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Sample records for postnatal environmental factors

  1. Measurement and associations of pregnancy risk factors with genetic influences, postnatal environmental influences, and toddler behavior

    PubMed Central

    Marceau, Kristine; Hajal, Nastassia; Leve, Leslie D.; Reiss, David; Shaw, Daniel S.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Mayes, Linda C.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates the unique contributions of perinatal risk and genetic and environmental influences on child behavior using data from 561 domestic US adoption triads (birth mothers, adopted child, and adoptive parents). Findings show distinct patterns of associations among genetic (birth mother psychopathology), prenatal (six maternal reported aggregate scores characterizing total obstetric complications, perinatal internalizing symptoms, pregnancy complications, exposure to toxins, substance use, and neonatal complications), and postnatal influences (adoptive parent 18-month internalizing symptoms and over-reactive parenting) and toddler behavior problems (CBCL subscales at 27 months). Findings highlight multiple pathways for toddler’s behavioral development, including genetic, pregnancy, and postnatal main effects. Findings suggest distinct types of pregnancy risk may transmit genetic influences for specific behavior problems rather than broadband problems. PMID:24839336

  2. Measurement and associations of pregnancy risk factors with genetic influences, postnatal environmental influences, and toddler behavior.

    PubMed

    Marceau, Kristine; Hajal, Nastassia; Leve, Leslie D; Reiss, David; Shaw, Daniel S; Ganiban, Jody M; Mayes, Linda C; Neiderhiser, Jenae M

    2013-07-01

    This study demonstrates the unique contributions of perinatal risk and genetic and environmental influences on child behavior using data from 561 domestic US adoption triads (birth mothers, adopted child, and adoptive parents). Findings show distinct patterns of associations among genetic (birth mother psychopathology), prenatal (six maternal reported aggregate scores characterizing total obstetric complications, perinatal internalizing symptoms, pregnancy complications, exposure to toxins, substance use, and neonatal complications), and postnatal influences (adoptive parent 18-month internalizing symptoms and over-reactive parenting) and toddler behavior problems (CBCL subscales at 27 months). Findings highlight multiple pathways for toddler's behavioral development, including genetic, pregnancy, and postnatal main effects. Findings suggest distinct types of pregnancy risk may transmit genetic influences for specific behavior problems rather than broadband problems.

  3. Socio-environmental factors and postnatal depressive symptomatology: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Séguin, L; Potvin, L; St-Denis, M; Loiselle, J

    1999-01-01

    This study analyses the relationships between stressful life conditions and postnatal depressive symptomatology in a group of women of low socioeconomic status (SES) and a group of women of high SES from the third to the ninth week postpartum. Nulliparous pregnant women were recruited from the prenatal care clinics of four hospitals. Multiple linear regression analyses demonstrated that after accounting for SES group membership and depressive symptomatology during pregnancy, early postnatal chronic stressors (frequent conflictual episodes with network members, maternal health problems) and social support were linked to later postnatal depressive symptomatology.

  4. Measurement and Associations of Pregnancy Risk Factors with Genetic Influences, Postnatal Environmental Influences, and Toddler Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marceau, Kristine; Hajal, Nastassia; Leve, Leslie D.; Reiss, David; Shaw, Daniel S.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Mayes, Linda C.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2013-01-01

    This study demonstrates the unique contributions of perinatal risk and genetic and environmental influences on child behavior using data from 561 domestic US adoption triads (birth mothers, adopted child, and adoptive parents). Findings show distinct patterns of associations among genetic (birth mother psychopathology), prenatal (six maternal…

  5. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, Bronwyn; Milgrom, Jeannette

    2008-01-01

    Background Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite the strong link with depression. The aim of this study was to further elucidate which of some previously identified risk factors are most predictive of three outcome measures: antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress and to examine the relationship between them. Methods Primipara and multiparae women were recruited antenatally from two major hoitals as part of the beyondblue National Postnatal Depression Program [1]. In this subsidiary study, 367 women completed an additional large battery of validated questionnaires to identify risk factors in the antenatal period at 26–32 weeks gestation. A subsample of these women (N = 161) also completed questionnaires at 10–12 weeks postnatally. Depression level was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results Regression analyses identified significant risk factors for the three outcome measures. (1). Significant predictors for antenatal depression: low self-esteem, antenatal anxiety, low social support, negative cognitive style, major life events, low income and history of abuse. (2). Significant predictors for postnatal depression: antenatal depression and a history of depression while also controlling for concurrent parenting stress, which was a significant variable. Antenatal depression was identified as a mediator between seven of the risk factors and postnatal depression. (3). Postnatal depression was the only significant predictor for parenting stress and also acted as a mediator for other risk factors

  6. Postnatal depression among Bahraini women: prevalence of symptoms and psychosocial risk factors.

    PubMed

    Al Dallal, F H; Grant, I N

    2012-05-01

    The prevalence of postnatal depression in Bahrain is unknown and screening for known risk factors does not take place. This study estimated the prevalence of postnatal depressive symptoms and the associated risk factors among a random sample of Bahraini women attending primary health care centres with their babies for the 8-week child check-up. The Arabic version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used with a cut-off score of > or = 12 for depression. The prevalence of postnatal depressive symptoms among 237 mothers was 37.1%. No significant relationships were identified between depression symptoms and any of demographic variables or pregnancy/birth characteristics studied. However, several psychosocial risk factors were significantly associated with postnatal depression and, after multiple regression analysis, a history of depressive symptoms and perceived lack of support from the husband remained significant factors. Further studies that include diagnostic assessments are needed to confirm these findings.

  7. Environmental factors influencing growth and pubertal development.

    PubMed Central

    Delemarre-van de Waal, H A

    1993-01-01

    Postnatal growth is based on hereditary signals and environmental factors in a complex regulatory network. Each factor must be in an optimal state for normal growth of the child. Fetal conditions may also have consequences on postnatal height. Intrauterine growth retardation can be recovered postnatally, although postnatal growth remains depressed in about one-third of cases. After birth, the environment may exert either a positive or negative effect on growth. In underdeveloped countries, malnutrition plays a major role in inhibiting the growth process. Children from families of higher socioeconomic classes are taller than their coevals in the lower socioeconomic groups. Urbanization also has a positive effect on growth. Better child care is supported by sufficient food supply, appropriate health and sanitation services, and a higher level of education. Over the last century, these factors have induced a taller stature and a more rapid maturity in Europe, North America, and Australia; a phenomenon which has been referred to as "the secular trend" in growth. Recently, a secular trend has also been reported in some developing countries. Although urbanization in general appears to be associated with better conditions of living, this is not the case in the slums of South America or in Africa where rural children are better off than children living in the poor cities. This paper describes in more detail the different hereditary and environmental factors that act during the fetal period and postnatally, and which play a role in human growth and pubertal development. PMID:8243404

  8. Effects of postnatal environmental tobacco smoke on non-nutritive swallowing-breathing coordination in newborn lambs.

    PubMed

    Duvareille, Charles; St-Hilaire, Marie; Samson, Nathalie; Bakirtzian, Parseh; Brisebois, Simon; Boheimier, Mathieu; Djeddi, Djamal-Dine; Doueik, Alexandre A; Praud, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-15

    While prenatal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is a well-known risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome, the effect of postnatal ETS exposure is less clear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of postnatal ETS exposure on non-nutritive swallowing (NNS) and NNS-breathing coordination, which are crucial to prevent aspiration related-cardiorespiratory events. Eighteen newborn lambs (6 per group) were randomly exposed to either 10 cigarettes/day, 20 cigarettes/day or room air for 15 days. Lambs were instrumented for recording states of alertness, swallowing, electrocardiogram and breathing; recordings were performed in non-sedated lambs at the end of ETS exposure. Urinary cotinine/creatinine ratio confirmed relevant real-life exposure. Postnatal ETS exposure had no effect on NNS frequency but tended to decrease inspiratory NNS (p=0.07) during quiet sleep. No effect on respiratory or heart rate (p>0.6), apnea index (p=0.2) or sleep states (p=0.3) was observed. In conclusion, postnatal ETS exposure in lambs had only mild effects on NNS-breathing coordination. PMID:22947218

  9. Association of prenatal maternal or postnatal child environmental tobacco smoke exposure and neurodevelopmental and behavioral problems in children.

    PubMed Central

    Eskenazi, B; Castorina, R

    1999-01-01

    We review the potential neurodevelopmental and behavioral effects of children's prenatal and/or postnatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Children's exposure to ETS has been assessed in epidemiologic studies as a risk factor for a variety of behavioral and neurodevelopmental problems including reduced general intellectual ability, skills in language and auditory tasks, and academic achievement, and behavioral problems such as hyperactivity and decreased attention spans. We review 17 epidemiologic studies that have attempted to separate the effects of maternal active smoking during pregnancy from passive ETS smoke exposure by the pregnant mother or the child. Based on the available data, we found that ETS exposure could cause subtle changes in children's neurodevelopment and behavior. However, studies to date are difficult to interpret because of the unknown influence of uncontrolled confounding factors, imprecision in measurements of smoking exposure, and collinearity of pre- and postnatal maternal smoking. Although some evidence suggests that maternal smoking during pregnancy may be associated with deficits in intellectual ability and behavioral problems in children, the impact of prenatal or postnatal ETS exposure remains less clear. PMID:10585903

  10. The impact of early postnatal environmental enrichment on maternal care and offspring behaviour following weaning.

    PubMed

    Li, Ki Angel; Lund, Emilie Torp; Voigt, Jörg-Peter W

    2016-01-01

    The early postnatal period is a sensitive period in rodents as behavioural systems are developing and maturing during this time. However, relatively little information is available about the impact of environmental enrichment on offspring behaviour if enrichment is implemented only during this period. Here, environmental enrichment was provided from postnatal day 1 until weaning. On post-natal day 9, maternal behaviour and nonmaternal behaviour of the dam was observed. Nursing time in the enriched group was reduced but dams showed more non-maternal appetitive behaviours. Offspring were exposed to either the open field or the elevated plus maze (EPM) after weaning. In the open field, rats from the enriched group approached the more aversive inner zone of the open field later than control rats. Offspring from the enriched group made fewer entries into the inner zone and spent less time in this part of the arena. Enrichment had no impact on behaviour in the EPM. The present study provides evidence that postnatal enrichment can interfere with maternal behaviour in rats and can possibly lead to increased anxiety in the offspring. The findings suggest that enrichment procedures can have potentially unintended effects, interfering with the development of emotional behaviours in rats.

  11. Limbic system activation is affected by prenatal predator exposure and postnatal environmental enrichment and further moderated by dam and sex.

    PubMed

    Korgan, Austin C; Green, Amanda D; Perrot, Tara S; Esser, Michael J

    2014-02-01

    Epilepsy is a relatively common and chronic neurological condition, affecting 1-2% of the population. However, understanding of the underlying pathophysiology remains incomplete. To identify potential factors in the early environment that may increase the risk for experiencing seizures, maternal stress and environmental enrichment (EE) were utilized. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were exposed to an ethologically relevant predator stress (PS) and maternal glucocorticoid (GC) response was assessed across the exposure period. At birth, litters were divided into standard care (SC) and EE groups until postnatal day 14 (PD14) when a model of febrile convulsions was used to determine seizure susceptibility of the various groups. Pup brains were then processed for immunohistochemical detection of FosB from several structures in the limbic system as a measure of neuronal activation. Maternal PS-induced GC levels were elevated early in the exposure period, and pup birth weights, in both sexes, were lower in litters from dams exposed to PS. Seizure scores at PD14 were highly individualized and litter dependent, suggesting a dam-dependent and variable effect of controlled pre- and postnatal environmental factors. Further, analysis of FosB-immunoreactive (-ir) patterns revealed an activity dependent distribution, reflecting individual seizure susceptibility. EE had a varying effect on FosB-ir that was dependent on region. In the hippocampus FosB-ir levels were greater in the EE groups while extra-hippocampal regions showed lower levels of FosB-ir. Our results support the concept that pre- and postnatal environmental influences affect fetal programming and neurodevelopment of processes that could underlie seizure susceptibility, but that the magnitude of these effects appears to be dam- or litter-dependent.

  12. Effects of microgravity on myogenic factor expressions during postnatal development of rat skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inobe, Manabu; Inobe, Ikuko; Adams, Gregory R.; Baldwin, Kenneth M.; Takeda, Shin'Ichi

    2002-01-01

    To clarify the role of gravity in the postnatal development of skeletal muscle, we exposed neonatal rats at 7 days of age to microgravity. After 16 days of spaceflight, tibialis anterior, plantaris, medial gastrocnemius, and soleus muscles were removed from the hindlimb musculature and examined for the expression of MyoD-family transcription factors such as MyoD, myogenin, and MRF4. For this purpose, we established a unique semiquantitative method, based on RT-PCR, using specific primers tagged with infrared fluorescence. The relative expression of MyoD in the tibialis anterior and plantaris muscles and that of myogenin in the plantaris and soleus muscles were significantly reduced (P < 0.001) in the flight animals. In contrast, MRF4 expression was not changed in any muscle. These results suggest that MyoD and myogenin, but not MRF4, are sensitive to gravity-related stimuli in some skeletal muscles during postnatal development.

  13. Environmental factors in Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, Pieter J; Dietrich, Andrea; Edwards, Mark J; Elamin, Ishraga; Martino, Davide

    2013-07-01

    Environmental exposures during the prenatal period, perinatal stages, and postnatal life may contribute to onset and course of Tourette syndrome (TS). Pregnancy-related noxious exposures may be more frequent in pregnancies of children who will develop TS, particularly maternal smoking and prenatal life stressors. Lower birth weight and use of forceps at delivery may be associated with tic severity in the offspring; moreover, low birth weight and maternal smoking during pregnancy may affect the risk of co-morbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity and obsessive-compulsive disorders. Group A streptococcal infections as risk-modifier for TS has not been convincingly demonstrated to date, although an interaction with stressors was suggested. The PANDAS hypothesis is currently undergoing a nosological revision. Only limited anecdotal evidence supports a link of TS to other pathogens. Nevertheless, the relationship between infections and TS may be complex. Recent data point to intrinsically altered immune regulation in TS, which might predispose to both infections and autoimmune mechanisms; however, evidence of cell-mediated and antibody-mediated autoimmunity in TS is still insufficient. Psychosocial stress remains the most important contextual factor influencing tic severity, as confirmed by prospective studies. This might in part be related to enhanced reactivity of the stress response in TS patients, the mechanisms of which need to be explored further. New studies on large prospective cohorts of patients of different age and the identification of reliable biomarkers or endophenotypes indicating early, prenatal exposure to environmental insults are needed. PMID:23092654

  14. Individual and Area Level Factors Associated with Prenatal, Delivery, and Postnatal Care in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Budhwani, Henna; Hearld, Kristine Ria; Harbison, Hanne

    2015-10-01

    This research examines individual and area level factors associated with maternal health care utilization in Pakistan. The 2012-2013 Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys data was used to model five outcomes: prenatal care within the first trimester, four plus prenatal visits, birth attendance by a skilled attendant, birth in a medical facility, and receipt of postnatal care. Less than half of births were to mothers receiving prenatal care in the first trimester, and approximately 57 % had trained personnel at delivery. Over half were born to mothers who received postnatal care. Evidence was found to support the positive effect of individual level variables, education and wealth, on the utilization of maternal health care across all five measures. Although, this study did not find unilateral differences between women residing in rural and urban settings, rural women were found to have lower odds of utilizing prenatal services as compared to mothers in urban environments. Additionally, women who cited distance as a barrier, had lower odds of receiving postnatal health care, but still engaged in prenatal services and often had a skilled attendant present at delivery. The odds of utilizing prenatal care increased when women resided in an area where prenatal utilization was high, and this variability was found across measures across provinces. The results found in this paper highlight the uneven progress made around improving prenatal, delivery, and postnatal care in Pakistan; disparities persist which may be attributed to factors both at the individual and community level, but may be addressed through a consorted effort to change national policy around women's health which should include the promotion of evidence based interventions such as incentivizing health care workers, promoting girls' education, and improving transportation options for pregnant women and recent mothers with the intent of ultimately lowering the Maternal Mortality Rate as recommended in the U

  15. Environmental tobacco smoke in the early postnatal period induces impairment in brain myelination.

    PubMed

    Torres, Larissa H; Annoni, Raquel; Balestrin, Natalia T; Coleto, Priscila L; Duro, Stephanie O; Garcia, Raphael C T; Pacheco-Neto, Maurílio; Mauad, Thais; Camarini, Rosana; Britto, Luiz R G; Marcourakis, Tania

    2015-11-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is associated with high morbidity and mortality, mainly in children. However, few studies focus on the brain development effects of ETS exposure. Myelination mainly occurs in the early years of life in humans and the first three postnatal weeks in rodents and is sensitive to xenobiotics exposure. This study investigated the effects of early postnatal ETS exposure on myelination. BALB/c mice were exposed to ETS generated from 3R4F reference research cigarettes from the third to the fourteenth days of life. The myelination of nerve fibers in the optic nerve by morphometric analysis and the levels of Olig1 and myelin basic protein (MBP) were evaluated in the cerebellum, diencephalon, telencephalon, and brainstem in infancy, adolescence, and adulthood. Infant mice exposed to ETS showed a decrease in the percentage of myelinated fibers in the optic nerve, compared with controls. ETS induced a decrease in Olig1 protein levels in the cerebellum and brainstem and an increase in MBP levels in the cerebellum at infant. It was also found a decrease in MBP levels in the telencephalon and brainstem at adolescence and in the cerebellum and diencephalon at adulthood. The present study demonstrates that exposure to ETS, in a critical phase of development, affects the percentage of myelinated fibers and myelin-specific proteins in infant mice. Although we did not observe differences in the morphological analysis in adolescence and adulthood, there was a decrease in MBP levels in distinctive brain regions suggesting a delayed effect in adolescence and adulthood.

  16. Risk factors for RhD immunisation despite antenatal and postnatal anti-D prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Koelewijn, JM; de Haas, M; Vrijkotte, TGM; van der Schoot, CE; Bonsel, GJ

    2009-01-01

    Objective To identify risk factors for Rhesus D (RhD) immunisation in pregnancy, despite adequate antenatal and postnatal anti-D prophylaxis in the previous pregnancy. To generate evidence for improved primary prevention by extra administration of anti-D Ig in the presence of a risk factor. Design Case–control study. Setting Nation-wide evaluation of the Dutch antenatal anti-D-prophylaxis programme. Population Cases: 42 RhD-immunised parae-1, recognised by first-trimester routine red cell antibody screening in their current pregnancy, who received antenatal and postnatal anti-D Ig prophylaxis (gifts of 1000 iu) in their first pregnancy. Controls: 339 parae-1 without red cell antibodies. Methods Data were collected via obstetric care workers and/or personal interviews with women. Main outcome measure Significant risk factors for RhD immunisation in multivariate analysis. Results Independent risk factors were non-spontaneous delivery (assisted vaginal delivery or caesarean section) (OR 2.23; 95% CI:1.04–4.74), postmaturity (≥42 weeks of completed gestation: OR 3.07; 95% CI:1.02–9.02), pregnancy-related red blood cell transfusion (OR 3.51; 95% CI:0.97–12.7 and age (OR 0.89/year; 95% CI:0.80–0.98). In 43% of cases, none of the categorical risk factors was present. Conclusions In at least half of the failures of anti-D Ig prophylaxis, a condition related to increased fetomaternal haemorrhage (FMH) and/or insufficient anti-D Ig levels was observed. Hence, RhD immunisation may be further reduced by strict compliance to guidelines concerning determination of FMH and accordingly adjusted anti-D Ig prophylaxis, or by routine administration of extra anti-D Ig after a non-spontaneous delivery and/or a complicated or prolonged third stage of labour. PMID:19538414

  17. Conditional overexpression of connective tissue growth factor disrupts postnatal lung development.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shu; Platteau, Astrid; Chen, Shaoyi; McNamara, George; Whitsett, Jeffrey; Bancalari, Eduardo

    2010-05-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a member of an emerging family of immediate-early gene products that coordinates complex biological processes during development, differentiation, and tissue repair. Overexpression of CTGF is associated with mechanical ventilation with high tidal volume and oxygen exposure in newborn lungs. However, the role of CTGF in postnatal lung development and remodeling is not well understood. In the present study, a double-transgenic mouse model was generated with doxycycline-inducible overexpression of CTGF in respiratory epithelial cells. Overexpression of CTGF from Postnatal Days 1-14 resulted in thicker alveolar septa and decreased secondary septal formation. This is correlated with increased myofibroblast differentiation and disorganized elastic fiber deposition in alveolar septa. Overexpression of CTGF also decreased alveolar capillary network formation. There were increased alpha-smooth muscle actin expression and collagen deposition, and dramatic thickening in the peribronchial/peribronchiolar and perivascular regions in the double-transgenic lungs. Furthermore, overexpression of CTGF increased integrin-linked kinase expression, activated its downstream signaling target, Akt, as well as increased mRNA expression of fibronectin. These data demonstrate that overexpression of CTGF disrupts alveologenesis and capillary formation, and induces fibrosis during the critical period of alveolar development. These histologic changes are similar to those observed in lungs of infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

  18. Prevalence of and factors influencing postnatal depression in a rural community in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Abrahams, Johanna M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Knowledge about postnatal depression (PND) and associated risk factors which influence the development of PND is vital for early detection, intervention and prevention. Setting The study was conducted in primary health care clinics (PHC) in the Witzenberg subdistrict, a rural community in South Africa. Objectives Objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of PND and to identify the contributing risk factors associated with PND. Methods A descriptive cross sectional research design with a quantitative approach was applied. The target population was mothers, 18 years and older. A convenience sampling method was used to select a sample of 159 (10%) from a population of 1605 live births. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), two validated self-rating questionnaires, including a questionnaire based on demographical, psychosocial and obstetrical data, were applied. The data was analysed using various statistical tests to determine statistical associations between variables using a 95% confidence interval. Results PND was a serious health problem with 50.3% of the mothers who suffered from PND. A BDI analysis showed that of the participants who had PND, 28.8% was severe, 48.8% moderate and 22.5% mild. Factors influencing the development of PND included most participants (63.5%) were unmarried, 61.3% were unemployed and the majority (53.8%) had a history of a psychiatric illness. Significant associations between PND and unplanned and unwelcome babies (p < 0.01); partner relationship (p < 0.01); were identified. Conclusion Prevention, early detection, appropriate referral and treatment of PND are critical in managing maternal, child and family well-being. PMID:26842515

  19. Myogenic regulatory factor (MRF) expression is affected by exercise in postnatal chicken skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Yin, Huadong; Li, Diyan; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Xiaoling; Liu, Yiping; Yang, Zhiqin; Zhu, Qing

    2015-05-01

    The MyoD1, MyoG, Myf5, and Mrf4 proteins belong to the family of muscle regulatory factors (MRFs) and play important roles in skeletal muscle hyperplasia and hypertrophy. We hypothesized that exercise would affect MRF mRNA and protein abundance in postnatal chicken skeletal muscle driving molecular changes that could ultimately lead to increased muscle fiber diameter. At day (d) 43, twelve hundred chickens with similar body weight were randomly assigned to cage, pen, and free-range groups. The MRF mRNA abundance was measured in the pectoralis major and thigh muscle at d56, d70, and d84, and the protein levels of MRFs were determined from the thigh muscle at d84. The results showed no significant difference in mRNA of the MRFs among the three groups at d56 (P>0.05). At d84, chicken in the pen and free-range group showed higher MyoD1, MyoG, Myf5, and Mrf4 mRNA abundance compared to the caged chickens (P<0.05). Free-range chickens had higher Mrf4 and MyoG expression than those in penned ones (P<0.05). Protein abundances of all four factors were lowest in the caged group, and Mrf4 and MyoG protein quantities were greatest in free-range chickens (P<0.05), but Myf5 and MyoD1 protein abundance did not differ between penned and caged groups. The results suggested that exercise up-regulated MRF expression in the postnatal skeletal muscles, which led to an increase in muscle fiber diameter, and eventually affected the meat quality of the skeletal muscles in adult chickens.

  20. Meat science and muscle biology symposium: In utero factors that influence postnatal muscle growth, carcass composition, and meat quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium titled “In utero factors that influence postnatal muscle growth, carcass composition, and meat quality” was held at the Joint Annual Meeting in Phoenix, AZ, July 15 to 19, 2012. The goal of this symposium was to highlight research on the impact of fetal...

  1. Expressions of Sox9, Sox5, and Sox13 transcription factors in mice testis during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Daigle, Mikella; Roumaud, Pauline; Martin, Luc J

    2015-09-01

    SRY-related box (Sox) transcription factors are conserved among vertebrate species. These proteins regulate multiple processes including sex determination and testis differentiation of the male embryo. Although members of the Sox family have been identified in pre- and postnatal Sertoli cells, they have never been characterized in adult Leydig cells. The objectives of this research were to identify expressions of Sox9, Sox5, and Sox13 in mice Leydig cell cultures and to establish their expression profiles in postnatal mice testes at different developmental stages. Methods used include Western blots and qPCR of stimulated MA-10 cell cultures and whole mice testes. Sox9, Sox5, and Sox13 proteins were detected in MA-10 cells as well as whole mouse testis. Although Sox9, Sox5, and Sox13 mRNA levels from whole mice testes tended to increase according to postnatal development, these results were not significant. Sox members were also detected in whole mice testis by Western Blot. However, Sox9, Sox5, and Sox13 protein expressions remained relatively constant during postnatal development from postnatal (P) day 60 to P365. Being newly characterized in the mouse testis, Sox13 was mainly localized by immunofluorescence within the nuclei of cells from seminiferous tubules, possibly spermatocytes and Sertoli cells. In addition, Sox9, Sox5, and Sox13 proteins were characterized in the nuclei of MA-10 Leydig cell cultures. Their expressions and transcriptional activities remained unaffected by activators of the cAMP/PKA pathway. Thus, Sox9, Sox5, and Sox13 transcription factors are expressed in postnatal testis and may regulate multiple functions such as steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis.

  2. Factors influencing attempted and completed suicide in postnatal women: A population-based study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Shu-Chuan; Chang, Jung-Chen; Yeh, Ming-Kung; Wang, Shun-Mu; Chen, Yi-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The aims of study were to investigate risk factors associated with attempted and completed suicide. This nested case–control study was conducted using the medical and death data of nearly all pregnant women for the period 2002–2012 in Taiwan. A total of 139 cases of attempted suicide and 95 cases of completed suicide were identified; for each case, 10 controls were randomly selected and matched to the cases according to age and year of delivery. A conditional logistic regression model was used. The mean attempted and completed suicide rates were 9.91 and 6.86 per 100,000 women with live births, respectively. Never having married and postpartum depression also increased the risk of attempted suicide (OR = 2.06; 95% CI = 1.09–3.88 and OR = 2.51; 95% CI = 1.10–5.75, respectively) and completed suicide (OR = 20.27; 95% CI = 8.99–45.73 and OR = 21.72; 95% CI = 8.08–58.37, respectively). Other factors for attempted suicide included being widowed or divorced, and having a caesarean delivery or suicide history. Other factors for completed suicide included lower education level, low infant birth weight, and diagnosis of anxiety or mood disorder. These results suggest that people should appropriately assess potential risk factors and provide assistance for postnatal women to reduce the occurrence of suicide events. PMID:27173845

  3. [Environmental factors in ALS].

    PubMed

    Juntas-Morales, Raul; Pageot, Nicolas; Corcia, Philippe; Camu, William

    2014-05-01

    ALS is likely to be a disorder of multifactorial origin. Among all the factors that may increase the risk of ALS, environmental ones are being studied for many years, but in the recent years, several advances have pointed to a new interest in their potential involvement in the disease process, especially for the cyanotoxin BMAA. Food containing BMAA has been found on Guam, a well-known focus of ALS/parkinsonism/dementia and high levels of BMAA have been identified into the brain of these patients. The BMAA cyanotoxin is potentially ubiquitous and have also been found into the food of patients who died from ALS both in Europe and USA. BMAA can be wrongly integrated into the protein structure during mRNA traduction, competing with serine. This may induce abnormal protein folding and a subsequent cell death. Heavy metals, such as lead or mercury may be directly toxic for neuronal cells. Several works have suggested an increased risk of ALS in individuals chronically exposed to these metals. Exposure to pesticides has been suggested to be linked to an increased risk of developing ALS. The mechanism of their toxicity is likely to be mediated by paraoxonases. These proteins are in charge of detoxifying the organism from toxins, and particularly organophosphates. To date, there are insufficient scientific data to suggest that exposure to electromagnetic fields may increase the risk of having ALS. We are particularly missing longitudinal cohorts to demonstrate that risk.

  4. Environmental effects on thermoregulation and breathing patterns during early postnatal development in hand-reared lambs.

    PubMed

    Symonds, M E; Andrews, D C; Buss, D S; Clarke, L; Darby, C J; Johnson, P; Lomax, M A

    1995-09-01

    This study examines the effect of hand-rearing developing lambs in a warm (WR; 25 degrees C) or cool (CR; 10-15 degrees C) ambient temperature on the control of thermoregulation and breathing patterns, when maintained at a fixed level of nutrition over the first month of postnatal life. Measurements were made during non-rapid eye movement sleep whilst lambs were maintained for at least 1 h at warm (28-19 degrees C) and cold (14-5 degrees C) ambient temperatures at 1, 7, 14 and 30 days of age. All lambs were able to maintain normal body temperature, but oxygen consumption was higher in CR lambs at 14 and 30 days of age. At 1 day of age shivering was rarely observed in any lambs, but at 7 and 14 days of age more WR than CR lambs responded to cold exposure via shivering. Plasma concentrations of triiodothyronine were higher at 7 and 14 days of age in CR lambs. Breathing frequencies were similar in WR and CR lambs, and from 7 days of age the incidence of expiratory laryngeal braking was higher in warm compared with cold study temperatures. By 30 days of age the recruitment of this mechanism was greater in CR lambs. Mean growth rate was slower over the first week of postnatal life in CR compared with WR lambs. This difference decreased over the first month of life, as growth rate increased from 83 to 130 g day-1 in the CR group but remained constant at approximately 150 g day-1 in the WR lambs. Total weight of the lungs and heart, but not the liver, were lower at 1 month but not at 1 week of postnatal life in CR lambs. It is concluded that a modest decrease in the ambient temperature in which postnatal lambs are reared, when on a fixed feed intake, alters lung size, the recruitment of laryngeal braking and the control of body temperature.

  5. Factors associated with the timeliness of postnatal surgical repair of spina bifida

    PubMed Central

    Cassell, Cynthia H.; Laditka, Sarah B.; Thibadeau, Judy K.; Correia, Jane; Grosse, Scott D.; Kirby, Russell S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Clinical guidelines recommend repair of open spina bifida (SB) prenatally or within the first days of an infant’s life. We examined maternal, infant, and health care system factors associated with time-to-repair among infants with postnatal repair. Methods This retrospective, statewide, population-based study examined infants with SB born in Florida 1998–2007, ascertained by the Florida Birth Defects Registry. We used procedure codes from hospital discharge records to identify the first recorded myelomeningocele repair (ICD-9 CM procedure code 03.52) among infants with birth hospitalizations. Using Poisson multivariable regression, we examined time-to-repair by hydrocephalus, SB type (isolated [no other coded major birth defect] versus non-isolated), and other selected factors. Results Of 199 infants with a recorded birth hospitalization and coded myelomeningocele repair, 87.9 % had hydrocephalus and 19.6 % had non-isolated SB. About 76.4 % of infants had repair by day 2 of life. In adjusted analyses, infants with hydrocephalus were more likely to have timely repair (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) = 1.48, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.02–2.14) than infants without hydrocephalus. SB type was not associated with repair timing. Infants born in lower level nursery care hospitals with were less likely to have timely repairs (aPR = 0.71, 95 % CI 0.52–0.98) than those born in higher level nursery care hospitals. Conclusions Most infants with SB had surgical repair in the first 2 days of life. Lower level birth hospital nursery care was associated with later repairs. Prenatal diagnosis can facilitate planning for a birth hospital with higher level of nursery care, thus improving opportunities for timely repair. PMID:27179533

  6. Effect of Maternal Factors and Fetomaternal Glucose Homeostasis on Birth Weight and Postnatal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Özbörü Aşkan, Öykü; Bozaykut, Abdülkadir; Sezer, Rabia Gönül; Güran, Tülay; Bereket, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Objective: It is important to identify the possible risk factors for the occurrence of large for gestational age (LGA) in newborns and to determine the effect of birth weight and metabolic parameters on subsequent growth. We aimed to determine the effects of maternal weight, weight gain during pregnancy, maternal hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), C-peptide and insulin as well as cord C-peptide and insulin levels on birth weight and postnatal growth during the first two years of life. Methods: Healthy, non-diabetic mothers and term singleton newborns were included in this prospective case-control cohort study. Fasting maternal glucose, HbA1c, C-peptide and insulin levels were studied. Cord blood was analyzed for C-peptide and insulin. At birth, newborns were divided into two groups according to birth size: LGA and appropriate for GA (AGA). Infants were followed at six-month intervals for two years and their length and weight were recorded. Results: Forty LGA and 43 AGA infants were included in the study. Birth weight standard deviation score (SDS) was positively correlated with maternal body mass index (BMI) before delivery (r=0.2, p=0.04) and with weight gain during pregnancy (r=0.2, p=0.04). In multivariate analyses, the strongest association with macrosomia was a maternal C-peptide level >3.85 ng/mL (OR=20). Although the LGA group showed decreased growth by the 6-month of follow-up, the differences between the LGA and AGA groups in weight and length SDS persisted over the 2 years of follow-up. Conclusion: The control of maternal BMI and prevention of overt weight gain during pregnancy may prevent excessive birth weight. The effect of the in utero metabolic environment on the weight and length SDS of infants born LGA persists until at least two years of age. PMID:26831549

  7. Practical postnatal care.

    PubMed

    Smibert, J

    1989-05-01

    This second paper by the author presents an experienced obstetrician's viewpoint of a very practical and perhaps provocative approach to postnatal care, especially considering the rights and emotional factors of the new parents.

  8. Gestational and Early Postnatal Exposure to an Environmentally Relevant Mixture of Brominated Flame Retardants: General Toxicity and Skeletal Variations.

    PubMed

    Tung, Emily W Y; Yan, Han; Lefèvre, Pavine L C; Berger, Robert G; Rawn, Dorothea F K; Gaertner, Dean W; Kawata, Alice; Rigden, Marc; Robaire, Bernard; Hales, Barbara F; Wade, Michael G

    2016-06-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are stable environmental contaminants known to exert endocrine-disrupting effects. Developmental exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) is correlated with impaired thyroid hormone signaling, as well as estrogenic and anti-androgenic effects. As previous studies have focused on a single congener or technical mixture, the purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of gestational and early postnatal exposure to an environmentally relevant mixture of BFRs designed to reflect house dust levels of PBDEs and hexabromocyclododecane on postnatal developmental outcomes. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to the PBDE mixture from preconception to weaning (PND 21) through the diet containing 0, 0.75, 250, and 750 mg mixture/kg diet. BFR exposure induced transient reductions in body weight at PND 35 in male and from PND 30-45 in female offspring (250 and 750 mg/kg). Liver weights (PND 21) and xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme activities (PND 21 and 46) were increased in both male and female offspring exposed to 250 and 750 mg/kg diets. Furthermore, serum T4 levels were reduced at PND 21 in both,male and female offspring (250 and 750 mg/kg). At PND 21, Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was decreased in males exposed to 750 mg/kg dietat, and females exposed to 250 and 750 mg/kg diets. At PND 46 ALP was significantly elevated in males (250 and 750 mg/kg). Variations in the cervical vertebrae and phalanges were observed in pups at PND 4 (250 and 750 mg/kg). Therefore, BFR exposure during gestation through to weaning alters developmental programming in the offspring. The persistence of BFRs in the environment remains a cause for concern with regards to developmental toxicity. PMID:27286044

  9. Gestational and Early Postnatal Exposure to an Environmentally Relevant Mixture of Brominated Flame Retardants: General Toxicity and Skeletal Variations.

    PubMed

    Tung, Emily W Y; Yan, Han; Lefèvre, Pavine L C; Berger, Robert G; Rawn, Dorothea F K; Gaertner, Dean W; Kawata, Alice; Rigden, Marc; Robaire, Bernard; Hales, Barbara F; Wade, Michael G

    2016-06-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are stable environmental contaminants known to exert endocrine-disrupting effects. Developmental exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) is correlated with impaired thyroid hormone signaling, as well as estrogenic and anti-androgenic effects. As previous studies have focused on a single congener or technical mixture, the purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of gestational and early postnatal exposure to an environmentally relevant mixture of BFRs designed to reflect house dust levels of PBDEs and hexabromocyclododecane on postnatal developmental outcomes. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to the PBDE mixture from preconception to weaning (PND 21) through the diet containing 0, 0.75, 250, and 750 mg mixture/kg diet. BFR exposure induced transient reductions in body weight at PND 35 in male and from PND 30-45 in female offspring (250 and 750 mg/kg). Liver weights (PND 21) and xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme activities (PND 21 and 46) were increased in both male and female offspring exposed to 250 and 750 mg/kg diets. Furthermore, serum T4 levels were reduced at PND 21 in both,male and female offspring (250 and 750 mg/kg). At PND 21, Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was decreased in males exposed to 750 mg/kg dietat, and females exposed to 250 and 750 mg/kg diets. At PND 46 ALP was significantly elevated in males (250 and 750 mg/kg). Variations in the cervical vertebrae and phalanges were observed in pups at PND 4 (250 and 750 mg/kg). Therefore, BFR exposure during gestation through to weaning alters developmental programming in the offspring. The persistence of BFRs in the environment remains a cause for concern with regards to developmental toxicity.

  10. Environmental factors associated with asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Bailus; Stokes, Lynette D.; Warren, Rueben

    2003-01-01

    Asthma, a disease of attacks and remission, continues to account for substantial morbidity and direct economic costs. Numerous studies--epidemiologic, toxicologic and clinical--present evidence for a broad spectrum of environmental risk factors associated with asthma. This review summarizes current thinking on a subset of these factors. Knowledge of potential environmental determinants of asthma is important to both the patient and healthcare professional in the application of multiple modalities of medical and environmental intervention for management of the development, and exacerbation of this chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways. PMID:12760611

  11. Environmental risk factors for osteoporosis

    SciTech Connect

    Goyer, R.A.; Korach, K.S. ); Epstein, S. ); Bhattacharyya, M. ); Pounds, J. )

    1994-04-01

    Environmental risk factors for osteoporosis were reviewed at a conference held at the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences 8-9 November 1993. The conference was co-sponsored by the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disease and the NIH Office of Research in Women's Health. The objective of the conference was to review what is known about risk factors for osteoporosis and to identify gaps in the present state of knowledge that might be addressed by future research. The conference was divided into two broad themes. The first session focused on current knowledge regarding etiology, risk factors, and approaches to clinical and laboratory diagnosis. This was followed by three sessions in which various environmental pollutants were discussed. Topics selected for review included environmental agents that interfere with bone and calcium metabolism, such as the toxic metals lead, cadmium, aluminum, and fluoride, natural and antiestrogens, calcium, and vitamin D.

  12. Chromatin remodelling factor Mll1 is essential for neurogenesis from postnatal neural stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Daniel A.; Huang, Yin-Cheng; Swigut, Tomek; Mirick, Anika L.; Garcia-Verdugo, Jose Manuel; Wysocka, Joanna; Ernst, Patricia; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms that maintain neurogenesis throughout adult life remain poorly understood1. Trithorax group (trxG) and Polycomb group (PcG) gene products are part of an evolutionarily conserved chromatin remodelling system that activate or silence gene expression, respectively2. Although PcG member Bmi1 has been shown to be required for postnatal neural stem cell self-renewal3,4, the role of trxG genes remains unknown. Here we show that the trxG member Mll1 (mixed-lineage leukaemia 1) is required for neurogenesis in the mouse postnatal brain. Mll1-deficient subventricular zone neural stem cells survive, proliferate and efficiently differentiate into glial lineages; however, neuronal differentiation is severely impaired. In Mll1-deficient cells, early proneural Mash1 (also known as Ascl1) and gliogenic Olig2 expression are preserved, but Dlx2, a key downstream regulator of subventricular zone neurogenesis, is not expressed. Over-expression of Dlx2 can rescue neurogenesis in Mll1-deficient cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrates that Dlx2 is a direct target of MLL in subventricular zone cells. In differentiating wild-type subventricular zone cells, Mash1, Olig2 and Dlx2 loci have high levels of histone 3 trimethylated at lysine 4 (H3K4me3), consistent with their transcription. In contrast, in Mll1-deficient subventricular zone cells, chromatin at Dlx2 is bivalently marked by both H3K4me3 and histone 3 trimethylated at lysine 27 (H3K27me3), and the Dlx2 gene fails to properly activate. These data support a model in which Mll1 is required to resolve key silenced bivalent loci in postnatal neural precursors to the actively transcribed state for the induction of neurogenesis, but not for gliogenesis. PMID:19212323

  13. Environmental Factors Inducing Human Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Parsa, N

    2012-01-01

    Background An explosion of research has been done in discovering how human health is affected by environmental factors. I will discuss the impacts of environmental cancer causing factors and how they continue to cause multiple disruptions in cellular networking. Some risk factors may not cause cancer. Other factors initiate consecutive genetic mutations that would eventually alter the normal pathway of cellular proliferations and differentiation. Genetic mutations in four groups of genes; (Oncogenes, Tumor suppressor genes, Apoptosis genes and DNA repairing genes) play a vital role in altering the normal cell division. In recent years, molecular genetics have greatly increased our understanding of the basic mechanisms in cancer development and utilizing these molecular techniques for cancer screening, diagnosis, prognosis and therapies. Inhibition of carcinogenic exposures wherever possible should be the goal of cancer prevention programs to reduce exposures from all environmental carcinogens. PMID:23304670

  14. Hypoxia-Induced Developmental Delays of Inhibitory Interneurons Are Reversed by Environmental Enrichment in the Postnatal Mouse Forebrain

    PubMed Central

    Komitova, Mila; Xenos, Dionysios; Salmaso, Natalina; May Tran, Kathy; Brand, Theresa; Schwartz, Michael L.; Ment, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Infants born premature experience hypoxic episodes due to immaturity of their respiratory and central nervous systems. This profoundly affects brain development and results in cognitive impairments. We used a mouse model to examine the impact of hypoxic rearing (9.5–10.5% O2) from postnatal day 3 to 11 (P3–P11) on GABAergic interneurons and the potential for environmental enrichment to ameliorate these developmental abnormalities. At P15 the numbers of cortical interneurons expressing immunohistochemically detectable levels of parvalbumin (PV), somatostatin (SST), and vasoactive intestinal peptide were decreased in hypoxic-reared mice by 59%, 32%, and 38%, respectively, compared with normoxic controls. Hypoxia also decreased total GABA content in frontal neocortex by 31%. However, GAD67-EGFP knock-in mice reared under hypoxic conditions showed no changes in total number of GAD67-EGFP+ cells and no evidence of increased interneuron death, suggesting that the total number of interneurons was not decreased, but rather, that hypoxic-rearing decreased interneuron marker expression in these cells. In adulthood, PV and SST expression levels were decreased in hypoxic-reared mice. In contrast, intensity of reelin (RLN) expression was significantly increased in adult hypoxic-reared mice compared with normoxic controls. Housing mice in an enriched environment from P21 until adulthood normalized phenotypic interneuron marker expression without affecting total interneuron numbers or leading to increased neurogenesis. Our data show that (1) hypoxia decreases PV and SST and increases RLN expression in cortical interneurons during postnatal cortical development and (2) enriched environment has the capacity to normalize the interneuron abnormalities in cortex. PMID:23946395

  15. Risk profiles associated with postnatal depressive symptoms among women in a public sector hospital in Mexico: the role of sociodemographic and psychosocial factors.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Filipa; Place, Jean Marie S; Billings, Deborah L; Rivera, Leonor; Frongillo, Edward A

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the association between postnatal depressive symptoms and a set of demographic and psychosocial factors among 604 women attending a public hospital for postnatal care in Mexico City. Specific profiles of women that would indicate an increased probability for developing postnatal depression (PND) based on discrete combinations of risk and protective factors were generated. In a logistic model, followed by the estimation of predicted probabilities, we examined the association between depressive symptomatology and psychosocial factors: low social support, unplanned pregnancies, history of depression, and exposure to moderate or severe intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy. Postnatal depressive symptomatology was reported by 10.6 % of the women, as measured by scores at 12 or above on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The cumulative probability of presenting PND in the simultaneous presence of the psychosocial factors was 67.0 %; however, this could be reduced to 5.5 % through preventive measures that work to eliminate low social support, unplanned pregnancy, and exposure to severe IPV during pregnancy. Early identification of psychosocial risk factors, specifically low social support, unplanned pregnancies, history of depression, and exposure to violence during pregnancy, is recommended.

  16. Risk profiles associated with postnatal depressive symptoms among women in a public sector hospital in Mexico: the role of sociodemographic and psychosocial factors.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Filipa; Place, Jean Marie S; Billings, Deborah L; Rivera, Leonor; Frongillo, Edward A

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the association between postnatal depressive symptoms and a set of demographic and psychosocial factors among 604 women attending a public hospital for postnatal care in Mexico City. Specific profiles of women that would indicate an increased probability for developing postnatal depression (PND) based on discrete combinations of risk and protective factors were generated. In a logistic model, followed by the estimation of predicted probabilities, we examined the association between depressive symptomatology and psychosocial factors: low social support, unplanned pregnancies, history of depression, and exposure to moderate or severe intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy. Postnatal depressive symptomatology was reported by 10.6 % of the women, as measured by scores at 12 or above on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The cumulative probability of presenting PND in the simultaneous presence of the psychosocial factors was 67.0 %; however, this could be reduced to 5.5 % through preventive measures that work to eliminate low social support, unplanned pregnancy, and exposure to severe IPV during pregnancy. Early identification of psychosocial risk factors, specifically low social support, unplanned pregnancies, history of depression, and exposure to violence during pregnancy, is recommended. PMID:25416532

  17. Association between Molar Incisor Hypomineralization in Schoolchildren and Both Prenatal and Postnatal Factors: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; Bendo, Cristiane Baccin; Zarzar, Patrícia Maria; Vale, Miriam Pimenta

    2016-01-01

    Background Although studies throughout the world have investigated potential factors involved in the occurrence of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH), the findings are varied and inconclusive. Objective The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of MIH and identify associated prenatal, perinatal and postnatal factors among Brazilian schoolchildren aged 8 and 9 years. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with a randomly selected population-based sample of 1181 schoolchildren. Information on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics as well as prenatal, perinatal and postnatal aspects was obtained through questionnaires. The clinical examination included the investigation of MIH based on the criteria of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry. Dental caries in the permanent dentition and developmental defects of enamel (DDE) on the primary second molars were also recorded. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics, bivariate tests and Poisson regression with robust variance. Results The prevalence of MIH was 20.4%. MIH was more frequent among children with dental caries in the permanent dentition (PR: 2.67; 95% CI: 1.98–3.61), those with DDE on the primary second molars (PR: 2.54; 95% CI: 1.87–3.45) and those who experienced asthma/bronchitis in the first four years of life (PR: 1.93; 95% CI: 1.45–2.56). Conclusions The prevalence of MIH was high and was associated with dental caries, the presence of DDE on primary second molars and the experience of asthma/bronchitis in early life. These findings could be useful in the identification of children in need of shorter recall intervals to prevent the consequences of MIH, such as enamel breakdown dental caries. PMID:27280451

  18. [Nonallergic hypersensitivity to environmental factors].

    PubMed

    Rakhmanin, Iu A; Fedoseeva, V N; Makovetskaia, A K; Fedoskova, T G

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence and severity of manifestations of non-allergic hypersensitivity to chemical environmental factors pose the question about the need to study the mechanisms of its formation in population. It should be borne in mind that, in the absence of immunological mechanisms of formation of the mentioned state, the term "chemical sensitization" must be replaced by the term "non-allergic hypersensitivity." The investigation of this problem should permit to reduce the risk of formation of different types of hypersensitivity in population.

  19. Neurodevelopmental Plasticity in Pre- and Postnatal Environmental Interactions: Implications for Psychiatric Disorders from an Evolutionary Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-A; Yamaguchi, Yoshie; Goto, Yukiori

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are disadvantageous behavioral phenotypes in humans. Accordingly, a recent epidemiological study has reported decreased fecundity in patients with psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. Moreover, the fecundity of the relatives of these patients is not exceedingly higher compared to the fecundity of the relatives of normal subjects. Collectively, the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among humans is expected to decrease over generations. Nevertheless, in reality, the prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in humans either have been constant over a long period of time or have even increased more recently. Several attempts to explain this fact have been made using biological mechanisms, such as de novo gene mutations or variants, although none of these explanations is fully comprehensive. Here, we propose a hypothesis towards understanding the biological mechanisms of psychiatric disorders from evolutionary perspectives. This hypothesis considers that behavioral phenotypes associated with psychiatric disorders might have emerged in the evolution of organisms as a neurodevelopmental adaptation against adverse environmental conditions associated with stress. PMID:26060583

  20. Postnatal developmental expression of the PDZ scaffolds Na+-H+ exchanger regulatory factors 1 and 2 in the rat cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Kanjhan, Refik; Hryciw, Deanne H.; Bellingham, Mark C.; Poronnik, Philip; Yun, C. Chris

    2006-01-01

    Sensory transduction in the mammalian cochlea requires the maintenance of specialized fluid compartments with distinct ionic compositions. This is achieved by the concerted action of diverse ion channels and transporters, some of which can interact with the PDZ scaffolds, Na+-H+ exchanger regulatory factors 1 and 2 (NHERF-1, NHERF-2). Here, we report that NHERF-1 and NHERF-2 are widely expressed in the rat cochlea, and that their expression is developmentally regulated. Reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting initially confirmed the RNA and protein expression of NHERFs. We then performed immunohistochemistry on cochlea during various stages of postnatal development. Prior to the onset of hearing (P8), NHERF-1 immunolabeling was prominently polarized to the apical membrane of cells lining the endolymphatic compartment, including the stereocilia and cuticular plates of the inner and outer hair cells, marginal cells of the stria vascularis, Reissner’s epithelia, and tectorial membrane. With maturation (P21, P70), NHERF-1 immunolabeling was reduced in the above structures, whereas labeling increased in the apical membrane of the interdental cells of the spiral limbus and the inner and outer sulcus cells, Hensen’s cells, the inner and outer pillar cells, Deiters cells, the inner border cells, spiral ligament fibrocytes, and spiral ganglion neurons (particularly type II). NHERF-1 expression in strial basal and intermediate cells was persistent. NHERF-2 immunolabeling was similar to that for NHERF-1 during postnatal development, with the exception of expression in the synaptic regions beneath the outer hair cells. NHERF-1 and NHERF-2 co-localized with glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin in glia. The cochlear localization of NHERF scaffolds suggests that they play important roles in the developmental regulation of ion transport, homeostasis, and auditory neurotransmission. PMID:16160858

  1. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Bioavailability Regulates Angiogenesis and Intestinal Stem and Progenitor Cell Proliferation during Postnatal Small Intestinal Development

    PubMed Central

    Holoyda, Kathleen A.; Hou, Xiaogang; Fowler, Kathryn L.; Grikscheit, Tracy C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a highly conserved, master regulatory molecule required for endothelial cell proliferation, organization, migration and branching morphogenesis. Podocoryne carnea and drosophila, which lack endothelial cells and a vascular system, express VEGF homologs, indicating potential roles beyond angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. The role of VEGF in the development and homeostasis of the postnatal small intestine is unknown. We hypothesized regulating VEGF bioavailability in the postnatal small intestine would exhibit effects beyond the vasculature and influence epithelial cell stem/progenitor populations. Methods VEGF mutant mice were created that overexpressed VEGF in the brush border of epithelium via the villin promotor following doxycycline treatment. To decrease VEGF bioavailability, sFlt-1 mutant mice were generated that overexpressed the soluble VEGF receptor sFlt-1 upon doxycycline administration in the intestinal epithelium. Mice were analyzed after 21 days of doxycycline administration. Results Increased VEGF expression was confirmed by RT-qPCR and ELISA in the intestine of the VEGF mutants compared to littermates. The VEGF mutant duodenum demonstrated increased angiogenesis and vascular leak as compared to littermate controls. The VEGF mutant duodenum revealed taller villi and increased Ki-67-positive cells in the transit-amplifying zone with reduced Lgr5 expression. The duodenum of sFlt-1 mutants revealed shorter villi and longer crypts with reduced proliferation in the transit-amplifying zone, reduced expression of Dll1, Bmp4 and VE-cadherin, and increased expression of Sox9 and EphB2. Conclusions Manipulating VEGF bioavailability leads to profound effects on not only the intestinal vasculature, but epithelial stem and progenitor cells in the intestinal crypt. Elucidation of the crosstalk between VEGF signaling in the vasculature, mesenchyme and epithelial stem/progenitor cell populations may direct future

  2. Environmental factors in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Cosselman, Kristen E; Navas-Acien, Ana; Kaufman, Joel D

    2015-11-01

    Environmental exposure is an important but underappreciated risk factor contributing to the development and severity of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The heart and vascular system are highly vulnerable to a number of environmental agents--ambient air pollution and the metals arsenic, cadmium, and lead are widespread and the most-extensively studied. Like traditional risk factors, such as smoking and diabetes mellitus, these exposures advance disease and mortality via augmentation or initiation of pathophysiological processes associated with CVD, including blood-pressure control, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, vascular function, and atherogenesis. Although residence in highly polluted areas is associated with high levels of cardiovascular risk, adverse effects on cardiovascular health also occur at exposure levels below current regulatory standards. Considering the widespread prevalence of exposure, even modest contributions to CVD risk can have a substantial effect on population health. Evidence-based clinical and public-health strategies aimed at reducing environmental exposures from current levels could substantially lower the burden of CVD-related death and disability worldwide.

  3. Population attributable risk estimates for factors associated with non-use of postnatal care services among women in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Agho, K E; Ezeh, O K; Issaka, A I; Enoma, A I; Baines, S; Renzaho, A M N

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine population attributable risks (PARs) estimates for factors associated with non-use of postnatal care (PNC) in Nigeria. Design, setting and participants The most recent Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS, 2013) was examined. The study consisted of 20 467 mothers aged 15–49 years. Non-use of PNC services was examined against a set of demographic, health knowledge and social structure factors, using multilevel regression analysis. PARs estimates were obtained for each factor associated with non-use of PNC in the final multivariate logistic regression model. Main outcome PNC services. Results Non-use of PNC services was attributed to 68% (95% CI 56% to 76%) of mothers who delivered at home, 61% (95% CI 55% to 75%) of those who delivered with the help of non-health professionals and 37% (95% CI 31% to 45%) of those who lacked knowledge of delivery complications in the study population. Multiple variable analyses revealed that non-use of PNC services among mothers was significantly associated with rural residence, household poverty, no or low levels of mothers' formal education, small perceived size of neonate, poor knowledge of delivery-related complications, and limited or no access to the mass media. Conclusions PAR estimates for factors associated with non-use of PNC in Nigeria highlight the need for community-based interventions regarding maternal education and services that focus on mothers who delivered their babies at home. Our study also recommends financial support from the Nigerian government for mothers from low socioeconomic settings, so as to minimise the inequitable access to pregnancy and delivery healthcare services with trained healthcare personnel. PMID:27371552

  4. Postnatal Care Service Utilization and Associated Factors among Women Who Gave Birth in the Last 12 Months prior to the Study in Debre Markos Town, Northwestern Ethiopia: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Limenih, Miteku Andualem; Endale, Zerfu Mulaw; Dachew, Berihun Assefa

    2016-01-01

    Improving maternal and newborn health through proper postnatal care services under the care of skilled health personnel is the key strategy to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality. However, there were limited evidences on utilization of postnatal care services in Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Debremarkos town, Northwest Ethiopia. Cluster sampling technique was used to select 588 study participants. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression model was fitted to identify factors associated with postnatal care utilization. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was computed to determine the level of significance. Postnatal care service utilization was found to be 33.5%. Awareness about maternal complication (AOR: 2.72, 95% CI (1.71, 4.34)), place of delivery of last child (AOR: 1.68, 95% CI: (1.01, 2.79)), outcome of birth (AOR: 2.71, 95% CI (1.19, 6.19)), delivery by cesarean section (AOR: 4.82, 95% CI (1.86, 12.54)), and delivery complication that occurred during birth (AOR: 2.58, 95% CI (1.56, 4.28)) were factors associated with postnatal care service utilization. Postnatal care service utilization was found to be low. Increasing awareness about postnatal care, preventing maternal and neonatal complication, and scheduling mothers based on the national postnatal care follow-up protocol would increase postnatal care service utilization. PMID:27433481

  5. Postnatal Care Service Utilization and Associated Factors among Women Who Gave Birth in the Last 12 Months prior to the Study in Debre Markos Town, Northwestern Ethiopia: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Limenih, Miteku Andualem; Endale, Zerfu Mulaw; Dachew, Berihun Assefa

    2016-01-01

    Improving maternal and newborn health through proper postnatal care services under the care of skilled health personnel is the key strategy to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality. However, there were limited evidences on utilization of postnatal care services in Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Debremarkos town, Northwest Ethiopia. Cluster sampling technique was used to select 588 study participants. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression model was fitted to identify factors associated with postnatal care utilization. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was computed to determine the level of significance. Postnatal care service utilization was found to be 33.5%. Awareness about maternal complication (AOR: 2.72, 95% CI (1.71, 4.34)), place of delivery of last child (AOR: 1.68, 95% CI: (1.01, 2.79)), outcome of birth (AOR: 2.71, 95% CI (1.19, 6.19)), delivery by cesarean section (AOR: 4.82, 95% CI (1.86, 12.54)), and delivery complication that occurred during birth (AOR: 2.58, 95% CI (1.56, 4.28)) were factors associated with postnatal care service utilization. Postnatal care service utilization was found to be low. Increasing awareness about postnatal care, preventing maternal and neonatal complication, and scheduling mothers based on the national postnatal care follow-up protocol would increase postnatal care service utilization.

  6. Why Aren't Identical Twins Linguistically Identical? Genetic, Prenatal and Postnatal Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromswold, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Results of twin studies clearly demonstrate that genetic factors play an important role in the rate of language acquisition and linguistic proficiency attained by normal and impaired children and adults [see Stromswold, K. (2001). The heritability of language: A review and meta-analysis of twin, adoption and linkage studies. "Language," 77,…

  7. Postnatal Depression and Its Associated Factors in Women From Different Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahi, Fatemeh; Lye, Munn-Sann; Md Zain, Azhar; Shariff Ghazali, Sazlina; Zarghami, Mehran

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common health problem which affects women in the postpartum period. This is a brief note on its associated factors in women from different cultures. Methods: A literature review was performed in MEDLINE and Pubmed from 1991 to 2008 and Magiran from 1991 to 2009. Additional articles and book chapters were referenced from these sources. Results: The prevalence of postpartum depression has been reported to be from 0.5% to 60% globally, and from 3.5% to 63.3% in Asian countries, in which Malaysia and Pakistan had respectively the lowest and highest rates. One of the factors contributing to PPD in Asian societies can be that women may not have the empowerment to reject traditional rituals that are imposed on them by their caregivers. Unsatisfactory pre-existing relationships between the mothers and their caregivers resulting in mothers experiencing difficulties during their confinement period may be another factor. Thirdly, some features of these traditional rituals may be the cause of tension, stress and emotional distress. Emotional conflicts caused by insistence on practice of traditional rituals during the postpartum period may lead to mental breakdown. Conclusion: Health care professionals should be aware that the phenomenon in Asian cultures is as prevalent as European cultures. Moreover, further research needs to be conducted on the global prevalence of the experiences of childbearing women with depressive symptoms. PMID:24644441

  8. Environmental Volunteers: Factors Influencing Their Involvement in Environmental Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liarakou, Georgia; Kostelou, Eleni; Gavrilakis, Costas

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the factors that influence volunteers to become involved in environmental action. The research focused on volunteers undertaking action in summer camps organised by an environmental non-governmental organisation (NGO) in Greece. The results suggest that the environmental issues addressed in volunteer…

  9. The Role of Pre- and Postnatal Timing of Family Risk Factors on Child Behavior at 36 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bekkhus, Mona; Rutter, Michael; Barker, Edward D.; Borge, Anne I. H.

    2011-01-01

    Children growing up in disharmonious families with anxious/depressed mothers are at risk for emotional and behavioral difficulties, however whether these associations reflect postnatal environment, prenatal exposure, or an overall liability is still unclear. This study used prospectively collected data from 24,259 participants of the Norwegian…

  10. Early postnatal handling and environmental enrichment improve the behavioral responses of 17-month-old 3xTg-AD and non-transgenic mice in the Forced Swim Test in a gender-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Torres-Lista, Virginia; Giménez-Llort, Lydia

    2015-11-01

    Forced Swimming Test (FST) models behavioural despair in animals by loss of motivation to respond or the refusal to escape. The present study was aimed at characterizing genetic (genotype and gender) and environmental factors (age/stage of disease and rearing conditions: C, standard; H, early postnatal handling; EE, environmental enrichment consisting in physical exercise as well as social and object enrichment) that may modulate the poor behavioural and cognitive flexibility response we have recently described in 12-month-old male 3xTg-AD mice in the FST. The comprehensive analysis of the ethogram shown in the FST considered the intervals of the test (0-2 and 2-6min), all the elicited behavioural responses (immobility, swimming and climbing) and their features (total duration and frequency of episodes). The long persistence of behaviours found in 17-month-old (late-stages of disease) 3xTg-AD mice was comparable to that recently described in males at 12 months of age (beginning of advanced stages) but also suggested increased age-dependent frailty in both genotypes. The poor behavioral flexibility of 3xTg-AD mice to elicit the behavioural despair shown by the NTg mice, was also found in the female gender. Finally, the present work demonstrates that early-life interventions were able to improve the time and frequency of episodes of immobility, being more evident in the female gender of both old NTg and 3xTg-AD mice. Ontogenic modulation by early-postnatal handling resulted in a more effective long-term improvement of the elicited behaviours in the FST than that achieved by environmental enrichment. The results talk in favor of the beneficence of early-life interventions on ageing in both healthy and disease conditions.

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH MENTAL RETARDATION AND DEVELOPMENT DISABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    A number of environmental agents have been shown to demonstrate neurotoxic effects either in human or laboratory animal studies. Critical windows of vulnerability to the effects of these agents occur both pre- and postnatally. The nervous system is relatively un...

  12. Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers' Motor Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…

  13. Temporal expression patterns of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4 in the embryonic and postnatal rat brain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background IGFBP-4 has been considered as a factor involving in development of the central nervous system (CNS), but its role needs to be further clarified. In present study, the localization of IGFBP-4 expression in the embryonic forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain was determined using immunohistochemistry, and the levels of IGFBP-4 protein and mRNA were semi-quantified using RT-PCR and Western blot in the embryonic (forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain) and postnatal brain (cerebral cortex, cerebellum and midbrain). Results A clear immunoreactivity of IGFBP-4 covered almost the entire embryonic brain (forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain) from E10.5 to E18.5, except for the area near the ventricle from E14.5. The change of IGFBP-4 mRNA level was regularly from E10.5 to E18.5: its expression peaked at E13.5 and E14.5, followed by gradual decreasing from E15.5. The expression of IGFBP-4 protein was similar to that of mRNA in embryonic stage. After birth, the pattern of IGFBP-4 expression was shown to be rather divergent in different brain areas. In the cerebral cortex, the IGFBP-4 mRNA increased gradually after birth (P0), while the protein showed little changes from P0 to P28, but decreased significantly at P70. In the cerebellum, the IGFBP-4 mRNA decreased gradually from P0, reached the lowest level at P21, and then increased again. However, its protein level gradually increased from P0 to P70. In the midbrain, the IGFBP-4 mRNA first decreased and reached its lowest level at P28 before it increased, while the protein remained constant from P0 to P70. At P7, P14, P21, P28 and P70, the levels of IGFBP-4 mRNA in the cerebral cortex were significantly higher than that in the cerebellum or in the midbrain. Differently, the protein levels in the cerebellum were significantly higher than that either in the cerebral cortex or in the midbrain at P14, P21, P28 and P70. Conclusions The temporal expression pattern of IGFBP-4 in the embryonic brain from E10.5 to E18.5 was consistent

  14. Dorsal Raphe Serotonin Neurons in Mice: Immature Hyperexcitability Transitions to Adult State during First Three Postnatal Weeks Suggesting Sensitive Period for Environmental Perturbation

    PubMed Central

    Rood, Benjamin D.; Calizo, Lyngine H.; Piel, David; Spangler, Zachary P.; Campbell, Kaitlin

    2014-01-01

    Trauma during early life is a major risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders and suggests that the developing brain may be particularly sensitive to perturbation. Increased vulnerability most likely involves altering neural circuits involved in emotional regulation. The role of serotonin in emotional regulation is well established, but little is known about the postnatal development of the raphe where serotonin is made. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recording and immunohistochemistry, we tested whether serotonin circuitry in the dorsal and median raphe was functionally mature during the first 3 postnatal weeks in mice. Serotonin neurons at postnatal day 4 (P4) were hyperexcitable. The increased excitability was due to depolarized resting membrane potential, increased resistance, increased firing rate, lack of 5-HT1A autoreceptor response, and lack of GABA synaptic activity. Over the next 2 weeks, membrane resistance decreased and resting membrane potential hyperpolarized due in part to potassium current activation. The 5-HT1A autoreceptor-mediated inhibition did not develop until P21. The frequency of spontaneous inhibitory and excitatory events increased as neurons extended and refined their dendritic arbor. Serotonin colocalized with vGlut3 at P4 as in adulthood, suggesting enhanced release of glutamate alongside enhanced serotonin release. Because serotonin affects circuit development in other brain regions, altering the developmental trajectory of serotonin neuron excitability and release could have many downstream consequences. We conclude that serotonin neuron structure and function change substantially during the first 3 weeks of life during which external stressors could potentially alter circuit formation. PMID:24695701

  15. The Environmental Factors Influencing Attrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villella, Edward F.

    1986-01-01

    Offers an economics/business-management perspective on student attrition, focusing on the external macro-environment (including such factors as government funding of education, changing enrollment patterns, and the increased number of postsecondary institutions) and the internal micro-environment (exhibiting characteristics of intangibility,…

  16. Age and Residential Factors in Environmental Preference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiyak, H. Asuman

    The relationship between age and residential factors in environmental preference was investigated by measuring the degree to which recently institutionalized elderly adapted to the new environment. Their needs and preferences for environmental qualities of stiumulation, order and privacy were assessed and compared with a matched sample of older…

  17. Environmental factors influencing epidemic cholera.

    PubMed

    Jutla, Antarpreet; Whitcombe, Elizabeth; Hasan, Nur; Haley, Bradd; Akanda, Ali; Huq, Anwar; Alam, Munir; Sack, R Bradley; Colwell, Rita

    2013-09-01

    Cholera outbreak following the earthquake of 2010 in Haiti has reaffirmed that the disease is a major public health threat. Vibrio cholerae is autochthonous to aquatic environment, hence, it cannot be eradicated but hydroclimatology-based prediction and prevention is an achievable goal. Using data from the 1800s, we describe uniqueness in seasonality and mechanism of occurrence of cholera in the epidemic regions of Asia and Latin America. Epidemic regions are located near regional rivers and are characterized by sporadic outbreaks, which are likely to be initiated during episodes of prevailing warm air temperature with low river flows, creating favorable environmental conditions for growth of cholera bacteria. Heavy rainfall, through inundation or breakdown of sanitary infrastructure, accelerates interaction between contaminated water and human activities, resulting in an epidemic. This causal mechanism is markedly different from endemic cholera where tidal intrusion of seawater carrying bacteria from estuary to inland regions, results in outbreaks.

