30%. Exposure to third hand smoke, residual components of tobacco smoke that remain in the environment after a cigarette is extinguished, also appears to increase risk. These residual components can remain in rooms and automobiles for up to 30 years and enter the body through the skin or via inhalation or ingestion. Exposure to particulate matter air pollution from automobile emissions, power plants, and other sources is yet another environmental risk factor for CHD, resulting in tens of thousands of deaths annually in the United States. Exposure to other environmental toxins, particularly bisphenol A and phthalates, also has been linked to CHD. There are sociodemographic risks for CHD, with numerous studies showing that lower socioeconomic status is associated with higher risk. Behavioral risk factors include poor diet, such as frequent consumption of fast food and processed meals; sleep disturbance; and psychological stress, particularly related to marital or work issues. Finally, although high alcohol consumption is associated with increased CHD risk, moderate alcohol consumption (ie, less than 1 to 2 drinks/day), particularly of wine and possibly beer, appears to reduce the risk.

  15. Potential Environmental Factors in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Oskarsson, Björn; Horton, D. Kevin; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Summary The current state of research in environmental risk factors of ALS has provided many intriguing possible associations. Yet only one-smoking is at this time firmly established. The methodologic difficulties with studying a rare disease that occurs late in life, which could be related to exposures many decades ago, make relationships dauntingly difficult to prove. Despite continued improvement in methodology, significant challenges remain. The diagnostic criteria for ALS are complicated and there are continued efforts to improve them. As they are, the criteria do not yet capture all people with ALS, which further complicates epidemiologic studies. It is hoped that larger datasets with better characterization of different clinical features and laboratory markers will provide more robust estimates of risk factors in ALS in the years to come. A better understanding of environmental risk factors could help reduce exposures and it is hoped markedly reduce ALS incidence over time. Epidemiologic research is critical to advance this field, but the relative rarity of ALS and the current notion that exposures may affect the risk of ALS only decades later make such projects complex with many challenges. One US project of great potential is the National ALS Registry. It is a congressionally-mandated prospective population-based registry encompassing the entire US population. In addition to quantifying the incidence, prevalence, and demographics of ALS in the US, another main goal of the Registry is to examine the risk factors for the disease through online risk factor modules. There are currently 17 different risk factor modules that persons with ALS can complete including, but not limited to, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, military service history, occupational history, and a family history of ALS. Since the Registry's launch in October 2010, over 45,000 online risk factor modules have been completed. To our knowledge, this is the largest and most

  16. Psoriasis: familial predisposition and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Kavli, G; Førde, O H; Arnesen, E; Stenvold, S E

    1985-10-12

    In a survey for coronary risk factors 14 667 adult men and women answered a questionnaire on lifestyle, diet, and health, including whether they had psoriasis. The overall prevalence of psoriasis was 4.79% in men and 4.85% in women. The data showed an increasing incidence of psoriasis. The association with family history, lifestyle, diet, and health was explored by multiple regression analysis. The occurrence of psoriasis in first degree relatives contributed to more than 90% of the explained variance for both sexes. Of the other variables, only the positive association with rheumatoid arthritis was significant in both sexes. It is concluded that the examined environmental factors have only minor effects on the prevalence of psoriasis.

  17. Functional coupling of transcription factor HiNF-P and histone H4 gene expression during pre- and post-natal mouse development

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li-Jun; Xie, Ronglin; Hussain, Sadiq; Lian, Jane B.; Rivera-Perez, Jaime; Jones, Stephen N.; Stein, Janet L.; Stein, Gary S.; van Wijnen, Andre J.

    2011-01-01

    Transcription factor Histone Nuclear Factor P (HiNF-P; gene symbol Hinfp) mediates cell cycle control of histone H4 gene expression to support the packaging of newly replicated DNA as chromatin. The HiNF-P/p220NPAT complex controls multiple H4 genes in established human cell lines and is critical for cell proliferation. The mouse HinfpLacZ null allele causes early embryonic lethality due to a blastocyst defect. However, neither Hinfp function nor its temporal expression relative to histone H4 genes during fetal development has been explored. Here, we establish that expression of Hinfp is biologically coupled with expression of twelve functional mouse H4 genes during pre- and post-natal tissue-development. Both Hinfp and H4 genes are robustly expressed at multiple embryonic (E) days (from E5.5 to E15.5), coincident with ubiquitous LacZ staining driven by the Hinfp promoter. Five highly expressed mouse H4 genes (Hist1h4d, Histh4f, Hist1h4m and Hist2h4) account for >90% of total histone H4 mRNA throughout development. Post-natal expression of H4 genes in mice is most evident in lung, spleen, thymus and intestine, and with few exceptions (e.g., adult liver) correlates with Hinfp gene expression. Histone H4 gene expression decreases but Hinfp levels remain constitutive upon cell growth inhibition in culture. The in vivo co-expression of Hinfp and histone H4 genes is consistent with the biological function of Hinfp as a principal transcriptional regulator of histone H4 gene expression during mouse development. PMID:21605641

  18. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and TrkB in the piglet brainstem after post-natal nicotine and intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Tang, Samantha; Machaalani, Rita; Waters, Karen A

    2008-09-26

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor TrkB play a significant role in the regulation of cell growth, survival and death during central nervous system development. The expression of BDNF and TrkB is affected by noxious insults. Two insults during the early post-natal period that are of interest to our laboratory are exposure to nicotine and to intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia (IHH). Piglet models were used to mimic the conditions associated with the risk factors for the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) including post-natal cigarette smoke exposure (nicotine model) and prone sleeping where the infant is subjected to re-breathing of expired gases (IHH model). We aimed to determine the effects of nicotine and IHH, alone or in combination, on pro- and rhBDNF and TrkB expression in the developing piglet brainstem. Four piglet groups were studied, with equal gender ratios in each: control (n=14), nicotine (n=14), IHH (n=10) and nic+IHH (n=14). Applying immunohistochemistry, and studying six nuclei of the caudal medulla, we found that compared to controls, TrkB was the only protein significantly decreased after nicotine and nic+IHH exposure regardless of gender. For pro-BDNF and rhBDNF however, observed changes were more evident in males than females exposed to nicotine and nic+IHH. The implications of these findings are that a prior nicotine exposure makes the developing brainstem susceptible to greater changes in the neurotrophic effects of BDNF and its receptor TrkB in the face of a hypoxic insult, and that the effects are greater in males than females.

  19. Perineal skin injury: extrinsic environmental risk factors.

    PubMed

    Faria, D T; Shwayder, T; Krull, E A

    1996-08-01

    Little research has been performed to evaluate factors that may exacerbate perineal skin injury in the adult population. But extensive research has been done and knowledge has been gained from studies with diaper dermatitis in infants. Our objectives in writing this article are to define the anatomical area affected, the terms used, and to review the available literature for diaper dermatitis in infants, elucidating the similarities and differences between diaper dermatitis in infants and perineal dermatitis in adults. The six extrinsic environmental factors that have been identified and extensively studied in diaper dermatitis are skin wetness, urine, ammonia, feces, local skin pH and microorganisms. Although the complex interactions of the six factors are still not totally defined, we do know that to prevent perineal skin injury, it is helpful to prevent excessive skin hydration, minimize the interaction of urine and feces, minimize local microorganisms, and maintain skin near its physiologic pH. In general, the six extrinsic factors can be extrapolated and applied to the care of adults. Further research in adult fecal enzymes and pH is still necessary.

  20. Postpartum Bonding Disorder: Factor Structure, Validity, Reliability and a Model Comparison of the Postnatal Bonding Questionnaire in Japanese Mothers of Infants

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Yukiko; Kitamura, Toshinori; Sakanashi, Kyoko; Tanaka, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Negative attitudes of mothers towards their infant is conceptualized as postpartum bonding disorder, which leads to serious health problems in perinatal health care. However, its measurement still remains to be standardized. Our aim was to examine and confirm the psychometric properties of the Postnatal Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ) in Japanese mothers. We distributed a set of questionnaires to community mothers and studied 392 mothers who returned the questionnaires at 1 month after childbirth. Our model was compared with three other models derived from previous studies. In a randomly halved sample, an exploratory factor analysis yielded a three-factor structure: Anger and Restrictedness, Lack of Affection, and Rejection and Fear. This factor structure was cross-validated by a confirmatory factor analysis using the other halved sample. The three subscales showed satisfactory internal consistency. The three PBQ subscale scores were correlated with depression and psychological abuse scores. Their test–retest reliability between day 5 and 1 month after childbirth was measured by intraclass correlation coefficients between 0.76 and 0.83. The Akaike Information Criteria of our model was better than the original four-factor model of Brockington. The present study indicates that the PBQ is a reliable and valid measure of bonding difficulties of Japanese mothers with neonates. PMID:27490583

  1. [BREASTFEEDING AND FORMATION OF POSTNATAL ANXIETY].

    PubMed

    Klymenko, V A; Lupaltsova, O S

    2015-01-01

    This article has been performed the investigation of psychological characteristics in mothers with the breastfeeding, the mixed feeding, the artificial feeding. There has been identified factors of the unfavourable prognosis for the postnatal anxiety.

  2. The role of transforming growth factors beta1 and beta3 in pre- and post-natal pulmonary surfactant development.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lin; Deng, Chun; Fu, Zhou; Guo, Chunbao

    2011-03-01

    The aim was to explore the pulmonary surfactant regulatory effect of TGF-β1 and TGF-β3 during pre- and post-natal porcine development. Pigs on embryonic day 99 (E94) (term = 114 days) and 1-h (D0) and 15-day (D20) neonates were killed to obtain whole lungs. DSPC (disaturated phosphatidylcholine) was separated from other phospholipids, and chemical methods were used to determine the amounts of DSPC, TPL (total phospholipids) and TP (total protein) in BALF (bronchoalveolar lavage fluid). TPL was elevated at E94. DSPC in TPL was significantly higher in the D20 group than in the E94 group. Reductions in TP correlated with developmental age. The levels of TGF-β1 and TGF-β3 mRNA were determined by RT (reverse transcription)-PCR and Northern blot. The expression of TGF-β1 mRNA was low at E94, increased at D0 and then decreased at D20. The expression of TGF-β3 was high at E94, reduced at D0, and then elevated at D20. We further examined the effect of exogenously administered TGF-1 on the expression of SPs (surfactant proteins) and cytidine triphosphorylate: CCT (phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase) activity in porcine fetal lung cells cultured for 5 days. The results indicated that TGF-β1 inhibited the expression of all three SPs (SP-A, SP-B and SP-C) and CCT activity, but did not alter the expression level of SP-D transcripts. We conclude that TGF-1 inhibits the expression of surfactant components. The alterations of TGF-β3 seem to partly explain the pulmonary surfactant changes observed in development, but this result needs further investigation.

  3. Environmental factors regulating soil organic matter chlorination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, Teresia; Montelius, Malin; Reyier, Henrik; Rietz, Karolina; Karlsson, Susanne; Lindberg, Cecilia; Andersson, Malin; Danielsson, Åsa; Bastviken, David

    2016-04-01

    Natural chlorination of organic matter is common in soils. Despite the widespread abundance of soil chlorinated soil organic matter (SOM), frequently exceeding soil chloride abundance in surface soils, and a common ability of microorganisms to produce chlorinated SOM, we lack fundamental knowledge about dominating processes and organisms responsible for the chlorination. To take one step towards resolving the terrestrial chlorine (Cl) puzzle, this study aims to analyse how environmental factors influence chlorination of SOM. Four factors were chosen for this study: soil moisture (W), nitrogen (N), chloride (Cl) and organic matter quality (C). These factors are all known to be important for soil processes. Laboratory incubations with 36Cl as a Cl tracer were performed in a two soil incubation experiments. It was found that addition of chloride and nitrogen seem to hamper the chlorination. For the C treatment, on the other hand, the results show that chlorination is enhanced by increased availability of labile organic matter (glucose and maltose). Even higher chlorination was observed when nitrogen and water were added in combination with labile organic matter. The effect that more labile organic matter strongly stimulated the chlorination rates was confirmed by the second separate experiment. These results indicate that chlorination was not primarily a way to cut refractory organic matter into digestible molecules, representing one previous hypothesis, but is related with microbial metabolism in other ways that will be further discussed in our presentation.

  4. Environmental Factors Affecting Growth and Occurrence of Testicular Cancer in Childhood: An Overview of the Current Epidemiological Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Giannandrea, Fabrizio; Fargnoli, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    Testicular cancer (TC) is the most frequently occurring malignancy among adolescents and young men aged 15–34 years. Although incidence of TC has been growing over the past 40 years in several western countries, the explanations for this increase still remain uncertain. It has been postulated that early life exposure to numerous occupational and environmental estrogenic chemicals, such as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), may play a contributing role in the etiology of TC, but the subject is still open to additional investigation. Recently, it has also been suggested that prenatal and postnatal environmental exposures associated with child growth and development might also be involved in TC progression. This review of current epidemiological studies (2000–2015) aims to identify environmental factors associated with TC, with a particular focus on infancy and childhood factors that could constitute a risk for disease development. It may also contribute towards recognizing gaps in knowledge and recent research requirements for TC, and to point out possible interactions between child growth and development in relation to prenatal and postnatal environmental exposures. PMID:28067779

  5. Neuronal activity and brain-derived neurotrophic factor regulate the density of inhibitory synapses in organotypic slice cultures of postnatal hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Marty, S; Wehrlé, R; Sotelo, C

    2000-11-01

    Hippocampal interneurons inhibit pyramidal neurons through the release of the neurotransmitter GABA. Given the importance of this inhibition for the proper functioning of the hippocampus, the development of inhibitory synapses must be tightly regulated. In this study, the possibility that neuronal activity and neurotrophins regulate the density of GABAergic inhibitory synapses was investigated in organotypic slice cultures taken from postnatal day 7 rats. In hippocampal slices cultured for 13 d in the presence of the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline, the density of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 65-immunoreactive terminals was increased in the CA1 area when compared with control slices. Treatment with the glutamate receptor antagonist 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione decreased the density of GAD65-immunoreactive terminals in the stratum oriens of CA1. These treatments had parallel effects on the density of GABA-immunoreactive processes. Electron microscopic analysis after postembedding immunogold labeling with antibodies against GABA indicated that bicuculline treatment increased the density of inhibitory but not excitatory synapses. Application of exogenous BDNF partly mimicked the stimulatory effect of bicuculline on GAD65-immunoreactive terminals. Finally, antibodies against BDNF, but not antibodies against nerve growth factor, decrease the density of GAD65-immunoreactive terminals in bicuculline-treated slices. Thus, neuronal activity regulates the density of inhibitory synapses made by postnatal hippocampal interneurons, and BDNF could mediate part of this regulation. This regulation of the density of inhibitory synapses could represent a feedback mechanism aimed at maintaining an appropriate level of activity in the developing hippocampal networks.

  6. Distribution of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and TrkB receptor proteins in the fetal and postnatal hippocampus and cerebellum of the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Dieni, Sandra; Rees, Sandra

    2002-12-16

    This study investigates the distribution of brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein (BDNF) and its receptor, TrkB, during the development of hippocampus and cerebellum in a long-gestation species, the guinea pig. In the granule cell populations of both structures, BDNF immunoreactivity (-IR) was exclusive to postmigratory, mature neurons. In dentate granule cells, TrkB-IR was coexpressed with BDNF-IR, suggesting that the ligand-receptor interaction could occur by means of an autocrine/paracrine mechanism. In cerebellar granule cells, TrkB-IR was detected in both pre- and postmigratory cells, indicating that immature neurons are also BDNF-responsive. With advancing gestational age an increase in the intensity of BDNF-IR in granule cells was accompanied by concomitant increases in the staining and areal growth of the associated mossy fiber layer in the hippocampus, and the molecular layer in the cerebellum. The developmental increase in BDNF- and TrkB-IR in the neuropil of both structures coincided with periods of significant growth in all strata, indicating a role for BDNF and TrkB in process outgrowth. In the hippocampus, CA2, CA3, and hilar, neurons demonstrated both BDNF- and TrkB-IR during development and maturation, whereas CA1 neurons showed TrkB-IR throughout this period but only transient BDNF-IR in early gestation. In the fetal cerebellum, Purkinje cell bodies coexpressed BDNF-IR and TrkB-IR. In the postnatal period, BDNF-IR was down-regulated but TrkB-IR persisted, indicating that mature Purkinje cells might retain their responsiveness to BDNF. Thus, we have demonstrated in both the hippocampus and cerebellum that the spatiotemporal distribution of BDNF-IR and TrkB-IR coincides with the maturation of granule cells prenatally and with significant periods of neuropil growth, both prenatally and in the immediate postnatal period.

  7. Knowledge, Internal, and Environmental Factors on Environmental Care Behaviour among Aboriginal Students in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Norshariani Abd

    2016-01-01

    This study determined the contribution of predictor factors (i.e. knowledge about the environment as well as internal and environmental factors) on environmental care behaviour among aboriginal students. The knowledge about the environment that was investigated in this research includes environmental knowledge and environmental action knowledge.…

  8. Postnatal growth of genioglossal motoneurons.

    PubMed

    Brozanski, B S; Guthrie, R D; Volk, E A; Cameron, W E

    1989-01-01

    The postnatal growth of kitten genioglossal motoneurons were examined in six different age groups (newborn, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks and adult) using the technique of retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The cell bodies of 100-150 motoneurons in each age group were analyzed in a transverse plane of section using standard techniques. Somatic genioglossal motoneuron growth occurred primarily along the major axis, which increased from 25.2 microns to 41.3 microns between birth and 8 weeks of postnatal age, after which time there was no further increase in either major or minor dimension of the cell body. The form factor decreased from 0.94 to 0.80 from birth to adulthood indicating an increased eccentricity of the cell body. The number of primary dendrites visible with this technique remained constant throughout the postnatal period. Calculated somal surface area increased in a linear fashion from birth through 8 weeks of postnatal life. There was no further increase in surface area beyond this age. The rate of increase in somal surface area with age was significantly different from both the rate of increase of animal weight and animal surface area with age. The correlations between the demonstrated immature genioglossal morphology and its cellular electrophysiology or integrated respiratory function remain unknown. The recent demonstration of decreased activation of the genioglossus muscle following airway occlusion in premature infants with apnea suggests that the relationships between developing genioglossal motoneuron structure and function warrant further investigation.

  9. Analysis of gene–environment interactions in postnatal development of the mammalian intestine

    PubMed Central

    Rakoff-Nahoum, Seth; Kong, Yong; Kleinstein, Steven H.; Subramanian, Sathish; Ahern, Philip P.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.; Medzhitov, Ruslan

    2015-01-01

    Unlike mammalian embryogenesis, which takes place in the relatively predictable and stable environment of the uterus, postnatal development can be affected by a multitude of highly variable environmental factors, including diet, exposure to noxious substances, and microorganisms. Microbial colonization of the intestine is thought to play a particularly important role in postnatal development of the gastrointestinal, metabolic, and immune systems. Major changes in environmental exposure occur right after birth, upon weaning, and during pubertal maturation into adulthood. These transitions include dramatic changes in intestinal contents and require appropriate adaptations to meet changes in functional demands. Here, we attempt to both characterize and provide mechanistic insights into postnatal intestinal ontogeny. We investigated changes in global intestinal gene expression through postnatal developmental transitions. We report profound alterations in small and large intestinal transcriptional programs that accompany both weaning and puberty in WT mice. Using myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)/TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) double knockout littermates, we define the role of toll-like receptors (TLRs) and interleukin (IL)-1 receptor family member signaling in postnatal gene expression programs and select ontogeny-specific phenotypes, such as vascular and smooth muscle development and neonatal epithelial and mast cell homeostasis. Metaanalysis of the effect of the microbiota on intestinal gene expression allowed for mechanistic classification of developmentally regulated genes by TLR/IL-1R (TIR) signaling and/or indigenous microbes. We find that practically every aspect of intestinal physiology is affected by postnatal transitions. Developmental timing, microbial colonization, and TIR signaling seem to play distinct and specific roles in regulation of gene-expression programs throughout postnatal development. PMID:25691701

  10. Epidemiologic tools to study the influence of environmental factors on fecundity and pregnancy-related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Slama, Rémy; Ballester, Ferran; Casas, Maribel; Cordier, Sylvaine; Eggesbø, Merete; Iniguez, Carmen; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Philippat, Claire; Rey, Sylvie; Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Vrijheid, Martine

    2014-01-01

    Adverse pregnancy outcomes entail a large health burden for the mother and offspring; a part of it might be avoided by better understanding the role of environmental factors in their etiology. Our aims were to review the assessment tools to characterize fecundity troubles and pregnancy-related outcomes in human populations and their sensitivity to environmental factors. For each outcome, we reviewed the possible study designs, main sources of bias, and their suggested cures. In terms of study design, for most pregnancy outcomes, cohorts with recruitment early during or even before pregnancy allow efficient characterization of pregnancy-related events, time-varying confounders, and in utero exposures that may impact birth outcomes and child health. Studies on congenital anomalies require specific designs, assessment of anomalies in medical pregnancy terminations, and, for congenital anomalies diagnosed postnatally, follow-up during several months after birth. Statistical analyses should take into account environmental exposures during the relevant time windows; survival models are an appropriate approach for fecundity, fetal loss, and gestational duration/preterm delivery. Analysis of gestational duration could distinguish pregnancies according to delivery induction (and possibly pregnancy-related conditions). In conclusion, careful design and analysis are required to better characterize environmental effects on human reproduction.

  11. Incidence of cranial ultrasound abnormalities in apparently well neonates on a postnatal ward: correlation with antenatal and perinatal factors and neurological status

    PubMed Central

    Mercuri, E.; Dubowitz, L.; Brown, S. P.; Cowan, F.

    1998-01-01

    AIM—To evaluate cranial ultrasonography and neurological examination in a cohort of infants regarded as normal; and to determine the prevalence of ultrasound abnormalities and any potential association with antenatal or perinatal factors or deviant neurological signs.
METHODS—Cranial ultrasound findings and neurological status were evaluated in 177 newborns (gestational age 36.3 to 42 weeks), admitted to a postnatal ward directly after birth and regarded as normal by obstetric and paediatric staff. The age of the infants at the time of examination ranged between 6 and 48 hours. Ultrasound abnormalities were present in 35 of the 177 infants studied (20%). Ischaemic lesions, such as periventricular and thalamic densities were the most common finding (8%), followed by haemorrhagic lesions (6%). The possible sequelae of antenatal haemorrhages, such as focal ventricular dilatation or choroid cysts, were present in 6%. Abnormal ultrasound findings were not significantly associated with signs of perinatal distress, such as cardiotocographic abnormalities or passage of meconium. Abnormal ultrasound findings tended to be associated with antenatal problems, although this did not reach significance. Ultrasound abnormalities were strongly associated with deviant patterns on the neurological examination.
CONCLUSIONS—These results suggest that ultrasound abnormalities are more common than has been reported up to now. Lesions that could be ischaemic, such as flare densities, are seen even in the absence of any antenatal or perinatal risk factor.

 PMID:10194988

  12. Genetic, environmental, and epigenetic factors in the development of personality disturbance.

    PubMed

    Depue, Richard A

    2009-01-01

    A dimensional model of personality disturbance is presented that is defined by extreme values on interacting subsets of seven major personality traits. Being at the extreme has marked effects on the threshold for eliciting those traits under stimulus conditions: that is, the extent to which the environment affects the neurobiological functioning underlying the traits. To explore the nature of development of extreme values on these traits, each trait is discussed in terms of three major issues: (a) the neurobiological variables associated with the trait, (b) individual variation in this neurobiology as a function of genetic polymorphisms, and (c) the effects of environmental adversity on these neurobiological variables through the action of epigenetic processes. It is noted that gene-environment interaction appears to be dependent on two main factors: (a) both genetic and environmental variables appear to have the most profound and enduring effects when they exert their effects during early postnatal periods, times when the forebrain is undergoing exuberant experience-expectant dendritic and axonal growth; and (b) environmental effects on neurobiology are strongly modified by individual differences in "traitlike" functioning of neurobiological variables. A model of the nature of the interaction between environmental and neurobiological variables in the development of personality disturbance is presented.

  13. Environmental risk factors and allergic bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G; Liccardi, G; D'Amato, M; Holgate, S

    2005-09-01

    The prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases such as bronchial asthma has increased in recent years, especially in industrialized countries. A change in the genetic predisposition is an unlikely cause of the increase in allergic diseases because genetic changes in a population require several generations. Consequently, this increase may be explained by changes in environmental factors, including indoor and outdoor air pollution. Over the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in studies of air pollution and its effects on human health. Although the role played by outdoor pollutants in allergic sensitization of the airways has yet to be clarified, a body of evidence suggests that urbanization, with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases observed in most industrialized countries, and there is considerable evidence that asthmatic persons are at increased risk of developing asthma exacerbations with exposure to ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and inhalable particulate matter. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of air pollution on the timing of asthma exacerbations and on the prevalence of asthma in general. As concentrations of airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of allergic respiratory allergy and bronchial asthma. Pollinosis is frequently used to study the interrelationship between air pollution and respiratory allergy. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction. By attaching to the surface of pollen grains and of plant-derived particles of paucimicronic size, pollutants could modify not only the morphology of these antigen-carrying agents but also their allergenic

  14. Prenatal Dexamethasone and Postnatal High-Fat Diet Decrease Interferon Gamma Production through an Age-Dependent Histone Modification in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hong-Ren; Tain, You-Lin; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Hung, Pi-Lien; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Huang, Li-Tung

    2016-01-01

    Overexposure to prenatal glucocorticoid (GC) disturbs hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolism and susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. A high-fat (HF) diet is a major environmental factor that can cause metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate whether prenatal GC plus a postnatal HF diet could alter immune programming in rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given intraperitoneal injections of dexamethasone or saline at 14–21 days of gestation. Male offspring were then divided into four groups: vehicle, prenatal dexamethasone exposure, postnatal HF diet (VHF), and prenatal dexamethasone exposure plus a postnatal HF diet (DHF). The rats were sacrificed and adaptive immune function was evaluated. Compared to the vehicle, the DHF group had lower interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production by splenocytes at postnatal day 120. Decreases in H3K9 acetylation and H3K36me3 levels at the IFN-γ promoter correlated with decreased IFN-γ production. The impaired IFN-γ production and aberrant site-specific histone modification at the IFN-γ promoter by prenatal dexamethasone treatment plus a postnatal HF diet resulted in resilience at postnatal day 180. Prenatal dexamethasone and a postnatal HF diet decreased IFN-γ production through a site-specific and an age-dependent histone modification. These findings suggest a mechanism by which prenatal exposure to GC and a postnatal environment exert effects on fetal immunity programming. PMID:27669212

  15. The Environmental Factor in International Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Joan Martin

    1985-01-01

    U.S.-Canadian and Mexican water-related issues testify to the role that natural resources/ environmental issues play in foreign policy and demonstrate how environmental problems can affect the public and private sectors of a nation internally. How people affect the environment is an irreducible bottom line for stable international trade and market…

  16. Role of Insulinlike Growth Factor 1 in Fetal Development and in the Early Postnatal Life of Premature Infants.

    PubMed

    Hellström, Ann; Ley, David; Hansen-Pupp, Ingrid; Hallberg, Boubou; Ramenghi, Luca A; Löfqvist, Chatarina; Smith, Lois E H; Hård, Anna-Lena

    2016-09-01

    The neonatal period of very preterm infants is often characterized by a difficult adjustment to extrauterine life, with an inadequate nutrient supply and insufficient levels of growth factors, resulting in poor growth and a high morbidity rate. Long-term multisystem complications include cognitive, behavioral, and motor dysfunction as a result of brain damage as well as visual and hearing deficits and metabolic disorders that persist into adulthood. Insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a major regulator of fetal growth and development of most organs especially the central nervous system including the retina. Glucose metabolism in the developing brain is controlled by IGF-1 which also stimulates differentiation and prevents apoptosis. Serum concentrations of IGF-1 decrease to very low levels after very preterm birth and remain low for most of the perinatal development. Strong correlations have been found between low neonatal serum concentrations of IGF-1 and poor brain and retinal growth as well as poor general growth with multiorgan morbidities, such as intraventricular hemorrhage, retinopathy of prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and necrotizing enterocolitis. Experimental and clinical studies indicate that early supplementation with IGF-1 can improve growth in catabolic states and reduce brain injury after hypoxic/ischemic events. A multicenter phase II study is currently underway to determine whether intravenous replacement of human recombinant IGF-1 up to normal intrauterine serum concentrations can improve growth and development and reduce prematurity-associated morbidities.

  17. Environmental Factors in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Juran, Brian D.; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N.

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of the autoimmune liver disease primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) remains largely unresolved, owing in large part to the complexity of interaction between environmental and genetic contributors underlying disease development. Observations of disease clustering, differences in geographical prevalence, and seasonality of diagnosis rates suggest the environmental component to PBC is strong, and epidemiological studies have consistently found cigarette smoking and history of urinary tract infection to be associated with PBC. Current evidence implicates molecular mimicry as a primary mechanism driving loss of tolerance and subsequent autoimmunity in PBC, yet other environmentally influenced disease processes are likely to be involved in pathogenesis. In this review, the authors provide an overview of current findings and touch on potential mechanisms behind the environmental component of PBC. PMID:25057950

  18. Lactoferrin up-regulates intestinal gene expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factors BDNF, UCHL1 and alkaline phosphatase activity to alleviate early weaning diarrhea in postnatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Yang, Changwei; Zhu, Xi; Liu, Ni; Chen, Yue; Gan, Hexia; Troy, Frederic A; Wang, Bing

    2014-08-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying how dietary lactoferrin (Lf) impacts gut development and maturation and protects against early weaning diarrhea are not well understood. In this study, we supplemented postnatal piglets with an Lf at a dose level of 155 and 285 mg/kg/day from 3 to 38 days following birth. Our findings show that the high dose of Lf up-regulated messenger RNA expression levels of genes encoding brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (ubiquitin thiolesterase (UCHL1) and, to a lesser extent, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, in the duodenum (P<.05). Piglets in the high and low Lf group had 30% and 7% larger jejunal crypts compared with the control group (P<.05). Escherichia coli 16S rRNA copy number per gram of ascending colon contents was significantly reduced (P=.001), while the copy number of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus spp. was not affected. In addition, Lf increased intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity (P<.05) and delayed the onset of food transitional diarrhea, reducing its frequency and duration (P<.05). The incidence of diarrhea in the high and low Lf groups was decreased 54% and 15%, respectively, compared with the control group (P=.035). In summary, these findings provide new evidence that dietary Lf supplementation up-regulated gene expression of BDNF and UCHL1, decreased the colon microbiota of E. coli, improved gut maturation and reduced early weaning diarrhea in piglets. The molecular basis underlying these findings suggests that Lf may enhance gut development and immune function by providing new insight into the gut-brain-microbe axis that has not been previously reported.

  19. Knowledge about Danger Signs of Obstetric Complications and Associated Factors among Postnatal Mothers of Mechekel District Health Centers, East Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Amenu, Gedefa; Mulaw, Zerfu; Seyoum, Tewodros; Bayu, Hinsermu

    2016-01-01

    Background. Developing countries like Ethiopia contributed highest level of maternal mortality due to obstetric complications. Women awareness of obstetric danger sign to recognize complications to seek medical care early is the first intervention in an effort to decrease maternal death. Objective. To assess knowledge about danger signs of obstetric complications and associated factors among postnatal mothers at Mechekel district health centers, East Gojjam zone, Northwest Ethiopia, 2014. Methods. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from August to October, 2014, in Mechekel district health centers. Systematic random sampling was used to select four hundred eleven study participants. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were entered to Epi Info version 3.5.3 and exported to SPSS 20.0 for further analysis. Descriptive and summary statistics were done. Logistic regression analyses were used to see the association of different variables. Odds ratios and 95% confidence interval were computed to determine the presence and strength of association. Results. According to this study, 55.1% participants were knowledgeable about danger signs of obstetric complications. Maternal and husband educational level ((AOR = 1.977, 95% CI: 1.052, 3.716) and (AOR = 3.163, 95% CI: 1.860, 5.3770), resp.), family monthly income ≥ 1500 (AOR = 2.954, 95% CI: 1.289, 6.770), being multipara (AOR = 7.463, 95% CI: 1.301, 12.800), ANC follow-up during last pregnancy (AOR = 2.184, 95% CI: 1.137, 4.196), and place of last delivery (AOR = 1.955, 95% CI: 1.214, 3.150) were variables found to be significantly associated with women's knowledge on danger signs of obstetric complications. Conclusion. Significant proportion of respondents were not knowledgeable about obstetric danger signs and factors like educational status, place of last delivery, and antenatal follow-up were found to be associated. PMID:27375920

  20. Postnatal expression of the plasticity-related nerve growth factor-induced gene A (NGFI-A) protein in the superficial layers of the rat superior colliculus: relation to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function.

    PubMed

    Giraldi-Guimarães, A; de Bittencourt-Navarrete, R E; Nascimento, I C C; Salazar, P R; Freitas-Campos, D; Mendez-Otero, R

    2004-01-01

    Immediate early gene expression in the CNS is induced by sensory stimulation and seems to be involved in long-term synaptic plasticity. We have used an immunohistochemical method to detect the nerve growth factor-induced gene A (NGFI-A) protein expression in the superficial layers of the rat superior colliculus during postnatal development. Our goal was to correlate the expression of this candidate plasticity protein with developmental events, especially the activity-dependent refinement of the retinocollicular and corticocollicular pathways. We have also investigated the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor dependence of the NGFI-A expression. Animals of various postnatal ages were used. Postnatal day (P) 12 and older animals were submitted to a protocol of dark adaptation followed by light stimulation. NGFI-A expression was never observed during the first 2 postnatal weeks. The first stained cells were observed at P15, 2 days after eye opening (P13). The highest number of stained cells was observed at the end of the third postnatal week (P22). Adult-like level of expression was reached at P30, since at this age, the number of stained cells was comparable to that found in adult rats (P90). Both P22 animals submitted to an acute treatment with MK-801 (i.p. injection) and adult animals submitted to chronic intracranial infusion of a MK-801 presented a clear decrease in the NGFI-A expression in response to light stimulation. These results suggest that the NGFI-A expression is dependent on the NMDA receptor activation, and the observed pattern of expression is in close agreement with previous descriptions of the changes in the NMDA receptor-mediated visual activity in the developing rat superior colliculus (SC). Our results suggest that the plasticity-related NGFI-A protein might play a role in the developmental plasticity of the superficial layers of the rat SC after eye opening.

  1. TAF4, a subunit of transcription factor II D, directs promoter occupancy of nuclear receptor HNF4A during post-natal hepatocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Alpern, Daniil; Langer, Diana; Ballester, Benoit; Le Gras, Stephanie; Romier, Christophe; Mengus, Gabrielle; Davidson, Irwin

    2014-09-10

    The functions of the TAF subunits of mammalian TFIID in physiological processes remain poorly characterised. In this study, we describe a novel function of TAFs in directing genomic occupancy of a transcriptional activator. Using liver-specific inactivation in mice, we show that the TAF4 subunit of TFIID is required for post-natal hepatocyte maturation. TAF4 promotes pre-initiation complex (PIC) formation at post-natal expressed liver function genes and down-regulates a subset of embryonic expressed genes by increased RNA polymerase II pausing. The TAF4-TAF12 heterodimer interacts directly with HNF4A and in vivo TAF4 is necessary to maintain HNF4A-directed embryonic gene expression at post-natal stages and promotes HNF4A occupancy of functional cis-regulatory elements adjacent to the transcription start sites of post-natal expressed genes. Stable HNF4A occupancy of these regulatory elements requires TAF4-dependent PIC formation highlighting that these are mutually dependent events. Local promoter-proximal HNF4A-TFIID interactions therefore act as instructive signals for post-natal hepatocyte differentiation.

  2. Non-dietary environmental risk factors in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ferrís-i-Tortajada, J; Berbel-Tornero, O; Garcia-i-Castell, J; López-Andreu, J.A.; Sobrino-Najul, E; Ortega-García, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim is to update and disclose the main environmental risk factors, excluding dietary factors, involved in the etiopathology of prostate cancer. Materials and methods Bibliographic review of the last 25 years of non-dietary environmental risk factors associated with prostate cancer between 1985 and 2010, obtained from MedLine, CancerLit, Science Citation Index and Embase. The search profiles were Environmental Risk Factors/Tobacco/Infectious-Inflammatory Factors/Pesticides/Vasectomy/Occupational Exposures/ Chemoprevention Agents/Radiation and Prostate Cancer. Results While some non-dietary environmental risk factors increase the risk of acquiring the disease, others decrease it. Of the former, it is worth mentioning exposal to tobacco smoke, chronic infectious-inflammatory prostatic processes and occupational exposure to cadmium, herbicides and pesticides. The first factors that reduce the risk are the use of chemopreventive drugs (Finasterida, Dutasteride) and exposure to ultraviolet solar radiation. With the current data, a vasectomy does not influence the risk of developing the disease. Conclusions The slow process of prostate carcinogenesis is the final result of the interaction of constitutional risk and environmental factors. Non-dietary environmental factors play an important role in the etiopathology of this disease. To appropriately assess the risk factors, extensive case studies that include all the possible variables must be analyzed. PMID:21439685

  3. Environmental pollutants as risk factors for neurodegenerative disorders: Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chin-Chan, Miguel; Navarro-Yepes, Juliana; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer (AD) and Parkinson (PD) have attracted attention in last decades due to their high incidence worldwide. The etiology of these diseases is still unclear; however the role of the environment as a putative risk factor has gained importance. More worryingly is the evidence that pre- and post-natal exposures to environmental factors predispose to the onset of neurodegenerative diseases in later life. Neurotoxic metals such as lead, mercury, aluminum, cadmium and arsenic, as well as some pesticides and metal-based nanoparticles have been involved in AD due to their ability to increase beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptide and the phosphorylation of Tau protein (P-Tau), causing senile/amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) characteristic of AD. The exposure to lead, manganese, solvents and some pesticides has been related to hallmarks of PD such as mitochondrial dysfunction, alterations in metal homeostasis and aggregation of proteins such as α-synuclein (α-syn), which is a key constituent of Lewy bodies (LB), a crucial factor in PD pathogenesis. Common mechanisms of environmental pollutants to increase Aβ, P-Tau, α-syn and neuronal death have been reported, including the oxidative stress mainly involved in the increase of Aβ and α-syn, and the reduced activity/protein levels of Aβ degrading enzyme (IDE)s such as neprilysin or insulin IDE. In addition, epigenetic mechanisms by maternal nutrient supplementation and exposure to heavy metals and pesticides have been proposed to lead phenotypic diversity and susceptibility to neurodegenerative diseases. This review discusses data from epidemiological and experimental studies about the role of environmental factors in the development of idiopathic AD and PD, and their mechanisms of action. PMID:25914621

  4. Engineering Design Handbook: Environmental Series. Part Two. Natural Environmental Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-01

    Polysulphide Silicones Chlorosulphonated Polyethylene Acrylate Polyesters Fluorinated ate and zirconium oxide are good ultraviolet reflectors...for a group of fluorinated hydrocarbons. 9-38 different fall speeds. Larger drops capture a fraction of smaller droplets contained in a column of...nism and an electrophilic attack on double bonds. Light and humidity appear to be factors that must be present before an ap- preciable alteration

  5. Role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the excitatory–inhibitory imbalance during the critical period of postnatal respiratory development in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiu-ping; Zhang, Hanmeng; Wong-Riley, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The critical period of respiratory development in rats is a narrow window toward the end of the second postnatal week (P12–13), when abrupt neurochemical, electrophysiological, and ventilatory changes occur, when inhibition dominates over excitation, and when the animals’ response to hypoxia is the weakest. The goal of this study was to further test our hypothesis that a major mechanism underlying the synaptic imbalance during the critical period is a reduced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its TrkB receptors. Our aims were to determine (1) that the inhibitory dominance observed in hypoglossal motoneurons during the critical period was also demonstrable in a key respiratory chemosensor, NTSVL; (2) if in vivo application of a TrkB agonist, 7,8-DHF, would prevent, but a TrkB antagonist, ANA-12, would accentuate the synaptic imbalance; and (3) if hypoxia would also heighten the imbalance. Our results indicate that (1) the synaptic imbalance was evident in the NTSVL during the critical period; (2) intraperitoneal injections of 7,8-DHF prevented the synaptic imbalance during the critical period, whereas ANA-12 in vivo accentuated such an imbalance; and (3) acute hypoxia induced the weakest response in both the amplitude and frequency of sEPSCs during the critical period, but it increased the frequency of sIPSCs during the critical period. Thus, our findings are consistent with and strengthen our hypothesis that BDNF and TrkB play a significant role in inducing a synaptic imbalance during the critical period of respiratory development in the rat. PMID:26603459

  6. Genetic and environmental factors influencing human diseases with telomere dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Hinh

    2009-01-01

    Both genetic and environmental factors have been implicated in the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of serious and fatal forms of human blood disorder (acquired aplastic anemia, AA) and lung disease (idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, IPF). We and other researchers have recently shown that naturally occurring mutations in genes encoding the telomere maintenance complex (telomerase) may predispose patients to the development of AA or IPF. Epidemiological data have shown that environmental factors can also cause and/or exacerbate the pathogenesis of these diseases. The exact mechanisms that these germ-line mutations in telomere maintenance genes coupled with environmental insults lead to ineffective hematopoiesis in AA and lung scarring in IPF are not well understood, however. In this article, we provide a summary of evidence for environmental and genetic factors influencing the diseases. These studies provide important insights into the interplay between environmental and genetic factors leading to human diseases with telomere dysfunction. PMID:19684885

  7. “Expectant Parents”: Study protocol of a longitudinal study concerning prenatal (risk) factors and postnatal infant development, parenting, and parent-infant relationships

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While the importance of the infant-parent relationship from the child’s perspective is acknowledged worldwide, there is still a lack of knowledge about predictors and long-term benefits or consequences of the quality of parent-infant relationships from the parent’s perspective. The purpose of this prospective study is to investigate the quality of parent-infant relationships from parents’ perspectives, both in the prenatal and postpartum period. This study therefore focuses on prenatal (risk) factors that may influence the quality of pre- and postnatal bonding, the transition to parenthood, and bonding as a process within families with young children. In contrast to most research concerning pregnancy and infant development, not only the roles and experiences of mothers during pregnancy and the first two years of infants’ lives are studied, but also those of fathers. Methods/design The present study is a prospective longitudinal cohort study, in which pregnant women (N = 466) and their partners (N = 319) are followed from 15 weeks gestation until their child is 24 months old. During pregnancy, midwives register the presence of prenatal risk factors and provide obstetric information after the child’s birth. Parental characteristics are investigated using self-report questionnaires at 15, 26, and 36 weeks gestational age and at 4, 6, 12, and 24 months postpartum. At 26 weeks of pregnancy and at 6 months postpartum, parents are interviewed concerning their representations of the (unborn) child. At 6 months postpartum, the mother-child interaction is observed in several situations within the home setting. When children are 4, 6, 12, and 24 months old, parents also completed questionnaires concerning the child’s (social-emotional) development and the parent-child relationship. Additionally, at 12 months information about the child’s physical development and well-being during the first year of life is retrieved from National Health Care

  8. Environmental lead toxicity and nutritional factors.

    PubMed

    Ahamed, Maqusood; Siddiqui, Mohd Kaleem Javed

    2007-08-01

    Environmental lead toxicity is an old but persistent public health problem throughout the world and children are more susceptible to lead than adults because of their hand to mouth activity, increased respiratory rates and higher gastrointestinal absorption per unit body weight. In the last decade children's blood lead levels have fallen significantly in a number of countries. Despite this reduction, childhood lead toxicity continues to be a major public health problem for certain at-risk groups of children, and concern remains over the effects of lead on intellectual development. The currently approved clinical intervention method is to give chelating agents, which bind and removed lead from lead burdened tissues. Studies indicate, however, that there is a lack of safety and efficacy when conventional chelating agents are used. Several studies are underway to determine the beneficial effect of nutrients supplementation following exposure to lead. Data suggest that nutrients may play an important role in abating some toxic effects of lead. To explain the importance of using exogenous nutrients in treating environmental lead toxicity the following topics are addressed: (i) different sources of lead exposure/current blood lead levels and (ii) protective effects of nutrients supplementation (some essential elements and vitamins) in lead toxicity.

  9. Environmental factors explaining the vegetation patterns in a temperate peatland.

    PubMed

    Pellerin, Stéphanie; Lagneau, Louis-Adrien; Lavoie, Martin; Larocque, Marie

    2009-08-01

    Although ombrotrophic temperate peatlands are important ecosystems for maintaining biodiversity in eastern North America, the environmental factors influencing their flora are only partly understood. The relationships between plant species distribution and environmental factors were thus studied within the oldest temperate peatland of Québec. Plant assemblages were identified by cluster analysis while CCA was used to related vegetation gradients to environmental factors. Five assemblages were identified; three typical of open bog and two characterized by more minerotrophic vegetation. Thicker peat deposit was encounter underlying the bog assemblages while higher water table level and percentage of free surface water distinguished the minerotrophic assemblages. Overall, the floristic patterns observed were spatially structured along the margins and the expanse. The most important environmental factors explaining this spatial gradient were the percentage of free surface water and the highest water-table level.

  10. Environmental Factors in the Onset of Illness Aboard Navy Ships.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-02-01

    this paper are those of the authors. No endorsement by the Department of the Navy has been given or should be inferred. •* Environmental & Social ... Medicine Department, Naval Health Research Center, P.O. Box 85122, San Diego, CA 92138-9174. Environmental Factors in the Onset of Illness Aboard Navy Ships

  11. Environmental Risk Factors in Hospital Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Daniel Z.; Resnik, Harvey L.P.; Holder-Perkins, Vicenzio

    2004-01-01

    Suicide of hospitalized patients is the most common sentinel event reviewed by The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. Shorter lengths of stay, sicker patients, and higher patient to staff ratios challenge the ability of the hospital to maintain safety. Risk factors associated with the physical environment of the…

  12. Social anxiety disorder: A review of environmental risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Christina A; Schmidt, Louis A

    2008-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a debilitating and chronic illness characterized by persistent fear of one or more social or performance situations, with a relatively high lifetime prevalence of 7% to 13% in the general population. Although the last two decades have witnessed enormous growth in the study of biological and dispositional factors underlying SAD, comparatively little attention has been directed towards environmental factors in SAD, even though there has been much ongoing work in the area. In this paper, we provide a recent review and critique of proposed environmental risk factors for SAD, focusing on traditional as well as some understudied and overlooked environmental risk factors: parenting and family environment, adverse life events, cultural and societal factors, and gender roles. We also discuss the need for research design improvements and considerations for future directions. PMID:18728768

  13. Allergic to life: Psychological factors in environmental illness

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, G.E.; Katon, W.J.; Sparks, P.J. )

    1990-07-01

    Environmental illness is an increasingly frequent and medically unexplained syndrome of allergy to common environmental agents. A recent outbreak of chemical-induced illness allowed study of psychological factors in environmental illness. Thirty-seven symptomatic plastics workers completed structured diagnostic interviews and self-report measures of somatization and psychopathology. The 13 subjects who developed environmental illness scored higher on all measures than those who did not. The greatest differences were in prior history of anxiety or depressive disorder (54% versus 4%) and number of medically unexplained physical symptoms before exposure (6.2 versus 2.9). These findings suggest that psychological vulnerability strongly influences chemical sensitivity following chemical exposure.

  14. Quantifying environmental limiting factors on tree cover using geospatial data.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Jonathan A; Santos, Maria J; Dobrowski, Solomon Z; Vanderbilt, Vern C; Ustin, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    Environmental limiting factors (ELFs) are the thresholds that determine the maximum or minimum biological response for a given suite of environmental conditions. We asked the following questions: 1) Can we detect ELFs on percent tree cover across the eastern slopes of the Lake Tahoe Basin, NV? 2) How are the ELFs distributed spatially? 3) To what extent are unmeasured environmental factors limiting tree cover? ELFs are difficult to quantify as they require significant sample sizes. We addressed this by using geospatial data over a relatively large spatial extent, where the wall-to-wall sampling ensures the inclusion of rare data points which define the minimum or maximum response to environmental factors. We tested mean temperature, minimum temperature, potential evapotranspiration (PET) and PET minus precipitation (PET-P) as potential limiting factors on percent tree cover. We found that the study area showed system-wide limitations on tree cover, and each of the factors showed evidence of being limiting on tree cover. However, only 1.2% of the total area appeared to be limited by the four (4) environmental factors, suggesting other unmeasured factors are limiting much of the tree cover in the study area. Where sites were near their theoretical maximum, non-forest sites (tree cover < 25%) were primarily limited by cold mean temperatures, open-canopy forest sites (tree cover between 25% and 60%) were primarily limited by evaporative demand, and closed-canopy forests were not limited by any particular environmental factor. The detection of ELFs is necessary in order to fully understand the width of limitations that species experience within their geographic range.

  15. Quantifying Environmental Limiting Factors on Tree Cover Using Geospatial Data

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Jonathan A.; Santos, Maria J.; Dobrowski, Solomon Z.; Vanderbilt, Vern C.; Ustin, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental limiting factors (ELFs) are the thresholds that determine the maximum or minimum biological response for a given suite of environmental conditions. We asked the following questions: 1) Can we detect ELFs on percent tree cover across the eastern slopes of the Lake Tahoe Basin, NV? 2) How are the ELFs distributed spatially? 3) To what extent are unmeasured environmental factors limiting tree cover? ELFs are difficult to quantify as they require significant sample sizes. We addressed this by using geospatial data over a relatively large spatial extent, where the wall-to-wall sampling ensures the inclusion of rare data points which define the minimum or maximum response to environmental factors. We tested mean temperature, minimum temperature, potential evapotranspiration (PET) and PET minus precipitation (PET-P) as potential limiting factors on percent tree cover. We found that the study area showed system-wide limitations on tree cover, and each of the factors showed evidence of being limiting on tree cover. However, only 1.2% of the total area appeared to be limited by the four (4) environmental factors, suggesting other unmeasured factors are limiting much of the tree cover in the study area. Where sites were near their theoretical maximum, non-forest sites (tree cover < 25%) were primarily limited by cold mean temperatures, open-canopy forest sites (tree cover between 25% and 60%) were primarily limited by evaporative demand, and closed-canopy forests were not limited by any particular environmental factor. The detection of ELFs is necessary in order to fully understand the width of limitations that species experience within their geographic range. PMID:25692604

  16. Environmental Risk Factors for Pneumocystis Pneumonia Hospitalizations in HIV Patients

    PubMed Central

    Djawe, Kpandja; Levin, Linda; Swartzman, Alexandra; Fong, Serena; Roth, Brenna; Subramanian, Anuradha; Grieco, Katherine; Jarlsberg, Leah; Miller, Robert F.; Huang, Laurence; Walzer, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) is the second leading cause of morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected patients in the United States. Although the host risk factors for the development of PcP are well established, the environmental (climatological, air pollution) risk factors are poorly understood. The major goal of this study was to determine the environmental risk factors for admissions of HIV-positive patients with PcP to a single medical center. Methods. Between 1997 and 2008, 457 HIV-positive patients with microscopically confirmed PcP were admitted to the San Francisco General Hospital. A case-crossover design was applied to identify environmental risk factors for PcP hospitalizations. Climatological and air pollution data were collected from the Environmental Protection Agency and Weather Warehouse databases. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of each environmental factor and PcP hospital admission. Results. Hospital admissions were significantly more common in the summer than in the other seasons. Increases in temperature and sulfur dioxide levels were independently associated with hospital admissions for PcP, but the effects of sulfur dioxide were modified by increasing carbon monoxide levels. Conclusions. This study identifies both climatological and air pollution constituents as independent risk factors for hospitalization of HIV-positive patients with PcP in San Francisco. Thus, the environmental effects on PcP are more likely complex than previously thought. Further studies are needed to understand how these factors exert their effects and to determine if these factors are associated with PcP in other geographic locations. PMID:23042978

  17. Environmental factors affecting inflammatory bowel disease: have we made progress?

    PubMed

    Lakatos, Peter Laszlo

    2009-01-01

    The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is only partially understood; various environmental and host (e.g. genetic, epithelial, immune, and nonimmune) factors are involved. The critical role for environmental factors is strongly supported by recent worldwide trends in IBD epidemiology. One important environmental factor is smoking. A meta-analysis partially confirms previous findings that smoking was found to be protective against ulcerative colitis and, after the onset of the disease, might improve its course, decreasing the need for colectomy. In contrast, smoking increases the risk of developing Crohn's disease and aggravates its course. The history of IBD is dotted by cyclic reports on the isolation of specific infectious agents responsible for Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. The more recently published cold chain hypothesis is providing an even broader platform by linking dietary factors and microbial agents. An additional, recent theory has suggested a breakdown in the balance between putative species of 'protective' versus 'harmful' intestinal bacteria - this concept has been termed dysbiosis resulting in decreased bacterial diversity. Other factors such as oral contraceptive use, appendectomy, dietary factors (e.g. refined sugar, fat, and fast food), perinatal events, and childhood infections have also been associated with both diseases, but their role is more controversial. Nonetheless, there is no doubt that economic development, leading to improved hygiene and other changes in lifestyle ('westernized lifestyle') may play a role in the increase in IBD. This review article focuses on the role of environmental factors in the pathogenesis and progression of IBDs.

