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Sample records for postnatal whole-body exposure

  1. CSU-FDA collaborative radiological health laboratory annual report, 1980: health effects of prenatal and postnatal whole-body exposure to ionizing radiation in the beagle dog

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    A long-term study of the mortality, morbidity, and physiopathology of beagles exposed to a single dose of ionizing radiation during one of six stages of either prenatal or postnatal development. The results of this study will provide insight into the lifetime risks associated with prenatal and postnatal exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation. This annual report describes the long-term study and the short-term experiments being performed to evaluate spontaneous and radiation-induced problems, as well as the computer storage and retrieval system and its uses in the study.

  2. Collaborative Radiological Health Laboratory annual report 1985: health effects of prenatal and postnatal whole-body exposure to ionizing radiation in the beagle dog

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    The Collaborative Radiological Health Laboratory was established in 1962 by the U.S. Public Health Service and Colorado State University for the purpose of determining in a carefully controlled animal experiment the life-time hazards associated with prenatal and early postnatal exposure to ionizing radiation. The CRHL study is designed to provide information that will facilitate the evaluation of risks to human beings from medical exposure during early development. This is a long-term (lifespan) study of a moderately large and long-lived mammal exposed at one of several times during development to a relatively small and discrete dose of external radiation. Ages-at-irradiation selected for comparison reflect the primary concern with medical exposures during the development period. The basic experiment under the contract contains 1,680 beagles that will be maintained and evaluated for most of their natural lives. Commitment of animals began in December 1967 and was completed in October 1972. The annual report summarizes the current status of the study for the reporting period of November 21, 1984 through November 20, 1985.

  3. Collaborative Radiological Health Laboratory annual report, 1988: Health effects of prenatal and postnatal whole-body exposure to ionizing radiation in the beagle dog

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    The Collaborative Radiological Health Laboratory was established in 1962 by the U.S. Public Health Service and Colorado State University for the purpose of determining, in a carefully controlled animal experiment, the life-time hazards associated with prenatal and early postnatal exposure to ionizing radiation. The CRHL study is designed to provide information that will facilitate the evaluation of risks to human beings from medical exposure during early development. This is a long-term (life span) study of a moderately large and long-lived mammal exposed at one of several times during development to a relatively small and discrete dose of external radiation. Ages-at-irradiation selected for comparison reflect the primary concern with medical exposures during the developmental period. The basic experiment under the contract contains 1,680 beagles that will be maintained and evaluated for most of their natural lives. Commitment of animals began in December 1967 and was completed in February 1973. The annual report summarizes the current status of the study for the reporting period of November 21, 1987 through November 20, 1988.

  4. Collaborative Radiological Health Laboratory annual report 1987: health effects of prenatal and postnatal whole-body exposure to ionizing radiation in the beagle dog. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    The Collaborative Radiological Health Laboratory (CRHL) was established in 1962 by the U.S. Public Health Service and Colorado State University for the purpose of determining in a carefully controlled animal experiment the lifetime hazards associated with prenatal and early postnatal exposure to ionizing radiation. The CRHL study is designed to provide information that will facilitate the evaluation of risks to human beings from medical exposure during early development. It is a long-term (life span) study of a moderately large and long-lived mammal exposed at one of several times during development to a relatively small and discrete dose of external radiation. Ages-at-irradiation selected for comparison reflect the primary concern with medical exposures during the developmental period. The basic experiment under the contract contains 1,680 beagles that will be maintained and evaluated for most of their natural lives. The annual report summarizes the current status of the study for the reporting period of November 21, 1986 through November 20, 1987.

  5. Collaborative Radiological Health Laboratory annual report 1986: health effects of prenatal and postnatal whole-body exposure to ionizing radiation in the beagle dog

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    The Collaborative Radiological Health Laboratory was established in 1962 by the U.S. Public Health Service and Colorado State University for the purpose of determining in a carefully controlled animal experiment the life-time hazards associated with prenatal and early postnatal exposure to ionizing radiation. The CRHL study is designed to provide information that will facilitate the evaluation of risks to human beings from medical exposure during early development. This is a long-term (lifespan) study of a moderately large and long-lived mammal exposed at one of several times during development to a relatively small and discrete dose of external radiation. Ages-at-irradiation selected for comparison reflect the primary concern with medical exposures during the development period. The basis experiment under this contract contains 1,680 beagles that will be maintained and evaluated for most of their natural lives. Commitment of animals began in December 1967 and was completed in October 1972. The annual report summarizes the current status of the study for the reporting period of November 21, 1985 through November 20, 1986.

  6. Collaborative Radiological Health Laboratory annual report 1984: health effects of prenatal and postnatal whole-body exposure to ionizing radiation in the beagle dog

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    The Collaborative Radiological Health Laboratory was established in 1962 by the U.S. Public Health Service and Colorado State University for the purpose of determining in a carefully controlled animal experimentthe life-time hazards associated with prenatal and early postnatal exposure to ionizing radiation. The CRHL study is designed to provide information that will facilitate the evaluation of risks to human beings from medical exposure during early development. This is a long-term (lifespan) study of a moderately large and long-lived mammal exposed at one of several times during development to a relatively small and discrete dose of external radiation. Ages-at-irradiation selected for comparison reflect the primary concern with medical exposures during the developmental period. The basic experiment under this contract contains 1,680 beagles that will be maintained and evaluated for most of their natural lives. Commitment of animals began in December 1967 and was completed in October 1972. This annual report summarizes the current status of the study for the reporting period of November 21, 1983 through November 20, 1984.

  7. Radiation exposure in whole body CT screening.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Pamidighantam; Ratnam, S V; Rao, K V J

    2011-04-01

    Using a technology that "takes a look" at people's insides and promises early warnings of cancer, cardiac disease, and other abnormalities, clinics and medical imaging facilities nationwide are touting a new service for health conscious people: "Whole body CT screening" this typically involves scanning the body from the chin to below the hips with a form of x-ray imaging that produces cross-sectional images. In USA direct-to-consumer marketing of whole body CT is occurring today in many metropolitan areas. Free standing CT screening centres are being sited in shopping malls and other high density public areas, and these centres are being advertised in the electronic and print media. In this context the present article discussed the pros and cons of having such centres in India with the advent of multislice CT leading to fast scan times.

  8. CSU-FDA (Colorado State Univ. -Food and Drug Administration) Collaborative Radiological Health Laboratory. Annual report - 1982: health effects of prenatal and postnatal whole-body exposure to ionizing radiation in the beagle dog

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, S.A.

    1984-09-01

    The Collaborative Radiological Health Laboratory was established in 1962 by the U.S. Public Health Service and Colorado State University for the purpose of determining in a carefully controlled animal experiment the life-time hazards associated with prenatal and early postnatal exposure to ionizing radiation. The CRHL study is designed to provide information that will facilitate the evaluation of risks to human beings from medical exposure during early development. The study is a long-term (lifespan) study of a moderately large and long-lived mammal exposed at one of several times during development to a relatively small and discrete dose of external radiation. Ages at irradiation selected for comparison reflect the primary concern with medical exposures during the development period. This annual report summarizes the current status of the study for the reporting period of January 1 through December 31, 1982.

  9. Collaborative Radiological Health Laboratory annual report 1983: health effects of prenatal and postnatal whole-body exposure to ionizing radiation in the beagle dog. Report for 1 January-20 November 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Collaborative Radiological Health Laboratory was established in 1962 by the U.S. Public Health Service and Colorado State University for the purpose of determining in a carefully controlled animal experiment the life-time hazards associated with prenatal and early postnatal exposure to ionizing radiation. The CRHL study is designed to provide information that will facilitate the evaluation of risks to human beings from medical exposure during early development. This is a long-term (lifespan) study of a moderately large and long-lived mammal exposed at one of several times during development to a relatively small and discrete dose of external radiation. Ages at irradiation selected for comparison reflect the primary concern with medical exposures during the developmental period. The basic experiment under this contract contains 1680 beagles that will be maintained and evaluated for most of their natural lives. Commitment of animals began in December 1967 and was completed in October 1972. This annual report summarizes the current status of the study for the reporting period of January 1 through November 20, 1983.

  10. Metabonomics of Pig Blood Plasma Following Whole Body Exposure to Low Levels of Gb Vapor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    METABONOMICS OF PIG BLOOD PLASMA FOLLOWING WHOLE BODY EXPOSURE TO LOW LEVELS OF GB VAPOR Vicky L. H. Bevilacqua▲, Terrence G...DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Metabonomics Of Pig Blood Plasma Following Whole Body Exposure To Low Levels Of Gb Vapor 5a. CONTRACT...analysis of minipig blood plasma by high field NMR after low-level exposure to GB by whole body inhalation. EXPERIMENTAL METHODS 1. SARIN

  11. Measurement of Whole-Body Vibration Exposure from Garbage Trucks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, S.; Morioka, M.

    1998-08-01

    Japanese garbage truck drivers are exposed to mechanical whole-body vibration during their work. Some drivers have suffered from low back pain from this vibration. However, there is no evidence of a relationship between the whole-body vibration from the garbage trucks and low back pain or occupational disease, due to the lack of investigations. A field study was conducted in order to characterize the health risks associated with garbage truck work. Three different types of truck were tested at different loadings and on different road surfaces, with the vibrations measured at the driver/seat interface (x,y, andz-axes). The vibrations were compared with the health risk guidance according to Annex B of ISO 2631-1 [1]. The findings of this study indicated that Japanese garbage truck drivers should not operate trucks for 2.5 h in a day, under current working conditions.

  12. Ride Dynamics and Evaluation of Human Exposure to Whole Body Vibration. Change 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-03

    methods for evaluating the ride dynamics or ride quality of ground vehicles as well as the vehicle occupants’ exposure to Whole-Body Vibration ( WBV ...occur as a result of vibration exposure . The technique for collecting data to be used for either ride dynamics or WBV exposure assessments is similar...

  13. Interchangeable whole-body and nose-only exposure system

    DOEpatents

    Cannon, W.C.; Allemann, R.T.; Moss, O.R.; Decker, J.R. Jr.

    1992-03-31

    An exposure system for experimental animals includes a container for a single animal which has a double wall. The animal is confined within the inner wall. Gaseous material enters a first end, flows over the entire animal, then back between the walls and out the first end. The system also includes an arrangement of valve-controlled manifolds for supplying gaseous material to, and exhausting it from, the containers. 6 figs.

  14. Interchangeable whole-body and nose-only exposure system

    DOEpatents

    Cannon, William C.; Allemann, Rudolph T.; Moss, Owen R.; Decker, Jr., John R.

    1992-01-01

    An exposure system for experimental animals includes a container for a single animal which has a double wall. The animal is confined within the inner wall. Gaseous material enters a first end, flows over the entire animal, then back between the walls and out the first end. The system also includes an arrangement of valve-controlled manifolds for supplying gaseous material to, and exhausting it from, the containers.

  15. Retrospective assessment of occupational exposure to whole-body vibration for a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Harris, M Anne; Cripton, Peter A; Teschke, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Occupational whole-body vibration is often studied as a risk factor for conditions that may arise soon after exposure, but only rarely have studies examined associations with conditions arising long after occupational exposure has ceased. We aimed to develop a method of constructing previous occupational whole-body vibration exposure metrics from self-reported data collected for a case-control study of Parkinson's disease. A detailed job history and exposure interview was administered to 808 residents of British Columbia, Canada (403 people with Parkinson's disease and 405 healthy controls). Participants were prompted to report exposure to whole-body vibrating equipment. We limited the data to exposure reports deemed to be above background exposures and used the whole-body vibration literature (typically reporting on seated vector sum measurements) to assign intensity (acceleration) values to each type of equipment reported. We created four metrics of exposure (duration of exposure, most intense equipment exposure, and two dose metrics combining duration and intensity) and examined their distributions and correlations. We tested the role of age and gender in predicting whole-body vibration exposure. Thirty-six percent of participants had at least one previous occupational exposure to whole-body vibrating equipment. Because less than half of participants reported exposure, all continuous metrics exhibited positively skewed distributions, although the distribution of most intense equipment exposure was more symmetrically distributed among the exposed. The arithmetic mean of duration of exposure among those exposed was 14.0 (standard deviation, SD: 14.2) work years, while the geometric mean was 6.8 (geometric SD, GSD: 4.5). The intensity of the most intense equipment exposure (among the exposed) had an arithmetic mean of 0.9 (SD: 0.3) m·s(-2) and a geometric mean of 0.8 (GSD: 1.4). Male gender and older age were both associated with exposure, although the effect of

  16. Ride Dynamics and Evaluation of Human Exposure to Whole Body Vibration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-29

    serious injuries that may occur as a result of vibration exposure . The technique for collecting data to be used for either ride dynamics or WBV exposure ......evaluating the ride dynamics or ride quality and whole body vibration ( WBV ) of ground vehicles. Ride dynamics and WBV pertain to the sensation or feel of

  17. Whole body exposure at 2100 MHz induced by plane wave of random incidences in a population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conil, Emmanuelle; Hadjem, Abdelhamid; El Habachi, Aimad; Wiart, J.

    2010-11-01

    In this article, the whole body exposure induced by plane wave coming from a random direction of arrival is analyzed at 2100 MHz. This work completes previous studies on the influence of different parameters on the whole body exposure (such as morphology, frequency or usage in near field). The Visible Human phantom has been used to build a surrogate model to predict the whole body exposure depending on the highlighted surface of the phantom and on the direction of arrival of the incident plane wave. For the Visible Human, the error on the whole body averaged Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) is on average 4%. The surrogate model is applied to other 3D anthropomorphic phantoms for a frontal incidence with an averaged error of 10%. The great interest of the surrogate model is the possibility to apply a Monte Carlo process to assess probability distribution function of a population. A recent French anthropometric database of more than 3500 adults is used to build the probability distribution function of the whole body SAR for a random direction of arrival.

  18. Head Exposure to Cold during Whole-Body Cryostimulation: Influence on Thermal Response and Autonomic Modulation.

    PubMed

    Louis, Julien; Schaal, Karine; Bieuzen, François; Le Meur, Yann; Filliard, Jean-Robert; Volondat, Marielle; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Hausswirth, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Recent research on whole-body cryotherapy has hypothesized a major responsibility of head cooling in the physiological changes classically reported after a cryostimulation session. The aim of this experiment was to verify this hypothesis by studying the influence of exposing the head to cold during whole-body cryostimulation sessions, on the thermal response and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Over five consecutive days, two groups of 10 participants performed one whole-body cryostimulation session daily, in one of two different systems; one exposing the whole-body to cold (whole-body cryostimulation, WBC), and the other exposing the whole-body except the head (partial-body cryostimulation, PBC).10 participants constituted a control group (CON) not receiving any cryostimulation. In order to isolate the head-cooling effect on recorded variables, it was ensured that the WBC and PBC systems induced the same decrease in skin temperature for all body regions (mean decrease over the 5 exposures: -8.6°C ± 1.3°C and -8.3 ± 0.7°C for WBC and PBC, respectively), which persisted up to 20-min after the sessions (P20). The WBC sessions caused an almost certain decrease in tympanic temperature from Pre to P20 (-0.28 ± 0.11°C), while it only decreased at P20 (-0.14 ± 0.05°C) after PBC sessions. Heart rate almost certainly decreased after PBC (-8.6%) and WBC (-12.3%) sessions. Resting vagal-related heart rate variability indices (the root-mean square difference of successive normal R-R intervals, RMSSD, and high frequency band, HF) were very likely to almost certainly increased after PBC (RMSSD:+49.1%, HF: +123.3%) and WBC (RMSSD: +38.8%, HF:+70.3%). Plasma norepinephrine concentration was likely increased in similar proportions after PBC and WBC, but only after the first session. Both cryostimulation techniques stimulated the ANS with a predominance of parasympathetic tone activation from the first to the fifth session and in slightly greater proportion with WBC than

  19. Head and Helmet Biodynamics and Tracking Performance During Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    Vibration Suzanne D. Smith Air Force Research Laboratory Jeanne A. Smith Raymond J. Newman Advanced Information Engineering Services, Inc. A General...AND HELMET BIODYNAMICS AND TRACKING PERFORMANCE DURING EXPOSURE TO WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62202F 6. AUTHOR(S...distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Presented at the UK Conference on Human Response to Vibration , England Sep 2004 14. ABSTRACT Helmet

  20. Exploring the effects of seated whole body vibration exposure on repetitive asymmetric lifting tasks.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Jay P; Lavender, Steven A; Jagacinski, Richard J; Sommerich, Carolyn M

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated changes in the physiological and behavioral responses to repetitive asymmetric lifting activity after exposure to whole body vibrations. Seventeen healthy volunteers repeatedly lifted a box (15% of lifter's capacity) positioned in front of them at ankle level to a location on their left side at waist level at the rate of 10 lifts/min for a period of 60 minutes. Prior to lifting, participants were seated on a vibrating platform for 60 minutes; in one of the two sessions the platform did not vibrate. Overall, the physiological responses assessed using near-infrared spectroscopy signals for the erector spinae muscles decreased significantly over time during the seating and the lifting tasks (p < 0.001). During repetitive asymmetric lifting, behavioral changes included increases in peak forward bending motion, twisting movement, and three-dimensional movement velocities of the spine. The lateral bending movement of the spine and the duration of each lift decreased significantly over the 60 minutes of repetitive lifting. With exposure to whole body vibration, participants twisted farther (p = 0.046) and twisted faster (p = 0.025). These behavioral changes would suggest an increase in back injury risk when repetitive lifting tasks are preceded by whole body vibration exposure.

  1. Short communication: Maternal heat stress during the dry period alters postnatal whole-body insulin response of calves.

    PubMed

    Tao, S; Monteiro, A P A; Hayen, M J; Dahl, G E

    2014-02-01

    Heat stress during the dry period not only negatively affects a cow's performance but also affects her offspring. Previous studies indicate that calves born to cows heat-stressed during late gestation have lower birth weight but similar overall weight gain during the prepubertal period compared with those cooled in utero. However, it is unclear if whole-body insulin response, and thus metabolism, of calves is altered in their postnatal life after in utero heat stress. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of maternal heat stress during the dry period on whole-body insulin response of calves after weaning. Calves (10/treatment) were born to cows exposed to heat stress (HT) or cooling (CL) when dry. Calves were immediately separated from their dams and fed 3.8L of high-quality colostrum within 1h after birth and then 1.9L 12h later. All calves were fed 1.9 to 3.8L of pasteurized milk in the morning and afternoon from 2 to 42 d of age and then only in the morning until weaning at 49 d. Calf starter and water were offered ad libitum starting at 2 d of age. All calves were managed in the same manner throughout the study. All calves were subjected to a glucose tolerance test (GTT) and an insulin challenge (IC) at 55 d of age. Calves heat-stressed in utero were born lighter (40 ± 1.4 vs. 45 ± 1.4 kg) compared with CL calves. Both groups of calves had similar weaning weights (HT: 68 ± 3.2 kg; CL: 71 ± 3.3 kg) and body weight gain from birth to weaning (HT: 28 ± 2.2 kg; CL: 26 ± 2.3 kg). Compared with those cooled in utero, HT calves had a similar insulin response to GTT and insulin clearance during IC but faster glucose clearance during GTT and IC. In conclusion, in addition to impaired fetal growth, maternal heat stress during the dry period enhances the whole-body insulin response of calves after weaning, which suggests the possibility of accelerated lipogenesis and fat deposition in early life.

  2. Between-country comparison of whole-body SAR from personal exposure data in Urban areas.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Wout; Frei, Patrizia; Röösli, Martin; Vermeeren, Günter; Bolte, John; Thuróczy, György; Gajšek, Peter; Trček, Tomaž; Mohler, Evelyn; Juhász, Péter; Finta, Viktoria; Martens, Luc

    2012-12-01

    In five countries (Belgium, Switzerland, Slovenia, Hungary, and the Netherlands), personal radio frequency electromagnetic field measurements were performed in different microenvironments such as homes, public transports, or outdoors using the same exposure meters. From the mean personal field exposure levels (excluding mobile phone exposure), whole-body absorption values in a 1-year-old child and adult male model were calculated using a statistical multipath exposure method and compared for the five countries. All mean absorptions (maximal total absorption of 3.4 µW/kg for the child and 1.8 µW/kg for the adult) were well below the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) basic restriction of 0.08 W/kg for the general public. Generally, incident field exposure levels were well correlated with whole-body absorptions (SAR(wb) ), although the type of microenvironment, frequency of the signals, and dimensions of the considered phantom modify the relationship between these exposure measures. Exposure to the television and Digital Audio Broadcasting band caused relatively higher SAR(wb) values (up to 65%) for the 1-year-old child than signals at higher frequencies due to the body size-dependent absorption rates. Frequency Modulation (FM) caused relatively higher absorptions (up to 80%) in the adult male.

  3. Using consumer electronic devices to estimate whole-body vibration exposure.

    PubMed

    Wolfgang, Rebecca; Burgess-Limerick, Robin

    2014-01-01

    The cost and complexity of commercially available devices for measuring whole-body vibration is a barrier to the systematic collection of the information required to manage this hazard at workplaces. The potential for a consumer electronic device to be used to estimate whole-body vibration was assessed by use of an accelerometer calibrator, and by collecting 42 simultaneous pairs of measurements from a fifth-generation iPod Touch and one of two gold standard vibration measurement devices (Svantech SV111 [Svantech, Warsaw, Poland] or Brüel & Kjær 4447 [Brüel & Kjær Sound & Vibration Measurement A/S, Nærum, Denmark]) while driving light vehicles on a variety of different roadway surfaces. While sampling rate limitations make the accelerometer data collected from the iPod Touch unsuitable for frequency analysis, the vibration amplitudes recorded are sufficiently accurate (errors less than 0.1 m/s(2)) to assist workplaces manage whole-body vibration exposures.

  4. Typical whole body vibration exposure magnitudes encountered in the open pit mining industry.

    PubMed

    Howard, Bryan; Sesek, Richard; Bloswick, Don

    2009-01-01

    According to recent research, a causal link has been established between occupational exposure to whole body vibration and an increased occurrence of low back pain. To aid in the further development of an in-house health and safety program for a large open pit mining facility interested in reducing back pain among its operators, whole body vibration magnitudes were characterized for a range of jobs. Specifically, thirty-five individual jobs from five different areas across the facility were evaluated for tri-axial acceleration levels during normal operating conditions. Tri-axial acceleration magnitudes were categorized into thirteen job groups. Job groups were ranked according to exposure and compared to the ISO 2631-1 standard for health risk assessment. Three of the thirteen job groups produced tri-axial acceleration magnitudes below the ISO 2631-1 low/moderate health caution limit for a twelve hour exposure. Six of the thirteen job groups produced exposures within the moderate health risk range. Four job groups were found to subject operators to WBV acceleration magnitudes above the moderate/high health caution limit.

  5. Development and validation of reverberation-chamber type whole-body exposure system for mobile-phone frequency.

    PubMed

    Jung, K B; Kim, T H; Kim, J L; Doh, H J; Chung, Y C; Choi, J H; Pack, J K

    2008-01-01

    We developed whole-body exposure systems for in-vivo study at cellular (848.5 MHz) and Personal Communication System (PCS, 1,762.5 MHz) frequency, utilizing reverberation chamber. The field uniformities in the test area of the designed chambers were verified by simulation and measurement. In the whole-body exposure environment, Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) distributions inside of mice were calculated using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulation. Key results are presented in this article.

  6. Metal exposures to native populations of the caddisfly Hydropsyche (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae) determined from cytosolic and whole body metal concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, D.J.; Luoma, S.N.

    1998-01-01

    Metal concentrations of the soluble fraction of the cytoplasm (cytosol) and the whole body were determined in the caddisfly Hydropsyche spp. (Trichoptera). Metal accumulation in the cytosol and the whole body were compared in samples collected along 380 kms of a contamination gradient in the Clark Fork river in four consecutive years (1992-1995), and from a contaminated tributary (Flint Creek). Samples from the contaminated sites were compared to an uncontaminated tributary (Blackfoot River). Relations between cytosolic metal concentration and cytosolic protein (used as a general biomarker of protein metabolism) also were examined in 1994 and 1995. Relative to whole body concentrations, cytosolic metal concentrations varied among metals and years. Spatial patterns in whole body and cytosolic Cd, Cu and Pb concentrations were qualitatively similar each year, and these concentrations generally corresponded to contamination levels measured in bed sediments. The proportions of metals recovered in the cytosol of ranged from 12 to 64% for Cd and Cu and from 2 to 38% for Pb. Zinc in the whole body also was consistent with contamination levels, but cytosolic Zn concentrations increased only at the highest whole body Zn concentrations. As a result, the proportion of Zn recovered in the cytosol ranged from 16 to 63% and tended to be inversely related to whole body Zn concentrations. The proportions of cytosolic metals varied significantly among years and, as a result, interannual differences in metal concentrations were greater in the cytosol than in the whole body. The results demonstrated that Hydropsyche in the river were chronically exposed to biologically available metals. Some features of this exposure were not evident from whole body concentrations. In general, protein levels did not correspond to cytosolic metal concentrations. A variety of environmental factors could interact with metal exposures to produce complex responses in protein metabolism. Systematic study

  7. Validity of self reported occupational exposures to hand transmitted and whole body vibration

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, K.; Haward, B.; Griffin, M.; Bendall, H.; Coggon, D.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To assess the accuracy with which workers report their exposure to occupational sources of hand transmitted (HTV) and whole body vibration (WBV).
METHODS—179 Workers from various jobs involving exposure to HTV or WBV completed a self administered questionnaire about sources of occupational exposure to vibration in the past week. They were then observed at work over 1 hour, after which they completed a second questionnaire concerning their exposures during this observation period. The feasibility of reported sources of exposure during the past week was examined by questioning managers and by inspection of tools and machines in the workplace. The accuracy of reported sources and durations of exposure in the 1 hour period were assessed relative to what had been observed.
RESULTS—The feasibility of exposure in the previous week was confirmed for 97% of subjects who reported exposure to HTV, and for 93% of subjects who reported exposure to WBV. The individual sources of exposure reported were generally plausible, but occupational use of cars was substantially overreported, possibly because of confusion with their use in travel to and from work. The accuracy of exposures reported during the observation period was generally high, but some sources of HTV were confused—for example, nailing and stapling guns reported as riveting hammers, and hammer drills not distinguished from other sorts of drill. Workers overestimated their duration of exposure to HTV by a median factor of 2.5 (interquartile range (IQR) 1.6-5.9), but estimated durations of exposure were more accurate when the exposure was relatively continuous rather than for intermittent short periods. Reported durations of exposure to WBV were generally accurate (median ratio of reported to observed time 1.1, IQR 1.0-1.2).
CONCLUSIONS—Sources of recent occupational exposure to vibration seem to be reported with reasonable accuracy, but durations of exposure to HTV are systematically

  8. Neuromuscular response of the trunk to inertial based sudden perturbations following whole body vibration exposure.

    PubMed

    MacIntyre, Danielle; Cort, Joel A

    2014-12-01

    The effects of whole body vibration exposure on the neuromuscular responses following inertial-based trunk perturbations were examined. Kinematic and surface EMG (sEMG) data were collected while subjects were securely seated on a robotic platform. Participants were either exposed to 10 min of vibration or not, which was followed by sudden inertial trunk perturbations with and without timing and direction knowledge. Amplitude of sEMG was analyzed for data collected during the vibration protocol, whereas the onset of sEMG activity and lumbar spine angle were analyzed for the perturbation protocol. Data from the vibration protocol did not show a difference in amplitude of sEMG for participants exposed to vibration and those not. The perturbation protocol data showed that those not exposed to vibration had a 14% faster muscle onset, despite data showing no difference in fatigue level.

  9. Acute exposure to 2,4-dinitrophenol alters zebrafish swimming performance and whole body triglyceride levels.

    PubMed

    Marit, Jordan S; Weber, Lynn P

    2011-06-01

    While swimming endurance (critical swimming speed or U(crit)) and lipid stores have both been reported to acutely decrease after exposure to a variety of toxicants, the relationship between these endpoints has not been clearly established. In order to examine these relationships, adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were aqueously exposed to solvent control (ethanol) or two nominal concentrations of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), a mitochondrial electron transport chain uncoupler, for a 24-h period. Following exposure, fish were placed in a swim tunnel in clean water for swimming testing or euthanized immediately without testing, followed by analysis of whole body triglyceride levels. U(crit) decreased in both the 6 mg/L and 12 mg/L DNP groups, with 12 mg/L approaching the LC₅₀. A decrease in tail beat frequency was observed without a significant change in tail beat amplitude. In contrast, triglyceride levels were elevated in a concentration-dependent manner in the DNP exposure groups, but only in fish subjected to swimming tests. This increase in triglyceride stores may be due to a direct interference of DNP on lipid catabolism as well as increased triglyceride production when zebrafish were subjected to the co-stressors of swimming and toxicant exposure. Future studies should be directed at determining how acute DNP exposure combines with swimming to cause alterations in triglyceride accumulation.

  10. Effects of whole-body VX vapor exposure on lethality in rats.

    PubMed

    Benton, B J; McGuire, J M; Sommerville, D R; Dabisch, P A; Jakubowski, E M; Matson, K L; Mioduszewski, R J; Thomson, S A; Crouse, C L

    2006-12-01

    Male and female rats were whole-body exposed to VX vapor in a 1000-L single-pass exposure chamber. Estimated exposure dosages producing lethal (LCT50) effects in 50% of exposed male and female rats were established for 10, 60, and 240 min exposure durations. A potency comparison with GB and GF shows that VX becomes increasingly more potent than these G agents with increasing exposure duration. VX is approximately 4-30 times more potent than GB and 5-15 times more potent than GF. Gender differences in the estimated median dosages were not significant at the 10, 60, and 240 min exposure durations. An empirical toxic load model was developed and the toxic load exponent for lethality (n) in the equation Cn x T = k was determined to be n = 0.92. The VX-G regeneration assay was successfully used as a biomarker for the presence of VX in the blood plasma and RBC fractions of the blood 24 h postexposure.

  11. Comparison of the effects of partial-or-whole-body exposures to 16O particles on cognitive performance in rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies using a ground-based system (NASA Space Radiation Laboratory) to study the effects of exposure to particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles) on cognitive performance have interchangeably used whole-body exposures or exposures restricted to the head of the subject. It is possible th...

  12. Exposure to whole-body vibration in open-cast mines in the Barents region

    PubMed Central

    Burström, Lage; Hyvärinen, Ville; Johnsen, Magnar; Pettersson, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to measure and evaluate whole-body vibration (WBV) exposure among drivers of mining vehicles in the Barents region. Study design In the period from November 2012 to August 2014, this cross-sectional study was carried out at 3 mines in Finland, Norway and Sweden as part of the MineHealth project. Methods Measurements of WBV were conducted on the surface of the driver's seat during normal work in accordance with international standards. Personal data on daily exposure times were collected by a questionnaire. Results Measurements were conducted on 95 different mining vehicles both as root mean square (RMS) value and vibration dose value (VDV) representing different manufacturers, models and capacities. Of the 453 miners who answered the questionnaire, 232 indicated that they were exposed to WBV during their working day. The results show that the mean daily exposure time varies between 1.9 and 6.7 h for different vehicles. The calculated mean A(8) could be found in an interval between 0.2 and 1.0 m/s2 and the corresponding 8-h VDV fell between 7 and 17 m/s1.75. Conclusions Exposure to WBV among operators of mining vehicles may be a serious health and safety problem in the mines studied. The employers ought, therefore, take active steps to reduce exposure in accordance with the European vibration directive. Moreover, since some groups of drivers are exposed to vibration that is close to or exceeds the exposure limit values, the employer should take immediate action to reduce exposure below these values. PMID:26864832

  13. Whole Body Vibration at Different Exposure Frequencies: Infrared Thermography and Physiological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Sonza, Anelise; Robinson, Caroline C.; Achaval, Matilde; Zaro, Milton A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of whole body vibration (WBV) on physiological parameters, cutaneous temperature, tactile sensitivity, and balance. Twenty-four healthy adults (25.3 ± 2.6 years) participated in four WBV sessions. They spent 15 minutes on a vibration platform in the vertical mode at four different frequencies (31, 35, 40, and 44 Hz) with 1 mm of amplitude. All variables were measured before and after WBV exposure. Pressure sensation in five anatomical regions and both feet was determined using Von Frey monofilaments. Postural sway was measured using a force plate. Cutaneous temperature was obtained with an infrared camera. WBV influences the discharge of the skin touch-pressure receptors, decreasing sensitivity at all measured frequencies and foot regions (P ≤ 0.05). Regarding balance, no differences were found after 20 minutes of WBV at frequencies of 31 and 35 Hz. At 40 and 44 Hz, participants showed higher anterior-posterior center of pressure (COP) velocity and length. The cutaneous temperature of the lower limbs decreased during and 10 minutes after WBV. WBV decreases touch-pressure sensitivity at all measured frequencies 10 min after exposure. This may be related to the impaired balance at higher frequencies since these variables have a role in maintaining postural stability. Vasoconstriction might explain the decreased lower limb temperature. PMID:25664338

  14. Joint Minimization of Uplink and Downlink Whole-Body Exposure Dose in Indoor Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    Plets, D.; Joseph, W.; Vanhecke, K.; Vermeeren, G.; Wiart, J.; Aerts, S.; Varsier, N.; Martens, L.

    2015-01-01

    The total whole-body exposure dose in indoor wireless networks is minimized. For the first time, indoor wireless networks are designed and simulated for a minimal exposure dose, where both uplink and downlink are considered. The impact of the minimization is numerically assessed for four scenarios: two WiFi configurations with different throughputs, a Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) configuration for phone call traffic, and a Long-Term Evolution (LTE) configuration with a high data rate. Also, the influence of the uplink usage on the total absorbed dose is characterized. Downlink dose reductions of at least 75% are observed when adding more base stations with a lower transmit power. Total dose reductions decrease with increasing uplink usage for WiFi due to the lack of uplink power control but are maintained for LTE and UMTS. Uplink doses become dominant over downlink doses for usages of only a few seconds for WiFi. For UMTS and LTE, an almost continuous uplink usage is required to have a significant effect on the total dose, thanks to the power control mechanism. PMID:25793213

  15. Joint minimization of uplink and downlink whole-body exposure dose in indoor wireless networks.

    PubMed

    Plets, D; Joseph, W; Vanhecke, K; Vermeeren, G; Wiart, J; Aerts, S; Varsier, N; Martens, L

    2015-01-01

    The total whole-body exposure dose in indoor wireless networks is minimized. For the first time, indoor wireless networks are designed and simulated for a minimal exposure dose, where both uplink and downlink are considered. The impact of the minimization is numerically assessed for four scenarios: two WiFi configurations with different throughputs, a Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) configuration for phone call traffic, and a Long-Term Evolution (LTE) configuration with a high data rate. Also, the influence of the uplink usage on the total absorbed dose is characterized. Downlink dose reductions of at least 75% are observed when adding more base stations with a lower transmit power. Total dose reductions decrease with increasing uplink usage for WiFi due to the lack of uplink power control but are maintained for LTE and UMTS. Uplink doses become dominant over downlink doses for usages of only a few seconds for WiFi. For UMTS and LTE, an almost continuous uplink usage is required to have a significant effect on the total dose, thanks to the power control mechanism.

  16. Anthropometric characteristics and sex influence magnitude of skin cooling following exposure to whole body cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hammond, L E; Cuttell, S; Nunley, P; Meyler, J

    2014-01-01

    This study explored whether anthropometric measures influence magnitude of skin cooling following exposure to whole body cryotherapy (WBC). Height, weight, body fat percentage, and lean mass were measured in 18 male and 14 female participants. Body surface area, body surface area to mass ratio, body mass index, fat-free mass index, and fat mass index were calculated. Thermal images were captured before and after WBC (-60°C for 30 seconds, -110°C for 2 minutes). Skin temperature was measured at the chest, arm, thigh, and calf. Mean skin temperature before and after WBC and change in mean skin temperature (ΔT sk) were calculated. ΔT sk was significantly greater in females (12.07 ± 1.55°C) than males (10.12 ± 1.86°C; t(30) = -3.09, P = .004). A significant relationship was observed between body fat percentage and ΔT sk in the combined dataset (P = .002, r = .516) and between fat-free mass index and ΔT sk in males (P = .005, r = .622). No other significant associations were found. Skin response of individuals to WBC appears to depend upon anthropometric variables and sex, with individuals with a higher adiposity cooling more than thinner individuals. Effects of sex and anthompometrics should be considered when designing WBC research or treatment protocols.

  17. Anthropometric Characteristics and Sex Influence Magnitude of Skin Cooling following Exposure to Whole Body Cryotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, L. E.; Cuttell, S.; Nunley, P.; Meyler, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored whether anthropometric measures influence magnitude of skin cooling following exposure to whole body cryotherapy (WBC). Height, weight, body fat percentage, and lean mass were measured in 18 male and 14 female participants. Body surface area, body surface area to mass ratio, body mass index, fat-free mass index, and fat mass index were calculated. Thermal images were captured before and after WBC (−60°C for 30 seconds, −110°C for 2 minutes). Skin temperature was measured at the chest, arm, thigh, and calf. Mean skin temperature before and after WBC and change in mean skin temperature (ΔTsk) were calculated. ΔTsk was significantly greater in females (12.07 ± 1.55°C) than males (10.12 ± 1.86°C; t(30) = −3.09, P = .004). A significant relationship was observed between body fat percentage and ΔTsk in the combined dataset (P = .002, r = .516) and between fat-free mass index and ΔTsk in males (P = .005, r = .622). No other significant associations were found. Skin response of individuals to WBC appears to depend upon anthropometric variables and sex, with individuals with a higher adiposity cooling more than thinner individuals. Effects of sex and anthompometrics should be considered when designing WBC research or treatment protocols. PMID:25061612

  18. Acute, whole-body microwave exposure and testicular function of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Lebovitz, R.M.; Johnson, L.

    1987-01-01

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed for 8 h to continuous-wave microwave radiation (MWR, 1.3 Ghz) at a mean specific absorbed dose rate of 9 mW/g. MWR exposure and sham-irradiation took place in unidirectionally energized cylindrical waveguide sections, within which the animals were essentially unrestrained. The MWR treatment in this setting was determined to yield an elevation of deep rectal temperature to 4.5 degrees C. The animals were taken for analysis at 6.5, 13, 26, and 52 days following treatment, which corresponded to .5, 1, 2, and 4 cycles of the seminiferous epithelium. Net mass of testes, epididymides, and seminal vesicles; daily sperm production (DSP) per testis and per gram of testis; and the number of epididymal sperm were determined. The levels of circulating follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and leutinizing hormone (LH) were derived via radioimmunoassay of plasma samples taken at the time of sacrifice. Despite the evident acute thermogenesis of the MWR at 9 mW/g, no substantial decrement in testicular function was found. We conclude that, in the unrestrained rat, whole body irradiation at 9 mW/g, while sufficient to induce evident hyperthermia, is not a sufficient condition for disruption of any of these key measures of testicular function.

  19. Effect of Seating on Exposures to Whole-Body Vibration in Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PADDAN, G. S.; GRIFFIN, M. J.

    2002-05-01

    The vibration isolation efficiency of seating has been evaluated in 100 work vehicles in 14 categories (cars, vans, lift trucks, lorries, tractors, buses, dumpers, excavators, helicopters, armoured vehicles, mobile cranes, grass rollers, mowers and milk floats). Seat isolation efficiency, expressed by the SEAT value, was determined for all seats (67 conventional seats and 33 suspension seats) from the vertical acceleration measured on the floors and on the seats of the vehicles.For most categories of vehicle, the average SEAT value was less than 100%, indicating that the average seat provided some attenuation of vibration. However, there were large variations in SEAT values between vehicles within categories. Two alternative vibration frequency weightings (Wb from BS 6841, 1987; Wk from ISO 2631, 1997) yielded SEAT values that differed by less than 6%. Overall, the SEAT values determined by two alternative methods (the ratio of r.m.s. values and the ratio of vibration dose values) differed by less than 4·5% when using weighting Wb, although larger differences may be expected in some situations. The median SEAT value for the suspension seats was 84·6%; the median SEAT value for the conventional seats was 86·9% (based on weighting Wb and the ratio of r.m.s. values).Predicted SEAT values were obtained assuming that each seat could be interchanged between vehicles without altering its transmissibility. The calculations suggest that 94% of the vehicles investigated might benefit from changing the current seat to a seat from one of the other vehicles investigated. Although the predictions are based on assumptions that will not always apply, it is concluded that the severity of whole-body vibration exposures in many work environments can be lessened by improvements to seating dynamics.

  20. Perchlorate exposure does not modulate temporal variation of whole-body thyroid and androgen hormone content in threespine stickleback

    PubMed Central

    Gardell, Alison M.; Dillon, Danielle M.; Smayda, Lauren C.; von Hippel, Frank A.; Cresko, William A.; Postlethwait, John H.; Buck, C. Loren

    2015-01-01

    Previously we showed that exposure of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to the endocrine disruptor perchlorate results in pronounced structural changes in thyroid and gonad, while surprisingly, whole-body thyroid hormone concentrations remain unaffected. To test for hormone titer variations on a finer scale, we evaluated the interactive effects of time (diel and reproductive season) and perchlorate exposure on whole-body contents of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) in captive stickleback. Adult stickleback were exposed to 100 ppm perchlorate or control water and sampled at four-hour intervals across the 24-hour day and at one time-point (1100 h) weekly across the reproductive season (May-July). Neither whole-body T3 nor T4 concentration significantly differed across the day in control or perchlorate treated stickleback. Across the reproductive season, whole-body T3 concentration remained stable while T4 significantly increased. However, neither hormone concentration was significantly affected by perchlorate, verifying our previous studies. The concentration of whole-body 11-KT, a major fish androgen, displayed significant diel variation and also steadily declined across the reproductive season in untreated males; perchlorate exposure did not influence the concentration of 11-KT in either diel or reproductive season schedules. Diel and reproductive season variations in 11-KT content in male stickleback are likely related to reproductive physiology and behavior. The observed increase in T4 content across the reproductive season may be reflective of increased energy investment in reproduction near the end of the life cycle. PMID:25733204

  1. An assessment of annual whole-body occupational radiation exposure in Ireland (1996-2005).

    PubMed

    Colgan, P A; Currivan, L; Fenton, D

    2008-01-01

    Whole-body occupational exposure to artificial radiation sources in Ireland for the years 1996-2005 has been reviewed. Dose data have been extracted from the database of the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, which contains data on >95% of monitored workers. The data have been divided into three sectors: medical, industrial and education/research. Data on exposure to radon in underground mines and show caves for the years 2001-05 are also presented. There has been a continuous increase in the number of exposed workers from 5980 in 1996 to 9892 in 2005. Over the same time period, the number of exposed workers receiving measurable doses has decreased from 676 in 1996 to 189 in 2005 and the collective dose has also decreased from 227.1 to 110.3 man millisievert (man mSv). The collective dose to workers in the medical sector has consistently declined over the 10-y period of the study while that attributable to the industrial sector has remained reasonably static. In the education/research sector, the collective dose typically represents 5% or less of the total collective dose from all practices. Over the 10 y of the study, a total of 77 914 annual dose records have been accumulated, but only 4040 (<6%) of these represent measurable radiation doses in any given year. Over the same time period, there were 283 instances in which exposed workers received individual annual doses >1 mSv and 21 of these exceeded 5 mSv. Most of the doses >1 mSv were received by individuals working in diagnostic radiology (which also includes interventional radiology) in hospitals and site industrial radiography. There has been only one instance of a dose above the annual dose limit of 20 mSv. Evaluating the data for the period 2001-05 separately, the average annual collective dose from the medical, industrial and educational/research sectors are approximately 60, 70 and 2 man mSv with the average dose per exposed worker who received a measurable dose being 0.32, 0.79 and 0.24 m

  2. An optimal sampling approach to modelling whole-body vibration exposure in all-terrain vehicle driving.

    PubMed

    Lü, Xiaoshu; Takala, Esa-Pekka; Toppila, Esko; Marjanen, Ykä; Kaila-Kangas, Leena; Lu, Tao

    2016-12-01

    Exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) presents an occupational health risk and several safety standards obligate to measure WBV. The high cost of direct measurements in large epidemiological studies raises the question of the optimal sampling for estimating WBV exposures given by a large variation in exposure levels in real worksites. This paper presents a new approach to addressing this problem. A daily exposure to WBV was recorded for 9-24 days among 48 all-terrain vehicle drivers. Four data-sets based on root mean squared recordings were obtained from the measurement. The data were modelled using semi-variogram with spectrum analysis and the optimal sampling scheme was derived. The optimum sampling period was 140 min apart. The result was verified and validated in terms of its accuracy and statistical power. Recordings of two to three hours are probably needed to get a sufficiently unbiased daily WBV exposure estimate in real worksites. The developed model is general enough that is applicable to other cumulative exposures or biosignals. Practitioner Summary: Exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) presents an occupational health risk and safety standards obligate to measure WBV. However, direct measurements can be expensive. This paper presents a new approach to addressing this problem. The developed model is general enough that is applicable to other cumulative exposures or biosignals.

  3. Identification of Possible Candidate Biomarkers for Local or Whole Body Radiation Exposure in C57BL/6 Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hae-June; Lee, Minyoung; Kang, Chang-Mo; Jeoung, Dooil; Bae, Sangwoo; Cho, Chul-Koo; Lee, Yun-Sil

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: Specific genes expressed as a result of whole body exposure to {gamma}-radiation have been previously identified. In this study, we examined the genes further as possible biomarkers for the blood lymphocytes of C57BL/6 mice after whole body or local irradiation of the thorax, abdomen, and left subphrenic area. Methods and Materials: We performed reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis of genes encoding platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb, protein tyrosine kinase, sialyltransferase, and Cu/ZnSOD in blood lymphocytes, lung tissue, spleen, and intestines. The protein expression in blood lymphocytes was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Results: The expression of platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb, protein tyrosine kinase, sialyltransferase, and Cu/ZnSOD was significantly greater after 3 days as a result of 1 Gy of whole body irradiation. Moreover, local irradiation to the thorax, abdomen, or left subphrenic area, which are frequently exposed to therapeutic radiation doses, showed a tendency toward radiation-induced increased expression of these genes in both the blood and the locally irradiated organs. Western blot analysis also corroborated these results. Conclusion: Platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb, protein tyrosine kinase, sialyltransferase, and Cu/ZnSOD might be candidates for biomarkers of radiation exposure. However, additional experiments are required to reveal the relationship between the expression levels and the prognostic effects after irradiation.

  4. Measurement of whole-body vibration exposure from speed control humps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorshid, E.; Alkalby, F.; Kamal, H.

    2007-07-01

    The main objective of speed control humps is to introduce shocks and high vibration levels when a car passes over them if its speed is higher than the allowable limit. Hump geometry is a major factor in altering the level of these shocks and specifying the speed limit. However, there is no study of the relationship between whole body vibration due to passing over a speed control hump and lower back pain or occupational diseases. In this study, an experimental investigation is conducted to evaluate health risks associated with different geometry speed control humps. Vibration levels and shocks are measured by a seat pad accelerometer placed under the driver's seat to evaluate hazard risks on the human body's lower back. The assessment is based on two standard methods of measuring whole body vibration: the British standard BS 6841 and the new ISO/DIS standard 2631-5. These methods are used to assess the effects of vehicle type, passenger location in the vehicle, vehicle speed, and speed control hump geometry. It was found that circular speed control humps currently installed on many public roads should be modified in order to eliminate hazards. Two newly designed speed humps were proved to be less hazardous than circular speed control humps.

  5. Risks of exposure to ionizing and millimeter-wave radiation from airport whole-body scanners.

    PubMed

    Moulder, John E

    2012-06-01

    Considerable public concern has been expressed around the world about the radiation risks posed by the backscatter (ionizing radiation) and millimeter-wave (nonionizing radiation) whole-body scanners that have been deployed at many airports. The backscatter and millimeter-wave scanners currently deployed in the U.S. almost certainly pose negligible radiation risks if used as intended, but their safety is difficult-to-impossible to prove using publicly accessible data. The scanners are widely disliked and often feared, which is a problem made worse by what appears to be a veil of secrecy that covers their specifications and dosimetry. Therefore, for these and future similar technologies to gain wide acceptance, more openness is needed, as is independent review and regulation. Publicly accessible, and preferably peer-reviewed evidence is needed that the deployed units (not just the prototypes) meet widely-accepted safety standards. It is also critical that risk-perception issues be handled more competently.

  6. Modeling of Spinal Column of Seated Human Body under Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaoki, Gen; Yoshimura, Takuya; Kuriyama, Kaoru; Nakai, Kazuma

    In vehicle systems occupational drivers might expose themselves to vibration for a long time. This may cause illness of the spinal column such as low back pain. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the influence of vibration to the spinal column. Thus the modeling of seated human body is conducted in order to evaluate the effect of whole-body vibration to the spinal column. This model has the spinal column and the support structures such as the muscles of the back and the abdomen. The spinal column is made by the vertebrae and the intervertebral disks that are considered the rigid body and the rotational spring and damper respectively. The parameter of this model is decided by the literature and the body type of the subject with respect to the mass and the model structure. And stiffness and damping parameters are searched by fitting the model simulation results to the experimental measured data with respect to the vibration transmissibilities from the seat surface to the spinal column and the head and with respect to the driving-point apparent mass. In addition, the natural modes of the model compare with the result of experimental modal analysis. The influence of the abdomen and the muscles of the back are investigated by comparing three models with respect to above vibration characteristics. Three model are the proposed model, the model that has the spinal column and the model that has the muscles of the back in addition to the spinal column.

  7. Lung autophagic response following exposure of mice to whole body irradiation, with and without amifostine

    SciTech Connect

    Zois, Christos E.; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra; Kainulainen, Heikki; Botaitis, Sotirios; Torvinen, Sira; Simopoulos, Constantinos; Kortsaris, Alexandros; Sivridis, Efthimios; Koukourakis, Michael I.

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} We investigated the effect 6 Gy of WBI on the autophagic machinery of normal mouse lung. {yields} Irradiation induces dysfunction of the autophagic machinery in normal lung, characterized by decreased transcription of the LC3A/Beclin-1 mRNA and accumulation of the LC3A, and p62 proteins. {yields} The membrane bound LC3A-II protein levels increased in the cytosolic fraction (not in the pellet), contrasting the patterns noted after starvation-induced autophagy. {yields} Administration of amifostine, reversed all the LC3A and p62 findings, suggesting protection of the normal autophagic function. -- Abstract: Purpose: The effect of ionizing irradiation on the autophagic response of normal tissues is largely unexplored. Abnormal autophagic function may interfere the protein quality control leading to cell degeneration and dysfunction. This study investigates its effect on the autophagic machinery of normal mouse lung. Methods and materials: Mice were exposed to 6 Gy of whole body {gamma}-radiation and sacrificed at various time points. The expression of MAP1LC3A/LC3A/Atg8, beclin-1, p62/sequestosome-1 and of the Bnip3 proteins was analyzed. Results: Following irradiation, the LC3A-I and LC3A-II protein levels increased significantly at 72 h and 7 days. Strikingly, LC3A-II protein was increased (5.6-fold at 7 days; p < 0.001) only in the cytosolic fraction, but remained unchanged in the membrane fraction. The p62 protein, was significantly increased in both supernatant and pellet fraction (p < 0.001), suggesting an autophagosome turnover deregulation. These findings contrast the patterns of starvation-induced autophagy up-regulation. Beclin-1 levels remained unchanged. The Bnip3 protein was significantly increased at 8 h, but it sharply decreased at 72 h (p < 0.05). Administration of amifostine (200 mg/kg), 30 min before irradiation, reversed all the LC3A and p62 findings on blots, suggesting restoration of the normal autophagic function

  8. Microwave radiation (2.45 GHz)-induced oxidative stress: Whole-body exposure effect on histopathology of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Parul; Verma, H N; Sisodia, Rashmi; Kesari, Kavindra Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Man-made microwave and radiofrequency (RF) radiation technologies have been steadily increasing with the growing demand of electronic appliances such as microwave oven and cell phones. These appliances affect biological systems by increasing free radicals, thus leading to oxidative damage. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of 2.45 GHz microwave radiation on histology and the level of lipid peroxide (LPO) in Wistar rats. Sixty-day-old male Wistar rats with 180 ± 10 g body weight were used for this study. Animals were divided into two groups: sham exposed (control) and microwave exposed. These animals were exposed for 2 h a day for 35 d to 2.45 GHz microwave radiation (power density, 0.2 mW/cm(2)). The whole-body specific absorption rate (SAR) was estimated to be 0.14 W/kg. After completion of the exposure period, rats were sacrificed, and brain, liver, kidney, testis and spleen were stored/preserved for determination of LPO and histological parameters. Significantly high level of LPO was observed in the liver (p < 0.001), brain (p < 0.004) and spleen (p < 0.006) in samples from rats exposed to microwave radiation. Also histological changes were observed in the brain, liver, testis, kidney and spleen after whole-body microwave exposure, compared to the control group. Based on the results obtained in this study, we conclude that exposure to microwave radiation 2 h a day for 35 d can potentially cause histopathology and oxidative changes in Wistar rats. These results indicate possible implications of such exposure on human health.

  9. Determination of miosis threshold from whole-body vapor exposure to sarin in African green monkeys.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Raymond F; Benton, Bernard J; Oubre, John L; Fleming, Patrick J; Jakubowski, E Michael; Mioduszewski, Robert J

    2008-02-28

    We determined the threshold concentration of sarin vapor exposure producing miosis in African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops). Monkeys (n=8) were exposed to a single concentration of sarin (0.069-0.701mg/m3) for 10min. Changes in pupil size were measured from photographs taken before and after the exposure. Sarin EC50 values for miosis were determined to be 0.166mg/m3 when miosis was defined as a 50% reduction in pupil area and 0.469mg/m3 when miosis was defined as a 50% reduction in pupil diameter. Monkeys were also evaluated for behavioral changes from sarin exposure using a serial probe recognition test and performance remained essentially unchanged for all monkeys. None of the concentrations of sarin produced specific clinical signs of toxicity other than miosis. Sarin was regenerated from blood sampled following exposure in a concentration-dependent fashion. Consistent with a predominant inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), more sarin was consistently found in RBC fractions than in plasma fractions. Further, elimination of regenerated sarin from RBC fractions was slower than from plasma fractions. Blood samples following exposure also showed concentration-dependent inhibition of AChE activity and, to a lesser extent, butyrylcholinesterase activity. At the largest exposure concentration, AChE inhibition was substantial, reducing activity to approximately 40% of baseline. The results characterize sarin exposure concentrations that produce miosis in a large primate species in the absence of other overt signs of toxicity. Further, these results extend previous studies indicating that miosis is a valid early indicator for the detection of sarin vapor exposure.

  10. {sup 137}Cs exposure in the Marshallese populations: An assessment based on whole-body counting measurements (1989-1994)

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, L.C.; Clinton, J.H.; Kaplan, E.

    1997-07-01

    The Marshall Islands were the site of numerous tests of nuclear weapons by the United States. From 1946 to 1958, nuclear devices were detonated at Enemetak and Bikini Atolls. Following the inadvertent contamination of the northern islands downwind of the 1954 Bravo Test, Brookhaven National Laboratory became involved in the medical care and the radiological safety of the affected populations. One important technique employed in assessing the internally deposited radionuclides is whole-body counting. To estimate current and future exposures to 1376, data from 1989 to 1994 were analyzed and are reported in this paper. During this period, 3,618 measurements were made for the Marshallese. The cesium body contents were assumed to result from a series of chronic intakes. Also, it was assumed that cesium activity in the body reaches a plateau that is maintained over 365 d. We estimated the annual effective dose rate for each population, derived from the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The average {sup 137}Cs uptake measured by the whole-body counting method varies from one population to another; it was consistent with measurements of external exposure rate. The analysis. though based on limited data, indicates that there is no statistical support for a seasonal effect on {sup 137}Cs uptake. The critical population group for cesium uptake is adult males. Within the 5-y monitoring period, all internal exposures to {sup 137}Cs mere less than 0.2 mSv y{sup -1}. Similarly, a persistent average cesium effective dose rate of 2 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} was determined for Majuro residents. 73 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Cognitive effects of partial and whole body exposures to 160 particles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When rats and mice are exposed to HZE particles at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory to simulate the effect of exposure to space radiation on cognitive performance, there may be differences in the amount of tissue that is irradiated: some experimenters irra...

  12. Apparent Mass and Absorbed Power during Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration and Repeated Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MANSFIELD, N. J.; HOLMLUND, P.; LUNDSTRÖM, R.

    2001-11-01

    Exposure to mechanical shocks might pose a greater health risk than exposure to continuous vibration. Previous studies have investigated subjective responses, muscle activity or transmission of vibration to the spine or head during shock. If there is a difference between biomechanic responses of the seated body to shocks when compared to continuous vibration, then this may indicate a more, or less, hazardous vibration waveform. This paper presents measurements of apparent mass and absorbed power during exposure to random vibration, repeated shocks and combinations of shocks and random vibration. Eleven male and 13 female subjects were exposed to 15 vibration conditions generated using an electro-dynamic shaker. Subjects were exposed to five 20 s acceleration waveforms with nominally identical power spectra (random vibration, equally spaced shocks, unequally spaced shocks, random combined with equally spaced shocks, random combined with unequally spaced shocks) at each of 0·5, 1·0 and 1·5 m/s2r.m.s. The general shapes of the apparent mass or absorbed power curves were not affected by stimulus type, indicating that the biomechanical response of the body is fundamentally the same when exposed to shocks or random vibration. Two non-linear effects were observed: apparent mass resonance frequencies were slightly higher for exposure to shocks; apparent mass and absorbed power resonance frequencies decreased with increases in vibration magnitude for each stimulus type. It is concluded that the two non-linear mechanisms operate simultaneously: a stiffening effect during exposure to shocks and a softening effect as vibration magnitudes increase. Total absorbed powers were greatest for shock stimuli and least for random vibration.

  13. Vehicle design influences whole body vibration exposures: effect of the location of the front axle relative to the cab.

    PubMed

    Blood, Ryan P; Rynell, Patrik W; Johnson, Peter W

    2011-06-01

    Using a repeated measure design, this study compared differences in whole body vibration (WBV) exposures among 13 drivers who drove a truck with the cab over the front axle (cab-over design) and a truck with the cab situated behind the front axle (non-cab-over design). The drivers drove both trucks over a standardized route that comprised three distinct segments: a freeway segment, a city street segment with stop-and-go driving (traffic lights), and a city street segment without traffic lights. A portable WBV data acquisition system collected tri-axial time-weighted and raw WBV data per ISO 2631-1 and 2631-5 standards. Simultaneous global positioning system (GPS) data were also collected to compare vehicle speeds. The GPS data indicated that there were no speed differences between the two vehicles. However, average and impulsive z-axis vibration levels were significantly higher for the cab-over design than for the non-cab-over design. In addition, significant WBV exposure differences between road types were found, with the freeway segments having the lowest exposures and the city street segments without traffic lights having the highest exposures. Vehicle type and the associated WBV exposures should be considered when purchasing vehicles to be used by full-time professional vehicle operators.

  14. A formula for human average whole-body SARwb under diffuse fields exposure in the GHz region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamba, A.; Joseph, W.; Vermeeren, G.; Thielens, A.; Tanghe, E.; Martens, L.

    2014-12-01

    A simple formula to determine the human average whole-body SAR (SARwb) under realistic propagation conditions is proposed in the GHz region, i.e. from 1.45 GHz to 5.8 GHz. The methodology is based on simulations of ellipsoidal human body models. Only the exposure (incident power densities) and the human mass are needed to apply the formula. Diffuse scattered illumination is addressed for the first time and the possible presence of a Line-of-Sight (LOS) component is addressed as well. As validation, the formula is applied to calculate the average whole-body SARwb in 3D heterogeneous phantoms, i.e. the virtual family (34 year-old male, 26 year-old female, 11 year-old girl, and 6 year-old boy) and the results are compared with numerical ones—using the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method—at 3 GHz. For the LOS exposure, the average relative error varies from 28% to 12% (resp. 14-12%) for the vertical polarization (resp. horizontal polarization), depending on the heteregeneous phantom. Regarding the diffuse illumination, relative errors of -39.40%, -11.70%, 10.70%, and 10.60% are obtained for the 6 year-old boy, 11 year-old girl, 26 year-old female, and 34 year-old male, respectively. The proposed formula estimates well (especially for adults) the SARwb induced by diffuse illumination in realistic conditions. In general, the correctness of the formula improves when the human mass increases. Keeping the uncertainties of the FDTD simulations in mind, the proposed formula might be important for the dosimetry community to assess rapidly and accurately the human absorption of electromagnetic radiation caused by diffuse fields in the GHz region. Finally, we show the applicability of the proposed formula to personal dosimetry for epidemiological research.

  15. Chromosome Damage Caused by Accidental Chronic Whole-Body Gamma Radiation Exposure in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Dolling, J.; Lavoie, J.; Mitchel, R. E. J.; Boreham, D. R.

    2015-01-01

    In February 2000, a radiation incident involving a medical 60Co source occurred in a metal scrapyard in Thailand. Several individuals were suspected to have received chronic or fractionated exposures ranging from a few mGy to a several Gy. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization to paint chromosomes, we determined the frequencies of chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 13 people who entered the scrapyard, 3 people who involved in recovering the source, and 9 nearby residents. Aberration frequencies greater than controls were observed in 13 of the donors at 3 months postexposure. The predominant form of aberration observed was simple, complete, symmetrical translocations. An approximate 50% decrease in these aberrations and in total color junctions was observed in 7 donors resampled at 16 months postexposure. Although high, acute exposures are known to have detrimental effects, the biological consequences of chronic, low dose-rate radiation exposures are unclear. Thirteen of the donors had elevated aberration frequencies, and 6 also had symptoms of acute radiation syndrome. If there are any long-term health consequences of this incident, it will most likely occur among this group of individuals. The consequences for the remaining donors, who presumably received lower total doses delivered at lower dose rates, are less clear. PMID:26740811

  16. Blood pressure and thermal responses to repeated whole body cold exposure: effect of winter clothing.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; Alshaer, Hisham; Fernie, Geoff

    2009-12-01

    The effect of outdoor clothing and repeated cold exposure on blood pressure, heart rate, skin temperature, and thermal sensation was studied in 16 young (18-34 years) and 8 middle-aged (35-51 years) normotensive participants. Four winter clothing ensembles were used: regular winter clothing without a hat, with a hat, with an extra pair of pants, and with a hat and an extra pair of pants. The participants were exposed four times to -5 degrees C for 15 min wearing different clothing ensembles in counterbalanced order and each cold exposure was followed by 25 min of rewarming at 25 degrees C. The results showed that systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased in cold and increased more when a hat was not used. Wearing hats not only reduced the blood pressure response during cold exposure, but also promoted faster recovery of forehead skin temperature and blood pressure. These findings are encouraging and warrant further investigations to better understand the benefits of wearing appropriate clothing in the winter, especially among older people and patients with cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Whole-body microwave exposure emitted by cellular phones and testicular function of rats.

    PubMed

    Dasdag, S; Ketani, M A; Akdag, Z; Ersay, A R; Sari, I; Demirtas, O C; Celik, M S

    1999-06-01

    This study investigated whether there are adverse effects due to microwave exposure emitted by cellular phones in male rats. Eighteen Wistar Albino rats were separated into three groups, a sham group and two experimental groups. The rats were confined in Plexiglas cages and cellular phones were placed 0.5 cm under the cages. In the first experimental group, cellular phones were in standby position for 2 h. In the second experimental group, phones were turned to the speech position three times each for 1 min duration over 2 h. Rats in the first and second experimental groups were exposed to microwaves emitted by phones for 2 h/day for a duration of 1 month. After the last exposure the rats were killed. Brain, eyes, ears, liver, heart, lungs, stomach, kidneys, testes, small and large intestines and skin of the rats were observed histologically. The decrease of epididymal sperm counts in the speech groups were not found to be significant (P > 0.05). Differences in terms of normal and abnormal sperm forms were not observed (P > 0.05). Histological changes were especially observed in the testes of rats of the speech groups. Seminiferous tubular diameter of rat testes in the standby and speech groups was found to be lower than the sham group (P < 0.05). Rectal temperatures of rats in the speech group were found to be higher than the sham and standby groups (P < 0.05). The rectal temperatures of rats before and after exposure were also found to be significantly higher in the speech group (P < 0.05). Specific absorption rate (SAR) was determined as 0.141 W/kg.

  18. Effects of Whole-Body VX Vapor Exposure on Lethality in Rats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    cycle. Rats were provided with certified laboratory rat chow and filtered house water ad libitum, except during exposure. All experiments and procedures...The shoebox containing the rats was stacked within a second shoebox containing warm water . The heat from the water elevated the rat’s body...borosilicate glass tube (Chase Scientific Glass, Rockwood, TN) containing 2000 uL of distilled water . Two hundred uL of 0.69 mM phosphate buffer at pH 14

  19. A COMPUTER-CONTROLLED WHOLE-BODY INHALATION EXPOSURE SYSTEM FOR THE OIL DISPERSANT COREXIT EC9500A

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, William Travis; McKinney, Walter; Jackson, Mark; Law, Brandon; Bledsoe, Toni; Siegel, Paul; Cumpston, Jared; Frazer, David

    2015-01-01

    An automated whole-body inhalation exposure system capable of exposing 12 individually housed rats was designed to examine the potential adverse health effects of the oil dispersant COREXIT EC9500A, used extensively during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. A computer–controlled syringe pump injected the COREXIT EC9500A into an atomizer where droplets and vapor were formed and mixed with diluent air. The aerosolized COREXIT EC9500A was passed into a customized exposure chamber where a calibrated light-scattering instrument estimated the real-time particle mass concentration of the aerosol in the chamber. Software feedback loops controlled the chamber aerosol concentration and pressure throughout each exposure. The particle size distribution of the dispersant aerosol was measured and shown to have a count median aerodynamic diameter of 285 nm with a geometric standard deviation of 1.7. The total chamber concentration (particulate + vapor) was determined using a modification of the acidified methylene blue spectrophotometric assay for anionic surfactants. Tests were conducted to show the effectiveness of closed loop control of chamber concentration and to verify chamber concentration homogeneity. Five automated 5-h animal exposures were performed that produced controlled and consistent COREXIT EC9500A concentrations (27.1 ± 2.9 mg/m3, mean ± SD). PMID:21916743

  20. Back pain and exposure to whole body vibration in helicopter pilots.

    PubMed

    Bongers, P M; Hulshof, C T; Dijkstra, L; Boshuizen, H C; Groenhout, H J; Valken, E

    1990-08-01

    In a questionnaire survey the prevalence of back pain in 163 helicopter pilots was compared to that in a control group of 297 non-flying air force officers who underwent the same pre-employment medical examination. Since pilots document their hours of flight in a personal flight log, an accurate estimate of the duration of exposure could be made. In addition, vibration levels of the helicopters were measured and an accumulative vibration dose was calculated for each pilot. 'Transient' back pain of a short duration was more frequent amongst the pilots compared to the control group, and the prevalence of 'chronic' back pain of a persistent nature was also higher amongst the helicopter pilots. Transient back pain seemed to be most strongly related to the average hours of flight per day, whereas chronic back pain was more closely related to total hours of flight or the accumulative vibration dose. A significant higher prevalence of this chronic back pain was observed only after 2000 hours of flight or a vibration dose of 400 m2h/s4. The observed health effects may be due to vibration or constrained posture but are most likely due to concomitant exposure to both factors.

  1. Influence of pregnancy stage and fetus position on the whole-body and local exposure of the fetus to RF-EMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varsier, N.; Dahdouh, S.; Serrurier, A.; De la Plata, J.-P.; Anquez, J.; Angelini, E. D.; Bloch, I.; Wiart, J.

    2014-09-01

    This paper analyzes the influence of pregnancy stage and fetus position on the whole-body and brain exposure of the fetus to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Our analysis is performed using semi-homogeneous pregnant woman models between 8 and 32 weeks of amenorrhea. By analyzing the influence of the pregnancy stage on the environmental whole-body and local exposure of a fetus in vertical position, head down or head up, in the 2100 MHz frequency band, we concluded that both whole-body and average brain exposures of the fetus decrease during the first pregnancy trimester, while they advance during the pregnancy due to the rapid weight gain of the fetus in these first stages. From the beginning of the second trimester, the whole-body and the average brain exposures are quite stable because the weight gains are quasi proportional to the absorbed power increases. The behavior of the fetus whole-body and local exposures during pregnancy for a fetus in the vertical position with the head up were found to be of a similar level, when compared to the position with the head down they were slightly higher, especially in the brain.

  2. Statistical multi-path exposure method for assessing the whole-body SAR in a heterogeneous human body model in a realistic environment.

    PubMed

    Vermeeren, Günter; Joseph, Wout; Martens, Luc

    2013-04-01

    Assessing the whole-body absorption in a human in a realistic environment requires a statistical approach covering all possible exposure situations. This article describes the development of a statistical multi-path exposure method for heterogeneous realistic human body models. The method is applied for the 6-year-old Virtual Family boy (VFB) exposed to the GSM downlink at 950 MHz. It is shown that the whole-body SAR does not differ significantly over the different environments at an operating frequency of 950 MHz. Furthermore, the whole-body SAR in the VFB for multi-path exposure exceeds the whole-body SAR for worst-case single-incident plane wave exposure by 3.6%. Moreover, the ICNIRP reference levels are not conservative with the basic restrictions in 0.3% of the exposure samples for the VFB at the GSM downlink of 950 MHz. The homogeneous spheroid with the dielectric properties of the head suggested by the IEC underestimates the absorption compared to realistic human body models. Moreover, the variation in the whole-body SAR for realistic human body models is larger than for homogeneous spheroid models. This is mainly due to the heterogeneity of the tissues and the irregular shape of the realistic human body model compared to homogeneous spheroid human body models.

  3. An Updated Review of Epidemiologic Studies on the Relationship Between Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration and Low Back Pain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovenzi, M.; Hulshof, C. T. J.

    1998-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to update the information on the epidemiologic evidence of the adverse health effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) on the spinal system by means of a review of the epidemiologic studies published between 1986 and 1996. In a systematic search of epidemiologic studies of low back pain (LBP) disorders and occupations with exposure to WBV, 37 articles were retrieved. The quality of each study was evaluated according to criteria concerning the assessment of vibration exposure, assessment of health effects, and methodology. The epidemiologic studies reaching an adequate score on each of the above mentioned criteria, were included in the final review. A meta-analysis was also conducted in order to combine the results of independent epidemiologic studies. After applying the selection criteria, 16 articles reporting the occurrence of LBP disorders in 19 WBV-exposed occupational groups, reached a sufficient score. The study design was cross-sectional for 13 occupational groups, longitudinal for 5 groups and of case-control type for one group. The main reasons for the exclusion of studies were insufficient quantitative information on WBV exposure and the lack of control groups. The findings of the selected studies and the results of the meta-analysis of both cross-sectional and cohort studies showed that occupational exposure to WBV is associated with an increased risk of LBP, sciatic pain, and degenerative changes in the spinal system, including lumbar intervertebral disc disorders. Owing to the cross-sectional design of the majority of the reviewed studies, this epidemiologic evidence is not sufficient to outline a clear exposure-response relationship between WBV exposure and LBP disorders. Upon comparing the epidemiological studies included in this review with those conducted before 1986, it is concluded that research design and the quality of exposure and health effect data in the field of WBV have improved in the last decade.