  18. Environmental Factors Influencing Epidemic Cholera

    PubMed Central

    Jutla, Antarpreet; Whitcombe, Elizabeth; Hasan, Nur; Haley, Bradd; Akanda, Ali; Huq, Anwar; Alam, Munir; Sack, R. Bradley; Colwell, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Cholera outbreak following the earthquake of 2010 in Haiti has reaffirmed that the disease is a major public health threat. Vibrio cholerae is autochthonous to aquatic environment, hence, it cannot be eradicated but hydroclimatology-based prediction and prevention is an achievable goal. Using data from the 1800s, we describe uniqueness in seasonality and mechanism of occurrence of cholera in the epidemic regions of Asia and Latin America. Epidemic regions are located near regional rivers and are characterized by sporadic outbreaks, which are likely to be initiated during episodes of prevailing warm air temperature with low river flows, creating favorable environmental conditions for growth of cholera bacteria. Heavy rainfall, through inundation or breakdown of sanitary infrastructure, accelerates interaction between contaminated water and human activities, resulting in an epidemic. This causal mechanism is markedly different from endemic cholera where tidal intrusion of seawater carrying bacteria from estuary to inland regions, results in outbreaks. PMID:23897993

  19. Factors Associated With Treatment for Hypotension in Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns During the First Postnatal Week

    PubMed Central

    Laughon, Matthew; Bose, Carl; Allred, Elizabeth; O'Shea, T. Michael; Van Marter, Linda J.; Bednarek, Francis; Leviton, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Objective The goals were to identify the blood pressures of extremely low gestational age newborns that prompt intervention, to identify other infant characteristics associated with receipt of therapies intended to increase blood pressure, and to assess the interinstitutional variability in the use of these therapies. Methods The cohort included 1507 extremely low gestational age newborns born at 23 weeks to 276/7 weeks of gestation, at 14 institutions, between March 2002 and August 2004; 1387 survived the first postnatal week. Blood pressures were measured as clinically indicated. Interventions were grouped as any treatment (ie, vasopressor and/or fluid boluses of >10 mL/kg) and vasopressor treatment, and logistic regression analyses were performed. Results At each gestational age, the lowest mean arterial pressures in treated and untreated infants tended to increase with advancing postnatal age. Infants who received any therapy tended to have lower mean arterial pressures than infants who did not, but uniform thresholds for treatment were not apparent. The proportion of infants receiving any treatment decreased with increasing gestational age from 93% at 23 weeks to 73% at 27 weeks. Treatment nearly always began during the first 24 hours of life. Lower gestational age, lower birth weight, male gender, and higher Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology–II values were associated with any treatment and vasopressor treatment. Institutions varied greatly in their tendency to offer any treatment and vasopressor treatment. Neither the lowest mean arterial pressure on the day of treatment nor other characteristics of the infants accounted for center differences in treatment. Conclusions Blood pressure in extremely premature infants not treated for hypotension increased directly with both increasing gestational age and postnatal age. The decision to provide treatment was associated more strongly with the center where care was provided than with infant attributes. PMID

  20. Environmental Risk Factors for ARDS

    PubMed Central

    Moazed, Farzad; Calfee, Carolyn S.

    2014-01-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Over the past several decades, alcohol abuse and cigarette smoke exposure have been identified as risk factors for the development of ARDS. The mechanisms underlying these relationships are complex and remain under investigation but are thought to involve pulmonary immune impairment as well as alveolar epithelial and endothelial dysfunction. This review summarizes the epidemiologic data supporting links between these exposures and ARDS susceptibility and outcomes and highlights key mechanistic investigations that provide insight into the pathways by which each exposure is linked to ARDS. PMID:25453414

  1. Factors Contributing to Institutions Achieving Environmental Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Matthew; Card, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine what factors contributed to three universities achieving environmental sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A case study methodology was used to determine how each factor contributed to the institutions' sustainability. Site visits, fieldwork, document reviews, and interviews with…

  2. The influence of ovarian factors on the somatostatin-growth hormone system during the postnatal growth and sexual development in lambs.

    PubMed

    Wańkowska, Marta; Polkowska, Jolanta; Misztal, Tomasz; Romanowicz, Katarzyna

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate the effects of ovarian hormones on somatostatin in the hypothalamic neurons and growth hormone (GH) secretion during the postnatal growth and development of sheep. The study was performed on 9-week-old (infantile) lambs that were ovary-intact (OVI) or ovariectomized (OVX) at 39 days of age, and on 16-week-old (juvenile) lambs that were OVI or OVX at 88 days of age. Hormones in neurons and somatotropic cells were assayed with immunohistochemistry and radioimmunoassay. Following ovariectomy, immunoreactive somatostatin was more abundant (p<0.05) in the hypothalamus of infantile lambs, whereas in juvenile lambs it was more abundant (p<0.05) in the periventricular nucleus but reduced (p<0.01) in the median eminence. In contrast to somatostatin in the hypothalamus, the content of immunoreactive GH in the hypophysis was less in OVX infantile lambs, but greater in OVX juvenile lambs (p<0.05). Basal blood serum concentrations of GH were greater (p<0.05) in OVX infantile lambs, whereas in OVX juvenile lambs, mean and basal concentrations of GH and amplitude of GH pulses were less than in OVI lambs (p<0.05). The postnatal increase in body weight was greatest in middle-late infancy (p<0.01). The body weight did not differ (p>0.05) between OVI and OVX lambs. In conclusion, ovarian factors may inhibit the GH secretion in infantile lambs but enhance the GH secretion in juvenile lambs. Transition to puberty, as related to the growth rate, appears to be due mainly to change in gonadal influence on the somatostatin neurosecretion. A stimulation of somatostatin output in the median eminence by gonadal factors in infancy is followed by a stimulation of somatostatin accumulation after infancy. Thus, ovarian factors modulate mechanisms within the somatotropic system of lambs to synchronize the somatic growth with sexual development.

  3. Geographic and environmental factors in pediatric cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Gordis, L.

    1986-07-15

    It is important to determine the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to the etiology of childhood cancer in order to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms involved and to develop effective means of primary prevention. Geographic differences in cancer incidence as well as changes in incidence over calendar time have long been used to generate clues to possible etiologic agents. The important role of genetic factors in childhood cancer is clear, and is exemplified by the observations in retinoblastoma. The importance of the contributions of environmental factors in general and of specific factors in particular, to the etiology of cancers in children, has proven more difficult to determine. A variety of environmental factors have been implicated to varying degrees in the etiology of different childhood cancers. These factors include physical agents such as radiation, chemical agents such as nitrosamines, and organic solvents, and infectious agents such as the Epstein-Barr virus. The observations that certain compounds may act as teratogens when a prenatal exposure occurs early in pregnancy and as carcinogens when the exposure occurs late in pregnancy, suggests that there may be a continuum of teratogenesis and carcinogenesis. This finding has major implications for the possible biologic mechanisms that could be involved in childhood cancers and for the design of future research of their etiology and prevention. The etiology of childhood cancer should be viewed as an interaction of environmental factors to which the child or his parent were exposed together with varying degrees of genetically determined susceptibility of the child to the carcinogenic effects of these factors.

  4. Environmental Factors, Toxicants and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Anselm; Tay, Sen Hee

    2014-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an immune-complex-mediated multi-systemic autoimmune condition of multifactorial etiology, which mainly affects young women. It is currently believed that the onset of SLE and lupus flares are triggered by various environmental factors in genetically susceptible individuals. Various environmental agents and toxicants, such as cigarette smoke, alcohol, occupationally- and non-occupationally-related chemicals, ultraviolet light, infections, sex hormones and certain medications and vaccines, have been implicated to induce SLE onset or flares in a number case series, case-control and population-based cohort studies and very few randomized controlled trials. Here, we will describe some of these recognized environmental lupus triggering and perpetuating factors and explain how these factors potentially bias the immune system towards autoimmunity through their interactions with genetic and epigenetic alterations. Further in-depth exploration of how potentially important environmental factors mechanistically interact with the immune system and the genome, which trigger the onset of SLE and lupus flares, will certainly be one of the plausible steps to prevent the onset and to decelerate the progress of the disease. PMID:25216337

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Factors Affecting Breast Cancer Susceptibility
    Suzanne. E. Fenton
    US EPA, ORD, MD-67 NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711.

    Breast cancer is still the most common malignancy afflicting women in the Western world. Alt...

  6. Genetic and environmental factors associated with asthma.

    PubMed

    Bener, A; Abdulrazzaq, Y M; Al-Mutawwa, J; Debuse, P

    1996-06-01

    We investigate the familial and environmental risk factors associated with asthma among United Arab Emirates schoolchildren aged 6-14 years. A cross-sectional study of 850 schoolchildren living in both urban and rural areas (average age 9.36 +/- 2.11 years; 46.8% boys, 53.2% girls) was conducted using self-administered questionnaires between October 1992 and May 1993. The population sample had a high prevalence rate of diagnosed asthma (13.6%) and allergic rhinitis (22.9%). The frequency of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema among parents and siblings reflected the same pattern as that seen in the children. Environmental risk factors associated with asthma were pets, medicine, plants, dust storm, physical exercise, humidity, and perfume. All other factors, such as foods, climate, and parental smoking, showed no apparent relation to the development of asthma. The logistic regression analysis showed that parental asthma, plants, perfume, dust storm, humidity, and pets were the only significant predictors after adjusting for sex and other confounding covariates in the model. In conclusion, risk factors for asthma identified by our study are similar to those found in other community-based studies. Consistencies and discrepancies between our findings and those from other studies with respect to asthma risk factors support the hypothesis that asthma is a multifactorial disease related to both familial and environmental influences.

  7. Functional coupling of transcription factor HiNF-P and histone H4 gene expression during pre- and post-natal mouse development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-Jun; Xie, Ronglin; Hussain, Sadiq; Lian, Jane B; Rivera-Perez, Jaime; Jones, Stephen N; Stein, Janet L; Stein, Gary S; van Wijnen, Andre J

    2011-09-01

    Transcription factor Histone Nuclear Factor P (HiNF-P; gene symbol Hinfp) mediates cell cycle control of histone H4 gene expression to support the packaging of newly replicated DNA as chromatin. The HiNF-P/p220(NPAT) complex controls multiple H4 genes in established human cell lines and is critical for cell proliferation. The mouse Hinfp(LacZ) null allele causes early embryonic lethality due to a blastocyst defect. However, neither Hinfp function nor its temporal expression relative to histone H4 genes during fetal development has been explored. Here, we establish that expression of Hinfp is biologically coupled with expression of twelve functional mouse H4 genes during pre- and post-natal tissue-development. Both Hinfp and H4 genes are robustly expressed at multiple embryonic (E) days (from E5.5 to E15.5), coincident with ubiquitous LacZ staining driven by the Hinfp promoter. Five highly expressed mouse H4 genes (Hist1h4d, Histh4f, Hist1h4m and Hist2h4) account for >90% of total histone H4 mRNA throughout development. Post-natal expression of H4 genes in mice is most evident in lung, spleen, thymus and intestine, and with few exceptions (e.g., adult liver) correlates with Hinfp gene expression. Histone H4 gene expression decreases butHinfp levels remain constitutive upon cell growth inhibition in culture. The in vivo co-expression of Hinfp and histone H4 genes is consistent with the biological function of Hinfp as a principal transcriptional regulator of histone H4 gene expression during mouse development.

  8. Neuroendocrine phenotypes in a boy with 5q14 deletion syndrome implicate the regulatory roles of myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2C in the postnatal hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Yasunari; Ohkubo, Kazuhiro; Matsushita, Yuki; Akamine, Satoshi; Ishizaki, Yoshito; Torisu, Hiroyuki; Ihara, Kenji; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Kim, Min-Seon; Lee, Ki-Up; Shaw, Chad A; Lim, Janghoo; Nakabeppu, Yusaku; Hara, Toshiro

    2013-09-01

    The 5q14.3 deletion syndrome is a rare chromosomal disorder characterized by moderate to severe intellectual disability, seizures and dysmorphic features. We report a 14-year-old boy with 5q14.3 deletion syndrome who carried a heterozygous deletion of the myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2c (MEF2C) gene. In addition to the typical neurodevelopmental features of 5q14.3 deletion syndrome, he showed recurrent hypoglycemia, appetite loss and hypothermia. Hormonal loading tests using insulin, arginine and growth hormone-releasing factor revealed that growth hormone was insufficiently released into serum in response to these stimuli, thus disclosing the hypothalamic dysfunction in the present case. To uncover the biological roles of MEF2C in the hypothalamus, we studied its expression in the postnatal mouse brain. Notably, neuropeptide Y (NPY)-positive interneurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nuclei highly expressed MEF2C. In contrast, the Rett syndrome-associated protein, Methyl-CpG binding Protein 2 (MECP2) was barely expressed in these neurons. MEF2C knockdown or overexpression experiments using Neuro2a cells revealed that MEF2C activated the endogenous transcription of NPY. Conversely, siRNA-mediated knockdown of MECP2 led to derepression of the Npy gene. These data support the concept that MEF2C and MECP2 share common molecular pathways regulating the homeostatic expression of NPY in the adult hypothalamus. We propose that individuals with 5q14.3 deletion syndrome may exhibit neuroendocrine phenotypes through the functional loss of MEF2C in the postnatal hypothalamus.

  9. Brain Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Directs the Transition from Stem Cells to Mature Neurons During Postnatal/Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Estévez, Vanesa; Oueslati-Morales, Carlos O; Li, Lingling; Pickel, James; Morales, Aixa V; Vicario-Abejón, Carlos

    2016-08-01

    The specific actions of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and the role of brain-derived IGF-I during hippocampal neurogenesis have not been fully defined. To address the influence of IGF-I on the stages of hippocampal neurogenesis, we studied a postnatal/adult global Igf-I knockout (KO) mice (Igf-I(-/-) ) and a nervous system Igf-I conditional KO (Igf-I(Δ/Δ) ). In both KO mice we found an accumulation of Tbr2(+) -intermediate neuronal progenitors, some of which were displaced in the outer granule cell layer (GCL) and the molecular layer (ML) of the dentate gyrus (DG). Similarly, more ectopic Ki67(+) - cycling cells were detected. Thus, the GCL was disorganized with significant numbers of Prox1(+) -granule neurons outside this layer and altered morphology of radial glial cells (RGCs). Dividing progenitors were also generated in greater numbers in clonal hippocampal stem cell (HPSC) cultures from the KO mice. Indeed, higher levels of Hes5 and Ngn2, transcription factors that maintain the stem and progenitor cell state, were expressed in both HPSCs and the GCL-ML from the Igf-I(Δ/Δ) mice. To determine the impact of Igf-I deletion on neuronal generation in vivo, progenitors in Igf-I(-/-) and Igf-I(+/+) mice were labeled with a GFP-expressing vector. This revealed that in the Igf-I(-/-) mice more GFP(+) -immature neurons were formed and they had less complex dendritic trees. These findings indicate that local IGF-I plays critical roles during postnatal/adult hippocampal neurogenesis, regulating the transition from HPSCs and progenitors to mature granule neurons in a cell stage-dependent manner. Stem Cells 2016;34:2194-2209. PMID:27144663

  10. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Bozzoni, Virginia; Pansarasa, Orietta; Diamanti, Luca; Nosari, Guido; Cereda, Cristina; Ceroni, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Summary Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder that affects central and peripheral motor neuron cells. Its etiology is unknown, although a relationship between genetic background and environmental factors may play a major role in triggering the neurodegeneration. In this review, we analyze the role of environmental factors in ALS: heavy metals, electromagnetic fields and electric shocks, pesticides, β-N-methylamino-L-alanine, physical activity and the controversial role of sports. The literature on the single issues is analyzed in an attempt to clarify, as clearly as possible, whether each risk factor significantly contributes to the disease pathogenesis. After summarizing conflicting observations and data, the authors provide a final synthetic statement. PMID:27027889

  11. Postpartum Bonding Disorder: Factor Structure, Validity, Reliability and a Model Comparison of the Postnatal Bonding Questionnaire in Japanese Mothers of Infants

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Yukiko; Kitamura, Toshinori; Sakanashi, Kyoko; Tanaka, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Negative attitudes of mothers towards their infant is conceptualized as postpartum bonding disorder, which leads to serious health problems in perinatal health care. However, its measurement still remains to be standardized. Our aim was to examine and confirm the psychometric properties of the Postnatal Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ) in Japanese mothers. We distributed a set of questionnaires to community mothers and studied 392 mothers who returned the questionnaires at 1 month after childbirth. Our model was compared with three other models derived from previous studies. In a randomly halved sample, an exploratory factor analysis yielded a three-factor structure: Anger and Restrictedness, Lack of Affection, and Rejection and Fear. This factor structure was cross-validated by a confirmatory factor analysis using the other halved sample. The three subscales showed satisfactory internal consistency. The three PBQ subscale scores were correlated with depression and psychological abuse scores. Their test–retest reliability between day 5 and 1 month after childbirth was measured by intraclass correlation coefficients between 0.76 and 0.83. The Akaike Information Criteria of our model was better than the original four-factor model of Brockington. The present study indicates that the PBQ is a reliable and valid measure of bonding difficulties of Japanese mothers with neonates. PMID:27490583

  12. Postpartum Bonding Disorder: Factor Structure, Validity, Reliability and a Model Comparison of the Postnatal Bonding Questionnaire in Japanese Mothers of Infants.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Yukiko; Kitamura, Toshinori; Sakanashi, Kyoko; Tanaka, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Negative attitudes of mothers towards their infant is conceptualized as postpartum bonding disorder, which leads to serious health problems in perinatal health care. However, its measurement still remains to be standardized. Our aim was to examine and confirm the psychometric properties of the Postnatal Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ) in Japanese mothers. We distributed a set of questionnaires to community mothers and studied 392 mothers who returned the questionnaires at 1 month after childbirth. Our model was compared with three other models derived from previous studies. In a randomly halved sample, an exploratory factor analysis yielded a three-factor structure: Anger and Restrictedness, Lack of Affection, and Rejection and Fear. This factor structure was cross-validated by a confirmatory factor analysis using the other halved sample. The three subscales showed satisfactory internal consistency. The three PBQ subscale scores were correlated with depression and psychological abuse scores. Their test-retest reliability between day 5 and 1 month after childbirth was measured by intraclass correlation coefficients between 0.76 and 0.83. The Akaike Information Criteria of our model was better than the original four-factor model of Brockington. The present study indicates that the PBQ is a reliable and valid measure of bonding difficulties of Japanese mothers with neonates. PMID:27490583

  13. Environmental factors shaping ungulate abundances in Poland.

    PubMed

    Borowik, Tomasz; Cornulier, Thomas; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła

    2013-01-01

    Population densities of large herbivores are determined by the diverse effects of density-dependent and independent environmental factors. In this study, we used the official 1998-2003 inventory data on ungulate numbers from 462 forest districts and 23 national parks across Poland to determine the roles of various environmental factors in shaping country-wide spatial patterns of ungulate abundances. Spatially explicit generalized additive mixed models showed that different sets of environmental variables explained 39 to 50 % of the variation in red deer Cervus elaphus, wild boar Sus scrofa, and roe deer Capreolus capreolus abundances. For all of the studied species, low forest cover and the mean January temperature were the most important factors limiting their numbers. Woodland cover above 40-50 % held the highest densities for these species. Wild boar and roe deer were more numerous in deciduous or mixed woodlands within a matrix of arable land. Furthermore, we found significant positive effects of marshes and water bodies on wild boar abundances. A juxtaposition of obtained results with ongoing environmental changes (global warming, increase in forest cover) may indicate future growth in ungulate distributions and numbers.

  14. Environmental risk factors for mycosis fungoides.

    PubMed

    Wohl, Yonit; Tur, Ethel

    2007-01-01

    The rising incidence rates of mycosis fungoides (MF) call for an explanation. Thus, environmental and lifestyle factors were speculated to play a role in the development of lymphoproliferative diseases. It is thought that continuous activation of skin T helper lymphocytes leads to malignant transformation of a specific clone. Possible risk factors that have been implicated are occupational chemical exposure, radiation, drugs and infections. The carcinogenic process is probably multifactorial and multistep, combining the genetic predisposition of the individual and his immune status with various exogenous factors. Using advanced and accurate exposure assessment tools, recent epidemiological data indicate that occupational exposure to chemicals, primarily to aromatic halogenated hydrocarbons, is a major risk factor to develop MF in men (odds ratio 4.6), while exposure to pesticides, a subgroup of the aromatic halogenated hydrocarbons, is a risk factor in both genders (odds ratio 6.8 for men and 2.4 for women). Apparently, concomitant infection with Staphylococcus aureus or with Borrelia species and chronic exposure to UVR are minor risk factors for the development of MF. Further assessment of occupational and environmental exposures is essential for the evaluation of their contribution to the etiology of MF. This will allow the application of preventive and surveillance measures along with adjustment of existing health policies. PMID:17641490

  15. Activation of the nuclear factor-κB pathway during postnatal lung inflammation preserves alveolarization by suppressing macrophage inflammatory protein-2.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yanli; Liu, Min; Husted, Cristiana; Chen, Chihhsin; Thiagarajan, Kavitha; Johns, Jennifer L; Rao, Shailaja P; Alvira, Cristina M

    2015-09-15

    A significant portion of lung development is completed postnatally during alveolarization, rendering the immature lung vulnerable to inflammatory stimuli that can disrupt lung structure and function. Although the NF-κB pathway has well-recognized pro-inflammatory functions, novel anti-inflammatory and developmental roles for NF-κB have recently been described. Thus, to determine how NF-κB modulates alveolarization during inflammation, we exposed postnatal day 6 mice to vehicle (PBS), systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or the combination of LPS and the global NF-κB pathway inhibitor BAY 11-7082 (LPS + BAY). LPS impaired alveolarization, decreased lung cell proliferation, and reduced epithelial growth factor expression. BAY exaggerated these detrimental effects of LPS, further suppressing proliferation and disrupting pulmonary angiogenesis, an essential component of alveolarization. The more severe pathology induced by LPS + BAY was associated with marked increases in lung and plasma levels of macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2). Experiments using primary neonatal pulmonary endothelial cells (PEC) demonstrated that MIP-2 directly impaired neonatal PEC migration in vitro; and neutralization of MIP-2 in vivo preserved lung cell proliferation and pulmonary angiogenesis and prevented the more severe alveolar disruption induced by the combined treatment of LPS + BAY. Taken together, these studies demonstrate a key anti-inflammatory function of the NF-κB pathway in the early alveolar lung that functions to mitigate the detrimental effects of inflammation on pulmonary angiogenesis and alveolarization. Furthermore, these data suggest that neutralization of MIP-2 may represent a novel therapeutic target that could be beneficial in preserving lung growth in premature infants exposed to inflammatory stress.

  16. The Genetic and Environmental Factors Underlying Hypospadias

    PubMed Central

    Pask, Andrew; Heloury, Yves; Sinclair, Andrew H.

    2016-01-01

    Hypospadias results from a failure of urethral closure in the male phallus and affects 1 in 200–300 boys. It is thought to be due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The development of the penis progresses in 2 stages: an initial hormone-independent phase and a secondary hormone-dependent phase. Here, we review the molecular pathways that contribute to each of these stages, drawing on studies from both human and mouse models. Hypospadias can occur when normal development of the phallus is disrupted, and we provide evidence that mutations in genes underlying this developmental process are causative. Finally, we discuss the environmental factors that may contribute to hypospadias and their potential immediate and transgen erational epigenetic impacts. PMID:26613581

  17. The Genetic and Environmental Factors for Keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Gordon-Shaag, Ariela; Millodot, Michel; Shneor, Einat; Liu, Yutao

    2015-01-01

    Keratoconus (KC) is the most common cornea ectatic disorder. It is characterized by a cone-shaped thin cornea leading to myopia, irregular astigmatism, and vision impairment. It affects all ethnic groups and both genders. Both environmental and genetic factors may contribute to its pathogenesis. This review is to summarize the current research development in KC epidemiology and genetic etiology. Environmental factors include but are not limited to eye rubbing, atopy, sun exposure, and geography. Genetic discoveries have been reviewed with evidence from family-based linkage analysis and fine mapping in linkage region, genome-wide association studies, and candidate genes analyses. A number of genes have been discovered at a relatively rapid pace. The detailed molecular mechanism underlying KC pathogenesis will significantly advance our understanding of KC and promote the development of potential therapies. PMID:26075261

  18. The Genetic and Environmental Factors Underlying Hypospadias.

    PubMed

    Bouty, Aurore; Ayers, Katie L; Pask, Andrew; Heloury, Yves; Sinclair, Andrew H

    2015-01-01

    Hypospadias results from a failure of urethral closure in the male phallus and affects 1 in 200-300 boys. It is thought to be due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The development of the penis progresses in 2 stages: an initial hormone-independent phase and a secondary hormone-dependent phase. Here, we review the molecular pathways that contribute to each of these stages, drawing on studies from both human and mouse models. Hypospadias can occur when normal development of the phallus is disrupted, and we provide evidence that mutations in genes underlying this developmental process are causative. Finally, we discuss the environmental factors that may contribute to hypospadias and their potential immediate and transgenerational epigenetic impacts. PMID:26613581

  19. [AHH activity and life environmental factors].

    PubMed

    Nagayama, J

    1987-04-01

    To investigate life environmental factors which affect aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity, basal and 3-methylcholanthrene(3-MC)-induced AHH activities were determined by the formation of 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene in cultured lymphocytes obtained from 111 healthy male subjects who lived in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. Fold induction (3-MC-induced/basal) was calculated. Relationship between the absolute activities and the fold induction of AHH and life environmental factors was statistically examined. Study of simple correlation indicated the following: Basal AHH activity was positively correlated with age and habitual intake of drugs. Induced AHH activity was positively correlated with coffee intake, smoking and habitual intake of drugs. Fold induction was positively correlated with coffee intake and smoking, and negatively with age. Using multiple regression analysis, habitual intake of drugs showed positive relation to both basal and induced enzyme activity, and age showed positive relation to the basal activity and negative relation to the fold induction.

  20. Environmental contaminants as etiologic factors for diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    Longnecker, M P; Daniels, J L

    2001-01-01

    For both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, the rates have been increasing in the United States and elsewhere; rates vary widely by country, and genetic factors account for less than half of new cases. These observations suggest environmental factors cause both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Occupational exposures have been associated with increased risk of diabetes. In addition, recent data suggest that toxic substances in the environment, other than infectious agents or exposures that stimulate an immune response, are associated with the occurrence of these diseases. We reviewed the epidemiologic data that addressed whether environmental contaminants might cause type 1 or type 2 diabetes. For type 1 diabetes, higher intake of nitrates, nitrites, and N-nitroso compounds, as well as higher serum levels of polychlorinated biphenyls have been associated with increased risk. Overall, however, the data were limited or inconsistent. With respect to type 2 diabetes, data on arsenic and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin relative to risk were suggestive of a direct association but were inconclusive. The occupational data suggested that more data on exposure to N-nitroso compounds, arsenic, dioxins, talc, and straight oil machining fluids in relation to diabetes would be useful. Although environmental factors other than contaminants may account for the majority of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, the etiologic role of several contaminants and occupational exposures deserves further study. PMID:11744505

  1. Postnatal Development of the Mouse Enteric Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Foong, Jaime Pei Pei

    2016-01-01

    Owing to over three decades of research, we now have a good understanding of the genetic and molecular control of enteric nervous system (ENS) development during embryonic and prenatal stages. On the other hand, it has only just become clear that a substantial process of ENS maturation occurs after birth (Hao et al. 2013a). During postnatal stages, in addition to genetic influences, ENS development is also potentially affected by the external environment. Thus it is possible that manipulating certain environmental factors could help prevent or reduce motility disorders. However the genetic and environmental factors that regulate postnatal ENS development remain unknown. Researchers have used a variety of animal models that are easy to manipulate genetically or experimentally, and have short gestational periods, to understand the development of the ENS. Notably, due to the availability of mouse models for several human enteric neuropathies, many studies have used the mature and developing murine ENS as a model. Here, I will discuss recent advances in knowledge about postnatal development of the murine ENS, and highlight future directions for this emerging research field. PMID:27379641

  2. Analysis of gene-environment interactions in postnatal development of the mammalian intestine.

    PubMed

    Rakoff-Nahoum, Seth; Kong, Yong; Kleinstein, Steven H; Subramanian, Sathish; Ahern, Philip P; Gordon, Jeffrey I; Medzhitov, Ruslan

    2015-02-17

    Unlike mammalian embryogenesis, which takes place in the relatively predictable and stable environment of the uterus, postnatal development can be affected by a multitude of highly variable environmental factors, including diet, exposure to noxious substances, and microorganisms. Microbial colonization of the intestine is thought to play a particularly important role in postnatal development of the gastrointestinal, metabolic, and immune systems. Major changes in environmental exposure occur right after birth, upon weaning, and during pubertal maturation into adulthood. These transitions include dramatic changes in intestinal contents and require appropriate adaptations to meet changes in functional demands. Here, we attempt to both characterize and provide mechanistic insights into postnatal intestinal ontogeny. We investigated changes in global intestinal gene expression through postnatal developmental transitions. We report profound alterations in small and large intestinal transcriptional programs that accompany both weaning and puberty in WT mice. Using myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)/TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) double knockout littermates, we define the role of toll-like receptors (TLRs) and interleukin (IL)-1 receptor family member signaling in postnatal gene expression programs and select ontogeny-specific phenotypes, such as vascular and smooth muscle development and neonatal epithelial and mast cell homeostasis. Metaanalysis of the effect of the microbiota on intestinal gene expression allowed for mechanistic classification of developmentally regulated genes by TLR/IL-1R (TIR) signaling and/or indigenous microbes. We find that practically every aspect of intestinal physiology is affected by postnatal transitions. Developmental timing, microbial colonization, and TIR signaling seem to play distinct and specific roles in regulation of gene-expression programs throughout postnatal development.

  3. Analysis of gene–environment interactions in postnatal development of the mammalian intestine

    PubMed Central

    Rakoff-Nahoum, Seth; Kong, Yong; Kleinstein, Steven H.; Subramanian, Sathish; Ahern, Philip P.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.; Medzhitov, Ruslan

    2015-01-01

    Unlike mammalian embryogenesis, which takes place in the relatively predictable and stable environment of the uterus, postnatal development can be affected by a multitude of highly variable environmental factors, including diet, exposure to noxious substances, and microorganisms. Microbial colonization of the intestine is thought to play a particularly important role in postnatal development of the gastrointestinal, metabolic, and immune systems. Major changes in environmental exposure occur right after birth, upon weaning, and during pubertal maturation into adulthood. These transitions include dramatic changes in intestinal contents and require appropriate adaptations to meet changes in functional demands. Here, we attempt to both characterize and provide mechanistic insights into postnatal intestinal ontogeny. We investigated changes in global intestinal gene expression through postnatal developmental transitions. We report profound alterations in small and large intestinal transcriptional programs that accompany both weaning and puberty in WT mice. Using myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)/TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) double knockout littermates, we define the role of toll-like receptors (TLRs) and interleukin (IL)-1 receptor family member signaling in postnatal gene expression programs and select ontogeny-specific phenotypes, such as vascular and smooth muscle development and neonatal epithelial and mast cell homeostasis. Metaanalysis of the effect of the microbiota on intestinal gene expression allowed for mechanistic classification of developmentally regulated genes by TLR/IL-1R (TIR) signaling and/or indigenous microbes. We find that practically every aspect of intestinal physiology is affected by postnatal transitions. Developmental timing, microbial colonization, and TIR signaling seem to play distinct and specific roles in regulation of gene-expression programs throughout postnatal development. PMID:25691701

  4. Cardiac risk factors: environmental, sociodemographic, and behavioral cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Anthony, David; George, Paul; Eaton, Charles B

    2014-06-01

    Several environmental exposures are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Exposure to secondhand smoke may increase the risk by as much as 25% to 30%. Exposure to third hand smoke, residual components of tobacco smoke that remain in the environment after a cigarette is extinguished, also appears to increase risk. These residual components can remain in rooms and automobiles for up to 30 years and enter the body through the skin or via inhalation or ingestion. Exposure to particulate matter air pollution from automobile emissions, power plants, and other sources is yet another environmental risk factor for CHD, resulting in tens of thousands of deaths annually in the United States. Exposure to other environmental toxins, particularly bisphenol A and phthalates, also has been linked to CHD. There are sociodemographic risks for CHD, with numerous studies showing that lower socioeconomic status is associated with higher risk. Behavioral risk factors include poor diet, such as frequent consumption of fast food and processed meals; sleep disturbance; and psychological stress, particularly related to marital or work issues. Finally, although high alcohol consumption is associated with increased CHD risk, moderate alcohol consumption (ie, less than 1 to 2 drinks/day), particularly of wine and possibly beer, appears to reduce the risk.

  5. Environmental risk factors for type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rewers, Marian; Ludvigsson, Johnny

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of type 1 diabetes has risen considerably in the past 30 years due to changes in the environment that have been only partially identified. In this Series paper, we critically discuss candidate triggers of islet autoimmunity and factors thought to promote progression from autoimmunity to overt type 1 diabetes. We revisit previously proposed hypotheses to explain the growth in the incidence of type 1 diabetes in light of current data. Finally, we suggest a unified model in which immune tolerance to β cells can be broken by several environmental exposures that induce generation of hybrid peptides acting as neoautoantigens. PMID:27302273

  6. The first 1000 days of life: prenatal and postnatal risk factors for morbidity and growth in a birth cohort in southern India

    PubMed Central

    Kattula, Deepthi; Sarkar, Rajiv; Sivarathinaswamy, Prabhu; Velusamy, Vasanthakumar; Venugopal, Srinivasan; Naumova, Elena N; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Ward, Honorine; Kang, Gagandeep

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the burden and assess prenatal and postnatal determinants of illnesses experienced by children residing in a semiurban slum, during the first 1000 days of life. Design Community-based birth cohort Setting Southern India Participants Four hundred and ninety-seven children of 561 pregnant women recruited and followed for 2 years with surveillance and anthropometry. Main outcome measure Incidence rates of illness; rates of clinic visits and hospitalisations; factors associated with low birth weight, various illnesses and growth. Results Data on 10 377.7 child-months of follow-up estimated an average rate of 14.8 illnesses/child-year. Gastrointestinal and respiratory illnesses were 20.6% and 47.8% of the total disease burden, respectively. The hospitalisation rate reduced from 46/100 child-years during infancy to 19/100 child-years in the second year. Anaemia during pregnancy (OR=2.3, 95% CI=1.08 to 5.18), less than four antenatal visits (OR=6.8, 95% CI=2.1 to 22.5) and preterm birth (OR=3.3, 95% CI=1.1 to 9.7) were independent prenatal risk factors for low birth weight. Female gender (HR=0.88, 95% CI=0.79 to 0.99) and 6 months of exclusive breast feeding (HR=0.76, 95% CI=0.66 to 0.88) offered protection against all morbidity. Average monthly height and weight gain were lower in female child and children exclusively breast fed for 6 months. Conclusions The high morbidity in Indian slum children in the first 1000 days of life was mainly due to prenatal factors and gastrointestinal and respiratory illness. Policymakers need disease prevalence and pathways to target high-risk groups with appropriate interventions in the community. PMID:25056979

  7. Role of Insulinlike Growth Factor 1 in Fetal Development and in the Early Postnatal Life of Premature Infants.

    PubMed

    Hellström, Ann; Ley, David; Hansen-Pupp, Ingrid; Hallberg, Boubou; Ramenghi, Luca A; Löfqvist, Chatarina; Smith, Lois E H; Hård, Anna-Lena

    2016-09-01

    The neonatal period of very preterm infants is often characterized by a difficult adjustment to extrauterine life, with an inadequate nutrient supply and insufficient levels of growth factors, resulting in poor growth and a high morbidity rate. Long-term multisystem complications include cognitive, behavioral, and motor dysfunction as a result of brain damage as well as visual and hearing deficits and metabolic disorders that persist into adulthood. Insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a major regulator of fetal growth and development of most organs especially the central nervous system including the retina. Glucose metabolism in the developing brain is controlled by IGF-1 which also stimulates differentiation and prevents apoptosis. Serum concentrations of IGF-1 decrease to very low levels after very preterm birth and remain low for most of the perinatal development. Strong correlations have been found between low neonatal serum concentrations of IGF-1 and poor brain and retinal growth as well as poor general growth with multiorgan morbidities, such as intraventricular hemorrhage, retinopathy of prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and necrotizing enterocolitis. Experimental and clinical studies indicate that early supplementation with IGF-1 can improve growth in catabolic states and reduce brain injury after hypoxic/ischemic events. A multicenter phase II study is currently underway to determine whether intravenous replacement of human recombinant IGF-1 up to normal intrauterine serum concentrations can improve growth and development and reduce prematurity-associated morbidities.

  8. Role of Insulinlike Growth Factor 1 in Fetal Development and in the Early Postnatal Life of Premature Infants.

    PubMed

    Hellström, Ann; Ley, David; Hansen-Pupp, Ingrid; Hallberg, Boubou; Ramenghi, Luca A; Löfqvist, Chatarina; Smith, Lois E H; Hård, Anna-Lena

    2016-09-01

    The neonatal period of very preterm infants is often characterized by a difficult adjustment to extrauterine life, with an inadequate nutrient supply and insufficient levels of growth factors, resulting in poor growth and a high morbidity rate. Long-term multisystem complications include cognitive, behavioral, and motor dysfunction as a result of brain damage as well as visual and hearing deficits and metabolic disorders that persist into adulthood. Insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a major regulator of fetal growth and development of most organs especially the central nervous system including the retina. Glucose metabolism in the developing brain is controlled by IGF-1 which also stimulates differentiation and prevents apoptosis. Serum concentrations of IGF-1 decrease to very low levels after very preterm birth and remain low for most of the perinatal development. Strong correlations have been found between low neonatal serum concentrations of IGF-1 and poor brain and retinal growth as well as poor general growth with multiorgan morbidities, such as intraventricular hemorrhage, retinopathy of prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and necrotizing enterocolitis. Experimental and clinical studies indicate that early supplementation with IGF-1 can improve growth in catabolic states and reduce brain injury after hypoxic/ischemic events. A multicenter phase II study is currently underway to determine whether intravenous replacement of human recombinant IGF-1 up to normal intrauterine serum concentrations can improve growth and development and reduce prematurity-associated morbidities. PMID:27603537

  9. Prenatal Dexamethasone and Postnatal High-Fat Diet Decrease Interferon Gamma Production through an Age-Dependent Histone Modification in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong-Ren; Tain, You-Lin; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Hung, Pi-Lien; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Huang, Li-Tung

    2016-01-01

    Overexposure to prenatal glucocorticoid (GC) disturbs hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolism and susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. A high-fat (HF) diet is a major environmental factor that can cause metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate whether prenatal GC plus a postnatal HF diet could alter immune programming in rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given intraperitoneal injections of dexamethasone or saline at 14-21 days of gestation. Male offspring were then divided into four groups: vehicle, prenatal dexamethasone exposure, postnatal HF diet (VHF), and prenatal dexamethasone exposure plus a postnatal HF diet (DHF). The rats were sacrificed and adaptive immune function was evaluated. Compared to the vehicle, the DHF group had lower interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production by splenocytes at postnatal day 120. Decreases in H3K9 acetylation and H3K36me3 levels at the IFN-γ promoter correlated with decreased IFN-γ production. The impaired IFN-γ production and aberrant site-specific histone modification at the IFN-γ promoter by prenatal dexamethasone treatment plus a postnatal HF diet resulted in resilience at postnatal day 180. Prenatal dexamethasone and a postnatal HF diet decreased IFN-γ production through a site-specific and an age-dependent histone modification. These findings suggest a mechanism by which prenatal exposure to GC and a postnatal environment exert effects on fetal immunity programming. PMID:27669212

  10. Prenatal Dexamethasone and Postnatal High-Fat Diet Decrease Interferon Gamma Production through an Age-Dependent Histone Modification in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hong-Ren; Tain, You-Lin; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Hung, Pi-Lien; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Huang, Li-Tung

    2016-01-01

    Overexposure to prenatal glucocorticoid (GC) disturbs hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolism and susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. A high-fat (HF) diet is a major environmental factor that can cause metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate whether prenatal GC plus a postnatal HF diet could alter immune programming in rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given intraperitoneal injections of dexamethasone or saline at 14–21 days of gestation. Male offspring were then divided into four groups: vehicle, prenatal dexamethasone exposure, postnatal HF diet (VHF), and prenatal dexamethasone exposure plus a postnatal HF diet (DHF). The rats were sacrificed and adaptive immune function was evaluated. Compared to the vehicle, the DHF group had lower interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production by splenocytes at postnatal day 120. Decreases in H3K9 acetylation and H3K36me3 levels at the IFN-γ promoter correlated with decreased IFN-γ production. The impaired IFN-γ production and aberrant site-specific histone modification at the IFN-γ promoter by prenatal dexamethasone treatment plus a postnatal HF diet resulted in resilience at postnatal day 180. Prenatal dexamethasone and a postnatal HF diet decreased IFN-γ production through a site-specific and an age-dependent histone modification. These findings suggest a mechanism by which prenatal exposure to GC and a postnatal environment exert effects on fetal immunity programming. PMID:27669212

  11. Environmental factors regulating soil organic matter chlorination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, Teresia; Montelius, Malin; Reyier, Henrik; Rietz, Karolina; Karlsson, Susanne; Lindberg, Cecilia; Andersson, Malin; Danielsson, Åsa; Bastviken, David

    2016-04-01

    Natural chlorination of organic matter is common in soils. Despite the widespread abundance of soil chlorinated soil organic matter (SOM), frequently exceeding soil chloride abundance in surface soils, and a common ability of microorganisms to produce chlorinated SOM, we lack fundamental knowledge about dominating processes and organisms responsible for the chlorination. To take one step towards resolving the terrestrial chlorine (Cl) puzzle, this study aims to analyse how environmental factors influence chlorination of SOM. Four factors were chosen for this study: soil moisture (W), nitrogen (N), chloride (Cl) and organic matter quality (C). These factors are all known to be important for soil processes. Laboratory incubations with 36Cl as a Cl tracer were performed in a two soil incubation experiments. It was found that addition of chloride and nitrogen seem to hamper the chlorination. For the C treatment, on the other hand, the results show that chlorination is enhanced by increased availability of labile organic matter (glucose and maltose). Even higher chlorination was observed when nitrogen and water were added in combination with labile organic matter. The effect that more labile organic matter strongly stimulated the chlorination rates was confirmed by the second separate experiment. These results indicate that chlorination was not primarily a way to cut refractory organic matter into digestible molecules, representing one previous hypothesis, but is related with microbial metabolism in other ways that will be further discussed in our presentation.

  12. Environmental problem-solving: Psychosocial factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Alan

    1982-11-01

    This is a study of individual differences in environmental problem-solving, the probable roots of these differences, and their implications for the education of resource professionals. A group of student Resource Managers were required to elaborate their conception of a complex resource issue (Spruce Budworm management) and to generate some ideas on management policy. Of particular interest was the way in which subjects dealt with the psychosocial aspects of the problem. A structural and content analysis of responses indicated a predominance of relatively compartmentalized styles, a technological orientation, and a tendency to ignore psychosocial issues. A relationship between problem-solving behavior and personal (psychosocial) style was established which, in the context of other evidence, suggests that problem-solving behavior is influenced by more deep seated personality factors. The educational implication drawn was that problem-solving cannot be viewed simply as an intellectual-technical activity but one that involves, and requires the education of, the whole person.

  13. Knowledge about Danger Signs of Obstetric Complications and Associated Factors among Postnatal Mothers of Mechekel District Health Centers, East Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia, 2014.

    PubMed

    Amenu, Gedefa; Mulaw, Zerfu; Seyoum, Tewodros; Bayu, Hinsermu

    2016-01-01

    Background. Developing countries like Ethiopia contributed highest level of maternal mortality due to obstetric complications. Women awareness of obstetric danger sign to recognize complications to seek medical care early is the first intervention in an effort to decrease maternal death. Objective. To assess knowledge about danger signs of obstetric complications and associated factors among postnatal mothers at Mechekel district health centers, East Gojjam zone, Northwest Ethiopia, 2014. Methods. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from August to October, 2014, in Mechekel district health centers. Systematic random sampling was used to select four hundred eleven study participants. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were entered to Epi Info version 3.5.3 and exported to SPSS 20.0 for further analysis. Descriptive and summary statistics were done. Logistic regression analyses were used to see the association of different variables. Odds ratios and 95% confidence interval were computed to determine the presence and strength of association. Results. According to this study, 55.1% participants were knowledgeable about danger signs of obstetric complications. Maternal and husband educational level ((AOR = 1.977, 95% CI: 1.052, 3.716) and (AOR = 3.163, 95% CI: 1.860, 5.3770), resp.), family monthly income ≥ 1500 (AOR = 2.954, 95% CI: 1.289, 6.770), being multipara (AOR = 7.463, 95% CI: 1.301, 12.800), ANC follow-up during last pregnancy (AOR = 2.184, 95% CI: 1.137, 4.196), and place of last delivery (AOR = 1.955, 95% CI: 1.214, 3.150) were variables found to be significantly associated with women's knowledge on danger signs of obstetric complications. Conclusion. Significant proportion of respondents were not knowledgeable about obstetric danger signs and factors like educational status, place of last delivery, and antenatal follow-up were found to be associated.

  14. TAF4, a subunit of transcription factor II D, directs promoter occupancy of nuclear receptor HNF4A during post-natal hepatocyte differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Alpern, Daniil; Langer, Diana; Ballester, Benoit; Le Gras, Stephanie; Romier, Christophe; Mengus, Gabrielle; Davidson, Irwin

    2014-01-01

    The functions of the TAF subunits of mammalian TFIID in physiological processes remain poorly characterised. In this study, we describe a novel function of TAFs in directing genomic occupancy of a transcriptional activator. Using liver-specific inactivation in mice, we show that the TAF4 subunit of TFIID is required for post-natal hepatocyte maturation. TAF4 promotes pre-initiation complex (PIC) formation at post-natal expressed liver function genes and down-regulates a subset of embryonic expressed genes by increased RNA polymerase II pausing. The TAF4–TAF12 heterodimer interacts directly with HNF4A and in vivo TAF4 is necessary to maintain HNF4A-directed embryonic gene expression at post-natal stages and promotes HNF4A occupancy of functional cis-regulatory elements adjacent to the transcription start sites of post-natal expressed genes. Stable HNF4A occupancy of these regulatory elements requires TAF4-dependent PIC formation highlighting that these are mutually dependent events. Local promoter-proximal HNF4A–TFIID interactions therefore act as instructive signals for post-natal hepatocyte differentiation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03613.001 PMID:25209997

  15. Utilization of postnatal care among Nepalese women.

    PubMed

    Neupane, Subas; Doku, David

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated risk factors associated with the type of birth attendants and timing of postnatal care among a nationally representative sample of Nepalese women. The 2006 Nepalese Demographic and Health Survey on women age 15-49 years old who had delivered within 3 years prior to the survey (N = 4,136) was used. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to study the association between socio-demographic variables and type of birth attendants and timing of postnatal care. Only 23 % deliveries were assisted by skilled attendants. A majority of Nepalese women did not have postnatal check-ups. Education (OR = 1.46, 95 % CI = 1.11-1.92), wealth (OR = 2.57, 95 % CI = 1.59-4.15) and sufficiency of advice during pregnancy (OR = 3.09, 95 % CI = 2.16-4.41), were all independently associated with having postnatal check-ups. Similarly, maternal age, education, parity, wealth, sufficiency of advice and place of delivery were associated with having delivery assisted by a skilled attendant. The utilization of postnatal services is still very low in Nepal. Public health interventions are needed to increase the utilization of postnatal care as well as delivery assisted by skilled attendants. Such interventions should target poor women, the less educated and those in rural areas in Nepal.

  16. Knowledge, Internal, and Environmental Factors on Environmental Care Behaviour among Aboriginal Students in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Norshariani Abd

    2016-01-01

    This study determined the contribution of predictor factors (i.e. knowledge about the environment as well as internal and environmental factors) on environmental care behaviour among aboriginal students. The knowledge about the environment that was investigated in this research includes environmental knowledge and environmental action knowledge.…

  17. Role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the excitatory–inhibitory imbalance during the critical period of postnatal respiratory development in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiu-ping; Zhang, Hanmeng; Wong-Riley, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The critical period of respiratory development in rats is a narrow window toward the end of the second postnatal week (P12–13), when abrupt neurochemical, electrophysiological, and ventilatory changes occur, when inhibition dominates over excitation, and when the animals’ response to hypoxia is the weakest. The goal of this study was to further test our hypothesis that a major mechanism underlying the synaptic imbalance during the critical period is a reduced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its TrkB receptors. Our aims were to determine (1) that the inhibitory dominance observed in hypoglossal motoneurons during the critical period was also demonstrable in a key respiratory chemosensor, NTSVL; (2) if in vivo application of a TrkB agonist, 7,8-DHF, would prevent, but a TrkB antagonist, ANA-12, would accentuate the synaptic imbalance; and (3) if hypoxia would also heighten the imbalance. Our results indicate that (1) the synaptic imbalance was evident in the NTSVL during the critical period; (2) intraperitoneal injections of 7,8-DHF prevented the synaptic imbalance during the critical period, whereas ANA-12 in vivo accentuated such an imbalance; and (3) acute hypoxia induced the weakest response in both the amplitude and frequency of sEPSCs during the critical period, but it increased the frequency of sIPSCs during the critical period. Thus, our findings are consistent with and strengthen our hypothesis that BDNF and TrkB play a significant role in inducing a synaptic imbalance during the critical period of respiratory development in the rat. PMID:26603459

  18. Genetic, environmental, and epigenetic factors in the development of personality disturbance.

    PubMed

    Depue, Richard A

    2009-01-01

    A dimensional model of personality disturbance is presented that is defined by extreme values on interacting subsets of seven major personality traits. Being at the extreme has marked effects on the threshold for eliciting those traits under stimulus conditions: that is, the extent to which the environment affects the neurobiological functioning underlying the traits. To explore the nature of development of extreme values on these traits, each trait is discussed in terms of three major issues: (a) the neurobiological variables associated with the trait, (b) individual variation in this neurobiology as a function of genetic polymorphisms, and (c) the effects of environmental adversity on these neurobiological variables through the action of epigenetic processes. It is noted that gene-environment interaction appears to be dependent on two main factors: (a) both genetic and environmental variables appear to have the most profound and enduring effects when they exert their effects during early postnatal periods, times when the forebrain is undergoing exuberant experience-expectant dendritic and axonal growth; and (b) environmental effects on neurobiology are strongly modified by individual differences in "traitlike" functioning of neurobiological variables. A model of the nature of the interaction between environmental and neurobiological variables in the development of personality disturbance is presented.

  19. Protective environmental factors for neuromyelitis optica

    PubMed Central

    Grandhe, Siri; Weinfurtner, Kelley; Krupp, Lauren; Belman, Anita; Chitnis, Tanuja; Ness, Jayne; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Gorman, Mark; Patterson, Marc; Rodriguez, Moses; Lotze, Tim; Aaen, Gregory; Mowry, Ellen M.; Rose, John W.; Simmons, Timothy; Casper, T. Charles; James, Judith; Waubant, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether early environmental factors, such as cesarean delivery, breastfeeding, and exposure to smoking or herpes viruses, are associated with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) risk in children. Methods: This is a case-control study of pediatric NMO, multiple sclerosis (MS), and healthy subjects. Early-life exposures were obtained by standardized questionnaire. Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus 1 antibody responses were determined by ELISA. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to adjust for age at sampling, sex, race, and ethnicity. Results: Early-life exposures were obtained from 36 pediatric subjects with NMO, 491 with MS, and 224 healthy controls. Daycare (odds ratio [OR] 0.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.14, 0.78; p < 0.01) and breastfeeding (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.18, 0.99; p = 0.05) were associated with lower odds of having NMO compared with healthy subjects. Cesarean delivery tended to be associated with 2-fold-higher odds of NMO compared with having MS/clinically isolated syndrome (OR 1.98, 95% CI 0.88, 4.59; p = 0.12) or with being healthy (OR 1.95, 95% CI 0.81, 4.71; p = 0.14). Sera and DNA were available for 31 subjects with NMO, 189 with MS, and 94 healthy controls. Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex virus 1, cytomegalovirus exposure, and being HLA-DRB1*15 positive were not associated with odds of having NMO compared with healthy subjects. Conclusions: Exposure to other young children may be an early protective factor against the development of NMO, as previously reported for MS, consistent with the hypothesis that infections contribute to disease risk modification. Unlike MS, pediatric NMO does not appear to be associated with exposures to common herpes viruses. PMID:25339213

  20. Postnatal epigenetic modification of glucocorticoid receptor gene in preterm infants: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kantake, Masato; Yoshitake, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Araki, Yoshihiko; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the environmental effects on cytosine methylation of preterm infant's DNA, because early life experiences are considered to influence the physiological and mental health of an individual through epigenetic modification of DNA. Design A prospective cohort study, comparison of epigenetic differences in the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene between healthy term and preterm infants. Setting Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in a Japanese University Hospital. Participants A cohort of 40 (20 term and 20 preterm) infants was recruited on the day of birth, and peripheral blood was obtained from each infant at birth and on postnatal day 4. Main outcome measures The methylation rates in the 1-F promoter region of the GR gene using the Mquant method. Results The methylation rate increased significantly between postnatal days 0 and 4 in preterm infants but remained stable in term infants. Thus, the methylation rate was significantly higher in preterm than in term infants at postnatal day 4. Several perinatal parameters were significantly correlated with this change in the methylation rate. Logistic regression analysis revealed that methylation rates at postnatal day 4 predicted the occurrence of later complications that required glucocorticoid administration during the neonatal period. No gene polymorphism was detected within the GR promoter region analysed. Conclusions Although further large-scale studies are needed to detect the environmental factors that explain the difference in epigenetic modification among infants after birth, our data show that the postnatal environment influences epigenetic programming of GR expression through methylation of the GR gene promoter in premature infants, which may result in relative glucocorticoid insufficiency during the postnatal period. PMID:25023132

  1. Environmental risk factors and allergic bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G; Liccardi, G; D'Amato, M; Holgate, S

    2005-09-01

    The prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases such as bronchial asthma has increased in recent years, especially in industrialized countries. A change in the genetic predisposition is an unlikely cause of the increase in allergic diseases because genetic changes in a population require several generations. Consequently, this increase may be explained by changes in environmental factors, including indoor and outdoor air pollution. Over the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in studies of air pollution and its effects on human health. Although the role played by outdoor pollutants in allergic sensitization of the airways has yet to be clarified, a body of evidence suggests that urbanization, with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases observed in most industrialized countries, and there is considerable evidence that asthmatic persons are at increased risk of developing asthma exacerbations with exposure to ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and inhalable particulate matter. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of air pollution on the timing of asthma exacerbations and on the prevalence of asthma in general. As concentrations of airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of allergic respiratory allergy and bronchial asthma. Pollinosis is frequently used to study the interrelationship between air pollution and respiratory allergy. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction. By attaching to the surface of pollen grains and of plant-derived particles of paucimicronic size, pollutants could modify not only the morphology of these antigen-carrying agents but also their allergenic

  2. Environmental risk factors and allergic bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G; Liccardi, G; D'Amato, M; Holgate, S

    2005-09-01

    The prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases such as bronchial asthma has increased in recent years, especially in industrialized countries. A change in the genetic predisposition is an unlikely cause of the increase in allergic diseases because genetic changes in a population require several generations. Consequently, this increase may be explained by changes in environmental factors, including indoor and outdoor air pollution. Over the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in studies of air pollution and its effects on human health. Although the role played by outdoor pollutants in allergic sensitization of the airways has yet to be clarified, a body of evidence suggests that urbanization, with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases observed in most industrialized countries, and there is considerable evidence that asthmatic persons are at increased risk of developing asthma exacerbations with exposure to ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and inhalable particulate matter. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of air pollution on the timing of asthma exacerbations and on the prevalence of asthma in general. As concentrations of airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of allergic respiratory allergy and bronchial asthma. Pollinosis is frequently used to study the interrelationship between air pollution and respiratory allergy. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction. By attaching to the surface of pollen grains and of plant-derived particles of paucimicronic size, pollutants could modify not only the morphology of these antigen-carrying agents but also their allergenic

  3. The Environmental Factor in International Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Joan Martin

    1985-01-01

    U.S.-Canadian and Mexican water-related issues testify to the role that natural resources/ environmental issues play in foreign policy and demonstrate how environmental problems can affect the public and private sectors of a nation internally. How people affect the environment is an irreducible bottom line for stable international trade and market…

  4. Environmental Factors and Breast Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... and household dust, which may be analyzed for pesticides, heavy metals, and other environmental chemicals that may ... the Long Island residents had been exposed — organochlorine pesticides, including DDT and its metabolite DDE; polychlorinated biphenyls, ...

  5. [Asthma: a complex disease determined by genetic and environmental factors].

    PubMed

    Louis, R; Schleich, F; Corhay, J-L; Louis, E

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is a complex disease highly dependent of environmental exposure and genetic background. Through linkage analysis, positional cloning and genome wide association studies, novel asthma genes have come out such as ADAM-33 or ORMLD3. Important environmental factors include allergenic exposure, pollutants and especially particulate matters, tobacco, aerosol exposure, viral infections and level of exposure to endotoxin. The effects of environmental factors are modulated by the genetic sequence and numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Recently, it has also become clear that environmental factors may alter gene expression by DNA methylation or histone methylation/acetylation without changing the gene sequence and thereby changing asthmatic phenotype.

  6. Environmental pollutants as risk factors for neurodegenerative disorders: Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chin-Chan, Miguel; Navarro-Yepes, Juliana; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer (AD) and Parkinson (PD) have attracted attention in last decades due to their high incidence worldwide. The etiology of these diseases is still unclear; however the role of the environment as a putative risk factor has gained importance. More worryingly is the evidence that pre- and post-natal exposures to environmental factors predispose to the onset of neurodegenerative diseases in later life. Neurotoxic metals such as lead, mercury, aluminum, cadmium and arsenic, as well as some pesticides and metal-based nanoparticles have been involved in AD due to their ability to increase beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptide and the phosphorylation of Tau protein (P-Tau), causing senile/amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) characteristic of AD. The exposure to lead, manganese, solvents and some pesticides has been related to hallmarks of PD such as mitochondrial dysfunction, alterations in metal homeostasis and aggregation of proteins such as α-synuclein (α-syn), which is a key constituent of Lewy bodies (LB), a crucial factor in PD pathogenesis. Common mechanisms of environmental pollutants to increase Aβ, P-Tau, α-syn and neuronal death have been reported, including the oxidative stress mainly involved in the increase of Aβ and α-syn, and the reduced activity/protein levels of Aβ degrading enzyme (IDE)s such as neprilysin or insulin IDE. In addition, epigenetic mechanisms by maternal nutrient supplementation and exposure to heavy metals and pesticides have been proposed to lead phenotypic diversity and susceptibility to neurodegenerative diseases. This review discusses data from epidemiological and experimental studies about the role of environmental factors in the development of idiopathic AD and PD, and their mechanisms of action. PMID:25914621

  7. EPIGENETIC TRANSGENERATIONAL ACTIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS IN DISEASE ETIOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Michael K.; Manikkam, Mohan; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    The ability of environmental factors to promote a phenotype or disease state not only in the individual exposed but also in subsequent progeny for multiple generations is termed transgenerational inheritance. The majority of environmental factors such as nutrition or toxicants such as endocrine disruptors do not promote genetic mutations or alterations in DNA sequence. In contrast, these factors have the capacity to alter the epigenome. Epimutations in the germ line that become permanently programmed can allow transmission of epigenetic transgenerational phenotypes. This review provides an overview of the epigenetics and biology of how environmental factors can promote transgenerational phenotypes and disease. PMID:20074974

  8. Assessment of environmental factors affecting male fertility

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, R. L.; Sherins, R. J.; Lee, I. P.

    1979-01-01

    Exposure to drinking water containing as much as 500 ppm aluminum chloride for periods of 30, 60, and 90 days had no apparent effect on male reproductive processes. In an attempt to correlate enzyme activity with particular spermatogenic cell types, postnatal development of testicular enzymes was studied. Eight enzymes were selected: hyaluronidase (H), lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme-X (LDH-X), dehydrogenases of sorbitol (SDH), α-glycerophosphate (GPDH), glucose-6-phosphate (G6PDH), malate (MDH), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3PDH), and isocitrate (ICDH). Enzyme specific activities in testicular homogenates were determined. Two types of enzyme developmental patterns were observed. One was represented by H, LDH-X, SDH, and GPDH; and the other by G6PDH, MDH, G3PDH, and ICDH. The former was characterized by a change in enzyme activities from low in newborn to high in adult while in the latter this pattern was reversed. The two complementary enzyme systems crossed each other at puberty. Prior to puberty, only spermatogonial cells are present; sperm differentiation initiated at puberty adds spermatocytes and spermatids to the testicular cell population. Male rats were exposed to borax in their diet for periods of 30 and 60 days. Concentrations of boron were 0, 500, 1000, and 2000 ppm. At the end of each experimental period, the specific activities of the selected enzymes were determined in the testis and prostate. Correlations of enzyme activity with testicular histology and androgen activities of the male accessory organs were sought. In addition, plasma FSH, LH, and testosterone levels were measured to assess pituitary-testicular interaction. Plasma and testicular boron concentrations were determined and a minimum boron concentration which induced germinal aplasia and male infertility was estimated. In both 30 and 60 day feeding studies, male rats receiving 500 ppm failed to demonstrate any significant adverse effects. In contrast, male rats receiving 100 and 2000 ppm

  9. [Effect of environmental and individual factors in renal lithiasis].

    PubMed

    Vasilescu, L; Ciochină, Al D; Corciovă, C

    2011-01-01

    The large number of cases with renal lithiasis occurring in the population of the south-east region of Iasi county has determined us to make a study in this region for the identification of environmental and individual factors involved in the etiopathogenesis of this disease. This study is performed to assert the corelation between the clinical and paraclinical patients data with those obtained through water and soil chemical analisys for identification of determinant environmental and individual factors involved in etiopathogenesis of this disease. This study indicates that the environment factors (water, soil) correlated with personal factors, especially the diet and standard of living are the favouring factors of renal lithiasis. PMID:21688574

  10. Environmental Factors That Control Microbial Perchlorate Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Swades K.; O'Connor, Susan M.; Gustavson, Ruth L.; Achenbach, Laurie A.; Coates, John D.

    2002-01-01

    As part of a study to elucidate the environmental parameters that control microbial perchlorate respiration, we investigated the reduction of perchlorate by the dissimilatory perchlorate reducer Dechlorosoma suillum under a diverse set of environmental conditions. Our results demonstrated that perchlorate reduction by D. suillum only occurred under anaerobic conditions in the presence of perchlorate and was dependent on the presence of molybdenum. Perchlorate reduction was dependent on the presence of the enzyme chlorite dismutase, which was induced during metabolism of perchlorate. Anaerobic conditions alone were not enough to induce expression of this enzyme. Dissolved oxygen concentrations less than 2 mg liter−1 were enough to inhibit perchlorate reduction by D. suillum. Similarly to oxygen, nitrate also regulated chlorite dismutase expression and repressed perchlorate reduction by D. suillum. Perchlorate-grown cultures of D. suillum preferentially reduced nitrate in media with equimolar amounts of perchlorate and nitrate. In contrast, an extended (40 h) lag phase was observed if a similar nitrate-perchlorate medium was inoculated with a nitrate-grown culture. Perchlorate reduction commenced only when nitrate was completely removed in either of these experiments. In contrast to D. suillum, nitrate had no inhibitory effects on perchlorate reduction by the perchlorate reducer Dechloromonas agitata strain CKB. Nitrate was reduced to nitrite concomitant with perchlorate reduction to chloride. These studies demonstrate that microbial respiration of perchlorate is significantly affected by environmental conditions and perchlorate reduction is directly dependent on bioavailable molybdenum and the presence or absence of competing electron acceptors. A microbial treatment strategy can achieve and maintain perchlorate concentrations below the recommended regulatory level, but only in environments in which the variables described above can be controlled. PMID:12200296

  11. Environmental Risk Factors in Hospital Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Daniel Z.; Resnik, Harvey L.P.; Holder-Perkins, Vicenzio

    2004-01-01

    Suicide of hospitalized patients is the most common sentinel event reviewed by The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. Shorter lengths of stay, sicker patients, and higher patient to staff ratios challenge the ability of the hospital to maintain safety. Risk factors associated with the physical environment of the…

  12. Distinct responses of baseline and stress-induced corticosterone levels to genetic and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Homberger, Benjamin; Jenni-Eiermann, Susanne; Jenni, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoid (GC) hormones, i.e. corticosterone (CORT) in birds, support physiological homeostasis and facilitate adaptations to stressful situations. However, maintaining high GC levels are energetically costly and interfere with other physiological processes. To keep the balance of costs and benefits of GC hormones, various mechanisms act to adapt GC levels to environmental conditions on different timescales, i.e. over generations, between parents and their offspring and within the life-time of a single individual. We elucidated whether two strains (domesticated and wild) of grey partridges (Perdix perdix) differed in the developmental trajectories of baseline and stress response CORT throughout the first 80 days of life. We also explored the potential of prenatal and postnatal factors, e.g. parental origin, predictable vs. unpredictable food treatments, individual and social factors to modify these trajectories. Baseline CORT was similar between strains and unaffected by perinatal food treatments. It was negatively related to body size and body condition. Conversely, the CORT stress response was not markedly affected by physiological condition. It was stronger in wild than in domesticated birds and it increased with age. Birds subjected to prenatal unpredictable food supply exhibited an accelerated development of the CORT stress response which could reflect an adaptive maternal effect. We conclude that the vital role of baseline CORT may allow little adaptive scope since changes can quickly become detrimental. In contrast, the CORT stress response may show considerable adaptive potential which might ultimately support homeostasis in a changing environment.

  13. Normal neonatal microbiome variation in relation to environmental factors, infection and allergy

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Juliette C.; Farzan, Shohreh F.; Hibberd, Patricia L.; Karagas, Margaret R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review Bacterial colonization of the infant intestinal tract begins at birth. We are at the forefront of understanding complex relationships between bacteria and multiple parameters of health of the developing infant. Moreover, the establishment of the microbiome in the critical neonatal period is potentially foundational for lifelong health and disease susceptibility. Recent studies utilizing state-of-the-art culture-independent technologies have begun to increase our knowledge about the gut microbiome in infancy, the impact of multiple exposures, and its effects on immune response and clinical outcomes such as allergy and infection. Recent findings Postnatal exposures play a central role in the complex interactions between the nearly blank canvas of the neonatal intestine, whereas genetic factors do not appear to be a major factor. Infant microbial colonization is affected by delivery mode, dietary exposures, antibiotic exposure, and environmental toxicants. Successive microbiome acquisition in infancy is likely a determinant of early immune programming, subsequent infection, and allergy risk. Summary The novel investigation of the neonatal microbiome is beginning to unearth substantial information, with a focus on immune programming that coevolves with the developing microbiome early in life. Several exposures common to neonatal and infant populations could exert pressure on the development of the microbiome and major diseases including allergy and infection in large populations. PMID:23111681

  14. Degradation of Methyl Iodide in Soil: Effects of Environmental Factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methyl iodide (MeI) is a promising alternative to the phased-out fumigant methyl bromide, and its environmental fate following soil fumigation is of great concern. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of various environmental factors on the degradation rate of MeI in soil. The chem...

  15. DEGRADATION OF METHYL IODIDE IN SOIL: EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methyl iodide (MeI) is a promising alternative to the phased-out fumigant methyl bromide; however, there are concerns about its environmental fate following soil fumigation. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of various environmental factors on the degradation rate of ...