  18. Developmental immunotoxicity (DIT), postnatal immune dysfunction and childhood leukemia.

    PubMed

    Dietert, Rodney R

    2009-01-01

    The developing immune system is a sensitive target for environmentally-induced disruption producing postnatal immune dysfunction. Unique immune maturational events occur during critical windows of prenatal/perinatal development and environmentally-induced disruption of one-time events can have serious health consequences. Additionally, the specialized immunological conditions necessary to bring a semi-allogeneic fetus to term place restrictions on both the maternal and offspring immune systems. These features combine not only to increase the risk of early-life immune insult (ELII), which includes xenobiotically-induced developmental immunotoxicity (DIT), but also to influence the nature of DIT-associated diseases for the child. Exposure to certain toxicants as well as maternal infections and other pregnancy stressors is known to induce postnatal immune dysfunction. Because dysfunctional immune responses to childhood infections have been proposed to play a role in childhood leukemia, DIT is a potential risk factor for this disease. This review details the range of disease susceptibilities impacted by DIT and discusses the importance of effective DIT safety testing for drugs and chemicals as a preventative measure.

  19. The Search for Causative Environmental Factors in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Rogler, Gerhard; Zeitz, Jonas; Biedermann, Luc

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has become a 'prototype disease' for chronic auto-inflammatory disorders with a polygenic background and important multifaceted environmental trigger components. The environmental factors contribute both to pathogenesis and disease flares. Thus, IBD is a disease par excellence to study the interactions between host genetics, environmental factors (such as infections or smoking) and 'in-vironmental' factors - for example, our intestinal microbiota. Longitudinal intercurrent events, including the impact of long-term medication on disease progression or stabilization, can exemplarily be studied in this disease group. Whilst alterations in the human genome coding relevant variant protein products have most likely not emerged significantly over the last 50 years, the incidence of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis has dramatically increased in Western countries and more recently in the Asia Pacific area. An interesting concept indicates that 'Western lifestyle factors' trigger chronic intestinal inflammation or disease flares in a genetically susceptible host. To understand the disease pathogenesis as well as triggers for flares or determinants of disease courses, we must further investigate potential en(in)vironmental factors. As environmental conditions, in contrast to genetic risk factors, can be influenced, knowledge on those risk factors becomes crucial to modulate disease incidence, disease course or clinical presentation. It is obvious that prevention of environmentally triggered disease flares would be a goal most relevant for IBD patients. An increased prevalence of IBD in urban environment has been documented in Switzerland by the Swiss IBD cohort study. Several studies have attempted to identify such factors; however, only a few have been validated. The best investigated environmental factor identified in IBD cohort analyses is smoking. Other environmental factors that have been associated with clinical presentation or

  20. Integrated Impacts of environmental factors on the degradation of fumigants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Yates, S. R.

    2007-12-01

    Volatilization of fumigants has been concerned as one of air pollution sources. Fumigants are used to control nematodes and soil-born pathogens for a pre-plant treatment to increase the production of high-cash crops. One of technologies to reduce the volatilization of fumigants to atmosphere is to enhance the degradation of fumigants in soil. Fumigant degradation is affected by environmental factors such as moisture content, temperature, initial concentration of injected fumigants, and soil properties. However, effects of each factor on the degradation were limitedly characterized and integrated Impacts from environmental factors has not been described yet. Degradation of 1,3- dichloropropene (1,3-D) was investigated in various condition of temperatures (20-60 °C), moisture contents (0 ¡V 30 %) and initial concentrations (0.6 ¡V 60 mg/kg) with Arlington sandy loam soil. Abiotic and biotic degradation processes were distinguished using two sterilization methods with HgCl2 and autoclave and impacts of environmental factors were separately assessed for abiotic and biotic degradations. Initially, degradation rates (k) of cis and trans 1,3-D isomers were estimated by first-order kinetics and modified depending on impacts from environmental factors. Arrhenius equation and Walker¡¦s equation which were conventionally used to describe temperature and moisture effects on degradation were assessed for integrated impacts from environmental factors and logarithmical correlation was observed between initial concentrations of applied fumigants and degradation rates. Understanding integrated impacts of environmental factors on degradation will help to design more effective emission reduction schemes in various conditions and provide more practical parameters for modeling simulations.

  1. Epigenetic Effect of Environmental Factors on Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Takeo; Mochizuki, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    Both environmental factors and genetic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Epigenetics, an essential mechanism for gene regulation based on chemical modifications of DNA and histone proteins, is also involved in congenital ASDs. It was recently demonstrated that environmental factors, such as endocrine disrupting chemicals and mental stress in early life, can change epigenetic status and gene expression, and can cause ASDs. Moreover, environmentally induced epigenetic changes are not erased during gametogenesis and are transmitted to subsequent generations, leading to changes in behavior phenotypes. However, epigenetics has a reversible nature since it is based on the addition or removal of chemical residues, and thus the original epigenetic status may be restored. Indeed, several antidepressants and anticonvulsants used for mental disorders including ASDs restore the epigenetic state and gene expression. Therefore, further epigenetic understanding of ASDs is important for the development of new drugs that take advantages of epigenetic reversibility. PMID:27187441

  2. Oral Health Inequalities: Relationships between Environmental and Individual Factors.

    PubMed

    Gupta, E; Robinson, P G; Marya, C M; Baker, S R

    2015-10-01

    Recent research has emphasized the relationships between environmental and individual factors that may influence population oral health and lead to health inequalities. However, little is known about the effect of interactions between environmental and individual factors on inequalities in clinical (e.g., decayed teeth) and subjective oral health outcomes (e.g., oral health-related quality of life [OHQoL]). This cohort study aimed to explore the direct and mediated longitudinal interrelationships between key environmental and individual factors on clinical and subjective oral health outcomes in adults. Self-reported measures of OHQoL and individual (sense of coherence [SOC], social support, stress, oral health beliefs, dental behaviors, and subjective socioeconomic status [SES]) and environmental factors (SES and social network) were collected at baseline and 3-mo follow-up, together with a baseline clinical examination of 495 adult employees of an automobile parts manufacturer in India. Lagged structural equation modeling was guided by the adapted Wilson and Cleary/Brunner and Marmot model linking clinical, individual, and environmental variables to quality of life. The study provides tentative evidence that SES may influence levels of resources such as social support and SOC, which mediate stress and in turn may influence subjective oral health outcomes. Accordingly, the present findings and the adapted Wilson and Cleary/Brunner and Marmot model on which they are predicted provide support for the psychosocial pathway being key in the SES-oral health relationship. The pathways through which environmental factors interact with individual factors to impact subjective oral health outcomes identified here may bring opportunities for more targeted oral health promotion strategies.

  3. Life style factors and acquired susceptibility to environmental disease.

    PubMed

    Au, W W

    2001-10-01

    Multifactorial risk factors are responsible for many diseases. They can be broadly categorized as environmental, genetic and life style factors. Much attention has been focused on the first two categories, e.g. the identification of environmental toxicants/carcinogens and the elucidation of genetic susceptibility to disease. Life style risk factors such as aging, poor nutrition, infection and exposure to toxicants can also increase susceptibility to illnesses. These life style factors can therefore be considered to cause acquired susceptibility for increased risk for environmental disease. Among Egyptians, infection with the parasite, Schistosoma, is the primary risk factor for bladder cancer and the risk is enhanced by exposure to mutagenic chemicals. We have shown that inheritance of susceptible metabolizing genes that can increase body burden of mutagenic chemicals enhances the risk. We have also hypothesized that chronic exposure to mutagenic chemicals causes cellular abnormalities that can reduce the capacity of cells to repair DNA damage and thus increase the risk for environmental disease. We have used a challenge assay to show that cells from cigarette smokers and from populations exposed to uranium, butadiene and pesticides have abnormal DNA repair responses compared to matched controls. On the other hand, the response is normal in workers exposed to very low concentrations of butadiene and benzene, and in mothers who had children with birth defects. This suggests that exposure to high enough concentrations of certain mutagens can cause acquired susceptibility in human populations. The acquired susceptibility is expected to interact with environmental factors and with genetic susceptibility to increase risk for environmental disease.

  4. Genetic and Environmental Factors in Complex Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    van Loo, K.M.J; Martens, G.J.M

    2007-01-01

    Complex neurodevelopmental disorders, such as schizophrenia, autism, attention deficit (hyperactivity) disorder, (manic) depressive illness and addiction, are thought to result from an interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Association studies on candidate genes and genome-wide linkage analyses have identified many susceptibility chromosomal regions and genes, but considerable efforts to replicate association have been surprisingly often disappointing. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of the genetic contribution to complex neurodevelopmental disorders, focusing on the findings from association and linkage studies. Furthermore, the contribution of the interaction of the genetic with environmental and epigenetic factors to the aetiology of complex neurodevelopmental disorders as well as suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:19412416

  5. Maternal environmental risk factors for congenital hydrocephalus: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kalyvas, Aristotelis V; Kalamatianos, Theodosis; Pantazi, Mantha; Lianos, Georgios D; Stranjalis, George; Alexiou, George A

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Congenital hydrocephalus (CH) is one of the most frequent CNS congenital malformations, representing an entity with serious pathological consequences. Although several studies have previously assessed child-related risk factors associated with CH development, there is a gap of knowledge on maternal environmental risk factors related to CH. The authors have systematically assessed extrinsic factors in the maternal environment that potentially confer an increased risk of CH development. METHODS The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, and EMBASE were systematically searched for works published between 1966 and December 2015 to identify all relevant articles published in English. Only studies that investigated environmental risk factors concerning the mother-either during gestation or pregestationally-were included. RESULTS In total, 13 studies (5 cohorts, 3 case series, 3 case-control studies, 1 meta-analysis, and 1 case report) meeting the inclusion criteria were identified. Maternal medication or alcohol use during gestation; lifestyle modifiable maternal pathologies such as obesity, diabetes, or hypertension; lack of prenatal care; and a low socioeconomic status were identified as significant maternal environmental risk factors for CH development. Maternal infections and trauma to the mother during pregnancy have also been highlighted as potential mother-related risk factors for CH. CONCLUSIONS Congenital hydrocephalus is an important cause of serious infant health disability that can lead to health inequalities among adults. The present study identified several maternal environmental risk factors for CH, thus yielding important scientific information relevant to prevention of some CH cases. However, further research is warranted to confirm the impact of the identified factors and examine their underlying behavioral and/or biological basis, leading to the generation of suitable prevention strategies.

  6. Gender differences in autoimmunity associated with exposure to environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmunity is thought to result from a combination of genetics, environmental triggers, and stochastic events. Gender is also a significant risk factor with many diseases exhibiting a female bias. Although the role of environmental triggers, especially medications, in eliciting autoimmunity is well established less is known about the interplay between gender, the environment and autoimmunity. This review examines the contribution of gender in autoimmunity induced by selected chemical, physical and biological agents in humans and animal models. Epidemiological studies reveal that environmental factors can be associated with a gender bias in human autoimmunity. However many studies show that the increased risk of autoimmunity is often influenced by occupational exposure or other gender biased activities. Animal studies, although often prejudiced by the exclusive use of female animals, reveal that gender bias can be strain specific suggesting an interaction between sex chromosome complement and background genes. This observation has important implications because it argues that within a gender biased disease there may be individuals in which gender does not contribute to autoimmunity. Exposure to environmental factors, which encompasses everything around us, adds an additional layer of complexity. Understanding how the environment influences the relationship between sex chromosome complement and innate and adaptive immune responses will be essential in determining the role of gender in environmentally-induced autoimmunity. PMID:22137891

  7. Effects of pre- and post-natal treatment with KRN633, an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, on retinal vascular development and patterning in mice.

    PubMed

    Morita, Akane; Nakahara, Tsutomu; Abe, Naomichi; Kurauchi, Yuki; Mori, Asami; Sakamoto, Kenji; Nagamitsu, Tohru; Ishii, Kunio

    2014-03-01

    The impaired function of angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), during pregnancy is associated with preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. To determine how the attenuation of VEGF signals during retinal vascular development affects retinal vascular growth and patterns, we examined the effects of pre- and post-natal treatment of mice with KRN633, a VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, on retinal vascular development and structure. Delays in retinal vascular development were observed in the pups of mother mice that were treated daily with KRN633 (5 mg/kg/day) from embryonic day 13.5 until the day of delivery. A more marked delay was seen in pups treated with the inhibitor (5 mg/kg/day) on the day of birth and on the following day. Pups treated postnatally with KRN633 showed abnormal retinal vascular patterns, such as highly dense capillary networks and decreased numbers of central arteries and veins. The high-density vascular networks in KRN633-treated pups showed a greater sensitivity to VEGF signaling inhibition than the normal vascular networks in vehicle-treated pups. Compared to vehicle-treated pups, more severe hypoxia and stronger VEGF mRNA expression were observed in avascular areas in KRN633-treated pups. These results suggest that a short-term loss of VEGF function at the earliest stages of vascular development suppresses vascular growth, leading to abnormal vascular patterning, at least in part via mechanisms involving VEGF in the mouse retina.

  8. [Endemic goiter in Latium: environmental and genetic factors].

    PubMed

    Paggi, A

    1998-01-01

    Most studies on the pathogenesis of endemic goiter focus above all on iodine deficiency. In some endemic goiter areas (i.e. Nigeria) there is no evidence of iodine deficiency; therefore, we suggest the taking into account of various factors, both environmental and non-environmental. We report the results of two studies carried out in three different areas in Latium: one of them (Cerveteri, RM) could be classified as high prevalence of goiter area, while the two others (Roccasecca dei Volsci, LT and Castel San Pietro Romano, RM) are true endemic goiter areas. The role of environmental factors, radioactivity and electromagnetism, foodstuff, the hydrogeological and chemical composition of natural water and the importance of genetics are here discussed, assuming that the endemic goiter could have a multifactorial pathogenesis.

  9. Social and Environmental Factors Influencing In-Prison Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodall, James

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: There is a strong political imperative to regard the prison as a key social setting for health promotion, but evidence indicates that drug misuse continues to be a significant issue for many prisoners. This paper aims to examine the social and environmental factors within the setting that influence individuals' drug taking.…

  10. Control and the Aged: Environmental or Personality Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiffany, Phyllis G.; Dey, Kay

    Control over self, lifestyle, and environment is a major factor in how one ages. To investigate how age acts as an environmental force in affecting perceptions of control, 45 adults, aged 60-80, from western Kansas were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), the Tiffany Experienced Control Scales (ECS), the Minnesota…

  11. Determining Factors of Environmental Education in Spanish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrán, Manuel; Andrades, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to analyze the main factors that might determine the extent to which Spanish organizational management educators use environmental stand-alone subjects to equip students with alternative views of business. To give a more qualitative study, this paper also provides a more detailed curriculum analysis from a double point of…

  12. Bio-environmental factors associated with myopia: An updated review.

    PubMed

    Galvis, V; Tello, A; Camacho, P A; Parra, M M; Merayo-Lloves, J

    2017-02-02

    Experimental studies in animals, as well as observational and intervention studies in humans, seem to support the premise that the development of juvenile myopia is promoted by a combination of the effect of genetic and environmental factors, with a complex interaction between them. The very rapid increase in myopia rates in some parts of the world, such as Southeast Asia, supports a significant environmental effect. Several lines of evidence suggest that humans might respond to various external factors, such as increased activity in near vision, increased educational pressure, decreased exposure to sunlight outdoors, dietary changes (including increased intake of carbohydrates), as well as low light levels indoors. All these factors could be associated with a higher prevalence of myopia.

  13. Environmental Health Factors and Sexually Dimorphic Differences in Behavioral Disruptions

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Cheryl S.; Trainor, Brian C.

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that environmental factors—in particular, those that we are exposed to during perinatal life—can dramatically shape the organism’s risk for later diseases, including neurobehavioral disorders. However, depending on the environmental insult, one sex may demonstrate greater vulnerability than the other sex. Herein, we focus on two well-defined extrinsic environmental factors that lead to sexually dimorphic behavioral differences in animal models and linkage in human epidemiological studies. These include maternal or psychosocial stress (such as social stress) and exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds (such as one of the most prevalent, bisphenol A [BPA]). In general, the evidence suggests that early environmental exposures, such as BPA and stress, lead to more pronounced behavioral deficits in males than in females, whereas female neurobehavioral patterns are more vulnerable to later in life stress. These findings highlight the importance of considering sex differences and developmental timing when examining the effects of environmental factors on later neurobehavioral outcomes. PMID:25705580

  14. [Environmental and genetic risk factors for endometrial carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Sénéchal, Claire; Cottereau, Edouard; de Pauw, Antoine; Elan, Camille; Dagousset, Isabelle; Fourchotte, Virginie; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Lae, Marick; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Buecher, Bruno

    2015-03-01

    In France, endometrial cancer is at the first rank of gynecological cancers for cancer incidence, before ovarian and cervical cancers. In fact, the number of incident cases has been estimated to 7275 for the year 2012; the number of death due to endometrial cancer to 2025. This cancer is hormone-dependent and endogenous (reproductive factors) or exogenous (oral combined contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy) causes of exposition to estrogens are the major environmental risk factors for both types of endometrial cancers: type I or well-differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinomas; and type II including all other histological types: papillary serous adenocarcinomas, clear cell adenocarcinomas and carcinosarcomas, also known as malignant mixed Mullerian tumor, MMMT. Obesity, diabetes mellitus and adjuvant treatment of breast cancer with tamoxifen are also associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer. Genetic factors may also be implicated in the pathogenesis of endometrial cancer either as "minor genetic factors" (susceptibility factors), which remain largely unknown and are responsible for the increased observed risk in relatives of women affected with endometrial cancer; or as major genetic factors responsible for hereditary forms and namely for Lynch syndrome whose genetic transmission is of autosomic dominant type. The appropriate recognition of Lynch syndrome is of critical importance because affected patients and their relatives should benefit from specific care. The aims of this review is to describe major environmental and genetic risk factors for endometrial cancer with specific attention to most recent advances in this field and to describe recommendations for care of at-risk women.

  15. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Postnatal Growth-Restricted Preterm Infants with Postnatal Head-Sparing

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, Jeffrey M.; Bann, Carla M.; Stoll, Barbara J.; D’Angio, Carl T.; Bell, Edward F.; Duncan, Andrea F.; Guillet, Ronnie

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare neurodevelopmental outcomes in postnatal growth-restricted infants born < 29 weeks with and without postnatal head-sparing. Study Design We analyzed developmental outcomes at 2 years of age among postnatally growth-restricted infants with and without head-sparing. The primary outcome was Bayley III cognitive composite score; secondary outcomes included Bayley III motor composite score, moderate/severe cerebral palsy, GMFCS level ≥2, and presence or absence of neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI). Results Of 1098 infants evaluated at 18–22 months, 658 were postnatally growth-restricted, of whom 301 had head-sparing. In the multivariate model including independent risk factors for poor growth and poor developmental outcome, infants with head-sparing had higher adjusted motor composite scores (mean difference 4.65, p<0.01), but no differences in other neurodevelopmental outcomes. Conclusion Postnatal head-sparing is associated with improved neurodevelopmental outcome in extremely preterm infants, specifically Bayley III motor scores, but whether beneficial effects of PHS persist later in life is unknown. PMID:27629374

  16. Effects of maternal nutrition and porcine growth hormone (pGH) treatment during gestation on endocrine and metabolic factors in sows, fetuses and pigs, skeletal muscle development, and postnatal growth.

    PubMed

    Rehfeldt, Charlotte; Nissen, Pia M; Kuhn, Gerda; Vestergaard, Mogens; Ender, Klaus; Oksbjerg, Niels

    2004-10-01

    Prenatal growth is very complex and a highly integrated process. Both maternal nutrition and the maternal somatotropic axis play a significant role in coordinating nutrient partitioning and utilization between maternal, placental and fetal tissues. Maternal nutrition may alter the nutrient concentrations and in turn the expression of growth regulating factors such as IGFs and IGFBPs in the blood and tissues, while GH acts in parallel via changing IGFs/IGFBPs and nutrient availability. The similarity in the target components implies that maternal nutrition and the somatotropic axis are closely related to each other and may induce similar effects on placental and fetal growth. Severe restriction of nutrients throughout gestation has a permanent negative effect on fetal and postnatal growth, whereas the effects of both temporary restriction and feeding above requirements during gestation seem to be of transitional character. Advantages in fetal growth gained by maternal growth hormone treatment during early to mid-gestation are not maintained to term, whereas treatment during late or greatest part of gestation increases progeny size at birth, which could be of advantage for postnatal growth. This review summarizes the available knowledge on the effects of different maternal feeding strategies and maternal GH administration during pregnancy and their interactions on metabolic and hormonal (especially IGFs/IGFBPs) status in the feto-maternal unit, skeletal muscle development and growth of the offspring in pigs.

  17. Axonal localization of Ca2+-dependent activator protein for secretion 2 is critical for subcellular locality of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 release affecting proper development of postnatal mouse cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Sadakata, Tetsushi; Kakegawa, Wataru; Shinoda, Yo; Hosono, Mayu; Katoh-Semba, Ritsuko; Sekine, Yukiko; Sato, Yumi; Saruta, Chihiro; Ishizaki, Yasuki; Yuzaki, Michisuke; Kojima, Masami; Furuichi, Teiichi

    2014-01-01

    Ca2+-dependent activator protein for secretion 2 (CAPS2) is a protein that is essential for enhanced release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) from cerebellar granule cells. We previously identified dex3, a rare alternative splice variant of CAPS2, which is overrepresented in patients with autism and is missing an exon 3 critical for axonal localization. We recently reported that a mouse model CAPS2Δex3/Δex3 expressing dex3 showed autistic-like behavioral phenotypes including impaired social interaction and cognition and increased anxiety in an unfamiliar environment. Here, we verified impairment in axonal, but not somato-dendritic, localization of dex3 protein in cerebellar granule cells and demonstrated cellular and physiological phenotypes in postnatal cerebellum of CAPS2Δex3/Δex3 mice. Interestingly, both BDNF and NT-3 were markedly reduced in axons of cerebellar granule cells, resulting in a significant decrease in their release. As a result, dex3 mice showed developmental deficits in dendritic arborization of Purkinje cells, vermian lobulation and fissurization, and granule cell precursor proliferation. Paired-pulse facilitation at parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses was also impaired. Together, our results indicate that CAPS2 plays an important role in subcellular locality (axonal vs. somato-dendritic) of enhanced BDNF and NT-3 release, which is indispensable for proper development of postnatal cerebellum.

  18. Environmental factors in the development of autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Sealey, L A; Hughes, B W; Sriskanda, A N; Guest, J R; Gibson, A D; Johnson-Williams, L; Pace, D G; Bagasra, O

    2016-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are highly heterogeneous developmental conditions characterized by deficits in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and obsessive/stereotyped patterns of behavior and repetitive movements. Social interaction impairments are the most characteristic deficits in ASD. There is also evidence of impoverished language and empathy, a profound inability to use standard nonverbal behaviors (eye contact, affective expression) to regulate social interactions with others, difficulties in showing empathy, failure to share enjoyment, interests and achievements with others, and a lack of social and emotional reciprocity. In developed countries, it is now reported that 1%-1.5% of children have ASD, and in the US 2015 CDC reports that approximately one in 45 children suffer from ASD. Despite the intense research focus on ASD in the last decade, the underlying etiology remains unknown. Genetic research involving twins and family studies strongly supports a significant contribution of environmental factors in addition to genetic factors in ASD etiology. A comprehensive literature search has implicated several environmental factors associated with the development of ASD. These include pesticides, phthalates, polychlorinated biphenyls, solvents, air pollutants, fragrances, glyphosate and heavy metals, especially aluminum used in vaccines as adjuvant. Importantly, the majority of these toxicants are some of the most common ingredients in cosmetics and herbicides to which almost all of us are regularly exposed to in the form of fragrances, face makeup, cologne, air fresheners, food flavors, detergents, insecticides and herbicides. In this review we describe various scientific data to show the role of environmental factors in ASD.

  19. Environmental vascular risk factors: new perspectives for stroke prevention.

    PubMed

    Bernal-Pacheco, Oscar; Román, Gustavo C

    2007-11-15

    Despite intensive evaluation of acute stroke patients, perhaps only half of the attributable stroke risk is usually identified. In addition to traditional and non-traditional vascular risk factors-including most recently homocysteine, inflammation, and alterations of coagulation-a number of environmental risk factors for stroke have been identified in the last decade. In this update we review the following: lower education and poor socioeconomic status (probable surrogates for exposure to traditional high-risk behaviors such as smoking, poor nutrition, lack of prenatal control, absence of preventive medical and dental care, and non-compliance of treatment of conditions such as hypertension); depression, stress and affective disorders; obstructive sleep apnea; passive smoking and environmental pollution; infections, in particular periodontal diseases that increase C-reactive protein (CRP); raised body mass index (obesity); exercise, and diet. The possible role of high-fructose corn syrup in the epidemic of obesity in the USA is reviewed. Protective diets include higher consumption of fish, olive oil, grains, fruits and vegetables (Mediterranean diet), as well as probiotic bacteria in yogurt and dairy products. Careful attention should be given to the patient's environment looking for modifiable factors. The effects of clean environmental air and water, adequate diet and appropriate nutrition, healthy teeth, exercise, and refreshing sleep in the prevention of stroke and cardiovascular disease appear to be quite compelling. Although some of these modifiable risk factors lack evidence-based information, judicious clinical sense should be used to counteract the potentially damaging effects of adverse environmental vascular risk factors.

  20. Pleural Mesothelioma in New Caledonia: Associations with Environmental Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Francine; Maurizot, Pierre; Mangeas, Morgan; Ambrosi, Jean-Paul; Douwes, Jeroen; Robineau, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Background High incidences of malignant mesothelioma (MM) have been observed in New Caledonia. Previous work has shown an association between MM and soil containing serpentinite. Objectives We studied the spatial and temporal variation of MM and its association with environmental factors. Methods We investigated the 109 MM cases recorded in the Cancer Registry of New Caledonia between 1984 and 2008 and performed spatial, temporal, and space–time cluster analyses. We conducted an ecological analysis involving 100 tribes over a large area including those with the highest incidence rates. Associations with environmental factors were assessed using logistic and Poisson regression analyses. Results The highest incidence was observed in the Houaïlou area with a world age-standardized rate of 128.7 per 100,000 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI), 70.41–137.84]. A significant spatial cluster grouped 18 tribes (31 observed cases vs. 8 expected cases; p = 0.001), but no significant temporal clusters were identified. The ecological analyses identified serpentinite on roads as the greatest environmental risk factor (odds ratio = 495.0; 95% CI, 46.2–4679.7; multivariate incidence rate ratio = 13.0; 95% CI, 10.2–16.6). The risk increased with serpentinite surface, proximity to serpentinite quarries and distance to the peridotite massif. The association with serpentines was stronger than with amphiboles. Living on a slope and close to dense vegetation appeared protective. The use of whitewash, previously suggested to be a risk factor, was not associated with MM incidence. Conclusions Presence of serpentinite on roads is a major environmental risk factor for mesothelioma in New Caledonia. PMID:21193386

  1. Masculinity and femininity in twin children: genetic and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, J E; Baker, L A; Jacklin, C N

    1989-12-01

    Genetic and environmental origins of individual differences in masculine and feminine personality attributes were investigated in a sample of 38 monozygotic and 32 dizygotic twin pairs (total N = 140) during pre- and early adolescence. Self-report measures of both masculine and feminine characteristics were obtained for each child using 2 standardized instruments: the Children's Personality Attributes Questionnaire (CPAQ) and the Adolescent Self-Perception Inventory (ASPI). Multivariate biometrical analyses revealed significant genetic influences in all measures, accounting for 20%-48% of the observed variation in each. Environmental influences, which explained the remaining 52%-80% of variance in masculinity and femininity, were apparently specific to each individual and not shared by members of the same twin pair. The results underscore the importance of considering both genetic and environmental factors in gender-role development, particularly in studies of family resemblance.

  2. Heart rate variability in kittens during early postnatal ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Fateev, M M; Nikolaeva, T N; Dashichev, K V; Olendar, N V

    2009-06-01

    Heart rate variability in awake kittens under resting conditions was studied during the following periods of postnatal ontogeny: newborn animals, 10-day-old animals (eye opening), 20-day-old animals (rise on the legs), and 30-day-old animals (control). Newborn animals were characterized by high activity of the sympathoadrenal system due to birth stress. The effect of stress factors increased in 10-day-old kittens, which was related to the start of functioning of distant receptors and delivery of new environmental information into the brain. The acquisition of upright posture and locomotion on the limbs were accompanied by activation of the vagus nerve in kittens. Significant changes in temporal, geometric, and spectral characteristics illustrate an increase in adaptability of the organism and possibility for independent living (particularly, by the 30th day of life).

  3. Neonatal pain in relation to postnatal growth in infants born very preterm.

    PubMed

    Vinall, Jillian; Miller, Steven P; Chau, Vann; Brummelte, Susanne; Synnes, Anne R; Grunau, Ruth E

    2012-07-01

    Procedural pain is associated with poorer neurodevelopment in infants born very preterm (≤ 32 weeks gestational age), however, the etiology is unclear. Animal studies have demonstrated that early environmental stress leads to slower postnatal growth; however, it is unknown whether neonatal pain-related stress affects postnatal growth in infants born very preterm. The aim of this study was to examine whether greater neonatal pain (number of skin-breaking procedures adjusted for medical confounders) is related to decreased postnatal growth (weight and head circumference [HC] percentiles) early in life and at term-equivalent age in infants born very preterm. Participants were n=78 preterm infants born ≤ 32 weeks gestational age, followed prospectively since birth. Infants were weighed and HC measured at birth, early in life (median: 32 weeks [interquartile range 30.7-33.6]) and at term-equivalent age (40 weeks [interquartile range 38.6-42.6]). Weight and HC percentiles were computed from sex-specific British Columbia population-based data. Greater neonatal pain predicted lower body weight (Wald χ(2)=7.36, P=0.01) and HC (Wald χ(2)=4.36, P=0.04) percentiles at 32 weeks postconceptional age, after adjusting for birth weight percentile and postnatal risk factors of illness severity, duration of mechanical ventilation, infection, and morphine and corticosteroid exposure. However, later neonatal infection predicted lower weight percentile at term (Wald χ(2)=5.09, P=0.02). Infants born very preterm undergo repetitive procedural pain during a period of physiological immaturity that appears to impact postnatal growth, and may activate a downstream cascade of stress signaling that affects later growth in the neonatal intensive care unit.

  4. Analysis of relationships between symptoms and environmental factors over time

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, G.; Lebowitz, M.D.

    1984-02-01

    Weekly respiratory symptom information was obtained on a random population of 3800 whites in Tucson. The authors asked weekly about 14 symptoms representing acute respiratory illnesses (ARI), rhinitis (Rh), and other conditions. The denominator for each week was about 80 randomly chosen subjects from the study population. Interactions of the air pollutants total suspended particulate, oxidants, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides for the basin, meteorological information, and aero-allergens were examined. The temporal and spatial interactions between the weekly symptoms and the environmental factors were tested utilizing multivariate methods such as Fourier analyses, multiple regression, and the stimulus-response method, adjusting for lags and controlling for season. Multiple regressions with a smoothing function (using fourier or other methods) yield significant correlations between symptoms and the environmental factors, and separate the ARI's from the Rh's and the miscellaneous symptoms.

  5. [COMPLEX ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AND POSTVACCINAL IMMUNE STATE].

    PubMed

    Kryazhev, D A; Boev, M V; Tulina, L M; Neplokhov, A A; Boev, V M

    2016-01-01

    This article was written on the base of the analysis of data of protocols of annual serological sturdies of the post-vaccination immunity status in indicator groups of populations, the analysis of samples of drinking water air and soil with the assessment of the socio-economic development of mono-towns and rural settlements. In the article there is reflected the comprehensive assessment of environmental factors and specific features of the formation of socio-economic conditions of rural communities and mono towns. There was performed a comparative assessment of the status of post-vaccination immunity to infections controlled by specific means of prevention, in different age groups in mono towns and rural settlements. There was established a dependence of the formation of post-vaccination immunity on the state of environmental factors.

  6. Environmental Risk Factors in Patients with Noninvasive Fungal Sinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Mostafa, Badr Eldin; El Sharnoubi, Mohammed M. K.; El-Sersy, Hesham A. A.; Mahmoud, Mohammed S. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of our study was to try to determine the possible environmental risk factors for noninvasive fungal sinusitis in Egyptian patients. Methods. This is a prospective epidemiological case control study on the environmental risk factors of noninvasive fungal sinusitis. It included 60 patients and 100 age and sex matched controls. Results. There was a statistically significant relation between apartment floor, surface area, exposure to dust, exposure to cockroaches, poor air conditioning, and fungal sinusitis. Yet, no statistical significance was found between allergy related occupations, exposure to animals or plants, although their percentages were higher among cases, smoking, and urban or rural residence. Conclusion. We suggest that for patients with noninvasive fungal sinusitis a change in their living environment must be implied with better exposure to sunlight, larger well ventilated homes, proper cleaning of dust and cockroach extermination, and if possible the judicious use of air conditioners. PMID:27274885

  7. Genetic and environmental factors in experimental and human cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Takayama, S.; Takebe, H.; Gelboin, H.V.; MaChahon, B.; Matsushima, T.; Sugimura, T.

    1980-01-01

    Recently technological advances in assaying mutagenic principles have revealed that there are many mutagens in the environment, some of which might be carcinogenic to human beings. Other advances in genetics have shown that genetic factors might play an important role in the induction of cancer in human beings, e.g., the high incidence of skin cancers in patients with xeroderma pigmentosum. These proceedings deal with the relationships between genetic and environmental factors in carcinogenesis. The contributors cover mixed-function oxidases, pharmacogenetics, twin studies, DNA repair, immunology, and epidemiology.

  8. Environmental risk factors and the developmental basis for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Zawia, Nasser H; Basha, M Riyaz

    2005-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder whose clinical manifestations appear in old age. The hallmark pathological features of AD (amyloid plaques and associated proteins) are present in normal aging indivduals, suggesting that AD may result from the acceleration of normal age-related processes in the brain. The sporadic nature of most AD cases strongly argues for an environmental link that may drive AD pathogenesis; however, it is unclear when this environmental stress may occur. Therefore it is important to identify an environmental trigger(s) and to pinpoint the period during which such factors pose the greatest risk. Recently, we reported that developmental exposure of rats to the xenobiotic metal lead (Pb) resulted in a delayed overexpression (20 months later) of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its amyloidogenic Abeta product. Similarly, aged monkeys exposed to Pb as infants also responded in the same way. These data suggest that environmental influences occurring during brain development predetermine the expression and regulation of APP later in life, potentially influencing the course of amyloidogenesis, and argue for both an environmental trigger and a developmental origin of AD. In this review, we present evidence for the developmental basis of neurodegeneration and discuss mechanisms that may explain how perturbations during development can have long-term or delayed consequences in the aging brain.

  9. Skin hypoxia: a promoting environmental factor in melanomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Bedogni, Barbara; Powell, Marianne Broome

    2006-06-01

    Melanomagenesis is a complex phenomenon in which environmental, genetic and host factors play a role. Sun burns in early childhood are a known risk factor in melanoma development. Alteration of prosurvival genes such as Ras and Akt and loss of function of the p16(INK4a)-CDK4/6-pRb and p14(ARF)-HDM2-p53 pathways are strongly associated with human melanoma. We have demonstrated that normally occurring skin hypoxia represents a previously unappreciated host promoting factor in melanomagenesis. Melanocytes that express oncogenes such as Akt, and are therefore genetically unstable, show a transform phenotype only in a mild hypoxic environment that resembles the hypoxic status of the skin. Hypoxia, therefore, is not just a prerogative of advanced neoplasia; physiologic tissue hypoxia, through the activity of HIF1alpha, can function as a promoting factor in tumorigenesis.

  10. American Cancer Society perspectives on environmental factors and cancer.

    PubMed

    Fontham, Elizabeth T H; Thun, Michael J; Ward, Elizabeth; Portier, Kenneth M; Balch, Alan J; Delancey, John Oliver L; Samet, Jonathan M

    2009-01-01

    Cancer prevention is central to the mission of the American Cancer Society (ACS). The ACS's prevention activities take many forms, but are primarily focused on modifiable risk factors that have been demonstrated to have the largest impact on cancer risk in the general population (with particular emphasis on tobacco use because of its large impact on cancer), and well-proven policy and program interventions. The ACS addresses nutrition, physical inactivity and obesity, alcohol consumption, excessive sun exposure, prevention of certain chronic infections, and selected other environmental factors through a variety of venues, including consensus guidelines (eg, nutrition and physical activity, human papillomavirus vaccination) and developing educational materials for health care providers and the general public. In contrast to the broad definition of environmental factors used by the ACS and most other public health agencies, some members of the general public associate the term "environmental" only with toxic air and water pollutants and other, predominantly manmade, hazards that people encounter, often involuntarily, in their daily life. This article will provide an overview of the ACS's approach to the prevention of cancer associated with such toxic pollutants in the context of its mission and priorities with respect to cancer prevention.

  11. A review of longitudinal studies on antenatal and postnatal depression.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Lisa; Waldie, Karen; D'Souza, Stephanie; Peterson, Elizabeth R; Morton, Susan

    2016-10-01

    Antenatal depression is a known risk factor for postnatal depression; both are common disorders associated with negative impacts on child development. Few studies have followed up women from pregnancy and through the postnatal period to explore how rates of depression change. This review evaluates recent evidence on depression during pregnancy and after childbirth. A search of Embase, PsychINFO, MEDLINE and Cochrane Reviews was carried out to identify longitudinal studies on antenatal and postnatal depression. Studies that measured depression during pregnancy and up to 1 year after childbirth were evaluated against a set of criteria (e.g. less than 50 % attrition). Of the initial 523 studies identified, 16 studies met the final inclusion criteria with a total of 35,419 women. The average rate of antenatal depression across these studies was 17 and 13 % postnatal depression. The longitudinal nature of the studies revealed that on average 39 % of those who experienced antenatal depression went on to have postnatal depression. Similarly, on average, 47 % of those with postnatal depression had also experienced antenatal depression. On average, almost 7 % of women reported significant depressive symptoms in pregnancy that persisted after childbirth. The review provided evidence that rates of depression tend to be higher during pregnancy than in the first year following childbirth. Furthermore, the longitudinal data show that there is much movement between the groups categorised as depressed or not depressed. There is evidence that postnatal depression is often a continuation of existing antenatal depression.

  12. Early-Life Environmental Exposures and Height, Hypertension, and Cardiovascular Risk Factors Among Older Adults in India.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jessica Y

    2015-01-01

    Environmental exposures like rainfall and temperature influence infectious disease exposure and nutrition, two key early-life conditions linked to later-life health. However, few tests of whether early-life environmental exposures impact adult health have been performed, particularly in developing countries. This study examines the effects of experiencing rainfall and temperature shocks during gestation and up through the first four years after birth on measured height, hypertension, and other cardiovascular risk factors using data on adults aged 50 and above (N = 1,036) from the 2007-2008 World Health Organization Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) and district-level meteorological data from India. Results from multivariate logistic regressions show that negative rainfall shocks during gestation and positive rainfall shocks during the postbirth period increase the risk of having adult hypertension and CVD risk factors. Exposure to negative rainfall shocks and positive temperature shocks in the postbirth period increases the likelihood of falling within the lowest height decile. Prenatal shocks may influence nutrition in utero, while postnatal shocks may increase exposure to infectious diseases and malnutrition. The results suggest that gestation and the first two years after birth are critical periods when rainfall and temperature shocks take on increased importance for adult health.

  13. Expression patterns of insulin-like growth factor system members and their correlations with growth and carcass traits in Landrace and Lantang pigs during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Li, Zicong; Wu, Zhenfang; Ren, Guangcai; Zhao, Yunxiang; Liu, Dewu

    2013-05-01

    The IGF system plays important roles in growth. Nevertheless, few data have been reported so far on the expression of IGF system members and their relationship with growth in domestic animals, especially pigs. In this study, hepatic transcript level of IGF1, IGF2, IGF binding protein 2 (IGFBP2), IGFBP3 and IGF 1 receptor (IGF1R), plasma protein level of IGF1 and IGFBP3, and eight growth or carcass traits, including chest circumference, body length, body height (BH), body weight, carcass weight, loin muscle area (LMA), back fat thickness and average daily gain, were measured in fast-growing Landrace and slow-growing Lantang pigs at the age of 1, 27, 90, 150 and 180 days. The results showed that liver mRNA level of IGF1, IGF2 and IGF1R, and blood protein level of IGF1 have a similar developmental profile in both Landrace and Lantang pigs. Their levels were higher at the early age than that at other older ages. Hepatic transcript abundances of the two growth inhibitors, IGFBP2 and IGFBP3, were mostly higher in Lantang pigs than that in Landrace pigs, at 5 examined postnatal stages. The IGF system members' liver mRNA level and/or serum protein level have significant correlation with each other in different age of Landrace or Lantang pigs. Hepatic mRNA level or serum protein level of IGF system members also has significant correlation with investigated traits, especially with BH and LMA, in different age of Lantang or Landrace pigs. Our results revealed the change profiles of porcine IGF system members' liver transcript level and plasma protein level between different pig breeds and different postnatal developmental ages. Moreover, the correlation analysis results suggest that the IGF system members act coordinately to regulate the growth performance and carcass composition in pigs. The information obtained from the present study is important for elucidation of the regulatory mechanism of IGF system underlying growth, and for genetic improvement in pigs.

  14. The impact of environmental factors on traffic accidents in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Lankarani, Kamran B.; Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Aghabeigi, Mohammad Reza; Moafian, Ghasem; Hoseinzadeh, Amin; Vossoughi, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Road traffic crashes are the third highest cause of mortality in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of roadway environmental factors on traffic crash. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran between March 21, 2010 and December 30, 2010. The data on road traffic crashes were obtained from the Traffic Police Department records. These records were classified to control for the main confounders related to the type of crash and roadway environmental factors. Roadway environmental factors included crash scene light, weather, place of accident, the defects and geometrics of roadway and road surface. Results: The study included 542,863 traffic crashes. The proportions of road traffic crash which led to injury were 24.44% at sunrise and 27.16% at sunset compared with 5.43% and 1.43% deaths at sunrise and sunset respectively. In regard to day time accidents, the proportions were 20.50% injuries and 0.55% deaths. The statistical analysis of the results showed that the ratio of injuries and deaths were significantly higher at sunrise and sunset than those occurring during daytime (P less than 0.001). The highest rate of death (5.07%) was due to dusty weather compared to 5.07% for other weather conditions (P less than 0.001). The highest mortality rate (3.45%) occurred on oily surfaces (P less than 0.001). The defective traffic signs were responsible for 30,046 injuries and 5.58% deaths, and road narrowing accounted for 22,775 injuries and, 4.23% deaths which indicated that the roadway defects inflict most frequent injuries and deaths. The lowest (0.74 %) and highest (3.09%) proportion of traffic crash- related deaths were due to flat straight and winding uphill/downhill roads respectively (P less than 0.001). Conclusions: Sunrise, sunset, dusty weather, oily road surfaces and winding uphill/downhill road were hazardous environmental factors. This study provides an insight into the potential impacts of environmental

  15. Core binding factor beta (Cbfβ) controls the balance of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation by upregulating Indian hedgehog (Ihh) expression and inhibiting parathyroid hormone-related protein receptor (PPR) expression in postnatal cartilage and bone formation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Fei; Wu, Mengrui; Deng, Lianfu; Zhu, Guochun; Ma, Junqing; Gao, Bo; Wang, Lin; Li, Yi-Ping; Chen, Wei

    2014-07-01

    Core binding factor beta (Cbfβ) is essential for embryonic bone morphogenesis. Yet the mechanisms by which Cbfβ regulates chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation as well as postnatal cartilage and bone formation remain unclear. Hence, using paired-related homeobox transcription factor 1-Cre (Prx1-Cre) mice, mesenchymal stem cell-specific Cbfβ-deficient (Cbfβ(f/f) Prx1-Cre) mice were generated to study the role of Cbfβ in postnatal cartilage and bone development. These mutant mice survived to adulthood but exhibited severe sternum and limb malformations. Sternum ossification was largely delayed in the Cbfβ(f/f) Prx1-Cre mice and the xiphoid process was noncalcified and enlarged. In newborn and 7-day-old Cbfβ(f/f) Prx1-Cre mice, the resting zone was dramatically elongated, the proliferation zone and hypertrophic zone of the growth plates were drastically shortened and disorganized, and trabecular bone formation was reduced. Moreover, in 1-month-old Cbfβ(f/f) Prx1-Cre mice, the growth plates were severely deformed and trabecular bone was almost absent. In addition, Cbfβ deficiency impaired intramembranous bone formation both in vivo and in vitro. Interestingly, although the expression of Indian hedgehog (Ihh) was largely reduced, the expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) receptor (PPR) was dramatically increased in the Cbfβ(f/f) Prx1-Cre growth plate, indicating that that Cbfβ deficiency disrupted the Ihh-PTHrP negative regulatory loop. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis and promoter luciferase assay demonstrated that the Runx/Cbfβ complex binds putative Runx-binding sites of the Ihh promoter regions, and also the Runx/Cbfβ complex directly upregulates Ihh expression at the transcriptional level. Consistently, the expressions of Ihh target genes, including CyclinD1, Ptc, and Pthlh, were downregulated in Cbfβ-deficient chondrocytes. Taken together, our study reveals not only that Cbfβ is essential for chondrocyte

  16. Impacts of environmental factors on fine root lifespan

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, M. Luke; Guo, Dali

    2014-01-01

    The lifespan of fast-cycling roots is a critical parameter determining a large flux of plant carbon into soil through root turnover and is a biological feature regulating the capacity of a plant to capture soil water and nutrients via root-age-related physiological processes. While the importance of root lifespan to whole-plant and ecosystem processes is increasingly recognized, robust descriptions of this dynamic process and its response to changes in climatic and edaphic factors are lacking. Here we synthesize available information and propose testable hypotheses using conceptual models to describe how changes in temperature, water, nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) availability impact fine root lifespan within a species. Each model is based on intrinsic responses including root physiological activity and alteration of carbohydrate allocation at the whole-plant level as well as extrinsic factors including mycorrhizal fungi and pressure from pathogens, herbivores, and other microbes. Simplifying interactions among these factors, we propose three general principles describing fine root responses to complex environmental gradients. First, increases in a factor that strongly constrains plant growth (temperature, water, N, or P) should result in increased fine root lifespan. Second, increases in a factor that exceeds plant demand or tolerance should result in decreased lifespan. Third, as multiple factors interact fine root responses should be determined by the most dominant factor controlling plant growth. Moving forward, field experiments should determine which types of species (e.g., coarse vs. fine rooted, obligate vs. facultative mycotrophs) will express greater plasticity in response to environmental gradients while ecosystem models may begin to incorporate more detailed descriptions of root lifespan and turnover. Together these efforts will improve quantitative understanding of root dynamics and help to identify areas where future research should be focused

  17. Associations between environmental factors and incidence of cutaneous melanoma. Review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cutaneous melanoma is one of the most serious skin cancers. It is caused by neural crest-derived melanocytes - pigmented cells normally present in the epidermis and, sometimes, in the dermis. Methods We performed a review of current knowledge on the risk factors of cutaneous melanoma. Relevant studies were identified using the PubMed, Science Direct, Medline, Scopus, Scholar Google and ISI Web of Knowledge databases. Results Melanoma incurs a considerable public health burden owing to the worldwide dramatic rise in incidence since the mid-1960s. Ultraviolet radiation exposure is the predominant environmental risk factor. The role of geographical (latitude) and individual factors such as skin type, life style, vitamin D levels and antioxidant protection, sunburn, and exposure to other environmental factors possibly contributing to melanoma risk (such as cosmetics including sunscreen, photosensitising drugs, and exogenous hormones) are reviewed in this article. Recently, both rare high risk susceptibility genes and common polymorphic genes contributing to melanoma risk have been identified. Conclusions Cutaneous melanoma is a complex cancer with heterogeneous aetiology that continues to increase in incidence. Introduction of new biomarkers may help to elucidate the mechanism of pathogenesis and individual susceptibility to the disease, and make both prevention and treatment more effective. PMID:22759494

  18. Maternal screening for early postnatal vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Vivilaki, V G; Dafermos, V; Patelarou, Ev; Bick, D; Syngelaki, Ar; Tsopelas, N D; Bitsios, P; Petridou, E T; Vgontzas, Al N; Lionis, Chr

    2016-01-01

    Research has highlighted the wide impact of maternal mental health problems during and beyond the postpartum period and the public health role of community health professionals in early detection of women who may be at risk. This paper aims to describe, explore and test an a priori hypothesised conceptual model of postnatal experience, identifying the relationships between postnatal mental vulnerability and postnatal adjustment to maternal roles and attitudes, marital/partner-relationship and sense of coherence. Three validated self-report questionnaires (WAST, MAMA, SOC) measuring the variables of the encompassing framework and EPDS were administered in random order. The conceptual models were tested using the software IBM SPSS Statistics and LISREL and the tests performed were: Student's ttest, chi-square tests, Explanatory factor analysis using a Varimax rotation Principal Components Method, Confirmatory analysis -known as structural equation modelling- of principal components. Psychometric scores indicate high correlation between WAST, MAMA, SOC and EPDS. An exploratory factor analysis confirmed the role of SOC, specific MAMA subscales (maternal roles and attitudes, body image, sex, breasts, nausea) and WAST (relationship tension and emotional and physical abuse) subscales (KMO measure of sampling adequacy=0.735 and Bartlett's test of sphericity=184,786, df=36, p<0.0005). The latent variables confirmed with SEM were marital relationship, maternity experience and self-efficacy (Chi-square=28.45, df=24, P-value=0.24, RMSEA=0.046 p<0.05). Marital Relationship (Factor I: Eigenvalue=3.066) concerning lack of or disappointment with partner support, poor marital relationship and emotional/physical abuse has been associated with high levels of postpartum anxiety and depression. Maternity Experience (Factor II: Eigenvalue=1.280) representing postnatal roles and attitudes towards their infant can be as useful as mood changes for evaluation of mothers. Self

  19. In search of a temporal niche: environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Hut, Roelof A; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga; van der Vinne, Vincent; De la Iglesia, Horacio

    2012-01-01

    Time as an ecological niche variable or "temporal niche" can be defined in the context of the most prominent environmental cycles, including the tidal cycle, the lunar day and month, the solar day, and the earth year. For the current review, we focus on the 24-h domain generated through the earth's rotation around its axis (solar day). The daily environmental cycles of light and temperature are a dominant ecological factor generating a variety of adaptations among animals. In this review, we describe these adaptations with a special focus on the visual system and on the adaptive plasticity of activity patterns. Our goals are: (1) Underscore the importance of the 24-h time axis as critical variable in the ecological niche. (2) Highlight cases of temporal niche switches at the evolutionary timescale (phylogenetic level). (3) Review temporal niche switching within an individual's lifespan. (4) Evaluate possible underlying mechanisms for temporal niche switching. (5) Describe a new hypothesis of circadian thermoenergetics which may explain several cases of temporal niche switching in mammals. With this, we hope to inspire experiments under natural conditions or more complex laboratory environments, aimed to reveal environmental factors and mechanisms underlying specific temporal programs.

