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Sample records for postoperative chylothorax successfully

  1. [Management of postoperative chylothorax].

    PubMed

    Smati, B; Sadok Boudaya, M; Marghli, A; Mestiri, T; Baccari, S; Hantous, T; Djilani, H; Kilani, T

    2006-04-01

    A chylothorax can occur following any intrathoracic procedure. It is generally straightforward to make the diagnosis but optimal management can be problematic. Between 1995 and 2002, three women and one man aged from 13 to 58 years were treated for chylothorax after thoracic surgery. Their initial illnesses were a right pulmonary hydatid cyst associated with hepatic disease, a tumour of the posterior mediastinum, an oesophageal carcinoma and metastases in the left lung. These patients had: a pulmonary and hepatic cystectomies, a resection of the mediastinal tumor, an Akyama oesophagectomy and a resection of four left pulmonary metastases. Chylothorax became apparent post operatively between the 1st and the 4th day. All patients were treated with a medium-chain triglyceride diet. Two patients were re-explored with ligation of lymphatic vessels. One woman who did not have further surgery was treated with etilefrine. In the patient who had had an oesophagectomy, chylothorax persisted after re-operation. He was successfully treated by talc pleurodesis via a chest drain, which prevented further recurrence. In the management of postoperative chylothorax, medical treatment must be started early but surgery should not be delayed as operative risk is increased by the development of malnutrition and immune deficiency.

  2. Successful management of postoperative chylothorax with fibrin glue in a premature neonate.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, D; Tchervenkov, C I

    1994-04-01

    Chylothorax is a potentially serious condition that may complicate a variety of thoracic operations, particularly cardiothoracic procedures for congenital heart disease. Conservative therapy with chest tube drainage of the chyle fluid and dietary manipulations is frequently effective. When conservative treatment fails, surgery may be necessary. In this report, the authors discuss their recent experience with fibrin glue in the management of a 600-g premature neonate who had a postoperative chylothorax. Recent trends in the management of this difficult problem are also discussed.

  3. Radiotherapy in the treatment of postoperative chylothorax

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chylothorax is characterized by the presence of chyle in the pleural cavity. The healing rate of non-operative treatment varies enormously; the maximum success rate in series is 70%. We investigate the efficacy and outcomes of radiotherapy for postoperative chylothorax. Methods Chylothorax was identified based on the quantity and quality of the drainage fluid. Radiation was indicated if the daily chyle flow exceeded 450 ml after complete cessation of oral intake. Radiotherapy consisted of opposed isocentric portals to the mediastinum using 15 MV photon beams from a linear accelerator, a single dose of 1–1.5 Gy, and a maximum of five fractions per week. The radiation target area was the anatomical region between TH3 and TH10 depending on the localization of the resected lobe. The mean doses of the ionizing energy was 8.5 Gy ± 3.5 Gy. Results The median start date of the radiation was the fourth day after chylothorax diagnosis. The patients’ mediastinum was radiated an average of six times. Radiotherapy, in combination with dietary restrictions, was successful in all patients. The median time between the end of the radiation and the removal of the chest tube was one day. One patient underwent wound healing by secondary intention. The median time between the end of radiation and discharge was three days, and the overall hospital stay between the chylothorax diagnosis and discharge was 18 days (range: 11–30 days). After a follow-up of six months, no patient experienced chylothorax recurrence. Conclusions Our results suggest that radiotherapy in combination with dietary restriction in the treatment of postoperative chylothorax is very safe, rapid and successful. This novel interventional procedure can obviate repeat major thoracic surgery and shorten hospital stays and could be the first choice in the treatment of postthoracotomy chylothorax. PMID:23566741

  4. Postoperative chylothorax: a case for recycling?

    PubMed

    Thomson, I A; Simms, M H

    1993-08-01

    Postoperative chylothorax in a patient who was rapidly deteriorating despite conservative treatment is described. A system of recycling chyle from the pleural space through a filter and pump into the subclavian vein is discussed. The history of reinfusion of chyle is reviewed.