  16. Social anxiety disorder: A review of environmental risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Christina A; Schmidt, Louis A

    2008-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a debilitating and chronic illness characterized by persistent fear of one or more social or performance situations, with a relatively high lifetime prevalence of 7% to 13% in the general population. Although the last two decades have witnessed enormous growth in the study of biological and dispositional factors underlying SAD, comparatively little attention has been directed towards environmental factors in SAD, even though there has been much ongoing work in the area. In this paper, we provide a recent review and critique of proposed environmental risk factors for SAD, focusing on traditional as well as some understudied and overlooked environmental risk factors: parenting and family environment, adverse life events, cultural and societal factors, and gender roles. We also discuss the need for research design improvements and considerations for future directions. PMID:18728768

  17. Environmental factors affecting corrosion of munitions

    SciTech Connect

    Bundy, K.; Bricka, M.; Morales, A.

    1995-12-31

    Spent small arms munitions have accumulated for years at outdoor firing ranges operated by the DoD and other groups. Used bullets are often subjected to moisture sources. There is increasing concern that accumulations of lead-based munitions represent potential sources of water and soil pollution. To understand both the severity of and solutions to this problem, it is necessary to measure how rapidly bullets corrode and to determine the soil variables affecting the process. In this study M16 bullets were buried in samples of soil taken from Louisiana army firing ranges. Four environmental conditions were simulated; rain water, acid rain, sea water, and 50% sea water/50% acid rain. The three electrode technique was used to measure the bullet corrosion. Graphite rods served as counter electrodes. A saturated calomel reference electrode was used along with a specially constructed salt bridge. Electrochemical measurements were conducted using a computer-controlled potentiostat to determine corrosion potential, soil resistance, and corrosion current. The rate of corrosion was found to markedly increase with decreasing soil pH and increasing chloride and moisture contents, with the chloride content being the most influential variable. High soil resistance and noble corrosion potential were found to be associated with low corrosion rates. This is important since both parameters can be readily measured in the field.

  18. Allergic to life: Psychological factors in environmental illness

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, G.E.; Katon, W.J.; Sparks, P.J. )

    1990-07-01

    Environmental illness is an increasingly frequent and medically unexplained syndrome of allergy to common environmental agents. A recent outbreak of chemical-induced illness allowed study of psychological factors in environmental illness. Thirty-seven symptomatic plastics workers completed structured diagnostic interviews and self-report measures of somatization and psychopathology. The 13 subjects who developed environmental illness scored higher on all measures than those who did not. The greatest differences were in prior history of anxiety or depressive disorder (54% versus 4%) and number of medically unexplained physical symptoms before exposure (6.2 versus 2.9). These findings suggest that psychological vulnerability strongly influences chemical sensitivity following chemical exposure.

  19. Impacts of environmental factors on urban heating.

    PubMed

    Memon, Rizwan Ahmed; Leung, Dennis Y C

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of important environmental variables (i.e., wind speed, solar radiation and cloud cover) on urban heating. Meteorological parameters for fifteen years (from 1990 to 2005), collected at a well developed and densely populated commercial area (Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong), were analyzed in details. Urban heat island intensity (UHII), a well known indicator of urban heating, has been determined as the spatially averaged air-temperature difference between Tsim Sha Tsui and Ta Kwu Ling (a thinly populated rural area with lush vegetation). Results showed that the UHII and cloud cover have increased by around 9.3% and 4%, respectively, whereas the wind speed and solar radiation have decreased by around 24% and 8.5%, respectively. The month of December experienced the highest UHII (10.2 degrees C) but the lowest wind speed (2.6 m/sec) and cloud cover (3.8 oktas). Conversely, the month of April observed the highest increases in the UHII (over 100%) and the highest decreases in wind speed (over 40%) over fifteen years. Notably, the increases in the UHII and reductions in the wind speed were the highest during the night-time and early morning. Conversely, the intensity of solar radiation reduced while the intensity of urban cool island (UCII) increased during solar noon-time. Results demonstrated strong negative correlation between the UHII and wind speed (coefficient of determination, R2 = 0.8) but no negative correlation between UCII and solar radiation attenuation. A possible negative correlation between UHII and cloud cover was investigated but could not be substantiated. PMID:21462708

  20. [Aviation noise as an ecological environmental factor].

    PubMed

    Vorob'ev, O A; Krylov, Iu V; Zaritskiĭ, V V; Skrebnev, S V; Shcherbachenko, G E

    1995-01-01

    Average diurnal doses of noise, received by aviation engineers servicing up-to-date aircrafts and living near air fields, were analyzed. The doses appeared to outnumber the normal values, especially during the work and the sleep. The examinees living in 1-2 km from air fields were proved to have significantly higher auditory thresholds for 1,000-8,000 Hz, in comparison with the examinees residing 5-6 km apart. The excessive noise associated with no occupational matters worsens the hearing restoration after the work, promotes accumulation of the hearing fatigue. Those facts were proved by experiments with audiometry and impedometry. The studies stressed the importance of aviation noise as ecologic factor.

  1. Effects of maternal nutrition and porcine growth hormone (pGH) treatment during gestation on endocrine and metabolic factors in sows, fetuses and pigs, skeletal muscle development, and postnatal growth.

    PubMed

    Rehfeldt, Charlotte; Nissen, Pia M; Kuhn, Gerda; Vestergaard, Mogens; Ender, Klaus; Oksbjerg, Niels

    2004-10-01

    Prenatal growth is very complex and a highly integrated process. Both maternal nutrition and the maternal somatotropic axis play a significant role in coordinating nutrient partitioning and utilization between maternal, placental and fetal tissues. Maternal nutrition may alter the nutrient concentrations and in turn the expression of growth regulating factors such as IGFs and IGFBPs in the blood and tissues, while GH acts in parallel via changing IGFs/IGFBPs and nutrient availability. The similarity in the target components implies that maternal nutrition and the somatotropic axis are closely related to each other and may induce similar effects on placental and fetal growth. Severe restriction of nutrients throughout gestation has a permanent negative effect on fetal and postnatal growth, whereas the effects of both temporary restriction and feeding above requirements during gestation seem to be of transitional character. Advantages in fetal growth gained by maternal growth hormone treatment during early to mid-gestation are not maintained to term, whereas treatment during late or greatest part of gestation increases progeny size at birth, which could be of advantage for postnatal growth. This review summarizes the available knowledge on the effects of different maternal feeding strategies and maternal GH administration during pregnancy and their interactions on metabolic and hormonal (especially IGFs/IGFBPs) status in the feto-maternal unit, skeletal muscle development and growth of the offspring in pigs.

  2. Impact of Environmental Factors on the Regulation of Cyanotoxin Production

    PubMed Central

    Boopathi, Thangavelu; Ki, Jang-Seu

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are capable of thriving in almost all environments. Recent changes in climatic conditions due to increased human activities favor the occurrence and severity of harmful cyanobacterial bloom all over the world. Knowledge of the regulation of cyanotoxins by the various environmental factors is essential for effective management of toxic cyanobacterial bloom. In recent years, progress in the field of molecular mechanisms involved in cyanotoxin production has paved the way for assessing the role of various factors on the cyanotoxin production. In this review, we present an overview of the influence of various environmental factors on the production of major group of cyanotoxins, including microcystins, nodularin, cylindrospermopsin, anatoxins and saxitoxins. PMID:24967641

  3. Quantifying environmental limiting factors on tree cover using geospatial data.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Jonathan A; Santos, Maria J; Dobrowski, Solomon Z; Vanderbilt, Vern C; Ustin, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    Environmental limiting factors (ELFs) are the thresholds that determine the maximum or minimum biological response for a given suite of environmental conditions. We asked the following questions: 1) Can we detect ELFs on percent tree cover across the eastern slopes of the Lake Tahoe Basin, NV? 2) How are the ELFs distributed spatially? 3) To what extent are unmeasured environmental factors limiting tree cover? ELFs are difficult to quantify as they require significant sample sizes. We addressed this by using geospatial data over a relatively large spatial extent, where the wall-to-wall sampling ensures the inclusion of rare data points which define the minimum or maximum response to environmental factors. We tested mean temperature, minimum temperature, potential evapotranspiration (PET) and PET minus precipitation (PET-P) as potential limiting factors on percent tree cover. We found that the study area showed system-wide limitations on tree cover, and each of the factors showed evidence of being limiting on tree cover. However, only 1.2% of the total area appeared to be limited by the four (4) environmental factors, suggesting other unmeasured factors are limiting much of the tree cover in the study area. Where sites were near their theoretical maximum, non-forest sites (tree cover < 25%) were primarily limited by cold mean temperatures, open-canopy forest sites (tree cover between 25% and 60%) were primarily limited by evaporative demand, and closed-canopy forests were not limited by any particular environmental factor. The detection of ELFs is necessary in order to fully understand the width of limitations that species experience within their geographic range. PMID:25692604

  4. Quantifying Environmental Limiting Factors on Tree Cover Using Geospatial Data

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Jonathan A.; Santos, Maria J.; Dobrowski, Solomon Z.; Vanderbilt, Vern C.; Ustin, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental limiting factors (ELFs) are the thresholds that determine the maximum or minimum biological response for a given suite of environmental conditions. We asked the following questions: 1) Can we detect ELFs on percent tree cover across the eastern slopes of the Lake Tahoe Basin, NV? 2) How are the ELFs distributed spatially? 3) To what extent are unmeasured environmental factors limiting tree cover? ELFs are difficult to quantify as they require significant sample sizes. We addressed this by using geospatial data over a relatively large spatial extent, where the wall-to-wall sampling ensures the inclusion of rare data points which define the minimum or maximum response to environmental factors. We tested mean temperature, minimum temperature, potential evapotranspiration (PET) and PET minus precipitation (PET-P) as potential limiting factors on percent tree cover. We found that the study area showed system-wide limitations on tree cover, and each of the factors showed evidence of being limiting on tree cover. However, only 1.2% of the total area appeared to be limited by the four (4) environmental factors, suggesting other unmeasured factors are limiting much of the tree cover in the study area. Where sites were near their theoretical maximum, non-forest sites (tree cover < 25%) were primarily limited by cold mean temperatures, open-canopy forest sites (tree cover between 25% and 60%) were primarily limited by evaporative demand, and closed-canopy forests were not limited by any particular environmental factor. The detection of ELFs is necessary in order to fully understand the width of limitations that species experience within their geographic range. PMID:25692604

  5. The Search for Causative Environmental Factors in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Rogler, Gerhard; Zeitz, Jonas; Biedermann, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has become a 'prototype disease' for chronic auto-inflammatory disorders with a polygenic background and important multifaceted environmental trigger components. The environmental factors contribute both to pathogenesis and disease flares. Thus, IBD is a disease par excellence to study the interactions between host genetics, environmental factors (such as infections or smoking) and 'in-vironmental' factors - for example, our intestinal microbiota. Longitudinal intercurrent events, including the impact of long-term medication on disease progression or stabilization, can exemplarily be studied in this disease group. Whilst alterations in the human genome coding relevant variant protein products have most likely not emerged significantly over the last 50 years, the incidence of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis has dramatically increased in Western countries and more recently in the Asia Pacific area. An interesting concept indicates that 'Western lifestyle factors' trigger chronic intestinal inflammation or disease flares in a genetically susceptible host. To understand the disease pathogenesis as well as triggers for flares or determinants of disease courses, we must further investigate potential en(in)vironmental factors. As environmental conditions, in contrast to genetic risk factors, can be influenced, knowledge on those risk factors becomes crucial to modulate disease incidence, disease course or clinical presentation. It is obvious that prevention of environmentally triggered disease flares would be a goal most relevant for IBD patients. An increased prevalence of IBD in urban environment has been documented in Switzerland by the Swiss IBD cohort study. Several studies have attempted to identify such factors; however, only a few have been validated. The best investigated environmental factor identified in IBD cohort analyses is smoking. Other environmental factors that have been associated with clinical presentation or

  6. A review of longitudinal studies on antenatal and postnatal depression.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Lisa; Waldie, Karen; D'Souza, Stephanie; Peterson, Elizabeth R; Morton, Susan

    2016-10-01

    Antenatal depression is a known risk factor for postnatal depression; both are common disorders associated with negative impacts on child development. Few studies have followed up women from pregnancy and through the postnatal period to explore how rates of depression change. This review evaluates recent evidence on depression during pregnancy and after childbirth. A search of Embase, PsychINFO, MEDLINE and Cochrane Reviews was carried out to identify longitudinal studies on antenatal and postnatal depression. Studies that measured depression during pregnancy and up to 1 year after childbirth were evaluated against a set of criteria (e.g. less than 50 % attrition). Of the initial 523 studies identified, 16 studies met the final inclusion criteria with a total of 35,419 women. The average rate of antenatal depression across these studies was 17 and 13 % postnatal depression. The longitudinal nature of the studies revealed that on average 39 % of those who experienced antenatal depression went on to have postnatal depression. Similarly, on average, 47 % of those with postnatal depression had also experienced antenatal depression. On average, almost 7 % of women reported significant depressive symptoms in pregnancy that persisted after childbirth. The review provided evidence that rates of depression tend to be higher during pregnancy than in the first year following childbirth. Furthermore, the longitudinal data show that there is much movement between the groups categorised as depressed or not depressed. There is evidence that postnatal depression is often a continuation of existing antenatal depression.

  7. Neonatal pain in relation to postnatal growth in infants born very preterm.

    PubMed

    Vinall, Jillian; Miller, Steven P; Chau, Vann; Brummelte, Susanne; Synnes, Anne R; Grunau, Ruth E

    2012-07-01

    Procedural pain is associated with poorer neurodevelopment in infants born very preterm (≤ 32 weeks gestational age), however, the etiology is unclear. Animal studies have demonstrated that early environmental stress leads to slower postnatal growth; however, it is unknown whether neonatal pain-related stress affects postnatal growth in infants born very preterm. The aim of this study was to examine whether greater neonatal pain (number of skin-breaking procedures adjusted for medical confounders) is related to decreased postnatal growth (weight and head circumference [HC] percentiles) early in life and at term-equivalent age in infants born very preterm. Participants were n=78 preterm infants born ≤ 32 weeks gestational age, followed prospectively since birth. Infants were weighed and HC measured at birth, early in life (median: 32 weeks [interquartile range 30.7-33.6]) and at term-equivalent age (40 weeks [interquartile range 38.6-42.6]). Weight and HC percentiles were computed from sex-specific British Columbia population-based data. Greater neonatal pain predicted lower body weight (Wald χ(2)=7.36, P=0.01) and HC (Wald χ(2)=4.36, P=0.04) percentiles at 32 weeks postconceptional age, after adjusting for birth weight percentile and postnatal risk factors of illness severity, duration of mechanical ventilation, infection, and morphine and corticosteroid exposure. However, later neonatal infection predicted lower weight percentile at term (Wald χ(2)=5.09, P=0.02). Infants born very preterm undergo repetitive procedural pain during a period of physiological immaturity that appears to impact postnatal growth, and may activate a downstream cascade of stress signaling that affects later growth in the neonatal intensive care unit. PMID:22704600

  8. Epigenetic Effect of Environmental Factors on Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Takeo; Mochizuki, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    Both environmental factors and genetic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Epigenetics, an essential mechanism for gene regulation based on chemical modifications of DNA and histone proteins, is also involved in congenital ASDs. It was recently demonstrated that environmental factors, such as endocrine disrupting chemicals and mental stress in early life, can change epigenetic status and gene expression, and can cause ASDs. Moreover, environmentally induced epigenetic changes are not erased during gametogenesis and are transmitted to subsequent generations, leading to changes in behavior phenotypes. However, epigenetics has a reversible nature since it is based on the addition or removal of chemical residues, and thus the original epigenetic status may be restored. Indeed, several antidepressants and anticonvulsants used for mental disorders including ASDs restore the epigenetic state and gene expression. Therefore, further epigenetic understanding of ASDs is important for the development of new drugs that take advantages of epigenetic reversibility. PMID:27187441

  9. Epigenetic Effect of Environmental Factors on Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Takeo; Mochizuki, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    Both environmental factors and genetic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Epigenetics, an essential mechanism for gene regulation based on chemical modifications of DNA and histone proteins, is also involved in congenital ASDs. It was recently demonstrated that environmental factors, such as endocrine disrupting chemicals and mental stress in early life, can change epigenetic status and gene expression, and can cause ASDs. Moreover, environmentally induced epigenetic changes are not erased during gametogenesis and are transmitted to subsequent generations, leading to changes in behavior phenotypes. However, epigenetics has a reversible nature since it is based on the addition or removal of chemical residues, and thus the original epigenetic status may be restored. Indeed, several antidepressants and anticonvulsants used for mental disorders including ASDs restore the epigenetic state and gene expression. Therefore, further epigenetic understanding of ASDs is important for the development of new drugs that take advantages of epigenetic reversibility. PMID:27187441

  10. Oral Health Inequalities: Relationships between Environmental and Individual Factors.

    PubMed

    Gupta, E; Robinson, P G; Marya, C M; Baker, S R

    2015-10-01

    Recent research has emphasized the relationships between environmental and individual factors that may influence population oral health and lead to health inequalities. However, little is known about the effect of interactions between environmental and individual factors on inequalities in clinical (e.g., decayed teeth) and subjective oral health outcomes (e.g., oral health-related quality of life [OHQoL]). This cohort study aimed to explore the direct and mediated longitudinal interrelationships between key environmental and individual factors on clinical and subjective oral health outcomes in adults. Self-reported measures of OHQoL and individual (sense of coherence [SOC], social support, stress, oral health beliefs, dental behaviors, and subjective socioeconomic status [SES]) and environmental factors (SES and social network) were collected at baseline and 3-mo follow-up, together with a baseline clinical examination of 495 adult employees of an automobile parts manufacturer in India. Lagged structural equation modeling was guided by the adapted Wilson and Cleary/Brunner and Marmot model linking clinical, individual, and environmental variables to quality of life. The study provides tentative evidence that SES may influence levels of resources such as social support and SOC, which mediate stress and in turn may influence subjective oral health outcomes. Accordingly, the present findings and the adapted Wilson and Cleary/Brunner and Marmot model on which they are predicted provide support for the psychosocial pathway being key in the SES-oral health relationship. The pathways through which environmental factors interact with individual factors to impact subjective oral health outcomes identified here may bring opportunities for more targeted oral health promotion strategies. PMID:26130261

  11. Oral Health Inequalities: Relationships between Environmental and Individual Factors.

    PubMed

    Gupta, E; Robinson, P G; Marya, C M; Baker, S R

    2015-10-01

    Recent research has emphasized the relationships between environmental and individual factors that may influence population oral health and lead to health inequalities. However, little is known about the effect of interactions between environmental and individual factors on inequalities in clinical (e.g., decayed teeth) and subjective oral health outcomes (e.g., oral health-related quality of life [OHQoL]). This cohort study aimed to explore the direct and mediated longitudinal interrelationships between key environmental and individual factors on clinical and subjective oral health outcomes in adults. Self-reported measures of OHQoL and individual (sense of coherence [SOC], social support, stress, oral health beliefs, dental behaviors, and subjective socioeconomic status [SES]) and environmental factors (SES and social network) were collected at baseline and 3-mo follow-up, together with a baseline clinical examination of 495 adult employees of an automobile parts manufacturer in India. Lagged structural equation modeling was guided by the adapted Wilson and Cleary/Brunner and Marmot model linking clinical, individual, and environmental variables to quality of life. The study provides tentative evidence that SES may influence levels of resources such as social support and SOC, which mediate stress and in turn may influence subjective oral health outcomes. Accordingly, the present findings and the adapted Wilson and Cleary/Brunner and Marmot model on which they are predicted provide support for the psychosocial pathway being key in the SES-oral health relationship. The pathways through which environmental factors interact with individual factors to impact subjective oral health outcomes identified here may bring opportunities for more targeted oral health promotion strategies.

  12. Core binding factor beta (Cbfβ) controls the balance of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation by upregulating Indian hedgehog (Ihh) expression and inhibiting parathyroid hormone-related protein receptor (PPR) expression in postnatal cartilage and bone formation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Fei; Wu, Mengrui; Deng, Lianfu; Zhu, Guochun; Ma, Junqing; Gao, Bo; Wang, Lin; Li, Yi-Ping; Chen, Wei

    2014-07-01

    Core binding factor beta (Cbfβ) is essential for embryonic bone morphogenesis. Yet the mechanisms by which Cbfβ regulates chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation as well as postnatal cartilage and bone formation remain unclear. Hence, using paired-related homeobox transcription factor 1-Cre (Prx1-Cre) mice, mesenchymal stem cell-specific Cbfβ-deficient (Cbfβ(f/f) Prx1-Cre) mice were generated to study the role of Cbfβ in postnatal cartilage and bone development. These mutant mice survived to adulthood but exhibited severe sternum and limb malformations. Sternum ossification was largely delayed in the Cbfβ(f/f) Prx1-Cre mice and the xiphoid process was noncalcified and enlarged. In newborn and 7-day-old Cbfβ(f/f) Prx1-Cre mice, the resting zone was dramatically elongated, the proliferation zone and hypertrophic zone of the growth plates were drastically shortened and disorganized, and trabecular bone formation was reduced. Moreover, in 1-month-old Cbfβ(f/f) Prx1-Cre mice, the growth plates were severely deformed and trabecular bone was almost absent. In addition, Cbfβ deficiency impaired intramembranous bone formation both in vivo and in vitro. Interestingly, although the expression of Indian hedgehog (Ihh) was largely reduced, the expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) receptor (PPR) was dramatically increased in the Cbfβ(f/f) Prx1-Cre growth plate, indicating that that Cbfβ deficiency disrupted the Ihh-PTHrP negative regulatory loop. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis and promoter luciferase assay demonstrated that the Runx/Cbfβ complex binds putative Runx-binding sites of the Ihh promoter regions, and also the Runx/Cbfβ complex directly upregulates Ihh expression at the transcriptional level. Consistently, the expressions of Ihh target genes, including CyclinD1, Ptc, and Pthlh, were downregulated in Cbfβ-deficient chondrocytes. Taken together, our study reveals not only that Cbfβ is essential for chondrocyte

  13. CCAAT-enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) β regulates insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1 expression in porcine liver during prenatal and postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yiting; Xiong, Kai; Shen, Ming; Mu, Yulian; Li, Kui; Liu, Honglin

    2015-03-01

    IGF1 expression regulation attracts numerous interests because of its important role during mammalian growth and development. Domestic pig can be used as a valuable animal model to investigate human development since they share the high similarity in general physiology and metabolism. In this study, we examined the expression pattern of IGF1 and found it associated with liver C/EBP β expression pattern in porcine liver during embryonic and postnatal development. Both IGF1 and C/EBP β expression in liver maintained at low levels before birth and increased after birth. Correspondingly, C/EBP β demonstrated high binding activity to two sites at IGF1 promoter region in liver after birth. Additionally, IGF1 expression can be activated by C/EBP β overexpression in porcine primary hepatocytes. These results indicated that C/EBP β can activate IGF1 expression after birth by binding to IGF1 promoter. Our study may contribute to a better understanding of mammalian development and bring a novel anti-aging pathway in human.

  14. Environmental factors in the summer Olympics in historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Peiser, Benny; Reilly, Thomas

    2004-10-01

    A descriptive approach is adopted in reviewing the probable impact of environmental factors during the summer Olympic Games since their inception in 1896. A historical analytical perspective is impractical due to the lack of reliable climatic data for the earlier Games and the evolution of a myriad of factors that impinge on competitive performance at elite level. Nevertheless, the endurance running events, particularly the marathon, are considered in detail with respect to exposure to environmental forces. Heat, humidity, air pollution, altitude and the geographical features of the race course are considered selectively and dealt with in order of chronology and global climatic zones. We focus on diverse climate zones and particular environmental conditions in order to scrutinize their likely influences on competitive performance, especially in the Olympic marathon races. Notwithstanding the limitations of a narrative approach, performances are related to particular weather data and mitigating influences. Travel difficulties are addressed where these affected a majority of competitors. Environmental stress was associated with the ill-timing and poor organization of the earlier Games. While many of these detrimental and injurious features have been alleviated since then, other environmental stress factors are less prone to mitigation and thus remain a sometimes severe challenge to endurance races. The unique environment conditions for outdoor endurance races in temperate climate zones tend to be highly variable and therefore difficult to predict. PMID:15768729

  15. Environmental and genetic factors in pediatric inflammatory demyelinating diseases.

    PubMed

    Waubant, Emmanuelle; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Pugliatti, Maura; Hanwell, Heather; Mowry, Ellen M; Hintzen, Rogier Q

    2016-08-30

    The onset of multiple sclerosis (MS) occurs in childhood in about 5% of all patients with MS. The disease in adults has a complex genetic and environmental inheritability. One of the main risk factors, also confirmed in pediatric MS, is HLA DRB1*1501 In addition to genetic factors, a large part of disease susceptibility in adults is conferred by environmental risk factors such as low vitamin D status, exposure to cigarette smoking, and remote Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. In children, both exposure to cigarette smoking and prior EBV infection have been reported consistently as risk factors for MS. The role of vitamin D remains to be confirmed in this age category. Finally, although very likely critical in disease processes, few gene-environment interactions and epigenetic changes have been reported for adult and pediatric MS susceptibility. Of interest, some of the risk factors for MS have also been associated with disease course modification, such as low 25(OH) vitamin D serum levels in pediatric and adult MS. Age is also a clear disease modifier of clinical, CSF, and MRI phenotype in children with the disease. Finally, although much has yet to be unraveled regarding molecular processes at play in MS, there is a larger gap in our knowledge of genetic and environmental risk factors for pediatric neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and only collaborative studies will answer those questions. PMID:27572857

  16. Revealing tact within postnatal care.

    PubMed

    Smythe, Elizabeth; Payne, Deborah; Wilson, Sally; Paddy, Ann; Heard, Kate

    2014-02-01

    In this article, we explore the nature of good postnatal care through a hermeneutic unpacking of the notion of tact, drawing on the philosophical writings of Heidegger, Gadamer, and van Manen. The tactful encounters considered were from a hermeneutic research study within a small, rural birthing center in New Zealand. Insights drawn from the analysis were as follows: the openness of listening, watching and being attuned that builds a positive mode of engagement, recognizing that the distance the woman needs from her nurse/midwife is a call of tact, that tact is underpinned by a spirit of care, within tact there are moods and tact might require firmness, and that all of these factors come together to build trust. We conclude that the attunement of tact requires that the staff member has time to spend with a woman, enough energy to engage, and a spirit of care. Women know that tactful practice builds their confidence and affects their mothering experience. Tact cannot be assumed; it needs to be nurtured and sheltered.

  17. The role of environmental factors in pubertal gynecomastia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Proliferation of grandular tissue in the male breast during puberty, or pubertal gynecomastia, is a common condition that is usually benign and reversible. Since not all boys develop gynecomastia during puberty we were interested in whether environmental factors play a role. Furt...

  18. Determining Factors of Environmental Education in Spanish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrán, Manuel; Andrades, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to analyze the main factors that might determine the extent to which Spanish organizational management educators use environmental stand-alone subjects to equip students with alternative views of business. To give a more qualitative study, this paper also provides a more detailed curriculum analysis from a double point of…

  19. Control and the Aged: Environmental or Personality Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiffany, Phyllis G.; Dey, Kay

    Control over self, lifestyle, and environment is a major factor in how one ages. To investigate how age acts as an environmental force in affecting perceptions of control, 45 adults, aged 60-80, from western Kansas were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), the Tiffany Experienced Control Scales (ECS), the Minnesota…

  20. Social and Environmental Factors Influencing In-Prison Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodall, James

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: There is a strong political imperative to regard the prison as a key social setting for health promotion, but evidence indicates that drug misuse continues to be a significant issue for many prisoners. This paper aims to examine the social and environmental factors within the setting that influence individuals' drug taking.…

  1. Planning for Change: Assessing Internal and External Environmental Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffey, Janis Cox

    This report provides, first, an overview of the external and internal environmental factors affecting planning in California's community colleges; and, second, an examination of the influence of the demographics of the Los Rios Community College District (LRCCD). After an executive summary, introductory material discusses ways in which change can…

  2. Domestic Environmental Risk Factors Associated with Falling in Elderly

    PubMed Central

    LÖK, Neslihan; AKIN, Belgin

    2013-01-01

    Background: This is a cross-sectional study aiming at analyzing the relation between falling and domestic environmental –risk factors in community-dwelling elderly. Methods: The study consisted of 243 randomly chosen community-dwelling elderly over 65 years of age living around a health care center in Central Selcuklu, Konya. Data were collected with a questionnaire form including socio-demographic and other characteristics, with the Rivermead Mobility Index for evaluating mobility condition and an Evaluation Form of Domestic Environmental Risk Factors of Falling (EFDERF), which is developed by the researcher to assess domestic environmental risk factors of falling. Results: Based on (EFDERF) high number of problems lived in bathroom/restroom, kitchen, bedroom, sitting room/saloon and in all other areas was a risk factor in terms of domestic falling characteristics while the number of problems lived in hall and stairs was not a significant risk factor. Conclusion: EFDERF may be used by the nurses and health professionals to evaluate risk of falling and collecting data after visits in primary-care of elderly. PMID:23515204

  3. Familial Influences on Conduct Disorder Reflect 2 Genetic Factors and 1 Shared Environmental Factor

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, Kenneth S.; Aggen, Steven H.; Patrick, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Context Prior studies suggest that antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence reflects multiple symptomatic dimensions. However, to our knowledge, no prior study has evaluated the underlying nature of the etiologic influences contributing to conduct disorder (CD) symptoms as defined in the DSM. Objective To determine the structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for CD. Design Population-based twin registry. Setting Virginia. Participants Two thousand seven hundred sixty-nine members of male-male twin pairs from the Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders. Main Outcome Measure Retrospective self-reported symptoms of CD. Results The best-fitting multivariate twin model included 2 genetic factors, 1 shared environmental common factor, and 1 nonshared environmental common factor, along with criterion-specific genetic and nonshared environmental effects. The CD criteria with the strongest loadings on the 2 genetic factors were, respectively, those reflecting rule breaking (eg, playing hooky) and overt aggressive acts (eg, hurting people). The shared environ mental common factor had salient loadings on a distinct set of criteria reflecting covert delinquent acts (eg, stealing and hurting animals). Loadings on the single non-shared environmental common factor were more uniform and less selective. Scores on the 3 familial CD factors were differentially associated with a range of personality, psychopathology, and demographic factors. Conclusions From a genetic perspective, the DSM criteria for CD do not reflect a single dimension of liability. The familial risk to CD is composed of 2 discrete dimensions of genetic risk, reflecting rule breaking and overt aggression, and 1 dimension of shared environmental risk, reflecting covert delinquency. These 3 familial factors differ meaningfully in their association with a range of relevant validators. PMID:23117573

  4. Environmental risk factors for chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Nitsche, Claudia; Simon, Peter; Weiss, F Ulrich; Fluhr, Gabriele; Weber, Eckhard; Gärtner, Simone; Behn, Claas O; Kraft, Matthias; Ringel, Jörg; Aghdassi, Ali; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis has long been thought to be mainly associated with immoderate alcohol consumption. The observation that only ∼10% of heavy drinkers develop chronic pancreatitis not only suggests that other environmental factors, such as tobacco smoke, are potent additional risk factors, but also that the genetic component of pancreatitis is more common than previously presumed. Either disease-causing or protective traits have been indentified for mutations in different trypsinogen genes, the gene for the trypsin inhibitor SPINK1, chymotrypsinogen C, and the cystic fibrosis transmembane conductance regulator (CFTR). Other factors that have been proposed to contribute to pancreatitis are obesity, diets high in animal protein and fat, as well as antioxidant deficiencies. For the development of pancreatic cancer, preexisting chronic pancreatitis, more prominently hereditary pancreatitis, is a risk factor. The data on environmental risk factors for pancreatic cancer are, with the notable exception of tobacco smoke, either sparse, unconfirmed or controversial. Obesity appears to increase the risk of pancreatic cancer in the West but not in Japan. Diets high in processed or red meat, diets low in fruits and vegetables, phytochemicals such as lycopene and flavonols, have been proposed and refuted as risk or protective factors in different trials. The best established and single most important risk factor for cancer as well as pancreatitis and the one to clearly avoid is tobacco smoke.

  5. [Environmental and genetic risk factors for endometrial carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Sénéchal, Claire; Cottereau, Edouard; de Pauw, Antoine; Elan, Camille; Dagousset, Isabelle; Fourchotte, Virginie; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Lae, Marick; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Buecher, Bruno

    2015-03-01

    In France, endometrial cancer is at the first rank of gynecological cancers for cancer incidence, before ovarian and cervical cancers. In fact, the number of incident cases has been estimated to 7275 for the year 2012; the number of death due to endometrial cancer to 2025. This cancer is hormone-dependent and endogenous (reproductive factors) or exogenous (oral combined contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy) causes of exposition to estrogens are the major environmental risk factors for both types of endometrial cancers: type I or well-differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinomas; and type II including all other histological types: papillary serous adenocarcinomas, clear cell adenocarcinomas and carcinosarcomas, also known as malignant mixed Mullerian tumor, MMMT. Obesity, diabetes mellitus and adjuvant treatment of breast cancer with tamoxifen are also associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer. Genetic factors may also be implicated in the pathogenesis of endometrial cancer either as "minor genetic factors" (susceptibility factors), which remain largely unknown and are responsible for the increased observed risk in relatives of women affected with endometrial cancer; or as major genetic factors responsible for hereditary forms and namely for Lynch syndrome whose genetic transmission is of autosomic dominant type. The appropriate recognition of Lynch syndrome is of critical importance because affected patients and their relatives should benefit from specific care. The aims of this review is to describe major environmental and genetic risk factors for endometrial cancer with specific attention to most recent advances in this field and to describe recommendations for care of at-risk women.

  6. Linking genetic and environmental factors in amphibian disease risk

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Anna E; Becker, Carlos G; Zamudio, Kelly R

    2015-01-01

    A central question in evolutionary biology is how interactions between organisms and the environment shape genetic differentiation. The pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has caused variable population declines in the lowland leopard frog (Lithobates yavapaiensis); thus, disease has potentially shaped, or been shaped by, host genetic diversity. Environmental factors can also influence both amphibian immunity and Bd virulence, confounding our ability to assess the genetic effects on disease dynamics. Here, we used genetics, pathogen dynamics, and environmental data to characterize L. yavapaiensis populations, estimate migration, and determine relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors in predicting Bd dynamics. We found that the two uninfected populations belonged to a single genetic deme, whereas each infected population was genetically unique. We detected an outlier locus that deviated from neutral expectations and was significantly correlated with mortality within populations. Across populations, only environmental variables predicted infection intensity, whereas environment and genetics predicted infection prevalence, and genetic diversity alone predicted mortality. At one locality with geothermally elevated water temperatures, migration estimates revealed source–sink dynamics that have likely prevented local adaptation. We conclude that integrating genetic and environmental variation among populations provides a better understanding of Bd spatial epidemiology, generating more effective conservation management strategies for mitigating amphibian declines. PMID:26136822

  7. Environmental Health Factors and Sexually Dimorphic Differences in Behavioral Disruptions

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Cheryl S.; Trainor, Brian C.

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that environmental factors—in particular, those that we are exposed to during perinatal life—can dramatically shape the organism’s risk for later diseases, including neurobehavioral disorders. However, depending on the environmental insult, one sex may demonstrate greater vulnerability than the other sex. Herein, we focus on two well-defined extrinsic environmental factors that lead to sexually dimorphic behavioral differences in animal models and linkage in human epidemiological studies. These include maternal or psychosocial stress (such as social stress) and exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds (such as one of the most prevalent, bisphenol A [BPA]). In general, the evidence suggests that early environmental exposures, such as BPA and stress, lead to more pronounced behavioral deficits in males than in females, whereas female neurobehavioral patterns are more vulnerable to later in life stress. These findings highlight the importance of considering sex differences and developmental timing when examining the effects of environmental factors on later neurobehavioral outcomes. PMID:25705580

  8. Environmental factors in the development of autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Sealey, L A; Hughes, B W; Sriskanda, A N; Guest, J R; Gibson, A D; Johnson-Williams, L; Pace, D G; Bagasra, O

    2016-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are highly heterogeneous developmental conditions characterized by deficits in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and obsessive/stereotyped patterns of behavior and repetitive movements. Social interaction impairments are the most characteristic deficits in ASD. There is also evidence of impoverished language and empathy, a profound inability to use standard nonverbal behaviors (eye contact, affective expression) to regulate social interactions with others, difficulties in showing empathy, failure to share enjoyment, interests and achievements with others, and a lack of social and emotional reciprocity. In developed countries, it is now reported that 1%-1.5% of children have ASD, and in the US 2015 CDC reports that approximately one in 45 children suffer from ASD. Despite the intense research focus on ASD in the last decade, the underlying etiology remains unknown. Genetic research involving twins and family studies strongly supports a significant contribution of environmental factors in addition to genetic factors in ASD etiology. A comprehensive literature search has implicated several environmental factors associated with the development of ASD. These include pesticides, phthalates, polychlorinated biphenyls, solvents, air pollutants, fragrances, glyphosate and heavy metals, especially aluminum used in vaccines as adjuvant. Importantly, the majority of these toxicants are some of the most common ingredients in cosmetics and herbicides to which almost all of us are regularly exposed to in the form of fragrances, face makeup, cologne, air fresheners, food flavors, detergents, insecticides and herbicides. In this review we describe various scientific data to show the role of environmental factors in ASD. PMID:26826339

  9. Environmental factors in the development of autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Sealey, L A; Hughes, B W; Sriskanda, A N; Guest, J R; Gibson, A D; Johnson-Williams, L; Pace, D G; Bagasra, O

    2016-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are highly heterogeneous developmental conditions characterized by deficits in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and obsessive/stereotyped patterns of behavior and repetitive movements. Social interaction impairments are the most characteristic deficits in ASD. There is also evidence of impoverished language and empathy, a profound inability to use standard nonverbal behaviors (eye contact, affective expression) to regulate social interactions with others, difficulties in showing empathy, failure to share enjoyment, interests and achievements with others, and a lack of social and emotional reciprocity. In developed countries, it is now reported that 1%-1.5% of children have ASD, and in the US 2015 CDC reports that approximately one in 45 children suffer from ASD. Despite the intense research focus on ASD in the last decade, the underlying etiology remains unknown. Genetic research involving twins and family studies strongly supports a significant contribution of environmental factors in addition to genetic factors in ASD etiology. A comprehensive literature search has implicated several environmental factors associated with the development of ASD. These include pesticides, phthalates, polychlorinated biphenyls, solvents, air pollutants, fragrances, glyphosate and heavy metals, especially aluminum used in vaccines as adjuvant. Importantly, the majority of these toxicants are some of the most common ingredients in cosmetics and herbicides to which almost all of us are regularly exposed to in the form of fragrances, face makeup, cologne, air fresheners, food flavors, detergents, insecticides and herbicides. In this review we describe various scientific data to show the role of environmental factors in ASD.

  10. Environmental factors and primary prevention in type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ilonen, Jorma; Vaarala, Outi; Åkerblom, Hans K.; Knip, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of type 1 diabetes has been increasing rapidly among children in most European countries over the last decades. Despite of the known strong genetic component in the disease only environmental factors can explain such a rapid change. The increase in incidence has been most conspicuous in the youngest age group, which emphasizes the importance of infancy and early environmental exposures. Nutritional and infectious factors affecting the young child or even the mother during pregnancy have been implicated to be important in the pathogenesis. The identification of single factors has been extremely difficult as reflected by many controversial reports on their importance. This difficulty may also be due to the heterogeneity of the disease mechanisms. Multiple mechanisms in different pathways may ultimately be responsible for beta-cell destruction. In most cases the disease is probably caused by a complex interplay between multiple factors including distinct genetic polymorphisms and environmental effects. Exploration of these pathways is needed for the development of effective preventive measures. The implementation of primary prevention trials will ultimately prove the value of various concepts generated for the disease pathogenesis. PMID:20455416

  11. Effects of environmental factors on the longevous people in China.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jinmei; Wang, Wuyi; Li, Yonghua

    2011-01-01

    Healthy longevity is associated with environmental conditions, but its significance is still unclear. In China, different age groups of old people may be influenced by different factors. For people aged 65 and above, their distribution may be more influenced by the economical factor, decreasing from east to west. However, for people aged 100 and above, they may be more influenced by the environmental factors. The number of centenarians per 100,000 is opposite to the percentage of people above 65, decreasing from west to east. Longevity index (LI%) and centenarity index (CI%) may be as index to evaluate the longevity level. The biggest LI% is in the south provinces of China, whereas the biggest CI% is in the northwestern provinces of China. The South China and Northwestern China are two longevity regions. The South China has some climatic preferences including near to the sea, having suitable mean year temperature, a large plenty of rainfall, higher relative humidity, which contribute to its relatively high longevity level. While the Northwestern China has the topographic and sunshine advantages, which help the residents there more probable to reach 100 years old. The results indicate that for old people, their distribution will be influenced by the environmental factor to some extent.

  12. Prenatal and postnatal residential usage of insecticides in a multicenter birth cohort in Spain.

    PubMed

    Llop, Sabrina; Casas, Lidia; Santa Marina, Loreto; Estarlich, Marisa; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Esplugues, Ana; Jimenez, Ana; Zock, Jan-Paul; Tardón, Adonina; Marco, Alfredo; Ballester, Ferran

    2013-02-15

    This study aimed to describe the residential use of insecticides in a birth cohort in Spain. Study subjects were 2,456 women enrolled into the INMA (Environment and Childhood) birth cohort followed prospectively during pregnancy and in the early postnatal period. The women were recruited at the beginning of their pregnancy between 2003 and 2008 in four regions of Spain. Socio-demographic, environmental and lifestyle information was obtained at two interviews during pregnancy, one at the first (mean:13.8±2.6 weeks of gestation) and the other at the third trimester (mean: 33.3±2.3 weeks of gestation). Information about prenatal use of indoor and outdoor insecticides (type, timing, place of application, place of storage) was obtained from the second interview. In a 3rd interview (mean: 16.2±6.9 months of age of children), information about postnatal indoor and outdoor insecticide use was obtained. Regression models examined the association between demographic and lifestyle factors and pesticide use to determine which characteristics predicted use prenatally and postnatally. Fifty-four percent of women reported using indoor insecticides during pregnancy, 45% in their bedroom and 47% elsewhere in the house. Plug-in devices were the most frequent application methods used in the pregnant woman's bedroom and insecticide sprays elsewhere in the house. The maternal factors related to prenatal use of indoor insecticides were parity, country of birth, educational level, region of residence, having a garden or yard with plants, and living near an agricultural area. These products continued to be used postnatally, although 20% of the women stopped using them. Foetuses and children are especially vulnerable to pesticide exposure; thus knowing how pesticides are used during pregnancy and infancy may be a starting point for the study of their potential effects on health as well as useful for designing preventive actions.

  13. Environmental vascular risk factors: new perspectives for stroke prevention.

    PubMed

    Bernal-Pacheco, Oscar; Román, Gustavo C

    2007-11-15

    Despite intensive evaluation of acute stroke patients, perhaps only half of the attributable stroke risk is usually identified. In addition to traditional and non-traditional vascular risk factors-including most recently homocysteine, inflammation, and alterations of coagulation-a number of environmental risk factors for stroke have been identified in the last decade. In this update we review the following: lower education and poor socioeconomic status (probable surrogates for exposure to traditional high-risk behaviors such as smoking, poor nutrition, lack of prenatal control, absence of preventive medical and dental care, and non-compliance of treatment of conditions such as hypertension); depression, stress and affective disorders; obstructive sleep apnea; passive smoking and environmental pollution; infections, in particular periodontal diseases that increase C-reactive protein (CRP); raised body mass index (obesity); exercise, and diet. The possible role of high-fructose corn syrup in the epidemic of obesity in the USA is reviewed. Protective diets include higher consumption of fish, olive oil, grains, fruits and vegetables (Mediterranean diet), as well as probiotic bacteria in yogurt and dairy products. Careful attention should be given to the patient's environment looking for modifiable factors. The effects of clean environmental air and water, adequate diet and appropriate nutrition, healthy teeth, exercise, and refreshing sleep in the prevention of stroke and cardiovascular disease appear to be quite compelling. Although some of these modifiable risk factors lack evidence-based information, judicious clinical sense should be used to counteract the potentially damaging effects of adverse environmental vascular risk factors. PMID:17655871

  14. Environmental Risk Factors in Patients with Noninvasive Fungal Sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Badr Eldin; El Sharnoubi, Mohammed M K; El-Sersy, Hesham A A; Mahmoud, Mohammed S M

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of our study was to try to determine the possible environmental risk factors for noninvasive fungal sinusitis in Egyptian patients. Methods. This is a prospective epidemiological case control study on the environmental risk factors of noninvasive fungal sinusitis. It included 60 patients and 100 age and sex matched controls. Results. There was a statistically significant relation between apartment floor, surface area, exposure to dust, exposure to cockroaches, poor air conditioning, and fungal sinusitis. Yet, no statistical significance was found between allergy related occupations, exposure to animals or plants, although their percentages were higher among cases, smoking, and urban or rural residence. Conclusion. We suggest that for patients with noninvasive fungal sinusitis a change in their living environment must be implied with better exposure to sunlight, larger well ventilated homes, proper cleaning of dust and cockroach extermination, and if possible the judicious use of air conditioners. PMID:27274885

  15. [COMPLEX ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AND POSTVACCINAL IMMUNE STATE].

    PubMed

    Kryazhev, D A; Boev, M V; Tulina, L M; Neplokhov, A A; Boev, V M

    2016-01-01

    This article was written on the base of the analysis of data of protocols of annual serological sturdies of the post-vaccination immunity status in indicator groups of populations, the analysis of samples of drinking water air and soil with the assessment of the socio-economic development of mono-towns and rural settlements. In the article there is reflected the comprehensive assessment of environmental factors and specific features of the formation of socio-economic conditions of rural communities and mono towns. There was performed a comparative assessment of the status of post-vaccination immunity to infections controlled by specific means of prevention, in different age groups in mono towns and rural settlements. There was established a dependence of the formation of post-vaccination immunity on the state of environmental factors. PMID:27266020

  16. Environmental Risk Factors in Patients with Noninvasive Fungal Sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Badr Eldin; El Sharnoubi, Mohammed M K; El-Sersy, Hesham A A; Mahmoud, Mohammed S M

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of our study was to try to determine the possible environmental risk factors for noninvasive fungal sinusitis in Egyptian patients. Methods. This is a prospective epidemiological case control study on the environmental risk factors of noninvasive fungal sinusitis. It included 60 patients and 100 age and sex matched controls. Results. There was a statistically significant relation between apartment floor, surface area, exposure to dust, exposure to cockroaches, poor air conditioning, and fungal sinusitis. Yet, no statistical significance was found between allergy related occupations, exposure to animals or plants, although their percentages were higher among cases, smoking, and urban or rural residence. Conclusion. We suggest that for patients with noninvasive fungal sinusitis a change in their living environment must be implied with better exposure to sunlight, larger well ventilated homes, proper cleaning of dust and cockroach extermination, and if possible the judicious use of air conditioners.

  17. Environmental Risk Factors in Patients with Noninvasive Fungal Sinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Mostafa, Badr Eldin; El Sharnoubi, Mohammed M. K.; El-Sersy, Hesham A. A.; Mahmoud, Mohammed S. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of our study was to try to determine the possible environmental risk factors for noninvasive fungal sinusitis in Egyptian patients. Methods. This is a prospective epidemiological case control study on the environmental risk factors of noninvasive fungal sinusitis. It included 60 patients and 100 age and sex matched controls. Results. There was a statistically significant relation between apartment floor, surface area, exposure to dust, exposure to cockroaches, poor air conditioning, and fungal sinusitis. Yet, no statistical significance was found between allergy related occupations, exposure to animals or plants, although their percentages were higher among cases, smoking, and urban or rural residence. Conclusion. We suggest that for patients with noninvasive fungal sinusitis a change in their living environment must be implied with better exposure to sunlight, larger well ventilated homes, proper cleaning of dust and cockroach extermination, and if possible the judicious use of air conditioners. PMID:27274885

  18. Environmental factors altering thyroid function and their assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Barsano, C P

    1981-01-01

    Chronic ingestion of modest doses of dietary iodine, radiation, and polyhalogenated biphenyls (PCB's and PBB's) are environmental factors with known or suspected adverse effects on the human thyroid. Iodine consumption in the United States is approaching 1 mg daily for a large segment of the population. Data are reviewed which support the need for concern regarding the long-term adverse effects of dietary iodine on thyroid function, particularly in certain susceptible individuals. Environmental sources of radiation pose a significant risk of thyroid cancer and hypothyroidism under certain circumstances which may be intentional, inadvertent, or accidental. Exposure to polyhalogenated biphenyls during manufacture or as industrial pollutants are hazardous to man and to wildlife in moderate or large quantities and perhaps also in small amounts. The need to investigate the potential harm posed by these factors in the quantities commonly encountered is emphasized. PMID:6263611

  19. Environmental factors and the geoepidemiology of juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Berkun, Yackov; Padeh, Shai

    2010-03-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), the most common chronic rheumatic disease of childhood, is a clinically heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by chronic inflammatory arthritis. JIA is considered to be an autoimmune disease, which is a result of immune reaction caused or triggered by environmental factors such as infectious agents in a genetically susceptible host. The prevalence of JIA subtypes and different disease manifestations varies geographically. Various infectious agents have been suggested to be a trigger of JIA development. Numerous other factors, such as stressful life events and psychosociologic milieu, meteorological influence and maternal smoking, are suspected to be contributors of multicausal JIA pathogenesis. JIA is probably a basket of diseases rather than a single pathophysiological entity. Being a childhood autoimmune disease it could be viewed as an evolutional process or defect in the maturation of the immune system. Along the lines of the hygiene theory, multiple environment factors could interfere with the appearance and course of JIA, and no single causative factor could be been proven so far. Although many new data on the importance of the environment in JIA etiopathogenesis have appeared, the causal-result association between environmental factors and JIA remains complex and further studies are needed.

  20. American Cancer Society perspectives on environmental factors and cancer.

    PubMed

    Fontham, Elizabeth T H; Thun, Michael J; Ward, Elizabeth; Portier, Kenneth M; Balch, Alan J; Delancey, John Oliver L; Samet, Jonathan M

    2009-01-01

    Cancer prevention is central to the mission of the American Cancer Society (ACS). The ACS's prevention activities take many forms, but are primarily focused on modifiable risk factors that have been demonstrated to have the largest impact on cancer risk in the general population (with particular emphasis on tobacco use because of its large impact on cancer), and well-proven policy and program interventions. The ACS addresses nutrition, physical inactivity and obesity, alcohol consumption, excessive sun exposure, prevention of certain chronic infections, and selected other environmental factors through a variety of venues, including consensus guidelines (eg, nutrition and physical activity, human papillomavirus vaccination) and developing educational materials for health care providers and the general public. In contrast to the broad definition of environmental factors used by the ACS and most other public health agencies, some members of the general public associate the term "environmental" only with toxic air and water pollutants and other, predominantly manmade, hazards that people encounter, often involuntarily, in their daily life. This article will provide an overview of the ACS's approach to the prevention of cancer associated with such toxic pollutants in the context of its mission and priorities with respect to cancer prevention.

  1. Impacts of environmental factors on fine root lifespan

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, M. Luke; Guo, Dali

    2014-01-01

    The lifespan of fast-cycling roots is a critical parameter determining a large flux of plant carbon into soil through root turnover and is a biological feature regulating the capacity of a plant to capture soil water and nutrients via root-age-related physiological processes. While the importance of root lifespan to whole-plant and ecosystem processes is increasingly recognized, robust descriptions of this dynamic process and its response to changes in climatic and edaphic factors are lacking. Here we synthesize available information and propose testable hypotheses using conceptual models to describe how changes in temperature, water, nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) availability impact fine root lifespan within a species. Each model is based on intrinsic responses including root physiological activity and alteration of carbohydrate allocation at the whole-plant level as well as extrinsic factors including mycorrhizal fungi and pressure from pathogens, herbivores, and other microbes. Simplifying interactions among these factors, we propose three general principles describing fine root responses to complex environmental gradients. First, increases in a factor that strongly constrains plant growth (temperature, water, N, or P) should result in increased fine root lifespan. Second, increases in a factor that exceeds plant demand or tolerance should result in decreased lifespan. Third, as multiple factors interact fine root responses should be determined by the most dominant factor controlling plant growth. Moving forward, field experiments should determine which types of species (e.g., coarse vs. fine rooted, obligate vs. facultative mycotrophs) will express greater plasticity in response to environmental gradients while ecosystem models may begin to incorporate more detailed descriptions of root lifespan and turnover. Together these efforts will improve quantitative understanding of root dynamics and help to identify areas where future research should be focused

  2. The impact of environmental factors on traffic accidents in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Lankarani, Kamran B.; Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Aghabeigi, Mohammad Reza; Moafian, Ghasem; Hoseinzadeh, Amin; Vossoughi, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Road traffic crashes are the third highest cause of mortality in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of roadway environmental factors on traffic crash. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran between March 21, 2010 and December 30, 2010. The data on road traffic crashes were obtained from the Traffic Police Department records. These records were classified to control for the main confounders related to the type of crash and roadway environmental factors. Roadway environmental factors included crash scene light, weather, place of accident, the defects and geometrics of roadway and road surface. Results: The study included 542,863 traffic crashes. The proportions of road traffic crash which led to injury were 24.44% at sunrise and 27.16% at sunset compared with 5.43% and 1.43% deaths at sunrise and sunset respectively. In regard to day time accidents, the proportions were 20.50% injuries and 0.55% deaths. The statistical analysis of the results showed that the ratio of injuries and deaths were significantly higher at sunrise and sunset than those occurring during daytime (P less than 0.001). The highest rate of death (5.07%) was due to dusty weather compared to 5.07% for other weather conditions (P less than 0.001). The highest mortality rate (3.45%) occurred on oily surfaces (P less than 0.001). The defective traffic signs were responsible for 30,046 injuries and 5.58% deaths, and road narrowing accounted for 22,775 injuries and, 4.23% deaths which indicated that the roadway defects inflict most frequent injuries and deaths. The lowest (0.74 %) and highest (3.09%) proportion of traffic crash- related deaths were due to flat straight and winding uphill/downhill roads respectively (P less than 0.001). Conclusions: Sunrise, sunset, dusty weather, oily road surfaces and winding uphill/downhill road were hazardous environmental factors. This study provides an insight into the potential impacts of environmental

  3. Associations between environmental factors and incidence of cutaneous melanoma. Review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cutaneous melanoma is one of the most serious skin cancers. It is caused by neural crest-derived melanocytes - pigmented cells normally present in the epidermis and, sometimes, in the dermis. Methods We performed a review of current knowledge on the risk factors of cutaneous melanoma. Relevant studies were identified using the PubMed, Science Direct, Medline, Scopus, Scholar Google and ISI Web of Knowledge databases. Results Melanoma incurs a considerable public health burden owing to the worldwide dramatic rise in incidence since the mid-1960s. Ultraviolet radiation exposure is the predominant environmental risk factor. The role of geographical (latitude) and individual factors such as skin type, life style, vitamin D levels and antioxidant protection, sunburn, and exposure to other environmental factors possibly contributing to melanoma risk (such as cosmetics including sunscreen, photosensitising drugs, and exogenous hormones) are reviewed in this article. Recently, both rare high risk susceptibility genes and common polymorphic genes contributing to melanoma risk have been identified. Conclusions Cutaneous melanoma is a complex cancer with heterogeneous aetiology that continues to increase in incidence. Introduction of new biomarkers may help to elucidate the mechanism of pathogenesis and individual susceptibility to the disease, and make both prevention and treatment more effective. PMID:22759494

  4. Somatic alterations in lung cancer: Do environmental factors matter?

    PubMed

    Gibelin, Cécilia; Couraud, Sébastien

    2016-10-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide and smoking tobacco is now definitively established as the dominant risk factor for the malignancy. However, lung cancer can and does occur in never smokers, thus illustrating the existence of other risk factors. Many of these latter are environmental, such as workplace and home carcinogens, air pollution, radon and certain infectious agents. One of the most remarkable advances in thoracic oncology is the recent identification of somatic oncogenic molecular abnormalities, some of which are candidates for targeted therapies. Active smoking is now known to cause a particular somatic profile distinct from that found in never-smokers. This has logically led researchers to consider the possibility that exposure to other lung cancer risk factors may also engender a unique somatic profile. Thus, with the present work, we sought to review current knowledge on somatic profiles in the setting of bronchial cancer (for targetable mutations such as EGFR, ALK, BRAF and HER2, as well as some non-targetable mutations such as TP53, and KRAS) and their associations with environmental risk factors for the malignancy. PMID:27597280

  5. Prenatal immunotoxicant exposure and postnatal autoimmune disease.

    PubMed Central

    Holladay, S D

    1999-01-01

    Reports in humans and rodents indicate that immune development may be altered following perinatal exposure to immunotoxic compounds, including chemotherapeutics, corticosteroids, polycyclic hydrocarbons, and polyhalogenated hydrocarbons. Effects from such exposure may be more dramatic or persistent than following exposure during adult life. For example, prenatal exposure to the insecticide chlordane or to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[(italic)a(/italic)]pyrene produces what appears to be lifelong immunosuppression in mice. Whether prenatal immunotoxicant exposure may predispose the organism to postnatal autoimmune disease remains largely unknown. In this regard, the therapeutic immunosuppressant cyclosporin A (CsA) crosses the placenta poorly. However, lethally irradiated rodents exposed to CsA postsyngeneic bone marrow transplant (i.e., during re-establishment of the immune system) develop T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease, suggesting this drug may produce a fundamental disruption in development of self-tolerance by T cells. The environmental contaminant 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-(italic)p(/italic)-dioxin (TCDD) crosses the placenta and produces fetal thymic effects (italic)in vivo(/italic) similar to effects of CsA in fetal thymic organ culture, including inhibited thymocyte maturation and reduced expression of thymic major histocompatability complex class II molecules. These observations led to the suggestion that gestational exposure to TCDD may interfere with normal development of self-tolerance. Possibly supporting this hypothesis, when mice predisposed to development of autoimmune disease were treated with TCDD during gestation, postnatal autoimmunity was exacerbated. Similar results have been reported for mice exposed to diethylstilbestrol during development. These reports suggest that prenatal exposure to certain immunotoxicants may play a role in postnatal expression of autoimmunity. PMID:10502532

  6. [Dietary habits as an environmental factor of overweight and obesity].

    PubMed

    Ostrowska, Lucyna; Karczewski, Jan; Szwarc, Joanna

    2007-01-01

    The study objective was to assess chosen environmental factors contributing to body weight increase, with special regard to dietary habits. The questionnaire survey involved 68 women and 42 men. Based on BMI, the subjects were divided into those with normal body weight, with overweight and obesity. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Weight at the age of 18 was found to be most correlated with the current body weight. Other major factors included the time of life when overweight began, alcohol consumption and earlier smoking. The dietary factors analysed: such as having something additional to eat, type of eaten snacks, night eating, no control of the caloricity value of meals in the current study may have a significant effect on the occurrence of overweight and obesity.

  7. Potential for use of environmental factors in urban planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira da Silva, Ricardo; van der Ploeg, Martine; van Delden, Hedwig; Fleskens, Luuk

    2016-04-01

    Projections for population growth estimate, on top of the current 7.4 billion world population, an increase of 2 billion people for the next 40 years. It is also projected that 66 per cent of the world population in 2050 will live in urban areas. To accommodate the urban population growth cities are changing continuously land cover to urban areas. Such changes are a threat for natural resources and food production systems stability and capability to provide food and other functions. However, little has been done concerning a rational soil management for food production in urban and peri-urban areas. This study focuses on the assessment of soil lost due to urban expansion and discusses the potential loss regarding the quality of the soil for food production and environmental functions. It is relevant to increase the knowledge on the role of soils in peri-urban areas and in the interaction of physical, environmental and social factors. The methodology consists of assessing the soil quality in and around urban and peri-urban areas. It focuses particularly on the physical properties and the environmental factors, for two periods of time and account the potential losses due to urban expansion. This project is on-going, therefore current advances will be presented and will look for a discussion on the contribution of soil quality for decision-making and land management in urban and peri-urban areas.

  8. Risk factors of allergic rhinitis: genetic or environmental?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, De-Yun

    2005-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis represent a global health problem, affecting 10%–25% of the world population. There is clear evidence to support the concept that allergic diseases are influenced by genetic predisposition and environmental exposure. Polymorphisms of candidate genes have been associated with clinical expression of these diseases. However, characterization of these susceptibility markers in discriminating an “allergic individual” from the general population has not yet been achieved, and the value of how this genetic insight leading to recognition of specific subtypes of these disorders still needs to be confirmed. Environmental factors (eg, air pollution and bacterial/viral infection) also play an important role in the development of the diseases. A number of epidemiologic studies have supported the “hygiene hypothesis”, which is based on the observations that Th1 responses induced by microbial stimulation can counterbalance allergen-induced Th2 responses. Future studies are needed to identify the key genes or their haplotypes for atopic phenotypes and to investigate the interactions between genetic and environmental factors that influence the complex trait of allergic diseases. This will help us to further understand the etiology of the diseases and develop new avenues for genetically oriented diagnosis and more effective measures of prevention and intervention. PMID:18360551

  9. [Host and environmental factors predisposing to cancer development].

    PubMed

    Kono, Suminori

    2010-04-01

    Descriptive epidemiology, particularly regarding the cancer pattern in Japanese and Koreans in the United States, indicates that lifestyle factors contribute substantially to the development of common cancers such as gastric, colorectal, breast and prostate cancers. Sex and age are important determinants of many cancers, and the variation in cancer incidence according to these factors is also indicative of the role of environmental factors. While cancer of first-degree relatives or parental cancer was related to an approximately 2-fold increased risk for most site-specific cancers, a large Scandinavian twin study suggested that the contribution of genetic factors was generally small and that a statistically significant effect of hereditable factors was observed only for prostate, colorectal and breast cancers. It was roughly estimated in this article that infectious agents contributed to 20% of incident cases of cancer in Japan. In a recent cohort study in Japan, it is estimated that 29% of male cancers and 3% of female cancers can be ascribed to smoking. Among other lifestyle factors, alcohol consumption and obesity have provided convincing evidence as factors conferring increased risks of various cancers. The increased risks of colorectal cancer and breast cancer associated with alcohol drinking have been recently acknowledged internationally. Among dietary factors, red meat, aflatoxin and beta-carotene are considered to increase risks of colorectal, liver and lung cancers, respectively. Vegetables and fruits probably decrease the risk of cancer at various sites, and calcium specifically decreases the risk of colorectal cancer. Evidence for increased risk of gastric cancer associated with salted foods is judged to be not sufficient, although a high-salt diet enhanced gastric cancer in animals infected with Helicobacter pylori. The role of dietary factors in cancer development will be more clearly established by research on gene-environment interaction focusing on

  10. Risk Factors for Discontinuation of Exclusive Breastfeeding by One Month of Postnatal Age Among High Risk Newborns: An Institution Based Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Chandrika, Parul; Gathwala, Geeta; Narwal, Varun; Chaturvedi, Abhishek

    2015-01-01

    Background Beyond one month of age, there is generally a drop in the proportion of mothers providing exclusive breastfeeding to their infants. Infants with morbidities during neonatal period have been observed to be at higher risk of discontinuation. Objective To enumerate the prevalent factors behind discontinuation of breastfeeding among high risk newborns by first month of life. Materials and Methods A case control study conducted at high risk newborn followup clinic of a teaching medical institute in northern India between January and May 2013. Infants were divided on the basis of continuation (controls) or discontinuation (cases) of exclusive breastfeeding at one month of age. The socio-demographic factors along with maternal and neonatal medical factors were compared among groups. Results During the study period, 112 newborns were screened. Forty seven cases and thirty eight controls were enrolled and finally evaluated. Female gender of newborn, less educated mothers and large families were observed to be associated with discontinuation of exclusive breastfeeding during first month of life among high risk newborns. Requirement of parenteral fluids during hospital stay emerged as the only independent medical reason. Conclusion As in healthy newborns, the socio-cultural factors overshadow the medical reasons for discontinuation of exclusive breastfeeding during first month of life among high risk newborns. PMID:26266176

  11. Sarcoidosis and Autoimmunity: From Genetic Background to Environmental Factors.

    PubMed

    Bindoli, Sara; Dagan, Amir; Torres-Ruiz, José J; Perricone, Carlo; Bizjak, Mojca; Doria, Andrea; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic multisystem disease with variable course resulting from the interaction between environmental factors and the immune system of individuals genetically predisposed. The evidence linking sarcoidosis with environmental triggers such as metals is increasing. We describe the case of a 44 year old female with a history. of smoking since age 30 and previous mercury dental filling who presented at physical examination with numerous subcutaneous nodules. Laboratory data showed accelerated erythrocyte sedimentation rate and high titer of anti-U1 ribonucleoprotein antibodies (U1 RNP). Skin biopsy and chest X-ray suggested the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. In this report we illustrate the different causes involved in the onset of sarcoidosis. PMID:27228643

  12. Genetic and environmental factors in breakfast eating patterns.

    PubMed

    Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Viken, Richard J; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rissanen, Aila; Rose, Richard J

    2004-09-01

    Despite many studies on the prevalence of breakfast eating, we know little about factors that determine breakfast eating patterns. Our aim was to find out to which extent breakfast eating frequency is influenced by genetic and environmental factors using twin and twin-family models in a population sample of 16-year-old twins (n = 5250) and their parents (n = 4663). In common effects sex-limitation models, additive genetic effects explained 41% (95% CI: 21-63%) of the variance in breakfast eating in girls and 66% (95% CI: 47-79%) in boys, and common environmental effects 45% (95% CI: 23-62%) in girls and 14% (95% CI: 5-29%) in boys. Of twin-family models, phenotypic assortment models fitted the data best. Heritability estimates increased somewhat (72%, 95% CI: 46-98% in girls and 63%, 95% CI: 38-89%) in boys. Common family environment remained substantial in both sexes. Cultural transmission was nonsignificant. The relative influence of genetic and family factors on adolescent breakfast eating frequency differs by sex and is generation-specific.

  13. Genetic, environmental, and epigenetic factors involved in CAKUT.

    PubMed

    Nicolaou, Nayia; Renkema, Kirsten Y; Bongers, Ernie M H F; Giles, Rachel H; Knoers, Nine V A M

    2015-12-01

    Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) refer to a spectrum of structural renal malformations and are the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in children. The genetic diagnosis of CAKUT has proven to be challenging due to genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity and incomplete genetic penetrance. Monogenic causes of CAKUT have been identified using different approaches, including single gene screening, and gene panel and whole exome sequencing. The majority of the identified mutations, however, lack substantial evidence to support a pathogenic role in CAKUT. Copy number variants or single nucleotide variants that are associated with CAKUT have also been identified. Numerous studies support the influence of epigenetic and environmental factors on kidney development and the natural history of CAKUT, suggesting that the pathogenesis of this syndrome is multifactorial. In this Review we describe the current knowledge regarding the genetic susceptibility underlying CAKUT and the approaches used to investigate the genetic basis of CAKUT. We outline the associated environmental risk factors and epigenetic influences on CAKUT and discuss the challenges and strategies used to fully address the involvement and interplay of these factors in the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:26281895

  14. Major epigenetic development distinguishing neuronal and non-neuronal cells occurs postnatally in the murine hypothalamus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prenatal and early postnatal environment can persistently alter one's risk of obesity. Environmental effects on hypothalamic developmental epigenetics constitute a likely mechanism underlying such 'developmental programming' of energy balance regulation. To advance our understanding of these process...