  20. Potential for use of environmental factors in urban planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira da Silva, Ricardo; van der Ploeg, Martine; van Delden, Hedwig; Fleskens, Luuk

    2016-04-01

    Projections for population growth estimate, on top of the current 7.4 billion world population, an increase of 2 billion people for the next 40 years. It is also projected that 66 per cent of the world population in 2050 will live in urban areas. To accommodate the urban population growth cities are changing continuously land cover to urban areas. Such changes are a threat for natural resources and food production systems stability and capability to provide food and other functions. However, little has been done concerning a rational soil management for food production in urban and peri-urban areas. This study focuses on the assessment of soil lost due to urban expansion and discusses the potential loss regarding the quality of the soil for food production and environmental functions. It is relevant to increase the knowledge on the role of soils in peri-urban areas and in the interaction of physical, environmental and social factors. The methodology consists of assessing the soil quality in and around urban and peri-urban areas. It focuses particularly on the physical properties and the environmental factors, for two periods of time and account the potential losses due to urban expansion. This project is on-going, therefore current advances will be presented and will look for a discussion on the contribution of soil quality for decision-making and land management in urban and peri-urban areas.

  1. Environmental risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, Masako; Yoshinaga, Masao; Nomura, Yuichi; Ushinohama, Hiroya; Sato, Seiichi; Tauchi, Nobuo; Horigome, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Hideto; Sumitomo, Naokata; Shiraishi, Hirohiko; Nagashima, Masami

    2016-12-01

    While the prevalence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has decreased worldwide, this decline has plateaued recently. Strategies are needed to resume the constant decrease of SIDS in Japan. A prospective electrocardiographic screening program for infants was performed between July 2010 and March 2011. Parents of 4319 infants were asked about environmental factors related to SIDS through questionnaires at a one-month medical checkup and one year. Parental awareness of prone position, smoke exposure, and breast feeding as environmental factors were 81.4 %, 69.0 %, and 47.8 %, respectively. The prevalence of laying infants exclusively in a supine position was 96.7 %. At the one-month medical checkup, smoking prevalence was 41.7 % in fathers and 2.1 % in mothers. Maternal smoking prevalence was significantly increased at one year after (p < 0.001). Multivariate regression analysis showed that risk factors for new or continued maternal smoking habits were maternal smoking habits at one month (p < 0.001), paternal smoking habits one year later (p < 0.001), and younger maternal age (p = 0.02).

  2. Environmental risk factors of childhood asthma in urban centers.

    PubMed

    Malveaux, F J; Fletcher-Vincent, S A

    1995-09-01

    Asthma morbidity and mortality are disproportionately high in urban centers, and minority children are especially vulnerable. Factors that contribute to this dilemma include inadequate preventive medical care for asthma management, inadequate asthma knowledge and management skills among children and their families, psychosocial factors, and environmental exposure to allergens or irritants. Living in substandard housing often constitutes excess exposure to indoor allergens and pollutants. Allergens associated with dust mites (DM) and cockroaches (CR) are probably important in both onset and worsening of asthma symptoms for children who are chronically exposed to these agents. Young children spend a great deal of time on or near the floor where these allergens are concentrated in dust. Of children (2 to 10 years of age) living in metropolitan Washington, DC, 60% were found to be sensitive to CR and 72% were allergic to DM. Exposure to tobacco smoke contributes to onset of asthma earlier in life and is a risk factor for asthma morbidity. Since disparity of asthma mortality and morbidity among minority children in urban centers is closely linked to socioeconomic status and poverty, measures to reduce exposure to environmental allergens and irritants and to eliminate barriers to access to health care are likely to have a major positive impact. Interventions for children in urban centers must focus on prevention of asthma symptoms and promotion of wellness.

  3. Exploratory behavior in rats postnatally exposed to cocaine and housed in an enriched environment.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Ana; Melo, Pedro; Alves, Cecília Juliana; Tavares, Maria Amélia; de Sousa, Liliana; Summavielle, Teresa

    2008-10-01

    Exposure to cocaine in early periods of postnatal life is usually associated with changes in development of neurotransmitter systems and structure of the central nervous system. Such changes are most likely correlated with behavioral alterations. Environmental enrichment conditions (EC) in early stages is a factor that affects structural and behavioral development. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of EC on rats postnatally exposed to cocaine on exploratory behavior. Wistar rats were assigned to four groups-Group 1: pups exposed to cocaine hydrochloride (15 mg/kg body weight/day) s.c., in two daily doses, from postnatal day (PND) 1 to 28 and reared in EC; Group 2: pups exposed to cocaine as previously described and reared in a standard environmental conditions (SC); Group 3: pups saline-injected and reared in EC; and Group 4: pups saline-injected and reared in SC. On PND 21, 24, and 28, groups of four rats (to reduce anxiety) were placed for 10 minutes into an arena with several objects. The following exploratory behavioral categories were examined: object interaction, exploration, manipulation, approximation, and total time of object contact. Animals from Group 2 showed decreased object interaction and total contact on PND 21. Control offspring reared in EE showed decreases in exploratory behavior at all ages analyzed compared with the control SE group, while cocaine-exposed animals reared in EC showed decreased object interaction, object approximation, and total exploratory behavior. The results in this group suggest that EC improved information acquisition and memory processes in animals postnatally exposed to cocaine.

  4. Do Environmental Factors Modify the Genetic Risk of Prostate Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Loeb, Stacy; Peskoe, Sarah B.; Joshu, Corinne E.; Huang, Wen-Yi; Hayes, Richard B.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Isaacs, William B.; Platz, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Many SNPs influence prostate cancer risk. To what extent genetic risk can be reduced by environmental factors is unknown. Methods We evaluated effect modification by environmental factors of the association between susceptibility SNPs and prostate cancer in 1,230 incident prostate cancer cases and 1,361 controls, all white and similar ages, nested in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Trial. Genetic risk scores were calculated as number of risk alleles for 20 validated SNPs. We estimated the association between higher genetic risk (≥ 12 SNPs) and prostate cancer within environmental factor strata and tested for interaction. Results Men with ≥12 risk alleles had 1.98, 2.04, and 1.91 times the odds of total, advanced, and nonadvanced prostate cancer, respectively. These associations were attenuated with the use of selenium supplements, aspirin, ibuprofen, and higher vegetable intake. For selenium, the attenuation was most striking for advanced prostate cancer: compared with <12 alleles and no selenium, the OR for ≥12 alleles was 2.06 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.67–2.55] in nonusers and 0.99 (0.38–2.58) in users (Pinteraction = 0.031). Aspirin had the most marked attenuation for nonadvanced prostate cancer: compared with <12 alleles and nonusers, the OR for ≥12 alleles was 2.25 (1.69–3.00) in nonusers and 1.70 (1.25–2.32) in users (Pinteraction = 0.009). This pattern was similar for ibuprofen (Pinteraction = 0.023) and vegetables (Pinteraction = 0.010). Conclusions This study suggests that selenium supplements may reduce genetic risk of advanced prostate cancer, whereas aspirin, ibuprofen, and vegetables may reduce genetic risk of nonadvanced prostate cancer. PMID:25342390

  5. Maternal lifestyle and environmental risk factors for autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lyall, Kristen; Schmidt, Rebecca J; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2014-01-01

    Background: Over the past 10 years, research into environmental risk factors for autism has grown dramatically, bringing evidence that an array of non-genetic factors acting during the prenatal period may influence neurodevelopment. Methods: This paper reviews the evidence on modifiable preconception and/or prenatal factors that have been associated, in some studies, with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including nutrition, substance use and exposure to environmental agents. This review is restricted to human studies with at least 50 cases of ASD, having a valid comparison group, conducted within the past decade and focusing on maternal lifestyle or environmental chemicals. Results: Higher maternal intake of certain nutrients and supplements has been associated with reduction in ASD risk, with the strongest evidence for periconceptional folic acid supplements. Although many investigations have suggested no impact of maternal smoking and alcohol use on ASD, more rigorous exposure assessment is needed. A number of studies have demonstrated significant increases in ASD risk with estimated exposure to air pollution during the prenatal period, particularly for heavy metals and particulate matter. Little research has assessed other persistent and non-persistent organic pollutants in association with ASD specifically. Conclusions: More work is needed to examine fats, vitamins and other maternal nutrients, as well as endocrine-disrupting chemicals and pesticides, in association with ASD, given sound biological plausibility and evidence regarding other neurodevelopmental deficits. The field can be advanced by large-scale epidemiological studies, attention to critical aetiological windows and how these vary by exposure, and use of biomarkers and other means to understand underlying mechanisms. PMID:24518932

  6. [Post natal depression: the socio-environmental factors].

    PubMed

    Séguin, L; Cossette, L

    1991-06-01

    In the weeks and months that follow the birth of a child, between 10 and 20 per cent of mothers experience serious or moderate symptoms of depression. This state of psychological distress affects the mother-infant interaction, and can modify the child's development in the longer term. Recent studies increasingly link these symptoms to environmental and psychosocial stress factors. The setting up of relevant and efficient prevention and promotion programs requires a better understanding of the effect of stress and social support on the mental health of mothers.

  7. Postnatal development of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine protein kinase B (TrkB) receptor immunoreactivity in multiple brain stem respiratory-related nuclei of the rat.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiuli; Wong-Riley, Margaret T T

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we found a transient imbalance between suppressed excitation and enhanced inhibition in the respiratory network of the rat around postnatal days (P) 12-13, a critical period when the hypoxic ventilatory response is at its weakest. The mechanism underlying the imbalance is poorly understood. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its tyrosine protein kinase B (TrkB) receptors are known to potentiate glutamatergic and attenuate gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurotransmission, and BDNF is essential for respiratory development. We hypothesized that the excitation-inhibition imbalance during the critical period stemmed from a reduced expression of BDNF and TrkB at that time within respiratory-related nuclei of the brain stem. An in-depth, semiquantitative immunohistochemical study was undertaken in seven respiratory-related brain stem nuclei and one nonrespiratory nucleus in P0-21 rats. The results indicate that the expressions of BDNF and TrkB: 1) in the pre-Bötzinger complex, nucleus ambiguus, commissural and ventrolateral subnuclei of solitary tract nucleus, and retrotrapezoid nucleus/parafacial respiratory group were significantly reduced at P12, but returned to P11 levels by P14; 2) in the lateral paragigantocellular nucleus and parapyramidal region were increased from P0 to P7, but were strikingly reduced at P10 and plateaued thereafter; and 3) in the nonrespiratory cuneate nucleus showed a gentle plateau throughout the first 3 postnatal weeks, with only a slight decline of BDNF expression after P11. Thus, the significant downregulation of both BDNF and TrkB in respiratory-related nuclei during the critical period may form the basis of, or at least contribute to, the inhibitory-excitatory imbalance within the respiratory network during this time.

  8. Environmental factors controlling methane emissions from peatlands in northern Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dise, Nancy B.; Gorham, Eville; Verry, Elon S.

    1993-01-01

    The environmental factors affecting the emission of methane from peatlands were investigated by correlating CH4 emission data for two years, obtained from five different peatland ecosystems in northern Minnesota, with peat temperature, water table position, and degree of peat humification. The relationship obtained between the CH4 flux and these factors was compared to results from a field manipulation experiment in which the water table was artificially raised in three experimental plots within the driest peatland. It was found that peat temperature, water table position, and degree of peat humification explained 91 percent of the variance in log CH4 flux, successfully predicted annual CH4 emission from individual wetlands, and predicted the change in flux due to the water table manipulation. Raising the water table in the bog corrals by an average of 6 cm in autumn 1989 and 10 cm in summer 1990 increased CH4 emission by 2.5 and 2.2 times, respectively.

  9. ASTHMA, ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS, AND HYPERTENSION AMONG ARAB AMERICANS IN THE METRO DETROIT AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The importance of environmental risk factors in asthma etiology has been well-documented, and certain environmental risk factors have also been associated with hypertension. However, few previous studies have examined the relationship between hypertension and asthma. This study...

  10. Experimental and environmental factors affect spurious detection of ecological thresholds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daily, Jonathan P.; Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Smith, David; Snyder, Craig D.

    2012-01-01

    Threshold detection methods are increasingly popular for assessing nonlinear responses to environmental change, but their statistical performance remains poorly understood. We simulated linear change in stream benthic macroinvertebrate communities and evaluated the performance of commonly used threshold detection methods based on model fitting (piecewise quantile regression [PQR]), data partitioning (nonparametric change point analysis [NCPA]), and a hybrid approach (significant zero crossings [SiZer]). We demonstrated that false detection of ecological thresholds (type I errors) and inferences on threshold locations are influenced by sample size, rate of linear change, and frequency of observations across the environmental gradient (i.e., sample-environment distribution, SED). However, the relative importance of these factors varied among statistical methods and between inference types. False detection rates were influenced primarily by user-selected parameters for PQR (τ) and SiZer (bandwidth) and secondarily by sample size (for PQR) and SED (for SiZer). In contrast, the location of reported thresholds was influenced primarily by SED. Bootstrapped confidence intervals for NCPA threshold locations revealed strong correspondence to SED. We conclude that the choice of statistical methods for threshold detection should be matched to experimental and environmental constraints to minimize false detection rates and avoid spurious inferences regarding threshold location.

  11. Environmental factors that influence cyanobacteria and geosmin occurrence in reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Journey, Celeste; Beaulieu, Karen M.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplankton are small to microscopic, free-floating algae that inhabit the open water of freshwater, estuarine, and saltwater systems. In freshwater lake and reservoirs systems, which are the focus of this chapter, phytoplankton communities commonly consist of assemblages of the major taxonomic groups, including green algae, diatoms, dinoflagellates, and cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are a diverse group of single-celled organisms that can exist in a wide range of environments, not just open water, because of their adaptability [1-3]. It is the adaptability of cyanobacteria that enables this group to dominate the phytoplankton community and even form nuisance or harmful blooms under certain environmental conditions [3-6]. In fact, cyanobacteria are predicted to adapt favorably to future climate change in freshwater systems compared to other phytoplankton groups because of their tolerance to rising temperatures, enhanced vertical thermal stratification of aquatic ecosystems, and alterations in seasonal and interannual weather patterns [7, 8]. Understanding those environmental conditions that favor cyanobacterial dominance and bloom formation has been the focus of research throughout the world because of the concomitant production and release of nuisance and toxic cyanobacterial-derived compounds [4-6, 7-10]. However, the complex interaction among the physical, chemical, and biological processes within lakes, reservoirs, and large rivers often makes it difficult to identify primary environmental factors that cause the production and release of these cyanobacterial by-products.

  12. Environmental factors that influence cyanobacteria and geosmin occurrence in reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Journey, Celeste; Beaulieu, Karen M.; Bradley, Paul M.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplankton are small to microscopic, free-floating algae that inhabit the open water of freshwater, estuarine, and saltwater systems. In freshwater lake and reservoirs systems, which are the focus of this chapter, phytoplankton communities commonly consist of assemblages of the major taxonomic groups, including green algae, diatoms, dinoflagellates, and cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are a diverse group of single-celled organisms that can exist in a wide range of environments, not just open water, because of their adaptability [1-3]. It is the adaptability of cyanobacteria that enables this group to dominate the phytoplankton community and even form nuisance or harmful blooms under certain environmental conditions [3-6]. In fact, cyanobacteria are predicted to adapt favorably to future climate change in freshwater systems compared to other phytoplankton groups because of their tolerance to rising temperatures, enhanced vertical thermal stratification of aquatic ecosystems, and alterations in seasonal and interannual weather patterns [7, 8]. Understanding those environmental conditions that favor cyanobacterial dominance and bloom formation has been the focus of research throughout the world because of the concomitant production and release of nuisance and toxic cyanobacterial-derived compounds [4-6, 7-10]. However, the complex interaction among the physical, chemical, and biological processes within lakes, reservoirs, and large rivers often makes it difficult to identify primary environmental factors that cause the production and release of these cyanobacterial by-products [9].

  13. Environmental factors that influence cyanobacteria and geosmin occurrence in reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Journey, Celeste; Beaulieu, Karen M.; Bradley, Paul M.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplankton are small to microscopic, free-floating algae that inhabit the open water of freshwater, estuarine, and saltwater systems. In freshwater lake and reservoirs systems, which are the focus of this chapter, phytoplankton communities commonly consist of assemblages of the major taxonomic groups, including green algae, diatoms, dinoflagellates, and cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are a diverse group of single-celled organisms that can exist in a wide range of environments, not just open water, because of their adaptability. It is the adaptability of cyanobacteria that enables this group to dominate the phytoplankton community and even form nuisance or harmful blooms under certain environmental conditions. In fact, cyanobacteria are predicted to adapt favorably to future climate change in freshwater systems compared to other phytoplankton groups because of their tolerance to rising temperatures, enhanced vertical thermal stratification of aquatic ecosystems, and alterations in seasonal and interannual weather patterns. Understanding those environmental conditions that favor cyanobacterial dominance and bloom formation has been the focus of research throughout the world because of the concomitant production and release of nuisance and toxic cyanobacterial-derived compounds. However, the complex interaction among the physical, chemical, and biological processes within lakes, reservoirs, and large rivers often makes it difficult to identify primary environmental factors that cause the production and release of these cyanobacterial by-products.

  14. Estimating cyanobacteria community dynamics and its relationship with environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wenhuai; Chen, Huirong; Lei, Anping; Lu, Jun; Hu, Zhangli

    2014-01-20

    The cyanobacteria community dynamics in two eutrophic freshwater bodies (Tiegang Reservoir and Shiyan Reservoir) was studied with both a traditional microscopic counting method and a PCR-DGGE genotyping method. Results showed that cyanobacterium Phormidium tenue was the predominant species; twenty-six cyanobacteria species were identified in water samples collected from the two reservoirs, among which fourteen were identified with the morphological method and sixteen with the PCR-DGGE method. The cyanobacteria community composition analysis showed a seasonal fluctuation from July to December. The cyanobacteria population peaked in August in both reservoirs, with cell abundances of 3.78 × 10(8) cells L(-1) and 1.92 × 10(8) cells L(-1) in the Tiegang and Shiyan reservoirs, respectively. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was applied to further investigate the correlation between cyanobacteria community dynamics and environmental factors. The result indicated that the cyanobacteria community dynamics was mostly correlated with pH, temperature and total nitrogen. This study demonstrated that data obtained from PCR-DGGE combined with a traditional morphological method could reflect cyanobacteria community dynamics and its correlation with environmental factors in eutrophic freshwater bodies.

  15. Environmental risk factors in the incidence of Johne's disease.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Geoffrey N; Hough, Rupert L; Avery, Lisa M; Maltin, Charlotte A; Campbell, Colin D

    2015-01-01

    This review addresses the survival and persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative pathogen of Johne's disease (JD), once it has left its ruminant host. JD has significant economic impact on dairy, beef and sheep industries and is difficult to control due to the long-term sub-clinical nature of the infection, intermittent or persistent MAP shedding during and after this period, inadequate test effectiveness, and the potential for MAP to exist for extended periods outside the host. The role that environmental factors play in the persistence and spread of MAP and consequent disease is assessed. Published risk factor analysis, organism survival across various environmental media and conditions, presence and spread in ruminant and non-ruminant wildlife, and the general potential for survival and multiplication of MAP ex-host both on and off-farm are discussed and knowledge gaps highlighted. An inclusive approach to disease management that takes into account the persistence and transport of the causative organism in on-farm soils and waters, land use and management, dispersal by domestic and non-domestic host species, as well as general animal husbandry is required on those farms where more traditional approaches to disease management have failed to reduce disease prevalence.

  16. Environmental non-occupational risk factors associated with bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ferrís, J.; Berbel, O.; Alonso-López, J.; Garcia, J.; Ortega, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Context Bladder carcinoma (BC), due its high morbidity and relapsing course, generates significant economic and health care costs. Accordingly, we reviewed the environmental nonoccupational risk factors (RF), more or less evidence-based, in the etiology and pathogenesis of BC, because the involvement of urologists is essential for prevention. Acquisition of evidence Review of the peer-reviewed literature (1987–2012) on nonoccupational environmental RF associated with BC retrieved from Medline, Embase and Science Citation Index. The search profiles have been “Risk factors/Epidemiology/Tobacco-smoking/Diet-nutrition-water-liquids/Radiation/Infectious/Farmacological drugs” and “Bladder cancer”. Synthesis of evidence Smoking was associated with 50% of BC in both sexes. Smokers have a 2–5 times higher risk than nonsmokers, directly proportional to the amount and duration of addiction. Drinking water contaminated with arsenic and chromium chlorination byproducts increases the risk of BC. High consumption of red meat and saturated fat may increase the risk, while high intake of fruits and vegetables decreases it. Patients treated with cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide and ionizing radiation have an increased risk of BC. Frequent and prolonged use of hair dyes and Schistosoma haematobium infestation increases the risk of BC. Conclusions The reduction or the cessation of smoking decrease BC. The contaminant-free water consumption with the increase of vegetal foods favors BC prevention. Cancer survivors treated with cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide and radiation therapy should be monitored for early diagnosis of BC. PMID:23618510

  17. [Relations of landslide and debris flow hazards to environmental factors].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-ping; Xu, Jing; Bi, Bao-gui

    2009-03-01

    To clarify the relations of landslide and debris flow hazards to environmental factors is of significance to the prediction and evaluation of landslide and debris flow hazards. Base on the latitudinal and longitudinal information of 18431 landslide and debris flow hazards in China, and the 1 km x 1 km grid data of elevation, elevation difference, slope, slope aspect, vegetation type, and vegetation coverage, this paper analyzed the relations of landslide and debris flow hazards in this country to above-mentioned environmental factors by the analysis method of frequency ratio. The results showed that the landslide and debris flow hazards in China more occurred in lower elevation areas of the first and second transitional zones. When the elevation difference within a 1 km x 1 km grid cell was about 300 m and the slope was around 30 degree, there was the greatest possibility of the occurrence of landslide and debris hazards. Mountain forest land and slope cropland were the two land types the hazards most easily occurred. The occurrence frequency of the hazards was the highest when the vegetation coverage was about 80%-90%.

  18. Environmental Factors Influencing Arctic Halogen Chemistry During Late Spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burd, J.; Nghiem, S. V.; Simpson, W. R.

    2015-12-01

    Reactive halogen radicals (e.g. Br, Cl atoms and their oxides, BrO, ClO) are important oxidizers in the troposphere that decrease atmospheric pollutants and deplete tropospheric ozone, affecting the abundance of other oxidizers such as the hydroxyl radical. During Arctic springtime, the heterogeneous chemical cycles (often called the "bromine explosion") produce high levels of bromine monoxide (BrO), through reactions on saline snow, ice, and/or aerosol surfaces. Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measured BrO at Barrow, AK, from 2008-2009 and 2012-2015, as well at various locations above the frozen Arctic Ocean with O-Buoys in 2008 and 2011-2015. Observed BrO levels drop suddenly during late spring (May-June) and generally do not recover, which indicates the bromine explosion cycle can no longer produce significant amounts of BrO. We have established, through an objective algorithm, the local day of year of this drop in BrO as the "seasonal end." Additionally, in about half of the years, "recurrence" events were observed where BrO levels recover for at least a day. This study investigates the environmental factors influencing seasonal end and recurrence events including: temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and snowmelt. Analysis of BrO and air temperature revealed the temperature reaches 0°C within five days of the seasonal end event; however, temperatures drop below freezing during a recurrence event. In addition, there are periods where the temperature remains below freezing, but no recurrence event is observed. This BrO and temperature analysis indicates above-freezing air temperature prevents reactive bromine release; however, it is not the only environmental factor influencing this heterogeneous recycling. Further analysis of additional environmental influences on the bromine explosion cycle could help to better understand and model bromine chemistry in the Arctic.

  19. Overview of the Taxonomy of Environmental Types and the Factor Structure of the Salter Environmental Type Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Daniel W.; Vandiver, Beverly J.

    2002-01-01

    The Salter Environmental Type Assessment (SETA) was created to be a commensurate measure for the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and to improve the efficacy of the person-environmental interaction paradigm to student affairs. A confirmatory factor analysis of SETA profiles supported the four dimensions in environmental type theory. The utility of this…

  20. Environmental risk factors for pancreatic cancer: an update.

    PubMed

    Barone, Elisa; Corrado, Alda; Gemignani, Federica; Landi, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most aggressive diseases. Only 10 % of all PC cases are thought to be due to genetic factors. Here, we analyzed the most recently published case-control association studies, meta-analyses, and cohort studies with the aim to summarize the main environmental factors that could have a role in PC. Among the most dangerous agents involved in the initiation phase, there are the inhalation of cigarette smoke, and the exposure to mutagenic nitrosamines, organ-chlorinated compounds, heavy metals, and ionizing radiations. Moreover, pancreatitis, high doses of alcohol drinking, the body microbial infections, obesity, diabetes, gallstones and/or cholecystectomy, and the accumulation of asbestos fibers seem to play a crucial role in the progression of the disease. However, some of these agents act both as initiators and promoters in pancreatic acinar cells. Protective agents include dietary flavonoids, marine omega-3, vitamin D, fruit, vegetables, and the habit of regular physical activity. The identification of the factors involved in PC initiation and progression could be of help in establishing novel therapeutic approaches by targeting the molecular signaling pathways responsive to these stimuli. Moreover, the identification of these factors could facilitate the development of strategies for an early diagnosis or measures of risk reduction for high-risk people.

  1. The impact of postnatal environment on opioid peptides in young and adult male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Lisa; Oreland, Sadia; Hoffmann, Pernilla; Nylander, Ingrid

    2008-04-01

    Early environmental influences can change the neuronal development and thereby affect behavior in adult life. The aim in the present study was to thoroughly examine the impact of early environmental factors on endogenous opioids by using a rodent maternal separation (MS) model. The endogenous opioid peptide system is not fully developed at birth, and short- and/or long-term alterations may occur in these neural networks in animals exposed to manipulation of the postnatal environment. Rat pups were subjected to one of five rearing conditions; 15 min (MS15) litter (l) or individual (i), 360 min (MS360) l or i daily MS, or housed under normal animal facility rearing (AFR) conditions during postnatal days 1-21. Measurements of immunoreactive (ir) Met-enkephalin-Arg6Phe7 (MEAP) and dynorphin B (DYNB) peptide levels in the pituitary gland and in a number of brain areas, were performed at three and 10 weeks of age, respectively. MS-induced changes were more pronounced in ir MEAP levels, especially in individually separated rats at three weeks of age and in litter-separated rats at 10 weeks of age. The enkephalin and dynorphin systems have different developmental patterns, dynorphin appearing earlier, which may point at a more sensitive enkephalin system during the early postnatal weeks. The results provide evidence that opioid peptides are sensitive for early environmental factors and show that the separation conditions are critical and also result in changes manifesting at different time points. MS-induced effects were observed in areas related to stress, drug reward and dependence mechanisms. By describing effects on opioid peptides, the study addresses the possible role of a deranged endogenous opioid system in the previously described behavioral consequences of MS.

  2. Influences of Environmental Factors on Leaf Morphology of Chinese Jujubes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaopeng; Li, Yupeng; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Xingang

    2015-01-01

    Rainfall and temperature are the primary limiting factors for optimum quality and yield of cultivated jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.). Adaptation to arid and cool environments has been and remains an important goal of many jujube improvement programs. This study summarized the survey results of 116 Chinese jujube varieties grown at 33 sites in China. The objective was to identify the environmental factors that influence leaf morphology, and the implications for breeding and introduction of new jujube varieties. Jujube leaf morphological traits were evaluated for their potential relationships with mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP). The results showed that many leaf morphological traits had a strong linear relationship with local precipitation and temperature. Longer veins per unit area (VLA) and reduced leaf area and leaf perimeter were typical of arid areas. VLA was inversely related to MAT and MAP at the centers of origin of jujube. There was a positive relationship between leaf shape (perimeter2/area) and both MAT and MAP. These results indicated that leaf vein traits of Chinese jujubes might have resulted from their adaptation to environmental factors in the course of long-term evolution. Principal component analysis allocated the 116 jujube varieties to three different groups, differentiated on the basis of morphological and physiological leaf characteristics. Jujube varieties from the Hebei, Shandong, Henan, southern Shanxi and central Shaanxi provinces were closely related, as were varieties from northwest Shanxi and northeast Shaanxi provinces, and varieties from the Gansu and Ningxia provinces. These close relationships were partially attributed to the frequent exchanges of varieties within each group. Leaf venation characteristics might be used as reference indices for jujube variety introduction between different locations. PMID:26020971

  3. Unscrambling Cyanobacteria Community Dynamics Related to Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Bertos-Fortis, Mireia; Farnelid, Hanna M.; Lindh, Markus V.; Casini, Michele; Andersson, Agneta; Pinhassi, Jarone; Legrand, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Future climate scenarios in the Baltic Sea project an increase of cyanobacterial bloom frequency and duration, attributed to eutrophication and climate change. Some cyanobacteria can be toxic and their impact on ecosystem services is relevant for a sustainable sea. Yet, there is limited understanding of the mechanisms regulating cyanobacterial diversity and biogeography. Here we unravel successional patterns and changes in cyanobacterial community structure using a 2-year monthly time- series during the productive season in a 100 km coastal-offshore transect using microscopy and high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. A total of 565 cyanobacterial OTUs were found, of which 231 where filamentous/colonial and 334 picocyanobacterial. Spatial differences in community structure between coastal and offshore waters were minor. An “epidemic population structure” (dominance of asingle cluster) was found for Aphanizomenon/Dolichospermum within the filamentous/colonial cyanobacterial community. In summer, this clusters imultaneously occurred with opportunistic clusters/OTUs, e.g., Nodularia spumigena and Pseudanabaena. Picocyanobacteria, Synechococcus/Cyanobium, formeda consistent but highly diverse group. Overall, the potential drivers structuring summer cyanobacterial communities were temperature and salinity. However, the different responses to environmental factors among and within genera suggest high niche specificity for individual OTUs. The recruitment and occurrence of potentially toxic filamentous/colonial clusters was likely related to disturbance such as mixing events and short-term shifts in salinity, and not solely dependent on increasing temperature and nitrogen-limiting conditions. Nutrients did not explain further the changes in cyanobacterial community composition. Novel occurrence patterns were identified as a strong seasonal succession revealing a tight coupling between the emergence of opportunistic picocynobacteria and the bloom

  4. Effect of Environmental Factors on Sulfur Gas Emissions from Drywall

    SciTech Connect

    Maddalena, Randy

    2011-08-20

    Problem drywall installed in U.S. homes is suspected of being a source of odorous and potentially corrosive indoor pollutants. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission's (CPSC) investigation of problem drywall incorporates three parallel tracks: (1) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and reported health symptoms; (2) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and electrical and fire safety issues in affected homes; and (3) tracing the origin and the distribution of the drywall. To assess the potential impact on human health and to support testing for electrical and fire safety, the CPSC has initiated a series of laboratory tests that provide elemental characterization of drywall, characterization of chemical emissions, and in-home air sampling. The chemical emission testing was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The LBNL study consisted of two phases. In Phase 1 of this study, LBNL tested thirty drywall samples provided by CPSC and reported standard emission factors for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), aldehydes, reactive sulfur gases (RSGs) and volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). The standard emission factors were determined using small (10.75 liter) dynamic test chambers housed in a constant temperature environmental chamber. The tests were all run at 25 C, 50% relative humidity (RH) and with an area-specific ventilation rate of {approx}1.5 cubic meters per square meter of emitting surface per hour [m{sup 3}/m{sup 2}/h]. The thirty samples that were tested in Phase 1 included seventeen that were manufactured in China in 2005, 2006 and 2009, and thirteen that were manufactured in North America in 2009. The measured emission factors for VOCs and aldehydes were generally low and did not differ significantly between the Chinese and North American drywall. Eight of the samples tested had elevated emissions of volatile sulfur-containing compounds with total RSG emission factors between 32 and 258 micrograms per square meter

  5. Magnetic nanoparticles: essential factors for sustainable environmental applications.

    PubMed

    Tang, Samuel C N; Lo, Irene M C

    2013-05-15

    In recent years, there has been an increasing use of engineered magnetic nanoparticles for remediation and water treatments, leading to elevated public concerns. To this end, it is necessary to enhance the understanding of how these magnetic nanoparticles react with contaminants and interact with the surrounding environment during applications. This review aims to provide a holistic overview of current knowledge of magnetic nanoparticles in environmental applications, emphasizing studies of zero-valent iron (nZVI), magnetite (Fe3O4) and maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles. Contaminant removal mechanisms by magnetic nanoparticles are presented, along with factors affecting the ability of contaminant desorption. Factors influencing the recovery of magnetic nanoparticles are outlined, describing the challenges of magnetic particle collection. The aggregation of magnetic nanoparticles is described, and methods for enhancing stability are summarized. Moreover, the toxicological effects owing to magnetic nanoparticles are discussed. It is possible that magnetic nanoparticles can be applied sustainably after detailed consideration of these discussed factors.

  6. Environmental Factors and Bioremediation of Xenobiotics Using White Rot Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Fragoeiro, Silvia; Bastos, Catarina

    2010-01-01

    This review provides background information on the importance of bioremediation approaches. It describes the roles of fungi, specifically white rot fungi, and their extracellular enzymes, laccases, ligninases, and peroxidises, in the degradation of xenobiotic compounds such as single and mixtures of pesticides. We discuss the importance of abiotic factors such as water potential, temperature, and pH stress when considering an environmental screening approach, and examples are provided of the differential effect of white rot fungi on the degradation of single and mixtures of pesticides using fungi such as Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. We also explore the formulation and delivery of fungal bioremedial inoculants to terrestrial ecosystems as well as the use of spent mushroom compost as an approach. Future areas for research and potential exploitation of new techniques are also considered. PMID:23956663

  7. Assessment of space environmental factors by cytotoxicity bioassays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellweg, Christine E.; Arenz, Andrea; Baumstark-Khan, Christa

    2007-02-01

    Cellular bioassays for detection of cyto- and genotoxicity are useful in the risk assessment of space environmental factors. Such bioassay systems have the potential complement the physical detector systems used in space, insofar as they yield intrinsically biologically weighted measures of cellular responses. The experiment Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space (CERASP) has been selected by NASA/ESA to be performed on the International Space Station. It will supply basic information on the cellular response to radiation applied in microgravity. One of the biological endpoints under investigation will be survival reflected by radiation-dependent reduction of constitutive expression of the enhanced variant of green fluorescent protein (EGFP), originally isolated from the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequorea victoria. In this ground based study, the usefulness of this approach in comparison to standard techniques (colony forming ability test, MTT test) is shown.

  8. Environmental factors associated with blood lead levels in Venezuelan children.

    PubMed

    Rojas, M; Squillante, G; Medina, E; de Rojas, O; Sarmiento, A

    2000-06-01

    A preliminary study explored the relative contribution of residential sources of lead exposure on mentally challenged children who attend "special education" institutions (GI) compared to a group of age and sex matched school children (G2). We captured descriptive information and analyzed demographic variables, personal and household information, medical effects, environmental exposure factors, and children habits. Home paint, dust, soil, and water sampling was conducted and blood lead (BPb) levels determined. Eighteen G1 and 20 G2 children were studied. The mean G1 BPb was 16.9 +/- 7.9 microg/dl and was significantly higher than that in G2. Fifty percent of G1 children had PbB >20 microg/dl and 72.2% were >10 microg/dl. Low muscular strength, decreased osteotendinose reflexes, fine and gross motricity, deficient equilibrium, and hipotonic muscular tone coincided with >18 microg/dl BPb levels. In 61.1% of G1 homes paint lead levels were higher than permissible levels and 33.3% had dust lead exceeding that level. The high BPb levels in G1 probably resulted from ingestion of household paint, dust, and soil via "hand-to-mouth" activity. Environmental exposure to lead can be an important source of lead intake by infants and children and could affect neurological development. This study provides new insights currently unavailable for these children in Venezuela.

  9. Global latitudinal variations in marine copepod diversity and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Rombouts, Isabelle; Beaugrand, Grégory; Ibanez, Frédéric; Gasparini, Stéphane; Chiba, Sanae; Legendre, Louis

    2009-09-07

    Latitudinal gradients in diversity are among the most striking features in ecology. For terrestrial species, climate (i.e. temperature and precipitation) is believed to exert a strong influence on the geographical distributions of diversity through its effects on energy availability. Here, we provide the first global description of geographical variation in the diversity of marine copepods, a key trophic link between phytoplankton and fish, in relation to environmental variables. We found a polar-tropical difference in copepod diversity in the Northern Hemisphere where diversity peaked at subtropical latitudes. In the Southern Hemisphere, diversity showed a tropical plateau into the temperate regions. This asymmetry around the Equator may be explained by climatic conditions, in particular the influence of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone, prevailing mainly in the northern tropical region. Ocean temperature was the most important explanatory factor among all environmental variables tested, accounting for 54 per cent of the variation in diversity. Given the strong positive correlation between diversity and temperature, local copepod diversity, especially in extra-tropical regions, is likely to increase with climate change as their large-scale distributions respond to climate warming.

  10. The epidemiology of eating disorders: genetic, environmental, and societal factors

    PubMed Central

    Mitchison, Deborah; Hay, Phillipa J

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this review was to summarize the literature to date regarding the sociodemographic, environmental, and genetic correlates of eating disorders (EDs) in adults. Method A keyword search was entered into Scopus (SciVerse, Elsevier) to identify relevant articles published in English up until June 2013. Articles were assessed against a range of a priori inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results A total of 149 full-text articles were found to be eligible for the review and included 86 articles with data on sociodemographic correlates, 57 on environmental correlates, and 13 on genetic correlates. Female sex, younger age, sexual and physical abuse, participation in esthetic or weight-oriented sports, and heritability were found to be most consistently associated with higher ED prevalence and incidence. Conversely, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, education, and urbanicity did not appear to have strong associations with ED epidemiology. Conclusion More community-based research, with an equal representation of males, needs to be conducted to confirm the current findings and provide evidence for emerging factors that may be related to EDs. PMID:24728136

  11. Influence of environmental factors on college alcohol drinking patterns.

    PubMed

    Bani, Ridouan; Hameed, Rasheed; Szymanowski, Steve; Greenwood, Priscilla; Kribs-Zaleta, Christopher M; Mubayi, Anuj

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a major problem, especially among students on and around college campuses. We use the mathematical framework of [16] and study the role of environmental factors on the long term dynamics of an alcohol drinking population. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses are carried out on the relevant functions (for example, on the drinking reproduction number and the extinction time of moderate and heavy drinking because of interventions) to understand the impact of environmental interventions on the distributions of drinkers. The reproduction number helps determine whether or not the high-risk alcohol drinking behavior will spread and become persistent in the population, whereas extinction time of high-risk drinking measures the effectiveness of control programs. We found that the reproduction number is most sensitive to social interactions, while the time to extinction of high-risk drinkers is significantly sensitive to the intervention programs that reduce initiation, and the college drop-out rate. The results also suggest that in a population, higher rates of intervention programs in low-risk environments (more than intervention rates in high-risk environments) are needed to reduce heavy drinking in the population.

  12. Mini mental state examination: influence of sociodemographic, environmental and behavioral factors and vascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Freidl, W; Schmidt, R; Stronegger, W J; Irmler, A; Reinhart, B; Koch, M

    1996-01-01

    Age and education have been found to affect the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of elderly normals, but there have been no studies assessing the influence of environmental and behavioral factors on this test. We therefore administered the MMSE to 1437 normal elderly subjects in the setting of a stroke prevention study and correlated their results to 16 sociodemographic, environmental, and behavioral factors, and vascular risk factors. Study statistics composed of a multiple logistic regression analysis and graphical models revealed the relations between variables in greater detail. Logistic regression yielded education level, occupational status, living as a single, general life stress, physical strain, and physical inactivity to be independent predictors of the MMSE score. Age was not included in this model. Graphical models demonstrated similar results, but did not include living as a single and physical inactivity. As shown in our independence graph, general life stress is the crucial predictor and links other environmental and sociodemographic variables with the test performance of elderly normals.

  13. Prenatal immunotoxicant exposure and postnatal autoimmune disease.

    PubMed Central

    Holladay, S D

    1999-01-01

    Reports in humans and rodents indicate that immune development may be altered following perinatal exposure to immunotoxic compounds, including chemotherapeutics, corticosteroids, polycyclic hydrocarbons, and polyhalogenated hydrocarbons. Effects from such exposure may be more dramatic or persistent than following exposure during adult life. For example, prenatal exposure to the insecticide chlordane or to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[(italic)a(/italic)]pyrene produces what appears to be lifelong immunosuppression in mice. Whether prenatal immunotoxicant exposure may predispose the organism to postnatal autoimmune disease remains largely unknown. In this regard, the therapeutic immunosuppressant cyclosporin A (CsA) crosses the placenta poorly. However, lethally irradiated rodents exposed to CsA postsyngeneic bone marrow transplant (i.e., during re-establishment of the immune system) develop T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease, suggesting this drug may produce a fundamental disruption in development of self-tolerance by T cells. The environmental contaminant 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-(italic)p(/italic)-dioxin (TCDD) crosses the placenta and produces fetal thymic effects (italic)in vivo(/italic) similar to effects of CsA in fetal thymic organ culture, including inhibited thymocyte maturation and reduced expression of thymic major histocompatability complex class II molecules. These observations led to the suggestion that gestational exposure to TCDD may interfere with normal development of self-tolerance. Possibly supporting this hypothesis, when mice predisposed to development of autoimmune disease were treated with TCDD during gestation, postnatal autoimmunity was exacerbated. Similar results have been reported for mice exposed to diethylstilbestrol during development. These reports suggest that prenatal exposure to certain immunotoxicants may play a role in postnatal expression of autoimmunity. PMID:10502532

  14. Modulation of the Genome and Epigenome of Individuals Susceptible to Autism by Environmental Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Koufaris, Costas; Sismani, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Diverse environmental factors have been implicated with the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Genetic factors also underlie the differential vulnerability to environmental risk factors of susceptible individuals. Currently the way in which environmental risk factors interact with genetic factors to increase the incidence of ASD is not well understood. A greater understanding of the metabolic, cellular, and biochemical events involved in gene x environment interactions in ASD would have important implications for the prevention and possible treatment of the disorder. In this review we discuss various established and more alternative processes through which environmental factors implicated in ASD can modulate the genome and epigenome of genetically-susceptible individuals. PMID:25903146

  15. Major epigenetic development distinguishing neuronal and non-neuronal cells occurs postnatally in the murine hypothalamus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prenatal and early postnatal environment can persistently alter one's risk of obesity. Environmental effects on hypothalamic developmental epigenetics constitute a likely mechanism underlying such 'developmental programming' of energy balance regulation. To advance our understanding of these process...

  16. Neuropathology and Animal Models of Autism: Genetic and Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Gadad, Bharathi S.; Young, Keith A.; German, Dwight C.

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a heterogeneous behaviorally defined neurodevelopmental disorder. It is defined by the presence of marked social deficits, specific language abnormalities, and stereotyped repetitive patterns of behavior. Because of the variability in the behavioral phenotype of the disorder among patients, the term autism spectrum disorder has been established. In the first part of this review, we provide an overview of neuropathological findings from studies of autism postmortem brains and identify the cerebellum as one of the key brain regions that can play a role in the autism phenotype. We review research findings that indicate possible links between the environment and autism including the role of mercury and immune-related factors. Because both genes and environment can alter the structure of the developing brain in different ways, it is not surprising that there is heterogeneity in the behavioral and neuropathological phenotypes of autism spectrum disorders. Finally, we describe animal models of autism that occur following insertion of different autism-related genes and exposure to environmental factors, highlighting those models which exhibit both autism-like behavior and neuropathology. PMID:24151553

  17. Prognostic factors of renal dysfunction induced by environmental cadmium pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Nishijo, Muneko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Morikawa, Yuko; Tabata, Masaji; Senma, Masami; Kitagawa, Yumiko; Kawano, Shunichi; Ishizaki, Masao ); Sugita, Naomichi; Nishi, Masami )

    1994-02-01

    To assess the influence of environmental cadmium (Cd) exposure on long-term outcome, a follow-up study was conducted from 1981-1982 to March 1991 on 3178 inhabitants living in the Cd-polluted Kakehashi River basin. The standardized mortality ratios of the urinary [beta][sub 2]-microglobulin ([beta]2-MG)-, protein-, and amino acid-positive subjects of both sexes and the urinary glucose-positive female subjects were higher than those of the subjects with urinary-negative findings or the general Japanese population during the observation period. After adjusting for age using Cox's proportional hazards model, significant associations were found between mortality and urinary indices. In multiple comparisons using all of the indices, urinary protein and [beta]2-MG in the women and urinary protein in the men were the factors most contributing to the mortality rates. In the urinary protein-negative female group as well, as significant association was found between urinary [beta]2-MG and mortality. These results suggest that the prognosis of subjects with Cd-induced renal dysfunction is unfavorable, with the mortality rate increasing even in the early stage of proximal tubular dysfunction. Urinary protein and urinary [beta]2-MG are important prognostic factors, with the latter, in particular, considered to be useful as an early index predictive of premature mortality. 30 refs., 6 tabs.

  18. A review on environmental factors regulating arsenic methylation in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, C.-H.

    2009-03-15

    Subjects exposed to arsenic show significant inter-individual variation in urinary patterns of arsenic metabolites but insignificant day-to-day intra-individual variation. The inter-individual variation in arsenic methylation can be partly responsible for the variation in susceptibility to arsenic toxicity. Wide inter-ethnic variation and family correlation in urinary arsenic profile suggest a genetic effect on arsenic metabolism. In this paper the environmental factors affecting arsenic metabolism are reviewed. Methylation capacity might reduce with increasing dosage of arsenic exposure. Furthermore, women, especially at pregnancy, have better methylation capacity than their men counterparts, probably due to the effect of estrogen. Children might have better methylation capacity than adults and age shows inconsistent relevance in adults. Smoking and alcohol consumption might be associated with a poorer methylation capacity. Nutritional status is important in the methylation capacity and folate may facilitate the methylation and excretion of arsenic. Besides, general health conditions and medications might influence the arsenic methylation capacity; and technical problems can cause biased estimates. The consumption of seafood, seaweed, rice and other food with high arsenic contents and the extent of cooking and arsenic-containing water used in food preparation may also interfere with the presentation of the urinary arsenic profile. Future studies are necessary to clarify the effects of the various arsenic metabolites including the trivalent methylated forms on the development of arsenic-induced human diseases with the consideration of the effects of confounding factors and the interactions with other effect modifiers.

  19. The Differential Expression of Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide, alpha CGRP mRNA, Choline Acetyltransferase, and Low Affinity Nerve Growth Factor Receptor in Cranial Motoneurons After Hypoglossal Nerve Injury During Postnatal Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-08-21

    postnatal weeks, produced rapid apoptosis of Schwann cells but the same injury resulted in negligible Schwann ce1110ss in 25 dpn rats (Trachtenberg & Thompson...in rapid apoptosis of’Schwann cells (Trachtenberg and Thompson, 1996). Whether comparable Schwann cell death also occurs 71 after nerve crush in rats...age in rats is not known. It may be relevant that axonal injury during the first two postnatal weeks resulted in rapid apoptosis ofSchwann cells but

  20. Ethanol-induced effects on opioid peptides in adult male Wistar rats are dependent on early environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, L; Zhou, Q; Nylander, I

    2007-05-25

    The vulnerability to develop alcoholism is dependent on both genetic and environmental factors. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying these factors are not fully understood but individual divergence in the endogenous opioid peptide system may contribute. We have previously reported that early-life experiences can affect endogenous opioids and also adult voluntary ethanol intake. In the present study, this line of research was continued and the effects of long-term voluntary ethanol drinking on the opioid system are described in animals reared in different environmental settings. Rat pups were subjected to 15 min (MS15) or 360 min (MS360) of daily maternal separation during postnatal days 1-21. At 10 weeks of age, male rats were exposed to voluntary ethanol drinking in a four-bottle paradigm with 5%, 10% and 20% ethanol solution in addition to water for 2 months. Age-matched controls received water during the same period. Immunoreactive (ir) Met-enkephalin-Arg6Phe7 (MEAP) and dynorphin B (DYNB) peptide levels were thereafter measured in the pituitary gland and several brain areas. In water-drinking animals, lower ir MEAP levels were observed in the MS360 rats in the hypothalamus, medial prefrontal cortex, striatum and the periaqueductal gray, whereas no differences were seen in ir DYNB levels. Long-term ethanol drinking induced lower ir MEAP levels in MS15 rats in the medial prefrontal cortex and the periaqueductal gray, whereas higher levels were detected in MS360 rats in the hypothalamus, striatum and the substantia nigra. Chronic voluntary drinking affected ir DYNB levels in the pituitary gland, hypothalamus and the substantia nigra, with minor differences between MS15 and MS360. In conclusion, manipulation of the early environment caused changes in the opioid system and a subsequent altered response to ethanol. The altered sensitivity of the opioid peptides to ethanol may contribute to the previously reported differences in ethanol intake between MS15 and MS

  1. Postnatal effects of prenatal insult

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.M.; Newman, L.M.; Schmidt, R.R.

    1988-03-01

    Exogenous agents may perturb development during the embryonic period and adversely affect the formation of organs. However, adverse effects on development are not limited to the embryonic period nor are the manifestations restricted solely to outright gross structural malformation, but may instead be expressed as a decrement or abberration of postnatal function. Susceptibility to altered development may extend well into the postnatal period. Studies of functional parameters in several organ systems have demonstrated the broad-based susceptibility, subtlety of expression and potential of long-lasting effects of altered development assessed by physiologic assays. Adverse effects on functional development, whether in the CNS, reproductive, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, respiratory, or immune systems, etc., merit continuing investigation. From the viewpoint of risk estimation and hazard detection, evaluations of postnatal functional parameters may be relevant for several reasons. First, such parameters may serve as low-dose triggers. Second, they may be useful as a focal point for epidemiological studies. Finally, a more thorough understanding of the degree and magnitude of such postnatal functional deficits is needed since an adverse maternal effect may be transient, considered acceptable, or unperceived, but the effect on the conceptus may be permanent and severe. The immune and respiratory systems are discussed as two examples of how subtle and protean adverse effects on functional development may be.

  2. Early life epigenetic programming and transmission of stress-induced traits in mammals: how and when can environmental factors influence traits and their transgenerational inheritance?

    PubMed

    Gapp, Katharina; von Ziegler, Lukas; Tweedie-Cullen, Ry Yves; Mansuy, Isabelle M

    2014-05-01

    The environment can have a long-lasting influence on an individual's physiology and behavior. While some environmental conditions can be beneficial and result in adaptive responses, others can lead to pathological behaviors. Many studies have demonstrated that changes induced by the environment are expressed not only by the individuals directly exposed, but also by the offspring sometimes across multiple generations. Epigenetic alterations have been proposed as underlying mechanisms for such transmissible effects. Here, we review the most relevant literature on these changes and the developmental stages they affect the most. We discuss current evidence for transgenerational effects of prenatal and postnatal factors on bodily functions and behavioral responses, and the potential epigenetic mechanisms involved. We also discuss the need for a careful evaluation of the evolutionary importance with respect to health and disease, and possible directions for future research in the field.