  4. Multi-body dynamics modelling of seated human body under exposure to whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Takuya; Nakai, Kazuma; Tamaoki, Gen

    2005-07-01

    In vehicle systems occupational drivers might expose themselves to vibration for a long time. This may cause illness of the spine such as chronic lumbago or low back pain. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the influence of vibration to the spinal column and to make up appropriate guidelines or counter plans. In ISO2631-1 or ISO2631-5 assessment of vibration effects to human in the view of adverse-health effect was already presented. However, it is necessary to carry out further research to understand the effect of vibration to human body to examine their validity and to prepare for the future revision. This paper shows the detail measurement of human response to vibration, and the modelling of the seated human body for the assessment of the vibration risk. The vibration transmissibilities from the seat surface to the spinal column and to the head are measured during the exposure to vertical excitation. The modal paramters of seated subject are extracted in order to understand the dominant natural modes. For the evaluation of adverse-health effect the multi-body modelling of the spinal column is introduced. A simplified model having 10 DOFs is counstructed so that the transmissibilities of the model fit to those of experiment. The transient response analysis is illustrated when a half-sine input is applied. The relative displacements of vertebrae are evaluated, which can be a basis for the assessment of vibration risk. It is suggested that the multi-body dynamic model is used to evaluate the vibration effect to the spinal column for seated subjects.

  5. The Effect of Three Different (-135°C) Whole Body Cryotherapy Exposure Durations on Elite Rugby League Players

    PubMed Central

    Selfe, James; Alexander, Jill; Costello, Joseph T.; May, Karen; Garratt, Nigel; Atkins, Stephen; Dillon, Stephanie; Hurst, Howard; Davison, Matthew; Przybyla, Daria; Coley, Andrew; Bitcon, Mark; Littler, Greg; Richards, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Background Whole body cryotherapy (WBC) is the therapeutic application of extreme cold air for a short duration. Minimal evidence is available for determining optimal exposure time. Purpose To explore whether the length of WBC exposure induces differential changes in inflammatory markers, tissue oxygenation, skin and core temperature, thermal sensation and comfort. Method This study was a randomised cross over design with participants acting as their own control. Fourteen male professional first team super league rugby players were exposed to 1, 2, and 3 minutes of WBC at −135°C. Testing took place the day after a competitive league fixture, each exposure separated by seven days. Results No significant changes were found in the inflammatory cytokine interleukin six. Significant reductions (p<0.05) in deoxyhaemoglobin for gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis were found. In vastus lateralis significant reductions (p<0.05) in oxyhaemoglobin and tissue oxygenation index (p<0.05) were demonstrated. Significant reductions (p<0.05) in skin temperature were recorded. No significant changes were recorded in core temperature. Significant reductions (p<0.05) in thermal sensation and comfort were recorded. Conclusion Three brief exposures to WBC separated by 1 week are not sufficient to induce physiological changes in IL-6 or core temperature. There are however significant changes in tissue oxyhaemoglobin, deoxyhaemoglobin, tissue oxygenation index, skin temperature and thermal sensation. We conclude that a 2 minute WBC exposure was the optimum exposure length at temperatures of −135°C and could be applied as the basis for future studies. PMID:24489726

  6. The Effect of Whole Body Vibration Exposure on Muscle Function in Children With Cystic Fibrosis: A Pilot Efficacy Trial

    PubMed Central

    O’Keefe, Kaitlin; Orr, Rhonda; Huang, Peite; Selvadurai, Hiran; Cooper, Peter; Munns, Craig Frank; Singh, Maria A Fiatarone

    2013-01-01

    Background To examine the effects of whole body vibration (WBV) exposure on muscle function in children with Cystic Fibrosis (CF). Non-randomised controlled cross-over trial. Methods The setting was home-based WBV exposure. The participants were children (8 - 15 years) with CF (n = 7). Intervention: participants served as their own controls for the first four weeks (usual care), then underwent four weeks of parentally-supervised home-based WBV exposure followed by four weeks washout (usual care). The WBV exposure consisted of 20 - 30 minutes of intermittent (1 min vibration:1 min rest) exposure on a Galileo platform (20 - 22Hz, 1 mm amplitude) 3 days/week. The primary outcome measures of absolute and relative lower body (leg extension (LE), leg press (LP)), upper body (chess press (CP)) strength and power, and power were measured at baseline, and weeks 4, 8 and 12. Secondary exploratory outcomes were cardiorespiratory fitness, pulmonary function and health-related quality of life. Results Six participants completed the training without adverse events. Muscle function changes following WBV exposure were not statistically significant. However, moderate-to-large relative effect sizes (ES) favouring WBV were evident for leg extension strength (ES = 0.66 (-0.50, 1.82)), LP relative strength (ES = 0.92 (-0.27, 2.11)), leg press peak power (ES = 0.78 (-0.50, 2.07)) and CMJ height (ES = 0.60 (-0.56 to 1.76)). Conclusions The results from this first controlled trial indicate that WBV may be a potentially effective exercise modality to safely increase leg strength and explosive power in children with CF. Potentially clinically relevant changes support continued investigation of the efficacy, mechanism and feasibility of this intervention in future large-scale studies. PMID:23671546

  7. Using electron beam radiation to simulate the dose distribution for whole body solar particle event proton exposure

    PubMed Central

    Diffenderfer, Eric S.; Avery, Stephen; Kennedy, Ann R.; McDonough, James

    2013-01-01

    As a part of the near solar system exploration program, astronauts may receive significant total body proton radiation exposures during a solar particle event (SPE). In the Center for Acute Radiation Research (CARR), symptoms of the acute radiation sickness syndrome induced by conventional radiation are being compared to those induced by SPE-like proton radiation, to determine the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of SPE protons. In an SPE, the astronaut’s whole body will be exposed to radiation consisting mainly of protons with energies below 50 MeV. In addition to providing for a potentially higher RBE than conventional radiation, the energy distribution for an SPE will produce a relatively inhomogeneous total body dose distribution, with a significantly higher dose delivered to the skin and subcutaneous tissues than to the internal organs. These factors make it difficult to use a 60Co standard for RBE comparisons in our experiments. Here, the novel concept of using megavoltage electron beam radiation to more accurately reproduce both the total dose and the dose distribution of SPE protons and make meaningful RBE comparisons between protons and conventional radiation is described. In these studies, Monte Carlo simulation was used to determine the dose distribution of electron beam radiation in small mammals such as mice and ferrets as well as large mammals such as pigs. These studies will help to better define the topography of the time-dose-fractionation versus biological response landscape for astronaut exposure to an SPE. PMID:20725839

  8. Using electron beam radiation to simulate the dose distribution for whole body solar particle event proton exposure.

    PubMed

    Cengel, Keith A; Diffenderfer, Eric S; Avery, Stephen; Kennedy, Ann R; McDonough, James

    2010-11-01

    As a part of the near solar system exploration program, astronauts may receive significant total body proton radiation exposures during a solar particle event (SPE). In the Center for Acute Radiation Research (CARR), symptoms of the acute radiation sickness syndrome induced by conventional radiation are being compared to those induced by SPE-like proton radiation, to determine the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of SPE protons. In an SPE, the astronaut's whole body will be exposed to radiation consisting mainly of protons with energies below 50 MeV. In addition to providing for a potentially higher RBE than conventional radiation, the energy distribution for an SPE will produce a relatively inhomogeneous total body dose distribution, with a significantly higher dose delivered to the skin and subcutaneous tissues than to the internal organs. These factors make it difficult to use a (60)Co standard for RBE comparisons in our experiments. Here, the novel concept of using megavoltage electron beam radiation to more accurately reproduce both the total dose and the dose distribution of SPE protons and make meaningful RBE comparisons between protons and conventional radiation is described. In these studies, Monte Carlo simulation was used to determine the dose distribution of electron beam radiation in small mammals such as mice and ferrets as well as large mammals such as pigs. These studies will help to better define the topography of the time-dose-fractionation versus biological response landscape for astronaut exposure to an SPE.

  9. Determination of potential dermal and inhalation operator exposure to malathion in greenhouses with the whole body dosimetry method.

    PubMed

    Machera, K; Goumenou, M; Kapetanakis, E; Kalamarakis, A; Glass, C R

    2003-01-01

    One of the steps during the authorization process of plant protection products (PPP) in the European Union is to evaluate the safety of the operator. For this purpose, information on the probable levels of operator exposure during the proposed uses of the PPP is required. These levels can be estimated by using existing mathematical models or from field study data. However, the existing models have several shortcomings, including the lack of data for operator exposure levels during spray applications by hand lance, especially in greenhouses. The present study monitored the potential dermal and inhalation operator exposure from hand-held lance applications of malathion on greenhouse tomatoes at low and high spraying pressures. The methodology for monitoring potential exposure was based on the whole body dosimetry method. Inhalation exposure was monitored using personal air pumps and XAD-2 sampling tubes. For the monitoring of hand exposure, cotton gloves were used in two trials and rubber gloves in another three. The total volumes of spray solution contaminating the body of the operator were 25.37 and 35.83 ml/h, corresponding to 0.05 and 0.07% of the applied spray solution, respectively, in the case of low pressure knapsack applications and from 160.76 to 283.45 ml/h, corresponding to 0.09-0.19% of the spray solution applied, in the case of hand lance applications with tractor-generated high pressure. Counts on gloves depended on the absorbance/repellency of the glove material. The potential inhalation exposures were estimated at 0.07 and 0.09 ml/h in the case of low pressure knapsack applications, based on a ventilation rate of 25 l/min. Both potential dermal operator exposure (excluding hands) and potential inhalation exposure were increased by a factor of approximately 7 when the application pressure was increased from 3 to 18 bar in greenhouse trials with a tractor-assisted hand lance, the rest of the application conditions being very similar.

  10. Developmental toxicity study in Fischer 344 rats by whole-body exposure to N,N-dimethylethanolamine vapor.

    PubMed

    Leung, H W; Tyl, R W; Ballantyne, B; Klonne, D R

    1996-01-01

    Timed-pregnant Fischer 344 rats were exposed whole body to N,N-dimethylethanolamine vapor for 6 h per day on gestational days 6-15 at mean (+/- SD) analytically measured concentrations of 10.4 +/- 0.86, 29.8 +/- 2.14 and 100 +/- 4.9 ppm. Dams were sacrificed on gestational day 21. There was no maternal mortality in any exposed groups. Maternal toxicity observed in the 100 ppm group included reduced body weight during and after exposures, reduced weight gain during exposure and ocular changes (darkened, cloudy and hazy eyes, slight corneal vascularization and fixed, dilated pupils). Ocular effects were also noted in the other two exposure groups; the effects were quite marked at 30 ppm but only minimal and transient at 10 ppm. There were no effects of treatment on any gestational parameters, including pre- and postimplantation loss or sex ratio. Fetal body weights per litter were statistically significantly increased at 100 ppm relative to controls. There were no increases in the incidences of total malformations by category (external, visceral or skeletal) or individually. The incidence of six skeletal variations out of 120 noted differed in exposed groups relative to that of control. Four of these variations were decreases in incidence; only one fetal variation, the split (bipartite) cervical centrum, was elevated at 100 ppm relative to controls. In the absence of any other indications of delayed ossification or fetal body weights, the observed fetal variation does not suggest a consistent pattern of fetal toxicity. Hence, the no-observed-adverse-effect level is around 10 ppm for maternal toxicity and at or above 100 ppm for embryofetal toxicity and teratogenicity.

  11. Whole body exposure of rats to microwaves emitted from a cell phone does not affect the testes.

    PubMed

    Dasdag, Suleyman; Zulkuf Akdag, M; Aksen, Feyzan; Yilmaz, Fahri; Bashan, Mehmet; Mutlu Dasdag, M; Salih Celik, M

    2003-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of radiofrequency radiation emitted from cellular phones on the lipid composition, malondialdehyde concentration, p53 immune reactivity, sperm count, morphology, histological structure of testes, and on rectal temperature of rats exposed to microwave radiation emitted from cellular phones. Sixteen Spraque-Dawley rats were separated into two groups of eight, sham exposed (control) and experimental. The rats were confined in plexiglas cages specially designed for this study, and cellular phones were placed 0.5 cm under the cages. For the experimental group, cellular phones were activated 20 min per day (7 days a week) for 1 month. For the control group, the cellular phones were placed beneath the cages for 20 min a day, but the phones were turned off. Rectal temperatures were measured weekly. For 250 mW radiated power, the whole body average SAR (rms) is 0.52 W/kg and 1 g averaged peak SAR (rms) is 3.13 W/kg. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used for statistical comparisons of groups. No statistically significant alteration in any of the endpoints was noted. This study found no evidence suggesting an adverse effect of cell phone exposure on measures of testicular function or structure.

  12. Whole-body Vibration Exposure Intervention among Professional Bus and Truck Drivers: A Laboratory Evaluation of Seat-suspension Designs.

    PubMed

    Blood, Ryan P; Yost, Michael G; Camp, Janice E; Ching, Randal P

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exposure to seated whole-body vibration (WBV) is one of the leading risk factors for the development of low back disorders. Professional bus and truck drivers are regularly exposed to continuous WBV, since they spend the majority of their working hours driving heavy vehicles. This study measured WBV exposures among professional bus and truck drivers and evaluated the effects of seat-suspension designs using simulated field-collected data on a vibration table. WBV exposures were measured and compared across three different seat designs: an air-ride bus seat, an air-ride truck seat, and an electromagnetically active (EM-active) seat. Air-ride seats use a compressed-air bladder to attenuate vibrations, and they have been in operation throughout the transportation industry for many years. The EM-active seat is a relatively new design that incorporates a microprocessor-controlled actuator to dampen vibration. The vibration table simulated seven WBV exposure scenarios: four segments of vertical vibration and three scenarios that used field-collected driving data on different road surfaces-a city street, a freeway, and a section of rough roadway. The field scenarios used tri-axial WBV data that had been collected at the seat pan and at the driver's sternum, in accordance with ISO 2631-1 and 2631-5. This study found that WBV was significantly greater in the vertical direction (z-axis) than in the lateral directions (x-and y-axes) for each of the three road types and each of the three types of seats. Quantitative comparisons of the results showed that the floor-to-seat-pan transmissibility was significantly lower for the EM-active seat than for either the air-ride bus seat or the air-ride truck seat, across all three road types. This study also demonstrated that seat-suspension designs have a significant effect on the vibrations transmitted to vehicle operators, and the study's results may prove useful in designing future seat suspensions.

  13. Combining near- and far-field exposure for an organ-specific and whole-body RF-EMF proxy for epidemiological research: a reference case.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Oliver; Frei, Patrizia; Gosselin, Marie-Christine; Joseph, Wout; Röösli, Martin; Fröhlich, Jürg

    2013-07-01

    A framework for the combination of near-field (NF) and far-field (FF) radio frequency electromagnetic exposure sources to the average organ and whole-body specific absorption rates (SARs) is presented. As a reference case, values based on numerically derived SARs for whole-body and individual organs and tissues are combined with realistic exposure data, which have been collected using personal exposure meters during the Swiss Qualifex study. The framework presented can be applied to any study region where exposure data is collected by appropriate measurement equipment. Based on results derived from the data for the region of Basel, Switzerland, the relative importance of NF and FF sources to the personal exposure is examined for three different study groups. The results show that a 24-h whole-body averaged exposure of a typical mobile phone user is dominated by the use of his or her own mobile phone when a Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) 900 or GSM 1800 phone is used. If only Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) phones are used, the user would experience a lower exposure level on average caused by the lower average output power of UMTS phones. Data presented clearly indicate the necessity of collecting band-selective exposure data in epidemiological studies related to electromagnetic fields.

  14. Computational model for calculating body-core temperature elevation in rabbits due to whole-body exposure at 2.45 GHz.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Akimasa; Sugiyama, Hironori; Kojima, Masami; Kawai, Hiroki; Yamashiro, Yoko; Fujiwara, Osamu; Watanabe, Soichi; Sasaki, Kazuyuki

    2008-06-21

    In the current international guidelines and standards with regard to human exposure to electromagnetic waves, the basic restriction is defined in terms of the whole-body average-specific absorption rate. The rationale for the guidelines is that the characteristic pattern of thermoregulatory response is observed for the whole-body average SAR above a certain level. However, the relationship between energy absorption and temperature elevation was not well quantified. In this study, we improved our thermal computation model for rabbits, which was developed for localized exposure on eye, in order to investigate the body-core temperature elevation due to whole-body exposure at 2.45 GHz. The effect of anesthesia on the body-core temperature elevation was also discussed in comparison with measured results. For the whole-body average SAR of 3.0 W kg(-1), the body-core temperature in rabbits elevates with time, without becoming saturated. The administration of anesthesia suppressed body-core temperature elevation, which is attributed to the reduced basal metabolic rate.

  15. Computational model for calculating body-core temperature elevation in rabbits due to whole-body exposure at 2.45 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Sugiyama, Hironori; Kojima, Masami; Kawai, Hiroki; Yamashiro, Yoko; Fujiwara, Osamu; Watanabe, Soichi; Sasaki, Kazuyuki

    2008-06-01

    In the current international guidelines and standards with regard to human exposure to electromagnetic waves, the basic restriction is defined in terms of the whole-body average-specific absorption rate. The rationale for the guidelines is that the characteristic pattern of thermoregulatory response is observed for the whole-body average SAR above a certain level. However, the relationship between energy absorption and temperature elevation was not well quantified. In this study, we improved our thermal computation model for rabbits, which was developed for localized exposure on eye, in order to investigate the body-core temperature elevation due to whole-body exposure at 2.45 GHz. The effect of anesthesia on the body-core temperature elevation was also discussed in comparison with measured results. For the whole-body average SAR of 3.0 W kg-1, the body-core temperature in rabbits elevates with time, without becoming saturated. The administration of anesthesia suppressed body-core temperature elevation, which is attributed to the reduced basal metabolic rate.

  16. Brain proteome response following whole body exposure of mice to mobile phone or wireless DECT base radiation.

    PubMed

    Fragopoulou, Adamantia F; Samara, Athina; Antonelou, Marianna H; Xanthopoulou, Anta; Papadopoulou, Aggeliki; Vougas, Konstantinos; Koutsogiannopoulou, Eugenia; Anastasiadou, Ema; Stravopodis, Dimitrios J; Tsangaris, George Th; Margaritis, Lukas H

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of two sources of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on the proteome of cerebellum, hippocampus, and frontal lobe in Balb/c mice following long-term whole body irradiation. Three equally divided groups of animals (6 animals/group) were used; the first group was exposed to a typical mobile phone, at a SAR level range of 0.17-0.37 W/kg for 3 h daily for 8 months, the second group was exposed to a wireless DECT base (Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications/Telephone) at a SAR level range of 0.012-0.028 W/kg for 8 h/day also for 8 months and the third group comprised the sham-exposed animals. Comparative proteomics analysis revealed that long-term irradiation from both EMF sources altered significantly (p < 0.05) the expression of 143 proteins in total (as low as 0.003 fold downregulation up to 114 fold overexpression). Several neural function related proteins (i.e., Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP), Alpha-synuclein, Glia Maturation Factor beta (GMF), and apolipoprotein E (apoE)), heat shock proteins, and cytoskeletal proteins (i.e., Neurofilaments and tropomodulin) are included in this list as well as proteins of the brain metabolism (i.e., Aspartate aminotransferase, Glutamate dehydrogenase) to nearly all brain regions studied. Western blot analysis on selected proteins confirmed the proteomics data. The observed protein expression changes may be related to brain plasticity alterations, indicative of oxidative stress in the nervous system or involved in apoptosis and might potentially explain human health hazards reported so far, such as headaches, sleep disturbance, fatigue, memory deficits, and brain tumor long-term induction under similar exposure conditions.

  17. Effect of 60 minutes exposure to electromagnetic field on fecundity, learning and memory, speed of movement and whole body protein of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    El Kholy, Samar E; El Husseiny, Eman M

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of four different electrical devices as source of electromagnetic field on fecundity, learning and memory function, speed of movement, in addition to the whole body proteins of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. The results showed that exposure to EMF has no significant effect on adult fecundity (ANOVA and Duncan's test) but alters learning and memory function in Drosophila larvae, especially those exposed to mobile phone. Highly significant differences occurred in the larval speed of movement after exposure to EMF, with maximal effect occurred for larvae exposed to mobile phone (their speed of movement increased 2.5 times of wild type). Some protein bands serve as characters for exposure to certain electrical devices which suggest that exposure to EMF may affect the whole body proteins.

  18. Induction of genomic instability after an acute whole-body exposure of mice to 56Fe ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rithidech, Kanokporn Noy; Supanpaiboon, Wisa; Honikel, Louise; Whorton, Elbert B.

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate dose-response relationships for the in vivo induction of micronuclei (MN) as a measure of both initial radiation damage and the induction of genomic instability. These measurements were made in mouse blood erythrocytes as a function of radiation dose, radiation quality, time after irradiation, and the genetic background of exposed individuals. Blood samples were collected from two strains of mouse (CBA/CaJ and C57BL/6J) at different times up to 3 months following a whole-body exposure to various doses of 1 GeV/amu 56Fe ions (0, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 Gy, at the dose rate of a 1 Gy/min) or 137Cs gamma rays (0, 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 Gy, at the dose rate of 0.72 Gy/min). Blood-smear slides were stained with acridine orange (AO). The frequencies of MN were measured in mature normochromatic-erythrocytes (MN-NCEs) and in immature polychromatic-erythrocytes (MN-PCEs). Effects of both types of radiation on erythropoiesis were also evaluated. As a measure of cell progression delay, a dose-dependent decrease in numbers of PCEs was observed at day 2 post-exposure in both strains, regardless of radiation quality. Subsequently, the levels of PCEs increased in all exposed mice, reaching control levels (or higher) by day 7 post-exposure. Further, at day 2 after the exposure, there was no increase in the frequency of MN-PCEs in CBA/CaJ mice exposed to 56Fe ions while the frequency of MN-PCEs elevated as a function of dose in the C57BL/6J mice. At day 4, there was no dose related increase in MN-NCEs in either strain of mouse exposed to 137Cs gamma rays. Additionally, at the early sacrifice times (days 2 and 4), 56Fe ions were slightly more effective (per unit dose) in inducing MN-NCEs than 137Cs gamma rays in CBA/CaJ mice. However, there was no increase in the frequency of MN-NCEs at late times after an acute exposure to either type of radiation. In contrast, both types of radiation induced increased MN-PCEs frequencies in irradiated CBA/CaJ mice, but

  19. Induction of genomic instability after an acute whole-body exposure of mice to 56Fe ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rithidech, Kanokporn; Supanpaiboon, Wisa; Whorton, Elbert

    collected from CBA/CaJ and C57BL/6J mice at different times up to 3 months following an acute whole-body exposure to various doses of 1 GeV/amu 56 Fe ions (0, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 cGy) or 137 Cs gamma rays (0, 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 cGy, as a reference radiation). These strains of mouse are known to be sensitive (CBA/CaJ) or resistant (C57BL/6J) to radiation-induced chromosomal damage and AML. At 2 days after the exposure, our data indicated that there was no increase in the frequency of MN-PCEs in CBA/CaJ mice exposed to 56 Fe ions while the frequency of MN-PCEs elevated as a function of dose in the C57BL/6J mice. At day 4, there was no dose related increase in either strain of mouse exposed to either 56 Fe ions or 137 Cs gamma rays. We also found that at the early sacrifice times (2 and 4 days) the 56 Fe ions were slightly more effective, per unit dose, in inducing MN-NCEs than 137 Cs gamma rays in both strains. Likewise, no increase in the frequency of MN-NCEs was found at late times after an acute exposure to either type of radiation. In contrast, both types of radiation induced increased MN-PCE frequencies in irradiated CBA/CaJ mice, but not C57BL/6J mice, at late times post-exposure. This finding indicates the potential induction of genomic instability in hematopoietic cells of CBA/CaJ mice by both types of radiation. The finding also demonstrates the influence of genetic background on radiation-induced genomic instability in vivo. Research funded by NASA Grant #NAG9- 1 52 .

  20. [Exposure to whole body vibrations in workers moving heavy items by mechanical vehicles in the warehouse of a large retail outlet].

    PubMed

    Siciliano, E; Rossi, A; Nori, L

    2007-01-01

    Efficient warehouse management and item transportation is of fundamental importance in the commercial outlet in exam. Whole body vibrations have been measured in various types of machines, some of which not widely studied yet, like the electrical pallet truck. In some tasks (fork lifts drivers) vibrations propagate through the driving seat whereas in some other tasks (electrical pallet trucks, stackers), operated in a standing posture, vibrations propagate through the lower limbs. Results have been provided for a homogeneous job tasks. In particular conditions, the action level of the Italian national (and European) regulations on occupational exposure to WBV may be exceeded. The authors propose a simple system of probabilistic classification of the risk of exposure to whole body vibrations, based on the respective areas of the distribution which lay within the three risk classes.

  1. Younger rats are more susceptible to the lethal effects of sarin than adult rats: 24 h LC50 for whole-body (10 and 60 min) exposures.

    PubMed

    Wright, Linnzi K M; Lumley, Lucille A; Lee, Robyn B; Taylor, James T; Miller, Dennis B; Muse, William T; Emm, Edward J; Whalley, Christopher E

    2017-04-01

    Chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNA) inhibit acetylcholinesterase and are among the most lethal chemicals known to man. Children are predicted to be vulnerable to CWNA exposure because of their smaller body masses, higher ventilation rates and immature central nervous systems. While a handful of studies on the effects of CWNA in younger animals have been published, exposure routes relevant to battlefield or terrorist situations (i.e. inhalation for sarin) were not used. Thus, we estimated the 24 h LC50 for whole-body (10 and 60 min) exposure to sarin using a stagewise, adaptive dose design. Specifically, male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a range of sarin concentrations (6.2-44.0 or 1.6-12.5 mg/m³) for either 10 or 60 min, respectively, at six different times during their development (postnatal day [PND] 7, 14, 21, 28, 42 and 70). For male and female rats, the lowest LC50 values were observed for PND 14 and the highest LC50 values for PND 28. Sex differences were observed only for PND 42 for the 10 min exposures and PND 21 and 70 for the 60 min exposures. Thus, younger rats (PND 14) were more susceptible than older rats (PND 70) to the lethal effects of whole-body exposure to sarin, while adolescent (PND 28) rats were the least susceptible and sex differences were minimal. These results underscore the importance of controlling for the age of the animal in research on the toxic effects associated with CWNA exposure.

  2. Dose conversion coefficients for electron exposure of the human eye lens: calculations including a whole body phantom.

    PubMed

    Behrens, R

    2013-07-01

    In this work, conversion coefficients from electron fluence to absorbed dose to the eye lens were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations based on a detailed stylised eye model and a very simple but whole body phantom. These data supersede and complement data published earlier based on the simulation of only a single stylised eye. The new data differ from the old ones by not more than 3, 4, 7 and 16 % for angles of radiation incidence of α=0°, 15°, 30° and 45°, respectively, due to the inclusion of the whole body phantom. The data presented in the present work also complement those of a recent report of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) (ICRP Publication 116), where conversion coefficients from electron fluence to absorbed dose to the lens of the eye are shown for solely 0°, 180° and isotropic radiation incidence (but for a much broader range of energies). In this article, values are provided for angles of incidence of 0° up to 180° in steps of 15° and for rotational geometry; no systematic deviation was observed from the values given in ICRP Publication 116 for 0° (based on the application of a bare eye) and 180° (based on the application of a voxel whole body phantom). Data are given for monoenergetic electrons from 0.1 up to 10 MeV and for a broad parallel beam geometry in vacuum.

  3. Toxicity evaluation of exposure to an atmospheric mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls by nose-only and whole-body inhalation regimens

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xin; Adamcakova-Dodd, Andrea; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Thorne, Peter S.

    2016-01-01

    The health risk of inhalation exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) cannot be assessed due to the lack of rigorous inhalation studies providing a low dose effect level. One large uncertainty rests on the exposure regimen. Whole-body exposure systems allow oral PCB intake that confounds the exposure. Thus, we sought to compare the whole-body and nose-only exposure methods by conducting contemporaneous PCB inhalation exposures. Vapor-phase PCBs were generated from the Chicago Air Mixture supplemented with PCB 11 (CAM+). Female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed concurrently to a PCB concentration of 533 ± 93 µg/m3, 4 h/day, 6 days/week, for 4 weeks. Congener-specific analysis using gas chromatography– mass spectrometry (GC/MS) showed higher total PCB concentration in the lungs of nose-only exposed animals than the whole-body exposed, resulting in a higher dose level for nose-only group. Congener profiles were consistent among exposure groups and tissue types and were dominated by PCB 28/31 and higher-chlorinated congeners reflecting rapid metabolism of other lower-chlorinated PCBs. No significant change was seen regarding metabolic enzyme expression, glutathione, or histopathology. However, diminished weight gain and reduced plasma total thyroxine levels were found in both groups compared with controls, with stronger response in the nose-only group. Lipid peroxidation was also elevated in the liver of nose-only exposed animals. We conclude that nose-only exposure was the preferred regimen for 4-wk PCB inhalation studies and thyroid hormone dysregulation was observed at an estimated dose of 1320 µg/kg b.w., providing information on a preliminary lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level (LOAEL). PMID:26348937

  4. Assessing combined exposures of whole-body vibration and awkward posture--further results from application of a simultaneous field measurement methodology.

    PubMed

    Raffler, Nastaran; Hermanns, Ingo; Sayn, Detlef; Göres, Benno; Ellegast, Rolf; Rissler, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    The drivers of ten vehicles (tram, helicopter, saloon car, van, forklift, two mobile excavators, wheel loader, tractor, elevating platform truck) were studied with regard to the combined exposures of whole-body vibration and awkward posture during occupational tasks. Seven degrees of freedom (DOFs), or body angles, were recorded as a function of time by means of the CUELA measuring system (Computer-assisted registration and long-term analysis of musculoskeletal workloads) for the purpose of posture assessment. The vibrational exposure is expressed as the vector sum of the frequency-weighted accelerations in the three Cartesian coordinates; these were recorded simultaneously with the posture measurement. Based upon the percentage of working time spent under different workloads, a scheme is proposed for classification of the two exposures into three categories. In addition, a risk of adverse health effects classified as low, possible or high can be assigned to the combination of the two exposures. With regard to posture, the most severe exposure was measured for the drivers of the wheel loader and for the tractor driver, whereas the lowest exposure was measured for the helicopter pilots and van drivers. With regard to the combination of whole-body and posture exposures, the tractor driver and the elevating platform truck driver exhibited the highest workloads.

  5. Gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of red blood cells from Göttingen minipig following whole-body vapor exposure to VX.

    PubMed

    Byers, C E; McGuire, J M; Hulet, S W; Burnett, D C; Gaviola, B I; Jakubowski, E M; Thomson, S A

    2008-01-01

    A method to detect fluoride ion generated O-ethyl methylphosphonofluoridate (VX-G) in Göttingen minipig red blood cells (RBC) following whole-body exposure to VX vapor utilizing a gas chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometer (GC-MS-MS) has been developed. Dose-response curves for VX exposure were generated after applying the fluoride ion reactivation assay to the RBC fraction of serially collected whole blood samples that were taken after whole-body exposures that varied in both duration and concentration. GC-MS-MS analysis of minipig RBC samples following 180-min exposures at two different concentrations was a more precise indicator for severity of exposure than the analysis of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition for the same samples. AChE enzyme activity recovered faster than indicated by the apparent elimination rate of VX-G. GC-MS-MS analyses of RBC samples following VX exposure demonstrate this technique has both adequate sensitivity and specificity to indicate the severity of exposure.

  6. Prenatal immunotoxicant exposure and postnatal autoimmune disease.

    PubMed Central

    Holladay, S D

    1999-01-01

    Reports in humans and rodents indicate that immune development may be altered following perinatal exposure to immunotoxic compounds, including chemotherapeutics, corticosteroids, polycyclic hydrocarbons, and polyhalogenated hydrocarbons. Effects from such exposure may be more dramatic or persistent than following exposure during adult life. For example, prenatal exposure to the insecticide chlordane or to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[(italic)a(/italic)]pyrene produces what appears to be lifelong immunosuppression in mice. Whether prenatal immunotoxicant exposure may predispose the organism to postnatal autoimmune disease remains largely unknown. In this regard, the therapeutic immunosuppressant cyclosporin A (CsA) crosses the placenta poorly. However, lethally irradiated rodents exposed to CsA postsyngeneic bone marrow transplant (i.e., during re-establishment of the immune system) develop T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease, suggesting this drug may produce a fundamental disruption in development of self-tolerance by T cells. The environmental contaminant 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-(italic)p(/italic)-dioxin (TCDD) crosses the placenta and produces fetal thymic effects (italic)in vivo(/italic) similar to effects of CsA in fetal thymic organ culture, including inhibited thymocyte maturation and reduced expression of thymic major histocompatability complex class II molecules. These observations led to the suggestion that gestational exposure to TCDD may interfere with normal development of self-tolerance. Possibly supporting this hypothesis, when mice predisposed to development of autoimmune disease were treated with TCDD during gestation, postnatal autoimmunity was exacerbated. Similar results have been reported for mice exposed to diethylstilbestrol during development. These reports suggest that prenatal exposure to certain immunotoxicants may play a role in postnatal expression of autoimmunity. PMID:10502532

  7. Contribution of individual components of a job cycle on overall severity of whole-body vibration exposure: a study in Indian mines.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Bibhuti B; Mansfield, Neil J

    2016-01-01

    Drivers of earth-moving machines are exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV). In mining operations there can be a combination of relatively high magnitudes of vibration and long exposure times. Effective risk mitigation requires understanding of the main aspects of a task that pose a hazard to health. There are very few published studies of WBV exposure from India. This paper reports on a study that considered the contribution of the component phases of dumper operations, on the overall vibration exposure of the drivers. It shows that vibration magnitudes are relatively high, and that haulage tasks are the main contributor to the exposure. It is recommended that driver speed, haul road surfaces and vehicle maintenance/selection are optimized to ensure minimization of vibration. If this is not sufficient, operation times might need to be reduced in order to ensure that the health guidance caution zone from Standard No. ISO 2631-1:1997 is not exceeded.

  8. Time-Course of Changes in Inflammatory Response after Whole-Body Cryotherapy Multi Exposures following Severe Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Pournot, Hervé; Bieuzen, François; Louis, Julien; Fillard, Jean-Robert; Barbiche, Etienne; Hausswirth, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the present investigation was to analyze the effect of two different recovery modalities on classical markers of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and inflammation obtained after a simulated trail running race. Endurance trained males (n = 11) completed two experimental trials separated by 1 month in a randomized crossover design; one trial involved passive recovery (PAS), the other a specific whole body cryotherapy (WBC) for 96 h post-exercise (repeated each day). For each trial, subjects performed a 48 min running treadmill exercise followed by PAS or WBC. The Interleukin (IL) -1 (IL-1), IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), protein C-reactive (CRP) and white blood cells count were measured at rest, immediately post-exercise, and at 24, 48, 72, 96 h in post-exercise recovery. A significant time effect was observed to characterize an inflammatory state (Pre vs. Post) following the exercise bout in all conditions (p<0.05). Indeed, IL-1β (Post 1 h) and CRP (Post 24 h) levels decreased and IL-1ra (Post 1 h) increased following WBC when compared to PAS. In WBC condition (p<0.05), TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-6 remain unchanged compared to PAS condition. Overall, the results indicated that the WBC was effective in reducing the inflammatory process. These results may be explained by vasoconstriction at muscular level, and both the decrease in cytokines activity pro-inflammatory, and increase in cytokines anti-inflammatory. PMID:21829501

  9. FDA Throws Cold Water on Whole Body Cryotherapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... html FDA Throws Cold Water on Whole Body Cryotherapy Exposure to ultra-low temperatures shows no benefits ... evidence that a growing trend called whole body cryotherapy is effective, but it does pose a number ...

  10. Occupational exposure to the whole body, extremities and to the eye lens in interventional radiology in Poland, as based on personnel dosimetry records at IFJ PAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szumska, Agnieszka; Budzanowski, M.; Kopeć, R.

    2014-11-01

    We report results of measurements of Hp(10) from whole body dosimeters (about 53 thousand readouts), of Hp(0.07) from finger ring dosimeters (23 thousand readouts) and of Hp(3) from eye lens dosimeters (100 readouts), issued in the years 2010-12 to over 150 medical departments in Poland which apply X-rays in radiology, interventional radiology (haemodynamic, angiology, cardiac surgery), urology, orthopaedics, electrophysiology or electro-cardiology. In all measurements thermoluminescence detectors (TLD) were used: the well-known standard MTS-N (LiF:Mg, Ti) for whole body and extremity dosimetry, and the high-sensitivity MCP-N (LiF:Mg, Cu, P) for eye lens dosimetry and environmental monitoring. We analysed the data base of the accredited Laboratory of Individual and Environmental Dosimetry (LADIS) at the Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN which offers its dosimetry service to these departments on a regular basis. We found that in the population of radiation workers that studied over the years 2010-2012 in 84%, 87%, and 34% of Hp(10), Hp(0.07) and Hp(3) measurements, respectively, the level of 0.1 mSv/quarter did not exceed, indicating lack of their occupational exposure. In the remaining 16%, 13% and 66% of individual cases, the 0.1 mSv/quarter exceeded, occasionally reaching several hundreds of mSv/quarter.

  11. The association between whole body vibration exposure and musculoskeletal disorders in the Swedish work force is confounded by lifting and posture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagberg, Mats; Burström, Lage; Ekman, Anna; Vilhelmsson, Rebecka

    2006-12-01

    This was a cross-sectional study based on material representing the Swedish work-force from a survey conducted in 1999, 2001 and 2003 by Statistics Sweden. Exposure to whole body vibration (WBV) was prevalent among agricultural, forestry, fishery workers and among plant and machinery operators based on a sample of 40,000 employed persons. Approximately 70% responders, that are 9798 persons answered both the interview and the questionnaire for the analysis of exposure-response. Exposure to WBV at least half the working time was associated with prevalence ratios above two for musculoskeletal symptoms in the low back, neck, shoulder/arm and hand among workers. When the exposure factors lifting and frequent bending were added to a multivariate analysis, surprisingly the magnitude of association was low between low back symptoms and WBV exposure. Interestingly, the relation between WBV exposure and symptoms in the neck, shoulder/arm and hand had the same or higher magnitude of association even when the possible confounders were in the model. For the neck, low back and shoulder/arm there was a visible increase in prevalence ratio (as high as 5 times) when combined exposures of WBV, lifting, frequent bending, twisted posture and noise were included in the analysis.

  12. Aconitine "challenge" test reveals a single whole-body exposure to diesel exhaust increases cardiac arrhythmia risk in hypertensive rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies demonstrate a significant association between cardiac electrical dysfunction, arrhythmias and air pollution exposure. Sensitivity to aconitine-induced arrhythmia has been used repeatedly to examine the factors that increase the risk of such cardiac electri...

  13. The development of an intervention programme to reduce whole-body vibration exposure at work induced by a change in behaviour: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Tiemessen, Ivo JH; Hulshof, Carel TJ; Frings-Dresen, Monique HW

    2007-01-01

    Background Whole body vibration (WBV) exposure at work is common and studies found evidence that this exposure might cause low back pain (LBP). A recent review concluded there is a lack of evidence of effective strategies to reduce WBV exposure. Most research in this field is focussed on the technical implications, although changing behaviour towards WBV exposure might be promising as well. Therefore, we developed an intervention programme to reduce WBV exposure in a population of drivers with the emphasis on a change in behaviour of driver and employer. The hypothesis is that an effective reduction in WBV exposure, in time, will lead to a reduction in LBP as WBV exposure is a proxy for an increased risk of LBP. Methods/Design The intervention programme was developed specifically for the drivers of vibrating vehicles and their employers. The intervention programme will be based on the most important determinants of WBV exposure as track conditions, driving speed, quality of the seat, etc. By increasing knowledge and skills towards changing these determinants, the attitude, social influence and self-efficacy (ASE) of both drivers and employers will be affected having an effect on the level of exposure. We used the well-known ASE model to develop an intervention programme aiming at a change or the intention to change behaviour towards WBV exposure. The developed programme consists of: individual health surveillance, an information brochure, an informative presentation and a report of the performed field measurements. Discussion The study protocol described is advantageous as the intervention program actively tries to change behaviour towards WBV exposure. The near future will show if this intervention program is effective by showing a decrease in WBV exposure. PMID:18005400

  14. Empirical and theoretical dosimetry in support of whole body resonant RF exposure (100 MHz) in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Allen, Stewart J; Adair, Eleanor R; Mylacraine, Kevin S; Hurt, William; Ziriax, John

    2003-10-01

    This study reports the dosimetry performed to support an experiment that measured physiological responses of volunteer human subjects exposed to the resonant frequency for a seated human adult at 100 MHz. Exposures were performed in an anechoic chamber which was designed to provide uniform fields for frequencies of 100 MHz or greater. A half wave dipole with a 90 degrees reflector was used to optimize the field at the subject location. The dosimetry plan required measurement of transmitter harmonics, stationary probe drift, field strengths as a function of distance, electric and magnetic field maps at 200, 225, and 250 cm from the dipole antenna, and specific absorption rate (SAR) measurements using a human phantom, as well as theoretical predictions of SAR with the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. On each exposure test day, a measurement was taken at 225 cm on the beam centerline with a NBS E field probe to assure consistently precise exposures. A NBS 10 cm loop antenna was positioned 150 cm to the right, 100 cm above, and 60 cm behind the subject and was read at 5 min intervals during all RF exposures. These dosimetry measurements assured accurate and consistent exposures. FDTD calculations were used to determine SAR distribution in a seated human subject. This study reports the necessary dosimetry for work on physiological consequences of human volunteer exposures to 100 MHz.

  15. Multigenerational effects of whole body exposure to 2.14 GHz W-CDMA cellular phone signals on brain function in rats.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Tomoyuki; Imai, Norio; Wang, Jianqing; Takahashi, Satoru; Kawabe, Mayumi; Wake, Kanako; Kawai, Hiroki; Watanabe, So-Ichi; Furukawa, Fumio; Fujiwara, Osamu

    2014-10-01

    The present experimental study was carried out with rats to evaluate the effects of whole body exposure to 2.14 GHz band code division multiple access (W-CDMA) signals for 20 h a day, over three generations. The average specific absorption rate (SAR, in unit of W/kg) for dams was designed at three levels: high (<0.24 W/kg), low (<0.08 W/kg), and 0 (sham exposure). Pregnant mothers (4 rats/group) were exposed from gestational day (GD) 7 to weaning and then their offspring (F1 generation, 4 males and 4 females/dam, respectively) were continuously exposed until 6 weeks of age. The F1 females were mated with F1 males at 11 weeks old, and then starting from GD 7, they were exposed continuously to the electromagnetic field (EMF; one half of the F1 offspring was used for mating, that is, two of each sex per dam and 8 males and 8 females/group, except for all offspring for the functional development tests). This protocol was repeated in the same manner on pregnant F2 females and F3 pups; the latter were killed at 10 weeks of age. No abnormalities were observed in the mother rats (F0 , F1 , and F2 ) and in the offspring (F1 , F2 , and F3 ) in any biological parameters, including neurobehavioral function. Thus, it was concluded that under the experimental conditions applied, multigenerational whole body exposure to 2.14 GHz W-CDMA signals for 20 h/day did not cause any adverse effects on the F1 , F2 , and F3 offspring.

  16. Single whole-body exposure to sarin vapor in rats: long-term neuronal and behavioral deficits.

    PubMed

    Grauer, Ettie; Chapman, Shira; Rabinovitz, Ishai; Raveh, Lily; Weissman, Ben-Avi; Kadar, Tamar; Allon, Nahum

    2008-03-01

    Freely moving rats were exposed to sarin vapor (34.2+/-0.8 microg/l) for 10 min. Mortality at 24 h was 35% and toxic sings in the surviving rats ranged from sever (prolonged convulsions) through moderate to almost no overt signs. Some of the surviving rats developed delayed, intermittent convulsions. All rats were evaluated for long-term functional deficits in comparison to air-exposed control rats. Histological analysis revealed typical cell loss at 1 week post inhalation exposure. Neuronal inflammation was demonstrated by a 20-fold increase in prostaglandin (PGE(2)) levels 24 h following exposure that markedly decreased 6 days later. An additional, delayed increase in PGE(2) was detected at 1 month and continued to increase for up to 6 months post exposure. Glial activation following neural damage was demonstrated by an elevated level of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBR) seen in the brain 4 and 6 months after exposure. At the same time muscarinic receptors were unaffected. Six weeks, four and six months post exposure behavioral evaluations were performed. In the open field, sarin-exposed rats showed a significant increase in overall activity with no habituation over days. In a working memory paradigm in the water maze, these same rats showed impaired working and reference memory processes with no recovery. Our data suggest long lasting impairment of brain functions in surviving rats following a single sarin exposure. Animals that seem to fully recover from the exposure, and even animals that initially show no toxicity signs, developed some adverse neural changes with time.

  17. Empirical and theoretical dosimetry in support of whole body radio frequency (RF) exposure in seated human volunteers at 220 MHz.

    PubMed

    Allen, Stewart J; Adair, Eleanor R; Mylacraine, Kevin S; Hurt, William; Ziriax, John

    2005-09-01

    This study reports the dosimetry performed to support an experiment that measured physiological responses of seated volunteer human subjects exposed to 220 MHz fields. Exposures were performed in an anechoic chamber which was designed to provide uniform fields for frequencies of 100 MHz or greater. A vertical half-wave dipole with a 90 degrees reflector was used to optimize the field at the subject's location. The vertically polarized E field was incident on the dorsal side of the phantoms and human volunteers. The dosimetry plan required measurement of stationary probe drift, field strengths as a function of distance, electric and magnetic field maps at 200, 225, and 250 cm from the dipole antenna, and specific absorption rate (SAR) measurements using a human phantom, as well as theoretical predictions of SAR with the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. A NBS (National Bureau of Standards, now NIST, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO) 10 cm loop antenna was positioned 150 cm to the right, 100 cm above and 60 cm behind the subject (toward the transmitting antenna) and was read prior to each subject's exposure and at 5 min intervals during all RF exposures. Transmitter stability was determined by measuring plate voltage, plate current, screen voltage and grid voltage for the driver and final amplifiers before and at 5 min intervals throughout the RF exposures. These dosimetry measurements assured accurate and consistent exposures. FDTD calculations were used to determine SAR distribution in a seated human subject. This study reports the necessary dosimetry to precisely control exposure levels for studies of the physiological consequences of human volunteer exposures to 220 MHz.

  18. Single whole-body exposure to sarin vapor in rats: Long-term neuronal and behavioral deficits

    SciTech Connect

    Grauer, Ettie Chapman, Shira; Rabinovitz, Ishai; Raveh, Lily; Weissman, Ben-Avi; Kadar, Tamar; Allon, Nahum

    2008-03-01

    Freely moving rats were exposed to sarin vapor (34.2 {+-} 0.8 {mu}g/l) for 10 min. Mortality at 24 h was 35% and toxic sings in the surviving rats ranged from sever (prolonged convulsions) through moderate to almost no overt signs. Some of the surviving rats developed delayed, intermittent convulsions. All rats were evaluated for long-term functional deficits in comparison to air-exposed control rats. Histological analysis revealed typical cell loss at 1 week post inhalation exposure. Neuronal inflammation was demonstrated by a 20-fold increase in prostaglandin (PGE{sub 2}) levels 24 h following exposure that markedly decreased 6 days later. An additional, delayed increase in PGE{sub 2} was detected at 1 month and continued to increase for up to 6 months post exposure. Glial activation following neural damage was demonstrated by an elevated level of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBR) seen in the brain 4 and 6 months after exposure. At the same time muscarinic receptors were unaffected. Six weeks, four and six months post exposure behavioral evaluations were performed. In the open field, sarin-exposed rats showed a significant increase in overall activity with no habituation over days. In a working memory paradigm in the water maze, these same rats showed impaired working and reference memory processes with no recovery. Our data suggest long lasting impairment of brain functions in surviving rats following a single sarin exposure. Animals that seem to fully recover from the exposure, and even animals that initially show no toxicity signs, developed some adverse neural changes with time.

  19. Fluoride Ion Regeneration of Cyclosarin (GF) From Minipig Tissue and Fluids Following Whole Body GF Vapor Exposure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    acetylcholine include miosis, sweating, excessive salivation , muscle fasciculation, seizure, respiratory failure, and death. Exposure assessment and...Waters Associates, Millipore Corp., Milford, MA) which were first conditioned with 1 mL each of ethyl acetate, followed by isopropanol, and then pH 3.5

  20. Fluoride Ion Regeneration of Cyclosarin (Gf) from Minipig Tissue and Fluids Following Whole Body GF Vapor Exposure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    acetylcholine include miosis, sweating, excessive salivation , muscle fasciculation, seizure, respiratory failure, and death. Exposure assessment and...Waters Associates, Millipore Corp., Milford, MA) which were first conditioned with 1 mL each of ethyl acetate, followed by isopropanol, and then pH 3.5

  1. Assessment of whole-body vibration exposures and influencing factors for quarry haul truck drivers and loader operators

    PubMed Central

    Mayton, Alan G.; Jobes, Christopher C.; Gallagher, Sean

    2015-01-01

    To further assess vibration exposure on haul trucks (HTs) and front-end wheel loaders (FELs), follow-up investigations were conducted at two US crushed stone operations. The purpose was to: 1) evaluate factors such as load/no-load conditions, speed, load capacity, vehicle age, and seat transmissibility relative to vibration exposure; 2) compare exposure levels with existing ISO/ANSI and EUGPG guidelines. Increasing HT speed increased recorded vibration at the chassis and seat as expected. Neither vehicle load nor vehicle speed increased transmissibility. Increasing HT size and age did show transmissibility decreasing. HT dominant-axis wRMS levels (most often the y-axis, lateral or side-to-side direction) were predominantly within the health guidance caution zone (HGCZ). However, several instances showed vibration dose value (VDV) above the exposure limit value (ELV) for the ISO/ANSI guidelines. VDV levels (all dominant x-axis or fore-aft) were within and above the HGCZ for the EUGPG and above the HGCZ for ISO/ANSI guidelines. PMID:26361493

  2. Hardwood smoke alters murine splenic T cell responses to mitogens following a 6-month whole body inhalation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Burchiel, Scott W. . E-mail: Sburchiel@salud.unm.edu; Lauer, Fredine T.; Dunaway, Sandy L.; Zawadzki, Jerome; McDonald, Jacob D.; Reed, Matthew D.

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of these studies was to assess the effects of hardwood smoke (HWS) inhalation (30-1000 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) on the systemic immune responses of A/J mice evaluated after 6 months of daily exposures. Spleen cells obtained from mice were assessed for changes in cell number, cell surface marker expression [B, T, macrophage, and natural killer (NK) cells], and responses to B cell (LPS, endotoxin) and T cell (Con A) mitogens. Results showed that HWS smoke increased T cell proliferation in the 100 {mu}g/m{sup 3} exposure group and produced a concentration-dependent suppression of T cell proliferation at concentrations >300 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. There were no effects on B cell proliferation or in spleen cell surface marker expression. Analyses of the exposure atmospheres revealed the presence of significant levels of naphthalene and methylated napthalenes, fluorene, phenanthrene, and anthracene in the exposure chambers, as well as low concentrations of several metals (K, Ca, and Fe). Our results demonstrate that environmentally relevant concentrations of HWS may be immunosuppressive to the immune system of mice exposed during a 6-month period.

  3. Human whole body cold adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Daanen, Hein A.M.; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced vasodilation in fingers and toes compared to Caucasians and Inuit. About 40,000 y after humans left Africa, natives in cold terrestrial areas seems to have developed not only behavioral adaptations, but also physiological adaptations to cold. Dedicated studies show that repeated whole body exposure of individual volunteers, mainly Caucasians, to severe cold results in reduced cold sensation but no major physiological changes. Repeated cold water immersion seems to slightly reduce metabolic heat production, while repeated exposure to milder cold conditions shows some increase in metabolic heat production, in particular non-shivering thermogenesis. In conclusion, human cold adaptation in the form of increased metabolism and insulation seems to have occurred during recent evolution in populations, but cannot be developed during a lifetime in cold conditions as encountered in temperate and arctic regions. Therefore, we mainly depend on our behavioral skills to live in and survive the cold. PMID:27227100

  4. Early Adolescence: Whole Body Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Roger K., Jr.; Padilla, Michael J.

    1982-01-01

    "Whole body" denotes using the entire body to sense and experience a concept or idea. Typical whole body learning activities involve use of several senses: muscle sense, temperature, pain, pressure, and sense of equilibrium. Four whole body science activities are described, including identifying trees by touch. (Author/JN)

  5. Apparent mass and cross-axis apparent mass of standing subjects during exposure to vertical whole-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subashi, G. H. M. J.; Matsumoto, Y.; Griffin, M. J.

    2006-05-01

    The effects of posture and vibration magnitude on the vertical apparent mass and the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass of the standing human body during exposure to vertical vibration have been investigated. Twelve male subjects were exposed to random vertical vibration over the frequency range 2.0-20 Hz at three vibration magnitudes: 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 m s -2 rms. Subjects stood in five different postures: upright, lordotic, anterior lean, knees bent and knees more bent. The vertical acceleration at the floor and the forces in the vertical and fore-and-aft directions at the floor were used to obtain the apparent mass and the cross-axis apparent mass. The resonance frequency of the apparent mass was significantly reduced with knees bent and knees more bent postures, but there were only minor effects on the resonance frequency by changing the position of the upper body. Considerable cross-axis apparent mass, up to about 30% of the static mass of subjects, was found. The cross-axis apparent mass was influenced by all postural changes used in the study. In all postures the resonance frequencies of the apparent mass and the cross-axis apparent mass tended to decrease with increasing vibration magnitude. This nonlinear characteristic tended to be less clear in some postures in which subjects increased muscle tension.

  6. Assessment of biological changes of continuous whole body exposure to static magnetic field and extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields in mice.

    PubMed

    Hashish, A H; El-Missiry, M A; Abdelkader, H I; Abou-Saleh, R H

    2008-11-01

    The question whether static magnetic fields (SMFs) and extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) cause biological effects is of special interest. We investigated the effects of continuous whole body exposure to both fields for 30 days on some liver and blood parameters in mice. Two exposure systems were designed; the first produced a gradient SMF while the second generated uniform 50 Hz ELF-EMF. The results showed a gradual body weight loss when mice were exposed to either field. This is coupled with a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the levels of glucose, total protein and the activity of alkaline phosphatase in serum. A significant increase in lactate dehydrogenase activity was demonstrated in serum and liver paralleled with a significant elevation in hepatic γ-glutamyl transferase activity. The glutathione-S-transferase activity and lipid peroxidation level in the liver were significantly increased while a significant decrease in hepatic gluthathione content was recorded. A significant decrease in the counts of monocytes, platelets, peripheral lymphocytes as well as splenic total, T and B lymphocytes levels was observed for SMF and ELF-EMF exposed groups. The granulocytes percentage was significantly increased. The results indicate that there is a relation between the exposure to SMF or ELF-EMF and the oxidative stress through distressing redox balance leading to physiological disturbances.

  7. Minocycline modulates cytokine and gene expression profiles in the brain after whole-body exposure to radiation.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Shalini; Pecaut, Michael J; Gridley, Daila S

    2014-01-01

    An effective countermeasure against radiation damage to normal tissues is urgently needed. The major goal of the present study was to determine if minocycline could modify the immunomodulatory effects of radiation on the brain. C57BL/6 mice were treated with minocycline intraperitoneally for 5 days beginning immediately before total-body exposure to 0, 1, 2 and 3 Gray (Gy) (60)Co γ-rays. Brains were collected on days 4 and 32 post-irradiation for cytokine and gene analyses. Minocycline treatment significantly increased the levels of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-15 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the brain on day 4 in one or more irradiated groups compared to radiation-alone (p<0.05). IL-10 is anti-inflammatory, IL-15 can prevent apoptosis and VEGF is nuroprotective. On day 32, the drug decreased IL-1β in the 2- Gy group (p<0.05 vs. 2-Gy alone); this cytokine is implicated in immune-related central nervous system pathologies. Microarray analysis of brains on day 32 showed that while radiation increased expression of inflammatory genes such as Il1f10, Il17, Tnfrsf11b, Tnfsf12, Il12b and Il1f8, these were no longer up-regulated in the minocycline-treated groups. Similarly, the pro-apoptotic gene Bik and nitric oxide synthase producer (Nostrin) were no longer up-regulated in the drug-treated groups. Pathway analysis based on gene data suggested that catenin-β1 and tumor suppressor-related transcription regulation were significantly activated by radiation and/or minocycline (activation z-score >2.0). Overall, the data warrant further testing of minocycline as a potential neuroprotectant against radiation-induced damage.

  8. Thirteen-week study of toxicity of fiber-like multi-walled carbon nanotubes with whole-body inhalation exposure in rats.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Tatsuya; Umeda, Yumi; Ohnishi, Makoto; Kondo, Hitomi; Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Aiso, Shigetoshi; Nishizawa, Tomoshi; Matsumoto, Michiharu; Fukushima, Shoji

    2015-05-01

    Cancer development due to fiber-like straight type of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has raised concerns for human safety because of its shape similar to asbestos. To set concentrations of MWCNT for a rat carcinogenicity study, we conducted a 13-week whole body inhalation study. F344 male and female rats, 6-week-old at the commencement of the study, were exposed by whole-body inhalation to MWCNT at concentrations of 0, 0.2, 1 and 5 mg/m(3) with a generation and exposure system utilizing the cyclone sieve method. Measured concentrations in the exposure chambers were 0.20 ± 0.02, 1.01 ± 0.11 and 5.02 ± 0.25 mg/m(3) for 13 weeks. The MMAD (GSD) of MWCNT were 1.4-1.6 μm (2.3-3.0), and mean width and length were 94.1-98.0 nm and 5.53-6.19 μm, respectively, for each target concentration. Lung weights were increased 1.2-fold with 1 mg/m(3) and 1.3-fold with 5 mg/m(3) in both sexes compared to the controls. In the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) analyses, inflammatory parameters were increased concentration-dependently in both sexes from 0.2 mg/m(3). Granulomatous changes in the lung were induced at 1 and 5 mg/m(3) in females and even at 0.2 mg/m(3) in males. Focal fibrosis of the alveolar wall was observed in both sexes at 1 mg/m(3) or higher. Inflammatory infiltration in the visceral pleural and subpleural areas was induced only at 5 mg/m(3). In conclusion, we determined 0.2 mg/m(3) as the low-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) for respiratory tract toxicity in the present inhalation exposure study of rats.

  9. Influence of forest machine function on operator exposure to whole-body vibration in a cut-to-length timber harvester.

    PubMed

    Sherwin, L M; Owende, P M O; Kanali, C L; Lyons, J; Ward, S M

    2004-09-15

    The influence of machine function (tree felling and processing, and machine movement over the terrain) on operator exposure to whole-body vibration in a cut-to-length (CTL) timber harvester was evaluated. Vibrations were measured on the seat and the cabin chassis in three orthogonal (x, y, z) axes for the tree felling and processing, and during motion on a test track. It was found that the level of vibration transmitted to the operator during felling and processing was mainly affected by the tree size (diameter). For tree diameter at breast height (dbh) range of 0.25-0.35 m that was investigated, the vertical (z-axis) vibration component during processing increased by up to 300%, and increased by 50% during felling. However, the associated vibration levels were not sufficient to pose any serious health risks to the operator for an exposure limit of 8 h. Vibration at the operator seat and cabin chassis was predominant in the lateral (y-axis) and vertical (z-axis) respectively, during vehicle motion over the standard test track. Vibration peaks of approximately 0.20 and 0.17 ms(-2) occurred at 5 and 3.2 Hz respectively.

  10. Whole-Body MRA.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Harald; Quick, Harald H; Tombach, Bernd; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Barkhausen, Joerg

    2008-09-01

    Vascular diseases today constitute a serious health burden, ranking atherosclerosis as number one in the morbidity and mortality statistics of developed countries, with a still-growing incidence. Different treatment options are available for all vascular territories, ranging from conservative pharmacological treatment and catheter-based interventions up to surgical methods with remodelling of the vessels or bypass implantation. For treatment planning, all listed procedures have in common that they rely on initial diagnostic imaging to assess the degree and extent of stenoses. In this respect, imaging of the arterial system from the head down to the feet seems to be reasonable. Up to now no imaging technique allowed the assessment of the complete arterial system in only one exam within a reasonable time and without limiting factors like invasiveness and ionizing radiation. However, recent developments in magnetic resonance (MR) hardware and software, such as dedicated whole-body MR systems with specially designed surface coils, the movement to higher field strength and the implementation of parallel acquisition techniques (PAT), have helped to overcome the long-standing limitations of MR angiography (MRA), like reduced spatial resolution, long acquisition time, the restriction to body parts and only one field of view of a maximum 50 cm.

  11. Bioresponses in men after repeated exposures to single and simultaneous sinusoidal or stochastic whole body vibrations of varying bandwidths and noise.

    PubMed

    Manninen, O

    1986-01-01

    This study deals with the changes in temporary hearing threshold (TTS2), upright body posture sway amplitudes in the X and Y direction, heart rate (HR), R-wave amplitude (RWA), systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, pulse pressure (PP) and the index characterizing haemodynamic activity (HDI), when the subjects were exposed to noise alone, to vibrations alone or to simultaneous noise and vibrations. The experiments were carried out in an exposure chamber and the number of exposure combinations was 12. Seven healthy, male students volunteered as subjects, making a total number of 84 experiments. For each person the experiment consisted of a 30-min control period, five consecutive 16-min exposures, between which there was a 4-min measuring interval, and a 15-min recovery period. The noise was broadband (bandwidth 0.2-16.0 kHz) A-weighted (white) noise. The noise categories were: (1) no noise and (2) noise with an intensity of 90 dBA. The categories of low-frequency whole body vibration in the direction of the Z-axis were: (1) vibration within the range 4.4-5.6 Hz, (2) vibration within the range 2.8-5.6 Hz, (3) vibration within the range 2.8-11.2 Hz, (4) vibration within the range 1.4-11.2 Hz and (5) sinusoidal vibration with a frequency of 5 Hz. The (rms) acceleration in all the vibration models was 2.12 m/s2. The results showed that the TTS2 values at 4 and 6 kHz increased as a result of simultaneous exposure to noise and vibration significantly more than as a result of exposure to noise alone. The TTS2 values increased more intensely during the first 16-min exposure. The means of the variances in the amplitudes of body upright posture sway changed not only after exposures to vibration alone, but also after exposure to noise alone. The means of the sway variances in the X and Y directions at 0.1 Hz and within the range 0.06 to 2.00 Hz increased only when the vibration in the noise-vibration combination was sinusoidal. The changes in the heart rate, R

  12. Modelling the effects of exposure to whole-body vibration on low-back pain and its long-term consequences for sickness absence and associated work disability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdorf, A.; Hulshof, C. T. J.

    2006-12-01

    BackgroundExposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) is a well-known risk factor for the occurrence of low-back pain (LBP). Little is known about the long-term course of back pain in workers exposed to WBV and the consequences for (temporary) disability, due to lack of cohort studies with sufficiently long follow-up periods. MethodsA systematic review of the literature was performed to assess associations between exposure to WBV and LBP, sickness absence due to low-back disorders and permanent disability. A meta-analysis was used to estimate the prevalences of LBP and sickness absence due to low-back disorders in occupational populations, depending on relevant exposure characteristics. These prevalences were converted into probabilities for transitions between no complaints, LBP, sickness due to LBP, and disability. A Markov model was applied to evaluate a hypothetical cohort of workers without LBP at the start of the cohort and a follow-up of 40 years (40 cycles of 1 year) to reflect a long-life career with continuous exposure to WBV. ResultsIn this hypothetical cohort it was estimated that among workers with the highest exposure to WBV on average about 47 weeks of their working life were lost due to sick leave because of LBP, which is approximately 2.5% of their working life. When all workers on prolonged sick leave for 52 weeks would remain disabled for the rest of their working life, a maximum of 23.4% of their working life could be lost due to high WBV exposure. Among workers without or low exposure to WBV the corresponding losses were 0.8% and 7.8%, respectively. ConclusionThe approach to assess years of work lost due to an occupational exposure may provide a more adequate description for stakeholders than the traditional measures of relative risk or attributable risk fraction. The concept of work years lost may also facilitate a better appreciation of the potential benefits of preventive measures.

  13. Effect of whole-body mild-cold exposure on arterial stiffness and central haemodynamics: a randomised, cross-over trial in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    King, Sibella G; Ahuja, Kiran D K; Wass, Jezreel; Shing, Cecilia M; Adams, Murray J; Davies, Justin E; Sharman, James E; Williams, Andrew D

    2013-05-01

    Aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx) are independent predictors of cardiovascular risk and mortality, but little is known about the effect of air temperature changes on these variables. Our study investigated the effect of exposure to whole-body mild-cold on measures of arterial stiffness (aortic and brachial PWV), and on central haemodynamics [including augmented pressure (AP), AIx], and aortic reservoir components [including reservoir and excess pressures (P ex)]. Sixteen healthy volunteers (10 men, age 43 ± 19 years; mean ± SD) were randomised to be studied under conditions of 12 °C (mild-cold) and 21 °C (control) on separate days. Supine resting measures were taken at baseline (ambient temperature) and after 10, 30, and 60 min exposure to each experimental condition in a climate chamber. There was no significant change in brachial blood pressure between mild-cold and control conditions. However, compared to control, AP [+2 mmHg, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.36-4.36; p = 0.01] and AIx (+6 %, 95 % CI 1.24-10.1; p = 0.02) increased, and time to maximum P ex (a component of reservoir function related to timing of peak aortic in-flow) decreased (-7 ms, 95 % CI -15.4 to 2.03; p = 0.01) compared to control. Yet there was no significant change in aortic PWV (+0.04 m/s, 95 % CI -0.47 to 0.55; p = 0.87) or brachial PWV (+0.36 m/s; -0.41 to 1.12; p = 0.35) between conditions. We conclude that mild-cold exposure increases central haemodynamic stress and alters timing of peak aortic in-flow without differentially affecting arterial stiffness.

  14. [The efficiency and direction of thymus changes after whole-body exposure of mice to the weak electromagnetic field are determined by the initial status of the thymus].

    PubMed

    Semin, Iu A; Zhavoronkov, L P; Voron'ko, Ia V; Shvartsburg, L K; Rozhkova, O M

    2003-01-01

    The work presents results of the experimental study on thymus changes developing after whole-body exposure of mice to ultralow power pulse-modulated electromagnetic field (carrying frequency 2.39 GHz, modulating pulses with frequency 4 Hz, duration of impulses 0.025 sec, average power density 60 mW/cm2, absorbed dose 0.086 J/g or 0.172 J/g). It was shown that a percent of the microwave induced increase or decrease of thymus mass and the number of cells in the organ (y) are determined by the initial mass or number of cells in thymus accordingly to equation of linear regression: (yx = 215-2.25x, where x is the thymus mass of control animals (in a range 31-63 mg) and (yx = 178.6-41x, where x is the initial number of cells in thymus (in a range 0.6 x 10(8)-2.6 x 10(8)) reduced by a factor of 10(8).

  15. City bus driving and low back pain: a study of the exposures to posture demands, manual materials handling and whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Okunribido, Olanrewaju O; Shimbles, Steven J; Magnusson, Marianne; Pope, Malcolm

    2007-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate worker exposure to posture demands, manual materials handling (MMH) and whole body vibration as risks for low back pain (LBP). Using validated questionnaire, information about driving experience, driving (sitting) posture MMH, and health history was obtained from 80 city bus drivers. Twelve drivers were observed during their service route driving (at least one complete round trip) and vibration measurements were obtained at the seat and according to the recommendations of ISO 2631 (1997), for three models of bus (a mini-bus, a single-decker bus, a double-decker bus). The results showed that city bus drivers spend about 60% of the daily work time actually driving, often with the torso straight or unsupported, perform occasional and light MMH, and experience discomforting shock/jerking vibration events. Transient and mild LBP (not likely to interfere with work or customary levels of activity) was found to be prevalent among the drivers and a need for ergonomic evaluation of the drivers' seat was suggested.

  16. The Effects of a Single Whole-Body Cryotherapy Exposure on Physiological, Performance, and Perceptual Responses of Professional Academy Soccer Players After Repeated Sprint Exercise.