  15. Maternal lifestyle and environmental risk factors for autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lyall, Kristen; Schmidt, Rebecca J; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2014-01-01

    Background: Over the past 10 years, research into environmental risk factors for autism has grown dramatically, bringing evidence that an array of non-genetic factors acting during the prenatal period may influence neurodevelopment. Methods: This paper reviews the evidence on modifiable preconception and/or prenatal factors that have been associated, in some studies, with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including nutrition, substance use and exposure to environmental agents. This review is restricted to human studies with at least 50 cases of ASD, having a valid comparison group, conducted within the past decade and focusing on maternal lifestyle or environmental chemicals. Results: Higher maternal intake of certain nutrients and supplements has been associated with reduction in ASD risk, with the strongest evidence for periconceptional folic acid supplements. Although many investigations have suggested no impact of maternal smoking and alcohol use on ASD, more rigorous exposure assessment is needed. A number of studies have demonstrated significant increases in ASD risk with estimated exposure to air pollution during the prenatal period, particularly for heavy metals and particulate matter. Little research has assessed other persistent and non-persistent organic pollutants in association with ASD specifically. Conclusions: More work is needed to examine fats, vitamins and other maternal nutrients, as well as endocrine-disrupting chemicals and pesticides, in association with ASD, given sound biological plausibility and evidence regarding other neurodevelopmental deficits. The field can be advanced by large-scale epidemiological studies, attention to critical aetiological windows and how these vary by exposure, and use of biomarkers and other means to understand underlying mechanisms. PMID:24518932

  16. Geoepidemiology, Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for PBC.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiyan; Carbone, Marco; Lleo, Ana; Invernizzi, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is the most paradigmatic autoimmune liver disease with still several controversial issues in epidemiology, diagnosis, causation, and therapy. Although we are witnessing an enormous increase in the quantum of our basic knowledge of the disease with an initial translation in clinical practice, there are still a number of key open questions in PBC. Among them are the following questions: Why are there vast geographical variations in disease frequency? What are the reasons for female preponderance? Why do only small-size bile ducts get affected: What is the real role of genetics and epigenetics in its development? In particular, the prevalence of PBC is known to vary both on an international and a regional level, suggesting the existence of substantive geographical differences in terms of genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. New theories on potential environmental triggers, such as chemical xenobiotics, which lead to the breaking of self-tolerance within a unique immunological milieu of the liver, have been suggested. On the other hand, new and solid data on the genetic architecture of PBC are now obtained from recent high-throughput studies, together with data on sex chromosomes defects, and epigenetic abnormalities, thus strongly suggesting a role of genetic and epigenetic factors in the triggering and perpetuation of the autoimmune aggression in PBC. Based on these evidences, a number of novel drugs directed against specific immune-related molecules are currently under development. In this paper, we review a comprehensive collection of current epidemiological reports from various world regions. We also discuss here the most recent data regarding candidate genetic and environmental risk factors for PBC.

  17. Do Environmental Factors Modify the Genetic Risk of Prostate Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Loeb, Stacy; Peskoe, Sarah B.; Joshu, Corinne E.; Huang, Wen-Yi; Hayes, Richard B.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Isaacs, William B.; Platz, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Many SNPs influence prostate cancer risk. To what extent genetic risk can be reduced by environmental factors is unknown. Methods We evaluated effect modification by environmental factors of the association between susceptibility SNPs and prostate cancer in 1,230 incident prostate cancer cases and 1,361 controls, all white and similar ages, nested in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Trial. Genetic risk scores were calculated as number of risk alleles for 20 validated SNPs. We estimated the association between higher genetic risk (≥ 12 SNPs) and prostate cancer within environmental factor strata and tested for interaction. Results Men with ≥12 risk alleles had 1.98, 2.04, and 1.91 times the odds of total, advanced, and nonadvanced prostate cancer, respectively. These associations were attenuated with the use of selenium supplements, aspirin, ibuprofen, and higher vegetable intake. For selenium, the attenuation was most striking for advanced prostate cancer: compared with <12 alleles and no selenium, the OR for ≥12 alleles was 2.06 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.67–2.55] in nonusers and 0.99 (0.38–2.58) in users (Pinteraction = 0.031). Aspirin had the most marked attenuation for nonadvanced prostate cancer: compared with <12 alleles and nonusers, the OR for ≥12 alleles was 2.25 (1.69–3.00) in nonusers and 1.70 (1.25–2.32) in users (Pinteraction = 0.009). This pattern was similar for ibuprofen (Pinteraction = 0.023) and vegetables (Pinteraction = 0.010). Conclusions This study suggests that selenium supplements may reduce genetic risk of advanced prostate cancer, whereas aspirin, ibuprofen, and vegetables may reduce genetic risk of nonadvanced prostate cancer. PMID:25342390

  18. Depression in Men in the Postnatal Period and Later Child Psychology: A Population Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramchandani, Paul G.; Stein, Alan; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Heron, Jon; Murray, Lynne; Evans, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    The factors responsible for depression in men following childbirth and the association between their depression in the postnatal period and later psychiatric disorders in their children are assessed. Findings show that depression in fathers in their postnatal period is associated with later psychiatric disorders in their children, independent of…

  19. Environmental factors controlling methane emissions from peatlands in northern Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dise, Nancy B.; Gorham, Eville; Verry, Elon S.

    1993-01-01

    The environmental factors affecting the emission of methane from peatlands were investigated by correlating CH4 emission data for two years, obtained from five different peatland ecosystems in northern Minnesota, with peat temperature, water table position, and degree of peat humification. The relationship obtained between the CH4 flux and these factors was compared to results from a field manipulation experiment in which the water table was artificially raised in three experimental plots within the driest peatland. It was found that peat temperature, water table position, and degree of peat humification explained 91 percent of the variance in log CH4 flux, successfully predicted annual CH4 emission from individual wetlands, and predicted the change in flux due to the water table manipulation. Raising the water table in the bog corrals by an average of 6 cm in autumn 1989 and 10 cm in summer 1990 increased CH4 emission by 2.5 and 2.2 times, respectively.

  20. Environmental factors controlling methane emissions from peatlands in northern Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dise, Nancy B.; Gorham, Eville; Verry, Elon S.

    1993-06-01

    The environmental factors affecting the emission of methane from peatlands were investigated by correlating CH4 emission data for two years, obtained from five different peatland ecosystems in northern Minnesota, with peat temperature, water table position, and degree of peat humification. The relationship obtained between the CH4 flux and these factors was compared to results from a field manipulation experiment in which the water table was artificially raised in three experimental plots within the driest peatland. It was found that peat temperature, water table position, and degree of peat humification explained 91 percent of the variance in log CH4 flux, successfully predicted annual CH4 emission from individual wetlands, and predicted the change in flux due to the water table manipulation. Raising the water table in the bog corrals by an average of 6 cm in autumn 1989 and 10 cm in summer 1990 increased CH4 emission by 2.5 and 2.2 times, respectively.

  1. Experimental and environmental factors affect spurious detection of ecological thresholds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daily, Jonathan P.; Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Smith, David; Snyder, Craig D.

    2012-01-01

    Threshold detection methods are increasingly popular for assessing nonlinear responses to environmental change, but their statistical performance remains poorly understood. We simulated linear change in stream benthic macroinvertebrate communities and evaluated the performance of commonly used threshold detection methods based on model fitting (piecewise quantile regression [PQR]), data partitioning (nonparametric change point analysis [NCPA]), and a hybrid approach (significant zero crossings [SiZer]). We demonstrated that false detection of ecological thresholds (type I errors) and inferences on threshold locations are influenced by sample size, rate of linear change, and frequency of observations across the environmental gradient (i.e., sample-environment distribution, SED). However, the relative importance of these factors varied among statistical methods and between inference types. False detection rates were influenced primarily by user-selected parameters for PQR (τ) and SiZer (bandwidth) and secondarily by sample size (for PQR) and SED (for SiZer). In contrast, the location of reported thresholds was influenced primarily by SED. Bootstrapped confidence intervals for NCPA threshold locations revealed strong correspondence to SED. We conclude that the choice of statistical methods for threshold detection should be matched to experimental and environmental constraints to minimize false detection rates and avoid spurious inferences regarding threshold location.

  2. Environmental factors that influence cyanobacteria and geosmin occurrence in reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Journey, Celeste A.; Beaulieu, Karen M.; Bradley, Paul M.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplankton are small to microscopic, free-floating algae that inhabit the open water of freshwater, estuarine, and saltwater systems. In freshwater lake and reservoirs systems, which are the focus of this chapter, phytoplankton communities commonly consist of assemblages of the major taxonomic groups, including green algae, diatoms, dinoflagellates, and cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are a diverse group of single-celled organisms that can exist in a wide range of environments, not just open water, because of their adaptability. It is the adaptability of cyanobacteria that enables this group to dominate the phytoplankton community and even form nuisance or harmful blooms under certain environmental conditions. In fact, cyanobacteria are predicted to adapt favorably to future climate change in freshwater systems compared to other phytoplankton groups because of their tolerance to rising temperatures, enhanced vertical thermal stratification of aquatic ecosystems, and alterations in seasonal and interannual weather patterns. Understanding those environmental conditions that favor cyanobacterial dominance and bloom formation has been the focus of research throughout the world because of the concomitant production and release of nuisance and toxic cyanobacterial-derived compounds. However, the complex interaction among the physical, chemical, and biological processes within lakes, reservoirs, and large rivers often makes it difficult to identify primary environmental factors that cause the production and release of these cyanobacterial by-products.

  3. Environmental factors that influence cyanobacteria and geosmin occurrence in reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Journey, Celeste A.; Beaulieu, Karen M.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplankton are small to microscopic, free-floating algae that inhabit the open water of freshwater, estuarine, and saltwater systems. In freshwater lake and reservoirs systems, which are the focus of this chapter, phytoplankton communities commonly consist of assemblages of the major taxonomic groups, including green algae, diatoms, dinoflagellates, and cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are a diverse group of single-celled organisms that can exist in a wide range of environments, not just open water, because of their adaptability [1-3]. It is the adaptability of cyanobacteria that enables this group to dominate the phytoplankton community and even form nuisance or harmful blooms under certain environmental conditions [3-6]. In fact, cyanobacteria are predicted to adapt favorably to future climate change in freshwater systems compared to other phytoplankton groups because of their tolerance to rising temperatures, enhanced vertical thermal stratification of aquatic ecosystems, and alterations in seasonal and interannual weather patterns [7, 8]. Understanding those environmental conditions that favor cyanobacterial dominance and bloom formation has been the focus of research throughout the world because of the concomitant production and release of nuisance and toxic cyanobacterial-derived compounds [4-6, 7-10]. However, the complex interaction among the physical, chemical, and biological processes within lakes, reservoirs, and large rivers often makes it difficult to identify primary environmental factors that cause the production and release of these cyanobacterial by-products.

  4. Environmental factors that influence cyanobacteria and geosmin occurrence in reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Journey, Celeste A.; Beaulieu, Karen M.; Bradley, Paul M.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplankton are small to microscopic, free-floating algae that inhabit the open water of freshwater, estuarine, and saltwater systems. In freshwater lake and reservoirs systems, which are the focus of this chapter, phytoplankton communities commonly consist of assemblages of the major taxonomic groups, including green algae, diatoms, dinoflagellates, and cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are a diverse group of single-celled organisms that can exist in a wide range of environments, not just open water, because of their adaptability [1-3]. It is the adaptability of cyanobacteria that enables this group to dominate the phytoplankton community and even form nuisance or harmful blooms under certain environmental conditions [3-6]. In fact, cyanobacteria are predicted to adapt favorably to future climate change in freshwater systems compared to other phytoplankton groups because of their tolerance to rising temperatures, enhanced vertical thermal stratification of aquatic ecosystems, and alterations in seasonal and interannual weather patterns [7, 8]. Understanding those environmental conditions that favor cyanobacterial dominance and bloom formation has been the focus of research throughout the world because of the concomitant production and release of nuisance and toxic cyanobacterial-derived compounds [4-6, 7-10]. However, the complex interaction among the physical, chemical, and biological processes within lakes, reservoirs, and large rivers often makes it difficult to identify primary environmental factors that cause the production and release of these cyanobacterial by-products [9].

  5. ASTHMA, ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS, AND HYPERTENSION AMONG ARAB AMERICANS IN THE METRO DETROIT AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The importance of environmental risk factors in asthma etiology has been well-documented, and certain environmental risk factors have also been associated with hypertension. However, few previous studies have examined the relationship between hypertension and asthma. This study...

  6. Estimating cyanobacteria community dynamics and its relationship with environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wenhuai; Chen, Huirong; Lei, Anping; Lu, Jun; Hu, Zhangli

    2014-01-20

    The cyanobacteria community dynamics in two eutrophic freshwater bodies (Tiegang Reservoir and Shiyan Reservoir) was studied with both a traditional microscopic counting method and a PCR-DGGE genotyping method. Results showed that cyanobacterium Phormidium tenue was the predominant species; twenty-six cyanobacteria species were identified in water samples collected from the two reservoirs, among which fourteen were identified with the morphological method and sixteen with the PCR-DGGE method. The cyanobacteria community composition analysis showed a seasonal fluctuation from July to December. The cyanobacteria population peaked in August in both reservoirs, with cell abundances of 3.78 × 10(8) cells L(-1) and 1.92 × 10(8) cells L(-1) in the Tiegang and Shiyan reservoirs, respectively. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was applied to further investigate the correlation between cyanobacteria community dynamics and environmental factors. The result indicated that the cyanobacteria community dynamics was mostly correlated with pH, temperature and total nitrogen. This study demonstrated that data obtained from PCR-DGGE combined with a traditional morphological method could reflect cyanobacteria community dynamics and its correlation with environmental factors in eutrophic freshwater bodies.

  7. [Relations of landslide and debris flow hazards to environmental factors].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-ping; Xu, Jing; Bi, Bao-gui

    2009-03-01

    To clarify the relations of landslide and debris flow hazards to environmental factors is of significance to the prediction and evaluation of landslide and debris flow hazards. Base on the latitudinal and longitudinal information of 18431 landslide and debris flow hazards in China, and the 1 km x 1 km grid data of elevation, elevation difference, slope, slope aspect, vegetation type, and vegetation coverage, this paper analyzed the relations of landslide and debris flow hazards in this country to above-mentioned environmental factors by the analysis method of frequency ratio. The results showed that the landslide and debris flow hazards in China more occurred in lower elevation areas of the first and second transitional zones. When the elevation difference within a 1 km x 1 km grid cell was about 300 m and the slope was around 30 degree, there was the greatest possibility of the occurrence of landslide and debris hazards. Mountain forest land and slope cropland were the two land types the hazards most easily occurred. The occurrence frequency of the hazards was the highest when the vegetation coverage was about 80%-90%.

  8. Impaired glucose tolerance: influence by environmental and hereditary factors.

    PubMed

    Cederholm, J; Wibell, L

    1991-01-01

    The influence on impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) by obesity, physical leisure time activity (PLTA), family histories of diabetes mellitus (DM) and other characteristics were evaluated in a health survey of 807 middle-aged females and males, with the rate of IGT 8.4% (WHO-criteria). Independent (adjusted for covariates) odds ratios concerning IGT were estimated. The ratios were 5.3 with the presence of obesity and 2.2. (ns) with low compared to high PLTA. In a subgroup of summarized environmental factors (obesity and low PLTA versus no obesity and high PLTA, n = 339), the independent odds ratio for IGT was 9.6 with obesity and low PLTA. With one 1st degree DM relative the odds ratio for IGT was 3.1. The ratio was increased both with the presence of relatives with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and with the presence of relatives with insulin-treated diabetes. Diabetic mothers yielded a higher ratio for IGT than diabetic fathers. In conclusion, the independent relative risk for IGT in this Swedish middle-aged urban sample was about two times higher with environmental factors (obesity only/obesity with low PLTA) than with one 1st degree DM relative.

  9. Estimating Cyanobacteria Community Dynamics and its Relationship with Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wenhuai; Chen, Huirong; Lei, Anping; Lu, Jun; Hu, Zhangli

    2014-01-01

    The cyanobacteria community dynamics in two eutrophic freshwater bodies (Tiegang Reservoir and Shiyan Reservoir) was studied with both a traditional microscopic counting method and a PCR-DGGE genotyping method. Results showed that cyanobacterium Phormidium tenue was the predominant species; twenty-six cyanobacteria species were identified in water samples collected from the two reservoirs, among which fourteen were identified with the morphological method and sixteen with the PCR-DGGE method. The cyanobacteria community composition analysis showed a seasonal fluctuation from July to December. The cyanobacteria population peaked in August in both reservoirs, with cell abundances of 3.78 × 108 cells L-1 and 1.92 × 108 cells L-1 in the Tiegang and Shiyan reservoirs, respectively. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was applied to further investigate the correlation between cyanobacteria community dynamics and environmental factors. The result indicated that the cyanobacteria community dynamics was mostly correlated with pH, temperature and total nitrogen. This study demonstrated that data obtained from PCR-DGGE combined with a traditional morphological method could reflect cyanobacteria community dynamics and its correlation with environmental factors in eutrophic freshwater bodies. PMID:24448632

  10. Environmental risk factors in the incidence of Johne's disease.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Geoffrey N; Hough, Rupert L; Avery, Lisa M; Maltin, Charlotte A; Campbell, Colin D

    2015-01-01

    This review addresses the survival and persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative pathogen of Johne's disease (JD), once it has left its ruminant host. JD has significant economic impact on dairy, beef and sheep industries and is difficult to control due to the long-term sub-clinical nature of the infection, intermittent or persistent MAP shedding during and after this period, inadequate test effectiveness, and the potential for MAP to exist for extended periods outside the host. The role that environmental factors play in the persistence and spread of MAP and consequent disease is assessed. Published risk factor analysis, organism survival across various environmental media and conditions, presence and spread in ruminant and non-ruminant wildlife, and the general potential for survival and multiplication of MAP ex-host both on and off-farm are discussed and knowledge gaps highlighted. An inclusive approach to disease management that takes into account the persistence and transport of the causative organism in on-farm soils and waters, land use and management, dispersal by domestic and non-domestic host species, as well as general animal husbandry is required on those farms where more traditional approaches to disease management have failed to reduce disease prevalence.

  11. Air pollution: An environmental factor contributing to intestinal disease.

    PubMed

    Beamish, Leigh A; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro R; Wine, Eytan

    2011-08-01

    The health impacts of air pollution have received much attention and have recently been subject to extensive study. Exposure to air pollutants such as particulate matter (PM) has been linked to lung and cardiovascular disease and increases in both hospital admissions and mortality. However, little attention has been given to the effects of air pollution on the intestine. The recent discovery of genes linked to susceptibility to inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) explains only a fraction of the hereditary variance for these diseases. This, together with evidence of increases in incidence of IBD in the past few decades of enhanced industrialization, suggests that environmental factors could contribute to disease pathogenesis. Despite this, little research has examined the potential contribution of air pollution and its components to intestinal disease. Exposure of the bowel to air pollutants occurs via mucociliary clearance of PM from the lungs as well as ingestion via food and water sources. Gaseous pollutants may also induce systemic effects. Plausible mechanisms mediating the effects of air pollutants on the bowel could include direct effects on epithelial cells, systemic inflammation and immune activation, and modulation of the intestinal microbiota. Although there is limited epidemiologic evidence to confirm this, we suggest that a link between air pollution and intestinal disease exists and warrants further study. This link may explain, at least in part, how environmental factors impact on IBD epidemiology and disease pathogenesis.

  12. Environmental risk factors for inflammatory bowel diseases: a review.

    PubMed

    Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N

    2015-02-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases comprising Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are chronic immunologically mediated diseases. The key mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of these diseases is a dysregulated immune response to commensal flora in a genetically susceptible host. Thus intestinal microbial dysbiosis, host genetics, and the external environment all play an important role in the development of incident disease and in determining subsequent disease behavior and outcomes. There are several well-defined or putative environmental risk factors including cigarette smoking, appendectomy, diet, stress and depression, vitamin D as well as hormonal influence. The effect of some of the risk factors appears to differ between CD and UC suggesting that despite shared genetic and immunologic mechanisms, distinct pathways of pathogenesis exist. There is a growing body of literature identifying risk factors for incident disease. There is less rigorous literature defining triggers of relapse, and few controlled clinical trials examining if modification of such risk factors results in an improvement in patient outcomes. This is an area of considerable patient, physician, and scientific interest, and there is an important unmet need for rigorous studies of the external environment in disease pathogenesis and subsequent course.

  13. Environmental and lifestyle risk factors of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeong Yeh; Derakhshan, Mohammad H

    2013-06-01

    Effective prevention and early diagnostic strategies are the most important public health interventions in gastric cancer, which remains a common malignancy worldwide. Preventive strategies require identification and understanding of environmental risk factors that lead to carcinogenesis. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the primary carcinogen as this ancient bacterium has a complex ability to interact with its human host. Smoking and salt are strong independent risk factors for gastric cancer whereas alcohol is only a risk when it is heavily consumed. Red meat and high fat increase the risk of gastric cancer however fresh fruits, vegetables (allium family) and certain micronutrients (selenium, vitamin C) reduce the risk, with evidence lacking for fish, coffee and tea. Foods that inhibit H. pylori viability, colonization and infection may reduce cancer risk. Obesity is increasingly recognized as a contributory factor in gastric cardia carcinogenesis. Therefore, modest daily physical activities can be protective against cancer. Foundry workers are at risk for developing gastric cancer with dust iron being an important cause. Other risk factors include Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), possibly JC virus and radiation but the effects of these are likely to remain small. PMID:23725070

  14. Degradation of methyl iodide in soil: effects of environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mingxin; Gao, Suduan

    2009-01-01

    Methyl iodide (MeI) is a promising alternative to the phased-out fumigant methyl bromide (MeBr); however, there are concerns about its environmental fate following soil fumigation. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of various environmental factors on the rate of MeI degradation in soil. The chemical was added to soil at 48.6 mg kg(-1) and incubated under different conditions. The MeI degradation rate in soil was determined by extracting and measuring residual concentrations over a 15 d incubation period. In soil, MeI degradation followed availability-adjusted first-order kinetics. At 20 degrees C MeI had a calculated half-life of 32 d in a sandy loam containing 4.3 g kg(-1) of organic carbon. It degraded more rapidly as temperature increased, exhibiting a half-life of 23 d at 30 degrees C. Amendment with 10% cattle manure shortened the half-life to 4 d at 20 degrees C. In both unamended and manure-amended soils, the half-life of MeI greatly increased as the organic matter (OM) was removed and it only slightly increased in soils that were sterilized, indicating predominance of chemical reactions in MeI degradation. Soil texture, mineralogy, and moderate moisture content had little influence on MeI degradation. The degradation slowed as the chemical application rate increased. The results suggest that environmental factors, especially soil temperature and organic amendments, should be considered in combination with the minimum effective MeI application rate for achieving satisfactory pest-control efficacy, reducing atmospheric volatilization, and minimizing groundwater contamination.

  15. Environmental Factors Influencing Arctic Halogen Chemistry During Late Spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burd, J.; Nghiem, S. V.; Simpson, W. R.

    2015-12-01

    Reactive halogen radicals (e.g. Br, Cl atoms and their oxides, BrO, ClO) are important oxidizers in the troposphere that decrease atmospheric pollutants and deplete tropospheric ozone, affecting the abundance of other oxidizers such as the hydroxyl radical. During Arctic springtime, the heterogeneous chemical cycles (often called the "bromine explosion") produce high levels of bromine monoxide (BrO), through reactions on saline snow, ice, and/or aerosol surfaces. Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measured BrO at Barrow, AK, from 2008-2009 and 2012-2015, as well at various locations above the frozen Arctic Ocean with O-Buoys in 2008 and 2011-2015. Observed BrO levels drop suddenly during late spring (May-June) and generally do not recover, which indicates the bromine explosion cycle can no longer produce significant amounts of BrO. We have established, through an objective algorithm, the local day of year of this drop in BrO as the "seasonal end." Additionally, in about half of the years, "recurrence" events were observed where BrO levels recover for at least a day. This study investigates the environmental factors influencing seasonal end and recurrence events including: temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and snowmelt. Analysis of BrO and air temperature revealed the temperature reaches 0°C within five days of the seasonal end event; however, temperatures drop below freezing during a recurrence event. In addition, there are periods where the temperature remains below freezing, but no recurrence event is observed. This BrO and temperature analysis indicates above-freezing air temperature prevents reactive bromine release; however, it is not the only environmental factor influencing this heterogeneous recycling. Further analysis of additional environmental influences on the bromine explosion cycle could help to better understand and model bromine chemistry in the Arctic.

  16. Expression of the CTCFL Gene during Mouse Embryogenesis Causes Growth Retardation, Postnatal Lethality, and Dysregulation of the Transforming Growth Factor β Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sati, Leyla; Zeiss, Caroline; Yekkala, Krishna; Demir, Ramazan

    2015-01-01

    CTCFL, a paralog of CTCF, also known as BORIS (brother of regulator of imprinted sites), is a testis-expressed gene whose function is largely unknown. Its product is a cancer testis antigen (CTA), and it is often expressed in tumor cells and also seen in two benign human vascular malformations, juvenile angiofibromas and infantile hemangiomas. To understand the function of Ctcfl, we created tetracycline-inducible Ctcfl transgenic mice. We show that Ctcfl expression during embryogenesis results in growth retardation, eye malformations, multiorgan pathologies, vascular defects, and neonatal death. This phenotype resembles prior mouse models that perturb the transforming growth factor β (TGFB) pathway. Embryonic stem (ES) cells with the Ctcfl transgene reproduce the phenotype in ES cell-tetraploid chimeras. Transcriptome sequencing of the Ctcfl ES cells revealed 14 genes deregulated by Ctcfl expression. Bioinformatic analysis revealed the TGFB pathway as most affected by embryonic Ctcfl expression. Understanding the consequence of Ctcfl expression in nontesticular cells and elucidating downstream targets of Ctcfl could explain the role of its product as a CTA and its involvement in two, if not more, human vascular malformations. PMID:26169830

  17. Influences of Environmental Factors on Leaf Morphology of Chinese Jujubes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaopeng; Li, Yupeng; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Xingang

    2015-01-01

    Rainfall and temperature are the primary limiting factors for optimum quality and yield of cultivated jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.). Adaptation to arid and cool environments has been and remains an important goal of many jujube improvement programs. This study summarized the survey results of 116 Chinese jujube varieties grown at 33 sites in China. The objective was to identify the environmental factors that influence leaf morphology, and the implications for breeding and introduction of new jujube varieties. Jujube leaf morphological traits were evaluated for their potential relationships with mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP). The results showed that many leaf morphological traits had a strong linear relationship with local precipitation and temperature. Longer veins per unit area (VLA) and reduced leaf area and leaf perimeter were typical of arid areas. VLA was inversely related to MAT and MAP at the centers of origin of jujube. There was a positive relationship between leaf shape (perimeter2/area) and both MAT and MAP. These results indicated that leaf vein traits of Chinese jujubes might have resulted from their adaptation to environmental factors in the course of long-term evolution. Principal component analysis allocated the 116 jujube varieties to three different groups, differentiated on the basis of morphological and physiological leaf characteristics. Jujube varieties from the Hebei, Shandong, Henan, southern Shanxi and central Shaanxi provinces were closely related, as were varieties from northwest Shanxi and northeast Shaanxi provinces, and varieties from the Gansu and Ningxia provinces. These close relationships were partially attributed to the frequent exchanges of varieties within each group. Leaf venation characteristics might be used as reference indices for jujube variety introduction between different locations. PMID:26020971

  18. Influences of environmental factors on leaf morphology of Chinese jujubes.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaopeng; Li, Yupeng; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Xingang

    2015-01-01

    Rainfall and temperature are the primary limiting factors for optimum quality and yield of cultivated jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.). Adaptation to arid and cool environments has been and remains an important goal of many jujube improvement programs. This study summarized the survey results of 116 Chinese jujube varieties grown at 33 sites in China. The objective was to identify the environmental factors that influence leaf morphology, and the implications for breeding and introduction of new jujube varieties. Jujube leaf morphological traits were evaluated for their potential relationships with mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP). The results showed that many leaf morphological traits had a strong linear relationship with local precipitation and temperature. Longer veins per unit area (VLA) and reduced leaf area and leaf perimeter were typical of arid areas. VLA was inversely related to MAT and MAP at the centers of origin of jujube. There was a positive relationship between leaf shape (perimeter2/area) and both MAT and MAP. These results indicated that leaf vein traits of Chinese jujubes might have resulted from their adaptation to environmental factors in the course of long-term evolution. Principal component analysis allocated the 116 jujube varieties to three different groups, differentiated on the basis of morphological and physiological leaf characteristics. Jujube varieties from the Hebei, Shandong, Henan, southern Shanxi and central Shaanxi provinces were closely related, as were varieties from northwest Shanxi and northeast Shaanxi provinces, and varieties from the Gansu and Ningxia provinces. These close relationships were partially attributed to the frequent exchanges of varieties within each group. Leaf venation characteristics might be used as reference indices for jujube variety introduction between different locations. PMID:26020971

  19. Overview of the Taxonomy of Environmental Types and the Factor Structure of the Salter Environmental Type Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Daniel W.; Vandiver, Beverly J.

    2002-01-01

    The Salter Environmental Type Assessment (SETA) was created to be a commensurate measure for the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and to improve the efficacy of the person-environmental interaction paradigm to student affairs. A confirmatory factor analysis of SETA profiles supported the four dimensions in environmental type theory. The utility of this…

  20. Effect of Environmental Factors on Sulfur Gas Emissions from Drywall

    SciTech Connect

    Maddalena, Randy

    2011-08-20

    Problem drywall installed in U.S. homes is suspected of being a source of odorous and potentially corrosive indoor pollutants. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission's (CPSC) investigation of problem drywall incorporates three parallel tracks: (1) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and reported health symptoms; (2) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and electrical and fire safety issues in affected homes; and (3) tracing the origin and the distribution of the drywall. To assess the potential impact on human health and to support testing for electrical and fire safety, the CPSC has initiated a series of laboratory tests that provide elemental characterization of drywall, characterization of chemical emissions, and in-home air sampling. The chemical emission testing was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The LBNL study consisted of two phases. In Phase 1 of this study, LBNL tested thirty drywall samples provided by CPSC and reported standard emission factors for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), aldehydes, reactive sulfur gases (RSGs) and volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). The standard emission factors were determined using small (10.75 liter) dynamic test chambers housed in a constant temperature environmental chamber. The tests were all run at 25 C, 50% relative humidity (RH) and with an area-specific ventilation rate of {approx}1.5 cubic meters per square meter of emitting surface per hour [m{sup 3}/m{sup 2}/h]. The thirty samples that were tested in Phase 1 included seventeen that were manufactured in China in 2005, 2006 and 2009, and thirteen that were manufactured in North America in 2009. The measured emission factors for VOCs and aldehydes were generally low and did not differ significantly between the Chinese and North American drywall. Eight of the samples tested had elevated emissions of volatile sulfur-containing compounds with total RSG emission factors between 32 and 258 micrograms per square meter

  1. Fetal and postnatal ovine mesenteric vascular reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Jayasree; Gugino, Sylvia F.; Nielsen, Lori C.; Caty, Michael G.; Lakshminrusimha, Satyan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Intestinal circulation and mesenteric arterial (MA) reactivity may play a role in preparing the fetus for enteral nutrition. We hypothesized that MA vasoreactivity changes with gestation and vasodilator pathways predominate in the postnatal period. METHODS Small distal MA rings (0.5-mm diameter) were isolated from fetal (116-d, 128-d, 134-d, and 141-d gestation, term ~ 147 d) and postnatal lambs. Vasoreactivity was evaluated using vasoconstrictors (norepinephrine (NE) after pretreatment with propranolol and endothelin-1(ET-1)) and vasodilators (NO donors A23187 and s-nitrosopenicillamine (SNAP)). Protein and mRNA assays for receptors and enzymes (endothelin receptor A, alpha-adrenergic receptor 1A (ADRA1A), endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), and phosphodiesterase5 (PDE5)) were performed in mesenteric arteries. RESULTS MA constriction to NE and ET-1 peaked at 134 d. Relaxation to A23187 and SNAP was maximal after birth. Basal eNOS activity was low at 134 d. ADRA1A mRNA and protein increasedsignificantlyat134danddecreasedpostnatally.sGC and PDE5 protein increased from 134 to 141 d. CONCLUSION Mesenteric vasoconstriction predominates in late-preterm gestation (134 d; the postconceptional age with the highest incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)) followed by a conversion to vasodilatory influences near the time of full-term birth. Perturbations in this ontogenic mechanism, including preterm birth, may be a risk factor for NEC. PMID:26672733

  2. Unscrambling Cyanobacteria Community Dynamics Related to Environmental Factors.

    PubMed

    Bertos-Fortis, Mireia; Farnelid, Hanna M; Lindh, Markus V; Casini, Michele; Andersson, Agneta; Pinhassi, Jarone; Legrand, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Future climate scenarios in the Baltic Sea project an increase of cyanobacterial bloom frequency and duration, attributed to eutrophication and climate change. Some cyanobacteria can be toxic and their impact on ecosystem services is relevant for a sustainable sea. Yet, there is limited understanding of the mechanisms regulating cyanobacterial diversity and biogeography. Here we unravel successional patterns and changes in cyanobacterial community structure using a 2-year monthly time- series during the productive season in a 100 km coastal-offshore transect using microscopy and high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. A total of 565 cyanobacterial OTUs were found, of which 231 where filamentous/colonial and 334 picocyanobacterial. Spatial differences in community structure between coastal and offshore waters were minor. An "epidemic population structure" (dominance of asingle cluster) was found for Aphanizomenon/Dolichospermum within the filamentous/colonial cyanobacterial community. In summer, this clusters imultaneously occurred with opportunistic clusters/OTUs, e.g., Nodularia spumigena and Pseudanabaena. Picocyanobacteria, Synechococcus/Cyanobium, formeda consistent but highly diverse group. Overall, the potential drivers structuring summer cyanobacterial communities were temperature and salinity. However, the different responses to environmental factors among and within genera suggest high niche specificity for individual OTUs. The recruitment and occurrence of potentially toxic filamentous/colonial clusters was likely related to disturbance such as mixing events and short-term shifts in salinity, and not solely dependent on increasing temperature and nitrogen-limiting conditions. Nutrients did not explain further the changes in cyanobacterial community composition. Novel occurrence patterns were identified as a strong seasonal succession revealing a tight coupling between the emergence of opportunistic picocynobacteria and the bloom

  3. Unscrambling Cyanobacteria Community Dynamics Related to Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Bertos-Fortis, Mireia; Farnelid, Hanna M.; Lindh, Markus V.; Casini, Michele; Andersson, Agneta; Pinhassi, Jarone; Legrand, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Future climate scenarios in the Baltic Sea project an increase of cyanobacterial bloom frequency and duration, attributed to eutrophication and climate change. Some cyanobacteria can be toxic and their impact on ecosystem services is relevant for a sustainable sea. Yet, there is limited understanding of the mechanisms regulating cyanobacterial diversity and biogeography. Here we unravel successional patterns and changes in cyanobacterial community structure using a 2-year monthly time- series during the productive season in a 100 km coastal-offshore transect using microscopy and high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. A total of 565 cyanobacterial OTUs were found, of which 231 where filamentous/colonial and 334 picocyanobacterial. Spatial differences in community structure between coastal and offshore waters were minor. An “epidemic population structure” (dominance of asingle cluster) was found for Aphanizomenon/Dolichospermum within the filamentous/colonial cyanobacterial community. In summer, this clusters imultaneously occurred with opportunistic clusters/OTUs, e.g., Nodularia spumigena and Pseudanabaena. Picocyanobacteria, Synechococcus/Cyanobium, formeda consistent but highly diverse group. Overall, the potential drivers structuring summer cyanobacterial communities were temperature and salinity. However, the different responses to environmental factors among and within genera suggest high niche specificity for individual OTUs. The recruitment and occurrence of potentially toxic filamentous/colonial clusters was likely related to disturbance such as mixing events and short-term shifts in salinity, and not solely dependent on increasing temperature and nitrogen-limiting conditions. Nutrients did not explain further the changes in cyanobacterial community composition. Novel occurrence patterns were identified as a strong seasonal succession revealing a tight coupling between the emergence of opportunistic picocynobacteria and the bloom

  4. Environmental correction factors for predicting room sound pressure levels

    SciTech Connect

    Warnock, A.C.C.

    1998-10-01

    ARI Standard 885 provides a method for calculating sound pressure levels in room below plenums containing air-handling devices. An important step in the calculation is the correction of the sound power for the device from values provided by the manufacturer to values appropriate for use in occupied spaces. This correction is called the environmental adjustment factor. It compensates for the fact that sound power measured for a source placed outdoors or in a hemi-free field has been found to be greater at low frequencies than the sound power measured for the same source in a reverberation room. When making predictions of sound pressure level in a room using such sound power levels, one has to estimate the reduction in sound power caused by the room. Estimated reductions provided in ARI 885 were examined during ASHRAE research project RP-755 and found to be too large. Lower values are suggested in this paper.

  5. Environmental Factors and Bioremediation of Xenobiotics Using White Rot Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Fragoeiro, Silvia; Bastos, Catarina

    2010-01-01

    This review provides background information on the importance of bioremediation approaches. It describes the roles of fungi, specifically white rot fungi, and their extracellular enzymes, laccases, ligninases, and peroxidises, in the degradation of xenobiotic compounds such as single and mixtures of pesticides. We discuss the importance of abiotic factors such as water potential, temperature, and pH stress when considering an environmental screening approach, and examples are provided of the differential effect of white rot fungi on the degradation of single and mixtures of pesticides using fungi such as Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. We also explore the formulation and delivery of fungal bioremedial inoculants to terrestrial ecosystems as well as the use of spent mushroom compost as an approach. Future areas for research and potential exploitation of new techniques are also considered. PMID:23956663

  6. The rise of food allergy: Environmental factors and emerging treatments.

    PubMed

    Benedé, Sara; Blázquez, Ana Belen; Chiang, David; Tordesillas, Leticia; Berin, M Cecilia

    2016-05-01

    Food allergy has rapidly increased in prevalence, suggesting an important role for environmental factors in disease susceptibility. The immune response of food allergy is characterized by IgE production, and new findings from mouse and human studies indicate an important role of the cytokine IL-9, which is derived from both T cells and mast cells, in disease manifestations. Emerging evidence suggests that route of exposure to food, particularly peanut, is important. Exposure through the skin promotes sensitization while early exposure through the gastrointestinal tract promotes tolerance. Evidence from mouse studies indicate a role of the microbiome in development of food allergy, which is supported by correlative human studies showing a dysbiosis in food allergy. There is no approved treatment for food allergy, but emerging therapies are focused on allergen immunotherapy to provide desensitization, while pre-clinical studies are focused on using adjuvants or novel delivery approaches to improve efficacy and safety of immunotherapy. PMID:27322456

  7. Geoepidemiology and environmental factors of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Vinod; Raychaudhuri, Siba P

    2010-05-01

    Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA) are chronic inflammatory diseases that have a major impact on health. The prevalence and incidence estimates of these two closely related diseases show ethnic and geographic variations, being generally more common in the colder north than in the tropics. In Europe the prevalence of psoriasis varies anywhere from 0.6 to 6.5%. In the USA, the estimated prevalence of diagnosed psoriasis is 3.15%. The prevalence in Africa varies depending on geographic location, being lowest in West Africa. Psoriasis is less prevalent in China and Japan than in Europe, and is entirely absent in natives of the Andean region of South America. There are fewer reports on the incidence of psoriasis, but a recent study from Rochester, USA showed an increasing trend over the last 2 decades. The prevalence of PsA also shows similar variation, being highest in people of European descent and lowest in the Japanese. Although, study methodology and case definition may explain some of the variations, genetic and environmental factors are important. Genetic epidemiologic studies have shown that both diseases have a strong genetic component. The strongest association is with HLA-Cw*06. Associations with a number of genes including IL12B and IL23R have recently been confirmed. Environmental risk factors including streptococcal pharyngitis, stressful life events, low humidity, drugs, HIV infection, trauma, smoking and obesity have been associated with psoriasis and PsA. Here we have reviewed the current literature on the epidemiology and genetics of psoriasis and PsA. PMID:20034760

  8. Early life epigenetic programming and transmission of stress-induced traits in mammals: how and when can environmental factors influence traits and their transgenerational inheritance?

    PubMed

    Gapp, Katharina; von Ziegler, Lukas; Tweedie-Cullen, Ry Yves; Mansuy, Isabelle M

    2014-05-01

    The environment can have a long-lasting influence on an individual's physiology and behavior. While some environmental conditions can be beneficial and result in adaptive responses, others can lead to pathological behaviors. Many studies have demonstrated that changes induced by the environment are expressed not only by the individuals directly exposed, but also by the offspring sometimes across multiple generations. Epigenetic alterations have been proposed as underlying mechanisms for such transmissible effects. Here, we review the most relevant literature on these changes and the developmental stages they affect the most. We discuss current evidence for transgenerational effects of prenatal and postnatal factors on bodily functions and behavioral responses, and the potential epigenetic mechanisms involved. We also discuss the need for a careful evaluation of the evolutionary importance with respect to health and disease, and possible directions for future research in the field.

  9. Environmental factors affecting pregnancy: endocrine disrupters, nutrients and metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Bazer, Fuller W; Wu, Guoyao; Johnson, Gregory A; Wang, Xiaoqiu

    2014-12-01

    Uterine adenogenesis, a unique post-natal event in mammals, is vulnerable to endocrine disruption by estrogens and progestins resulting in infertility or reduced prolificacy. The absence of uterine glands results in insufficient transport of nutrients into the uterine lumen to support conceptus development. Arginine, a component of histotroph, is substrate for production of nitric oxide, polyamines and agmatine and, with secreted phosphoprotein 1, it affects cytoskeletal organization of trophectoderm. Arginine is critical for development of the conceptus, pregnancy recognition signaling, implantation and placentation. Conceptuses of ungulates and cetaceans convert glucose to fructose which is metabolized via multiple pathways to support growth and development. However, high fructose corn syrup in soft drinks and foods may increase risks for metabolic disorders and increase insulin resistance in adults. Understanding endocrine disrupters and dietary substances, and novel pathways for nutrient metabolism during pregnancy can improve survival and growth, and prevent chronic metabolic diseases in offspring. PMID:25224489

  10. Determinants of postnatal service utilisation among mothers in rural settings of Malawi.

    PubMed

    Phiri, Precious William C; Rattanapan, Cheerawit; Mongkolchati, Aroonsri

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine significant predictors for the utilisation of postnatal service among mothers. A total of 295 postnatal mothers were enrolled in a cross-sectional study design undertaken in six health facilities of Lilongwe District using two-stage cluster sampling with a response rate of 100%. The data were collected by interview from December 2012 to January 2013 using a structured questionnaire. The result showed that over half of the mothers (56.6%) utilised postnatal service within 6 weeks after delivery. A stepwise multiple logistic regression was used to determine significant determinants of utilisation of postnatal service among mothers. After adjusting for confounding factors, utilisation of an alternative local source of care in home after delivery [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 7.77, 95% CI: 4.14-14.58], women's perception on performance of health workforce during delivery and postnatal service (aOR: 6.56, 95% CI: 3.09-13.94), health education before hospital discharge of postnatal mothers (aOR: 4.08, 95% CI: 2.11-7.92), place of delivery (aOR: 4.32, 95% CI: 1.32-14.12), family income (aOR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.03-3.46) and the occurrence of no complications during delivery (aOR: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.03-3.50) were significantly associated with the utilisation of postnatal service. Hence, this study suggests that improved health workforce performance coupled with effective health education may increase the utilisation of postnatal service. Furthermore, the utilisation of postnatal service may also be increased through reducing home deliveries, delivery complications and the use of alternative local care at home after delivery. Integration of postnatal service in outreach clinics might also assist through reducing the cost of accessing postnatal service among mothers.

  11. Modulation of the Genome and Epigenome of Individuals Susceptible to Autism by Environmental Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Koufaris, Costas; Sismani, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Diverse environmental factors have been implicated with the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Genetic factors also underlie the differential vulnerability to environmental risk factors of susceptible individuals. Currently the way in which environmental risk factors interact with genetic factors to increase the incidence of ASD is not well understood. A greater understanding of the metabolic, cellular, and biochemical events involved in gene x environment interactions in ASD would have important implications for the prevention and possible treatment of the disorder. In this review we discuss various established and more alternative processes through which environmental factors implicated in ASD can modulate the genome and epigenome of genetically-susceptible individuals. PMID:25903146

  12. A review on environmental factors regulating arsenic methylation in humans.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chin-Hsiao

    2009-03-15

    Subjects exposed to arsenic show significant inter-individual variation in urinary patterns of arsenic metabolites but insignificant day-to-day intra-individual variation. The inter-individual variation in arsenic methylation can be partly responsible for the variation in susceptibility to arsenic toxicity. Wide inter-ethnic variation and family correlation in urinary arsenic profile suggest a genetic effect on arsenic metabolism. In this paper the environmental factors affecting arsenic metabolism are reviewed. Methylation capacity might reduce with increasing dosage of arsenic exposure. Furthermore, women, especially at pregnancy, have better methylation capacity than their men counterparts, probably due to the effect of estrogen. Children might have better methylation capacity than adults and age shows inconsistent relevance in adults. Smoking and alcohol consumption might be associated with a poorer methylation capacity. Nutritional status is important in the methylation capacity and folate may facilitate the methylation and excretion of arsenic. Besides, general health conditions and medications might influence the arsenic methylation capacity; and technical problems can cause biased estimates. The consumption of seafood, seaweed, rice and other food with high arsenic contents and the extent of cooking and arsenic-containing water used in food preparation may also interfere with the presentation of the urinary arsenic profile. Future studies are necessary to clarify the effects of the various arsenic metabolites including the trivalent methylated forms on the development of arsenic-induced human diseases with the consideration of the effects of confounding factors and the interactions with other effect modifiers.

  13. Neuropathology and Animal Models of Autism: Genetic and Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Gadad, Bharathi S.; Young, Keith A.; German, Dwight C.

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a heterogeneous behaviorally defined neurodevelopmental disorder. It is defined by the presence of marked social deficits, specific language abnormalities, and stereotyped repetitive patterns of behavior. Because of the variability in the behavioral phenotype of the disorder among patients, the term autism spectrum disorder has been established. In the first part of this review, we provide an overview of neuropathological findings from studies of autism postmortem brains and identify the cerebellum as one of the key brain regions that can play a role in the autism phenotype. We review research findings that indicate possible links between the environment and autism including the role of mercury and immune-related factors. Because both genes and environment can alter the structure of the developing brain in different ways, it is not surprising that there is heterogeneity in the behavioral and neuropathological phenotypes of autism spectrum disorders. Finally, we describe animal models of autism that occur following insertion of different autism-related genes and exposure to environmental factors, highlighting those models which exhibit both autism-like behavior and neuropathology. PMID:24151553

  14. A review on environmental factors regulating arsenic methylation in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, C.-H.

    2009-03-15

    Subjects exposed to arsenic show significant inter-individual variation in urinary patterns of arsenic metabolites but insignificant day-to-day intra-individual variation. The inter-individual variation in arsenic methylation can be partly responsible for the variation in susceptibility to arsenic toxicity. Wide inter-ethnic variation and family correlation in urinary arsenic profile suggest a genetic effect on arsenic metabolism. In this paper the environmental factors affecting arsenic metabolism are reviewed. Methylation capacity might reduce with increasing dosage of arsenic exposure. Furthermore, women, especially at pregnancy, have better methylation capacity than their men counterparts, probably due to the effect of estrogen. Children might have better methylation capacity than adults and age shows inconsistent relevance in adults. Smoking and alcohol consumption might be associated with a poorer methylation capacity. Nutritional status is important in the methylation capacity and folate may facilitate the methylation and excretion of arsenic. Besides, general health conditions and medications might influence the arsenic methylation capacity; and technical problems can cause biased estimates. The consumption of seafood, seaweed, rice and other food with high arsenic contents and the extent of cooking and arsenic-containing water used in food preparation may also interfere with the presentation of the urinary arsenic profile. Future studies are necessary to clarify the effects of the various arsenic metabolites including the trivalent methylated forms on the development of arsenic-induced human diseases with the consideration of the effects of confounding factors and the interactions with other effect modifiers.

  15. Does it really matter where women live? A multilevel analysis of the determinants of postnatal care in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ononokpono, Dorothy N; Odimegwu, Clifford O; Imasiku, Eunice N S; Adedini, Sunday A

    2014-05-01

    Although postnatal care is one of the major interventions recommended for the reduction of maternal and newborn deaths worldwide, almost two-third (56 %) of women in Nigeria do not receive postnatal care. Attempts to explain this situation have focused on individual and household level factors, but the role of community characteristics has received less attention.This study examines community factors associated with the receipt of postnatal care in Nigeria and the moderating effects of community factors on the association between individual factors and postnatal care. Data was drawn from the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey, and a sample of 17,846 women aged 15-49 years was selected. We employed a multilevel logistic regression analysis to identify community factors associated with postnatal care. Our findings showed that significant variations in receiving postnatal care exist across communities. Specifically, Nigerian women's likelihood of receiving postnatal care is a function of where they reside. Living in communities with a high proportion of educated women (OR = 2.04; 95 % CI = 1.32-3.16; p < 0.001) and a high proportion of those who have had a health facility delivery (OR = 17.86; 95 % CI = 8.34-38.24; p < 0.001) was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of receiving postnatal care. Community women's education moderated the association between ethnic origin and postnatal care. Community variance in postnatal care was significant (τ = 10.352, p = 0.001). Community interventions aimed at improving postnatal care should take into account the community context in which women live. To close the gap in community variations in postnatal care, secondary and higher education for women, and health facility delivery should be increased in disadvantaged communities.

  16. Cultural variations in interpretation of postnatal illness: Jinn possession amongst Muslim communities.

    PubMed

    Hanely, Jane; Brown, Amy

    2014-04-01

    Maternal experience of emotional and physical disturbance during the postnatal period is a worldwide occurrence but may be interpreted differently according to cultural background. Little is known about different expressions and treatment of cultural phenomena during the postnatal period such as the affliction of Jinn possession in Arabic cultures. Jinn are considered to be evil spirits, which cause emotional and physical distress at times of vulnerability such as the postnatal period. The aim of this paper was to explore maternal experience of Jinn possession and draw parallels with Western interpretations of postnatal illness. Ten women in an Arabian Gulf state who had recently given birth and identified themselves as having Jinn possession were interviewed as to their experiences of Jinn possession. Mothers described the Jinn as evil spirits who cause symptoms such as sadness, anxiety and physical malaise during the postnatal period. Numerous risk factors for possession emerged such as lack of familial support, poverty and a traumatic birth. Clear parallels emerged between Western concepts of postnatal illness and Jinn possession. Mothers in Muslim cultures may experience Jinn possession during the postnatal period, which reflects similar symptoms and aetiology to Western concepts of postnatal illness. With increasing multiculturalism in the UK, understanding the origins and perception of Jinn possession is important for health professionals working in Muslim communities here.

  17. Cultural variations in interpretation of postnatal illness: Jinn possession amongst Muslim communities.

    PubMed

    Hanely, Jane; Brown, Amy

    2014-04-01

    Maternal experience of emotional and physical disturbance during the postnatal period is a worldwide occurrence but may be interpreted differently according to cultural background. Little is known about different expressions and treatment of cultural phenomena during the postnatal period such as the affliction of Jinn possession in Arabic cultures. Jinn are considered to be evil spirits, which cause emotional and physical distress at times of vulnerability such as the postnatal period. The aim of this paper was to explore maternal experience of Jinn possession and draw parallels with Western interpretations of postnatal illness. Ten women in an Arabian Gulf state who had recently given birth and identified themselves as having Jinn possession were interviewed as to their experiences of Jinn possession. Mothers described the Jinn as evil spirits who cause symptoms such as sadness, anxiety and physical malaise during the postnatal period. Numerous risk factors for possession emerged such as lack of familial support, poverty and a traumatic birth. Clear parallels emerged between Western concepts of postnatal illness and Jinn possession. Mothers in Muslim cultures may experience Jinn possession during the postnatal period, which reflects similar symptoms and aetiology to Western concepts of postnatal illness. With increasing multiculturalism in the UK, understanding the origins and perception of Jinn possession is important for health professionals working in Muslim communities here. PMID:23955293

  18. Modulation of tropical cyclone flash density by environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugo, A.; Abarca, S.; Kucienska, B.; Oropeza, F.; Raga, G.

    2012-12-01

    While lightning flash density has been successfully used to document azimuthal and radial distribution of convective activity in tropical cyclones, there have been less successful attempts to link flash density changes to storm intensity change. The latter efforts have been more often focused on major hurricanes and in isolation from environmental phenomena that modulate flash occurrence. Major hurricanes have more neutral vertical stratification than weaker storms and therefore, have fewer flashes. Other factors, such as the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei from continental origin, the diurnal cycle and sea surface temperature (SST), among others, will heavily modulate the lightning flash density. The Eastern Pacific basin is ideally located to study the effects of these different environmental modulators on tropical cyclones. The off-shore flow from Mexico results in a large variability of cloud condensation nuclei concentration and there is also a large range in sea surface temperatures. Note that most tropical cyclones in the basin dissipate as a result of the encounter of colder SSTs and drier air advected into the inner core . We present an analysis of lightning flash density in 96 tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific between 2005 and 2011. We use the best track dataset to determine location and intensity of the tropical cyclones, the World Wide Lightning Location Network to characterize flash density, MODIS (on board of the Terra and Aqua satellites) to determine the aerosol optical depth (as a proxy for cloud condensation nuclei content), and AMSR-E for sea surface temperatures. Preliminary results indicate a heavy modulation of flash density inside tropical cyclones by cloud condensation nuclei and a cap of the largest flash density as a function of sea surface temperatures.

  19. Midwives benefit from good postnatal care, too.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate, timely and responsive postnatal care can help women and families negotiate the major life transition that childbirth brings. However, women's experiences of postnatal care are often negative and our increasingly biomedical approach to birth means that greater emphasis is placed on antenatal and intrapartum care at the expense of postnatal care. Good postnatal care is essential not only for women, but for midwives too, and our failure to acknowledge the significance of birth, and our contribution to that event can diminish us as people and midwives.

  20. 7 CFR 799.9 - Ensuring that environmental factors are considered in agency decisionmaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY AND... environmental factors are considered in agency decisionmaking. (a) The NEPA regulations at 40 CFR 1501.1 contain... agency action; (2) Make all relevant environmental documents, comments and responses part of the......

  1. 7 CFR 799.9 - Ensuring that environmental factors are considered in agency decisionmaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY AND... environmental factors are considered in agency decisionmaking. (a) The NEPA regulations at 40 CFR 1501.1 contain... agency action; (2) Make all relevant environmental documents, comments and responses part of the......

  2. Validation of a three-dimensional model about sleep: Habits, personal factors and environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Rebelo-Pinto, Teresa; Pinto, Joana Carneiro; Rebelo-Pinto, Helena; Paiva, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The present study aims to test the factor structure of two sleep questionnaires and their internal consistency in a sample of adolescents and their respective parents and to evaluate the validity and robustness of a three-dimensional model about sleep, addressing nine subcategories related to sleep habits, personal and environmental factors. Methods Participants were 654 adolescents from Portuguese schools, who completed “My Sleep and I” questionnaire, and 664 parents who completed “My child׳s sleep” questionnaire; to them confirmatory factor analysis was applied. Results Confirmatory factor analysis indicate that a nine-factor model has better fit indices compared with the others tested models for both samples (adolescents: χ2/df (Chi-square/degrees of freedom)=2.59, Comparative Fit Index (CFI)=.82, Goodness-of-Fit Index (GFI)=.92, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA)=.049, Expected Cross-Validation Index (ECVI)=1.416; Parents: χ2/df=2.89, CFI=.85, GFI=.91, RMSEA=.053, ECVI=1.528). Moreover, the comparison of the models through Δχ2 index (chi-square difference between rival models) indicates a better fit for this model, Δχ2 (24)=186.5, p<.001 for adolescents and Δχ2 (24)=209, p<.001 for parents. Also, the three second-order factors have good internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity for all factors in both samples. Conclusions Results postulate that the three factors and their nine subcategories account for correlations between sleep habits, self-perceptions and knowledge about sleep. PMID:26483929

  3. [Toxic environmental factors in sudden infant death (SIDS)].

    PubMed

    Althoff, H; Wehr, K; Michels, S; Prajsnar, D

    1987-01-01

    The increasing number of discussions on the influence of toxic environmental factors, including SIDS, prompted systematic postmortem chemical-toxicological investigations to be carried out on 54 SIDS cases and 2 control cases of the same age group. Tissue levels of arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury, and pentachlorphenol, as well as other organic noxious agents, were measured in several organs. In addition, the COHb concentrations were determined. In spite of the widely scattered values, the extreme levels measured and the arithmetic means and median averages of As, Pb, Cd, Hg, PCP, and COHb had no more range in concentrations than can be expected for toxic effects - according to present knowledge anyway. It was observed that infants from an urban environment showed no greater concentration of noxious agents than did infants from rural regions. There were also no differences between SIDS cases and the controls, nor was there a correlation between infections of the respiratory system that are often morphologically detected - including laryngitis - and higher concentrations of these agents in the organs of SIDS cases.

  4. Environmental factors affecting indole metabolism under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, E L; Francis, A J; Bollag, J M

    1988-01-01

    The influence of physiological and environmental factors on the accumulation of oxindole during anaerobic indole metabolism was investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Under methanogenic conditions, indole was temporarily converted to oxindole in stoichiometric amounts in media inoculated with three freshwater sediments and an organic soil. In media inoculated with methanogenic sewage sludge, the modest amounts of oxindole detected at 35 degrees C reached higher concentrations and persisted longer when the incubation temperature was decreased from 35 to 15 degrees C. Also, decreasing the concentration of sewage sludge used as an inoculum from 50 to 1% caused an increase in the accumulation of oxindole from 10 to 75% of the indole added. Under denitrifying conditions, regardless of the concentration or source of the inoculum, oxindole appeared in trace amounts but did not accumulate during indole metabolism. In addition, denitrifying consortia which previously metabolized indole degraded oxindole with no lag period. Our data suggest that oxindole accumulation under methanogenic, but not under denitrifying conditions is caused by differences between relative rates of oxindole production and destruction. PMID:3345080

  5. Environmental market factors associated with physician career satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Mazurenko, Olena; Menachemi, Nir

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has found that physician career satisfaction is declining, but no study has examined the relationship between market factors and physician career satisfaction. Using a theoretical framework, we examined how various aspects of the market environment (e.g., munificence, dynamism, complexity) are related to overall career satisfaction. Nationally representative data from the 2008 Health Tracking Physician Survey were combined with environmental market variables from the 2008 Area Resource File. After controlling for physician and practice characteristics, at least one variable each representing munificence, dynamism, and complexity was associated with satisfaction. An increase in the market number of primary care physicians per capita was positively associated with physician career satisfaction (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.13 to 3.9) whereas an increase in the number of specialists per capita was negatively associated with physician satisfaction (OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.97). Moreover, an increase in poverty rates was negatively associated with physician career satisfaction (OR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.91 to 1.01). Lastly, physicians practicing in states with a malpractice crisis (OR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.68 to 0.96) and/or those who perceived high competition in their markets (OR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.61 to 0.95) had lower odds of being satisfied. A better understanding of an organization's environment could assist healthcare managers in shaping their policies and strategies to increase physician satisfaction. PMID:23087994

  6. Environmental factors influencing diatom communities in Antarctic cryoconite holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanish, L. F.; Bagshaw, E. A.; McKnight, D. M.; Fountain, A. G.; Tranter, M.

    2013-12-01

    Cryoconite holes are ice-bound habitats that can act as refuges for aquatic and terrestrial microorganisms on glacier surfaces. In the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica, these holes are often capped by an ice lid that prevents the exchange of material and gases with the surrounding atmosphere and aquatic environment. Diatoms have been documented in cryoconite holes, and recent findings suggest that these habitats may harbour a distinctive diatom flora compared to the surrounding aquatic environments. In this study, we examined diatom community composition in cryoconite holes and environmental correlates across three glaciers in Taylor Valley, Antarctica. The diatom communities were dominated by two genera, Muelleria and Diadesmis, both of which had high viability and could have been seeded from the surrounding ephemeral streams. The location of the cryoconite hole within the valley was a key determinant of community composition. A diatom species richness gradient was observed that corresponded to distance inland from the coast and co-varied with species richness in streams within the same lake basin. Cryoconite holes that were adjacent to streams with higher diversity displayed greater species richness. However, physical factors, such as the ability to withstand freeze-thaw conditions and to colonize coarse sediments, acted as additional selective filters and influenced diatom diversity, viability and community composition.

  7. Environmental factors and work performance of foundry workers.

    PubMed

    Horino, S

    1977-12-01

    Environmental factors such as atmospheric conditions, lighting, noise, and dust in foundry factories of different sizes were evaluated by direct physical measurements and a subjective rating method using an ergonomic checklist. Working postures and subjective feelings of fatigue of the workers were analyzed in various types of foundry shops. The results showed that work load was highly connected with poor working postures and unfavorable arrangement of work space as well as with poor workplace environment, particularly in terms of dust and noise. Forward bending and squatting positions, which were attributable to the manual working height on or just above the floor level, occupied 70--90% of the actual working time handling large-sized casts, while the work using a table allowed workers more frequent erect standing postures. It seemed essential to redesign the fundamental working processes and to improve the work surface height. A comparison was then made as to performance patterns and electromyographic activities of main muscles between the traditional molding work on the floor and the work at a newly developed hydraulic lift-table operated by foot pedals. The new table assured the worker of an optimal standing position and proved to be an effective means of redesigning the work space. PMID:617651

  8. Safety analysis factors for environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, D.R.

    1993-04-01

    Environmental restoration (ER) and facility decontamination/decommissioning (D&D) operations can be grouped into two general categories. ``Nonstationary cleanup`` or simply ``cleanup`` activities are where the operation must relocate to the site of new contaminated material at the completion of each task (i.e., the operation moves to the contaminated material). ``Stationary production`` or simply ``production`` activities are where the contaminated material is moved to a centralized location (i.e., the contaminated material is moved to the operation) for analysis, sorting, treatment, storage, and disposal. This paper addresses the issue of nonstationary cleanup design. The following are the specific assigned action items: Collect and compile a list of special safety-related ER/D&D design factors, especially ones that don`t follow DOE Order 6430.1A requirements. Develop proposal of what makes sense to recommend to designers; especially consider recommendations for short-term projects. Present proposal at the January meeting. To achieve the action items, applicable US Department of Energy (DOE) design requirements, and cleanup operations and differences from production activities are reviewed and summarized; basic safety requirements influencing design are summarized; and finally, approaches, considerations, and methods for safe, cost-effective design of cleanup activities are discussed.

  9. Overexpression of Dlx2 leads to postnatal condyle degradation

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jiewen; Si, Jiawen; Zhu, Xiaofang; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Dandan; Lu, Jingting; Ouyang, Ningjuan; Wang, Xudong; Shen, Guofang

    2016-01-01

    Distal-less homeobox 2 (Dlx2), a member of the Dlx family of transcription factors, is important for the development of craniofacial tissues. Previous studies based on knock-out mutant mice revealed that Dlx2 primarily disturbed the development of tissues from maxillary arch. The present study used a transgenic mouse model to specifically overexpress Dlx2 in neural crest cells in order to investigate the role of Dlx2 overexpression in post-natal condyle in mice. The model was constructed and the phenotype observed using gross observation, micro-CT scan and histological examination. The model determined that overexpression of Dlx2 may lead to postnatal condyle malformation, subchondral bone degradation and irregular histological structure of the condylar cartilage. In addition, the expression of osteocalcin in the condyle region was markedly downregulated, whereas expression of msh homeobox 2 was upregulated. The results of the present study suggest that Dlx2 overexpression in cranial neural crest cells would disrupt the development of post-natal condyle, which demonstrates that the expression level and the spatiotemporal expression patterns of Dlx2 may be important in regulating the development of post-natal condyle in mice, and also offered a possible temporal-mandibular joint osteoarthritis model animal for future studies. PMID:27315306

  10. The effects of different environmental education programs on the environmental behavior of seventh-grade students and related factors.

    PubMed

    Tung, Chen-Yin; Huang, Chyan-Chyuan; Kawata, Chieko

    2002-03-01

    This study used random allocation to separate out groups of students from four Taipei junior high schools, each of which underwent a different environmental-education program, in order to examine the effects of such programs on students' environmental behavior and related factors. Results indicate that Taiwanese junior high schools should coordinate the teaching of environmental programs with other school activities to obtain the most ideal results.

  11. Combining environmental factors and agriculturalists' observations of environmental changes in the traditional terrace system of the Amalfi coast (southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Savo, Valentina; Caneva, Giulia; McClatchey, Will; Reedy, David; Salvati, Luca

    2014-04-01

    Terraces are traditional engineered ecosystems that affect the hydro-geological equilibrium, slope stability, and local communities. The aims of this paper are (i) identifying environmental factors that affect terrace stability in the Amalfi Coast, (ii) defining agriculturalists' observations on environmental changes within that system and (iii) exploring potentiality of these observations to better define conservation strategies. All available data on physical and ecological factors recognized to affect the terrace system were collected and analyzed. Interviews were conducted with agriculturalists to obtain long-term observations on environmental factors that interact with this system. Landslides are more frequent where rainfall is high and during winter. Fires have an uneven annual distribution, with higher frequency during summers. Agriculturalists detailed complex interactions among environmental factors, economic elements, and terraces. These observations represent a valuable resource for defining causes and effects of abandonment and for better addressing conservation strategies.

  12. Early influences of nutrition on postnatal growth.

    PubMed

    Koletzko, Berthold; Beyer, Jeanette; Brands, Brigitte; Demmelmair, Hans; Grote, Veit; Haile, Gudrun; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Rzehak, Peter; Socha, Piotr; Weber, Martina

    2013-01-01

    Health and nutrition modulate postnatal growth. The availability of amino acids and energy, and insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) regulates early growth through the mTOR pathway. Amino acids and glucose also stimulate the secretion of IGF-I and insulin. Postnatal growth induces lasting, programming effects on later body size and adiposity in animals and in human observational studies. Rapid weight gain in infancy and the first 2 years was shown to predict increased obesity risk in childhood and adulthood. Breastfeeding leads to lesser high weight gain in infancy and reduces obesity risk in later life by about 20%, presumably partly due to the lower protein supply with human milk than conventional infant formula. In a large randomized clinical trial, we tested the hypothesis that reduced infant formula protein contents lower insulin-releasing amino acid concentrations and thereby decrease circulating insulin and IGF-I levels, resulting in lesser early weight gain and reduced later obesity risk (the 'Early Protein Hypothesis'). The results demonstrate that lowered protein in infant formula induces similar - but not equal - metabolic and endocrine responses and normalizes weight and BMI relative to breastfed controls at the age of 2 years. The results available should lead to enhanced efforts to actively promote, protect and support breastfeeding. For infants that are not breastfed or not fully breastfed, the use of infant formulas with lower protein contents but high protein quality appears preferable. Cows' milk as a drink provides high protein intake and should be avoided in infancy.

  13. Early influences of nutrition on postnatal growth.

    PubMed

    Koletzko, Berthold; Beyer, Jeanette; Brands, Brigitte; Demmelmair, Hans; Grote, Veit; Haile, Gudrun; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Rzehak, Peter; Socha, Piotr; Weber, Martina

    2013-01-01

    Health and nutrition modulate postnatal growth. The availability of amino acids and energy, and insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) regulates early growth through the mTOR pathway. Amino acids and glucose also stimulate the secretion of IGF-I and insulin. Postnatal growth induces lasting, programming effects on later body size and adiposity in animals and in human observational studies. Rapid weight gain in infancy and the first 2 years was shown to predict increased obesity risk in childhood and adulthood. Breastfeeding leads to lesser high weight gain in infancy and reduces obesity risk in later life by about 20%, presumably partly due to the lower protein supply with human milk than conventional infant formula. In a large randomized clinical trial, we tested the hypothesis that reduced infant formula protein contents lower insulin-releasing amino acid concentrations and thereby decrease circulating insulin and IGF-I levels, resulting in lesser early weight gain and reduced later obesity risk (the 'Early Protein Hypothesis'). The results demonstrate that lowered protein in infant formula induces similar - but not equal - metabolic and endocrine responses and normalizes weight and BMI relative to breastfed controls at the age of 2 years. The results available should lead to enhanced efforts to actively promote, protect and support breastfeeding. For infants that are not breastfed or not fully breastfed, the use of infant formulas with lower protein contents but high protein quality appears preferable. Cows' milk as a drink provides high protein intake and should be avoided in infancy. PMID:23502135

  14. The effects of space relevant environmental factors on halophilic Archaea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuko, Stefan; Moeller, Ralf; Rettberg, Petra

    exposure was investigated by several different methods e.g. RAPD - PCR, a technique that elucidates damages within the genome by different amplification patterns. Overall experimental results indicate that halophilic Archaea are able to withstand the exposure to space related environmental factors for a considerable time. This work in combined with others will lead to a detailed understanding of the response of extraterrestrial conditions to halophilic Archaea for astrobiological considerations.