  3. Seasonal variation in environmental DNA in relation to population size and environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Buxton, Andrew S.; Groombridge, Jim J.; Zakaria, Nurulhuda B.; Griffiths, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    Analysing DNA that organisms release into the environment (environmental DNA, or eDNA) has enormous potential for assessing rare and cryptic species. At present the method is only reliably used to assess the presence-absence of species in natural environments, as seasonal influences on eDNA in relation to presence, abundance, life stages and seasonal behaviours are poorly understood. A naturally colonised, replicated pond system was used to show how seasonal changes in eDNA were influenced by abundance of adults and larvae of great crested newts (Triturus cristatus). Peaks in eDNA were observed in early June when adult breeding was coming to an end, and between mid-July and mid-August corresponding to a peak in newt larval abundance. Changes in adult body condition associated with reproduction also influenced eDNA concentrations, as did temperature (but not rainfall or UV). eDNA concentration fell rapidly as larvae metamorphosed and left the ponds. eDNA concentration may therefore reflect relative abundance in different ponds, although environmental factors can affect the concentrations observed. Nevertheless, eDNA surveys may still represent an improvement over unadjusted counts which are widely used in population assessments but have unreliable relationships with population size. PMID:28393885

  4. Webinar Presentation: EPA Actions to Reduce Children's Health Risks from Environmental Factors

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation, EPA Actions to Reduce Children's Health Risks from Environmental Factors, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series: The Significance of Children’s Environmental Health Research Through Collaboration.

  5. Combining environmental factors and agriculturalists' observations of environmental changes in the traditional terrace system of the Amalfi coast (southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Savo, Valentina; Caneva, Giulia; McClatchey, Will; Reedy, David; Salvati, Luca

    2014-04-01

    Terraces are traditional engineered ecosystems that affect the hydro-geological equilibrium, slope stability, and local communities. The aims of this paper are (i) identifying environmental factors that affect terrace stability in the Amalfi Coast, (ii) defining agriculturalists' observations on environmental changes within that system and (iii) exploring potentiality of these observations to better define conservation strategies. All available data on physical and ecological factors recognized to affect the terrace system were collected and analyzed. Interviews were conducted with agriculturalists to obtain long-term observations on environmental factors that interact with this system. Landslides are more frequent where rainfall is high and during winter. Fires have an uneven annual distribution, with higher frequency during summers. Agriculturalists detailed complex interactions among environmental factors, economic elements, and terraces. These observations represent a valuable resource for defining causes and effects of abandonment and for better addressing conservation strategies.

  6. Environmental risk factors of cancer and their primary prevention.

    PubMed

    Dobrowolski, J W; Smyk, B

    1993-01-01

    The evaluation of the influence of different environmental carcinogenic factors requires interdisciplinary cooperation. Related studies include epidemiological surveys and air, water and soil, chemical, toxicological, and microbiological analyses, supplemented by experimental verification of suspected ecological pathogens and cofactors. A balance of carcinogens and protective agents in the external environment and in the human body is recommended for an ecologically oriented prevention. Toxicological control of the food chain using modern technology (Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), nuclear activation analysis, and induced coupled plasma) should be integrated with microanalyses at the cellular level (by X-ray scanning electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic response, PIXE, and spontaneous and delayed chemiluminescence for balance of free-radicals and their scavengers). A pilot cross-disciplinary study conducted in the area of a "cluster" of human neoplasms and cattle leukemia, in comparison with control villages in Poland, showed an excess in Pb, Hg, Ni, Rb, K, Mn, Cr, and Zn, accompanied by a nutritional deficiency in Mg, Ca, Fe, Co, and Se in the food chain of the "cluster." The living and breeding houses in this area were significantly more contaminated with the toxicogenic molds Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium meleagrinum and by nitrate and nitrite in the drinking water. Our experiments showed that selenium deficiency stimulated the growth of fungi and some bacteria and increased the immunosuppressive and teratogenic effects of aflatoxin B1. New methods of protection of the indoor environment against microbiological contamination and laser-related biotechnology for nutritional prevention of selenium deficiency and associated risk of neoplasms have been introduced. Primary prevention requires a large scale application of highly sensitive methods for early detection of risk factors in the environment, food, water, and at the personal level, as well as

  7. Adiposity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors in 9–10-year-old Indian children: relationships with birth size and postnatal growth

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaveni, G. V.; Veena, S. R.; Wills, A. K.; Hill, J. C.; Karat, S. C.; Fall, C. H. D.

    2011-01-01

    Lower birthweight, and rapid childhood weight gain predict elevated cardiovascular risk factors in children. We examined associations between serial, detailed, anthropometric measurements from birth to 9.5 years of age and cardiovascular risk markers in Indian children. Children (n = 663) born at the Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore, India were measured at birth and 6–12 monthly thereafter. At 9.5 years, 539 (255 boys) underwent a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test, and blood pressure (BP) and fasting lipid concentrations were measured. Insulin resistance was calculated using the HOMA equation. These outcomes were examined in relation to birth measurements and changes in measurements (growth) during infancy (0–2 years), 2–5 years and 5–9.5 years using conditional s.d. scores. Larger current weight, height and skinfold thickness were associated with higher risk markers at 9.5 years (P<0.05). Lower weight, smaller length and mid-arm circumference at birth were associated with higher fasting glucose concentrations at 9.5 years (P≤0.01). After adjusting for current weight/height, there were inverse associations between birthweight and/or length and insulin concentrations, HOMA, systolic and diastolic BP and plasma triglycerides (P<0.05). Increases in conditional weight and height between 0–2, 2–5 and 5–9.5 years were associated with higher insulin concentrations, HOMA and systolic BP. In conclusion, in 9–10-year-old Indian children, as in other studies, cardiovascular risk factors were highest in children who were light or short at birth but heavy or tall at 9 years. Greater infant and childhood weight and height gain were associated with higher risk markers. PMID:22318657

  8. The effects of space relevant environmental factors on halophilic Archaea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuko, Stefan; Moeller, Ralf; Rettberg, Petra

    exposure was investigated by several different methods e.g. RAPD - PCR, a technique that elucidates damages within the genome by different amplification patterns. Overall experimental results indicate that halophilic Archaea are able to withstand the exposure to space related environmental factors for a considerable time. This work in combined with others will lead to a detailed understanding of the response of extraterrestrial conditions to halophilic Archaea for astrobiological considerations.

  9. In ovo administration of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I alters postnatal growth and development of the broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Kocamis, H; Kirkpatrick-Keller, D C; Klandorf, H; Killefer, J

    1998-12-01

    Two experiments assessed the efficacy of in ovo administration of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) to enhance skeletal muscle development and improve feed efficiency of broilers. Hatching eggs were divided into three groups: uninjected control, vehicle-injected control, and recombinant human (rh) IGF-I (100 ng per embryo). Eggs in Experiment 1 were injected on Day 1, 4, or one of Day 7 through 18 of incubation. Growth rates for Days 1 and 4 resulted in the greatest response to treatment (P < 0.01, P < 0.06 respectively). Based on these results, Experiment 2 focused on Days 1 to 4 of incubation. Results from Experiment 2 showed that there was no significant difference in hatchability among control and rh IGF-I treatment groups. Injection on Day 3 resulted in the greatest response for increased live (P < 0.035) and leg (P < 0.02) weights in both sexes. Feed efficiencies of all rh IGF-I groups were significantly (P < 0.01) improved for the first 3 wk. In ovo administration of rh IGF-I on Day 3 increased feed efficiency (6.65%; P < 0.009) in pens of mixed-sex broilers. In addition, live weights (12.3%; P < 0.002), leg weights (11.7%; P < 0.01), breast weights (9.9%; P < 0.04), and heart weights (11.4%; P < 0.02) were increased in males. These results demonstrate that in ovo administration of rh IGF-I alters feed efficiency, growth, and tissue development. This finding lends itself to significant improvements in broiler production efficiency and profitability.

  10. Influence of Environmental Factors on Vibrio spp. in Coastal Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Crystal N

    2015-06-01

    Various studies have examined the relationships between vibrios and the environmental conditions surrounding them. However, very few reviews have compiled these studies into cohesive points. This may be due to the fact that these studies examine different environmental parameters, use different sampling, detection, and enumeration methodologies, and occur in diverse geographic locations. The current article is one approach to compile these studies into a cohesive work that assesses the importance of environmental determinants on the abundance of vibrios in coastal ecosystems.

  11. Intersection of participation and environmental factors: a complex interactive process.

    PubMed

    Noreau, Luc; Boschen, Kathryn

    2010-09-01

    The objective was to review contemporary and historical rehabilitation-focused literature on conceptualizations of the environment, broadly defined, and environmental measures. Data sources included historical nonempirical American-based literature from 1935 to the present and descriptive and empirical rehabilitation articles worldwide, retrieved from computerized databases predominantly from past 10 years depicting a participation-environment association. Literature selection required relevance to 3 combined topics: physical disability rehabilitation, participation/community integration, and impact of environmental barriers and facilitators. The ultimate focus was on spinal cord injury for recent literature and measures reviewed. Data extraction was based on author-assessed relevance to both participation and environmental considerations. Nonempirical literature from last three quarters of a century suggests an environmental impact on participation, focusing on "person-environment fit." Recent empirical evidence supports environmental contributions to participation, but the magnitude of the contribution is low. Despite the obvious theoretic impact of the environment, scientific demonstration of environmental contribution to participation restriction or facilitation has yet to be achieved. Participation-environment interaction could be illustrated better by (1) taking into account critical elements in environmental measures (eg, comprehensiveness of approach to environment, scales describing spectrum of environmental influence, subjective vs objective perspectives), (2) addressing the concept of participation in a dimension-specific approach, and (3) avoiding environmental features in construction of participation measures.

  12. Properties of peatlands in relation to environmental factors in Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    The relationship of peatland morphology and distribution to environmental factors was investigated in northern and central Minnesota by field sampling of vegetation, soils, and water, and by remote sensing. Maps of peatlands made by machine classification of Landsat data six classes matched field data in 56% of all cases; maps drawn by hand on 1:80,000 scale aerial photographs were 72% correct. Peatland sites fall into two natural groups: ombrotrophic (bogs; pH less than 4.4) and minerotrophic (fens and swamps: pH 4.4 or more and usually greater than 5.6). The presence of certain common vascular-plant taxa can be used to classify sites into these trophic classes with over 90% accuracy. The structure of peatland vegetation is controlled by the soil-water regime, the disturbance history, and, to a less degree, by trophic conditions. Sites that have relatively well-aerated soils and have not been recently disturbed support dense forests. Vegetation structure is weakly related to the degree of decomposition of peat; hence vegetation is a poor indicator for taxonomic units of organic soils. Peatlands are common in Minnesota on surfaces glaciated during the Wisconsin Stage and where the mean annual potential evapotranspiration roughly equals or exceeds the mean annual precipitation. Bogs occur most often on sites where a high water table can be maintained without groundwater discharge, such as in depressions on low-permeability substrates and near local watershed divides on plains. Fens apparently occur in or below areas of groundwater discharge. Swamps (densely forested minerotrophic peatlands) occur in a wide variety of settings where the soil is aerated during the growing season.

  13. Cellular monitoring systems for the assessment of space environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellweg, C. E.; Arenz, A.; Meier, M. M.; Baumstark-Khan, C.

    Harmful environmental factors - namely ionizing radiation - will continue to influence future manned space missions. The Cellular Biodiagnostic group at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) develops cellular monitoring systems, which include bacterial and mammalian cell systems capable of recognizing DNA damage as a consequence of the presence of genotoxic conditions. Such bioassay or biosensor systems will complement the physical detector systems used in space, insofar as they yield intrinsically biologically weighted measures of cellular responses. Furthermore, synergistic mutagenic and cancerogenic impacts of the radiation environment together with other potentially genotoxic constituents of the space habitat can be quantified using such systems, whose signals are especially relevant for the molecular damage to the DNA or the chromosomes. The experiment Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space (CERASP) has been selected by NASA to be performed on the International Space Station. It will supply basic information on the cellular response to radiation applied in microgravity. One of the biological end-points under investigation will be survival reflected by radiation-dependent reduction of constitutive expression of the enhanced variant of green fluorescent protein (EGFP), originally isolated from the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequorea victoria. A second end-point will be gene activation by space flight conditions in mammalian cells, based on fluorescent promoter reporter systems using the destabilized EGFP variant (d2EGFP). The promoter element to be investigated will reflect the activity of the NF-kB stress response pathway as an anti-apoptotic radiation response. DNA damage will be measured by fluorescent analysis of DNA unwinding (FADU). The systems have worked properly for terrestrial applications during the first experiments. Experiments using accelerated particles produced at the French heavy ion accelerator GANIL have given insights into cellular mechanisms

  14. Some critical factors for engineering and environmental microgravity investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debeglia, N.; Dupont, F.

    2002-07-01

    The gravity method is one of the geophysical tools used for engineering and environmental investigations where the detection of cavities, karst phenomena, subsoil irregularities, or landfills is essential. In many cases, deep or small-scale heterogeneities generating low-amplitude anomalies have to be detected and the reliability of further interpretation requires highly accurate measurements, carefully corrected for any quantifiable disturbing effects. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors likely to limit measurement quality and how to make improvements. Calibrations of a Scintrex gravimeter were made between French relative and absolute base stations, and the relative uncertainties on the calibration factors were estimated for these links. Ranging from 10 -3, for calibration on an old gravity net, to 10 -4, for a high amplitude absolute base line, this accuracy will be generally sufficient for microgravity surveys. Continuous gravity recordings of Scintrex gravimeters, installed at the same stable site, enabled the estimation of the stability and accuracy of the instruments and revealed that some of the time variations of g measurements, such as instrumental drift, tidal effects and seismic noise, are not entirely removed by standard processing procedures. The accuracy of corrected gravity measurements is mainly limited by inadequate corrections of tidal effects and by a poor estimation of ocean loading effects. In comparison with residual defaults in tidal corrections, instrumental and seismic noises are taken more properly into account by statistical data processing. In field operation, residual tidal effects are generally integrated into an experimental terrain drift estimated on the basis of frequent repeated measurements. A differential gravity approach, based on a fixed gravimeter reference whose recordings are used to correct measurements made with a mobile gravimeter, has also been investigated at a test site. Compared to standard

  15. Fetal and postnatal ovine mesenteric vascular reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Jayasree; Gugino, Sylvia F.; Nielsen, Lori C.; Caty, Michael G.; Lakshminrusimha, Satyan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Intestinal circulation and mesenteric arterial (MA) reactivity may play a role in preparing the fetus for enteral nutrition. We hypothesized that MA vasoreactivity changes with gestation and vasodilator pathways predominate in the postnatal period. METHODS Small distal MA rings (0.5-mm diameter) were isolated from fetal (116-d, 128-d, 134-d, and 141-d gestation, term ~ 147 d) and postnatal lambs. Vasoreactivity was evaluated using vasoconstrictors (norepinephrine (NE) after pretreatment with propranolol and endothelin-1(ET-1)) and vasodilators (NO donors A23187 and s-nitrosopenicillamine (SNAP)). Protein and mRNA assays for receptors and enzymes (endothelin receptor A, alpha-adrenergic receptor 1A (ADRA1A), endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), and phosphodiesterase5 (PDE5)) were performed in mesenteric arteries. RESULTS MA constriction to NE and ET-1 peaked at 134 d. Relaxation to A23187 and SNAP was maximal after birth. Basal eNOS activity was low at 134 d. ADRA1A mRNA and protein increasedsignificantlyat134danddecreasedpostnatally.sGC and PDE5 protein increased from 134 to 141 d. CONCLUSION Mesenteric vasoconstriction predominates in late-preterm gestation (134 d; the postconceptional age with the highest incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)) followed by a conversion to vasodilatory influences near the time of full-term birth. Perturbations in this ontogenic mechanism, including preterm birth, may be a risk factor for NEC. PMID:26672733

  16. Factors Influencing the Desire To Take Environmental Action in Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruneau, Diane; Chouinard, Omer; Musafiri, Jean-Pierre; IsaBelle, Claire

    In a coastal community, four social groups were chosen to participate in various educational programs designed to promote their desire to take environmental action. At the end of these educational programs, conducted by a scientist and an environmental educator, the participants were invited to get involved in the resolution of an environmental…

  17. Solar Program Assessment: Environmental Factors - Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    This report presents the environmental problems which may arise with the further development of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion, one of the eight Federally-funded solar technologies. To provide a background for this environmental analysis, the history and basic concepts of the technology are reviewed, as are its economic and resource requirements.…

  18. Solar Program Assessment: Environmental Factors - Fuels from Biomass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    The purpose of this report is to present and prioritize the major environmental issues associated with the further development of biomass production and biomass conversion systems. To provide a background for this environmental analysis, the basic concepts of the technology are reviewed, as are resource requirements. The potential effects of this…

  19. Environmental factors influencing public health and medicine: policy implications.

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Rueben; Walker, Bailus; Nathan, Vincent R.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental health threats are increasing throughout the United States, particularly in low-income populations and in communities of color. Environmental science researchers are investigating plausible associations between the environment and human health. As a result, the role and responsibility of the primary care physicians and other health care providers are changing. This paper highlights selected lines of evidence suggesting that clinicians should now consider interactions between humans and their environment as central to providing effective primary care. Subject areas include: exposure to environmental agents, reproductive toxicity, pulmonary disease, neurobehavioral toxicity, endocrine disruptors, mechanisms of environmental disease, and cultural competence. Concerns about these and other environmentally related issues influence the manner in which primary care is practiced now, and will be practiced in the future. Biomedical technology and community awareness demand that physicians pay more attention to advances in environmental medicine. Ironically, one of the least taught subjects in medical school is environmental medicine. To effectively respond to growing concerns about the role of the environment in human health, clinicians, researchers, educators, public policy officials, and the general public must join together to reduce the risk of environmental health threats and improve quality of life. PMID:11995631

  20. Factors Of Environmental Safety And Environmentally Efficient Technologies Transportation Facilities Gas Transportation Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, Bogdan U.

    2017-01-01

    The stable development of the European countries depends on a reliable and efficient operation of the gas transportation system (GTS). With high reliability of GTS it is necessary to ensure its industrial and environmental safety. In this article the major factors influencing on an industrial and ecological safety of GTS are analyzed, sources of GTS safety decreasing is revealed, measures for providing safety are proposed. The article shows that use of gas-turbine engines of gas-compressor units (GCU) results in the following phenomena: emissions of harmful substances in the atmosphere; pollution by toxic waste; harmful noise and vibration; thermal impact on environment; decrease in energy efficiency. It is shown that for the radical problem resolution of an industrial and ecological safety of gas-transmission system it is reasonable to use gas-compressor units driven by electric motors. Their advantages are shown. Perspective technologies of these units and experience of their use in Europe and the USA are given in this article.

  1. Contribution of Spaceflight Environmental Factors to Vision Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanello, Susana B.

    2011-01-01

    the combined effects of radiation exposure and iron overload on sensitivity to radiation injury in rat eyes. All main eye structures will be analyzed in this study: retina, lens and cornea. A study in collaboration with the Space Human Factors and Habitability Element (SHFH) investigates the effects of lunar dust exposure on the rat cornea. It is anticipated that common underlying oxidative stress mechanisms of damage may be observed as a result of these three stressors: radiation, nutritional iron and lunar dust. The contribution of fluid shift is addressed by a study using rats subjected to hindlimb suspension. The hypothesis to be tested in this study is that the mechanical stress imparted by the pressure differential across the optic disc and lamina cribosa will impact oxygenation (therefore causing oxidative stress and hypoxia) and cell survival. This study also includes the assessment of two nutritional antioxidant countermeasures: epigallocatechin gallate (green tea) and resveratrol. Finally, as a result of two successful tissue sharing efforts, we are proceeding with the analysis of eye samples of mice aboard two shuttle missions: STS-133 and STS-135. Results from the STS-133 study are presented in an independent abstract. Briefly, the results show that spaceflight represents a source of environmental stress that directly translates into oxidative and cellular stress in the retina. Similar analysis is also planned for the cornea. These samples add large value to our current vision research as they provide data on the direct effects of low-earth orbit spaceflight on eye structures and physiology.

  2. Industry efficiency and total factor productivity growth under resources and environmental constraint in China.

    PubMed

    Tao, Feng; Li, Ling; Xia, X H

    2012-01-01

    The growth of China's industry has been seriously depending on energy and environment. This paper attempts to apply the directional distance function and the Luenberger productivity index to measure the environmental efficiency, environmental total factor productivity, and its components at the level of subindustry in China over the period from 1999 to 2009 while considering energy consumption and emission of pollutants. This paper also empirically examines the determinants of efficiency and productivity change. The major findings are as follows. Firstly, the main sources of environmental inefficiency of China's industry are the inefficiency of gross industrial output value, the excessive energy consumption, and pollutant emissions. Secondly, the highest growth rate of environmental total factor productivity among the three industrial categories is manufacturing, followed by mining, and production and supply of electricity, gas, and water. Thirdly, foreign direct investment, capital-labor ratio, ownership structure, energy consumption structure, and environmental regulation have varying degrees of effects on the environmental efficiency and environmental total factor productivity.

  3. Predictors of Intelligence at the Age of 5: Family, Pregnancy and Birth Characteristics, Postnatal Influences, and Postnatal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Eriksen, Hanne-Lise Falgreen; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Underbjerg, Mette; Kilburn, Tina Røndrup; Bertrand, Jacquelyn; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2013-01-01

    Parental education and maternal intelligence are well-known predictors of child IQ. However, the literature regarding other factors that may contribute to individual differences in IQ is inconclusive. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of a number of variables whose predictive status remain unclarified, in a sample of basically healthy children with a low rate of pre- and postnatal complications. 1,782 5-year-old children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort (2003–2007) were assessed with a short form of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence – Revised. Information on parental characteristics, pregnancy and birth factors, postnatal influences, and postnatal growth was collected during pregnancy and at follow-up. A model including study design variables and child’s sex explained 7% of the variance in IQ, while parental education and maternal IQ increased the explained variance to 24%. Other predictors were parity, maternal BMI, birth weight, breastfeeding, and the child’s head circumference and height at follow-up. These variables, however, only increased the explained variance to 29%. The results suggest that parental education and maternal IQ are major predictors of IQ and should be included routinely in studies of cognitive development. Obstetrical and postnatal factors also predict IQ, but their contribution may be of comparatively limited magnitude. PMID:24236109

  4. Postnatal development of intrinsic GABAergic rhythms in mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Wong, T; Zhang, X L; Asl, M Nassiri; Wu, C P; Carlen, P L; Zhang, L

    2005-01-01

    The local circuitry of the mammalian limbic cortices, including the hippocampus, is capable of generating spontaneous rhythmic activities of 0.5-4 Hz when isolated in vitro. These rhythmic activities are mediated by synchronous inhibitory postsynaptic potentials in pyramidal neurons as the result of repeated discharges of inhibitory interneurons. As such, they are thought to represent an intrinsic inhibitory rhythm. It is unknown at present whether such a rhythm occurs in the immature rodent hippocampus and, if so, the postnatal time window in which it develops. We explored these issues using our recently developed whole mouse hippocampal isolate preparation in vitro. We found that spontaneous rhythmic field potentials started to emerge in mouse hippocampal isolates around postnatal day 10, stabilized after postnatal day 15 and persisted into adulthood. In postnatal days 11-14 mouse hippocampi, the properties of these rhythmic potentials were in keeping with a CA3-driven, IPSP-based intrinsic network activity. The lack of spontaneous field rhythm in neonatal (postnatal days 2-7) hippocampi cannot be attributed to the excitatory activities mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA-A) receptors, as chloride-dependent hyperpolarizing inhibitory postsynaptic potentials were detectable in neonatal pyramidal neurons at voltages near resting potentials and pharmacological antagonisms of GABA-A receptors produced robust epileptiform discharges in neonatal hippocampi. High frequency afferent stimulation or applications of 4-aminopyridine at low micromolar concentrations failed to induce persistent field rhythm in neonatal hippocampi, suggesting that an overall weak glutamatergic drive is not the sole causing factor. We suggest that the inhibitory postsynaptic potential-based spontaneous rhythmic field potentials develop in a discrete time window during the second postnatal week in the mouse hippocampus due to a fine-tuning in the structure and function of CA3

  5. Environmental Factors Affecting the Permanence of Library Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessel, Carl J.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews pertinent evidence relating to deterioration originating with air pollution, heat, humidity, light, and biological agents; and suggests how librarians may lengthen the useful life of library materials through environmental controls. (Author/JS)

  6. Influence of Environmental Factors on Feammox Activity in Soil Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S.; Jaffe, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    The oxidation of ammonium (NH4+) under iron reducing conditions, referred to as Feammox, has been described in recent years by several investigators. The environmental characteristics in which the Feammox process occurs need to be understood in order to determine its contribution to the nitrogen cycle. In this study, a total of 66 locations were selected covering 4 different types of soils/sediments: wetland soils (W), river sediments (R), forest soils (F), and paddy soils (P) from several locations in central New Jersey, at Tims Branch at Savannah River in South Carolina, both in the Unities States, and at several locations in the Guangdong province in China. Though soil chemical analyses, serial culturing experiments, analysis of microbial communities, and using a canonical correspondence analysis, the occurrence of the Feammox reaction and the presence of Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6, which plays a key role in the Feammox process(1), were found in 17 samples. Analyses showed that the soil pH, as well as its Fe(III) and NH4+ content were the most important factors controlling the distribution of these Feammox microorganisms. Based on the results, soils in the subtropical forests and soils that are near agricultural areas could be Feammox hotspot. Under the conditions that favor the presence and activity of Feammox microorganisms and their oxidation of NH4+, denitrification bacteria were also active. However, the presence of nitrous oxide (N2O) reducers was limited under these conditions, implying that at locations where the Feammox process is active, conditions are favoring a higher ratio of N2O: N2 as the nitrogen (N) end products. Incubations of soils where the presence of Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 was detected, were conducted for 120 days under two different DO levels (DO < 0.02 mg/L and DO = 0.8~1.0 mg/L) showing comparable amounts of NH4+ oxidation. In the incubations with DO < 0.02 mg/L, the proportion of Acidimicrobiaceae bacteria increased and

  7. Environmental and genetic factors affecting cow survival of Israeli Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Weller, J I; Ezra, E

    2015-01-01

    The objectives were to investigate the effects of various environmental factors that may affect herd-life of Israeli Holsteins, including first-calving age and season, calving ease, number of progeny born, and service sire for first calving in complete and truncated records; and to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations between herd-life and the other traits included in the Israeli breeding index. The basic data set consisted of 590,869 cows in milk recording herds with first freshening day between 1985 and at least 8 yr before the cut-off date of September 15, 2013. Herd-life was measured as days from first calving to culling. The phenotypic and genetic trends for herd-life were 5.7 and 16.8d/yr. The genetic trend was almost linear, whereas the phenotypic trend showed 4 peaks and 3 valleys. Cows born in February and March had the shortest herd-life, whereas cows born in September had the longest herd-life. Herd-life was maximal with calving age of 23mo, which is 1mo less than the mean calving age, and minimal at 19 and 31mo of calving age. Dystocia and twinning on first-parity calving reduced herd-life by approximately180 and 120d, but the interaction effect increased herd-life by 140d. Heritability for herd-life was 0.14. Despite the fact that the service sire effect was significant in the fixed model analysis, service sire effect accounted for <0.05% of the total variance. In the analysis of 1,431,938 truncated records, the effects of dystocia and twinning rate were very similar but less than 50% of the effects found in the analysis of complete records. Pregnancy at the truncation date increased expected herd-life by 432d. The correlation between actual herd-life and predicted herd-life based on truncated records was 0.44. Genetic correlations between the truncated records and actual herd-life were 0.75 for records truncated after 6mo but approached unity for records truncated after 3 yr. The genetic correlations of herd-life with first-parity milk

  8. Environmental Factors Associated with the Growth of Chinese Literary Genius: A Test of Rogerian Assumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, You-Yuk

    1987-01-01

    This study explored relationships between environmental factors (era, standard of living, freedom, and value) and the growth of Chinese literary genius. Using a new measure, the Chinese Creator Rating Scale, the study found that historical top scorers had above average values on the four environmental factors, supporting the humanistic theory of…

  9. HIV Testing among Adolescents in Ndola, Zambia: How Individual, Relational, and Environmental Factors Relate to Demand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denison, Julie A.; McCauley, Ann P.; Dunnett-Dagg, Wendy A.; Lungu, Nalakwanji; Sweat, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how individual, relational and environmental factors related to adolescent demand for HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT). A cross-sectional survey among randomly selected 16-19-year-olds in Ndola, Zambia, covered individual (e.g., HIV knowledge), environmental (e.g., distance), and relational factors (e.g., discussed…

  10. A Report on the Effects of Environmental and Institutional Factors on College and University Enrollments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krakower, Jack Y.; Zammuto, Raymond F.

    The effects of five environmental and five institutional factors on college and university enrollments during the period between 1975-1976 and 1980-1981 were studied with a sample of 2,101 institutions. The environmental factors were federal student aid, state student aid, number of 18-year-olds, unemployment, and level of economic wealth as…

  11. Update on environmental risk factors for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Froehlich, Tanya E; Anixt, Julia S; Loe, Irene M; Chirdkiatgumchai, Vilawan; Kuan, Lisa; Gilman, Richard C

    2011-10-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurobehavioral disorder affecting 5% to 10% of children. Although considered to be a highly familial disorder, ADHD heritability estimates of 60% to 80% highlight the considerable role that environmental factors may still play in disorder susceptibility. Proposed ADHD environmental risk factors include prenatal substance exposures, heavy metal and chemical exposures, nutritional factors, and lifestyle/psychosocial factors. This paper reviews the literature published in 2010 investigating the association between environmental risk factors and ADHD or related symptomatology. Sources of risk factor exposure and the proposed mechanism by which each exposure is linked to ADHD-related neurobehavioral changes are also reported. Methodologic limitations of the current literature are discussed, and guidelines for future study are proposed. An improved understanding of the role that environmental factors play in ADHD etiology is critical to future ADHD prevention efforts.

  12. Key systemic and environmental risk factors for implant failure.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Dolphus R; Jasper, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Dental implants are an important treatment option for patients interested in replacing lost or missing teeth. Although a robust body of literature has reviewed risk factors for tooth loss, the evidence for risk factors associated with dental implants is less well defined. This article focuses on key systemic risk factors relating to dental implant failure, as well as on perimucositis and peri-implantitis.

  13. Epidemiology, environmental risk factors and genetics of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Delamarre, Anna; Meissner, Wassilios G

    2017-02-08

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a frequent neurodegenerative disease with a premotor phase that lasts several years. Risk factors that have been linked to PD are tobacco, caffeine, black tea, pesticides and calcium channel blockers. Some risk factors may be due to inverse causality (e.g. changes in personality during the premotor phase). The genetics of PD are complex with a contribution of Mendelian (e.g. SNCA, LRRK2, Parkin, Pink1,…) and non-Mendelian factors (e.g. single nucleotide polymorphisms). Glucocerebrosidase gene mutations (Gaucher disease) are currently the strongest genetic risk factor for PD. Studying risk factors will help to better understand the pathogenesis of PD.

  14. Cultural variations in interpretation of postnatal illness: Jinn possession amongst Muslim communities.

    PubMed

    Hanely, Jane; Brown, Amy

    2014-04-01

    Maternal experience of emotional and physical disturbance during the postnatal period is a worldwide occurrence but may be interpreted differently according to cultural background. Little is known about different expressions and treatment of cultural phenomena during the postnatal period such as the affliction of Jinn possession in Arabic cultures. Jinn are considered to be evil spirits, which cause emotional and physical distress at times of vulnerability such as the postnatal period. The aim of this paper was to explore maternal experience of Jinn possession and draw parallels with Western interpretations of postnatal illness. Ten women in an Arabian Gulf state who had recently given birth and identified themselves as having Jinn possession were interviewed as to their experiences of Jinn possession. Mothers described the Jinn as evil spirits who cause symptoms such as sadness, anxiety and physical malaise during the postnatal period. Numerous risk factors for possession emerged such as lack of familial support, poverty and a traumatic birth. Clear parallels emerged between Western concepts of postnatal illness and Jinn possession. Mothers in Muslim cultures may experience Jinn possession during the postnatal period, which reflects similar symptoms and aetiology to Western concepts of postnatal illness. With increasing multiculturalism in the UK, understanding the origins and perception of Jinn possession is important for health professionals working in Muslim communities here.

  15. Social and Environmental Factors Associated with Preschoolers' Nonsedentary Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, William H.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Addy, Cheryl L.; Pate, Russell R.

    2009-01-01

    The twofold purposes of the investigation were (a) to describe with direct observation data the physical activity behaviors and the accompanying social and environmental events of those behaviors for children in preschools and (b) to determine which contextual conditions were predictors of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and…

  16. Solar Program Assessment: Environmental Factors - Solar Total Energy Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    The purpose of this report is to present and prioritize the major environmental, safety, and social/institutional issues associated with the further development of Solar Total Energy Systems (STES). Solar total energy systems represent a specific application of the Federally-funded solar technologies. To provide a background for this analysis, the…

  17. Impact of environmental factors and poverty on pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Weck, Rebekah L; Paulose, Tessie; Flaws, Jodi A

    2008-06-01

    Studies have indicated that various societal factors such as toxicant exposure, maternal habits, occupational hazards, psychosocial factors, socioeconomic status, racial disparity, chronic stress, and infection may impact pregnancy outcomes. These outcomes include spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, alterations in the development of the fetus, and long-term health of offspring. Although much is known about individual pregnancy outcomes, little is known about the associations between societal factors and pregnancy outcomes. This manuscript reviews some of the literature available on the effects of the above-mentioned societal factors on pregnancy outcomes and examines some potential remedies for preventing adverse pregnancy outcomes in the future.

  18. Preterm cerebellar growth impairment after postnatal exposure to glucocorticoids

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Emily W. Y.; Chau, Vann; Ferriero, Donna M.; Barkovich, A. James; Poskitt, Kenneth J.; Studholme, Colin; Fok, Eric D.-Y.; Grunau, Ruth E.; Glidden, David V.; Miller, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    With improving survival rates of preterm newborns, adverse cognitive outcomes are increasingly recognized. Adverse cognitive outcomes are associated with decreased cerebellar volumes, and modifiable risk factors for these adverse outcomes should be identified. Animal models demonstrate reduced preterm cerebellar growth after exposure to glucocorticoids. Preterm neonates were prospectively studied with serial MRI examinations near birth and again near term-equivalent age. Adjusting for associated clinical factors, antenatal bethamethasone was not associated with changes in cerebellar volume. Postnatal exposure to clinically routine doses of hydrocortisone or dexamethasone were associated with impaired cerebellar, but not cerebral, growth. Modifying postnatal risk factors for impaired cerebellar development, and particularly glucocorticoid exposure, may help to decrease risk for adverse neurological outcome after preterm birth. PMID:22013125

  19. Postnatal mental distress in relation to the sociocultural practices of childbirth: An exploratory qualitative study from Ethiopia☆

    PubMed Central

    Hanlon, Charlotte; Whitley, Rob; Wondimagegn, Dawit; Alem, Atalay; Prince, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Sociocultural patterning of the postnatal period in non-Western settings has been hypothesised to protect against postnatal depression. In 2004, in a predominantly rural area of Ethiopia, we conducted 25 in-depth interviews and five focus group discussions with purposively selected participants including perinatal women, fathers, grandmothers, traditional and religious leaders, birth attendants and community leaders. Our main objectives were (1) to examine societal recognition of problematic distress states in the postnatal period and relate this to Western conceptualisations of postnatal depression and (2) to relate the occurrence of distress states to sociocultural patterning of the postnatal period. Inductive analysis was employed to identify salient themes. Participants spontaneously described culturally problematic distress states occurring in the postnatal period, although did not consider them to be illness. Vulnerability and danger of the postnatal period was emphasised, with risk of supernatural attack and physical harm leading to distress states. Participants also spoke of how gender disadvantage and economic strain intersect with cultural patterning of the postnatal period, threatening mental health due to the resulting disappointed expectations and exclusion, as well as exacerbation of pre-existing problems. Cultural dissonance, where a person's beliefs or actions are out of kilter with strong prevailing cultural norms, may be an important risk factor for postnatal distress in rural Ethiopia, where the postnatal period is extensively culturally elaborated. PMID:19709793

  20. Postnatal mental distress in relation to the sociocultural practices of childbirth: an exploratory qualitative study from Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Charlotte; Whitley, Rob; Wondimagegn, Dawit; Alem, Atalay; Prince, Martin

    2009-10-01

    Sociocultural patterning of the postnatal period in non-Western settings has been hypothesised to protect against postnatal depression. In 2004, in a predominantly rural area of Ethiopia, we conducted 25 in-depth interviews and five focus group discussions with purposively selected participants including perinatal women, fathers, grandmothers, traditional and religious leaders, birth attendants and community leaders. Our main objectives were (1) to examine societal recognition of problematic distress states in the postnatal period and relate this to Western conceptualisations of postnatal depression and (2) to relate the occurrence of distress states to sociocultural patterning of the postnatal period. Inductive analysis was employed to identify salient themes. Participants spontaneously described culturally problematic distress states occurring in the postnatal period, although did not consider them to be illness. Vulnerability and danger of the postnatal period was emphasised, with risk of supernatural attack and physical harm leading to distress states. Participants also spoke of how gender disadvantage and economic strain intersect with cultural patterning of the postnatal period, threatening mental health due to the resulting disappointed expectations and exclusion, as well as exacerbation of pre-existing problems. Cultural dissonance, where a person's beliefs or actions are out of kilter with strong prevailing cultural norms, may be an important risk factor for postnatal distress in rural Ethiopia, where the postnatal period is extensively culturally elaborated.

  1. Common Genetic and Nonshared Environmental Factors Contribute to the Association between Socioemotional Dispositions and the Externalizing Factor in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jeanette; Allan, Nicholas; Mikolajewski, Amy J.; Hart, Sara A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Childhood behavioral disorders including conduct disorder (CD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. Prior twin research shows that common sets of genetic and environmental factors are associated with these various disorders and they form a latent factor called…

  2. [Physical factors in human ecology and environmental hygiene].

    PubMed

    Rakhmanin, Iu A

    2009-01-01

    The paper considers the problem while studying various physical factors of the environment. It presents prospects for further investigations of the influence of physical factors on human health and the quality of the environment. The paper also gives a detailed description of advances and promising lines of studies in the area under discussion.

  3. Environmental factors, life events, and trauma in the course of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Aldinger, Fanny; Schulze, Thomas G

    2017-01-01

    The etiology and clinical course of bipolar disorder are considered to be determined by genetic and environmental factors. Although the kindling hypothesis emphasizes the impact of environmental factors on initial onset, their connection to the outcome and clinical course have been poorly established. Hence, there have been numerous research efforts to investigate the impact of environmental factors on the clinical course of illness. Our aim is to outline recent research on the impact of environmental determinants on the clinical course of bipolar disorder. We carried out a computer-aided search to find publications on an association between environmental factors, life events, and the clinical course of bipolar disorder. Publications in the reference lists of suitable papers have also been taken into consideration. We performed a narrative overview on all eligible publications. The available body of data supports an association between environmental factors and the clinical course of bipolar disorder. These factors comprise prenatal, early-life, and entire lifespan aspects. Given varying sample sizes and several methodological limitations, the reported quality and extent of the association between environmental factors and the clinical course of bipolar disorder should be interpreted with utmost caution. Systematic longitudinal long-term follow-up trials are needed to obtain a clearer and more robust picture.

  4. Stationwide environmental baseline survey and related environmental factors, Ontario Air National Guard Station, California

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-26

    This Environmental Baseline Survey (EBS) has been prepared to document the environmental condition of real property at Ontario Air National Guard Station (ANGS), California, resulting from the storage, release, and disposal of hazardous substances and petroleum products and their derivatives over the installations history. This EBS is also used by the Air Force to meet its obligations under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), 42 United States Code Section 9620(h), as amended by the Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) (Public Law 102-426). Table ES-1 list all uncontaminated property based on information obtained through a records search, interviews, and visual site inspections at Ontario ANGS. Figure ES-1 depicts their respective locations.

  5. Environmental and NSAID-enteropathy: dysbiosis as a common factor.

    PubMed

    Syer, Stephanie D; Wallace, John L

    2014-03-01

    At first sight, environmental enteropathy and NSAID enteropathy may appear to have little in common. One occurs almost exclusively in poor countries and the other primarily in rich countries. One is the consequence of unhygienic living conditions, while the other is a consequence of use of a drug for relief of pain and inflammation. However, there may be a common pathogenic link between these two conditions, namely a significant alteration in the microbiome (dysbiosis), and this raises the possibility of common approaches to treatment. Correction of the dysbiosis that is central to the intestinal tissue injury and dysfunction observed in environmental and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced enteropathies is a logical approach to bringing about restoration of intestinal function. For both conditions, removal of the trigger for dysbiosis is the simplest approach, but is not always feasible. Correcting the underlying dysbiosis through the use of probiotics or prebiotics may be a viable option.

  6. Bed and toilet height as potential environmental risk factors.

    PubMed

    Capezuti, Elizabeth; Wagner, Laura; Brush, Barbara L; Boltz, Marie; Renz, Susan; Secic, Michelle

    2008-02-01

    Seat height that is too high (> 120% of lower leg length [LLL]) or too low (< 80% of LLL) can impede safe transfer and result in falls. This study examines the difference between LLL of frail nursing home residents and the height of their toilets and beds in the lowest position, compares the patient or environmental characteristics of those able to transfer from the bed or toilet to those who cannot, and determines the relationship of patient or environmental characteristics to bed-related falls. A retrospective observational design using secondary data from 263 nursing home residents finds that bed height of three fourths of participants was greater than 140% of LLL, whereas toilet height of more than half was 100% to 120% of LLL. Increased fall risk is associated with increased age, shorter length of stay, normal lower extremity range of motion, less cognitive impairment, more behavioral symptoms, and no complaints of pain during exam.

  7. Influence of environmental factors on the onset and course of inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Amit Kumar; Chacko, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Numerous environmental factors have been linked with inflammatory bowel disease. These include smoking, diet, hygiene, drugs, geographical and psychosocial factors. These factors may either increase the risk of or protect against developing this condition and can also affect the course of illness in a positive or negative manner. A number of studies have examined the influence of environmental factors on inflammatory bowel diseases as a whole as well as on ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease separately. As there are differences in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, the effect of environmental factors on their onset and course is not always similar. Some factors have shown a consistent association, while reports on others have been conflicting. In this article we discuss the current evidence on the roles of these factors on inflammatory bowel disease, both as causative/protective agents and as modifiers of disease course. PMID:26811649

  8. Influence of environmental factors on the onset and course of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Amit Kumar; Chacko, Ashok

    2016-01-21

    Numerous environmental factors have been linked with inflammatory bowel disease. These include smoking, diet, hygiene, drugs, geographical and psychosocial factors. These factors may either increase the risk of or protect against developing this condition and can also affect the course of illness in a positive or negative manner. A number of studies have examined the influence of environmental factors on inflammatory bowel diseases as a whole as well as on ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease separately. As there are differences in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, the effect of environmental factors on their onset and course is not always similar. Some factors have shown a consistent association, while reports on others have been conflicting. In this article we discuss the current evidence on the roles of these factors on inflammatory bowel disease, both as causative/protective agents and as modifiers of disease course.

  9. Genetic and environmental factors affecting host response to drugs and other chemical compounds in our environment.

    PubMed Central

    Vesell, E S; Passananti, G T

    1977-01-01

    Compared to laboratory animals, humans are extremely heterogenous with respect to the many factors that can influence the distribution and biological effects of toxic chemicals. This heterogeneity can prevent an accurate assessment of the impact of a particular toxic compound on the health of an individual subject. Some of the factors that can significantly modify the host response to certain drugs, which serve in this review as a model for environmental chemicals, are enumerated and discussed. Although the mechanisms by which many of these factors modify the biological effects of certain environmental chemicals and drugs have been determined in some cases, better definition of the nature of interactions between these factors and environmental chemicals in a particular individual is required at a biochemical and molecular level. Recommendations are offered for the further development of our knowledge concerning interactions between environmental chemicals and such factors in a particular individual. PMID:598349

  10. Effect of environmental factors on film badge dosimetry readings of dental office personnel

    SciTech Connect

    Collett, W.K.; Kaugars, G.E.; Broga, D.W. )

    1990-12-01

    Inadvertent exposure of film badges to environmental factors may produce fogging of the film and yield higher radiation exposure readings. Common environmental factors in everyday living were studied to assess their effect on film badge readings. Only heat appeared to have any significant effect, because moisture, chemicals, pressure, cold temperature, and non-work-related electromagnetic radiation did not substantially alter film badge readings. Therefore not all unexplained high readings on personnel film badge reports may be due to heat or other common environmental factors evaluated in this study.

  11. Environmental factors and the development of disease and injury in the alimentary tract.

    PubMed Central

    Schedl, H P

    1977-01-01

    This review examines interactions between the alimentary tract and environmental agents. In these intera"ctions the alimentary tract is considered as an integrated organ system extending from mouth to anus. The alimentary tract shares with the skin and its appendages and the respiratory system the distinction of being a portal of entry into the human body for environmental agents as well as a target for their action. Food and water-borne environmental agents enter the body via the alimentary tract. By injurying the alimentary tract environmental agents after their portal of entry and thereby modulate their effects on the organism. Such modulation may enhance or depress effects of these agents. Interactions between environmental factors and the alimentary tract depend on (1) factors related to the alimentary tract that are determined by anatomic, physiologic, and biochemical considerations; (2) factors related to the environmental agents; and (3) individually determined factors. The role of these factors in development of disease and injury is considered. Environmental diseases of the alimentary tract and environmental agents acting on the gut are discussed and recommendations are made for future research. PMID:598351

  12. Positive Matrix Factorization Model for environmental data analyses

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Positive Matrix Factorization is a receptor model developed by EPA to provide scientific support for current ambient air quality standards and implement those standards by identifying and quantifying the relative contributions of air pollution sources.

  13. Is Hypovitaminosis D One of the Environmental Risk Factors for Multiple Sclerosis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierrot-Deseilligny, Charles; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    The role of hypovitaminosis D as a possible risk factor for multiple sclerosis is reviewed. First, it is emphasized that hypovitaminosis D could be only one of the risk factors for multiple sclerosis and that numerous other environmental and genetic risk factors appear to interact and combine to trigger the disease. Secondly, the classical…

  14. Prenatal and Postnatal Epigenetic Programming: Implications for GI, Immune, and Neuronal Function in Autism.

    PubMed

    Waly, Mostafa I; Hornig, Mady; Trivedi, Malav; Hodgson, Nathaniel; Kini, Radhika; Ohta, Akio; Deth, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Although autism is first and foremost a disorder of the central nervous system, comorbid dysfunction of the gastrointestinal (GI) and immune systems is common, suggesting that all three systems may be affected by common molecular mechanisms. Substantial systemic deficits in the antioxidant glutathione and its precursor, cysteine, have been documented in autism in association with oxidative stress and impaired methylation. DNA and histone methylation provide epigenetic regulation of gene expression during prenatal and postnatal development. Prenatal epigenetic programming (PrEP) can be affected by the maternal metabolic and nutritional environment, whereas postnatal epigenetic programming (PEP) importantly depends upon nutritional support provided through the GI tract. Cysteine absorption from the GI tract is a crucial determinant of antioxidant capacity, and systemic deficits of glutathione and cysteine in autism are likely to reflect impaired cysteine absorption. Excitatory amino acid transporter 3 (EAAT3) provides cysteine uptake for GI epithelial, neuronal, and immune cells, and its activity is decreased during oxidative stress. Based upon these observations, we propose that neurodevelopmental, GI, and immune aspects of autism each reflect manifestations of inadequate antioxidant capacity, secondary to impaired cysteine uptake by the GI tract. Genetic and environmental factors that adversely affect antioxidant capacity can disrupt PrEP and/or PEP, increasing vulnerability to autism.

  15. Prenatal and Postnatal Epigenetic Programming: Implications for GI, Immune, and Neuronal Function in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Waly, Mostafa I.; Hornig, Mady; Trivedi, Malav; Hodgson, Nathaniel; Kini, Radhika; Ohta, Akio; Deth, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Although autism is first and foremost a disorder of the central nervous system, comorbid dysfunction of the gastrointestinal (GI) and immune systems is common, suggesting that all three systems may be affected by common molecular mechanisms. Substantial systemic deficits in the antioxidant glutathione and its precursor, cysteine, have been documented in autism in association with oxidative stress and impaired methylation. DNA and histone methylation provide epigenetic regulation of gene expression during prenatal and postnatal development. Prenatal epigenetic programming (PrEP) can be affected by the maternal metabolic and nutritional environment, whereas postnatal epigenetic programming (PEP) importantly depends upon nutritional support provided through the GI tract. Cysteine absorption from the GI tract is a crucial determinant of antioxidant capacity, and systemic deficits of glutathione and cysteine in autism are likely to reflect impaired cysteine absorption. Excitatory amino acid transporter 3 (EAAT3) provides cysteine uptake for GI epithelial, neuronal, and immune cells, and its activity is decreased during oxidative stress. Based upon these observations, we propose that neurodevelopmental, GI, and immune aspects of autism each reflect manifestations of inadequate antioxidant capacity, secondary to impaired cysteine uptake by the GI tract. Genetic and environmental factors that adversely affect antioxidant capacity can disrupt PrEP and/or PEP, increasing vulnerability to autism. PMID:22934169

  16. The influence of environmental factors in chronic venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Jawien, Arkadiusz

    2003-01-01

    The present article focuses on the prevalence and risk factors for varicose veins and the severe stage of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). The evaluation was made by reviewing the results of specific well-designed studies performed on the general population (case-control studies, cross-sectional studies, and large case series). Data from the literature were compared with the results of a recent multicenter cross-sectional study in Poland, in which 40,095 individuals from 803 registers of primary care physicians were clinically examined and assigned a clinical CEAP class. Analysis of the associations between varicose veins or severe CVI prevalence and factors that are usually considered as representing a risk for the development of CVI was performed. In Poland, a prevalence of varicose veins and severe CVI (skin changes, leg ulcer) similar to that observed in the other developed countries was reported. It was more common in women, but female sex was not found to be a strong risk factor. Among the risk factors most closely associated with CVI were age, family history of varicose veins, and constipation, whatever the sex. This is in keeping with findings from recent epidemiologic studies. Obesity and lack of physical activity were strongly associated with CVI in women, more so than in men. The number of pregnancies (more than 2 pregnancies) significantly distinguished between women with and without CVI. Regarding these latter risk factors, the Polish results do not contradict the commonly held beliefs that are found in the literature. A modest association was found with female sex, previous injury in legs (DVT), and remaining in the standing position for a long time, although these parameters are usually among those mostly agreed as being risk factors. The role of the prolonged sitting position was not established. The Polish epidemiologic survey provided updated figures on the prevalence of and risk factors for varicose veins and severe CVI, using clear and

  17. Environmental factors influence lesser scaup migration chronology and population monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finger, Taylor A.; Afton, Alan D.; Schummer, Michael L.; Petrie, Scott A.; Badzinski, Shannon S.; Johnson, Michael A.; Szymanski, Michael L.; Jacobs, Kevin J.; Olsen, Glenn H.; Mitchell, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Identifying environmental metrics specific to lesser scaup (Aythya affinis; scaup) spring migration chronology may help inform development of conservation, management and population monitoring. Our objective was to determine how environmental conditions influence spring migration of lesser scaup to assess the effectiveness of the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey in accurately estimating scaup populations. We first compared peak timing of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and scaup migration from weekly ground surveys in North Dakota, USA because the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey is designed to capture annual mallard migration. As predicted, we detected that peak timing of scaup and mallard migrations differed in 25 of 36 years investigated (1980–2010). We marked scaup with satellite transmitters (n = 78; 7,403 locations) at Long Point, Lake Erie, Ontario, Canada; Pool 19 of the Mississippi River, Iowa and Illinois, USA; and Presque Isle Bay, Lake Erie, Pennsylvania, USA. We tested the assumption that our marked scaup were representative of the continental population using the traditional survey area by comparing timing of migration of marked birds and scaup counted in the North Dakota Game and Fish Department survey. We detected a strong positive correlation between marked scaup and the survey data, which indicated that marked scaup were representative of the population. We subsequently used our validated sample of marked scaup to investigate the effects of annual variation in temperature, precipitation, and ice cover on spring migration chronology in the traditional and eastern survey areas of the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey, 2005–2010. We evaluated competing environmental models to explain variation in timing and rate of scaup migration at large-scale and local levels. Spring migration of scaup occurred earlier and faster during springs with warmer temperatures and greater precipitation, variables known

  18. The effects of community environmental factors on obesity among Korean adults: a multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Nan-He; Kwon, Soonman

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study explored multidimensional factors related to obesity by dividing them into individual and environmental factors, and performed multilevel analysis to investigate community environmental effects. METHODS: Data from the 2011 and 2012 Community Health Surveys were used for the analysis. Community-level variables, constructed from various regional statistics, were included in the model as environmental factors. Respondents with body mass index (BMI)≥25 were defined as obese, and a multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted to analyze individual and environmental factors related to obesity. Moreover, a stratified analysis was conducted to compare factors related to obesity between men and women. RESULTS: Of 337,136 samples, 82,887 (24.6%) were obese, with BMI≥25. Sociodemographic characteristics at the individual level were mostly significantly related to obesity; however, while there were more obese men subjects among those with high socioeconomic status, there were more obese women among those with low socioeconomic status. There were fewer obese respondents among those who regularly walked and more obese respondents among those who reported short sleep duration or were highly stressed. At the community level, people living in areas with high socioeconomic status, high satisfaction with safety and public transportation, and high accessibility to sports facilities in their community had lower obesity risks. CONCLUSIONS: Community-level environmental factors affected obesity, especially perceived community environment, more significant than physical environment. Thus, it is necessary to develop effective obesity prevention and management strategies by considering potential community environmental factors that affect obesity. PMID:25666167

  19. Economical and Environmental Factors in Light Alloys Automotive Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caceres, Carlos H.