    PubMed

    Russell, Mark; Birch, Jack; Love, Thomas; Cook, Christian J; Bracken, Richard M; Taylor, Tom; Swift, Eamon; Cockburn, Emma; Finn, Charlie; Cunningham, Daniel; Wilson, Laura; Kilduff, Liam P

    2017-02-01

    Russell, M, Birch, J, Love, T, Cook, CJ, Bracken, RM, Taylor, T, Swift, E, Cockburn, E, Finn, C, Cunningham, D, Wilson, L, and Kilduff, LP. The effects of a single whole-body cryotherapy exposure on physiological, performance, and perceptual responses of professional academy soccer players after repeated sprint exercise. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 415-421, 2017-In professional youth soccer players, the physiological, performance, and perceptual effects of a single whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) session performed shortly after repeated sprint exercise were investigated. In a randomized, counterbalanced, and crossover design, 14 habituated English Premier League academy soccer players performed 15 × 30 m sprints (each followed by a 10 m forced deceleration) on 2 occasions. Within 20 minutes of exercise cessation, players entered a WBC chamber (Cryo: 30 seconds at -60° C, 120 seconds at -135° C) or remained seated (Con) indoors in temperate conditions (∼25° C). Blood and saliva samples, peak power output (countermovement jump), and perceptual indices of recovery and soreness were assessed pre-exercise and immediately, 2-hour and 24-hour postexercise. When compared with Con, a greater testosterone response was observed at 2-hour (+32.5 ± 32.3 pg·ml, +21%) and 24-hour (+50.4 ± 48.9 pg·ml, +28%) postexercise (both P = 0.002) in Cryo (trial × treatment interaction: P = 0.001). No between-trial differences were observed for other salivary (cortisol and testosterone/cortisol ratio), blood (lactate and creatine kinase), performance (peak power output), or perceptual (recovery or soreness) markers (all trial × treatment interactions: P > 0.05); all of which were influenced by exercise (time effects: all P ≤ 0.05). A single session of WBC performed within 20 minutes of repeated sprint exercise elevated testosterone concentrations for 24 hours but did not affect any other performance, physiological, or perceptual measurements taken. Although unclear, WBC may be

  17. Mathematical equations and system identification models for a portable pneumatic bladder system designed to reduce human exposure to whole body shock and vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz Ayyad, Ezzat

    A mathematical representation is sought to model the behavior of a portable pneumatic foam bladder designed to mitigate the effects of human exposure to shock and whole body random vibration. Fluid Dynamics principles are used to derive the analytic differential equations used for the physical equations Model. Additionally, combination of Wiener and Hammerstein block oriented representation techniques have been selected to create system identification (SID) block oriented models. A number of algorithms have been iterated to obtain numerical solutions for the system of equations which was found to be coupled and non-linear, with no analytic closed form solution. The purpose is to be able to predict the response of such system due to random vibrations and shock within reasonable margin of error. The constructed models were found to be accurate within accepted confidence level. Beside the analytic set of physical equations model representation, a linear SID model was selected to take advantage of the available vast amount of mathematical tools available to further analyze and redesign the bladder as a dynamic system. Measured field-test and lab test data have been collected from several helicopter and land terrain vehicle experiments. Numerous excitation and response acceleration measurement records were collected and used to prove the agreement with predictions. The estimation of two selected models were later applied to standard metrics in the frequency domain realization and compared with measurement responses. The collected test records are obtained from measured data at the US Army fields and facilities and at UNLV-CMEST environmental lab. The emerged models have been validated for conformity with actual accelerometer measurement responses and found within accepted error tolerance that is in both time and frequency domains. Further, standard metrics have been used to further confirm the confidence in the validation results. When comparing model prediction with

  18. Whole-body Vibration Exposure of Drill Operators in Iron Ore Mines and Role of Machine-Related, Individual, and Rock-Related Factors

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Dhanjee Kumar; Bhattacherjee, Ashis; Patra, Aditya Kumar; Chau, Nearkasen

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aimed to assess the whole-body vibration (WBV) exposure among large blast hole drill machine operators with regard to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) recommended threshold values and its association with machine- and rock-related factors and workers' individual characteristics. Methods The study population included 28 drill machine operators who had worked in four opencast iron ore mines in eastern India. The study protocol comprised the following: measurements of WBV exposure [frequency weighted root mean square (RMS) acceleration (m/s2)], machine-related data (manufacturer of machine, age of machine, seat height, thickness, and rest height) collected from mine management offices, measurements of rock hardness, uniaxial compressive strength and density, and workers' characteristics via face-to-face interviews. Results More than 90% of the operators were exposed to a higher level WBV than the ISO upper limit and only 3.6% between the lower and upper limits, mainly in the vertical axis. Bivariate correlations revealed that potential predictors of total WBV exposure were: machine manufacturer (r = 0.453, p = 0.015), age of drill (r = 0.533, p = 0.003), and hardness of rock (r = 0.561, p = 0.002). The stepwise multiple regression model revealed that the potential predictors are age of operator (regression coefficient β = −0.052, standard error SE = 0.023), manufacturer (β = 1.093, SE = 0.227), rock hardness (β = 0.045, SE = 0.018), uniaxial compressive strength (β = 0.027, SE = 0.009), and density (β = –1.135, SE = 0.235). Conclusion Prevention should include using appropriate machines to handle rock hardness, rock uniaxial compressive strength and density, and seat improvement using ergonomic approaches such as including a suspension system. PMID:26929838

  19. Proteomic Profiling of Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells after a Whole Body Exposure of CBA/CaJ Mice to Titanium ((48)Ti) Ions.

    PubMed

    Rithidech, Kanokporn Noy; Tungjai, Montree; Jangiam, Witawat; Honikel, Louise; Gordon, Chris; Lai, Xianyin; Witzmann, Frank

    2015-07-21

    Myeloid leukemia (ML) is one of the major health concerns from exposure to radiation. However, the risk assessment for developing ML after exposure to space radiation remains uncertain. To reduce the uncertainty in risk prediction for ML, a much increased understanding of space radiation-induced changes in the target cells, i.e., hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), is critically important. We used the label-free quantitative mass spectrometry (LFQMS) proteomic approach to determine the expression of protein in HSPC-derived myeloid colonies obtained at an early time-point (one week) and a late time-point (six months) after an acute whole body exposure of CBA/CaJ mice to a total dose of 0, 0.1, 0.25, or 0.5 Gy of heavy-ion titanium ((48)Ti ions), which are the important component of radiation found in the space environment. Mice exposed to 0 Gy of (48)Ti ions served as non-irradiated sham controls. There were five mice per treatment groups at each harvest time. The Trans-Proteomic Pipeline (TPP) was used to assign a probability of a particular protein being in the sample. A proof-of-concept based Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was used to characterize the functions, pathways, and networks of the identified proteins. Alterations of expression levels of proteins detected in samples collected at one week (wk) post-irradiation reflects acute effects of exposure to (48)Ti ions, while those detected in samples collected at six months (mos) post-irradiation represent protein expression profiles involved in the induction of late-occurring damage (normally referred to as genomic instability). Our results obtained by using the IPA analyses indicate a wide array of signaling pathways involved in response to 1 GeV/n (48)Ti ions at both harvest times. Our data also demonstrate that the patterns of protein expression profiles are dose and time dependent. The majority of proteins with altered expression levels are involved in cell cycle control, cellular growth and

  20. Proteomic Profiling of Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells after a Whole Body Exposure of CBA/CaJ Mice to Titanium (48Ti) Ions

    PubMed Central

    Rithidech, Kanokporn Noy; Tungjai, Montree; Jangiam, Witawat; Honikel, Louise; Gordon, Chris; Lai, Xianyin; Witzmann, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Myeloid leukemia (ML) is one of the major health concerns from exposure to radiation. However, the risk assessment for developing ML after exposure to space radiation remains uncertain. To reduce the uncertainty in risk prediction for ML, a much increased understanding of space radiation-induced changes in the target cells, i.e., hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), is critically important. We used the label-free quantitative mass spectrometry (LFQMS) proteomic approach to determine the expression of protein in HSPC-derived myeloid colonies obtained at an early time-point (one week) and a late time-point (six months) after an acute whole body exposure of CBA/CaJ mice to a total dose of 0, 0.1, 0.25, or 0.5 Gy of heavy-ion titanium (48Ti ions), which are the important component of radiation found in the space environment. Mice exposed to 0 Gy of 48Ti ions served as non-irradiated sham controls. There were five mice per treatment groups at each harvest time. The Trans-Proteomic Pipeline (TPP) was used to assign a probability of a particular protein being in the sample. A proof-of-concept based Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was used to characterize the functions, pathways, and networks of the identified proteins. Alterations of expression levels of proteins detected in samples collected at one week (wk) post-irradiation reflects acute effects of exposure to 48Ti ions, while those detected in samples collected at six months (mos) post-irradiation represent protein expression profiles involved in the induction of late-occurring damage (normally referred to as genomic instability). Our results obtained by using the IPA analyses indicate a wide array of signaling pathways involved in response to 1 GeV/n 48Ti ions at both harvest times. Our data also demonstrate that the patterns of protein expression profiles are dose and time dependent. The majority of proteins with altered expression levels are involved in cell cycle control, cellular growth and proliferation

  1. Neurotoxicity from prenatal and postnatal exposure to methylmercury

    PubMed Central

    Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pal; Debes, Frodi; Choi, Anna L.; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which postnatal methylmercury exposure contributes to neurobehavioral delays is uncertain. Confounding may occur because the child's dietary exposure likely correlates with the mother's. This conundrum was examined in the Faroese birth cohort 1 born in 1986–1987. Exposure parameters included mercury concentrations in maternal hair at parturition, cord blood, and child blood and hair at the age-7 clinical examination (N = 923). In regression analyses, the child's current blood-mercury at age 7 (N = 694) showed only weak associations with the neuropsychological test variables, but visuospatial memory revealed a significant negative association. Mutual adjustment caused decreases of the apparent effect of the prenatal exposure. However, such adjustment may lead to underestimations due to the presence of correlated, error-prone exposure variables. In structural equation models, all methylmercury exposure parameters were instead entered into a latent exposure variable that reflected the total methylmercury load. This latent exposure showed significant associations with neurodevelopmental deficits, with prenatal exposure providing the main information. However, postnatal methylmercury exposure appeared to contribute to neurotoxic effects, in particular in regard to visuospatial processing and memory. Thus, addition in the regression analysis of exposure information obtained at a different point in time was not informative and should be avoided. Further studies with better information on exposure profiles are needed to characterize the effects of postnatal methylmercury exposure. PMID:24681285

  2. The ORNL whole body counter

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This report is a non-technical document intended to provide an individual about to undergo a whole-body radiation count with a general understanding of the counting procedure and with the results obtained. 9 figs. (TEM)

  3. Hanford whole body counting manual

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.

    1990-06-01

    This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

  4. Protection from lethal and sub-lethal whole body exposures of mice to γ-radiation by Acorus calamus L.: studies on tissue antioxidant status and cellular DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Sandeep, Divyasree; Nair, Cherupally Krishnan Krishnan

    2012-01-01

    The radioprotecting activity of Acorus calamus extract after whole body exposure of mice to lethal and sub-lethal doses of γ-irradiation in terms of radiation induced mortality and damages to cellular DNA and tissue antioxidant levels were studied. A. calamus extract (250 mg/kg body weight) was orally administered to mice 1 h prior to whole body γ-radiation exposure. The antioxidant levels in the tissue homogenates of brain, liver and kidney of the irradiated mice were determined and cellular DNA damage was monitored by comet assay. Effect of administration of the extract on survival of the animals exposed to acute lethal dose of 10 Gy whole body γ-radiations was also monitored. Administration of the extract significantly increased the activities of major enzymes of the antioxidant defense system specially SOD, catalase and GPx and levels of GSH in 2, 6 and 10 Gy irradiated mice and decreased the formation MDA. The extract also decreased DNA strand breaks. The survival rate was found to be increased up to 5%. These studies highlight the role of A. calamus extract as good source of natural radioprotecting agent and its therapeutic implications for radiation-induced injuries.

  5. Preterm cerebellar growth impairment after postnatal exposure to glucocorticoids

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Emily W. Y.; Chau, Vann; Ferriero, Donna M.; Barkovich, A. James; Poskitt, Kenneth J.; Studholme, Colin; Fok, Eric D.-Y.; Grunau, Ruth E.; Glidden, David V.; Miller, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    With improving survival rates of preterm newborns, adverse cognitive outcomes are increasingly recognized. Adverse cognitive outcomes are associated with decreased cerebellar volumes, and modifiable risk factors for these adverse outcomes should be identified. Animal models demonstrate reduced preterm cerebellar growth after exposure to glucocorticoids. Preterm neonates were prospectively studied with serial MRI examinations near birth and again near term-equivalent age. Adjusting for associated clinical factors, antenatal bethamethasone was not associated with changes in cerebellar volume. Postnatal exposure to clinically routine doses of hydrocortisone or dexamethasone were associated with impaired cerebellar, but not cerebral, growth. Modifying postnatal risk factors for impaired cerebellar development, and particularly glucocorticoid exposure, may help to decrease risk for adverse neurological outcome after preterm birth. PMID:22013125

  6. Prenatal and postnatal cocaine exposure predict teen cocaine use.

    PubMed

    Delaney-Black, Virginia; Chiodo, Lisa M; Hannigan, John H; Greenwald, Mark K; Janisse, James; Patterson, Grace; Huestis, Marilyn A; Partridge, Robert T; Ager, Joel; Sokol, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    Preclinical studies have identified alterations in cocaine and alcohol self-administration and behavioral responses to pharmacological challenges in adolescent offspring following prenatal exposure. To date, no published human studies have evaluated the relation between prenatal cocaine exposure and postnatal adolescent cocaine use. Human studies of prenatal cocaine-exposed children have also noted an increase in behaviors previously associated with substance use/abuse in teens and young adults, specifically childhood and teen externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, and attention problems. Despite these findings, human research has not addressed prior prenatal exposure as a potential predictor of teen drug use behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relations between prenatal cocaine exposure and teen cocaine use in a prospective longitudinal cohort (n=316) that permitted extensive control for child, parent and community risk factors. Logistic regression analyses and Structural Equation Modeling revealed that both prenatal exposure and postnatal parent/caregiver cocaine use were uniquely related to teen use of cocaine at age 14 years. Teen cocaine use was also directly predicted by teen community violence exposure and caregiver negativity, and was indirectly related to teen community drug exposure. These data provide further evidence of the importance of prenatal exposure, family and community factors in the intergenerational transmission of teen/young adult substance abuse/use.

  7. Prenatal exposure to ethanol affects postnatal neurogenesis in thalamus.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Sandra M; Miller, Michael W

    2010-06-01

    The number of neurons in the ventrobasal thalamus (VB) in the adolescent rat is unaffected by prenatal exposure to ethanol. This is in sharp contrast to other parts of the trigeminal-somatosensory system, which exhibit 30-35% fewer neurons after prenatal ethanol exposure. The present study tested the hypothesis that prenatal ethanol exposure affects dynamic changes in the numbers of VB neurons; such changes reflect the sum of cell proliferation and death. Neuronal number in the VB was determined during the first postnatal month in the offspring of pregnant Long-Evans rats fed an ethanol-containing diet or pair-fed an isocaloric non-alcoholic liquid diet. Offspring were examined between postnatal day (P) 1 and P30. The size of the VB and neuronal number were determined stereologically. Prenatal exposure to ethanol did not significantly alter neuronal number on any individual day, nor was the prenatal generation of VB neurons affected. Interestingly, prenatal ethanol exposure did affect the pattern of the change in neuronal number over time; total neuronal number was stable in the ethanol-treated pups after P12, but it continued to rise in the controls until P21. In addition, the rate of cell proliferation during the postnatal period was greater in ethanol-treated animals. Thus, the rate of neuronal acquisition is altered by ethanol, and by deduction, there appears to be less ethanol-induced neuronal loss in the VB. A contributor to these changes is a latent effect of ethanol on postnatal neurogenesis in the VB and the apparent survival of new neurons.

  8. Prenatal alcohol exposure increases postnatal acceptability of nicotine odor and taste in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Mantella, Nicole M; Youngentob, Steven L

    2014-01-01

    Human studies indicate that alcohol exposure during gestation not only increases the chance for later alcohol abuse, but also nicotine dependence. The flavor attributes of both alcohol and nicotine can be important determinants of their initial acceptance and they both share the component chemosensory qualities of an aversive odor, bitter taste and oral irritation. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating epigenetic chemosensory mechanisms through which fetal alcohol exposure increases adolescent alcohol acceptance, in part, by decreasing the aversion to alcohol's bitter and oral irritation qualities, as well as its odor. Given that alcohol and nicotine have noteworthy chemosensory qualities in common, we investigated whether fetal exposure to alcohol increased the acceptability of nicotine's odor and taste in adolescent rats. Study rats were alcohol-exposed during fetal development via the dams' liquid diet. Control animals received ad lib access to an iso-caloric, iso-nutritive diet throughout gestation. Odorant-induced innate behavioral responses to nicotine odor (Experiment 1) or orosensory-mediated responses to nicotine solutions (Experiment 2) were obtained, using whole-body plethysmography and brief access lick tests, respectively. Compared to controls, rats exposed to fetal alcohol showed an enhanced nicotine odor response that was paralleled by increased oral acceptability of nicotine. Given the common aversive component qualities imbued in the flavor profiles of both drugs, our findings demonstrate that like postnatal alcohol avidity, fetal alcohol exposure also influences nicotine acceptance, at a minimum, by decreasing the aversion of both its smell and taste. Moreover, they highlight potential chemosensory-based mechanism(s) by which fetal alcohol exposure increases the later initial risk for nicotine use, thereby contributing to the co-morbid expression with enhanced alcohol avidity. Where common chemosensory mechanisms are at play, our

  9. Whole-Body Vibration Assessment of the Palletized Load System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    iderrtlfy by block number) An evaluation of all new tactical vehicles and aircraft is required to a.sosas potential whole-body vibration ( WBV ) health...tolerances for WBV exposure were on course 2. The results also show that both driver and passenger were exposed to a Hazard Severity-Category III (marginal...to be evaluated for potential whole-body vibration ( WBV ) health hazards to their crevmembers. This - *3uirement is contained in AR 40-10, "Health

  10. Preterm cerebellar growth impairment after postnatal exposure to glucocorticoids.

    PubMed

    Tam, Emily W Y; Chau, Vann; Ferriero, Donna M; Barkovich, A James; Poskitt, Kenneth J; Studholme, Colin; Fok, Eric D-Y; Grunau, Ruth E; Glidden, David V; Miller, Steven P

    2011-10-19

    As survival rates of preterm newborns improve as a result of better medical management, these children increasingly show impaired cognition. These adverse cognitive outcomes are associated with decreases in the volume of the cerebellum. Because animals exhibit reduced preterm cerebellar growth after perinatal exposure to glucocorticoids, we sought to determine whether glucocorticoid exposure and other modifiable factors increased the risk for these adverse outcomes in human neonates. We studied 172 preterm neonatal infants from two medical centers, the University of British Columbia and the University of California, San Francisco, by performing serial magnetic resonance imaging examinations near birth and again near term-equivalent age. After we adjusted for associated clinical factors, antenatal betamethasone was not associated with changes in cerebellar volume. Postnatal exposure to clinically routine doses of hydrocortisone or dexamethasone was associated with impaired cerebellar, but not cerebral, growth. Alterations in treatment after preterm birth, particularly glucocorticoid exposure, may help to decrease risk for adverse neurological outcome after preterm birth.

  11. Estimating whole-body fish PCB concentrations from fillet data

    SciTech Connect

    Rigg, D.; Hohreiter, D.; Strause, K.; Brown, M.; Barnes, C.

    1995-12-31

    A study was designed to assess a potentially cost-effective method for generating both types of data from single fish specimens. The method is based on the testable hypothesis that whole-body PCE concentrations are predictable from fillet PCB concentrations and fillet and whole-body lipid concentrations. The study involved the collection of small-mouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) from several locations in the Kalamazoo River (Michigan) watershed to represent a range in PCB exposure. PCB and lipid concentrations were determined in aliquots of homogenized fillets and remaining carcasses. Wet-weight total PCB concentrations in carp ranged from 0.06 to 17 mg/kg in fillets, and from 0.11 to 14 mg/kg for remaining carcass; small-mouth bass ranged from 0.08 to 5.8 mg/kg in fillets, and from 0.21 to 13.2 mg/kg for remaining carcass. Whole-body PCB concentrations predicted using fillet PCB concentrations and fillet and carcass lipid concentrations accounted for 94% and 88% of the variability in measured whole-body small-mouth and whole-body carp concentrations, respectively. Predicted and measured whole-body PCB concentrations had a correlation of 91% for small-mouth bass, and 84% for carp. These results demonstrate that value of the lipid-based model in predicting whole-body PCB concentrations from measured fillet PCB concentrations and lipid concentrations in fillet and remaining carcass.

  12. Postnatal ethanol exposure disrupts signal detection in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Woolfrey, Kevin M; Hunt, Pamela S; Burk, Joshua A

    2005-01-01

    Human prenatal ethanol exposure that occurs during a period of increased synaptogenesis known as the "brain growth spurt" has been associated with significant impairments in attention, learning, and memory. The present experiment assessed whether administration of ethanol during the brain growth spurt in the rat, which occurs shortly after birth, disrupts attentional performance. Rats were administered 5.25 g/kg/day ethanol via intragastric intubation from postnatal days (PD) 4-9, sham-intubation, or no intubation (naïve). Beginning at PD 90, animals were trained to asymptotic performance in a two-lever attention task that required discrimination of brief visual signals from trials with no signal presentation. Finally, manipulations of background noise and inter-trial interval duration were conducted. Early postnatal ethanol administration did not differentially affect acquisition of the attention task. However, after rats were trained to asymptotic performance levels, those previously exposed to ethanol demonstrated a deficit in detection of signals but not of non-signals compared to sham-intubated and naïve rats. The signal detection deficit persisted whenever these animals were re-trained in the standard task, but further task manipulations failed to interact with ethanol pretreatment. The present data support the hypothesis that early postnatal ethanol administration disrupts aspects of attentional processing in the rat.

  13. No adverse effects detected for simultaneous whole-body exposure to multiple-frequency radiofrequency electromagnetic fields for rats in the intrauterine and pre- and post-weaning periods.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Tomoyuki; Wang, Jianqing; Kawabe, Mayumi; Wake, Kanako; Watanabe, So-Ichi; Takahashi, Satoru; Fujiwara, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    In everyday life, people are exposed to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) with multiple frequencies. To evaluate the possible adverse effects of multifrequency RF EMFs, we performed an experiment in which pregnant rats and their delivered offspring were simultaneously exposed to eight different communication signal EMFs (two of 800 MHz band, two of 2 GHz band, one of 2.4 GHz band, two of 2.5 GHz band and one of 5.2 GHz band). Thirty six pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD) 10-week-old rats were divided into three groups of 12 rats: one control (sham exposure) group and two experimental (low- and high-level RF EMF exposure) groups. The whole body of the mother rats was exposed to the RF EMFs for 20 h per day from Gestational Day 7 to weaning, and F1 offspring rats (46-48 F1 pups per group) were then exposed up to 6 weeks of age also for 20 h per day. The parameters evaluated included the growth, gestational condition and organ weights of the dams; the survival rates, development, growth, physical and functional development, memory function, and reproductive ability of the F1 offspring; and the embryotoxicity and teratogenicity in the F2 rats. No abnormal findings were observed in the dams or F1 offspring exposed to the RF EMFs or to the F2 offspring for any of the parameters evaluated. Thus, under the conditions of the present experiment, simultaneous whole-body exposure to eight different communication signal EMFs at frequencies between 800 MHz and 5.2 GHz did not show any adverse effects on pregnancy or on the development of rats.

  14. No adverse effects detected for simultaneous whole-body exposure to multiple-frequency radiofrequency electromagnetic fields for rats in the intrauterine and pre- and post-weaning periods

    PubMed Central

    Shirai, Tomoyuki; Wang, Jianqing; Kawabe, Mayumi; Wake, Kanako; Watanabe, So-ichi; Takahashi, Satoru; Fujiwara, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    In everyday life, people are exposed to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) with multiple frequencies. To evaluate the possible adverse effects of multifrequency RF EMFs, we performed an experiment in which pregnant rats and their delivered offspring were simultaneously exposed to eight different communication signal EMFs (two of 800 MHz band, two of 2 GHz band, one of 2.4 GHz band, two of 2.5 GHz band and one of 5.2 GHz band). Thirty six pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD) 10-week-old rats were divided into three groups of 12 rats: one control (sham exposure) group and two experimental (low- and high-level RF EMF exposure) groups. The whole body of the mother rats was exposed to the RF EMFs for 20 h per day from Gestational Day 7 to weaning, and F1 offspring rats (46–48 F1 pups per group) were then exposed up to 6 weeks of age also for 20 h per day. The parameters evaluated included the growth, gestational condition and organ weights of the dams; the survival rates, development, growth, physical and functional development, memory function, and reproductive ability of the F1 offspring; and the embryotoxicity and teratogenicity in the F2 rats. No abnormal findings were observed in the dams or F1 offspring exposed to the RF EMFs or to the F2 offspring for any of the parameters evaluated. Thus, under the conditions of the present experiment, simultaneous whole-body exposure to eight different communication signal EMFs at frequencies between 800 MHz and 5.2 GHz did not show any adverse effects on pregnancy or on the development of rats. PMID:27694283

  15. Whole body exposure to 2.4 GHz WIFI signals: effects on cognitive impairment in adult triple transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (3xTg-AD).

    PubMed

    Banaceur, Sana; Banasr, Sihem; Sakly, Mohsen; Abdelmelek, Hafedh

    2013-03-01

    The present investigation aimed at evaluating the effects of long-term exposure to WIFI type radiofrequency (RF) signals (2.40 GHz), two hours per day during one month at a Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) of 1.60 W/kg. The effects of RF exposure were studied on wildtype mice and triple transgenic mice (3xTg-AD) destined to develop Alzheimer's-like cognitive impairment. Mice were divided into four groups: two sham groups (WT, TG; n=7) and two exposed groups (WTS, TGS; n=7). The cognitive interference task used in this study was designed from an analogous human cognitive interference task including the Flex field activity system test, the two-compartment box test and the Barnes maze test. Our data demonstrate for the first time that RF improves cognitive behavior of 3xTg-AD mice. We conclude that RF exposure may represent an effective memory-enhancing approach in Alzheimer's disease.

  16. Impact of Early Postnatal Androgen Exposure on Voice Development

    PubMed Central

    Grisa, Leila; Leonel, Maria L.; Gonçalves, Maria I. R.; Pletsch, Francisco; Sade, Elis R.; Custódio, Gislaine; Zagonel, Ivete P. S.; Longui, Carlos A.; Figueiredo, Bonald C.

    2012-01-01

    Background The impact of early postnatal androgen exposure on female laryngeal tissue may depend on certain characteristics of this exposure. We assessed the impact of the dose, duration, and timing of early androgen exposure on the vocal development of female subjects who had been treated for adrenocortical tumor (ACT) in childhood. Methods The long-term effects of androgen exposure on the fundamental vocal frequency (F0), vocal pitch, and final height and the presence of virilizing signs were examined in 9 adult (age, 18.4 to 33.5 years) and 10 adolescent (13.6 to 17.8 years) female ACT patients. We also compared the current values with values obtained 0.9 years to 7.4 years after these subjects had undergone ACT surgery, a period during which they had shown normal androgen levels. Results Of the 19 subjects, 17 (89%) had been diagnosed with ACT before 4 years of age, 1 (5%) at 8.16 years, and 1 (5%) at 10.75 years. Androgen exposure (2 to 30 months) was sufficiently strong to cause pubic hair growth in all subjects and clitoromegaly in 74% (14/19) of the subjects, but did not reduce their height from the target value. Although androgen exposure induced a remarkable reduction in F0 (132 Hz) and moderate pitch virilization in 1 subject and partial F0 virilization, resulting in F0 of 165 and 169 Hz, in 2 subjects, the majority had normal F0 ranging from 189 to 245 Hz. Conclusions Female laryngeal tissue is less sensitive to androgen exposure between birth and adrenarche than during other periods. Differential larynx sensitivity to androgen exposure in childhood and F0 irreversibility in adulthood are age-, concentration-, duration-, and timing-dependent events that may also be affected by exposure to inhibitory or stimulatory hormones. Further studies are required to better characterize each of these factors. PMID:23284635

  17. [The dose-response of unstable chromosome exchanges in lymphocytes of cancer patients undergone whole-body fractionated gamma-rays exposure at the total dose 1.15 Gy].

    PubMed

    Semenov, A V; Vorobtsova, I E; Zharinov, G M

    2010-01-01

    The dose-response of unstable chromosome exchanges (UCE) in lymphocytes of 4 cancer patients undergone whole-body fractionated gamma-rays exposure (at the daily dose of 0.115 Gy up to the total dose 1.15 Gy) was compared with corresponding dose-response for lymphocytes of the same patients, irradiated in vitro at the same dose range. In vivo irradiation yielded lower frequency of UCE on the dose unit than in vitro irradiation. It was shown that the in vivo dose-response curve gives more adequate dose estimation than in vitro one. This curve could be used for reconstruction of absorbed dose in the cases of analogous character of in-controlled irradiation of people.

  18. Action slips during whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Ishimatsu, Kazuma; Meland, Anders; Hansen, Tor Are S; Kåsin, Jan Ivar; Wagstaff, Anthony S

    2016-07-01

    Helicopter aircrew members engage in highly demanding cognitive tasks in an environment subject to whole-body vibration (WBV). Sometimes their actions may not be according to plan (e.g. action slips and lapses). This study used a Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) to examine whether action slips were more frequent during exposure to WBV. Nineteen participants performed the SART in two blocks. In the WBV block participants were exposed to 17 Hz vertical WBV, which is typical of larger helicopter working environments. In the No-WBV block there was no WBV. There were more responses to the rare no-go digit 3 (i.e. action slips) in the WBV block, and participants responded faster in the WBV block. These results suggest that WBV influences response inhibition, and can induce impulsive responding. WBV may increase the likelihood of action slips, mainly due to failure of response inhibition.

  19. Age modulates attitudes to whole body donation among medical students.

    PubMed

    Perry, Gary F; Ettarh, Raj R

    2009-01-01

    Managing a whole body donor program is necessary for facilitating a traditional dissection-based anatomy curriculum in medicine and health sciences. Factors which influence body donations to medical science can therefore affect dissection-based anatomy teaching. In order to determine whether age influences the attitudes of medical students to donations, this study surveyed, by Likert-type questionnaires, first-year graduate-entry medical students attending a dissection-based anatomy course. In contrast to attitudes among younger traditional-entry medical students, initial support for whole body donation by an unrelated stranger (83.8%), a family member (43.2%) or by the respondent (40.5%) did not decrease among graduate-entry medical students after exposure to dissection although there was a significant shift in strength of support for donation by stranger. This suggests that older medical students do not readily modify their pre-established attitudes to the idea of whole body donation after exposure and experience with dissection. Initial ambivalence among respondents to the idea of donation by family member was followed by opposition to this type of donation. These findings demonstrate that age modulates the influences on a priori attitudes to whole body donation that exposure to dissection causes in younger medical students.

  20. Postnatal arsenic exposure and attention impairment in school children.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Gil, Fernando; Hernández, Antonio F; Alguacil, Juan; Lorca, Andres; Mendoza, Ramón; Gómez, Inmaculada; Molina-Villalba, Isabel; González-Alzaga, Beatriz; Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente; Rohlman, Diane S; Lacasaña, Marina

    2016-01-01

    additional evidence that postnatal arsenic exposure impairs neurological function in children.

  1. The effects of prenatal and postnatal (via nursing) exposure to alcohol in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Nekvasil, N.; Baggio, C. )

    1992-02-26

    Pregnant and post-partum rats were given daily doses of 20% alcohol during days 13-21 gestation and postnatal days 3-12, respectively. Following exposure, all rat pups, were tested for balance, blood pressure, right and left cerebral hemisphere weights, and cerebellar weight. Results were grouped according to exposure and gender. The postnatal group was the only one to demonstrate difficulties with balance. The mean arterial pressure in males exposed postnatally was significantly lower than the control and prenatal males. Females exposed postnatally had a significantly higher blood pressure than control females. Within the postnatal group, males had a significantly lower blood pressure than the females. Prenatal and control females differed significantly for left cerebral hemisphere (LCH) weight with the prenatal weighing less. Male pups exposed prenatally had significantly heavier LCH than the postnatal and control males. For both males and females, postnatal LCH weights did not differ from those of the control pups. Within the prenatal group, the LCH weight in females was significantly lower than in males. Mean cerebellar weights were significantly lower in postnatal animals compared to control animals. A major finding of this study is that the effect of alcohol exposure on rat pups depends on gender and developmental age.

  2. Whole-body MRI: non-oncological applications in paediatrics.

    PubMed

    Damasio, Maria Beatrice; Magnaguagno, Francesca; Stagnaro, Giorgio

    2016-05-01

    Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WBMRI) is a fast and accurate method for detecting and monitoring of diseases throughout the entire body without exposure to ionizing radiation. Among emerging non-oncological potential applications of WBMRI, rheumatological diseases play an important role. Rheumatological WBMRI applications include the evaluation of chronic multifocal recurrent osteomyelitis, dermatomyositis, fever of unknown origin, arthritis, and connective tissue diseases. Aim of this review is to give an overview of the use of WBMRI in rheumatological field.

  3. Whole-Body Vibration Assessment of the M9161A1 Truck Trailer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    nd safety exposure Limit 21 8AIaRL summary of analysis per ISO-2631* guideline on RUN-o0 Driver I whole-body vibration ( WBV ) I I 19-AUG-93 8:21:57 1...safety exposure Limit 23 usAaaL summary of analysis per ISO-2631* guideline on RUI-02 Driver I whole-body vibration ( WBV )I ** i~ii19-AUS-93 5:21 58 1... exposure timlt 32 USMIL summary of analysis per 0so-2631* guideline on !RU-07 Passenger whole-body vibration ( WBV ) 19-AUG-93 M::01UM 1: Vehicle

  4. Rifaximin diminishes neutropenia following potentially lethal whole-body radiation.

    PubMed

    Jahraus, Christopher D; Schemera, Bettina; Rynders, Patricia; Ramos, Melissa; Powell, Charles; Faircloth, John; Brawner, William R

    2010-07-01

    Terrorist attacks involving radiological or nuclear weapons are a substantial geopolitical concern, given that large populations could be exposed to potentially lethal doses of radiation. Because of this, evaluating potential countermeasures against radiation-induced mortality is critical. Gut microflora are the most common source of systemic infection following exposure to lethal doses of whole-body radiation, suggesting that prophylactic antibiotic therapy may reduce mortality after radiation exposure. The chemical stability, easy administration and favorable tolerability profile of the non-systemic antibiotic, rifaximin, make it an ideal potential candidate for use as a countermeasure. This study evaluated the use of rifaximin as a countermeasure against low-to-intermediate-dose whole-body radiation in rodents. Female Wistar rats (8 weeks old) were irradiated with 550 cGy to the whole body and were evaluated for 30 d. Animals received methylcellulose, neomycin (179 mg/kg/d) or variably dosed rifaximin (150-2000 mg/kg/d) one hour after irradiation and daily throughout the study period. Clinical assessments (e.g. body weight) were made daily. On postirradiation day 30, blood samples were collected and a complete blood cell count was performed. Animals receiving high doses of rifaximin (i.e. 1000 or 2000 mg/kg/d) had a greater increase in weight from the day of irradiation to postirradiation day 30 compared with animals that received placebo or neomycin. For animals with an increase in average body weight from irradiation day within 80-110% of the group average, methylcellulose rendered an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of 211, neomycin rendered an ANC of 334, rifaximin 300 mg/kg/d rendered an ANC of 582 and rifaximin 1000 mg/kg/d rendered an ANC of 854 (P = 0.05 for group comparison). Exposure to rifaximin after near-lethal whole-body radiation resulted in diminished levels of neutropenia.

  5. Early postnatal diazepam exposure alters sex differences in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Segovia, S; Pérez-Laso, C; Rodríguez-Zafra, M; Calés, J M; Del Abril, A; De Blas, M R; Collado, P; Valencia, A; Guillamón, A

    1991-06-01

    The volume and neuron number of the sexually dimorphic accessory olfactory bulb and locus coeruleus are altered by early postnatal exposure (from the day of birth to postnatal day 16) to diazepam. After diazepam treatment, both volume and neuron number were decreased in the male accessory olfactory bulb and in the female locus coeruleus. These results indicate that early postnatal diazepam administration can bear gender-dependent teratogenic effects upon sexually dimorphic nuclei and suggest that endogenous benzodiazepines may be involved in the sexual differentiation of the brain.

  6. An anatomically realistic whole-body pregnant-woman model and specific absorption rates for pregnant-woman exposure to electromagnetic plane waves from 10 MHz to 2 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaoka, Tomoaki; Togashi, Toshihiro; Saito, Kazuyuki; Takahashi, Masaharu; Ito, Koichi; Watanabe, Soichi

    2007-11-01

    The numerical dosimetry of pregnant women is an important issue in electromagnetic-field safety. However, an anatomically realistic whole-body pregnant-woman model for electromagnetic dosimetry has not been developed. Therefore, we have developed a high-resolution whole-body model of pregnant women. A new fetus model including inherent tissues of pregnant women was constructed on the basis of abdominal magnetic resonance imaging data of a 26-week-pregnant woman. The whole-body pregnant-woman model was developed by combining the fetus model and a nonpregnant-woman model that was developed previously. The developed model consists of about 7 million cubical voxels of 2 mm size and is segmented into 56 tissues and organs. This pregnant-woman model is the first completely anatomically realistic voxel model that includes a realistic fetus model and enables a numerical simulation of electromagnetic dosimetry up to the gigahertz band. In this paper, we also present the basic specific absorption rate characteristics of the pregnant-woman model exposed to vertically and horizontally polarized electromagnetic waves from 10 MHz to 2 GHz.

  7. Altered Hippocampal Lipid Profile Following Acute Postnatal Exposure to Di(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Catherine A.; Farmer, Kyle; Lee, Hyunmin; Holahan, Matthew R.; Smith, Jeffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    Slight changes in the abundance of certain lipid species in the brain may drastically alter normal neurodevelopment via membrane stability, cell signalling, and cell survival. Previous findings have demonstrated that postnatal exposure to di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) disrupts normal axonal and neural development in the hippocampus. The goal of the current study was to determine whether postnatal exposure to DEHP alters the lipid profile in the hippocampus during postnatal development. Systemic treatment with 10 mg/kg DEHP during postnatal development led to elevated levels of phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin in the hippocampus of female rats. There was no effect of DEHP exposure on the overall abundance of phosphatidylcholine or sphingomyelin in male rats or of lysophosphatidylcholine in male or female rats. Individual analyses of each identified lipid species revealed 10 phosphatidylcholine and six sphingomyelin lipids in DEHP-treated females and a single lysophosphatidylcholine in DEHP-treated males with a two-fold or higher increase in relative abundance. Our results are congruent with previous work that found that postnatal exposure to DEHP had a near-selective detrimental effect on hippocampal development in males but not females. Together, results suggest a neuroprotective effect of these elevated lipid species in females. PMID:26516880

  8. [Low back pain among farmers exposed to whole body vibration: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Solecki, Leszek

    2011-01-01

    A literature review was performed for the years 1990-2007. It covered reports addressing the problems associated with the prevalence of low back pain and musculoskeletal disorders among farmers. In addition, the anticipated relationship between low back pain and whole body vibration in farmers was evaluated based on 12 reports for the years 1987-2009. The review confirmed that the prevalence of back pain is significantly higher in farmers exposed to whole body vibration than in the control group (not exposed to vibration). The frequency of back pain is related with whole body vibration, as well as with prolonged sitting position, wrong body posture and physical work load (especially lifting and carrying loads). The prevalence of these symptoms increases with the increased vibration dose and duration of exposure. Disorders in the lower section of the spine were associated with age, accidents (concerning the back), cumulative dose of whole body vibration, and overload due to wrong body posture. Long-term exposure affecting the whole body is harmful to the skeletal system (degeneration of the spine). The results of the study suggest that the repeated or constant exposure to mechanical shocks may increase the risk of low back pain. The investigations confirmed that there is a dose-response type of relationship between exposure to whole body vibration and pain in the lumbar section of the spine.

  9. Possible Mechanisms of Low Back Pain due to Whole-Body Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, M. H.; Wilder, D. G.; Magnusson, M.

    1998-08-01

    The investigators describe their multifaceted approach to the study of the relationship between whole-body vibration and low back pain.In vitroexperiments, using percutaneous pin-mounted accelerometers have shown that the natural frequency is at 4·5 Hz. The frequency response was affected by posture, seating, and seat-back inclination. The response appears to be largely determined by the rocking of the pelvis. Electromyographic studies have shown that muscle fatigue occurs under whole body vibration. After whole body vibration exposure the muscle response to a sudden load has greater latency. Vehicle driving may be a reason for low back pain or herniated nucleus pulposus. Prolonged seating exposure, coupled with the whole body vibration should be reduced for those recovering from these problems. Vibration attenuating seats, and correct ergonomic layout of the cabs may reduce the risks of recurrence.

  10. The Long-Term Economic Impact of in Utero and Postnatal Exposure to Malaria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barreca, Alan I.

    2010-01-01

    I use an instrumental-variables identification strategy and historical data from the United States to estimate the long-term economic impact of in utero and postnatal exposure to malaria. My research design matches adults in the 1960 Decennial Census to the malaria death rate in their respective state and year of birth. To address potential…

  11. Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate during pregnancy in rat and mouse. II: postnatal evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The postnatal effects of in utero exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, C8F17SO3-) were evaluated in the rat and mouse. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given 1, 2, 3, 5, or 10 mg/kg PFOS daily by gavage from gestation day (GD) 2 to GD 21; pregnant CD-1 mice were treated ...

  12. POSTNATAL DISPOSITION OF TCDD IN LONG EVANS RATS FOLLOWING GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    POSTNATAL DISPOSITION OF TCDD IN LONG EVANS RATS FOLLOWING GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE.
    J J Diliberto', J T Hamm'.2, F McQuaid', and L S Birnbaum'. 'US EPA, ORD/NHEERL/ETD, RTP, NC; 2Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.
    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenz...

  13. Exposure to Lipopolysaccharide in Utero Alters the Postnatal Metabolic Response in Heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine the effect of prenatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure on the postnatal metabolic response to an LPS challenge in beef heifers. Pregnant crossbred cows (n = 50) were assigned to a prenatal immune stimulation (PIS; n = 25; administered 0.1 micrograms/kg BW LPS s...

  14. In Utero Exposure to Lipopolysaccharide Alters the Postnatal Acute Phase Response in Beef Heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine the potential effect of prenatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure on the postnatal acute phase response (APR) to an LPS challenge in heifers. Pregnant crossbred cows (n = 50) were separated into prenatal immune stimulation (PIS; n = 25; administered 0.1 microgr...

  15. Further studies of human whole-body radiofrequency absorption rates.

    PubMed

    Hill, D A

    1985-01-01

    Further studies of human whole-body radiofrequency (RF) absorption rates were carried out using a TEM-cell exposure system. Experiments were done at one frequency near the grounded resonance frequency (approximately 40 MHz), and at several below-resonance frequencies. Absorption rates are small for the K and H orientations of the body, even when grounded. For the body trunk in an E orientation, the absorption rate of a sitting person is about half of the rate for the same person standing with arms at the sides; the latter in turn is about half the rate for the same subject standing with arms over the head. Two-body interactions cause no increase in absorption rates for grounded people. They do, however, increase the absorption rates for subjects in an E orientation in free space; the largest interaction occurs when one subject is lambda/2 behind the other (as seen by the incident wave). When these results are applied to practical occupational exposure situations, the whole-body specific absorption rate does not exceed the ANSI limit of 0.4 W/kg for exposures permitted by the ANSI standard (C95.1-1982) at frequencies from 7 to 40 MHz.

  16. Compensation to whole body active rotation perturbation.

    PubMed

    Rossi, S; Gazzellini, S; Petrarca, M; Patanè, F; Salfa, I; Castelli, E; Cappa, P

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is the exploration of the compensation mechanisms in healthy adults elicited by superimposing a horizontal perturbation, through a rotation of the support base, during a whole body active rotation around the participant's own vertical body axis. Eight healthy participants stood on a rotating platform while executing 90° whole body rotations under three conditions: no concurrent platform rotation (NP), support surface rotation of ± 45° in the same (45-S) and opposite (45-O) directions. Participants' kinematics and CoP displacements were analyzed with an optoelectronic system and a force platform. In both 45-S and 45-O conditions, there was a tendency for the head to be affected by the external perturbation and to be the last and least perturbed segment while the pelvis was the most perturbed. The observed reduced head perturbation in 45-S and 45-O trials is consistent with a goal-oriented strategy mediated by vision and vestibular information, whereas the tuning of lumbar rotation is consistent with control mechanisms mediated by somato-sensory information.

  17. Whole body acid-base modeling revisited.

    PubMed

    Ring, Troels; Nielsen, Søren

    2017-04-01

    The textbook account of whole body acid-base balance in terms of endogenous acid production, renal net acid excretion, and gastrointestinal alkali absorption, which is the only comprehensive model around, has never been applied in clinical practice or been formally validated. To improve understanding of acid-base modeling, we managed to write up this conventional model as an expression solely on urine chemistry. Renal net acid excretion and endogenous acid production were already formulated in terms of urine chemistry, and we could from the literature also see gastrointestinal alkali absorption in terms of urine excretions. With a few assumptions it was possible to see that this expression of net acid balance was arithmetically identical to minus urine charge, whereby under the development of acidosis, urine was predicted to acquire a net negative charge. The literature already mentions unexplained negative urine charges so we scrutinized a series of seminal papers and confirmed empirically the theoretical prediction that observed urine charge did acquire negative charge as acidosis developed. Hence, we can conclude that the conventional model is problematic since it predicts what is physiologically impossible. Therefore, we need a new model for whole body acid-base balance, which does not have impossible implications. Furthermore, new experimental studies are needed to account for charge imbalance in urine under development of acidosis.

  18. Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging in an adult cohort following prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Janulewicz, Patricia A; Killiany, Ronald J; White, Roberta F; Martin, Brett M; Winter, Michael R; Weinberg, Janice M; Aschengrau, Ann

    2013-01-01

    This population-based retrospective cohort study examined Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the brain in relation to prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using pipe network information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling software, and Geographic Information System (GIS) methodology. Brain imaging was performed on 26 exposed and 16 unexposed subjects. Scans were acquired on a Philips 3T whole body scanner using the ADNI T1-weighted MP-RAGE scan. The scans were processed by FreeSurfer version 4.3.1 software to obtain measurements of specific brain regions. There were no statistically significant differences between exposed and unexposed subjects on the measures of white matter hypointensities (β: 127.5mm(3), 95% CI: -259.1, 1514.0), white matter volumes (e.g. total cerebral white matter: β: 21230.0mm(3), 95% CI: -4512.6, 46971.7) or gray matter volumes (e.g. total cerebral gray matter: β: 11976.0mm(3), 95% CI: -13657.2, 37609.3). The results of this study suggest that exposure to PCE during gestation and early childhood, at the levels observed in this population, is not associated with alterations in the brain structures studied.

  19. Student attitudes to whole body donation are influenced by dissection.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Kevin C; Ettarh, Raj R

    2008-01-01

    Given the important role that anatomical dissection plays in the shaping of medical student attitudes to life and death, these attitudes have not been evaluated in the context of whole body donation for medical science. First year students of anatomy in an Irish university medical school were surveyed by questionnaire before and after the initial dissection and again after 9 weeks of anatomical dissection. Analysis of student responses to the idea of whole body donation by an unrelated stranger, a family member, or by the respondent showed that a priori attitudes to donation by a stranger did not change with exposure to dissection. However, student opposition to donation by a family member was evident immediately after the initial dissection and was sustained throughout the duration of this study. Support for the idea of donating their bodies to medical science decreased significantly among respondents after exposure to dissection (31.5% before dissection, 19.6% after dissecting for 9 weeks) but not to levels reported in the general population in other studies. This study demonstrates that where dissection forms a part of anatomy teaching, students expect to learn anatomy by dissecting donors whom they do not know. As a potential donor population, students are reluctant to become emotionally involved in the donation process and are unwilling to become donors themselves.

  20. Prenatal epoxiconazole exposure effects on rat postnatal development.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Vera L S S; Maia, Aline H

    2012-04-01

    Although some studies have pointed out to embryo/fetal toxicity, knowledge about the potential toxicity of the fungicide epoxiconazole is still limited. Once the results of these previous studies have raised some concern, this study studied the effects of epoxiconazole maternal exposure on the physical endpoints in the development of rat pups. To accomplish that, the effects of epoxiconazole (50.0, 100.0, and 150.0  mg/kg) were examined when rats were exposed at two different developmental stages: during the first 6 days of pregnancy or in the organogenesis period (6-15 days). After parturition, pups were tested for growth and maturational milestones. Maternal exposure to the fungicide, independently of phase, resulted in significantly early mean time to vaginal opening and delayed time to testes descent in pups. Weight gain rate in pups and their mothers was not affected for the tested exposure period. The findings of this study emphasize that epoxiconazole maternal exposure may lead to alterations in developmental patterns in nursing pups, consistent with the known influence of epoxiconazole on steroid hormone synthesis.

  1. Developmental programming: interaction between prenatal BPA exposure and postnatal adiposity on metabolic variables in female sheep.

    PubMed

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Moeller, Jacob; Sreedharan, Rohit; Singer, Kanakadurga; Lumeng, Carey; Ye, Wen; Pease, Anthony; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2016-02-01

    Among potential contributors for the increased incidence of metabolic diseases is the developmental exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals such as bisphenol A (BPA). BPA is an estrogenic chemical used in a variety of consumer products. Evidence points to interactions of BPA with the prevailing environment. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of prenatal exposure to BPA on postnatal metabolic outcomes, including insulin resistance, adipose tissue distribution, adipocyte morphometry, and expression of inflammatory markers in adipose tissue as well as to assess whether postnatal overfeeding would exacerbate these effects. Findings indicate that prenatal BPA exposure leads to insulin resistance in adulthood in the first breeder cohort (study 1), but not in the second cohort (study 2), which is suggestive of potential differences in genetic susceptibility. BPA exposure induced adipocyte hypertrophy in the visceral fat depot without an accompanying increase in visceral fat mass or increased CD68, a marker of macrophage infiltration, in the subcutaneous fat depot. Cohens effect size analysis found the ratio of visceral to subcutaneous fat depot in the prenatal BPA-treated overfed group to be higher compared with the control-overfed group. Altogether, these results suggest that exposure to BPA during fetal life at levels found in humans can program metabolic outcomes that lead to insulin resistance, a forerunner of type 2 diabetes, with postnatal obesity failing to manifest any interaction with prenatal BPA relative to insulin resistance and adipocyte hypertrophy.

  2. Developmental programming: interaction between prenatal BPA exposure and postnatal adiposity on metabolic variables in female sheep

    PubMed Central

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Moeller, Jacob; Sreedharan, Rohit; Singer, Kanakadurga; Ye, Wen; Pease, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Among potential contributors for the increased incidence of metabolic diseases is the developmental exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals such as bisphenol A (BPA). BPA is an estrogenic chemical used in a variety of consumer products. Evidence points to interactions of BPA with the prevailing environment. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of prenatal exposure to BPA on postnatal metabolic outcomes, including insulin resistance, adipose tissue distribution, adipocyte morphometry, and expression of inflammatory markers in adipose tissue as well as to assess whether postnatal overfeeding would exacerbate these effects. Findings indicate that prenatal BPA exposure leads to insulin resistance in adulthood in the first breeder cohort (study 1), but not in the second cohort (study 2), which is suggestive of potential differences in genetic susceptibility. BPA exposure induced adipocyte hypertrophy in the visceral fat depot without an accompanying increase in visceral fat mass or increased CD68, a marker of macrophage infiltration, in the subcutaneous fat depot. Cohens effect size analysis found the ratio of visceral to subcutanous fat depot in the prenatal BPA-treated overfed group to be higher compared with the control-overfed group. Altogether, these results suggest that exposure to BPA during fetal life at levels found in humans can program metabolic outcomes that lead to insulin resistance, a forerunner of type 2 diabetes, with postnatal obesity failing to manifest any interaction with prenatal BPA relative to insulin resistance and adipocyte hypertrophy. PMID:26646100

  3. Pre- and Postnatal Exposure to Low Dose Glufosinate Ammonium Induces Autism-Like Phenotypes in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Laugeray, Anthony; Herzine, Ameziane; Perche, Olivier; Hébert, Betty; Aguillon-Naury, Marine; Richard, Olivier; Menuet, Arnaud; Mazaud-Guittot, Séverine; Lesné, Laurianne; Briault, Sylvain; Jegou, Bernard; Pichon, Jacques; Montécot-Dubourg, Céline; Mortaud, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Glufosinate ammonium (GLA) is one of the most widely used herbicides in agriculture. As is the case for most pesticides, potential adverse effects of GLA have not been studied from the perspective of developmental neurotoxicity. Early pesticides exposure may weaken the basic structure of the developing brain and cause permanent changes leading to a wide range of lifelong effects on health and/or behavior. Here, we addressed the developmental impact of GLA by exposing female mice to low dose GLA during both pre- and postnatal periods and analyzed potential developmental and behavioral changes of the offspring during infancy and adulthood. A neurobehavioral test battery revealed significant effects of GLA maternal exposure on early reflex development, pup communication, affiliative behaviors, and preference for social olfactory cues, but emotional reactivity and emotional memory remained unaltered. These behavioral alterations showed a striking resemblance to changes seen in animal models of Autistic Spectrum Disorders. At the brain level, GLA maternal exposure caused some increase in relative brain weight of the offspring. In addition, reduced expression of Pten and Peg3 – two genes implicated in autism-like deficits – was observed in the brain of GLA-exposed pups at postnatal day 15. Our work thus provides new data on the link between pre- and postnatal exposure to the herbicide GLA and the onset of autism-like symptoms later in life. It also raises fundamental concerns about the ability of current safety testing to assess risks of pesticide exposure during critical developmental periods. PMID:25477793

  4. Adult Neuropsychological Performance Following Prenatal and Early Postnatal Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Janulewicz, Patricia A; White, Roberta F; Martin, Brett M; Winter, Michael R; Weinberg, Janice M; Vieira, Veronica; Aschengrau, Ann

    2012-01-01

    This population-based retrospective cohort study examined adult performance on a battery of neuropsychological tests in relation to prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using pipe network information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling software, and a Geographic Information System (GIS). Results of crude and multivariate analyses among 35 exposed and 28 unexposed subjects showed no association between prenatal and early postnatal exposure and decrements on tests that assess abilities in the domains of omnibus intelligence, academic achievement or language. The results were suggestive of an association between prenatal and early postnatal PCE exposure and diminished performance on tests that assessed abilities in the domains of visuospatial functioning, learning and memory, motor, attention and mood. Because the sample size was small, most findings were not statistically significant. Future studies with larger sample sizes should be conducted to further define the neuropsychological consequences of early developmental PCE exposure. PMID:22522125

  5. 21 CFR 892.1130 - Nuclear whole body counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nuclear whole body counter. 892.1130 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1130 Nuclear whole body counter. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body counter is a device intended to measure the amount of radionuclides in...

  6. 21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nuclear whole body scanner. 892.1330 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution...

  7. 21 CFR 892.1130 - Nuclear whole body counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nuclear whole body counter. 892.1130 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1130 Nuclear whole body counter. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body counter is a device intended to measure the amount of radionuclides in...

  8. 21 CFR 892.1130 - Nuclear whole body counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nuclear whole body counter. 892.1130 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1130 Nuclear whole body counter. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body counter is a device intended to measure the amount of radionuclides in...

  9. 21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nuclear whole body scanner. 892.1330 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution...

  10. 21 CFR 892.1130 - Nuclear whole body counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nuclear whole body counter. 892.1130 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1130 Nuclear whole body counter. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body counter is a device intended to measure the amount of radionuclides in...

  11. 21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nuclear whole body scanner. 892.1330 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution...

  12. 21 CFR 892.1130 - Nuclear whole body counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nuclear whole body counter. 892.1130 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1130 Nuclear whole body counter. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body counter is a device intended to measure the amount of radionuclides in...

  13. 21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nuclear whole body scanner. 892.1330 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution...

  14. 21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nuclear whole body scanner. 892.1330 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution...

  15. Prenatal cadmium exposure alters postnatal immune cell development and function

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Miranda L.; Holásková, Ida; Elliott, Meenal; Brundage, Kathleen M.; Schafer, Rosana; Barnett, John B.

    2012-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is generally found in low concentrations in the environment due to its widespread and continual use, however, its concentration in some foods and cigarette smoke is high. Although evidence demonstrates that adult exposure to Cd causes changes in the immune system, there are limited reports of immunomodulatory effects of prenatal exposure to Cd. This study was designed to investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to Cd on the immune system of the offspring. Pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to an environmentally relevant dose of CdCl{sub 2} (10 ppm) and the effects on the immune system of the offspring were assessed at two time points following birth (2 and 7 weeks of age). Thymocyte and splenocyte phenotypes were analyzed by flow cytometry. Prenatal Cd exposure did not affect thymocyte populations at 2 and 7 weeks of age. In the spleen, the only significant effect on phenotype was a decrease in the number of macrophages in male offspring at both time points. Analysis of cytokine production by stimulated splenocytes demonstrated that prenatal Cd exposure decreased IL-2 and IL-4 production by cells from female offspring at 2 weeks of age. At 7 weeks of age, splenocyte IL-2 production was decreased in Cd-exposed males while IFN-γ production was decreased from both male and female Cd-exposed offspring. The ability of the Cd-exposed offspring to respond to immunization with a S. pneumoniae vaccine expressing T-dependent and T-independent streptococcal antigens showed marked increases in the levels of both T-dependent and T-independent serum antibody levels compared to control animals. CD4{sup +}FoxP3{sup +}CD25{sup +} (nTreg) cell percentages were increased in the spleen and thymus in all Cd-exposed offspring except in the female spleen where a decrease was seen. CD8{sup +}CD223{sup +} T cells were markedly decreased in the spleens in all offspring at 7 weeks of age. These findings suggest that even very low levels of Cd exposure during gestation can

  16. Hypodontia in the beagle after perinatal whole-body /sup 60/Co gamma irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.C.; Angleton, G.M.; Benjamin, S.A.

    1989-06-01

    As part of a long-term study to evaluate health effects of pre- and postnatal irradiation, dental development was examined. Beagles were irradiated in utero at 8, 28, or 55 days postcoitus or postnatally at 2, 70, or 365 days postpartum. Whole-body /sup 60/Co gamma radiation doses ranged from 0 to 3.8 Gy. There was an age-dependent dose-related increase in premolar hypodontia for animals irradiated at 55 days postcoitus or 2 days postpartum with doses of 0.83 Gy or higher and for those irradiated at 28 days postcoitus with 1.2 Gy or higher.

  17. Postnatal Exposure to Methyl Mercury from Fish Consumption: a Review and New Data from the Seychelles Child Development Study

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Gary J.; Thurston, Sally W.; Pearson, Alexander T.; Davidson, Philip W.; Cox, Christopher; Shamlaye, Conrad F.; Cernichiari, Elsa; Clarkson, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    Background Fish is an important source of nutrition worldwide. Fish contain both the neurotoxin methyl mercury (MeHg) and nutrients important for brain development. The developing brain appears to be most sensitive to MeHg toxicity and mothers who consume fish during pregnancy expose their fetus prenatally. Although brain development is most dramatic during fetal life, it continues for years postnatally and additional exposure can occur when a mother breast feeds or the child consumes fish. This raises the possibility that MeHg might influence brain development after birth and thus adversely affect children’s developmental outcomes. We reviewed postnatal MeHg exposure and the associations that have been published to determine the issues associated with it and then carried out a series of analyses involving alternative metrics of postnatal MeHg exposure in the Seychelles Child Development Study (SCDS) Main Cohort. Methods The SCDS is a prospective longitudinal evaluation of prenatal MeHg exposure from fish consumption. The Main Cohort includes 779 subjects on whom recent postnatal exposure data were collected at the 6, 19, 29, 66, and 107 month evaluations. We examined the association of recent postnatal MeHg exposure with multiple 66 and 107-month outcomes and then used three types of alternative postnatal exposure metrics to examine their association with the children’s intelligence quotient (IQ) at 107 months of age. Results Recent postnatal exposure at 107 months of age was adversely associated with four endpoints, three in females only. One alternative postnatal metric was beneficially associated with 9-year IQ in males only. Conclusions We found several associations between postnatal MeHg biomarkers and children’s developmental endpoints. However, as has been the case with prenatal MeHg exposure in the SCDS Main Cohort study, no consistent pattern of associations emerged to support a causal relationship. PMID:19442817

  18. Central nervous system effects of whole-body proton irradiation.

    PubMed

    Sweet, Tara Beth; Panda, Nirlipta; Hein, Amy M; Das, Shoshana L; Hurley, Sean D; Olschowka, John A; Williams, Jacqueline P; O'Banion, M Kerry

    2014-07-01

    Space missions beyond the protection of Earth's magnetosphere expose astronauts to an environment that contains ionizing proton radiation. The hazards that proton radiation pose to normal tissues, such as the central nervous system (CNS), are not fully understood, although it has been shown that proton radiation affects the neurogenic environment, killing neural precursors and altering behavior. To determine the time and dose-response characteristics of the CNS to whole-body proton irradiation, C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 1 GeV/n proton radiation at doses of 0-200 cGy and behavioral, physiological and immunohistochemical end points were analyzed over a range of time points (48 h-12 months) postirradiation. These experiments revealed that proton radiation exposure leads to: 1. an acute decrease in cell division within the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, with significant differences detected at doses as low as 10 cGy; 2. a persistent effect on proliferation in the subgranular zone, at 1 month postirradiation; 3. a decrease in neurogenesis at doses as low as 50 cGy, at 3 months postirradiation; and 4. a decrease in hippocampal ICAM-1 immunoreactivity at doses as low as 10 cGy, at 1 month postirradiation. The data presented contribute to our understanding of biological responses to whole-body proton radiation and may help reduce uncertainty in the assessment of health risks to astronauts. These findings may also be relevant to clinical proton beam therapy.

  19. Effects of intrauterine substance and postnatal violence exposure on aggression in children.

    PubMed

    Barthelemy, Olivier J; Richardson, Mark A; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Forman, Leah S; Cabral, Howard J; Frank, Deborah A

    2016-01-01

    During the cocaine epidemic of the 1980s and early 1990s, many expressed fears that children with intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) would grow up to be unusually violent. The present study examines the relationship of caregiver reports of school-age children's aggressive behavior with IUCE and postnatal exposure to violence. Respondents were 140 low-income, primarily African American children, ages 8-11, and each child's current primary caregiver from a longitudinal study evaluating potential long term sequelae of IUCE. Multiple regression analyses were used to investigate the independent and interactive effects of level of IUCE (None (n = 69), Lighter (n = 47), Heavier (n =  24)) and exposure to violence (Violence Exposure Scale for Children-Revised) on aggressive behavior (Child Behavior Checklist), while also controlling for other intrauterine substance exposures and additional contextual factors. Children's self-reported exposure to violence was significantly positively associated with caregivers' reports of aggressive behavior (β = 2.17, P = .05), as was concurrent caregiver's psychiatric distress (β = .15, P = .003). However, neither IUCE nor its interaction with exposure to violence showed a significant association with aggressive behavior. Findings suggest the importance of postnatal social environment rather than IUCE in predicting aggressive behavior in childhood.

  20. In utero and postnatal exposure to arsenic alters pulmonary structure and function

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, R. Clark Chau, Binh; Sarihan, Priyanka; Witten, Mark L.; Pivniouk, Vadim I.; Chen, Guan Jie

    2009-02-15

    In addition to cancer endpoints, arsenic exposures can also lead to non-cancerous chronic lung disease. Exposures during sensitive developmental time points can contribute to the adult disease. Using a mouse model, in utero and early postnatal exposures to arsenic (100 ppb or less in drinking water) were found to alter airway reactivity to methacholine challenge in 28 day old pups. Removal of mice from arsenic exposure 28 days after birth did not reverse the alterations in sensitivity to methacholine. In addition, adult mice exposed to similar levels of arsenic in drinking water did not show alterations. Therefore, alterations in airway reactivity were irreversible and specific to exposures during lung development. These functional changes correlated with protein and gene expression changes as well as morphological structural changes around the airways. Arsenic increased the whole lung levels of smooth muscle actin in a dose dependent manner. The level of smooth muscle mass around airways was increased with arsenic exposure, especially around airways smaller than 100 {mu}m in diameter. This increase in smooth muscle was associated with alterations in extracellular matrix (collagen, elastin) expression. This model system demonstrates that in utero and postnatal exposure to environmentally relevant levels of arsenic can irreversibly alter pulmonary structure and function in the adults.

  1. Longitudinal analyses of prenatal and postnatal lead exposure and early cognitive development

    SciTech Connect

    Bellinger, D.; Leviton, A.; Waternaux, C.; Needleman, H.; Rabinowitz, M.

    1987-04-23

    In a prospective cohort study of 249 children from birth to two years of age, we assessed the relation between prenatal and postnatal lead exposure and early cognitive development. On the basis of lead levels in umbilical-cord blood, children were assigned to one of three prenatal-exposure groups: low (less than 3 micrograms per deciliter), medium (6 to 7 micrograms per deciliter), or high (greater than or equal to 10 micrograms per deciliter). Development was assessed semiannually, beginning at the age of six months, with use of the Mental Development Index of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (mean +/- SD, 100 +/- 16). Capillary-blood samples obtained at the same times provided measures of postnatal lead exposure. Regression methods for longitudinal data were used to evaluate the association between infants' lead levels and their development scores after adjustment for potential confounders. At all ages, infants in the high-prenatal-exposure group scored lower than infants in the other two groups. The estimated difference between the overall performance of the low-exposure and high-exposure groups was 4.8 points (95 percent confidence interval, 2.3 to 7.3). Between the medium- and high-exposure groups, the estimated difference was 3.8 points (95 percent confidence interval, 1.3 to 6.3). Scores were not related to infants' postnatal blood lead levels. It appears that the fetus may be adversely affected at blood lead concentrations well below 25 micrograms per deciliter, the level currently defined by the Centers for Disease Control as the highest acceptable level for young children.

  2. Whole-body irradiation transiently diminishes the adrenocorticotropin response to recombinant human interleukin-1{alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Perlstein, R.S.; Mehta, N.R.; Neta, R.; Whitnall, M.H.; Mougey, E.H.

    1995-03-01

    Recombinant human interleukin-1{alpha} (rhIL-1{alpha}) has significant potential as a radioprotector and/or treatment for radiation-induced hematopoietic injury. Both IL-1 and whole-body ionizing irradiation acutely stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. We therefore assessed the interaction of whole-body irradiation and rhIL-1{alpha} in altering the functioning of the axis in mice. Specifically, we determined the adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone responses to rhIL-1{alpha} administered just before and hours to days after whole-body or sham irradiation. Our results indicate that whole-body irradiation does not potentiate the rhIL-1{alpha}-induced increase in ACTH levels at the doses used. In fact, the rhIL-1{alpha}-induced increase in plasma ACTH is transiently impaired when the cytokine is administered 5 h after, but not 1 h before, exposure to whole-body irradiation. The ACTH response may be inhibited by elevated corticosterone levels after whole-body irradiation, or by other radiation-induced effects on the pituitary gland and hypothalamus. 36 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in children: technique and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Eutsler, Eric P; Khanna, Geetika

    2016-05-01

    Whole-body MR imaging is being increasingly used in children to evaluate the extent of various oncologic and non-oncologic entities. The lack of exposure to ionizing radiation, excellent soft-tissue contrast (even without the use of contrast agents), and functional imaging capabilities make it especially suitable for screening and surveillance in the pediatric population. Technical developments such as moving table platforms, multi-channel/multi-element surface coils, and parallel imaging allow imaging of the entire body with multiple sequences in a reasonable 30- to 40-min time frame, which has facilitated its acceptance in routine clinical practice. The initial investigations in whole-body MR imaging were primarily focused on oncologic applications such as tumor screening and staging. The exquisite sensitivity of fluid-sensitive MR sequences to many different types of pathology has led to new applications of whole-body MR imaging in evaluation of multifocal rheumatologic conditions. Availability of blood pool contrast agents has allowed whole-body MR angiographic imaging of vascular malformations, vasculitides and vasculopathies. Whole-body MRI is being applied for delineating the extent and distribution of systemic and multifocal diseases, establishing diagnoses, assessing treatment response, and surveillance imaging. This article reviews the technique and clinical applications of whole-body MR imaging in children.

  4. Local metabolic rate during whole body vibration.

    PubMed

    Friesenbichler, Bernd; Nigg, Benno M; Dunn, Jeff F

    2013-05-15

    Whole body vibration (WBV) platforms are currently used for muscle training and rehabilitation. However, the effectiveness of WBV training remains elusive, since scientific studies vary largely in the vibration parameters used. The origin of this issue may be related to a lack in understanding of the training intensity that is imposed on individual muscles by WBV. Therefore, this study evaluates the training intensity in terms of metabolic rate of two lower-extremity muscles during WBV under different vibration parameters. Fourteen healthy male subjects were randomly exposed to 0 (control)-, 10-, 17-, and 28-Hz vibrations while standing upright on a vibration platform. A near-infrared spectrometer was used to determine the gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles' metabolic rates during arterial occlusion. The metabolic rates during each vibration condition were significantly higher compared with control for both muscles (P < 0.05). Each increase in vibration frequency translated into a significantly higher metabolic rate than the previous lower frequency (P < 0.05) for both muscles. The current study showed that the local metabolic rate during WBV at 28 Hz was on average 5.4 times (GM) and 3.7 times (VL) of the control metabolic rate. The substantial changes in local metabolic rate indicate that WBV may represent a significant local training stimulus for particular leg muscles.

  5. Cell proliferation and cell death are disturbed during prenatal and postnatal brain development after uranium exposure.

    PubMed

    Legrand, M; Elie, C; Stefani, J; N Florès; Culeux, C; Delissen, O; Ibanez, C; Lestaevel, P; Eriksson, P; Dinocourt, C

    2016-01-01

    The developing brain is more susceptible to neurotoxic compounds than adult brain. It is also well known that disturbances during brain development cause neurological disorders in adulthood. The brain is known to be a target organ of uranium (U) exposure and previous studies have noted that internal U contamination of adult rats induces behavioral disorders as well as affects neurochemistry and neurophysiological properties. In this study, we investigated whether depleted uranium (DU) exposure affects neurogenesis during prenatal and postnatal brain development. We examined the structural morphology of the brain, cell death and finally cell proliferation in animals exposed to DU during gestation and lactation compared to control animals. Our results showed that DU decreases cell death in the cortical neuroepithelium of gestational day (GD) 13 embryos exposed at 40mg/L and 120mg/L and of GD18 fetuses exposed at 120mg/L without modification of the number of apoptotic cells. Cell proliferation analysis showed an increase of BrdU labeling in the dentate neuroepithelium of fetuses from GD18 at 120mg/L. Postnatally, cell death is increased in the dentate gyrus of postnatal day (PND) 0 and PND5 exposed pups at 120mg/L and is associated with an increase of apoptotic cell number only at PND5. Finally, a decrease in dividing cells is observed in the dentate gyrus of PND21 rats developmentally exposed to 120mg/L DU, but not at PND0 and PND5. These results show that DU exposure during brain development causes opposite effects on cell proliferation and cell death processes between prenatal and postnatal development mainly at the highest dose. Although these modifications do not have a major impact in brain morphology, they could affect the next steps of neurogenesis and thus might disrupt the fine organization of the neuronal network.

  6. Evaluation of Whole-Body Vibration in Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PADDAN, G. S.; GRIFFIN, M. J.

    2002-05-01

    The vibration in 100 different vehicles has been measured, evaluated and assessed according to British Standard BS 6841 (1987) and International Standard ISO 2631 (1997). Vibration was measured in 14 categories of vehicle including cars, lift trucks, tractors, lorries, vans and buses. In each vehicle, the vibration was measured in five axes: vertical vibration beneath the seat, fore-and-aft, lateral and vertical vibration on the seat pan and fore-and-aft vibration at the backrest. The alternative methods of evaluating the vibration (use of different frequency weightings, different averaging methods, the inclusion of different axes, vibration dose values and equivalent r.m.s. acceleration) as defined in the standards have been compared. BS 6841 (1987) suggests that an equivalent acceleration magnitude is calculated using vibration measured at four locations around the seat (x -, y -, z -seat and x -backrest); ISO 2631 (1997) suggests that vibration is measured in the three translational axes only on the seat pan but only the axis with the most severe vibration is used to assess vibration severity. Assessments made using the procedure defined in ISO 2631 tend to underestimate any risks from exposure to whole-body vibration compared to an evaluation made using the guidelines specified in BS 6841; the measurements indicated that the 17 m/s1.75 “health guidance caution zone” in ISO 2631 was less likely to be exceeded than the 15 m/s1.75 “action level” in BS 6841. Consequently, ISO 2631 “allows” appreciably longer daily exposures to whole-body vibration than BS 6841.