  15. Intersection of participation and environmental factors: a complex interactive process.

    PubMed

    Noreau, Luc; Boschen, Kathryn

    2010-09-01

    The objective was to review contemporary and historical rehabilitation-focused literature on conceptualizations of the environment, broadly defined, and environmental measures. Data sources included historical nonempirical American-based literature from 1935 to the present and descriptive and empirical rehabilitation articles worldwide, retrieved from computerized databases predominantly from past 10 years depicting a participation-environment association. Literature selection required relevance to 3 combined topics: physical disability rehabilitation, participation/community integration, and impact of environmental barriers and facilitators. The ultimate focus was on spinal cord injury for recent literature and measures reviewed. Data extraction was based on author-assessed relevance to both participation and environmental considerations. Nonempirical literature from last three quarters of a century suggests an environmental impact on participation, focusing on "person-environment fit." Recent empirical evidence supports environmental contributions to participation, but the magnitude of the contribution is low. Despite the obvious theoretic impact of the environment, scientific demonstration of environmental contribution to participation restriction or facilitation has yet to be achieved. Participation-environment interaction could be illustrated better by (1) taking into account critical elements in environmental measures (eg, comprehensiveness of approach to environment, scales describing spectrum of environmental influence, subjective vs objective perspectives), (2) addressing the concept of participation in a dimension-specific approach, and (3) avoiding environmental features in construction of participation measures.

  16. The role of environmental factors in autoimmune thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Hybenova, Monika; Hrda, Pavlina; Procházková, Jarmila; Stejskal, Vera; Sterzl, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Environmental factors can play an important role in the development of autoimmune thyroiditis (AT) and other autoimmune diseases. This article reviews the role of heavy metals and infectious agents in AT. Currently, the genes responsible for a metal-induced pathology are known in experimental animals but similar knowledge is lacking in man. Metals such as nickel or mercury induce delayed type T cell hypersensitivity (allergy) which is relatively common, especially in women. T-cell allergy can be studied with the lymphocyte transformation test, LTT-MELISA. It has been found that patients with AT and other autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematosus and atopic eczema, show increased lymphocyte reactivity in vitro to inorganic mercury, nickel and other metals compared to healthy controls. The important source of mercury is dental amalgam. Replacement of amalgam in mercury-allergic subjects resulted in improvement of health in about 70% of patients. Several laboratory parameters such as mercury-specific lymphocyte responses in vitro and anti-thyroid autoantibodies were normalized as well. In contrast, no changes in health and laboratory results were observed in mercury-allergic patients who did not have their amalgams replaced. The same was true for non-allergic patients who underwent amalgam replacement. Infectious agents such as Helicobacter pylori (Hp) may cause chronic inflammation and autoimmune reactivity in susceptible subjects. The results of in vitro experiments performed with lymphocytes from Hp infected patients indicate that Hp can cause immunosuppression which might be eliminated by successful eradication therapy. In conclusion, heavy metals and Hp infection may play an important role in AT. Laboratory tests, such as LTT-MELISA, can help to determine the specific etiological agents causing inflammation in individual patients. The treatment of AT and other autoimmune diseases might be improved if such agents are

  17. Properties of peatlands in relation to environmental factors in Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    The relationship of peatland morphology and distribution to environmental factors was investigated in northern and central Minnesota by field sampling of vegetation, soils, and water, and by remote sensing. Maps of peatlands made by machine classification of Landsat data six classes matched field data in 56% of all cases; maps drawn by hand on 1:80,000 scale aerial photographs were 72% correct. Peatland sites fall into two natural groups: ombrotrophic (bogs; pH less than 4.4) and minerotrophic (fens and swamps: pH 4.4 or more and usually greater than 5.6). The presence of certain common vascular-plant taxa can be used to classify sites into these trophic classes with over 90% accuracy. The structure of peatland vegetation is controlled by the soil-water regime, the disturbance history, and, to a less degree, by trophic conditions. Sites that have relatively well-aerated soils and have not been recently disturbed support dense forests. Vegetation structure is weakly related to the degree of decomposition of peat; hence vegetation is a poor indicator for taxonomic units of organic soils. Peatlands are common in Minnesota on surfaces glaciated during the Wisconsin Stage and where the mean annual potential evapotranspiration roughly equals or exceeds the mean annual precipitation. Bogs occur most often on sites where a high water table can be maintained without groundwater discharge, such as in depressions on low-permeability substrates and near local watershed divides on plains. Fens apparently occur in or below areas of groundwater discharge. Swamps (densely forested minerotrophic peatlands) occur in a wide variety of settings where the soil is aerated during the growing season.

  18. Rapid population growth and environmental degradation: ultimate versus proximate factors.

    PubMed

    Shaw, R P

    1989-01-01

    This philosophical review of 2 arguments about responsibility for and solutions to environmental degradation concludes that both sides are correct: the ultimate and the proximal causes. Ultimate causes of pollution are defined as the technology responsible for a given type of pollution, such as burning fossil fuel; proximate causes are defined as situation-specific factors confounding the problem, such as population density or rate of growth. Commoner and others argue that developed countries with low or negative population growth rates are responsible for 80% of world pollution, primarily in polluting technologies such as automobiles, power generation, plastics, pesticides, toxic wastes, garbage, warfaring, and nuclear weapons wastes. Distortionary policies also contribute; examples are agricultural trade protection, land mismanagement, urban bias in expenditures, and institutional rigidity., Poor nations are responsible for very little pollution because poverty allows little waste or expenditures for polluting, synthetic technologies. The proximal causes of pollution include numbers and rate of growth of populations responsible for the pollution. Since change in the ultimate cause of pollution remains out of reach, altering the numbers of polluters can make a difference. Predictions are made for proportions of the world's total waste production, assuming current 1.6 tons/capita for developed countries and 0.17 tons/capita for developing countries. If developing countries grow at current rates and become more wealthy, they will be emitting half the world's waste by 2025. ON the other hand, unsustainable population growth goes along with inadequate investment in human capital: education, health, employment, infrastructure. The solution is to improve farming technologies in the 117 non-self-sufficient countries, fund development in the most unsustainable enclaves of growing countries, break institutionalized socio-political rigidity in these enclaves, and focus on

  19. Rapid population growth and environmental degradation: ultimate versus proximate factors.

    PubMed

    Shaw, R P

    1989-01-01

    This philosophical review of 2 arguments about responsibility for and solutions to environmental degradation concludes that both sides are correct: the ultimate and the proximal causes. Ultimate causes of pollution are defined as the technology responsible for a given type of pollution, such as burning fossil fuel; proximate causes are defined as situation-specific factors confounding the problem, such as population density or rate of growth. Commoner and others argue that developed countries with low or negative population growth rates are responsible for 80% of world pollution, primarily in polluting technologies such as automobiles, power generation, plastics, pesticides, toxic wastes, garbage, warfaring, and nuclear weapons wastes. Distortionary policies also contribute; examples are agricultural trade protection, land mismanagement, urban bias in expenditures, and institutional rigidity., Poor nations are responsible for very little pollution because poverty allows little waste or expenditures for polluting, synthetic technologies. The proximal causes of pollution include numbers and rate of growth of populations responsible for the pollution. Since change in the ultimate cause of pollution remains out of reach, altering the numbers of polluters can make a difference. Predictions are made for proportions of the world's total waste production, assuming current 1.6 tons/capita for developed countries and 0.17 tons/capita for developing countries. If developing countries grow at current rates and become more wealthy, they will be emitting half the world's waste by 2025. ON the other hand, unsustainable population growth goes along with inadequate investment in human capital: education, health, employment, infrastructure. The solution is to improve farming technologies in the 117 non-self-sufficient countries, fund development in the most unsustainable enclaves of growing countries, break institutionalized socio-political rigidity in these enclaves, and focus on

  20. Postnatal Exposure History and Airways

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Shannon R.; Schelegle, Edward S.; Edwards, Patricia C.; Miller, Lisa A.; Hyde, Dallas M.

    2012-01-01

    Postnatally, the lung continues to grow and differentiate while interacting with the environment. Exposure to ozone (O3) and allergens during postnatal lung development alters structural elements of conducting airways, including innervation and neurokinin abundance. These changes have been linked with development of asthma in a rhesus monkey model. We hypothesized that O3 exposure resets the ability of the airways to respond to oxidant stress and that this is mediated by changes in the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R). Infant rhesus monkeys received episodic exposure to O3 biweekly with or without house dust mite antigen (HDMA) from 6 to 12 months of age. Age-matched monkeys were exposed to filtered air (FA). Microdissected airway explants from midlevel airways (intrapulmonary generations 5–8) for four to six animals in each of four groups (FA, O3, HDMA, and HDMA+O3) were tested for NK-1R gene responses to acute oxidant stress using exposure to hydrogen peroxide (1.2 mM), a lipid ozonide (10 μM), or sham treatment for 4 hours in vitro. Airway responses were measured using real-time quantitative RT-PCR of NK-1R and IL-8 gene expression. Basal NK-1R gene expression levels were not different between the exposure groups. Treatment with ozonide or hydrogen peroxide did not change NK-1R gene expression in animals exposed to FA, HDMA, or HDMA+O3. However, treatment in vitro with lipid ozonide significantly increased NK-1R gene expression in explants from O3–exposed animals. We conclude that a history of prior O3 exposure resets the steady state of the airways to increase the NK-1R response to subsequent acute oxidant stresses. PMID:22962062

  1. The relationship between organisational factors and the effectiveness of environmental management.

    PubMed

    Tung, Amy; Baird, Kevin; Schoch, Herbert

    2014-11-01

    This paper examines the relationship between specific organisational factors (top management support, training, employee participation, teamwork and the link of performance to rewards) with the effectiveness of environmental management. The effectiveness of environmental management is measured in respect of the effectiveness of environmental management processes and environmental performance. Data were collected by mail survey questionnaire from a random sample of 899 senior financial officers in Australian manufacturing organisations. The findings highlight the significance of the effectiveness of environmental management processes as an antecedent of environmental performance and a mediator of the relationship between organisational factors and environmental performance. The findings provide managers with an insight into the specific organisational factors that they need to focus on to enhance the effectiveness of environmental management. PMID:24952341

  2. The relationship between organisational factors and the effectiveness of environmental management.

    PubMed

    Tung, Amy; Baird, Kevin; Schoch, Herbert

    2014-11-01

    This paper examines the relationship between specific organisational factors (top management support, training, employee participation, teamwork and the link of performance to rewards) with the effectiveness of environmental management. The effectiveness of environmental management is measured in respect of the effectiveness of environmental management processes and environmental performance. Data were collected by mail survey questionnaire from a random sample of 899 senior financial officers in Australian manufacturing organisations. The findings highlight the significance of the effectiveness of environmental management processes as an antecedent of environmental performance and a mediator of the relationship between organisational factors and environmental performance. The findings provide managers with an insight into the specific organisational factors that they need to focus on to enhance the effectiveness of environmental management.

  3. Solar Program Assessment: Environmental Factors - Fuels from Biomass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    The purpose of this report is to present and prioritize the major environmental issues associated with the further development of biomass production and biomass conversion systems. To provide a background for this environmental analysis, the basic concepts of the technology are reviewed, as are resource requirements. The potential effects of this…

  4. Solar Program Assessment: Environmental Factors - Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    This report presents the environmental problems which may arise with the further development of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion, one of the eight Federally-funded solar technologies. To provide a background for this environmental analysis, the history and basic concepts of the technology are reviewed, as are its economic and resource requirements.…

  5. Factors Influencing the Desire To Take Environmental Action in Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruneau, Diane; Chouinard, Omer; Musafiri, Jean-Pierre; IsaBelle, Claire

    In a coastal community, four social groups were chosen to participate in various educational programs designed to promote their desire to take environmental action. At the end of these educational programs, conducted by a scientist and an environmental educator, the participants were invited to get involved in the resolution of an environmental…

  6. Contribution of Spaceflight Environmental Factors to Vision Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanello, Susana B.

    2011-01-01

    the combined effects of radiation exposure and iron overload on sensitivity to radiation injury in rat eyes. All main eye structures will be analyzed in this study: retina, lens and cornea. A study in collaboration with the Space Human Factors and Habitability Element (SHFH) investigates the effects of lunar dust exposure on the rat cornea. It is anticipated that common underlying oxidative stress mechanisms of damage may be observed as a result of these three stressors: radiation, nutritional iron and lunar dust. The contribution of fluid shift is addressed by a study using rats subjected to hindlimb suspension. The hypothesis to be tested in this study is that the mechanical stress imparted by the pressure differential across the optic disc and lamina cribosa will impact oxygenation (therefore causing oxidative stress and hypoxia) and cell survival. This study also includes the assessment of two nutritional antioxidant countermeasures: epigallocatechin gallate (green tea) and resveratrol. Finally, as a result of two successful tissue sharing efforts, we are proceeding with the analysis of eye samples of mice aboard two shuttle missions: STS-133 and STS-135. Results from the STS-133 study are presented in an independent abstract. Briefly, the results show that spaceflight represents a source of environmental stress that directly translates into oxidative and cellular stress in the retina. Similar analysis is also planned for the cornea. These samples add large value to our current vision research as they provide data on the direct effects of low-earth orbit spaceflight on eye structures and physiology.

  7. 7 CFR 799.9 - Ensuring that environmental factors are considered in agency decisionmaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ensuring that environmental factors are considered in agency decisionmaking. 799.9 Section 799.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY...

  8. 7 CFR 799.9 - Ensuring that environmental factors are considered in agency decisionmaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ensuring that environmental factors are considered in agency decisionmaking. 799.9 Section 799.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY...

  9. 7 CFR 799.9 - Ensuring that environmental factors are considered in agency decisionmaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ensuring that environmental factors are considered in agency decisionmaking. 799.9 Section 799.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY...

  10. Bigger mothers are better mothers: disentangling size-related prenatal and postnatal maternal effects.

    PubMed

    Steiger, Sandra

    2013-09-01

    Despite a vast literature on the factors controlling adult size, few studies have investigated how maternal size affects offspring size independent of direct genetic effects, thereby separating prenatal from postnatal influences. I used a novel experimental design that combined a cross-fostering approach with phenotypic manipulation of maternal body size that allowed me to disentangle prenatal and postnatal maternal effects. Using the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides as model organism, I found that a mother's body size affected egg size as well as the quality of postnatal maternal care, with larger mothers producing larger eggs and raising larger offspring than smaller females. However, with respect to the relative importance of prenatal and postnatal maternal effects on offspring growth, only the postnatal effects were important in determining offspring body size. Thus, prenatal effects can be offset by the quality of postnatal maternal care. This finding has implications for the coevolution of prenatal and postnatal maternal effects as they arise as a consequence of maternal body size. In general, my study provides evidence that there can be transgenerational phenotypic plasticity, with maternal size determining offspring size leading to a resemblance between mothers and their offspring above and beyond any direct genetic effects.

  11. Influence of Environmental Factors on Feammox Activity in Soil Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S.; Jaffe, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    The oxidation of ammonium (NH4+) under iron reducing conditions, referred to as Feammox, has been described in recent years by several investigators. The environmental characteristics in which the Feammox process occurs need to be understood in order to determine its contribution to the nitrogen cycle. In this study, a total of 66 locations were selected covering 4 different types of soils/sediments: wetland soils (W), river sediments (R), forest soils (F), and paddy soils (P) from several locations in central New Jersey, at Tims Branch at Savannah River in South Carolina, both in the Unities States, and at several locations in the Guangdong province in China. Though soil chemical analyses, serial culturing experiments, analysis of microbial communities, and using a canonical correspondence analysis, the occurrence of the Feammox reaction and the presence of Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6, which plays a key role in the Feammox process(1), were found in 17 samples. Analyses showed that the soil pH, as well as its Fe(III) and NH4+ content were the most important factors controlling the distribution of these Feammox microorganisms. Based on the results, soils in the subtropical forests and soils that are near agricultural areas could be Feammox hotspot. Under the conditions that favor the presence and activity of Feammox microorganisms and their oxidation of NH4+, denitrification bacteria were also active. However, the presence of nitrous oxide (N2O) reducers was limited under these conditions, implying that at locations where the Feammox process is active, conditions are favoring a higher ratio of N2O: N2 as the nitrogen (N) end products. Incubations of soils where the presence of Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 was detected, were conducted for 120 days under two different DO levels (DO < 0.02 mg/L and DO = 0.8~1.0 mg/L) showing comparable amounts of NH4+ oxidation. In the incubations with DO < 0.02 mg/L, the proportion of Acidimicrobiaceae bacteria increased and

  12. Environmental Factors Affecting the Permanence of Library Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessel, Carl J.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews pertinent evidence relating to deterioration originating with air pollution, heat, humidity, light, and biological agents; and suggests how librarians may lengthen the useful life of library materials through environmental controls. (Author/JS)

  13. Industry efficiency and total factor productivity growth under resources and environmental constraint in China.

    PubMed

    Tao, Feng; Li, Ling; Xia, X H

    2012-01-01

    The growth of China's industry has been seriously depending on energy and environment. This paper attempts to apply the directional distance function and the Luenberger productivity index to measure the environmental efficiency, environmental total factor productivity, and its components at the level of subindustry in China over the period from 1999 to 2009 while considering energy consumption and emission of pollutants. This paper also empirically examines the determinants of efficiency and productivity change. The major findings are as follows. Firstly, the main sources of environmental inefficiency of China's industry are the inefficiency of gross industrial output value, the excessive energy consumption, and pollutant emissions. Secondly, the highest growth rate of environmental total factor productivity among the three industrial categories is manufacturing, followed by mining, and production and supply of electricity, gas, and water. Thirdly, foreign direct investment, capital-labor ratio, ownership structure, energy consumption structure, and environmental regulation have varying degrees of effects on the environmental efficiency and environmental total factor productivity.

  14. HIV Testing among Adolescents in Ndola, Zambia: How Individual, Relational, and Environmental Factors Relate to Demand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denison, Julie A.; McCauley, Ann P.; Dunnett-Dagg, Wendy A.; Lungu, Nalakwanji; Sweat, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how individual, relational and environmental factors related to adolescent demand for HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT). A cross-sectional survey among randomly selected 16-19-year-olds in Ndola, Zambia, covered individual (e.g., HIV knowledge), environmental (e.g., distance), and relational factors (e.g., discussed…

  15. Environmental Factors Associated with the Growth of Chinese Literary Genius: A Test of Rogerian Assumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, You-Yuk

    1987-01-01

    This study explored relationships between environmental factors (era, standard of living, freedom, and value) and the growth of Chinese literary genius. Using a new measure, the Chinese Creator Rating Scale, the study found that historical top scorers had above average values on the four environmental factors, supporting the humanistic theory of…

  16. [Relationships between soil organic carbon and environmental factors in gully watershed of the Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiao-Rong; Shao, Ming-An; Gao, Jian-Lun

    2008-10-01

    Understanding the distribution of organic carbon fractions in soils and their relationships with environmental factors are very important for appraising soil organic carbon status and assessing carbon cycling in the Loess Plateau. In this research, through field investigation and laboratory analysis, we studied the relationships between soil organic carbon and environmental factors in a gully watershed of the Loess Plateau. The environmental factors are landforms, land use conditions and soil types. The results showed that total soil organic carbon presented less variance, while high labile organic carbon presented greater variance. The variation coefficients of them are 34% and 43%, respectively, indicating that the variability of organic carbon in soils increased with the increasing of their activities. Total soil organic carbon, labile organic carbon, middle and high labile organic carbon were highly interrelated and presented similar distribution trend with environmental factors. Among different landforms, land uses, and soil types, the highest contents of organic carbon in different fractions were observed in plateau land, forest and farm lands, and black loessial soils, while the lowest contents of them were observed in gully bottom, grass land, and rubified soils, respectively. The relationships between organic carbon and environmental factors indicate that environmental factors not only directly influence the distribution of soil organic carbon, but also indirectly influence them through affecting the relationships among organic carbon fractions. The relationship between total organic carbon and labile organic carbon responses rapidly to environmental factors, while that between middle labile organic carbon and high labile organic carbon responses slowly to environmental factors. PMID:19143389

  17. Key systemic and environmental risk factors for implant failure.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Dolphus R; Jasper, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Dental implants are an important treatment option for patients interested in replacing lost or missing teeth. Although a robust body of literature has reviewed risk factors for tooth loss, the evidence for risk factors associated with dental implants is less well defined. This article focuses on key systemic risk factors relating to dental implant failure, as well as on perimucositis and peri-implantitis.

  18. Postnatal toxic and acquired disorders.

    PubMed

    Saint-Amour, Dave; Dallaire, Renee; Dulac, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    To develop and function optimally, the brain requires a balanced environment of electrolytes, amino acids, neurotransmitters, and metabolic substrates. As a consequence, organ dysfunction has the potential to induce brain disorders and toxic-metabolic encephalopathies, particularly when occurring during early stages of cerebral maturation. Induced toxicity of three different organ systems that are commonly associated with brain complications are discussed. First, thyroid hormone deficiency caused by intrinsic or extrinsic factors (e.g., environmental toxins) may induce severe adverse effects on child neurological development from reversible impairments to permanent mental retardation. Second, inadequate removal of wastes due to chronic renal failure leads to the accumulation of endogenous toxins that are harmful to brain function. In uremic pediatric patients, the brain becomes more vulnerable to exogenous substances such as aluminum, which can induce aluminum encephalopathy. Following surgical procedures, neurological troubles including focal defects and severe epileptic seizures may result from hypertensive encephalopathy combined with toxicity of immunomodulating substances, or from the delayed consequences of cardiovascular defect. Taken together, this illustrates that organ disorders clearly have an impact on child brain function in various ways.

  19. Programming of Mice Circadian Photic Responses by Postnatal Light Environment

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Elisabeth; Patel, Dhruval; Canal, Maria Mercè

    2014-01-01

    Early life programming has important consequences for future health and wellbeing. A key new aspect is the impact of perinatal light on the circadian system. Postnatal light environment will program circadian behavior, together with cell morphology and clock gene function within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, the principal circadian clock in mammals. Nevertheless, it is still not clear whether the observed changes reflect a processing of an altered photic input from the retina, rather than an imprinting of the intrinsic molecular clock mechanisms. Here, we addressed the issue by systematically probing the mouse circadian system at various levels. Firstly, we used electroretinography, pupillometry and histology protocols to show that gross retinal function and morphology in the adult are largely independent of postnatal light experiences that modulate circadian photosensitivity. Secondly, we used circadian activity protocols to show that only the animal's behavioral responses to chronic light exposure, but not to constant darkness or the acute responses to a light stimulus depend on postnatal light experience. Thirdly, we used real-time PER2::LUC rhythm recording to show long-term changes in clock gene expression in the SCN, but also heart, lung and spleen. The data showed that perinatal light mainly targets the long-term adaptive responses of the circadian clock to environmental light, rather than the retina or intrinsic clock mechanisms. Finally, we found long-term effects on circadian peripheral clocks, suggesting far-reaching consequences for the animal's overall physiology. PMID:24842115

  20. Current Topics in Postnatal Behavioral Testing.

    PubMed

    Henck, Judith W; Elayan, Ikram; Vorhees, Charles; Fisher, J Edward; Morford, LaRonda L

    2016-09-01

    The study of developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) continues to be an important component of safety evaluation of candidate therapeutic agents and of industrial and environmental chemicals. Developmental neurotoxicity is considered to be an adverse change in the central and/or peripheral nervous system during development of an organism and has been primarily evaluated by studying functional outcomes, such as changes in behavior, neuropathology, neurochemistry, and/or neurophysiology. Neurobehavioral evaluations are a component of a wide range of toxicology studies in laboratory animal models, whereas neurochemistry and neurophysiology are less commonly employed. Although the primary focus of this article is on neurobehavioral evaluation in pre- and postnatal development and juvenile toxicology studies used in pharmaceutical development, concepts may also apply to adult nonclinical safety studies and Environmental Protection Agency/chemical assessments. This article summarizes the proceedings of a symposium held during the 2015 American College of Toxicology annual meeting and includes a discussion of the current status of DNT testing as well as potential issues and recommendations. Topics include the regulatory context for DNT testing; study design and interpretation; behavioral test selection, including a comparison of core learning and memory systems; age of testing; repeated testing of the same animals; use of alternative animal models; impact of findings; and extrapolation of animal results to humans. Integration of the regulatory experience and scientific concepts presented during this symposium, as well as from subsequent discussion and input, provides a synopsis of the current state of DNT testing in safety assessment, as well as a potential roadmap for future advancement.

  1. Key systemic and environmental risk factors for implant failure.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Dolphus R; Jasper, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Dental implants are an important treatment option for patients interested in replacing lost or missing teeth. Although a robust body of literature has reviewed risk factors for tooth loss, the evidence for risk factors associated with dental implants is less well defined. This article focuses on key systemic risk factors relating to dental implant failure, as well as on perimucositis and peri-implantitis. PMID:25434557

  2. Impact of environmental factors and poverty on pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Weck, Rebekah L; Paulose, Tessie; Flaws, Jodi A

    2008-06-01

    Studies have indicated that various societal factors such as toxicant exposure, maternal habits, occupational hazards, psychosocial factors, socioeconomic status, racial disparity, chronic stress, and infection may impact pregnancy outcomes. These outcomes include spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, alterations in the development of the fetus, and long-term health of offspring. Although much is known about individual pregnancy outcomes, little is known about the associations between societal factors and pregnancy outcomes. This manuscript reviews some of the literature available on the effects of the above-mentioned societal factors on pregnancy outcomes and examines some potential remedies for preventing adverse pregnancy outcomes in the future. PMID:18463465

  3. Common Genetic and Nonshared Environmental Factors Contribute to the Association between Socioemotional Dispositions and the Externalizing Factor in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jeanette; Allan, Nicholas; Mikolajewski, Amy J.; Hart, Sara A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Childhood behavioral disorders including conduct disorder (CD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. Prior twin research shows that common sets of genetic and environmental factors are associated with these various disorders and they form a latent factor called…

  4. Solar Program Assessment: Environmental Factors - Solar Total Energy Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    The purpose of this report is to present and prioritize the major environmental, safety, and social/institutional issues associated with the further development of Solar Total Energy Systems (STES). Solar total energy systems represent a specific application of the Federally-funded solar technologies. To provide a background for this analysis, the…

  5. Genetic and Environmental Factors in Age-Related Hearing Impairment.

    PubMed

    Momi, Sukhleen K; Wolber, Lisa E; Fabiane, Stella Maris; MacGregor, Alex J; Williams, Frances M K

    2015-08-01

    Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) is a common condition with complex etiology but a recognized genetic component. Heritability estimates for pure tone audiogram-determined hearing ability lie in the range 26-75%. The speech-in-noise (SIN) auditory test, however, may be better at encapsulating ARHI symptoms, particularly the diminished ability to segregate environmental sounds into comprehendible auditory streams. As heritability of SIN has not previously been reported, we explored the genetic and environmental contributions to ARHI determined by SIN in 2,076 twins (87.8% female) aged 18-87 (mean age 54.4). SIN was found to be significantly heritable (A, unadjusted for age=40%; 95% confidence intervals, CI=32%-47%). With age adjustment, heritability fell (A=25%; 95% CI=16-33%), and a relatively strong influence of environmental exposure unshared within twin siblings was identified (E=75%). To explore the environmental aspects further, we assessed the influence of diet (through the Food Frequency Questionnaire, FFQ), smoking (through self-report and cotinine metabolite levels) and alcohol intake (through the FFQ). A negative influence of high cholesterol diet was observed after adjustment (p=.037). A protective effect of raised serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels was observed after adjustment (p=.004). This study is the first assessment of the genetic and environmental influence on SIN perception. The findings suggest SIN is less heritable than pure tone audiogram (PTA) ability and highly influenced by the environment unique to each twin. Furthermore, a possible role of dietary fat in the etiology of ARHI is highlighted.

  6. Paradoxical effects of D-amphetamine in infant and adolescent mice: role of gender and environmental risk factors.

    PubMed

    Cirulli, F; Laviola, G

    2000-01-01

    The psychostimulant D-amphetamine (AMPH) increases generalised activity in adult subjects, while exerting a paradoxical "calming effect" in children with Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD). A number of animal models have been developed to characterise the neurobiological basis of this AMPH action. In this line, the present review summarises recent work on the effects of AMPH on behavioural and physiological parameters in developing mice with a special emphasis on the role of gender and environmental risk factors. Behavioural and neuroendocrine responses to AMPH administration (0, 1, or 3 mg/kg, IP) and their relation to changes in the environment, represented by social stimuli, were studied in infant CD-1 mouse pups of both sexes at three different developmental ages (3, 8, or 18 postnatal (pnd) days). Mouse pups were assessed either in baseline condition or following 24 h maternal deprivation. AMPH exerted a paradoxical effect on CORT secretion only in maternally deprived subjects while affecting behaviour mainly in deprived female subjects, which showed a generalised shift to the left in the dose-response curve to this drug. Unwanted perseverative motor effects and possible dependence states represent side effects of AMPH administration. Further knowledge on these aspects comes from another set of studies where a shortened conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm was employed to assess the reinforcing properties of AMPH (0, 1, 3.3, or 10 mg/kg) in developing mice on 14-17, 21-24, and 28-31 pnd. Data indicate that AMPH-CPP develops early, mice being able, already at two weeks of age, to acquire a place preference that relies on adult-like sensory, motor, and associative capacities. AMPH-CPP appears earlier in females, compared to males. A detailed analysis of acute D-amphetamine effects evidenced that the drug produces a dose-dependent increase in locomotor activity and in several responses (including stereotypes). These effects appear much larger

  7. [Influence of school environmental factors and learning on pupils' health].

    PubMed

    Shpangenberg, St; Boeva, B

    2003-01-01

    This study is a part of a comprehensive research conducted at 10 schools of different education types (general educational school, specialized gymnasiums, language schools, colleges, lyceums) that are situated in Sofia. A relationship between the factors that characterize school and the training environment, and the health status of pupils was established by using currently available statistical methods. The findings show that the discrepancy between the school and training environment and the sanitary requirements and standards affect both the general and school age-specific morbidity rates in pupils. Knowing the factors, which characterize school in accordance with the claimed educational goals, and schooling factors enables one to arrange all schools.

  8. Influence of environmental factors on the onset and course of inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Amit Kumar; Chacko, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Numerous environmental factors have been linked with inflammatory bowel disease. These include smoking, diet, hygiene, drugs, geographical and psychosocial factors. These factors may either increase the risk of or protect against developing this condition and can also affect the course of illness in a positive or negative manner. A number of studies have examined the influence of environmental factors on inflammatory bowel diseases as a whole as well as on ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease separately. As there are differences in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, the effect of environmental factors on their onset and course is not always similar. Some factors have shown a consistent association, while reports on others have been conflicting. In this article we discuss the current evidence on the roles of these factors on inflammatory bowel disease, both as causative/protective agents and as modifiers of disease course. PMID:26811649

  9. [Systematization and hygienic standardization of environmental factors on the basis of common graphic models].

    PubMed

    Galkin, A A

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of graphic models of the human response to environmental factors, two main types of complex quantitative influence as well as interrelation between determined effects at the level of an individual, and stochastic effects on population were revealed. Two main kinds of factors have been suggested to be distinguished. They are essential factors and accidental factors. The essential factors are common for environment. The accidental factors are foreign for environment. The above two kinds are different in approaches of hygienic standardization Accidental factors need a dot-like approach, whereas a two-level range approach is suitable for the essential factors.

  10. [Sonic booms--new environmental factor (bases for standardization)].

    PubMed

    Iuganov, E M; Krylov, Iu V; Kuznetsov, V S

    1976-01-01

    The paper discusses physical, psychophysiological and social aspects of a new type of sound effects--sonic shocks of supersonic vehicles. An up-to-date approach to the standardization of environmental effects should include a study of human physiological responses, comparison of the results of psychophysiological scaling with the available standards and prediction based on sociological questionnaires. This kind of standardization is illustrated. PMID:979115

  11. Is Hypovitaminosis D One of the Environmental Risk Factors for Multiple Sclerosis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierrot-Deseilligny, Charles; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    The role of hypovitaminosis D as a possible risk factor for multiple sclerosis is reviewed. First, it is emphasized that hypovitaminosis D could be only one of the risk factors for multiple sclerosis and that numerous other environmental and genetic risk factors appear to interact and combine to trigger the disease. Secondly, the classical…

  12. Stationwide environmental baseline survey and related environmental factors, Ontario Air National Guard Station, California

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-26

    This Environmental Baseline Survey (EBS) has been prepared to document the environmental condition of real property at Ontario Air National Guard Station (ANGS), California, resulting from the storage, release, and disposal of hazardous substances and petroleum products and their derivatives over the installations history. This EBS is also used by the Air Force to meet its obligations under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), 42 United States Code Section 9620(h), as amended by the Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) (Public Law 102-426). Table ES-1 list all uncontaminated property based on information obtained through a records search, interviews, and visual site inspections at Ontario ANGS. Figure ES-1 depicts their respective locations.

  13. Involvement of {gamma}-secretase in postnatal angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Hiroki; Nakagami, Hironori Takami, Yoichi; Sato, Naoyuki; Saito, Yukihiro; Nishikawa, Tomoyuki; Mori, Masaki; Koriyama, Hiroshi; Tamai, Katsuto; Morishita, Ryuichi; Kaneda, Yasufumi

    2007-11-23

    {gamma}-Secretase cleaves the transmembrane domains of several integral membrane proteins involved in vasculogenesis. Here, we investigated the role of {gamma}-secretase in the regulation of postnatal angiogenesis using {gamma}-secretase inhibitors (GSI). In endothelial cell (EC), {gamma}-secretase activity was up-regulated under hypoxia or the treatment of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The treatment of GSI significantly attenuated growth factor-induced EC proliferation and migration as well as c-fos promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner. In vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC), treatment of GSI significantly attenuated growth factor-induced VEGF and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) expression. Indeed, GSI attenuated VEGF-induced tube formation and inhibited FGF-2-induced angiogenesis on matrigel in mice as quantified by FITC-lectin staining of EC. Overall, we demonstrated that {gamma}-secretase may be key molecule in postnatal angiogenesis which may be downstream molecule of growth factor-induced growth and migration in EC, and regulate the expression of angiogenic growth factors in VSMC.

  14. Involvement of gamma-secretase in postnatal angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Hiroki; Nakagami, Hironori; Takami, Yoichi; Sato, Naoyuki; Saito, Yukihiro; Nishikawa, Tomoyuki; Mori, Masaki; Koriyama, Hiroshi; Tamai, Katsuto; Morishita, Ryuichi; Kaneda, Yasufumi

    2007-11-23

    gamma-Secretase cleaves the transmembrane domains of several integral membrane proteins involved in vasculogenesis. Here, we investigated the role of gamma-secretase in the regulation of postnatal angiogenesis using gamma-secretase inhibitors (GSI). In endothelial cell (EC), gamma-secretase activity was up-regulated under hypoxia or the treatment of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The treatment of GSI significantly attenuated growth factor-induced EC proliferation and migration as well as c-fos promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner. In vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC), treatment of GSI significantly attenuated growth factor-induced VEGF and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) expression. Indeed, GSI attenuated VEGF-induced tube formation and inhibited FGF-2-induced angiogenesis on matrigel in mice as quantified by FITC-lectin staining of EC. Overall, we demonstrated that gamma-secretase may be key molecule in postnatal angiogenesis which may be downstream molecule of growth factor-induced growth and migration in EC, and regulate the expression of angiogenic growth factors in VSMC. PMID:17888873

  15. Environmental factors influence lesser scaup migration chronology and population monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finger, Taylor A.; Afton, Alan D.; Schummer, Michael L.; Petrie, Scott A.; Badzinski, Shannon S.; Johnson, Michael A.; Szymanski, Michael L.; Jacobs, Kevin J.; Olsen, Glenn H.; Mitchell, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Identifying environmental metrics specific to lesser scaup (Aythya affinis; scaup) spring migration chronology may help inform development of conservation, management and population monitoring. Our objective was to determine how environmental conditions influence spring migration of lesser scaup to assess the effectiveness of the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey in accurately estimating scaup populations. We first compared peak timing of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and scaup migration from weekly ground surveys in North Dakota, USA because the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey is designed to capture annual mallard migration. As predicted, we detected that peak timing of scaup and mallard migrations differed in 25 of 36 years investigated (1980–2010). We marked scaup with satellite transmitters (n = 78; 7,403 locations) at Long Point, Lake Erie, Ontario, Canada; Pool 19 of the Mississippi River, Iowa and Illinois, USA; and Presque Isle Bay, Lake Erie, Pennsylvania, USA. We tested the assumption that our marked scaup were representative of the continental population using the traditional survey area by comparing timing of migration of marked birds and scaup counted in the North Dakota Game and Fish Department survey. We detected a strong positive correlation between marked scaup and the survey data, which indicated that marked scaup were representative of the population. We subsequently used our validated sample of marked scaup to investigate the effects of annual variation in temperature, precipitation, and ice cover on spring migration chronology in the traditional and eastern survey areas of the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey, 2005–2010. We evaluated competing environmental models to explain variation in timing and rate of scaup migration at large-scale and local levels. Spring migration of scaup occurred earlier and faster during springs with warmer temperatures and greater precipitation, variables known

  16. Effect of environmental factors on cuticular transpiration resistance.

    PubMed

    Moreshet, S

    1970-12-01

    Measurements of the various diffusive resistances to water vapor transport within the leaves of sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus) growing in a controlled environment chamber, were used to calculate values of cuticular resistance under a range of environmental conditions. Cuticular resistance to water loss was found to be inversely related to the relative humidity of the surrounding air, and it is suggested that such a mechanism would form a useful adaptation to arid conditions, enabling plants to maintain a more favorable internal water balance. PMID:16657551

  17. The effects of community environmental factors on obesity among Korean adults: a multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Nan-He; Kwon, Soonman

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study explored multidimensional factors related to obesity by dividing them into individual and environmental factors, and performed multilevel analysis to investigate community environmental effects. METHODS: Data from the 2011 and 2012 Community Health Surveys were used for the analysis. Community-level variables, constructed from various regional statistics, were included in the model as environmental factors. Respondents with body mass index (BMI)≥25 were defined as obese, and a multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted to analyze individual and environmental factors related to obesity. Moreover, a stratified analysis was conducted to compare factors related to obesity between men and women. RESULTS: Of 337,136 samples, 82,887 (24.6%) were obese, with BMI≥25. Sociodemographic characteristics at the individual level were mostly significantly related to obesity; however, while there were more obese men subjects among those with high socioeconomic status, there were more obese women among those with low socioeconomic status. There were fewer obese respondents among those who regularly walked and more obese respondents among those who reported short sleep duration or were highly stressed. At the community level, people living in areas with high socioeconomic status, high satisfaction with safety and public transportation, and high accessibility to sports facilities in their community had lower obesity risks. CONCLUSIONS: Community-level environmental factors affected obesity, especially perceived community environment, more significant than physical environment. Thus, it is necessary to develop effective obesity prevention and management strategies by considering potential community environmental factors that affect obesity. PMID:25666167

  18. DISPERSANT EFFECTIVENESS ON OIL SPILLS - IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When a dispersant is applied to an oil slick, its effectiveness in dispersing the spilled oil depends on various factors such as oil properties, wave mixing energy, temperature of both oil and water, and salinity of the water. Estuaries represent water with varying salinities. In...

  19. The Contribution of Home, Neighbourhood and School Environmental Factors in Explaining Physical Activity among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Haerens, Leen; Craeynest, Mietje; Deforche, Benedicte; Maes, Lea; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the influence of home, neighbourhood and school environmental factors on adolescents' engagement in self-reported extracurricular physical activity and leisure time sports and on MVPA objectively measured by accelerometers. Environmental factors were assessed using questionnaires. Gender specific hierarchical regression analyses were conducted, with demographic variables entered in the first block, and environmental, psychosocial factors and interactions terms entered in the second block. Participation in extracurricular activities at school was positively related to the number of organized activities and the provision of supervision. Perceived accessibility of neighborhood facilities was not related to engagement in leisure time sports, whereas the availability of sedentary and physical activity equipment was. Findings were generally supportive of ecological theories stating that behaviors are influenced by personal and environmental factors that are constantly interacting. PMID:20041023

  20. Investigating the Influence of Environmental Factors on Pesticide Exposure in Amphibians

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental factors such as temporal weather patterns and soil characterization coupled with pesticide application rates are known to influence exposure and subsequent absorption of these compounds in amphibians. Amphibians are a unique class of vertebrates due to their varied ...

  1. Importance of environmental factors on the richness and distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates in tropical headwater streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is essential to understand the interactions between local environmental factors (e.g., physical habitat and water quality) and aquatic assemblages to conserve biodiversity in tropical and subtropical headwater streams. Therefore, we evaluated the relative importance of multipl...

  2. Environmental risk factors and lung diseases in children: from guidelines to health effects.

    PubMed

    La Grutta, Stefania; Indinnimeo, Luciana; di Coste, Annalisa; Ferrante, Giuliana; Landi, Massimo; Pelosi, Umberto; Rusconi, Franca

    2013-10-01

    During the last decades research all over the world has highlighted the deleterious effects of outdoor and indoor pollution on respiratory health of adults and children. The World Health Organization (WHO) "Air quality guidelines for Europe" played a fundamental role in providing information and guidance to authorities involved in the air pollution field and they are considered the key source on which the European Commission's directive on air quality is based. Children appear to be most vulnerable to the harmful effects of outdoor pollutants, which can cause both acute exacerbations, as well as chronic respiratory symptoms and diseases. Possible mechanisms include the induction of oxidative stress, and/or allergic sensitization, as well as increased susceptibility to infections. Cigarette smoke is one of the environmental pollutant influencing morbidity and death rate in childhood as responsible for adverse health effects in both prenatal and postnatal. There is growing epidemiological evidence that indoor allergen exposure may contribute to the development of allergic respiratory symptoms. In Italy the housing and social situation, with regard to the aspects related to exposure to secondhand smoke or the presence of fungal spores, moisture linked to household vapor and poor ventilation of the rooms are problems still not completely resolved. From a medical point of view the field of pediatrics has certainly made great strides in promoting the health of children and pediatricians to have a central role for pursuing this objective. PMID:23972292

  3. Physical and biological factors influencing environmental sources of fecal indicator bacteria in surface water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith B.; Przybyla-Kelly, Katarzyna; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the environmental populations of faecal indicator bacteria, and the processes by which these populations become nonpoint sources and influence nearshore water quality. The different possible sources of these indicator bacteria are presented. These include groundwater, springs and seeps, aquatic sediments, beach sand, birds, Cladophora and plant wrack. Also discussed are the environmental factors (moisture, sunlight, temperature and salinity) influencing their survival.

  4. Diversity and Equity in Environmental Organizations: The Salience of These Factors to Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Dorceta E.

    2007-01-01

    Diversity in environmental institutions is of increasing concern to scholars and practitioners. The author examined student perceptions of the importance of 20 diversity and equity factors in their decisions to accept a job. A national sample of 1,239 students in 9 environmental disciplines (biological sciences, geosciences, natural resources,…

  5. META-ANALYSIS OF THE LIFE STYLE FACTORS RELEVANT TO ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS FOR THE AGING POPULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) study is to characterize activity patterns, physiological changes, and environmental exposures for the aging population. Meta analysis was performed on more than 2000 reviewed articles to evaluate the lifestyle factors ...

  6. Postnatal stability, tissue, and time specific effects of AHRR methylation change in response to maternal smoking in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Novakovic, Boris; Ryan, Joanne; Pereira, Natalie; Boughton, Berin; Craig, Jeffrey M; Saffery, Richard

    2014-03-01

    The intrauterine environment has the potential to "program" the developing fetus in a way that can be potentially deleterious to later health. While in utero environmental/stochastic factors are known to influence DNA methylation profile at birth, it has been difficult to assign specific examples of epigenetic variation to specific environmental exposures. Recently, several studies have linked exposure to smoking with DNA methylation change in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AHRR) gene in blood. This includes hypomethylation of AHRR in neonatal blood in response to maternal smoking in pregnancy. The role of AHRR as a negative regulator of pathways involved in pleiotropic responses to environmental contaminants raises the possibility that smoking-induced hypomethylation is an adaptive response to an adverse in utero environmental exposure. However, the tissue specificity of the response to maternal smoking, and the stability of the methylation changes early in life remain to be determined. In this study we analyzed AHRR methylation in three cell types-cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs), buccal epithelium, and placenta tissue-from newborn twins of mothers who smoked throughout pregnancy and matched controls. Further, we explored the postnatal stability of this change at 18 months. Our results confirm the previous association between maternal smoking and AHRR methylation in neonatal blood. In addition, this study expands the region of AHRR methylation altered in response to maternal smoking during pregnancy and reveals the tissue-specific nature of epigenetic responses to environmental exposures in utero. Further, the evidence for postnatal stability of smoking-induced epigenetic change supports a role for epigenetics as a mediator of long-term effects of specific in utero exposures in humans. Longitudinal analysis of further specific exposures in larger cohorts is required to examine the extent of this phenomenon in humans.

  7. Environmental risk factors for inflammatory bowel diseases: Evidence based literature review

    PubMed Central

    Abegunde, Ayokunle T; Muhammad, Bashir H; Bhatti, Owais; Ali, Tauseef

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Advances in genetics and immunology have contributed to the current understanding of the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). METHODS: The current opinion on the pathogenesis of IBD suggests that genetically susceptible individuals develop intolerance to dysregulated gut microflora (dysbiosis) and chronic inflammation develops as a result of environmental insults. Environmental exposures are innumerable with varying effects during the life course of individuals with IBD. Studying the relationship between environmental factors and IBD may provide the missing link to increasing our understanding of the etiology and increased incidence of IBD in recent years with implications for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Environmental factors are heterogeneous and genetic predisposition, immune dysregulation, or dysbiosis do not lead to the development of IBD in isolation. RESULTS: Current challenges in the study of environmental factors and IBD are how to effectively translate promising results from experimental studies to humans in order to develop models that incorporate the complex interactions between the environment, genetics, immunology, and gut microbiota, and limited high quality interventional studies assessing the effect of modifying environmental factors on the natural history and patient outcomes in IBD. CONCLUSION: This article critically reviews the current evidence on environmental risk factors for IBD and proposes directions for future research. PMID:27468219

  8. Simulating environmental and psychological acoustic factors of the operating room.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Christopher L; Dudaryk, Roman; Ayers, Andrew L; McNeer, Richard R

    2015-12-01

    In this study, an operating room simulation environment was adapted to include quadraphonic speakers, which were used to recreate a composed clinical soundscape. To assess validity of the composed soundscape, several acoustic parameters of this simulated environment were acquired in the presence of alarms only, background noise only, or both. These parameters were also measured for comparison from size-matched operating rooms at Jackson Memorial Hospital. The parameters examined included sound level, reverberation time, and predictive metrics of speech intelligibility in quiet and noise. It was found that the sound levels and acoustic parameters were comparable between the simulated environment and the actual operating rooms. The impact of the background noise on the perception of medical alarms was then examined, and was found to have little impact on the audibility of the alarms. This study is a first in kind report of a comparison between the environmental and psychological acoustical parameters of a hospital simulation environment and actual operating rooms.

  9. Role of environmental factors in axial skeletal dysmorphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Peter G; Tuan, Rocky S

    2010-06-01

    Approximately 1 in 1000 live births is afflicted with an axial skeletal defect. Although many of the known human teratogens can produce axial skeletal defects, the etiology of over half of the observed defects is unknown. The high morbidity associated with these defects demands that we continue to elucidate the mechanisms of axial skeletal teratogens. Advances in cell and molecular biology with respect to normal development and somitogenesis and the pathogenesis and mechanisms of teratogenesis are occurring at a tremendous rate. This allows teratologists and developmental toxicologists the opportunity to revisit old problems with new tools to elucidate common mechanisms between various environmental insults and discover novel targets that aid in the understanding of normal and pathogenic development of the spine.

  10. Foods, Drugs and Environmental Factors: Novel Kounis Syndrome Offenders.

    PubMed

    Kounis, Nicholas G; Giannopoulos, Sotiris; Soufras, George D; Kounis, George N; Goudevenos, John

    2015-01-01

    Kounis syndrome is hypersensitivity coronary disorder induced by various types of environmental exposures, drugs, conditions and stents. Allergic, hypersensitivity, anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions are associated with this syndrome. The disorder manifests as coronary spasms, acute myocardial infarction and stent thrombosis and affects the cerebral and mesenteric as well as coronary arteries. Importantly, its manifestations are broad and its etiology is continuously increasing. Recently, a variety of unusual etiologies have been reported including Anisakis simplex, scombroid syndrome, the use of Gelofusin or ultrasound contrast agents, kiwifruit, fly bites, and bee stings. Furthermore, losartan and the paradox of corticosteroid allergy have been implicated as possible causes. Although not rare, Kounis syndrome is infrequently diagnosed. Therefore, awareness of its etiology, manifestations and pathophysiology is important for providing the proper diagnosis and treatment and determining prognosis. PMID:26134186

  11. Environmental safety factors estimation in selection of water treatment technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutenyev, V. V.; Azhgirevich, A. I.; Kiryanova, L. F.; Gutenyeva, Ye. N.

    2003-04-01

    A number of southern regions of Russia are traditionally short of drinking water of good quality, especially in summer period or in the places of counter-terror operations. The multifactor analysis covered not only the quality of environmental waters, consumption structure, but the ability of technology to withstand eco terrorism as well. The research works resulted in prioritization of nonchemical combined technologies based on microfiltration and ultraviolet radiation with the use of various bacteriostatics built on ionic complexes of a number of metals, both fixed and mobile. In special operations held on the territory of Chechen Republic to ensure supply of water of guaranteed quality the efforts are focused on organizational activities on provision of traceability of water delivery process at all transportation stages, as well as on application of bacteriostatics in case of long-term water storage.

  12. Workload and environmental factors in hospital medication errors.

    PubMed

    Roseman, C; Booker, J M

    1995-01-01

    Nine hospital workload factors and seasonal changes in daylight and darkness were examined over a 5-year period in relation to nurse medication errors at a medical center in Anchorage, Alaska. Three workload factors, along with darkness, were found to be significant predictors of the risk of medication error. Errors increased with the number of patient days per month (OR/250 patient days = 1.61) and the number of shifts worked by temporary nursing staff (OR/10 shifts = 1.15); errors decreased with more overtime worked by permanent nursing staff members (OR/10 shifts = .85). Medication errors were 95% more likely in midwinter than in the fall, but the effect of increasing darkness was strongest; a 2-month delay was found between the level of darkness and the rate of errors. More than half of all medication errors occurred during the first 3 months of the year. PMID:7624233

  13. Abiotic environmental factors influencing blowfly colonisation patterns in the field.

    PubMed

    George, Kelly A; Archer, Melanie S; Toop, Tes

    2013-06-10

    The accuracy of minimum post-mortem interval (mPMI) estimates usually hinges upon the ability of forensic entomologists to predict the conditions under which calliphorids will colonise bodies. However, there can be delays between death and colonisation due to poorly understood abiotic and biotic factors, hence the need for a mPMI. To quantify the importance of various meteorological and light-level factors, beef liver baits were placed in the field (Victoria, Australia) on 88 randomly selected days over 3 years in all seasons and observed every 60-90 min for evidence of colonisation. Baits were exposed during daylight, and the following parameters were measured: barometric pressure, light intensity, wind speed, ambient temperature, relative humidity and rainfall. Collected data were analysed using backward LR logistic regression to produce an equation of colonisation probability. This type of analysis removes factors with the least influence on colonisation in successive steps until all remaining variables significantly increase the accuracy of predicting colonisation presence or absence. Ambient temperature was a positive predictor variable (an increase in temperature increased the probability of calliphorid colonisation). Relative humidity was a negative predictor variable (an increase in humidity decreased the probability of calliphorid colonisation). Barometric pressure, light intensity, wind speed and rainfall did not enhance the accuracy of the probability model; however, analysis of species activity patterns suggests that heavy rainfall and strong wind speeds inhibit calliphorid colonisation.

  14. Qualitative analysis of macro-environmental factors affecting soil venting efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, K.; Edwards, K.B.

    1995-09-01

    The efficiency of any soil vapor extraction operation has always been related to micro-environmental factors such as vapor flow rate, vapor flow path, and contaminant distribution and composition. However, it is not clear to what extent macroenvironmental factors such as barometric pressure, rainfall, temperature, and water table affect the operation of soil venting systems. The majority of research conducted to this date involves short term tests (less than one week), and the analysis assumes that the macro-environmental factors are constant over time. To assess the importance of macro-environmental factors, long term tests are necessary. Field tests using air extraction in vertical wells are evaluated in conjunction with the macro-environmental factors. Seven venting wells were installed at an uncontaminated sandy site. An automatic data acquisition system was set up to record the change of those macro-environmental factors and the pressures in the venting wells. The primary method of this qualitative study is to conduct long term tests (weeks or months duration) such that the effect of the environmental change can be characterized during the test.

  15. The effect of job and environmental factors on job satisfaction in automotive industries.

    PubMed

    Dawal, Siti Zawiah Md; Taha, Zahari

    2006-01-01

    A methodology was developed for diagnosing industrial work, which includes questionnaire, observation, measurements, data collection and statistical analysis. A survey was conducted to investigate the relationship between job satisfaction and factors that affect work design in 2 automotives manufacturing companies in Malaysia. A basic work design model was proposed. The aim of this model was to determine the factors that influence employees' perception towards their work. A set of multiple-choice questionnaires was developed and data was collected by interviewing employees at a production plant. The survey focused on job and environmental factors. The results supported the proposed model and showed that job and environmental factors were significantly related to job satisfaction. They highlighted the significant influence of age, work experience and marital status on job satisfaction. Further, environmental factors, especially the surroundings, context dependence and the building's function, also had a significant impact on job satisfaction.

  16. Rheumatic diseases induced by drugs and environmental factors: the state-of-the-art - part one.

    PubMed

    Niklas, Karolina; Niklas, Arkadiusz A; Majewski, Dominik; Puszczewicz, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    The majority of rheumatic diseases belong to the group of autoimmune diseases and are associated with autoantibody production. Their etiology is not fully understood. Certain medications and environmental factors may have an influence on the occurrence of rheumatic diseases. Establishing a cause-effect relationship between a certain factor and disease induction is not always simple. It is important to administer the drug continuously or monitor exposure to a given factor in the period preceding the onset of symptoms. The lack of previously diagnosed autoimmune disease, or finally the lack of symptoms within a few weeks/months after discontinuation of the drug/cessation of exposure, is also important. The most frequently mentioned rheumatic diseases caused by drugs and environmental factors include systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, systemic vasculitis, polymyositis, dermatomyositis, and Sjögren's syndrome. The objective of this study is to summarize current knowledge on rheumatic diseases induced by drugs and environmental factors. PMID:27504022

  17. [Social and environmental factors and mental health in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Gavrilova, S I; Kalyn, Ia B

    2002-01-01

    The paper gives data on trends in the prevalence of mental disease and disorders incidence in old age groups for 10 years (1984-1994) and analyzes whether macro- and microsocial factors can affect mental health in the elderly. Clinical and epidemiological surveys of 1109 examinees aged 60 years and older residing in a limited Moscow area have yielded morbidity rates for mental disease and disorders (including those by sex and age) in the population. Diagnoses was rated according to the International Classification of Disease (ICD-10). Varying mental disorders and nosological entities (without taking into account abnormalities) were found in 36.6% of examinees, including 6.1% with psychotic states, i.e. proper psychoses and clinical mental deficiency. Comparison of the results of two studies. One study was carried out in the 1980s and the present one performed 10 years later, that is, within the period of socioeconomic changes in the country, is indicative of a considerable growth of the morbidity rates in nonpsychotic forms of psychopathology of cerebrovascular genesis and psychogenic affective disorders among the Moscow elderly population. A correlation between the incidence of psychic pathology at an elderly age and different socioenvironmental factors has been studied. There are significant differences in accumulation of stress-induced life events in elderly patients with different psychopathology types. The obtained results confirm the author's assumption that the growth of psychic disorder morbidity rates, specifically, in non-psychotic forms of mental diseases of cerebrovascular genesis and psychogenic affective disorders in the past decade may be caused by increased stress-induced load on elderly people both in connection with unfavorable socioeconomic conditions of the reform epoch and a frustration of their outlook stereotypes. In the authors' opinion, their hypothesis on the correlation between the increase in the incidence of some psychogeriatric

  18. Importance of environmental and occupational factors in cancer.

    PubMed

    Higginson, J

    1980-01-01

    Geographic and temporal variations in cancer incidence, changes in migrants, differences between males and females, as well as case history studies are discussed. Cancers of the workplace can be divided into those related to "point-source" industrial pollution and those where the social milieu or "life-style" of the occupation play a role (e.g., job-associated cancers). In the future, considerably more effort is necessary in studying the life-style factors in specific occupational settings. It is important not to forget that occupational cancer is essentially an excess risk over the background risks. PMID:7463524

  19. Focusing on the human factor in environmental disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-01-01

    "When I wake up in the morning, I'm wondering, Is this going to be the day for the `aha,' when leaders around the country will come to grips with the problems that are there in front of them and be responsive to the information they already have?" Gerald Galloway, an expert in water resource policy and civil engineering, said during a 16 January discussion about human factors in disasters. The discussion was part of the 13th National Conference on Science, Policy and the Environment, held in Washington, D. C.

  20. Environmental factors that influence prescribed burning in the Northern Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kruse, A.D.; Higgins, K.F.; Piehl, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    Several environmental conditions were recorded and analyzed for 192 prescribed burns in the Northern Great Plains. The purpose of these burns was to improve wildlife habitat and manipulate native prairie vegetation. All of the fires occurred in grassland and shrubsteppe vegetation types. Fuels were predominantly grasses and forbs intermixed with patches of shrubs. Nearly all of the fuels were 0.05 cm/h, do not burn. However, these are good conditions to burn stockpiles of unwanted fuels that are usually high risk elements during regular prescribed burns.2) Produce partial burns. Partial burns are defined as those where fire is discontinuous and patches of standing and lodged vegetation are left unburned. Partial burns occur most often when fine fuels feel moist when handled, where less than 2 days have passed since the last measurable precipitation, and when cloud cover is complete. Other conditions associated with partial burns are relative humidities >50 percent, temperatures 32 km/h, relative humidities 35 deg.C. These conditions occur most often in July, August, and September, but can occur anytime from April through October.

  1. Impact of environmental factor variation on desertification: an example from the Shule River Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yushu; Li, Xiangyun; Wang, Lixin; Zhang, Hongqi

    2003-07-01

    Variation of environmental factors plays an important roll in the process of desertification. In this paper, taking Shule River as an example, the variation and correlation coefficient was calculated to evaluate the main environmental factors" changes and its relation to the state of desertification. The results obtained indicate that the variations of factors including meteorological factors and human active factors are obvious. Since 80"s the annual precipitation and annual number of sandstorm days have been declining in a fluctuating state. The population and the area of cultivated land have been increasing. The correlation analysis shows that there exist positive correlations between desertification and population and area of cultivated land. The correlation between area of desertification and annual wind speed, annual number of sandstorm days is significant. In Shule River area, desertification state has more obvious relation with human active factor, comparing with meteorological factors.

  2. Congenital lung lesions: Postnatal management and outcome.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Dakshesh H; Rasiah, Shree Vishna

    2015-08-01

    Antenatal diagnosis of lung lesion has become more accurate resulting in dilemma and controversies of its antenatal and postnatal management. Majority of antenatally diagnosed congenital lung lesions are asymptomatic in the neonatal age group. Large lung lesions cause respiratory compromise and inevitably require urgent investigations and surgery. The congenital lung lesion presenting with hydrops requires careful postnatal management of lung hypoplasia and persistent pulmonary hypertension. Preoperative stabilization with gentle ventilation with permissive hypercapnia and delayed surgery similar to congenital diaphragmatic hernia management has been shown to result in good outcome. The diagnostic investigations and surgical management of the asymptomatic lung lesions remain controversial. Postnatal management and outcome of congenital cystic lung lesions are discussed. PMID:26051048

  3. Postnatal care from an international perspective.

    PubMed

    Steinhauer, Suyai

    2016-01-01

    The postnatal period, defined as beginning with birth and ending after six weeks, is a time of major adaptation at all levels physically, emotionally, socially and psychologically. In the United Kingdom (UK), we put a lot of emphasis on birth preparation and how to look after yourself optimally before the birth, but once the new baby has arrived there is little support or emphasis on self-care. The focus after childbirth is primarily on the baby, with not much thought given to the mother, who is usually discharged from midwifery care on day 10, and whose partner is often back at work after a week or two. In other cultures there is much more emphasis on caring for new mothers, and this article will explore some of the different attitudes and approaches to postnatal care around the world, exploring the postnatal period from an international perspective.

  4. Postnatal care from an international perspective.

    PubMed

    Steinhauer, Suyai

    2016-01-01

    The postnatal period, defined as beginning with birth and ending after six weeks, is a time of major adaptation at all levels physically, emotionally, socially and psychologically. In the United Kingdom (UK), we put a lot of emphasis on birth preparation and how to look after yourself optimally before the birth, but once the new baby has arrived there is little support or emphasis on self-care. The focus after childbirth is primarily on the baby, with not much thought given to the mother, who is usually discharged from midwifery care on day 10, and whose partner is often back at work after a week or two. In other cultures there is much more emphasis on caring for new mothers, and this article will explore some of the different attitudes and approaches to postnatal care around the world, exploring the postnatal period from an international perspective. PMID:27652442

  5. Clinical, Genetic and Environmental Factors Associated with Congenital Vertebral Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Giampietro, P.F.; Raggio, C.L.; Blank, R.D.; McCarty, C.; Broeckel, U.; Pickart, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Congenital vertebral malformations (CVM) pose a significant health problem because they can be associated with spinal deformities, such as congenital scoliosis and kyphosis, in addition to various syndromes and other congenital malformations. Additional information remains to be learned regarding the natural history of congenital scoliosis and related health problems. Although significant progress has been made in understanding the process of somite formation, which gives rise to vertebral bodies, there is a wide gap in our understanding of how genetic factors contribute to CVM development. Maternal diabetes during pregnancy most commonly contributes to the occurrence of CVM, followed by other factors such as hypoxia and anticonvulsant medications. This review highlights several emerging clinical issues related to CVM, including pulmonary and orthopedic outcome in congenital scoliosis. Recent breakthroughs in genetics related to gene and environment interactions associated with CVM development are discussed. The Klippel-Feil syndrome which is associated with cervical segmentation abnormalities is illustrated as an example in which animal models, such as the zebrafish, can be utilized to provide functional evidence of pathogenicity of identified mutations. PMID:23653580

  6. Nociceptin and meiosis during spermatogenesis in postnatal testes.

    PubMed

    Eto, Ko

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorylated Rec8, a key component of cohesin, mediates the association and disassociation, "dynamics," of chromosomes occurring in synaptonemal complex formation, crossover recombination, and sister chromatid cohesion during meiosis in germ cells. Yet, the extrinsic factors triggering meiotic chromosome dynamics remained unclear. In postnatal testes, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) acts directly on somatic Sertoli cells to activate gene expression via an intracellular signaling pathway composed of cAMP, cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), and cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB), and promotes germ cell development and spermatogenesis indirectly. Yet, the paracrine factors mediating the FSH effects to germ cells remained elusive. We have shown that nociceptin, known as a neuropeptide, is upregulated by FSH signaling through cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway in Sertoli cells of postnatal murine testes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation from Sertoli cells demonstrated that CREB phosphorylated at Ser133 associates with prepronociceptin gene encoding nociceptin. Analyses with Sertoli cells and testes revealed that both prepronociceptin mRNA and the nociceptin peptide are induced after FSH signaling is activated. In addition, the nociceptin peptide is induced in testes after 9 days post partum following FSH surge. Thus, our findings may identify nociceptin as a novel paracrine mediator of the FSH effects in the regulation of spermatogenesis; however, very little has known about the functional role of nociceptin in spermatogenesis. We have shown that nociceptin induces Rec8 phosphorylation, triggering chromosome dynamics, during meiosis in spermatocytes of postnatal murine testes. The nociceptin receptor Oprl-1 is exclusively expressed in the plasma membrane of testicular germ cells, mostly spermatocytes. Treatment of testes with nociceptin resulted in a rapid phosphorylation of Rec8. Injection of nociceptin into mice stimulated Rec8 phosphorylation and meiotic chromosome

  7. Transgenic songbirds with suppressed or enhanced activity of CREB transcription factor

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Kentaro; Matsui, Sumiko; Watanabe, Dai

    2015-01-01

    Songbirds postnatally develop their skill to utter and to perceive a vocal signal for communication. How genetic and environmental influences act in concert to regulate the development of such skill is not fully understood. Here, we report the phenotype of transgenic songbirds with altered intrinsic activity of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) transcription factor. By viral vector-mediated modification of genomic DNA, we established germ line-transmitted lines of zebra finches, which exhibited enhanced or suppressed activity of CREB. Although intrinsically acquired vocalizations or their hearing ability were not affected, the transgenic birds showed reduced vocal learning quality of their own songs and impaired audio-memory formation against conspecific songs. These results thus demonstrate that appropriate activity of CREB is necessary for the postnatal acquisition of learned behavior in songbirds, and the CREB transgenic birds offer a unique opportunity to separately manipulate both genetic and environmental factors that impinge on the postnatal song learning. PMID:26048905

  8. Identifying Environmental Risk Factors of Cholera in a Coastal Area with Geospatial Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Min; Cao, Chunxiang; Wang, Duochun; Kan, Biao

    2014-01-01

    Satellites contribute significantly to environmental quality and public health. Environmental factors are important indicators for the prediction of disease outbreaks. This study reveals the environmental factors associated with cholera in Zhejiang, a coastal province of China, using both Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic information System (GIS). The analysis validated the correlation between the indirect satellite measurements of sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH) and ocean chlorophyll concentration (OCC) and the local cholera magnitude based on a ten-year monthly data from the year 1999 to 2008. Cholera magnitude has been strongly affected by the concurrent variables of SST and SSH, while OCC has a one-month time lag effect. A cholera prediction model has been established based on the sea environmental factors. The results of hot spot analysis showed the local cholera magnitude in counties significantly associated with the estuaries and rivers. PMID:25551518

  9. Epidemiology of Skin Cancer: Role of Some Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Fabbrocini, Gabriella; Triassi, Maria; Mauriello, Maria Chiara; Torre, Guglielma; Annunziata, Maria Carmela; Vita, Valerio De; Pastore, Francesco; D’Arco, Vincenza; Monfrecola, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    The incidence rate of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer entities is dramatically increasing worldwide. Exposure to UVB radiation is known to induce basal and squamous cell skin cancer in a dose-dependent way and the depletion of stratospheric ozone has implications for increases in biologically damaging solar UVB radiation reaching the earth’s surface. In humans, arsenic is known to cause cancer of the skin, as well as cancer of the lung, bladder, liver, and kidney. Exposure to high levels of arsenic in drinking water has been recognized in some regions of the world. SCC and BCC (squamous and basal cell carcinoma) have been reported to be associated with ingestion of arsenic alone or in combination with other risk factors. The impact of changes in ambient temperature will influence people’s behavior and the time they spend outdoors. Higher temperatures accompanying climate change may lead, among many other effects, to increasing incidence of skin cancer. PMID:24281212

  10. Perinatal and Early Childhood Environmental Factors Influencing Allergic Asthma Immunopathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gaffin, Jonathan M.; Kanchongkittiphon, Watcharoot; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of asthma has increased dramatically over the past several decades. While hereditary factors are highly important, the rapid rise outstrips the pace of genomic variation. Great emphasis has been placed on potential modifiable early life exposures leading to childhood asthma. Methods We reviewed the recent medical literature for important studies discussing the role of the perinatal and early childhood exposures and the inception of childhood asthma. Results and Discussion Early life exposure to allergens (House dust mite (HDM), furred pets, cockroach, rodent and mold)air pollution (nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and particulate matter (PM)) and viral respiratory tract infections (Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus (hRV)) have been implicated in the development of asthma in high risk children. Conversely, exposure to microbial diversity in the perinatal period may diminish the development of atopy and asthma symptoms. PMID:24952205

  11. A Secreted Factor Coordinates Environmental Quality with Bacillus Development

    PubMed Central

    Ababneh, Qutaiba O.; Tindall, Amanda J.; Herman, Jennifer K.