    2007-07-01

    The effects of mass reduction through substitution of ferrous components by equivalent Al or Mg alloy components on the vehicle’s cost and CO2 emissions are discussed using M.F. Ashby’s penalty functions and exchange constants method. The viability of substitutions of Al alloys by Mg alloys is also considered. Substitutions of cast components at equal volume and panels and beams at constant stiffness are considered. Substitutions of cast ferrous components are economically the only viable ones in terms of the CAFE (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) liability, although the cost penalty can be fully offset by the gasoline savings over the life of the car for most other forms of light alloy substitutions. When primary alloys are used, the gasoline savings over the lifetime of a lighter car offset the CO2 footprint of Al alloys in all cases. Because of their larger CO2 footprint, the environmental feasibility is somewhat restricted for electrolytic Mg, and more so for Mg produced by the Pidgeon process. Due to their high recyclability, Al casting alloys have a significant environmental advantage over all other light alloy applications. Viable substitutions of existing Al components by Mg components are largely restricted to castings of electrolytic Mg.

  20. Family dynamics and postnatal depression.

    PubMed

    Tammentie, T; Tarkka, M-T; Astedt-Kurki, P; Paavilainen, E; Laippala, P

    2004-04-01

    Research has shown that postnatal depression (PND) affects 10-15% of mothers in Western societies. PND is not easily identified and therefore it often remains undetected. Untreated depression has a detrimental effect on the mother and child and the entire family. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the state of family dynamics after delivery and whether the mother's PND was associated with family dynamics. The study used a survey covering the catchment area of one Finnish university hospital. Both primi- and multiparas took part and data were collected using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) for mothers and the Family Dynamics Measure II (FDM II) for both mothers and fathers. The data were analysed using SPSS statistical programme and frequency and percentage distributions, means and standard deviations were examined. Correlations were analysed using Spearman's correlation coefficients. The significance of any differences between mothers' and fathers' scores was determined with a paired t-test. Of the families participating in the study (373 mothers and 314 partners), 13% of the mothers suffered from PND symptoms (EPDS score of 13 or more). As a whole, family dynamics in the families participating in the study were reported to be rather good. However, mothers having depressive symptoms reported more negative family dynamics compared with other families. With the exception of individuation, mothers having depressive symptoms reported more negative family dynamics than their partners. With the exception of role reciprocity, non-depressed mothers reported more positive family dynamics than their partners. Knowledge of the association of mothers' PND with family dynamics could help to develop nursing care at maternity and child welfare clinics and maternity hospitals. Depressed mothers and their families need support to be able to make family dynamics as good as possible.

  1. Investigating the Influence of Environmental Factors on Pesticide Exposure in Amphibians

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental factors such as temporal weather patterns and soil characterization coupled with pesticide application rates are known to influence exposure and subsequent absorption of these compounds in amphibians. Amphibians are a unique class of vertebrates due to their varied ...

  2. Genes, epigenetic regulation and environmental factors: which is the most relevant in developing autoimmune diseases?

    PubMed

    Costenbader, Karen H; Gay, Steffen; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E; Iaccarino, Luca; Doria, Andrea

    2012-06-01

    Autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease, have complex pathogeneses and likely multifactorial etiologies. The current paradigm for understanding their development is that the disease is triggered in genetically-susceptible individuals by exposure to environmental factors. Some of these environmental factors have been specifically identified, while others are hypothesized and not yet proven, and it is likely that most have yet to be identified. One interesting hypothesis is that environmental effects on immune responses could be mediated by changes in epigenetic regulation. Major mechanisms of epigenetic gene regulation include DNA methylation and histone modification. In these cases, gene expression is modified without involving changes in DNA sequence. Epigenetics is a new and interesting research field in autoimmune diseases. We review the roles of genetic factors, epigenetic regulation and the most studied environmental risk factors such as cigarette smoke, crystalline silica, Epstein-Barr virus, and reproductive hormones in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease.

  3. Importance of environmental factors on the richness and distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates in tropical headwater streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is essential to understand the interactions between local environmental factors (e.g., physical habitat and water quality) and aquatic assemblages to conserve biodiversity in tropical and subtropical headwater streams. Therefore, we evaluated the relative importance of multipl...

  4. The contribution of home, neighbourhood and school environmental factors in explaining physical activity among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Haerens, Leen; Craeynest, Mietje; Deforche, Benedicte; Maes, Lea; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the influence of home, neighbourhood and school environmental factors on adolescents' engagement in self-reported extracurricular physical activity and leisure time sports and on MVPA objectively measured by accelerometers. Environmental factors were assessed using questionnaires. Gender specific hierarchical regression analyses were conducted, with demographic variables entered in the first block, and environmental, psychosocial factors and interactions terms entered in the second block. Participation in extracurricular activities at school was positively related to the number of organized activities and the provision of supervision. Perceived accessibility of neighborhood facilities was not related to engagement in leisure time sports, whereas the availability of sedentary and physical activity equipment was. Findings were generally supportive of ecological theories stating that behaviors are influenced by personal and environmental factors that are constantly interacting.

  5. META-ANALYSIS OF THE LIFE STYLE FACTORS RELEVANT TO ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS FOR THE AGING POPULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) study is to characterize activity patterns, physiological changes, and environmental exposures for the aging population. Meta analysis was performed on more than 2000 reviewed articles to evaluate the lifestyle factors ...

  6. Diversity and Equity in Environmental Organizations: The Salience of These Factors to Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Dorceta E.

    2007-01-01

    Diversity in environmental institutions is of increasing concern to scholars and practitioners. The author examined student perceptions of the importance of 20 diversity and equity factors in their decisions to accept a job. A national sample of 1,239 students in 9 environmental disciplines (biological sciences, geosciences, natural resources,…

  7. Physical and biological factors influencing environmental sources of fecal indicator bacteria in surface water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith B.; Przybyla-Kelly, Katarzyna; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the environmental populations of faecal indicator bacteria, and the processes by which these populations become nonpoint sources and influence nearshore water quality. The different possible sources of these indicator bacteria are presented. These include groundwater, springs and seeps, aquatic sediments, beach sand, birds, Cladophora and plant wrack. Also discussed are the environmental factors (moisture, sunlight, temperature and salinity) influencing their survival.

  8. DISPERSANT EFFECTIVENESS ON OIL SPILLS - IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When a dispersant is applied to an oil slick, its effectiveness in dispersing the spilled oil depends on various factors such as oil properties, wave mixing energy, temperature of both oil and water, and salinity of the water. Estuaries represent water with varying salinities. In...

  9. Organizational, Financial, and Environmental Factors Influencing Deans' Tenure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Rebecca; Bhak, Karyn; Moy, Ernest; Valente, Ernest; Griner, Paul F.

    1998-01-01

    A study of factors influencing tenure of 382 medical school deans from 1985-1994 found that, at the schools that were less healthy financially, were under the same ownership as the primary teaching hospital, and had small faculties, deans tended to have shorter tenures and higher turnover. Possible reasons for these findings and implications for…

  10. Factors Affecting Environmental Knowledge and Attitudes among Lebanese College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oweini, Ahmad; Houri, Ahmad

    2006-01-01

    This exploratory study aimed at assessing the variables that would positively affect the knowledge and attitude of a group of Lebanese college students regarding the environment, namely such factors as gender, age, previous hiking experience and living abroad. A purposeful sample of students attending the Lebanese American University, was asked to…

  11. Factors Affecting Use of Environmental Services by the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartwigsen, Gail

    The ability to function independently in the later years has been defined as a combination of capability and support. To examine factors affecting older adults' use of services provided in an accommodating environment, 52 physically independent residents of an Arizona apartment complex for the elderly were surveyed. Time spent living in the…

  12. Environmental risk factors for inflammatory bowel diseases: Evidence based literature review

    PubMed Central

    Abegunde, Ayokunle T; Muhammad, Bashir H; Bhatti, Owais; Ali, Tauseef

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Advances in genetics and immunology have contributed to the current understanding of the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). METHODS: The current opinion on the pathogenesis of IBD suggests that genetically susceptible individuals develop intolerance to dysregulated gut microflora (dysbiosis) and chronic inflammation develops as a result of environmental insults. Environmental exposures are innumerable with varying effects during the life course of individuals with IBD. Studying the relationship between environmental factors and IBD may provide the missing link to increasing our understanding of the etiology and increased incidence of IBD in recent years with implications for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Environmental factors are heterogeneous and genetic predisposition, immune dysregulation, or dysbiosis do not lead to the development of IBD in isolation. RESULTS: Current challenges in the study of environmental factors and IBD are how to effectively translate promising results from experimental studies to humans in order to develop models that incorporate the complex interactions between the environment, genetics, immunology, and gut microbiota, and limited high quality interventional studies assessing the effect of modifying environmental factors on the natural history and patient outcomes in IBD. CONCLUSION: This article critically reviews the current evidence on environmental risk factors for IBD and proposes directions for future research. PMID:27468219

  13. Environmental safety factors estimation in selection of water treatment technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutenyev, V. V.; Azhgirevich, A. I.; Kiryanova, L. F.; Gutenyeva, Ye. N.

    2003-04-01

    A number of southern regions of Russia are traditionally short of drinking water of good quality, especially in summer period or in the places of counter-terror operations. The multifactor analysis covered not only the quality of environmental waters, consumption structure, but the ability of technology to withstand eco terrorism as well. The research works resulted in prioritization of nonchemical combined technologies based on microfiltration and ultraviolet radiation with the use of various bacteriostatics built on ionic complexes of a number of metals, both fixed and mobile. In special operations held on the territory of Chechen Republic to ensure supply of water of guaranteed quality the efforts are focused on organizational activities on provision of traceability of water delivery process at all transportation stages, as well as on application of bacteriostatics in case of long-term water storage.

  14. Environmental factors influencing mercury speciation in Subarctic and Boreal lakes.

    PubMed

    Braaten, Hans Fredrik V; de Wit, Heleen A; Fjeld, Eirik; Rognerud, Sigurd; Lydersen, Espen; Larssen, Thorjørn

    2014-04-01

    Environmental drivers of total mercury (TotHg) concentrations, methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations, and MeHg fractions (a proxy for methylation potential, expressed as %MeHg) were assessed in a synoptic study of 51 lakes in southeast (Boreal) and northeast (Subarctic) Norway. Concentrations of TotHg and MeHg ranged between 0.5-6.6 ng/L and <0.02-0.70 ng/L, respectively. The lakes span wide ranges of explanatory environmental variables, including water chemistry, catchment characteristics, climate conditions, and atmospheric deposition of Hg, sulphur and nitrogen (N). Dissolved organic matter (DOM), measured as total organic carbon (TOC), was the variable most strongly correlated with TotHg (r(2)=0.76) and MeHg (r(2)=0.64) concentrations. Lakes in the Subarctic region had significantly lower TotHg and MeHg concentrations, and %MeHg than lakes in the Boreal region (p<0.01), implying a lower aquatic food web exposure of aqueous Hg species in Subarctic Norway than in the Boreal lakes. Statistical modelling (partial least squares) using data from the Boreal lakes produced models explaining 82%, 75% and 50% of the spatial variation of TotHg and MeHg concentrations and %MeHg, respectively. After TOC, the most significant explanatory variables were N availability, base cation status, and lake and catchment size. We conclude that a key process driving TotHg concentrations is DOM as a transport vector, while the role of DOM for MeHg and %MeHg is likely related to a combination of transport and DOM as a substrate for methylation. Also, negative correlations between MeHg, and catchment and lake size are consistent with in-lake and in-stream de-methylation processes. The statistical relationship suggests that N availability exerts a positive contribution on concentrations of MeHg and %MeHg.

  15. [Interrelationships between soil fauna and soil environmental factors in China: research advance].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Wei, Wei; Yang, Xing-zhong; Chen, Li-ding; Yang, Lei

    2010-09-01

    Soil fauna has close relations with various environmental factors in soil ecosystem. To explore the interrelationships between soil fauna and soil environmental factors is of vital importance to deep understand the dynamics of soil ecosystem and to assess the functioning of the ecosystem. The environmental factors affecting soil fauna can be classified as soil properties and soil external environment. The former contains soil basic physical and chemical properties, soil moisture, and soil pollution. The latter includes vegetation, land use type, landform, and climate, etc. From these aspects, this paper summarized the published literatures in China on the interrelationships between soil fauna and soil environmental factors. It was considered that several problems were existed in related studies, e.g., fewer researches were made in integrating soil fauna's bio-indicator function, research methods were needed to be improved, and the studies on the multi-environmental factors and their large scale spatial-temporal variability were in deficiency. Corresponding suggestions were proposed, i.e., more work should be done according to the practical needs, advanced experiences from abroad should be referenced, and comprehensive studies on multi-environmental factors and long-term monitoring should be conducted on large scale areas.

  16. Influence of genetic and environmental factors on oral diseases and function in aged twins.

    PubMed

    Kurushima, Y; Ikebe, K; Matsuda, K; Enoki, K; Ogata, S; Yamashita, M; Murakami, S; Hayakawa, K; Maeda, Y

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to quantify the genetic and environmental contributions to oral disease and function in twins. Participants were middle-aged and old twins, 116 monozygotic and 16 dizygotic pairs whose mean age was 66·1 ± 10·3 (SD) years. Number of teeth, percentage of decayed, filled and missing teeth and periodontal status were recorded as indicators of oral disease. The widths of upper and lower dental arch served as indicators of morphological figures. Furthermore, stimulated salivary flow rate, occlusal force and masticatory performance were measured as indicators of oral function. Univariate genetic analysis with monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs was conducted to detect the fittest structural equation model of each outcome. Both number of teeth and periodontal status fitted the model composed of common environmental factor and unique environmental factor. Decayed, filled and missing teeth, morphological figures and measurements of oral function fitted the model composed of additive genetic factor and unique environmental factor. The model fitting of each measurement suggested that periodontal disease was mainly affected by environmental factors, while morphological figures and oral functions were influenced by both genetic and environmental factors.

  17. Family and environmental factors of drug addiction among young recruits.

    PubMed

    Jedrzejczak, Marian

    2005-08-01

    Drug addiction in a family results from three factors: (1) effect of pathological families on young people's behavior, (2) easy access to drugs, and (3) influence of groups of people of the same age. In the present study, it was investigated to what extent individual factors related to family and environment affect the extent of drug addiction among recruits. The study included 559 subjects. The results proved direct interdependence between the family condition and the extent of narcomania. Drug addicts came mostly from incomplete and pathological families. The main family factors of drug addiction, according to the results obtained, are family atmosphere, strength of family ties, sense of family happiness, structure of authority in the family, and alcoholism. In families where there is warmth and love, children do not or rarely take drugs. Drug addicts come from families where there is ill will and hostility (p < 0.05). Drug addicts have weaker family ties than do those who do not take drugs (w2 = 0.26, p < 0.05). In families where there was contact with drugs, authority belonged to the mother to a greater degree (54.4%) than to the father (23.6%). In 46.3% of the studied drug addicts' families, alcohol was drunk. The results of the investigations approximate results of other studies conducted among young people in Poland and elsewhere in the world.

  18. Rheumatic diseases induced by drugs and environmental factors: the state-of-the-art - part two.

    PubMed

    Niklas, Karolina; Niklas, Arkadiusz A; Majewski, Dominik; Puszczewicz, Mariusz J

    2016-01-01

    The majority of rheumatic diseases belong to the group of autoimmune diseases and are associated with autoantibody production. Their etiology is not fully understood. Certain medications and environmental factors may have an influence on the occurrence of rheumatic diseases. Establishing a cause-effect relationship between a certain factor and disease induction is not always simple. It is important to administer the drug continuously or monitor exposure to a given factor in the period preceding the onset of symptoms. The lack of early diagnosed autoimmune disease, or finally the lack of symptoms within a few weeks/months after discontinuation of the drug/cessation of exposure, is also important. The most frequently mentioned rheumatic diseases caused by drugs and environmental factors include systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), scleroderma, systemic vasculitis, polymyositis, dermatomyositis, and Sjögren's syndrome. The objective of this study is to summarize current knowledge on rheumatic diseases induced by drugs and environmental factors.

  19. Rheumatic diseases induced by drugs and environmental factors: the state-of-the-art - part one.

    PubMed

    Niklas, Karolina; Niklas, Arkadiusz A; Majewski, Dominik; Puszczewicz, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    The majority of rheumatic diseases belong to the group of autoimmune diseases and are associated with autoantibody production. Their etiology is not fully understood. Certain medications and environmental factors may have an influence on the occurrence of rheumatic diseases. Establishing a cause-effect relationship between a certain factor and disease induction is not always simple. It is important to administer the drug continuously or monitor exposure to a given factor in the period preceding the onset of symptoms. The lack of previously diagnosed autoimmune disease, or finally the lack of symptoms within a few weeks/months after discontinuation of the drug/cessation of exposure, is also important. The most frequently mentioned rheumatic diseases caused by drugs and environmental factors include systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, systemic vasculitis, polymyositis, dermatomyositis, and Sjögren's syndrome. The objective of this study is to summarize current knowledge on rheumatic diseases induced by drugs and environmental factors.

  20. Factors affecting the environmental carrying capacity of a freshwater tropical lake system.

    PubMed

    Mullakkezhil Reghunathan, Vishnuprasad; Joseph, Sabu; Warrier, C Unnikrishnan; Hameed, A Shahul; Albert Moses, Sheela

    2016-11-01

    Environmental carrying capacity is a measure of competence of a lake to accommodate pollution inputs without degrading water quality. In the research reported here, we identified the factors influencing the environmental carrying capacity of Vellayani Lake or VL (a typical tropical freshwater lake), Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala State, India. R-mode factor analysis is used to identify the factors controlling the carrying capacity of the lake, whereas hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) helped to classify the lake. The carrying capacity of the lake is low with respect to alkalinity, due to ion deficiency, and is potentially reactive to sudden changes in pH. Eutrophic condition exists in the entire lake system. Acidic factor, mineralization factor, fertilizer factor (P & K), evaporation factor and organic pollution factor are the controllers of VL water quality during the pre-monsoon period. The same factors (but not evaporation factor) and an additional runoff factor control the water quality during monsoon. In the post-monsoon, the aforesaid factors (other than runoff, alkalinity) and soil erosion factor influence the water quality. Hence, managers of the lake system need to also focus on combating acidic factor during pre- and post-monsoons and runoff during monsoon. Smaller areal extent and shallow depth of VL, reduced outflow from it, less rainfall, presence of lateritic rock and soil and absence of limestone strata in the catchment are the chief elements affecting the acidic factor of Vellayani Lake.

  1. Environmental factors that influence prescribed burning in the Northern Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kruse, A.D.; Higgins, K.F.; Piehl, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    Several environmental conditions were recorded and analyzed for 192 prescribed burns in the Northern Great Plains. The purpose of these burns was to improve wildlife habitat and manipulate native prairie vegetation. All of the fires occurred in grassland and shrubsteppe vegetation types. Fuels were predominantly grasses and forbs intermixed with patches of shrubs. Nearly all of the fuels were 0.05 cm/h, do not burn. However, these are good conditions to burn stockpiles of unwanted fuels that are usually high risk elements during regular prescribed burns.2) Produce partial burns. Partial burns are defined as those where fire is discontinuous and patches of standing and lodged vegetation are left unburned. Partial burns occur most often when fine fuels feel moist when handled, where less than 2 days have passed since the last measurable precipitation, and when cloud cover is complete. Other conditions associated with partial burns are relative humidities >50 percent, temperatures 32 km/h, relative humidities 35 deg.C. These conditions occur most often in July, August, and September, but can occur anytime from April through October.

  2. Plankton composition and environmental factors contribute to Vibrio seasonality.

    PubMed

    Turner, Jeffrey W; Good, Brooks; Cole, Dana; Lipp, Erin K

    2009-09-01

    Plankton represent a nutrient-rich reservoir capable of enriching Vibrio species, which can include human pathogens, at higher densities than the surrounding water column. To better understand the relationship between vibrios and plankton, the partitioning of culturable vibrios, on TCBS, between free living and plankton associated (63-200- and >200-microm-size fractions) was monitored over a 1-year period in coastal waters of Georgia, USA. Seasonal changes in the total Vibrio concentration were then compared with changes in environmental parameters as well as changes in the relative composition of the plankton community. Using univariate analyses, Vibrio concentrations were strongly associated with temperature, especially when those vibrios were plankton associated (R(2)=0.69 and 0.88 for the water and both plankton fractions; respectively) (P<0.01). Multivariate general linear models revealed that Vibrio concentrations in the plankton fractions were also correlated to shifts in the relative abundance of specific plankton taxa. In the 63-200-micro fraction, Vibrio concentrations were inversely associated with copepods, cyanobacteria and diatoms. In the >200-micro fraction, Vibrio concentrations were positively associated with copepods and negatively associated with decapod larvae. Our results confirm the role of temperature in Vibrio seasonality and highlight an important and independent role for plankton composition in explaining seasonal changes in Vibrio concentration.

  3. [Environmental and occupational risk factors in keratosis of the larynx].

    PubMed

    de Vincentiis, M; Gallo, A; Boccia, M M; Diletti, G; Simonelli, M; Della Rocca, C

    1993-01-01

    Laryngeal keratosis may frequently precede the appearance of carcinoma of the larynx which might well indicate that these diseases have a common denominator. A retrospective study of 120 subjects with laryngeal keratosis was examined. The intention of the Authors was to verify whether the principle risk factors involved in the appearance of laryngeal carcinoma were the same as those implicated in laryngeal keratosis formation. Sex age, work activity, cigarette smoke, alcohol consumption and vocal chord abuse were considered. Laryngeal keratosis takes keratosis with dysplasia as well as keratosis without. A link between these two types of keratosis and cancer was sought. In particular, the possibility that a persistent action of the mentioned risk factors could cause laryngeal dysplasia-free keratosis to change into dysplastic lesions and subsequently into cancer was investigated. A case-control study was performed in order to analyze the importance of work activity. Results were statistically significant (P < 0.001). The Cramer V2 calculation demonstrated a clear correlation between the number of cigarettes smoked and the appearance of dysplasia (V2 = 0.117; P < 0.005). Results showed a clearly different behaviour between sexes. The number of males was much higher than females as was the age at which keratosis appeared greater in males. The fact that the average age in which keratosis appeared preceded the appearance of laryngeal cancer by ten years indicates that this interrum is sufficient for keratosis with dysplasia to be transformed into cancer (due to the continued action of the mentioned etiologic factors, mainly referred to cigarette smoke). In our data analysis, no correlation was demonstrated between keratosis without dysplasia and cancer.

  4. Environmental Factors and Myopia: Paradoxes and Prospects for Prevention.

    PubMed

    Rose, Kathryn Ailsa; French, Amanda Nicole; Morgan, Ian George

    The prevalence of myopia in developed countries in East and Southeast Asia has increased to more than 80% in children completing schooling, whereas that of high myopia has increased to 10%-20%. This poses significant challenges for correction of refractive errors and the management of pathological high myopia. Prevention is therefore an important priority. Myopia is etiologically heterogeneous, with a low level of myopia of clearly genetic origins that appears without exposure to risk factors. The big increases have occurred in school myopia, driven by increasing educational pressures in combination with limited amounts of time spent outdoors. The rise in prevalence of high myopia has an unusual pattern of development, with increases in prevalence first appearing at approximately age 11. This pattern suggests that the increasing prevalence of high myopia is because of progression of myopia in children who became myopic at approximately age 6 or 7 because age-specific progression rates typical of East Asia will take these children to the threshold for high myopia in 5 to 6 years. This high myopia seems to be acquired, having an association with educational parameters, whereas high myopia in previous generations tended to be genetic in origin. Increased time outdoors can counter the effects of increased nearwork and reduce the impact of parental myopia, reducing the onset of myopia, and this approach has been validated in 3 randomized controlled trials. Other proposed risk factors need further work to demonstrate that they are independent and can be modified to reduce the onset of myopia.

  5. Environmental factors of urinary stones mineralogy, Khouzestan Province, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarasvandi, Alireza; Carranza, E. J. M.; Heidari, Majid; Mousapour, Esmaeil

    2014-09-01

    Urinary stone diseases in the Khouzestan province (southwest Iran) are growing in number and it required extensive studies on various factors of the urinary stones formation in this province. In this research, in addition to distribution of urinary stones in different areas of province, the role of bioenvironmental (race), climate (temperature) and geology (water hardness) factors in urinary stones diversity has been studied. Mineralogical studied using X-ray diffraction showed that uricite and whewellite are the most frequency mineral phases. Struvite, Cystine, hydroxyapatite, weddellite, and Niahite can be observed as urinary stones, too. These data show that the urinary stone in the Khouzestan province can divide into 7 groups: calcium oxalate, phosphate, calcium oxalate/ phosphate, Urate, Urate/calcium, Urate/calcium oxalate/phosphate, Cystine/calcium oxalate. Also the results which attained from temperature effect investigation on the mineralogy of urinary stones, confirms that from Mediterranean sub-humid climates (northeastern area) to warm and dry climates (south and southwest area), calcium oxalate stones and urate stones concentration decreases and increases respectively. Comparison of data related to the drinking water hardness and mineralogy of urinary stones in different areas of Khouzestan province show that the combination of drinking water (especially water hardness) affects mineralogy of urinary stones in some areas (such az Ramhormoz and Hendijan). Finally, the data suggest that frequency of calcium oxalate in women is more than that of men. Moreover, there is direct relationship between the age (>45 years) and the increase in frequency of Urate minerals.

  6. Environmental factors predicting nephritis in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed Central

    McAlindon, T; Giannotta, L; Taub, N; D'Cruz, D; Hughes, G

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To evaluate social class, ethnic origin, and various endocrine variables as potential risk factors in the development of nephritis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS--A cross-sectional survey was carried out of all outpatients with SLE attending the lupus Clinic of St Thomas's Hospital from March to October 1992 using retrospective survival data. The main outcome measure was the duration of SLE before the onset of nephritis. RESULTS--Two hundred and ninety six women and 11 men were studied; the male patients were excluded from the analysis. Univariate analysis showed an increased risk of nephritis in patients with SLE of West Indian origin with 54 v 19% with nephritis at five years, in patients of lower social class, in patients who did not drink alcohol, and in those with a history of fetal loss after the onset of lupus. No significant effect of the age of onset of SLE, use of oral contraceptives, normal pregnancy, or smoking was seen. Multivariate analysis showed that ethnic origin did not influence the risk of nephritis independently of social class. CONCLUSIONS--Factors associated with socioeconomic deprivation may increase disease severity in patients with SLE. PMID:8257208

  7. Staffing in postnatal units: is it adequate for the provision of quality care? Staff perspectives from a state-wide review of postnatal care in Victoria, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Forster, Della A; McLachlan, Helen L; Yelland, Jane; Rayner, Jo; Lumley, Judith; Davey, Mary-Ann

    2006-01-01

    Background State-wide surveys of recent mothers conducted over the past decade in Victoria, one state of Australia, have identified that women are consistently less satisfied with the care they received in hospital following birth compared with other aspects of maternity care. Little is known of caregivers' perspectives on the provision ofhospital postnatal care: how care is organised and provided in different hospitals; what constrains the provision of postnatal care (apart from funding) and what initiatives are being undertaken to improve service delivery. A state-widereview of organisational structures and processes in relation to the provision of hospital postnatal care in Victoria was undertaken. This paper focuses on the impact of staffing issues on the provision of quality postnatal care from the perspective of care providers. Methods A study of care providers from Victorian public hospitals that provide maternity services was undertaken. Datawere collected in two stages. Stage one: a structured questionnaire was sent to all public hospitals in Victoria that provided postnatal care (n = 73), exploring the structure and organisation of care (e.g. staffing, routine observations, policy framework and discharge planning). Stage two: 14 maternity units were selected and invited to participate in a more in-depth exploration of postnatal care. Thirty-eight key informant interviews were undertaken with midwives (including unit managers, associate unit managers and clinical midwives) and a medical practitioner from eachselected hospital. Results Staffing was highlighted as a major factor impacting on the provision of quality postnatal care. There were significant issues associated with inadequate staff/patient ratios; staffing mix; patient mix; prioritisation of birth suites over postnatal units; and the use of non-permanent staff. Forty-three percent of hospitals reported having only midwives (i.e. no non-midwives) providing postnatal care. Staffing issues impact on

  8. Identifying environmental risk factors of cholera in a coastal area with geospatial technologies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Min; Cao, Chunxiang; Wang, Duochun; Kan, Biao

    2014-12-29

    Satellites contribute significantly to environmental quality and public health. Environmental factors are important indicators for the prediction of disease outbreaks. This study reveals the environmental factors associated with cholera in Zhejiang, a coastal province of China, using both Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic information System (GIS). The analysis validated the correlation between the indirect satellite measurements of sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH) and ocean chlorophyll concentration (OCC) and the local cholera magnitude based on a ten-year monthly data from the year 1999 to 2008. Cholera magnitude has been strongly affected by the concurrent variables of SST and SSH, while OCC has a one-month time lag effect. A cholera prediction model has been established based on the sea environmental factors. The results of hot spot analysis showed the local cholera magnitude in counties significantly associated with the estuaries and rivers.

  9. Identifying Environmental Risk Factors of Cholera in a Coastal Area with Geospatial Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Min; Cao, Chunxiang; Wang, Duochun; Kan, Biao

    2014-01-01

    Satellites contribute significantly to environmental quality and public health. Environmental factors are important indicators for the prediction of disease outbreaks. This study reveals the environmental factors associated with cholera in Zhejiang, a coastal province of China, using both Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic information System (GIS). The analysis validated the correlation between the indirect satellite measurements of sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH) and ocean chlorophyll concentration (OCC) and the local cholera magnitude based on a ten-year monthly data from the year 1999 to 2008. Cholera magnitude has been strongly affected by the concurrent variables of SST and SSH, while OCC has a one-month time lag effect. A cholera prediction model has been established based on the sea environmental factors. The results of hot spot analysis showed the local cholera magnitude in counties significantly associated with the estuaries and rivers. PMID:25551518

  10. Environmental factors controlling methane emissions for peatlands in Northern Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Dise, N.B.; Gorham, E.; Verry, E.S.

    1993-06-20

    Controls on methane emission from peatlands in northern Minnesota were investigated by correlation to environmental variables and by field manipulations. From September 1988 through September 1990, methane flux measurements were made at weekly to monthly intervals at six sites in the Marcell Experimental Forest, northern Minnesota (two open bog sites, two forested bog sites, a poor fen, and a fen lagg). Flux was related to water table position and peat temperature with simple correlations at individual sites and multiple regression on all sites together. The effect of water table was also investigated experimentally in {open_quotes}bog corrals{close_quotes} (open-ended metal enclosures set in the peat) in which water table was artificially raised to the surface in the driest peatland. Temperature largely controlled variation in flux within individual ecosystems at Marcell, but hydrology distinguished between-site variation. Water table position, peat temperature, and degree of peat humification explained 91% of the variance in log CH{sub 4} flux, predicted annual methane emission from individual wetlands successfully, and predicted the change in flux due to the water table manipulation. Raising the water table in the bog corrals by an average of 6 cm in autumn 1989 and 10 cm in summer 1990 increased emission by 2.5x and 2.2x, respectively. Just as expanding the scale of investigation from a single habitat in a wetland to several wetlands necessitates incorporation of additional variables to explain flux (water table, peat characteristics), modeling flux from several wetland regions, if possible, will require the addition of climate parameters. 30 refs., 8 figs., 21 tabs.

  11. Perinatal and Early Childhood Environmental Factors Influencing Allergic Asthma Immunopathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gaffin, Jonathan M.; Kanchongkittiphon, Watcharoot; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of asthma has increased dramatically over the past several decades. While hereditary factors are highly important, the rapid rise outstrips the pace of genomic variation. Great emphasis has been placed on potential modifiable early life exposures leading to childhood asthma. Methods We reviewed the recent medical literature for important studies discussing the role of the perinatal and early childhood exposures and the inception of childhood asthma. Results and Discussion Early life exposure to allergens (House dust mite (HDM), furred pets, cockroach, rodent and mold)air pollution (nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and particulate matter (PM)) and viral respiratory tract infections (Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus (hRV)) have been implicated in the development of asthma in high risk children. Conversely, exposure to microbial diversity in the perinatal period may diminish the development of atopy and asthma symptoms. PMID:24952205

  12. A Secreted Factor Coordinates Environmental Quality with Bacillus Development

    PubMed Central

    Ababneh, Qutaiba O.; Tindall, Amanda J.; Herman, Jennifer K.

    2015-01-01

    Entry into sporulation is governed by the master regulator Spo0A. Spo0A accumulates in its active form, Spo0A-P, as cells enter stationary phase. Prior reports have shown that the acute induction of constitutively active Spo0A during exponential growth does not result in sporulation. However, a subsequent study also found that a gradual increase in Spo0A-P, mediated through artificial expression of the kinase, KinA, during exponential growth, is sufficient to trigger sporulation. We report here that sporulation via KinA induction depends on the presence of an extracellular factor or factors (FacX) that only accumulates to active levels during post-exponential growth. FacX is retained by dialysis with a cutoff smaller than 500 Dalton, can be concentrated, and is susceptible to proteinase K digestion, similar to described quorum-sensing peptides shown to be involved in promoting sporulation. However, unlike previously characterized peptides, FacX activity does not require the Opp or App oligopeptide transporter systems. In addition, FacX activity does not depend on SigH, Spo0A, or ComX. Importantly, we find that in the presence of FacX, B. subtilis can be induced to sporulate following the artificial induction of constitutively active Spo0A. These results indicate that there is no formal requirement for gradual Spo0A-P accumulation and instead support the idea that sporulation requires both sufficient levels of active Spo0A and at least one other signal or condition. PMID:26657919

  13. Postnatal experience and health needs of Chinese migrant women in Brisbane, Australia.

    PubMed

    Chu, Cordia M Y

    2005-02-01

    In Chinese society, traditional postnatal practices and family support protect the health and well-being of women after childbirth. The absence of support for these practices for Chinese migrants in Western societies can have negative implications for their health. Recent studies reveal that postnatal stress is a growing concern among Chinese migrant women in Brisbane, Australia. There is a need to investigate the experiences of these women in order to understand factors affecting their postnatal health and to identify gaps in, and ways to improve, existing services and support identified needs. This paper examines postnatal experience and health needs of Chinese migrant women in Brisbane from three different places of origin: Taiwan, Hong Kong and the People's Republic of China (PRC). Previous studies on reproductive health beliefs and practices of Chinese women have found that a relationship exists between postnatal maternal health and postnatal cultural practices, appropriate family and community support and social circumstances, particularly pressures relating to employment. This study further tests and confirms these findings by comparing the experience of the three Chinese groups who have different migration circumstances, socio-economic and employment status, and support networks. The study reveals that among the three groups, PRC migrants are more likely to have encountered downward social mobility, economic hardship, social isolation, employment and language problems. While all three groups believe in the necessity of traditional postnatal practices, the PRC group has less support and is also more likely to have experienced postnatal health problems than the other two groups. This paper concludes with two sets of recommendations: one for community organizations with a focus on empowerment and cooperation; and one for service providers concerning improvement of multi-sectoral partnership, cross-cultural communication and the development of a postnatal care

  14. Comparison of Journal Citation Reports and Scopus Impact Factors for Ecology and Environmental Sciences Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Edward; Hodkinson, Sarah Z.

    2008-01-01

    Impact factors for journals listed under the subject categories "ecology" and "environmental sciences" in the Journal Citation Reports database were calculated using citation data from the Scopus database. The journals were then ranked by their Scopus impact factor and compared to the ranked lists of the same journals derived from Journal…

  15. To open or to close: species-specific stomatal responses to simultaneously applied opposing environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Merilo, Ebe; Jõesaar, Indrek; Brosché, Mikael; Kollist, Hannes

    2014-04-01

    Plant stomatal responses to single environmental factors are well studied; however, responses to a change in two (or more) factors - a common situation in nature - have been less frequently addressed. We studied the stomatal responses to a simultaneous application of opposing environmental factors in six evolutionarily distant mono- and dicotyledonous herbs representing different life strategies (ruderals, competitors and stress-tolerators) to clarify whether the crosstalk between opening- and closure-inducing pathways leading to stomatal response is universal or species-specific. Custom-made gas exchange devices were used to study the stomatal responses to a simultaneous application of two opposing factors: decreased/increased CO2 concentration and light availability or reduced air humidity. The studied species responded similarly to changes in single environmental factors, but showed species-specific and nonadditive responses to two simultaneously applied opposing factors. The stomata of the ruderals Arabidopsis thaliana and Thellungiella salsuginea (previously Thellungiella halophila) always opened, whereas those of competitor-ruderals either closed in all two-factor combinations (Triticum aestivum), remained relatively unchanged (Nicotiana tabacum) or showed a response dominated by reduced air humidity (Hordeum vulgare). Our results, indicating that in changing environmental conditions species-specific stomatal responses are evident that cannot be predicted from studying one factor at a time, might be interesting for stomatal modellers, too.

  16. The Role of Environmental Factors in Beginning Teachers' Professional Learning Related to Differentiated Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Neve, Debbie; Devos, Geert

    2016-01-01

    Little research has investigated factors that facilitate beginning teachers' participation in professional learning activities related to differentiated instruction (DI). This study examines environmental factors for DI learning activities in a sample of 272 beginning teachers from 72 primary schools. Multilevel analyses show that teacher…

  17. Intrinsic Motivation and Environmental Factors Affecting Research of Social Work Faculty on Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Janice G.; Short, Glenda F. Lester

    2010-01-01

    Within the context of Self-determination Theory, this research identifies intrinsic motivation and environmental factors that support social-work-faculty research in aging. Intrinsic factors include faculty's interest in gerontology as a field of practice, the desire to advance knowledge in the field of gerontology, including producing…

  18. Genetic and environmental factors in conjunctival UV autofluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Yazar, Seyhan; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; McKnight, Charlotte M; Quach-Thanissorn, Piriya; Mountain, Jenny A; Coroneo, Minas T; Pennell, Craig E; Hewitt, Alex W; MacGregor, Stuart; Mackey, David A

    2016-01-01

    8. Gene-based analysis did not improve our power to detect association with other genes. Conclusion Our findings confirm that while there is a large environmental component to CUVAF (= sun exposure), genes also play a significant role. We identified a SNP (rs1060043) as being significantly associated with CUVAF; replication of this finding in future studies is warranted. PMID:25590795

  19. [CCA of water beetles' distribution and environmental factors in lentic samples of north Changbai Mountain].

    PubMed

    We, Yulian; Ji, Lanzhu; Wang, Miao; Zhao, Min

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between 28 species water beetles in 12 lentic samples and environmental factors of North Chang-bai Mountain was studied by Cononical Correspondence Analysis (CCA). The results showed that degree of underwater humus and altitude are the major factors correlated with beetles distribution, and the correlation coefficients of environmental factors and axes of CCA were 0.8371 and 0.7206 respectively, while water temperature and plant density also had certain effects. Under the influence of environmental factors, the water beetles' populations were different in different habitat. Coelambus impressopunctatus, Colymbetes magnus, Helophorus browni, Haliplus spp. distributed in deep water pool. Water temperature was not important for those beetles. Ilybius sp. and Limnebius glabriventris correlated with altitude and humus.

  20. [Discuss on effect of physical environmental factors on nature of Chinese materia medica].

    PubMed

    Tang, Shihuan; Yang, Hongjun; Huang, Luqi

    2010-01-01

    Nature of Chinese materia medica is the nucleus in the theory of Chinese material medica, according to the recognition of Traditional Chinese Medicine, which is the character of the drug related on curative effect. Nature and efficacy of a drug is through the medical material, then, physical environment, including the temperature, humidity, atmospheric water, wind, topography, soil, micro-organism, and so on, influence the growth and development of the medical meterial. In this paper, we researched the explanation on nature of Chinese materia medica in the medical books of past dynasties, combined with the modem research, analyzed the relationship between generative reception and physical environmental factors, and discussed the effect of physical environmental factors on nature of Chinese materia medica. We indicated that the formation of Chinese materia medical nature is that the drug receptive the change of physical environmental factors, and resulted by the synthetic action of the factors, such as climate, soil, biology, topography, etc.

  1. Personal and social factors that influence pro-environmental concern and behaviour: a review.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Robert; Nilsson, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    We review the personal and social influences on pro-environmental concern and behaviour, with an emphasis on recent research. The number of these influences suggests that understanding pro-environmental concern and behaviour is far more complex than previously thought. The influences are grouped into 18 personal and social factors. The personal factors include childhood experience, knowledge and education, personality and self-construal, sense of control, values, political and world views, goals, felt responsibility, cognitive biases, place attachment, age, gender and chosen activities. The social factors include religion, urban-rural differences, norms, social class, proximity to problematic environmental sites and cultural and ethnic variations We also recognize that pro-environmental behaviour often is undertaken based on none of the above influences, but because individuals have non-environmental goals such as to save money or to improve their health. Finally, environmental outcomes that are a result of these influences undoubtedly are determined by combinations of the 18 categories. Therefore, a primary goal of researchers now should be to learn more about how these many influences moderate and mediate one another to determine pro-environmental behaviour.

  2. Oligodendrogenesis and myelinogenesis during postnatal development effect of glatiramer acetate.

    PubMed

    From, Renana; Eilam, Raya; Bar-Lev, Dekel D; Levin-Zaidman, Smadar; Tsoory, Michael; LoPresti, Patrizia; Sela, Michael; Arnon, Ruth; Aharoni, Rina

    2014-04-01

    Myelinogenesis in the mammal nervous system occurs predominantly postnatally. Glatiramer acetate (GA), a drug for the treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS), has been shown to induce immunomodulation and neuroprotection in the inflamed CNS in MS and in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Here we investigated whether GA can affect myelinogenesis and oligodendrogenesis in the developing nervous system under nonpathological conditions. Towards this end we studied myelination in mice injected daily by GA, at postnatal Days 7-21. Immunohistological and ultrastructural analyses revealed significant elevation in the number of myelinated axons as well as in the thickness of the myelin encircling them and their resulting g-ratios, in spinal cords of GA-injected mice compared with their PBS-injected littermates, at postnatal Day 14. Elevation in myelinated axons was detected also in the peripheral ventral roots of the motor nerves. GA induced also an increase in axonal diameter, implying an effect on the overall development of the nervous system. A prominent elevation in the amount of progenitor oligodendrocytes and their BrdU incorporation, as well as in mature oligodendrocytes indicated that the effect of GA is linked to increased proliferation and differentiation along the oligodendroglial maturation cascade. In addition, elevation in insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was found in the white matter of the GA-injected mice. Furthermore, a functional advantage in rotating rod test was exhibited by GA-injected mice over their littermates at postnatal Day 21. These cumulative findings corroborate the beneficial effect of GA on oligodendrogenesis and myelination.

  3. Cholinergic circuit control of postnatal neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Asrican, Brent; Paez-Gonzalez, Patricia; Erb, Joshua; Kuo, Chay T.

    2016-01-01

    abstract New neuron addition via continued neurogenesis in the postnatal/adult mammalian brain presents a distinct form of nervous system plasticity. During embryonic development, precise temporal and spatial patterns of neurogenesis are necessary to create the nervous system architecture. Similar between embryonic and postnatal stages, neurogenic proliferation is regulated by neural stem cell (NSC)-intrinsic mechanisms layered upon cues from their local microenvironmental niche. Following developmental assembly, it remains relatively unclear what may be the key driving forces that sustain continued production of neurons in the postnatal/adult brain. Recent experimental evidence suggests that patterned activity from specific neural circuits can also directly govern postnatal/adult neurogenesis. Here, we review experimental findings that revealed cholinergic modulation, and how patterns of neuronal activity and acetylcholine release may differentially or synergistically activate downstream signaling in NSCs. Higher-order excitatory and inhibitory inputs regulating cholinergic neuron firing, and their implications in neurogenesis control are also considered. PMID:27468423

  4. [Relationships between characteristics of ground bryophyte communities and environmental factors in urban area of Chongqing, China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Pi, Chun-yan; Tian, Shang

    2015-10-01

    The present study focused on bryophyte species composition, species diversity and the relationship between bryophyte communities and environmental factors in urban area of Chongqing City, by using biodiversity indices and the canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), based on the data of 44 plots. The results revealed that 86 species belonging to 43 genera and 25 families were found in saxicolous bryophyte communities, while 46 species belonging to 28 genera and 22 families were found in terricolous ones. The diversity indices of both saxicolous and terricolous bryophyte communities from campuses were higher than those of parks, natural scenic resorts, Jinyunshan National Nature Reserve. TWINSPAN classified saxicolous and terricolous bryophyte communities into three and two groups, respectively. CCA results showed canopy density was the major environmental factor of saxicolous bryophyte communities influencing bryophyte distribution in parks and campuses, whereas altitude, relative humidity and human disturbance were the major environmental factors in natural scenic resorts and nature reserve. Soil pH, canopy density and human disturbance were the major environmental factors in terricolous bryophyte communities in parks and campuses, whereas altitude, relative humidity and water content of the soil were the major environmental factors in those of natural scenic resorts and nature reserve.

  5. A questionnaire-based study on the role of environmental factors in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Ritesh; Devi, Durga; Gupta, Dheeraj; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is an immunological disorder caused by hypersensitivity against Aspergillus fumigatus. The pathogenesis of ABPA remains unknown. Few studies have investigated the role of environmental factors in pathogenesis of ABPA. Herein, we investigate the role of environmental factors in ABPA. Materials and Methods: In this prospective case-control study, consecutive patients with asthma (Aspergillus sensitized and unsensitized) and ABPA were investigated using a standardized questionnaire to enquire into their demographic characteristics, clinical details, exposure to organic matter and living conditions (home environment, presence of moisture in the walls, and others). Asthma severity and control was assessed using the 2002 The Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) recommendations and asthma control test, respectively. Results: During the study period, 202 subjects of asthma (103 and 99 Aspergillus unsensitized and sensitized asthma, respectively) and 101 ABPA with a mean (SD) age of 35.3 (14.7) years were included. The baseline characteristics were similar in the two groups except for a higher prevalence of severe persistent asthma in the ABPA group (79% vs. 44%, P = 0.0001). No significant differences in environmental factors were noted in the ABPA population compared to asthmatic patients except for a higher rural residence in ABPA (47% vs. 66%, P = 0.007). Conclusions: The study found no significant environmental differences in ABPA compared to asthmatic patients. It is likely that environmental factors are not the primary pathogenetic factors in causation of ABPA. PMID:25125809

  6. Shift-work disorder and sleep-related environmental factors in the manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Taniyama, Yukari; Nakamura, Arisa; Yamauchi, Takenori; Takeuchi, Shouhei; Kuroda, Yoshiki

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between shift-work disorder (SWD) and environmental and somatic factors related to falling asleep among rapidly rotating shift workers in a manufacturing industry.A total of 556 male workers were recruited to complete a self-administered questionnaire regarding age, shift work experience, lifestyle, and family structure; the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS); the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI); and the Horne and Ostberg questionnaire, a questionnaire for environmental and somatic factors related to falling asleep. We classified workers according to having SWD or not, and compared workers with SWD with those without this disorder in terms of all items covered in the aforementioned questionnaires. A total of 208 workers (62.8%) working rapidly rotating shifts were diagnosed with SWD. The ESS and PSQI scores and scores for environmental and somatic factors were significantly higher in workers with SWD than in those without this disorder. The ESS scores and scores for environmental and somatic factors were also associated with SWD in the logistic regression analyses. We suggest that susceptibility to SWD in the manufacturing industry may be associated with environmental and somatic factors related to falling asleep.

  7. Literature on the aetiology of hypospadias in the last 5 years: molecular mechanism and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Q; Qu, W Y; Yang, L; Wang, K; Tu, H Y; Wang, J

    2014-08-01

    Year-by-year, there has been an increasing number of literature on hypospadias, and most of them are mainly focused on two aspects, namely surgical techniques and aetiology, including the molecular mechanism and associated environmental factors. Surgical techniques and nursing levels are being continuously improved. However, in stark contrast, the study of aetiology still lags behind. Up to now, there is still no consensus on the aetiology of hypospadias, including the molecular mechanism and associated environmental factors. To obtain an overall and latest result on the aetiology, we reviewed published literature regarding the aetiology of hypospadias including the molecular mechanism and associated environmental factors in PubMed in the last 5 years. Thirty-seven studies on the aetiology of hypospadias including molecular mechanism and associated environmental factors were found, of which 25 were about associated environmental factors, and they were described according to the aspects of chemicals, parental characteristics, nutrition and hormones. The remaining studies were about the hormone-dependent phase of molecular mechanism, namely androgen-related genes and oestrogen-related genes. Furthermore, the various points of view were classified and discussed in detail.

  8. Life on the boundary: Environmental factors as drivers of habitat distribution in the littoral zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cefalì, Maria Elena; Cebrian, Emma; Chappuis, Eglantine; Pinedo, Susana; Terradas, Marc; Mariani, Simone; Ballesteros, Enric

    2016-04-01

    The boundary between land and sea, i.e. the littoral zone, is home to a large number of habitats whose distribution is primarily driven by the distance to the sea level but also by other environmental factors such as littoral's geomorphological features, wave exposure, water temperature or orientation. Here we explore the relative importance of those major environmental factors that drive the presence of littoral rocky habitats along 1100 Km of Catalonia's shoreline (Spain, NW Mediterranean) by using Geographic Information Systems and Generalized Linear Models. The distribution of mediolittoral and upper infralittoral habitats responded to different environmental factors. Mediolittoral habitats showed regional differences drawn by sea-water temperature and substrate type. Wave exposure (hydrodynamism), slope and geological features were only relevant to those mediolittoral habitats with specific environmental needs. We did not find any regional pattern of distribution in upper infralittoral habitats, and selected factors only played a moderate role in habitat distribution at the local scale. This study shows for the first time that environmental factors determining habitat distribution differ within the mediolittoral and the upper infralittoral zones and provides the basis for further development of models oriented at predicting the distribution of littoral marine habitats.