  7. The Yugoslavia Prospective Lead Study: contributions of prenatal and postnatal lead exposure to early intelligence.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, G A; Liu, X; Popovac, D; Factor-Litvak, P; Kline, J; Waternaux, C; LoIacono, N; Graziano, J H

    2000-01-01

    To investigate associations between the timing of lead (Pb) exposure on early intelligence, we examined the results of psychometric evaluations at ages 3, 4, 5, and 7 years, from 442 children whose mothers were recruited during pregnancy from a smelter town and a non-lead-exposed town in Yugoslavia. We compared the relative contribution of prenatal blood lead (BPb) with that of relative increases in BPb in either the early (0-2 years) or the later (from 2 years on) postnatal period to child intelligence measured longitudinally at ages 3 and 4 (McCarthy GCI), 5 (Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised, WPPSI-R IQ), and 7 (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-version III, WISC-III IQ), controlling for: Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) quality; maternal age, intelligence, education, and ethnicity; and birthweight and gender. Elevations in both prenatal and postnatal BPb were associated with small decrements in young children's intelligence.

  8. Sensory Neural Responses to Ozone Exposure during Early Postnatal Development in Rat Airways

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Dawn D.; Wu, Zhongxin; Dey, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    Airway infections or irritant exposures during early postnatal periods may contribute to the onset of childhood asthma. The purpose of this study was to examine critical periods of postnatal airway development during which ozone (O3) exposure leads to heightened neural responses. Rats were exposed to O3 (2 ppm) or filtered air for 1 hour on specific postnatal days (PDs) between PD1 and PD29, and killed 24 hours after exposure. In a second experiment, rats were exposed to O3 on PD2–PD6, inside a proposed critical period of development, or on PD19–PD23, outside the critical period. Both groups were re-exposed to O3 on PD28, and killed 24 hours later. Airways were removed, fixed, and prepared for substance P (SP) immunocytochemistry. SP nerve fiber density (NFD) in control extrapulmonary (EXP) epithelium/lamina propria (EPLP) increased threefold, from 1% to 3.3% from PD1–PD3 through PD13–PD15, and maintained through PD29. Upon O3 exposure, SP-NFD in EXP–smooth muscle (SM) and intrapulmonary (INT)-SM increased at least twofold at PD1–PD3 through PD13–PD15 in comparison to air exposure. No change was observed at PD21–PD22 or PD28–PD29. In critical period studies, SP-NFD in the INT-SM and EXP-SM of the PD2–PD6 O3 group re-exposed to O3 on PD28 was significantly higher than that of the group exposed at PD19–PD23 and re-exposed at PD28. These findings suggest that O3-mediated changes in sensory innervation of SM are more responsive during earlier postnatal development. Enhanced responsiveness of airway sensory nerves may be a contributing mechanism of increased susceptibility to environmental exposures observed in human infants and children. PMID:20118220

  9. Ntp technical report on toxicity, reproductive, and developmental studies of 60-Hz magnetic fields, administered by whole body exposure to F344/N rats, Sprague-Dawley rats, and B6C3F1 mice. Toxicity report series

    SciTech Connect

    Boorman, G.A.

    1996-09-01

    Electric and magnetic fields are associated with the production, transmission, and use of electricity; thus the potential for human exposure is high. These electric and magnetic fields are predominantly of low frequency (60 Hz) and generally of low intensity. The prevailing view among physicists is that exposure to these low-frequency, low-intensity fields does not pose a health hazard. However, this view has been challenged by reports linking magnetic field exposure to the development of leukemia and other cancers. Because multiple epidemiologic studies suggested a potential for increased cancer rates with increasing exposure, and because of public concern, the effects of 60-Hz magnetic field exposure were examined in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice in 8-week full-body-exposure studies. Animals were evaluated for hematology and clinical chemistry (rats only) parameters, pineal gland hormone concentrations, and histopathology. Additional studies were performed in Sprague-Dawley rats to examine teratologic and reproductive effects of magnetic field exposure.

  10. Peri, pre and postnatal morphine exposure: exposure-induced effects and sex differences in the behavioural consequences in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Timár, Julia; Sobor, Melinda; Király, Kornél P; Gyarmati, Susanna; Riba, Pál; Al-Khrasani, Mahmoud; Fürst, Susanna

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated the behavioural consequences of peri, pre and postnatal morphine (MO) exposure in rats. From gestational day 1 dams were treated with either saline or MO subcutaneously once a day (5 mg/kg on the first 2 days, 10 mg/kg subsequently). Spontaneous locomotor activity in a new environment (habituation) and antinociceptive effects of MO were measured separately in male and female pups after weaning and also in late adolescence or adulthood. The rewarding effect of MO was assessed by conditioned place preference in adult animals. Both exposure-induced and sex differences were observed. A significant delay in habituation to a new environment and decreased sensitivity to the antinociceptive effect of MO were found in male offspring of MO-treated dams. In contrast, the place preference induced by MO was enhanced in the MO-exposed adult animals and this effect was more marked in females. Prenatal exposure to MO resulted in more marked changes than the postnatal exposure through maternal milk. The results indicate that a medium MO dose administered once-daily results in long-term consequences in offspring and may make them more vulnerable to MO abuse in adulthood.

  11. Valproic Acid Exposure during Early Postnatal Gliogenesis Leads to Autistic-like Behaviors in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mony, Tamanna Jahan; Lee, Jae Won; Dreyfus, Cheryl; DiCicco-Bloom, Emanuel; Lee, Hee Jae

    2016-01-01

    Objective We reported that postnatal exposure of rats to valproic acid (VPA) stimulated proliferation of glial precursors during cortical gliogenesis. However, there are no reports whether enhanced postnatal gliogenesis affects behaviors related to neuropsychiatric disorders. Methods After VPA treatment during the postnatal day (PND) 2 to PND 4, four behavioral test, such as open field locomotor test, elevated plus maze test, three-chamber social interaction test, and passive avoidance test, were performed at PND 21 or 22. Results VPA treated rats showed significant hyperactive behavior in the open field locomotor test (p<0.05). Moreover, the velocity of movement in the VPA group was increased by 69.5% (p<0.01). In the elevated plus maze test, VPA exposed rats expressed significantly lower percentage of time spent on and of entries into open arms more than the control group (p<0.05). Also, both sociability and social preference indices with strangers in the three-chamber social interaction test were significantly lower in the VPA exposed rats (p<0.05). Conclusion Our results suggest that altered glial cell development is another locus at which pathogenetic factors can operate to contribute to the neurodevelopmental disorder. PMID:27776385

  12. Programming Effects of Prenatal Glucocorticoid Exposure with a Postnatal High-Fat Diet in Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Hsieh, Chih-Sung; Tain, You-Lin; Li, Shih-Wen; Yu, Hong-Ren; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Tiao, Miao-Meng; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Huang, Li-Tung

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence has shown that many chronic diseases originate from early life, even before birth, through what are termed as fetal programming effects. Glucocorticoids are frequently used prenatally to accelerate the maturation of the lungs of premature infants. High-fat diets are associated with insulin resistance, but the effects of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure plus a postnatal high-fat diet in diabetes mellitus remain unclear. We administered pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats’ intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle at gestational days 14–20. Male offspring were administered a normal or high-fat diet starting from weaning. We assessed the effects of prenatal steroid exposure plus postnatal high-fat diet on the liver, pancreas, muscle and fat at postnatal day 120. At 15 and 30 min, sugar levels were higher in the dexamethasone plus high-fat diet (DHF) group than the vehicle plus high-fat diet (VHF) group in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT). Serum insulin levels at 15, 30 and 60 min were significantly higher in the VHF group than in the vehicle and normal diet group. Liver insulin receptor and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase mRNA expressions and protein levels were lower in the DHF group. Insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1 mRNA expressions were lower in the epididymal adipose tissue in the VHF and DHF groups. “Programming” of liver or epididymal adipose tissue resulted from prenatal events. Prenatal steroid exposure worsened insulin resistance in animals fed a high-fat diet. PMID:27070590

  13. Piracetam prevents memory deficit induced by postnatal propofol exposure in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-Lin; Li, Feng; Chen, Xin

    2016-05-15

    Postnatal propofol exposure impairs hippocampal synaptic development and memory. However, the effective agent to alleviate the impairments was not verified. In this study, piracetam, a positive allosteric modulator of AMPA receptor was administered following a seven-day propofol regime. Two months after propofol administration, hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term memory decreased, while intraperitoneal injection of piracetam at doses of 100mg/kg and 50mg/kg following last propofol exposure reversed the impairments of memory and LTP. Mechanically, piracetam reversed propofol exposure-induced decrease of BDNF and phosphorylation of mTor. Similar as piracetam, BDNF supplementary also ameliorated propofol-induced abnormalities of synaptic plasticity-related protein expressions, hippocampal LTP and long-term memory. These results suggest that piracetam prevents detrimental effects of propofol, likely via activating BDNF synthesis.

  14. Physical, behavioral, and cognitive effects of prenatal tobacco and postnatal secondhand smoke exposure.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Sherry; Rosenthal, David G; Sherman, Scott; Zelikoff, Judith; Gordon, Terry; Weitzman, Michael

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine the rapidly expanding literature regarding the effects of prenatal tobacco and postnatal secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure on child health and development. Mechanisms of SHS exposure are reviewed, including critical periods during which exposure to tobacco products appears to be particularly harmful to the developing fetus and child. The biological, biochemical, and neurologic effects of the small fraction of identified components of SHS are described. Research describing these adverse effects of both in utero and childhood exposure is reviewed, including findings from both animal models and humans. The following adverse physical outcomes are discussed: sudden infant death syndrome, low birth weight, decreased head circumference, respiratory infections, otitis media, asthma, childhood cancer, hearing loss, dental caries, and the metabolic syndrome. In addition, the association between the following adverse cognitive and behavioral outcomes and such exposures is described: conduct disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, poor academic achievement, and cognitive impairment. The evidence supporting the adverse effects of SHS exposure is extensive yet rapidly expanding due to improving technology and increased awareness of this profound public health problem. The growing use of alternative tobacco products, such as hookahs (a.k.a. waterpipes), and the scant literature on possible effects from prenatal and secondhand smoke exposure from these products are also discussed. A review of the current knowledge of this important subject has implications for future research as well as public policy and clinical practice.

  15. Brown Adipose Tissue Improves Whole-Body Glucose Homeostasis and Insulin Sensitivity in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Chondronikola, Maria; Volpi, Elena; Børsheim, Elisabet; Porter, Craig; Annamalai, Palam; Enerbäck, Sven; Lidell, Martin E.; Saraf, Manish K.; Labbe, Sebastien M.; Hurren, Nicholas M.; Yfanti, Christina; Chao, Tony; Andersen, Clark R.; Cesani, Fernando; Hawkins, Hal

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has attracted scientific interest as an antidiabetic tissue owing to its ability to dissipate energy as heat. Despite a plethora of data concerning the role of BAT in glucose metabolism in rodents, the role of BAT (if any) in glucose metabolism in humans remains unclear. To investigate whether BAT activation alters whole-body glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in humans, we studied seven BAT-positive (BAT+) men and five BAT-negative (BAT−) men under thermoneutral conditions and after prolonged (5–8 h) cold exposure (CE). The two groups were similar in age, BMI, and adiposity. CE significantly increased resting energy expenditure, whole-body glucose disposal, plasma glucose oxidation, and insulin sensitivity in the BAT+ group only. These results demonstrate a physiologically significant role of BAT in whole-body energy expenditure, glucose homeostasis, and insulin sensitivity in humans, and support the notion that BAT may function as an antidiabetic tissue in humans. PMID:25056438

  16. Kinematic features of whole-body reaching movements underwater: Neutral buoyancy effects.

    PubMed

    Macaluso, T; Bourdin, C; Buloup, F; Mille, M-L; Sainton, P; Sarlegna, F R; Taillebot, V; Vercher, J-L; Weiss, P; Bringoux, L

    2016-07-07

    Astronauts' training is conventionally performed in a pool to reproduce weightlessness by exploiting buoyancy which is supposed to reduce the impact of gravity on the body. However, this training method has not been scientifically validated yet, and requires first to study the effects of underwater exposure on motor behavior. We examined the influence of neutral buoyancy on kinematic features of whole-body reaching underwater and compared them with those produced on land. Eight professional divers were asked to perform arm reaching movements toward visual targets while standing. Targets were presented either close or far from the subjects (requiring in the latter case an additional whole-body displacement). Reaching movements were performed on land or underwater in two different contexts of buoyancy. The divers either wore a diving suit only with neutral buoyancy applied to their center of mass or were additionally equipped with a submersible simulated space suit with neutral buoyancy applied to their body limbs. Results showed that underwater exposure impacted basic movement features, especially movement speed which was reduced. However, movement kinematics also differed according to the way buoyancy was exerted on the whole-body. When neutral buoyancy was applied to the center of mass only, some focal and postural components of whole-body reaching remained close to land observations, notably when considering the relative deceleration duration of arm elevation and concomitant forward trunk bending when reaching the far target. On the contrary, when neutral buoyancy was exerted on body segments, movement kinematics were close to those reported in weightlessness, as reflected by the arm deceleration phase and the whole-body forward displacement when reaching the far target. These results suggest that astronauts could benefit from the application of neutral buoyancy across the whole-body segments to optimize underwater training and acquire specific motor skills which

  17. Structural changes in the adult rat auditory system induced by brief postnatal noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Ouda, Ladislav; Burianová, Jana; Balogová, Zuzana; Lu, Hui Pin; Syka, Josef

    2016-01-01

    In previous studies (Grécová et al., Eur J Neurosci 29:1921-1930, 2009; Bures et al., Eur J Neurosci 32:155-164, 2010), we demonstrated that after an early postnatal short noise exposure (8 min 125 dB, day 14) changes in the frequency tuning curves as well as changes in the coding of sound intensity are present in the inferior colliculus (IC) of adult rats. In this study, we analyze on the basis of the Golgi-Cox method the morphology of neurons in the IC, the medial geniculate body (MGB) and the auditory cortex (AC) of 3-month-old Long-Evans rats exposed to identical noise at postnatal day 14 and compare the results to littermate controls. In rats exposed to noise as pups, the mean total length of the neuronal tree was found to be larger in the external cortex and the central nucleus of the IC and in the ventral division of the MGB. In addition, the numerical density of dendritic spines was decreased on the branches of neurons in the ventral division of the MGB in noise-exposed animals. In the AC, the mean total length of the apical dendritic segments of pyramidal neurons was significantly shorter in noise-exposed rats, however, only slight differences with respect to controls were observed in the length of basal dendrites of pyramidal cells as well as in the neuronal trees of AC non-pyramidal neurons. The numerical density of dendritic spines on the branches of pyramidal AC neurons was lower in exposed rats than in controls. These findings demonstrate that early postnatal short noise exposure can induce permanent changes in the development of neurons in the central auditory system, which apparently represent morphological correlates of functional plasticity.

  18. Thromboxane and prostacyclin synthesis following whole body irradiation in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Schneidkraut, M.J.; Kot, P.A.; Ramwell, P.W.; Rose, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of radiation on the mechanism and source of in vivo thromboxane B/sub 2/ (TxB/sub 2/) and 6-keto-prostaglandin F/sub 1..cap alpha../ (6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha..) synthesis was evaluated. Rats were irradiated with 2, 10, or 20 gray (Gy) whole body gamma irradiation and showed an increase in urine TxB/sup 2/ after either 10 or 20 Gy. Urine 6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../ was elevated only after exposure to 20 Gy. Irradiation did not alter urine volume and osmolarity, nor was there a correlation between urine osmolarity and the urinary concentration of TxB/sup 2/ or 6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../. Rats were pretreated with indomethacin to determine if radiation-induced alterations in urine TxB/sup 2/ and 6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../ could be suppressed. Pretreatment with indomethacin significantly decreased urine TxB..cap alpha.. and 6-keto-PFG/sub 1..cap alpha../ in both irradiated and nonirradiated animals. Finally, the sources of urinary cyclooxygenase products were investigated using an isogravitometric cross-perfusion system. These experiments demonstrated that urine TxB..cap alpha.. is derived from extrarenal sources, whereas 6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha.. is synthesized primarily by the kidney. It may be concluded that radiation exposure increases in vivo cyclooxygenase pathway activity by both renal and ultrarenal tissues.

  19. Identification of gene expression changes in postnatal rat foreskin after in utero anti-androgen exposure.

    PubMed

    Pike, Jack W; McDowell, Erin; McCahan, Suzanne M; Johnson, Kamin J

    2014-08-01

    In utero human phthalate exposure has been associated with male reproductive disorders in epidemiological studies, but discovering relationships is hindered by the lack of identifying markers. This study identified gene expression changes following in utero dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and flutamide exposures in Sprague-Dawley rat foreskin. Dams were exposed to 100 or 500mg/kg/day dibutyl phthalate or 5mg/kg/day flutamide from gestational days 16-20. Microarray analysis was performed on foreskin tissue from gestational day 20 and postnatal day 5. Expression changes found following DBP exposure were not present following flutamide treatment, indicating that expression changes were specific to DBP exposure and not caused by altered androgen signaling. Genes that were expressed at lower levels in tissue from pups treated with the low dose of DBP were reduced more in pups treated with the high dose of DBP, demonstrating a dose response effect of this compound. Changes in expression of Marcks, Pum1, Nupr1, and Penk caused by in utero phthalate exposure were confirmed by qRT-PCR. Changes in expression of these genes were maintained after birth and consequently their expression could serve as markers of chemical exposure and biological response.

  20. Prenatal neuroleptic exposure alters postnatal striatal cholinergic activity in the rat.

    PubMed

    Miller, J C; Friedhoff, A J

    1986-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that prenatal exposure to a neuroleptic during a critical period of gestation in the rat results in a marked deficit in the number of striatal dopamine-binding sites and in a diminution of dopamine agonist-induced stereotyped behavior. In the present studies, we examined the effect of prenatal neuroleptic exposure on biochemical parameters of cholinergic activity to determine whether the balance between striatal dopaminergic and cholinergic activity might be altered. The number of muscarinic cholinergic-binding sites and the specific activity of choline acetyltransferase were found to be significantly increased by prenatal treatment with the neuroleptics haloperidol or (+)-butaclamol. From the present studies and previous observations made in our laboratory, it is concluded that the ability of a neuroleptic to affect the number of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in postnatal life may be a result of the phenotypically undifferentiated state of the developing dopamine-binding site. Our findings of increased striatal cholinergic activity accompanied by a marked decrease in dopaminergic activity may have implications for an increased vulnerability to extrapyramidal motor disturbances during postnatal development.

  1. Whole body vibration and cerebral palsy: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Duquette, Sean A.; Guiliano, Anthony M.; Starmer, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this review is to evaluate the effects of whole body vibration on outcomes in patients with cerebral palsy. The findings in this review may help clinicians make evidence informed decisions on the use of whole body vibration for cerebral palsy. Methods: A systematic search was conducted on April 29, 2014.The following search terms were used to search of several databases: (whole body vibration OR whole-body vibration OR whole body-vibration OR WBV) AND (cerebral palsy). Articles that met the inclusion criteria were assessed using the Scottish intercollegiate guidelines network (SIGN) rating system to assess the methodology and bias of the articles for randomized control trials. Results: The search produced 25 articles, of which 12 duplicates were identified and removed. Another seven articles were not considered since they did not fit the inclusion criteria, leaving a total of five studies for review. Four of the articles analyzed the effects of WBV in children while the other study focused on adults with cerebral palsy. There was one low quality article, four acceptable quality articles and one high quality article when assessed using the SIGN criteria. Conclusions: It appears that whole body vibration has the potential to provide symptomatic relief for patients with cerebral palsy. Whole body vibration may improve spasticity, muscle strength and coordination. There is a lack of research to conclusively determine whether it does alter bone mineral density. PMID:26500358

  2. Whole-Body Vibration Assessment of the M1070 Heavy Equipment Transporter. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    vibration , health hazard assessment, exposure 05 09 limits, tactical vehicles, terrain, crewmembers 20 11 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary...and identify by block number) An evaluation of all new tactical vehicles and aircraft is required to assess potential whole-body vibration ( WBV ...minimal exposure times with respect to axis, vibration frequency, vehicle speed, and test course ........... . . 12 7. Front passenger seat HSEL for

  3. Adolescent initiation of licit and illicit substance use: Impact of intrauterine exposures and post-natal exposure to violence.

    PubMed

    Frank, Deborah A; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Crooks, Denise; Cabral, Howard J; Gerteis, Jessie; Hacker, Karen A; Martin, Brett; Weinstein, Zohar B; Heeren, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Whether intrauterine exposures to alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, or cocaine predispose offspring to substance use in adolescence has not been established. We followed a sample of 149 primarily African American/African Caribbean, urban adolescents, recruited at term birth, until age 16 to investigate intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE). We found that in Kaplan-Meier analyses higher levels of IUCE were associated with a greater likelihood of initiation of any substance (licit or illicit), as well as marijuana and alcohol specifically. Adolescent initiation of other illicit drugs and cigarettes were analyzed only in the "any" summary variable since they were used too infrequently to analyze as individual outcomes. In Cox proportional hazard models controlling for intrauterine exposure to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana and demographic and post-natal covariates, those who experienced heavier IUCE had a greater likelihood of initiation of any substance, and those with lighter intrauterine marijuana exposure had a greater likelihood of initiation of any substance as well as of marijuana specifically. Time-dependent higher levels of exposure to violence between ages of 8 and 16 were also robustly associated with initiation of any licit or illicit substance, and of marijuana, and alcohol particularly.

  4. Whole-body cryotherapy: empirical evidence and theoretical perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Bleakley, Chris M; Bieuzen, François; Davison, Gareth W; Costello, Joseph T

    2014-01-01

    Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) involves short exposures to air temperatures below −100°C. WBC is increasingly accessible to athletes, and is purported to enhance recovery after exercise and facilitate rehabilitation postinjury. Our objective was to review the efficacy and effectiveness of WBC using empirical evidence from controlled trials. We found ten relevant reports; the majority were based on small numbers of active athletes aged less than 35 years. Although WBC produces a large temperature gradient for tissue cooling, the relatively poor thermal conductivity of air prevents significant subcutaneous and core body cooling. There is weak evidence from controlled studies that WBC enhances antioxidant capacity and parasympathetic reactivation, and alters inflammatory pathways relevant to sports recovery. A series of small randomized studies found WBC offers improvements in subjective recovery and muscle soreness following metabolic or mechanical overload, but little benefit towards functional recovery. There is evidence from one study only that WBC may assist rehabilitation for adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. There were no adverse events associated with WBC; however, studies did not seem to undertake active surveillance of predefined adverse events. Until further research is available, athletes should remain cognizant that less expensive modes of cryotherapy, such as local ice-pack application or cold-water immersion, offer comparable physiological and clinical effects to WBC. PMID:24648779

  5. Dose esclation in radioimmunotherapy based on projected whole body dose

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, R.L.; Kaminski, M.S.; Regan, D.

    1994-05-01

    A variety of approaches have been utilized in conducting phase I radioimmunotherapy dose-escalation trials. Escalation of dose has been based on graded increases in administered mCi; mCi/kg; or mCi/m2. It is also possible to escalate dose based on tracer-projected marrow, blood or whole body radiation dose. We describe our results in performing a dose-escalation trial in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma based on escalating administered whole-body radiation dose. The mCi dose administered was based on a patient-individualized tracer projected whole-body dose. 25 patients were entered on the study. RIT with 131 I anti-B-1 was administered to 19 patients. The administered dose was prescribed based on the projected whole body dose, determined from patient-individualized tracer studies performed prior to RIT. Whole body dose estimates were based on the assumption that the patient was an ellipsoid, with 131 antibody kinetics determined using a whole-body probe device acquiring daily conjugate views of 1 minute duration/view. Dose escalation levels proceeded with 10 cGy increments from 25 cGy whole-body and continues, now at 75 cGy. The correlation among potential methods of dose escalation and toxicity was assessed. Whole body radiation dose by probe was strongly correlated with the blood radiation dose determined from sequential blood sampling during tracer studies (r=.87). Blood radiation dose was very weakly correlated with mCi dose (r=.4) and mCi/kg (r=.45). Whole body radiation dose appeared less well-correlated with injected dose in mCi (r=.6), or mCi/kg (r=.64). Toxicity has been infrequent in these patients, but appears related to increasing whole body dose. Non-invasive determination of whole-body radiation dose by gamma probe represents a non-invasive method of estimating blood radiation dose, and thus of estimating bone marrow radiation dose.

  6. An iOS Application for Evaluating Whole-body Vibration Within a Workplace Risk Management Process.

    PubMed

    McGlothlin, James; Burgess-Limerick, R; Lynas, D

    2015-01-01

    Workplace management of whole-body vibration exposure requires systematic collection of whole-body vibration data in conjunction with the numerous variables which influence vibration amplitudes. The cost and complexity of commercially available measurement devices is an impediment to the routine collection of such data by workplaces. An iOS application (WBV) has been developed which allows an iPod Touch to be used to measure whole-body vibration exposures. The utility of the application was demonstrated by simultaneously obtaining 98 pairs of whole-body vibration measurements from both the iPod Touch application and a commercially available whole-body vibration device during the operation of a variety of vehicles and mobile plant in operation at a surface coal mine. The iOS application installed on a fifth-generation iPod Touch was shown to provide a 95% confidence of +/- 0.077 m/s(2) r.m.s. constant error for the vertical direction. Situations in which vibration levels lay within the ISO2631.1 health guidance caution zone were accurately identified, and the qualitative features of the frequency spectra were reproduced. The low cost and relative simplicity of the application has potential to facilitate its use as a screening tool to identify situations in which musculoskeletal disorders may arise as a consequence of exposure to whole-body vibration.

  7. Guidelines for Whole-Body Vibration Health Surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    POPE, M.; MAGNUSSON, M.; LUNDSTRÖM, R.; HULSHOF, C.; VERBEEK, J.; BOVENZI, M.

    2002-05-01

    examination, which includes recording any change in exposure to WBV. The findings for the individual should be compared with previous examinations. Group data should also be compiled periodically. Medical removal may be considered along with re-placement in working practices without exposure to WBV. This paper presents opinions on health surveillance for whole-body vibration developed within a working group of partners funded on a European Community Network (BIOMED2 concerted action BMH4-CT98-3251: Research network on detection and prevention of injuries due to occupational vibration exposures). The health surveillance protocol and the draft questionnaire with explanation comments are presented for wider consideration by the science community and others before being considered appropriate for implementation.

  8. Detrimental effects of postnatal exposure to propofol on memory and hippocampal LTP in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-Lin; Chen, Xin; Wang, Zhi-Ping

    2015-10-05

    Acute effects of propofol on memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) in adult animals were reported. However, long-term effect of early postnatal application of propofol on memory was not totally disclosed. In this study, experiments were designed to verify the mechanisms underlying the long-term detrimental effects of propofol on memory and hippocampal synaptic plasticity. A consecutive propofol protocol from postnatal day 7 was applied to model anesthesia, long term memory and hippocampal synaptic plasticity were detected 2 months later. Our results showed that repeated propofol exposure in early phase affect the memory in the adult phase. Through recording the field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) at Schaffer colletaral-CA1 synapses, both of basal synaptic transmission and hippocampal LTP were decreased after propofol application. While LTD induced by low frequency stimulation and 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (3,5-DHPG) were not affected. Through analyzing the ultrastructure of dendrite in CA1 region, we found that propofol application decreased the spine density, which was consistent with the decrease of PSD-95 expression. In addition, p-AKT level was reduced after first propofol application. Intracerebroventricular injection of Akt inhibitor could mimic the propofol effects on basal synaptic transmission, hippocampal LTP and memory. Taken together, these results suggested that propofol possibly decreased AKT signaling pathway to restrict the spine development, finally leading to hippocampal LTP impairment and memory deficit.

  9. Effects of postnatal alcohol exposure on hippocampal gene expression and learning in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Moon, Jihye; Ryu, Jinhyun; Jeong, Joo Yeon; Roh, Gu Seob; Kim, Hyun Joon; Cho, Gyeong Jae; Choi, Wan Sung; Kang, Sang Soo

    2016-04-28

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a condition resulting from excessive drinking by pregnant women. Symptoms of FAS include abnormal facial features, stunted growth, intellectual deficits and attentional dysfunction. Many studies have investigated FAS, but its underlying mechanisms remain unknown. This study evaluated the relationship between alcohol exposure during the synaptogenesis period in postnatal mice and subsequent cognitive function in adult mice. We delivered two injections, separated by 2 h, of ethanol (3 g/kg, ethanol/saline, 20% v/v) to ICR mice on postnatal day 7. After 10 weeks, we conducted a behavioral test, sacrificed the animals, harvested brain tissue and analyzed hippocampal gene expression using a microarray. In ethanol-treated mice, there was a reduction in brain size and decreased neuronal cell number in the cortex, and also cognitive impairment. cDNA microarray results indicated that 1,548 genes showed a > 2-fold decrease in expression relative to control, whereas 974 genes showed a > 2-fold increase in expression relative to control. Many of these genes were related to signal transduction, synaptogenesis and cell membrane formation, which are highlighted in our findings.

  10. Prenatal and postnatal tobacco smoke exposure and development of insulin resistance in 10 year old children.

    PubMed

    Thiering, Elisabeth; Brüske, Irene; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Thiery, Joachim; Sausenthaler, Stefanie; Meisinger, Christa; Koletzko, Sibylle; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Schaaf, Beate; von Berg, Andrea; Berdel, Dietrich; Lehmann, Irina; Herbarth, Olf; Krämer, Ursula; Wichmann, H Erich; Heinrich, Joachim

    2011-09-01

    In this study, we evaluated the association between prenatal and postnatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and the development of insulin resistance in 10 year old children. Fasting blood samples were collected from 470 children participating in two prospective birth cohorts. Of those 276 were selected population based and enriched with 194 children exceeding the 85th percentile of body mass index in this age group. Children already having diabetes type 1 or 2 at the age of 10 years were excluded. Fasting blood insulin and glucose levels and calculated HOMA index for insulin resistance assessment were analysed using generalised additive models. Potential confounders were adjusted for. Insulin resistance was increased by 24% in children frequently exposed to environmental tobacco smoke during childhood (MR(adj) = 1.24, p = 0.001), while glucose levels were not. Exclusion of prenatally exposed children did not attenuate the association (MR(adj) = 1.25, p = 0.006). After stratification, the effect sizes were identical within overweight children and the population based sample of children. Insulin resistance and fasting insulin levels were increasing with increasing numbers of cigarettes smoked in children's home. Maternal smoking during the third trimester of pregnancy increased children's insulin levels (MR(adj) = 1.19, p = 0.037), and even more so, if children were exclusively breastfed after birth (MR(adj) = 1.31, p = 0.016). Increased mean ratios were found for smoking of a third person in addition to maternal smoking. Positive dose-dependent associations and independent effects of postnatal exposure suggest involvement of environmental tobacco smoke in the risk for development of insulin resistance in children.

  11. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Fish Consumption Advisories: Modeling Prenatal, Postnatal, and Childhood Exposures to Persistent Organic Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Binnington, Matthew J.; Quinn, Cristina L.; McLachlan, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Because human exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) occurs mainly through ingestion of contaminated food, regulatory bodies issue dietary consumption advisories to describe safe intake levels for food items of concern, particularly fish. Objectives: Our study goal was to estimate the effectiveness of fish consumption advisories in reducing exposure of infants and children to POPs. Methods: We used the time-variant mechanistic model CoZMoMAN to estimate and compare prenatal, postnatal, and childhood exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl congener PCB-153 under different scenarios of maternal guideline adherence for both hypothetical constant and realistic time-variant chemical emissions. The scenarios differed in terms of length of compliance (1 vs. 5 years), extent of fish substitution (all vs. half), and replacement diet (uncontaminated produce vs. beef). We also estimated potential exposure reductions for a range of theoretical chemicals to explore how guideline effectiveness varies with a chemical’s partitioning and degradation properties. Results: When assuming realistic time periods of advisory compliance, our findings suggest that temporarily eliminating or reducing maternal fish consumption is largely ineffective in reducing pre- and postnatal exposure to substances with long elimination half-lives in humans, especially during periods of decreasing environmental emissions. Substituting fish with beef may actually result in higher exposure to certain groups of environmental contaminants. On the other hand, advisories may be highly effective in reducing exposure to substances with elimination half-lives in humans shorter than the length of compliance. Conclusions: Our model estimates suggest that fish consumption advisories are unlikely to be effective in reducing prenatal, postnatal, and childhood exposures to compounds with long elimination half-lives in humans. Citation: Binnington MJ, Quinn CL, McLachlan MS, Wania F. 2014. Evaluating

  12. The Relationship between Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Cognitive, Neuropsychological, and Behavioral Deficits: A Critical Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicchetti, Domenic V.; Kaufman, Alan S.; Sparrow, Sara S.

    2004-01-01

    Our purpose in this report is to evaluate scientifically that body of literature relating the effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) upon neurobehavioral, health-related, and cognitive deficits in neonates, developing infants, children, and adults. The data derive from seven cohorts: six cohorts of mothers…

  13. Behavioral Effects of Pre- and Postnatal Exposure to Smoking, Alcohol, and Caffeine in 5-Month-Old Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowler, Jeffrey K.; Jacobson, Sandra W.

    This study examined the behavioral effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to smoking, alcohol, and caffeinated beverages on 5-month-old infants. The sample consisted of 179 Caucasian infants and their mothers. All mothers were 19 years of age or older and had at least a tenth-grade education. Mental and motor portions of the Bayley Scales of…

  14. Postnatal development of rat pups is altered by prenatal methamphetamine exposure.

    PubMed

    Slamberová, Romana; Pometlová, Marie; Charousová, Petra

    2006-01-01

    There are studies showing that drug abuse during pregnancy may have impairing effect on progeny of drug-abusing mothers. Methamphetamine (MA) is one of the most common illicit drugs throughout the world. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of prenatal MA exposure on postnatal development of rat pups before the time of separation from their mothers. Female rats were injected with MA (5 mg/kg daily) for the duration of their pregnancy. Pups were then tested throughout the lactation period. They were weighed daily and the ano-genital distance was measured on postnatal day (PD) 1. Development of postural motor reaction was tested by righting reflex on surface between PD 1 and 12, and righting reflex in mid-air after PD 12 until successfully accomplished. On PD 15 homing test was examined as a test of pup acute learning. On PD 23 sensory-motor coordination was examined using the rotarod and bar-holding tests. Additionally, the markers of physical maturation, such as eye opening, testes descent in males and vaginal opening in females were also recorded. The birth weight in prenatally MA-exposed pups was lower than in controls or saline-exposed pups regardless of sex. There were no changes induced by prenatal MA exposure in weight gain or in sexual maturation. In righting reflexes, we demonstrated that pups exposed prenatally to MA were slower in righting reflex on surface and that they accomplished the test of righting reflex in mid-air later than controls or saline-exposed pups. The performance of homing test was not affected by prenatal drug exposure. The sensory-motor coordination was impaired in prenatally MA-exposed pups when testing in the rotarod test. Also, the number of falls in the bar-holding test was higher in MA-exposed pups than in controls. There were no sex differences in any measures. Thus, the present study demonstrated that prenatal MA exposure impairs development of postural motor movements of rat pups during the first 3 weeks

  15. Sex-based differences in gene expression in hippocampus following postnatal lead exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.S. Anderson, D.W.; Sonnenahalli, H.; Vadigepalli, R.

    2011-10-15

    The influence of sex as an effect modifier of childhood lead poisoning has received little systematic attention. Considering the paucity of information available concerning the interactive effects of lead and sex on the brain, the current study examined the interactive effects of lead and sex on gene expression patterns in the hippocampus, a structure involved in learning and memory. Male or female rats were fed either 1500 ppm lead-containing chow or control chow for 30 days beginning at weaning.Blood lead levels were 26.7 {+-} 2.1 {mu}g/dl and 27.1 {+-} 1.7 {mu}g/dl for females and males, respectively. The expression of 175 unique genes was differentially regulated between control male and female rats. A total of 167 unique genes were differentially expressed in response to lead in either males or females. Lead exposure had a significant effect without a significant difference between male and female responses in 77 of these genes. In another set of 71 genes, there were significant differences in male vs. female response. A third set of 30 genes was differentially expressed in opposite directions in males vs. females, with the majority of genes expressed at a lower level in females than in males. Highly differentially expressed genes in males and females following lead exposure were associated with diverse biological pathways and functions. These results show that a brief exposure to lead produced significant changes in expression of a variety of genes in the hippocampus and that the response of the brain to a given lead exposure may vary depending on sex. - Highlights: > Postnatal lead exposure has a significant effect on hippocampal gene expression patterns. > At least one set of genes was affected in opposite directions in males and females. > Differentially expressed genes were associated with diverse biological pathways.

  16. Association of prenatal maternal or postnatal child environmental tobacco smoke exposure and neurodevelopmental and behavioral problems in children.

    PubMed Central

    Eskenazi, B; Castorina, R

    1999-01-01

    We review the potential neurodevelopmental and behavioral effects of children's prenatal and/or postnatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Children's exposure to ETS has been assessed in epidemiologic studies as a risk factor for a variety of behavioral and neurodevelopmental problems including reduced general intellectual ability, skills in language and auditory tasks, and academic achievement, and behavioral problems such as hyperactivity and decreased attention spans. We review 17 epidemiologic studies that have attempted to separate the effects of maternal active smoking during pregnancy from passive ETS smoke exposure by the pregnant mother or the child. Based on the available data, we found that ETS exposure could cause subtle changes in children's neurodevelopment and behavior. However, studies to date are difficult to interpret because of the unknown influence of uncontrolled confounding factors, imprecision in measurements of smoking exposure, and collinearity of pre- and postnatal maternal smoking. Although some evidence suggests that maternal smoking during pregnancy may be associated with deficits in intellectual ability and behavioral problems in children, the impact of prenatal or postnatal ETS exposure remains less clear. PMID:10585903

  17. Whole-Body Clinical Applications of Digital Tomosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Machida, Haruhiko; Yuhara, Toshiyuki; Tamura, Mieko; Ishikawa, Takuya; Tate, Etsuko; Ueno, Eiko; Nye, Katelyn; Sabol, John M

    2016-01-01

    With flat-panel detector mammography, radiography, and fluoroscopy systems, digital tomosynthesis (DT) has been recently introduced as an advanced clinical application that removes overlying structures, enhances local tissue separation, and provides depth information about structures of interest by providing high-quality tomographic images. DT images are generated from projection image data, typically using filtered back-projection or iterative reconstruction. These low-dose x-ray projection images are easily and swiftly acquired over a range of angles during a single linear or arc sweep of the x-ray tube assembly. DT is advantageous in a variety of clinical contexts, including breast, chest, head and neck, orthopedic, emergency, and abdominal imaging. Specifically, compared with conventional mammography, radiography, and fluoroscopy, as a result of reduced tissue overlap DT can improve detection of breast cancer, pulmonary nodules, sinonasal mucosal thickening, and bone fractures and delineation of complex anatomic structures such as the ostiomeatal unit, atlantoaxial joint, carpal and tarsal bones, and pancreatobiliary and gastrointestinal tracts. Compared with computed tomography, DT offers reduced radiation exposure, better in-plane resolution to improve assessment of fine bony changes, and less metallic artifact, improving postoperative evaluation of patients with metallic prostheses and osteosynthesis materials. With more flexible patient positioning, DT is also useful for functional, weight-bearing, and stress tests. To optimize patient management, a comprehensive understanding of the clinical applications and limitations of whole-body DT applications is important for improvement of diagnostic quality, workflow, and cost-effectiveness. Online supplemental material is available for this article. (©)RSNA, 2016.

  18. Effect of postnatal lead exposure on the development of sympathetic innervation of the heart. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    To determine possible mechanisms for this Pb-induced cardiotoxicity, several neutrochemical parameters indicative of cardiac sympathetic innervation were measured in developing rats. Presynaptic indices of nerve terminal development which were studied included steady-state levels of norepinephrine, neuronal uptake and vesicular storage of /sup 3/H-norepinephrine. Analysis of postsynaptic development was accomplished by quantitating the density of ..beta..-adrenergic receptors and by measuring the activity of adenylate cyclase. Rat pups were exposed to Pb from birth to weaning (21 days) via the milk of dams whose drinking water contained 0.2% Pb acetate. This method and level of Pb treatment had no effect on body or heart weight development, however, it did result in a seven-fold increase in the blood Pb content (70-75 ..mu..g/dl) of the treated pups during the period of exposure. Pb exposure accelerated the development of sympathetic innervation of the heart as detected by significant increases in the vesicular uptake of /sup 3/H-norepinephrine and the steady-state concentration of norepinephrine measured at postnatal day 4. On the other hand, ontogeny of the neutronal uptake of /sup 3/H-norepinephrine in the heart and in the forebrain was not affected by Pb treatment. The apparent premature development of sympathetic innervation induced by Pb treatment was not reflected in significant alterations in either the density or the affinity of ..beta..-adrenergic receptor sites determined by the binding kinetics of /sup 3/H-dihydroalprenolol.

  19. Early Postnatal Lipopolysaccharide Exposure Leads to Enhanced Neurogenesis and Impaired Communicative Functions in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xuemei; Roller, Anna; Carter, Kathleen; Paul, Ian; Bhatt, Abhay J.; Lin, Rick C. S.; Fan, Lir-Wan

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal infection is a well-identified risk factor for a number of neurodevelopmental disorders, including brain white matter injury (WMI) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The underlying mechanisms by which early life inflammatory events cause aberrant neural, cytoarchitectural, and network organization, remain elusive. This study is aimed to investigate how systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation affects microglia phenotypes and early neural developmental events in rats. We show here that LPS exposure at early postnatal day 3 leads to a robust microglia activation which is characterized with mixed microglial proinflammatory (M1) and anti-inflammatory (M2) phenotypes. More specifically, we found that microglial M1 markers iNOS and MHC-II were induced at relatively low levels in a regionally restricted manner, whereas M2 markers CD206 and TGFβ were strongly upregulated in a sub-set of activated microglia in multiple white and gray matter structures. This unique microglial response was associated with a marked decrease in naturally occurring apoptosis, but an increase in cell proliferation in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the dentate gyrus (DG) of hippocampus. LPS exposure also leads to a significant increase in oligodendrocyte lineage population without causing discernible hypermyelination. Moreover, LPS-exposed rats exhibited significant impairments in communicative and cognitive functions. These findings suggest a possible role of M2-like microglial activation in abnormal neural development that may underlie ASD-like behavioral impairments. PMID:27723799

  20. Influence of antibiotic exposure in the early postnatal period on the development of intestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shigemitsu; Kobayashi, Takako; Songjinda, Prapa; Tateyama, Atsushi; Tsubouchi, Mina; Kiyohara, Chikako; Shirakawa, Taro; Sonomoto, Kenji; Nakayama, Jiro

    2009-06-01

    The influence of antibiotic exposure in the early postnatal period on the development of intestinal microbiota was monitored in 26 infants including five antibiotic-treated (AT) subjects orally administered a broad-spectrum antibiotic for the first 4 days of life and three caesarean-delivered (CD) subjects whose mothers were intravenously injected by the similar type of antibiotics in the same period. The faecal bacterial composition was analysed daily for the first 5 days and monthly for the first 2 months. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms in the AT subjects showed less diversity with the attenuation of the colonization of some bacterial groups, especially in Bifidobacterium and unusual colonization of Enterococcus in the first week than the control antibiotic-free infants (AF, n=18). Quantitative real-time PCR showed overgrowth of enterococci (day 3, P=0.01; day 5, P=0.003; month 1, P=0.01) and arrested growth of Bifidobacterium (day 3, P=0.03) in the AT group. Furthermore, after 1 month, the Enterobacteriaceae population was markedly higher in the AT group than in the AF group (month 1, P=0.02; month 2, P=0.02). CD infants sustained similar, although relatively weaker, alteration in the developing microbiota. These results indicate that antibiotic exposure at the beginning of life greatly influences the development of neonatal intestinal microbiota.

  1. Whole-body MRI in pediatric patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Marcos Duarte; Noschang, Julia; Teixeira, Sara Reis; Santos, Marcel Koenigkam; Lederman, Henrique Manoel; Tostes, Vivian; Kundra, Vikas; Oliveira, Alex Dias; Hochhegger, Bruno; Marchiori, Edson

    2017-02-10

    Cancer is the leading cause of natural death in the pediatric populations of developed countries, yet cure rates are greater than 70% when a cancer is diagnosed in its early stages. Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging methods have markedly improved diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, while avoiding the risks of ionizing radiation that are associated with most conventional radiological methods, such as computed tomography and positron emission tomography/computed tomography. The advent of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in association with the development of metabolic- and function-based techniques has led to the use of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging for the screening, diagnosis, staging, response assessment, and post-therapeutic follow-up of children with solid sporadic tumours or those with related genetic syndromes. Here, the advantages, techniques, indications, and limitations of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in the management of pediatric oncology patients are presented.

  2. The consequences of prenatal and/or postnatal methamphetamine exposure on neonatal development and behaviour in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    McDonnell-Dowling, Kate; Kelly, John P

    2015-12-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) has become a popular drug of abuse in recent years not only in the general population but also amongst pregnant women. Although there is a growing body of preclinical investigations of MA exposure during pregnancy, there has been little investigation of the consequences of such exposure via the breast milk during the neonatal period. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the consequences of MA exposure during pregnancy and lactation on neurodevelopment and behaviour in the rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams received MA (3.75 mg/kg) or control (distilled water) once daily via oral gavage from gestation day 7-21, postnatal day 1-21 or gestation day 7- postnatal day 21. A range of well-recognised neurodevelopmental parameters were examined in the offspring. Prenatal MA significantly reduced maternal weight gain, with a concomitant reduction in food intake. A significant increase in neonatal pup mortality was observed, being most marked in the prenatal/postnatal MA group. Significant impairments in neurodevelopmental parameters were also evident in all MA treatment groups including somatic development (e.g. pinna unfolding, fur appearance, eye opening) and behavioural development (e.g. surface righting, inclined plane test, forelimb grip). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that exposure to MA during any of these exposure periods (prenatal and/or postnatal) can have a profound effect on neonatal outcome, suggesting that regardless of the exposure period MA is associated with detrimental consequences in the offspring. These results indicate that in the clinical scenario, exposure during lactation needs to be considered when assessing the potential harmful effects of MA on offspring development.

  3. Measurement of whole body cellular and collagen nitrogen, potassium, and other elements by neutron activation and whole body counting

    SciTech Connect

    James, H.M.; Fabricius, P.J.; Dykes, P.W.

    1987-09-01

    Whole body nitrogen can be measured by neutron activation analysis with an acceptable radiation dose; it is an index of body protein which, in normal subjects, is 65% cellular protein and 35% extracellular connective collagen. Whole body potassium can be measured by whole body counting without irradiating the subject; it is an index of body cell mass. We measured whole body nitrogen, potassium, extracellular water, intracellular water, and fat-folds. The differences between 37 malnourished patients and five normal subjects suggested that the patients had 9 kg less cell mass than normal, but no difference in extracellular mass. Measurements were made on eight patients before and after 14 days of total parenteral nutrition; balance of nitrogen intake and excretion also was measured. The changes were consistent with mean increases of 3 kg of cellular mass and 3 kg of fat with no change of extracellular mass. The accuracy and sensitivity of the whole body measurements need further confirmation for use in patients with changing body composition. Where tissue wasting is largely from the cellular compartment, potassium could be a more sensitive index of wasting than nitrogen. Multielement analysis of nitrogen, potassium, chlorine, and carbon will probably be valuable in elucidating body composition in malnutrition.

  4. Design specification for the whole-body algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzjerrell, D. G.

    1974-01-01

    The necessary requirements and guidelines for the construction of a computer program of the whole-body algorithm are presented. The minimum subsystem models required to effectively simulate the total body response to stresses of interest are (1) cardiovascular (exercise/LBNP/tilt); (2) respiratory (Grodin's model); (3) thermoregulatory (Stolwijk's model); and (4) long-term circulatory fluid and electrolyte (Guyton's model). The whole-body algorithm must be capable of simulating response to stresses from CO2 inhalation, hypoxia, thermal environmental exercise (sitting and supine), LBNP, and tilt (changing body angles in gravity).

  5. Gestational naltrexone ameliorates fetal ethanol exposures enhancing effect on the postnatal behavioral and neural response to ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Youngentob, Steven L; Kent, Paul F; Youngentob, Lisa M

    2012-01-01

    The association between gestational exposure to ethanol and adolescent ethanol abuse is well established. Recent animal studies support the role of fetal ethanol experience-induced chemosensory plasticity as contributing to this observation. Previously, we established that fetal ethanol exposure, delivered through a dam’s diet throughout gestation, tuned the neural response of the peripheral olfactory system of early postnatal rats to the odor of ethanol. This occurred in conjunction with a loss of responsiveness to other odorants. The instinctive behavioral response to the odor of ethanol was also enhanced. Importantly, there was a significant contributory link between the altered response to the odor of ethanol and increased ethanol avidity when assessed in the same animals. Here, we tested whether the neural and behavioral olfactory plasticity, and their relationship to enhanced ethanol intake, is a result of the mere exposure to ethanol or whether it requires the animal to associate ethanol’s reinforcing properties with its odor attributes. In this later respect, the opioid system is important in the mediation (or modulation) of the reinforcing aspects of ethanol. To block endogenous opiates during prenatal life, pregnant rats received daily intraperitoneal administration of the opiate antagonist naltrexone from gestational day 6–21 jointly with ethanol delivered via diet. Relative to control progeny, we found that gestational exposure to naltrexone ameliorated the enhanced postnatal behavioral response to the odor of ethanol and postnatal drug avidity. Our findings support the proposition that in utero ethanol-induced olfactory plasticity (and its relationship to postnatal intake) requires, at least in part, the associative pairing between ethanol’s odor quality and its reinforcing aspects. We also found suggestive evidence that fetal naltrexone ameliorated the untoward effects of gestational ethanol exposure on the neural response to non-fetal-exposure

  6. Small-animal whole-body photoacoustic tomography: a review

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-01-01

    With the wide use of small animals for biomedical studies, in vivo small-animal whole-body imaging plays an increasingly important role. Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is an emerging whole-body imaging modality that shows great potential for preclinical research. As a hybrid technique, PAT is based on the acoustic detection of optical absorption from either endogenous tissue chromophores, such as oxy-hemoglobin and deoxy-hemoglobin, or exogenous contrast agents. Because ultrasound scatters much less than light in tissue, PAT generates high-resolution images in both the optical ballistic and diffusive regimes. Using near-infrared light, which has relatively low blood absorption, PAT can image through the whole body of small animals with acoustically defined spatial resolution. Anatomical and vascular structures are imaged with endogenous hemoglobin contrast, while functional and molecular images are enabled by the wide choice of exogenous optical contrasts. This paper reviews the rapidly growing field of small-animal whole-body PAT and highlights studies done in the past decade. PMID:24108456

  7. Wireless Network for Measurement of Whole-Body Vibration.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Diogo; Chiaramont, Marilda S; Balbinot, Alexandre

    2008-05-06

    This article presents the development of a system integrated to a ZigBee network to measure whole-body vibration. The developed system allows distinguishing human vibrations of almost 400Hz in three axes with acceleration of almost 50g. The tests conducted in the study ensured the correct functioning of the system for the project's purpose.

  8. Whole-Body Listening: Developing Active Auditory Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truesdale, Susanne P.

    1990-01-01

    "Whole-body" activities are presented to teach first grade students what they must do to listen. The lesson plan covers the differences between hearing and listening, the active nature of listening, poor listening behaviors, and how teachers can tell who is a good listener. (JDD)

  9. Student Attitudes to Whole Body Donation Are Influenced by Dissection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Kevin C.; Ettarh, Raj R.

    2008-01-01

    Given the important role that anatomical dissection plays in the shaping of medical student attitudes to life and death, these attitudes have not been evaluated in the context of whole body donation for medical science. First year students of anatomy in an Irish university medical school were surveyed by questionnaire before and after the initial…

  10. Age Modulates Attitudes to Whole Body Donation among Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Gary F.; Ettarh, Raj R.

    2009-01-01

    Managing a whole body donor program is necessary for facilitating a traditional dissection-based anatomy curriculum in medicine and health sciences. Factors which influence body donations to medical science can therefore affect dissection-based anatomy teaching. In order to determine whether age influences the attitudes of medical students to…

  11. Wireless Network for Measurement of Whole-Body Vibration

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Diogo; Chiaramonte, Marilda S.; Balbinot, Alexandre

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the development of a system integrated to a ZigBee network to measure whole-body vibration. The developed system allows distinguishing human vibrations of almost 400Hz in three axes with acceleration of almost 50g. The tests conducted in the study ensured the correct functioning of the system for the project's purpose. PMID:27879866

  12. Pharmacokinetics of ivermectin applied topically by whole-body bathing method in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Miyajima, Atsushi; Hirota, Takashi; Tashiro, Mari; Noguchi, Wataru; Kawano, Yayoi; Hanawa, Takehisa; Kigure, Akira; Anata, Taichi; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Yuasa, Nae; Koshino, Machi; Shiraishi, Yumi; Yuzawa, Kaoru; Akagi, Keita; Yoshimasu, Takashi; Makigami, Kuniko; Komoda, Masayo

    2016-10-15

    As a novel administration method of ivermectin (IVM) for scabies treatment, we proposed a "whole-body bathing method (WBBM)". In this method, the patients would bathe themselves in a bathing fluid containing IVM at an effective concentration. Previously, we demonstrated that WBBM could deliver IVM to the skin but not to the plasma in rats. In the present study, to assess the clinical validity of the method an arm bathing examination (first trial) and a whole-body bathing examination (second trial) were conducted in healthy volunteers. In both the first and second trials, after bathing in fluid containing IVM, the exposure in the stratum corneum was higher compared with that after taking IVM p.o. as reported previously. IVM was not detected in plasma at any sampling point after the whole-body bathing in the second trial. Furthermore no serious adverse events were found. These results in both trials suggest that WBBM can deliver IVM to the human stratum corneum without systemic exposure or serious adverse effects in healthy volunteers, and at concentrations that would be adequate for scabies treatment.

  13. Survival of penicillamine-treated mice following whole-body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, W.F.; Shih-Hoellwarth, A.; Johnson, P.M.

    1980-01-01

    D-penicillamine (..beta..,..beta..-dimetnylcysteine) protected male mice against whole-body radiation lethality when the drug was injected (ip) before but not after irradiation. The LD/sub 50/30/ of control mice was 679 +- 28 rad, compared to values of 709 +- 25, 766 +- 28, and 808 +- 36 rad for animals given 10 or 100 mg penicillamine or 40 mg L-cysteine, respectively, 15 min before whole-body exposure to 500 to 1000 rad of /sup 60/Co-..gamma.. rays. Dose reduction factors were 1.04 +- 0.04 and 1.13 +- 0.04 for low and high doses of penicillamine and 1.19 +- 0.05 for cysteine.

  14. Prenatal amphetamine exposure effects on dopaminergic receptors and transporter in postnatal rats.

    PubMed

    Flores, Gonzalo; de Jesús Gómez-Villalobos, María; Rodríguez-Sosa, Leonardo

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the influence of prenatal amphetamine exposure (PAE) on dopamine (DA) receptors, and dopamine transporter (DAT) in various striatal and limbic subregions and locomotor activity induced by novel environmental conditions and amphetamine at two postnatal ages, 35 days old (prepubertal) and 60 days old (postpubertal). Experiments were carried out on pregnant female Sprague-Dawley rats, which were daily injected with either d-amphetamine sulfate (1 mg/kg) or saline solution (0.9%) for 11 days, from gestation day 11-21. In PAE rats compared to control we found the following: at pre-pubertal age, an enhancement of DA D1 in the dorsolateral area of the caudate-putamen (CPu), CPu-ventral and shell of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) with a decrement of the DA D3 receptors in NAcc, olfactory tubercle (OT), and the islands of Calleja (IoC); whereas at postpubertal age, an increase in the levels of DAT in the NAcc and fundus of the CPu, and OT along with a decrease in the expression of DA D2 receptors only in the NAcc shell were found in PAE rats compared to control. In addition, amphetamine induces a marked decrease in locomotor activity at postpubertal age in rats with PAE. These results suggest a differential effect of amphetamines on the DAT mechanism of the nervous system during embryonic development of animals with implications in behavior and drug addictions at adulthood age.

  15. Whole-Body and Hepatic Insulin Resistance in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Ibarra-Reynoso, Lorena del Rocío; Pisarchyk, Liudmila; Pérez-Luque, Elva Leticia; Garay-Sevilla, Ma. Eugenia; Malacara, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Background Insulin resistance may be assessed as whole body or hepatic. Objective To study factors associated with both types of insulin resistance. Methods Cross-sectional study of 182 obese children. Somatometric measurements were registered, and the following three adiposity indexes were compared: BMI, waist-to-height ratio and visceral adiposity. Whole-body insulin resistance was evaluated using HOMA-IR, with 2.5 as the cut-off point. Hepatic insulin resistance was considered for IGFBP-1 level quartiles 1 to 3 (<6.67 ng/ml). We determined metabolite and hormone levels and performed a liver ultrasound. Results The majority, 73.1%, of obese children had whole-body insulin resistance and hepatic insulin resistance, while 7% did not have either type. HOMA-IR was negatively associated with IGFBP-1 and positively associated with BMI, triglycerides, leptin and mother's BMI. Girls had increased HOMA-IR. IGFBP-1 was negatively associated with waist-to-height ratio, age, leptin, HOMA-IR and IGF-I. We did not find HOMA-IR or IGFBP-1 associated with fatty liver. Conclusion In school-aged children, BMI is the best metric to predict whole-body insulin resistance, and waist-to-height ratio is the best predictor of hepatic insulin resistance, indicating that central obesity is important for hepatic insulin resistance. The reciprocal negative association of IGFBP-1 and HOMA-IR may represent a strong interaction of the physiological processes of both whole-body and hepatic insulin resistance. PMID:25411786

  16. A noise delivery system for multi-animal multi-level whole body ototoxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Stubbs, John E; Slagley, Jeremy M; Reboulet, James E

    2015-11-01

    The Naval Medical Research Unit Dayton (NAMRU-D) at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, in conjunction with the U.S. Air Force, studied ototoxic effects of JP-8 in rats. NAMRU-D used a multi-chamber whole body exposure facility for up to 96 test animals and 32 control animals at different exposure levels. The objective was to design a noise delivery system that could provide a white noise source one octave band wide, centered at 8 kHz frequency, delivered from outside the exposure chambers. Sound pressure levels were required to be within ±2 dB at all exposure points within each chamber and within ±2 dB over a 6-h run. Electrodynamic shakers were used to produce input noise in exposure chambers by inducing vibration in chamber plenums. Distribution of sound pressure levels across exposure points was controlled within a ±1.5dB prediction interval (α = 0.05) or better. Stability at a central reference point was controlled over 6-h runs within a ±1 dB prediction interval (α = 0.05) or better. The final system allowed NAMRU-D to deliver noise and whole-body aerosol exposures to multiple animals at different levels simultaneously and study the effects that ototoxins may have on hearing loss.

  17. Exposure to Maternal Pre- and Postnatal Depression and Anxiety Symptoms: Risk for Major Depression, Anxiety Disorders, and Conduct Disorder in Adolescent Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Glasheen, Cristie; Richardson, Gale A.; Kim, Kevin H.; Larkby, Cynthia A.; Swartz, Holly A.; Day, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated whether exposure to maternal pre- or postnatal depression or anxiety symptoms predicted psychopathology in adolescent offspring. Growth mixture modeling was used to identify trajectories of pre- and postnatal depression and anxiety symptoms in 577 women of low socioeconomic status selected from a prenatal clinic. Logistic regression models indicated that maternal pre- and postnatal depression trajectory exposure was not associated with offspring major depression, anxiety, or conduct disorder but exposure to the high depression trajectory was associated with lower anxiety symptoms in males. Exposure to medium and high pre- and postnatal anxiety was associated with the risk of conduct disorder among offspring. Male offspring exposed to medium and high pre- and postnatal anxiety had higher odds of conduct disorder than males with low exposure levels. Females exposed to medium or high pre- and postnatal anxiety were less likely to meet conduct disorder criteria than females with lower exposure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the effect of pre- and postnatal anxiety trajectories on the risk of conduct disorder in offspring. These results suggest new directions for investigating the etiology of conduct disorder with a novel target for intervention. PMID:24229548

  18. Exposure to maternal pre- and postnatal depression and anxiety symptoms: risk for major depression, anxiety disorders, and conduct disorder in adolescent offspring.

    PubMed

    Glasheen, Cristie; Richardson, Gale A; Kim, Kevin H; Larkby, Cynthia A; Swartz, Holly A; Day, Nancy L

    2013-11-01

    This study evaluated whether exposure to maternal pre- or postnatal depression or anxiety symptoms predicted psychopathology in adolescent offspring. Growth mixture modeling was used to identify trajectories of pre- and postnatal depression and anxiety symptoms in 577 women of low socioeconomic status selected from a prenatal clinic. Logistic regression models indicated that maternal pre- and postnatal depression trajectory exposure was not associated with offspring major depression, anxiety, or conduct disorder, but exposure to the high depression trajectory was associated with lower anxiety symptoms in males. Exposure to medium and high pre- and postnatal anxiety was associated with the risk of conduct disorder among offspring. Male offspring exposed to medium and high pre- and postnatal anxiety had higher odds of conduct disorder than did males with low exposure levels. Females exposed to medium or high pre- and postnatal anxiety were less likely to meet conduct disorder criteria than were females with lower exposure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the effect of pre- and postnatal anxiety trajectories on the risk of conduct disorder in offspring. These results suggest new directions for investigating the etiology of conduct disorder with a novel target for intervention.

  19. Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to DDT by Breast Milk Analysis in Canary Islands

    PubMed Central

    Vall, Oriol; Gomez-Culebras, Mario; Puig, Carme; Rodriguez-Carrasco, Ernesto; Gomez Baltazar, Arelis; Canchucaja, Lizzeth; Joya, Xavier; Garcia-Algar, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The use of p,p′-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) has been banned since the late 1970s due to its toxicity. However, its long half-life makes it persistent in the environment and, consequently, almost everyone has DDT residues in the body. Human milk constitutes an ideal non-conventional matrix to investigate environmental chronic exposure to organochlorine compounds (OCs) residues. The study aimed to identify potential population risk factors of exposure to DDT due to the proximity to countries where it is still used. Methods Seventy-two consecutive lactating women were prospectively included in Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain). A validated questionnaire was used to obtain socioeconomic, demographics data, and daily habits during pregnancy. DDT levels in breast milk were measured by gas chromatography with-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Anthropometrics measurements in newborns were obtained. Results Thirty-four out of 72 (47.2%) of the analysed milk samples presented detectable levels of DDT (mean: 0.92 ng/g), ranging between 0.08 to 16.96 ng/g. The socio-demographic variables did not significantly differ between detectable DDT and non-detectable DDT groups. We found positive association between DDT levels and vegetables (OR (95%CI): 1.23 (1.01–1.50)) and poultry meat (OR (95%CI): 2.05 (1.16–3.60)) consumption, and also between the presence of DDT in breast milk and gestational age (OR (95%CI): 0.59 (0.40–0.90)). Conclusions DDT is present in breast milk of women at the time of delivery. Residual levels and the spread from countries still using DDT explain DDT detection from vegetables and from animal origin food. The presence of this compound in breast milk represents a pre- and postnatal exposure hazard for foetuses and infants due to chronic bioaccumulation and poor elimination, with possible deleterious effects on health. This data should be used to raise awareness of the risks of OCs exposure and to help establish health policies

  20. Problematic Substance Use in Urban Adolescents: Role of Intrauterine Exposures to Cocaine and Marijuana and Post-Natal Environment

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Deborah A.; Kuranz, Seth; Appugliese, Danielle; Cabral, Howard; Chen, Clara; Crooks, Denise; Heeren, Timothy; Liebschutz, Jane; Richardson, Mark; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Background Linkages between intrauterine exposures to cocaine and marijuana and adolescents’ problematic substance use have not been fully delineated. Methods Prospective longitudinal study with assessors unaware of intrauterine exposure history followed 157 urban participants from birth until late adolescence. Level of intrauterine exposures was identified by mother's report and infant’s meconium. Problematic substance use, identified by the Voice Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (V-DISC) or the Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI) and urine assay, was a composite encompassing DSM-IV indication of tolerance, abuse, and dependence on alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco and any use of cocaine, glue, or opiates. Results Twenty percent (32/157) of the sample experienced problematic substance use by age 18 years, of whom the majority (22/157) acknowledged abuse, tolerance or dependence on marijuana with or without other substances. Structural equation models examining direct and indirect pathways linking a Cox survival model for early substance initiation to a logistic regression models found effects of post-natal factors including childhood exposure to violence and household substance use, early youth substance initiation, and ongoing youth violence exposure contributing to adolescent problematic substance use. Conclusion We did not identify direct relationships between intrauterine cocaine or marijuana exposure and problematic substance use, but did find potentially modifiable post-natal risk factors also noted to be associated with problematic substance use in the general population including earlier substance initiation, exposure to violence and to household substance use. PMID:24999059

  1. Effects of postnatal exposure to methamphetamine on the development of the rat retina.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Lorena G; Melo, Pedro; Silva, M Carolina; Tavares, Maria Amélia

    2006-08-01

    Since the development of different cell types in the retina occurs at different rates, it is possible that exposure to an exogenous substance may produce effects during one time period, but not during another. This study aims to analyze the effects of methamphetamine (METH) in the growth pattern of an experimental model as well as neurochemical and immunohistochemical parameters of the dopaminergic system of the rat retina. The three development stages chosen in this study are key markers in rat eye development. Rats were given 15 mg/kg body weight per day of METH as subcutaneous injections in 0.9% saline (3 mL/kg weight/day) from the day after birth PND 1 to PND 6, PND 13, and PND 29. Each daily dose was split into two. The control group was injected subcutaneously with saline. Both the schedule and volume for injecting saline in the control group were the same as for the METH-treated group. There were no significant differences in the total number of offspring per litter among treatment groups. All offspring had similar body weight at birth. Analysis of body weight on PND 1, showed that animals treated with METH had similar body weights to control-treated animals and females had smaller weights than males. For growth evolution, only litters with a sex ratio of four males and four females were used. Animals treated with METH had smaller body weights than the control-treated animals for all ages studied (PND 7, 14, and 30). Within the control group at PND 30, a significant difference was found in the body weight of females, which was lower when compared with males. For the postnatal model, 7 deaths occurred for the METH-exposed group. No deaths occurred in the control group in a total of 16 saline-injected litters comprising 186 pups. Although the levels of dopamine (DA) was within normal values for the postnatally exposed METH group when compared with its respective control group at PND 7 and 30, at PND 14 this was not the case: in this experimental group, the

  2. Prenatal Exposure to Respiratory Syncytial Virus Alters Postnatal Immunity and Airway Smooth Muscle Contractility during Early-Life Reinfections

    PubMed Central

    Harford, Terri J.; Agrawal, Vandana; Yen-Lieberman, Belinda; Rezaee, Fariba; Piedimonte, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Maternal viral infections can have pathological effects on the developing fetus which last long after birth. Recently, maternal-fetal transmission of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was shown to cause postnatal airway hyperreactivity (AHR) during primary early-life reinfection; however, the influence of prenatal exposure to RSV on offspring airway immunity and smooth muscle contractility during recurrent postnatal reinfections remains unknown. Therefore, we sought to determine whether maternal RSV infection impairs specific aspects of cell-mediated offspring immunity during early-life reinfections and the mechanisms leading to AHR. Red fluorescent protein-expressing recombinant RSV (rrRSV) was inoculated into pregnant rat dams at midterm, followed by primary and secondary postnatal rrRSV inoculations of their offspring at early-life time points. Pups and weanlings were tested for specific lower airway leukocyte populations by flow cytometry; serum cytokine/chemokine concentrations by multiplex ELISA and neurotrophins concentrations by standard ELISA; and ex vivo lower airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction by physiological tissue bath. Pups born to RSV-infected mothers displayed elevated total CD3+ T cells largely lacking CD4+ and CD8+ surface expression after both primary and secondary postnatal rrRSV infection. Cytokine/chemokine analyses revealed reduced IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-12, IL-17A, IL-18, and TNF-α, as well as elevated nerve growth factor (NGF) expression. Prenatal exposure to RSV also increased ASM reactivity and contractility during early-life rrRSV infection compared to non-exposed controls. We conclude that maternal RSV infection can predispose offspring to postnatal lower airways dysfunction by altering immunity development, NGF signaling, and ASM contraction during early-life RSV reinfections. PMID:28178290

  3. Postnatal methylmercury exposure induces hyperlocomotor activity and cerebellar oxidative stress in mice: dependence on the neurodevelopmental period.

    PubMed

    Stringari, James; Meotti, Flávia C; Souza, Diogo O; Santos, Adair R S; Farina, Marcelo

    2006-04-01

    During the early postnatal period the central nervous system (CNS) is extremely sensitive to external agents. The present study aims at the investigation of critical phases where methylmercury (MeHg) induces cerebellar toxicity during the suckling period in mice. Animals were treated with daily subcutaneous injections of MeHg (7 mg/kg of body weight) during four different periods (5 days each) at the early postnatal period: postnatal day (PND) 1-5, PND 6-10, PND 11-15, or PND 16-20. A control group was treated with daily subcutaneous injections of a 150 mM NaCl solution (10 ml/kg of body weight). Subjects exposed to MeHg at different postnatal periods were littermate. At PND 35, behavioral tests were performed to evaluate spontaneous locomotor activity in the open field and motor performance in the rotarod task. Biochemical parameters related to oxidative stress (levels of glutathione and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, as well as glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activity) were evaluated in cerebellum. Hyperlocomotor activity and high levels of cerebellar thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were observed in animals exposed to MeHg during the PND 11-15 or PND 16-20 periods. Cerebellar glutathione reductase activity decreased in MeHg-exposed animals. Cerebellar glutathione peroxidase activity was also decreased after MeHg exposure and the lowest enzymatic activity was found in animals exposed to MeHg during the later days of the suckling period. In addition, low levels of cerebellar glutathione were found in animals exposed to MeHg during the PND 16-20 period. The present results show that the postnatal exposure to MeHg during the second half of the suckling period causes hyperlocomotor activity in mice and point to this phase as a critical developmental stage where mouse cerebellum is a vulnerable target for the neurotoxic and pro-oxidative effects of MeHg.

  4. Effects of Gestational and Postnatal Exposure to Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia on Diaphragm Muscle Contractile Function in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Fiona B.; Dempsey, Eugene M.; O'Halloran, Ken D.