    2015-01-01

    Entry into sporulation is governed by the master regulator Spo0A. Spo0A accumulates in its active form, Spo0A-P, as cells enter stationary phase. Prior reports have shown that the acute induction of constitutively active Spo0A during exponential growth does not result in sporulation. However, a subsequent study also found that a gradual increase in Spo0A-P, mediated through artificial expression of the kinase, KinA, during exponential growth, is sufficient to trigger sporulation. We report here that sporulation via KinA induction depends on the presence of an extracellular factor or factors (FacX) that only accumulates to active levels during post-exponential growth. FacX is retained by dialysis with a cutoff smaller than 500 Dalton, can be concentrated, and is susceptible to proteinase K digestion, similar to described quorum-sensing peptides shown to be involved in promoting sporulation. However, unlike previously characterized peptides, FacX activity does not require the Opp or App oligopeptide transporter systems. In addition, FacX activity does not depend on SigH, Spo0A, or ComX. Importantly, we find that in the presence of FacX, B. subtilis can be induced to sporulate following the artificial induction of constitutively active Spo0A. These results indicate that there is no formal requirement for gradual Spo0A-P accumulation and instead support the idea that sporulation requires both sufficient levels of active Spo0A and at least one other signal or condition. PMID:26657919

  12. To open or to close: species-specific stomatal responses to simultaneously applied opposing environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Merilo, Ebe; Jõesaar, Indrek; Brosché, Mikael; Kollist, Hannes

    2014-04-01

    Plant stomatal responses to single environmental factors are well studied; however, responses to a change in two (or more) factors - a common situation in nature - have been less frequently addressed. We studied the stomatal responses to a simultaneous application of opposing environmental factors in six evolutionarily distant mono- and dicotyledonous herbs representing different life strategies (ruderals, competitors and stress-tolerators) to clarify whether the crosstalk between opening- and closure-inducing pathways leading to stomatal response is universal or species-specific. Custom-made gas exchange devices were used to study the stomatal responses to a simultaneous application of two opposing factors: decreased/increased CO2 concentration and light availability or reduced air humidity. The studied species responded similarly to changes in single environmental factors, but showed species-specific and nonadditive responses to two simultaneously applied opposing factors. The stomata of the ruderals Arabidopsis thaliana and Thellungiella salsuginea (previously Thellungiella halophila) always opened, whereas those of competitor-ruderals either closed in all two-factor combinations (Triticum aestivum), remained relatively unchanged (Nicotiana tabacum) or showed a response dominated by reduced air humidity (Hordeum vulgare). Our results, indicating that in changing environmental conditions species-specific stomatal responses are evident that cannot be predicted from studying one factor at a time, might be interesting for stomatal modellers, too. PMID:24392838

  13. Intrinsic Motivation and Environmental Factors Affecting Research of Social Work Faculty on Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Janice G.; Short, Glenda F. Lester

    2010-01-01

    Within the context of Self-determination Theory, this research identifies intrinsic motivation and environmental factors that support social-work-faculty research in aging. Intrinsic factors include faculty's interest in gerontology as a field of practice, the desire to advance knowledge in the field of gerontology, including producing…

  14. To open or to close: species-specific stomatal responses to simultaneously applied opposing environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Merilo, Ebe; Jõesaar, Indrek; Brosché, Mikael; Kollist, Hannes

    2014-04-01

    Plant stomatal responses to single environmental factors are well studied; however, responses to a change in two (or more) factors - a common situation in nature - have been less frequently addressed. We studied the stomatal responses to a simultaneous application of opposing environmental factors in six evolutionarily distant mono- and dicotyledonous herbs representing different life strategies (ruderals, competitors and stress-tolerators) to clarify whether the crosstalk between opening- and closure-inducing pathways leading to stomatal response is universal or species-specific. Custom-made gas exchange devices were used to study the stomatal responses to a simultaneous application of two opposing factors: decreased/increased CO2 concentration and light availability or reduced air humidity. The studied species responded similarly to changes in single environmental factors, but showed species-specific and nonadditive responses to two simultaneously applied opposing factors. The stomata of the ruderals Arabidopsis thaliana and Thellungiella salsuginea (previously Thellungiella halophila) always opened, whereas those of competitor-ruderals either closed in all two-factor combinations (Triticum aestivum), remained relatively unchanged (Nicotiana tabacum) or showed a response dominated by reduced air humidity (Hordeum vulgare). Our results, indicating that in changing environmental conditions species-specific stomatal responses are evident that cannot be predicted from studying one factor at a time, might be interesting for stomatal modellers, too.

  15. Comparison of Journal Citation Reports and Scopus Impact Factors for Ecology and Environmental Sciences Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Edward; Hodkinson, Sarah Z.

    2008-01-01

    Impact factors for journals listed under the subject categories "ecology" and "environmental sciences" in the Journal Citation Reports database were calculated using citation data from the Scopus database. The journals were then ranked by their Scopus impact factor and compared to the ranked lists of the same journals derived from Journal…

  16. [Evaluation of environmental factors affecting embryo development in vitro].

    PubMed

    Noda, Y

    1992-08-01

    Human in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) became an indispensable modality for treating infertile patients. The principle of this method is simple: that is, recovery of gametes from the gonads of men and women and transfer of the embryos into the uterus. This method can be expected, therefore, to be applied to many patients with a variety of causes of infertility. Unfortunately, the success rates are not satisfactory in the majority of clinics in the 14 years since the first report of a test tube in 1978. In view of improving the success rate, one major issue is the protocol used for ovulation induction, which may influence the quality of eggs as well as the environmental conditions in the endometrium at the time of embryo replacement. Another major issue should be the technique for embryo culture because, in general, mammalian embryos, including humans', are known to exhibit developmental retardation in vitro. In a significant number of embryos, cleavage is arrested at the first or second cell cycle when cultured under the conventional culture conditions. This phenomenon in rodents is known as "block to development in vitro" or "two-cell block in vitro". Recently, the mouse two-cell block was found to be attenuated by the addition of superoxide dismutase (SOD) to the culture medium. SOD is the enzyme that catalyzes the dismutation reaction of superoxide anion radicals: 2O2- + 2H(+)----H2O2 + O2. This suggests that developmental retardation in vitro may be related to the potential oxygen toxicity that embryos encounter in vitro. Following to this finding, a variety of culture conditions have been found to attenuate blocking phenomenon and to increase blastulation rate in the mouse embryos. By the addition of chemicals to the culture medium such as L-Cysteine, L-Ascorbic acid, EDTA, DTPA or thiredoxine, blastulation rates could be increased overcoming blocking phenomenon. From these findings, it seemed possible to hypothesize that developmental

  17. Effects of biological and environmental factors on activity rhythms of wild animals.

    PubMed

    Tester, J R; Figala, J

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews information on the effects of biological and environmental factors on activity rhythms of wild animals monitored by radio telemetry. Variations in radio signals received from free-ranging animals are used to determine the pattern of activity and rest. Telemetry is especially effective for obtaining activity data from wild animals at night and from those living in dense vegetation or underground. Biological factors such as breeding behavior, care of young, time of last eating, and food storage cause changes in daily activity patterns. Similarly, environmental factors such as temperature, snow cover, food supply and disturbance caused by humans in an urban setting also cause changes in daily activity patterns. The observed modifications of activity rhythms show that controlling mechanisms allow wild animals to quickly respond to changing biological and environmental factors.

  18. [CCA of water beetles' distribution and environmental factors in lentic samples of north Changbai Mountain].

    PubMed

    We, Yulian; Ji, Lanzhu; Wang, Miao; Zhao, Min

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between 28 species water beetles in 12 lentic samples and environmental factors of North Chang-bai Mountain was studied by Cononical Correspondence Analysis (CCA). The results showed that degree of underwater humus and altitude are the major factors correlated with beetles distribution, and the correlation coefficients of environmental factors and axes of CCA were 0.8371 and 0.7206 respectively, while water temperature and plant density also had certain effects. Under the influence of environmental factors, the water beetles' populations were different in different habitat. Coelambus impressopunctatus, Colymbetes magnus, Helophorus browni, Haliplus spp. distributed in deep water pool. Water temperature was not important for those beetles. Ilybius sp. and Limnebius glabriventris correlated with altitude and humus.

  19. The endocrine disruptors among the environmental risk factors for stillbirth.

    PubMed

    Roncati, Luca; Piscioli, Francesco; Pusiol, Teresa

    2016-09-01

    Persistent organic pollutants have been lately taken into consideration for their adverse effects, as possible stillbirth contributors; stillbirth can be in fact considered the most dramatic pregnancy complication. Congenital abnormalities account for few stillbirths and many related disorders are potentially modifiable or often coexist, such as maternal infections, non-communicable diseases, lifestyle factors and maternal age. Causal pathways for stillbirth frequently involve impaired placental function, either with fetal growth restriction or preterm labour. For this reason, many current efforts are focusing on the study of endocrine disruptor (ED) placental transfer, to better understand the in utero exposure dynamics. In this regard, our research group has investigated, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, the EDs presence in brain samples of 24 stillbirths, collected over a 3-year period (2012-2014), coming from the Northeast Italy, a notorious area devoted to apple cultivation. Surprisingly, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), well-known EDs, have been detected in 11 samples. Apart from the noteworthy evidence of pesticides' bio-persistence, this finding implies a redefinition of the placental barrier concept: not a real safety system, but a time-deferral mechanism of absorption. The term 'placental barrier' in fact refers to a 4-membrane structure, made up by two epithelial layers, which exactly lining the chorionic villi, and by two endothelial layers, belonging to the feeding vessels for the fetus. It is an effective barrier only for a low administration of water-soluble substances, which encounter obstacle to cross four instead of two membranes. High doses of water-soluble compounds can reach appreciable concentration in the fetal blood, and the lipid-soluble chemicals, such as EDs, are able to pass the placental barrier, through a simple mechanism of passive diffusion, even in minimal concentrations. After crossing the placental barrier, it is emerged

  20. The Influence of Environmental, Biotic and Spatial Factors on Diatom Metacommunity Structure in Swedish Headwater Streams

    PubMed Central

    Göthe, Emma; Angeler, David G.; Gottschalk, Steffi; Löfgren, Stefan; Sandin, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    Stream assemblages are structured by a combination of local (environmental filtering and biotic interactions) and regional factors (e.g., dispersal related processes). The relative importance of environmental and spatial (i.e., regional) factors structuring stream assemblages has been frequently assessed in previous large-scale studies, but biotic predictors (potentially reflecting local biotic interactions) have rarely been included. Diatoms may be useful for studying the effect of trophic interactions on community structure since: (1) a majority of experimental studies shows significant grazing effects on diatom species composition, and (2) assemblages can be divided into guilds that have different susceptibility to grazing. We used a dataset from boreal headwater streams in south-central Sweden (covering a spatial extent of ∼14000 km2), which included information about diatom taxonomic composition, abundance of invertebrate grazers (biotic factor), environmental (physicochemical) and spatial factors (obtained through spatial eigenfunction analyses). We assessed the relative importance of environmental, biotic, and spatial factors structuring diatom assemblages, and performed separate analyses on different diatom guilds. Our results showed that the diatom assemblages were mainly structured by environmental factors. However, unique spatial and biological gradients, specific to different guilds and unrelated to each other, were also evident. We conclude that biological predictors, in combination with environmental and spatial variables, can reveal a more complete picture of the local vs. regional control of species assemblages in lotic environments. Biotic factors should therefore not be overlooked in applied research since they can capture additional local control and therefore increase accuracy and performance of predictive models. The inclusion of biotic predictors did, however, not significantly influence the unique fraction explained by spatial factors

  1. The influence of environmental, biotic and spatial factors on diatom metacommunity structure in Swedish headwater streams.

    PubMed

    Göthe, Emma; Angeler, David G; Gottschalk, Steffi; Löfgren, Stefan; Sandin, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    Stream assemblages are structured by a combination of local (environmental filtering and biotic interactions) and regional factors (e.g., dispersal related processes). The relative importance of environmental and spatial (i.e., regional) factors structuring stream assemblages has been frequently assessed in previous large-scale studies, but biotic predictors (potentially reflecting local biotic interactions) have rarely been included. Diatoms may be useful for studying the effect of trophic interactions on community structure since: (1) a majority of experimental studies shows significant grazing effects on diatom species composition, and (2) assemblages can be divided into guilds that have different susceptibility to grazing. We used a dataset from boreal headwater streams in south-central Sweden (covering a spatial extent of ∼14000 km(2)), which included information about diatom taxonomic composition, abundance of invertebrate grazers (biotic factor), environmental (physicochemical) and spatial factors (obtained through spatial eigenfunction analyses). We assessed the relative importance of environmental, biotic, and spatial factors structuring diatom assemblages, and performed separate analyses on different diatom guilds. Our results showed that the diatom assemblages were mainly structured by environmental factors. However, unique spatial and biological gradients, specific to different guilds and unrelated to each other, were also evident. We conclude that biological predictors, in combination with environmental and spatial variables, can reveal a more complete picture of the local vs. regional control of species assemblages in lotic environments. Biotic factors should therefore not be overlooked in applied research since they can capture additional local control and therefore increase accuracy and performance of predictive models. The inclusion of biotic predictors did, however, not significantly influence the unique fraction explained by spatial factors

  2. Industry Efficiency and Total Factor Productivity Growth under Resources and Environmental Constraint in China

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Feng; Li, Ling; Xia, X. H.

    2012-01-01

    The growth of China's industry has been seriously depending on energy and environment. This paper attempts to apply the directional distance function and the Luenberger productivity index to measure the environmental efficiency, environmental total factor productivity, and its components at the level of subindustry in China over the period from 1999 to 2009 while considering energy consumption and emission of pollutants. This paper also empirically examines the determinants of efficiency and productivity change. The major findings are as follows. Firstly, the main sources of environmental inefficiency of China's industry are the inefficiency of gross industrial output value, the excessive energy consumption, and pollutant emissions. Secondly, the highest growth rate of environmental total factor productivity among the three industrial categories is manufacturing, followed by mining, and production and supply of electricity, gas, and water. Thirdly, foreign direct investment, capital-labor ratio, ownership structure, energy consumption structure, and environmental regulation have varying degrees of effects on the environmental efficiency and environmental total factor productivity. PMID:23365517

  3. Personal and social factors that influence pro-environmental concern and behaviour: a review.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Robert; Nilsson, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    We review the personal and social influences on pro-environmental concern and behaviour, with an emphasis on recent research. The number of these influences suggests that understanding pro-environmental concern and behaviour is far more complex than previously thought. The influences are grouped into 18 personal and social factors. The personal factors include childhood experience, knowledge and education, personality and self-construal, sense of control, values, political and world views, goals, felt responsibility, cognitive biases, place attachment, age, gender and chosen activities. The social factors include religion, urban-rural differences, norms, social class, proximity to problematic environmental sites and cultural and ethnic variations We also recognize that pro-environmental behaviour often is undertaken based on none of the above influences, but because individuals have non-environmental goals such as to save money or to improve their health. Finally, environmental outcomes that are a result of these influences undoubtedly are determined by combinations of the 18 categories. Therefore, a primary goal of researchers now should be to learn more about how these many influences moderate and mediate one another to determine pro-environmental behaviour. PMID:24821503

  4. Industry efficiency and total factor productivity growth under resources and environmental constraint in China.

    PubMed

    Tao, Feng; Li, Ling; Xia, X H

    2012-01-01

    The growth of China's industry has been seriously depending on energy and environment. This paper attempts to apply the directional distance function and the Luenberger productivity index to measure the environmental efficiency, environmental total factor productivity, and its components at the level of subindustry in China over the period from 1999 to 2009 while considering energy consumption and emission of pollutants. This paper also empirically examines the determinants of efficiency and productivity change. The major findings are as follows. Firstly, the main sources of environmental inefficiency of China's industry are the inefficiency of gross industrial output value, the excessive energy consumption, and pollutant emissions. Secondly, the highest growth rate of environmental total factor productivity among the three industrial categories is manufacturing, followed by mining, and production and supply of electricity, gas, and water. Thirdly, foreign direct investment, capital-labor ratio, ownership structure, energy consumption structure, and environmental regulation have varying degrees of effects on the environmental efficiency and environmental total factor productivity. PMID:23365517

  5. Personal and social factors that influence pro-environmental concern and behaviour: a review.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Robert; Nilsson, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    We review the personal and social influences on pro-environmental concern and behaviour, with an emphasis on recent research. The number of these influences suggests that understanding pro-environmental concern and behaviour is far more complex than previously thought. The influences are grouped into 18 personal and social factors. The personal factors include childhood experience, knowledge and education, personality and self-construal, sense of control, values, political and world views, goals, felt responsibility, cognitive biases, place attachment, age, gender and chosen activities. The social factors include religion, urban-rural differences, norms, social class, proximity to problematic environmental sites and cultural and ethnic variations We also recognize that pro-environmental behaviour often is undertaken based on none of the above influences, but because individuals have non-environmental goals such as to save money or to improve their health. Finally, environmental outcomes that are a result of these influences undoubtedly are determined by combinations of the 18 categories. Therefore, a primary goal of researchers now should be to learn more about how these many influences moderate and mediate one another to determine pro-environmental behaviour.

  6. [Environmental factors. Opportunities and barriers for physical activity and healthy eating among children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Huybrechts, I; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Buck, C; De Henauw, S

    2010-07-01

    While genetic factors play a role in the development of obesity, its dramatic increase in prevalence over the past few years strongly suggests an important environmental role. The results of a review on environmental opportunities and barriers for physical activity and dietary intake influencing the obesity epidemic among children and adolescents are presented. Although evidence clearly shows the impact of the environment on obesity-related lifestyle factors among children, evidence for effective strategies combating this obesogenic environment is scarce. Interventions aiming to change environmental factors to reduce childhood obesity may include providing extra sporting facilities and healthy foods/meals at school (e.g., provision of fruit), efforts to improve safety and accessibility of walking, cycling, and play areas, while at the same time attempting to influence social values attached to weight, food, or physical activity. Some level of institutionalization of systems that support the desired changes is required to sustain long-term environmental changes (e.g., ban of softdrinks at school). Better-designed and -conducted research on the true importance of environmental factors for obesogenic behavioral change is needed to achieve success of large-scale environmental change interventions.

  7. Stress during a Critical Postnatal Period Induces Region-Specific Structural Abnormalities and Dysfunction of the Prefrontal Cortex via CRF1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao-Dun; Liao, Xue-Mei; Uribe-Mariño, Andrés; Liu, Rui; Xie, Xiao-Meng; Jia, Jiao; Su, Yun-Ai; Li, Ji-Tao; Schmidt, Mathias V; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Si, Tian-Mei

    2015-01-01

    During the early postnatal period, environmental influences play a pivotal role in shaping the development of the neocortex, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC) that is crucial for working memory and goal-directed actions. Exposure to stressful experiences during this critical period may disrupt the development of PFC pyramidal neurons and impair the wiring and function of related neural circuits. However, the molecular mechanisms of the impact of early-life stress on PFC development and function are not well understood. In this study, we found that repeated stress exposure during the first postnatal week hampered dendritic development in layers II/III and V pyramidal neurons in the dorsal agranular cingulate cortex (ACd) and prelimbic cortex (PL) of neonatal mice. The deleterious effects of early postnatal stress on structural plasticity persisted to adulthood only in ACd layer V pyramidal neurons. Most importantly, concurrent blockade of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF1) by systemic antalarmin administration (20 μg/g of body weight) during early-life stress exposure prevented stress-induced apical dendritic retraction and spine loss in ACd layer V neurons and impairments in PFC-dependent cognitive tasks. Moreover, the magnitude of dendritic regression, especially the shrinkage of apical branches, of ACd layer V neurons predicted the degree of cognitive deficits in stressed mice. Our data highlight the region-specific effects of early postnatal stress on the structural plasticity of prefrontal pyramidal neurons, and suggest a critical role of CRF1 in modulating early-life stress-induced prefrontal abnormalities. PMID:25403725

  8. Determinants of antenatal care, institutional delivery and postnatal care services utilization in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Dahiru, Tukur; Oche, Oche Mansur

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Utilization of antenatal care, institutional delivery and postnatal care services in Nigeria are poor even by african average. Methods We analysed the 2013 Nigeria DHS to determine factors associated with utilization of these health MCH indicators by employing both bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions. Results Overall, 54% of women had at least four ANC visits, 37% delivered in health facility and 29% of new born had postnatal care within two of births. Factors that consistently predict the utilization of the three MCH services are maternal and husband's level education, place of residence, wealth level and parity. Antenatal care strongly predicts both health facility delivery (OR = 2.16, 95%CI: 1.99-2.34) and postnatal care utilization (OR = 4.67, 95%CI: 3.95-5.54); while health facility delivery equally predicting postnatal care (OR = 2.84, 95%CI: 2.20-2.80). Conclusion Improving utilization of these three MCH indicators will require targeting women in the rural areas and those with low level of education as well as creating demand for health facility delivery. Improving ANC use by making it available and accessible will have a multiplier effect of improving facility delivery which will lead to improved postnatal care utilization. PMID:26587168

  9. Coadaptation of prenatal and postnatal maternal effects.

    PubMed

    Lock, Judith E; Smiseth, Per T; Moore, Patricia J; Moore, Allen J

    2007-11-01

    In a wide variety of species, a female's age of first reproduction influences offspring size and survival, suggesting that there exists an optimal timing of reproduction. Mothers in many species also influence offspring size and survival after birth through variation in parental care. We experimentally separated these effects in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides to test for coadaptation between prenatal and postnatal maternal effects associated with age at first reproduction. Females that reproduced early produced offspring with lower birth weight. The amount of parental care depended on the age of first reproduction of the caretaker, as did the extent of offspring begging. As predicted for a coadaptation of maternal effects, prenatal and postnatal effects were opposite for different-aged mothers, and larval weight gain and survival was greatest when the age of the caretaker and birth mother matched. Thus, prenatal effects intrinsically associated with age of first reproduction can be ameliorated by innate plasticity in postnatal care. A coadaptation of prenatal and postnatal maternal effects may evolve to allow variable timing of the first reproductive attempt. Such a coadaptation might be particularly valuable when females are constrained from reproducing at an optimal age, as, for example, in species that breed on scarce and unpredictable resources.

  10. Postnatal Testosterone Concentrations and Male Social Development

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Gerianne M.

    2014-01-01

    Converging evidence from over 40 years of behavioral research indicates that higher testicular androgens in prenatal life and at puberty contribute to the masculinization of human behavior. However, the behavioral significance of the transient activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis in early postnatal life remains largely unknown. Although early research on non-human primates indicated that suppression of the postnatal surge in testicular androgens had no measurable effects on the later expression of the male behavioral phenotype, recent research from our laboratory suggests that postnatal testosterone concentrations influence male infant preferences for larger social groups and temperament characteristics associated with the later development of aggression. In later assessment of gender-linked behavior in the second year of life, concentrations of testosterone at 3–4 months of age were unrelated to toy choices and activity levels during toy play. However, higher concentrations of testosterone predicted less vocalization in toddlers and higher parental ratings on an established screening measure for autism spectrum disorder. These findings suggest a role of the transient activation of the HPG axis in the development of typical and atypical male social relations and suggest that it may be useful in future research on the exaggerated rise in testosterone secretion in preterm infants or exposure to hormone disruptors in early postnatal life to include assessment of gender-relevant behavioral outcomes, including childhood disorders with sex-biased prevalence rates. PMID:24600437

  11. Post-natal imprinting: evidence from marsupials

    PubMed Central

    Stringer, J M; Pask, A J; Shaw, G; Renfree, M B

    2014-01-01

    Genomic imprinting has been identified in therian (eutherian and marsupial) mammals but not in prototherian (monotreme) mammals. Imprinting has an important role in optimising pre-natal nutrition and growth, and most imprinted genes are expressed and imprinted in the placenta and developing fetus. In marsupials, however, the placental attachment is short-lived, and most growth and development occurs post-natally, supported by a changing milk composition tailor-made for each stage of development. Therefore there is a much greater demand on marsupial females during post-natal lactation than during pre-natal placentation, so there may be greater selection for genomic imprinting in the mammary gland than in the short-lived placenta. Recent studies in the tammar wallaby confirm the presence of genomic imprinting in nutrient-regulatory genes in the adult mammary gland. This suggests that imprinting may influence infant post-natal growth via the mammary gland as it does pre-natally via the placenta. Similarly, an increasing number of imprinted genes have been implicated in regulating feeding and nurturing behaviour in both the adult and the developing neonate/offspring in mice. Together these studies provide evidence that genomic imprinting is critical for regulating growth and subsequently the survival of offspring not only pre-natally but also post-natally. PMID:24595366

  12. Postnatal testosterone concentrations and male social development.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Gerianne M

    2014-01-01

    Converging evidence from over 40 years of behavioral research indicates that higher testicular androgens in prenatal life and at puberty contribute to the masculinization of human behavior. However, the behavioral significance of the transient activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in early postnatal life remains largely unknown. Although early research on non-human primates indicated that suppression of the postnatal surge in testicular androgens had no measurable effects on the later expression of the male behavioral phenotype, recent research from our laboratory suggests that postnatal testosterone concentrations influence male infant preferences for larger social groups and temperament characteristics associated with the later development of aggression. In later assessment of gender-linked behavior in the second year of life, concentrations of testosterone at 3-4 months of age were unrelated to toy choices and activity levels during toy play. However, higher concentrations of testosterone predicted less vocalization in toddlers and higher parental ratings on an established screening measure for autism spectrum disorder. These findings suggest a role of the transient activation of the HPG axis in the development of typical and atypical male social relations and suggest that it may be useful in future research on the exaggerated rise in testosterone secretion in preterm infants or exposure to hormone disruptors in early postnatal life to include assessment of gender-relevant behavioral outcomes, including childhood disorders with sex-biased prevalence rates.

  13. Radiology of postnatal skeletal development. Pt. 7

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, J.A.; Phillips, S.B.

    1983-02-01

    Twenty-four pairs of scapulae from fetal specimens and 35 pairs of scapulae from postnatal cadavers ranging in age from full-term neonates to 14 years, were studied morphologically and roentgenographically. Air-cartilage interfacing was used to demonstrate both the osseous and cartilaginous contours. When the entire chondro-osseous dimensions, rather than just the osseous dimensions, were measured, the scapula had a height-width ratio ranging from 1.36 to 1.52 (average 1.44) during most of fetal development. The exceptions were three stillborns with camptomelic, thanatophoric, and achondrogenic dwarfism in which the ratio averaged 0.6. At no time during fetal development was the glenoid cavity convex; it always had a concave articular surface. However, the osseous subchrondral countour was often flat or slightly convex. In the postnatal period the height-width ratio averaged 1.49. The ratio remained virtually unchanged throughout skeletal growth and maturation. In a patient with unilateral Sprengel's deformity the ratio for the normal side was 1.5, while the abnormal was 1.0. The cartilaginous glenoid cavity was always concave during postnatal development, even in the specimens with major structural deformities, although the subchondral osseous contour was usually flat or convex during the first few years of postnatal development. Ossification of the coracoid process began with the development of a primary center at three to four months. A bipolar physis was present between the primary coracoid center and the primary scapular center until late adolescence.

  14. [Relationships between characteristics of ground bryophyte communities and environmental factors in urban area of Chongqing, China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Pi, Chun-yan; Tian, Shang

    2015-10-01

    The present study focused on bryophyte species composition, species diversity and the relationship between bryophyte communities and environmental factors in urban area of Chongqing City, by using biodiversity indices and the canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), based on the data of 44 plots. The results revealed that 86 species belonging to 43 genera and 25 families were found in saxicolous bryophyte communities, while 46 species belonging to 28 genera and 22 families were found in terricolous ones. The diversity indices of both saxicolous and terricolous bryophyte communities from campuses were higher than those of parks, natural scenic resorts, Jinyunshan National Nature Reserve. TWINSPAN classified saxicolous and terricolous bryophyte communities into three and two groups, respectively. CCA results showed canopy density was the major environmental factor of saxicolous bryophyte communities influencing bryophyte distribution in parks and campuses, whereas altitude, relative humidity and human disturbance were the major environmental factors in natural scenic resorts and nature reserve. Soil pH, canopy density and human disturbance were the major environmental factors in terricolous bryophyte communities in parks and campuses, whereas altitude, relative humidity and water content of the soil were the major environmental factors in those of natural scenic resorts and nature reserve.

  15. [Relationships between characteristics of ground bryophyte communities and environmental factors in urban area of Chongqing, China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Pi, Chun-yan; Tian, Shang

    2015-10-01

    The present study focused on bryophyte species composition, species diversity and the relationship between bryophyte communities and environmental factors in urban area of Chongqing City, by using biodiversity indices and the canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), based on the data of 44 plots. The results revealed that 86 species belonging to 43 genera and 25 families were found in saxicolous bryophyte communities, while 46 species belonging to 28 genera and 22 families were found in terricolous ones. The diversity indices of both saxicolous and terricolous bryophyte communities from campuses were higher than those of parks, natural scenic resorts, Jinyunshan National Nature Reserve. TWINSPAN classified saxicolous and terricolous bryophyte communities into three and two groups, respectively. CCA results showed canopy density was the major environmental factor of saxicolous bryophyte communities influencing bryophyte distribution in parks and campuses, whereas altitude, relative humidity and human disturbance were the major environmental factors in natural scenic resorts and nature reserve. Soil pH, canopy density and human disturbance were the major environmental factors in terricolous bryophyte communities in parks and campuses, whereas altitude, relative humidity and water content of the soil were the major environmental factors in those of natural scenic resorts and nature reserve. PMID:26995924

  16. Shift-work disorder and sleep-related environmental factors in the manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Taniyama, Yukari; Nakamura, Arisa; Yamauchi, Takenori; Takeuchi, Shouhei; Kuroda, Yoshiki

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between shift-work disorder (SWD) and environmental and somatic factors related to falling asleep among rapidly rotating shift workers in a manufacturing industry.A total of 556 male workers were recruited to complete a self-administered questionnaire regarding age, shift work experience, lifestyle, and family structure; the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS); the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI); and the Horne and Ostberg questionnaire, a questionnaire for environmental and somatic factors related to falling asleep. We classified workers according to having SWD or not, and compared workers with SWD with those without this disorder in terms of all items covered in the aforementioned questionnaires. A total of 208 workers (62.8%) working rapidly rotating shifts were diagnosed with SWD. The ESS and PSQI scores and scores for environmental and somatic factors were significantly higher in workers with SWD than in those without this disorder. The ESS scores and scores for environmental and somatic factors were also associated with SWD in the logistic regression analyses. We suggest that susceptibility to SWD in the manufacturing industry may be associated with environmental and somatic factors related to falling asleep. PMID:25787096

  17. Life on the boundary: Environmental factors as drivers of habitat distribution in the littoral zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cefalì, Maria Elena; Cebrian, Emma; Chappuis, Eglantine; Pinedo, Susana; Terradas, Marc; Mariani, Simone; Ballesteros, Enric

    2016-04-01

    The boundary between land and sea, i.e. the littoral zone, is home to a large number of habitats whose distribution is primarily driven by the distance to the sea level but also by other environmental factors such as littoral's geomorphological features, wave exposure, water temperature or orientation. Here we explore the relative importance of those major environmental factors that drive the presence of littoral rocky habitats along 1100 Km of Catalonia's shoreline (Spain, NW Mediterranean) by using Geographic Information Systems and Generalized Linear Models. The distribution of mediolittoral and upper infralittoral habitats responded to different environmental factors. Mediolittoral habitats showed regional differences drawn by sea-water temperature and substrate type. Wave exposure (hydrodynamism), slope and geological features were only relevant to those mediolittoral habitats with specific environmental needs. We did not find any regional pattern of distribution in upper infralittoral habitats, and selected factors only played a moderate role in habitat distribution at the local scale. This study shows for the first time that environmental factors determining habitat distribution differ within the mediolittoral and the upper infralittoral zones and provides the basis for further development of models oriented at predicting the distribution of littoral marine habitats.

  18. [Effect of environmental factors on fish community structure in the Huntai River Basin at multiple scales].

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-li; Li, Yan-fen; Xu, Zong-xue

    2014-09-01

    In June 2012, fishes was investigated at 65 sampling sites in the Huntai River basin in Northeast of China. Forty species were collected, belonging to 9 orders, 14 families,33 genera. Cobitidae and Cyprinidae were the dominant fishes in the community structure in the Huntai River basin, accounting for 13. 21% and 65. 83% of the fish community, respectively. There were two types of spatial distribution of fish community, one was distributed in the head water and tributaries in the upstream, and the other was in the plain rivers. Nemachilus nudus, Cobitis granoei and Phoxinus lagowskii dominated the local community in the upper reaches of the Dahuofang Reservoir and shenwo River, while Carassius ayratus and Hemiculter leucisculdus dominated the local community in the plain rivers. CCA (canonical correspondence analysis) was used to distinguish the primary environmental variables that affected the fish community structure. The results indicated fish community was mainly affected by environment factors at watershed and reach scales. Proportions of woodland and urban land, and altitude were three important environmental factors affecting the fish community at the watershed scale. Dissolved oxygen, total nitrogen, pH and habitat inhomogeneity significantly affected the fish community at the reach scale, whereas substrate didn't show significant influence at the microhabitat scale. Environmental factors at watershed scale explained 7. 66% of the variation of fish community structure, environmental factors at reach scale explained 10. 57% of the variation of fish community structure. Environmental factors at reach scale influenced the fish community more significantly.

  19. Individual and Environmental Factors Influencing Adolescents’ Dietary Behavior in Low- and Middle-Income Settings

    PubMed Central

    Verstraeten, Roosmarijn; Leroy, Jef L.; Pieniak, Zuzanna; Ochoa-Avilès, Angélica; Holdsworth, Michelle; Verbeke, Wim; Maes, Lea; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Objective Given the public health importance of improving dietary behavior in chronic disease prevention in low- and middle-income countries it is crucial to understand the factors influencing dietary behavior in these settings. This study tested the validity of a conceptual framework linking individual and environmental factors to dietary behavior among Ecuadorian adolescents aged 10–16 years. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 784 school-going Ecuadorian adolescents in urban and rural Southern Ecuador. Participants provided data on socio-economic status, anthropometry, dietary behavior and its determining factors. The relationships between individual (perceived benefits and barriers, self-efficacy, habit strength, and a better understanding of healthy food) and environmental factors (physical environment: accessibility to healthy food; social environment: parental permissiveness and school support), and their association with key components of dietary behavior (fruit and vegetables, sugary drinks, breakfast, and unhealthy snack intake) were assessed using structural equation modeling. Results The conceptual model performed well for each component of eating behavior, indicating acceptable goodness-of-fit for both the measurement and structural models. Models for vegetable intake and unhealthy snacking showed significant and direct effects of individual factors (perceived benefits). For breakfast and sugary drink consumption, there was a direct and positive association with socio-environmental factors (school support and parental permissiveness). Access to healthy food was associated indirectly with all eating behaviors (except for sugary drink intake) and this effect operated through socio-environmental (parental permissiveness and school support) and individual factors (perceived benefits). Conclusion Our study demonstrated that key components of adolescents’ dietary behaviors are influenced by a complex interplay of individual and

  20. Regional Myelin and Axon Damage and Neuroinflammation in the Adult Mouse Brain After Long-Term Postnatal Vanadium Exposure.

    PubMed

    Azeez, Idris A; Olopade, Funmilayo; Laperchia, Claudia; Andrioli, Anna; Scambi, Ilaria; Onwuka, Silas K; Bentivoglio, Marina; Olopade, James O

    2016-09-01

    Environmental exposure to vanadium occurs in areas of persistent burning of fossil fuels; this metal is known to induce oxidative stress and oligodendrocyte damage. Here, we determined whether vanadium exposure (3 mg/kg) in mice during the first 3 postnatal months leads to a sustained neuroinflammatory response. Body weight monitoring, and muscle strength and open field tests showed reduction of body weight gain and locomotor impairment in vanadium-exposed mice. Myelin histochemistry and immunohistochemistry for astrocytes, microglia, and nonphosphorylated neurofilaments revealed striking regional heterogeneity. Myelin damage involved the midline corpus callosum and fibers in cortical gray matter, hippocampus, and diencephalon that were associated with axonal damage. Astrocyte and microglial activation was identified in the same regions and in the internal capsule; however, no overt myelin and axon damage was observed in the latter. Double immunofluorescence revealed induction of high tumor necrosis factor (TNF) immunoreactivity in reactive astrocytes. Western blotting analysis showed significant induction of TNF and interleukin-1β expression. Together these findings show that chronic postnatal vanadium exposure leads to functional deficit and region-dependent myelin damage that does not spare axons. This injury is associated with glial cell activation and proinflammatory cytokine induction, which may reflect both neurotoxic and neuroprotective responses. PMID:27390101

  1. [Effects of environmental factors on litter decomposition in arid and semi-arid regions: A review].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Yuan; Zhao, Xue-Yong; Li, Yu-Lin; Lian, Jie; Qu, Hao; Yue, Xiang-Fei

    2013-11-01

    Litter decomposition is one of the important biochemical processes in arid and semi-arid regions, and a key component of regional nutrient turnover and carbon cycling, which is mainly affected by climate, litter quality, and decomposer community. In order to deeply understand the relationships between litter decomposition and environmental factors in arid and semi-arid regions, this paper summarized the research progress in the effects of abiotic factors (soil temperature, precipitation, and ultraviolet-B radiation) and biotic factors (litter quality, soil microbial and animal composition and community structure) on the litter decomposition in these regions. Among the factors, precipitation and ultraviolet-B radiation are considered to be the main limiting factors of litter decomposition. In arid and semi-arid regions, precipitation can significantly increase the litter decomposition rate in a short term, while the photo-degradation induced by ultraviolet-B radiation, due to the strong and long-term radiation, can increase the decomposition rate of terrestrial litter. Litter quality, soil microbial and animal composition and community structure are mainly affected by the type of ecosystems in a long term. However, the affecting mechanisms of these environmental factors on litter decomposition are still not very clear. It was suggested that the future litter ecological research should be paid more attention to the interaction of environmental factors under climate change, the variations of litter decomposition at different spatial scales, and the establishment of litter decomposition models in relation to the synergistic interactions of multiple factors. PMID:24564163

  2. [Effects of environmental factors on litter decomposition in arid and semi-arid regions: A review].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Yuan; Zhao, Xue-Yong; Li, Yu-Lin; Lian, Jie; Qu, Hao; Yue, Xiang-Fei

    2013-11-01

    Litter decomposition is one of the important biochemical processes in arid and semi-arid regions, and a key component of regional nutrient turnover and carbon cycling, which is mainly affected by climate, litter quality, and decomposer community. In order to deeply understand the relationships between litter decomposition and environmental factors in arid and semi-arid regions, this paper summarized the research progress in the effects of abiotic factors (soil temperature, precipitation, and ultraviolet-B radiation) and biotic factors (litter quality, soil microbial and animal composition and community structure) on the litter decomposition in these regions. Among the factors, precipitation and ultraviolet-B radiation are considered to be the main limiting factors of litter decomposition. In arid and semi-arid regions, precipitation can significantly increase the litter decomposition rate in a short term, while the photo-degradation induced by ultraviolet-B radiation, due to the strong and long-term radiation, can increase the decomposition rate of terrestrial litter. Litter quality, soil microbial and animal composition and community structure are mainly affected by the type of ecosystems in a long term. However, the affecting mechanisms of these environmental factors on litter decomposition are still not very clear. It was suggested that the future litter ecological research should be paid more attention to the interaction of environmental factors under climate change, the variations of litter decomposition at different spatial scales, and the establishment of litter decomposition models in relation to the synergistic interactions of multiple factors.

  3. Human factors in environmental management: New directions from the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, J.A.; Savage, S.F.

    1992-10-01

    Environmental management is the general term given to modern attempts to seek technological solutions to certain constrained environmental problems. it involves developing and applying new technologies that respond to changes in environmental policy. It does not eliminate the need for environmental ethics'' in society. Nor does it substitute for the fundamental changes in political and social structures that are needed for dealing with large-scale environmental issues. The scope of these issues can be illustrated by looking at the Hanford Site. Since 1943, the 560-square-mile Hanford Site in southeastern Washington state has been the production source of much of the nuclear weapons-grade radioactive materials for the United States. The legacy of 50 years of producing fissile materials has been an environmental cleanup problem of impressive proportions. In 1989, with the Cold War winding down, Secretary of Energy James Watkins established a new vision for Hanford as the flagship for waste management research.'' As plans and preparations for cleanup work proceed at the Hanford Site and around the world, the need for well-orchestrated environmental management methodologies has become increasingly apparent. In 1990, a Human Factors Engineering Group was established in the Technology Planning and Analysis Center at PNL to provide appropriate support for the Laboratory's research efforts. At an ever-increasing rate, these research efforts require integrating human performance into complex environmental technology systems. The endeavor of responding to the Laboratory's research needs has provided innovative opportunities for the application of the concept of Human Factors. Discussed are some of the major applications of Human Factors to environmental management.

  4. Critical Environmental Factors for Transportation Cycling in Children: A Qualitative Study Using Bike-Along Interviews

    PubMed Central

    Ghekiere, Ariane; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; de Geus, Bas; Clarys, Peter; Cardon, Greet; Salmon, Jo; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte

    2014-01-01

    Background Environmental factors are found to influence transport-related physical activity, but have rarely been studied in relation with cycling for transport to various destinations in 10–12 yr old children. The current qualitative study used ‘bike-along interviews’ with children and parents to allow discussion of detailed environmental factors that may influence children's cycling for transport, while cycling in the participant's neighborhood. Methods Purposeful convenience sampling was used to recruit 35 children and one of their parents residing in (semi-) urban areas. Bike-along interviews were conducted to and from a randomly chosen destination (e.g. library) within a 15 minutes' cycle trip in the participant's neighborhood. Participants wore a GoPro camera to objectively assess environmental elements, which were subsequently discussed with participants. Content analysis and arising themes were derived using a grounded theory approach. Results The discussed environmental factors were categorized under traffic, urban design, cycling facilities, road design, facilities at destination, aesthetics, topography, weather, social control, stranger danger and familiar environment. Across these categories many environmental factors were (in)directly linked to road safety. This was illustrated by detailed discussions of the children's visibility, familiarity with specific traffic situations, and degree of separation, width and legibility of cycle facilities. Conclusion Road safety is of major concern in this 10–12 yr old study population. Bike-along interviews were able to identify new, detailed and context-specific physical environmental factors which could inform policy makers to promote children's cycling for transport. However, future studies should investigate whether hypothetical changes to such micro environmental features influence perceptions of safety and if this in turn could lead to changes in children's cycling for transport. PMID:25250738

  5. Occupational and environmental exposures as risk factors for systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Glinda S; Parks, Christine G

    2004-10-01

    Although genetic susceptibility plays a strong role in the etiology of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), recent research has provided new evidence of the potential influence of environmental factors in the risk for this disease. This paper describes epidemiologic and experimental research pertaining to occupational and environmental sources of exposure to respirable crystalline silica, solvents and pesticides, and two "lifestyle" factors (smoking and hair dye use). As has been seen with other systemic autoimmune diseases (eg, systemic sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis), a series of epidemiologic studies, using different designs in different settings, have demonstrated relatively strong and consistent associations between occupational silica exposure and SLE. The type and quality of exposure assessment is an important consideration in evaluating these studies. Recent experimental studies examined the effect of trichloroethylene exposure in MRL+/+ mice, but to date there have been few epidemiologic studies of solvents and SLE. There are numerous avenues with respect to environmental factors in SLE that need additional research.

  6. Analysis of environmental stress factors using an artificial growth system and plant fitness optimization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Meonghun; Yoe, Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The environment promotes evolution. Evolutionary processes represent environmental adaptations over long time scales; evolution of crop genomes is not inducible within the relatively short time span of a human generation. Extreme environmental conditions can accelerate evolution, but such conditions are often stress inducing and disruptive. Artificial growth systems can be used to induce and select genomic variation by changing external environmental conditions, thus, accelerating evolution. By using cloud computing and big-data analysis, we analyzed environmental stress factors for Pleurotus ostreatus by assessing, evaluating, and predicting information of the growth environment. Through the indexing of environmental stress, the growth environment can be precisely controlled and developed into a technology for improving crop quality and production.

  7. Analysis of environmental stress factors using an artificial growth system and plant fitness optimization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Meonghun; Yoe, Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The environment promotes evolution. Evolutionary processes represent environmental adaptations over long time scales; evolution of crop genomes is not inducible within the relatively short time span of a human generation. Extreme environmental conditions can accelerate evolution, but such conditions are often stress inducing and disruptive. Artificial growth systems can be used to induce and select genomic variation by changing external environmental conditions, thus, accelerating evolution. By using cloud computing and big-data analysis, we analyzed environmental stress factors for Pleurotus ostreatus by assessing, evaluating, and predicting information of the growth environment. Through the indexing of environmental stress, the growth environment can be precisely controlled and developed into a technology for improving crop quality and production. PMID:25874206

  8. [Spatial and temporal changes of emerging environmental pollution accidents and impact factors in China].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Lü, Yong-long; He, Gui-zhen; Wang, Tie-yu; Luo, Wei; Shi, Ya-juan

    2008-09-01

    Based on environmental statistics data from 1993 to 2005, spatial distribution and temporal tendency of the environmental pollution and destruction accidents and their external causes were analyzed by using GIS and non-parametric correlation methods. It was concluded that (1) during the study period, annual environmental pollution accidents was maximally 3001 times in 1994 and minimally 1406 in 2005, while the frequency decreased in general. In addition, water and air accidents occupied the most; (2) environmental pollution and destruction accidents centralized in southeast and middle parts of China, mainly in Hunan, Sichuan, and Guangxi; (3) factors including population, GDP, company number and industrial waste water discharge had positive impacts on frequency of environmental pollution and destruction accidents, while in developed provinces the frequency was only correlated with company number.

  9. Analysis of Environmental Stress Factors Using an Artificial Growth System and Plant Fitness Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Meonghun; Yoe, Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The environment promotes evolution. Evolutionary processes represent environmental adaptations over long time scales; evolution of crop genomes is not inducible within the relatively short time span of a human generation. Extreme environmental conditions can accelerate evolution, but such conditions are often stress inducing and disruptive. Artificial growth systems can be used to induce and select genomic variation by changing external environmental conditions, thus, accelerating evolution. By using cloud computing and big-data analysis, we analyzed environmental stress factors for Pleurotus ostreatus by assessing, evaluating, and predicting information of the growth environment. Through the indexing of environmental stress, the growth environment can be precisely controlled and developed into a technology for improving crop quality and production. PMID:25874206

  10. Air pollutant effects on fetal and early postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Pinkerton, Kent E

    2007-09-01

    Numerical research on the health effects of air pollution has been published in the last decade. Epidemiological studies have shown that children's exposure to air pollutants during fetal development and early postnatal life is associated with many types of health problems including abnormal development (low birth weight [LBW], very low birth weight [VLBW], preterm birth [PTB], intrauterine growth restriction [IUGR], congenital defects, and intrauterine and infant mortality), decreased lung growth, increased rates of respiratory tract infections, childhood asthma, behavioral problems, and neurocognitive decrements. This review focuses on the health effects of major outdoor air pollutants including particulates, carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur and nitrogen oxides (SO(2), NOx), ozone, and one common indoor air pollutant, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Animal data is presented that demonstrate perinatal windows of susceptibility to sidestream smoke, a surrogate for ETS, resulting in altered airway sensitivity and cell type frequency. A study of neonatal monkeys exposed to sidestream smoke during the perinatal period and/or early postnatal period that resulted in an altered balance of Th1-/Th2-cytokine secretion, skewing the immune response toward the allergy-associated Th2 cytokine phenotype, is also discussed. PMID:17963272

  11. Contribution of shared environmental factors to familial aggregation of common cancers: an adoption study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan; Ji, Jianguang

    2015-03-01

    Cancer runs in families, suggesting a heritable component, but the contribution of environmental factors cannot be neglected. Studies on spousal risk can partly disentangle the environmental contribution but miss shared environmental factors during childhood and adolescence. Here, we examined the familial aggregation of common cancers among 80,281 Swedish-born adoptees, identified from the national Swedish Multigeneration Register, and linked them to the Swedish Cancer Registry. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for common cancers (colorectal, lung, breast, prostate, and skin cancers) in the adoptees whose adoptive parents were diagnosed with concordant cancers, compared with the general population. SIRs in adoptees with an affected adoptive parent ranged from 1.00 (breast cancer) to 1.28 (skin cancer), whereas the SIRs in nonadoptees with an affected parent ranged from 1.63 (colorectal cancer) to 2.12 (skin cancer). Environmental factors account for around 0-28% of the familial aggregation. Cancer sites with high environmental contributions were observed for skin and colorectal cancers, which are known to have strong environmental causes.

  12. Prenatal and postnatal cocaine exposure predict teen cocaine use.

    PubMed

    Delaney-Black, Virginia; Chiodo, Lisa M; Hannigan, John H; Greenwald, Mark K; Janisse, James; Patterson, Grace; Huestis, Marilyn A; Partridge, Robert T; Ager, Joel; Sokol, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    Preclinical studies have identified alterations in cocaine and alcohol self-administration and behavioral responses to pharmacological challenges in adolescent offspring following prenatal exposure. To date, no published human studies have evaluated the relation between prenatal cocaine exposure and postnatal adolescent cocaine use. Human studies of prenatal cocaine-exposed children have also noted an increase in behaviors previously associated with substance use/abuse in teens and young adults, specifically childhood and teen externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, and attention problems. Despite these findings, human research has not addressed prior prenatal exposure as a potential predictor of teen drug use behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relations between prenatal cocaine exposure and teen cocaine use in a prospective longitudinal cohort (n=316) that permitted extensive control for child, parent and community risk factors. Logistic regression analyses and Structural Equation Modeling revealed that both prenatal exposure and postnatal parent/caregiver cocaine use were uniquely related to teen use of cocaine at age 14 years. Teen cocaine use was also directly predicted by teen community violence exposure and caregiver negativity, and was indirectly related to teen community drug exposure. These data provide further evidence of the importance of prenatal exposure, family and community factors in the intergenerational transmission of teen/young adult substance abuse/use.

  13. Prenatal and postnatal cocaine exposure predict teen cocaine use

    PubMed Central

    Delaney-Black, Virginia; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Hannigan, John H.; Greenwald, Mark K.; Janisse, James; Patterson, Grace; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Partridge, Robert T.; Ager, Joel; Sokol, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical studies have identified alterations in cocaine and alcohol self-administration and behavioral responses to pharmacological challenges in adolescent offspring following prenatal exposure. To date, no published human studies have evaluated the relation between prenatal cocaine exposure and postnatal adolescent cocaine use. Human studies of prenatal cocaine-exposed children have also noted an increase in behaviors previously associated with substance use/abuse in teens and young adults, specifically childhood and teen externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, and attention problems. Despite these findings, human research has not addressed prior prenatal exposure as a potential predictor of teen drug use behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relations between prenatal cocaine exposure and teen cocaine use in a prospective longitudinal cohort (n = 316) that permitted extensive control for child, parent and community risk factors. Logistic regression analyses and Structural Equation Modeling revealed that both prenatal exposure and postnatal parent/caregiver cocaine use were uniquely related to teen use of cocaine at age 14 years. Teen cocaine use was also directly predicted by teen community violence exposure and caregiver negativity, and was indirectly related to teen community drug exposure. These data provide further evidence of the importance of prenatal exposure, family and community factors in the intergenerational transmission of teen/young adult substance abuse/use. PMID:20609384

  14. Environmental factors: opportunities and barriers for physical activity, and healthy eating among children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Huybrechts, I; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; De Henauw, S

    2010-01-01

    While genetic factors play a role in the development of obesity, the dramatic increase of its prevalence in the past years strongly suggests that environmental factors are largely responsible. The wealth and variety of food supply available 24h/day and throughout the year, the change in dietary habits due to time constraints and the change in physical activity due to technological advances all create a 'toxic' environment responsible for obesity and eating habit disorders. This manuscript describes and discusses the results of a systematic review of environmental opportunities & obstacles for physical activity and dietary intake influencing the obesity epidemic among children and adolescents. Although evidence clearly shows the impact of the environment on obesity related lifestyle factors, evidence for effective strategies combating this obesogenic environment is very scarce. Interventions aiming to change environmental factors in order to reduce obesity may include taxes/subsidies encouraging healthy eating or physical activity, extra provision of sporting facilities, efforts to improve safety and accessibility of walking, cycling or play areas or attempting to influence social meanings/values attached to weight, food or physical activity. It is clear that some level of institutionalization of systems that support the desired changes is required to sustain environmental and social changes in the long-term. At last, it is important to note that better-designed and -conducted research on the true importance of the interaction between environmental factors and psychosocial factors, including the micro- and the macro-level, for obesogenic behavioral change is needed to reassure the success of large-scale environmental change interventions.

  15. The Prevalence of Specific Ecologies in Marine Organisms with Relation to Environmental Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothari, S.; Gao, Y.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2015-12-01

    The environment is constantly changing; in recent times, the issue of global warming in particular has raised concerns about ecosystems. Marine organisms are just one type of organism affected by environmental changes; by studying how changes in the environment in the past have affected evolution, we can make predictions for the future. Drastic environmental changes have occurred since the beginning of the Cambrian (541 Ma), as have changes in the ecologies of different phyla and marine organisms as a whole. Organisms must adapt to changing environments, and by analyzing the correlations between the two variables, we can find out which environmental factors play roles in the prevalences of characteristics in populations. Distinctive patterns in the originations and extinctions of ecologies in large fractions of a population and the changes in environmental conditions are visible through careful analysis. We have found, through correlation tests between factors, that statistically significant correlations (p-values < 5%) do exist between certain ecologies (including motility, feeding habits, and tiering) and environmental factors. In particular, these include changes in sea level and carbon dioxide levels, two of the biggest effects of global warming that is currently occurring. Research into these factors is important for our understanding of the changing world of today.

  16. Ecology of cultivable yeasts in pristine forests in northern Patagonia (Argentina) influenced by different environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Mestre, María Cecilia; Fontenla, Sonia; Rosa, Carlos A

    2014-06-01

    Environmental factors influencing the occurrence and community structure of soil yeasts in forests are not well studied. There are few studies dedicated to Southern Hemisphere soil yeasts populations and even fewer focused on temperate forests influenced by volcanic activity. The present work aimed to study the ecology of soil yeast communities from pristine forests influenced by different environmental factors (precipitation, physicochemical properties of soil, tree species, soil region, and season). The survey was performed in 4 northern Patagonian forests: 2 dominated by Nothofagus pumilio and 2 by Nothofagus antarctica. Yeast communities were described with ecological indices and species accumulation curves, and their association with environmental characteristics was assessed using multivariate analysis. Each forest site showed a particular arrangement of species as a result of environmental characteristics, such as dominant plant species, nutrient availability, and climatic characteristics. Cryptococcus podzolicus was most frequently isolated in nutrient-rich soils, Trichosporon porosum dominated cold mountain forests with low nutrient and water availability in soil, and capsulated yeasts such as Cryptococcus phenolicus dominated forest sites with low precipitation. The present work suggests that environmental factors affecting yeast communities may not be the current soil characteristics but the result of complex interactions of factors including natural disturbances like volcanic activity.

  17. Air pollution exposure: a novel environmental risk factor for interstitial lung disease?

    PubMed

    Johannson, Kerri A; Balmes, John R; Collard, Harold R

    2015-04-01

    Air pollution exposure is a well-established risk factor for several adverse respiratory outcomes, including airways diseases and lung cancer. Few studies have investigated the relationship between air pollution and interstitial lung disease (ILD) despite many forms of ILD arising from environmental exposures. There are potential mechanisms by which air pollution could cause, exacerbate, or accelerate the progression of certain forms of ILD via pulmonary and systemic inflammation as well as oxidative stress. This article will review the current epidemiologic and translational data supporting the plausibility of this relationship and propose a new conceptual framework for characterizing novel environmental risk factors for these forms of lung disease.

  18. NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holubec, Keith; Connolly, Janis

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the history, and development of NASA-STD-3001, NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health, and the related Human Integration Design Handbook. Currently being developed from NASA-STD-3000, this project standard currently in review will be available in two volumes, (i.e., Volume 1 -- VCrew Health and Volume 2 -- Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health) and the handbook will be both available as a pdf file and as a interactive website.

  19. Influence of environmental factors in the development of inflammatory bowel diseases

    PubMed Central

    Legaki, Evangelia; Gazouli, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are multifactorial diseases that are manifested after disruption of a genetic predisposed individual and its intestinal microflora through an environmental stimulus. Urbanization and industrialization are associated with IBD. Epidemiological data, clinical observations and family/immigrants studies indicate the significance of environmental influence in the development of IBD. Some environmental factors have a different effect on the subtypes of IBD. Smoking and appendectomy is negatively associated with UC, but they are aggravating factors for CD. A westernized high fat diet, full of refined carbohydrates is strongly associated with the development of IBD, contrary to a high in fruit, vegetables and polyunsaturated fatty acid-3 diet that is protective against these diseases. High intake of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug and oral contraceptive pills as well as the inadequacy of vitamin D leads to an increased risk for IBD and a more malignant course of disease. Moreover, other factors such as air pollution, psychological factors, sleep disturbances and exercise influence the development and the course of IBD. Epigenetic mechanism like DNA methylation, histone modification and altered expression of miRNAS could explain the connection between genes and environmental factors in triggering the development of IBD. PMID:26855817

  20. Influence of environmental factors in the development of inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Legaki, Evangelia; Gazouli, Maria

    2016-02-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are multifactorial diseases that are manifested after disruption of a genetic predisposed individual and its intestinal microflora through an environmental stimulus. Urbanization and industrialization are associated with IBD. Epidemiological data, clinical observations and family/immigrants studies indicate the significance of environmental influence in the development of IBD. Some environmental factors have a different effect on the subtypes of IBD. Smoking and appendectomy is negatively associated with UC, but they are aggravating factors for CD. A westernized high fat diet, full of refined carbohydrates is strongly associated with the development of IBD, contrary to a high in fruit, vegetables and polyunsaturated fatty acid-3 diet that is protective against these diseases. High intake of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug and oral contraceptive pills as well as the inadequacy of vitamin D leads to an increased risk for IBD and a more malignant course of disease. Moreover, other factors such as air pollution, psychological factors, sleep disturbances and exercise influence the development and the course of IBD. Epigenetic mechanism like DNA methylation, histone modification and altered expression of miRNAS could explain the connection between genes and environmental factors in triggering the development of IBD. PMID:26855817

  1. Stress and other environmental factors affecting fertility in men and women: overview.

    PubMed Central

    Negro-Vilar, A

    1993-01-01

    To understand how environmental factors contribute to fertility or infertility in humans, it is first necessary to define environment. A view that will guide this review is that environment represents the "external milieu," analogous to the well-defined concept of "internal milieu" first introduced by Claude Bernard. Within this context, the environment provides both positive and adverse influences on reproductive health and development. Environmental factors can then be classified into categories such as physical, chemical, biological, behavioral, and socioeconomic. In many circumstances, multiple environmental factors may contribute to adversely modify human health. It has been suspected and in some cases demonstrated that stress can adversely affect reproductive function. Both animal and human data support this contention; however, the human data are clear in extreme situations (e.g., inmates of concentration camps) but less so under less drastic conditions. In recent years many advances have been made concerning the neurochemical mechanisms that mediate the effects of stress on reproductive functions and on the identification of "stress hormones" that may not only be involved in the stress response but also serve as biochemical markers to identify and correlate stress with different fertility parameters. Nutrition also plays an important role in infertility, and undernutrition or nutrition disorders are associated with stress in infertility. Environmental factors are often invoked as contributing to many cases of unexplained infertility. However, the direct causal relationship between those factors and the ensuing infertility of the couple are seldom well established and remain largely anecdotal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8243408

  2. Radium concentration factors and their use in health and environmental risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Meinhold, A.F.; Hamilton, L.D.

    1991-12-31

    Radium is known to be taken up by aquatic animals, and tends to accumulate in bone, shell and exoskeleton. The most common approach to estimating the uptake of a radionuclide by aquatic animals for use in health and environmental risk assessments is the concentration factor method. The concentration factor method relates the concentration of a contaminant in an organism to the concentration in the surrounding water. Site specific data are not usually available, and generic, default values are often used in risk assessment studies. This paper describes the concentration factor method, summarizes some of the variables which may influence the concentration factor for radium, reviews reported concentration factors measured in marine environments and presents concentration factors derived from data collected in a study in coastal Louisiana. The use of generic default values for the concentration factor is also discussed.

  3. Radium concentration factors and their use in health and environmental risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Meinhold, A.F.; Hamilton, L.D.

    1991-01-01

    Radium is known to be taken up by aquatic animals, and tends to accumulate in bone, shell and exoskeleton. The most common approach to estimating the uptake of a radionuclide by aquatic animals for use in health and environmental risk assessments is the concentration factor method. The concentration factor method relates the concentration of a contaminant in an organism to the concentration in the surrounding water. Site specific data are not usually available, and generic, default values are often used in risk assessment studies. This paper describes the concentration factor method, summarizes some of the variables which may influence the concentration factor for radium, reviews reported concentration factors measured in marine environments and presents concentration factors derived from data collected in a study in coastal Louisiana. The use of generic default values for the concentration factor is also discussed.

  4. Postnatal development of the myenteric glial network and its modulation by butyrate.

    PubMed

    Cossais, François; Durand, Tony; Chevalier, Julien; Boudaud, Marie; Kermarrec, Laetitia; Aubert, Philippe; Neveu, Isabelle; Naveilhan, Philippe; Neunlist, Michel

    2016-06-01

    The postnatal period is crucial for the development of gastrointestinal (GI) functions. The enteric nervous system is a key regulator of GI functions, and increasing evidences indicate that 1) postnatal maturation of enteric neurons affect the development of GI functions, and 2) microbiota-derived short-chain fatty acids can be involved in this maturation. Although enteric glial cells (EGC) are central regulators of GI functions, the postnatal evolution of their phenotype remains poorly defined. We thus characterized the postnatal evolution of EGC phenotype in the colon of rat pups and studied the effect of short-chain fatty acids on their maturation. We showed an increased expression of the glial markers GFAP and S100β during the first postnatal week. As demonstrated by immunohistochemistry, a structured myenteric glial network was observed at 36 days in the rat colons. Butyrate inhibited EGC proliferation in vivo and in vitro but had no effect on glial marker expression. These results indicate that the EGC myenteric network continues to develop after birth, and luminal factors such as butyrate endogenously produced in the colon may affect this development. PMID:27056724

  5. Deletion of neurturin impairs development of cholinergic nerves and heart rate control in postnatal mouse hearts.

    PubMed

    Downs, Anthony M; Jalloh, Hawa B; Prater, Kayla J; Fregoso, Santiago P; Bond, Cherie E; Hampton, Thomas G; Hoover, Donald B

    2016-05-01

    The neurotrophic factor neurturin is required for normal cholinergic innervation of adult mouse heart and bradycardic responses to vagal stimulation. Our goals were to determine effects of neurturin deletion on development of cardiac chronotropic and dromotropic functions, vagal baroreflex response, and cholinergic nerve density in nodal regions of postnatal mice. Experiments were performed on postnatal C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and neurturin knockout (KO) mice. Serial electrocardiograms were recorded noninvasively from conscious pups using an ECGenie apparatus. Mice were treated with atenolol to evaluate and block sympathetic effects on heart rate (HR) and phenylephrine (PE) to stimulate the baroreflex. Immunohistochemistry was used to label cholinergic nerves in paraffin sections. WT and KO mice showed similar age-dependent increases in HR and decreases in PR interval between postnatal days (P) 2.5 and 21. Treatment with atenolol reduced HR significantly in WT and KO pups at P7.5. PE caused a reflex bradycardia that was significantly smaller in KO pups. Cholinergic nerve density was significantly less in nodal regions of P7.5 KO mice. We conclude that cholinergic nerves have minimal influence on developmental changes in HR and PR, QRS, and QTc intervals in mouse pups. However, cholinergic nerves mediate reflex bradycardia by 1 week postnatally. Deletion of neurturin impairs cholinergic innervation of the heart and the vagal efferent component of the baroreflex early during postnatal development.

  6. Postnatal exposure to trichloroethylene alters glutathione redox homeostasis, methylation potential, and neurotrophin expression in the mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Blossom, Sarah J; Melnyk, Stepan; Cooney, Craig A; Gilbert, Kathleen M; James, S Jill

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that continuous exposure throughout gestation until the juvenile period to environmentally relevant doses of trichloroethylene (TCE) in the drinking water of MRL+/+ mice promoted adverse behavior associated with glutathione depletion in the cerebellum indicating increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to extend our findings and further characterize the impact of TCE exposure on redox homeostasis and biomarkers of oxidative stress in the hippocampus, a brain region prone to oxidative stress. Instead of a continuous exposure, the mice were exposed to water only or two environmentally relevant doses of TCE in the drinking water postnatally from birth until 6 weeks of age. Biomarkers of plasma metabolites in the transsulfuration pathway and the transmethylation pathway of the methionine cycle were also examined. Gene expression of neurotrophins was examined to investigate a possible relationship between oxidative stress, redox imbalance and neurotrophic factor expression with TCE exposure. Our results show that hippocampi isolated from male mice exposed to TCE showed altered glutathione redox homeostasis indicating a more oxidized state. Also observed was a significant, dose dependent increase in glutathione precursors. Plasma from the TCE treated mice showed alterations in metabolites in the transsulfuration and transmethylation pathways indicating redox imbalance and altered methylation capacity. 3-Nitrotyrosine, a biomarker of protein oxidative stress, was also significantly higher in plasma and hippocampus of TCE-exposed mice compared to controls. In contrast, expression of key neurotrophic factors in the hippocampus (BDNF, NGF, and NT-3) was significantly reduced compared to controls. Our results demonstrate that low-level postnatal and early life TCE exposure modulates neurotrophin gene expression in the mouse hippocampus and may provide a mechanism for TCE-mediated neurotoxicity.

  7. On the Genetic and Environmental Correlations between Trait Emotional Intelligence and Vocational Interest Factors.

    PubMed

    Schermer, Julie Aitken; Petrides, Konstantinos V; Vernon, Philip A

    2015-04-01

    The phenotypic (observed), genetic, and environmental correlations were examined in a sample of adult twins between the four factors and global score of the trait emotional intelligence questionnaire (TEIQue) and the seven vocational interest factors of the Jackson Career Explorer (JCE). Multiple significant correlations were found involving the work style vocational interest factor (consisting of job security, stamina, accountability, planfulness, and interpersonal confidence) and the social vocational interest factor (which included interests in the social sciences, personal services, teaching, social services, and elementary education), both of which correlated significantly with all of the TEIQue variables (well-being, self-control, emotionality, sociability, and global trait EI). Following bivariate genetic analyses, most of the significant phenotypic correlations were found to also have significant genetic correlations as well as significant non-shared (unique) environmental correlations.