  9. Environmental and nutritional factors affecting geosmin synthesis by Anabaena sp.

    PubMed

    Saadoun, I M; Schrader, K K; Blevins, W T

    2001-04-01

    A cyanobacterium isolated from a source-water reservoir during a spring odor and taste episode and identified as Anabaena sp. consistently produced geosmin during laboratory culture on modified BG-11 liquid medium. Maximal geosmin/biomass occurred at 20 degrees C and a light intensity of 17 microE/m2/s; geosmin/chla values directly correlated with increasing light intensity (r2 = 0.95, P < 0.01). It was concluded that at 20 degrees C, increasing light intensity favors less chla synthesis and higher geosmin synthesis; at 17 microE/m2/s, increasing temperature stimulates chla production (to 25 degrees C) while repressing geosmin synthesis (above 20 degrees C). Nutritional factors promoting biomass, chla, and geosmin synthesis by Anabaena sp. were also investigated. For cultures grown at 17 microE/m2/s and 20 degrees C for 20 days, both ammonium-N and nitrate-N generally enhanced the growth of Anabaena sp. Nitrate-N promoted more chla production (r2 = 0.99) than ammonium-N. Geosmin synthesis was directly correlated with ammonium-N concentrations (r2 = 0.89), with low nitrate-N (123.5 micrograms/l) favoring maximal geosmin production (2.8 micrograms/l). Increasing nitrate-N concentrations promoted a three-fold increase in chla content with geosmin synthesis decreased by two-fold. Geosmin/mg biomass was directly related to ammonium-N concentration; high nitrate-N levels suppressed geosmin production. No geosmin was detected at or below 118 micrograms phosphate-phosphorus/l. Geosmin, dry weight biomass, and chla production were correlated with increasing phosphorus (P) concentration (r2 = 0.76, 0.96 and 0.98, respectively). No geosmin was detected when copper was present in growth media at or above 6.92 micrograms Cu2+/l (CuSO4.5H2O). Dry weight biomass and chla production were negatively correlated with Cu2+ ion concentrations.

  10. Individual and Environmental Factors Influencing Adolescents’ Dietary Behavior in Low- and Middle-Income Settings

    PubMed Central

    Verstraeten, Roosmarijn; Leroy, Jef L.; Pieniak, Zuzanna; Ochoa-Avilès, Angélica; Holdsworth, Michelle; Verbeke, Wim; Maes, Lea; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Objective Given the public health importance of improving dietary behavior in chronic disease prevention in low- and middle-income countries it is crucial to understand the factors influencing dietary behavior in these settings. This study tested the validity of a conceptual framework linking individual and environmental factors to dietary behavior among Ecuadorian adolescents aged 10–16 years. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 784 school-going Ecuadorian adolescents in urban and rural Southern Ecuador. Participants provided data on socio-economic status, anthropometry, dietary behavior and its determining factors. The relationships between individual (perceived benefits and barriers, self-efficacy, habit strength, and a better understanding of healthy food) and environmental factors (physical environment: accessibility to healthy food; social environment: parental permissiveness and school support), and their association with key components of dietary behavior (fruit and vegetables, sugary drinks, breakfast, and unhealthy snack intake) were assessed using structural equation modeling. Results The conceptual model performed well for each component of eating behavior, indicating acceptable goodness-of-fit for both the measurement and structural models. Models for vegetable intake and unhealthy snacking showed significant and direct effects of individual factors (perceived benefits). For breakfast and sugary drink consumption, there was a direct and positive association with socio-environmental factors (school support and parental permissiveness). Access to healthy food was associated indirectly with all eating behaviors (except for sugary drink intake) and this effect operated through socio-environmental (parental permissiveness and school support) and individual factors (perceived benefits). Conclusion Our study demonstrated that key components of adolescents’ dietary behaviors are influenced by a complex interplay of individual and

  11. Effects of environmental factors on genetic diversity of Caragana microphylla in Horqin Sandy Land, northeast China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenda; Zhao, Xueyong; Zhao, Xin; Li, Yulin; Lian, Jie

    2016-11-01

    Caragana microphylla (Leguminosae) is a dominant climax semishrub species in northern China. We evaluated genetic variation within and among populations sampled from three different environmental gradients in Horqin Sandy Land in northern China using intersimple sequence repeats markers and investigated the possible existence of relationships between genetic diversity and environmental factors. The results showed that C. microphylla have high genetic diversity, and environmental gradients affected genetic diversity of C. microphylla populations. Genetic diversity of all populations was affected by many environmental factors and as well correlated with warm index and soil Olsen phosphorus (SOP) concentration. These results have important implications for restoration and management of these degraded ecosystems in arid and semi-arid areas.

  12. Human factors in environmental management: New directions from the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, J.A.; Savage, S.F.

    1992-10-01

    Environmental management is the general term given to modern attempts to seek technological solutions to certain constrained environmental problems. it involves developing and applying new technologies that respond to changes in environmental policy. It does not eliminate the need for environmental ethics'' in society. Nor does it substitute for the fundamental changes in political and social structures that are needed for dealing with large-scale environmental issues. The scope of these issues can be illustrated by looking at the Hanford Site. Since 1943, the 560-square-mile Hanford Site in southeastern Washington state has been the production source of much of the nuclear weapons-grade radioactive materials for the United States. The legacy of 50 years of producing fissile materials has been an environmental cleanup problem of impressive proportions. In 1989, with the Cold War winding down, Secretary of Energy James Watkins established a new vision for Hanford as the flagship for waste management research.'' As plans and preparations for cleanup work proceed at the Hanford Site and around the world, the need for well-orchestrated environmental management methodologies has become increasingly apparent. In 1990, a Human Factors Engineering Group was established in the Technology Planning and Analysis Center at PNL to provide appropriate support for the Laboratory's research efforts. At an ever-increasing rate, these research efforts require integrating human performance into complex environmental technology systems. The endeavor of responding to the Laboratory's research needs has provided innovative opportunities for the application of the concept of Human Factors. Discussed are some of the major applications of Human Factors to environmental management.

  13. Analysis of Environmental Stress Factors Using an Artificial Growth System and Plant Fitness Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Meonghun; Yoe, Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The environment promotes evolution. Evolutionary processes represent environmental adaptations over long time scales; evolution of crop genomes is not inducible within the relatively short time span of a human generation. Extreme environmental conditions can accelerate evolution, but such conditions are often stress inducing and disruptive. Artificial growth systems can be used to induce and select genomic variation by changing external environmental conditions, thus, accelerating evolution. By using cloud computing and big-data analysis, we analyzed environmental stress factors for Pleurotus ostreatus by assessing, evaluating, and predicting information of the growth environment. Through the indexing of environmental stress, the growth environment can be precisely controlled and developed into a technology for improving crop quality and production. PMID:25874206

  14. Indigenous health and environmental risk factors: an Australian problem with global analogues?

    PubMed

    Knibbs, Luke D; Sly, Peter D

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous people experience poorer health than non-Indigenous people, and this well-described inequality has been observed in many countries. The contribution of different risk factors to the health 'gap' has understandably focussed on those factors for which there are sufficient data. However, this has precluded environmental risk factors - those present in air, water, food, and soil - due to a lack of data describing exposures and outcomes. These risk factors are demonstrably important at the global scale, as highlighted by the 2010 Global Burden of Disease study. Here, we describe how a greater focus on environmental risk factors is required in order to define their role in the Indigenous health gap. We use the Australian context as a case study of an issue we feel has global analogues and relevance. Suggestions for how and why this situation should be remedied are presented and discussed.

  15. REGENT: a risk assessment and classification algorithm for genetic and environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Crouch, Daniel JM; Goddard, Graham HM; Lewis, Cathryn M

    2013-01-01

    The identification of environmental and genetic factors that contribute to disease risk requires appropriate statistical methods and software that can integrate different sources of risk, provide statistical assessment of combined risk factors, and facilitate interpretation of this risk. We have developed an R package, REGENT, to calculate risks conferred by genetic factors and multilevel environmental factors. This is performed at a population level, with the option to also analyse individual-level data. REGENT incorporates variability in risk factors to calculate confidence intervals for risk estimates and to classify the population into different categories of risk based on significant differences from the baseline average member of the population. REGENT is an R package available from CRAN: http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/REGENT. It will be of value to genetic researchers exploring the utility of the variants detected for their disorder, and to clinical researchers interested in genetic risk studies. PMID:22669417

  16. Indigenous health and environmental risk factors: an Australian problem with global analogues?

    PubMed Central

    Knibbs, Luke D.; Sly, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous people experience poorer health than non-Indigenous people, and this well-described inequality has been observed in many countries. The contribution of different risk factors to the health ‘gap’ has understandably focussed on those factors for which there are sufficient data. However, this has precluded environmental risk factors – those present in air, water, food, and soil – due to a lack of data describing exposures and outcomes. These risk factors are demonstrably important at the global scale, as highlighted by the 2010 Global Burden of Disease study. Here, we describe how a greater focus on environmental risk factors is required in order to define their role in the Indigenous health gap. We use the Australian context as a case study of an issue we feel has global analogues and relevance. Suggestions for how and why this situation should be remedied are presented and discussed. PMID:24802385

  17. Critical Environmental Factors for Transportation Cycling in Children: A Qualitative Study Using Bike-Along Interviews

    PubMed Central

    Ghekiere, Ariane; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; de Geus, Bas; Clarys, Peter; Cardon, Greet; Salmon, Jo; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte

    2014-01-01

    Background Environmental factors are found to influence transport-related physical activity, but have rarely been studied in relation with cycling for transport to various destinations in 10–12 yr old children. The current qualitative study used ‘bike-along interviews’ with children and parents to allow discussion of detailed environmental factors that may influence children's cycling for transport, while cycling in the participant's neighborhood. Methods Purposeful convenience sampling was used to recruit 35 children and one of their parents residing in (semi-) urban areas. Bike-along interviews were conducted to and from a randomly chosen destination (e.g. library) within a 15 minutes' cycle trip in the participant's neighborhood. Participants wore a GoPro camera to objectively assess environmental elements, which were subsequently discussed with participants. Content analysis and arising themes were derived using a grounded theory approach. Results The discussed environmental factors were categorized under traffic, urban design, cycling facilities, road design, facilities at destination, aesthetics, topography, weather, social control, stranger danger and familiar environment. Across these categories many environmental factors were (in)directly linked to road safety. This was illustrated by detailed discussions of the children's visibility, familiarity with specific traffic situations, and degree of separation, width and legibility of cycle facilities. Conclusion Road safety is of major concern in this 10–12 yr old study population. Bike-along interviews were able to identify new, detailed and context-specific physical environmental factors which could inform policy makers to promote children's cycling for transport. However, future studies should investigate whether hypothetical changes to such micro environmental features influence perceptions of safety and if this in turn could lead to changes in children's cycling for transport. PMID:25250738

  18. [Effects of environmental factors on litter decomposition in arid and semi-arid regions: A review].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Yuan; Zhao, Xue-Yong; Li, Yu-Lin; Lian, Jie; Qu, Hao; Yue, Xiang-Fei

    2013-11-01

    Litter decomposition is one of the important biochemical processes in arid and semi-arid regions, and a key component of regional nutrient turnover and carbon cycling, which is mainly affected by climate, litter quality, and decomposer community. In order to deeply understand the relationships between litter decomposition and environmental factors in arid and semi-arid regions, this paper summarized the research progress in the effects of abiotic factors (soil temperature, precipitation, and ultraviolet-B radiation) and biotic factors (litter quality, soil microbial and animal composition and community structure) on the litter decomposition in these regions. Among the factors, precipitation and ultraviolet-B radiation are considered to be the main limiting factors of litter decomposition. In arid and semi-arid regions, precipitation can significantly increase the litter decomposition rate in a short term, while the photo-degradation induced by ultraviolet-B radiation, due to the strong and long-term radiation, can increase the decomposition rate of terrestrial litter. Litter quality, soil microbial and animal composition and community structure are mainly affected by the type of ecosystems in a long term. However, the affecting mechanisms of these environmental factors on litter decomposition are still not very clear. It was suggested that the future litter ecological research should be paid more attention to the interaction of environmental factors under climate change, the variations of litter decomposition at different spatial scales, and the establishment of litter decomposition models in relation to the synergistic interactions of multiple factors.

  19. Association between adolescent tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use and individual and environmental resilience protective factors

    PubMed Central

    Hodder, Rebecca Kate; Freund, Megan; Bowman, Jenny; Gillham, Karen; Dray, Julia; Wiggers, John

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Research suggests that individual and environmental resilience protective factors may be associated with adolescent substance use; however, the associations between a broad range of such factors and use of various types of substances have not been examined. The study aimed to determine the association between a comprehensive range of adolescent individual and environmental resilience protective factors and measures of tobacco, alcohol and illicit substance use. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting 32 Australian secondary schools. Participants Grade 7–10 students (aged 11–17 years). Measures Data regarding 14 student individual and environmental resilience protective factors and seven substance use measures (tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, other illicit drug use) were obtained via an online self-report survey. Adjusted multivariate logistic regression analyses examined the association between all student resilience protective factors and seven substance use measures. Results Inverse univariate associations were found for 94 of 98 relationships examined (n=10 092). Multivariate analyses found: consistent inverse associations between 2 of 14 protective factors and all substance use measures (‘goals and aspirations’, ‘prosocial peers’); inverse associations between 4 protective factors with multiple substance use measures (‘home support’ (5 of 7), ‘school support’ (3 of 7), ‘self-awareness’ (2 of 7), ‘community meaningful participation’ (2 of 7)); positive associations between 2 resilience protective factors with multiple measures of substance use (‘community support’ (3 of 7), ‘peer caring relationships’ (5 of 7)) and 6 protective factors not to be associated with any substance use measure. Conclusions Despite individual relationships between the majority of resilience protective factors and substance use types, the protective benefit of such factors for adolescent substance use was limited to only a small number of

  20. Occupational and environmental exposures as risk factors for systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Glinda S; Parks, Christine G

    2004-10-01

    Although genetic susceptibility plays a strong role in the etiology of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), recent research has provided new evidence of the potential influence of environmental factors in the risk for this disease. This paper describes epidemiologic and experimental research pertaining to occupational and environmental sources of exposure to respirable crystalline silica, solvents and pesticides, and two "lifestyle" factors (smoking and hair dye use). As has been seen with other systemic autoimmune diseases (eg, systemic sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis), a series of epidemiologic studies, using different designs in different settings, have demonstrated relatively strong and consistent associations between occupational silica exposure and SLE. The type and quality of exposure assessment is an important consideration in evaluating these studies. Recent experimental studies examined the effect of trichloroethylene exposure in MRL+/+ mice, but to date there have been few epidemiologic studies of solvents and SLE. There are numerous avenues with respect to environmental factors in SLE that need additional research.

  1. The demographic evolution of human populations: the role of selection and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Demetrius, L

    1989-08-01

    Selection (genetic and cultural) and environmental variation are the principal mechanisms determining patterns of demographic change in human populations. Conditions exist under which the nature and intensity of these forces can be inferred from temporal trends in the demographic variables. These conditions, which can be expressed in terms of relations between the Malthusian parameter and population entropy, provide a means for evaluating the effect of selective and nonselective factors on demographic trends in human populations. The distinction between the roles of selection and environmental factors is illustrated by a study of the demographic transition in Sweden (1778-1965). This study shows that demographic changes during the pre- and posttransitional phases are determined mainly by environmental factors, whereas the changes during the transitional phase are mainly due to cultural selection. This analysis provides, for all three phases of the demographic transition, quantitative measures of the intensity of the forces (selective and nonselective) acting on both mortality and fecundity distributions.

  2. Environmental factors: opportunities and barriers for physical activity, and healthy eating among children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Huybrechts, I; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; De Henauw, S

    2010-01-01

    While genetic factors play a role in the development of obesity, the dramatic increase of its prevalence in the past years strongly suggests that environmental factors are largely responsible. The wealth and variety of food supply available 24h/day and throughout the year, the change in dietary habits due to time constraints and the change in physical activity due to technological advances all create a 'toxic' environment responsible for obesity and eating habit disorders. This manuscript describes and discusses the results of a systematic review of environmental opportunities & obstacles for physical activity and dietary intake influencing the obesity epidemic among children and adolescents. Although evidence clearly shows the impact of the environment on obesity related lifestyle factors, evidence for effective strategies combating this obesogenic environment is very scarce. Interventions aiming to change environmental factors in order to reduce obesity may include taxes/subsidies encouraging healthy eating or physical activity, extra provision of sporting facilities, efforts to improve safety and accessibility of walking, cycling or play areas or attempting to influence social meanings/values attached to weight, food or physical activity. It is clear that some level of institutionalization of systems that support the desired changes is required to sustain environmental and social changes in the long-term. At last, it is important to note that better-designed and -conducted research on the true importance of the interaction between environmental factors and psychosocial factors, including the micro- and the macro-level, for obesogenic behavioral change is needed to reassure the success of large-scale environmental change interventions.

  3. Impacts of meteorological and environmental factors on allergic rhinitis in children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shan; Mou, Zhe; Peng, Li; Chen, Jie

    2016-10-01

    Meteorological and environmental factors influence the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis (AR). An understanding of the risk factors will facilitate the development of diagnostic and preventative tools for AR children and improve their quality of life. However, research on the impact of these factors on subjective symptoms in AR children remains scarce. This study explored the relationships between subjective symptoms in pollen and dust mite positive AR children, and meteorological and environmental factors. Using a linear mixed effect model, we analyzed the correlations between monthly data on the subjective symptoms of 351 AR children (from the Shanghai Children's Medical Center) and meteorological and environmental factors during 2013. The monthly meteorological and environmental data were provided by the Shanghai Meteorological Service and Shanghai Environmental Protection Bureau. Temperature and humidity were negatively correlated with the subjective symptom score, with a 0.04 point increase observed for every 1 °C decrease in temperature (P < 0.0001) or 10 % decline in humidity (P = 0.0412). The particulate matter (PM) 10 and PM2.5 concentrations were positively correlated with the subjective symptom score, with a 10 μg/m3 increase in PM10 and PM2.5 yielding a 0.02 (P = 0.0235) and 0.03 (P = 0.0281) increase in the subjective symptom score, respectively. In conclusion, meteorological and environmental factors were correlated with subjective symptoms in AR children. Low temperatures, lower humidity, and high PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations aggravated subjective symptoms in AR children.

  4. Involvement of {gamma}-secretase in postnatal angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Hiroki; Nakagami, Hironori Takami, Yoichi; Sato, Naoyuki; Saito, Yukihiro; Nishikawa, Tomoyuki; Mori, Masaki; Koriyama, Hiroshi; Tamai, Katsuto; Morishita, Ryuichi; Kaneda, Yasufumi

    2007-11-23

    {gamma}-Secretase cleaves the transmembrane domains of several integral membrane proteins involved in vasculogenesis. Here, we investigated the role of {gamma}-secretase in the regulation of postnatal angiogenesis using {gamma}-secretase inhibitors (GSI). In endothelial cell (EC), {gamma}-secretase activity was up-regulated under hypoxia or the treatment of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The treatment of GSI significantly attenuated growth factor-induced EC proliferation and migration as well as c-fos promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner. In vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC), treatment of GSI significantly attenuated growth factor-induced VEGF and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) expression. Indeed, GSI attenuated VEGF-induced tube formation and inhibited FGF-2-induced angiogenesis on matrigel in mice as quantified by FITC-lectin staining of EC. Overall, we demonstrated that {gamma}-secretase may be key molecule in postnatal angiogenesis which may be downstream molecule of growth factor-induced growth and migration in EC, and regulate the expression of angiogenic growth factors in VSMC.

  5. The Prevalence of Specific Ecologies in Marine Organisms with Relation to Environmental Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothari, S.; Gao, Y.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2015-12-01

    The environment is constantly changing; in recent times, the issue of global warming in particular has raised concerns about ecosystems. Marine organisms are just one type of organism affected by environmental changes; by studying how changes in the environment in the past have affected evolution, we can make predictions for the future. Drastic environmental changes have occurred since the beginning of the Cambrian (541 Ma), as have changes in the ecologies of different phyla and marine organisms as a whole. Organisms must adapt to changing environments, and by analyzing the correlations between the two variables, we can find out which environmental factors play roles in the prevalences of characteristics in populations. Distinctive patterns in the originations and extinctions of ecologies in large fractions of a population and the changes in environmental conditions are visible through careful analysis. We have found, through correlation tests between factors, that statistically significant correlations (p-values < 5%) do exist between certain ecologies (including motility, feeding habits, and tiering) and environmental factors. In particular, these include changes in sea level and carbon dioxide levels, two of the biggest effects of global warming that is currently occurring. Research into these factors is important for our understanding of the changing world of today.

  6. Ecology of cultivable yeasts in pristine forests in northern Patagonia (Argentina) influenced by different environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Mestre, María Cecilia; Fontenla, Sonia; Rosa, Carlos A

    2014-06-01

    Environmental factors influencing the occurrence and community structure of soil yeasts in forests are not well studied. There are few studies dedicated to Southern Hemisphere soil yeasts populations and even fewer focused on temperate forests influenced by volcanic activity. The present work aimed to study the ecology of soil yeast communities from pristine forests influenced by different environmental factors (precipitation, physicochemical properties of soil, tree species, soil region, and season). The survey was performed in 4 northern Patagonian forests: 2 dominated by Nothofagus pumilio and 2 by Nothofagus antarctica. Yeast communities were described with ecological indices and species accumulation curves, and their association with environmental characteristics was assessed using multivariate analysis. Each forest site showed a particular arrangement of species as a result of environmental characteristics, such as dominant plant species, nutrient availability, and climatic characteristics. Cryptococcus podzolicus was most frequently isolated in nutrient-rich soils, Trichosporon porosum dominated cold mountain forests with low nutrient and water availability in soil, and capsulated yeasts such as Cryptococcus phenolicus dominated forest sites with low precipitation. The present work suggests that environmental factors affecting yeast communities may not be the current soil characteristics but the result of complex interactions of factors including natural disturbances like volcanic activity.

  7. Effects of Ambient Environmental Factors on the Stereotypic Behaviors of Giant Pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, He; Duan, Hejun; Wang, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Stereotypies are commonly observed in zoo animals, and it is necessary to better understand whether ambient environmental factors contribute to stereotypy and how to affect animal welfare in zoo settings. This study investigated the relationships between stereotypic behaviors and environmental factors including ambient temperatures, humidity, light intensity, sound intensity and number of visitors. Seven giant pandas were observed in three indoor enclosures and three outdoor enclosures. Environmental factors were measured for both indoor and outdoor enclosures and the effect they had on stereotypical behaviors was investigated. Our research found that light intensity significantly correlated with all stereotypies behaviors. Higher environmental temperature reduced the duration of pacing but increased the frequency of pacing, the duration and frequency of door-directed, meanwhile the duration of head-toss. However, we found no noticeable effect of humidity on stereotypic behaviors except for the frequency of head-toss. We also found that sound intensity was not correlated with stereotypies. Finally, the growth of visitors was negatively associated with the duration of door-directed. These results demonstrated that various environmental factors can have significant effects on stereotypic behaviors causing the expression of various stereotypies. Thus, stereotypies in zoo animals may not simply represent suboptimal welfare, but rather might be adopted as a means of coping with an aversive environment. PMID:28107477

  8. Loss of Runx2 in committed osteoblasts impairs postnatal skeletogenesis.

    PubMed

    Adhami, Mitra D; Rashid, Harunur; Chen, Haiyan; Clarke, John C; Yang, Yang; Javed, Amjad

    2015-01-01

    The Runx2 transcription factor is critical for commitment to the osteoblast lineage. However, its role in committed osteoblasts and its functions during postnatal skeletogenesis remain unclear. We established a Runx2-floxed line with insertion of loxP sites around exon 8 of the Runx2 gene. The Runx2 protein lacking the region encoded by exon 8 is imported into the nucleus and binds target DNA but exhibits diminished transcriptional activity. We specifically deleted the Runx2 gene in committed osteoblasts using 2.3-kb col1a-Cre transgenic mice. Surprisingly, the homozygous Runx2 mutant mice were born alive. The Runx2 heterozygous and homozygous null were grossly indistinguishable from wild-type littermates at birth. Runx2 deficiency did not alter proliferative capacity of osteoblasts during embryonic development (E18). Chondrocyte differentiation and cartilage growth in mutants was similar to wild-type mice from birth to 3 months of age. Analysis of the embryonic skeleton revealed poor calcification in homozygous mutants, which was more evident in bones formed by intramembranous ossification. Runx2 mutants showed progressive retardation in postnatal growth and exhibited significantly low bone mass by 1 month of age. Decreased bone formation was associated with decreased gene expression of osteoblast markers and impaired collagen assembly in the extracellular matrix. Consequently, Runx2 mutant bones exhibited decreased stiffness and structural integrity. By 3 months of age, bone acquisition in mutant mice was roughly half that of wild-type littermates. In addition to impaired osteoblast function, mutant mice showed markedly decreased osteoclast number and postnatal bone resorption. Taken together, functional deficiency of Runx2 in osteoblasts does not result in failed embryonic skeletogenesis but disrupts postnatal bone formation.

  9. NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holubec, Keith; Connolly, Janis

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the history, and development of NASA-STD-3001, NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health, and the related Human Integration Design Handbook. Currently being developed from NASA-STD-3000, this project standard currently in review will be available in two volumes, (i.e., Volume 1 -- VCrew Health and Volume 2 -- Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health) and the handbook will be both available as a pdf file and as a interactive website.

  10. Transgenic songbirds with suppressed or enhanced activity of CREB transcription factor

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Kentaro; Matsui, Sumiko; Watanabe, Dai

    2015-01-01

    Songbirds postnatally develop their skill to utter and to perceive a vocal signal for communication. How genetic and environmental influences act in concert to regulate the development of such skill is not fully understood. Here, we report the phenotype of transgenic songbirds with altered intrinsic activity of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) transcription factor. By viral vector-mediated modification of genomic DNA, we established germ line-transmitted lines of zebra finches, which exhibited enhanced or suppressed activity of CREB. Although intrinsically acquired vocalizations or their hearing ability were not affected, the transgenic birds showed reduced vocal learning quality of their own songs and impaired audio-memory formation against conspecific songs. These results thus demonstrate that appropriate activity of CREB is necessary for the postnatal acquisition of learned behavior in songbirds, and the CREB transgenic birds offer a unique opportunity to separately manipulate both genetic and environmental factors that impinge on the postnatal song learning. PMID:26048905

  11. Influence of environmental factors in the development of inflammatory bowel diseases

    PubMed Central

    Legaki, Evangelia; Gazouli, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are multifactorial diseases that are manifested after disruption of a genetic predisposed individual and its intestinal microflora through an environmental stimulus. Urbanization and industrialization are associated with IBD. Epidemiological data, clinical observations and family/immigrants studies indicate the significance of environmental influence in the development of IBD. Some environmental factors have a different effect on the subtypes of IBD. Smoking and appendectomy is negatively associated with UC, but they are aggravating factors for CD. A westernized high fat diet, full of refined carbohydrates is strongly associated with the development of IBD, contrary to a high in fruit, vegetables and polyunsaturated fatty acid-3 diet that is protective against these diseases. High intake of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug and oral contraceptive pills as well as the inadequacy of vitamin D leads to an increased risk for IBD and a more malignant course of disease. Moreover, other factors such as air pollution, psychological factors, sleep disturbances and exercise influence the development and the course of IBD. Epigenetic mechanism like DNA methylation, histone modification and altered expression of miRNAS could explain the connection between genes and environmental factors in triggering the development of IBD. PMID:26855817

  12. A BRIEF TARGETED REVIEW OF SUSCEPTIBILITY FACTORS, ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES, ASHTMA INCIDENCE, AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE ASHTMA INCIDENCE RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genetics, obesity, age, and lifestyle are major susceptibility factors in the induction of asthma and can interact with environmental exposures either synergistically or antagonistically. Different environmental exposures that increase or decrease the likelihood of developing as...

  13. Radium concentration factors and their use in health and environmental risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Meinhold, A.F.; Hamilton, L.D.

    1991-12-31

    Radium is known to be taken up by aquatic animals, and tends to accumulate in bone, shell and exoskeleton. The most common approach to estimating the uptake of a radionuclide by aquatic animals for use in health and environmental risk assessments is the concentration factor method. The concentration factor method relates the concentration of a contaminant in an organism to the concentration in the surrounding water. Site specific data are not usually available, and generic, default values are often used in risk assessment studies. This paper describes the concentration factor method, summarizes some of the variables which may influence the concentration factor for radium, reviews reported concentration factors measured in marine environments and presents concentration factors derived from data collected in a study in coastal Louisiana. The use of generic default values for the concentration factor is also discussed.

  14. Radium concentration factors and their use in health and environmental risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Meinhold, A.F.; Hamilton, L.D.

    1991-01-01

    Radium is known to be taken up by aquatic animals, and tends to accumulate in bone, shell and exoskeleton. The most common approach to estimating the uptake of a radionuclide by aquatic animals for use in health and environmental risk assessments is the concentration factor method. The concentration factor method relates the concentration of a contaminant in an organism to the concentration in the surrounding water. Site specific data are not usually available, and generic, default values are often used in risk assessment studies. This paper describes the concentration factor method, summarizes some of the variables which may influence the concentration factor for radium, reviews reported concentration factors measured in marine environments and presents concentration factors derived from data collected in a study in coastal Louisiana. The use of generic default values for the concentration factor is also discussed.

  15. On the Genetic and Environmental Correlations between Trait Emotional Intelligence and Vocational Interest Factors.

    PubMed

    Schermer, Julie Aitken; Petrides, Konstantinos V; Vernon, Philip A

    2015-04-01

    The phenotypic (observed), genetic, and environmental correlations were examined in a sample of adult twins between the four factors and global score of the trait emotional intelligence questionnaire (TEIQue) and the seven vocational interest factors of the Jackson Career Explorer (JCE). Multiple significant correlations were found involving the work style vocational interest factor (consisting of job security, stamina, accountability, planfulness, and interpersonal confidence) and the social vocational interest factor (which included interests in the social sciences, personal services, teaching, social services, and elementary education), both of which correlated significantly with all of the TEIQue variables (well-being, self-control, emotionality, sociability, and global trait EI). Following bivariate genetic analyses, most of the significant phenotypic correlations were found to also have significant genetic correlations as well as significant non-shared (unique) environmental correlations.

  16. Transcriptome Dynamics and Potential Roles of Sox6 in the Postnatal Heart

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jie; Sinha, Neelima R.; Hagiwara, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    The postnatal heart undergoes highly coordinated developmental processes culminating in the complex physiologic properties of the adult heart. The molecular mechanisms of postnatal heart development remain largely unexplored despite their important clinical implications. To gain an integrated view of the dynamic changes in gene expression during postnatal heart development at the organ level, time-series transcriptome analyses of the postnatal hearts of neonatal through adult mice (P1, P7, P14, P30, and P60) were performed using a newly developed bioinformatics pipeline. We identified functional gene clusters by principal component analysis with self-organizing map clustering which revealed organized, discrete gene expression patterns corresponding to biological functions associated with the neonatal, juvenile and adult stages of postnatal heart development. Using weighted gene co-expression network analysis with bootstrap inference for each of these functional gene clusters, highly robust hub genes were identified which likely play key roles in regulating expression of co-expressed, functionally linked genes. Additionally, motivated by the role of the transcription factor Sox6 in the functional maturation of skeletal muscle, the role of Sox6 in the postnatal maturation of cardiac muscle was investigated. Differentially expressed transcriptome analyses between Sox6 knockout (KO) and control hearts uncovered significant upregulation of genes involved in cell proliferation at postnatal day 7 (P7) in the Sox6 KO heart. This result was validated by detecting mitotically active cells in the P7 Sox6 KO heart. The current report provides a framework for the complex molecular processes of postnatal heart development, thus enabling systematic dissection of the developmental regression observed in the stressed and failing adult heart. PMID:27832192

  17. Effects of Postnatal Enriched Environment in a Model of Parkinson's Disease in Adult Rats.

    PubMed

    Jungling, Adel; Reglodi, Dora; Karadi, Zsofia Nozomi; Horvath, Gabor; Farkas, Jozsef; Gaszner, Balazs; Tamas, Andrea

    2017-02-14

    Environmental enrichment is a widespread neuroprotective strategy during development and also in the mature nervous system. Several research groups have described that enriched environment in adult rats has an impact on the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of our present study was to examine the effects of early, postnatal environmental enrichment after 6-hydroxydopamine-induced (6-OHDA) lesion of the substantia nigra in adulthood. Newborn Wistar rats were divided into control and enriched groups according to their environmental conditions. For environmental enrichment, during the first five postnatal weeks animals were placed in larger cages and exposed to intensive complex stimuli. Dopaminergic cell loss, and hypokinetic and asymmetrical signs were evaluated after inducing PD with unilateral injections of 6-OHDA in three-month-old animals. Treatment with 6-OHDA led to a significant cell loss in the substantia nigra of control animals, however, postnatal enriched circumstances could rescue the dopaminergic cells. Although there was no significant difference in the percentage of surviving cells between 6-OHDA-treated control and enriched groups, the slightly less dopaminergic cell loss in the enriched group compared to control animals resulted in less severe hypokinesia. Our investigation is the first to provide evidence for the neuroprotective effect of postnatal enriched environment in PD later in life.

  18. Effects of Postnatal Enriched Environment in a Model of Parkinson’s Disease in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jungling, Adel; Reglodi, Dora; Karadi, Zsofia Nozomi; Horvath, Gabor; Farkas, Jozsef; Gaszner, Balazs; Tamas, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Environmental enrichment is a widespread neuroprotective strategy during development and also in the mature nervous system. Several research groups have described that enriched environment in adult rats has an impact on the progression of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The aim of our present study was to examine the effects of early, postnatal environmental enrichment after 6-hydroxydopamine-induced (6-OHDA) lesion of the substantia nigra in adulthood. Newborn Wistar rats were divided into control and enriched groups according to their environmental conditions. For environmental enrichment, during the first five postnatal weeks animals were placed in larger cages and exposed to intensive complex stimuli. Dopaminergic cell loss, and hypokinetic and asymmetrical signs were evaluated after inducing PD with unilateral injections of 6-OHDA in three-month-old animals. Treatment with 6-OHDA led to a significant cell loss in the substantia nigra of control animals, however, postnatal enriched circumstances could rescue the dopaminergic cells. Although there was no significant difference in the percentage of surviving cells between 6-OHDA-treated control and enriched groups, the slightly less dopaminergic cell loss in the enriched group compared to control animals resulted in less severe hypokinesia. Our investigation is the first to provide evidence for the neuroprotective effect of postnatal enriched environment in PD later in life. PMID:28216584

  19. Monozygotic twin differences in non-shared environmental factors associated with chronotype.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Nicola L; Eley, Thalia C; Parsons, Michael J; Willis, Thomas A; Gregory, Alice M

    2013-02-01

    Twin studies have highlighted that a large proportion of variability in chronotype is accounted for by individual-specific environmental factors (non-shared environmental influences). However, little research has aimed to identify specific non-shared environmental influences on chronotype. Although epidemiological studies have shed light on possible environmental influences on chronotype, a substantial amount of research has highlighted the importance of genetic influences on exposure toward specific environments, a process termed gene-environment correlation. It is possible that associations between the environment and chronotype are in part determined by genetics, rather than being purely environmental in origin. One way of exploring the contribution of purely non-shared environmental components on associations between chronotype and the environment is to use the monozygotic twin differences design. This design allows us to tease apart the influences of genetics and the environment to identify purely environmental components. One hundred eighty-nine monozygotic twin pairs (mean age 19.81 years, SD = 1.26, range = 18-22 years, 66.1% female) completed the Horne and Östberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire as a measure of chronotype and questionnaires assessing the following candidate non-shared environmental influences: dependent and independent negative life events, educational attainment, employment status, relationship status, deviant peers, affiliation with deviant peers, general health, smoking, drug use, and alcohol use. Linear regression analyses indicated the presence of gene-environment correlation for the majority of associations between chronotype and candidate environmental influences. When controlling for genetic and shared environmental effects, within monozygotic twin-pair differences in chronotype were associated with within monozygotic twin-pair differences in dependent negative life events (β = -0.27, p < 0.001), educational attainment (

  20. Effects of interspecific interaction-linked habitat factors on moose resource selection and environmental stress

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Heng; Fryxell, John M.; Liu, Hui; Dou, Hongliang; Ma, Yingjie; Jiang, Guangshun

    2017-01-01

    Resource selection of herbivores is a complex ecological process that operates in relation to biological or non-biological factors, which may affect the feeding and movement, and subsequently their spatial distribution and environmental stress. Here, we estimated moose (Alces alces cameloides) resource selection for habitat variables and the effect of interspecific interactions related to roe deer (Capreolus pygargus bedfordi) on its population distribution and environmental stress in the Khingan Mountain region of northeast China at local and regional scales. Different response patterns of moose resource selection, spatial distribution, and environmental stress to interspecific interaction-linked habitat factors were shown at the two scales. A general ecological chain, response of moose to interspecific interaction-linked habitat factors, was exhibited at the regional scale, and at the local scale, heterogeneous responses, linkages of habitat selection and environmental stress of moose population might be driven by different interspecific interaction patterns. Our study firstly suggested that moose resource selection, food availability, diet quality, population density and environmental stress indicators were impacted by interactions with the distribution of other sympatric herbivore species and showed differences in ecological response chains at various spatial scales. These findings are useful for sympatric herbivore assembly conservation, habitat quality monitoring and management. PMID:28128311

  1. Effects of interspecific interaction-linked habitat factors on moose resource selection and environmental stress.

    PubMed

    Bao, Heng; Fryxell, John M; Liu, Hui; Dou, Hongliang; Ma, Yingjie; Jiang, Guangshun

    2017-01-27

    Resource selection of herbivores is a complex ecological process that operates in relation to biological or non-biological factors, which may affect the feeding and movement, and subsequently their spatial distribution and environmental stress. Here, we estimated moose (Alces alces cameloides) resource selection for habitat variables and the effect of interspecific interactions related to roe deer (Capreolus pygargus bedfordi) on its population distribution and environmental stress in the Khingan Mountain region of northeast China at local and regional scales. Different response patterns of moose resource selection, spatial distribution, and environmental stress to interspecific interaction-linked habitat factors were shown at the two scales. A general ecological chain, response of moose to interspecific interaction-linked habitat factors, was exhibited at the regional scale, and at the local scale, heterogeneous responses, linkages of habitat selection and environmental stress of moose population might be driven by different interspecific interaction patterns. Our study firstly suggested that moose resource selection, food availability, diet quality, population density and environmental stress indicators were impacted by interactions with the distribution of other sympatric herbivore species and showed differences in ecological response chains at various spatial scales. These findings are useful for sympatric herbivore assembly conservation, habitat quality monitoring and management.

  2. Occupational and environmental risk factors of adult primary brain cancers: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gomes, J; Al Zayadi, A; Guzman, A

    2011-04-01

    The incidence of brain neoplasm has been progressively increasing in recent years in the industrialized countries. One of the reasons for this increased incidence could be better access to health care and improved diagnosis in the industrialized countries. It also appears that Caucasians have a higher incidence than blacks or Hispanics or Asians. A number of risk factors have been identified and described including the genetic, ethnic and age-based factors. Certain occupational and environmental factors are also believed to influence the risk of primary adult brain tumors. Potential occupational and environmental factors include exposure to diagnostic and therapeutic radiations, electromagnetic radiation from cellular phones and other wireless devices, infectious agents, air pollution and residence near landfills and high-voltage power lines and jobs as firefighters, farmers, physician, chemists and jobs in industries such as petrochemical, power generation, synthetic rubber manufacturing, agricultural chemicals manufacturing. The purpose of this systematic review is to examine occupational and environmental risk factors of brain neoplasm. A range of occupational and environmental exposures are evaluated for significance of their relationship with adult primary brain tumors. On the basis of this review we suggest a concurrent evaluation of multiple risk factors both within and beyond occupational and environmental domains. The concurrent approach needs to consider better exposure assessment techniques, lifetime occupational exposures, genotypic and phenotypic characteristics and lifestyle and dietary habits. This approach needs to be interdisciplinary with contributions from neurologists, oncologists, epidemiologists and molecular biologists. Conclusive evidence that has eluded multitude of studies with single focus and single exposure needs to multifaceted and multidisciplinary.

  3. LUNG CANCER IN NEVER SMOKERS: CLINICAL EPIDEMIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS

    PubMed Central

    Samet, Jonathan M.; Avila-Tang, Erika; Boffetta, Paolo; Hannan, Lindsay M.; Olivo-Marston, Susan; Thun, Michael J.; Rudin, Charles M.

    2011-01-01

    More than 161,000 lung cancer deaths are projected to occur in the U.S. in 2008. Of these, an estimated 10–15% will be caused by factors other than active smoking, corresponding to 16,000–24,000 deaths annually. Thus lung cancer in never smokers would rank among the most common causes of cancer mortality in the U.S. if considered to be a separate category. Slightly more than half of the lung cancers caused by factors other than active smoking occur in never smokers. As summarized in the accompanying article, lung cancers that occur in never smokers differ from those that occur in smokers in their molecular profile and response to targeted therapy. These recent laboratory and clinical observations highlight the importance of defining the genetic and environmental factors responsible for the development of lung cancer in never-smokers. This article summarizes available data on the clinical epidemiology of lung cancer in never smokers, and the several environmental risk factors that population-based research has implicated in the etiology of these cancers. Primary factors closely tied to lung cancer in never smokers include exposure to known and suspected carcinogens including radon, second-hand tobacco smoke, and other indoor air pollutants. Several other exposures have been implicated. However, a large fraction of lung cancers occurring in never-smokers cannot be definitively associated with established environmental risk factors, highlighting the need for additional epidemiologic research in this area. PMID:19755391

  4. Environmental Factors Related to Fungal Wound Contamination after Combat Trauma in Afghanistan, 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Carlos J.; Weintrob, Amy C.; Shaikh, Faraz; Aggarwal, Deepak; Carson, M. Leigh; Murray, Clinton K.; Masuoka, Penny

    2015-01-01

    During the recent war in Afghanistan (2001–2014), invasive fungal wound infections (IFIs) among US combat casualties were associated with risk factors related to the mechanism and pattern of injury. Although previous studies recognized that IFI patients primarily sustained injuries in southern Afghanistan, environmental data were not examined. We compared environmental conditions of this region with those of an area in eastern Afghanistan that was not associated with observed IFIs after injury. A larger proportion of personnel injured in the south (61%) grew mold from wound cultures than those injured in the east (20%). In a multivariable analysis, the southern location, characterized by lower elevation, warmer temperatures, and greater isothermality, was independently associated with mold contamination of wounds. These environmental characteristics, along with known risk factors related to injury characteristics, may be useful in modeling the risk for IFIs after traumatic injury in other regions. PMID:26401897

  5. Relationships of individual, social, and physical environmental factors with older adults' television viewing time.

    PubMed

    Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; De Donder, Liesbeth; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Owen, Neville; Dury, Sarah; De Witte, Nico; Buffel, Tine; Verté, Dominique; Deforche, Benedicte

    2014-10-01

    Sedentary behaviors (involving prolonged sitting) can be associated detrimentally with health outcomes. Older adults, the most sedentary age group, are especially at risk due to their high levels of television viewing time. This study examined individual, social, and physical environmental correlates of older adults' television viewing. Data on daily television viewing time, plus individual, social, and physical environmental factors were collected from 50,986 noninstitutionalized older adults (≥ 65 years) in Flanders (Belgium). The results showed significant relationships between television viewing time and individual, social, and physical environmental factors. Subgroups at risk for high levels of television viewing were those who were functionally limited, less educated, widowed, and (semi)urban-dwelling older adults. Our findings illustrate a cross-sectional link between older adults' television viewing time and social composition of their neighborhood, formal participation, access to alternative activities, and safety from crime.

  6. Environmental Factors Related to Fungal Wound Contamination after Combat Trauma in Afghanistan, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Tribble, David R; Rodriguez, Carlos J; Weintrob, Amy C; Shaikh, Faraz; Aggarwal, Deepak; Carson, M Leigh; Murray, Clinton K; Masuoka, Penny

    2015-10-01

    During the recent war in Afghanistan (2001-2014), invasive fungal wound infections (IFIs) among US combat casualties were associated with risk factors related to the mechanism and pattern of injury. Although previous studies recognized that IFI patients primarily sustained injuries in southern Afghanistan, environmental data were not examined. We compared environmental conditions of this region with those of an area in eastern Afghanistan that was not associated with observed IFIs after injury. A larger proportion of personnel injured in the south (61%) grew mold from wound cultures than those injured in the east (20%). In a multivariable analysis, the southern location, characterized by lower elevation, warmer temperatures, and greater isothermality, was independently associated with mold contamination of wounds. These environmental characteristics, along with known risk factors related to injury characteristics, may be useful in modeling the risk for IFIs after traumatic injury in other regions.

  7. Perceived environmental and personal factors associated with walking and cycling for transportation in Taiwanese adults.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yung; Wang, I-Ting; Hsu, Hsiu-Hua; Chang, Shao-Hsi

    2015-02-13

    This study examined perceived environmental and personal factors associated with walking and cycling as means of transportation for Taiwanese adults. A random-digit-dialing telephone-based cross-sectional survey was conducted with Taiwanese adults aged 20 to 64 years. Data on time spent walking and cycling for transportation and perceptions of neighborhood environment and personal characteristics were obtained from 1065 adults by using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-long version and its environmental module. Adjusted binary logistic regression was performed. The results showed that, after adjusting potential confounders, common and different personal and perceived environmental factors were associated with walking and cycling for transportation. For common personal factors, adults who had employment were less likely to engage in 150 min of walking per week (odds ratio [OR] = 0.41; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.27-0.62) and to use cycling as a means of transportation (OR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0.32-0.79). For common perceived environmental factors, adults who perceived good connectivity of streets were more likely to walk (OR = 1.95; 95% CI: 1.20-3.16) and cycle (OR = 2.02; 95% CI: 1.16-3.54) for transportation. Targeting employed adults and improving the connectivity of streets should be a priority for developing transport policies and intervention strategies to promote active transportation.

  8. Environmental Factors Item Development for Persons With Stroke, Traumatic Brain Injury, and Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Allen W.; Magasi, Susan; Hammel, Joy; Carlozzi, Noelle E.; Garcia, Sofia F.; Hahn, Elizabeth A.; Lai, Jin-Shei; Tulsky, David; Gray, David B.; Hollingsworth, Holly; Jerousek, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe methods used in operationalizing environmental factors; to describe the results of a research project to develop measures of environmental factors that affect participation; and to define an initial item set of facilitators and barriers to participation after stroke, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury. Design Instrument development included an extensive literature review, item classification and selection, item writing, and cognitive testing following the approach of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System. Setting Community. Participants Content area and outcome measurement experts (n=10) contributed to instrument development; individuals (n=200) with the target conditions participated in focus groups and in cognitive testing (n=15). Interventions None. Main Outcome Measures Environmental factor items were categorized in 6 domains: assistive technology; built and natural environment; social environment; services, systems, and policies; access to information and technology; and economic quality of life. Results We binned 2273 items across the 6 domains, winnowed this pool to 291 items for cognitive testing, and recommended 274 items for pilot data collection. Conclusions Five of the 6 domains correspond closely to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health taxonomy of environmental factors; the sixth domain, economic quality of life, reflects an important construct that reflects financial resources that affect participation. Testing with a new and larger sample is underway to evaluate reliability, validity, and sensitivity. PMID:24378804

  9. Increasing Children's Physical Activity: Individual, Social, and Environmental Factors Associated with Walking to and from School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trapp, Georgina S. A.; Giles-Corti, Billie; Christian, Hayley E.; Bulsara, Max; Timperio, Anna F.; McCormack, Gavin R.; Villaneuva, Karen P.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Efforts to increase the prevalence of children's active school transport require evidence to inform the development of comprehensive interventions. This study used a multilevel ecological framework to investigate individual, social, and environmental factors associated with walking to and from school among elementary school-aged…

  10. Environmental Factors Associated with Altered Gut Microbiota in Children with Eczema: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Chan, Carmen W H; Wong, Rosa S; Law, Patrick T W; Wong, Cho Lee; Tsui, Stephen K W; Tang, Winnie P Y; Sit, Janet W H

    2016-07-16

    Eczema is a common skin condition that impairs children's daily life activities and quality of life. Previous research shows that gut microbiome composition plays an important role in the development of eczema. The present review summarizes evidence on environmental factors related to altered gut microbiota in children with eczema. We searched Medline, PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane database of Systematic Reviews through October 2015. The search strategy focused on articles published in peer-reviewed, English-language journals with no publication year limit. Only original studies and review articles that reported environmental factors on gut microbiome specific to eczema were included in this review. We selected six studies (total 1990 participants) for full review and identified that the composition of gut microbiota specific to eczema could be influenced by the following environmental factors: length of gestation, mode of delivery, type of feeding, method of treatment, number of older siblings, and other lifestyle factors. There has been inconsistent empirical evidence as to the modulatory effects of gut microbiota on immunological functions in children with eczema. Further research on the environmental-host-microbial interaction is needed to develop a strong base of knowledge for the development and implementation of prevention strategies and policies for eczema.

  11. Impact of environmental factors on the demographic characteristics in Tomsk Oblast (Russia, 1980-2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugacheva, E.; Mezhibor, A.; Makarenko, T.

    2016-09-01

    The research represents the analysis of essential demographic indexes in Tomsk Oblast (Russia): birth-rate, death-rate, natural increase (1980-2015), migration increase (19972014), and child mortality (1990-2015). Environmental factors were determined as influencing the health and as a consequence, having the impact on the demographic characteristics of the studied region.

  12. The Direct and Indirect Effects of Environmental Factors on Nurturing Intellectual Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Shabatat, Ahmad Mohammad; Abbas, Merza; Ismail, Hairul Nizam

    2011-01-01

    Many people believe that environmental factors promote giftedness and invest in many programs to adopt gifted students providing them with challenging activities. Intellectual giftedness is founded on fluid intelligence and extends to more specific abilities through the growth and inputs from the environment. Acknowledging the roles played by the…

  13. Agri-Environmental Resource Management by Large-Scale Collective Action: Determining KEY Success Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uetake, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Large-scale collective action is necessary when managing agricultural natural resources such as biodiversity and water quality. This paper determines the key factors to the success of such action. Design/Methodology/Approach: This paper analyses four large-scale collective actions used to manage agri-environmental resources in Canada and…

  14. Environmental Factors Associated with Altered Gut Microbiota in Children with Eczema: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Carmen W. H.; Wong, Rosa S.; Law, Patrick T. W.; Wong, Cho Lee; Tsui, Stephen K. W.; Tang, Winnie P. Y.; Sit, Janet W. H.

    2016-01-01

    Eczema is a common skin condition that impairs children’s daily life activities and quality of life. Previous research shows that gut microbiome composition plays an important role in the development of eczema. The present review summarizes evidence on environmental factors related to altered gut microbiota in children with eczema. We searched Medline, PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane database of Systematic Reviews through October 2015. The search strategy focused on articles published in peer-reviewed, English-language journals with no publication year limit. Only original studies and review articles that reported environmental factors on gut microbiome specific to eczema were included in this review. We selected six studies (total 1990 participants) for full review and identified that the composition of gut microbiota specific to eczema could be influenced by the following environmental factors: length of gestation, mode of delivery, type of feeding, method of treatment, number of older siblings, and other lifestyle factors. There has been inconsistent empirical evidence as to the modulatory effects of gut microbiota on immunological functions in children with eczema. Further research on the environmental-host-microbial interaction is needed to develop a strong base of knowledge for the development and implementation of prevention strategies and policies for eczema. PMID:27438825

  15. The Direct and Indirect Effects of Environmental Factors on Nurturing Intellectual Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Shabatat, Ahmad Mohammad; Abbas, Merza; Ismail, Hairul Nizam

    2009-01-01

    Many people believe that environmental factors promote giftedness and invest in many programs to adopt gifted students providing them with challenging activities. Intellectual giftedness is founded on fluid intelligence and extends to more specific abilities through the growth and inputs from the environment. Acknowledging the roles played by the…

  16. Genetic and Environmental Factors That Impact Gestation Length in Dairy Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic and environmental factors that might affect gestation length (GL) were investigated. Data from over 9 million parturitions from 1999 through 2006 for 7 dairy breeds were assembled from lactation, reproduction, and dystocia records from across the United States. Effects examined were year of ...