    2016-01-01

    Alterations to the supply of oxygen during early life presents a profound stressor to physiological systems with aberrant remodeling that is often long-lasting. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is a feature of apnea of prematurity, chronic lung disease, and sleep apnea. CIH affects respiratory control but there is a dearth of information concerning the effects of CIH on respiratory muscles, including the diaphragm—the major pump muscle of breathing. We investigated the effects of exposure to gestational CIH (gCIH) and postnatal CIH (pCIH) on diaphragm muscle function in male and female rats. CIH consisted of exposure in environmental chambers to 90 s of hypoxia reaching 5% O2 at nadir, once every 5 min, 8 h a day. Exposure to gCIH started within 24 h of identification of a copulation plug and continued until day 20 of gestation; animals were studied on postnatal day 22 or 42. For pCIH, pups were born in normoxia and within 24 h of delivery were exposed with dams to CIH for 3 weeks; animals were studied on postnatal day 22 or 42. Sham groups were exposed to normoxia in parallel. Following gas exposures, diaphragm muscle contractile, and endurance properties were examined ex vivo. Neither gCIH nor pCIH exposure had effects on diaphragm muscle force-generating capacity or endurance in either sex. Similarly, early life exposure to CIH did not affect muscle tolerance of severe hypoxic stress determined ex vivo. The findings contrast with our recent observation of upper airway dilator muscle weakness following exposure to pCIH. Thus, the present study suggests a relative resilience to hypoxic stress in diaphragm muscle. Co-ordinated activity of thoracic pump and upper airway dilator muscles is required for optimal control of upper airway caliber. A mismatch in the force-generating capacity of the complementary muscle groups could have adverse consequences for the control of airway patency and respiratory homeostasis. PMID:27462274

  5. Biological and behavioral effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to 2450-MHz electromagnetic radiation in the squirrel monkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, J.; Polson, P.; Rebert, C.; Lunan, K.; Gage, M.

    1982-01-01

    Near the beginning of the second trimester of pregnancy, 33 squirrel monkeys were exposed to 2450-MHz irradiation in a multimode cavity at whole-body average specific absorption rates equivalent to those resulting from exposure to plane wave irradiation at 0.034, 0.34, and 3.4 W/kg; exposed monkeys were compared with eight pregnant sham-exposed monkeys. Eighteen of the irradiated mothers and their offspring were exposed for an additional 6 months after parturition, and then their offspring were exposed for another 6 months. No differences were found between irradiated and control adults with respect to the number of live births produced or to measures of locomotor activity, maternal care, urinary catecholamines, plasma cortisol, 3H-thymidine and 14C-uridine uptake by phytohemagglutininstimulated blood lymphocytes, or electroencephalographic (EEG) activity. Similarly, no differences were found between exposed and nonexposed offspring on the same blood, urine, and EEG parameters. Growth rate and most aspects of behavioral development were not altered by exposure. The major difference between irradiated and control offspring was the high mortality rate (4/5) before 6 months of age in those exposed at 3.4 W/kg both before and after birth. These results indicate that microwaves at power densities to 3.4 W/kg might have little direct effect on the monkey fetus when exposures occur in utero during the latter half to two-thirds of pregnancy, but that continued exposure after birth might be harmful.

  6. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in children: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Sara Reis; Elias Junior, Jorge; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique; Guimarães, Marcos Duarte; Marchiori, Edson; Santos, Marcel Koenigkam

    2015-01-01

    Whole-body imaging in children was classically performed with radiography, positron-emission tomography, either combined or not with computed tomography, the latter with the disadvantage of exposure to ionizing radiation. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in association with the recently developed metabolic and functional techniques such as diffusion-weighted imaging, has brought the advantage of a comprehensive evaluation of pediatric patients without the risks inherent to ionizing radiation usually present in other conventional imaging methods. It is a rapid and sensitive method, particularly in pediatrics, for detecting and monitoring multifocal lesions in the body as a whole. In pediatrics, it is utilized for both oncologic and non-oncologic indications such as screening and diagnosis of tumors in patients with genetic syndromes, evaluation of disease extent and staging, evaluation of therapeutic response and post-therapy follow-up, evaluation of non neoplastic diseases such as multifocal osteomyelitis, vascular malformations and syndromes affecting multiple regions of the body. The present review was aimed at describing the major indications of whole-body MRI in pediatrics added of technical considerations.

  7. A Portable Stereo Vision System for Whole Body Surface Imaging.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wurong; Xu, Bugao

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a whole body surface imaging system based on stereo vision technology. We have adopted a compact and economical configuration which involves only four stereo units to image the frontal and rear sides of the body. The success of the system depends on a stereo matching process that can effectively segment the body from the background in addition to recovering sufficient geometric details. For this purpose, we have developed a novel sub-pixel, dense stereo matching algorithm which includes two major phases. In the first phase, the foreground is accurately segmented with the help of a predefined virtual interface in the disparity space image, and a coarse disparity map is generated with block matching. In the second phase, local least squares matching is performed in combination with global optimization within a regularization framework, so as to ensure both accuracy and reliability. Our experimental results show that the system can realistically capture smooth and natural whole body shapes with high accuracy.

  8. Whole-body MRI evaluation of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Doris G.; Carrino, John A.; Wagner, Kathryn R.; Jacobs, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is a hereditary disorder that causes progressive muscle wasting. Increasing knowledge of the pathophysiology of FSHD has stimulated interest in developing biomarkers of disease severity. Methods Two groups of MRI scans were analyzed: whole-body scans from 13 subjects with FSHD, and upper and lower extremity scans from 34 subjects with FSHD who participated in the MYO-029 clinical trial. Muscles were scored for fat infiltration and edema-like changes. Fat infiltration scores were compared to muscle strength and function. Results Our analysis reveals a distinctive pattern of both frequent muscle involvement and frequent sparing in FSHD. Averaged fat infiltration scores for muscle groups in the legs correlated with quantitative muscle strength and 10-meter walk times. Discussion Advances in MRI technology allow for the acquisition of rapid, high-quality whole-body imaging in diffuse muscle disease. This technique offers a promising disease biomarker in FSHD and other muscle diseases. PMID:25641525

  9. The development of a whole-body algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kay, F. J.

    1973-01-01

    The whole-body algorithm is envisioned as a mathematical model that utilizes human physiology to simulate the behavior of vital body systems. The objective of this model is to determine the response of selected body parameters within these systems to various input perturbations, or stresses. Perturbations of interest are exercise, chemical unbalances, gravitational changes and other abnormal environmental conditions. This model provides for a study of man's physiological response in various space applications, underwater applications, normal and abnormal workloads and environments, and the functioning of the system with physical impairments or decay of functioning components. Many methods or approaches to the development of a whole-body algorithm are considered. Of foremost concern is the determination of the subsystems to be included, the detail of the subsystems and the interaction between the subsystems.

  10. Whole-body angular momentum during stair ascent and descent.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Anne K; Neptune, Richard R; Sinitski, Emily H; Wilken, Jason M

    2014-04-01

    The generation of whole-body angular momentum is essential in many locomotor tasks and must be regulated in order to maintain dynamic balance. However, angular momentum has not been investigated during stair walking, which is an activity that presents a biomechanical challenge for balance-impaired populations. We investigated three-dimensional whole-body angular momentum during stair ascent and descent and compared it to level walking. Three-dimensional body-segment kinematic and ground reaction force (GRF) data were collected from 30 healthy subjects. Angular momentum was calculated using a 13-segment whole-body model. GRFs, external moment arms and net joint moments were used to interpret the angular momentum results. The range of frontal plane angular momentum was greater for stair ascent relative to level walking. In the transverse and sagittal planes, the range of angular momentum was smaller in stair ascent and descent relative to level walking. Significant differences were also found in the ground reaction forces, external moment arms and net joint moments. The sagittal plane angular momentum results suggest that individuals alter angular momentum to effectively counteract potential trips during stair ascent, and reduce the range of angular momentum to avoid falling forward during stair descent. Further, significant differences in joint moments suggest potential neuromuscular mechanisms that account for the differences in angular momentum between walking conditions. These results provide a baseline for comparison to impaired populations that have difficulty maintaining dynamic balance, particularly during stair ascent and descent.

  11. A concept for holistic whole body MRI data analysis, Imiomics

    PubMed Central

    Malmberg, Filip; Johansson, Lars; Lind, Lars; Sundbom, Magnus; Ahlström, Håkan; Kullberg, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To present and evaluate a whole-body image analysis concept, Imiomics (imaging–omics) and an image registration method that enables Imiomics analyses by deforming all image data to a common coordinate system, so that the information in each voxel can be compared between persons or within a person over time and integrated with non-imaging data. Methods The presented image registration method utilizes relative elasticity constraints of different tissue obtained from whole-body water-fat MRI. The registration method is evaluated by inverse consistency and Dice coefficients and the Imiomics concept is evaluated by example analyses of importance for metabolic research using non-imaging parameters where we know what to expect. The example analyses include whole body imaging atlas creation, anomaly detection, and cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis. Results The image registration method evaluation on 128 subjects shows low inverse consistency errors and high Dice coefficients. Also, the statistical atlas with fat content intensity values shows low standard deviation values, indicating successful deformations to the common coordinate system. The example analyses show expected associations and correlations which agree with explicit measurements, and thereby illustrate the usefulness of the proposed Imiomics concept. Conclusions The registration method is well-suited for Imiomics analyses, which enable analyses of relationships to non-imaging data, e.g. clinical data, in new types of holistic targeted and untargeted big-data analysis. PMID:28241015

  12. Automatic nonrigid registration of whole body CT mice images.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Yankeelov, Thomas E; Peterson, Todd E; Gore, John C; Dawant, Benoit M

    2008-04-01

    Three-dimensional intra- and intersubject registration of image volumes is important for tasks that include quantification of temporal/longitudinal changes, atlas-based segmentation, computing population averages, or voxel and tensor-based morphometry. While a number of methods have been proposed to address this problem, few have focused on the problem of registering whole body image volumes acquired either from humans or small animals. These image volumes typically contain a large number of articulated structures, which makes registration more difficult than the registration of head images, to which the majority of registration algorithms have been applied. This article presents a new method for the automatic registration of whole body computed tomography (CT) volumes, which consists of two main steps. Skeletons are first brought into approximate correspondence with a robust point-based method. Transformations so obtained are refined with an intensity-based nonrigid registration algorithm that includes spatial adaptation of the transformation's stiffness. The approach has been applied to whole body CT images of mice, to CT images of the human upper torso, and to human head and neck CT images. To validate the authors method on soft tissue structures, which are difficult to see in CT images, the authors use coregistered magnetic resonance images. They demonstrate that the approach they propose can successfully register image volumes even when these volumes are very different in size and shape or if they have been acquired with the subjects in different positions.

  13. Prenatal exposure of a novel antipsychotic aripiprazole: impact on maternal, fetal and postnatal body weight modulation in rats.

    PubMed

    Singh, K P; Tripathi, Nidhi

    2014-03-01

    Nearly all atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs) of second- generation are associated with body weight gain in adults with prolonged exposure; but reports on third-generation AAPDs like Aripiprazole (ARI) and weight gain are scanty and ambiguous. This may be attributed to some unknown mechanism of action, the study of which is essential to investigate gestational exposure of equivalent therapeutic doses of ARI on maternal and fetal weight gain and its longlasting impact on postnatal development and growth of offspring in rodent model. 30 pregnant Wistar rats were exposed to selected doses (2mg, 3mg and 5mg/kg BW) of ARI from GD3-21 orally, with control subjects. Half of the pregnant subjects of each group were sacrificed at GD22 and rest dams were allowed to deliver normally and pups were reared postnatally up to 10 weeks of age. In ARI treated groups, there was no substantial alteration of body weight gain and food intake in pregnant subjects while significant reduction was found in fetal and postnatal (pre-and post weaning) body weight gain. ARI was found neutral for substantial weight gain in pregnant rats but may induce significant weight loss in fetuses, creating long-lasting negative impact on offspring growth (in weight) till PND70. Therefore, ARI could be a good alternative of second- generation AAPDs for adult females but may not be safe for developing fetuses and offspring.

  14. Pre- and post-natal exposure of children to EMF generated by domestic induction cookers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kos, Bor; Valič, Blaž; Miklavčič, Damijan; Kotnik, Tadej; Gajšek, Peter

    2011-10-01

    Induction cookers are a type of cooking appliance that uses an intermediate-frequency magnetic field to heat the cooking vessel. The magnetic flux density produced by an induction cooker during operation was measured according to the EN 62233 standard, and the measured values were below the limits set in the standard. The measurements were used to validate a numerical model consisting of three vertically displaced coaxial current loops at 35 kHz. The numerical model was then used to compute the electric field (E) and induced current (J) in 26 and 30 weeks pregnant women and 6 and 11 year old children. Both E and J were found to be below the basic restrictions of the 2010 low-frequency and 1998 ICNRIP guidelines. The maximum computed E fields in the whole body were 0.11 and 0.66 V m-1 in the 26 and 30 weeks pregnant women and 0.28 and 2.28 V m-1 in the 6 and 11 year old children (ICNIRP basic restriction 4.25 V m-1). The maximum computed J fields in the whole body were 46 and 42 mA m-2 in the 26 and 30 weeks pregnant women and 27 and 16 mA m-2 in the 6 and 11 year old children (ICNIRP basic restriction 70 mA m-2).

  15. Pre- and post-natal exposure of children to EMF generated by domestic induction cookers.

    PubMed

    Kos, Bor; Valič, Blaž; Miklavčič, Damijan; Kotnik, Tadej; Gajšek, Peter

    2011-10-07

    Induction cookers are a type of cooking appliance that uses an intermediate-frequency magnetic field to heat the cooking vessel. The magnetic flux density produced by an induction cooker during operation was measured according to the EN 62233 standard, and the measured values were below the limits set in the standard. The measurements were used to validate a numerical model consisting of three vertically displaced coaxial current loops at 35 kHz. The numerical model was then used to compute the electric field (E) and induced current (J) in 26 and 30 weeks pregnant women and 6 and 11 year old children. Both E and J were found to be below the basic restrictions of the 2010 low-frequency and 1998 ICNRIP guidelines. The maximum computed E fields in the whole body were 0.11 and 0.66 V m(-1) in the 26 and 30 weeks pregnant women and 0.28 and 2.28 V m(-1) in the 6 and 11 year old children (ICNIRP basic restriction 4.25 V m(-1)). The maximum computed J fields in the whole body were 46 and 42 mA m(-2) in the 26 and 30 weeks pregnant women and 27 and 16 mA m(-2) in the 6 and 11 year old children (ICNIRP basic restriction 70 mA m(-2)).

  16. Changes in adrenoceptors and monoamine metabolism in neonatal and adult rat brain after postnatal exposure to the antihypertensive labetalol.

    PubMed Central

    Erdtsieck-Ernste, E. B.; Feenstra, M. G.; Botterblom, M. H.; De Barrios, J.; Boer, G. J.

    1992-01-01

    1. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the acute (single injection), direct (chronic treatment) and the long-lasting effects after exposure to the alpha 1/beta-adrenoceptor antagonist labetalol during rat brain development on adrenoceptors and monoamine metabolism. 2. In 10-day-old rat pups, subcutaneously administered labetalol (10 mg kg-1) passed the blood-brain barrier, reaching a level of 2.1 micrograms g-1 tissue in the brain 90 min after injection. 3. Chronic labetalol treatment (10 mg kg-1, s.c., twice daily) during the first 10 days of life significantly increased alpha 1-adrenoceptor binding in the hypothalamus (+39%), but not in the occipital cortex. 4. This chronic postnatal labetalol treatment did not result in long-lasting changes in alpha 1- and beta-receptors measured on day 60. 5. A single labetalol injection (10 mg kg-1, s.c.) on postnatal day 10 significantly increased noradrenaline (NA) metabolism in all brain regions tested (+25 to 105%), but had no effects on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) or dopamine metabolism. 6. Chronic labetalol treatment between postnatal (PN) days 1 and 10 also increased NA metabolism on PN 10 (3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG)/NA, +20 to 100%), suggesting that tolerance to the acute effect of labetalol did not occur. A slight increase in 5-HT metabolism (20%) was induced by the chronic labetalol treatment in the hippocampus and meso-limbic system. 7. In general, long-lasting effects on NA metabolism could not be detected on day 60 more than one month after the treatment. However, 5-HT metabolism was significantly increased in all four brain regions measured (+20 to 70%). 8. We conclude that chronic labetalol exposure during early postnatal rat brain development does not cause long-lasting changes in beta-receptor number or NA metabolism, but appears to be critical for the rate of 5-HT metabolism in later life. PMID:1596689

  17. Adverse Associations of both Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Organophosphorous Pesticides with Infant Neurodevelopment in an Agricultural Area of Jiangsu Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ping; Wu, Chunhua; Chang, Xiuli; Qi, Xiaojuan; Zheng, Minglan; Zhou, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prenatal exposure to organophosphorous (OP) pesticides has been found to be associated with adverse effects on child neurodevelopment, but evidence on potential effects induced by both prenatal and postnatal OP exposure in infants is limited. Objectives: Our aim was to investigate the associations of both prenatal and postnatal OP exposure with birth outcomes and infant neurodevelopment. Methods: Exposure to OP in 310 mother–infant pairs was assessed by measuring dimethylphosphate (DM), diethylphosphate (DE), and total dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites in urines from pregnant women and their children at 2 years of age. The Gesell Developmental Schedules was administered to examine neurodevelopment of 2-year-old children. Results: Based on the Gesell Developmental Schedules, the proportions of children with developmental delays were < 6%. Adverse associations between head circumference at birth and prenatal OP exposure were demonstrated. Both prenatal and postnatal OP exposure was significantly associated with increased risk of being developmentally delayed. Specifically, odds ratio (OR) value for prenatal DEs was 9.75 (95% CI: 1.28, 73.98, p = 0.028) in the adaptive area, whereas in the social area, OR values for postnatal DEs and DAPs were 9.56 (95% CI: 1.59, 57.57, p = 0.014) and 12.00 (95% CI: 1.23, 117.37, p = 0.033), respectively. Adverse associations were observed only in boys, not in girls. Conclusions: Both prenatal and postnatal OP exposure may adversely affect the neurodevelopment of infants living in the agricultural area. The present study adds to the accumulating evidence on associations of prenatal and postnatal OP exposure with infant neurodevelopment. Citation: Liu P, Wu C, Chang X, Qi X, Zheng M, Zhou Z. 2016. Adverse associations of both prenatal and postnatal exposure to organophosphorous pesticides with infant neurodevelopment in an agricultural area of Jiangsu Province, China. Environ Health Perspect 124:1637–1643; http

  18. Gene Expression Changes in Mouse Intestinal Tissue Following Whole-Body Proton or Gamma-Irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purgason, Ashley; Zhang, Ye; Mangala, Lingegowda; Nie, Ying; Gridley, Daila; Hamilton, Stanley R.; Seidel, Derek V.; Wu, Honglu

    2014-01-01

    Crew members face potential consequences following exposure to the space radiation environment including acute radiation syndrome and cancer. The space radiation environment is ample with protons, and numerous studies have been devoted to the understanding of the health consequences of proton exposures. In this project, C57BL/6 mice underwent whole-body exposure to 250 MeV of protons at doses of 0, 0.1, 0.5, 2 and 6 Gy and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of each animal was dissected four hours post-irradiation. Standard H&E staining methods to screen for morphologic changes in the tissue showed an increase in apoptotic lesions for even the lowest dose of 0.1 Gy, and the percentage of apoptotic cells increased with increasing dose. Results of gene expression changes showed consistent up- or down- regulation, up to 10 fold, of a number of genes across exposure doses that may play a role in proton-induced oxidative stress including Gpx2. A separate study in C57BL/6 mice using the same four hour time point but whole-body gamma-irradiation showed damage to the small intestine with lesions appearing at the smallest dose of 0.05 Gy and increasing with increasing absorbed dose. Expressions of genes associated with oxidative stress processes were analyzed at four hours and twenty-four hours after exposure to gamma rays. We saw a much greater number of genes with significant up- or down-regulation twenty-four hours post-exposure as compared to the four hour time point. At both four hours and twenty-four hours post-exposure, Duox1 and Mpo underwent up-regulation for the highest dose of 6 Gy. Both protons and gamma rays lead to significant variation in gene expressions and these changes may provide insight into the mechanism of injury seen in the GI tract following radiation exposure. We have also completed experiments using a BALB/c mouse model undergoing whole-body exposure to protons. Doses of 0, 0.1, 1 and 2 Gy were used and results will be compared to the work mentioned

  19. Binge ethanol exposure in late gestation induces ethanol aversion in the dam but enhances ethanol intake in the offspring and affects their postnatal learning about ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Chotro, M. Gabriela; Arias, Carlos; Spear, Norman E.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies show that exposure to 1 or 2 g/kg ethanol during the last days of gestation increases ethanol acceptance in infant rats. We tested whether prenatal exposure to 3 g/kg, a relatively high ethanol dose, generates an aversion to ethanol in both the dam and offspring, and whether this prenatal experience affects the expression of learning derived from ethanol exposure postnatally. The answer was uncertain, since postnatal administration of a 3 g/kg ethanol dose induces an aversion to ethanol after postnatal day 10 but increases ethanol acceptance when administered during the first postnatal week. In the present study pregnant rats received intragastric administrations of water or ethanol (3 g/kg) on gestation days 17-20. On postnatal days 7-8 or 10-11 the offspring were administered water or ethanol (3 g/kg). Intake of ethanol and water, locomotor activity in an open-field and ethanol odor preference were evaluated in the pups, while the mothers were evaluated in terms of ethanol intake. Results indicated an aversion to ethanol in dams that had been administered ethanol during gestation, despite a general increase in ethanol intake observed in their pups relative to controls. The prenatal ethanol exposure also potentiated the increase in ethanol intake observed after intoxication on postnatal days 7-8. Ethanol intoxication on postnatal days 10-11 reduced ethanol consumption; this ethanol aversion was still evident in infant rats exposed prenatally to ethanol despite their general increase in ethanol intake. No effects of prenatal ethanol exposure were observed in terms of motor activity or odor preference. It is concluded that prenatal exposure to ethanol, even in a dose that induces ethanol aversion in the gestating dam, increases ethanol intake in infant rats and that this experience modulates age-related differences in subsequent postnatal learning about ethanol. PMID:19801275

  20. Self-reported back pain in tractor drivers exposed to whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Boshuizen, H C; Bongers, P M; Hulshof, C T

    1990-01-01

    A postal questionnaire on symptoms of ill health and exposure to whole-body vibration was completed by 577 workers (response rate 79%) who were employed in certain functions by two companies 11 years before. The relation between the occupational history of driving vibrating vehicles (mainly agricultural tractors) and back pain has been analyzed. The prevalence of reported back pain is approximately 10% higher in the tractor drivers than in workers not exposed to vibration. The increase is mainly due to more pain in the lower back and more pain lasting at least several days. A vibration dose was calculated by assigning each vehicle driven a vibration magnitude, estimated on the base of vibration measurements. The prevalence of back pain increases with the vibration dose. The highest prevalence odds ratios are found for the more severe types of back pain. These prevalence odds ratios do not increase with the vibration dose. This might be due to health-related selection which is more pronounced for severe back pain than for back pain in general. The two components of the vibration dose, duration of exposure and estimated mean vibration magnitude, have also been considered separately. Back pain increases with duration of exposure but it does not increase with the estimated mean magnitude of vibration. This is probably due to the inaccuracy of this estimate. The higher prevalence of back pain in tractor drivers might be (partly) caused by whole-body vibration, but prolonged sitting and posture might also be of influence.

  1. Physiological responses during whole body suspension of adult rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, J. M.; Fell, R. D.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize responses of adult rats to one and two weeks of whole body suspension. Body weights and food and water intakes were initially reduced during suspension, but, while intake of food and water returned to presuspension levels, body weight remained depressed. Diuresis was evident, but only during week two. Hindlimb muscle responses were differential, with the soleus exhibiting the greatest atrophy and the EDL a relative hypertrophy. These findings suggest that adult rats respond qualitatively in a manner similar to juveniles during suspension.

  2. Role of Neurotrophins on Postnatal Neurogenesis in the Thalamus: Prenatal Exposure to Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Sandra M.; Miller, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    A second wave of neuronal generation occurs in the ventrobasal nucleus of the rat thalamus (VB) during the first three postnatal weeks. The present study tested the hypotheses (1) that postnatal neurogenesis in the VB is neurotrophin-regulated and (2) that ethanol-induced changes in this proliferation are mediated by neurotrophins. The first studies examined the effects of neurotrophins on the numbers of cycling cells in ex vivo preparations of the VB from three-day-old rats. The proportion of cycling (Ki-67-positive) VB cells was higher in cultured thalamic slices treated with neurotrophins than in controls. Interestingly, this increase occurred with nerve growth factor (NGF) alone or with a combination of NGF and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), but not with BDNF alone. Based on these data, the VBs from young offspring of pregnant rats fed an ethanol-containing or an isocaloric non-alcoholic liquid diet were examined between postnatal day (P) 1 and P31. Studies used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and immunoblots to explore the effects of ethanol on the expression of neurotrophins, their receptors, and representative signaling proteins. Ethanol altered the expression of neurotrophins and receptors throughout the first postnatal month. Expression of NGF increased, but there was no change in the expression of BDNF. The high affinity receptors (TrkA and TrkB) were unchanged but ethanol decreased expression of the low affinity receptor, p75. One downstream signaling protein, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), decreased but Akt expression was unchanged. Thus, postnatal cell proliferation in the VB of young rat pups is neurotrophin-responsive and is affected by ethanol. PMID:21277941

  3. Chronic exposure of adult, postnatal and in utero rat models to low-dose 137Cesium: impact on circulating biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Manens, Line; Grison, Stéphane; Bertho, Jean-Marc; Lestaevel, Philippe; Guéguen, Yann; Benderitter, Marc; Aigueperse, Jocelyne; Souidi, Maâmar

    2016-01-01

    The presence of 137Cesium (137Cs) in the environment after nuclear accidents at Chernobyl and more recently Fukushima Daiichi raises many health issues for the surrounding populations chronically exposed through the food chain. To mimic different exposure situations, we set up a male rat model of exposure by chronic ingestion of a 137Cs concentration likely to be ingested daily by residents of contaminated areas (6500 Bq.l−1) and tested contaminations lasting 9 months for adult, neonatal and fetal rats. We tested plasma and serum biochemistry to identify disturbances in general indicators (lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and electrolytes) and in biomarkers of thyroid, heart, brain, bone, kidney, liver and testis functions. Analysis of the general indicators showed increased levels of cholesterol (+26%), HDL cholesterol (+31%), phospholipids B (+15%) and phosphorus (+100%) in the postnatal group only. Thyroid, heart, brain, bone and kidney functions showed no blood changes in any model. The liver function evaluation showed changes in total bilirubin (+67%) and alkaline phosphatase (–11%) levels, but only for the rats exposed to 137Cs intake in adulthood. Large changes in 17β-estradiol (–69%) and corticosterone (+36%) levels affected steroidogenesis, but only in the adult model. This study showed that response profiles differed according to age at exposure: lipid metabolism was most radiosensitive in the postnatal model, and steroid hormone metabolism was most radiosensitive in rats exposed in adulthood. There was no evidence of deleterious effects suggesting a potential impact on fertility or procreation. PMID:27466399

  4. Alterations in Whole-Body Insulin Sensitivity Resulting From Repeated Eccentric Exercise of a Single Muscle Group: A Pilot Investigation.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Javier T; Barwood, Martin J; Goodall, Stuart; Thomas, Kevin; Howatson, Glyn

    2015-08-01

    Unaccustomed eccentric exercise using large muscle groups elicits soreness, decrements in physical function and impairs markers of whole-body insulin sensitivity; although these effects are attenuated with a repeated exposure. Eccentric exercise of a small muscle group (elbow flexors) displays similar soreness and damage profiles in response to repeated exposure. However, it is unknown whether damage to small muscle groups impacts upon whole-body insulin sensitivity. This pilot investigation aimed to characterize whole-body insulin sensitivity in response to repeated bouts of eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors. Nine healthy males completed two bouts of eccentric exercise separated by 2 weeks. Insulin resistance (updated homeostasis model of insulin resistance, HOMA2-IR) and muscle damage profiles (soreness and physical function) were assessed before, and 48 h after exercise. Matsuda insulin sensitivity indices (ISI Matsuda) were also determined in 6 participants at the same time points as HOMA2-IR. Soreness was elevated, and physical function impaired, by both bouts of exercise (both p < .05) but to a lesser extent following bout 2 (time x bout interaction, p < .05). Eccentric exercise decreased ISI Matsuda after the first but not the second bout of eccentric exercise (time x bout interaction p < .05). Eccentric exercise performed with an isolated upper limb impairs whole-body insulin sensitivity after the first, but not the second, bout.

  5. Maternal Dexamethasone Exposure Alters Synaptic Inputs to Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neurons in the Early Postnatal Rat

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Wei Ling; Idris, Marshita Mohd; Kevin, Felix Suresh; Soga, Tomoko; Parhar, Ishwar S.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal dexamethasone [(DEX); a glucocorticoid receptor agonist] exposure delays pubertal onset and alters reproductive behavior in the adult offspring. However, little is known whether maternal DEX exposure affects the offspring’s reproductive function by disrupting the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal function in the brain. Therefore, this study determined the exposure of maternal DEX on the GnRH neuronal spine development and synaptic cluster inputs to GnRH neurons using transgenic rats expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of GnRH promoter. Pregnant females were administered with DEX (0.1 mg/kg) or vehicle (VEH, water) daily during gestation day 13–20. Confocal imaging was used to examine the spine density of EGFP–GnRH neurons by three-dimensional rendering and synaptic cluster inputs to EGFP–GnRH neurons by synapsin I immunohistochemistry on postnatal day 0 (P0) males. The spine morphology and number on GnRH neurons did not change between the P0 males following maternal DEX and VEH treatment. The number of synaptic clusters within the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) was decreased by maternal DEX exposure in P0 males. Furthermore, the number and levels of synaptic cluster inputs in close apposition with GnRH neurons was decreased following maternal DEX exposure in the OVLT region of P0 males. In addition, the postsynaptic marker molecule, postsynaptic density 95, was observed in GnRH neurons following both DEX and VEH treatment. These results suggest that maternal DEX exposure alters neural afferent inputs to GnRH neurons during early postnatal stage, which could lead to reproductive dysfunction during adulthood. PMID:27630615

  6. Neural systemic impairment from whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ji-Geng; Zhang, Lin-ling; Agresti, Michael; LoGiudice, John; Sanger, James R; Matloub, Hani S; Havlik, Robert

    2015-05-01

    Insidious brain microinjury from motor vehicle-induced whole-body vibration (WBV) has not yet been investigated. For a long time we have believed that WBV would cause cumulative brain microinjury and impair cerebral function, which suggests an important risk factor for motor vehicle accidents and secondary cerebral vascular diseases. Fifty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into seven groups (n = 8): 1) 2-week normal control group, 2) 2-week sham control group (restrained in the tube without vibration), 3) 2-week vibration group (exposed to whole-body vibration at 30 Hz and 0.5g acceleration for 4 hr/day, 5 days/week, for 2 weeks), 4) 4-week sham control group, 5) 4-week vibration group, 6) 8-week sham control group, and 7) 8-week vibration group. At the end point, all rats were evaluated in behavior, physiological, and brain histopathological studies. The cerebral injury from WBV is a cumulative process starting with vasospasm squeezing of the endothelial cells, followed by constriction of the cerebral arteries. After the 4-week vibration, brain neuron apoptosis started. After the 8-week vibration, vacuoles increased further in the brain arteries. Brain capillary walls thickened, mean neuron size was obviously reduced, neuron necrosis became prominent, and wide-ranging chronic cerebral edema was seen. These pathological findings are strongly correlated with neural functional impairments.

  7. Whole-body and multispectral photoacoustic imaging of adult zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Na; Xi, Lei

    2016-10-01

    Zebrafish is a top vertebrate model to study developmental biology and genetics, and it is becoming increasingly popular for studying human diseases due to its high genome similarity to that of humans and the optical transparency in embryonic stages. However, it becomes difficult for pure optical imaging techniques to volumetric visualize the internal organs and structures of wild-type zebrafish in juvenile and adult stages with excellent resolution and penetration depth. Even with the establishment of mutant lines which remain transparent over the life cycle, it is still a challenge for pure optical imaging modalities to image the whole body of adult zebrafish with micro-scale resolution. However, the method called photoacoustic imaging that combines all the advantages of the optical imaging and ultrasonic imaging provides a new way to image the whole body of the zebrafish. In this work, we developed a non-invasive photoacoustic imaging system with optimized near-infrared illumination and cylindrical scanning to image the zebrafish. The lateral and axial resolution yield to 80 μm and 600 μm, respectively. Multispectral strategy with wavelengths from 690 nm to 930 nm was employed to image various organs inside the zebrafish. From the reconstructed images, most major organs and structures inside the body can be precisely imaged. Quantitative and statistical analysis of absorption for organs under illumination with different wavelengths were carried out.

  8. Whole-body vibration exercise in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Weber-Rajek, Magdalena; Mieszkowski, Jan; Niespodziński, Bartłomiej; Ciechanowska, Katarzyna

    2015-03-01

    The report of the World Health Organization (WHO) of 2008 defines osteoporosis as a disease characterized by low bone mass and an increased risk of fracture. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is connected to the decrease in estrogens concentration as a result of malfunction of endocrine ovarian function. Low estrogens concentration causes increase in bone demineralization and results in osteoporosis. Physical activity, as a component of therapy of patients with osteoporosis, has been used for a long time now. One of the forms of safe physical activity is the vibration training. Training is to maintain a static position or execution of specific exercises involving the appropriate muscles on a vibrating platform, the mechanical vibrations are transmitted to the body of the patient. According to the piezoelectric theory, pressure induces bone formation in the electrical potential difference, which acts as a stimulant of the process of bone formation. Whole body vibration increases the level of growth hormone and testosterone in serum, preventing sarcopenia and osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to review the literature on vibration exercise in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis based on the PubMed and Medline database. While searching the database, the following key words were used 'postmenopausal osteoporosis' and 'whole-body vibration exercise'.

  9. Whole-body vibration exercise in postmenopausal osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Mieszkowski, Jan; Niespodziński, Bartłomiej; Ciechanowska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    The report of the World Health Organization (WHO) of 2008 defines osteoporosis as a disease characterized by low bone mass and an increased risk of fracture. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is connected to the decrease in estrogens concentration as a result of malfunction of endocrine ovarian function. Low estrogens concentration causes increase in bone demineralization and results in osteoporosis. Physical activity, as a component of therapy of patients with osteoporosis, has been used for a long time now. One of the forms of safe physical activity is the vibration training. Training is to maintain a static position or execution of specific exercises involving the appropriate muscles on a vibrating platform, the mechanical vibrations are transmitted to the body of the patient. According to the piezoelectric theory, pressure induces bone formation in the electrical potential difference, which acts as a stimulant of the process of bone formation. Whole body vibration increases the level of growth hormone and testosterone in serum, preventing sarcopenia and osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to review the literature on vibration exercise in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis based on the PubMed and Medline database. While searching the database, the following key words were used ‘postmenopausal osteoporosis’ and ‘whole-body vibration exercise’. PMID:26327887

  10. Low back and neck pain in locomotive engineers exposed to whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    McBride, David; Paulin, Sara; Herbison, G Peter; Waite, David; Bagheri, Nasser

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and excess risk of low back pain and neck pain in locomotive engineers, and to investigate the relationship of both with whole-body vibration exposure. A cross-sectional survey comparing locomotive engineers with other rail worker referents was conducted. Current vibration levels were measured, cumulative exposures calculated for engineers and referents, and low back and neck pain assessed by a self-completed questionnaire. Median vibration exposure in the z- (vertical) axis was 0.62 m/s(2). Engineers experienced more frequent low back and neck pain, odds ratios (ORs) of 1.77 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19-2.64) and 1.92 (95% CI: 1.22-3.02), respectively. The authors conclude that vibration close to the "action levels" of published standards contribute to low back and neck pain. Vibration levels need to be assessed conservatively and control measures introduced.

  11. Whole body vibration and posture as risk factors for low back pain among forklift truck drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoy, J.; Mubarak, N.; Nelson, S.; Sweerts de Landas, M.; Magnusson, M.; Okunribido, O.; Pope, M.

    2005-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the risks from whole-body vibration and posture demands for low back pain (LBP) among forklift truck (forklift) drivers. Using a validated questionnaire, information about health history was obtained over a period of two weeks in face-to-face interviews. The forklift drivers were observed in respect of their sitting posture, including frequency with which different positions were adopted (bending, leaning and twisting) and postural analyses were conducted using the OWAS and RULA techniques. Forklift vibrations at the seat (exposure) were measured in the three orthogonal axes ( x-fore and aft, y-lateral and z-vertical) under actual working conditions according to the recommendations of ISO 2631-1. The results showed that LBP was more prevalent amongst forklift drivers than among non-drivers and driving postures in which the trunk is considerably twisted or bent forward associated with greatest risk. Furthermore, forklift drivers showed to be exposed to acceptable levels of vibration in the x- and y-directions (i.e., below the EU Physical Agents Directive on Vibration Exposure recommended action level—0.5 m/s 2), but not in the z-direction. There were indications that whole-body vibration acts associatively with other factors (not independently) to precipitate LBP.

  12. Pre and post-natal antigen exposure can program the stress axis of adult zebra finches: evidence for environment matching

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Loren; Grindstaff, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Both maternal exposure to stressors and exposure of offspring to stressors during early life can have lifelong effects on the physiology and behavior of offspring. Stress exposure can permanently shape an individual’s phenotype by influencing the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is responsible for the production and regulation of glucocorticoids such as corticosterone (CORT). In this study we used captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) to examine the effects of matching and mismatching maternal and early post-natal exposure to one of two types of antigens or a control on HPA axis reactivity in adult offspring. Prior to breeding, adult females were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) or a control. Offspring of females in each of the three treatments were themselves exposed to LPS, KLH or a control injection at 5 and 28 days post-hatch. When offspring were at least 18 months of age, standardized capture and restraint stress tests were conducted to determine the impact of the treatments on adult stress responsiveness. We found significant interaction effects between maternal and offspring treatments on stress-induced CORT levels, and evidence in support of the environment matching hypothesis for KLH-treated birds not LPS-treated birds. KLH-treated offspring of KLH-treated mothers exhibited reduced stress-induced CORT levels, whereas LPS-treated or control offspring of KLH-treated mothers exhibited elevated stress-induced CORT levels. Although the treatment effects on baseline CORT were non-significant, the overall pattern was similar to the effects observed on stress-induced CORT levels. Our results highlight the complex nature of HPA axis programming, and to our knowledge, provide the first evidence that a match or mismatch between pre and post-natal antigen exposure can have life-long consequences for HPA axis function. PMID:25535860

  13. Postnatal exposure to trichloroethylene alters glutathione redox homeostasis, methylation potential, and neurotrophin expression in the mouse hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Blossom, Sarah J.; Melnyk, Stepan; Cooney, Craig A.; Gilbert, Kathleen M.; James, S. Jill

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that continuous exposure throughout gestation until the juvenile period to environmentally-relevant doses of trichloroethylene (TCE) in the drinking water of MRL+/+ mice promoted adverse behavior associated with glutathione depletion in the cerebellum indicating increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to extend our findings and further characterize the impact of TCE exposure on redox homeostasis and biomarkers of oxidative stress in the hippocampus, a brain region prone to oxidative stress. Instead of a continuous exposure, the mice were exposed to water only or two environmentally relevant doses of TCE in the drinking water postnatally from birth until 6 weeks of age. Biomarkers of plasma metabolites in the transsulfuration pathway and the transmethylation pathway of the methionine cycle were also examined. Gene expression of neurotrophins was examined to investigate a possible relationship between oxidative stress, redox imbalance and neurotrophic factor expression with TCE exposure. Our results show that hippocampi isolated from male mice exposed to TCE showed altered glutathione redox homeostasis indicating a more oxidized state. Also observed was a significant, dose dependent increase in glutathione precursors. Plasma from the TCE treated mice showed alterations in metabolites in the transsulfuration and transmethylation pathways indicating redox imbalance and altered methylation capacity. 3-Nitrotyrosine, a biomarker of protein oxidative stress, was also significantly higher in plasma and hippocampus of TCE-exposed mice compared to controls. In contrast, expression of key neurotrophic factors in the hippocampus (BDNF, NGF, and NT-3) was significantly reduced compared to controls. Our results demonstrate that low-level postnatal and early life TCE exposure modulates neurotrophin gene expression in the mouse hippocampus and may provide a mechanism for TCE-mediated neurotoxicity. PMID:22421312

  14. Accurate body composition measures from whole-body silhouettes

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bowen; Avila, Jesus I.; Ng, Bennett K.; Fan, Bo; Loo, Victoria; Gilsanz, Vicente; Hangartner, Thomas; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Lappe, Joan; Oberfield, Sharon; Winer, Karen; Zemel, Babette; Shepherd, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Obesity and its consequences, such as diabetes, are global health issues that burden about 171 × 106 adult individuals worldwide. Fat mass index (FMI, kg/m2), fat-free mass index (FFMI, kg/m2), and percent fat mass may be useful to evaluate under- and overnutrition and muscle development in a clinical or research environment. This proof-of-concept study tested whether frontal whole-body silhouettes could be used to accurately measure body composition parameters using active shape modeling (ASM) techniques. Methods: Binary shape images (silhouettes) were generated from the skin outline of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) whole-body scans of 200 healthy children of ages from 6 to 16 yr. The silhouette shape variation from the average was described using an ASM, which computed principal components for unique modes of shape. Predictive models were derived from the modes for FMI, FFMI, and percent fat using stepwise linear regression. The models were compared to simple models using demographics alone [age, sex, height, weight, and body mass index z-scores (BMIZ)]. Results: The authors found that 95% of the shape variation of the sampled population could be explained using 26 modes. In most cases, the body composition variables could be predicted similarly between demographics-only and shape-only models. However, the combination of shape with demographics improved all estimates of boys and girls compared to the demographics-only model. The best prediction models for FMI, FFMI, and percent fat agreed with the actual measures with R2 adj. (the coefficient of determination adjusted for the number of parameters used in the model equation) values of 0.86, 0.95, and 0.75 for boys and 0.90, 0.89, and 0.69 for girls, respectively. Conclusions: Whole-body silhouettes in children may be useful to derive estimates of body composition including FMI, FFMI, and percent fat. These results support the feasibility of measuring body composition variables from simple

  15. Prenatal exposure to anti-tubercular drugs and postnatal effect on growth, development and cognitive ability in rats.

    PubMed

    Bharathi, K N; Natesh, T S; Ashwitha Reddy, A

    2012-04-27

    The effect of prenatal exposure to antitubercular drugs in therapeutic and double therapeutic doses on postnatal developments was studied in albino rats of Wistar strain. Seven groups with six female rats each were taken for the study and were allowed to mate with male in the ratio of (2:1). The drugs isoniazid 27 and 54mg/kg b.w. p.o., ethambutol 144 and 288mg/kg b.w. p.o., rifampin 54 and 108mg/kg b.w. p.o. were administered to each group from the day of pregnancy till parturition. Control group was administered with distilled water (1ml/kg). Litters of the respective groups were studied for litter size; body weight; physical development i.e. eye opening, pinna detachment, incisor eruption; behavioral development i.e. righting reflex, negative geotaxis, ascending wire mesh; motor development i.e. rotarod and cognitive function i.e. elevated plus maze, Hebb-William maze and step-down (passive avoidance). The results obtained indicate that the prenatal exposure to therapeutic dose of rifampin and double therapeutic dose of rifampin, isoniazid and ethambutol affect the postnatal growth, development and cognitive ability. Hence, the study suggests that potential benefit risk ratios to be considered for their use in pregnancy.

  16. Performance Evaluation of Whole Body Counting Facilities in the Marshall Islands (2002-2005)

    SciTech Connect

    Kehl, S R; Hamilton, T; Jue, T; Hickman, D

    2007-04-03

    The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands (https://eed.llnl.gov/mi/). Local atoll governments have been actively engaged in developing shared responsibilities for protecting the health and safety of resettled and resettling population at risk from exposure to elevated levels of residual fallout contamination in the environment. Under the program, whole body counting facilities have been established at three locations in the Marshall Islands. These facilities are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians with scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) providing technical support services including data quality assurance and performance testing. We have also established a mirror whole body counting facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory as a technician training center. The LLNL facility also allows program managers to develop quality assurance and operational procedures, and test equipment and corrective actions prior to deployment at remote stations in the Marshall Islands. This document summarizes the results of external performance evaluation exercises conducted at each of the facilities (2002-2005) under the umbrella of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Intercomparison Studies Program (ISP). The ISP was specifically designed to meet intercomparison requirements of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP). In this way, the Marshall Islands Radiological Surveillance Program has attempted to establish quality assurance measures in whole body counting that are consistent with standard requirements used to monitor DOE workers in the United States. Based on ANSI N13.30, the acceptable performance criteria for relative measurement bias and precision for radiobioassay service laboratory quality control

  17. Impairment in Extinction of Contextual and Cued Fear Following Post-Training Whole-Body Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Reid H. J.; Marzulla, Tessa; Raber, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Because of the use of radiation in cancer therapy, the risk of nuclear contamination from power plants, military conflicts, and terrorism, there is a compelling scientific and public health interest in the effects of environmental radiation exposure on brain function, in particular hippocampal function and learning and memory. Previous studies have emphasized changes in learning and memory following radiation exposure. These approaches have ignored the question of how radiation exposure might impact recently acquired memories, which might be acquired under traumatic circumstances (cancer treatment, nuclear disaster, etc.). To address the question of how radiation exposure might affect the processing and recall of recently acquired memories, we employed a fear conditioning paradigm wherein animals were trained, and subsequently irradiated (whole-body X-ray irradiation) 24 h later. Animals were given 2 weeks to recover, and were tested for retention and extinction of hippocampus-dependent contextual fear conditioning or hippocampus-independent cued fear conditioning. Exposure to irradiation following training was associated with reduced daily increases in body weights over the 22-days of the study and resulted in greater freezing levels and aberrant extinction 2 weeks later. This was also observed when the intensity of the training protocol was increased. Cued freezing levels and measures of anxiety 2 weeks after training were also higher in irradiated than sham-irradiated mice. In contrast to contextual freezing levels, cued freezing levels were even higher in irradiated mice receiving 5 shocks during training than sham-irradiated mice receiving 10 shocks during training. In addition, the effects of radiation on extinction of contextual fear were more profound than those on the extinction of cued fear. Thus, whole-body irradiation elevates contextual and cued fear memory recall. PMID:25071488

  18. Impairment in extinction of contextual and cued fear following post-training whole-body irradiation.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Reid H J; Marzulla, Tessa; Raber, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Because of the use of radiation in cancer therapy, the risk of nuclear contamination from power plants, military conflicts, and terrorism, there is a compelling scientific and public health interest in the effects of environmental radiation exposure on brain function, in particular hippocampal function and learning and memory. Previous studies have emphasized changes in learning and memory following radiation exposure. These approaches have ignored the question of how radiation exposure might impact recently acquired memories, which might be acquired under traumatic circumstances (cancer treatment, nuclear disaster, etc.). To address the question of how radiation exposure might affect the processing and recall of recently acquired memories, we employed a fear conditioning paradigm wherein animals were trained, and subsequently irradiated (whole-body X-ray irradiation) 24 h later. Animals were given 2 weeks to recover, and were tested for retention and extinction of hippocampus-dependent contextual fear conditioning or hippocampus-independent cued fear conditioning. Exposure to irradiation following training was associated with reduced daily increases in body weights over the 22-days of the study and resulted in greater freezing levels and aberrant extinction 2 weeks later. This was also observed when the intensity of the training protocol was increased. Cued freezing levels and measures of anxiety 2 weeks after training were also higher in irradiated than sham-irradiated mice. In contrast to contextual freezing levels, cued freezing levels were even higher in irradiated mice receiving 5 shocks during training than sham-irradiated mice receiving 10 shocks during training. In addition, the effects of radiation on extinction of contextual fear were more profound than those on the extinction of cued fear. Thus, whole-body irradiation elevates contextual and cued fear memory recall.

  19. Whole-body mathematical model for simulating intracranial pressure dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakin, William D. (Inventor); Penar, Paul L. (Inventor); Stevens, Scott A. (Inventor); Tranmer, Bruce I. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A whole-body mathematical model (10) for simulating intracranial pressure dynamics. In one embodiment, model (10) includes 17 interacting compartments, of which nine lie entirely outside of intracranial vault (14). Compartments (F) and (T) are defined to distinguish ventricular from extraventricular CSF. The vasculature of the intracranial system within cranial vault (14) is also subdivided into five compartments (A, C, P, V, and S, respectively) representing the intracranial arteries, capillaries, choroid plexus, veins, and venous sinus. The body's extracranial systemic vasculature is divided into six compartments (I, J, O, Z, D, and X, respectively) representing the arteries, capillaries, and veins of the central body and the lower body. Compartments (G) and (B) include tissue and the associated interstitial fluid in the intracranial and lower regions. Compartment (Y) is a composite involving the tissues, organs, and pulmonary circulation of the central body and compartment (M) represents the external environment.

  20. Analysis and Modelling of Muscles Motion during Whole Body Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesarelli, M.; Fratini, A.; Bifulco, P.; La Gatta, A.; Romano, M.; Pasquariello, G.

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the study is to characterize the local muscles motion in individuals undergoing whole body mechanical stimulation. In this study we aim also to evaluate how subject positioning modifies vibration dumping, altering local mechanical stimulus. Vibrations were delivered to subjects by the use of a vibrating platform, while stimulation frequency was increased linearly from 15 to 60 Hz. Two different subject postures were here analysed. Platform and muscles motion were monitored using tiny MEMS accelerometers; a contra lateral analysis was also presented. Muscle motion analysis revealed typical displacement trajectories: motion components were found not to be purely sinusoidal neither in phase to each other. Results also revealed a mechanical resonant-like behaviour at some muscles, similar to a second-order system response. Resonance frequencies and dumping factors depended on subject and his positioning. Proper mechanical stimulation can maximize muscle spindle solicitation, which may produce a more effective muscle activation.

  1. Multimodal Correlative Preclinical Whole Body Imaging and Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Akselrod-Ballin, Ayelet; Dafni, Hagit; Addadi, Yoseph; Biton, Inbal; Avni, Reut; Brenner, Yafit; Neeman, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Segmentation of anatomical structures and particularly abdominal organs is a fundamental problem for quantitative image analysis in preclinical research. This paper presents a novel approach for whole body segmentation of small animals in a multimodal setting of MR, CT and optical imaging. The algorithm integrates multiple imaging sequences into a machine learning framework, which generates supervoxels by an efficient hierarchical agglomerative strategy and utilizes multiple SVM-kNN classifiers each constrained by a heatmap prior region to compose the segmentation. We demonstrate results showing segmentation of mice images into several structures including the heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, stomach, vena cava, bladder, tumor, and skeleton structures. Experimental validation on a large set of mice and organs, indicated that our system outperforms alternative state of the art approaches. The system proposed can be generalized to various tissues and imaging modalities to produce automatic atlas-free segmentation, thereby enabling a wide range of applications in preclinical studies of small animal imaging. PMID:27325178

  2. Integrated Whole Body MR/PET: Where Are We?

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Hye Jin; Lee, Jae Sung

    2015-01-01

    Whole body integrated magnetic resonance imaging (MR)/positron emission tomography (PET) imaging systems have recently become available for clinical use and are currently being used to explore whether the combined anatomic and functional capabilities of MR imaging and the metabolic information of PET provide new insight into disease phenotypes and biology, and provide a better assessment of oncologic diseases at a lower radiation dose than a CT. This review provides an overview of the technical background of combined MR/PET systems, a discussion of the potential advantages and technical challenges of hybrid MR/PET instrumentation, as well as collection of possible solutions. Various early clinical applications of integrated MR/PET are also addressed. Finally, the workflow issues of integrated MR/PET, including maximizing diagnostic information while minimizing acquisition time are discussed. PMID:25598673

  3. Whole-body 3D scanner and scan data report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addleman, Stephen R.

    1997-03-01

    With the first whole-body 3D scanner now available the next adventure confronting the user is what to do with all of the data. While the system was built for anthropologists, it has created interest among users from a wide variety of fields. Users with applications in the fields of anthropology, costume design, garment design, entertainment, VR and gaming have a need for the data in formats unique to their fields. Data from the scanner is being converted to solid models for art and design and NURBS for computer graphics applications. Motion capture has made scan data move and dance. The scanner has created a need for advanced application software just as other scanners have in the past.

  4. Dual adaptation to sensory conflicts during whole-body rotations.

    PubMed

    Dumontheil, Iroise; Panagiotaki, Panagiota; Berthoz, Alain

    2006-02-09

    A dual adaptation paradigm was used in order to study the adaptation to two conditions of conflicting visual and kinesthetic and vestibular information. Adaptation was induced in humans by modifying visual information during whole-body rotations with the help of a virtual reality set-up. Real rotations' amplitudes were factored by a gain of 0.5 or 1.5. The two conditions were associated to a visual context cue. The aim of the experiment was to provide support for either the feedback or the feedforward model of adaptive states switch. Results show that subjects could adapt to the two conditions of conflict during whole-body rotations. However, the two conflict situations have been found to differ both in their motor dynamics and in their susceptibility to adaptation, as it seems that the adaptation is more complete in the condition of gain 1.5, i.e., faster and more precise. Subjects could be divided into two groups according to their ability to use contextual information to switch between adaptive gains. The visual cues were sufficient for some subjects to switch adaptive state, which corresponds to a context-dependent dual adaptation, or feedforward model of switching. Other subjects showed a switch cost maintained across the experiment, corresponding with a stimulus-dependent adaptation, or feedback model of switching. We are suggesting that the process enabling switching between adaptive states depends on subjects' abilities to use contextual cues of certain types, and thus on their "perceptive styles". This could explain the variability of results obtained in the literature.

  5. Visualizing gene expression by whole-body fluorescence imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Meng; Baranov, Eugene; Moossa, A. R.; Penman, Sheldon; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    Transgene expression in intact animals now can be visualized by noninvasive techniques. However, the instruments and protocols developed so far have been formidable and expensive. We describe here a system for rapidly visualizing transgene expression in major organs of intact live mice that is simple, rapid, and eminently affordable. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) is expressed in the cells of brain, liver, pancreas, prostate, and bone, and its fluorescence is encoded in whole-body optical images. For low-magnification images, animals are illuminated atop a fluorescence light box and directly viewed with a thermoelectrically cooled color charge-coupled device camera. Higher-magnification images are made with the camera focused through an epi-fluorescence dissecting microscope. Both nude and normal mice were labeled by directly injecting 8 × 1010 plaque-forming units/ml of adenoviral GFP in 20–100 μl PBS and 10% glycerol into either the brain, liver, pancreas, prostate, or bone marrow. Within 5–8 h after adenoviral GFP injection, the fluorescence of the expressed GFP in brain and liver became visible, and whole-body images were recorded at video rates. The GFP fluorescence continued to increase for at least 12 h and remained detectable in liver for up to 4 months. The system's rapidity of image acquisition makes it capable of real-time recording. It requires neither exogenous contrast agents, radioactive substrates, nor long processing times. The method requires only that the expressed gene or promoter be fused or operatively linked to GFP. A comparatively modest investment allows the study of the therapeutic and diagnostic potential of suitably tagged genes in relatively opaque organisms. PMID:11050247

  6. Gestational and Early Postnatal Exposure to an Environmentally Relevant Mixture of Brominated Flame Retardants: General Toxicity and Skeletal Variations.

    PubMed

    Tung, Emily W Y; Yan, Han; Lefèvre, Pavine L C; Berger, Robert G; Rawn, Dorothea F K; Gaertner, Dean W; Kawata, Alice; Rigden, Marc; Robaire, Bernard; Hales, Barbara F; Wade, Michael G

    2016-06-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are stable environmental contaminants known to exert endocrine-disrupting effects. Developmental exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) is correlated with impaired thyroid hormone signaling, as well as estrogenic and anti-androgenic effects. As previous studies have focused on a single congener or technical mixture, the purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of gestational and early postnatal exposure to an environmentally relevant mixture of BFRs designed to reflect house dust levels of PBDEs and hexabromocyclododecane on postnatal developmental outcomes. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to the PBDE mixture from preconception to weaning (PND 21) through the diet containing 0, 0.75, 250, and 750 mg mixture/kg diet. BFR exposure induced transient reductions in body weight at PND 35 in male and from PND 30-45 in female offspring (250 and 750 mg/kg). Liver weights (PND 21) and xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme activities (PND 21 and 46) were increased in both male and female offspring exposed to 250 and 750 mg/kg diets. Furthermore, serum T4 levels were reduced at PND 21 in both,male and female offspring (250 and 750 mg/kg). At PND 21, Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was decreased in males exposed to 750 mg/kg dietat, and females exposed to 250 and 750 mg/kg diets. At PND 46 ALP was significantly elevated in males (250 and 750 mg/kg). Variations in the cervical vertebrae and phalanges were observed in pups at PND 4 (250 and 750 mg/kg). Therefore, BFR exposure during gestation through to weaning alters developmental programming in the offspring. The persistence of BFRs in the environment remains a cause for concern with regards to developmental toxicity.

  7. Postnatal exposure to a progestin does not prevent uterine adenogenesis in domestic dogs

    PubMed Central

    Ponchon, Tamara; Lopez Merlo, Mariana; Faya, Marcela; Priotto, Marcelo; Barbeito, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effects of a single supraphysiological postnatal administration of a progestogen on uterine glands in dogs, 10 females were randomly assigned to a medroxyprogesterone acetate 35 mg (MPA; n = 6) or placebo (n = 4) group within the first 24 h of birth. The safety of the treatment was also evaluated. A transient mild clitoris enlargement appeared in MPA-treated females. Microscopic postpubertal uterine assessment revealed the presence of uterine glands in all cases without significant differences in the area occupied by the glands per µm2 of endometrium nor in the height of the uterine epithelium. PMID:27051347

  8. Rat Cardiovascular Responses to Whole Body Suspension: Head-down and Non-Head-Down Tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musacchia, X. J.; Steffen, Joseph M.; Dombrowski, Judy

    1992-01-01

    The rat whole body suspension technique mimics responses seen during exposure to microgravity and was evaluated as a model for cardiovascular responses with two series of experiments. In one series, changes were monitored in chronically catheterized rats during 7 days of Head-Down Tilt (HDT) or Non-Head-Down Tilt (N-HDT) and after several hours of recovery. Elevations of mean arterial (MAP), systolic, and diastolic pressures of approx. 20 % (P less than 0.05) in HDT rats began as early as day 1 and were maintained for the duration of suspension. Pulse pressures were relatively unaffected, but heart rates were elevated approx. 10 %. During postsuspension (2-7 h), most cardiovascular parameters returned to presuspension levels. N-HDT rats exhibited elevations chiefly on days 3 and 7. In the second series, blood pressure was monitored in 1- and 3-day HDT and N-HDT rats to evaluate responses to rapid head-up tilt. MAP, systolic and diastolic pressures, and HR were elevated (P less than 0.05) in HDT and N-HDT rats during head-up tilt after 1 day of suspension, while pulse pressures remained un changed. HDT rats exhibited elevated pretilt MAP and failed to respond to rapid head-up tilt with further increase of MAP on day 3, indicating some degree of deconditioning. The whole body suspended rat may be useful as a model to better understand responses of rats exposed to microgravity.

  9. A whole body counting facility in a remote Enewetak Island setting.

    PubMed

    Bell, Thomas R; Hickman, David; Yamaguchi, Lance; Jackson, William; Hamilton, Terry

    2002-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection programs for resettled and resettling populations. As part of this new initiative, DOE agreed to design and construct a radiological laboratory on Enewetak Island, and help develop the necessary local resources to maintain and operate the facility. This cooperative effort was formalized in August 2000 between the DOE, the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), and the Enewetak/Ujelang Local Atoll Government (EULGOV). The laboratory facility was completed in May 2001. The laboratory incorporates both a permanent whole body counting system to assess internal exposures to 137Cs, and clean living space for people providing 24-h void urine samples. DOE continues to provide on-going technical assistance, training, and data quality review while EULGOV provides manpower and infrastructure development to sustain facility operations on a full-time basis. This paper will detail the special construction, transportation and installation issues in establishing a whole body counting facility in an isolated, harsh environmental setting.

  10. Hematological profile and martial status in rugby players during whole body cryostimulation.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Giovanni; Lanteri, Patrizia; Porcelli, Simone; Mauri, Clara; Colombini, Alessandra; Grasso, Dalila; Zani, Viviana; Bonomi, Felice Giulio; Melegati, Gianluca; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Cold-based therapies are commonly applied to alleviate pain symptoms secondary to inflammatory diseases, but also to treat injuries or overuse, as done in sports rehabilitation. Whole body cryotherapy, a relatively new form of cold therapy, consists of short whole-body exposure to extremely cold air (-110°C to -140°C). Cryostimulation is gaining wider acceptance as an effective part of physical therapy to accelerate muscle recovery in rugby players. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of repeated cryostimulation sessions on the hematological profile and martial status markers in professional rugby players. Twenty-seven professional rugby players received 2 daily cryostimulation treatments for 7 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected before and after administration of the cryotherapic protocol and hematological profiles were obtained. No changes in the leukocyte count or composition were seen. There was a decrease in the values for erythrocytes, hematocrit, hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin content, and an increase in mean corpuscular volume and red cell distribution width. Platelet count and mean volume remained unchanged. Serum transferrin and ferritin decreased, while soluble transferrin receptor increased. Serum iron and transferrin saturation were unchanged, as was reticulocyte count, whereas the immature reticulocyte fraction decreased substantially. In conclusion, in this sample of professional rugby players, cryostimulation modified the hematological profile, with a reduction in erythrocyte count and hemoglobinization paralleled by a change in martial status markers.

  11. Whole-Body MRI in Children: Current Imaging Techniques and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly used in children to evaluate the extent and distribution of various neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases. Not using ionizing radiation is a major advantage of pediatric whole-body MRI. Coronal and sagittal short tau inversion recovery imaging is most commonly used as the fundamental whole-body MRI protocol. Diffusion-weighted imaging and Dixon-based imaging, which has been recently incorporated into whole-body MRI, are promising pulse sequences, particularly for pediatric oncology. Other pulse sequences may be added to increase diagnostic capability of whole-body MRI. Of importance, the overall whole-body MRI examination time should be less than 30-60 minutes in children, regardless of the imaging protocol. Established and potentially useful clinical applications of pediatric whole-body MRI are described. PMID:26355493

  12. Effect of prenatal and postnatal exposure to therapeutic doses of chlorimipramine on emotionality in the rat.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Echandía, E L; Broitman, S T

    1983-01-01

    Prenatal administration of high doses of tricyclic antidepressants have been reported to produce teratogenic and behavioral effects in rat offspring. In the present work, behavioral abnormalities are described in offspring of rats treated with therapeutic doses of chlorimipramine (CIM) during pregnancy (CIM-P), lactation (CIM-L) and during the whole pregnancy-lactation period (CIM-PL). CIM-P treatment did not produce teratogenic effects, did not affect number or body weight of pups at birth and did not induce neonatal mortality. At 2 months of age, the CIM-P males showed a significant increase in digging and grooming (familiar environment test), a decrease in "exploration" (novel environment test) and a decrease in active social interactions (social behavior test). Females were more resistant than males to the prenatal CIM treatment. The results suggest increased emotionality in CIM-P pups. Some behavioral abnormalities were also observed in the tests performed at 4 months of age. CIM-L treatment had minor effects on litter behavior. CIM-PL treatment potentiated the effects of the CIM-P treatment. In the CIM-PL males, impairment of exploration of a novel environment still remained in the tests performed at 4 months of age. It is speculated that when prenatal brain development is altered by CIM, further postnatal treatment may impair compensatory processes occurring in early postnatal life.

  13. [The reduction of the dose to the lung in whole-body irradiation with cobalt-60 gamma rays (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Hochhäuser, E; Balk, O A

    1980-09-01

    In order to reduce the exposure of the lung and oesophagus during whole-body irradiation with cobalt-60 gamma rays the dose rate delivered to the lungs and the neck is diminished by means of a filter. Because of its special shape, sternum and columna vertebralis obtain the unreduced dose. The filter is constructed for irradiation in antero-posterior direction. A fixed position of the patient is not necessary.

  14. Alterations in the hematological profile in rat following whole body gamma radiation with and without venoruton pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Kanwar, K.C.; Verma, A.

    1992-07-01

    The radioprotective effect of venoruton [O-({beta}-hydroxyethyl)-rutoside] has been assessed in the hematological profile of Swiss albino male rats subjected to a single dose of 300 rads whole body gamma radiation. The results showed that the severity of the radiation-induced abnormalities in the red and white blood cells is significantly lessened by venoruton administered prior to radiation exposure. 34 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. The effects of postnatal alcohol exposure and galantamine on the context pre-exposure facilitation effect and acetylcholine efflux using in vivo microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Amy E; Fadel, Jim R; Kelly, Sandra J

    2015-05-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are characterized by damage to multiple brain regions, including the hippocampus, which is involved in learning and memory. The acetylcholine neurotransmitter system provides major input to the hippocampus and is a possible target of developmental alcohol exposure. Alcohol (3.0 g/kg/day) was administered via intubation to male rat pups (postnatal day [PD] 2-10; ethanol-treated [ET]). Controls received a sham intubation (IC) or no treatment (NC). Acetylcholine efflux was measured using in vivo microdialysis (PD 32-35). ET animals were not different at baseline, but had decreased K(+)/Ca(2+)-induced acetylcholine efflux compared to NC animals and an enhanced acetylcholine response to galantamine (acetylcholinesterase inhibitor; 2.0 mg/kg) compared to both control groups. A separate cohort of animals was tested in the context pre-exposure facilitation effect task (CPFE; PD 30-32) following postnatal alcohol exposure and administration of galantamine (2.0 mg/kg; PD 11-30). Neither chronic galantamine nor postnatal alcohol exposure influenced performance in the CPFE task. Using immunohistochemistry, we found that neither alcohol exposure nor behavioral testing significantly altered the density of vesicular acetylcholine transporter or alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in the ventral hippocampus (CA1). In the medial septum, the average number of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT+) cells was increased in ET animals that displayed the context-shock association; there were no changes in IC and NC animals that learned the context-shock association or in any animals that were in the control task that entailed no learning. Taken together, these results indicate that the hippocampal acetylcholine system is significantly disrupted under conditions of pharmacological manipulations (e.g., galantamine) in alcohol-exposed animals. Furthermore, ChAT was up‑regulated in ET animals that learned the CPFE, which may account for their ability

  16. Prenatal Exposure to Perfluorocarboxylic Acids (PFCAs) and Fetal and Postnatal Growth in the Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Adgent, Margaret; Su, Pen-Hua; Chen, Hsiao-Yen; Chen, Pau-Chung; Hsiung, Chao A.; Wang, Shu-Li

    2016-01-01

    Background: Perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) are environmentally and biologically persistent synthetic chemicals. PFCAs include perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA; C8) and long-chain PFCAs (C9–C20). Studies examining long-chain PFCAs and fetal and postnatal growth are limited. Objectives: We investigated the associations of prenatal exposure to long-chain PFCAs with fetal and postnatal growth. Methods: For 223 Taiwanese mothers and their term infants, we measured PFOA and four long-chain PFCAs (ng/mL) in third-trimester maternal serum; infant weight (kg), length and head circumference (cm) at birth; and childhood weight and height at approximately 2, 5, 8, and 11 years of age. For each sex, we used multivariable linear regression to examine associations between ln-transformed prenatal PFCAs and continuous infant measures, and logistic regression to examine small for gestational age (SGA). Linear mixed models were applied to prenatal PFCAs and childhood weight and height z-scores. Results: In girls, prenatal perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDeA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) concentrations were inversely associated with birth weight [e.g., βbirth weight (kg) = –0.06, 95% CI: –0.11, –0.01 per 1 ln-unit PFUnDA increase]; prenatal PFDeA and PFUnDA were associated with elevated odds of SGA; and PFDeA, PFUnDA, and PFDoDA were associated with lower average childhood height z-score. In boys, prenatal PFNA, and PFDoDA were associated with reductions in height at certain ages in childhood, but not with size at birth. Conclusions: Prenatal exposure to long-chain PFCAs may interfere with fetal and childhood growth in girls, and childhood growth in boys. Citation: Wang Y, Adgent M, Su PH, Chen HY, Chen PC, Hsiung CA, Wang SL. 2016. Prenatal exposure to perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and fetal and postnatal growth in the Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study. Environ Health Perspect 124:1794–1800;

  17. Prenatal and early postnatal exposure to high-saturated-fat diet represses Wnt signaling and myogenic genes in offspring rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ke-Feng; Shen, Xiu-Hua; Cai, Wei

    2012-08-01

    The prenatal and early postnatal period is a key developmental window for nutrition status, and high-fat exposure in this period has been shown to be associated with type 2 diabetes, obesity and other features of metabolic disorders later in life. The present study was designed to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms and role of relative genes involved in this process. We investigated the impact of prenatal and early postnatal exposure to a high-saturated-fat diet on the regulation of the Wnt signaling pathway and myogenic genes in skeletal muscle of rat offspring as well as the serum and muscle physiological outcomes. Timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a control (C, 16% kcal fat) or high-saturated-fat diet (HF, 45% kcal fat) throughout gestation and lactation. After weaning, female offspring were fed a control diet to generate two offspring groups: control diet-fed offspring of control diet-fed dams (C/C) and control diet-fed offspring of HF diet-fed dams (HF/C). The serum glucose of the HF/C offspring (5.58 ± 0.26 mmol/L) was significantly higher than that of C/C offspring (4.97 ± 0.28 mmol/L), and the Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance of HF/C offspring (2.00 ± 0.11) was also significantly higher when compared with C/C (1.84 ± 0.09). Furthermore, HF/C offspring presented excessive intramuscular fat accumulation (1.8-fold, P < 0.05) and decreased muscle glycogen (1.3-fold, P < 0.05), as well as impairment of muscle development at the age of 12 weeks. Meanwhile, we observed the repression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and myogenic genes in HF/C offspring. The present study indicates that prenatal and early postnatal exposure to a high-saturated-fat diet suppresses the development of skeletal muscle and myogenic genes via Wnt/β-catenin signaling, and the inappropriate muscle development could potentially contribute to the predisposition of offspring to develop metabolic-syndrome-like phenotype in adulthood.