  8. On the Genetic and Environmental Correlations between Trait Emotional Intelligence and Vocational Interest Factors.

    PubMed

    Schermer, Julie Aitken; Petrides, Konstantinos V; Vernon, Philip A

    2015-04-01

    The phenotypic (observed), genetic, and environmental correlations were examined in a sample of adult twins between the four factors and global score of the trait emotional intelligence questionnaire (TEIQue) and the seven vocational interest factors of the Jackson Career Explorer (JCE). Multiple significant correlations were found involving the work style vocational interest factor (consisting of job security, stamina, accountability, planfulness, and interpersonal confidence) and the social vocational interest factor (which included interests in the social sciences, personal services, teaching, social services, and elementary education), both of which correlated significantly with all of the TEIQue variables (well-being, self-control, emotionality, sociability, and global trait EI). Following bivariate genetic analyses, most of the significant phenotypic correlations were found to also have significant genetic correlations as well as significant non-shared (unique) environmental correlations. PMID:25743745

  9. A BRIEF TARGETED REVIEW OF SUSCEPTIBILITY FACTORS, ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES, ASHTMA INCIDENCE, AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE ASHTMA INCIDENCE RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genetics, obesity, age, and lifestyle are major susceptibility factors in the induction of asthma and can interact with environmental exposures either synergistically or antagonistically. Different environmental exposures that increase or decrease the likelihood of developing as...

  10. Influences of prenatal and postnatal stress on adult hippocampal neurogenesis: the double neurogenic niche hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Martínez, Sylvia

    2015-03-15

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) is involved in learning, memory, and stress, and plays a significant role in neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. As an age-dependent process, AHN is largely influenced by changes that occur during the pre- and postnatal stages of brain development, and constitutes an important field of research. This review examines the current knowledge regarding the regulators of AHN and the influence of prenatal and postnatal stress on later AHN. In addition, a hypothesis is presented suggesting that each kind of stress influences a specific neurogenic pool, developmental or postnatal, that later becomes a precursor with important repercussions for AHN. This hypothesis is referred to as "the double neurogenic niche hypothesis." Discovering what receptors, transcription factors, or genes are specifically activated by different stressors is proposed as an essential line of future research in the field. Such knowledge shall constitute an important starting point toward the goal of modifying AHN in neurodegenerative or psychiatric diseases.

  11. Postnatal onset of retinal degeneration by loss of embryonic Ezh2 repression of Six1

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Naihong; Cheng, Lin; Cho, Kinsang; Malik, Muhammad Taimur A.; Xiao, Lirong; Guo, Chenying; Yu, Honghua; Zhu, Ruilin; Rao, Rajesh C.; Chen, Dong Feng

    2016-01-01

    Some adult-onset disorders may be linked to dysregulated embryonic development, yet the mechanisms underlying this association remain poorly understood. Congenital retinal degenerative diseases are blinding disorders characterized by postnatal degeneration of photoreceptors, and affect nearly 2 million individuals worldwide, but ∼50% do not have a known mutation, implicating contributions of epigenetic factors. We found that embryonic deletion of the histone methyltransferase (HMT) Ezh2 from all retinal progenitors resulted in progressive photoreceptor degeneration throughout postnatal life, via derepression of fetal expression of Six1 and its targets. Forced expression of Six1 in the postnatal retina was sufficient to induce photoreceptor degeneration. Ezh2, although enriched in the embryonic retina, was not present in the mature retina; these data reveal an Ezh2-mediated feed-forward pathway that is required for maintaining photoreceptor homeostasis in the adult and suggest novel targets for retinal degeneration therapy. PMID:27677711

  12. Postnatal depression among Sudanese women: prevalence and validation of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at 3 months postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Khalifa, Dina Sami; Glavin, Kari; Bjertness, Espen; Lien, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Postnatal depression (PND) rates in low-resource countries have reached levels between 4.9% and 59%. Maternal mental health has not been researched in Sudan, and there are no existing statistics on prevalence or significant risk factors for PND. Consequently, no screening test has been validated to screen for PND at the primary health care level. This study investigates the 3 months prevalence of PND and validates the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) against the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Methodology Pregnant Sudanese women in the second and third trimesters were recruited to the study during routine antenatal care visits in two major maternity hospitals in Khartoum state. They were screened for PND at 3 months postpartum using the EPDS. Test positive women were matched with test negative women according to nearest date of birth. A clinical psychologist verified their depression status using the MINI. Results The follow-up rate was 79%. At a cutoff point of ≥12, the 3 months prevalence of PND was 9.2%. The sensitivity and specificity of the EPDS were 89% and 82%, respectively. The EPDS and MINI showed a strong positive relationship (odds ratio =36). The positive predictive value and negative predictive value, using this study’s prevalence, were 33% and 98.7%, respectively. The receiver operator characteristic analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.89. The cut-off point ≥12 was the most acceptable point as it had the lowest number needed to diagnose (1.4) and a false-positive rate of 18%. Conclusion The EPDS is a valid tool for screening for PND on a Sudanese population. It was accepted, easily administered, and understood by postnatal women. Health care personnel, especially village midwives, should be trained on screening and referral of depressed women for clinical evaluation and management. Due to limited resources available in Sudan, shorter screening tests need to be validated in the future. PMID

  13. Pre- and Postnatal Influences on Preschool Mental Health: A Large-Scale Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Monique; Oddy, Wendy H.; Li, Jianghong; Kendall, Garth E.; de Klerk, Nicholas H.; Silburn, Sven R.; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Newnham, John P.; Stanley, Fiona J.; Mattes, Eugen

    2008-01-01

    Background: Methodological challenges such as confounding have made the study of the early determinants of mental health morbidity problematic. This study aims to address these challenges in investigating antenatal, perinatal and postnatal risk factors for the development of mental health problems in pre-school children in a cohort of Western…

  14. Occupational and environmental risk factors of adult primary brain cancers: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gomes, J; Al Zayadi, A; Guzman, A

    2011-04-01

    The incidence of brain neoplasm has been progressively increasing in recent years in the industrialized countries. One of the reasons for this increased incidence could be better access to health care and improved diagnosis in the industrialized countries. It also appears that Caucasians have a higher incidence than blacks or Hispanics or Asians. A number of risk factors have been identified and described including the genetic, ethnic and age-based factors. Certain occupational and environmental factors are also believed to influence the risk of primary adult brain tumors. Potential occupational and environmental factors include exposure to diagnostic and therapeutic radiations, electromagnetic radiation from cellular phones and other wireless devices, infectious agents, air pollution and residence near landfills and high-voltage power lines and jobs as firefighters, farmers, physician, chemists and jobs in industries such as petrochemical, power generation, synthetic rubber manufacturing, agricultural chemicals manufacturing. The purpose of this systematic review is to examine occupational and environmental risk factors of brain neoplasm. A range of occupational and environmental exposures are evaluated for significance of their relationship with adult primary brain tumors. On the basis of this review we suggest a concurrent evaluation of multiple risk factors both within and beyond occupational and environmental domains. The concurrent approach needs to consider better exposure assessment techniques, lifetime occupational exposures, genotypic and phenotypic characteristics and lifestyle and dietary habits. This approach needs to be interdisciplinary with contributions from neurologists, oncologists, epidemiologists and molecular biologists. Conclusive evidence that has eluded multitude of studies with single focus and single exposure needs to multifaceted and multidisciplinary. PMID:23022824

  15. The structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for fears and phobias

    PubMed Central

    Loken, E. K.; Hettema, J.M.; Aggen, S.H.; Kendler, K. S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although prior genetic studies of interview-assessed fears and phobias have shown that genetic factors predispose individuals to fears and phobias, they have been restricted to the DSM-III to DSM-IV aggregated subtypes of phobias rather than to individual fearful and phobic stimuli. Method We examined the lifetime history of fears and/or phobias in response to 21 individual phobic stimuli in 4067 personally interviewed twins from same-sex pairs from the Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Abuse Disorders (VATSPSUD). We performed multivariate statistical analyses using Mx and Mplus. Results The best-fitting model for the 21 phobic stimuli included four genetic factors (agora-social-acrophobia, animal phobia, blood-injection-illness phobia and claustrophobia) and three environmental factors (agora-social-hospital phobia, animal phobia, and situational phobia). Conclusions This study provides the first view of the architecture of genetic and environmental risk factors for phobic disorders and their subtypes. The genetic factors of the phobias support the DSM-IV and DSM-5 constructs of animal and blood-injection-injury phobias but do not support the separation of agoraphobia from social phobia. The results also do not show a coherent genetic factor for the DSM-IV and DSM-5 situational phobia. Finally, the patterns of co-morbidity across individual fears and phobias produced by genetic and environmental influences differ appreciably. PMID:24384457

  16. LUNG CANCER IN NEVER SMOKERS: CLINICAL EPIDEMIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS

    PubMed Central

    Samet, Jonathan M.; Avila-Tang, Erika; Boffetta, Paolo; Hannan, Lindsay M.; Olivo-Marston, Susan; Thun, Michael J.; Rudin, Charles M.

    2011-01-01

    More than 161,000 lung cancer deaths are projected to occur in the U.S. in 2008. Of these, an estimated 10–15% will be caused by factors other than active smoking, corresponding to 16,000–24,000 deaths annually. Thus lung cancer in never smokers would rank among the most common causes of cancer mortality in the U.S. if considered to be a separate category. Slightly more than half of the lung cancers caused by factors other than active smoking occur in never smokers. As summarized in the accompanying article, lung cancers that occur in never smokers differ from those that occur in smokers in their molecular profile and response to targeted therapy. These recent laboratory and clinical observations highlight the importance of defining the genetic and environmental factors responsible for the development of lung cancer in never-smokers. This article summarizes available data on the clinical epidemiology of lung cancer in never smokers, and the several environmental risk factors that population-based research has implicated in the etiology of these cancers. Primary factors closely tied to lung cancer in never smokers include exposure to known and suspected carcinogens including radon, second-hand tobacco smoke, and other indoor air pollutants. Several other exposures have been implicated. However, a large fraction of lung cancers occurring in never-smokers cannot be definitively associated with established environmental risk factors, highlighting the need for additional epidemiologic research in this area. PMID:19755391

  17. Postnatal Treatment in Antenatally Diagnosed Meconium Peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Ionescu, S; Andrei, B; Oancea, M; Licsandru, E; Ivanov, M; Marcu, V; Popa-Stanila, R; Mocanu, M

    2015-01-01

    Meconium peritonitis is a rare prenatal disease with an increased rate of morbidity and mortality in the neonatal period. Distinctive features revealed by prenatal and postnatal ultrasoundmay be present: abdominal calcifications, ascites, polyhydramnios, meconium pseudocyst, echogenic mass and dilated bowel or intestinal obstruction. Establishing clear postnatal treatment and prognosis is difficult because of the heterogeneity of the results obtained by ultrasound. The aim of the study is to determine how prenatal diagnosis of meconium peritonitis is associated with perinatal management and further evolution. Clinical results are different depending on the presence of antenatal diagnosis of meconium peritonitis and its form, which can be mild or severe. Surgical treatment and management of meconium peritonitis depend on the clinical presentation of the newborn. Meconium peritonitis diagnosed prenatally differs from that of the newborn, not only concerning the mortality rates but also through reduced morbidity and overall better prognosis.

  18. Environmental Factors Related to Fungal Wound Contamination after Combat Trauma in Afghanistan, 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Carlos J.; Weintrob, Amy C.; Shaikh, Faraz; Aggarwal, Deepak; Carson, M. Leigh; Murray, Clinton K.; Masuoka, Penny

    2015-01-01

    During the recent war in Afghanistan (2001–2014), invasive fungal wound infections (IFIs) among US combat casualties were associated with risk factors related to the mechanism and pattern of injury. Although previous studies recognized that IFI patients primarily sustained injuries in southern Afghanistan, environmental data were not examined. We compared environmental conditions of this region with those of an area in eastern Afghanistan that was not associated with observed IFIs after injury. A larger proportion of personnel injured in the south (61%) grew mold from wound cultures than those injured in the east (20%). In a multivariable analysis, the southern location, characterized by lower elevation, warmer temperatures, and greater isothermality, was independently associated with mold contamination of wounds. These environmental characteristics, along with known risk factors related to injury characteristics, may be useful in modeling the risk for IFIs after traumatic injury in other regions. PMID:26401897

  19. Relationships of individual, social, and physical environmental factors with older adults' television viewing time.

    PubMed

    Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; De Donder, Liesbeth; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Owen, Neville; Dury, Sarah; De Witte, Nico; Buffel, Tine; Verté, Dominique; Deforche, Benedicte

    2014-10-01

    Sedentary behaviors (involving prolonged sitting) can be associated detrimentally with health outcomes. Older adults, the most sedentary age group, are especially at risk due to their high levels of television viewing time. This study examined individual, social, and physical environmental correlates of older adults' television viewing. Data on daily television viewing time, plus individual, social, and physical environmental factors were collected from 50,986 noninstitutionalized older adults (≥ 65 years) in Flanders (Belgium). The results showed significant relationships between television viewing time and individual, social, and physical environmental factors. Subgroups at risk for high levels of television viewing were those who were functionally limited, less educated, widowed, and (semi)urban-dwelling older adults. Our findings illustrate a cross-sectional link between older adults' television viewing time and social composition of their neighborhood, formal participation, access to alternative activities, and safety from crime.

  20. Environmental Factors Related to Fungal Wound Contamination after Combat Trauma in Afghanistan, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Tribble, David R; Rodriguez, Carlos J; Weintrob, Amy C; Shaikh, Faraz; Aggarwal, Deepak; Carson, M Leigh; Murray, Clinton K; Masuoka, Penny

    2015-10-01

    During the recent war in Afghanistan (2001-2014), invasive fungal wound infections (IFIs) among US combat casualties were associated with risk factors related to the mechanism and pattern of injury. Although previous studies recognized that IFI patients primarily sustained injuries in southern Afghanistan, environmental data were not examined. We compared environmental conditions of this region with those of an area in eastern Afghanistan that was not associated with observed IFIs after injury. A larger proportion of personnel injured in the south (61%) grew mold from wound cultures than those injured in the east (20%). In a multivariable analysis, the southern location, characterized by lower elevation, warmer temperatures, and greater isothermality, was independently associated with mold contamination of wounds. These environmental characteristics, along with known risk factors related to injury characteristics, may be useful in modeling the risk for IFIs after traumatic injury in other regions.

  1. Penna model in migrating population - Effect of environmental factor and genetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magdoń, Maria S.; Maksymowicz, Andrzej Z.

    1999-12-01

    We consider effect of possible migration between different locations on population evolution. Examples of different rules based on preferences to live in bigger or smaller populations, (or environmental capacity, or living space available), are discussed. In the limiting case of small migration intensity, each location evolves independently according to its local rules and conditions, as expected. With increasing migration, the population distribution between locations changes, including some critical behavior of extinction of population in some locations for specific set of the rules. Then the deserted location may become populated again if the migration is still on increase as a result of a pressure to move. Presented version is devoted to the migration controlled exclusively by environmental factor, yet the model is primarily designed to describe influence of other factors which may control migrating processes such as inherited mutation load, age, or other parameters associated either with individuals or the specific location, races mixing, or recovery of environmental capacity.

  2. Environmental Factors Related to Fungal Wound Contamination after Combat Trauma in Afghanistan, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Tribble, David R; Rodriguez, Carlos J; Weintrob, Amy C; Shaikh, Faraz; Aggarwal, Deepak; Carson, M Leigh; Murray, Clinton K; Masuoka, Penny

    2015-10-01

    During the recent war in Afghanistan (2001-2014), invasive fungal wound infections (IFIs) among US combat casualties were associated with risk factors related to the mechanism and pattern of injury. Although previous studies recognized that IFI patients primarily sustained injuries in southern Afghanistan, environmental data were not examined. We compared environmental conditions of this region with those of an area in eastern Afghanistan that was not associated with observed IFIs after injury. A larger proportion of personnel injured in the south (61%) grew mold from wound cultures than those injured in the east (20%). In a multivariable analysis, the southern location, characterized by lower elevation, warmer temperatures, and greater isothermality, was independently associated with mold contamination of wounds. These environmental characteristics, along with known risk factors related to injury characteristics, may be useful in modeling the risk for IFIs after traumatic injury in other regions. PMID:26401897

  3. Metabolic programming in the immediate postnatal life.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mulchand S; Srinivasan, Malathi

    2011-01-01

    The metabolic programming effects of nutritional modifications in the immediate postnatal life are increasingly recognized to independently contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome in later life. Adjustment of litter size in rodents has been used to induce either under- or overnourishment in the immediate postnatal life of the offspring. While undernourishment led to growth retardation in the offspring, overnourishment produced increased body weight gains, hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia. Overnourishment during the suckling period induced several adaptations in the energy circuitry in the hypothalamus of the offspring predisposing them for the onset of obesity later in life. Another approach for a nutritional modification in the immediate postnatal period is the artificial rearing of newborn rat pups on a high-carbohydrate (HC) milk formula without changes in the total calorie availability. Hyperinsulinemia, immediately evident in the HC pups, persisted in the post-weaning period even after withdrawal of the HC milk. Significant alterations in pancreatic islets supported chronic hyperinsulinemia in the HC rats. Alterations in the gene expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides predisposing to hyperphagia were evident during the period of the HC dietary modification. The persistence of these hypothalamic adaptations supported the obese phenotype in adult HC rats. A transgenerational effect gave rise to the development of chronic hyperinsulinemia and adult-onset obesity in the offspring of the HC female rats. Other studies have shown that lactation by a diabetic, obese or malnourished mother resulted in predisposition for the onset of metabolic disorders in the offspring. These observations from animal studies on the metabolic programming effects due to altered nutritional experiences in the immediate postnatal life strongly suggest that altered feeding practices for infants (formula feeding and early introduction of infant foods) could contribute to

  4. Which Environmental Factors Have the Highest Impact on the Performance of People Experiencing Difficulties in Capacity?

    PubMed Central

    Loidl, Verena; Oberhauser, Cornelia; Ballert, Carolina; Coenen, Michaela; Cieza, Alarcos; Sabariego, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Disability is understood by the World Health Organization (WHO) as the outcome of the interaction between a health condition and personal and environmental factors. Comprehensive data about environmental factors is therefore essential to understand and influence disability. We aimed to identify which environmental factors have the highest impact on the performance of people with mild, moderate and severe difficulties in capacity, who are at risk of experiencing disability to different extents, using data from a pilot study of the WHO Model Disability Survey in Cambodia and random forest regression. Hindering or facilitating aspects of places to socialize in community activities, transportation and natural environment as well as use and need of personal assistance and use of medication on a regular basis were the most important environmental factors across groups. Hindering or facilitating aspects of the general environment were the most relevant in persons experiencing mild levels of difficulties in capacity, while social support, attitudes of others and use of medication on a regular basis were highly relevant for the performance of persons experiencing moderate to higher levels of difficulties in capacity. Additionally, we corroborate the high importance of the use and need of assistive devices for people with severe difficulties in capacity. PMID:27077872

  5. Description of Environmental Factors in Schools: Lessons from a Study in North-West Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comesana, Julia Crespo; Juste, Margarita Pino

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to offer a view on the different environmental factors that affect health (sound, light, colour, temperature) in the design, planning and organization of school premises. To achieve this, the authors first outline the problems leading to unhealthy situations. They subsequently analyse all the building and planning…

  6. Understanding the contribution of environmental factors in the spread of antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Stephanie

    2015-07-01

    The overuse and abuse of antibiotics have contributed to the global epidemic of antibiotic resistance. Current evidence suggests that widespread dependency on antibiotics and complex interactions between human health, animal husbandry and veterinary medicine, have contributed to the propagation and spread of resistant organisms. The lack of information on pathogens of major public health importance, limited surveillance, and paucity of standards for a harmonised and coordinated approach, further complicates the issue. Despite the widespread nature of antimicrobial resistance, limited focus has been placed on the role of environmental factors in propagating resistance. There are limited studies that examine the role of the environment, specifically water, sanitation and hygiene factors that contribute to the development of resistant pathogens. Understanding these elements is necessary to identify any modifiable interactions to reduce or interrupt the spread of resistance from the environment into clinical settings. This paper discusses some environmental issues that contribute to antimicrobial resistance, including soil related factors, animal husbandry and waste management, potable and wastewater, and food safety, with examples drawn mainly from the Asian region. The discussion concludes that some of the common issues are often overlooked and whilst there are numerous opportunities for environmental factors to contribute to the growing burden of antimicrobial resistance, a renewed focus on innovative and traditional environmental approaches is needed to tackle the problem.

  7. A Systematic Review of Methodology: Time Series Regression Analysis for Environmental Factors and Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Chisato; Hashizume, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Background: Time series analysis is suitable for investigations of relatively direct and short-term effects of exposures on outcomes. In environmental epidemiology studies, this method has been one of the standard approaches to assess impacts of environmental factors on acute non-infectious diseases (e.g. cardiovascular deaths), with conventionally generalized linear or additive models (GLM and GAM). However, the same analysis practices are often observed with infectious diseases despite of the substantial differences from non-infectious diseases that may result in analytical challenges. Methods: Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, systematic review was conducted to elucidate important issues in assessing the associations between environmental factors and infectious diseases using time series analysis with GLM and GAM. Published studies on the associations between weather factors and malaria, cholera, dengue, and influenza were targeted. Findings: Our review raised issues regarding the estimation of susceptible population and exposure lag times, the adequacy of seasonal adjustments, the presence of strong autocorrelations, and the lack of a smaller observation time unit of outcomes (i.e. daily data). These concerns may be attributable to features specific to infectious diseases, such as transmission among individuals and complicated causal mechanisms. Conclusion: The consequence of not taking adequate measures to address these issues is distortion of the appropriate risk quantifications of exposures factors. Future studies should pay careful attention to details and examine alternative models or methods that improve studies using time series regression analysis for environmental determinants of infectious diseases. PMID:25859149

  8. Perceived environmental and personal factors associated with walking and cycling for transportation in Taiwanese adults.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yung; Wang, I-Ting; Hsu, Hsiu-Hua; Chang, Shao-Hsi

    2015-02-13

    This study examined perceived environmental and personal factors associated with walking and cycling as means of transportation for Taiwanese adults. A random-digit-dialing telephone-based cross-sectional survey was conducted with Taiwanese adults aged 20 to 64 years. Data on time spent walking and cycling for transportation and perceptions of neighborhood environment and personal characteristics were obtained from 1065 adults by using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-long version and its environmental module. Adjusted binary logistic regression was performed. The results showed that, after adjusting potential confounders, common and different personal and perceived environmental factors were associated with walking and cycling for transportation. For common personal factors, adults who had employment were less likely to engage in 150 min of walking per week (odds ratio [OR] = 0.41; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.27-0.62) and to use cycling as a means of transportation (OR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0.32-0.79). For common perceived environmental factors, adults who perceived good connectivity of streets were more likely to walk (OR = 1.95; 95% CI: 1.20-3.16) and cycle (OR = 2.02; 95% CI: 1.16-3.54) for transportation. Targeting employed adults and improving the connectivity of streets should be a priority for developing transport policies and intervention strategies to promote active transportation.

  9. Impact of environmental factors on the demographic characteristics in Tomsk Oblast (Russia, 1980-2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugacheva, E.; Mezhibor, A.; Makarenko, T.

    2016-09-01

    The research represents the analysis of essential demographic indexes in Tomsk Oblast (Russia): birth-rate, death-rate, natural increase (1980-2015), migration increase (19972014), and child mortality (1990-2015). Environmental factors were determined as influencing the health and as a consequence, having the impact on the demographic characteristics of the studied region.

  10. Moral Reasoning Patterns and Influential Factors in the Context of Environmental Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuncay, Busra; Yilmaz-Tuzun, Ozgul; Teksoz, Gaye Tuncer

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated pre-service science teachers' (PSTs') moral reasoning patterns and the factors underlying these reasoning patterns. Local and non-local environmental dilemmas were used to examine moral reasoning patterns. An explanatory design was used with the collection and analysis of quantitative data, which was subsequently refined…

  11. How Creativity Was Affected by Environmental Factors and Individual Characteristics: A Cross-Cultural Comparison Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Lifang; Wang, Lijuan; Zhao, Yanyun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how environmental factors (family environment and school education) and individual characteristics (personality, creative attitudes, and divergent thinking) collectively affect creative achievement of American and Chinese college students. Data were collected from 378 college students in the United States…

  12. Environmental factors impacting response to bovine viral diarrhea vaccines in Angus calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of environmental factors on the serological response to commercial bovine viral diarrhea type 2 (BVDV2) vaccinations in Angus cattle for inclusion as fixed effects into subsequent genetic evaluations for response to vaccination. Age of calf was...

  13. Environmental factors impacting response to bovine viral diarrhea vaccines in Angus calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of environmental factors on the serological response to commercial bovine viral diarrhea type 2 (BVDV2) vaccinations in Angus cattle for inclusion as fixed effects into subsequent genetic evaluations for response to vaccination. This study util...

  14. The Direct and Indirect Effects of Environmental Factors on Nurturing Intellectual Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Shabatat, Ahmad Mohammad; Abbas, Merza; Ismail, Hairul Nizam

    2011-01-01

    Many people believe that environmental factors promote giftedness and invest in many programs to adopt gifted students providing them with challenging activities. Intellectual giftedness is founded on fluid intelligence and extends to more specific abilities through the growth and inputs from the environment. Acknowledging the roles played by the…

  15. The Direct and Indirect Effects of Environmental Factors on Nurturing Intellectual Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Shabatat, Ahmad Mohammad; Abbas, Merza; Ismail, Hairul Nizam

    2009-01-01

    Many people believe that environmental factors promote giftedness and invest in many programs to adopt gifted students providing them with challenging activities. Intellectual giftedness is founded on fluid intelligence and extends to more specific abilities through the growth and inputs from the environment. Acknowledging the roles played by the…

  16. Environmental Factors Item Development for Persons With Stroke, Traumatic Brain Injury, and Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Allen W.; Magasi, Susan; Hammel, Joy; Carlozzi, Noelle E.; Garcia, Sofia F.; Hahn, Elizabeth A.; Lai, Jin-Shei; Tulsky, David; Gray, David B.; Hollingsworth, Holly; Jerousek, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe methods used in operationalizing environmental factors; to describe the results of a research project to develop measures of environmental factors that affect participation; and to define an initial item set of facilitators and barriers to participation after stroke, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury. Design Instrument development included an extensive literature review, item classification and selection, item writing, and cognitive testing following the approach of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System. Setting Community. Participants Content area and outcome measurement experts (n=10) contributed to instrument development; individuals (n=200) with the target conditions participated in focus groups and in cognitive testing (n=15). Interventions None. Main Outcome Measures Environmental factor items were categorized in 6 domains: assistive technology; built and natural environment; social environment; services, systems, and policies; access to information and technology; and economic quality of life. Results We binned 2273 items across the 6 domains, winnowed this pool to 291 items for cognitive testing, and recommended 274 items for pilot data collection. Conclusions Five of the 6 domains correspond closely to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health taxonomy of environmental factors; the sixth domain, economic quality of life, reflects an important construct that reflects financial resources that affect participation. Testing with a new and larger sample is underway to evaluate reliability, validity, and sensitivity. PMID:24378804

  17. Impact of Environmental Factors on Community Participation of Persons with an Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdonschot, Manon M. L.; de Witte, L. P.; Reichrath, E.; Buntinx, W. H. E.; Curfs, L. M. G.

    2009-01-01

    Study Design: A systematic review of the literature. Objectives: To describe which environmental factors have an impact on community participation of persons with an intellectual disability. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted for the period of 1996-2006 in Pubmed, CINAHL and PSYCINFO. Search terms were derived from the…

  18. Correlations between environmental factors and wild bee behavior on alfalfa (Medicago sativa) in northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Liu, Hongping; Li, Xiaoxia; Song, Yu; Chen, Li; Jin, Liang

    2009-10-01

    To discover the effect of environmental factors on pollinator visitation to flowering Medicago sativa, several field experiments were designed to examine the diurnal movement patterns of wild bee species in the Hexi Corridor of northwestern China. Our study results showed that Megachile abluta, M. spissula, and Xylocopa valga showed unimodal diurnal foraging behavior, whereas Andrena parvula and Anthophora melanognatha showed bimodal diurnal foraging behavior. Correlation analysis indicated that diurnal foraging activities of pollinators were significantly correlated with environmental factors. Correlations of foraging activities versus environmental factors for M. abluta, M. spissula, and X. valga best fit a linear model, whereas those of A. parvula and A. melanognatha best fit a parallel quadratic model. Results of this study indicated that solitary wild bees such as M. abluta, M. spissula, X. valga, A. parvula, and A. melanognatha are potential alfalfa pollinators in the Hexi Corridor. An understanding of the environmental factors that affect the behaviors of different wild bees foraging in alfalfa are basic to the utilization of solitary wild bees in a practical way for increased, or more consistent, pollination of alfalfa for seed production. PMID:19825303

  19. Psychosocial, Environmental and Behavioral Factors Associated with Bone Health in Middle-School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Shreela V.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Kelder, Steven H.; Day, R. Sue; Hergenroeder, Albert

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the psychosocial, environmental and behavioral factors associated with calcium intake, physical activity and bone health in a cohort of adolescent girls. Baseline data (N = 718 girls, mean age: 11.6 plus or minus 0.4 years) from the Incorporating More Physical Activity and Calcium in Teens (IMPACT) study…

  20. Agri-Environmental Resource Management by Large-Scale Collective Action: Determining KEY Success Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uetake, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Large-scale collective action is necessary when managing agricultural natural resources such as biodiversity and water quality. This paper determines the key factors to the success of such action. Design/Methodology/Approach: This paper analyses four large-scale collective actions used to manage agri-environmental resources in Canada and…

  1. Environmental Factors Associated with Altered Gut Microbiota in Children with Eczema: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Carmen W. H.; Wong, Rosa S.; Law, Patrick T. W.; Wong, Cho Lee; Tsui, Stephen K. W.; Tang, Winnie P. Y.; Sit, Janet W. H.

    2016-01-01

    Eczema is a common skin condition that impairs children’s daily life activities and quality of life. Previous research shows that gut microbiome composition plays an important role in the development of eczema. The present review summarizes evidence on environmental factors related to altered gut microbiota in children with eczema. We searched Medline, PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane database of Systematic Reviews through October 2015. The search strategy focused on articles published in peer-reviewed, English-language journals with no publication year limit. Only original studies and review articles that reported environmental factors on gut microbiome specific to eczema were included in this review. We selected six studies (total 1990 participants) for full review and identified that the composition of gut microbiota specific to eczema could be influenced by the following environmental factors: length of gestation, mode of delivery, type of feeding, method of treatment, number of older siblings, and other lifestyle factors. There has been inconsistent empirical evidence as to the modulatory effects of gut microbiota on immunological functions in children with eczema. Further research on the environmental-host-microbial interaction is needed to develop a strong base of knowledge for the development and implementation of prevention strategies and policies for eczema. PMID:27438825

  2. Gene-Environment Interplay in Internalizing Disorders: Consistent Findings across Six Environmental Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Brian M.; Dirago, Ana C.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Background: Behavior genetic methods can help to elucidate gene-environment (G-E) interplay in the development of internalizing (INT) disorders (i.e., major depression and anxiety disorders). To date, however, no study has conducted a comprehensive analysis examining multiple environmental risk factors with the purpose of delineating general…

  3. Environmental Factors Associated with Altered Gut Microbiota in Children with Eczema: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Chan, Carmen W H; Wong, Rosa S; Law, Patrick T W; Wong, Cho Lee; Tsui, Stephen K W; Tang, Winnie P Y; Sit, Janet W H

    2016-01-01

    Eczema is a common skin condition that impairs children's daily life activities and quality of life. Previous research shows that gut microbiome composition plays an important role in the development of eczema. The present review summarizes evidence on environmental factors related to altered gut microbiota in children with eczema. We searched Medline, PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane database of Systematic Reviews through October 2015. The search strategy focused on articles published in peer-reviewed, English-language journals with no publication year limit. Only original studies and review articles that reported environmental factors on gut microbiome specific to eczema were included in this review. We selected six studies (total 1990 participants) for full review and identified that the composition of gut microbiota specific to eczema could be influenced by the following environmental factors: length of gestation, mode of delivery, type of feeding, method of treatment, number of older siblings, and other lifestyle factors. There has been inconsistent empirical evidence as to the modulatory effects of gut microbiota on immunological functions in children with eczema. Further research on the environmental-host-microbial interaction is needed to develop a strong base of knowledge for the development and implementation of prevention strategies and policies for eczema. PMID:27438825

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS INFLUENCING METHANOGENESIS IN A SHALLOW ANOXIC AQUIFER: A FIELD AND LABORATORY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The environmental factors influencing methanogenesis in a shallow anoxic aquifer were probed in a combined field and laboratory study. Field data collected over a year revealed that in situ rates of methane production were depressed in winter and elevated in summer. Over the same...

  5. Environmental Factors Affecting Computer Assisted Language Learning Success: A Complex Dynamic Systems Conceptual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marek, Michael W.; Wu, Wen-Chi Vivian

    2014-01-01

    This conceptual, interdisciplinary inquiry explores Complex Dynamic Systems as the concept relates to the internal and external environmental factors affecting computer assisted language learning (CALL). Based on the results obtained by de Rosnay ["World Futures: The Journal of General Evolution", 67(4/5), 304-315 (2011)], who observed…

  6. Quantifying Effects of Environmental and Geographical Factors on Patterns of Genetic Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheng-Ruei; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Elucidating the factors influencing genetic differentiation is an important task in biology, and the relative contribution from natural selection and genetic drift has long been debated. In this study, we used a regression-based approach to simultaneously estimate the quantitative contributions of environmental adaptation and isolation by distance on genetic variation in Boechera stricta, a wild relative of Arabidopsis. Patterns of discrete and continuous genetic differentiation coexist within this species. For the discrete differentiation between two major genetic groups, environment has larger contribution than geography, and we also identified a significant environment-by-geography interaction effect. Elsewhere in the species range, we found a latitudinal cline of genetic variation reflecting only isolation by distance. To further confirm the effect of environmental selection on genetic divergence, we identified the specific environmental variables predicting local genotypes in allopatric and sympatric regions. Water availability was identified as the possible cause of differential local adaptation in both geographic regions, confirming the role of environmental adaptation in driving and maintaining genetic differentiation between the two major genetic groups. In addition, the environment-by-geography interaction is further confirmed by the finding that water availability is represented by different environmental factors in the allopatric and sympatric regions. In conclusion, this study found that geographical and environmental factors together created stronger and more discrete genetic differentiation than isolation by distance alone, which only produced a gradual, clinal pattern of genetic variation. These findings emphasize the importance of environmental selection in shaping patterns of species-wide genetic variation in the natural environment. PMID:21999331

  7. Post-natal myogenic and adipogenic developmental

    PubMed Central

    Konings, Gonda; van Weeghel, Michel; van den Hoogenhof, Maarten MG; Gijbels, Marion; van Erk, Arie; Schoonderwoerd, Kees; van den Bosch, Bianca; Dahlmans, Vivian; Calis, Chantal; Houten, Sander M; Misteli, Tom

    2011-01-01

    A-type lamins are a major component of the nuclear lamina. Mutations in the LMNA gene, which encodes the A-type lamins A and C, cause a set of phenotypically diverse diseases collectively called laminopathies. While adult LMNA null mice show various symptoms typically associated with laminopathies, the effect of loss of lamin A/C on early post-natal development is poorly understood. Here we developed a novel LMNA null mouse (LMNAGT−/−) based on genetrap technology and analyzed its early post-natal development. We detect LMNA transcripts in heart, the outflow tract, dorsal aorta, liver and somites during early embryonic development. Loss of A-type lamins results in severe growth retardation and developmental defects of the heart, including impaired myocyte hypertrophy, skeletal muscle hypotrophy, decreased amounts of subcutaneous adipose tissue and impaired ex vivo adipogenic differentiation. These defects cause death at 2 to 3 weeks post partum associated with muscle weakness and metabolic complications, but without the occurrence of dilated cardiomyopathy or an obvious progeroid phenotype. Our results indicate that defective early post-natal development critically contributes to the disease phenotypes in adult laminopathies. PMID:21818413

  8. Genetic disorders associated with postnatal microcephaly.

    PubMed

    Seltzer, Laurie E; Paciorkowski, Alex R

    2014-06-01

    Several genetic disorders are characterized by normal head size at birth, followed by deceleration in head growth resulting in postnatal microcephaly. Among these are classic disorders such as Angelman syndrome and MECP2-related disorder (formerly Rett syndrome), as well as more recently described clinical entities associated with mutations in CASK, CDKL5, CREBBP, and EP300 (Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome), FOXG1, SLC9A6 (Christianson syndrome), and TCF4 (Pitt-Hopkins syndrome). These disorders can be identified clinically by phenotyping across multiple neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral realms, and enough data are available to recognize these postnatal microcephaly disorders as separate diagnostic entities in their own right. A second diagnostic grouping, comprised of Warburg MICRO syndrome, Cockayne syndrome, and Cerebral-oculo-facial skeletal syndrome, share similar features of somatic growth failure, ophthalmologic, and dysmorphologic features. Many postnatal microcephaly syndromes are caused by mutations in genes important in the regulation of gene expression in the developing forebrain and hindbrain, although important synaptic structural genes also play a role. This is an emerging group of disorders with a fascinating combination of brain malformations, specific epilepsies, movement disorders, and other complex neurobehavioral abnormalities. PMID:24839169

  9. Physiological and environmental factors associated with central fat distribution in pubertal girls.

    PubMed

    Suder, A; Plonka, M; Jagielski, P; Piorecka, B; Glodzik, J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the work was to determine a degree of explanation of the variation of central fat distribution described by the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and waist circumference (WC) by both environmental and biological factors, including hormonal ones. The authors also intended to define the factors which are connected with a risk of abdominal obesity in girls. The study material includes a cross-sectional sample of 297 girls aged 9–16 years, examined in sport and regular schools in Cracow, Poland. Direct anthropometric measurements were done, breast development was assessed (Tanner stage) and leptin and ghrelin concentration in blood serum was estimated (by RIA method). The girls’ lifestyles and socio-economic status were investigated through survey questionnaires. The stepwise descending regression method was applied to evaluate a degree of WC, WHtR and BMI variation explanation. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to indicate factors connected with a risk of abdominal obesity (WHtR ³ 0.50) by calculating odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Variation of WC and WHtR was explained in, respectively, 53% and 44% by biological factors i.e. age, body height, the Tanner stage and blood serum leptin and ghrelin concentration as well as by environmental factors i.e. obesity prevalence in fathers and the girls’ high physical activity. Variation of BMI was explained in 56% by a similar set of variables, excluding the level of physical activity. The biological factors were the highest determinants of an adipose tissue distribution type in the girls. Besides biological factors a significant role was also played by the environmental ones: obesity prevalence in fathers and high level of physical activity. The waist to height ratio seemed to be a more sensitive identifier of environmental behaviours than the general adiposity index. PMID:26084228

  10. Evaluation of variations and affecting factors of eco-environmental quality during urbanization.

    PubMed

    Cui, Erqian; Ren, Lijun; Sun, Haoyu

    2015-03-01

    Regional eco-environmental quality is the foundation of economic sustainable development and rational utilization of resources. It is necessary to understand and evaluate the regional eco-environmental quality correctly. Based on national remote sensing land use data, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data and some other statistical data, this paper established an eco-environmental quality index (EQI) model to evaluate the ecological status of Jinan from 2000 to 2011. The results of eco-environmental quality showed little variation, with EQI values ranged from 62.00 to 69.01. EQI of each region in Jinan firstly decreased sharply and then increased slowly with the development of local economy. Besides the spatial and temporal variations analysis, affecting factors of eco-environmental quality was also discussed in this article. According to the results of correlation and regression analysis, meteorological conditions (rainfall and sunshine duration) and industrial structure (the proportion of primary industry) had relatively high correlations with eco-environmental quality. To summarize, a better eco-environmental status is associated with increasing rainfall, shorter sunshine duration, and lower proportion of primary industry. This article aims to giving supporting data and decision-making bases to restore the ecological environment and promote the sustainable development of Jinan.

  11. Plant community assembly at small scales: Spatial vs. environmental factors in a European grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Sebastian; Hempel, Stefan; Ristow, Michael; Rillig, Matthias C.; Kowarik, Ingo; Caruso, Tancredi

    2015-02-01

    Dispersal limitation and environmental conditions are crucial drivers of plant species distribution and establishment. As these factors operate at different spatial scales, we asked: Do the environmental factors known to determine community assembly at broad scales operate at fine scales (few meters)? How much do these factors account for community variation at fine scales? In which way do biotic and abiotic interactions drive changes in species composition? We surveyed the plant community within a dry grassland along a very steep gradient of soil characteristics like pH and nutrients. We used a spatially explicit sampling design, based on three replicated macroplots of 15 × 15, 12 × 12 and 12 × 12 m in extent. Soil samples were taken to quantify several soil properties (carbon, nitrogen, plant available phosphorus, pH, water content and dehydrogenase activity as a proxy for overall microbial activity). We performed variance partitioning to assess the effect of these variables on plant composition and statistically controlled for spatial autocorrelation via eigenvector mapping. We also applied null model analysis to test for non-random patterns in species co-occurrence using randomization schemes that account for patterns expected under species interactions. At a fine spatial scale, environmental factors explained 18% of variation when controlling for spatial autocorrelation in the distribution of plant species, whereas purely spatial processes accounted for 14% variation. Null model analysis showed that species spatially segregated in a non-random way and these spatial patterns could be due to a combination of environmental filtering and biotic interactions. Our grassland study suggests that environmental factors found to be directly relevant in broad scale studies are present also at small scales, but are supplemented by spatial processes and more direct interactions like competition.

  12. [Darkling beetle community structure and its relations with environmental factors in Sidunzi of Yanchi, Ningxia, China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Gui-jun; He, Qi; Wang, Xin-pu

    2010-09-01

    From March to October 2009, a field survey was conducted on the darkling beetle community structure and related environmental factors in the desert grasslands with different vegetation cover and human disturbance intensity in Sidunzi of Yanchi, Ningxia, China. By using diversity index and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) , the relationships between the beetle community structure and related environmental factors were analyzed. A total of 5431 individuals were collected, belonging to 20 species and 10 genera. Blaps femoralis femoralis, Microdera kraatzi kraatzi, and Platyope mongolica were the dominant species, accounting for 47.30%, 39.90%, and 3.59% of the total, respectively. CCA explained 100% of the correlations between the beetle species and related environmental factors, suggesting that the occurrence of the beetle species had close relations to the changes of related environmental factors. Among the environmental factors, the Shannon diversity index of plant community (HP), plant biomass (BP), and soil water content (SW) affected the beetle species occurrence most. The occurrence frequency of Mantichorula semenowi, Anatolica amoenula, A. sternalis, and A. gravidula was negatively correlated with BP and plant coverage (CP), and that of B. gobiensis, Cyphogenia chinensis, Gonocephalum reticuluatum, and Crypticus rufipes was positively correlated with plant density (DP) and SW. The distribution of P. mongolica, M. kraatzi kraatzi, Scytosoma pygmaeum, and B. kiritshenkoi showed a positive correlation to HP, and that of Eumylada oberbergeri, B. femoralis femoralis, and B. davidea showed a positive correlation to BP and CP. There was a significant positive correlation (r = 0.943, P = 0.005) between the beetle activity density and SW. The CCA ordination showed that the darkling beetles had different demands for multidimensional ecological resources in desert and semi-desert ecosystems.

  13. Studying the Relative Strengths of Environmental Factors that Influence Echinoderm Body Size Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, A.; Randhawa, S.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2013-12-01

    Body size is often a useful metric in observing how a clade responds to environmental changes. Previous research has uncovered how environmental factors such as carbon dioxide and oxygen levels influence body size evolution. However, we wanted to look into how these natural factors interact and which factors seem to have a stronger relative influence on echinoderm body size. We analyzed carbon dioxide levels, a proxy for paleotemperature, oxygen levels, and sea level. Our research process involved measuring and calculating the volume of Phanerozoic echinoderm fossils recorded in the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, plotting their mean volumes over various natural factors, and using statistical tools such as correlation tests and the PaleoTS statistical analysis software to compare the relative strengths of these factors. Furthermore, we divided our data into the following three subsets to uncover more specific relationships: 1) A set that included all data of the phylum Echinodermata 2) A set that focused on the two classes with the most recorded data, Echinoidea and Crinoidea 3) A set that focused on the crinoid specimens that originated in the Paleozoic and in the post-Paleozoic. In the first subset, echinoderms had the strongest correlation with carbon dioxide, a proxy for temperature, and possessed a weaker correlation with oxygen. In the second subset, we discovered that the echinoid data also possessed a strong correlation with carbon dioxide and a weaker correlation with oxygen. For crinoids, we found that the class as a whole showed no strong correlation with any measured environmental factors. However, when we divided the crinoids based on age, we found that both Paleozoic and post-Paleozoic crinoids individually correlated strongly with sea level. However, some uncertainty with this correlation arose as the comparison of the environmental correlate models suggested that an unbiased random walk was the best fit for the data. This stands as a sharp

  14. [Evaluation of the influence of physical environmental factors on morbidity among armed forces personnel].

    PubMed

    Rakhmanov, R S; Gadzhiibragimov, D A; Medzhidova, M A; Kudriavtseva, O A

    2009-01-01

    Under the conditions of hot and mountain-continental climate, the morbidity rates were estimated to be significantly lower than those in young men who had not been acclimatized or adapted to living conditions and in non-acclimatized men. A role of individual physical environmental factors (temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, average and maximum air speed) and integral exposure by the wind chill index (a combined impact of an air speed and ambient temperature) as risk factors to human health was defined. The mountain-continental climate showed a relationship of the influence of these factors to habitation at different altitudes. PMID:20000099

  15. [Evaluation of the influence of physical environmental factors on morbidity among armed forces personnel].

    PubMed

    Rakhmanov, R S; Gadzhiibragimov, D A; Medzhidova, M A; Kudriavtseva, O A

    2009-01-01

    Under the conditions of hot and mountain-continental climate, the morbidity rates were estimated to be significantly lower than those in young men who had not been acclimatized or adapted to living conditions and in non-acclimatized men. A role of individual physical environmental factors (temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, average and maximum air speed) and integral exposure by the wind chill index (a combined impact of an air speed and ambient temperature) as risk factors to human health was defined. The mountain-continental climate showed a relationship of the influence of these factors to habitation at different altitudes.

  16. Pathogenesis of malignant pleural mesothelioma and the role of environmental and genetic factors

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Shoshana J; Neragi-Miandoab, Siyamek

    2008-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare, aggressive tumor for which no effective therapy exists despite the discovery of many possible molecular and genetic targets. Many risk factors for MPM development have been recognized including environmental exposures, genetic susceptibility, viral contamination, and radiation. However, the late stage of MPM diagnosis and the long latency that exists between some exposures and diagnosis have made it difficult to comprehensively evaluate the role of risk factors and their downstream molecular effects. In this review, we discuss the current molecular and genetic contributors in MPM pathogenesis and the risk factors associated with these carcinogenic processes. PMID:18662397

  17. Environmental and stressful factors affecting the occurrence of kidney stones and the kidney colic.

    PubMed

    Kalaitzidis, Rigas G; Damigos, Dimitrios; Siamopoulos, Kostas C

    2014-09-01

    The first renal disease described from Hippocrates is nephrolithiasis with renal colic, which is the pain of stone passage and is also a common renal problem with easily recognizable characteristics. There has been much written about dietary factors, which have unequivocally been proved to play an important role in the formation of kidney stones. In this regard, it is of interest that the contribution of factors such as stressful events, life style, or occupation in the formation of kidney stones has not been well studied. This review examines the clinical evidence of the stressful events and other environmental factors affecting the occurrence of kidney stones. PMID:24927933

  18. Environmental Risk Factors in Psoriasis: The Point of View of the Nutritionist

    PubMed Central

    Barrea, Luigi; Nappi, Francesca; Di Somma, Carolina; Savanelli, Maria Cristina; Falco, Andrea; Balato, Anna; Balato, Nicola; Savastano, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common, chronic, immune-mediated skin disease with systemic pro-inflammatory activation, where both environmental and genetic factors contribute to its pathogenesis. Among the risk factors for psoriasis, evidence is accumulating that nutrition plays a major role, per se, in psoriasis pathogenesis. In particular, body weight, nutrition, and diet may exacerbate the clinical manifestations, or even trigger the disease. Understanding the epidemiological relationship between obesity and psoriasis is also important for delineating the risk profile for the obesity-related comorbidities commonly found among psoriatic patients. Moreover, obesity can affect both drug’s pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Additionally, the overall beneficial effects on the obesity-associated comorbidities, clinical recommendations to reduce weight and to adopt a healthy lifestyle could improve the psoriasis severity, particularly in those patients with moderate to severe disease, thus exerting additional therapeutic effects in the conventional treatment in obese patients with psoriasis. Education regarding modifiable environmental factors is essential in the treatment of this disease and represents one of the primary interventions that can affect the prognosis of patients with psoriasis. The goal is to make psoriatic patients and health care providers aware of beneficial dietary interventions. The aim of this review is to assess the relevance of the environmental factors as modifiable risk factors in psoriasis pathogenesis, with particular regard to the involvement of obesity and nutrition in the management of psoriasis, providing also specific nutrition recommendations. PMID:27455297

  19. Genetic, metabolic and environmental factors involved in the development of liver cirrhosis in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Lopez, Omar; Martinez-Lopez, Erika; Roman, Sonia; Fierro, Nora A; Panduro, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis (LC) is a chronic illness caused by inflammatory responses and progressive fibrosis. Globally, the most common causes of chronic liver disease include persistent alcohol abuse, followed by viral hepatitis infections and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. However, regardless of the etiological factors, the susceptibility and degree of liver damage may be influenced by genetic polymorphisms that are associated with distinct ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Consequently, metabolic genes are influenced by variable environmental lifestyle factors, such as diet, physical inactivity, and emotional stress, which are associated with regional differences among populations. This Topic Highlight will focus on the genetic and environmental factors that may influence the metabolism of alcohol and nutrients in the setting of distinct etiologies of liver disease. The interaction between genes and environment in the current-day admixed population, Mestizo and Native Mexican, will be described. Additionally, genes involved in immune regulation, insulin sensitivity, oxidative stress and extracellular matrix deposition may modulate the degree of severity. In conclusion, LC is a complex disease. The onset, progression, and clinical outcome of LC among the Mexican population are influenced by specific genetic and environmental factors. Among these are an admixed genome with a heterogenic distribution of European, Amerindian and African ancestry; a high score of alcohol consumption; viral infections; a hepatopathogenic diet; and a high prevalence of obesity. The variance in risk factors among populations suggests that intervention strategies directed towards the prevention and management of LC should be tailored according to such population-based features. PMID:26556986

  20. Environmental Risk Factors in Psoriasis: The Point of View of the Nutritionist.

    PubMed

    Barrea, Luigi; Nappi, Francesca; Di Somma, Carolina; Savanelli, Maria Cristina; Falco, Andrea; Balato, Anna; Balato, Nicola; Savastano, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common, chronic, immune-mediated skin disease with systemic pro-inflammatory activation, where both environmental and genetic factors contribute to its pathogenesis. Among the risk factors for psoriasis, evidence is accumulating that nutrition plays a major role, per se, in psoriasis pathogenesis. In particular, body weight, nutrition, and diet may exacerbate the clinical manifestations, or even trigger the disease. Understanding the epidemiological relationship between obesity and psoriasis is also important for delineating the risk profile for the obesity-related comorbidities commonly found among psoriatic patients. Moreover, obesity can affect both drug's pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Additionally, the overall beneficial effects on the obesity-associated comorbidities, clinical recommendations to reduce weight and to adopt a healthy lifestyle could improve the psoriasis severity, particularly in those patients with moderate to severe disease, thus exerting additional therapeutic effects in the conventional treatment in obese patients with psoriasis. Education regarding modifiable environmental factors is essential in the treatment of this disease and represents one of the primary interventions that can affect the prognosis of patients with psoriasis. The goal is to make psoriatic patients and health care providers aware of beneficial dietary interventions. The aim of this review is to assess the relevance of the environmental factors as modifiable risk factors in psoriasis pathogenesis, with particular regard to the involvement of obesity and nutrition in the management of psoriasis, providing also specific nutrition recommendations.

  1. Environmental Risk Factors in Psoriasis: The Point of View of the Nutritionist.

    PubMed

    Barrea, Luigi; Nappi, Francesca; Di Somma, Carolina; Savanelli, Maria Cristina; Falco, Andrea; Balato, Anna; Balato, Nicola; Savastano, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common, chronic, immune-mediated skin disease with systemic pro-inflammatory activation, where both environmental and genetic factors contribute to its pathogenesis. Among the risk factors for psoriasis, evidence is accumulating that nutrition plays a major role, per se, in psoriasis pathogenesis. In particular, body weight, nutrition, and diet may exacerbate the clinical manifestations, or even trigger the disease. Understanding the epidemiological relationship between obesity and psoriasis is also important for delineating the risk profile for the obesity-related comorbidities commonly found among psoriatic patients. Moreover, obesity can affect both drug's pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Additionally, the overall beneficial effects on the obesity-associated comorbidities, clinical recommendations to reduce weight and to adopt a healthy lifestyle could improve the psoriasis severity, particularly in those patients with moderate to severe disease, thus exerting additional therapeutic effects in the conventional treatment in obese patients with psoriasis. Education regarding modifiable environmental factors is essential in the treatment of this disease and represents one of the primary interventions that can affect the prognosis of patients with psoriasis. The goal is to make psoriatic patients and health care providers aware of beneficial dietary interventions. The aim of this review is to assess the relevance of the environmental factors as modifiable risk factors in psoriasis pathogenesis, with particular regard to the involvement of obesity and nutrition in the management of psoriasis, providing also specific nutrition recommendations. PMID:27455297

  2. The influence of human and environmental exposure factors on personal NO(2) exposures.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ron; Jones, Paul; Croghan, Carry; Thornburg, Jonathan; Rodes, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA) Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) deployed a total of over 2000 nitrogen dioxide, NO(2,) passive monitors during 3 years of field data collections. These 24-h based personal, residential outdoor and community-based measurements allowed for the investigation of NO(2) spatial, temporal, human and environmental factors. The relationships between personal exposures to NO(2) and the factors that influence the relationship with community-based measurements were of interest. Survey data from 136 participants were integrated with exposure findings to allow for mixed model effect analyses. Ultimately, 50 individual factors were selected for examination. NO(2) analyses revealed that season, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and residential gas appliances were strong influencing factors. Only modest associations between community-based measures of nitrogen dioxide and personal exposures impacted by various exposure factors for heating (r=0.44) or non-heating seasons (r=0.34) were observed, indicating that use of ambient-based monitoring as a surrogate of personal exposure might result in sizeable exposure misclassification.

  3. Assessment of the environmental and genetic factors influencing prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Gosadi, Ibrahim M.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a combination of factors that increases the risk of cardiovascular atherosclerotic diseases including diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, and high blood pressure. Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of death in the adult Saudi population where the increase in cardiovascular-related mortality is augmented by the rise in the prevalence of MS. Metabolic syndrome is a multi-factorial disorder influenced by interactions between genetic and environmental components. This review aims to provide a comprehensive assessment of studied environmental and genetic factors explaining the prevalence of MS in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Additionally, this review aims to illustrate factors related to the population genetics of Saudi Arabia, which might explain a proportion of the prevalence of MS. PMID:26739969

  4. Concentration of Elements in Food: How Can It Reflect Impact of Environmental and Other Influencing Factors?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincevica-Gaile, Zane; Klavins, Maris

    2013-12-01

    Element content of food is variable and can be influenced by different factors. The aim of the present study was to discover the linkage between macro- and microelement concentrations in food produced in Latvia, and possible impacts of environmental factors. More than 300 fresh food samples such as eggs, cottage cheese, honey, root vegetables, apple juice, apple wine were collected in the time period from 2009 to 2011. Samples were mineralised or analysed directly by appropriate method of quantitative analysis: atomic absorption spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry or total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Statistical analysis of data revealed that food elemental content can be influenced by sitespecific factors such as geographical origin, seasonality, environmental pollution.

  5. Elevated-CO2 Response of Stomata and Its Dependence on Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhenzhu; Jiang, Yanling; Jia, Bingrui; Zhou, Guangsheng

    2016-01-01

    Stomata control the flow of gases between plants and the atmosphere. This review is centered on stomatal responses to elevated CO2 concentration and considers other key environmental factors and underlying mechanisms at multiple levels. First, an outline of general responses in stomatal conductance under elevated CO2 is presented. Second, stomatal density response, its development, and the trade-off with leaf growth under elevated CO2 conditions are depicted. Third, the molecular mechanism regulating guard cell movement at elevated CO2 is suggested. Finally, the interactive effects of elevated CO2 with other factors critical to stomatal behavior are reviewed. It may be useful to better understand how stomata respond to elevated CO2 levels while considering other key environmental factors and mechanisms, including molecular mechanism, biochemical processes, and ecophysiological regulation. This understanding may provide profound new insights into how plants cope with climate change. PMID:27242858

  6. Family and social environmental factors associated with aggression among Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dou, Chunxia; Wei, Zhen; Jin, Ke; Wang, He; Wang, Xiulan; Peng, Ziwen

    2015-09-01

    Family and school environments are assumed to be associated with and influence aggressive behaviors. However, which specific risk factors within these environments that are associated with aggressive behavior are unclear. The goal of this study is to identify family and social environmental qualities that are related to aggression among Chinese adolescents. Survey data were obtained from 3,213 randomly selected urban high school students ages 10 through 18 in southern China. Lower parental attachment, higher family income, mother's higher education levels, father's parenting goals, rough or changeable parenting styles, unsuitable peer relationships, and inadequate social atmospheres at school serve as risk factors for aggression among Chinese adolescents. Our findings provide some implications for understanding aggression among adolescents and suggests possible interventions to help overcome potential environmental risk factors and thus to prevent aggressive behavior in school. PMID:25496506

  7. Elevated-CO2 Response of Stomata and Its Dependence on Environmental Factors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhenzhu; Jiang, Yanling; Jia, Bingrui; Zhou, Guangsheng

    2016-01-01

    Stomata control the flow of gases between plants and the atmosphere. This review is centered on stomatal responses to elevated CO2 concentration and considers other key environmental factors and underlying mechanisms at multiple levels. First, an outline of general responses in stomatal conductance under elevated CO2 is presented. Second, stomatal density response, its development, and the trade-off with leaf growth under elevated CO2 conditions are depicted. Third, the molecular mechanism regulating guard cell movement at elevated CO2 is suggested. Finally, the interactive effects of elevated CO2 with other factors critical to stomatal behavior are reviewed. It may be useful to better understand how stomata respond to elevated CO2 levels while considering other key environmental factors and mechanisms, including molecular mechanism, biochemical processes, and ecophysiological regulation. This understanding may provide profound new insights into how plants cope with climate change. PMID:27242858

  8. Meta-Analysis of Individual and Environmental Factors that Influence People’s Addiction Tendencies

    PubMed Central

    Safari Hajat Aghaii, Saideh; Kamaly, Ayoub; Esfahani, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Background In recent years, many studies have been conducted to establish the causes of people’s tendency to become addicted and researchers have also tried to determine the amount, importance and role of each individual and environmental factor. Objectives With regard to the inconsistencies in previous research results, this study aims to use meta-analysis in order to integrate the results of different studies and investigate the impact of environmental and personal factors in people’s proclivity to addiction. Materials and Methods This meta-analysis uses the Hunter and Schmidt approach. For this purpose, 16 out of 32 studies which were acceptable in terms of their methodology, and had been conducted during an eight year period (2003 - 2010), were selected. A meta-analysis was conducted on the articles which had been collected using a standard checklist via; the internet, in person, telephone and e-mail, from universities and research centers across the country. After summarizing the results of the studies, effect sizes were calculated manually and combined based on a meta-analysis, and interpreted in accordance with a Cohen’s table. Results After data collection, results showed that the effect size of environmental factors in people’s tendency to addiction was 0.61 (P ≤ 0.00001), and the effect size of individual factors in people’s tendency to addiction was 0.45 (P ≤ 0.03). Conclusions According to Cohen’s table size, the effects were evaluated as average to high for the environmental factors and low to moderate for the individual factors in the tendency to become addicted. PMID:24971243

  9. Vaccine-induced antibody responses as parameters of the influence of endogenous and environmental factors.

    PubMed Central

    Van Loveren, H; Van Amsterdam, J G; Vandebriel, R J; Kimman, T G; Rümke, H C; Steerenberg, P S; Vos, J G

    2001-01-01

    In laboratory animals, an adequate way to assess effects of environmental exposures on the immune system is to study effects on antigen-specific immune responses, such as after sensitization to T-cell-dependent antigens. This probably also applies to testing effects in the human population. It has thus been suggested that antibody responses to vaccination might be useful in this context. Vaccination responses may be influenced by a variety of factors other than environmental ones. One factor is the vaccine itself; a second is the vaccination procedure used. In addition, the intrinsic capacity of the recipient to respond to a vaccine, which is determined by sex, genetic factors, and age, is important. Psychological stress, nutrition, and (infectious) diseases are also likely to have an impact. We reviewed the literature on vaccine response. With regard to exogenous factors, there is good evidence that smoking, diet, psychological stress, and certain infectious diseases affect vaccination titers, although it is difficult to determine to what extent. Genetic factors render certain individuals nonresponsive to vaccination. In general, in epidemiologic studies of adverse effects of exposure to agents in the environment in which vaccination titers are used, these additional factors need to be taken into consideration. Provided that these factors are corrected for, a study that shows an association of exposure to a given agent with diminished vaccination responses may indicate suboptimal function of the immune system and clinically relevant diminished immune response. It is quite unlikely that environmental exposures that affect responses to vaccination may in fact abrogate protection to the specific pathogen for which vaccination was performed. Only in those cases where individuals have a poor response to the vaccine may exogenous factors perhaps have a clinically significant influence on resistance to the specific pathogen. An exposure-associated inhibition of a

  10. Postnatal Phencyclidine (PCP) as a Neurodevelopmental Animal Model of Schizophrenia Pathophysiology and Symptomatology: A Review.

    PubMed

    Grayson, B; Barnes, S A; Markou, A; Piercy, C; Podda, G; Neill, J C

    2016-01-01

    that it will provide a useful neurodevelopmental model to complement other models such as maternal immune activation, particularly when combined with other manipulations to produce dual or triple hit models. However, the developmental trajectory of behavioural and neuropathological changes induced by postnatal PCP and their relevance to schizophrenia must be carefully mapped out. Overall, we support further development of dual (or triple) hit models incorporating genetic, neurodevelopmental and appropriate environmental elements in the search for more aetiologically valid animal models of schizophrenia and neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs).

  11. Postnatal Phencyclidine (PCP) as a Neurodevelopmental Animal Model of Schizophrenia Pathophysiology and Symptomatology: A Review.

    PubMed

    Grayson, B; Barnes, S A; Markou, A; Piercy, C; Podda, G; Neill, J C

    2016-01-01

    that it will provide a useful neurodevelopmental model to complement other models such as maternal immune activation, particularly when combined with other manipulations to produce dual or triple hit models. However, the developmental trajectory of behavioural and neuropathological changes induced by postnatal PCP and their relevance to schizophrenia must be carefully mapped out. Overall, we support further development of dual (or triple) hit models incorporating genetic, neurodevelopmental and appropriate environmental elements in the search for more aetiologically valid animal models of schizophrenia and neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). PMID:26510740

  12. The role of genetic and environmental factors in cardiovascular disease in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R

    1999-03-01

    Considerable interest has been focused over the years on estimating the relative importance of genetic and environmental factors on differences in rates of cardiovascular disease in blacks and whites. However, recent advances in molecular science have helped to illuminate the underlying complexity of this problem. Attempts to impute the genetic component from "what was left over" after control for a limited set of environmental exposures is increasingly recognized as naive. The requirements for a model that could account for interactions between genetic and environmental factors far exceeds the precision of our measurements. Although it is obvious that blacks experience not only unique environmental exposures, such as white racism, but more intense exposure to common factors, such as obesity, current methods make it very difficult to summarize these effects. Simpler models, using data from large samples, could provide greater precision and might illuminate the exposure-outcome relationships common to all groups. Meanwhile, efforts to identify genetic underpinnings of complex disorders will have to reach a much higher level of development before useful conclusions can be reached about the magnitude and variation of effects between racial and ethnic groups.

  13. Exploring Environmental Factors in Nursing Workplaces That Promote Psychological Resilience: Constructing a Unified Theoretical Model.

    PubMed

    Cusack, Lynette; Smith, Morgan; Hegney, Desley; Rees, Clare S; Breen, Lauren J; Witt, Regina R; Rogers, Cath; Williams, Allison; Cross, Wendy; Cheung, Kin

    2016-01-01

    Building nurses' resilience to complex and stressful practice environments is necessary to keep skilled nurses in the workplace and ensuring safe patient care. A unified theoretical framework titled Health Services Workplace Environmental Resilience Model (HSWERM), is presented to explain the environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. The framework builds on a previously-published theoretical model of individual resilience, which identified the key constructs of psychological resilience as self-efficacy, coping and mindfulness, but did not examine environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. This unified theoretical framework was developed using a literary synthesis drawing on data from international studies and literature reviews on the nursing workforce in hospitals. The most frequent workplace environmental factors were identified, extracted and clustered in alignment with key constructs for psychological resilience. Six major organizational concepts emerged that related to a positive resilience-building workplace and formed the foundation of the theoretical model. Three concepts related to nursing staff support (professional, practice, personal) and three related to nursing staff development (professional, practice, personal) within the workplace environment. The unified theoretical model incorporates these concepts within the workplace context, linking to the nurse, and then impacting on personal resilience and workplace outcomes, and its use has the potential to increase staff retention and quality of patient care. PMID:27242567

  14. Current Changes in Pubertal Timing: Revised Vision in Relation with Environmental Factors Including Endocrine Disruptors.

    PubMed

    Parent, Anne-Simone; Franssen, Delphine; Fudvoye, Julie; Pinson, Anneline; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to revise some common views on changes in pubertal timing. This revision is based on recent epidemiological findings on the clinical indicators of pubertal timing and data on environmental factor effects and underlying mechanisms. A current advancement in timing of female puberty is usually emphasized. It appears, however, that timing is also changing in males. Moreover, the changes are towards earliness for initial pubertal stages and towards lateness for final stages in both sexes. Such observations indicate the complexity of environmental influences on pubertal timing. The mechanisms of changes in pubertal timing may involve both the central neuroendocrine control and peripheral effects at tissues targeted by gonadal steroids. While sufficient energy availability is a clue to the mechanism of pubertal development, changes in the control of both energy balance and reproduction may vary under the influence of common determinants such as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). These effects can take place right before puberty as well as much earlier, during fetal and neonatal life. Finally, environmental factors can interact with genetic factors in determining changes in pubertal timing. Therefore, the variance in pubertal timing is no longer to be considered under absolutely separate control by environmental and genetic determinants. Some recommendations are provided for evaluation of EDC impact in the management of pubertal disorders and for possible reduction of EDC exposure along the precautionary principle.