  5. Staphylococcal Scalded-Skin Syndrome Complicating Wound Infection in a Preterm Infant with Postoperative Chylothorax

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Bjoern; Hentschel, Juliane; Mau, Harald; Halle, Elke; Witte, Wolfgang; Obladen, Michael

    1998-01-01

    The course of infection in a 3-week-old premature newborn suffering from extensive dermatitis with flaccid blisters is described. Staphylococcus aureus was recovered from a local wound infection around a chest tube inserted to drain a postoperative chylothorax. The strain isolated tested positive for the eta gene for exfoliative toxin A, the causative agent of staphylococcal scalded-skin syndrome (SSSS). In this case, prematurity and loss of chylus with consecutive lymphopenia may have contributed to development of SSSS. PMID:9738069

  6. [Fetal chylothorax].

    PubMed

    Westergaard, M; Brocks, V; Eriksen, B O; Kvist, N E

    1992-02-24

    Foetal chylothorax was diagnosed in female foetus by ultrasound scanning on account of suspected twin pregnancy at the 34th week. No other signs of hydrops foetalis were found. The chylothorax reformed rapidly following intrauterine thoracocentesis which was therefore repeated immediately before Cesarean section at the 38th week in order to facilitate the perinatal cardiopulmonary adjustment. Pulmonary maturation was found to be normal. Postnatally, marked chylous effusion in the pleural cavity continued. Conservative treatment with pleural drainage and total parenteral nutrition was attempted initially. On account of the absence of response and supervening infection, it was decided to operate after the elapse of three weeks. Pleural decortication was performed with good result.

  7. Computed Tomography-Guided Access to the Cisterna Chyli: Introduction of a Technique for Direct Lymphangiography to Evaluate and Treat Chylothorax

    SciTech Connect

    Schoellnast, Helmut; Maybody, Majid; Getrajdman, George I.; Bains, Manjit S.; Finley, David J.; Solomon, Stephen B.

    2011-02-15

    The purpose of this report is to introduce a technique of direct lymphangiography to enable chylothorax treatment. Using a hybrid computed tomography (CT) and fluoroscopy imaging system, a 21-gauge needle was placed under CT guidance into the cisterna chyli to allow contrast lymphangiography and CT lymphangiography in two patients with presumed postoperative chylothorax. Water-soluble contrast media injection demonstrated the thoracic duct anatomy in both patients. Further successful needle disruption of the cisterna chyli was performed in one patient to interrupt lymph flow and stop the chylous leak, with subsequent resolution of the chylothorax.

  8. THE MANAGEMENT OF CHYLOTHORAX

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, John E.; Smith, John W.

    1959-01-01

    Chylothorax is readily diagnosed from the characteristic qualities of the effusion. Treatment should initially be conservative, consisting of multiple aspirations followed, if necessary, by suction drainage. Approximately half of the patients will not respond to these measures, and direct ligation and division of the duct is necessary for cure. This operation is most readily carried out through the right chest, the thoracic duct being ligated just above the diaphragm. In cases in which the duct is surrounded by tumor, radiotherapy to the mediastinum is often successful in controlling the reaccumulation of chyle, but irradiation is generally not recommended until after a tissue diagnosis has been made by thoracotomy. Nutritional problems are often concomitants of chylothorax. ImagesFigure 1 (Case 1).Figure 2 (Case 1).Figure 3 (Case 2).Figure 4 (Case 2).Figure 5 (Case 3).Figure 6 (Case 3). PMID:13671361

  9. The management of chylothorax.

    PubMed

    CONNOLLY, J E; SMITH, J W

    1959-08-01

    Chylothorax is readily diagnosed from the characteristic qualities of the effusion. Treatment should initially be conservative, consisting of multiple aspirations followed, if necessary, by suction drainage. Approximately half of the patients will not respond to these measures, and direct ligation and division of the duct is necessary for cure. This operation is most readily carried out through the right chest, the thoracic duct being ligated just above the diaphragm. In cases in which the duct is surrounded by tumor, radiotherapy to the mediastinum is often successful in controlling the reaccumulation of chyle, but irradiation is generally not recommended until after a tissue diagnosis has been made by thoracotomy. Nutritional problems are often concomitants of chylothorax.

  10. Treatment of chylothorax developed after congenital heart disease surgery: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bulut, Ozgul; Gul, Doruk; Sevuk, Sibel; Mungan, Ilke; Buyukkayhan, Derya

    2015-01-01

    Chylothorax is defined as the accumulation of lymphatic fluid or chyle in the pleural space. Chylothorax treatment is composed of conservative; pleural drainage, termination of enteral feeding, total parenteral nutrition and supplementation with medium- chain triglycerides and surgical therapies; ductus thoracicus ligation, pleuroperitoneal shunts or pleuredesis. Nowadays, for cases among which conservative therapies fail, treatment with octreotide has been reported to be beneficial with promising results. A neonate who developed chylothorax after surgery performed for congenital heart disease was treated successfully with octreotide.