  18. Abatacept Improves Whole-Body Insulin Sensitivity in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ursini, Francesco; Russo, Emilio; Letizia Hribal, Marta; Mauro, Daniele; Savarino, Francesca; Bruno, Caterina; Tripolino, Cesare; Rubino, Mariangela; Naty, Saverio; Grembiale, Rosa Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by increased insulin resistance, a well-known risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of abatacept on insulin sensitivity in RA patients with moderate to severe disease despite treatment with methotrexate. Fifteen RA patients were recruited for the present study. Patients were evaluated at time 0 and after 6 months of the treatment with i.v. abatacept at the dosage recommended for weight range. Evaluation included oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at both time points. Insulin sensitivity was estimated with insulin sensitivity index (ISI) by Matsuda, a measure of whole-body insulin sensitivity. ISI significantly increased after the treatment with abatacept from 3.7 ± 2.6 to 5.0 ± 3.2 (P = 0.003) with a mean difference of 1.23. Analysis of glucose and insulin values during OGTT revealed a reduction of both glucose (303.9 ± 73.4 mg/dL min versus 269.2 ± 69.5 mg/dL min, P = 0.009) and insulin (208.4 ± 119.7 mg/dL min versus 158.0 ± 95.3 mg/dL min, P = 0.01) area under the curves (AUCs). Accordingly also glycated hemoglobin significantly improved (5.5 ± 0.4% versus 5.3 ± 0.3%, P = 0.04). No significant differences were found for measures of β-cell function insulinogenic index (1.11 ± 1.19 versus 1.32 ± 0.82, P = 0.77) and oral disposition index (2.0 ± 5.4 versus 6.0 ± 6.0, P = 0.25). Treatment with abatacept seems to be able to improve whole-body insulin sensitivity in RA patients without affecting β-cell function. PMID:26020396

  19. A new neurobehavioral model of autism in mice: pre- and postnatal exposure to sodium valproate.

    PubMed

    Wagner, George C; Reuhl, Kenneth R; Cheh, Michelle; McRae, Paulette; Halladay, Alycia K

    2006-08-01

    Autism symptoms, including impairments in language development, social interactions, and motor skills, have been difficult to model in rodents. Since children exposed in utero to sodium valproate (VPA) demonstrate behavioral and neuroanatomical abnormalities similar to those seen in autism, the neurodevelopmental effects of this antiepileptic agent were examined in mice following its pre- or postnatal administration. Exposed pups were evaluated in a battery of neurodevelopmental procedures designed to assess VPA-induced retardation (wherein a behavior fails to mature on schedule), regression (wherein a behavior does mature on time but then deteriorates), or intrusions (wherein normal behaviors are overshadowed by stereotypic or self-injurious behaviors). The resulting observations were interpreted in the context of this new strategy to model autism.

  20. Whole-body angular momentum in incline and decline walking.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Anne K; Wilken, Jason M; Sinitski, Emily H; Neptune, Richard R

    2012-04-05

    Angular momentum is highly regulated over the gait cycle and is important for maintaining dynamic stability and control of movement. However, little is known regarding how angular momentum is regulated on irregular surfaces, such as slopes, when the risk of falling is higher. This study examined the three-dimensional whole-body angular momentum patterns of 30 healthy subjects walking over a range of incline and decline angles. The range of angular momentum was either similar or reduced on decline surfaces and increased on incline surfaces relative to level ground, with the greatest differences occurring in the frontal and sagittal planes. These results suggest that angular momentum is more tightly controlled during decline walking when the risk of falling is greater. In the frontal plane, the range of angular momentum was strongly correlated with the peak hip and knee abduction moments in early stance. In the transverse plane, the strongest correlation occurred with the knee external rotation peak in late stance. In the sagittal plane, all external moment peaks were correlated with the range of angular momentum. The peak ankle plantarflexion, knee flexion and hip extension moments were also strongly correlated with the sagittal-plane angular momentum. These results highlight how able-bodied subjects control angular momentum differently on sloped surfaces relative to level walking and provide a baseline for comparison with pathological populations that are more susceptible to falling.

  1. Fluid and sodium loss in whole-body-irradiated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Geraci, J.P.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.

    1987-09-01

    Whole-body and organ fluid compartment sizes and plasma sodium concentrations were measured in conventional, GI decontaminated, bile duct ligated, and choledochostomized rats at different times after various doses of gamma radiation. In addition, sodium excretion was measured in rats receiving lethal intestinal radiation injury. After doses which were sublethal for 3-5 day intestinal death, transient decreases occurred in all the fluid compartments measured (i.e., total body water, extracellular fluid space, plasma volume). No recovery of these fluid compartments was observed in rats destined to die from intestinal radiation injury. The magnitude of the decreases in fluid compartment sizes was dose dependent and correlated temporally with the breakdown and recovery of the intestinal mucosa but was independent of the presence or absence of enteric bacteria or bile acids. Associated with the loss of fluid was an excess excretion of 0.83 meq of sodium between 48 and 84 h postirradiation. This represents approximately 60% of the sodium lost from the extracellular fluid space in these animals during this time. The remaining extracellular sodium loss was due to redistribution of sodium to other spaces. It is concluded that radiation-induced breakdown of the intestinal mucosa results in lethal losses of fluid and sodium as evidenced by significant decreases in total body water, extracellular fluid space, plasma volume, and plasma sodium concentration, with hemoconcentration. These changes are sufficient to reduce tissue perfusion leading to irreversible hypovolemic shock and death.

  2. A multiuser system for whole body plethysmographic measurements and interpretation.

    PubMed

    Zaiss, A W; Matthys, H

    1990-01-01

    A multiuser system for whole body plethysmographic measurements and interpretation which has been developed under clinical conditions is described. The following measurements can be carried out in a rapid way and in one session with the patient: specific airway resistance during spontaneous breathing, determination of functional residual capacity, static lung volumes, and maximal forced expiratory data. Each section is normally measured twice and can be repeated up to ten times. The final results are displayed and printed together with a consistent system of normal reference values. All values and selected original curves are stored automatically in an integrated data base system. Obstructive patients are measured again after the inhalation of a bronchodilator. All results are evaluated by an automatic interpretation program. This analyzes and graduates airway obstruction, lung volumes, and pharmacological airway reversibility using standardized texts which are written below all numerical printouts and graphical plots. The interpretation algorithm is tree structured and uses the normal reference values as a knowledge base. The system supports up to four online laboratories with their own A/D converter and up to 20 video terminals, printers, plotters, and modems. Our laboratory performs 8,297 such complete measurements on 4,671 different patients per year with one body box.

  3. Acoustical method of whole-body hydration status monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarvazyan, A. P.; Tsyuryupa, S. N.; Calhoun, M.; Utter, A.

    2016-07-01

    An acoustical handheld hydration monitor (HM) for assessing the water balance of the human body was developed. Dehydration is a critical public health problem. Many elderly over age of 65 are particularly vulnerable as are infants and young children. Given that dehydration is both preventable and reversible, the need for an easy-to-perform method for the detection of water imbalance is of the utmost clinical importance. The HM is based on an experimental fact that ultrasound velocity in muscle is a linear function of water content and can be referenced to the hydration status of the body. Studies on the validity of HM for the assessment of whole-body hydration status were conducted in the Appalachian State University, USA, on healthy young adults and on elderly subjects residing at an assisted living facility. The HM was able to track changes in total body water during periods of acute dehydration and rehydration in athletes and day-to-day and diurnal variability of hydration in elderly. Results of human studies indicate that HM has a potential to become an efficient tool for detecting abnormal changes in the body hydration status.

  4. Acute corticospinal and spinal modulation after whole body vibration

    PubMed Central

    Krause, A.; Gollhofer, A.; Freyler, K.; Jablonka, L.; Ritzmann, R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate neural effects of acute whole body vibration (WBV) on lower limb muscles regarding corticospinal and spinal excitability. Methods: In 44 healthy subjects (16 f/ 28 m), motor evoked potentials (MEP) and H-reflexes in m. soleus (SOL) and gastrocnemius medialis (GM) were elicited before (t1), immediately after (t2), 2 (t3), 4 (t4) and 10 min after (t5) WBV. Results: After WBV, MEP amplitudes were significantly increased in SOL (t2+15±30%, t3+22±32%, t4+15±35%, t5+20±30%, P<0.05), but not in GM (t2+32±62%, t3+9±35%, t4+8±36%, t5+22±47%; P=0.07). Contrarily, H-reflexes were significantly reduced in SOL (t2-19±28%, t3-21±22%, t4-20±21%, t5-14±28%, P<0.05) and GM (t2-14±37%, t3-16±25%, t4-18±29%, t5-16±28%, P<0.05). Conclusions: A temporary sustained enhancement of corticospinal excitability concomitant with spinal inhibition after WBV points towards persisting neural modulation in the central nervous system. This could indicate greater neural modulation over M1 and descending pathways, while the contribution of spinal pathways is reduced. PMID:27973385

  5. Whole-body counting in the Marshall Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, L.C.; Clinton, J.; Kaplan, E.; Meinhold, C.B.

    1991-01-01

    In 1978 the Marshall Islands Radiological Safety Program was organized to perform radiation measurements and assess radiation doses for the people of the Bikini, Enewetak, Rongelap and Utirik Atolls. One of the major field components of this program is whole- body counting (WBC). WBC is used to monitor the quantity of gamma- emitting radionuclides present in individuals. A primary objective of the program was to establish {sup 137}Cesium body contents among the Enewetak, Rongelap and Utirik populations. {sup 137}Cs was the only gamma-emitting fission radionuclide detected in the 1,967 persons monitored. {sup 137}Cs body burdens tended to increase with age for both sexes, and were higher in males. The average {sup 137}Cs dose Annual Effective Dose for the three populations was as follows: For Enewetak, the dose was 22{+-}4 {mu}Sv. For Utirik, the dose was 33{+-} 3 {mu}Sv. Since 1985 the Rongelap people have been self-exiled to Mejatto. Biological elimination should have reduced their dose to virtually zero, and the measured dose was 2{+-}2 {mu}Sv. If they had remained on Rongelap Island, the calculated dose would have been 99 {mu}Sv, which is about one-third of the background dose. 7 refs., 1 tab. (MHB)

  6. Measurement uncertainties in whole body counting and radon progeny.

    PubMed

    Valakis, Stratos T; Pallada, Stavroula; Kalef-Ezra, John A

    2014-07-01

    Measurement uncertainty is an important quality index in gamma spectrometry related to the level of bias and precision involved in the measuring procedure. Quality control measurements during the commissioning of a 16-input whole body counter showed substantial deviations between the experimentally determined precision and the theoretical estimation, indicating either equipment malfunction or lack of reproducibility of the experimental setup. In this study, the role of the magnitude and variability of airborne background radiation present in the counting room and the human body in the deterioration of the precision of counters employing NaI(Tl) detectors was investigated. Correction methods and actions based on case-specific background features were developed and applied. The experimental observations were benchmarked using a mathematical model of the counter. The efficacy of the developed methods was tested by measurements, and updated precision values were obtained. Quasi-equilibrium between the gamma-emitters Bi and Pb in the counting room and the human body is a prerequisite for accurate direct low-level radioactivity measurements in the human body.

  7. Kinetic brain analysis and whole-body imaging in monkey of [11C]MNPA: a dopamine agonist radioligand.

    PubMed

    Seneca, Nicholas; Skinbjerg, Mette; Zoghbi, Sami S; Liow, Jeih-San; Gladding, Robert L; Hong, Jinsoo; Kannan, Pavitra; Tuan, Edward; Sibley, David R; Halldin, Christer; Pike, Victor W; Innis, Robert B

    2008-09-01

    With a view to future extension of the use of the agonist radioligand [(11)C]MNPA ([O-methyl-(11)C]2-methoxy-N-propylnorapomorphine) from animals to humans, we performed two positron emission tomography (PET) studies in monkeys. First, we assessed the ability to quantify the brain uptake of [(11)C]MNPA with compartmental modeling. Second, we estimated the radiation exposure of [(11)C]MNPA to human subjects based on whole-body imaging in monkeys. Brain PET scans were acquired for 90 min and included concurrent measurements of the plasma concentration of unchanged radioligand. Time-activity data from striatum and cerebellum were quantified with two methods, a reference tissue model and distribution volume. Whole-body PET scans were acquired for 120 min using four bed positions from head to mid thigh. Regions of interest were drawn on compressed planar whole-body images to identify organs with the highest radiation exposures. After injection of [(11)C]MNPA, the highest concentration of radioactivity in brain was in striatum, with lowest levels in cerebellum. Distribution volume was well identified with a two-tissue compartmental model and was quite stable from 60 to 90 min. Whole-body PET scans showed the organ with the highest radiation burden (muSv/MBq) was the urinary bladder wall (26.0), followed by lungs (22.5), gallbladder wall (21.9), and heart wall (16.1). With a 2.4-h voiding interval, the effective dose was 6.4 muSv/MBq (23.5 mrem/mCi). In conclusion, brain uptake of [(11)C]MNPA reflected the density of D(2/3) receptors, quantified relative to serial arterial measurements, and caused moderate to low radiation exposure.

  8. Individual and combined effects of noise-like whole-body vibration and parathyroid hormone treatment on bone defect repair in ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takeshi; Sato, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and exposure to whole-body vibration on osteoporotic fracture healing has been previously investigated, but data on their concurrent use are lacking. Thus, we evaluated the effects of intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone, whole-body vibration, and their combination on bone repair in osteoporotic mice. Noise-like whole-body vibration with a broad frequency range was used instead of conventional sine-wave whole-body vibration at a specific frequency. Mice were ovariectomized at 9 weeks of age and subjected to drill-hole surgery in the right tibial diaphysis at 11 weeks. The animals were divided into four groups (n = 12 each): a control group, and groups treated with intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone, noise-like whole-body vibration, and both. From postoperative day 2, the groups treated with intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and groups treated with both intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and noise-like whole-body vibration were subcutaneously administered parathyroid hormone at a dose of 30 µg/kg/day. The groups treated with noise-like whole-body vibration and groups treated with both intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and noise-like whole-body vibration were exposed to noise-like whole-body vibration at a root mean squared acceleration of 0.3g and frequency components of 45-100 Hz for 20 min/day. Following 18 days of interventions, the right tibiae were harvested, and the regenerated bone was analyzed by micro-computed tomography and nanoindentation testing. Compared with the control group, callus volume fraction was 40% higher in groups treated with intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and 73% higher in groups treated with both intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and noise-like whole-body vibration, and callus thickness was 35% wider in groups treated with both

  9. Ergometer within a whole-body plethysmograph to evaluate performance of guinea pigs under toxic atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Malek, D.E.; Alarie, Y. )

    1989-11-01

    A guinea pig ergometer was constructed within an enclosure, with inlet and outlet ports for continuous ventilation, designed so that the enclosure would work as a whole-body plethysmograph as well as an inhalation exposure chamber. This system provided continuous measurement of tidal volume, respiratory frequency, oxygen uptake, and carbon dioxide output which enabled an evaluation of performance in terms of distance traveled over time with the animals running at a known speed and constant oxygen uptake. The effects of CO or HCl in running versus sedentary animals were investigated using this apparatus. For CO, exercise increased the rapidity of the onset of incapacitation as would be predicted by the increase in metabolic rate. HCl produced a more severe incapacitating effect in exercising animals that was out of proportion with the increase in minute volume induced by exercise.

  10. Stability of the translocation frequency following whole-body irradiation measured in rhesus monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, J. N.; Hill, F. S.; Burk, C. E.; Cox, A. B.; Straume, T.

    1996-01-01

    Chromosome translocations are persistent indicators of prior exposure to ionizing radiation and the development of 'chromosome painting' to efficiently detect translocations has resulted in a powerful biological dosimetry tool for radiation dose reconstruction. However, the actual stability of the translocation frequency with time after exposure must be measured before it can be used reliably to obtain doses for individuals exposed years or decades previously. Human chromosome painting probes were used here to measure reciprocal translocation frequencies in cells from two tissues of 8 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) irradiated almost three decades previously. Six of the monkeys were exposed in 1965 to whole-body (fully penetrating) radiation and two were unexposed controls. The primates were irradiated as juveniles to single doses of 0.56, 1.13, 2.00, or 2.25 Gy. Blood lymphocytes (and skin fibroblasts from one individual) were obtained for cytogenetic analysis in 1993, near the end of the animals' lifespans. Results show identical dose-response relationships 28 y after exposure in vivo and immediately after exposure in vitro. Because chromosome aberrations are induced with identical frequencies in vivo and in vitro, these results demonstrate that the translocation frequencies induced in 1965 have not changed significantly during the almost three decades since exposure. Finally, our emerging biodosimetry data for individual radiation workers are now confirming the utility of reciprocal translocations measured by FISH in radiation dose reconstruction.

  11. Whole-Body Counter(WBC) and food radiocesium contamination surveys in Namie, Fukushima Prefecture

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Kazuki; Tsushima, Eiki; Kudo, Kohsei; Noto, Yuka; Nishizawa, Yoshiko

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the internal Cs exposure of residents and the Cs present in food products produced in Namie. Whole-body counter (WBC) was used for the measurement of internal exposure per each whole body of examinees. Methods The food products which appeared to be used for consumption, were brought by residents and commercially available food items were excluded. Most of them were wild plants or food items produced by residents. Four years of data from April 2012 to March 2013 (fiscal 2012) and April 2015 to March 2016 (Fiscal 2015) were analyzed and studied. Results The average radioactivity measured by WBC was approximately 5 Bq for Cs-134, and 20 Bq for Cs-137 and the average committed effective dose was approximately 1 μSv. The average for the residents with detectable radioactivity was 25 μSv, and the human health effects are considered to be extremely low risk. However, the radioactivity of the affected individuals showed a higher value than the theoretical attenuation rate. The majority (83.2%) of individuals exhibiting radioactivity were over 50 years old. The number of food products brought in for detection decreased as the study period progressed, but the number of food products with radioactivity had increased. While the items with a higher detection rate of radioactivity included fruits such as citron and persimmon, shiitake mushrooms exhibited the highest radioactivity. Moreover, the radioactivity of seven items in these 10 items decreased from fiscal 2012 to fiscal 2015. Mushrooms had high radioactivity and were produced over a wide area. Conclusion We suggest that the elderly try to enjoy life and eat wild plants in moderation while inspecting food products. Therefore, we will continue to work in raising awareness of radiation and its potential presence in food products and thus the continuing necessity of monitoring radioactivity in food in the future. PMID:28334042

  12. Human perceptual overestimation of whole body roll tilt in hypergravity

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Michael C.; Oman, Charles M.; Merfeld, Daniel M.; Young, Laurence R.

    2014-01-01

    Hypergravity provides a unique environment to study human perception of orientation. We utilized a long-radius centrifuge to study perception of both static and dynamic whole body roll tilt in hypergravity, across a range of angles, frequencies, and net gravito-inertial levels (referred to as G levels). While studies of static tilt perception in hypergravity have been published, this is the first to measure dynamic tilt perception (i.e., with time-varying canal stimulation) in hypergravity using a continuous matching task. In complete darkness, subjects reported their orientation perception using a haptic task, whereby they attempted to align a hand-held bar with their perceived horizontal. Static roll tilt was overestimated in hypergravity, with more overestimation at larger angles and higher G levels, across the conditions tested (overestimated by ∼35% per additional G level, P < 0.001). As our primary contribution, we show that dynamic roll tilt was also consistently overestimated in hypergravity (P < 0.001) at all angles and frequencies tested, again with more overestimation at higher G levels. The overestimation was similar to that for static tilts at low angular velocities but decreased at higher angular velocities (P = 0.006), consistent with semicircular canal sensory integration. To match our findings, we propose a modification to a previous Observer-type canal-otolith interaction model. Specifically, our data were better modeled by including the hypothesis that the central nervous system treats otolith stimulation in the utricular plane differently than stimulation out of the utricular plane. This modified model was able to simulate quantitatively both the static and the dynamic roll tilt overestimation in hypergravity measured experimentally. PMID:25540216

  13. Ultra-high field magnets for whole-body MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Rory

    2016-09-01

    For whole-body MRI, an ultra-high field (UHF) magnet is currently defined as a system operating at 7 T or above. Over 70 UHF magnets have been built, all with the same technical approach originally developed by Magnex Scientific Ltd. The preferred coil configuration is a compensated solenoid. In this case, the majority of the field is generated by a simple long solenoid that stretches the entire length of the magnet. Additional coils are wound on a separate former outside the main windings with the purpose of balancing the homogeneity. Most of the magnets currently in operation are passively shielded systems where the magnet is surrounded by a steel box of 200-870 tonnes of carbon steel. More recently actively shielded magnets have been built for operation at 7 T; in this case the stray field is controlled by with reverse turns wound on a separate former outside the primary coils. Protection against quench damage is much more complex with an actively shielded magnet design due to the requirement to prevent the stray field from increasing during a quench. In the case of the 7 T 900 magnet this controlled by combining some of the screening coils into each section of the protection circuit. Correction of the field variations caused by manufacturing tolerances and environmental effects are made with a combination of superconducting shims and passive shims. Modern UHF magnets operate in zero boil-off mode with the use of cryocoolers with cooling capacity at 4.2 K. Although there are no cryogen costs associated with normal operation UHF magnets require a significant volume (10 000-20 000 l) of liquid helium for the cool-down. Liquid helium is expensive therefore new methods of cool-down using high-power cryocoolers are being implemented to reduce the requirement.

  14. Automatic aortic root segmentation in CTA whole-body dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xinpei; Kitslaar, Pieter H.; Scholte, Arthur J. H. A.; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.; Dijkstra, Jouke; Reiber, Johan H. C.

    2016-03-01

    Trans-catheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is an evolving technique for patients with serious aortic stenosis disease. Typically, in this application a CTA data set is obtained of the patient's arterial system from the subclavian artery to the femoral arteries, to evaluate the quality of the vascular access route and analyze the aortic root to determine if and which prosthesis should be used. In this paper, we concentrate on the automated segmentation of the aortic root. The purpose of this study was to automatically segment the aortic root in computed tomography angiography (CTA) datasets to support TAVR procedures. The method in this study includes 4 major steps. First, the patient's cardiac CTA image was resampled to reduce the computation time. Next, the cardiac CTA image was segmented using an atlas-based approach. The most similar atlas was selected from a total of 8 atlases based on its image similarity to the input CTA image. Third, the aortic root segmentation from the previous step was transferred to the patient's whole-body CTA image by affine registration and refined in the fourth step using a deformable subdivision surface model fitting procedure based on image intensity. The pipeline was applied to 20 patients. The ground truth was created by an analyst who semi-automatically corrected the contours of the automatic method, where necessary. The average Dice similarity index between the segmentations of the automatic method and the ground truth was found to be 0.965±0.024. In conclusion, the current results are very promising.

  15. Transmission of vertical whole body vibration to the human body.

    PubMed

    Kiiski, Juha; Heinonen, Ari; Järvinen, Teppo L; Kannus, Pekka; Sievänen, Harri

    2008-08-01

    According to experimental studies, low-amplitude high-frequency vibration is anabolic to bone tissue, whereas in clinical trials, the bone effects have varied. Given the potential of whole body vibration in bone training, this study aimed at exploring the transmission of vertical sinusoidal vibration to the human body over a wide range of applicable amplitudes (from 0.05 to 3 mm) and frequencies (from 10 to 90 Hz). Vibration-induced accelerations were assessed with skin-mounted triaxial accelerometers at the ankle, knee, hip, and lumbar spine in four males standing on a high-performance vibration platform. Peak vertical accelerations of the platform covered a range from 0.04 to 19 in units of G (Earth's gravitational constant). Substantial amplification of peak acceleration could occur between 10 and 40 Hz for the ankle, 10 and 25 Hz for the knee, 10 and 20 Hz for the hip, and at 10 Hz for the spine. Beyond these frequencies, the transmitted vibration power declined to 1/10th-1/1000 th of the power delivered by the platform. Transmission of vibration to the body is a complicated phenomenon because of nonlinearities in the human musculoskeletal system. These results may assist in estimating how the transmission of vibration-induced accelerations to body segments is modified by amplitude and frequency and how well the sinusoidal waveform is maintained. Although the attenuation of vertical vibration at higher frequencies is fortunate from the aspect of safety, amplitudes >0.5 mm may result in greater peak accelerations than imposed at the platform and thus pose a potential hazard for the fragile musculoskeletal system.

  16. Contribution of anaerobic energy expenditure to whole body thermogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Christopher B

    2005-01-01

    Heat production serves as the standard measurement for the determination of energy expenditure and efficiency in animals. Estimations of metabolic heat production have traditionally focused on gas exchange (oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production) although direct heat measurements may include an anaerobic component particularly when carbohydrate is oxidized. Stoichiometric interpretations of the ratio of carbon dioxide production to oxygen uptake suggest that both anaerobic and aerobic heat production and, by inference, all energy expenditure – can be accounted for with a measurement of oxygen uptake as 21.1 kJ per liter of oxygen. This manuscript incorporates contemporary bioenergetic interpretations of anaerobic and aerobic ATP turnover to promote the independence of these disparate types of metabolic energy transfer: each has different reactants and products, uses dissimilar enzymes, involves different types of biochemical reactions, takes place in separate cellular compartments, exploits different types of gradients and ultimately each operates with distinct efficiency. The 21.1 kJ per liter of oxygen for carbohydrate oxidation includes a small anaerobic heat component as part of anaerobic energy transfer. Faster rates of ATP turnover that exceed mitochondrial respiration and that are supported by rapid glycolytic phosphorylation with lactate production result in heat production that is independent of oxygen uptake. Simultaneous direct and indirect calorimetry has revealed that this anaerobic heat does not disappear when lactate is later oxidized and so oxygen uptake does not adequately measure anaerobic efficiency or energy expenditure (as was suggested by the "oxygen debt" hypothesis). An estimate of anaerobic energy transfer supplements the measurement of oxygen uptake and may improve the interpretation of whole-body energy expenditure. PMID:15958171

  17. Polyarteritis nodosa: MDCT as a 'One-Stop Shop' Modality for Whole-Body Arterial Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, W.-L.; Tsai, I-C.; Lee Tain; Hsieh, C.-W.

    2008-07-15

    Polyarteritis nodosa is a rare disease, which is characterized by aneurysm formation and occlusion in the arteries of multiple systems. Due to its extensive involvement, whole-body evaluation is necessary for diagnosis and treatment monitoring. We report a case of polyarteritis nodosa using multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) as a 'one-stop shop' modality for whole-body arterial evaluation. With precise protocol design, MDCT can be used as a reliable noninvasive modality providing comprehensive whole-body arterial evaluation.

  18. Determination of Percent Body Fat Using 3D Whole Body Laser Scanning: A Preliminary Investigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    circumferences, 3D whole body laser scans and DEXA scans were performed on fifty-one men and women age 18-62. Mean percent body fat was not statistically...3D whole body laser scan , and DEXA scan to measure individuals during a one hour measurement session. 1 Report Documentation Page Form...underwent a 6 minute whole body DEXA scan using a GE Lunar Prodigy DEXA scanner running software version 7.53. Percent body fat was calculated from the

  19. Differential Effect of Postnatal Lead Exposure on Gene Expression in the Hippocampus and Frontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, J.S.; Mettil, W.; Anderson, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    Although developmental lead exposure is known to have detrimental effects on a variety of cognitive functions that depend on the integrity of the hippocampus and frontal cortex, little is known about how low levels of lead exposure affect expression of key families of genes in these structures. The present study examined the effects of exposure to environmentally-relevant levels of lead during the sensitive early post-weaning period in the rat on the expression profiles of a select number of neurobiologically relevant genes (i.e., genes for neurotrophic factors, NMDA receptors, metabotropic glutamate receptors, synaptic function/plasticity, cell signaling, and transcription/regulation) in the rat hippocampus and frontal cortex. Exposure to lead (180 and 375 ppm lead acetate in food for 30 days) significantly increased blood lead levels (5.8 to 10.3 μg/dl) and significantly affected expression of many of the genes examined. In many instances, lead exposure had different effects on the same gene depending on the brain region in which the expression of that gene was examined. Gene expression in the frontal cortex was often more sensitive to modification than gene expression in the hippocampus. These results suggest that even past infancy, exposures to low levels of lead can have significant effects on gene expression in frontal cortex and the hippocampus with the potential to exert long-term effects on behavior and cognition. PMID:22160880

  20. Exposure of pregnant rats to uranium and restraint stress: effects on postnatal development and behavior of the offspring.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Domènec J; Bellés, Montserrat; Albina, Maria L; Gómez, Mercedes; Linares, Victoria; Domingo, José L

    2006-12-07

    The effects on postnatal development and behavior were assessed in the offspring of female rats concurrently exposed to uranium (U) and restraint stress. Adult female rats were administered uranyl acetate dihydrate (UAD) in the drinking water at doses of 0, 40 and 80 mg/(kg day) for 4 weeks before mating with untreated males, as well as during pregnancy and lactation. One-half of female rats in each group were concurrently subjected to restraint (2h/day). On gestation day 14, one-half of restrained and unrestrained rats were sacrificed in order to evaluate maternal toxicity and gestational parameters. Pups were evaluated for physical development, neuromotor maturation, and behavior. Uranium concentrations were also determined in various tissues of dams and fetuses. In all uranium-treated groups, the highest concentrations of this element were found in kidney and bone, being considerably higher than those in brain. Uranium levels in tissues of dam or fetuses were not significantly affected by restraint. No significant interactions between uranium and restraint could be observed in maternal toxicity. Moreover, no relevant effects of uranium, maternal restraint, or their combination were noted on developmental landmarks in the offspring. In the passive avoidance test, at 40 and 80 mg UAD/(kg day) restraint significantly modified passive avoidance acquisition (T1) and retention time (T2) 24h later. However, no significant differences were observed on the Morris water maze test. The results of the present study indicate that, in general terms, exposure of female rats to UAD before mating with untreated males, as well as during gestation and lactation, did not cause relevant dose-related adverse effects on postnatal development and behavior of the offspring. The influence of stress was very limited.

  1. Early Postnatal Exposure to Cigarette Smoke Leads to Later Airway Inflammation in Asthmatic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Fei; Cheng, Hang; Zhang, Yu-tong; Ju, Yang-hua; Li, Ya-nan

    2017-01-01

    Background and objective Asthma is one of the most common airway inflammatory diseases. In most cases, asthma development is related to ubiquitous harmful environmental exposure factors in early-life. Previous studies have indicated that smoking can promote asthma development and increase the difficulty of asthma control. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of early-life CS exposure on ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized asthmatic mice. Methods Pathological and immunological functions were analyzed in an adult asthma mice model in which mice were sensitized with OVA combined with early-life CS exposure. Results Mice exposed to CS for only 5 weeks demonstrated significantly reduced pulmonary compliance, increased airway inflammation, and augmented cellular and humoral immune responses. In addition, CS inhalation was sufficient to facilitate OVA sensitization and challenge asthmatic development. Meanwhile, CS exposure amplified regulatory T cell-mediated immunity inhibition, but still did not offset the increased effector T cell-mediated inflammatory response. Conclusion Early-life CS exposure is significantly associated with later pulmonary injury and aggravation of T-cell immunologic derangement in asthmatic mice. PMID:28135326

  2. Prenatal and postnatal polybrominated diphenyl ether exposure and visual spatial abilities in children.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Ann M; Braun, Joseph M; Yolton, Kimberly; Xie, Changchun; Webster, Glenys M; Sjödin, Andreas; Dietrich, Kim N; Lanphear, Bruce P; Chen, Aimin

    2017-02-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are associated with impaired visual spatial abilities in toxicological studies, but no epidemiologic study has investigated PBDEs and visual spatial abilities in children. The Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment Study, a prospective birth cohort (2003-2006, Cincinnati, OH), was used to examine prenatal and childhood PBDEs and visual spatial abilities in 199 children. PBDEs were measured at 16±3 weeks gestation and at 1, 2, 3, 5, and 8 years using gas chromatography/isotope dilution high-resolution mass spectrometry. We used the Virtual Morris Water Maze to measure visual spatial abilities at 8 years. In covariate-adjusted models, 10-fold increases in BDE-47, -99, and -100 at 5 years were associated with shorter completion times by 5.2s (95% Confidence Interval [CI] -9.3, -1.1), 4.5s (95% CI -8.1, -0.9), and 4.7s (95% CI -9.0, -0.3), respectively. However, children with higher BDE-153 at 3 years had longer completion times (β=5.4s, 95% CI -0.3, 11.1). Prenatal PBDEs were associated with improved visual spatial memory retention, with children spending a higher percentage of their search path in the correct quadrant. Child sex modified some associations between PBDEs and visual spatial learning. Longer path lengths were observed among males with increased BDE-47 at 2 and 3 years, while females had shorter paths. In conclusion, prenatal and postnatal BDE-28, -47, -99, and -100 at 5 and 8 years were associated with improved visual spatial abilities, whereas a pattern of impairments in visual spatial learning was noted with early childhood BDE-153 concentrations.

  3. Effects of Early Postnatal Alcohol Exposure on the Developing Retinogeniculate Projections in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dursun, İlknur; Jakubowska-Doğru, Ewa; Birsen, Elibol-Can; van der List, Deborah; Chapman, Barbara; Qi, Lihong; Berman, Robert F.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies on the adverse effects of perinatal exposure to ethanol on the developing visual system mainly focused on retinal and optic nerve morphology. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether earlier reported retinal and optic nerve changes are accompanied by anomalies in eye-specific fiber segregation in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN). C57BL/6 mice pups were exposed to ethanol by intragastric intubation at either 3 or 4 g/kg from postnatal days (PD) 3-10, the third trimester equivalent to human gestation. Control (C) and intubation control (IC) groups not exposed to ethanol were included. On PD9 retinogeniculate projections, were labeled by intraocular microinjections of cholera toxin-β (CTB) either conjugated to Alexa 488 (green) or 594 (red) administrated to the left and right eye, respectively. Pups were sacrificed 24 h after the last CTB injection. The results showed that ethanol exposure decreased the total number of dLGN neurons and significantly reduced the total dLGN projection as well as the contralateral and ipsilateral projection areas. PMID:23402901

  4. Effects of limited postnatal ethanol exposure on the development of myelin and nerve fibers in rat optic nerve.

    PubMed

    Phillips, D E

    1989-01-01

    This study was designed to morphologically evaluate the effects of limited postnatal alcohol exposure on the development of myelin and axons in the rat optic nerve. Rat pups were artificially reared on Days 5-18 with a supplemented milk diet fed via a chronic gastrostomy tube. Experimental animals received 4% ethanol in their diet on Days 5-9, otherwise the experimental and control animals received identical diets in identical volumes. Optic nerve tissues were prepared for electron microscopy on Days 10, 16, 22, 29, and 90. The cross-sectional areas of optic nerves were smaller, there were fewer myelinated nerve fibers per unit area, and the progress of myelination was slowed on Day 10 in the ethanol-exposed animals. All of these effects were compensated for at later times. The ratio of myelin thickness to axon diameter was similar in experimental and control animals, indicating that the interaction between axon size and myelin formation was not affected by alcohol. The general distribution of axon sizes was unaffected by ethanol except at 10 days when the largest fibers were smaller. There was no evidence of alcohol-induced degeneration of axons, myelin, or glial structures. Thus, alcohol exposure during myelin development causes a delay in myelin acquisition that is later compensated for.

  5. Effects of in utero or suckling exposure to cerium (citrate) on the postnatal developmental of the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    D'Agostino, R.B.; Lown, B.A.; Morganti, J.B.; Massaro, E.J.

    1982-09-01

    Gravid female mice received either a single subcutaneous dose of cerium citrate (80 mg Ce/kg) or an equivalent (in citrate) dose of sodium citrate on day 7 or 12 of gestation or on day 2 postpartum. To separate effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure, a cross-fostering design was employed. The weight and gross activity of the neonates were assessed on day 8 or 13 postpartum. Open-field behavioral parameters, accelerating rotarod performance, and passive avoidance learning were assessed on day 60-65 postpartum. Maternal offspring retrival latency was measured on day 3 postpartum. Maternal offspring retrieval latency was measured on day 3 postpartum. Analyses revealed that neonatal weight was reduced both in offspring exposed to Ce in utero and in the offspring of mothers receiving Ce during lactation/suckling. Ce also appeared to affect maternal/offspring interaction: pups exposed prenatally to Ce were retrieved in less time than control pups. Except for an increased frequency of rearings in the open field of adult offspring exposed to Ce in utero, Ce exposure had no apparent effect on behavioral parameters, either in neonatal or adult offspring.

  6. Early postnatal nicotine exposure causes hippocampus-dependent memory impairments in adolescent mice: Association with altered nicotinic cholinergic modulation of LTP, but not impaired LTP.

    PubMed

    Nakauchi, Sakura; Malvaez, Melissa; Su, Hailing; Kleeman, Elise; Dang, Richard; Wood, Marcelo A; Sumikawa, Katumi

    2015-02-01

    Fetal nicotine exposure from smoking during pregnancy causes long-lasting cognitive impairments in offspring, yet little is known about the mechanisms that underlie this effect. Here we demonstrate that early postnatal exposure of mouse pups to nicotine via maternal milk impairs long-term, but not short-term, hippocampus-dependent memory during adolescence. At the Schaffer collateral (SC) pathway, the most widely studied synapses for a cellular correlate of hippocampus-dependent memory, the induction of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-dependent transient long-term potentiation (LTP) and protein synthesis-dependent long-lasting LTP are not diminished by nicotine exposure, but rather unexpectedly the threshold for LTP induction becomes lower after nicotine treatment. Using voltage sensitive dye to visualize hippocampal activity, we found that early postnatal nicotine exposure also results in enhanced CA1 depolarization and hyperpolarization after SC stimulation. Furthermore, we show that postnatal nicotine exposure induces pervasive changes to the nicotinic modulation of CA1 activity: activation of nicotinic receptors no longer increases CA1 network depolarization, acute nicotine inhibits rather than facilitates the induction of LTP at the SC pathway by recruiting an additional nicotinic receptor subtype, and acute nicotine no longer blocks LTP induction at the temporoammonic pathway. These findings reflect the pervasive impact of nicotine exposure during hippocampal development, and demonstrate an association of hippocampal memory impairments with altered nicotinic cholinergic modulation of LTP, but not impaired LTP. The implication of our results is that nicotinic cholinergic-dependent plasticity is required for long-term memory formation and that postnatal nicotine exposure disrupts this form of plasticity.

  7. Acute effects of stochastic resonance whole body vibration

    PubMed Central

    Elfering, Achim; Zahno, Jasmine; Taeymans, Jan; Blasimann, Angela; Radlinger, Lorenz

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the acute effects of stochastic resonance whole body vibration (SR-WBV) training to identify possible explanations for preventive effects against musculoskeletal disorders. METHODS: Twenty-three healthy, female students participated in this quasi-experimental pilot study. Acute physiological and psychological effects of SR-WBV training were examined using electromyography of descending trapezius (TD) muscle, heart rate variability (HRV), different skin parameters (temperature, redness and blood flow) and self-report questionnaires. All subjects conducted a sham SR-WBV training at a low intensity (2 Hz with noise level 0) and a verum SR-WBV training at a higher intensity (6 Hz with noise level 4). They were tested before, during and after the training. Conclusions were drawn on the basis of analysis of variance. RESULTS: Twenty-three healthy, female students participated in this study (age = 22.4 ± 2.1 years; body mass index = 21.6 ± 2.2 kg/m2). Muscular activity of the TD and energy expenditure rose during verum SR-WBV compared to baseline and sham SR-WBV (all P < 0.05). Muscular relaxation after verum SR-WBV was higher than at baseline and after sham SR-WBV (all P < 0.05). During verum SR-WBV the levels of HRV were similar to those observed during sham SR-WBV. The same applies for most of the skin characteristics, while microcirculation of the skin of the middle back was higher during verum compared to sham SR-WBV (P < 0.001). Skin redness showed significant changes over the three measurement points only in the middle back area (P = 0.022). There was a significant rise from baseline to verum SR-WBV (0.86 ± 0.25 perfusion units; P = 0.008). The self-reported chronic pain grade indicators of pain, stiffness, well-being, and muscle relaxation showed a mixed pattern across conditions. Muscle and joint stiffness (P = 0.018) and muscular relaxation did significantly change from baseline to different conditions of SR-WBV (P < 0.001). Moreover

  8. Uranium deposition and retention in a USTUR whole body case.

    PubMed

    Russell, J J; Kathren, R L

    2004-03-01

    This report describes a whole body donation from a person with a documented occupational intake of uranium. USTUR Case 1002 was an adult male who died from an acute cerebellar infarct at the age of 83. He worked as a power operator, utility operator, and metal operator for 28 years in a facility that processed and handled radioactive materials. Although he suffered a number of burns from hot metal and acids, cuts, abrasions, and puncture wounds during his many years of work, there were no corresponding health physics or medical records to indicate that these occurrences needed or required excision or decontamination due to the suspicion of the deposition of radioactive material. Over the course of his employment, USTUR Case 1002 submitted numerous urine samples for uranium, plutonium, and fission product analysis. The highest single uranium value measured during this time period was approximately 30 microg L(-1) recorded during the second year of his employment. A urinary bioassay sample taken before termination of employment measured 4.3 microg L(-1). The mean urinary uranium concentration per liter per year calculated from the employee's bioassay records covering the first eleven years of monitoring averaged less than 3 microg L(-1). The ratio of 234/238U activity in the lung tissue was about 1, the same as that found in natural uranium. The highest concentration of uranium was found in a tracheobronchial lymph node. The uranium content in the various tissues of the body followed a rank order lung > skeleton > liver > kidney. Concentration of uranium in the kidney tissue was approximately 1.98 ng g(-1), about 3 orders of magnitude less than the generally accepted threshold level for permanent kidney damage of 3 microg U g(-1) and roughly equal to the 1.4 ng g(-1) reported for Reference Man. The autopsy disclosed findings not uncommon in the aged: severe atherosclerosis, areas of sclerotic kidney glomeruli with stromal fibrous scarring, and moderate to severe

  9. Neurobehavioral Development following Exposure of Male Mice to Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether 47 on Postnatal Day 10

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are commonly used as commercial flame retardants in a variety of products including plastics and textiles. Previous studies in our laboratory and in the literature have shown that exposure to a specific PBDE congener, PBDE 47, during a crit...

  10. Changes in Dam and Pup Behavior Following Repeated Postnatal Exposure to a Predator Odor (TMT): A Preliminary Investigation in Long-Evans Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, Luke W.; Asok, Arun; Blaze, Jennifer; Roth, Tania L.; Rosen, Jeffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated whether repeated early postnatal exposure to the predator odor 2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT) alters behavioral responses to the stimulus later in life, at postnatal day (PN30). Long-Evans rat pups with their mothers were exposed for 20 min daily to TMT, water, or a noxious odor, butyric acid (BTA), during the first three weeks of life. Mothers exposed to TMT displayed more crouching and nursing behavior than those exposed to BTA, and TMT exposed pups emitted more ultrasonic vocalizations than BTA exposed pups. At PN30, rats were tested for freezing to TMT, water, or BTA. Rats exposed to TMT during the postnatal period displayed less freezing to TMT than rats exposed postnatally to water or BTA. Our data indicate that early-life experience with a predator cue has a significant impact on later fear responses to that same cue, highlighting the programming capacity of the postnatal environment on the development of behavior. PMID:26394891

  11. Changes in dam and pup behavior following repeated postnatal exposure to a predator odor (TMT): A preliminary investigation in Long-Evans rats.

    PubMed

    Ayers, Luke W; Asok, Arun; Blaze, Jennifer; Roth, Tania L; Rosen, Jeffrey B

    2016-03-01

    The present study investigated whether repeated early postnatal exposure to the predator odor 2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT) alters behavioral responses to the stimulus later in life, at postnatal day (PN30). Long-Evans rat pups with their mothers were exposed for 20 min daily to TMT, water, or a noxious odor, butyric acid (BTA), during the first three weeks of life. Mothers exposed to TMT displayed more crouching and nursing behavior than those exposed to BTA, and TMT exposed pups emitted more ultrasonic vocalizations than BTA exposed pups. At PN30, rats were tested for freezing to TMT, water, or BTA. Rats exposed to TMT during the postnatal period displayed less freezing to TMT than rats exposed postnatally to water or BTA. Our data indicate that early-life experience with a predator cue has a significant impact on later fear responses to that same cue, highlighting the programming capacity of the postnatal environment on the development of behavior.

  12. Quantification of mouse in vivo whole-body vibration amplitude from motion-blur using x-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhengyi; Welch, Ian; Yuan, Xunhua; Pollmann, Steven I.; Nikolov, Hristo N.; Holdsworth, David W.

    2015-08-01

    Musculoskeletal effects of whole-body vibration on animals and humans have become an intensely studied topic recently, due to the potential of applying this method as a non-pharmacological therapy for strengthening bones. It is relatively easy to quantify the transmission of whole-body mechanical vibration through the human skeletal system using accelerometers. However, this is not the case for small-animal pre-clinical studies because currently available accelerometers have a large mass, relative to the mass of the animals, which causes the accelerometers themselves to affect the way vibration is transmitted. Additionally, live animals do not typically remain motionless for long periods, unless they are anesthetized, and they are required to maintain a static standing posture during these studies. These challenges provide the motivation for the development of a method to quantify vibrational transmission in small animals. We present a novel imaging technique to quantify whole-body vibration transmission in small animals using 280 μm diameter tungsten carbide beads implanted into the hind limbs of mice. Employing time-exposure digital x-ray imaging, vibrational amplitude is quantified based on the blurring of the implanted beads caused by the vibrational motion. Our in vivo results have shown this technique is capable of measuring vibration amplitudes as small as 0.1 mm, with precision as small as  ±10 μm, allowing us to distinguish differences in the transmitted vibration at different locations on the hindlimbs of mice.

  13. An analysis of dependency of counting efficiency on worker anatomy for in vivo measurements: whole-body counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Binquan; Mille, Matthew; Xu, X. George

    2008-07-01

    In vivo radiobioassay is integral to many health physics and radiological protection programs dealing with internal exposures. The Bottle Manikin Absorber (BOMAB) physical phantom has been widely used for whole-body counting calibrations. However, the shape of BOMAB phantoms—a collection of plastic, cylindrical shells which contain no bones or internal organs—does not represent realistic human anatomy. Furthermore, workers who come in contact with radioactive materials have rather different body shape and size. To date, there is a lack of understanding about how the counting efficiency would change when the calibrated counter is applied to a worker with complicated internal organs or tissues. This paper presents a study on various in vivo counting efficiencies obtained from Monte Carlo simulations of two BOMAB phantoms and three tomographic image-based models (VIP-Man, NORMAN and CNMAN) for a scenario involving homogeneous whole-body radioactivity contamination. The results reveal that a phantom's counting efficiency is strongly dependent on the shape and size of a phantom. Contrary to what was expected, it was found that only small differences in efficiency were observed when the density and material composition of all internal organs and tissues of the tomographic phantoms were changed to water. The results of this study indicate that BOMAB phantoms with appropriately adjusted size and shape can be sufficient for whole-body counting calibrations when the internal contamination is homogeneous.

  14. Whole-body proton irradiation causes long-term damage to hematopoietic stem cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jianhui; Feng, Wei; Wang, Yingying; Luo, Yi; Allen, Antiño R; Koturbash, Igor; Turner, Jennifer; Stewart, Blair; Raber, Jacob; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Zhou, Daohong; Shao, Lijian

    2015-02-01

    Space flight poses certain health risks to astronauts, including exposure to space radiation, with protons accounting for more than 80% of deep-space radiation. Proton radiation is also now being used with increasing frequency in the clinical setting to treat cancer. For these reasons, there is an urgent need to better understand the biological effects of proton radiation on the body. Such improved understanding could also lead to more accurate assessment of the potential health risks of proton radiation, as well as the development of improved strategies to prevent and mitigate its adverse effects. Previous studies have shown that exposure to low doses of protons is detrimental to mature leukocyte populations in peripheral blood, however, the underlying mechanisms are not known. Some of these detriments may be attributable to damage to hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that have the ability to self-renew, proliferate and differentiate into different lineages of blood cells through hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs). The goal of this study was to investigate the long-term effects of low-dose proton irradiation on HSCs. We exposed C57BL/6J mice to 1.0 Gy whole-body proton irradiation (150 MeV) and then studied the effects of proton radiation on HSCs and HPCs in the bone marrow (BM) 22 weeks after the exposure. The results showed that mice exposed to 1.0 Gy whole-body proton irradiation had a significant and persistent reduction of BM HSCs compared to unirradiated controls. In contrast, no significant changes were observed in BM HPCs after proton irradiation. Furthermore, irradiated HSCs and their progeny exhibited a significant impairment in clonogenic function, as revealed by the cobblestone area-forming cell (CAFC) and colony-forming cell assays, respectively. These long-term effects of proton irradiation on HSCs may be attributable to the induction of chronic oxidative stress in HSCs, because HSCs from irradiated mice exhibited a significant increase in NADPH

  15. Whole-Body Proton Irradiation Causes Long-Term Damage to Hematopoietic Stem Cells in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jianhui; Feng, Wei; Wang, Yingying; Luo, Yi; Allen, Antiño R.; Koturbash, Igor; Turner, Jennifer; Stewart, Blair; Raber, Jacob; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Zhou, Daohong; Shao, Lijian

    2016-01-01

    Space flight poses certain health risks to astronauts, including exposure to space radiation, with protons accounting for more than 80% of deep-space radiation. Proton radiation is also now being used with increasing frequency in the clinical setting to treat cancer. For these reasons, there is an urgent need to better understand the biological effects of proton radiation on the body. Such improved understanding could also lead to more accurate assessment of the potential health risks of proton radiation, as well as the development of improved strategies to prevent and mitigate its adverse effects. Previous studies have shown that exposure to low doses of protons is detrimental to mature leukocyte populations in peripheral blood, however, the underlying mechanisms are not known. Some of these detriments may be attributable to damage to hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that have the ability to self-renew, proliferate and differentiate into different lineages of blood cells through hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs). The goal of this study was to investigate the long-term effects of low-dose proton irradiation on HSCs. We exposed C57BL/6J mice to 1.0 Gy whole-body proton irradiation (150 MeV) and then studied the effects of proton radiation on HSCs and HPCs in the bone marrow (BM) 22 weeks after the exposure. The results showed that mice exposed to 1.0 Gy whole-body proton irradiation had a significant and persistent reduction of BM HSCs compared to unirradiated controls. In contrast, no significant changes were observed in BM HPCs after proton irradiation. Furthermore, irradiated HSCs and their progeny exhibited a significant impairment in clonogenic function, as revealed by the cobblestone area-forming cell (CAFC) and colony-forming cell assays, respectively. These long-term effects of proton irradiation on HSCs may be attributable to the induction of chronic oxidative stress in HSCs, because HSCs from irradiated mice exhibited a significant increase in NADPH

  16. Fetal nicotine exposure produces postnatal up-regulation of adenylate cyclase activity in peripheral tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Slotkin, T.A.; Navarro, H.A.; McCook, E.C.; Seidler, F.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Gestational exposure to nicotine has been shown to affect development of noradrenergic activity in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. In the current study, pregnant rats received nicotine infusions of 6 mg/kg/day throughout gestation, administered by osmotic minipump implants. After birth, offspring of the nicotine-infused dams exhibited marked increases in basal adenylate cyclase activity in membranes prepared from kidney and heart, as well as supersensitivity to stimulation by either a {beta}-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol, or by forskolin. The altered responses were not accompanied by up-regulation of {beta}-adrenergic receptors: in fact, ({sup 125}I)pindolol binding was significantly decreased in the nicotine group. These results indicate that fetal nicotine exposure affects enzymes involved in membrane receptor signal transduction, leading to altered responsiveness independently of changes at the receptor level.

  17. Potential reproductive and postnatal morbidity from exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls: epidemiologic considerations.

    PubMed Central

    Rogan, W J; Gladen, B C; Wilcox, A J

    1985-01-01

    There is both laboratory and epidemiologic evidence that PCBs are toxic to several phases of reproduction. Workplace exposure is an important but small part of the exposure to these compounds, since most of the population has detectable levels in blood or fat. Studies in the general population on PCBs and reproduction have not been done. Some studies in workers are under way, and in epidemic PCB poisonings, small babies with a distinct clinical syndrome are seen. We review some of the laboratory and epidemiologic data and the methods available for study of reproduction in humans; study of any highly exposed group should be done and studies of spontaneous abortion, birth weight and certain congenital anomalies should look for an effect of PCBs. PMID:3928349

  18. Neurodevelopment of Amazonian Infants: Antenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Methyl- and Ethylmercury

    PubMed Central

    Dórea, José G.; Marques, Rejane C.; Isejima, Cintya

    2012-01-01

    Neurodevelopment as Gesell development scores (GDSs) in relation to mercury exposure in infants (<6 months of age) of one urban center and two rural villages, respectively, of fisherman and cassiterite miners. Mean total hair-Hg (HHg) concentrations of infants from Itapuã (3.95 ± 1.8 ppm) were statistically (P = 0.0001) different from those of infants from Porto Velho (3.84 ± 5.5 ppm) and Bom Futuro (1.85 ± 0.9 ppm). Differences in vaccine coverage among these populations resulted in significantly higher (P = 0.0001) mean ethylmercury (EtHg) exposure in urban infants (150 μg) than in infants from either village (41.67 μg, Itapuã; 42.39 μg, Bom Futuro). There was an inverse significant (Spearman r = −0.2300; P = 0.0376) correlation between HHg and GDS for infants from Porto Velho, but not for the rural infants from Bom Futuro (Spearman r = 0.1336; P = 0.0862) and Itapuã (Spearman r = 0.1666; P = 0.5182). Logistic regression applied to variables above or below the median GDS showed that EtHg exposure (estimated probability = −0.0157; P = 0.0070) and breastfeeding score (estimated probability = −0.0066; P = 0.0536) score were significantly associated with GDS. Conclusion. In nurslings whose mothers are exposed to different levels of fish-MeHg (HHg), a higher score of neurological development at six months was negatively associated with exposure to additional TCV-EtHg. Results should be interpreted with caution because of unaccounted variables. PMID:22619491

  19. Neurodevelopment of Amazonian infants: antenatal and postnatal exposure to methyl- and ethylmercury.

    PubMed

    Dórea, José G; Marques, Rejane C; Isejima, Cintya

    2012-01-01

    Neurodevelopment as Gesell development scores (GDSs) in relation to mercury exposure in infants (<6 months of age) of one urban center and two rural villages, respectively, of fisherman and cassiterite miners. Mean total hair-Hg (HHg) concentrations of infants from Itapuã (3.95 ± 1.8 ppm) were statistically (P = 0.0001) different from those of infants from Porto Velho (3.84 ± 5.5 ppm) and Bom Futuro (1.85 ± 0.9 ppm). Differences in vaccine coverage among these populations resulted in significantly higher (P = 0.0001) mean ethylmercury (EtHg) exposure in urban infants (150 μg) than in infants from either village (41.67 μg, Itapuã; 42.39 μg, Bom Futuro). There was an inverse significant (Spearman r = -0.2300; P = 0.0376) correlation between HHg and GDS for infants from Porto Velho, but not for the rural infants from Bom Futuro (Spearman r = 0.1336; P = 0.0862) and Itapuã (Spearman r = 0.1666; P = 0.5182). Logistic regression applied to variables above or below the median GDS showed that EtHg exposure (estimated probability = -0.0157; P = 0.0070) and breastfeeding score (estimated probability = -0.0066; P = 0.0536) score were significantly associated with GDS. Conclusion. In nurslings whose mothers are exposed to different levels of fish-MeHg (HHg), a higher score of neurological development at six months was negatively associated with exposure to additional TCV-EtHg. Results should be interpreted with caution because of unaccounted variables.

  20. Whole-body cryostimulation increases parasympathetic outflow and decreases core body temperature.

    PubMed

    Zalewski, Pawel; Bitner, Anna; Słomko, Joanna; Szrajda, Justyna; Klawe, Jacek J; Tafil-Klawe, Malgorzata; Newton, Julia L

    2014-10-01

    The cardiovascular, autonomic and thermal response to whole-body cryostimulation exposure are not completely known. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate objectively and noninvasively autonomic and thermal reactions observed after short exposure to very low temperatures. We examined 25 healthy men with mean age 30.1 ± 3.7 years and comparable anthropomorphical characteristic. Each subject was exposed to cryotherapeutic temperatures in a cryogenic chamber for 3 min (approx. -120 °C). The cardiovascular and autonomic parameters were measured noninvasively with Task Force Monitor. The changes in core body temperature were determined with the Vital Sense telemetric measurement system. Results show that 3 min to cryotherapeutic temperatures causes significant changes in autonomic balance which are induced by peripheral and central blood volume changes. Cryostimulation also induced changes in core body temperature, maximum drop of core temperature was observed 50-60 min after the stimulation. Autonomic and thermal reactions to cryostimulation were observed up to 6 h after the exposure and were not harmful for examined subjects.

  1. Postexercise whole body heat stress additively enhances endurance training-induced mitochondrial adaptations in mouse skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Yuki; Matsunaga, Yutaka; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Yumiko; Takahashi, Yuki; Terada, Shin; Hoshino, Daisuke; Hatta, Hideo

    2014-10-01

    A recent study demonstrated that heat stress induces mitochondrial biogenesis in C2C12 myotubes, thereby implying that heat stress may be an effective treatment to enhance endurance training-induced mitochondrial adaptations in skeletal muscle. However, whether heat stress actually induces mitochondrial adaptations in skeletal muscle in vivo is unclear. In the present study, we report the novel findings that 1) whole body heat stress produced by exposure of ICR mice to a hot environment (40°C, 30 min/day, 5 days/wk, 3 wk) induced mitochondrial adaptations such as increased mitochondrial enzyme activity (citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase) and respiratory chain protein content (complexes I-V) in skeletal muscle in vivo and 2) postexercise whole body heat stress additively enhanced endurance training-induced mitochondrial adaptations (treadmill running, 25 m/min, 30 min/day, 5 days/wk, 3 wk). Moreover, to determine the candidate mechanisms underlying mitochondrial adaptations, we investigated the acute effects of postexercise whole body heat stress on the phosphorylation status of cellular signaling cascades that subsequently induce mitochondrial gene transcription. We found that whole body heat stress boosted the endurance exercise-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, increased the phosphorylation status of p70S6K, a biomarker of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 activity, and unexpectedly dephosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase and its downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase in skeletal muscle. Our present observations suggest that heat stress can act as an effective postexercise treatment. Heat stress treatment appeared to be clinically beneficial for people who have difficulty participating in sufficient exercise training, such as the elderly, injured athletes, and patients.

  2. Grains of paradise (Aframomum melegueta) extract activates brown adipose tissue and increases whole-body energy expenditure in men.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Jun; Yoneshiro, Takeshi; Hatano, Takuya; Aita, Sayuri; Ikemoto, Takeshi; Uchiwa, Hideyo; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Kameya, Toshimitsu; Kawai, Yuko; Saito, Masayuki

    2013-08-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is responsible for cold- and diet-induced thermogenesis, and thereby contributes to the control of whole-body energy expenditure (EE) and body fat content. BAT activity can be assessed by fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) in human subjects. Grains of paradise (GP, Aframomum melegueta), a species of the ginger family, contain pungent, aromatic ketones such as 6-paradol, 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol. An alcohol extract of GP seeds and 6-paradol are known to activate BAT thermogenesis in small rodents. The present study aimed to examine the effects of the GP extract on whole-body EE and to analyse its relation to BAT activity in men. A total of nineteen healthy male volunteers aged 20-32 years underwent FDG-PET after 2 h of exposure to cold at 19°C with light clothing. A total of twelve subjects showed marked FDG uptake into the adipose tissue of the supraclavicular and paraspinal regions (BAT positive). The remaining seven showed no detectable uptake (BAT negative). Within 4 weeks after the FDG-PET examination, whole-body EE was measured at 27°C before and after oral ingestion of GP extract (40 mg) in a single-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover design. The resting EE of the BAT-positive group did not differ from that of the BAT-negative group. After GP extract ingestion, the EE of the BAT-positive group increased within 2 h to a significantly greater (P<0·01) level than that of the BAT-negative group. Placebo ingestion produced no significant change in EE. These results suggest that oral ingestion of GP extract increases whole-body EE through the activation of BAT in human subjects.

  3. Effects of Whole Body Vibration Training on Body Composition in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Aguero, Alejandro; Matute-Llorente, Angel; Gomez-Cabello, Alba; Casajus, Jose A.; Vicente-Rodriguez, German

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effect of 20 weeks of whole body vibration (WBV) on the body composition of adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Thirty adolescent with DS were divided into two groups: control and WBV. Whole body, upper and lower limbs body fat and lean body mass were measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)…

  4. Oak Ridge National Laboratory whole-body counter: internal operating procedure manual

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, C.D.; Lane, B.H.

    1982-08-01

    The general purpose of the ORNL Whole Body Counter is to provide a rapid estimation of the type and quantity of radionuclide deposited in the human body. This report contains a review of the equipment in use at the facility and the procedure for its operation, the standard procedure for performing a routine whole body count, and a discussion of interpretation of results.

  5. A DXA Whole Body Composition Cross-Calibration Experience: Evaluation With Humans, Spine, and Whole Body Phantoms.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Diane; Libber, Jessie; Sanfilippo, Jennifer; Yu, Hui Jing; Horvath, Blaine; Miller, Colin G; Binkley, Neil

    2016-01-01

    BMD and BMC agreement, did not detect substantial lean and fat differences observed using BBCP and in vivo assessments. Consequently, spine phantoms are inadequate for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry whole body composition cross-calibration.

  6. Developmental and interactive effects of arsenic and chromium to developing Ambystoma maculatum embryos: Toxicity, teratogenicity, and whole-body concentrations.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Steven; Cline, George; Mwebi, Nixon; Rayburn, James

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic activity has contributed to elevated environmental concentrations of arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr). The spotted salamander, Ambystoma maculatum, may be useful for identifying developmental effects produced by exposure to these contaminants as adults breed and larvae develop in water that may contain As or Cr. Three sample sets among 700 developing larvae were exposed to a range of As, Cr, or 2.5:1 mixture of As:Cr concentrations, respectively. From these 700 larvae, samples containing approximately 24 larvae showed different patterns of whole-body As and Cr from individual and mixture exposure. Whole-body As concentrations were 20.27 and 45.4 µg/g dry weight for larvae exposed to 20 mg/L As and 25:10 mg/L As:Cr, respectively, while whole-body Cr concentrations were 24.8 and 22 µg/g dry weight for larvae exposed to 20 mg/L Cr and 25:10 As:Cr, respectively. Observed malformations included edema, tail kinking, facial deformities, and abnormal bending. Twelve-day lethal concentrations for As and Cr in Ambystoma maculatum larvae were 261.17 mg/L and 71.93 mg/L, respectively, while 12-d effective concentrations to induce malformations were 158.82 and 26.05 mg/L, giving teratogenic indices of 1.64 and 2.76 for individual metal exposure. Exposure to a mixture of As and Cr resulted in a response addition and yielded lower lethal and effective concentration values with a teratogenic index of 2.78, indicating that these contaminants are developmentally toxic at lower concentrations when exposed as a mixture. Data demonstrate that As and Cr affect development of amphibian larvae, and that Ambystoma maculatum may be a useful indicator of environmental toxicity for these metals.

  7. Prenatal exposure to androgen excess increases LH pulse amplitude during postnatal life in male sheep.

    PubMed

    Recabarren, S E; Recabarren, M; Rojas-Garcia, P P; Cordero, M; Reyes, C; Sir-Petermann, T

    2012-09-01

    Prenatal exposure to excess testosterone has a profound impact on reproductive and metabolic functions in young and adult female sheep. Nevertheless, few studies have addressed the impact of prenatal exposure to an excess of androgens on reproductive and metabolic functions in males. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of prenatal exposure to an excess of testosterone or dihydrotestosterone on the luteinizing hormone (LH) pulse characteristics during sexual development in male sheep. Control male sheep (C-males) and males born to mothers exposed to twice weekly injections of 30 mg testosterone or dihydrotestosterone from day 30-90 and 40 mg from day 90-120 of gestation (T-males, DHT-males) were studied at 5, 10, and 20 weeks of age, ages that represent infancy, early prepubertal, and late prepubertal stages of sexual development in this species, respectively. Patterns of LH pulsatility showed that T- and DHT-males exhibited a higher secretion of LH during the 6-h study and a higher amplitude of the LH pulses compared with C-males. Moreover, nadir of the pulses was higher in T- and DHT-males compared with C-males. Frequency of LH pulses, however, was not different within ages or between groups. These results show that males can be responsive to prenatal androgenization and suggest that treatment transiently alters the amplitude of LH pulses probably as the result of defects in the pituitary responsiveness pattern or in the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release pattern.

  8. Responses of estrogen sensitive tissues in female Wistar rats to pre- and postnatal isoflavone exposure.

    PubMed

    Hertrampf, T; Ledwig, C; Kulling, S; Molzberger, A; Möller, F J; Zierau, O; Vollmer, G; Moors, S; Degen, G H; Diel, P

    2009-12-15

    Effects of isoflavones on estrogen sensitive tissues are discussed controversially. This study was designed to investigate tissue specific effects of an isoflavone exposure through different periods of life in female Wistar rats and to compare the effects of genistein (GEN) to those of mixed dietary isoflavones, GEN and daidzein (DAI). One group received an isoflavone-free diet (IDD), another was fed an isoflavone-rich diet (IRD) and the third group an IDD supplemented with GEN (GEN(d)) prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and up to weaning. The offspring were kept on the respective diets during growth, puberty and adulthood. The weight of the uterus, the height of the uterine and vaginal epithelium, the bone mineral density of the tibia, and the expression of the estrogen sensitive gene CaBP9K in the liver were determined. At d21, the uterine weight, the uterine epithelium and the expression of CaBP9K in the liver were significantly stimulated in GEN(d) animals compared to IDD and IRD. Interestingly, bone mineral density was increased in GEN(d) and in IRD animals. Around puberty (d50) neither uterine wet weights nor trabecular bone density differed significantly among the isoflavone groups and the IDD control. At d80 no significant differences in uterine weight were observed among IDD, GEN(d) and IRD animals. However, bone mineral density was increased in GEN(d) and IRD animals. In summary, our results demonstrate that lifelong dietary exposure to isoflavones can affect estrogen sensitive tissues, apparently in a tissue selective manner. With respect to health risk and benefit our data indicate that an increased bone mineral density can be achieved by lifelong exposure to an IRD, which, in contrast to GEN supplementation, does not seem to stimulate the proliferation of the uterine epithelium.

  9. Validation of a new whole-body cryotherapy chamber based on forced convection.

    PubMed

    Bouzigon, Romain; Arfaoui, Ahlem; Grappe, Frédéric; Ravier, Gilles; Jarlot, Benoit; Dugue, Benoit

    2017-04-01

    Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) and partial-body cryotherapy (PBC) are two methods of cold exposure (from -110 to -195°C according to the manufacturers). However, temperature measurement in the cold chamber during a PBC exposure revealed temperatures ranging from -25 to -50°C next to the skin of the subjects (using isolating layer placed between the sensor and the skin). This discrepancy is due to the human body heat transfer. Moreover, on the surface of the body, an air layer called the boundary layer is created during the exposure and limits heat transfer from the body to the cabin air. Incorporating forced convection in a chamber with a participant inside could reduce this boundary layer. The aim of this study was to explore the use of a new WBC technology based on forced convection (frontal unilateral wind) through the measurement of skin temperature. Fifteen individuals performed a 3-min WBC exposure at -40°C with an average wind speed of 2.3ms(-1). The subjects wore a headband, a surgical mask, underwear, gloves and slippers. The skin temperature of the participants was measured with a thermal camera just before exposure, just after exposure and at 1, 3, 5, 10, 15 and 20min after exposure. Mean skin temperature significantly dropped by 11°C just after exposure (p<0.001) and then significantly increased during the 20-min post exposure period (p<0.001). No critically low skin temperature was observed at the end of the cold exposure. This decrease was greater than the mean decreases in all the cryosauna devices with reported exposures between -140°C and -160°C and those in two other WBC devices with reported exposures between -60°C and -110°C. The use of this new technology provides the ability to reach decreases in skin temperature similar to other technologies. The new chamber is suitable and relevant for use as a WBC device.

  10. Long term effects of prenatal and postnatal airborne PAH exposures on ventilatory lung function of non-asthmatic preadolescent children. Prospective birth cohort study in Krakow.

    PubMed

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw A; Perera, Frederica P; Maugeri, Umberto; Majewska, Renata; Mroz, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Camann, David; Sowa, Agata; Jacek, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of the study was to test the hypothesis that prenatal and postnatal exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are associated with depressed lung function in non-asthmatic children. The study sample comprises 195 non-asthmatic children of non-smoking mothers, among whom the prenatal PAH exposure was assessed by personal air monitoring in pregnancy. At the age of 3, residential air monitoring was carried out to evaluate the residential PAH exposure indoors and outdoors. At the age of 5 to 8, children were given allergic skin tests for indoor allergens; and between 5 and 9 years lung function testing (FVC, FEV05, FEV1 and FEF25-75) was performed. The effects of prenatal PAH exposure on lung function tests repeated over the follow-up were adjusted in the General Estimated Equation (GEE) model for the relevant covariates. No association between FVC with prenatal PAH exposure was found; however for the FEV1 deficit associated with higher prenatal PAH exposure (above 37 ng/m(3)) amounted to 53 mL (p=0.050) and the deficit of FEF25-75 reached 164 mL (p=0.013). The corresponding deficits related to postnatal residential indoor PAH level (above 42 ng/m(3)) were 59 mL of FEV1 (p=0.028) and 140 mL of FEF25-75 (p=0.031). At the higher residential outdoor PAH level (above 90 ng/m(3)) slightly greater deficit of FEV1 (71 mL, p=0.009) was observed. The results of the study suggest that transplacental exposure to PAH compromises the normal developmental process of respiratory airways and that this effect is compounded by postnatal PAH exposure.