  17. How Creativity Was Affected by Environmental Factors and Individual Characteristics: A Cross-Cultural Comparison Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Lifang; Wang, Lijuan; Zhao, Yanyun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how environmental factors (family environment and school education) and individual characteristics (personality, creative attitudes, and divergent thinking) collectively affect creative achievement of American and Chinese college students. Data were collected from 378 college students in the United States…

  18. Which Environmental Factors Have the Highest Impact on the Performance of People Experiencing Difficulties in Capacity?

    PubMed

    Loidl, Verena; Oberhauser, Cornelia; Ballert, Carolina; Coenen, Michaela; Cieza, Alarcos; Sabariego, Carla

    2016-04-12

    Disability is understood by the World Health Organization (WHO) as the outcome of the interaction between a health condition and personal and environmental factors. Comprehensive data about environmental factors is therefore essential to understand and influence disability. We aimed to identify which environmental factors have the highest impact on the performance of people with mild, moderate and severe difficulties in capacity, who are at risk of experiencing disability to different extents, using data from a pilot study of the WHO Model Disability Survey in Cambodia and random forest regression. Hindering or facilitating aspects of places to socialize in community activities, transportation and natural environment as well as use and need of personal assistance and use of medication on a regular basis were the most important environmental factors across groups. Hindering or facilitating aspects of the general environment were the most relevant in persons experiencing mild levels of difficulties in capacity, while social support, attitudes of others and use of medication on a regular basis were highly relevant for the performance of persons experiencing moderate to higher levels of difficulties in capacity. Additionally, we corroborate the high importance of the use and need of assistive devices for people with severe difficulties in capacity.

  19. Impact of Environmental Factors on Community Participation of Persons with an Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdonschot, Manon M. L.; de Witte, L. P.; Reichrath, E.; Buntinx, W. H. E.; Curfs, L. M. G.

    2009-01-01

    Study Design: A systematic review of the literature. Objectives: To describe which environmental factors have an impact on community participation of persons with an intellectual disability. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted for the period of 1996-2006 in Pubmed, CINAHL and PSYCINFO. Search terms were derived from the…

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS INFLUENCING METHANOGENESIS IN A SHALLOW ANOXIC AQUIFER: A FIELD AND LABORATORY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The environmental factors influencing methanogenesis in a shallow anoxic aquifer were probed in a combined field and laboratory study. Field data collected over a year revealed that in situ rates of methane production were depressed in winter and elevated in summer. Over the same...

  1. Understanding the contribution of environmental factors in the spread of antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Stephanie

    2015-07-01

    The overuse and abuse of antibiotics have contributed to the global epidemic of antibiotic resistance. Current evidence suggests that widespread dependency on antibiotics and complex interactions between human health, animal husbandry and veterinary medicine, have contributed to the propagation and spread of resistant organisms. The lack of information on pathogens of major public health importance, limited surveillance, and paucity of standards for a harmonised and coordinated approach, further complicates the issue. Despite the widespread nature of antimicrobial resistance, limited focus has been placed on the role of environmental factors in propagating resistance. There are limited studies that examine the role of the environment, specifically water, sanitation and hygiene factors that contribute to the development of resistant pathogens. Understanding these elements is necessary to identify any modifiable interactions to reduce or interrupt the spread of resistance from the environment into clinical settings. This paper discusses some environmental issues that contribute to antimicrobial resistance, including soil related factors, animal husbandry and waste management, potable and wastewater, and food safety, with examples drawn mainly from the Asian region. The discussion concludes that some of the common issues are often overlooked and whilst there are numerous opportunities for environmental factors to contribute to the growing burden of antimicrobial resistance, a renewed focus on innovative and traditional environmental approaches is needed to tackle the problem.

  2. Moral Reasoning Patterns and Influential Factors in the Context of Environmental Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuncay, Busra; Yilmaz-Tuzun, Ozgul; Teksoz, Gaye Tuncer

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated pre-service science teachers' (PSTs') moral reasoning patterns and the factors underlying these reasoning patterns. Local and non-local environmental dilemmas were used to examine moral reasoning patterns. An explanatory design was used with the collection and analysis of quantitative data, which was subsequently refined…

  3. Description of Environmental Factors in Schools: Lessons from a Study in North-West Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comesana, Julia Crespo; Juste, Margarita Pino

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to offer a view on the different environmental factors that affect health (sound, light, colour, temperature) in the design, planning and organization of school premises. To achieve this, the authors first outline the problems leading to unhealthy situations. They subsequently analyse all the building and planning…

  4. Psychosocial, Environmental and Behavioral Factors Associated with Bone Health in Middle-School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Shreela V.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Kelder, Steven H.; Day, R. Sue; Hergenroeder, Albert

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the psychosocial, environmental and behavioral factors associated with calcium intake, physical activity and bone health in a cohort of adolescent girls. Baseline data (N = 718 girls, mean age: 11.6 plus or minus 0.4 years) from the Incorporating More Physical Activity and Calcium in Teens (IMPACT) study…

  5. Environmental Factors Affecting Computer Assisted Language Learning Success: A Complex Dynamic Systems Conceptual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marek, Michael W.; Wu, Wen-Chi Vivian

    2014-01-01

    This conceptual, interdisciplinary inquiry explores Complex Dynamic Systems as the concept relates to the internal and external environmental factors affecting computer assisted language learning (CALL). Based on the results obtained by de Rosnay ["World Futures: The Journal of General Evolution", 67(4/5), 304-315 (2011)], who observed…

  6. Environmental factors impacting response to bovine viral diarrhea vaccines in Angus calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of environmental factors on the serological response to commercial bovine viral diarrhea type 2 (BVDV2) vaccinations in Angus cattle for inclusion as fixed effects into subsequent genetic evaluations for response to vaccination. Age of calf was...

  7. Environmental factors impacting response to bovine viral diarrhea vaccines in Angus calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of environmental factors on the serological response to commercial bovine viral diarrhea type 2 (BVDV2) vaccinations in Angus cattle for inclusion as fixed effects into subsequent genetic evaluations for response to vaccination. This study util...

  8. Gene-Environment Interplay in Internalizing Disorders: Consistent Findings across Six Environmental Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Brian M.; Dirago, Ana C.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Background: Behavior genetic methods can help to elucidate gene-environment (G-E) interplay in the development of internalizing (INT) disorders (i.e., major depression and anxiety disorders). To date, however, no study has conducted a comprehensive analysis examining multiple environmental risk factors with the purpose of delineating general…

  9. The Relationship between Environmental Factors and Usage Behaviors at "Hole-in-the-Wall" Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBoer, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This paper gathers and analyzes self-reported user behavior data for public computers installed in varied neighborhoods in India to explore the relationship between environmental factors such as urbanicity and reported usage behaviors. There is evidence of large differences in usage behavior between urban and non-urban sites. Children at urban…

  10. Quantifying effects of environmental and geographical factors on patterns of genetic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheng-Ruei; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas

    2011-11-01

    Elucidating the factors influencing genetic differentiation is an important task in biology, and the relative contribution from natural selection and genetic drift has long been debated. In this study, we used a regression-based approach to simultaneously estimate the quantitative contributions of environmental adaptation and isolation by distance on genetic variation in Boechera stricta, a wild relative of Arabidopsis. Patterns of discrete and continuous genetic differentiation coexist within this species. For the discrete differentiation between two major genetic groups, environment has larger contribution than geography, and we also identified a significant environment-by-geography interaction effect. Elsewhere in the species range, we found a latitudinal cline of genetic variation reflecting only isolation by distance. To further confirm the effect of environmental selection on genetic divergence, we identified the specific environmental variables predicting local genotypes in allopatric and sympatric regions. Water availability was identified as the possible cause of differential local adaptation in both geographical regions, confirming the role of environmental adaptation in driving and maintaining genetic differentiation between the two major genetic groups. In addition, the environment-by-geography interaction is further confirmed by the finding that water availability is represented by different environmental factors in the allopatric and sympatric regions. In conclusion, this study shows that geographical and environmental factors together created stronger and more discrete genetic differentiation than isolation by distance alone, which only produced a gradual, clinal pattern of genetic variation. These findings emphasize the importance of environmental selection in shaping patterns of species-wide genetic variation in the natural environment.

  11. Evaluation of variations and affecting factors of eco-environmental quality during urbanization.

    PubMed

    Cui, Erqian; Ren, Lijun; Sun, Haoyu

    2015-03-01

    Regional eco-environmental quality is the foundation of economic sustainable development and rational utilization of resources. It is necessary to understand and evaluate the regional eco-environmental quality correctly. Based on national remote sensing land use data, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data and some other statistical data, this paper established an eco-environmental quality index (EQI) model to evaluate the ecological status of Jinan from 2000 to 2011. The results of eco-environmental quality showed little variation, with EQI values ranged from 62.00 to 69.01. EQI of each region in Jinan firstly decreased sharply and then increased slowly with the development of local economy. Besides the spatial and temporal variations analysis, affecting factors of eco-environmental quality was also discussed in this article. According to the results of correlation and regression analysis, meteorological conditions (rainfall and sunshine duration) and industrial structure (the proportion of primary industry) had relatively high correlations with eco-environmental quality. To summarize, a better eco-environmental status is associated with increasing rainfall, shorter sunshine duration, and lower proportion of primary industry. This article aims to giving supporting data and decision-making bases to restore the ecological environment and promote the sustainable development of Jinan.

  12. Maternal and grandmaternal obesity and environmental factors as determinants of daughter's obesity

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Mi Na; Lee, Kyung Hea; Lee, Hye Sang; Sasaki, Satoshi; Oh, Hea Young; Lyu, Eun Soon

    2013-01-01

    Obesity may be the consequence of various environmental or genetic factors, which may be highly correlated with each other. We aimed to examine whether grandmaternal and maternal obesity and environmental risk factors are related to obesity in daughters. Daughters (n = 182) recruited from female students, their mothers (n = 147) and their grandmothers (n = 67) were included in this study. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the association between the daughter's obesity and maternal, grandmaternal, and environmental factors. Maternal heights of 161-175cm (OD: 8.48, 95% CI: 3.61-19.93) and 156-160 cm (2.37, 1.14-4.91) showed positive associations with a higher height of daughter, compared to those of 149-155 cm. Mothers receiving a university or a higher education had a significant OR (3.82, 1.27-11.50) for a higher height of daughter compared to those having a low education (elementary school). Mother having the heaviest weight at current time (59-80 kg, 3.78, 1.73-8.28) and the heaviest weight at 20 years of age (51-65 kg, 3.17, 1.53-6.55) had significant associations with a higher height of daughters, compared to those having the lightest weight at the same times. There was no association between the height, weight, and BMI of daughters and the characteristics and education of her grandmothers. In conclusion, although genetic factors appear to influence the daughter's height more than environmental factors, the daughter's weight appears to be more strongly associated with individual factors than the genetic factors. PMID:24133620

  13. Congenital lung lesions: Postnatal management and outcome.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Dakshesh H; Rasiah, Shree Vishna

    2015-08-01

    Antenatal diagnosis of lung lesion has become more accurate resulting in dilemma and controversies of its antenatal and postnatal management. Majority of antenatally diagnosed congenital lung lesions are asymptomatic in the neonatal age group. Large lung lesions cause respiratory compromise and inevitably require urgent investigations and surgery. The congenital lung lesion presenting with hydrops requires careful postnatal management of lung hypoplasia and persistent pulmonary hypertension. Preoperative stabilization with gentle ventilation with permissive hypercapnia and delayed surgery similar to congenital diaphragmatic hernia management has been shown to result in good outcome. The diagnostic investigations and surgical management of the asymptomatic lung lesions remain controversial. Postnatal management and outcome of congenital cystic lung lesions are discussed.

  14. [Darkling beetle community structure and its relations with environmental factors in Sidunzi of Yanchi, Ningxia, China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Gui-jun; He, Qi; Wang, Xin-pu

    2010-09-01

    From March to October 2009, a field survey was conducted on the darkling beetle community structure and related environmental factors in the desert grasslands with different vegetation cover and human disturbance intensity in Sidunzi of Yanchi, Ningxia, China. By using diversity index and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) , the relationships between the beetle community structure and related environmental factors were analyzed. A total of 5431 individuals were collected, belonging to 20 species and 10 genera. Blaps femoralis femoralis, Microdera kraatzi kraatzi, and Platyope mongolica were the dominant species, accounting for 47.30%, 39.90%, and 3.59% of the total, respectively. CCA explained 100% of the correlations between the beetle species and related environmental factors, suggesting that the occurrence of the beetle species had close relations to the changes of related environmental factors. Among the environmental factors, the Shannon diversity index of plant community (HP), plant biomass (BP), and soil water content (SW) affected the beetle species occurrence most. The occurrence frequency of Mantichorula semenowi, Anatolica amoenula, A. sternalis, and A. gravidula was negatively correlated with BP and plant coverage (CP), and that of B. gobiensis, Cyphogenia chinensis, Gonocephalum reticuluatum, and Crypticus rufipes was positively correlated with plant density (DP) and SW. The distribution of P. mongolica, M. kraatzi kraatzi, Scytosoma pygmaeum, and B. kiritshenkoi showed a positive correlation to HP, and that of Eumylada oberbergeri, B. femoralis femoralis, and B. davidea showed a positive correlation to BP and CP. There was a significant positive correlation (r = 0.943, P = 0.005) between the beetle activity density and SW. The CCA ordination showed that the darkling beetles had different demands for multidimensional ecological resources in desert and semi-desert ecosystems.

  15. Plant community assembly at small scales: Spatial vs. environmental factors in a European grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Sebastian; Hempel, Stefan; Ristow, Michael; Rillig, Matthias C.; Kowarik, Ingo; Caruso, Tancredi

    2015-02-01

    Dispersal limitation and environmental conditions are crucial drivers of plant species distribution and establishment. As these factors operate at different spatial scales, we asked: Do the environmental factors known to determine community assembly at broad scales operate at fine scales (few meters)? How much do these factors account for community variation at fine scales? In which way do biotic and abiotic interactions drive changes in species composition? We surveyed the plant community within a dry grassland along a very steep gradient of soil characteristics like pH and nutrients. We used a spatially explicit sampling design, based on three replicated macroplots of 15 × 15, 12 × 12 and 12 × 12 m in extent. Soil samples were taken to quantify several soil properties (carbon, nitrogen, plant available phosphorus, pH, water content and dehydrogenase activity as a proxy for overall microbial activity). We performed variance partitioning to assess the effect of these variables on plant composition and statistically controlled for spatial autocorrelation via eigenvector mapping. We also applied null model analysis to test for non-random patterns in species co-occurrence using randomization schemes that account for patterns expected under species interactions. At a fine spatial scale, environmental factors explained 18% of variation when controlling for spatial autocorrelation in the distribution of plant species, whereas purely spatial processes accounted for 14% variation. Null model analysis showed that species spatially segregated in a non-random way and these spatial patterns could be due to a combination of environmental filtering and biotic interactions. Our grassland study suggests that environmental factors found to be directly relevant in broad scale studies are present also at small scales, but are supplemented by spatial processes and more direct interactions like competition.

  16. Nociceptin and meiosis during spermatogenesis in postnatal testes.

    PubMed

    Eto, Ko

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorylated Rec8, a key component of cohesin, mediates the association and disassociation, "dynamics," of chromosomes occurring in synaptonemal complex formation, crossover recombination, and sister chromatid cohesion during meiosis in germ cells. Yet, the extrinsic factors triggering meiotic chromosome dynamics remained unclear. In postnatal testes, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) acts directly on somatic Sertoli cells to activate gene expression via an intracellular signaling pathway composed of cAMP, cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), and cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB), and promotes germ cell development and spermatogenesis indirectly. Yet, the paracrine factors mediating the FSH effects to germ cells remained elusive. We have shown that nociceptin, known as a neuropeptide, is upregulated by FSH signaling through cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway in Sertoli cells of postnatal murine testes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation from Sertoli cells demonstrated that CREB phosphorylated at Ser133 associates with prepronociceptin gene encoding nociceptin. Analyses with Sertoli cells and testes revealed that both prepronociceptin mRNA and the nociceptin peptide are induced after FSH signaling is activated. In addition, the nociceptin peptide is induced in testes after 9 days post partum following FSH surge. Thus, our findings may identify nociceptin as a novel paracrine mediator of the FSH effects in the regulation of spermatogenesis; however, very little has known about the functional role of nociceptin in spermatogenesis. We have shown that nociceptin induces Rec8 phosphorylation, triggering chromosome dynamics, during meiosis in spermatocytes of postnatal murine testes. The nociceptin receptor Oprl-1 is exclusively expressed in the plasma membrane of testicular germ cells, mostly spermatocytes. Treatment of testes with nociceptin resulted in a rapid phosphorylation of Rec8. Injection of nociceptin into mice stimulated Rec8 phosphorylation and meiotic chromosome

  17. Factors influencing private and public environmental protection behaviors: results from a survey of residents in Shaanxi, China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wang; Reisner, Ann

    2011-03-01

    Currently one of the largest and most rapidly developing countries, China also has some of the world's most severe environmental problems. China will most likely need to use all of the potential major strategies currently available to solve the country's huge environmental challenges, including promoting individual conservation behavior through educational campaigns and encouraging public environmental advocacy. This paper summarized the findings of a survey of 347 residents of Shaanxi province on environmental attitudes and behaviors. The survey found generally high levels of environmental knowledge and high recognition of the seriousness of environmental issues, moderate levels of individual actions supporting environmental resource conservation and low levels of public environmental behaviors, particularly for organized public advocacy. Further analysis indicated that the perceived importance of environmental protection is the most important factor influencing individual environmental resource conservation, but not public advocacy behaviors. Implications for environmental campaigns are discussed.

  18. Studying the Relative Strengths of Environmental Factors that Influence Echinoderm Body Size Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, A.; Randhawa, S.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2013-12-01

    Body size is often a useful metric in observing how a clade responds to environmental changes. Previous research has uncovered how environmental factors such as carbon dioxide and oxygen levels influence body size evolution. However, we wanted to look into how these natural factors interact and which factors seem to have a stronger relative influence on echinoderm body size. We analyzed carbon dioxide levels, a proxy for paleotemperature, oxygen levels, and sea level. Our research process involved measuring and calculating the volume of Phanerozoic echinoderm fossils recorded in the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, plotting their mean volumes over various natural factors, and using statistical tools such as correlation tests and the PaleoTS statistical analysis software to compare the relative strengths of these factors. Furthermore, we divided our data into the following three subsets to uncover more specific relationships: 1) A set that included all data of the phylum Echinodermata 2) A set that focused on the two classes with the most recorded data, Echinoidea and Crinoidea 3) A set that focused on the crinoid specimens that originated in the Paleozoic and in the post-Paleozoic. In the first subset, echinoderms had the strongest correlation with carbon dioxide, a proxy for temperature, and possessed a weaker correlation with oxygen. In the second subset, we discovered that the echinoid data also possessed a strong correlation with carbon dioxide and a weaker correlation with oxygen. For crinoids, we found that the class as a whole showed no strong correlation with any measured environmental factors. However, when we divided the crinoids based on age, we found that both Paleozoic and post-Paleozoic crinoids individually correlated strongly with sea level. However, some uncertainty with this correlation arose as the comparison of the environmental correlate models suggested that an unbiased random walk was the best fit for the data. This stands as a sharp

  19. Pathogenesis of malignant pleural mesothelioma and the role of environmental and genetic factors

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Shoshana J; Neragi-Miandoab, Siyamek

    2008-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare, aggressive tumor for which no effective therapy exists despite the discovery of many possible molecular and genetic targets. Many risk factors for MPM development have been recognized including environmental exposures, genetic susceptibility, viral contamination, and radiation. However, the late stage of MPM diagnosis and the long latency that exists between some exposures and diagnosis have made it difficult to comprehensively evaluate the role of risk factors and their downstream molecular effects. In this review, we discuss the current molecular and genetic contributors in MPM pathogenesis and the risk factors associated with these carcinogenic processes. PMID:18662397

  20. [Evaluation of the influence of physical environmental factors on morbidity among armed forces personnel].

    PubMed

    Rakhmanov, R S; Gadzhiibragimov, D A; Medzhidova, M A; Kudriavtseva, O A

    2009-01-01

    Under the conditions of hot and mountain-continental climate, the morbidity rates were estimated to be significantly lower than those in young men who had not been acclimatized or adapted to living conditions and in non-acclimatized men. A role of individual physical environmental factors (temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, average and maximum air speed) and integral exposure by the wind chill index (a combined impact of an air speed and ambient temperature) as risk factors to human health was defined. The mountain-continental climate showed a relationship of the influence of these factors to habitation at different altitudes.

  1. Genetic, metabolic and environmental factors involved in the development of liver cirrhosis in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Lopez, Omar; Martinez-Lopez, Erika; Roman, Sonia; Fierro, Nora A; Panduro, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis (LC) is a chronic illness caused by inflammatory responses and progressive fibrosis. Globally, the most common causes of chronic liver disease include persistent alcohol abuse, followed by viral hepatitis infections and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. However, regardless of the etiological factors, the susceptibility and degree of liver damage may be influenced by genetic polymorphisms that are associated with distinct ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Consequently, metabolic genes are influenced by variable environmental lifestyle factors, such as diet, physical inactivity, and emotional stress, which are associated with regional differences among populations. This Topic Highlight will focus on the genetic and environmental factors that may influence the metabolism of alcohol and nutrients in the setting of distinct etiologies of liver disease. The interaction between genes and environment in the current-day admixed population, Mestizo and Native Mexican, will be described. Additionally, genes involved in immune regulation, insulin sensitivity, oxidative stress and extracellular matrix deposition may modulate the degree of severity. In conclusion, LC is a complex disease. The onset, progression, and clinical outcome of LC among the Mexican population are influenced by specific genetic and environmental factors. Among these are an admixed genome with a heterogenic distribution of European, Amerindian and African ancestry; a high score of alcohol consumption; viral infections; a hepatopathogenic diet; and a high prevalence of obesity. The variance in risk factors among populations suggests that intervention strategies directed towards the prevention and management of LC should be tailored according to such population-based features. PMID:26556986

  2. Environmental Risk Factors in Psoriasis: The Point of View of the Nutritionist

    PubMed Central

    Barrea, Luigi; Nappi, Francesca; Di Somma, Carolina; Savanelli, Maria Cristina; Falco, Andrea; Balato, Anna; Balato, Nicola; Savastano, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common, chronic, immune-mediated skin disease with systemic pro-inflammatory activation, where both environmental and genetic factors contribute to its pathogenesis. Among the risk factors for psoriasis, evidence is accumulating that nutrition plays a major role, per se, in psoriasis pathogenesis. In particular, body weight, nutrition, and diet may exacerbate the clinical manifestations, or even trigger the disease. Understanding the epidemiological relationship between obesity and psoriasis is also important for delineating the risk profile for the obesity-related comorbidities commonly found among psoriatic patients. Moreover, obesity can affect both drug’s pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Additionally, the overall beneficial effects on the obesity-associated comorbidities, clinical recommendations to reduce weight and to adopt a healthy lifestyle could improve the psoriasis severity, particularly in those patients with moderate to severe disease, thus exerting additional therapeutic effects in the conventional treatment in obese patients with psoriasis. Education regarding modifiable environmental factors is essential in the treatment of this disease and represents one of the primary interventions that can affect the prognosis of patients with psoriasis. The goal is to make psoriatic patients and health care providers aware of beneficial dietary interventions. The aim of this review is to assess the relevance of the environmental factors as modifiable risk factors in psoriasis pathogenesis, with particular regard to the involvement of obesity and nutrition in the management of psoriasis, providing also specific nutrition recommendations. PMID:27455297

  3. Sonic hedgehog signaling in the postnatal brain.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Ihrie, Rebecca A

    2014-09-01

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is a pleiotropic factor in the developing central nervous system (CNS), driving proliferation, specification, and axonal targeting in multiple sites within the forebrain, hindbrain, and spinal cord. Studies in embryonic CNS have shown how gradients of this morphogen are translated by neuroepithelial precursors to determine the types of neurons and glial cells they produce [1,2]. Shh also has a well-characterized role as a mitogen for specific progenitor cell types in neural development [3,4]. As we begin to appreciate that Shh continues to act in the adult brain, a central question is what functional role this ligand plays when major morphogenetic and proliferative processes are no longer in operation. A second fundamental question is whether similar signaling mechanisms operate in embryonic and adult CNS. In the two major germinal zones of the adult brain, Shh signaling modulates the self-renewal and specification of astrocyte-like primary progenitors, frequently referred to as neural stem cells (NSCs). It also may regulate the response of the mature brain to injury, as Shh signaling has been variously proposed to enhance or inhibit the development of a reactive astrocyte phenotype. The identity of cells producing the Shh ligand, and the conditions that trigger its release, are also areas of growing interest; both germinal zones in the adult brain contain Shh-responsive cells but do not autonomously produce this ligand. Here, we review recent findings revealing the function of this fascinating pathway in the postnatal and adult brain, and highlight ongoing areas of investigation into its actions long past the time when it shapes the developing brain.

  4. Elevated-CO2 Response of Stomata and Its Dependence on Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhenzhu; Jiang, Yanling; Jia, Bingrui; Zhou, Guangsheng

    2016-01-01

    Stomata control the flow of gases between plants and the atmosphere. This review is centered on stomatal responses to elevated CO2 concentration and considers other key environmental factors and underlying mechanisms at multiple levels. First, an outline of general responses in stomatal conductance under elevated CO2 is presented. Second, stomatal density response, its development, and the trade-off with leaf growth under elevated CO2 conditions are depicted. Third, the molecular mechanism regulating guard cell movement at elevated CO2 is suggested. Finally, the interactive effects of elevated CO2 with other factors critical to stomatal behavior are reviewed. It may be useful to better understand how stomata respond to elevated CO2 levels while considering other key environmental factors and mechanisms, including molecular mechanism, biochemical processes, and ecophysiological regulation. This understanding may provide profound new insights into how plants cope with climate change. PMID:27242858

  5. Family and social environmental factors associated with aggression among Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dou, Chunxia; Wei, Zhen; Jin, Ke; Wang, He; Wang, Xiulan; Peng, Ziwen

    2015-09-01

    Family and school environments are assumed to be associated with and influence aggressive behaviors. However, which specific risk factors within these environments that are associated with aggressive behavior are unclear. The goal of this study is to identify family and social environmental qualities that are related to aggression among Chinese adolescents. Survey data were obtained from 3,213 randomly selected urban high school students ages 10 through 18 in southern China. Lower parental attachment, higher family income, mother's higher education levels, father's parenting goals, rough or changeable parenting styles, unsuitable peer relationships, and inadequate social atmospheres at school serve as risk factors for aggression among Chinese adolescents. Our findings provide some implications for understanding aggression among adolescents and suggests possible interventions to help overcome potential environmental risk factors and thus to prevent aggressive behavior in school.

  6. Interaction of gravity with other environmental factors in growth and development: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Hoson, T

    1999-01-01

    The life of plants and other organisms is governed by the constant force of gravity on earth. The mechanism of graviperception, signal transduction, and gravireaction is one of the major themes in space biology. When gravity controls each step of the life cycle such as growth and development, it does not work alone but operates with the interaction of other environmental factors. In order to understand the role of gravity in regulation of the life cycle, such interactions also should be clarified. Under microgravity conditions in space, various changes are brought about in the process of growth and development. Some changes would be advantageous to organisms, but others would be unfavorable. For overcoming such disadvantages, it may be required to exploit some other environmental factors which substitute for gravity in some properties. In terrestrial plants, gravity can be replaced by light under certain conditions. The gravity-substituting factors may play a principal role in future space development.

  7. Assessment of the environmental and genetic factors influencing prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Gosadi, Ibrahim M.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a combination of factors that increases the risk of cardiovascular atherosclerotic diseases including diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, and high blood pressure. Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of death in the adult Saudi population where the increase in cardiovascular-related mortality is augmented by the rise in the prevalence of MS. Metabolic syndrome is a multi-factorial disorder influenced by interactions between genetic and environmental components. This review aims to provide a comprehensive assessment of studied environmental and genetic factors explaining the prevalence of MS in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Additionally, this review aims to illustrate factors related to the population genetics of Saudi Arabia, which might explain a proportion of the prevalence of MS. PMID:26739969

  8. The Postnatal Development of Spinal Sensory Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, Maria; Jennings, Ernest

    1999-07-01

    The mechanisms by which infants and children process pain should be viewed within the context of a developing sensory nervous system. The study of the neurophysiological properties and connectivity of sensory neurons in the developing spinal cord dorsal horn of the intact postnatal rat has shed light on the way in which the newborn central nervous system analyzes cutaneous innocuous and noxious stimuli. The receptive field properties and evoked activity of newborn dorsal horn cells to single repetitive and persistent innocuous and noxious inputs are developmentally regulated and reflect the maturation of excitatory transmission within the spinal cord. These changes will have an important influence on pain processing in the postnatal period.

  9. Conjugal Parkinsonism and Parkinson disease: a case series with environmental risk factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Willis, Allison W; Sterling, Callen; Racette, Brad A

    2010-03-01

    PD occurring in married couples, "conjugal PD" represents a unique opportunity to study environmental risk factors for PD due to the shared environment. This retrospective study of non-related married individuals who both presented to the Washington University Movement Disorders Center between 1994 and 2005 investigated the clinical presentation, therapy response, and disease course in conjugal PD subjects. In addition, an occupational, residential, and environmental survey was administered to elucidate potential shared environmental risk factors. Eighteen married subjects had a clinical picture suggestive of idiopathic Parkinson disease. Average age of motor symptom onset was 66.1 (+/-6.22) years in women, 63.4 (+/-7.87) years in men. Subjects cohabitated an average of 39.9 years prior to motor symptom onset in the first affected spouse and an average of nine years elapsed prior to symptom onset in their partner. Disease course in conjugal pairs varied substantially. Seventeen out of eighteen subjects reported at least one environmental exposure of interest. Concordant exposures were residential, non-occupational pesticide and heavy metal exposure, each reported by 77.8% (7/9) of couples. Multiple exposures were reported by 88.9% (16/18) of subjects, most often residential agricultural chemical and heavy metal in combination. This case series of conjugal PD suggests that combined residential exposures may be important in the pathogenesis of idiopathic PD. Larger conjugal PD studies may permit stratification of concordant environmental exposures to determine dose responsiveness and relative contributions to PD risk.

  10. Geography of non-melanoma skin cancer and ecological associations with environmental risk factors in England

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, B W; Kothencz, G; Pollard, A S

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study investigates the geography of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in England, and ecological associations with three widespread environmental hazards: radon, arsenic and ultraviolet radiation from the sun. Methods: Age-/sex-standardised registration rates of NMSC were mapped for local authority (LA) areas (n=326), along with geographical data on bright sunshine, household radon and arsenic. Associations between NMSC and environmental variables, adjusted for socio-economic confounders, were investigated. Results: There was a substantial geographical variation in NMSC rates across English local authorities and between cancer registration regions. Forty percent of variance in rates was at registry region level and 60% at LA level. No association was observed between environmental arsenic and NMSC rates. Rates were associated with area-mean bright sunshine hours. An association with area-mean radon concentration was suggested, although the strength of statistical evidence was sensitive to model specification. Conclusion: The significant geographical variation across England in NMSC registration rate is likely to be partly, but not wholly, explained by registry differences. Findings tentatively support suggestions that environmental radon may be a risk factor for NMSC. Although NMSC is rarely fatal, it has significant implications for individuals and health services, and further research into NMSC geographical and environmental risk factors is warranted. PMID:23756856

  11. Meta-Analysis of Individual and Environmental Factors that Influence People’s Addiction Tendencies

    PubMed Central

    Safari Hajat Aghaii, Saideh; Kamaly, Ayoub; Esfahani, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Background In recent years, many studies have been conducted to establish the causes of people’s tendency to become addicted and researchers have also tried to determine the amount, importance and role of each individual and environmental factor. Objectives With regard to the inconsistencies in previous research results, this study aims to use meta-analysis in order to integrate the results of different studies and investigate the impact of environmental and personal factors in people’s proclivity to addiction. Materials and Methods This meta-analysis uses the Hunter and Schmidt approach. For this purpose, 16 out of 32 studies which were acceptable in terms of their methodology, and had been conducted during an eight year period (2003 - 2010), were selected. A meta-analysis was conducted on the articles which had been collected using a standard checklist via; the internet, in person, telephone and e-mail, from universities and research centers across the country. After summarizing the results of the studies, effect sizes were calculated manually and combined based on a meta-analysis, and interpreted in accordance with a Cohen’s table. Results After data collection, results showed that the effect size of environmental factors in people’s tendency to addiction was 0.61 (P ≤ 0.00001), and the effect size of individual factors in people’s tendency to addiction was 0.45 (P ≤ 0.03). Conclusions According to Cohen’s table size, the effects were evaluated as average to high for the environmental factors and low to moderate for the individual factors in the tendency to become addicted. PMID:24971243

  12. Esophageal Cancer in Golestan Province, Iran: A Review of Genetic Susceptibility and Environmental Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Gholipour, Mahin; Islami, Farhad; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Khoshnia, Masoud; Badakhshan, Abbas; Moradi, Abdolvahab; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is an aggressive tumor that is typically diagnosed only when the tumor has gained remarkable size, extended to peripheral tissues, and led to dysphagia. Five-year survival of advanced cancer is still very poor (19%), even with improved surgical techniques and adjuvant chemoradiation therapy. Therefore, early detection and prevention are the most important strategies to reduce the burden of ESCC. Our review will focus on the studies conducted in Golestan province, an area with a high prevalence of ESCC in northern Iran. We review three aspects of the research literature on ESCC: epidemiological features, environmental factors (including substance abuse, environmental contaminants, dietary factors, and human papillomavirus [HPV]), and molecular factors (including oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, cell cycle regulatory proteins, and other relevant biomarkers). Epidemiological and experimental data suggest that some chemicals and lifestyle factors, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), cigarette smoking, opium use, and hot tea drinking are associated with the development of ESCC in Golestan. HPV infects the esophageal epithelium, but so far, no firm evidence of its involvement in esophageal carcinogenesis has been provided. Some of these factors, notably hot tea drinking, may render the esophageal mucosa more susceptible to injury by other carcinogens. There are few studies at molecular level on ESCC in Golestan. Increasing awareness about the known risk factors of ESCC could potentially reduce the burden of ESCC in the region. Further studies on risk factors, identifying high risk populations, and early detection are needed. PMID:27957288

  13. Behavioral phenotypes in schizophrenic animal models with multiple combinations of genetic and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Hida, Hirotake; Mouri, Akihiro; Noda, Yukihiro

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a multifactorial psychiatric disorder in which both genetic and environmental factors play a role. Genetic [e.g., Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), Neuregulin-1 (NRG1)] and environmental factors (e.g., maternal viral infection, obstetric complications, social stress) may act during the developmental period to increase the incidence of schizophrenia. In animal models, interactions between susceptibility genes and the environment can be controlled in ways not possible in humans; therefore, such models are useful for investigating interactions between or within factors in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We provide an overview of schizophrenic animal models investigating interactions between or within factors. First, we reviewed gene-environment interaction animal models, in which schizophrenic candidate gene mutant mice were subjected to perinatal immune activation or adolescent stress. Next, environment-environment interaction animal models, in which mice were subjected to a combination of perinatal immune activation and adolescent administration of drugs, were described. These animal models showed interaction between or within factors; behavioral changes, which were obscured by each factor, were marked by interaction of factors and vice versa. Appropriate behavioral approaches with such models will be invaluable for translational research on novel compounds, and also for providing insight into the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  14. Developing standards for environmental toxicants: the need to consider abiotic environmental factors and microbe-mediated ecologic processes.

    PubMed Central

    Babich, H; Stotzky, G

    1983-01-01

    This article suggests and discusses two novel aspects for the formulation of standards for environmental toxicants. First, uniform national standards for each pollutant will be underprotective for some ecosystems and overprotective for others, inasmuch as the toxicity of a pollutant to the indigenous biota is dependent on the physicochemical properties of the recipient environment. As the number of chemicals that need regulation is immense and as microbes appear to respond similarly to pollutant-abiotic factor interactions as do plants and animals, it is suggested that microbial assays be used initially to identify those abiotic factors that most influence the toxicity of specific pollutants. Thereafter, additional studies using plants and animals can focus on these pollutant-abiotic factor interactions, and more meaningful standards can then be formulated more rapidly and inexpensively. Second, it is suggested that the response to pollutants of microbe-mediated ecologic processes be used to quantitate the sensitivity of different ecosystems to various toxicants. Such a quantification, expressed in terms of an "ecological dose 50%" (EcD50), could be easily incorporated into the methodologies currently used to set water quality criteria and would also be applicable to setting criteria for terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:6339225

  15. Environmental Factors Related to Enterobiasis in a Southeast Region of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Hee; Cho, Min Kyoung; Park, Mi Kyung; Kang, Shin Ae; Kim, Bo Young; Park, Sang Kyun

    2013-01-01

    Pinworm infection can occur through contact with contaminated surfaces followed by ingestion or even through inhalation of infective eggs. We have limited information regarding environmental contamination by eggs of Enterobius vermicularis. In order to determine environmental risk factors associated with the rate of E. vermicularis infection, we investigated possible environmental risk factors using a questionnaire from 46 kindergartens in 3 different cities of the southeast area of Korea. In total, using the cellotape anal swab technique, 3,422 children were examined for E. vermicularis infection. We evaluated E. vermicularis egg of books, educational materials, toys, room door handles, dusts of window edges, desks, chairs, tables, and dusts of classrooms. The overall egg-positive rate for E. vermicularis was 6.0%, and the prevalence of enterobiasis in each kindergarten ranged between 0% and 16.9%. We found that 78.9% of egg positive kindergartens were managed by private foundations, which was significantly higher, compared with kindergartens managed by public foundations or the nation. Compared with public or national kindergartens, most private kindergartens were located in residential areas and the number of children in these areas was significantly higher. In conclusion, numbers of children in kindergartens was found to be an environmental risk factor associated with transmission of enterobiasis in Korea. PMID:23468007

  16. Environmental factors related to enterobiasis in a southeast region of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hee; Cho, Min Kyoung; Park, Mi Kyung; Kang, Shin Ae; Kim, Bo Young; Park, Sang Kyun; Yu, Hak Sun

    2013-02-01

    Pinworm infection can occur through contact with contaminated surfaces followed by ingestion or even through inhalation of infective eggs. We have limited information regarding environmental contamination by eggs of Enterobius vermicularis. In order to determine environmental risk factors associated with the rate of E. vermicularis infection, we investigated possible environmental risk factors using a questionnaire from 46 kindergartens in 3 different cities of the southeast area of Korea. In total, using the cellotape anal swab technique, 3,422 children were examined for E. vermicularis infection. We evaluated E. vermicularis egg of books, educational materials, toys, room door handles, dusts of window edges, desks, chairs, tables, and dusts of classrooms. The overall egg-positive rate for E. vermicularis was 6.0%, and the prevalence of enterobiasis in each kindergarten ranged between 0% and 16.9%. We found that 78.9% of egg positive kindergartens were managed by private foundations, which was significantly higher, compared with kindergartens managed by public foundations or the nation. Compared with public or national kindergartens, most private kindergartens were located in residential areas and the number of children in these areas was significantly higher. In conclusion, numbers of children in kindergartens was found to be an environmental risk factor associated with transmission of enterobiasis in Korea.

  17. Autumn ichthyoplankton assemblage in the Yangtze Estuary shaped by environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shude

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the response of the ichthyoplankton community to environmental changes in the Yangtze Estuary using canonical correspondence analysis. Ichthyoplankton community and environmental data were recorded during the autumns of 1998, 2000, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2007 and 2009. Among the ichthyoplankton, the dominant larval and juvenile families were the Engraulidae, Gobiidae and Salangidae, and the most common eggs were from Trichiurus lepturus. The ichthyoplankton was identified via canonical correspondence analysis to three assemblages: an estuary assemblage dominated by Chaeturichthys stigmatias, a coastal assemblage dominated by Engraulis japonicus and Stolephorus commersonii, and an offshore assemblage dominated by Trichiurus lepturus. Regarding environmental factors in the Yangtze Estuary, suspended matter and surface seawater salinity were the main factors influencing the distributions of the different assemblages, while sediment from the Yangtze River during the rainy season and chlorophyll a were the principle drivers of the annual variances in the distribution of ichthyoplankton assemblages. Our aims in this study were to provide detailed characterizations of the ichthyoplankton assemblage in the autumns of seven years, examine the long-term dynamics of autumn ichthyoplankton assemblages, and evaluate the influence of environmental factors on the spatial distribution and inter-annual variations of ichthyoplankton assemblages associated with the Yangtze Estuary. PMID:27114877

  18. Exploring Environmental Factors in Nursing Workplaces That Promote Psychological Resilience: Constructing a Unified Theoretical Model

    PubMed Central

    Cusack, Lynette; Smith, Morgan; Hegney, Desley; Rees, Clare S.; Breen, Lauren J.; Witt, Regina R.; Rogers, Cath; Williams, Allison; Cross, Wendy; Cheung, Kin

    2016-01-01

    Building nurses' resilience to complex and stressful practice environments is necessary to keep skilled nurses in the workplace and ensuring safe patient care. A unified theoretical framework titled Health Services Workplace Environmental Resilience Model (HSWERM), is presented to explain the environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. The framework builds on a previously-published theoretical model of individual resilience, which identified the key constructs of psychological resilience as self-efficacy, coping and mindfulness, but did not examine environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. This unified theoretical framework was developed using a literary synthesis drawing on data from international studies and literature reviews on the nursing workforce in hospitals. The most frequent workplace environmental factors were identified, extracted and clustered in alignment with key constructs for psychological resilience. Six major organizational concepts emerged that related to a positive resilience-building workplace and formed the foundation of the theoretical model. Three concepts related to nursing staff support (professional, practice, personal) and three related to nursing staff development (professional, practice, personal) within the workplace environment. The unified theoretical model incorporates these concepts within the workplace context, linking to the nurse, and then impacting on personal resilience and workplace outcomes, and its use has the potential to increase staff retention and quality of patient care. PMID:27242567

  19. Genetics, environmental factors and the emerging role of epigenetics in neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Migliore, Lucia; Coppedè, Fabio

    2009-07-10

    In the present review we summarize recent advances in the understanding of the interaction between genetics and environmental factors involved in complex multi-factorial neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). The discovery of several genes responsible for the familial forms has led to a better comprehension of the molecular pathways involved in the selective neuronal degeneration which is specific for each of these disorders. However, the vast majority of the cases occurs as sporadic forms, likely resulting from complex gene-gene and gene-environment interplay. Several environmental factors, including, pesticides, metals, head injuries, lifestyles and dietary habits have been associated with increased disease risk or even with protection. Hundreds of genetic variants have been investigated as possible risk factors for the sporadic forms, but results are often conflicting, not repeated or inconclusive. New approaches to environmental health research are revealing us that at the basis there could be chemically induced changes in gene regulation and emphasise the importance of understanding the susceptibility of the human epigenome to dietary and other environmental effects.

  20. Exploring Environmental Factors in Nursing Workplaces That Promote Psychological Resilience: Constructing a Unified Theoretical Model.

    PubMed

    Cusack, Lynette; Smith, Morgan; Hegney, Desley; Rees, Clare S; Breen, Lauren J; Witt, Regina R; Rogers, Cath; Williams, Allison; Cross, Wendy; Cheung, Kin

    2016-01-01

    Building nurses' resilience to complex and stressful practice environments is necessary to keep skilled nurses in the workplace and ensuring safe patient care. A unified theoretical framework titled Health Services Workplace Environmental Resilience Model (HSWERM), is presented to explain the environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. The framework builds on a previously-published theoretical model of individual resilience, which identified the key constructs of psychological resilience as self-efficacy, coping and mindfulness, but did not examine environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. This unified theoretical framework was developed using a literary synthesis drawing on data from international studies and literature reviews on the nursing workforce in hospitals. The most frequent workplace environmental factors were identified, extracted and clustered in alignment with key constructs for psychological resilience. Six major organizational concepts emerged that related to a positive resilience-building workplace and formed the foundation of the theoretical model. Three concepts related to nursing staff support (professional, practice, personal) and three related to nursing staff development (professional, practice, personal) within the workplace environment. The unified theoretical model incorporates these concepts within the workplace context, linking to the nurse, and then impacting on personal resilience and workplace outcomes, and its use has the potential to increase staff retention and quality of patient care.

  1. Microcystis genotype succession and related environmental factors in Lake Taihu during cyanobacterial blooms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingyu; Sun, Mengjia; Wang, Jinmei; Yang, Letian; Luo, Lan; Li, Pengfu; Kong, Fanxiang

    2012-11-01

    From spring to autumn, heavy Microcystis blooms always occur in Lake Taihu, although environmental conditions vary markedly. We speculated that Microcystis genotype succession could play an important role in adaptation to environmental changes and long-term maintenance of the high Microcystis biomass. In this study, we investigated Microcystis genotype succession pattern and the related environmental variables in Lake Taihu during cyanobacterial blooms. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of polymerase chain reaction -amplified the genus-specific cpcBA and mcyJ gene fragments was used to monitor the variations of Microcystis genotype and potential microcystin (MC)-producing Microcystis genotype compositions during blooms biweekly in three sites (Meiliang Bay, lake center, and Gonghu Bay) and CANOCO 4.5 for Windows were used for the multivariate statistical analysis of their relationships to environmental variables. DGGE patterns indicated that the number of dominant cpcBA genotype per sample increased from spring to autumn. Principal component analysis ordination plots of DGGE profiles showed clear temporal distribution pattern, but not spatial distribution pattern based on both cpcBA and mcyJ genotype compositions. These results indicated there were relatively gradual successions of Microcystis cpcBA and mcyJ genotype compositions in each site, and no distinct spatial difference among the three sites. Redundancy analyses of the gel patterns showed that, in all the three sites, three environmental factors (nitrate, pH, and chemical oxygen demand) were correlated significantly to successions of both cpcBA and mcyJ genotypes except for mcyJ genotype in the lake center. Spearman's correlations indicated that the three environmental variables were also strongly correlated with chl a and MC concentrations. These results suggested that the environmental factors affecting succession of Microcystis community composition might also influence the growth of

  2. Effects of the health service and environmental factors on infant mortality: the case of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, M

    1980-01-01

    One of the findings of this study is that regional variations in the infant mortality rates of Sri Lanka are large, ranging from 26 per 1000 live births in Jaffna to 91 per 1000 in Nuwara Eliya, a tea estate district. These differences are more strongly associated with regional variations in environmental determinants of mortality than with regional variations in public health expenditure. The most significant environmental factor associated with interregional infant mortality rates was to be the nature of the water supply (r = -0.82, significant at the 99% level). Regional government expenditure on health had only a weak association with infant mortality rates (r = 0.08). PMID:6772730

  3. Regional and geographical variations in infertility: effects of environmental, cultural, and socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed

    Leke, R J; Oduma, J A; Bassol-Mayagoitia, S; Bacha, A M; Grigor, K M

    1993-07-01

    Fertility is affected by many different cultural, environmental, and socioeconomic factors, especially in developing countries where poverty and infections are commonplace. Environmental factors play a major role in infertility in Africa. One of the most important health problems in sub-Saharan Africa is the high rate of infertility and childlessness. The African society has a strong traditional heritage, and the study of the patterns of infertility in this part of the world would be incomplete without consideration of the sociocultural and environmental factors. The most cost-effective approach to solving the infertility problems in Africa is prevention and education. In Mexico, problems of reproductive health are associated with pregnancy in adolescents, sexually transmitted diseases and genitourinary neoplasms. Infertility affects 10% of couples, usually as a result of asymptomatic infection. Education, poverty, nutrition, and pollution are problems that must be tackled. The government has taken positive action in the State of São Paulo in Brazil, where gender discrimination is a major factor affecting women's health and reproductive outcomes. The implementation of new policies with adequate funding has resulted in marked improvements.

  4. Regional and geographical variations in infertility: effects of environmental, cultural, and socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed Central

    Leke, R J; Oduma, J A; Bassol-Mayagoitia, S; Bacha, A M; Grigor, K M

    1993-01-01

    Fertility is affected by many different cultural, environmental, and socioeconomic factors, especially in developing countries where poverty and infections are commonplace. Environmental factors play a major role in infertility in Africa. One of the most important health problems in sub-Saharan Africa is the high rate of infertility and childlessness. The African society has a strong traditional heritage, and the study of the patterns of infertility in this part of the world would be incomplete without consideration of the sociocultural and environmental factors. The most cost-effective approach to solving the infertility problems in Africa is prevention and education. In Mexico, problems of reproductive health are associated with pregnancy in adolescents, sexually transmitted diseases and genitourinary neoplasms. Infertility affects 10% of couples, usually as a result of asymptomatic infection. Education, poverty, nutrition, and pollution are problems that must be tackled. The government has taken positive action in the State of São Paulo in Brazil, where gender discrimination is a major factor affecting women's health and reproductive outcomes. The implementation of new policies with adequate funding has resulted in marked improvements. PMID:8243409

  5. [Dynamic change of Yulania sap flow before dormancy in response to environmental factors].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhong-Long; Jia, Zhong-Kui; Ma, Lu-Yi; Wang, Xiao-Ling; Duan, Jie

    2012-09-01

    From September 26 to November 5, 2011, the sap flow of Yulania wufengensis trees including cold-resistance type (HK) and non cold-resistance type (HF), Y. 'Sunspire' (HY), and Yulania x soulangeana (EQ) which were introduced into Beijing four years before was monitored by Flow-32 stem heat balance sensor, and, in combining with the environmental factors monitored synchronically, the changes of the sap flow before dormancy and the environmental factors were analyzed, with the responses of the sap flow to the environmental factors investigated at the scales of 0.5 h and 1 day. The sap flow of the Yulanias trees before dormancy displayed an obvious trend of declining day by day. The environmental factors affecting the sap flow could be divided into two categories, i. e., meteorological index (MI) and soil index (SI). The sap flow of the Yulanias trees had a synchronous variation rhythm with MI, and declined in parallel to SI. The combined effect of MI and SI on the diurnal changes of the sap flow was 69% - 73%. At both 0.5 h and 1 day scales, the sap flow showed significantly correlations with total radiation (Rs), air vapor pressure deficit (D), air relative humidity (RH), air temperature (Ta), and wind speed (w). The sap flow showed no significant correlations with soil temperature (Ts) and soil water content (SWC) at 0. 5 h scale, but had significant correlations with Ts, SWC, and day length (Z) at 1 day scale (the correlation efficient was about 0.8). Only Rs, Z, and D were included into the model at 1 day scale, but almost all environmental factors (except SWC and Ts) were included in the model at 0.5 h scale. Except for HF type, the regression coefficients of the model for the Yulanias trees at 1 day scale (0.92-0.96) were larger than those at 0.5 h scale (0.77-0.87), and the correlations between the dynamic changes of sap flow and the environmental factor were consistent, which was in accord with the fact that the HF could not overwinter in Beijing but the

  6. Environmental and socio-demographic factors associated to asthma in adolescents in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kuschnir, Fábio Chigres; Alves da Cunha, Antônio José Ledo

    2007-03-01

    Although asthma is of frequent occurrence, little is known about the factors associated with this disease in Brazil. We studied the association between asthma, environmental and socio-demographic factors in adolescents in Nova lguacu, Rio de Janeiro State. Cross-sectional study using the questionnaires about asthma and environmental factors from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). We performed bivariate analyses between asthma and the factors studied using prevalence ratio (PR), confidence intervals of 95% (95% Cl) and Chi-squared test. Factors associated to asthma in a bivariate analysis were studied using logistic regression and odds ratio (OR). We included 3,033 students, aged 13-14 yrs, selected from 37 schools. The prevalence of asthma was 13.1%. Being female (OR = 1.40; 95%Cl:1.11-1.77), the presence of a mother who smokes (OR = 1.32; 95%Cl:1.04-1.66), a cat in the domicile (OR = 1.32; 95%Cl:1.04-1.69), being the firstborn (OR = 1.34; 95%Cl:1.07-1.68), frequent use of paracetamol (OR = 1.45; 95%Cl: 1.15-1.84), the presence of rhinitis (OR = 5.15; 95%:3.89-6.82) and eczema (OR = 2.35; 95%Cl:1.73-3.19) were independently associated to asthma. Environmental and socio-demographic factors were associated to asthma in adolescents in Rio de Janeiro, irrespective of the presence of others allergic diseases. Interventions acting on these factors may decrease the occurrence of asthma in this population.