  15. Exploring Environmental Factors in Nursing Workplaces That Promote Psychological Resilience: Constructing a Unified Theoretical Model

    PubMed Central

    Cusack, Lynette; Smith, Morgan; Hegney, Desley; Rees, Clare S.; Breen, Lauren J.; Witt, Regina R.; Rogers, Cath; Williams, Allison; Cross, Wendy; Cheung, Kin

    2016-01-01

    Building nurses' resilience to complex and stressful practice environments is necessary to keep skilled nurses in the workplace and ensuring safe patient care. A unified theoretical framework titled Health Services Workplace Environmental Resilience Model (HSWERM), is presented to explain the environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. The framework builds on a previously-published theoretical model of individual resilience, which identified the key constructs of psychological resilience as self-efficacy, coping and mindfulness, but did not examine environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. This unified theoretical framework was developed using a literary synthesis drawing on data from international studies and literature reviews on the nursing workforce in hospitals. The most frequent workplace environmental factors were identified, extracted and clustered in alignment with key constructs for psychological resilience. Six major organizational concepts emerged that related to a positive resilience-building workplace and formed the foundation of the theoretical model. Three concepts related to nursing staff support (professional, practice, personal) and three related to nursing staff development (professional, practice, personal) within the workplace environment. The unified theoretical model incorporates these concepts within the workplace context, linking to the nurse, and then impacting on personal resilience and workplace outcomes, and its use has the potential to increase staff retention and quality of patient care. PMID:27242567

  16. Autumn ichthyoplankton assemblage in the Yangtze Estuary shaped by environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shude

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the response of the ichthyoplankton community to environmental changes in the Yangtze Estuary using canonical correspondence analysis. Ichthyoplankton community and environmental data were recorded during the autumns of 1998, 2000, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2007 and 2009. Among the ichthyoplankton, the dominant larval and juvenile families were the Engraulidae, Gobiidae and Salangidae, and the most common eggs were from Trichiurus lepturus. The ichthyoplankton was identified via canonical correspondence analysis to three assemblages: an estuary assemblage dominated by Chaeturichthys stigmatias, a coastal assemblage dominated by Engraulis japonicus and Stolephorus commersonii, and an offshore assemblage dominated by Trichiurus lepturus. Regarding environmental factors in the Yangtze Estuary, suspended matter and surface seawater salinity were the main factors influencing the distributions of the different assemblages, while sediment from the Yangtze River during the rainy season and chlorophyll a were the principle drivers of the annual variances in the distribution of ichthyoplankton assemblages. Our aims in this study were to provide detailed characterizations of the ichthyoplankton assemblage in the autumns of seven years, examine the long-term dynamics of autumn ichthyoplankton assemblages, and evaluate the influence of environmental factors on the spatial distribution and inter-annual variations of ichthyoplankton assemblages associated with the Yangtze Estuary. PMID:27114877

  17. Current Changes in Pubertal Timing: Revised Vision in Relation with Environmental Factors Including Endocrine Disruptors.

    PubMed

    Parent, Anne-Simone; Franssen, Delphine; Fudvoye, Julie; Pinson, Anneline; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to revise some common views on changes in pubertal timing. This revision is based on recent epidemiological findings on the clinical indicators of pubertal timing and data on environmental factor effects and underlying mechanisms. A current advancement in timing of female puberty is usually emphasized. It appears, however, that timing is also changing in males. Moreover, the changes are towards earliness for initial pubertal stages and towards lateness for final stages in both sexes. Such observations indicate the complexity of environmental influences on pubertal timing. The mechanisms of changes in pubertal timing may involve both the central neuroendocrine control and peripheral effects at tissues targeted by gonadal steroids. While sufficient energy availability is a clue to the mechanism of pubertal development, changes in the control of both energy balance and reproduction may vary under the influence of common determinants such as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). These effects can take place right before puberty as well as much earlier, during fetal and neonatal life. Finally, environmental factors can interact with genetic factors in determining changes in pubertal timing. Therefore, the variance in pubertal timing is no longer to be considered under absolutely separate control by environmental and genetic determinants. Some recommendations are provided for evaluation of EDC impact in the management of pubertal disorders and for possible reduction of EDC exposure along the precautionary principle. PMID:26680578

  18. Exploring Environmental Factors in Nursing Workplaces That Promote Psychological Resilience: Constructing a Unified Theoretical Model.

    PubMed

    Cusack, Lynette; Smith, Morgan; Hegney, Desley; Rees, Clare S; Breen, Lauren J; Witt, Regina R; Rogers, Cath; Williams, Allison; Cross, Wendy; Cheung, Kin

    2016-01-01

    Building nurses' resilience to complex and stressful practice environments is necessary to keep skilled nurses in the workplace and ensuring safe patient care. A unified theoretical framework titled Health Services Workplace Environmental Resilience Model (HSWERM), is presented to explain the environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. The framework builds on a previously-published theoretical model of individual resilience, which identified the key constructs of psychological resilience as self-efficacy, coping and mindfulness, but did not examine environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. This unified theoretical framework was developed using a literary synthesis drawing on data from international studies and literature reviews on the nursing workforce in hospitals. The most frequent workplace environmental factors were identified, extracted and clustered in alignment with key constructs for psychological resilience. Six major organizational concepts emerged that related to a positive resilience-building workplace and formed the foundation of the theoretical model. Three concepts related to nursing staff support (professional, practice, personal) and three related to nursing staff development (professional, practice, personal) within the workplace environment. The unified theoretical model incorporates these concepts within the workplace context, linking to the nurse, and then impacting on personal resilience and workplace outcomes, and its use has the potential to increase staff retention and quality of patient care.

  19. Developing standards for environmental toxicants: the need to consider abiotic environmental factors and microbe-mediated ecologic processes.

    PubMed Central

    Babich, H; Stotzky, G

    1983-01-01

    This article suggests and discusses two novel aspects for the formulation of standards for environmental toxicants. First, uniform national standards for each pollutant will be underprotective for some ecosystems and overprotective for others, inasmuch as the toxicity of a pollutant to the indigenous biota is dependent on the physicochemical properties of the recipient environment. As the number of chemicals that need regulation is immense and as microbes appear to respond similarly to pollutant-abiotic factor interactions as do plants and animals, it is suggested that microbial assays be used initially to identify those abiotic factors that most influence the toxicity of specific pollutants. Thereafter, additional studies using plants and animals can focus on these pollutant-abiotic factor interactions, and more meaningful standards can then be formulated more rapidly and inexpensively. Second, it is suggested that the response to pollutants of microbe-mediated ecologic processes be used to quantitate the sensitivity of different ecosystems to various toxicants. Such a quantification, expressed in terms of an "ecological dose 50%" (EcD50), could be easily incorporated into the methodologies currently used to set water quality criteria and would also be applicable to setting criteria for terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:6339225

  20. Predicting environmental chemical factors associated with disease-related gene expression data

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many common diseases arise from an interaction between environmental and genetic factors. Our knowledge regarding environment and gene interactions is growing, but frameworks to build an association between gene-environment interactions and disease using preexisting, publicly available data has been lacking. Integrating freely-available environment-gene interaction and disease phenotype data would allow hypothesis generation for potential environmental associations to disease. Methods We integrated publicly available disease-specific gene expression microarray data and curated chemical-gene interaction data to systematically predict environmental chemicals associated with disease. We derived chemical-gene signatures for 1,338 chemical/environmental chemicals from the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD). We associated these chemical-gene signatures with differentially expressed genes from datasets found in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) through an enrichment test. Results We were able to verify our analytic method by accurately identifying chemicals applied to samples and cell lines. Furthermore, we were able to predict known and novel environmental associations with prostate, lung, and breast cancers, such as estradiol and bisphenol A. Conclusions We have developed a scalable and statistical method to identify possible environmental associations with disease using publicly available data and have validated some of the associations in the literature. PMID:20459635

  1. Environmental Risk Factors in Han and Uyghur Children with Dyslexia: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Baoping; Chen, Yun; Zhou, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Background Several studies have been conducted to explore risk factors for dyslexia. However, most studies examining dyslexia have been skewed toward Western countries, and few have considered two nationalities simultaneously. This study focused on differences in dyslexia prevalence and potential environmental risk factors between Han and Uyghur children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kashgar and Aksu, cities in Xinjiang province, China. A two-stage sampling strategy was used to recruit 2,854 students in grades 3–6 from 5 primary schools in 5 districts; 2,348 valid student questionnaires were included in the analysis. Dyslexia checklists for Chinese and Uyghur children and pupil rating scales were used to identify children with dyslexia. Questions related to the home literacy environment and reading ability were used to evaluate potential environmental risk factors. Single factor analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine prevalence and risk factors for dyslexia. Results Dyslexia prevalence differed significantly between Han (3.9%) and Uyghur (7.0%) children (P < 0.05), and the boy-to-girl diagnosis ratio was almost 2:1. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that ethnic differences in dyslexia prevalence between Han and Uyghur children could have occurred because of factors such as mother’s occupation (P = 0.02, OR = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.01–0.68) and the frequency with which parents told stories (P = 0.00, OR = 4.50, 95% CI = 1.67–12.11). Conclusions The prevalence of dyslexia was high in all children, particularly those in the Uyghur group. Environmental factors could have been responsible for some of the differences observed. The results contribute to the early identification and management of dyslexia in children from these two groups and research examining developmental dyslexia and differences in racial genetics. PMID:27416106

  2. Involvement of Genetic and Environmental Factors in the Onset of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2013-01-01

    First, this article provides a brief overview of the previous hypotheses regarding depression and then focuses on involvement of genetic and environmental factors in development of depression. According to epidemiological research, 30~40% of occurrences of bipolar disorder involve a genetic factor. Therefore, environmental factors play a more important role in development of depression. Resilience and resistance to stress are common; therefore, although a certain extent of stress might be received during the embryonic or perinatal period, having a genetic predisposition to mental disorders does not imply that a mental disorder will develop. However, having a genetic predisposition to disorders does weaken resistance to stresses received during puberty, and without the ability to recover, a mental disorder is triggered. The importance of epigenetics in maintaining normal development and biology is reflected by the observation that development of many diseases occurs when the wrong type of epigenetic marks are introduced or are added at the wrong time or in the wrong place. Involvement of genetic and environmental factors in the onset of depression was investigated in relation to epigenetics. When mice with the disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) abnormal gene received isolated rearing stress, depression-like abnormal behaviors and decreased gene expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in the frontal cortex by epigenetical suppression via DNA methylation were observed. Decrease of dopamine in the frontal cortex triggers behavioral disorders. Administration of a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist resulted in full recovery from neurological and behavioral disorders. These results suggest a new therapeutic approach to depression. PMID:24465138

  3. Regional and geographical variations in infertility: effects of environmental, cultural, and socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed Central

    Leke, R J; Oduma, J A; Bassol-Mayagoitia, S; Bacha, A M; Grigor, K M

    1993-01-01

    Fertility is affected by many different cultural, environmental, and socioeconomic factors, especially in developing countries where poverty and infections are commonplace. Environmental factors play a major role in infertility in Africa. One of the most important health problems in sub-Saharan Africa is the high rate of infertility and childlessness. The African society has a strong traditional heritage, and the study of the patterns of infertility in this part of the world would be incomplete without consideration of the sociocultural and environmental factors. The most cost-effective approach to solving the infertility problems in Africa is prevention and education. In Mexico, problems of reproductive health are associated with pregnancy in adolescents, sexually transmitted diseases and genitourinary neoplasms. Infertility affects 10% of couples, usually as a result of asymptomatic infection. Education, poverty, nutrition, and pollution are problems that must be tackled. The government has taken positive action in the State of São Paulo in Brazil, where gender discrimination is a major factor affecting women's health and reproductive outcomes. The implementation of new policies with adequate funding has resulted in marked improvements. PMID:8243409

  4. Environmental factors during early developmental period influence psychobehavioral abnormalities in adult PACAP-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Ishihama, Toshihiro; Ago, Yukio; Shintani, Norihito; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Baba, Akemichi; Takuma, Kazuhiro; Matsuda, Toshio

    2010-06-19

    Mice lacking the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) (PACAP(-/-)) display behavioral abnormalities, and genetic variants of the genes encoding PACAP are associated with schizophrenia. Clinical studies show that environmental factors, besides genetic factors, play a key role in etiology of many psychiatric disorders. This study examined the effects of environmental factors such as short-term social isolation and an enriched environment on behavioral abnormalities of PACAP(-/-) mice. Rearing in isolation for 2-weeks from 4-weeks old induced hyperlocomotion and aggressive behaviors in the PACAP(-/-) mice without affecting the behavioral performance of the wild-type controls. Adult PACAP(-/-) mice showed not only hyperactivity, jumping behavior, and depression-like behavior, but also decreased social interaction. These abnormal behaviors were improved by rearing for 4-weeks in an early enriched environment (from 4-weeks old), although the deficits of prepulse inhibition (PPI) were not influenced by the enriched condition. In contrast, rearing for 4-weeks in late enriched environment (from 8-weeks old) did not affect the hyperactivity and jumping behaviors in the PACAP(-/-) mice. These results suggest that abnormal behaviors except PPI deficits in PACAP(-/-) mice depend on the environmental factors during the early stages of development.

  5. Regional and geographical variations in infertility: effects of environmental, cultural, and socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed

    Leke, R J; Oduma, J A; Bassol-Mayagoitia, S; Bacha, A M; Grigor, K M

    1993-07-01

    Fertility is affected by many different cultural, environmental, and socioeconomic factors, especially in developing countries where poverty and infections are commonplace. Environmental factors play a major role in infertility in Africa. One of the most important health problems in sub-Saharan Africa is the high rate of infertility and childlessness. The African society has a strong traditional heritage, and the study of the patterns of infertility in this part of the world would be incomplete without consideration of the sociocultural and environmental factors. The most cost-effective approach to solving the infertility problems in Africa is prevention and education. In Mexico, problems of reproductive health are associated with pregnancy in adolescents, sexually transmitted diseases and genitourinary neoplasms. Infertility affects 10% of couples, usually as a result of asymptomatic infection. Education, poverty, nutrition, and pollution are problems that must be tackled. The government has taken positive action in the State of São Paulo in Brazil, where gender discrimination is a major factor affecting women's health and reproductive outcomes. The implementation of new policies with adequate funding has resulted in marked improvements.

  6. Social environmental and individual factors associated with smoking among a panel of adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Hong, Traci; Rice, Janet; Johnson, Carolyn

    2011-05-01

    This study assessed changes in the influence of social environmental and individual factors-and the interaction of these factors with time-on smoking prevalence for girls. Longitudinal panel surveys of adolescent girls (N = 921 in both 2000 and 2004) from schools in Louisiana were completed in the ninth grade (2000) and then again in the twelfth grade (2004). A fixed effects hierarchical multiple regression model assessed the relation of changes in social environmental and individual factors to smoking prevalence. Increases in smoking prevalence over time among adolescent girls were associated with their perceptions of themselves as overweight and perceiving low risk associated with smoking. Increases in smoking prevalence over time were also associated with having friends who smoked, perceptions of friends' approval of smoking, having family members who smoked, and having monetary discretionary spending. Having friends who smoked was more strongly associated with smoking in the twelfth grade than in the ninth grade. While more black adolescent girls smoked than did white girls in the ninth grade, by the twelfth grade, more white adolescents girls smoked than did black girls. Interventions that target adolescent girls should consider the temporal variability of individual and social environmental factors. PMID:21547857

  7. [Effects of multiple environmental factors on triflulsulfuron-methyl degradation in soils].

    PubMed

    Song, Ning-Hui; Shan, Zheng-Jun; Shi, Li-Li; Guo, Min; Xu, Jing; Kong, De-Yang

    2012-12-01

    Triflulsulfuron-methyl, a widely used sulfonylurea herbicide, has done harm to the soil and crop. Its environment fate was affected by many factors such as physicochemical or biological factors. In order to understand the effects of different environmental factors on the degradation of triflulsulfuron-methyl in soil, simulated indoor incubation experiments were carried out to explore the effects of soil microbe, soil type, dissolved organic matter (DOM), temperature, and soil moisture on triflulsulfuron-methyl degradation in soils. The results showed that different environmental factors such as temperature, soil moisture, soil microorganisms and soil type influenced triflulsulfuron-methyl degradation in different degrees. The increased soil microbial biomass, soil organic matters and DOM were beneficial to the soil degradation of triflulsulfuron-methyl, meanwhile, the decrease in soil pH could accelerate its degradation in soils. The results showed that soil microorganisms were the main factor effecting the degradation of triflulsulfuron-methyl in soil. Our results provided initial data for the conclusion that a set of biological and physiochemical factors coordinately regulate the decay of triflulsulfuron-methyl in soils.

  8. The psychosocial context of bipolar disorder: environmental, cognitive, and developmental risk factors.

    PubMed

    Alloy, Lauren B; Abramson, Lyn Y; Urosevic, Snezana; Walshaw, Patricia D; Nusslock, Robin; Neeren, Amy M

    2005-12-01

    In this article, we review empirical research on the role of individuals' current environmental contexts, cognitive styles, and developmental histories as risk factors for the onset, course, and expression of bipolar spectrum disorders. Our review is focused on the following over arching question: Do psychosocial factors truly contribute risk to the onset, course, or expression of bipolar disorders? As a secondary issue, we also address whether the psychosocial risks for bipolar disorders are similar to those for unipolar depression. We begin by discussing the methodological requirements for demonstrating a psychosocial risk factor and the challenges posed by bipolar spectrum disorders for psychosocial risk research. Next, we review the extant studies on the role of recent life events and supportive and non-supportive social interactions (current environment) in bipolar disorders, as well as psychosocial treatments designed to remediate these current environmental factors. We then review the role of cognitive styles featured as vulnerabilities in theories of unipolar depression as risk factors for bipolar disorder alone and in combination with life events, including studies of cognitive-behavioral therapies for bipolar disorder. Finally, we review studies of parenting and maltreatment histories in bipolar disorders. We conclude with an assessment of the state of the psychosocial risk factors literature in bipolar disorder with regard to our guiding questions.

  9. [Dynamic change of Yulania sap flow before dormancy in response to environmental factors].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhong-Long; Jia, Zhong-Kui; Ma, Lu-Yi; Wang, Xiao-Ling; Duan, Jie

    2012-09-01

    From September 26 to November 5, 2011, the sap flow of Yulania wufengensis trees including cold-resistance type (HK) and non cold-resistance type (HF), Y. 'Sunspire' (HY), and Yulania x soulangeana (EQ) which were introduced into Beijing four years before was monitored by Flow-32 stem heat balance sensor, and, in combining with the environmental factors monitored synchronically, the changes of the sap flow before dormancy and the environmental factors were analyzed, with the responses of the sap flow to the environmental factors investigated at the scales of 0.5 h and 1 day. The sap flow of the Yulanias trees before dormancy displayed an obvious trend of declining day by day. The environmental factors affecting the sap flow could be divided into two categories, i. e., meteorological index (MI) and soil index (SI). The sap flow of the Yulanias trees had a synchronous variation rhythm with MI, and declined in parallel to SI. The combined effect of MI and SI on the diurnal changes of the sap flow was 69% - 73%. At both 0.5 h and 1 day scales, the sap flow showed significantly correlations with total radiation (Rs), air vapor pressure deficit (D), air relative humidity (RH), air temperature (Ta), and wind speed (w). The sap flow showed no significant correlations with soil temperature (Ts) and soil water content (SWC) at 0. 5 h scale, but had significant correlations with Ts, SWC, and day length (Z) at 1 day scale (the correlation efficient was about 0.8). Only Rs, Z, and D were included into the model at 1 day scale, but almost all environmental factors (except SWC and Ts) were included in the model at 0.5 h scale. Except for HF type, the regression coefficients of the model for the Yulanias trees at 1 day scale (0.92-0.96) were larger than those at 0.5 h scale (0.77-0.87), and the correlations between the dynamic changes of sap flow and the environmental factor were consistent, which was in accord with the fact that the HF could not overwinter in Beijing but the

  10. [Dynamic change of Yulania sap flow before dormancy in response to environmental factors].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhong-Long; Jia, Zhong-Kui; Ma, Lu-Yi; Wang, Xiao-Ling; Duan, Jie

    2012-09-01

    From September 26 to November 5, 2011, the sap flow of Yulania wufengensis trees including cold-resistance type (HK) and non cold-resistance type (HF), Y. 'Sunspire' (HY), and Yulania x soulangeana (EQ) which were introduced into Beijing four years before was monitored by Flow-32 stem heat balance sensor, and, in combining with the environmental factors monitored synchronically, the changes of the sap flow before dormancy and the environmental factors were analyzed, with the responses of the sap flow to the environmental factors investigated at the scales of 0.5 h and 1 day. The sap flow of the Yulanias trees before dormancy displayed an obvious trend of declining day by day. The environmental factors affecting the sap flow could be divided into two categories, i. e., meteorological index (MI) and soil index (SI). The sap flow of the Yulanias trees had a synchronous variation rhythm with MI, and declined in parallel to SI. The combined effect of MI and SI on the diurnal changes of the sap flow was 69% - 73%. At both 0.5 h and 1 day scales, the sap flow showed significantly correlations with total radiation (Rs), air vapor pressure deficit (D), air relative humidity (RH), air temperature (Ta), and wind speed (w). The sap flow showed no significant correlations with soil temperature (Ts) and soil water content (SWC) at 0. 5 h scale, but had significant correlations with Ts, SWC, and day length (Z) at 1 day scale (the correlation efficient was about 0.8). Only Rs, Z, and D were included into the model at 1 day scale, but almost all environmental factors (except SWC and Ts) were included in the model at 0.5 h scale. Except for HF type, the regression coefficients of the model for the Yulanias trees at 1 day scale (0.92-0.96) were larger than those at 0.5 h scale (0.77-0.87), and the correlations between the dynamic changes of sap flow and the environmental factor were consistent, which was in accord with the fact that the HF could not overwinter in Beijing but the

  11. Contribution of Individual and Environmental Factors to Physical Activity Level among Spanish Adults

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Sanchez, José Antonio; Lera-Navarro, Angela; Dorado-García, Cecilia; González-Henriquez, Juan José; Sanchis-Moysi, Joaquin

    2012-01-01

    Background Lack of physical activity (PA) is a major risk for chronic disease and obesity. The main aims of the present study were to identify individual and environmental factors independently associated with PA and examine the relative contribution of these factors to PA level in Spanish adults. Methodology/Principal Findings A population-based cross-sectional sample of 3,000 adults (18–75 years old) from Gran Canaria (Spain) was selected using a multistage stratified random sampling method. The participants were interviewed at home using a validated questionnaire to assess PA as well as individual and environmental factors. The data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. One demographic variable (education), two cognitive (self-efficacy and perceived barriers), and one social environmental (organized format) were independently associated with PA in both genders. Odds ratios ranged between 1.76–2.07 in men and 1.35–2.50 in women (both p<0.05). Individual and environmental factors explained about one-third of the variance in PA level. Conclusions/Significance Self-efficacy and perceived barriers were the most significant factors to meet an adequate level of PA. The risk of insufficient PA was twofold greater in men with primary or lesser studies and who are employed. In women, living in rural environments increased the risk of insufficient PA. The promotion of organized PA may be an efficient way to increase the level of PA in the general population. Improvement in the access to sport facilities and places for PA is a prerequisite that may be insufficient and should be combined with strategies to improve self-efficacy and overcome perceived barriers in adulthood. PMID:22685598

  12. Association of Maternal Antiangiogenic Profile at Birth With Early Postnatal Loss of Microvascular Density in Offspring of Hypertensive Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Grace Z.; Aye, Christina Y.L.; Lewandowski, Adam J.; Davis, Esther F.; Khoo, Cheen P.; Newton, Laura; Yang, Cheng T.; Al Haj Zen, Ayman; Simpson, Lisa J.; O’Brien, Kathryn; Cook, David A.; Granne, Ingrid; Kyriakou, Theodosios; Channon, Keith M.; Watt, Suzanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Offspring of hypertensive pregnancies are more likely to have microvascular rarefaction and increased blood pressure in later life. We tested the hypothesis that maternal angiogenic profile during a hypertensive pregnancy is associated with fetal vasculogenic capacity and abnormal postnatal microvascular remodeling. Infants (n=255) born after either hypertensive or normotensive pregnancies were recruited for quantification of postnatal dermal microvascular structure at birth and 3 months of age. Vasculogenic cell potential was assessed in umbilical vein endothelial cells from 55 offspring based on in vitro microvessel tube formation and proliferation assays. Maternal angiogenic profile (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, soluble endoglin, vascular endothelial growth factor, and placental growth factor) was measured from postpartum plasma samples to characterize severity of pregnancy disorder. At birth, offspring born after hypertensive pregnancy had similar microvessel density to those born after a normotensive pregnancy, but during the first 3 postnatal months, they had an almost 2-fold greater reduction in total vessel density (−17.7±16.4% versus −9.9±18.7%; P=0.002). This postnatal loss varied according to the vasculogenic capacity of the endothelial cells of the infant at birth (r=0.49; P=0.02). The degree of reduction in both in vitro and postnatal in vivo vascular development was proportional to levels of antiangiogenic factors in the maternal circulation. In conclusion, our data indicate that offspring born to hypertensive pregnancies have reduced vasculogenic capacity at birth that predicts microvessel density loss over the first 3 postnatal months. Degree of postnatal microvessel reduction is proportional to levels of antiangiogenic factors in the maternal circulation at birth. PMID:27456522

  13. Association of Maternal Antiangiogenic Profile at Birth With Early Postnatal Loss of Microvascular Density in Offspring of Hypertensive Pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Yu, Grace Z; Aye, Christina Y L; Lewandowski, Adam J; Davis, Esther F; Khoo, Cheen P; Newton, Laura; Yang, Cheng T; Al Haj Zen, Ayman; Simpson, Lisa J; O'Brien, Kathryn; Cook, David A; Granne, Ingrid; Kyriakou, Theodosios; Channon, Keith M; Watt, Suzanne M; Leeson, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Offspring of hypertensive pregnancies are more likely to have microvascular rarefaction and increased blood pressure in later life. We tested the hypothesis that maternal angiogenic profile during a hypertensive pregnancy is associated with fetal vasculogenic capacity and abnormal postnatal microvascular remodeling. Infants (n=255) born after either hypertensive or normotensive pregnancies were recruited for quantification of postnatal dermal microvascular structure at birth and 3 months of age. Vasculogenic cell potential was assessed in umbilical vein endothelial cells from 55 offspring based on in vitro microvessel tube formation and proliferation assays. Maternal angiogenic profile (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, soluble endoglin, vascular endothelial growth factor, and placental growth factor) was measured from postpartum plasma samples to characterize severity of pregnancy disorder. At birth, offspring born after hypertensive pregnancy had similar microvessel density to those born after a normotensive pregnancy, but during the first 3 postnatal months, they had an almost 2-fold greater reduction in total vessel density (-17.7±16.4% versus -9.9±18.7%; P=0.002). This postnatal loss varied according to the vasculogenic capacity of the endothelial cells of the infant at birth (r=0.49; P=0.02). The degree of reduction in both in vitro and postnatal in vivo vascular development was proportional to levels of antiangiogenic factors in the maternal circulation. In conclusion, our data indicate that offspring born to hypertensive pregnancies have reduced vasculogenic capacity at birth that predicts microvessel density loss over the first 3 postnatal months. Degree of postnatal microvessel reduction is proportional to levels of antiangiogenic factors in the maternal circulation at birth.

  14. Association of Maternal Antiangiogenic Profile at Birth With Early Postnatal Loss of Microvascular Density in Offspring of Hypertensive Pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Yu, Grace Z; Aye, Christina Y L; Lewandowski, Adam J; Davis, Esther F; Khoo, Cheen P; Newton, Laura; Yang, Cheng T; Al Haj Zen, Ayman; Simpson, Lisa J; O'Brien, Kathryn; Cook, David A; Granne, Ingrid; Kyriakou, Theodosios; Channon, Keith M; Watt, Suzanne M; Leeson, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Offspring of hypertensive pregnancies are more likely to have microvascular rarefaction and increased blood pressure in later life. We tested the hypothesis that maternal angiogenic profile during a hypertensive pregnancy is associated with fetal vasculogenic capacity and abnormal postnatal microvascular remodeling. Infants (n=255) born after either hypertensive or normotensive pregnancies were recruited for quantification of postnatal dermal microvascular structure at birth and 3 months of age. Vasculogenic cell potential was assessed in umbilical vein endothelial cells from 55 offspring based on in vitro microvessel tube formation and proliferation assays. Maternal angiogenic profile (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, soluble endoglin, vascular endothelial growth factor, and placental growth factor) was measured from postpartum plasma samples to characterize severity of pregnancy disorder. At birth, offspring born after hypertensive pregnancy had similar microvessel density to those born after a normotensive pregnancy, but during the first 3 postnatal months, they had an almost 2-fold greater reduction in total vessel density (-17.7±16.4% versus -9.9±18.7%; P=0.002). This postnatal loss varied according to the vasculogenic capacity of the endothelial cells of the infant at birth (r=0.49; P=0.02). The degree of reduction in both in vitro and postnatal in vivo vascular development was proportional to levels of antiangiogenic factors in the maternal circulation. In conclusion, our data indicate that offspring born to hypertensive pregnancies have reduced vasculogenic capacity at birth that predicts microvessel density loss over the first 3 postnatal months. Degree of postnatal microvessel reduction is proportional to levels of antiangiogenic factors in the maternal circulation at birth. PMID:27456522

  15. Assessing the roles of environmental factors in coastal fish production in the northern Baltic Sea: a Bayesian network application.

    PubMed

    Uusitalo, Laura; Kuikka, Sakari; Kauppila, Pirkko; Söderkultalahti, Pirkko; Bäck, Saara

    2012-07-01

    Environmental conditions play a crucial role in the distribution and abundance of fish species in any area. Much research has been attributed to the requirements and tolerance limits of commercially exploited fish species. It is rare, however, that studies have been able to address the relative importance of potentially restrictive environmental factors; extensive enough to allow for estimation of the effect of several environmental factors through the fishes' life span. The coastline of Finland in the northern Baltic Sea offers a unique natural experimental setting that can be used to assess the relative importance of various environmental factors for the species occupying it. The area includes major variations in several crucial environmental factors: salinity, temperature regime, represented by winter ice duration, coastline characteristics, and eutrophic status. Furthermore, Finland has collected extensive and spatially representative data of water quality and environmental factors, as well as a long and extraordinarily spatially detailed data set of commercial catches of several fish species. In this article, we make an attempt to correlate the environmental data to the commercial catches of fish species, assuming that the commercial catches reflect, to some reasonable degree, the productivity of that species in that area (compared to other areas and combinations of environmental factors, not to other species). We use a Bayesian network approach to examine the sensitivity of the species to the environmental factors. PMID:21309077

  16. Postnatal quality of life, depressive symptoms, and social support among women in southern India.

    PubMed

    Bodhare, Trupti N; Sethi, Pruthwiraj; Bele, Samir D; Gayatri, Dasari; Vivekanand, Achanta

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of postnatal quality of life (QOL) has remained a poorly researched area in India. The present cross-sectional study assessed postnatal QOL, using the Mother Generated Index (MGI) and its associated risk factors, and was conducted during January-March 2013 among 274 mothers, 6-8 weeks postnatally. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to evaluate sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics and social support. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and QOL using the MGI. The vast majority (90.1 percent) of respondents in our study had a primary MGI score <5, those with significantly higher prevalence of physical problems and psychological distress. A total of 39.8 percent of respondents were screened as having other (not major) depressive symptoms and 4.7 percent as having major depressive symptoms. Multiple regression analysis revealed that age (β = 0.033, p = .018) and socioeconomic status (β = 0.156, p < .001) were significantly positively associated with QOL, while increased depressive symptom scores (β = -0.075, p < .001) were significantly negatively associated with QOL. A wide spectrum of QOL aspects were reported, including physical, emotional, social, and economic concerns by the mothers. Prevention, evaluation, and treatment of postnatal depressive symptoms and impaired QOL are warranted, taking into account the role of various biopsychosocial risk factors and specific concerns raised by the mothers. PMID:25719436

  17. Examining the relationship between environmental factors and conflict in pastoralist areas of East Africa.

    PubMed

    Ayana, Essayas K; Ceccato, Pietro; Fisher, Jonathan R B; DeFries, Ruth

    2016-07-01

    The eastern Africa region has long been known for recurring drought, prolonged civil war and frequent pastoral conflicts. Several researchers have suggested that environmental factors can trigger conflicts among pastoralist communities, but quantitative support for this hypothesis is lacking. Here we use 29years of georeferenced precipitation and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data to evaluate long term trends in scarcity of water and forage for livestock, and then ask whether these environmental stressors have any predictive power with respect to the location and timing of 11years of conflict data based on Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project (ACLED) and Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP). Results indicate that environmental stressors were only partly predictive of conflict events. To better understand the drivers behind conflict, the contribution of other potential stressors to conflict need to be systematically quantified and be taken into consideration. PMID:27037881

  18. What High-Achieving Latino Students Need to Apply to College: Environmental Factors, Individual Resiliency, or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Gwendelyn J.

    2014-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated how well environmental and individual factors predicted college-going behavior for college eligible Latino/as. Three questions were addressed: (a) Is there a relationship between individual agency and college-going behavior after controlling for environmental factors? (b) What is the relationship between the…

  19. Epidemiological Study on the Involvements of Environmental Factors and Allergy in Child Mental Health Using the Autism Screening Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibata, Aki; Hitomi, Yoshiaki; Kambayashi, Yasuhiro; Hibino, Yuri; Yamazaki, Masami; Mitoma, Junko; Asakura, Hiroki; Hayashi, Koichi; Otaki, Naoto; Sagara, Takiko; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Although autism is now recognized as being very common (Buie et al., 2010) and as developing due to not only genetic but also environmental factors, there is insufficient epidemiological evidence on the relationship between autism and allergy. In this study, therefore, we attempted to clarify the association of environmental factors with autism…

  20. Environmental factors influencing the development of black leaf streak (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet) on bananas in Puerto Rico.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of environmental factors on the development of black leaf streak (BLS) were studied in Puerto Rico under field conditions. Environmental factors evaluated included temperature, relative humidity, rainfall and solar radiation. Their effect on BLS was determined by recording the youngest...

  1. Building Zebrafish Neurobehavioral Phenomics: Effects of Common Environmental Factors on Anxiety and Locomotor Activity.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Adam Michael; Kaluyeva, Alexandra A; Poudel, Manoj K; Nguyen, Michael; Song, Cai; Kalueff, Allan V

    2015-10-01

    Zebrafish are emerging as an important model organism for neurobehavioral phenomics research. Given the likely variation of zebrafish behavioral phenotypes between and within laboratories, in this study, we examine the influence and variability of several common environmental modifiers on adult zebrafish anxiety and locomotor activity. Utilizing the novel tank paradigm, this study assessed the role of various laboratory factors, including experimenter/handling, testing time and days, batch, and the order of testing, on the behavior of a large population of experimentally naive control fish. Although time of the day, experimenter identity, and order of testing had little effect on zebrafish anxiety and locomotor activity levels, subtle differences were found for testing days and batches. Our study establishes how zebrafish behaviors are modulated by common environmental/laboratory factors and outlines several implications for zebrafish neurobehavioral phenomics research. PMID:26244595

  2. Environmental factors that influence the toxicity of heavy metal and gaseous pollutants to microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Babich, H.; Stotzky, G.

    1980-01-01

    Although biotic factors greatly influence the sensitivity of microbes to pollutants, this review focuses on the other aspect of environmental toxicology, i.e., the influence of the physicochemical characteristics of the recipient environment on attenuating or potentiating the toxicity of pollutants to the resident microbiota. In addition, the characteristics of pollutants, such as their chemical form and concentration, and the interactions between pollutants will be discussed relative to their toxicity to microbes. This review will be limited to gaseous and heavy metal pollutants, although it is clearly recognized that the toxicity of other pollutants, such as polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), insecticides (e.g., DDT, heptachlor, dieldrin), components of oil spills, etc., are also influenced by abiotic environmental factors. 224 references, 17 figures, 11 tables.

  3. Environmental factors that influence the toxicity of heavy metal and gaseous pollutants to microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Babich, H.; Stotzky, G.

    1980-10-01

    Although biotic factors greatly influence the sensitivity of microbes to pollutants, this review focuses on the other aspect of environmental toxicology, i.e., the influence of the physicochemical characteristics of the recipient environment on attenuating or potentiating the toxicity of pollutants to the resident microbiota. In addition, the characteristics of pollutants, such as their chemical form and concentration, and the interactions between pollutants will be discussed relative to their toxicity to microbes. This review will be limited to gaseous and heavy metal pollutants, although it is clearly recognized that the toxicity of other pollutants, such as polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), insecticides (e.g., DDT, heptachlor, dieldrin), components of oil spills, etc., are also influenced by abiotic environmental factors. The pollutants discussed include: Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni, Mn, Co, Sn, Fe, Hg, Cr, As, and S.

  4. The influence of assets and environmental factors on gender differences in adolescent drug use.

    PubMed

    Aspy, Cheryl B; Tolma, Eleni L; Oman, Roy F; Vesely, Sara K

    2014-08-01

    For adolescents, illicit drug use remains a significant public health problem. This study explored prospectively the differential effects of 17 youth assets and 5 environmental factors on drug use in adolescent males and females (Youth Asset Study - a 5-wave longitudinal study of 1117 youth/parent pairs). Baseline analyses included 1093 youth (53% female). Mean age was 14.3 years (SD = 1.6) and the youth were 40% Non-Hispanic White, 28% Hispanic, 24% Non-Hispanic Black, and 9% Non-Hispanic other. Analyses revealed that 16 assets for males and 15 for females as well as the total asset score were prospectively associated with no drug use. No environmental factors were prospectively associated with any drug use for males, and for a subset of females, only Neighborhood Support was significant. This study confirms and extends previous work regarding youth drug use by recognizing the importance of the protective effect of assets for both males and females.

  5. Toward a Bioecological Model of School Engagement: A Biometric Analysis of Gene and Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Maynard, Brandy R.; Beaver, Kevin M.; Vaughn, Michael G.; DeLisi, Matthew; Roberts, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    School disengagement is associated with poor academic achievement, dropout, and risk behaviors such as truancy, delinquency, and substance use. Despite empirical research identifying risk correlates of school disengagement across the ecology, it is unclear from which domain these correlates arise. To redress this issue, the current study used intraclass correlation and DeFries-Fulker analyses to longitudinally decompose variance in three domains of engagement (academic, behavioral, and emotional) using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Findings suggest that nonshared environmental factors (that is, environmental contexts and experiences that are unique to each sibling) account for approximately half of the variance in indicators of school disengagement when controlling for genetic influences, and that this variance increases as adolescents grow older and rely less on their immediate family. The present study contributes new evidence on the biosocial underpinnings of school engagement and highlights the importance of interventions targeting factors in the nonshared environment. PMID:25525321

  6. A review of environmental risk factors for myopia during early life, childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Ramamurthy, Dharani; Lin Chua, Sharon Yu; Saw, Seang-Mei

    2015-11-01

    Myopia is a significant public health problem worldwide, particularly in East Asian countries. The increasing prevalence of myopia poses a huge socio-economic burden and progressive high myopia can lead to sight-threatening ocular complications. Hence, the prevention of early-onset myopia progressing to pathological high myopia is important. Recent epidemiological studies suggest that increased outdoor time is an important modifiable environmental factor that protects young children from myopia. This protective effect may be due to high light intensity outdoors, the chromaticity of daylight or increased vitamin D levels. This review summarises the possible underlying biological mechanisms for the protective association between time outdoors and myopia, including the potential role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in refractive error development. Recent evidence for the role of other environmental risk factors such as near work, birth seasons, parental smoking and birth order are also summarised. PMID:26497977

  7. Building Zebrafish Neurobehavioral Phenomics: Effects of Common Environmental Factors on Anxiety and Locomotor Activity.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Adam Michael; Kaluyeva, Alexandra A; Poudel, Manoj K; Nguyen, Michael; Song, Cai; Kalueff, Allan V

    2015-10-01

    Zebrafish are emerging as an important model organism for neurobehavioral phenomics research. Given the likely variation of zebrafish behavioral phenotypes between and within laboratories, in this study, we examine the influence and variability of several common environmental modifiers on adult zebrafish anxiety and locomotor activity. Utilizing the novel tank paradigm, this study assessed the role of various laboratory factors, including experimenter/handling, testing time and days, batch, and the order of testing, on the behavior of a large population of experimentally naive control fish. Although time of the day, experimenter identity, and order of testing had little effect on zebrafish anxiety and locomotor activity levels, subtle differences were found for testing days and batches. Our study establishes how zebrafish behaviors are modulated by common environmental/laboratory factors and outlines several implications for zebrafish neurobehavioral phenomics research.

  8. Asthma in Urban Children: Epidemiology, Environmental Risk Factors, and the Public Health Domain.

    PubMed

    Milligan, Ki Lee; Matsui, Elizabeth; Sharma, Hemant

    2016-04-01

    Asthma is the most commonly reported chronic condition of childhood in developed countries, with 6.5 million children affected in the USA. A disparate burden of childhood asthma is seen among socioeconomically disadvantaged youth, often concentrated in urban areas with high poverty rates. Host factors that predispose a child to asthma include atopy, male gender, parental history of asthma, and also race, ethnicity, and genetic and epigenetic susceptibilities. Environmental factors, such as improved hygiene, ambient air pollution, and early life exposures to microbes and aeroallergens, also influence the development of asthma. With greater than 90% of time spent indoors, home exposures (such as cockroach, rodent, and indoor air pollution) are highly relevant for urban asthma. Morbidity reduction may require focused public health initiatives for environmental intervention in high priority risk groups and the addition of immune modulatory agents in children with poorly controlled disease.

  9. Asthma in Urban Children: Epidemiology, Environmental Risk Factors, and the Public Health Domain.

    PubMed

    Milligan, Ki Lee; Matsui, Elizabeth; Sharma, Hemant

    2016-04-01

    Asthma is the most commonly reported chronic condition of childhood in developed countries, with 6.5 million children affected in the USA. A disparate burden of childhood asthma is seen among socioeconomically disadvantaged youth, often concentrated in urban areas with high poverty rates. Host factors that predispose a child to asthma include atopy, male gender, parental history of asthma, and also race, ethnicity, and genetic and epigenetic susceptibilities. Environmental factors, such as improved hygiene, ambient air pollution, and early life exposures to microbes and aeroallergens, also influence the development of asthma. With greater than 90% of time spent indoors, home exposures (such as cockroach, rodent, and indoor air pollution) are highly relevant for urban asthma. Morbidity reduction may require focused public health initiatives for environmental intervention in high priority risk groups and the addition of immune modulatory agents in children with poorly controlled disease. PMID:27026587

  10. Environmental factors correlated with size of bacterial populations in a polluted stream.

    PubMed

    Brasfeild, H

    1972-09-01

    Samples of water were taken from a polluted zone of the Gallinas River and analyzed as to numbers of total bacteria, coliforms, and fecal streptococci. Environmental factors measured were temperature, pH and concentrations of detergent, nitrate plus nitrite nitrogen, sulfate, chloride, bicarbonate, and phosphate. Thirty-two observations were made from 12 March through 22 July 1971. Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses of the data were carried out by computer to determine which of the environmental factors were significantly correlated with numbers of bacteria present. A multiple linear regression equation was constructed for each bacteriological parameter as a function of significant variables only. Log total bacteria was correlated positively with bicarbonate, phosphate, and detergent concentrations. Log coliforms was correlated positively with phosphate and sulfate concentrations and negatively with chloride concentration. Log fecal streptococci was correlated positively with bicarbonate and chloride concentrations.

  11. Environmental factors that influence the location of crop agriculture in the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Nancy T.; Capel, Paul D.

    2011-01-01

    Most crops are grown on land with shallow slope where the temperature, precipitation, and soils are favorable. In areas that are too steep, wet, or dry, landscapes have been modified to allow cultivation. Some of the limitations of the environmental factors that determine the location of agriculture can be overcome through modifications, but others cannot. On a larger-than-field scale, agricultural modifications commonly influence water availability through irrigation and (or) drainage and soil fertility and (or) organic-matter content through amendments such as manure, commercial fertilizer and lime. In general, it is not feasible to modify the other environmental factors, soil texture, soil depth, soil mineralogy, temperature, and terrain at large scales.

  12. Environmental Factors Correlated with Size of Bacterial Populations in a Polluted Stream

    PubMed Central

    Brasfeild, Helen

    1972-01-01

    Samples of water were taken from a polluted zone of the Gallinas River and analyzed as to numbers of total bacteria, coliforms, and fecal streptococci. Environmental factors measured were temperature, pH and concentrations of detergent, nitrate plus nitrite nitrogen, sulfate, chloride, bicarbonate, and phosphate. Thirty-two observations were made from 12 March through 22 July 1971. Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses of the data were carried out by computer to determine which of the environmental factors were significantly correlated with numbers of bacteria present. A multiple linear regression equation was constructed for each bacteriological parameter as a function of significant variables only. Log total bacteria was correlated positively with bicarbonate, phosphate, and detergent concentrations. Log coliforms was correlated positively with phosphate and sulfate concentrations and negatively with chloride concentration. Log fecal streptococci was correlated positively with bicarbonate and chloride concentrations. PMID:4627965

  13. The Role of Environmental Factors in Modulating Immune Responses in Early Life

    PubMed Central

    MacGillivray, Duncan M.; Kollmann, Tobias R.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of immunological memory stipulates that past exposures shape present immune function. These exposures include not only specific antigens impacting adaptive immune memory but also conserved pathogen or danger associated molecular patterns that mold innate immune responses for prolonged periods of time. It should thus not come as a surprise that there is a vast range of external or environmental factors that impact immunity. The importance of environmental factors modulating immunity is most readily recognized in early life, a period of rapidly changing environments. We here summarize available data on the role of environment shaping immune development and from it derive an overarching hypothesis relating the underlying molecular mechanisms and evolutionary principles involved. PMID:25309535

  14. Postnatal Evaluation and Outcome of Prenatal Hydronephrosis

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi-Bojd, Simin; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Ansari-Moghadam, Alireza; Rashidi, Somaye

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prenatal hydronephrosis (PNH) is dilation in urinary collecting system and is the most frequent neonatal urinary tract abnormality with an incidence of 1% to 5% of all pregnancies. PNH is defined as anteroposterior diameter (APD) of renal pelvis ≥ 4 mm at gestational age (GA) of < 33 weeks and APD ≥ 7 mm at GA of ≥ 33 weeks to 2 months after birth. All patients need to be evaluated after birth by postnatal renal ultrasonography (US). In the vast majority of cases, watchful waiting is the only thing to do; others need medical or surgical therapy. Objectives: There is a direct relationship between APD of renal pelvis and outcome of PNH. Therefore we were to find the best cutoff point APD of renal pelvis which leads to surgical outcome. Patients and Methods: In this retrospective cohort study we followed 200 patients 1 to 60 days old with diagnosis of PNH based on before or after birth ultrasonography; as a prenatal or postnatal detected, respectively. These patients were referred to the nephrology clinic in Zahedan Iran during 2011 to 2013. The first step of investigation was a postnatal renal US, by the same expert radiologist and classifying the patients into 3 groups; normal, mild/moderate and severe. The second step was to perform voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) for mild/moderate to severe cases at 4 - 6 weeks of life. Tc-diethylene triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) was the last step and for those with normal VCUG who did not show improvement in follow-up examination, US to evaluate obstruction and renal function. Finally all patients with mild/moderate to severe PNH received conservative therapy and surgery was preserved only for progressive cases, obstruction or renal function ≤35%. All patients’ data and radiologic information was recorded in separate data forms, and then analyzed by SPSS (version 22). Results: 200 screened PNH patients with male to female ratio 3.5:1 underwent first postnatal control US, of whom 65% had normal, 18% mild

  15. Grey relational analysis on the relation between marine environmental factors and oxidation-reduction potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xueqing; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Dun; Li, Yantao

    2009-09-01

    The effects of marine environmental factors-temperature (T), dissolved oxygen (DO), salinity (S) and pH-on the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of natural seawater were studied in laboratory. The results show an indistinct relationship between these four factors and the ORP, but they did impact the ORP. Common mathematical methods were not applicable for describing the relationship. Therefore, a grey relational analysis (GRA) method was developed. The degrees of correlation were calculated according to GRA and the values of T, pH, DO and S were 0.744, 0.710, 0.692 and 0.690, respectively. From these values, the relations of these factors to the ORP could be described and evaluated, and those of T and pH were relatively major. In general, ORP is influenced by the synergic effect of T, DO, pH and S, with no single factor having an outstanding role.

  16. Coexistence of specialist and generalist species is shaped by dispersal and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Büchi, Lucie; Vuilleumier, Séverine

    2014-05-01

    Disentangling the mechanisms mediating the coexistence of habitat specialists and generalists has been a long-standing subject of investigation. However, the roles of species traits and environmental and spatial factors have not been assessed in a unifying theoretical framework. Theory suggests that specialist species are more competitive in natural communities. However, empirical work has shown that specialist species are declining worldwide due to habitat loss and fragmentation. We addressed the question of the coexistence of specialist and generalist species with a spatially explicit metacommunity model in continuous and heterogeneous environments. We characterized how species' dispersal abilities, the number of interacting species, environmental spatial autocorrelation, and disturbance impact community composition. Our results demonstrated that species' dispersal ability and the number of interacting species had a drastic influence on the composition of metacommunities. More specialized species coexisted when species had large dispersal abilities and when the number of interacting species was high. Disturbance selected against highly specialized species, whereas environmental spatial autocorrelation had a marginal impact. Interestingly, species richness and niche breadth were mainly positively correlated at the community scale but were negatively correlated at the metacommunity scale. Numerous diversely specialized species can thus coexist, but both species' intrinsic traits and environmental factors interact to shape the specialization signatures of communities at both the local and global scales.

  17. Innovation:CBT-based support groups for postnatal depression.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Pat

    Postnatal depression can have serious implications for mother/child bonding and damage relationships between parents. Approaches to treat it need to overcome barriers that have led to high attrition in some group or clinic-based postnatal depression treatment studies. This retrospective evaluation explored the benefits of offering postnatally depressed mothers group support based on cognitive behavioural therapy. It helped to improve women's self-esteem and self-worth and to make them feel safe and supported.

  18. Beyond HbA1c: Environmental Risk Factors for Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Nwanyanwu, Kristen Harris; Newman-Casey, Paula-Anne; Gardner, Thomas W; Lim, Jennifer I

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy affects 4.2 million people in the United States and is the leading cause of blindness in working-aged people. As the prevalence of diabetes continues to rise, cost-effective interventions to decrease blindness from diabetic retinopathy will be paramount. While HbA1c and duration of disease are known risk factors, they account for only 11% of the risk of developing microvascular complications from the disease. The assessment of environmental risk factors for diabetic eye disease allows for the determination of modifiable population-level challenges that may be addressed to facilitate the end of blindness from diabetes. PMID:26973797

  19. FGF-2 signal promotes proliferation of cerebellar progenitor cells and their oligodendrocytic differentiation at early postnatal stage

    SciTech Connect

    Naruse, Masae; Shibasaki, Koji; Ishizaki, Yasuki

    2015-08-07

    The origins and developmental regulation of cerebellar oligodendrocytes are largely unknown, although some hypotheses of embryonic origins have been suggested. Neural stem cells exist in the white matter of postnatal cerebellum, but it is unclear whether these neural stem cells generate oligodendrocytes at postnatal stages. We previously showed that cerebellar progenitor cells, including neural stem cells, widely express CD44 at around postnatal day 3. In the present study, we showed that CD44-positive cells prepared from the postnatal day 3 cerebellum gave rise to neurospheres, while CD44-negative cells prepared from the same cerebellum did not. These neurospheres differentiated mainly into oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, suggesting that CD44-positive neural stem/progenitor cells might generate oligodendrocytes in postnatal cerebellum. We cultured CD44-positive cells from the postnatal day 3 cerebellum in the presence of signaling molecules known as mitogens or inductive differentiation factors for oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Of these, only FGF-2 promoted survival and proliferation of CD44-positive cells, and these cells differentiated into O4+ oligodendrocytes. Furthermore, we examined the effect of FGF-2 on cerebellar oligodendrocyte development ex vivo. FGF-2 enhanced proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and increased the number of O4+ and CC1+ oligodendrocytes in slice cultures. These results suggest that CD44-positive cells might be a source of cerebellar oligodendrocytes and that FGF-2 plays important roles in their development at an early postnatal stage. - Highlights: • CD44 is expressed in cerebellar neural stem/progenitor cells at postnatal day 3 (P3). • FGF-2 promoted proliferation of CD44-positive progenitor cells from P3 cerebellum. • FGF-2 promoted oligodendrocytic differentiation of CD44-positive progenitor cells. • FGF-2 increased the number of oligodendrocytes in P3 cerebellar slice culture.

  20. Spatiotemporal Patterns of Evapotranspiration in Response to Multiple Environmental Factors Simulated by the Community Land Model

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Xiaoying; Mao, Jiafu; Thornton, P.; Huang, Maoyi

    2013-04-25

    Spatiotemporal patterns of evapotranspiration (ET) over the period from 1982 to 2008 are investigated and attributed to multiple environmental factors using the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4). Our results show that CLM4 captures the spatial distribution and interannual variability of ET well when compared to observation-based estimates. We find that climate dominates the predicted variability in ET. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration also plays an important role in modulating the trend of predicted ET over most land areas, and replaces climate to function as the dominant factor controlling ET changes over the North America, South America and Asia regions. Compared to the effect of climate and CO2 concentration, the roles of other factors such as nitrogen deposition, land use change and aerosol deposition are less pronounced and regionally dependent. The aerosol deposition contribution is the third most important factor for trends of ET over Europe, while it has the smallest impact over other regions. As ET is a dominant component of the terrestrial water cycle, our results suggest that environmental factors like elevated CO2, nitrogen and aerosol depositions, and land use change, in addition to climate, could have significant impact on future projections of water resources and water cycle dynamics at global and regional scales.

  1. Evaluation of unit risk factors in support of the Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    Strenge, D.L.; Chamberlain, P.J. II

    1994-11-01

    This report describes the generation of unit risk factors for use with the Graphical Information System (GIS) being developed by Advanced Sciences, Inc. for the Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement. The GIS couples information on source inventory and environmental transport with unit risk factors to estimate the potential risk from contamination at all locations on the Hanford Site. The major components of the effort to generate the unit risk factors were: determination of pollutants to include in the study, definition of media of concern, and definition of exposure assessment scenarios, methods, and parameters. The selection of pollutants was based on inventory lists which indicated the pollutants likely to be encountered at the known waste sites. The final pollutants selected included 47 chemical pollutants and 101 radionuclides. Unit risk factors have been generated for all 148 pollutants per unit initial concentration in five media: soil (per unit mass), soil (per unit area), air, groundwater, and surface water. The exposure scenarios were selected as the basis for the unit risk factor generation. The endpoint in the exposure assessment analysis is expressed as risk of developing cancer for radionuclides and carcinogenic chemicals. For noncarcinogenic chemicals, the risk endpoint is the hazard quotient. The cancer incidence and hazard quotient values are evaluated for all exposure pathways, pollutants, and scenarios. The hazard index values and unit risk values are used by the GIS to produce maps of risk for the Hanford Site.

  2. Underage drinking on saturday nights, sociodemographic and environmental risk factors: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Excessive alcohol consumption in underage people is a rising phenomenon. A major proportion of the disease burden and deaths of young people in developed nations is attributable to alcohol abuse. The aim of this study was to investigate social, demographic and environmental factors that may raise the risk of Saturday night drinking and binge drinking among Italian school students. Methods The study was conducted on a sample of 845 Italian underage school students, by means of an anonymous, self-test questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to identify independent risk factors for alcohol drinking and binge drinking. Ordered logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors for harmful drinking patterns. Results The independent variables that confer a higher risk of drinking in underage students are older age classes, male sex, returning home after midnight, belonging to a group with little respect for the rules, or to a group where young people are not seen as leaders. The higher the perception of alcohol consumption by the group, the higher the risk. Spending time in bars or discos coincides with a two-fold or four-fold increase, respectively, in the risk of alcohol consumption. Conclusion Our findings show that certain environmental and social risk factors are associated with underage drinking. The most important role for preventing young people's exposure to these factors lies with the family, because only parents can exert the necessary control and provide a barrier against potentially harmful situations. PMID:21729273

  3. Geographical and environmental factors driving the increase in the Lyme disease vector Ixodes scapularis

    PubMed Central

    Khatchikian, Camilo E.; Prusinski, Melissa; Stone, Melissa; Backenson, P. Bryon; Wang, Ing-Nang; Levy, Michael Z.; Brisson, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    The population densities of many organisms have changed dramatically in recent history. Increases in the population density of medically relevant organisms are of particular importance to public health as they are often correlated with the emergence of infectious diseases in human populations. Our aim is to delineate increases in density of a common disease vector in North America, the blacklegged tick, and to identify the environmental factors correlated with these population dynamics. Empirical data that capture the growth of a population are often necessary to identify environmental factors associated with these dynamics. We analyzed temporally- and spatially-structured field collected data in a geographical information systems framework to describe the population growth of blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis) and to identify environmental and climatic factors correlated with these dynamics. The density of the ticks increased throughout the study’s temporal and spatial ranges. Tick density increases were positively correlated with mild temperatures, low precipitation, low forest cover, and high urbanization. Importantly, models that accounted for these environmental factors accurately forecast future tick densities across the region. Tick density increased annually along the south-to-north gradient. These trends parallel the increases in human incidences of diseases commonly vectored by I. scapularis. For example, I. scapularis densities are correlated with human Lyme disease incidence, albeit in a non-linear manner that disappears at low tick densities, potentially indicating that a threshold tick density is needed to support epidemiologically-relevant levels of the Lyme disease bacterium. Our results demonstrate a connection between the biogeography of this species and public health. PMID:24371541

  4. Changes in structural health monitoring system capability due to aircraft environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Jeffrey D.

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) promises to decrease the maintenance cost and increase the availability of aging aircraft fleets by fundamentally changing the way structural inspections are performed. But this promise can only be realized through the consistent and predictable performance of a SHM system throughout the entire remaining life of an aircraft. In a sensor-based SHM system, sensor signal changes are analyzed and interpreted to identify structural flaws. But aircraft environmental factors such as temperature fluctuations, cyclic strain and exposure to various aircraft fluids also have the potential to change SHM sensor signals, raising questions about long term SHM system capability. This research begins by analyzing the current USAF inspection paradigm, known aircraft environmental factors, representative structural inspection locations for the F-15 and C-130, and current SHM technologies. A design of experiments approach is used to build and execute an experiment to determine the effect of one aircraft environmental factor (cyclic strain) on a common SHM technology (PZT-based sensors). Analysis of the experimental results shows the sensors to be significantly affected by cyclic strain, and that the effects can be estimated using a power equation model. A "probability of detection (POD) degradation model" is then developed by extending existing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) POD analysis techniques. This model demonstrates how changes in sensor performance due to an aircraft environmental factor can be used to estimate the change in overall performance of the SHM system. This POD degradation model provides a common framework to predict changes in SHM system performance over the remaining life of an aircraft. An example combining the experimental results with an existing SHM POD analysis shows how the POD degradation model can be applied to current SHM research.

  5. Consideration for solar system exploration - A system to Mars. [biomedical, environmental, and psychological factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Garshnek, Victoria

    1989-01-01

    Biomedical issues related to a manned mission to Mars are reviewed. Consideration is given to cardiovascular deconditioning, hematological and immunological changes, bone and muscle changes, nutritional issues, and the development of physiological countermeasures. Environmental issues are discussed, including radiation hazards, toxic chemical exposure, and the cabin environment. Also, human factors, performance and behavior, medical screening of the crew, disease prediction, and health maintenance are examined.

  6. Distribution of deep-water corals along the North American continental margins: Relationships with environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, Tanya L.; Metaxas, Anna

    2006-12-01

    Despite the increasing attention to assemblages of deep-water corals in the past decade, much of this research has been focused on documenting and enumerating associated fauna. However, an understanding of the distribution of most species of coral and the ecological processes associated with these assemblages is still lacking. In this study, we qualitatively and quantitatively described the habitats of two families of deep-water corals in relation to six oceanographic factors (depth, slope, temperature, current, chlorophyll a concentration and substrate) on the Pacific and Atlantic Continental Margins of North America (PCM and ACM study areas, respectively). This study focused primarily on the distributions of Primnoidae and Paragorgiidae because of the large number of documented occurrences. For each environmental factor, deep-water coral locations were compared to the surrounding environment using χ2 tests. On both continental margins, coral locations were found to be not randomly distributed within the study areas, but were within specific ranges for most environmental factors. In the PCM study area, Paragorgiidae and Primnoidae locations were found in areas with slopes ranging from 0° to 10.0°, temperature from -2.0 to 11.0 °C and currents from 0 to 143 cm s -1. In the ACM study area, Paragorgiidae and Primnoidae locations were found in areas with slopes ranging from 0° to 1.4°, temperature ranging from 0 to 11.0 °C and currents ranging from 0 to 207 cm s -1. Although the patterns in habitat characteristics were similar, differences existed between families with respect to particular environmental factors. In both study areas, most environmental parameters in locations where corals occurred were significantly different from the average values of these parameters as determined with χ2 tests ( p<0.05) except for substrate in Paragorgiidae locations and depth in Primnoidae locations on the PCM. This is the first study to show coral distributional patterns

  7. Epidemiologic and Environmental Risk Factors of Rift Valley Fever in Southern Africa from 2008 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Glancey, Margaret M.; Linthicum, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks have been associated with periods of widespread and above-normal rainfall over several months. Knowledge on the environmental factors influencing disease transmission dynamics has provided the basis for developing models to predict RVF outbreaks in Africa. From 2008 to 2011, South Africa experienced the worst wave of RVF outbreaks in almost 40 years. We investigated rainfall-associated environmental factors in southern Africa preceding these outbreaks. Methods: RVF epizootic records obtained from the World Animal Health Information Database (WAHID), documenting livestock species affected, location, and time, were analyzed. Environmental variables including rainfall and satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data were collected and assessed in outbreak regions to understand the underlying drivers of the outbreaks. Results: The predominant domestic vertebrate species affected in 2008 and 2009 were cattle, when outbreaks were concentrated in the eastern provinces of South Africa. In 2010 and 2011, outbreaks occurred in the interior and southern provinces affecting over 16,000 sheep. The highest number of cases occurred between January and April but epidemics occurred in different regions every year, moving from the northeast of South Africa toward the southwest with each progressing year. The outbreaks showed a pattern of increased rainfall preceding epizootics ranging from 9 to 152 days; however, NDVI and rainfall were less correlated with the start of the outbreaks than has been observed in eastern Africa. Conclusions: Analyses of the multiyear RVF outbreaks of 2008 to 2011 in South Africa indicated that rainfall, NDVI, and other environmental and geographical factors, such as land use, drainage, and topography, play a role in disease emergence. Current and future investigations into these factors will be able to contribute to improving spatial accuracy of models to map risk areas

  8. The effects of environmental factors on the virulence of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa E; Rendón-Gandarilla, Francisco J; Puente-Rivera, Jonathan; Calla-Choque, Jaeson S; Cárdenas-Guerra, Rosa E; Ortega-López, Jaime; Quintas-Granados, Laura I; Alvarez-Sánchez, M Elizbeth; Arroyo, Rossana

    2012-12-01

    This review focused on potential regulatory mechanisms of Trichomonas vaginalis virulence properties, cytoadherence, cytotoxicity, phagocytosis, hemolysis, induction of apoptosis, and immune evasion in response to environmental factors of the human urogenital tract, iron, zinc, and polyamines. Understanding the multifactorial nature of trichomonal pathogenesis and its regulation may help to unravel the survival strategies of trichomonads and to implement prevention policies, opportune diagnosis, and alternative treatments for control of trichomoniasis.

  9. Environmental factor analysis of cholera in China using remote sensing and geographical information systems.

    PubMed

    Xu, M; Cao, C X; Wang, D C; Kan, B; Xu, Y F; Ni, X L; Zhu, Z C

    2016-04-01

    Cholera is one of a number of infectious diseases that appears to be influenced by climate, geography and other natural environments. This study analysed the environmental factors of the spatial distribution of cholera in China. It shows that temperature, precipitation, elevation, and distance to the coastline have significant impact on the distribution of cholera. It also reveals the oceanic environmental factors associated with cholera in Zhejiang, which is a coastal province of China, using both remote sensing (RS) and geographical information systems (GIS). The analysis has validated the correlation between indirect satellite measurements of sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH) and ocean chlorophyll concentration (OCC) and the local number of cholera cases based on 8-year monthly data from 2001 to 2008. The results show the number of cholera cases has been strongly affected by the variables of SST, SSH and OCC. Utilizing this information, a cholera prediction model has been established based on the oceanic and climatic environmental factors. The model indicates that RS and GIS have great potential for designing an early warning system for cholera.

  10. [Cost of illness attributable to environmental factors in the city of Manaus, state of Amazonas, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Marcilio Sandro de; Sacramento, Daniel Souza; Hurtado-Guerrero, José Camilo; Ortiz, Ramon Arigoni; Fenner, André Luiz Dutra

    2014-02-01

    The study estimated the cost of illness attributable to environmental factors in the city of Manaus between the years 1998 to 2009. The causes of hospitalization were grouped based on studies of the Global Burden of Disease and Comparative Risk Assessment of the World Health Organization. The value was estimated by the sum of (i) hospital spending on treatment of diseases directly attributable to environmental factors, and (ii) the costs of lost workdays resulting from the stay in hospital estimated on the basis of the average earnings of Manaus workers. The data were further calibrated taking into account the coverage of the population with private health insurance. The cost of illness, considering the values corrected by the General Market Price Index for the year 2009 was estimated at R$ 286,852,666.97, of which cardiovascular disease, respiratory infections of the lower airways and diarrheal diseases are responsible for 78.6% of these values. Of the fractions attributable to environmental factors, cardiovascular diseases account for 16% (CI: 7-23%), respiratory infections and respiratory infections of the lower airways for 41% (CI: 32-47%), and diarrhea for 94% (CI: 84-98%) of the global burden of disease.

  11. PERSONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS SIGNIFICANTLY ASSOCIATED WITH ELEVATED BLOOD LEAD LEVELS IN RURAL THAI CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Kavinum, Suporn; Papwijitsil, Ratchadaporn; Tontiwattanasap, Worawit; Khunyotying, Wanlee; Umpan, Jiraporn; BoonthuM, Ratchaneekorn; Kaewnate, Yingyot; Boonmee, Sasis; Thongchub, Winai; Rodsung, Thassanee

    2014-11-01

    A community-based study was conducted to determine personal risk factors and environmental sources of lead exposure for elevated blood lead levels (≥ 10 µg/dl, EBLLs) among rural children living at the Thailand-Myanmar border in Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. Six hundred ninety-five children aged 1-14 years old were screened for BLLs. Environmental specimens for lead measurements included samples of water from the streams, taps, and household containers, house floor dust, and foods. Possible lead release from the cooking ware was determined using the leaching method with acetic acid. The overall prevalence of EBLLs was 47.1% and the geometric mean level of blood lead was 9.16 µg/dl. Personal risk factors significantly associated with EBLLs included being male, younger age, anemia, and low weight-for-age. Significant environmental risk factors were exposure to a lead-acid battery of solar energy system and use of a non-certified metal cooking pot. Some families whose children had high BLLs reported production of lead bullets from the used batteries at home. About one-third of the house dust samples taken near batteries contained lead content above the recommended value, compared with none of those taken from other areas and from the houses with no batteries. The metal pots were safe for cooking rice but might be unsafe for acidic food preparation. Both nutritional intervention and lead exposure prevention programs are essential to reduce EBLLs in this population. PMID:26466436

  12. Differentiating responses to contaminants from responses to other environmental factors for benthic biota in freshwater ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Day, K.E.; Reynoldson, T.B.; Rosenberg, D.M.

    1995-12-31

    Many ecological risk assessments (ERAS) of lakes, rivers and streams compare measurements of benthic community structure in specific areas of contamination to similar measurements in reference or ``clean`` areas as a basis for determining impact. However, despite numerous studies documenting alterations of benthic communities as a result of stress, the success of correctly assessing the ``health`` or degradation of these communities depends on how well responses to contamination can be discriminated from responses to other environmental factors. It is important in the ERA process to adequately describe benthic communities and to determine how natural environmental factors (e.g., substrate particle size and texture, organic content, water quality, pH, seston, etc.) may be driving benthic community structure. This knowledge is particularly important when reference areas are distant from stressed areas. This presentation will provide an overview of the environmental factors that are important in structuring natural benthic communities in rivers and lakes and discuss approaches that may be useful in differentiating between natural variability and anthropogenic stress in ERA. Several case studies from the Laurentian Great Lakes and the Fraser River watershed in British Columbia will be discussed.

  13. Semen parameters can be predicted from environmental factors and lifestyle using artificial intelligence methods.

    PubMed

    Girela, Jose L; Gil, David; Johnsson, Magnus; Gome