  11. LONG TERM EFFECTS OF PRENATAL AND POSTNATAL AIRBORNE PAH EXPOSURE ON VENTILATORY LUNG FUNCTION OF NON-ASTHMATIC PREADOLESCENT CHILDREN. PROSPECTIVE BIRTH COHORT STUDY IN KRAKOW

    PubMed Central

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw A.; Perera, Frederica P.; Maugeri, Umberto; Majewska, Renata; Mroz, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Camman, David; Sowa, Agata; Jacek, Ryszard

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of the study was to test the hypothesis that prenatal and postnatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is associated with depressed lung function in non-asthmatic children. The study sample comprises 195 non-asthmatic children of non-smoking mothers, among whom the prenatal PAH exposure was assessed by personal air monitoring in pregnancy. At the age of 3, residential air monitoring was carried out to evaluate the residential PAH exposure indoors and outdoors. At the age of 5 to 8, children were given allergic skin tests for indoor allergens; and between 5–9 years lung function testing (FVC, FEV05, FEV1 and FEF25–75) was performed. The effects of prenatal PAH exposure on lung function tests repeated over the follow-up were adjusted in the General Estimated Equation (GEE) model for the relevant covariates. No association between FVC with prenatal PAH exposure was found; however for the FEV1 deficit associated with higher prenatal PAH exposure (above 37ng/m3) amounted to 53 mL (p = 0.050) and the deficit of FEF25–75 reached 164 mL (p=0.013). The corresponding deficits related to postnatal residential indoor PAH level (above 42 ng/m3) were 59 mL of FEV1 (p=0.028) and 140 mL of FEF25–75 (p=0.031). At the higher residential outdoor PAH level (above 90 ng/m3) slightly greater deficit of FEV1 (71mL, p = 0.009) was observed. The results of the study suggest that transplacental exposure to PAH compromises the normal developmental process of respiratory airways and that this effect is compounded by postnatal PAH exposure. PMID:25300014

  12. Effect of pre- and postnatal manganese exposure on brain histamine content in a rodent model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Brus, Ryszard; Jochem, Jerzy; Nowak, Przemysław; Adwent, Marta; Boroń, Dariusz; Brus, Halina; Kostrzewa, Richard M

    2012-02-01

    Rats lesioned shortly after birth with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA; 134 μg icv) represent a near-ideal model of severe Parkinson's disease because of the near-total destruction of nigrostriatal dopaminergic fibers. There are scarce data that in Parkinson's disease, activity of the central histaminergic system is increased. The element manganese, an essential cofactor for many enzymatic reactions, itself in toxic amount, replicates some clinical features similar to those of Parkinson's disease. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of neonatal manganese exposure on 6-OHDA modeling of Parkinson's disease in rats, and to determine effects on histamine content in the brain of these rats in adulthood. Manganese (MnCl₂·4H₂O; 10,000 ppm) was included in the drinking water of pregnant Wistar rats from the time of conception until the 21st day after delivery, the age when neonatal rats were weaned. Control rats consumed tap water. Other groups of neonatal rat pups, on the 3rd day after birth, were pretreated with desipramine (20 mg/kg ip 1 h) prior to bilateral icv administration of 6-OHDA (60 or 134 μg) or its vehicle saline-ascorbic (0.1%) (control). At 2 months after birth, in rats lesioned with 60 or 134 μg 6-OHDA, endogenous striatal dopamine (DA) content was reduced, respectively, by 92 and 98% (HPLC/ED), while co-exposure of these groups to perinatal manganese did not magnify the DA depletion. However, there was prominent enhancement of histamine content in frontal cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and medulla oblongata of adult rat brain after 6-OHDA (60 and 134 μg) injection on the day 3rd postnatal day. These findings indicate that histamine and the central histaminergic system are altered in the brain of rats lesioned to model Parkinson's disease, and that manganese enhances effects of 6-OHDA on histamine in brain.

  13. In utero and lactational exposure to ammonium perchlorate in drinking water: effects on developing deer mice at postnatal day 21.

    PubMed

    Thuett, Kerry A; Roots, Ellen H; Mitchell, Lisa P; Gentles, B Angella; Anderson, Todd A; Smith, Ernest E

    2002-08-09

    The effects of in utero and lactational exposure to ammonium perchlorate (AP), a component of rocket fuel and a thyroid toxicant, on developing deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) were evaluated. Breeding pairs were dosed continuously with 0, 1 nM, 1 micro M, or 1 mM AP in drinking water, from cohabitation until pups were euthanized at postnatal day (PND) 21. Pups from the second litter were used for evaluation in this study. No significant differences were observed in any analysis performed when litter means were used in statistical analysis. All reported significant differences occurred when statistical analysis was performed on individual pup data. Body weights were significantly different between treatments at PND 5 and PND 20, with the 1- micro M body weights being lower than that of controls. Body weight and liver weight in the 1-mM group were significantly higher than the 1- micro M weights at PND 21 when analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). However, there were no significant differences in liver weights when analyzed with body weight as the covariate. Heart weights were significantly different between males and females. Male heart weights in the 1- microM and 1-mM groups were significantly lower than in controls when analyzed by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with body weight as the covariate. Litter size and survival percentage were not significantly different among treatments. Although significant differences were observed only when the individual pup was used as the experimental unit, these data suggest that AP exposure at different concentrations may variably alter body weight and male heart weight during mammalian development.

  14. Whole-body vibration and ergonomic study of US railroad locomotives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johanning, Eckardt; Landsbergis, Paul; Fischer, Siegfried; Christ, Eberhard; Göres, Benno; Luhrman, Raymond

    2006-12-01

    US locomotive operators have exposure to multi-axis whole-body vibration (WBV) and shocks while seated. This study assessed operator-related and ergonomic seating design factors that may have confounding or mitigating influence on WBV exposure and its effects. Vibration exposure was measured according to international guidelines (ISO 2631-1; 1997); ergonomic work place factors and vibration effects were studied with a cross-sectional survey instrument distributed to a randomly selected group of railroad engineers ( n=2546) and a control group; and during vehicle inspections. The survey response rate was 47% for the RR engineers ( n=1195) and 41% for the controls ( n=323). Results of the mean basic vibration measurements were for the x, y, z-direction and vector sum 0.14, 0.22, 0.28 and 0.49 m/s 2 respectively; almost all crest factors (CF), MTVV and VDV values were above the critical ratios given in ISO 2631-1. The prevalence of serious neck and lower back disorders among locomotive engineers was found to be nearly double that of the sedentary control group without such exposure. Railroad engineers rated their seats mostly unacceptable regarding different adjustment and comfort aspects (3.02-3.51; scale 1=excellent to 4=unacceptable), while the control group rated their chairs more favorably (1.96-3.44). Existing cab and seat design in locomotives can result in prolonged forced awkward spinal posture of the operator combined with WBV exposure. In a logistic regression analysis, time at work being bothered by vibration (h/day) was significantly associated with an increased risk of low back pain, shoulder and neck pain, and sciatic pain among railroad engineers. Customized vibration attenuation seats and improved cab design of the locomotive controls should be further investigated.

  15. The influence of whole body vibration on the central and peripheral cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Dan; Yoganathan, Priya; Goss-Sampson, Mark

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological changes of the cardiovascular system in response to whole body vibration during quiet standing and identify whether there is a greater influence on the central or peripheral cardiovascular system. Twenty healthy participants (12 male and 8 female) were assessed over two separate testing sessions for changes in peripheral skin temperature, peripheral venous function, blood flow velocity in the dorsalis pedis artery, blood pressure and heart rate during quiet standing with 40 Hz 1·9 mm synchronous vibration. Vibration exposure totalled 5 min in 1 min increments with 5 min recovery during each testing session. There were no significant changes in heart rate, blood pressure or peripheral skin temperature. Significant results were obtained for blood flow velocity with increases from 0·5 + 0·2 cm·s(-1) at baseline to 1 + 0·2 cm·s(-1) during vibration, returning to baseline levels during the recovery period. Due to the absence of changes in heart rate, blood pressure or lower leg and foot temperature, the change in blood flow velocity can be attributed to changes in peripheral vascular function. The results suggest a high level of sensitivity of the peripheral vascular system to vibration exposure; therefore, further studies should be completed to ascertain the physiological mechanisms underlying the effects of vibration on the peripheral vascular system.

  16. Whole body heating reduces the baroreflex response of sympathetic nerve activity during Valsalva straining.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Fumio; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Tsutsui, Yuka; Endo, Yutaka; Sagawa, Sueko; Shiraki, Keizo

    2003-01-31

    The present experiment was carried out to examine the possible effects of whole body heating on the baroreflex control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and heart rate (HR). Nine healthy male volunteers underwent the Valsalva maneuver during exposure to heat stress using a hot water-perfused suit. To exclude an effect from the unloading of the cardiopulmonary baroreceptors during hyperthermia, the central hypovolemia was counterbalanced by head-down tilt (HDT) at 8 degrees. The baroreflex slopes of MSNA and HR against mean arterial pressure were determined by regression analysis during the early phase II (falling blood pressure period) of the Valsalva maneuver. The core temperature increased from 36.9 +/- 0.1 degrees C at thermoneutral to 37.7 +/- 0.1 degrees C during heat exposure, whereas the left atrial diameter (LAD) decreased. Both the MSNA and HR increased (P < 0.05) during hyperthermia. The baroreflex slopes of MSNA and HR in the phase II decreased 30 +/- 8% (P < 0.05) and 24 +/- 9% (P < 0.05), respectively, during hyperthermia. The HDT increased LAD, but there was no change in HR, arterial pressure and the baroreflex slopes. These results suggest that hyperthermia reduces the baroreflex responses of MSNA and HR during a transient falling period of blood pressure. These reduced baroreflex responses may not be attributable to an unloading of the cardiopulmonary baroreceptors during heat stress.

  17. Two way assessment of other physical work demands while measuring the whole body vibration magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiemessen, Ivo J. H.; Hulshof, Carel T. J.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2008-03-01

    Direct observation, instead of using self-administered questionnaires might give more reliable and specific information about physical work demands at the workplace. This information is of use in a population already at risk of developing low back pain (LBP) due to whole body vibration (WBV) exposure. The aims of this study are to assess the WBV exposure in an exposed population and to assess other physical work demands in two ways, by direct observation and with the use of a self-administered questionnaire. We therefore assessed the WBV magnitude and 5 WBV-related physical work demands by using the PalmTrac system and a self-administered questionnaire in a group of drivers ( N=10). The main findings are 7 out of 10 drivers are exceeding the EU action value. About 50% of the drivers under-estimated the time 'bending', 60% the time 'walking+standing' and 60% over-estimated the time when 'lifting.' We concluded that 7 drivers from this group are at risk of developing LBP and substantial differences exists for the 5 physical work demands comparing the PalmTrac method with the questionnaire. Direct observational assessment in WBV measurements yields extra information. This is useful for preventive activities necessary as drivers are exceeding the EU action value.

  18. Use of whole-body and subcellular Cu residues of Lumbriculus variegatus to predict waterborne Cu toxicity to both L. variegatus and Chironomus riparius in fresh water.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tania Y T; Pais, Nish M; Dhaliwal, Tarunpreet; Wood, Chris M

    2012-06-01

    We tested the use of whole-body and subcellular Cu residues (biologically-active (BAM) and inactive compartments (BIM)), of the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus to predict Cu toxicity in fresh water. The critical whole-body residue associated with 50% mortality (CBR(50)) was constant (38.2-55.6 μg g(-1) fresh wt.) across water hardness (38-117 mg L(-1) as CaCO(3)) and exposure times during the chronic exposure. The critical subcellular residue (CSR(50)) in metal-rich granules (part of BIM) associated with 50% mortality was approximately 5 μg g(-1) fresh wt., indicating that Cu bioavailability is correlated with toxicity:subcellular residue is a better predictor of Cu toxicity than whole-body residue. There was a strong correlation between the whole-body residue of L. variegatus (biomonitor) and survival of Chironomus riparius (relatively sensitive species) in a hard water Cu co-exposure. The CBR(50) in L. variegatus for predicting mortality of C. riparius was 29.1-45.7 μg g(-1) fresh wt., which was consistent within the experimental period; therefore use of Cu residue in an accumulator species to predict bioavailability of Cu to a sensitive species is a promising approach.

  19. Early postnatal lead exposure: behavioral effects in common tern chicks (Sterna Hirundo)

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, J.; Gochfeld, M.

    1985-01-01

    Exposure to lead early in life is known to affect behavioral and intellectual development. To develop an animal model the authors chose the common tern, Sterna hirundo, a species whose early developmental landmarks are well known. One potential for avian models lies in the reliance of birds on visual and acoustic rather than olfactory (and ultrasonic) modes of communication. One randomly chosen member from each of 8 pairs of young common tern chicks was injected with lead nitrate solution at a concentration of 0.2 mg/g. The pairs were not siblings but were matched for age (+/-1 d) and weight (+/-3 g). The second member of each pair was injected with an equal volume of sterile saline. Behavioral tests performed examined locomotion, balance and righting response, feeding tasks and begging, depth perception and response on a visual cliff, and behavioral thermoregulation. In each pair the control chick was heavier at 4 wk of age. For most behavioral measures, except begging and movement on a stationary incline, the lead-injected chicks performed less well than the control chicks. When presented with a novel feeding situation (reversal of fish position), the lead-injected chicks required significantly more time to eat the same number of fish. The single injection of lead, thus, affected a variety of behavioral patterns, with effects apparent within 5 d after injection.

  20. Behavioral effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to individual polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Holene, E.; Bernhoft, A.; Engen, P.; Nafstad, I. |; Skaare, J.U. |; Sagvolden, T.

    1995-06-01

    Rats were exposed in utero and through mother`s milk either to the coplanar PCB congener 3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5-CB (IUPAC no. 126) or to the mono-ortho-substituted PCB congener 2,3{prime},4,4{prime},5-CB (IUPAC no. 118). The different groups of mothers were exposed to 1 and 5 mg/kg body weight of PCB 118, and 2 {mu}g/kg b.w. of PCB 126 every second day from day 10 to day 20 of gestation. The exposure did not affect the body weight of the dams or the size, weight, sex ratio, or physical development of the offspring. Operant behavioral testing revealed that the PCB-exposed offspring showed both poorer visual discrimination and higher activity level than did the controls. The coplanar PCB 126 congener was the most potent treatment. These results show that both PCB 118 and PCB 126 produced significant neurotoxic effects in the offspring of exposed females in absence of clinical maternotoxic and fetotoxic effects.

  1. Short- and long-term effects of combined pre- and postnatal ethanol exposure (three trimester equivalency) on the development of myelin and axons in rat optic nerve.

    PubMed

    Phillips, D E; Krueger, S K; Rydquist, J E

    1991-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a combined gestational and 10 day postnatal alcohol exposure (human three trimester equivalency) on the development of myelin and axons in rat optic nerve. Rats were exposed during gestation via liquid diet, then their artificially reared pups were further exposed for 10 postnatal days via an ethanol-containing diet fed by gastrostomy. Control animals from pair-fed dams were artificially reared for 10 days on pair-fed isocaloric diets. Anesthetized animals were perfused with fixative on gestational days (G) 15 and 20 and postnatal days (P) 5, 10, 15, 20, and 90, then optic nerve tissues prepared for electron microscopy. Optic nerve cross-sectional areas were generally less from G20 through P90 in ethanol exposed animals. Counts of the number of myelinated nerve fibers per unit area and of the numbers of fibers in different stages of myelin development revealed that alcohol exposure caused a delay in myelin acquisition at 10 and 15 days that was compensated for at 20 and 90 days. Myelin thickness as a function of axon diameter was decreased in the alcohol exposed animals from 10 through 90 days, indicating a permanent reduction in the relative thickness of myelin. These results show that alcohol exposure for all of gestation and 10 postnatal days in the rat (human three trimester equivalency) causes a permanent reduction in myelin thickness along with a delay in myelin acquisition in the optic nerve. Such alterations in developing and adult myelin could help to explain some of the neurological and visual dysfunctions associated with developmental alcohol exposures.

  2. Influence of whole body vibration platform frequency on neuromuscular performance of community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Furness, Trentham P; Maschette, Wayne E

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to progressively overload vibration platform frequency to describe sea-saw whole body vibration influence on neuromuscular performance of community-dwelling older adults. Seventy-three community-dwelling older adults (aged 72 +/- 8 years) were randomly assigned to 4 groups (zero, one, 2, and 3 whole body vibration sessions per week). Quantifiers of neuromuscular performance such as the 5-Chair Stands test, the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, and the Tinetti test were recorded. Furthermore, Health-related quality of life was qualified with the SF-36 Health Survey. A 6-week whole body vibration intervention significantly improved the quantifiers of neuromuscular performance in a community-dwelling older adult sample. Whole body vibration was shown to significantly reduce time taken to complete the 5-Chair Stands test (p < 0.05) and the TUG test (p < 0.05). Tinetti test scores significantly improved (p < 0.05). as did all components of health-related quality of life (p < 0.05). Overall, progressively overloaded frequency elicited more beneficial improvement for the 3 whole body vibration sessions per week group. It was concluded that progressively overloaded frequency was effective in improving quantifiable measures of neuromuscular performance in the sample and that practitioners may confidently prescribe 3 whole body vibration sessions per week with more precise knowledge of the effects of whole body vibration on neuromuscular performance and health-related quality-of-life effects.

  3. LONG-TERM BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS IN A RAT MODEL OF PROLONGED POSTNATAL MORPHINE EXPOSURE

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Michael M.; Bajic, Dusica

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged morphine treatment in neonatal pediatric populations is associated with a high incidence of opioid tolerance and dependence. Despite the clinical relevance of this problem, our knowledge of the long-term consequences is sparse. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether prolonged morphine administration in a neonatal rat is associated with long-term behavioral changes in adulthood. Newborn animals received either morphine (10mg/kg) or equal volume of saline subcutaneously twice daily for the first 2 weeks of life. Morphine treated animals underwent 10 days of morphine weaning to reduce the potential for observable physical signs of withdrawal. Animals were subjected to non-stressful testing (locomotor activity recording and a Novel-Object Recognition test) at a young age (PD27-31) or later in adulthood (PD55-56), as well as stressful testing (calibrated forceps test, Hot Plate test, and Forced Swim test) only in adulthood. Analysis revealed that prolonged neonatal morphine exposure resulted in decreased thermal, but not mechanical threshold. Importantly, no differences were found for total locomotor activity (proxy of drug reward/reinforcement behavior), individual Forced Swim test behaviors (proxy of affective processing), or Novel-Object Recognition test. Performance on the Novel-Object Recognition test was compromised in the morphine treated group at the young age, however the effect disappeared in adulthood. These novel results provide insight into the long-term consequences of opioid treatment during an early developmental period and suggest long-term neuroplastic differences in sensory processing related to thermal stimuli. PMID:26214209

  4. Cannabinoid-opioid interactions in drug discrimination and self-administration: effect of maternal, postnatal, adolescent and adult exposure to the drugs.

    PubMed

    Spano, M S; Fadda, P; Fratta, W; Fattore, L

    2010-04-01

    Cannabinoids and opioids are known to strictly interact in many physiological and pathological functions, including addiction. The endogenous opioid system is significantly influenced by maternal or perinatal cannabinoid exposure, major changes concerning operant behaviour in adult animals. Copious data suggests that adolescence is also a particularly sensitive period of life not only for the initiation of abusing illicit drugs, but also for the effects that these drugs exert on the neural circuitries leading to drug dependence. This paper examines the role played by the age of drug exposure in the susceptibility to discriminative and reinforcing effects of both cannabinoids and opioids. We first revisited evidence of alterations in the density and functionality of mu-opioid and CB1 cannabinoid receptors in reward-related brain regions caused by either maternal, postnatal, adolescent or adult exposure to opioids and cannabinoids. Then, we reviewed behavioural evidence of the long-term consequences of exposure to opioids and cannabinoids during gestation, postnatal period, adolescence or adulthood, focusing mostly on drug discrimination and self-administration studies. Overall, evidence confirms a neurobiological convergence of the cannabinoid and opioid systems that is manifest at both receptor and behavioural levels. Although discrepant results have been reported, some data support the gateway hypothesis that adolescent cannabis exposure contributes to greater opioid intake in adulthood. However, it should be kept into consideration that in humans genetic, environmental, and social factors could influence the direct neurobiological effects of early cannabis exposure to the progression to adult drug abuse.

  5. Synaptotoxicity of chronic low-dose pre- and post-natal ethanol exposure: A new animal model

    SciTech Connect

    Walewski, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    Chronic Low-dose Pre- and Post-natal Ethanol exposure (CLPPEE) is the most frequent cause of teratogenically induced mental deficiency in the Western world. Although the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAAS) is associated with high levels of alcohol consumption, the relative teratogenic risk of moderate ethanol consumption is not well defined. CLPPEE may affect some processes involved in synapse formation, affecting the proper development and maturation of the nervous system. Ethanol was admixed (3 v/v%) with high-protein liquid diet (Bio-Serve) as the only nutrient source. The controls received an isocaloric sucrose liquid diet mixture. Ethanol treatment began on day 8 of pregnancy. 3 v/v% ethanol did not significantly reduce the body weights or diet consumption of dams, nor the gross growth of ethanol-exposed pups. Standard neuromuscular twitch preparations in vivo, utilizing the sciatic nerve-gastrocnemius muscle, were done on 1, 2, 3 and 7 week old pups. The physiologic functional tests of nursing pups (1-3 weeks), indicated that the ethanol-treated pups had abnormal responses to indirect stimulation. The deficit was determined to be pre-synaptic. The ethanol-exposed at these ages demonstrated abnormal responses to presynaptic challenge. Histochemical staining revealed motor nerve terminal morphology. In 2 and 3 week ethanol-treated pups, the number of nerve terminal branches, and endplate lengths were significantly reduced. Reversibility was examined by allowing the pups to mature while receiving only standard rat chow and water. Tests were repeated at 7 weeks of age. The responses of the ethanol-exposed to pharmacologic challenge, and motor nerve terminal morphology were still significantly different in the young adult animals. CLPPEE, at doses sub-threshold for FAS, affects the normal development of the skeletal neuromuscular system, with long-lasting effects on motor nerve terminal function and morphology.

  6. Effects of early postnatal exposure to ethanol on retinal ganglion cell morphology and numbers of neurons in the dorsolateral geniculate in mice

    PubMed Central

    Dursun, Ilknur; Jakubowska-Doğru, Ewa; van der List, Deborah; Liets, Lauren C.; Coombs, Julie L.; Berman, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Background The adverse effects of fetal and early postnatal ethanol intoxication on peripheral organs and the central nervous system are well documented. Ocular defects have also been reported in about 90% of children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), including microphthalmia, loss of neurons in the retinal ganglion cell layer (GCL), optic nerve hypoplasia and dysmyelination. However, little is known about perinatal ethanol effects on retinal cell morphology. Examination of the potential toxic effects of alcohol on the neuron architecture is important since the changes in dendritic geometry and synapse distribution directly affect the organization and functions of neural circuits. Thus, in the present study estimations of the numbers of neurons in the GCL and dorsolateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), and a detailed analysis of RGC morphology were carried out in transgenic mice exposed to ethanol during the early postnatal period. Methods The study was carried out in male and female transgenic mice expressing Yellow Fluorescent Protein (YFP) controlled by a Thy-1 (thymus cell antigen 1) regulator on a C57 background. Ethanol (3 g/kg/day) was administered to mouse pups by intragastric intubation throughout postnatal days (PD) 3–20. Intubation control (IC) and untreated control (C) groups were included. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was measured in separate groups of pups on PD3, PD10, and PD20 at 4 different time points, 1, 1.5, 2 and 3 h after the second intubation. Numbers of neurons in the GCL and in the dLGN were quantified on PD20 using unbiased stereological procedures. Retinal ganglion cell morphology was imaged by confocal microscopy and analyzed using Neurolucida software. Results Binge-like ethanol exposure in mice during the early postnatal period from PD3 through PD20 altered RGC morphology and resulted in a significant decrease in the numbers of neurons in the GCL and in the dLGN. In the alcohol exposure group, out of 13 morphological parameters

  7. Signal Processing Methods for Removing the Effects of Whole Body Vibration upon Speech

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bitner, Rachel M.; Begault, Durand R.

    2014-01-01

    Humans may be exposed to whole-body vibration in environments where clear speech communications are crucial, particularly during the launch phases of space flight and in high-performance aircraft. Prior research has shown that high levels of vibration cause a decrease in speech intelligibility. However, the effects of whole-body vibration upon speech are not well understood, and no attempt has been made to restore speech distorted by whole-body vibration. In this paper, a model for speech under whole-body vibration is proposed and a method to remove its effect is described. The method described reduces the perceptual effects of vibration, yields higher ASR accuracy scores, and may significantly improve intelligibility. Possible applications include incorporation within communication systems to improve radio-communication systems in environments such a spaceflight, aviation, or off-road vehicle operations.

  8. Optimization of Whole-Body Zebrafish Sectioning Methods for Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mass spectrometry imaging methods and protocols have become widely adapted to a variety of tissues and species. However, the mass spectrometry imaging literature contains minimal information on whole-body cryosection preparation for the zebrafish (Danio rerio), a model organism ...

  9. Neuroimmune response and sleep studies after whole body irradiation with high-LET particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquette, C.; Mathieu, J.; Bertho, J.-M.; Galonnier, M.; Wysoki, J.; Maubert, C.; Balanzat, E.; Gerbin, R.; Aigueperse, J.; Clarençon, D.

    2009-10-01

    In order to investigate the biological effects of galactic rays on astronaut cerebral functions after space flight, mice were exposed to different heavy ions (HZE) in whole-body conditions at doses comparable to the galactic flux: 12C, 16O and 20Ne (95 MeV/u, at 42-76 mGy). Animals were also exposed to 42 mGy of 60Co radiation for comparison with HZE. The neuroimmune response, evaluated by interleukin-1 (IL-1) measurement, showed that this cytokine was produced 3 h after irradiation by 16O or 60Co. In contrast, neither 12C (56.7 mGy) nor 20Ne (76 mGy) induced IL-1 production. However, immunohistochemical staining of 12C-irradiated mouse brain tissue showed 2 months later a marked inflammatory reaction in the hippocampus and a diffuse response in parenchyma. Sleep studies were realized before and after exposure to 42 mGy of 16O and 76 mGy of 20Ne: only the 20Ne radiation displayed a small effect. A slight decrease in paradoxical sleep, corresponding to a reduction in the number of episodes of paradoxical sleep, was manifested between 8 and 22 days after exposure. Exposure to 12C and 16O induced no changes either in cellularity of spleen or thymus, or in caspase 3 activity (as much as four months after irradiation). Taken together, these data indicate that the CNS could be sensitive to heavy ions and that responses to HZE impact depend on the nature of the particle, the dose threshold and the time delay to develop biological processes. Differences in responses to different HZE highlight the complex biological phenomena to which astronauts are submitted during space flight.

  10. Whole-body cortisol response of zebrafish to acute net handling stress.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Jennifer M; Feist, Grant W; Varga, Zoltán M; Westerfield, Monte; Kent, Michael L; Schreck, Carl B

    2009-12-01

    Zebrafish, Danio rerio, are frequently handled during husbandry and experimental procedures in the laboratory, yet little is known about the physiological responses to such stressors. We measured the whole-body cortisol levels of adult zebrafish subjected to net stress and air exposure at intervals over a 24 h period; cortisol recovered to near control levels by about 1 h post-net-stress (PNS). We then measured cortisol at frequent intervals over a 1 h period. Cortisol levels were more than 2-fold higher in net stressed fish at 3 min PNS and continued to increase peaking at 15 min PNS, when cortisol levels were 6-fold greater than the control cortisol. Mean cortisol declined from 15 to 60 min PNS, and at 60 min, net-stressed cortisol was similar to control cortisol. Because the age of fish differed between studies, we examined resting cortisol levels of fish of different ages (3, 7, 13, and 19 months). The resting cortisol values among tanks with the same age fish differed significantly but there was no clear effect of age. Our study is the first to report the response and recovery of cortisol after net handling for laboratory-reared zebrafish.

  11. Acute effects of whole-body proton irradiation on the immune system of the mouse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kajioka, E. H.; Andres, M. L.; Li, J.; Mao, X. W.; Moyers, M. F.; Nelson, G. A.; Slater, J. M.; Gridley, D. S.

    2000-01-01

    The acute effects of proton whole-body irradiation on the distribution and function of leukocyte populations in the spleen and blood were examined and compared to the effects of photons derived from a (60)Co gamma-ray source. Adult female C57BL/6 mice were exposed to a single dose (3 Gy at 0.4 Gy/min) of protons at spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP), protons at the distal entry (E) region, or gamma rays and killed humanely at six different times thereafter. Specific differences were noted in the results, thereby suggesting that the kinetics of the response may be variable. However, the lack of significant differences in most assays at most times suggests that the RBE for both entry and peak regions of the Bragg curve was essentially 1.0 under the conditions of this study. The greatest immunodepression was observed at 4 days postexposure. Flow cytometry and mitogenic stimulation analyses of the spleen and peripheral blood demonstrated that lymphocyte populations differ in radiosensitivity, with B (CD19(+)) cells being most sensitive, T (CD3(+)) cells being moderately sensitive, and natural killer (NK1.1(+)) cells being most resistant. B lymphocytes showed the most rapid recovery. Comparison of the T-lymphocyte subsets showed that CD4(+) T helper/inducer cells were more radiosensitive than the CD8(+) T cytotoxic/suppressor cells. These findings should have an impact on future studies designed to maximize protection of normal tissue during and after proton-radiation exposure.

  12. Hematological and TGF-beta variations after whole-body proton irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kajioka, E. H.; Andres, M. L.; Mao, X. W.; Moyers, M. F.; Nelson, G. A.; Gridley, D. S.

    2000-01-01

    The acute effects of proton whole-body irradiation on five bone-marrow-derived cell types and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) were examined and compared to the effects of photons (60Co). C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 3 Gy (0.4 Gy/min) protons at spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP), protons at entry (E), or 60Co and euthanized on days 0.5-17 thereafter. 60Co-irradiated animals had decreased erythrocytes, hemoglobin and hematocrit at 12 hours post-exposure; depression was not noted in proton (SOBP or E)-irradiated groups until day 4. Significantly decreased leukocyte counts were observed at this same time in all irradiated groups, with lymphocyte loss being greater than that of monocytes, and the depression was generally maintained. In contrast, the levels of neutrophils and thrombocytes fluctuated, especially during the first week; significant differences were noted among irradiated groups in neutrophil levels. Plasma TGF-beta 1 was elevated on day 7 in the 60Co, but not proton, irradiated mice. Collectively, the data show that dramatic and persistent changes occurred in all irradiated groups. However, few differences in assay results were seen between animals exposed to protons (SOBP or E) or photons, as well as between the groups irradiated with either of the two regions of the proton Bragg curve.

  13. The megakaryocyte DNA content and platelet formation after the sublethal whole body irradiation of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Tanum, G.

    1984-04-01

    The DNA content of rat bone marrow megakaryocytes (MK) was studied by Feulgen photometry, following whole body irradiation with 2 Gy. The DNA measurements were preceded by acetylcholinesterase staining to avoid missing the smaller 2N-8N MK. The number of 2N-8N MK declined immediately following irradiation, whereas the number of 16N-64N MK remained normal for 4 days before decreasing. The number of 2N-8N and 16N-64N MK reached minimum around days 7 and 10, respectively, and thereafter increased to supranormal values at days 14 and 20, respectively. Platelet production, measured by /sup 35/S incorporation into platelets, increased during the first 4 days, then decreased to minimum about day 10. A rise to supranormal values was present at day 20. All values were about normal 30 days after exposure. The observed pattern may be explained as follows: Most of the 16N-64N MK survive the applied dose and maintain their ability to produce platelets. Some of the 2N-4N and 8N MK survive irradiation and transform into platelet-producing MK. No influx of cells from the MK stem cell compartment into the MK compartment can be observed before day 7 after irradiation. One explanation for this time lag may be that thrombocytopenia, which does not occur before then, is an essential stimulus for MK stem cell activation.

  14. Monte Carlo Simulations for the Purpose of Efficiency Curve Calibration for the Fastscan Whole Body Counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Hannah Robyn

    In order to be able to qualify and quantify radiation exposure in terms of dose, a Fastscan whole body counter must be calibrated correctly. Current calibration methods do not take the full range of body types into consideration when creating efficiency curve calibrations. The goal of this work is the creation of a Monte Carlo (MCNP) model, that allows the simulation of efficiency curves for a diverse population of subjects. Models were created for both the Darlington and the Pickering Fastscan WBCs, and the simulations were benchmarked against experimental results with good agreement. The Pickering Fastscan was found to have agreement to within +/-9%, and the Darlington Fastscan had agreement to within +/-11%. Further simulations were conducted to investigate the effects of increased body fat on the detected activity, as well as locating the position of external contamination using front/back ratios of activity. Simulations were also conducted to create efficiency calibrations that had good agreement with the manufacturer's efficiency curves. The work completed in this thesis can be used to create efficiency calibration curves for unique body compositions in the future.

  15. Whole-body cortisol response of zebrafish to acute net handling stress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsay, J.M.; Feist, G.W.; Varga, Z.M.; Westerfield, M.; Kent, M.L.; Schreck, C.B.

    2009-01-01

    Zebrafish, Danio rerio, are frequently handled during husbandry and experimental procedures in the laboratory, yet little is known about the physiological responses to such stressors. We measured the whole-body cortisol levels of adult zebrafish subjected to net stress and air exposure at intervals over a 24 h period; cortisol recovered to near control levels by about 1 h post-net-stress (PNS). We then measured cortisol at frequent intervals over a 1 h period. Cortisol levels were more than 2-fold higher in net stressed fish at 3 min PNS and continued to increase peaking at 15 min PNS, when cortisol levels were 6-fold greater than the control cortisol. Mean cortisol declined from 15 to 60 min PNS, and at 60 min, net-stressed cortisol was similar to control cortisol. Because the age of fish differed between studies, we examined resting cortisol levels of fish of different ages (3, 7, 13, and 19 months). The resting cortisol values among tanks with the same age fish differed significantly but there was no clear effect of age. Our study is the first to report the response and recovery of cortisol after net handling for laboratory-reared zebrafish. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Survey of Technical Preventative Measures to Reduce Whole-Body Vibration Effects when Designing Mobile Machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DONATI, P.

    2002-05-01

    Engineering solutions to minimize the effects on operators of vibrating mobile machinery can be conveniently grouped into three areas: Reduction of vibration at source by improvement of the quality of terrain, careful selection of vehicle or machine, correct loading, proper maintenance, etc.Reduction of vibration transmission by incorporating suspension systems (tyres, vehicle suspensions, suspension cab and seat) between the operator and the source of vibration.Improvement of cab ergonomics and seat profiles to optimize operator posture. These paper reviews the different techniques and problems linked to categories (2) and (3). According to epidemiological studies, the main health risk with whole-body vibration exposure would appear to be lower back pain. When designing new mobile machinery, all factors which may contribute to back injury should be considered in order to reduce risk. For example, optimized seat suspension is useless if the suspension seat cannot be correctly and easily adjusted to the driver's weight or if the driver is forced to drive in a bent position to avoid his head striking the ceiling due to the spatial requirement of the suspension seat.

  17. Reduced Hippocampal Dendritic Spine Density and BDNF Expression following Acute Postnatal Exposure to Di(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate in Male Long Evans Rats

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Catherine A.; Holahan, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    Early developmental exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) has been linked to a variety of neurodevelopmental changes, particularly in rodents. The primary goal of this work was to establish whether acute postnatal exposure to a low dose of DEHP would alter hippocampal dendritic morphology and BDNF and caspase-3 mRNA expression in male and female Long Evans rats. Treatment with DEHP in male rats led to a reduction in spine density on basal and apical dendrites of neurons in the CA3 dorsal hippocampal region compared to vehicle-treated male controls. Dorsal hippocampal BDNF mRNA expression was also down-regulated in male rats exposed to DEHP. No differences in hippocampal spine density or BDNF mRNA expression were observed in female rats treated with DEHP compared to controls. DEHP treatment did not affect hippocampal caspase-3 mRNA expression in male or female rats. These results suggest a gender-specific vulnerability to early developmental DEHP exposure in male rats whereby postnatal DEHP exposure may interfere with normal synaptogenesis and connectivity in the hippocampus. Decreased expression of BDNF mRNA may represent a molecular mechanism underlying the reduction in dendritic spine density observed in hippocampal CA3 neurons. These findings provide initial evidence for a link between developmental exposure to DEHP, reduced levels of BDNF and hippocampal atrophy in male rats. PMID:25295592

  18. Reduced hippocampal dendritic spine density and BDNF expression following acute postnatal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in male Long Evans rats.

    PubMed

    Smith, Catherine A; Holahan, Matthew R

    2014-01-01

    Early developmental exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) has been linked to a variety of neurodevelopmental changes, particularly in rodents. The primary goal of this work was to establish whether acute postnatal exposure to a low dose of DEHP would alter hippocampal dendritic morphology and BDNF and caspase-3 mRNA expression in male and female Long Evans rats. Treatment with DEHP in male rats led to a reduction in spine density on basal and apical dendrites of neurons in the CA3 dorsal hippocampal region compared to vehicle-treated male controls. Dorsal hippocampal BDNF mRNA expression was also down-regulated in male rats exposed to DEHP. No differences in hippocampal spine density or BDNF mRNA expression were observed in female rats treated with DEHP compared to controls. DEHP treatment did not affect hippocampal caspase-3 mRNA expression in male or female rats. These results suggest a gender-specific vulnerability to early developmental DEHP exposure in male rats whereby postnatal DEHP exposure may interfere with normal synaptogenesis and connectivity in the hippocampus. Decreased expression of BDNF mRNA may represent a molecular mechanism underlying the reduction in dendritic spine density observed in hippocampal CA3 neurons. These findings provide initial evidence for a link between developmental exposure to DEHP, reduced levels of BDNF and hippocampal atrophy in male rats.

  19. Microwaves and cellular immunity. I. Effect of whole body microwave irradiation on tumor necrosis factor production in mouse cells.

    PubMed

    Fesenko, E E; Makar, V R; Novoselova, E G; Sadovnikov, V B

    1999-10-01

    Whole body microwave sinusoidal irradiation of male NMRI mice with 8.15-18 GHz (1 Hz within) at a power density of 1 microW/cm2 caused a significant enhancement of TNF production in peritoneal macrophages and splenic T lymphocytes. Microwave radiation affected T cells, facilitating their capacity to proliferate in response to mitogenic stimulation. The exposure duration necessary for the stimulation of cellular immunity ranged from 5 h to 3 days. Chronic irradiation of mice for 7 days produced the decreasing of TNF production in peritoneal macrophages. The exposure of mice for 24 h increased the TNF production and immune proliferative response, and these stimulatory effects persisted over 3 days after the termination of exposure. Microwave treatment increased the endogenously produced TNF more effectively than did lipopolysaccharide, one of the most potential stimuli of synthesis of this cytokine. The role of microwaves as a factor interfering with the process of cell immunity is discussed.

  20. An adaptive diffusion-weighted whole-body magnetic resonance imaging scheme using the multistation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yeji

    2016-02-01

    Whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a useful tool in oncology, which enables fast screening of disseminated tumors, lymph nodes or abscesses in the body. Multistation magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or continuously moving table (CMT) MRI can be performed to overcome the limited field of view (FOV) of the magnet bore in whole-body DWI. Although CMT-MRI is regarded as a more advanced form of whole-body MRI, it cannot be widely used because most of the available MR systems are not equipped with the required hardware/software to perform CMT. Thus, optimizing the multistation approach for whole-body DWI, which is more widely available and easier to perform with the existing MR systems, is worthwhile. To improve the quality of DW images acquired with the multistation approach, we used different combinations of the built-in body RF coil and the phased-array surface RF coils for reception of the signals in whole-body DWI in this work. If different coils are selectively used in the extended FOV and appropriate reconstruction algorithms are exploited, the screening ability of whole-body DWI can be improved while minimizing the patient's discomfort and the artifacts due to physiological motions.

  1. Modulation of the gut microbiota with antibiotic treatment suppresses whole body urea production in neonatal pigs.

    PubMed

    Puiman, Patrycja; Stoll, Barbara; Mølbak, Lars; de Bruijn, Adrianus; Schierbeek, Henk; Boye, Mette; Boehm, Günther; Renes, Ingrid; van Goudoever, Johannes; Burrin, Douglas

    2013-02-01

    We examined whether changes in the gut microbiota induced by clinically relevant interventions would impact the bioavailability of dietary amino acids in neonates. We tested the hypothesis that modulation of the gut microbiota in neonatal pigs receiving no treatment (control), intravenously administered antibiotics, or probiotics affects whole body nitrogen and amino acid turnover. We quantified whole body urea kinetics, threonine fluxes, and threonine disposal into protein, oxidation, and tissue protein synthesis with stable isotope techniques. Compared with controls, antibiotics reduced the number and diversity of bacterial species in the distal small intestine (SI) and colon. Antibiotics decreased plasma urea concentrations via decreased urea synthesis. Antibiotics elevated threonine plasma concentrations and turnover, as well as whole body protein synthesis and proteolysis. Antibiotics decreased protein synthesis rate in the proximal SI and liver but did not affect the distal SI, colon, or muscle. Probiotics induced a bifidogenic microbiota and decreased plasma urea concentrations but did not affect whole body threonine or protein metabolism. Probiotics decreased protein synthesis in the proximal SI but not in other tissues. In conclusion, modulation of the gut microbiota by antibiotics and probiotics reduced hepatic ureagenesis and intestinal protein synthesis, but neither altered whole body net threonine balance. These findings suggest that changes in amino acid and nitrogen metabolism resulting from antibiotic- or probiotic-induced shifts in the microbiota are localized to the gut and liver and have limited impact on whole body growth and anabolism in neonatal piglets.

  2. Whole-body hyperthermia. Rationale and potential use for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Page, R L; Thrall, D E; Dewhirst, M W; Meyer, R E

    1987-01-01

    Whole-body hyperthermia is the controlled elevation of systemic temperature for therapeutic purposes. Historically, this treatment has been used for symptomatic control of many diseases. Recently, the potential therapeutic benefit of whole-body hyperthermia in the management of neoplastic disease has been investigated vigorously. The rationale for improved tumor control is based on heat-induced enhancement of the antineoplastic effects of radiation and chemotherapy. Although the complex biologic interaction of heat and radiation has been studied for many years, chemotherapy combined with hyperthermia has been studied less thoroughly. Despite a lack of adequate long-term laboratory and clinical investigation, use of whole-body hyperthermia with chemotherapy and radiotherapy is a logical and potentially powerful therapeutic strategy for neoplasia. Relevant issues regarding the application of whole-body hyperthermia with more traditional modes of therapy are being studied in preliminary clinical trials involving dogs and humans. Identification of optimal timing and sequencing of adjunctive therapy, proper cytotoxic drug application, methods to further minimize toxicity, and heat-sensitive tumor types will lead to expanded clinical use of whole-body hyperthermia. The historical development, clinical rationale, and application of whole-body hyperthermia for the control of disseminated or refractory neoplasia in humans and dogs is reviewed.

  3. Future directions in therapy of whole body radiation injury

    SciTech Connect

    Cronkite, E.P.

    1989-01-01

    Clinicians have long known that marked granulocytopenia predisposed patients to bacterial infections either from pathogens or commensal organisms with which an individual usually lives in harmony. Evidence that infection was of major importance derives from several observations: (a) clinical observations of bacterial infection in human beings exposed to atomic bomb radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, in reactor accidents, and in large animals dying from radiation exposure, (b) correlative studies on mortality rate, time of death, and incidence of positive culture in animals, (c) challenge of irradiated animals with normally non-virulent organisms, (d) studies of germ free mice and rats, and (e) studies of the effectiveness of antibiotics in reducing mortality rate. General knowledge and sound experimental data on animals and man clearly demonstrated that the sequelae of pancytopenia (bacterial infection, thrombopenic hemorrhage, and anemia) are the lethal factors. A lot of research was required to demonstrate that there were no mysterious radiations toxins, that hyperheparinemia was not a cause of radiation hemorrhage and that radiation hemorrhage could be prevented by fresh platelet transfusions.

  4. The effect of whole-body cryostimulation on the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in blood of elite kayakers after training.

    PubMed

    Wozniak, Alina; Wozniak, Bartosz; Drewa, Gerard; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna

    2007-11-01

    The effect of whole-body cryostimulation prior to kayak training on the prooxidant-antioxidant balance was evaluated and compared to the effect of a single cryostimulation treatment in untrained men. The kayakers underwent a ten-day training cycle with pre-training daily whole-body cryostimulation for three min (temperature: -120 to -140 degrees C) and training without cryostimulation as a control. Blood samples were obtained before and after the sixth and the tenth day of training and from the untrained men before and 20 min after cryostimulation. In untrained men cryostimulation induced an increase in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) by 36% (P<0.001) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) by 68% (P<0.01) in the erythrocytes and an increase in the conjugated dienes (CD) in plasma by 36% (P<0.05) and in the erythrocytes by 71% (P<0.001). In the kayakers comparing both types of training after the sixth day, the level of CD in plasma was 46 (P<0.001) and 40% (P<0.01) lower in erythrocytes, and the concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in plasma was 24% (P<0.05) lower with pre-training cryostimulation. After the sixth day of training with cryostimulation, SOD activity was also 47% (P<0.001) lower, while GPx activity after the tenth day was reduced by more than 50% (P<0.01) as compared to control training. Whole-body cryostimulation per se stimulates the generation of reactive oxygen species. Yet, the oxidative stress induced by kayak training was reduced by prior exposure to extremely low temperatures.

  5. Resonance behaviour of whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in the female voxel model, NAOMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimbylow, Peter

    2005-09-01

    Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations have been performed of the whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in a female voxel model, NAOMI, under isolated and grounded conditions from 10 MHz to 3 GHz. The 2 mm resolution voxel model, NAOMI, was scaled to a height of 1.63 m and a mass of 60 kg, the dimensions of the ICRP reference adult female. Comparison was made with SAR values from a reference male voxel model, NORMAN. A broad SAR resonance in the NAOMI values was found around 900 MHz and a resulting enhancement, up to 25%, over the values for the male voxel model, NORMAN. This latter result confirmed previously reported higher values in a female model. The effect of differences in anatomy was investigated by comparing values for 10-, 5- and 1-year-old phantoms rescaled to the ICRP reference values of height and mass which are the same for both sexes. The broad resonance in the NAOMI child values around 1 GHz is still a strong feature. A comparison has been made with ICNIRP guidelines. The ICNIRP occupational reference level provides a conservative estimate of the whole-body averaged SAR restriction. The linear scaling of the adult phantom using different factors in longitudinal and transverse directions, in order to match the ICRP stature and weight, does not exactly reproduce the anatomy of children. However, for public exposure the calculations with scaled child models indicate that the ICNIRP reference level may not provide a conservative estimate of the whole-body averaged SAR restriction, above 1.2 GHz for scaled 5- and 1-year-old female models, although any underestimate is by less than 20%.

  6. Early postnatal nicotine exposure disrupts the α2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated control of oriens-lacunosum moleculare cells during adolescence in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kang; Nakauchi, Sakura; Su, Hailing; Tanimoto, Saki; Sumikawa, Katumi

    2016-02-01

    Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and maternal nicotine exposure in animal models are associated with cognitive impairments in offspring. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Oriens-lacunosum moleculare (OLM) cells expressing α2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are an important component of hippocampal circuitry, gating information flow and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region. Here we investigated whether early postnatal nicotine exposure alters the normal role of α2*-nAChR-expressing OLM cells during adolescence in rats. We found that early postnatal nicotine exposure significantly decreased not only the number of α2-mRNA-expressing interneurons in the stratum oriens/alveus, but also α2*-nAChR-mediated responses in OLM cells. These effects of nicotine were prevented by co-administration with the nonselective nAChR antagonist mecamylamine, suggesting that nicotine-induced activation, but not desensitization, of nAChRs mediates the effects. α2*-nAChR-mediated depolarization of OLM cells normally triggers action potentials, causing an increase in spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in synaptically connected pyramidal cells. However, these α2*-nAChR-mediated effects were profoundly reduced after early postnatal nicotine exposure, suggesting altered control of CA1 circuits by α2*-nAChR-expressing OLM cells. Furthermore, these effects were associated with altered excitatory neural activity and LTP as well as the loss of normal α2*-nAChR-mediated control of excitatory neural activity and LTP. These findings suggest the altered function of α2*-nAChR-expressing OLM cells as an important target of further study for identifying the mechanisms underlying the cognitive impairment induced by maternal smoking during pregnancy.

  7. Di(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate Exposure In Utero Damages Sertoli Cell Differentiation Via Disturbance of Sex Determination Pathway in Fetal and Postnatal Mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongan; Yang, Qing; Liu, Wei; Yu, Mingxi; Zhang, Zhou; Cui, Xiaoyu

    2016-07-01

    Mice may share similar mechanism with human underlying reproductive toxicity induced by di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), which is not supposed to be associated with decreased testicular testosterone. Pregnant mice were exposed to DEHP by gavage, with the dosage regime beginning at human relevant exposure level. After in utero DEHP exposure, loss of Sertoli cells and germ cells were observed in the male pups at postnatal days 21. And SRY-related HMG box 9 (SOX9), Fibroblast growth factor-9 (FGF9), and Double-sex and Mab-3 related transcripttion factor 1 (DMRT1) proteins were significantly downregulated by DEHP at 2 mg/kg/d and above, suggesting the depression of Sertoli cell differentiation. The repression of Sox9 genes expression was supported by whole-mount in situ hybridization and real-time real-time-quantitative PCR. The expressions of Cyp11α1 and Star were not significantly affected by in utero DEHP exposure, indicating the absence of effects on testosterone biosynthesis. Furthermore, the testosterone-independent pathway regulating Sertoli cells differentiation was disturbed in fetus by DEHP at 2 mg/kg/d and above during the critical time window of sex determination, involving Gadd45g → Gata4/Fog2 → Sry → Sox9 → Fgf9 The results suggest that in utero DEHP exposure damaged Sertoli cells in the postnatal life of mice offspring via disturbance of the differentiation regulating pathway, potentially inducing declines in spermatogenesis.

  8. Early cognitive changes due to whole body γ-irradiation: a behavioral and diffusion tensor imaging study in mice.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mayank; Haridas, Seenu; Trivedi, Richa; Khushu, Subhash; Manda, Kailash

    2013-10-01

    Radiation-induced aberration in the neuronal integrity and cognitive functions are well known. However, there is a lacuna between sparsely reported immediate effects and the well documented delayed effects of radiation on cognitive functions. The present study was aimed at investigating the radiation-dose dependent incongruities in the early cognitive changes, employing two approaches, behavioral functions and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Six-month old female C57BL/6 mice were exposed to whole-body doses of 2, 5 and 8 Gy of γ-radiation and 24 h after exposure, the stress and anxiety levels were examined in the open-field test (OFT). Forty-eight hours after irradiation, the hippocampal dependent recognition memory was observed by the novel object recognition task (NORT), and the cognitive functions related to memory processing and recall were tested using the elevated plus maze (EPM). Magnetic resonance imaging, including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was done at 48-hour post-irradiation to visualize microstructural damage in brain parenchyma. Our results indicate a complex dose independent effect on the cognitive functions immediately after exposure to gamma rays. Radiation exposure caused short-term memory dysfunctions at lower doses, which were seen to be abrogated at higher doses, but the long-term memory processing was disrupted at higher doses. The hippocampus emerged as one of the sensitive regions to be affected by whole-body exposure to gamma rays, which led to profound immediate alterations in cognitive functions. Furthermore, the results indicate a cognitive recovery process, which might be dependent on the extent of damage to the hippocampal region. The present study also emphasizes the importance of further research to unravel the complex pattern of neurobehavioral responses immediately following ionizing radiation exposure.

  9. Normative data for regional sweat sodium concentration and whole-body sweating rate in athletes.

    PubMed

    Baker, Lindsay B; Barnes, Kelly A; Anderson, Melissa L; Passe, Dennis H; Stofan, John R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish normative data for regional sweat sodium concentration ([Na+]) and whole-body sweating rate in athletes. Data from 506 athletes (367 adults, 139 youth; 404 male, 102 female) were compiled from observational athlete testing for a retrospective analysis. The participants were skill/team-sport (including American football, baseball, basketball, soccer and tennis) and endurance (including cycling, running and triathlon) athletes exercising in cool to hot environmental conditions (15-50 °C) during training or competition in the laboratory or field. A standardised regional absorbent patch technique was used to determine sweat [Na+] on the dorsal mid-forearm. Whole-body sweat [Na+] was predicted using a published regression equation (y = 0.57x+11.05). Whole-body sweating rate was calculated from pre- to post-exercise change in body mass, corrected for fluid/food intake (ad libitum) and urine output. Data are expressed as mean ± SD (range). Forearm sweat [Na+] and predicted whole-body sweat [Na+] were 43.6 ± 18.2 (12.6-104.8) mmol · L(-1) and 35.9 ± 10.4 (18.2-70.8) mmol · L(-1), respectively. Absolute and relative whole-body sweating rates were 1.21 ± 0.68 (0.26-5.73) L · h(-1) and 15.3 ± 6.8 (3.3-69.7) ml · kg(-1) · h(-1), respectively. This retrospective analysis provides normative data for athletes' forearm and predicted whole-body sweat [Na+] as well as absolute and relative whole-body sweating rate across a range of sports and environmental conditions.

  10. Effect of whole-body and local heating on cutaneous vasoconstrictor responses in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thad E.; Cui, Jian; Crandall, Craig G.

    2002-01-01

    Animal studies suggest that alpha-adrenergic-mediated vasoconstriction is compromised during whole-body heating. The purpose of this study was to identify whether whole-body heating and/or local surface heating reduce cutaneous alpha-adrenergic vasoconstrictor responsiveness in human skin. Protocol I: Six subjects were exposed to neutral skin temperature (i.e., 34 degrees C), whole-body heating, and local heating of forearm skin to increase skin blood flow to the same relative magnitude as that observed during whole-body heating. Protocol II: In eight subjects forearm skin was locally heated to 34, 37, 40, and 42 degrees C. During both protocols, alpha-adrenergic vasoconstrictor responsiveness was assessed by local delivery of norepinephrine (NE) via intradermal microdialysis. Skin blood flow was continuously monitored over each microdialysis membrane via laser-Doppler flowmetry. In protocol I, whole-body and local heating caused similar increases in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC). The EC50 (log NE dose) of the dose-response curves for both whole body (-4.2 +/- 0.1 M) and local heating (-4.7 +/- 0.4 M) were significantly greater (i.e., high dose required to cause 50% reduction in CVC) relative to neutral skin temperature (- 5.6 +/- 0.0 M; P<0.05 for both). In both local and whole-body heated conditions CVC did not return to pre-heating values even at the highest dose of NE. In protocol II, calculated EC50 for 34, 37, 40, and 42 degrees C local heating was - 5.5 +/- 0.4, -4.6 +/- 0.3, -4.5 +/- 0.3, - 4.2 +/- 0.4 M, respectively. Statistical analyses revealed that the EC50 for 37,40 and 42 degrees C were significantly greater than the EC50 for 34 degrees C. These results indicate that even during administration of high concentrations of NE, alpha-adrenergic vasoconstriction does not fully compensate for local heating and whole-body heating induced vasodilatation in young, healthy subjects. Moreover, these data suggest that elevated local temperatures, above 37

  11. Reciprocal influence of masticatory apparatus, craniofacial structure and whole body homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Keun; Moon, Hyung-Joo

    2012-12-01

    There are evidences that the evolution into Homo erectus was partially induced by masticatory muscular dystrophy caused by a gene mutation, which in turn increased brain capacity and led to bipedalism. It is generally accepted that the morphology and function of mammalian skull are partially controlled by epigenetic mechanisms. Archeologic evidences support that the masticatory apparatus have influenced the mechanical stress distribution in hominin skull, and consequently changed craniofacial morphology and function. Even after evolution into H. erectus, alterations in food properties by civilization and cultural preferences have caused modification of human masticatory pattern and accordingly craniofacial structure. Since there are evidences that prehuman and human masticatory apparatus has been influenced the craniofacial and whole body morphology and function, this apparatus in turn might influence whole body homeostasis. Plausible reciprocal influencing mechanisms of the masticatory apparatus on the whole body homeostasis might be (1) direct mechanical influence on the craniofacial structure, (2) distortion of cerebrospinal fluid circulation, and/or (3) several neural/humoral routes. Based on these backgrounds, the hypothesis of the present study is that the morphology and function of masticatory apparatus influence the whole body homeostasis and these interactions are reciprocal. Therefore, human masticatory apparatus, at the present time, should be kept in its physiological status to maintain the whole body homeostasis. We recommend basic and clinical approaches to confirm this hypothesis.

  12. Patient-specific biomechanical model as whole-body CT image registration tool.

    PubMed

    Li, Mao; Miller, Karol; Joldes, Grand Roman; Doyle, Barry; Garlapati, Revanth Reddy; Kikinis, Ron; Wittek, Adam

    2015-05-01

    Whole-body computed tomography (CT) image registration is important for cancer diagnosis, therapy planning and treatment. Such registration requires accounting for large differences between source and target images caused by deformations of soft organs/tissues and articulated motion of skeletal structures. The registration algorithms relying solely on image processing methods exhibit deficiencies in accounting for such deformations and motion. We propose to predict the deformations and movements of body organs/tissues and skeletal structures for whole-body CT image registration using patient-specific non-linear biomechanical modelling. Unlike the conventional biomechanical modelling, our approach for building the biomechanical models does not require time-consuming segmentation of CT scans to divide the whole body into non-overlapping constituents with different material properties. Instead, a Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) algorithm is used for tissue classification to assign the constitutive properties automatically at integration points of the computation grid. We use only very simple segmentation of the spine when determining vertebrae displacements to define loading for biomechanical models. We demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of our approach on CT images of seven patients suffering from cancer and aortic disease. The results confirm that accurate whole-body CT image registration can be achieved using a patient-specific non-linear biomechanical model constructed without time-consuming segmentation of the whole-body images.

  13. Quantitative role of the splanchnic bed in whole body leucine metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Y.M.; Wagner, D.A.; Tredget, E.; Walesreweski, J.; Burke, J.F.; Young, V.R.

    1986-03-05

    The role of the splanchnic bed in the economy of whole body leucine (leu) metabolism was assessed in 5 chronically catheterized conscious fasting mongrel dogs. Using primed continuous intravenous infusions of L-(/sup 15/N, 1-/sup 13/C)-leu and L-1-/sup 14/C-leu the metabolic fate of leu carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in the splanchnic region was compared with that in the body as a whole, by measurement of isotope and substrate balance across gut and liver. Sampling was from the portal and hepatic veins and arch of aorta. Blood flow estimation was made by dye dilution. Whole body leu N and C fluxes and oxidation were (Mean +/- SEM); 453 +/ 47, 197 +/- 37 and 41 +/- 5 ..mu..mol kg-1.h-1, respectively. The splanchnic bed accounted for (% of whole body) 36 +/- 13 of leu disappearance into proteins (liver 14%; gut 22%); 24 +/- 7 of leu appearance via protein breakdown (liver 8%; gut 16%) 12 +/- 2% of leu transamination to ..cap alpha..-ketoisocaproate (KIC) (liver 7%; gut 5%); 12 +/- 3 of KIC reamination to leu (liver 7%; gut 5%) and 11 +/- 3 of leu oxidation (liver 2%; gut 9%). Hence, in the fasting state the splanchnic region accounts for a small proportion of whole body leu-KIC interconversion and oxidation, but a more significant proportion of whole body of leu for protein synthesis.

  14. Development of a Protocol for Epidemiologal Studies of Whole-Body Vibration and Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Lower Back

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnusson, M. L.; Pope, M. H.; Hulshof, C. T. J.; Bovenzi, M.

    1998-08-01

    It seems evident from a large number of studies that there is a positive relationship between exposure to whole body vibration (WBV) and the occurrence of low back pain. There are existing standards for evaluating the human exposure to WBV, which are based on other factors than the effect of musculoskeletal disorders. Several national and international standards also exist for evaluating human exposure to WBV. The exposure limit values or health guidance caution zones included in some of these standards are not or only to a limited extent based on systematic epidemiological investigations. It has not yet been possible to establish a clear exposure-response relationship. There are many confounding or contributing factors which influence the hazards to workers caused by exposure to WBV. Reliable methods for the detection and prevention of injury due to vibration exposure at work, alone or in combination with other risk factors, need to be implemented. The aim of this paper was to design a protocol and a questionnaire for conducting collaborative studies of WBV and musculoskeletal back disorders. The protocol will be tested in a pilot study before it will be used in multi-center studies.

  15. Impact of Whole Body Cryotherapy at -110 °C on Subjects with Arterial Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Missmann, M; Himsl, M; Mur, E; Ulmer, H; Marschang, P

    2016-02-01

    Whole body cryotherapy (WBC) in a cryo-chamber as a medical treatment was first established in Japan in the 1980s, later in Central Europe, and is now becoming more popular also in the United States. The exposure to extreme, non-physiological environmental conditions in a cryo-chamber at -110 °C may exceed the normal adaption capacity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of WBC on blood pressure (BP) readings in adult subjects with rheumatic disorders and normal or moderately elevated BP. A sample of 23 subjects (8 female, 15 male) which were recruited according to their pathology between the age of 35 and 69 years undergoing 21 WBC applications was divided into three groups: a group of subjects with anti-hypertensive therapy, a group of subjects with mild arterial hypertension without medical treatment, and a normotensive control-group. A total of 483 BP readings were taken immediately before and after each WBC application. The systolic and diastolic BP were recorded, and the mean arterial pressure, and the amplitude of BP were calculated. A statistically significant rise of BP after WBC was found in the whole sample and in the normotensive group. Over the course of time, no significant change of BP behavior was observed, except for normotensive subjects, who showed a wider range in their systolic BP values. Generally accepted exclusion criteria were applied, and in our sample group WBC was safe with respect to unwanted BP alterations for adult subjects under 70 years-regardless of a pre-existing untreated mild or pharmacologically treated arterial hypertension. Greater changes of BP values might infrequently occur, so an individual monitoring of subjects is necessary.

  16. Neurocognitive responses to a single session of static squats with whole body vibration.

    PubMed

    Amonette, William E; Boyle, Mandy; Psarakis, Maria B; Barker, Jennifer; Dupler, Terry L; Ott, Summer D

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the head accelerations using a common whole body vibration (WBV) exercise protocol acutely reduced neurocognition in healthy subjects. Second, we investigated differential responses to WBV plates with 2 different delivery mechanisms: vertical and rotational vibrations. Twelve healthy subjects (N = 12) volunteered and completed a baseline (BASE) neurocognitive assessment: the Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Test (ImPACT). Subjects then participated in 3 randomized exercise sessions separated by no more than 2 weeks. The exercise sessions consisted of five 2-minute sets of static hip-width stance squats, with the knees positioned at a 45° angle of flexion. The squats were performed with no vibration (control [CON]), with a vertically vibrating plate (vertical vibration [VV]), and with a rotational vibrating plate (rotational vibration [RV]) set to 30 Hz with 4 mm of peak-to-peak displacement. The ImPACT assessments were completed immediately after each exercise session and the composite score for 5 cognitive domains was analyzed: verbal memory, visual memory, visual motor speed, reaction time, and impulse control. Verbal memory scores were unaffected by exercise with or without vibration (p = 0.40). Likewise, visual memory was not different (p = 0.14) after CON, VV, or RV. Significant differences were detected for visual motor speed (p = 0.006); VV was elevated compared with BASE (p = 0.01). There were no significant differences (p = 0.26) in reaction time or impulse control (p = 0.16) after exercise with or without vibration. In healthy individuals, 10 minutes of 30 Hz, 4-mm peak-to-peak displacement vibration exposure with a 45° angle of knee flexion did not negatively affect neurocognition.

  17. The effect of whole-body resonance vibration in a porcine model of spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Streijger, Femke; Lee, Jae H T; Chak, Jason; Dressler, Dan; Manouchehri, Neda; Okon, Elena B; Anderson, Lisa M; Melnyk, Angela D; Cripton, Peter A; Kwon, Brian K

    2015-06-15

    Whole-body vibration has been identified as a potential stressor to spinal cord injury (SCI) patients during pre-hospital transportation. However, the effect that such vibration has on the acutely injured spinal cord is largely unknown, particularly in the frequency domain of 5 Hz in which resonance of the spine occurs. The objective of the study was to investigate the consequences of resonance vibration on the injured spinal cord. Using our previously characterized porcine model of SCI, we subjected animals to resonance vibration (5.7±0.46 Hz) or no vibration for a period of 1.5 or 3.0 h. Locomotor function was assessed weekly and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected to assess different inflammatory and injury severity markers. Spinal cords were evaluated histologically to quantify preserved white and gray matter. No significant differences were found between groups for CSF levels of monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interleukin 6 (IL-6) and lL-8. Glial fibrillary acidic protein levels were lower in the resonance vibration group, compared with the non-vibrated control group. Spared white matter tissue was increased within the vibrated group at 7 d post-injury but this difference was not apparent at the 12-week time-point. No significant difference was observed in locomotor recovery following resonance vibration of the spine. Here, we demonstrate that exposure to resonance vibration for 1.5 or 3 h following SCI in our porcine model is not detrimental to the functional or histological outcomes. Our observation that a 3.0-h period of vibration at resonance frequency induces modest histological improvement at one week post-injury warrants further study.

  18. Acute effects of whole-body vibration on running gait in marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Padulo, Johnny; Filingeri, Davide; Chamari, Karim; Migliaccio, Gian Mario; Calcagno, Giuseppe; Bosco, Gerardo; Annino, Giuseppe; Tihanyi, Jozsef; Pizzolato, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a single bout of whole-body vibration (WBV) on running gait. The running kinematic of sixteen male marathon runners was assessed on a treadmill at iso-efficiency speed after 10 min of WBV and SHAM (i.e. no WBV) conditions. A high-speed camera (210 Hz) was used for the video analysis and heart rate (HR) was also monitored. The following parameters were investigated: step length (SL), flight time (FT), step frequency (SF), contact time (CT), HR and the internal work (WINT). Full-within one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the randomised crossover design indicated that when compared to SHAM conditions, WBV decreased the SL and the FT by ~4% (P < 0.0001) and ~7.2% (P < 0.001), respectively, and increased the SF ~4% (P < 0.0001) while the CT was not changed. This effect occurred during the first minute of running: the SL decreased ~3.5% (P < 0.001) and SF increased ~3.3% (P < 0.001). During the second minute the SL decreased ~1.2% (P = 0.017) and the SF increased ~1.1% (P = 0.02). From the third minute onwards, there was a return to the pre-vibration condition. The WINT was increased by ~4% (P < 0.0001) during the WBV condition. Ten minutes of WBV produced a significant alteration of the running kinematics during the first minutes post exposure. These results provide insights on the effects of WBV on the central components controlling muscle function.

  19. Effects of Different Magnitudes of Whole-Body Vibration on Dynamic Squatting Performance.

    PubMed

    Marín, Pedro J; García Rioja, Javier; Bernardo-Filho, Mario; Hazell, Tom J

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects (a) of different whole-body vibration (WBV) accelerations when applied simultaneously during a set of squats on performance and perceived exertion and (b) of different linear increases and decreases of vibrations during the squats. It is a randomized, crossover experimental design. Undergraduate students (3 female; 16 male) participated. Each participant completed 5 laboratory sessions in this study (4 familiarization and 1 test session). The test session then had each participant complete one 20-second set of dynamics quarter-squats for 5 separate conditions followed by 5 minutes of rest. Squatting was performed at maximum speed from full extension knee with plantar-flexion ankle to a knee angle of 70° (0° = anatomic position) with dorsiflexion ankle. All sets were performed on the WBV platform in random order, where the 5 different conditions were (a) no WBV-sham, (b) 30 Hz (30 Hz low amplitude), (c) 50 Hz (50 Hz high amplitude), (d) 30-50 Hz (increasing frequency from 30 to 50 Hz; 1 Hz per second with high amplitude), and (e) 50-30 Hz (decreasing frequency from 50 to 30 Hz; 1 Hz per second). There was a significant decrease in the mean velocity of squatting performed during the 30- to 50-Hz condition compared with all other conditions (p ≤ 0.05). There were a significantly lower amount of repetitions performed during the 30- to 50-Hz exposure compared with the no-WBV and 30-Hz conditions. There was a significantly lower Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) during the 30-Hz condition compared with the no-WBV, 50-Hz, 30-50-Hz, and 50-30-Hz conditions.

  20. The use of comparative 137Cs body burden estimates from environmental data/models and whole body counting to evaluate diet models for the ingestion pathway.

    PubMed

    Robison, W L; Sun, C

    1997-07-01

    Rongelap and Utirik Atolls were contaminated on 1 March 1954, by a U.S. nuclear test at Bikini Atoll code named BRAVO. The people at both atolls were removed from their atolls in the first few days after the detonation and were returned to their atolls at different times. Detailed studies have been carried out over the years by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to determine the radiological conditions at the atolls and estimate the doses to the populations. The contribution of each exposure pathway and radionuclide have been evaluated. All dose assessments show that the major potential contribution to the estimated dose is 137Cs uptake via the terrestrial food chain. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has carried out an extensive whole body counting program at both atolls over several years to directly measure the 137Cs body burden. Here we compare the estimates of the body burdens from the LLNL environmental method with body burdens measured by the BNL whole body counting method. The combination of the results from both methods is used to evaluate proposed diet models to establish more realistic dose assessments. Very good agreement is achieved between the two methods with a diet model that includes both local and imported foods. Other diet models greatly overestimate the body burdens (i.e., dose) observed by whole body counting. The upper 95% confidence limit of interindividual variability around the population mean value based on the environmental method is similar to that calculated from direct measurement by whole body counting. Moreover, the uncertainty in the population mean value based on the environmental method is in very good agreement with the whole body counting data. This provides additional confidence in extrapolating the estimated doses calculated by the environmental method to other islands and atolls.

  1. The use of comparative {sup 137}Cs body burden estimates from environmental data/models and whole body counting to evaluate diet models for the ingestion pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W.L.; Sun, C.

    1997-07-01

    Rongelap and Utirik Atolls were contaminated on 1 March 1954, by a U.S. nuclear test at Bikini Atoll code named BRAVO. The people at both atolls were removed from their atolls in the first few days after the detonation and were returned to their atolls at different times. Detailed studies have been carried out over the years by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to determine the radiological conditions at the atolls and estimate the doses to the populations. The contribution of each exposure pathway and radionuclide have been evaluated. All dose assessments show that the major potential contribution to the estimated dose is {sup 137}Cs uptake via the terrestrial food chain. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has carried out an extensive whole body counting program at both atolls over several years to directly measure the {sup 137}Cs body burden. Here we compare the estimates of the body burdens from the LLNL environmental method with body burdens measured by the BNL whole body counting method. The combination of the results from both methods is used to evaluate proposed diet models to establish more realistic dose assessments. Very good agreement is achieved between the two methods with a diet model that includes both local and imported foods. Other diet models greatly overestimate the body burdens (i.e., dose) observed by whole body counting. The upper 95% confidence limit of interindividual variability around the population mean value based on the environmental method is similar to that calculated from direct measurement by whole body counting. Moreover, the uncertainty in the population mean value based on the environmental method is in very good agreement with the whole body counting data. This provides additional confidence in extrapolating the estimated doses calculated by the environmental method to other islands and atolls. 46 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Whole-body FDG-PET imaging for staging of Hodgkin`s disease and lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Hoh, C.K.; Glaspy, J.; Rosen, P.

    1997-03-01

    Accurate staging of Hodgkin`s disease (HD) and non-Hodgkin`s lymphoma (NHL) is important for treatment management. In this study, the utility of 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) wholebody PET was evaluated as an imaging modality for initial staging or restaging of 7 HD and 11 NHL patients. Whole-body PET-based staging results were compared to the patient`s clinical stage based on conventional staging studies, which included combinations of CT of the chest, abdomen and pelvis, MRI scans, gallium scans, lymphangiograms, staging laparatomies and bone scans. Accurate staging was performed in 17 of 18 patients using a whole-body PET-based staging algorithm compared to the conventional staging algorithm in 15 of 18 patients. In 5 of 18 patients, whole-body PET-based staging showed additional lesions not detected by conventional staging modalities, whereas conventional staging demonstrated additional lesions in 4 of 18 patients not detected by whole-body PET. The total cost of conventional staging was $66,292 for 16 CT chest scans, 16 CT abdominal/pelvis scans, three limited MRI scans, four bone scans, give gallium scans, two laparotomies and one lymphangiogram. In contrast, scans cost $36,250 for 18 whole-body PET studies and additional selected correlative studies: one plain film radiograph, one limited CT, one bone marrow san, one upper GI and one endoscopy. A whole-body FDG-PET-based staging algorithm may be an accurate and cost-effective method for staging or restaging HD and NHL. 10 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. a Decade of Improvement in Whole-Body Vibration and Low Back Pain for Freight Container Tractor Drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, K.; Taoda, K.; Kitahara, T.