  7. Environmental Risk Factors in Han and Uyghur Children with Dyslexia: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Baoping; Chen, Yun; Zhou, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Background Several studies have been conducted to explore risk factors for dyslexia. However, most studies examining dyslexia have been skewed toward Western countries, and few have considered two nationalities simultaneously. This study focused on differences in dyslexia prevalence and potential environmental risk factors between Han and Uyghur children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kashgar and Aksu, cities in Xinjiang province, China. A two-stage sampling strategy was used to recruit 2,854 students in grades 3–6 from 5 primary schools in 5 districts; 2,348 valid student questionnaires were included in the analysis. Dyslexia checklists for Chinese and Uyghur children and pupil rating scales were used to identify children with dyslexia. Questions related to the home literacy environment and reading ability were used to evaluate potential environmental risk factors. Single factor analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine prevalence and risk factors for dyslexia. Results Dyslexia prevalence differed significantly between Han (3.9%) and Uyghur (7.0%) children (P < 0.05), and the boy-to-girl diagnosis ratio was almost 2:1. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that ethnic differences in dyslexia prevalence between Han and Uyghur children could have occurred because of factors such as mother’s occupation (P = 0.02, OR = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.01–0.68) and the frequency with which parents told stories (P = 0.00, OR = 4.50, 95% CI = 1.67–12.11). Conclusions The prevalence of dyslexia was high in all children, particularly those in the Uyghur group. Environmental factors could have been responsible for some of the differences observed. The results contribute to the early identification and management of dyslexia in children from these two groups and research examining developmental dyslexia and differences in racial genetics. PMID:27416106

  8. Objective assessment of facial skin aging and the associated environmental factors in Japanese monozygotic twins.

    PubMed

    Ichibori, Ryoko; Fujiwara, Takashi; Tanigawa, Tomoko; Kanazawa, Shigeyuki; Shingaki, Kenta; Torii, Kosuke; Tomita, Koichi; Yano, Kenji; Sakai, Yasuo; Hosokawa, Ko

    2014-06-01

    Twin studies, especially those involving monozygotic (MZ) twins, facilitate the analysis of factors affecting skin aging while controlling for age, gender, and genetic susceptibility. The purpose of this study was to objectively assess various features of facial skin and analyze the effects of environmental factors on these features in MZ twins. At the Osaka Twin Research Center, 67 pairs of MZ twins underwent medical interviews and photographic assessments, using the VISIA(®) Complexion Analysis System. First, the average scores of the right and left cheek skin spots, wrinkles, pores, texture, and erythema were calculated; the differences between the scores were then compared in each pair of twins. Next, using the results of medical interviews and VISIA data, we investigated the effects of environmental factors on skin aging. The data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficient test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The intrapair differences in facial texture scores significantly increased as the age of the twins increased (P = 0.03). Among the twin pairs who provided answers to the questions regarding history differences in medical interviews, the twins who smoked or did not use skin protection showed significantly higher facial texture or wrinkle scores compared with the twins not exposed to cigarettes or protectants (P = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively). The study demonstrated that skin aging among Japanese MZ twins, especially in terms of facial texture, was significantly influenced by environmental factors. In addition, smoking and skin protectant use were important environmental factors influencing skin aging.

  9. Environmental Determinants of Cardiovascular Diseases Risk Factors: A Qualitative Directed Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sabzmakan, Leila; Mohammadi, Eesa; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Afaghi, Ahmad; Naseri, Mohammad Hassan; Mirzaei, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number one cause of death in the world. In most analyses of health problems, environment plays a significant and modifiable role in causing the problem either directly or indirectly through behavior. Objectives: This study aims to understand the patients and healthcare providers’ experiences about the environmental determinants of CVD risk factors based on the Precede Model. Patients and Methods: This qualitative study conducted over six months in 2012 at Diabetes Units of Health Centers associated with Alborz University of Medical Sciences and Health Services which is located in Karaj, Iran. The data were collected based on individual semi-structured interviews with 50 patients and 12 healthcare providers. Data analysis was performed simultaneous with data collection using the content analysis directed method. Results: Lack of behaviors like stress control, healthy eating and physical activity were the roots of the risk factors for CVD. The environmental factor is one of the barriers for conducting these behaviors. The environmental barriers included of structural environment including “availability and accessibility of health resources”, “new skills”, and “law and policies” which are located in enabling category and social environment including “social support”, “motivation to comply” and “consequences of behavior” which are located in reinforcing category. The most barriers to performing health behaviors were often structural. Conclusions: The environmental factors were barriers for doing healthy behaviors. These factors need to be considered to design health promotion interventions. Policymakers should not only focus on patients’ education but also should provide specific facilities to enhance economic, social and cultural status. PMID:25031848

  10. Kallikrein 3 and vitamin D receptor polymorphisms: potentials environmental risk factors for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship and interaction of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of KLK3 and VDR and environmental factors with the predisposition to prostate cancer within Chinese population. Methods The comparison between 108 patients and 242 healthy people was carried out by using the TaqMan/MGB Probe Technology to determine the genotypes of KLK3(rs2735839 is located between KLK2 and KLK3) and VDR (rs731236 is located exon 9). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression model were used to assess the connection of genetic polymorphisms and environmental risk factors with PCa by collecting demographic information, as well as BMI, consumption of cigarettes, alcohol, and tea, exercise, and other environmental risk factors. Results The appearing frequencies of AA, AG, and GG genotypes at the SNPs rs2735839 (A/G) for KLK3 were 13.89%, 62.96% and 23.15% in PCa and 37.19%, 44.63%, 18.18% in control, respectively; these two groups are statistically different (P = 0.00). While the appearing frequencies of TT, TC, and CC genotypes at the SNPs rs731236 (T/C) for VDR were 88.89%, 9, 26%, 1.85% and 90.50%, 9.10%, 0.40% in control, respectively, with no significant statistical difference between the two group. The study confirmed decreasing risk in tea drinkers (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.35-0.96). Conclusions Our studies indicate that environmental factor-tea drinking is associated with the development of PCa. The habit of drinking tea is a protective factor against PCa. The SNPs rs2735839 for KLK3 is strongly related to the development of PCa, while the SNPs rs731236 for VDR is not. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/9759981571058803. PMID:24755043

  11. [Effects of multiple environmental factors on triflulsulfuron-methyl degradation in soils].

    PubMed

    Song, Ning-Hui; Shan, Zheng-Jun; Shi, Li-Li; Guo, Min; Xu, Jing; Kong, De-Yang

    2012-12-01

    Triflulsulfuron-methyl, a widely used sulfonylurea herbicide, has done harm to the soil and crop. Its environment fate was affected by many factors such as physicochemical or biological factors. In order to understand the effects of different environmental factors on the degradation of triflulsulfuron-methyl in soil, simulated indoor incubation experiments were carried out to explore the effects of soil microbe, soil type, dissolved organic matter (DOM), temperature, and soil moisture on triflulsulfuron-methyl degradation in soils. The results showed that different environmental factors such as temperature, soil moisture, soil microorganisms and soil type influenced triflulsulfuron-methyl degradation in different degrees. The increased soil microbial biomass, soil organic matters and DOM were beneficial to the soil degradation of triflulsulfuron-methyl, meanwhile, the decrease in soil pH could accelerate its degradation in soils. The results showed that soil microorganisms were the main factor effecting the degradation of triflulsulfuron-methyl in soil. Our results provided initial data for the conclusion that a set of biological and physiochemical factors coordinately regulate the decay of triflulsulfuron-methyl in soils.

  12. What is the role of modifiable environmental and lifestyle risk factors in young onset dementia?

    PubMed

    Cations, Monica; Withall, Adrienne; Low, Lee-Fay; Draper, Brian

    2016-02-01

    Young onset dementia (YOD) is associated with significant costs and burden, but its cause is poorly understood. The aim of this review was to determine whether environmental and lifestyle factors are associated with risk for non-autosomal dominant degenerative and vascular YOD. Academic databases were searched to March 2015 for studies assessing the impact of modifiable factors (e.g. education, cardiovascular illness, psychiatric illness, alcohol use) in participants under 65 years at symptom onset. Cardiovascular illness, traumatic brain injury, psychiatric illness, heavy alcohol use and estrogen-related factors were identified as potential risk factors for YOD. Evidence for education, childhood development, smoking and heavy metal exposure was inconsistent or of poor quality. A dose-response relationship was found between cumulative and/or increasing severity of exposure and risk for YOD. Environmental and lifestyle risk factors may be relevant to YOD, particularly with severe or cumulative exposure. More high quality research is required to confirm which factors confer risk and when.

  13. Assessing the roles of environmental factors in coastal fish production in the northern Baltic Sea: a Bayesian network application.

    PubMed

    Uusitalo, Laura; Kuikka, Sakari; Kauppila, Pirkko; Söderkultalahti, Pirkko; Bäck, Saara

    2012-07-01

    Environmental conditions play a crucial role in the distribution and abundance of fish species in any area. Much research has been attributed to the requirements and tolerance limits of commercially exploited fish species. It is rare, however, that studies have been able to address the relative importance of potentially restrictive environmental factors; extensive enough to allow for estimation of the effect of several environmental factors through the fishes' life span. The coastline of Finland in the northern Baltic Sea offers a unique natural experimental setting that can be used to assess the relative importance of various environmental factors for the species occupying it. The area includes major variations in several crucial environmental factors: salinity, temperature regime, represented by winter ice duration, coastline characteristics, and eutrophic status. Furthermore, Finland has collected extensive and spatially representative data of water quality and environmental factors, as well as a long and extraordinarily spatially detailed data set of commercial catches of several fish species. In this article, we make an attempt to correlate the environmental data to the commercial catches of fish species, assuming that the commercial catches reflect, to some reasonable degree, the productivity of that species in that area (compared to other areas and combinations of environmental factors, not to other species). We use a Bayesian network approach to examine the sensitivity of the species to the environmental factors.

  14. Stressors during Pregnancy and the Postnatal Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany

    1989-01-01

    Some infants experience unusual stress from pregnancy through the postnatal period and are especially called upon to exercise coping responses. Discusses unusual stressors, how the infant naturally copes with them, and how caregivers can provide assistance. Reviews studies on stress-relieving intervention techniques. (NH)

  15. Recipient twin limb ischemia with postnatal onset.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, Roland Spencer

    2007-02-01

    After the occurrence of 3 local cases of limb ischemia in newborn twins, we reviewed the literature to investigate this combination systematically. This review reveals a distinct condition: postnatal onset limb ischemia affecting recipient twins in twin-twin transfusion syndrome.

  16. Radiology of postnatal skeletal development. Pt. 7

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, J.A.; Phillips, S.B.

    1983-02-01

    Twenty-four pairs of scapulae from fetal specimens and 35 pairs of scapulae from postnatal cadavers ranging in age from full-term neonates to 14 years, were studied morphologically and roentgenographically. Air-cartilage interfacing was used to demonstrate both the osseous and cartilaginous contours. When the entire chondro-osseous dimensions, rather than just the osseous dimensions, were measured, the scapula had a height-width ratio ranging from 1.36 to 1.52 (average 1.44) during most of fetal development. The exceptions were three stillborns with camptomelic, thanatophoric, and achondrogenic dwarfism in which the ratio averaged 0.6. At no time during fetal development was the glenoid cavity convex; it always had a concave articular surface. However, the osseous subchrondral countour was often flat or slightly convex. In the postnatal period the height-width ratio averaged 1.49. The ratio remained virtually unchanged throughout skeletal growth and maturation. In a patient with unilateral Sprengel's deformity the ratio for the normal side was 1.5, while the abnormal was 1.0. The cartilaginous glenoid cavity was always concave during postnatal development, even in the specimens with major structural deformities, although the subchondral osseous contour was usually flat or convex during the first few years of postnatal development. Ossification of the coracoid process began with the development of a primary center at three to four months. A bipolar physis was present between the primary coracoid center and the primary scapular center until late adolescence.

  17. Innate and adaptive immune traits are differentially affected by genetic and environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Mangino, Massimo; Roederer, Mario; Beddall, Margaret H.; Nestle, Frank O.; Spector, Tim D.

    2017-01-01

    The diversity and activity of leukocytes is controlled by genetic and environmental influences to maintain balanced immune responses. However, the relative contribution of environmental compared with genetic factors that affect variations in immune traits is unknown. Here we analyse 23,394 immune phenotypes in 497 adult female twins. 76% of these traits show a predominantly heritable influence, whereas 24% are mostly influenced by environment. These data highlight the importance of shared childhood environmental influences such as diet, infections or microbes in shaping immune homeostasis for monocytes, B1 cells, γδ T cells and NKT cells, whereas dendritic cells, B2 cells, CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells are more influenced by genetics. Although leukocyte subsets are influenced by genetics and environment, adaptive immune traits are more affected by genetics, whereas innate immune traits are more affected by environment. PMID:28054551

  18. Associations between environmental factors and hospital admissions for sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Piel, Frédéric B; Tewari, Sanjay; Brousse, Valentine; Analitis, Antonis; Font, Anna; Menzel, Stephan; Chakravorty, Subarna; Thein, Swee Lay; Inusa, Baba; Telfer, Paul; de Montalembert, Mariane; Fuller, Gary W; Katsouyanni, Klea; Rees, David C

    2017-04-01

    Sickle cell disease is an increasing global health burden. This inherited disease is characterized by a remarkable phenotypic heterogeneity, which can only partly be explained by genetic factors. Environmental factors are likely to play an important role but studies of their impact on disease severity are limited and their results are often inconsistent. This study investigated associations between a range of environmental factors and hospital admissions of young patients with sickle cell disease in London and in Paris between 2008 and 2012. Specific analyses were conducted for subgroups of patients with different genotypes and for the main reasons for admissions. Generalized additive models and distributed lag non-linear models were used to assess the magnitude of the associations and to calculate relative risks. Some environmental factors significantly influence the numbers of hospital admissions of children with sickle cell disease, although the associations identified are complicated. Our study suggests that meteorological factors are more likely to be associated with hospital admissions for sickle cell disease than air pollutants. It confirms previous reports of risks associated with wind speed (risk ratio: 1.06/standard deviation; 95% confidence interval: 1.00-1.12) and also with rainfall (1.06/standard deviation; 95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.12). Maximum atmospheric pressure was found to be a protective factor (0.93/standard deviation; 95% confidence interval: 0.88-0.99). Weak or no associations were found with temperature. Divergent associations were identified for different genotypes or reasons for admissions, which could partly explain the lack of consistency in earlier studies. Advice to patients with sickle cell disease usually includes avoiding a range of environmental conditions that are believed to trigger acute complications, including extreme temperatures and high altitudes. Scientific evidence to support such advice is limited and sometimes

  19. Environmental factors influencing the development of black leaf streak (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet) on bananas in Puerto Rico.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of environmental factors on the development of black leaf streak (BLS) were studied in Puerto Rico under field conditions. Environmental factors evaluated included temperature, relative humidity, rainfall and solar radiation. Their effect on BLS was determined by recording the youngest...

  20. What High-Achieving Latino Students Need to Apply to College: Environmental Factors, Individual Resiliency, or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Gwendelyn J.

    2014-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated how well environmental and individual factors predicted college-going behavior for college eligible Latino/as. Three questions were addressed: (a) Is there a relationship between individual agency and college-going behavior after controlling for environmental factors? (b) What is the relationship between the…

  1. Epidemiological Study on the Involvements of Environmental Factors and Allergy in Child Mental Health Using the Autism Screening Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibata, Aki; Hitomi, Yoshiaki; Kambayashi, Yasuhiro; Hibino, Yuri; Yamazaki, Masami; Mitoma, Junko; Asakura, Hiroki; Hayashi, Koichi; Otaki, Naoto; Sagara, Takiko; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Although autism is now recognized as being very common (Buie et al., 2010) and as developing due to not only genetic but also environmental factors, there is insufficient epidemiological evidence on the relationship between autism and allergy. In this study, therefore, we attempted to clarify the association of environmental factors with autism…

  2. Evaluation of postnatal growth of preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Bertino, Enrico; Di Nicola, Paola; Giuliani, Francesca; Coscia, Alessandra; Varalda, Alessia; Occhi, Luciana; Rossi, Claudia

    2011-10-01

    The past two decades have seen a progressive improvement in the survival rates of preterm infants, especially in neonates <30 weeks of gestational age. These neonates constitute the large majority of the population in neonatal intensive care units. The correct evaluation of postnatal growth of these babies is nowadays of primary concern, although the definition of their optimal postnatal growth pattern is still controversial. Concerns have also been raised about the strategies to monitor their growth, specifically in relation to the charts used. At present the available charts in clinical practice are fetal growth charts, neonatal anthropometric charts and postnatal growth charts for term infants. None of these, for different reasons, is suitable to correctly evaluate preterm infant growth. An international multicentric project has recently started a study aiming at building a prescriptive standard for the evaluation of postnatal growth of preterm infants and it will be available in the next years providing a population that is conceptually as close as possible to the prescriptive approach used for the construction of the WHO infant and child growth standards. At present, while an international longitudinal standard for evaluating preterm infant postnatal growth is lacking, in Italy the best compromise in clinical practice is likely to be as follows: new Italian INeS (Italian Neonatal Study) charts up to term; International longitudinal charts WHO 2006 or CDC 2002 from term to two years; finally the Italian Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes (SIEDP) 2006 growth charts could be suitable for monitoring the growth of these infants from two years up to 20 years of age.

  3. Bibliometric approach of factors affecting scientific productivity in environmental sciences and ecology.

    PubMed

    Dragos, Cristian Mihai; Dragos, Simona Laura

    2013-04-01

    Different academic bibliometric studies have measured the influence of economic, political and linguistic factors in the academic output of countries. Separate analysis in different fields can reveal specific incentive factors. Our study proves that the Environmental Performance Index, computed by Yale University, is highly significant (p<0.01) for the productivity of research and development activities in environmental sciences and ecology. The control variables like education financing, publishing of ISI Thomson domestic journals and the English language are also significant. The methodology uses Ordinary Least Squares multiple regressions with convincing results (R(2)=0.752). The relative positions of the 92 countries in the sample are also discussed. We draw up a ranking of the countries' concern for the environment, considering evenly the scientific productivity and the environment quality. We notice huge differences concerning the number of inhabitants and population income between the countries that dominate the classification and those occupying the last positions.

  4. The role of environmental factors in medically unexplained symptoms and related syndromes: conference summary and recommendations.

    PubMed Central

    Kipen, Howard M; Fiedler, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    This monograph of peer-reviewed articles is based on presentations at the conference "Environmental Factors in Medically Unexplained Physical Symptoms and Related Syndromes" held 10-12 January 2001 in Piscataway, New Jersey, USA. The purpose of the conference was to determine research priorities for elucidating the role of environmental factors in medically unexplained symptoms and symptom syndromes. These include conditions such as chronic fatigue syndrome, multiple chemical sensitivities, sick building syndrome, Gulf War illness, and the like. Approximately 1 1/2 days were devoted to plenary talks and 1 day was devoted to break-out sessions to discuss epidemiologic, psychosocial, and experimental research. Recommendations were made for a series of epidemiologic, psychosocial, and experimental research approaches, with acknowledgment that nosology issues are clearly fundamental to advancing understanding of these conditions. PMID:12194891

  5. Worker, workplace, and community/environmental risk factors for workplace violence in emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Gordon Lee; Pekar, Bunnany; Byczkowski, Terri L; Fisher, Bonnie S

    2017-03-04

    Workplace violence committed by patients and visitors has high propensity to occur against emergency department employees. This article reports the association of worker, workplace, and community/environmental factors with violence risks. A cross-sectional research design was used with 280 employees from six emergency departments in the Midwest United States. Respondents completed the Survey of Violence Experienced by Staff and a 10-item demographic questionnaire. Data were analyzed using frequencies, percentages, Chi-square tests, and adjusted relative risks with 95% confidence intervals. Over 80% of respondents experienced at least one type of workplace violence with their current employer and approximately 40% experienced all three types. Risks for workplace violence were significantly higher for registered nurses and hospital-based emergency departments. Workplace violence can impact all employees in the emergency department regardless of worker, workplace, and community/environmental factors.

  6. Environmental factors that influence the location of crop agriculture in the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Nancy T.; Capel, Paul D.

    2011-01-01

    Most crops are grown on land with shallow slope where the temperature, precipitation, and soils are favorable. In areas that are too steep, wet, or dry, landscapes have been modified to allow cultivation. Some of the limitations of the environmental factors that determine the location of agriculture can be overcome through modifications, but others cannot. On a larger-than-field scale, agricultural modifications commonly influence water availability through irrigation and (or) drainage and soil fertility and (or) organic-matter content through amendments such as manure, commercial fertilizer and lime. In general, it is not feasible to modify the other environmental factors, soil texture, soil depth, soil mineralogy, temperature, and terrain at large scales.

  7. Asthma in Urban Children: Epidemiology, Environmental Risk Factors, and the Public Health Domain.

    PubMed

    Milligan, Ki Lee; Matsui, Elizabeth; Sharma, Hemant

    2016-04-01

    Asthma is the most commonly reported chronic condition of childhood in developed countries, with 6.5 million children affected in the USA. A disparate burden of childhood asthma is seen among socioeconomically disadvantaged youth, often concentrated in urban areas with high poverty rates. Host factors that predispose a child to asthma include atopy, male gender, parental history of asthma, and also race, ethnicity, and genetic and epigenetic susceptibilities. Environmental factors, such as improved hygiene, ambient air pollution, and early life exposures to microbes and aeroallergens, also influence the development of asthma. With greater than 90% of time spent indoors, home exposures (such as cockroach, rodent, and indoor air pollution) are highly relevant for urban asthma. Morbidity reduction may require focused public health initiatives for environmental intervention in high priority risk groups and the addition of immune modulatory agents in children with poorly controlled disease.

  8. The Role of Environmental Factors in Modulating Immune Responses in Early Life

    PubMed Central

    MacGillivray, Duncan M.; Kollmann, Tobias R.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of immunological memory stipulates that past exposures shape present immune function. These exposures include not only specific antigens impacting adaptive immune memory but also conserved pathogen or danger associated molecular patterns that mold innate immune responses for prolonged periods of time. It should thus not come as a surprise that there is a vast range of external or environmental factors that impact immunity. The importance of environmental factors modulating immunity is most readily recognized in early life, a period of rapidly changing environments. We here summarize available data on the role of environment shaping immune development and from it derive an overarching hypothesis relating the underlying molecular mechanisms and evolutionary principles involved. PMID:25309535

  9. Coexistence of specialist and generalist species is shaped by dispersal and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Büchi, Lucie; Vuilleumier, Séverine

    2014-05-01

    Disentangling the mechanisms mediating the coexistence of habitat specialists and generalists has been a long-standing subject of investigation. However, the roles of species traits and environmental and spatial factors have not been assessed in a unifying theoretical framework. Theory suggests that specialist species are more competitive in natural communities. However, empirical work has shown that specialist species are declining worldwide due to habitat loss and fragmentation. We addressed the question of the coexistence of specialist and generalist species with a spatially explicit metacommunity model in continuous and heterogeneous environments. We characterized how species' dispersal abilities, the number of interacting species, environmental spatial autocorrelation, and disturbance impact community composition. Our results demonstrated that species' dispersal ability and the number of interacting species had a drastic influence on the composition of metacommunities. More specialized species coexisted when species had large dispersal abilities and when the number of interacting species was high. Disturbance selected against highly specialized species, whereas environmental spatial autocorrelation had a marginal impact. Interestingly, species richness and niche breadth were mainly positively correlated at the community scale but were negatively correlated at the metacommunity scale. Numerous diversely specialized species can thus coexist, but both species' intrinsic traits and environmental factors interact to shape the specialization signatures of communities at both the local and global scales.

  10. Test-retest reliability of a questionnaire to assess physical environmental factors pertaining to physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Evenson, Kelly R; McGinn, Aileen P

    2005-01-01

    Background Despite the documented benefits of physical activity, many adults do not obtain the recommended amounts. Barriers to physical activity occur at multiple levels, including at the individual, interpersonal, and environmental levels. Only until more recently has there been a concerted focus on how the physical environment might affect physical activity behavior. With this new area of study, self-report measures should be psychometrically tested before use in research studies. Therefore the objective of this study was to document the test-retest reliability of a questionnaire designed to assess physical environmental factors that might be associated with physical activity in a diverse adult population. Methods Test and retest surveys were conducted over the telephone with 106 African American and White women and men living in either Forsyth County, North Carolina or Jackson, Mississippi. Reliability of self-reported environmental factors across four domains (e.g., access to facilities and destinations, functionality and safety, aesthetics, natural environment) was determined using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) overall and separately by gender and race. Results Generally items displayed moderate and sometimes substantial reliability (ICC between 0.4 to 0.8), with a few differences by gender or race, across each of the domains. Conclusion This study provides some psychometric evidence for the use of many of these questions in studies examining the effect of self-reported physical environmental measures on physical activity behaviors, among African American and White women and men. PMID:15958168

  11. Interactions between toxic chemicals and natural environmental factors--a meta-analysis and case studies.

    PubMed

    Laskowski, Ryszard; Bednarska, Agnieszka J; Kramarz, Paulina E; Loureiro, Susana; Scheil, Volker; Kudłek, Joanna; Holmstrup, Martin

    2010-08-15

    The paper addresses problems arising from effects of natural environmental factors on toxicity of pollutants to organisms. Most studies on interactions between toxicants and natural factors, including those completed in the EU project NoMiracle (Novel Methods for Integrated Risk Assessment of Cumulative Stressors in Europe) described herein, showed that effects of toxic chemicals on organisms can differ vastly depending purely on external conditions. We compiled data from 61 studies on effects of temperature, moisture and dissolved oxygen on toxicity of a range of chemicals representing pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, plant protection products of bacterial origin and trace metals. In 62.3% cases significant interactions (p< or =0.05 or less) between natural factors and chemicals were found, reaching 100% for the effect of dissolved oxygen on toxicity of waterborne chemicals. The meta-analysis of the 61 studies showed that the null hypothesis assuming no interactions between toxic chemicals and natural environmental factors should be rejected at p=2.7 x 10(-82) (truncated product method probability). In a few cases of more complex experimental designs, also second-order interactions were found, indicating that natural factors can modify interactions among chemicals. Such data emphasize the necessity of including information on natural factors and their variation in time and across geographic regions in ecological risk assessment. This can be done only if appropriate ecotoxicological test designs are used, in which test organisms are exposed to toxicants at a range of environmental conditions. We advocate designing such tests for the second-tier ecological risk assessment procedures.

  12. Geographical and environmental factors driving the increase in the Lyme disease vector Ixodes scapularis

    PubMed Central

    Khatchikian, Camilo E.; Prusinski, Melissa; Stone, Melissa; Backenson, P. Bryon; Wang, Ing-Nang; Levy, Michael Z.; Brisson, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    The population densities of many organisms have changed dramatically in recent history. Increases in the population density of medically relevant organisms are of particular importance to public health as they are often correlated with the emergence of infectious diseases in human populations. Our aim is to delineate increases in density of a common disease vector in North America, the blacklegged tick, and to identify the environmental factors correlated with these population dynamics. Empirical data that capture the growth of a population are often necessary to identify environmental factors associated with these dynamics. We analyzed temporally- and spatially-structured field collected data in a geographical information systems framework to describe the population growth of blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis) and to identify environmental and climatic factors correlated with these dynamics. The density of the ticks increased throughout the study’s temporal and spatial ranges. Tick density increases were positively correlated with mild temperatures, low precipitation, low forest cover, and high urbanization. Importantly, models that accounted for these environmental factors accurately forecast future tick densities across the region. Tick density increased annually along the south-to-north gradient. These trends parallel the increases in human incidences of diseases commonly vectored by I. scapularis. For example, I. scapularis densities are correlated with human Lyme disease incidence, albeit in a non-linear manner that disappears at low tick densities, potentially indicating that a threshold tick density is needed to support epidemiologically-relevant levels of the Lyme disease bacterium. Our results demonstrate a connection between the biogeography of this species and public health. PMID:24371541

  13. Epidemiologic and Environmental Risk Factors of Rift Valley Fever in Southern Africa from 2008 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Glancey, Margaret M.; Linthicum, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks have been associated with periods of widespread and above-normal rainfall over several months. Knowledge on the environmental factors influencing disease transmission dynamics has provided the basis for developing models to predict RVF outbreaks in Africa. From 2008 to 2011, South Africa experienced the worst wave of RVF outbreaks in almost 40 years. We investigated rainfall-associated environmental factors in southern Africa preceding these outbreaks. Methods: RVF epizootic records obtained from the World Animal Health Information Database (WAHID), documenting livestock species affected, location, and time, were analyzed. Environmental variables including rainfall and satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data were collected and assessed in outbreak regions to understand the underlying drivers of the outbreaks. Results: The predominant domestic vertebrate species affected in 2008 and 2009 were cattle, when outbreaks were concentrated in the eastern provinces of South Africa. In 2010 and 2011, outbreaks occurred in the interior and southern provinces affecting over 16,000 sheep. The highest number of cases occurred between January and April but epidemics occurred in different regions every year, moving from the northeast of South Africa toward the southwest with each progressing year. The outbreaks showed a pattern of increased rainfall preceding epizootics ranging from 9 to 152 days; however, NDVI and rainfall were less correlated with the start of the outbreaks than has been observed in eastern Africa. Conclusions: Analyses of the multiyear RVF outbreaks of 2008 to 2011 in South Africa indicated that rainfall, NDVI, and other environmental and geographical factors, such as land use, drainage, and topography, play a role in disease emergence. Current and future investigations into these factors will be able to contribute to improving spatial accuracy of models to map risk areas

  14. Consideration for solar system exploration - A system to Mars. [biomedical, environmental, and psychological factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Garshnek, Victoria

    1989-01-01

    Biomedical issues related to a manned mission to Mars are reviewed. Consideration is given to cardiovascular deconditioning, hematological and immunological changes, bone and muscle changes, nutritional issues, and the development of physiological countermeasures. Environmental issues are discussed, including radiation hazards, toxic chemical exposure, and the cabin environment. Also, human factors, performance and behavior, medical screening of the crew, disease prediction, and health maintenance are examined.

  15. Solar Radiation and Vitamin D: Mitigating Environmental Factors in Autoimmune Disease

    PubMed Central

    Schwalfenberg, Gerry K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at the environmental role of vitamin D and solar radiation as risk reduction factors in autoimmune disease. Five diseases are considered: multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune disease of the thyroid, and inflammatory bowel disease. Clinical relevant studies and factors that may indicate evidence that autoimmune disease is a vitamin D-sensitive disease are presented. Studies that have resulted in prevention or amelioration of some autoimmune disease are discussed. An example of the utility of supplementing vitamin D in an unusual autoimmune disease, idiopathic thrombocytic purpura, is presented. PMID:22523507

  16. Postnatal exposure to trichloroethylene alters glutathione redox homeostasis, methylation potential, and neurotrophin expression in the mouse hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Blossom, Sarah J.; Melnyk, Stepan; Cooney, Craig A.; Gilbert, Kathleen M.; James, S. Jill

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that continuous exposure throughout gestation until the juvenile period to environmentally-relevant doses of trichloroethylene (TCE) in the drinking water of MRL+/+ mice promoted adverse behavior associated with glutathione depletion in the cerebellum indicating increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to extend our findings and further characterize the impact of TCE exposure on redox homeostasis and biomarkers of oxidative stress in the hippocampus, a brain region prone to oxidative stress. Instead of a continuous exposure, the mice were exposed to water only or two environmentally relevant doses of TCE in the drinking water postnatally from birth until 6 weeks of age. Biomarkers of plasma metabolites in the transsulfuration pathway and the transmethylation pathway of the methionine cycle were also examined. Gene expression of neurotrophins was examined to investigate a possible relationship between oxidative stress, redox imbalance and neurotrophic factor expression with TCE exposure. Our results show that hippocampi isolated from male mice exposed to TCE showed altered glutathione redox homeostasis indicating a more oxidized state. Also observed was a significant, dose dependent increase in glutathione precursors. Plasma from the TCE treated mice showed alterations in metabolites in the transsulfuration and transmethylation pathways indicating redox imbalance and altered methylation capacity. 3-Nitrotyrosine, a biomarker of protein oxidative stress, was also significantly higher in plasma and hippocampus of TCE-exposed mice compared to controls. In contrast, expression of key neurotrophic factors in the hippocampus (BDNF, NGF, and NT-3) was significantly reduced compared to controls. Our results demonstrate that low-level postnatal and early life TCE exposure modulates neurotrophin gene expression in the mouse hippocampus and may provide a mechanism for TCE-mediated neurotoxicity. PMID:22421312

  17. Using NASA Remotely Sensed Data to Help Characterize Environmental Risk Factors for National Public Health Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Crosson, William; Economou, Sigrid; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Estes, Sue; Hemmings, Sarah; Kent, Shia; Quattrochi, Dale; Wade, Gina; McClure, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is collaborating with the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) School of Public Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Center for Public Health Informatics to address issues of environmental health and enhance public health decision making by utilizing NASA remotely sensed data and products. The objectives of this study are to develop high-quality spatial data sets of environmental variables, link these with public health data from a national cohort study, and deliver the linked data sets and associated analyses to local, state and federal end-user groups. Three daily environmental data sets will be developed for the conterminous U.S. on different spatial resolutions for the period 2003-2008: (1) spatial surfaces of estimated fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposures on a 10-km grid utilizing the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground observations and NASA's MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data; (2) a 1-km grid of Land Surface Temperature (LST) using MODIS data; and (3) a 12-km grid of daily Solar Insolation (SI) using the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) forcing data. These environmental data sets will be linked with public health data from the UAB REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) national cohort study to determine whether exposures to these environmental risk factors are related to cognitive decline and other health outcomes. These environmental datasets and public health linkage analyses will be disseminated to end-users for decision making through the CDC Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) system.

  18. Underage drinking on saturday nights, sociodemographic and environmental risk factors: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Excessive alcohol consumption in underage people is a rising phenomenon. A major proportion of the disease burden and deaths of young people in developed nations is attributable to alcohol abuse. The aim of this study was to investigate social, demographic and environmental factors that may raise the risk of Saturday night drinking and binge drinking among Italian school students. Methods The study was conducted on a sample of 845 Italian underage school students, by means of an anonymous, self-test questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to identify independent risk factors for alcohol drinking and binge drinking. Ordered logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors for harmful drinking patterns. Results The independent variables that confer a higher risk of drinking in underage students are older age classes, male sex, returning home after midnight, belonging to a group with little respect for the rules, or to a group where young people are not seen as leaders. The higher the perception of alcohol consumption by the group, the higher the risk. Spending time in bars or discos coincides with a two-fold or four-fold increase, respectively, in the risk of alcohol consumption. Conclusion Our findings show that certain environmental and social risk factors are associated with underage drinking. The most important role for preventing young people's exposure to these factors lies with the family, because only parents can exert the necessary control and provide a barrier against potentially harmful situations. PMID:21729273

  19. Spatiotemporal Patterns of Evapotranspiration in Response to Multiple Environmental Factors Simulated by the Community Land Model

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Xiaoying; Mao, Jiafu; Thornton, P.; Huang, Maoyi

    2013-04-25

    Spatiotemporal patterns of evapotranspiration (ET) over the period from 1982 to 2008 are investigated and attributed to multiple environmental factors using the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4). Our results show that CLM4 captures the spatial distribution and interannual variability of ET well when compared to observation-based estimates. We find that climate dominates the predicted variability in ET. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration also plays an important role in modulating the trend of predicted ET over most land areas, and replaces climate to function as the dominant factor controlling ET changes over the North America, South America and Asia regions. Compared to the effect of climate and CO2 concentration, the roles of other factors such as nitrogen deposition, land use change and aerosol deposition are less pronounced and regionally dependent. The aerosol deposition contribution is the third most important factor for trends of ET over Europe, while it has the smallest impact over other regions. As ET is a dominant component of the terrestrial water cycle, our results suggest that environmental factors like elevated CO2, nitrogen and aerosol depositions, and land use change, in addition to climate, could have significant impact on future projections of water resources and water cycle dynamics at global and regional scales.

  20. TRANSFORMATION FACTORS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONSCIOUSNESS AND ACTION IN IIDA CITY RESIDENTS - ATTEITION TO ENVIRONMENTAL MEASURES AND SOCIAL CAPITAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, Nobuo; Higuchi, Kazukiyo; Tokai, Akihiro

    Iida City in Nagano Prefecture is a town with an advanced environmental strategy including citizenry participation in the town's environment plan, a network of EMS (Environmental Management system) businesses, and a citizens' solar power system. In this study, a questionnaire of Iida residents was carried out to determine their environmental consciousness, and the effect on their actions. It also examined the influence of current environmental measures on the residents, and the relation between the level of social capital and residents' environmental considerations. The results indicate that the environmental consideration level of the senior citizen group is higher than that of the entire Japan in Iida City, and environmental measures has improved the residents' environmental consciousness. And it is thought the environmental consideration level of the senior citizen group is related to the level of social capital.

  1. Prenatal and postnatal cocaine exposure predict teen cocaine use.

    PubMed

    Delaney-Black, Virginia; Chiodo, Lisa M; Hannigan, John H; Greenwald, Mark K; Janisse, James; Patterson, Grace; Huestis, Marilyn A; Partridge, Robert T; Ager, Joel; Sokol, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    Preclinical studies have identified alterations in cocaine and alcohol self-administration and behavioral responses to pharmacological challenges in adolescent offspring following prenatal exposure. To date, no published human studies have evaluated the relation between prenatal cocaine exposure and postnatal adolescent cocaine use. Human studies of prenatal cocaine-exposed children have also noted an increase in behaviors previously associated with substance use/abuse in teens and young adults, specifically childhood and teen externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, and attention problems. Despite these findings, human research has not addressed prior prenatal exposure as a potential predictor of teen drug use behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relations between prenatal cocaine exposure and teen cocaine use in a prospective longitudinal cohort (n=316) that permitted extensive control for child, parent and community risk factors. Logistic regression analyses and Structural Equation Modeling revealed that both prenatal exposure and postnatal parent/caregiver cocaine use were uniquely related to teen use of cocaine at age 14 years. Teen cocaine use was also directly predicted by teen community violence exposure and caregiver negativity, and was indirectly related to teen community drug exposure. These data provide further evidence of the importance of prenatal exposure, family and community factors in the intergenerational transmission of teen/young adult substance abuse/use.

  2. PERSONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS SIGNIFICANTLY ASSOCIATED WITH ELEVATED BLOOD LEAD LEVELS IN RURAL THAI CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Kavinum, Suporn; Papwijitsil, Ratchadaporn; Tontiwattanasap, Worawit; Khunyotying, Wanlee; Umpan, Jiraporn; BoonthuM, Ratchaneekorn; Kaewnate, Yingyot; Boonmee, Sasis; Thongchub, Winai; Rodsung, Thassanee

    2014-11-01

    A community-based study was conducted to determine personal risk factors and environmental sources of lead exposure for elevated blood lead levels (≥ 10 µg/dl, EBLLs) among rural children living at the Thailand-Myanmar border in Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. Six hundred ninety-five children aged 1-14 years old were screened for BLLs. Environmental specimens for lead measurements included samples of water from the streams, taps, and household containers, house floor dust, and foods. Possible lead release from the cooking ware was determined using the leaching method with acetic acid. The overall prevalence of EBLLs was 47.1% and the geometric mean level of blood lead was 9.16 µg/dl. Personal risk factors significantly associated with EBLLs included being male, younger age, anemia, and low weight-for-age. Significant environmental risk factors were exposure to a lead-acid battery of solar energy system and use of a non-certified metal cooking pot. Some families whose children had high BLLs reported production of lead bullets from the used batteries at home. About one-third of the house dust samples taken near batteries contained lead content above the recommended value, compared with none of those taken from other areas and from the houses with no batteries. The metal pots were safe for cooking rice but might be unsafe for acidic food preparation. Both nutritional intervention and lead exposure prevention programs are essential to reduce EBLLs in this population.

  3. Management, morphological, and environmental factors influencing Douglas-fir bark furrows in the Oregon Coast Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheridan, Christopher D.; Puettmann, Klaus J.; Huso, Manuela M.P.; Hagar, Joan C.; Falk, Kristen R.

    2013-01-01

    Many land managers in the Pacific Northwest have the goal of increasing late-successional forest structures. Despite the documented importance of Douglas-fir tree bark structure in forested ecosystems, little is known about factors influencing bark development and how foresters can manage development. This study investigated the relative importance of tree size, growth, environmental factors, and thinning on Douglas-fir bark furrow characteristics in the Oregon Coast Range. Bark furrow depth, area, and bark roughness were measured for Douglas-fir trees in young heavily thinned and unthinned sites and compared to older reference sites. We tested models for relationships between bark furrow response and thinning, tree diameter, diameter growth, and environmental factors. Separately, we compared bark responses measured on trees used by bark-foraging birds with trees with no observed usage. Tree diameter and diameter growth were the most important variables in predicting bark characteristics in young trees. Measured environmental variables were not strongly related to bark characteristics. Bark furrow characteristics in old trees were influenced by tree diameter and surrounding tree densities. Young trees used by bark foragers did not have different bark characteristics than unused trees. Efforts to enhance Douglas-fir bark characteristics should emphasize retention of larger diameter trees' growth enhancement.

  4. Impact of environmental factors on knee injuries in male and female recreational skiers.

    PubMed

    Ruedl, G; Fink, C; Schranz, A; Sommersacher, R; Nachbauer, W; Burtscher, M

    2012-04-01

    In alpine skiing, the knee represents the dominant injury location with marked gender differences. Snow, slope and weather conditions as well as altitude and low temperatures are thought to influence the prevalence of knee injuries. Therefore, ski patrol injury reports were used to compare gender-specific prevalence of knee injuries with regard to several environmental factors including the actual air temperatures. A total of 1039 non-contact knee injuries were reported with a corresponding prevalence of knee injuries of 44.4% (males: 30.1%; females: 57.4%). Temperature quartiles of all recorded injuries were calculated to compare gender-specific prevalence of knee injury with regard to temperatures. Comparing the first quartile (mean temperature -11°C) with the fourth quartile (mean temperature +3°C), the prevalence of knee injury in female skiers was higher at low ambient temperatures (61% vs 50%, odds ratio: 1.60, 95% confidence interval: 1.16-2.22; P=0.005) while no such association was found for male skiers. Additionally, knee-injured females showed a twofold prevalence when skiing during snowfall compared with females with other injuries (15.4% vs 8.6%; P=0.001). No other environmental factor showed a significant association with the gender-specific prevalence of knee injury. In conclusion, low ambient temperature and snowfall are important environmental risk factors for knee injuries in female skiers.

  5. Intergenomic rearrangements after polyploidization of Kengyilia thoroldiana (Poaceae: Triticeae) affected by environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiuxia; Liu, Huitao; Gao, Ainong; Yang, Xinming; Liu, Weihua; Li, Xiuquan; Li, Lihui

    2012-01-01

    Polyploidization is a major evolutionary process. Approximately 70-75% species of Triticeae (Poaceae) are polyploids, involving 23 genomes. To investigate intergenomic rearrangements after polyploidization of Triticeae species and to determine the effects of environmental factors on them, nine populations of a typical polyploid Triticeae species, Kengyilia thoroldiana (Keng) J.L.Yang et al. (2n = 6x = 42, StStPPYY), collected from different environments, were studied using genome in situ hybridization (GISH). We found that intergenomic rearrangements occurred between the relatively large P genome and the small genomes, St (8.15%) and Y (22.22%), in polyploid species via various types of translocations compared to their diploid progenitors. However, no translocation was found between the relatively small St and Y chromosomes. Environmental factors may affect rearrangements among the three genomes. Chromosome translocations were significantly more frequent in populations from cold alpine and grassland environments than in populations from valley and lake-basin habitats (P<0.05). The relationship between types of chromosome translocations and altitude was significant (r = 0.809, P<0.01). Intergenomic rearrangements associated with environmental factors and genetic differentiation of a single basic genome should be considered as equally important genetic processes during species' ecotype evolution.

  6. Is exposure to cyanobacteria an environmental risk factor for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other neurodegenerative diseases?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Walter G.; Borenstein, Amy R.; Nelson, Lorene M.; Codd, Geoffrey A.; Rosen, Barry H.; Stommel, Elijah W.; Cox, Paul Alan

    2013-01-01

    There is a broad scientific consensus that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is caused by gene-environment interactions. Mutations in genes underlying familial ALS (fALS) have been discovered in only 5–10% of the total population of ALS patients. Relatively little attention has been paid to environmental and lifestyle factors that may trigger the cascade of motor neuron death leading to the syndrome of ALS, although exposure to chemicals including lead and pesticides, and to agricultural environments, smoking, certain sports, and trauma have all been identified with an increased risk of ALS. There is a need for research to quantify the relative roles of each of the identified risk factors for ALS. Recent evidence has strengthened the theory that chronic environmental exposure to the neurotoxic amino acid β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) produced by cyanobacteria may be an environmental risk factor for ALS. Here we describe methods that may be used to assess exposure to cyanobacteria, and hence potentially to BMAA, namely an epidemiologic questionnaire and direct and indirect methods for estimating the cyanobacterial load in ecosystems. Rigorous epidemiologic studies could determine the risks associated with exposure to cyanobacteria, and if combined with genetic analysis of ALS cases and controls could reveal etiologically important gene-environment interactions in genetically vulnerable individuals.

  7. TCP Transcription Factors at the Interface between Environmental Challenges and the Plant's Growth Responses.

    PubMed

    Danisman, Selahattin

    2016-01-01

    Plants are sessile and as such their reactions to environmental challenges differ from those of mobile organisms. Many adaptions involve growth responses and hence, growth regulation is one of the most crucial biological processes for plant survival and fitness. The plant-specific TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1, CYCLOIDEA, PCF1 (TCP) transcription factor family is involved in plant development from cradle to grave, i.e., from seed germination throughout vegetative development until the formation of flowers and fruits. TCP transcription factors have an evolutionary conserved role as regulators in a variety of plant species, including orchids, tomatoes, peas, poplar, cotton, rice and the model plant Arabidopsis. Early TCP research focused on the regulatory functions of TCPs in the development of diverse organs via the cell cycle. Later research uncovered that TCP transcription factors are not static developmental regulators but crucial growth regulators that translate diverse endogenous and environmental signals into growth responses best fitted to ensure plant fitness and health. I will recapitulate the research on TCPs in this review focusing on two topics: the discovery of TCPs and the elucidation of their evolutionarily conserved roles across the plant kingdom, and the variety of signals, both endogenous (circadian clock, plant hormones) and environmental (pathogens, light, nutrients), TCPs respond to in the course of their developmental roles.

  8. Intergenomic Rearrangements after Polyploidization of Kengyilia thoroldiana (Poaceae: Triticeae) Affected by Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiuxia; Liu, Huitao; Gao, Ainong; Yang, Xinming; Liu, Weihua; Li, Xiuquan; Li, Lihui

    2012-01-01

    Polyploidization is a major evolutionary process. Approximately 70–75% species of Triticeae (Poaceae) are polyploids, involving 23 genomes. To investigate intergenomic rearrangements after polyploidization of Triticeae species and to determine the effects of environmental factors on them, nine populations of a typical polyploid Triticeae species, Kengyilia thoroldiana (Keng) J.L.Yang et al. (2n = 6x = 42, StStPPYY), collected from different environments, were studied using genome in situ hybridization (GISH). We found that intergenomic rearrangements occurred between the relatively large P genome and the small genomes, St (8.15%) and Y (22.22%), in polyploid species via various types of translocations compared to their diploid progenitors. However, no translocation was found between the relatively small St and Y chromosomes. Environmental factors may affect rearrangements among the three genomes. Chromosome translocations were significantly more frequent in populations from cold alpine and grassland environments than in populations from valley and lake-basin habitats (P<0.05). The relationship between types of chromosome translocations and altitude was significant (r = 0.809, P<0.01). Intergenomic rearrangements associated with environmental factors and genetic differentiation of a single basic genome should be considered as equally important genetic processes during species' ecotype evolution. PMID:22363542

  9. Environmental and Pathogenic Factors Inducing Brown Apical Necrosis on Fruit of English (Persian) Walnut.

    PubMed

    Scotton, Michele; Bortolin, Enrico; Fiorin, Antonio; Belisario, Alessandra

    2015-11-01

    Brown apical necrosis (BAN) is a most recently described disease affecting English (Persian) walnut fruit. BAN was only recorded in intensively managed walnut orchards and was found to be a disease complex mainly caused by Fusarium species. All fungi associated with this disease are polyphagous and ubiquitous, not specific to walnut. Consequently, BAN occurrence is more strictly dependent, than generally, on the interaction between pathological features and environmental conditions. Environmental variables identified with regression analysis showed that maximum temperature, angle of main wind direction versus tree row orientation, and orchard distance to the closest river/canal, all representative of climatic conditions occurring in the orchard, were related to fruit drop. The factor displaying the highest influence on severity of BAN fruit drop was maximum temperature and only subordinately factors are associated with relative humidity. BAN symptoms were reproduced with in planta artificial inoculation, and fruit drop of symptomatic fruit was significantly higher than that of the noninoculated trees for each type of inoculum (Fusarium semitectum, F. graminearum, and Alternaria spp.). F. semitectum and F. graminearum were more aggressive than Alternaria species, and the earliest artificial inoculations in mid-May resulted in the highest fruit drop. The extension of walnut fruit susceptibility and the conducive environmental factors to BAN are discussed.

  10. Semen parameters can be predicted from environmental factors and lifestyle using artificial intelligence methods.

    PubMed

    Girela, Jose L; Gil, David; Johnsson, Magnus; Gomez-Torres, María José; De Juan, Joaquín

    2013-04-01

    Fertility rates have dramatically decreased in the last two decades, especially in men. It has been described that environmental factors as well as life habits may affect semen quality. In this paper we use artificial intelligence techniques in order to predict semen characteristics resulting from environmental factors, life habits, and health status, with these techniques constituting a possible decision support system that can help in the study of male fertility potential. A total of 123 young, healthy volunteers provided a semen sample that was analyzed according to the World Health Organization 2010 criteria. They also were asked to complete a validated questionnaire about life habits and health status. Sperm concentration and percentage of motile sperm were related to sociodemographic data, environmental factors, health status, and life habits in order to determine the predictive accuracy of a multilayer perceptron network, a type of artificial neural network. In conclusion, we have developed an artificial neural network that can predict the results of the semen analysis based on the data collected by the questionnaire. The semen parameter that is best predicted using this methodology is the sperm concentration. Although the accuracy for motility is slightly lower than that for concentration, it is possible to predict it with a significant degree of accuracy. This methodology can be a useful tool in early diagnosis of patients with seminal disorders or in the selection of candidates to become semen donors.

  11. TCP Transcription Factors at the Interface between Environmental Challenges and the Plant’s Growth Responses

    PubMed Central

    Danisman, Selahattin

    2016-01-01

    Plants are sessile and as such their reactions to