    1998-08-01

    The authors' study in 1983 revealed that the whole-body vibration of the tractor units of freight containers was most hazardous in the back-to-chest directions (x-axis). The allowable exposure time was considerably shorter than that for heavy duty trucks. The low back pain (LBP) among the drivers seemed to be due to the long working hours and the ergonomically unsound tractor design, as well as the vibration. A preventative measure was the introduction of a tractor cab suspended by an air spring instead of a steel spring. In 1992, a follow-up field study was conducted. A personal vibration exposure meter developed by us measured the whole-body vibration on eight tractors. Eighty-nine triplets matched with the age and the years of driving tractors answered a questionnaire evaluation of the ergonomics of their tractor units.The comparison of the newest steel suspension vehicles to the old ones produced by the same motor company revealed that in thex-axis the vibration level had decreased by as much as 4 to 9 dB. Some tractors showed an increase in vibration in the buttocks-to-head direction (z-axis). However, such adverse changes seemed not to affect evaluations according to the fatigue-decreased proficiency boundary (FDP) and the exposure limit (EL) recommended in ISO 2631-1978. The present models, regardless of the type of suspension, changed the direction of the most hazardous vibration from thex-axis to thez-axis. However, the effect of the air-suspension was not so remarkable as expected. Among 40% of drivers seemed to exceed the FDP boundary during a day.The questionnaire study showed an improvement in the ergonomic evaluation of the tractors. The air suspension models seemed to induce less LBP than the steel suspension models.

  4. Antenatal exposure to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine leads to postnatal metabolic and endocrine changes associated with type 2 diabetes in Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect

    De Long, Nicole E.; Barry, Eric J.; Pinelli, Christopher; Wood, Geoffrey A.; Hardy, Daniel B.; Morrison, Katherine M.; Taylor, Valerie H.; Gerstein, Hertzel C.; Holloway, Alison C.

    2015-05-15

    Hypothesis: 10–15% of women take antidepressant medications during pregnancy. A recent clinical study reported that the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants during pregnancy is linked with an increased risk of postnatal obesity. While obesity is often associated with fatty liver, dyslipidemia and inflammation, to date, the effects of perinatal exposure to SSRIs on these outcomes are unknown. Methods: Female nulliparous Wistar rats were given vehicle (N = 15) or fluoxetine hydrochloride (FLX 10 mg/kg/d; N = 15) orally for 2 weeks prior to mating until weaning. We assessed glucometabolic changes and hepatic pathophysiology in the offspring. Results: Fluoxetine exposed offspring demonstrated altered glucose homeostasis without any alterations to beta cell mass. FLX-exposed offspring had a significant increase in the number of offspring with mild to moderate NASH and dyslipidemia. There was also increased inflammation of the liver in FLX-exposed offspring; males had significant elevations in TNFα, IL6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1), while female offspring had higher expression of TNFα, and increased macrophage infiltration (MCP1). Limitations: This is an animal study. Further research examining the metabolic outcomes of children exposed to antidepressants in utero are required, given the increase in childhood obesity and psychiatric medication use during pregnancy. Conclusion: These data demonstrate that fetal and neonatal exposure to FLX results in evidence of increased adiposity, fatty liver and abnormal glycemic control. Since these are all hallmarks of the metabolic syndrome, this raises concerns regarding the long term metabolic sequelae of fetal exposure to SSRIs in human populations. - Highlights: • Antenatal exposure to fluoxetine results in postnatal adiposity in the offspring. • Offspring exposed to fluoxetine have abnormal glycemic control in adulthood. • Maternal exposure to fluoxetine causes fatty liver in

  5. Pre- and postnatal exposure to moderate levels of ethanol can have long-lasting effects on hippocampal glutamate uptake in adolescent offspring.

    PubMed

    Brolese, Giovana; Lunardi, Paula; de Souza, Daniela F; Lopes, Fernanda M; Leite, Marina C; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The developing brain is vulnerable to the effects of ethanol. Glutamate is the main mediator of excitatory signals in the brain and is probably involved in most aspects of normal brain function during development. The aim of this study was to investigate vulnerability to and the impact of ethanol toxicity on glutamate uptake signaling in adolescent rats after moderate pre and postnatal ethanol exposure. Pregnant female rats were divided into three groups and treated only with water (control), non-alcoholic beer (vehicle) or 10% (v/v) beer solution (moderate prenatal alcohol exposure-MPAE). Thirty days after birth, adolescent male offspring were submitted to hippocampal acute slice procedure. We assayed glutamate uptake and measured glutathione content and also quantified glial glutamate transporters (EAAT 1 and EAAT 2). The glutamate system vulnerability was tested with different acute ethanol doses in naïve rats and compared with the MPAE group. We also performed a (lipopolysaccharide-challenge (LPS-challenge) with all groups to test the glutamate uptake response after an insult. The MPAE group presented a decrease in glutamate uptake corroborating a decrease in glutathione (GSH) content. The reduction in GSH content suggests oxidative damage after acute ethanol exposure. The glial glutamate transporters were also altered after prenatal ethanol treatment, suggesting a disturbance in glutamate signaling. This study indicates that impairment of glutamate uptake can be dose-dependent and the glutamate system has a higher vulnerability to ethanol toxicity after moderate ethanol exposure In utero. The effects of pre- and postnatal ethanol exposure can have long-lasting impacts on the glutamate system in adolescence and potentially into adulthood.

  6. Ozone and allergen exposure during postnatal development alters the frequency and airway distribution of CD25+ cells in infant rhesus monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Lisa A. Gerriets, Joan E.; Tyler, Nancy K.; Abel, Kristina; Schelegle, Edward S.; Plopper, Charles G.; Hyde, Dallas M.

    2009-04-01

    The epidemiologic link between air pollutant exposure and asthma has been supported by experimental findings, but the mechanisms are not understood. In this study, we evaluated the impact of combined ozone and house dust mite (HDM) exposure on the immunophenotype of peripheral blood and airway lymphocytes from rhesus macaque monkeys during the postnatal period of development. Starting at 30 days of age, monkeys were exposed to 11 cycles of filtered air, ozone, HDM aerosol, or ozone + HDM aerosol. Each cycle consisted of ozone delivered at 0.5 ppm for 5 days (8 h/day), followed by 9 days of filtered air; animals received HDM aerosol during the last 3 days of each ozone exposure period. Between 2-3 months of age, animals co-exposed to ozone + HDM exhibited a decline in total circulating leukocyte numbers and increased total circulating lymphocyte frequency. At 3 months of age, blood CD4+/CD25+ lymphocytes were increased with ozone + HDM. At 6 months of age, CD4+/CD25+ and CD8+/CD25+ lymphocyte populations increased in both blood and lavage of ozone + HDM animals. Overall volume of CD25+ cells within airway mucosa increased with HDM exposure. Ozone did not have an additive effect on volume of mucosal CD25+ cells in HDM-exposed animals, but did alter the anatomical distribution of this cell type throughout the proximal and distal airways. We conclude that a window of postnatal development is sensitive to air pollutant and allergen exposure, resulting in immunomodulation of peripheral blood and airway lymphocyte frequency and trafficking.

  7. Animal physiology. Whole-body endothermy in a mesopelagic fish, the opah, Lampris guttatus.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Nicholas C; Snodgrass, Owyn E; Dewar, Heidi; Hyde, John R

    2015-05-15

    Endothermy (the metabolic production and retention of heat to warm body temperature above ambient) enhances physiological function, and whole-body endothermy generally sets mammals and birds apart from other animals. Here, we describe a whole-body form of endothermy in a fish, the opah (Lampris guttatus), that produces heat through the constant "flapping" of wing-like pectoral fins and minimizes heat loss through a series of counter-current heat exchangers within its gills. Unlike other fish, opah distribute warmed blood throughout the body, including to the heart, enhancing physiological performance and buffering internal organ function while foraging in the cold, nutrient-rich waters below the ocean thermocline.

  8. Whole-body autoradiographic microimaging: Applications in radiopharmaceutical and drug research

    SciTech Connect

    Som, P.; Sacker, D.F.

    1991-01-01

    The whole-body autoradiographic (WBARG) microimaging technique is used for evaluation of the temporo-spatial distribution of radiolabeled molecules in intact animals as well as to determine the sites of accumulation of parent compounds and their metabolites. This technique is also very useful to determine the metabolism of a compound, toxicity, and effects of therapeutic interventions on the distribution of a compound in the whole body, by studying animals at different time intervals after injection of the radiolabeled compound. This report discusses various aspects of WBARG.

  9. Whole-body autoradiographic microimaging: Applications in radiopharmaceutical and drug research

    SciTech Connect

    Som, P.; Sacker, D.F.

    1991-12-31

    The whole-body autoradiographic (WBARG) microimaging technique is used for evaluation of the temporo-spatial distribution of radiolabeled molecules in intact animals as well as to determine the sites of accumulation of parent compounds and their metabolites. This technique is also very useful to determine the metabolism of a compound, toxicity, and effects of therapeutic interventions on the distribution of a compound in the whole body, by studying animals at different time intervals after injection of the radiolabeled compound. This report discusses various aspects of WBARG.

  10. Efficiency of whole-body counter for various body size calculated by MCNP5 software.

    PubMed

    Krstic, D; Nikezic, D

    2012-11-01

    The efficiency of a whole-body counter for (137)Cs and (40)K was calculated using the MCNP5 code. The ORNL phantoms of a human body of different body sizes were applied in a sitting position in front of a detector. The aim was to investigate the dependence of efficiency on the body size (age) and the detector position with respect to the body and to estimate the accuracy of real measurements. The calculation work presented here is related to the NaI detector, which is available in the Serbian Whole-body Counter facility in Vinca Institute.

  11. Low back pain in drivers: The relative role of whole-body vibration, posture and manual materials handling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okunribido, O. O.; Magnusson, M.; Pope, M. H.

    2006-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the relative role of whole-body vibration (WBV), posture and manual materials handling (MMH) as risk factors for low back pain (LBP). Using a validated questionnaire, information about health history, posture and MMH performed was obtained from 394 workers who drove vehicles as part of their job (according to seven predefined occupational groups) and 59 who did not. The intention was to reflect a wide range of exposures with the lower end of the exposure spectrum defined as that of non-manual workers who do not drive as part of their job. Based on the questionnaire responses and direct measurements of vibration exposure, personal aggregate measures of exposure were computed for each of the respondents, i.e., total vibration dose (TVD), posture score (PS) and manual handling score (MHS). Odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) for back pain were obtained from logistics regression models and log-linear backward elimination analysis was performed. The findings showed that 'combined exposure' due to posture and one or both of vibration and MMH, rather than the individual exposure to one of the three factors (WBV, posture, MMH) is the main contributor of the increased prevalence of LBP.

  12. Modifications of inhibitory transmission onto pyramidal neurons by postnatal exposure to MK-801: Effects of enriched environment.

    PubMed

    Shojaei, Amir; Anaraki, Afsaneh Kamali; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Javad; Atapour, Nafiseh

    2017-04-01

    Early enriched environment (EE) prevents several deficits associated with postnatal MK-801 [N-Methyl-d-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist] treatment such as cognitive and locomotor deficits. We sought physiological correlates to such changes by looking at inhibitory synaptic inputs onto pyramidal cells in a prefrontal cortex slice preparation. Pharmacologically isolated γ-amino-butyric acid A (GABAA) receptor-mediated currents were measured using whole-cell patch clamp recordings. Wistar rats were raised in standard or EE from birth up to the time of experiments and were injected with saline or MK-801 (1mg/kg) on postnatal days (P) 6-10. We recorded miniature inhibitory post-synaptic currents (mIPSCs) of pyramidal cells in layer II/III of prefrontal cortex and measured their frequency, amplitude and kinetics. In control animals, the amplitude and frequency of mIPSCs increased strikingly during development from P21 to P28. MK-801 accelerated the development of mIPSCs frequency but caused a significant decrease in the amplitude of mIPSCs on P28 suggesting a significant reduction of inhibition onto pyramidal cells. EE per se led to a significant increase in both frequency and amplitude of mIPSCs, but its application to MK-801-treated rats resulted in moderate rescue of GABAergic transmission on P28. We conclude that postnatal MK-801 leads to reduced inhibitory transmission onto pyramidal cells of prefrontal cortex at adolescence which may underlie behavioural and morphological differences detected in vivo in rats. EE presentation from birth rather prevents GABAergic alterations associated with postnatal MK-801 treatment at adolescence.

  13. Effect of whole-body irradiation of mice on the number of background plaque-forming cells

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.E.; Lefkovits, I.; Soeederberg, A.

    1983-08-01

    Mice were exposed in whole-body fashion to several doses of radiation and killed at various times thereafter for a determination of the number of background plaque-forming cells (PFCs) as assayed on either sheep erythrocytes or bromelain-treated autologous mouse erythrocytes. Increased numbers of both types of PFC were found in the irradiated groups. These increases were dependent on radiation dose and time after exposure. They did not appear to be caused by a disruption of normal lymphocyte traffic or a switch in immunoglobulin isotype. An increased number of PFCs on bromelain-treated mouse RBCs but not on sheep RBCs were found in irradiated congenitally athymic nude mice. On the basis of this and related observations, background PFCs on bromelain-treated mouse RBCs and on sheep RBCs appear to fall under different forms of homeostatic control.

  14. Pre- and Postnatal Exposure to Moderate Levels of Ethanol Can Have Long-Lasting Effects on Hippocampal Glutamate Uptake in Adolescent Offspring

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Daniela F.; Lopes, Fernanda M.; Leite, Marina C.; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The developing brain is vulnerable to the effects of ethanol. Glutamate is the main mediator of excitatory signals in the brain and is probably involved in most aspects of normal brain function during development. The aim of this study was to investigate vulnerability to and the impact of ethanol toxicity on glutamate uptake signaling in adolescent rats after moderate pre and postnatal ethanol exposure. Pregnant female rats were divided into three groups and treated only with water (control), non-alcoholic beer (vehicle) or 10% (v/v) beer solution (moderate prenatal alcohol exposure—MPAE). Thirty days after birth, adolescent male offspring were submitted to hippocampal acute slice procedure. We assayed glutamate uptake and measured glutathione content and also quantified glial glutamate transporters (EAAT 1 and EAAT 2). The glutamate system vulnerability was tested with different acute ethanol doses in naïve rats and compared with the MPAE group. We also performed a (lipopolysaccharide-challenge (LPS-challenge) with all groups to test the glutamate uptake response after an insult. The MPAE group presented a decrease in glutamate uptake corroborating a decrease in glutathione (GSH) content. The reduction in GSH content suggests oxidative damage after acute ethanol exposure. The glial glutamate transporters were also altered after prenatal ethanol treatment, suggesting a disturbance in glutamate signaling. This study indicates that impairment of glutamate uptake can be dose-dependent and the glutamate system has a higher vulnerability to ethanol toxicity after moderate ethanol exposure In utero. The effects of pre- and postnatal ethanol exposure can have long-lasting impacts on the glutamate system in adolescence and potentially into adulthood. PMID:25978644

  15. Effects of Whole-Body Vibration Therapy in Patients with Fibromyalgia: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Collado-Mateo, Daniel; Adsuar, Jose C.; Olivares, Pedro R.; del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Parraca, Jose A.; del Pozo-Cruz, Jesus; Gusi, Narcis

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To review the literature on the effects of whole-body vibration therapy in patients with fibromyalgia. Design. Systematic literature review. Patients. Patients with fibromyalgia. Methods. An electronic search of the literature in four medical databases was performed to identify studies on whole-body vibration therapy that were published up to the 15th of January 2015. Results. Eight articles satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were analysed. According to the Dutch CBO guidelines, all selected trials had a B level of evidence. The main outcomes that were measured were balance, fatigue, disability index, health-related quality of life, and pain. Whole-body vibration appeared to improve the outcomes, especially balance and disability index. Conclusion. Whole-body vibration could be an adequate treatment for fibromyalgia as a main therapy or added to a physical exercise programme as it could improve balance, disability index, health-related quality of life, fatigue, and pain. However, this conclusion must be treated with caution because the paucity of trials and the marked differences between existing trials in terms of protocol, intervention, and measurement tools hampered the comparison of the trials. PMID:26351517

  16. Validation of a whole-body cortisol extraction procedure for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed and validated a whole-body cortisol extraction technique for catfish fry. Their small size (< 1 g) makes it difficult to measure cortisol, a common indicator of a stress response, using conventional assay methods. Three volume enhancement methods were tested: CAL method (zero calibrator...

  17. Human and animal studies: portals into the whole body and whole population response

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human and animal studies: portals into the whole body and whole population response Michael C. Madden1 and Brett Winters21US Environmental Protection Agency and 2University of North Carolina Human Studies Facility, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA Studies involving collection and...

  18. Whole body MRI in the diagnosis of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, M T; Murphy, T; Murphy, M; Laffan, E; Connolly, P

    2012-06-01

    Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is a diagnosis of exclusion primarily in children and adolescents. As part of the essential criteria for the diagnosis of CRMO, multifocal lesions must be identified. We present the case of an 11-year-old boy with CRMO, whose diagnosis was facilitated by the use of whole body magnetic resonance imaging (WBMR), but not isotope bone scanning.

  19. Evolution of whole-body enantiomorphy in the tree snail genus Amphidromus

    PubMed Central

    SUTCHARIT, C; ASAMI, T; PANHA, S

    2007-01-01

    Diverse animals exhibit left–right asymmetry in development. However, no example of dimorphism for the left–right polarity of development (whole-body enantiomorphy) is known to persist within natural populations. In snails, whole-body enantiomorphs have repeatedly evolved as separate species. Within populations, however, snails are not expected to exhibit enantiomorphy, because of selection against the less common morph resulting from mating disadvantage. Here we present a unique example of evolutionarily stable whole-body enantiomorphy in snails. Our molecular phylogeny of South-east Asian tree snails in the genus Amphidromus indicates that enantiomorphy has likely persisted as the ancestral state over a million generations. Enantiomorphs have continuously coexisted in every population surveyed spanning a period of 10 years. Our results indicate that whole-body enantiomorphy is maintained within populations opposing the rule of directional asymmetry in animals. This study implicates the need for explicit approaches to disclosure of a maintenance mechanism and conservation of the genus. PMID:17305832

  20. Esophageal and rectal temperatures as estimates of core temperature during therapeutic whole-body hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Subrata; Donn, Steven M; Bhagat, Indira; Dechert, Ronald E; Barks, John D

    2013-01-01

    We monitored whole-body cooling concurrently by both esophageal and rectal probes. Esophageal temperature was significantly higher compared with simultaneous rectal temperature during cooling, with a temperature gradient ranging from 0.46 to 1.03°C (median, 0.8°C; IQR, 0.6-0.8°C). During rewarming, this temperature difference disappeared.

  1. Prolonged bed rest decreases skeletal muscle and whole body protein synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrando, A. A.; Lane, H. W.; Stuart, C. A.; Davis-Street, J.; Wolfe, R. R.

    1996-01-01

    We sought to determine the extent to which the loss of lean body mass and nitrogen during inactivity was due to alterations in skeletal muscle protein metabolism. Six male subjects were studied during 7 days of diet stabilization and after 14 days of stimulated microgravity (-6 degrees bed rest). Nitrogen balance became more negative (P < 0.03) during the 2nd wk of bed rest. Leg and whole body lean mass decreased after bed rest (P < 0.05). Serum cortisol, insulin, insulin-like growth factor I, and testosterone values did not change. Arteriovenous model calculations based on the infusion of L-[ring-13C6]-phenylalanine in five subjects revealed a 50% decrease in muscle protein synthesis (PS; P < 0.03). Fractional PS by tracer incorporation into muscle protein also decreased by 46% (P < 0.05). The decrease in PS was related to a corresponding decrease in the sum of intracellular amino acid appearance from protein breakdown and inward transport. Whole body protein synthesis determined by [15N]alanine ingestion on six subjects also revealed a 14% decrease (P < 0.01). Neither model-derived nor whole body values for protein breakdown change significantly. These results indicate that the loss of body protein with inactivity is predominantly due to a decrease in muscle PS and that this decrease is reflected in both whole body and skeletal muscle measures.

  2. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices regarding Whole Body Donation among Medical Professionals in a Hospital in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballala, Kirthinath; Shetty, Avinash; Malpe, Surekha Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Voluntary body donation has become an important source of cadavers for anatomical study and education. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding whole body donation among medical professionals in a medical institute in India. A cross sectional study was conducted at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal,…

  3. Solid anthropomorphic infant whole body DXA phantom: Design, evaluation, and multisite testing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) requires phantoms for quality control and cross-calibration. No commercially available phantoms are designed specifically for infant whole-body scanning. We fabricated a phantom closely matching a 7-kg human infant in body habitus using PVC, nylon-mix, and poly...

  4. Moving along the Mental Number Line: Interactions between Whole-Body Motion and Numerical Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmann, Matthias; Grabherr, Luzia; Mast, Fred W.

    2012-01-01

    Active head turns to the left and right have recently been shown to influence numerical cognition by shifting attention along the mental number line. In the present study, we found that passive whole-body motion influences numerical cognition. In a random-number generation task (Experiment 1), leftward and downward displacement of participants…

  5. [Application of stable isotopes in the study of whole-body protein metabolism].

    PubMed

    Tian, Ying; Yang, Xiaoguang; Piao, Jianhua

    2007-11-01

    Stable isotopes are non-radioactive, so they are safe and suitable for the study of human nutrition. In this paper, the principle and main methods of stable isotopic technique in the study of whole-body protein metabolism were introduced. Meanwhile, the advantages and disadvantages of different methods were discussed and the splanchnic metabolism of labeled amino acids was analyzed.

  6. Optimization of Whole-body Zebrafish Sectioning Methods for Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) methods and protocols have become widely adapted to a variety of tissues and species. However, the MSI literature lacks information on whole-body cryosection preparation for the zebrafish (ZF; Danio rerio), a model organism routinely used in devel...

  7. DETECTION OF WHOLE BODY OXIDATIVE STRESS IN URINE USING OXYGEN-18 LABELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    DETECTION OF WHOLE BODY OXIDATIVE STRESS IN URINE USING OXYGEN-18 LABELING. R Slade, J L McKee and G E Hatch. PTB, ETD, NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.
    Reliable non-invasive markers for detecting oxidative stress in vivo are currently not available. We pr...

  8. In vivo lumbar erector spinae oxygenation and blood volume measurements in healthy men during seated whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Maikala, Rammohan V; Bhambhani, Yagesh N

    2006-09-01

    Exposure to whole-body vibration is implicated as one of the occupational risk factors for lower back disorders; however, its influence on the lumbar muscle physiology is still poorly understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of backrest support and hand grip contractions on lumbar muscle oxygenation and blood volume responses during seated whole-body vibration using continuous dual-wave near-infrared spectroscopy. Thirteen healthy men were exposed to frequencies of 3, 4.5 and 6 Hz on a vibration simulator, in randomized order on separate days. Each day the duration of the protocol was 30 min. During the fifth minute of vibration 'with' and 'without' backrest support, participants performed maximal rhythmic hand grip contractions for 1 min. In general, erector spinae oxygenation and blood volume showed a trend to decrease with vibration exposure compared to the control condition. However, these responses were not influenced by the change in vibration frequency (P > 0.05). Sitting without backrest resulted in a greater decrease in oxygenation (by 27%, P = 0.02) and blood volume (by 11%, P = 0.05) than with backrest, implying a deficiency in oxygen supply owing to the sitting posture. Compared to the vibration-only condition, hand grip work decreased both oxygenation (by 22%, P = 0.003) and blood volume responses (by 13%, P = 0.04), suggesting that postural load due to prolonged sitting combined with physical activity during vibration might further burden paraspinal muscles. The influence of adipose tissue thickness of the lumbar muscle on optically derived oxygenation and blood volume changes was inconclusive.

  9. Comparison of segmental with whole-body impedance measurements in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Nescolarde, Lexa; Doñate, Teresa; Piccoli, Antonio; Rosell, Javier

    2008-09-01

    Segmental impedance measurements were obtained using nine electrode configurations in 21 male patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis PD before and after the fluid drainage. For each segment we analyzed the impedance Z and the impedance divided by the height H of the patient Z/H. Our objective was to compare different segmental measurements with whole-body measurements in peritoneal dialysis. The Wilcoxon test was used to analyze the change in impedance produced by a PD session. Pearson or Spearman correlation coefficients were used for continuous or discrete variables, respectively. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Similar results were obtained for Z and Z/H. The correlation coefficients between the real R and imaginary X(c) parts of segmental impedances after drainage were within the expected range for healthy population (0.46-0.70), but not before drainage for the abdomen (0.34) and the upper part of the leg (0.24). The correlation between the real part of whole-body and the real part of longitudinal segments in the limbs was high (r=0.807-0.879). Furthermore, the imaginary part of whole-body showed a high correlation with the imaginary part of all longitudinal segments (r=0.856-0.931). The high contribution of arm and leg impedances in the whole-body impedance produced high correlation between whole-body and segmental measurements in legs and arms. In agreement with other previous studies, a significant increase of the arm resistance was detected after fluid drainage. The drainage of fluids in PD patients produced significant changes in the measured real parts of impedance in all measured segments, but only the measurement in the abdomen showed a significant positive correlation (r=0.533) with the extracted fluid volume. This low correlation indicates that the individual assessment of fluid volumes using segmental measurements will be highly inaccurate.

  10. An information theoretic view of the scheduling problem in whole-body CAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Yiqiang; Zhou, Xiang Sean; Krishnan, Arun

    2008-03-01

    Emerging whole-body imaging technologies push computer aided detection/diagnosis (CAD) to scale up to a whole-body level, which involves multiple organs or anatomical structure. To be exploited in this paper is the fact that the various tasks in whole-body CAD are often highly dependent (e.g., the localization of the femur heads strongly predicts the position of the iliac bifurcation of the aorta). One way to effectively employ task dependency is to schedule the tasks such that outputs of some tasks are used to guide the others. In this sense, optimal task scheduling is key to improve overall performance of a whole-body CAD system. In this paper, we propose a method for task scheduling that is optimal in an information-theoretic sense. The central idea is to schedule tasks in such an order that each operation achieves maximum expected information gain over all the tasks. The formulation embeds two intuitive principles: (1) a task with higher confidence tends to be scheduled earlier; (2) a task with higher predictive power for other tasks tends to be scheduled earlier. More specifically, task dependency is modeled by conditional probability; the outcome of each task is assumed to be probabilistic as well; and the objective function is based on the reduction of the summed conditional entropy over all tasks. The validation is carried out on a challenging CAD problem, multi-organ localization in whole-body CT. Compared to unscheduled and ad hoc scheduled organ detection/localization, our scheduled execution achieves higher accuracy with much less computation time.

  11. Altered water-maze search behavior in adult guinea pigs following chronic prenatal ethanol exposure: lack of mitigation by postnatal fluoxetine treatment.

    PubMed

    McAdam, Teresa D; Brien, James F; Reynolds, James N; Dringenberg, Hans C

    2008-08-22

    Ingestion of ethanol during pregnancy can result in teratogenic effects in humans, including significant and long-lasting neurobehavioral deficits. Similar results are seen in guinea pigs with chronic prenatal ethanol exposure (CPEE) via maternal ethanol administration, which produces deficits in Morris water-maze performance and impaired hippocampal functioning (e.g., decreased long-term potentiation, LTP). In this study, we tested whether postnatal treatment with fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, decreases some of the neurobehavioral impairments produced by CPEE. Timed, pregnant guinea pigs received oral administration of ethanol (4g/kg maternal body weight) or isocaloric sucrose pair feeding (control) for 5 days/week throughout gestation. Offspring of the CPEE and control groups were randomly assigned to receive either fluoxetine (10mg/kg body weight/day) or saline intraperitoneally from postnatal day 10 to 48. Subsequent behavioral tests in the Morris water-maze revealed a significant increase in thigmotaxic swimming in CPEE offspring without apparent signs of impairment in spatial mapping of the hidden escape platform. Measures of hippocampal short- and long-term plasticity (paired-pulse facilitation, frequency facilitation, and LTP) were unaffected by CPEE, consistent with the behavioral data indicating normal hippocampal functioning. Postnatal fluoxetine administration resulted in a significant loss of body weight, but did not affect the increased thigmotaxic swimming following CPEE. These results indicate that changes in search strategies in the water-maze might be a highly sensitive index of CPEE-induced neurobehavioral toxicity that can occur in the absence of significant hippocampal dysfunction. Further, these data demonstrate that fluoxetine, at the selected treatment regime, does not mitigate the thigmotaxic swimming response to CPEE in the guinea pig.

  12. In utero and lactation exposure of rats to 1R4F reference cigarette mainstream smoke: effect on prenatal and postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Gaworski, C L; Carmines, E L; Faqi, A S; Rajendran, N

    2004-05-01

    Childhood cognitive and behavioral deficits have been reported in children born to mothers who smoked during pregnancy (Institute of Medicine, 2001). To investigate these potential responses in an animal model, reproductive and neurotoxicity evaluations based on the U.S. FDA guidelines were used to examine the offspring of male and female Sprague-Dawley rats exposed 2 h/day, 7 days/week by nose-only inhalation to whole mainstream smoke total particulate matter (TPM). Concentrations of 150, 300, or 600 mg/m(3) were used (males: 4 weeks prior to and during mating; and females: 2 weeks prior to mating, during mating, and through weaning at postnatal day 21). Sham air controls receiving filtered air and cage controls were also maintained. F(1) rats were weighed, identified by gender, examined for clinical signs of toxicity, and evaluated for neurobehavioral effects through postnatal day 65. Parental exposure was evidenced by smoke concentration-related increases in blood carboxyhemoglobin, nicotine, and cotinine and by characteristic cigarette smoke-related rodent respiratory tract histopathology. Also, nicotine and cotinine were found in F(1) blood through the lactation period. Maternal toxicity occurred at concentrations of 300 and 600 mg TPM/m(3), where total body weight gain during gestation was significantly (p < or = 0.05) decreased compared to sham controls. While smoke concentration-related decreases in F(1) birth weight and growth were evident (600 mg TPM/m(3), significantly different from sham at all time points), no adverse effects on developmental landmarks, including age at vaginal patency or preputial separation, motor activity, acoustic startle response or learning, and memory, were observed in the F(1) generation. This study confirmed that maternal exposure to high levels of mainstream cigarette smoke during gestation and lactation reduces birth weight and retards growth in the rat neonate; however, the developmental and neurobehavioral testing

  13. Low level postnatal methylmercury exposure in vivo alters developmental forms of short-term synaptic plasticity in the visual cortex of rat

    SciTech Connect

    Dasari, Sameera; Yuan, Yukun

    2009-11-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) has been previously shown to affect neurotransmitter release. Short-term synaptic plasticity (STP) is primarily related to changes in the probability of neurotransmitter release. To determine if MeHg affects STP development, we examined STP forms in the visual cortex of rat following in vivo MeHg exposure. Neonatal rats received 0 (0.9% NaCl), 0.75 or 1.5 mg/kg/day MeHg subcutaneously for 15 or 30 days beginning on postnatal day 5, after which visual cortical slices were prepared for field potential recordings. In slices prepared from rats treated with vehicle, field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) evoked by paired-pulse stimulation at 20-200 ms inter-stimulus intervals showed a depression (PPD) of the second fEPSP (fEPSP2). PPD was also seen in slices prepared from rats after 15 day treatment with 0.75 or 1.5 mg/kg/day MeHg. However, longer duration treatment (30 days) with either dose of MeHg resulted in paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) of fEPSP2 in the majority of slices examined. PPF remained observable in slices prepared from animals in which MeHg exposure had been terminated for 30 days after completion of the initial 30 day MeHg treatment, whereas slices from control animals still showed PPD. MeHg did not cause any frequency- or region-preferential effect on STP. Manipulations of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub e} or application of the GABA{sub A} receptor antagonist bicuculline could alter the strength and polarity of MeHg-induced changes in STP. Thus, these data suggest that low level postnatal MeHg exposure interferes with the developmental transformation of STP in the visual cortex, which is a long-lasting effect.

  14. Estimation of radiation dose to patients from 18FDG whole body PET/CT investigations using dynamic PET scan protocol

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Aruna; Jaimini, Abhinav; Tripathi, Madhavi; D’Souza, Maria; Sharma, Rajnish; Mondal, Anupam; Mishra, Anil K.; Dwarakanath, Bilikere S.

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: There is a growing concern over the radiation exposure of patients from undergoing 18FDG PET/CT (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography) whole body investigations. The aim of the present study was to study the kinetics of 18FDG distributions and estimate the radiation dose received by patients undergoing 18FDG whole body PET/CT investigations. Methods: Dynamic PET scans in different regions of the body were performed in 49 patients so as to measure percentage uptake of 18FDG in brain, liver, spleen, adrenals, kidneys and stomach. The residence time in these organs was calculated and radiation dose was estimated using OLINDA software. The radiation dose from the CT component was computed using the software CT-Expo and measured using computed tomography dose index (CTDI) phantom and ionization chamber. As per the clinical protocol, the patients were refrained from eating and drinking for a minimum period of 4 h prior to the study. Results: The estimated residence time in males was 0.196 h (brain), 0.09 h (liver), 0.007 h (spleen), 0.0006 h (adrenals), 0.013 h (kidneys) and 0.005 h (stomach) whereas it was 0.189 h (brain), 0.11 h (liver), 0.01 h (spleen), 0.0007 h (adrenals), 0.02 h (kidneys) and 0.004 h (stomach) in females. The effective dose was found to be 0.020 mSv/MBq in males and 0.025 mSv/MBq in females from internally administered 18FDG and 6.8 mSv in males and 7.9 mSv in females from the CT component. For an administered activity of 370 MBq of 18FDG, the effective dose from PET/CT investigations was estimated to be 14.2 mSv in males and 17.2 mSv in females. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results did not demonstrate significant difference in the kinetics of 18FDG distribution in male and female patients. The estimated PET/CT doses were found to be higher than many other conventional diagnostic radiology examinations suggesting that all efforts should be made to clinically justify and

  15. Whole-body cryostimulation as an effective way of reducing exercise-induced inflammation and blood cholesterol in young men.

    PubMed

    Ziemann, Ewa; Olek, Robert A; Grzywacz, Tomasz; Kaczor, Jan J; Antosiewicz, Jędrzej; Skrobot, Wojciech; Kujach, Sylwester; Laskowski, Radosław

    2014-03-01

    Inflammation may accompany obesity and a variety of diseases, or result from excessive exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of whole-body cryostimulation on the inflammatory response induced by eccentric exercise under laboratory conditions. The study also sought to establish if cold treatment changes the lipid profile and modifies energy expenditure in young people. Eighteen healthy and physically active, college-aged men volunteered to participate in the experiment. They were divided into two subgroups: CRY- submitted to whole-body cryostimulation, and CONT- a control group. Both groups performed eccentric work to induce muscle damage. Blood samples were collected before and 24 h after the exercise. Over the five days that followed, the CRY group was exposed to a series of 10 sessions in a cryogenic chamber (twice a day, for 3 min, at a temperature of -110̊C). After this period of rest, both groups repeated a similar eccentric work session, following the same schedule of blood collection. The perceived pain was noted 24h after each session of eccentric workout. A 30-minute step up/down work-out induced delayed-onset muscle soreness in both groups. The five-day recovery period accompanied by exposure to cold significantly enhanced the concentration of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. It also led to a pronounced reduction in levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, and reduced muscle damage. The values for IL-10 before the second bout of eccentric exercise in the CRY group were 2.0-fold higher in comparison to baseline, whereas in the CONT group, the concentration remained unchanged. Furthermore, blood concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β fell significantly in the CRY group. The main finding of this study was that a series of 10 sessions of whole body cryostimulation significantly reduced the inflammatory response induced by eccentric exercise. The lipid profile was also improved, but there

  16. Whole body hypothermia broadens the therapeutic window of intranasally administered IGF-1 in a neonatal rat model of cerebral hypoxia-ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shuying; Rhodes, Philip G.; Cai, Zhengwei

    2011-01-01

    To investigate whether whole body hypothermia after neonatal cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI) could broaden the therapeutic window of intranasal treatment of IGF-1 (iN-IGF-1), postnatal day 7 rat pups were subjected to right common carotid artery ligation, followed by 8% oxygen inhalation for 2 h. After HI, one group of pups were returned to their dams and kept at room temperature (24.5±0.2°C). A second group of pups were subjected to whole body hypothermia in a cool environment (21.5±0.3°C) for 2 or 4 h before being returned to their dams. Two doses of 50 μg recombinant human IGF-1 were administered intranasally at a 1 h interval starting at 0, 2 or 4 h after hypothermia. Hypothermia decreased the rectal temperature of pups by 4.5°C as compared to those kept at room temperature. While hypothermia or iN-IGF-1 administered 2 h after HI alone did not provide neuroprotection, the combined treatment of hypothermia with iN-IGF-1 significantly protected the neonatal rat brain from HI injury. Hypothermia treatment extended the therapeutic window of IGF-1 to 6 h after HI. The extended IGF-1 therapeutic window by hypothermia was associated with decreases in infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and activation of microglia/macrophages and with attenuation of NF-κB activation in the ipsilateral hemisphere following HI. PMID:21316352

  17. Whole body net ion fluxes, plasma electrolyte concentrations and haematology during a Loma salmonae infection in juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Powell, M D; Speare, D J; Becker, J A

    2006-12-01

    Loma salmonae infections of salmonids culminate in the development of branchial xenomas and subsequent focal hyperplasia of the lamellar or filament epithelium following xenoma rupture and spore release. The effects of this acute branchial disruption upon net ionic flux rates and plasma electrolyte concentrations were determined in juvenile rainbow trout given an experimental oral exposure to L. salmonae. Mean numbers of branchial xenomas peaked at week 5 post-exposure (PE), which coincided with a reduction in the specific growth rate, although there were no significant differences in mass, length or condition of Loma-exposed fish compared with unexposed controls. Following exposure, negative net whole body Na(+) and K(+) fluxes decreased, whereas net Cl(-) fluxes remained unchanged compared with non-exposed control fish. At week 3 PE during the initial branchial xenoma formation stage, there was a significant negative whole body net K(+) flux in Loma-exposed trout compared with other points during the exposure and subsequent infection. Additionally, Loma-exposed fish had marginally elevated plasma Na(+) and Cl(-) concentrations, whilst K(+) levels remained unchanged, compared with control fish. Although there was a progressive decrease in leucocrit, haematocrit remained unchanged over the course of the Loma exposure and subsequent infection. These results suggest that ionic compensation can occur at the gills during the development of xenomas during exposure to L. salmonae and the resultant infection, therefore allowing defence of plasma electrolyte concentrations, unlike the acute ionic disturbances seen with some other parasitic diseases.

  18. Exposure to low doses of (137)cesium and nicotine during postnatal development modifies anxiety levels, learning, and spatial memory performance in mice.

    PubMed

    Bellés, Montserrat; Heredia, Luis; Serra, Noemí; Domingo, José L; Linares, Victoria

    2016-11-01

    Radiation therapy is a major cause of long-term complications observed in survivors of pediatric brain tumors. However, the effects of low-doses of ionizing radiation (IR) to the brain are less studied. On the other hand, tobacco is one of the most heavily abused drugs in the world. Tobacco is not only a health concern for adults. It has also shown to exert deleterious effects on fetuses, newborns, children and adolescents. Exposure to nicotine (Nic) from smoking may potentiate the toxic effects induced by IR on brain development. In this study, we evaluated in mice the cognitive effects of concomitant exposure to low doses of internal radiation ((137)Cs) and Nic during neonatal brain development. On postnatal day 10 (PND10), two groups of C57BL/6J mice were subcutaneously exposed to 137-Cesium ((137)Cs) (4000 and 8000 Bq/kg) and/or Nic (100 μg/ml). At the age of two months, neurobehavior of mice was assessed. Results showed that exposure to IR-alone or in combination with Nic-increased the anxiety-like of the animals without changing the activity levels. Moreover, exposure to IR impaired learning and spatial memory. However, Nic administration was able to reverse this effect, but only at the low dose of (137)Cs.

  19. Enhanced cued fear memory following post-training whole body irradiation of 3-month-old mice.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Reid H J; Weber, Sydney J; Akinyeke, Tunde; Raber, Jacob

    2017-02-15

    Typically, in studies designed to assess effects of irradiation on cognitive performance the animals are trained and tested for cognitive function following irradiation. Little is known about post-training effects of irradiation on cognitive performance. In the current study, 3-month-old male mice were irradiated with X-rays 24h following training in a fear conditioning paradigm and cognitively tested starting two weeks later. Average motion during the extinction trials, measures of anxiety in the elevated zero maze, and body weight changes over the course of the study were assessed as well. Exposure to whole body irradiation 24h following training in a fear conditioning resulted in greater freezing levels 2 weeks after training. In addition, motion during both contextual and cued extinction trials was lower in irradiated than sham-irradiated mice. In mice trained for cued fear conditioning, activity levels in the elevated zero maze 12days after sham-irradiation or irradiation were also lower in irradiated than sham-irradiated mice. Finally, the trajectory of body weight changes was affected by irradiation, with lower body weights in irradiated than sham-irradiated mice, with the most profound effect 7days after training. These effects were associated with reduced c-Myc protein levels in the amygdala of the irradiated mice. These data indicate that whole body X ray irradiation of mice at 3 months of age causes persistent alterations in the fear response and activity levels in a novel environment, while the effects on body weight seem more transient.

  20. Thermophysiological Responses of Human Volunteers to Whole Body RF Exposure at 220 MHz

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-19

    could make judgments of sensations and the test. A Fiso temperature probe was also taped to the thermal comfort at intervals during the test (cf. Table...general trends in individual responses. These responses sensation, thermal comfort , perceived sweating, and included six skin temperatures and weighted...Tankle). similar fashion, mean judgments of thermal sensation, The two right panels of the figure show M (upper) and thermal comfort , thermal preference

  1. The ISO standard: Guide for the evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vongierke, H. E.

    1975-01-01

    The international guideline is discussed in terms of safety and human tolerance. Charts for equal subjective vibration intensity, subjective judgement of equal fatigue, and severe discomfort boundaries are included.

  2. Prenatal dexamethasone, as used in preterm labor, worsens the impact of postnatal chlorpyrifos exposure on serotonergic pathways.

    PubMed

    Slotkin, Theodore A; Card, Jennifer; Seidler, Frederic J

    2014-01-01

    This study explores how glucocorticoids sensitize the developing brain to the organophosphate pesticide, chlorpyrifos. Pregnant rats received a standard therapeutic dose (0.2mg/kg) of dexamethasone on gestational days 17-19; pups were given subtoxic doses of chlorpyrifos on postnatal days 1-4 (1mg/kg, <10% cholinesterase inhibition). We evaluated serotonin (5HT) synaptic function from postnatal day 30 to day 150, assessing the expression of 5HT receptors and the 5HT transporter, along with 5HT turnover (index of presynaptic impulse activity) in brain regions encompassing all the 5HT projections and cell bodies. These parameters are known targets for neurodevelopmental effects of dexamethasone and chlorpyrifos individually. In males, chlorpyrifos evoked overall elevations in the expression of 5HT synaptic proteins, with a progressive increase from adolescence to adulthood; this effect was attenuated by prenatal dexamethasone treatment. The chlorpyrifos-induced upregulation was preceded by deficits in 5HT turnover, indicating that the receptor upregulation was an adaptive response to deficient presynaptic activity. Turnover deficiencies were magnified by dexamethasone pretreatment, worsening the functional impairment caused by chlorpyrifos. In females, chlorpyrifos-induced receptor changes reflected relative sparing of adverse effects compared to males. Nevertheless, prenatal dexamethasone still worsened the 5HT turnover deficits and reduced 5HT receptor expression in females, demonstrating the same adverse interaction. Glucocorticoids are used in 10% of U.S. pregnancies, and are also elevated in maternal stress; accordingly, our results indicate that this group represents a large subpopulation that may have heightened vulnerability to developmental neurotoxicants such as the organophosphates.

  3. Prenatal and postnatal effects of low-level lead exposure: Integrated summary of a report to the US congress on childhood lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Mushak, P. ); Davis, M.; Grant, L.D. ); Crocetti, A.F. )

    1989-10-01

    This article provides an integrated summary of a report of Congress from the Federal government (ATSDR) on childhood lead poisoning in the United States, with particular reference to low-level lead exposure and its effects on the fetus and the preschool child. As mandated by Section 118(f)(1)(C) of the 1986 Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), ATSDR has examined the full spectrum of human in utero postnatal lead toxicity, with emphasis on low-level neurotoxicity and adverse impacts on growth indices in risk populations. Especially important has been assessment of the relative persistence of these effects in later life as discernible from a number of longitudinal studies now under way around the world. Include in the Congressional report were discussions of dose-effect and dose-response relationships using blood lead levels as the indicator of lead dose.

  4. Prenatal and postnatal effects of low-level lead exposure: integrated summary of a report to the U.S. Congress on childhood lead poisoning.

    PubMed

    Mushak, P; Davis, J M; Crocetti, A F; Grant, L D

    1989-10-01

    This article provides an integrated summary of a report to Congress from the Federal government (ATSDR) on childhood lead poisoning in the United States, with particular reference to low-level lead exposure and its effects on the fetus and the preschool child. As mandated by Section 118(f)(1)(C) of the 1986 Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), ATSDR has examined the full spectrum of human in utero and postnatal lead toxicity, with emphasis on low-level neurotoxicity and adverse impacts on growth indices in risk populations. Especially important has been assessment of the relative persistence of these effects in later life as discernible from a number of longitudinal studies now under way around the world. Included in the Congressional report were discussions of dose-effect and dose-response relationships using blood lead levels as the indicator of lead dose.

  5. Methamidophos Exposure During the Early Postnatal Period of Mice: Immediate and Late-Emergent Effects on the Cholinergic and Serotonergic Systems and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Abreu-Villaça, Yael

    2013-01-01

    Organophosphates (OPs) are among the most used pesticides. Although some OPs have had their use progressively more restricted, other OPs are being used without sufficient investigation of their effects. Here, we investigated the immediate neurochemical and delayed neurochemical and behavioral actions of the OP methamidophos to verify whether there are concerns regarding exposure during early postnatal development. From the third to the nineth postnatal day (PN), Swiss mice were sc injected with methamidophos (1mg/kg). At PN10, we assessed cholinergic and serotonergic biomarkers in the cerebral cortex and brainstem. From PN60 to PN63, mice were submitted to a battery of behavioral tests and subsequently to biochemical analyses. At PN10, the effects were restricted to females and to the cholinergic system: Methamidophos promoted increased choline transporter binding in the brainstem. At PN63, in the brainstem, there was a decrease in choline transporter, a female-only decrease in 5HT1A and a male-only increase in 5HT2 receptor binding. In the cortex, choline acetyltransferase activity was decreased and 5HT2 receptor binding was increased both in males and females. Methamidophos elicited behavioral alterations, suggestive of increased depressive-like behavior and impaired decision making. There were no significant alterations on anxiety-related measures and on memory/learning. Methamidophos elicited cholinergic and serotonergic alterations that depended on brain region, sex, and age of the animals. These outcomes, together with the behavioral effects, indicate that this OP is deleterious to the developing brain and that alterations are indeed identified long after the end of exposure. PMID:23596261

  6. Developmental exposure to T-2 toxin reversibly affects postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis and reduces neural stem cells and progenitor cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Takeshi; Abe, Hajime; Kimura, Masayuki; Onda, Nobuhiko; Mizukami, Sayaka; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2016-08-01

    To determine the developmental exposure effects of T-2 toxin on postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis, pregnant ICR mice were provided a diet containing T-2 toxin at 0, 1, 3, or 9 ppm from gestation day 6 to day 21 on weaning after delivery. Offspring were maintained through postnatal day (PND) 77 without T-2 toxin exposure. In the hippocampal dentate gyrus of male PND 21 offspring, GFAP(+) and BLBP(+) type-1 stem cells and PAX6(+) and TBR2(+) type-2 progenitor cells decreased in the subgranular zone (SGZ) at 9 and ≥3 ppm, respectively, in parallel with increased apoptosis at ≥3 ppm. In the dentate hilus, reelin(+) γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic interneurons increased at 9 ppm, suggesting reflection of neuronal mismigration. T-2 toxin decreased transcript levels of cholinergic and glutamate receptor subunits (Chrna4, Chrnb2 and Gria2) and glutamate transporter (Slc17a6) in the dentate gyrus, suggesting decreased cholinergic signals on hilar GABAergic interneurons innervating type-2 cells and decreased glutamatergic signals on type-1 and type-2 cells. T-2 toxin decreased SGZ cells expressing stem cell factor (SCF) and increased cells accumulating malondialdehydes. Neurogenesis-related changes disappeared on PND 77, suggesting that T-2 toxin reversibly affects neurogenesis by inducing apoptosis of type-1 and type-2 cells with different threshold levels. Decreased cholinergic and glutamatergic signals may decrease type-2 cells at ≥3 ppm. Additionally, decreased SCF/c-Kit interactions and increased oxidative stress may decrease type-1 and type-2 cells at 9 ppm. The no-observed-adverse-effect level for offspring neurogenesis was determined to be 1 ppm (0.14-0.49 mg/kg body weight/day).

  7. Effects of prenatal exposure to WIFI Signal (2.45GHz) on postnatal development and behavior in rat: Influence of maternal restraint.

    PubMed

    Othman, Haifa; Ammari, Mohamed; Sakly, Mohsen; Abdelmelek, Hafedh

    2017-03-10

    The present study was carried out to investigate the potential combined influence of maternal restraint stress (and 2.45GHz WiFi signal exposure on postnatal development and behavior in the offspring of exposed rats. 24 pregnant albino Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups: Control, WiFi-exposed, restrained and both WiFi-exposed and restrained groups. Each of WiFi exposure and restraint occurred 2h/day along gestation till parturition. The pups were evaluated for physical development and neuromotor maturation. Moreover, elevated plus maze test, open field activity and stationary beam test were also determined on postnatal days 28, 30 and 31, respectively. After behavioral tests, the rats were anesthetized and their brains were removed for biochemical analysis. Our main findings showed no detrimental effects on gestation progress and outcomes at delivery in all groups. Subsequently, WiFi and restraint, per se and mainly in concert altered physical development of pups with slight differences between genders. Behaviorally, the gestational WiFi irradiation, restraint and especially the associated treatment affected the neuromotor maturation mainly in male progeny. At adult age, we noticed anxiety, motor deficit and exploratory behavior impairment in male offspring co-exposed to WiFi radiation and restraint, and in female progeny subjected to three treatments. The biochemical investigation showed that, all three treatments produced global oxidative stress in brain of both sexes. As for serum biochemistry, phosphorus, magnesium, glucose, triglycerides and calcium levels were disrupted. Taken together, prenatal WiFi radiation and restraint, alone and combined, provoked several behavioral and biochemical impairments at both juvenile and adult age of the offspring.

  8. Brain-machine interfacing control of whole-body humanoid motion.

    PubMed

    Bouyarmane, Karim; Vaillant, Joris; Sugimoto, Norikazu; Keith, François; Furukawa, Jun-Ichiro; Morimoto, Jun

    2014-01-01

    We propose to tackle in this paper the problem of controlling whole-body humanoid robot behavior through non-invasive brain-machine interfacing (BMI), motivated by the perspective of mapping human motor control strategies to human-like mechanical avatar. Our solution is based on the adequate reduction of the controllable dimensionality of a high-DOF humanoid motion in line with the state-of-the-art possibilities of non-invasive BMI technologies, leaving the complement subspace part of the motion to be planned and executed by an autonomous humanoid whole-body motion planning and control framework. The results are shown in full physics-based simulation of a 36-degree-of-freedom humanoid motion controlled by a user through EEG-extracted brain signals generated with motor imagery task.

  9. Whole body and tissue blood volumes of two strains of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss )

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, W.H.; Pityer, R.A.; Rach, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    1. Estimates of apparent packed cell, plasma and total blood volumes for the whole body and for 13 selected tissues were compared between Kamloops and Wytheville strains of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by the simultaneous injection of two vascular tracers, radiolabeled trout erythrocytes (51Cr-RBC) and radioiodated bovine serum albumin (125I-BSA). 2. Whole body total blood volume, plasma volume and packed cell volume were slightly, but not significantly greater in the Wytheville trout, whereas, the apparent plasma volumes and total blood volumes in 4 of 13 tissues were significantly greater in the Kamloops strain. 3. Differences were most pronounced in highly perfused organs, such as the liver and kidney and in organs of digestion such as the stomach and intestines. 4. Differences in blood volumes between the two strains may be related to the greater permeability of the vascular membranes in the Kamloops strain fish.

  10. Design, fabrication and acceptance testing of a zero gravity whole body shower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumacher, E. A.; Lenda, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    Recent research and development programs have established the ability of the zero gravity whole body shower to maintain a comfortable environment in which the crewman can safely cleanse and dry the body. The purpose of this program was to further advance the technology of whole body bathing and to demonstrate technological readiness including in-flight maintenance by component replacement for flight applications. Three task efforts of this program are discussed. Conceptual designs and system tradeoffs were accomplished in task 1. Task 2 involved the formulation of preliminary and final designs for the shower, while task 3 included the fabrication and test of the shower assembly. Particular attention is paid to the evaluation and correction of test anomalies during the final phase of the program.

  11. A robust optical respiratory trigger for small rodents in clinical whole-body MR systems.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Karl-Heinz; Wagner, Enrico; Deistung, Andreas; Hilger, Ingrid; Reichenbach, Jürgen R

    2008-06-01

    An increasing number of animal experiments are currently conducted on clinical MR systems. Motion artefacts due to breathing can become quite apparent, in particular with abdominal examinations. These artefacts can be reduced by using a triggered acquisition. However, the built-in detectors in human whole-body scanners are usually not sensitive enough to detect the tiny movements of small rodents. Therefore, a sensitive optical motion detector was developed together with a simple, robust analogue circuit. This circuit converts the original optical signal into an electrical one, compensates slow drifts and offsets, and finally generates a transistor-transistor logic trigger signal as input for the clinical whole-body magnetic resonance scanner. The trigger was successfully applied in mouse experiments.

  12. Brain-machine interfacing control of whole-body humanoid motion

    PubMed Central

    Bouyarmane, Karim; Vaillant, Joris; Sugimoto, Norikazu; Keith, François; Furukawa, Jun-ichiro; Morimoto, Jun

    2014-01-01

    We propose to tackle in this paper the problem of controlling whole-body humanoid robot behavior through non-invasive brain-machine interfacing (BMI), motivated by the perspective of mapping human motor control strategies to human-like mechanical avatar. Our solution is based on the adequate reduction of the controllable dimensionality of a high-DOF humanoid motion in line with the state-of-the-art possibilities of non-invasive BMI technologies, leaving the complement subspace part of the motion to be planned and executed by an autonomous humanoid whole-body motion planning and control framework. The results are shown in full physics-based simulation of a 36-degree-of-freedom humanoid motion controlled by a user through EEG-extracted brain signals generated with motor imagery task. PMID:25140134

  13. Review of the effects of translational whole-body vibration on continuous manual control performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, R. W.; Griffin, M. J.

    1989-08-01

    A review of the literature concerned with experimental studies of the effects of translational whole-body vibration on continuous manual control performance is presented. Results from studies of the effects of vibration variables (vibration frequency, magnitude, axis, random vibration and multi-axis vibration) are compared. Evidence of the influence of control system variables (physical characteristics of the control, control gain, system dynamics and display variables) is also provided. Studies of the effects of vibration duration on manual control performance are reviewed separately. A behavioural model is presented to summarize the mechanisms (including vibration breakthrough, visual impairment, neuro-muscular interference and central effects) by which whole-body vibration may interfere with the performance of continuous manual control tasks. The model emphasizes the adaptive ability of the human operator.

  14. Constructing an un-biased whole body atlas from clinical imaging data by fragment bundling.

    PubMed

    Dorfer, Matthias; Donner, René; Langs, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Atlases have a tremendous impact on the study of anatomy and function, such as in neuroimaging, or cardiac analysis. They provide a means to compare corresponding measurements across populations, or model the variability in a population. Current approaches to construct atlases rely on examples that show the same anatomical structure (e.g., the brain). If we study large heterogeneous clinical populations to capture subtle characteristics of diseases, we cannot assume consistent image acquisition any more. Instead we have to build atlases from imaging data that show only parts of the overall anatomical structure. In this paper we propose a method for the automatic contruction of an un-biased whole body atlas from so-called fragments. Experimental results indicate that the fragment based atlas improves the representation accuracy of the atlas over an initial whole body template initialization.

  15. Effects of Short-Period Whole-Body Vibration of 20 Hz on Selected Blood Biomarkers in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Milena de Oliveira Bravo; de Sá-Caputo, Danúbia da Cunha; Carmo, Fernanda Santos do; Bernardo, Raquel Mattos; Pacheco, Raphaelle; Arnóbio, Adriano; Guimarães, Carlos Alberto Sampaio; Bernardo, Luciana Camargo; Santos-Filho, Sebastião David; Asad, Nasser Ribeiro; Unger, Marianne; Marin, Pedro Jesus; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2015-08-31

    There is a growing interest in the use of vibration generated by oscillating/vibratory platforms - also known as whole-body vibration (WBV) - for achieving therapeutic, preventative and/or physical performance goals. This study investigated the effects of vibration generated by an oscillating platform on the concentration of blood biomarkers in rats. Wistar rats (n = 8) were divided in 2 groups, sedated and individually positioned on an oscillating platform. The experimental group (EG) was subjected to vibrations of 20 Hz for one min per day for one week while the control group (CG) experienced no vibration. Samples of heparinized whole blood were drawn by cardiac puncture for biochemical analysis. Concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, VLDL, glucose, CK, albumin, alkaline phosphates, TGP, TGO, γGT, lipase, amylase, urea and creatinine were determined. White blood cell count and a platelet hemogram were also performed. Following seven sessions of exposure to the vibration, a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in γGT, VLDL and leukocytes was found. A weekly 1-min/day exposure of 20 Hz vibration can was shown to alter the concentrations of selected blood biomarkers in rats. The action mechanism associated with these effects seems highly complex, but the findings might contribute to the understanding of these mechanisms related to the exposure to 20 Hz vibration.

  16. The dissection room experience: A factor in the choice of organ and whole body donation--a Nigerian survey.

    PubMed

    Anyanwu, Emeka G; Obikili, Emmanuel N; Agu, Augustine U

    2014-01-01

    The psychosocial impact of human dissection on the lives of medical and health science students has been noted. To assess the impact of the dissection room experience on one's willingness to become a whole body and organ donor, the attitudes of 1,350 students and professionals from the medical, health, and non-health related disciplines to body and organ donation were studied. The participants were broken into categories according to degree of exposure to human dissection. Participants who were never exposed to the dissection experience showed more willingness to donate their bodies than those who were exposed. With the exception of the physiotherapy department, the students and professionals from the health science departments who were exposed to the dissection room but never engaged in dissection showed the most unwillingness to donate their bodies (P < 0.001). An unwillingness to donate oneself was noted as one of the negative impacts associated with exposure to the dissection room. Willingness to donate an organ correlated positively with the level of exposure to the dissection room (P < 0.001). Most of the reasons for unwillingness were traceable to negative perceptions of the dissection room as a result of poor and disrespectful management of the human cadavers.

  17. Postnatal exposure to flutamide affects CDH1 and CTNNB1 gene expression in adult pig epididymis and prostate and alters metabolism of testosterone.

    PubMed

    Gorowska, E; Zarzycka, M; Chojnacka, K; Bilinska, B; Hejmej, A

    2014-03-01

    In both epididymis and prostate the dynamic cross-talk between the cells is hormonally regulated and, in part, through direct cell-to-cell interactions. Functionality of the male reproductive organs may be affected by exposure to specific chemicals, so-called 'reprotoxicants'. In this study we tested whether early postnatal and prepubertal exposure to anti-androgen flutamide altered the expression of adherens junction genes encoding E-cadherin (CDH1) and β-catenin (CTNNB1) in adult pig epididymis and prostate. In addition, the expression of mRNAs and proteins for 5α-reductase (ST5AR2) and aromatase (CYP19A1) were examined to show whether flutamide alters metabolism of testosterone. Thus, flutamide was injected into male piglets between Days 2 and 10 and between Days 90 and 98 postnatally (PD2 and PD90; 50 mg/kg bw), tissues that were obtained on postnatal Day 270. To assess the expression of the genes and proteins, real-time RT-PCR and Western blot were performed respectively. Moreover, adherens junction proteins were localized by immunohistochemistry. In response to flutamide, CDH1 and CTNNB1 expressions were down-regulated along the epididymis, mostly in PD2 group (p < 0.001, p < 0.01). In the prostate, CDH1 mRNA and protein expressions were significantly down-regulated (p < 0.01), whereas CTNNB1 mRNA was slightly up-regulated in both flutamide-treated groups. CTNNB1 protein level was markedly elevated in both PD2 (p < 0.001) and PD90 (p < 0.01) groups. In the epididymis, the expression of ST5AR2 and CYP19A1 was down- and up-regulated, respectively (p < 0.05), whereas in the prostate evident decrease in CYP19A1 expression (p < 0.001, p < 0.01, p < 0.05) was demonstrated. In both tissues, membranous immunolocalization of CTNNB1 suggests its involvement in cell-cell adhesion. Overall, flutamide administration resulted in suppression of androgen action in the epididymis and prostate leading to deregulation of CDH1 and CTNNB1 gene expressions which is probably

  18. Efficiency correction factors of an ACCUSCAN whole-body counter due to the biodistribution of 134Cs, 137Cs and 60Co.

    PubMed

    Bento, J; Barros, S; Teles, P; Vaz, P; Zankl, M

    2013-06-01

    The efficiency calibration of whole-body counters (WBCs) for monitoring of internal contaminations is usually performed with anthropomorphic physical phantoms assuming homogeneous activity distribution. Besides the inherent limitations of these phantoms in resembling the human anatomy, they do not represent a realistic activity distribution, since in real situations each incorporated radionuclide has its particular biodistribution after entering the systemic circulation. Moreover, the activity content in the different organs and tissues comprising the biokinetics is time dependent. This work aims at assessing the whole-body counting efficiency deviations arising from considering a detailed voxel phantom instead of a standard physical phantom (BOMAB) and at evaluating the effect of the anatomical differences between both phantoms. It also aims at studying the efficiency considering the biodistribution of a set of radionuclides of interest incorporated in the scope of environmental and occupational exposures (inhalation and ingestion) and at computing the time-dependent efficiency correction factors to account for the biodistribution variation over time. For the purpose, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were performed to simulate the whole-body counting efficiencies and biokinetic models were used to estimate the radionuclides' biokinetic behaviour in the human body after intake. The comparison between the efficiencies obtained with BOMAB and the voxel phantom showed deviations between 1.8 and 11.7 %, proving the adequacy of the BOMAB for WBC calibration. The obtained correction factors show that the effect of the biodistribution in the whole-body counting efficiency is more pronounced in cases of acute activity uptake and long-term retention in certain organs than in cases of homogeneous distribution in body tissues, for which the biokinetics influence can be neglected. This work further proves the powerful combination of MC simulation methods using voxel phantoms and

  19. Subjective evaluation of the effectiveness of whole-body cryotherapy in patients with osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives One of the treatments for osteoarthritis (OA) is whole-body cryotherapy (WBC). The aim of this study is to assess the effect of whole-body cryotherapy on the clinical status of patients with osteoarthritis (OA), according to their subjective feelings before and after the application of a 10-day cold treatment cycle. The aim is also to assess the reduction of intensity and frequency of pain, the reduction of the painkiller medication used, and to assess the possible impact on physical activity. Material and methods The study involved 50 people, including 30 women (60%) and 20 men (40%). Thirty-one patients had spondyloarthritis (62% of respondents), 10 had knee osteoarthritis (20%), and 9 hip osteoarthritis (18%). The overall average age was 50.1 ±10.9 years; the youngest patient was 29 years old and the oldest 73 years old. The average age of the women was 6 years higher. The study used a questionnaire completed by patients, and consisted of three basic parts. The modified Laitinen pain questionnaire contained questions concerning the intensity and frequency of pain, frequency of painkiller use and the degree of limited mobility. The visual analogue scale (VAS) was used in order to subjectively evaluate the therapy after applying the ten-day treatment cycle. Results According to the subjective assessment of respondents, after the whole-body cryotherapy treatments, a significant improvement occurred in 39 patients (78%), an improvement in 9 patients (18%), and no improvement was only declared by 2 patients (4%). Conclusions Whole-body cryotherapy resulted in a reduction in the frequency and degree of pain perception in patients with osteoarthritis. WBC reduced the number of analgesic medications in these patients. It improved the range of physical activity and had a positive effect on the well-being of patients. PMID:28115779

  20. Command Recognition of Robot with Low Dimension Whole-Body Haptic Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Tatsuya; Tsuji, Toshiaki

    The authors have developed “haptic armor”, a whole-body haptic sensor that has an ability to estimate contact position. Although it is developed for safety assurance of robots in human environment, it can also be used as an interface. This paper proposes a command recognition method based on finger trace information. This paper also discusses some technical issues for improving recognition accuracy of this system.

  1. Mathematical model for glucose regulation in the whole-body system.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyuk; Han, Kyungreem; Choi, MooYoung

    2012-01-01

    The human body needs continuous and stable glucose supply for maintaining its biological functions. Stable glucose supply comes from the homeostatic regulation of the blood glucose level, which is controlled by various glucose consuming or producing organs. Therefore, it is important to understand the whole-body glucose regulation mechanism. In this article, we describe various mathematical models proposed for glucose regulation in the human body, and discuss the difficulty and limitation in reproducing real processes of glucose regulation.

  2. Stability of Phase Relationships While Coordinating Arm Reaches with Whole Body Motion.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Romy S; Selen, Luc P J; Medendorp, W Pieter

    2015-01-01

    The human movement repertoire is characterized by the smooth coordination of several body parts, including arm movements and whole body motion. The neural control of this coordination is quite complex because the various body parts have their own kinematic and dynamic properties. Behavioral inferences about the neural solution to the coordination problem could be obtained by examining the emerging phase relationship and its stability. Here, we studied the phase relationships that characterize the coordination of arm-reaching movements with passively-induced whole-body motion. Participants were laterally translated using a vestibular chair that oscillated at a fixed frequency of 0.83 Hz. They were instructed to reach between two targets that were aligned either parallel or orthogonal to the whole body motion. During the first cycles of body motion, a metronome entrained either an in-phase or an anti-phase relationship between hand and body motion, which was released at later cycles to test phase stability. Results suggest that inertial forces play an important role when coordinating reaches with cyclic whole-body motion. For parallel reaches, we found a stable in-phase and an unstable anti-phase relationship. When the latter was imposed, it readily transitioned or drifted back toward an in-phase relationship at cycles without metronomic entrainment. For orthogonal reaches, we did not find a clear difference in stability between in-phase and anti-phase relationships. Computer simulations further show that cost models that minimize energy expenditure (i.e. net torques) or endpoint variance of the reach cannot fully explain the observed coordination patterns. We discuss how predictive control and impedance control processes could be considered important mechanisms underlying the rhythmic coordination of arm reaches and body motion.

  3. Stability of Phase Relationships While Coordinating Arm Reaches with Whole Body Motion

    PubMed Central

    Bakker, Romy S.; Selen, Luc P. J.; Medendorp, W. Pieter

    2015-01-01

    The human movement repertoire is characterized by the smooth coordination of several body parts, including arm movements and whole body motion. The neural control of this coordination is quite complex because the various body parts have their own kinematic and dynamic properties. Behavioral inferences about the neural solution to the coordination problem could be obtained by examining the emerging phase relationship and its stability. Here, we studied the phase relationships that characterize the coordination of arm-reaching movements with passively-induced whole-body motion. Participants were laterally translated using a vestibular chair that oscillated at a fixed frequency of 0.83 Hz. They were instructed to reach between two targets that were aligned either parallel or orthogonal to the whole body motion. During the first cycles of body motion, a metronome entrained either an in-phase or an anti-phase relationship between hand and body motion, which was released at later cycles to test phase stability. Results suggest that inertial forces play an important role when coordinating reaches with cyclic whole-body motion. For parallel reaches, we found a stable in-phase and an unstable anti-phase relationship. When the latter was imposed, it readily transitioned or drifted back toward an in-phase relationship at cycles without metronomic entrainment. For orthogonal reaches, we did not find a clear difference in stability between in-phase and anti-phase relationships. Computer simulations further show that cost models that minimize energy expenditure (i.e. net torques) or endpoint variance of the reach cannot fully explain the observed coordination patterns. We discuss how predictive control and impedance control processes could be considered important mechanisms underlying the rhythmic coordination of arm reaches and body motion. PMID:26720413

  4. MONICA: a compact, portable dual gamma camera system for mouse whole-body imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Xi, Wenze; Seidel, Jurgen; Kakareka, John W.; Pohida, Thomas J.; Milenic, Diane E.; Proffitt, James; Majewski, Stan; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Green, Michael V.; Choyke, Peter L.

    2010-04-01

    Introduction We describe a compact, portable dual-gamma camera system (named "MONICA" for MObile Nuclear Imaging CAmeras) for visualizing and analyzing the whole-body biodistribution of putative diagnostic and therapeutic single photon emitting radiotracers in animals the size of mice. Methods Two identical, miniature pixelated NaI(Tl) gamma cameras were fabricated and installed ?looking up? through the tabletop of a compact portable cart. Mice are placed directly on the tabletop for imaging. Camera imaging performance was evaluated with phantoms and field performance was evaluated in a weeklong In-111 imaging study performed in a mouse tumor xenograft model. Results Tc-99m performance measurements, using a photopeak energy window of 140 keV?10%, yielded the following results: spatial resolution (FWHM at 1 cm), 2.2 mm; sensitivity, 149 cps (counts per seconds)/MBq (5.5 cps/μCi); energy resolution (FWHM, full width at half maximum), 10.8%; count rate linearity (count rate vs. activity), r2=0.99 for 0?185 MBq (0?5 mCi) in the field of view (FOV); spatial uniformity, <3% count rate variation across the FOV. Tumor and whole-body distributions of the In-111 agent were well visualized in all animals in 5-min images acquired throughout the 168-h study period. Conclusion Performance measurements indicate that MONICA is well suited to whole-body single photon mouse imaging. The field study suggests that inter-device communications and user-oriented interfaces included in the MONI