  11. Impact of chylothorax on the early post operative outcome after pediatric cardiovascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Sameh R; Kabbani, Mohamed S; Najm, Hani K; Shaath, Ghassan A; Jijeh, Abdulraouf M Z; Hijazi, Omar M

    2014-04-01

    Chylothorax is the accumulation of chyle in the pleural cavity, which usually develops after disruption of the thoracic duct along its intra-thoracic route. In the majority of cases, this rupture is secondary to trauma (including cardio thoracic surgeries). Chylothorax is a potentially serious complication after cardiovascular surgeries that require early diagnosis and adequate management. This study aims to determine the risk factors and the impact of chylothorax on the early postoperative course after pediatric cardiac surgery. A retrospective study of all cases complicated with chylothorax after pediatric cardiac surgery was conducted at King Abdulaziz Cardiac Center between January 2007 and December 2009. There were 1135 cases operated on during the study period. Of these, 57 cases (5%) were complicated by chylothorax in the postoperative period. Thirty patients (54%) were males, while 27 (47%) were females. Ages ranged from 4 to 2759 days. The most common surgeries complicated by chylothorax were the single ventricle repair surgeries (15 cases, 27%); arch repairs (10 cases, 18%); ventricular septal defect repairs (10 cases, 18%); atrioventricular septal defect repairs (7 cases, 12%); arterial switch repair (6 cases, 11%), and others (8 cases, 14%). The intensive care unit (ICU) and the length of hospital stays were significantly longer in the chylothorax group. Additionally, some early postoperative parameters such as incidence of sepsis, ventilation time, and inotropes duration and number were higher in the chylothorax group. Chylothorax after pediatric cardiac surgery is not a rare complication. It occurs more commonly with single ventricle repair and aortic arch repair surgeries, and has a significant impact on the postoperative course and post operative morbidity.

  12. Impact of chylothorax on the early post operative outcome after pediatric cardiovascular surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Sameh R.; Kabbani, Mohamed S.; Najm, Hani K.; Shaath, Ghassan A.; Jijeh, Abdulraouf M.Z.; Hijazi, Omar M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aim Chylothorax is the accumulation of chyle in the pleural cavity, which usually develops after disruption of the thoracic duct along its intra-thoracic route. In the majority of cases, this rupture is secondary to trauma (including cardio thoracic surgeries). Chylothorax is a potentially serious complication after cardiovascular surgeries that require early diagnosis and adequate management. This study aims to determine the risk factors and the impact of chylothorax on the early postoperative course after pediatric cardiac surgery. Methods A retrospective study of all cases complicated with chylothorax after pediatric cardiac surgery was conducted at King Abdulaziz Cardiac Center between January 2007 and December 2009. Results There were 1135 cases operated on during the study period. Of these, 57 cases (5%) were complicated by chylothorax in the postoperative period. Thirty patients (54%) were males, while 27 (47%) were females. Ages ranged from 4 to 2759 days. The most common surgeries complicated by chylothorax were the single ventricle repair surgeries (15 cases, 27%); arch repairs (10 cases, 18%); ventricular septal defect repairs (10 cases, 18%); atrioventricular septal defect repairs (7 cases, 12%); arterial switch repair (6 cases, 11%), and others (8 cases, 14%). The intensive care unit (ICU) and the length of hospital stays were significantly longer in the chylothorax group. Additionally, some early postoperative parameters such as incidence of sepsis, ventilation time, and inotropes duration and number were higher in the chylothorax group. Conclusion Chylothorax after pediatric cardiac surgery is not a rare complication. It occurs more commonly with single ventricle repair and aortic arch repair surgeries, and has a significant impact on the postoperative course and post operative morbidity. PMID:24719538

  13. CHYLOTHORAX IN PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS

    PubMed Central

    FERNANDES, Flávia Fonseca; ALVES, Victor Oliveira; SÁNCHEZ, Tarquino Erastides Gavilanes; de PAULA, Wagner Diniz; SANTANA, Alfredo Nicodemos Cruz

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY A previously healthy, 52-year-old woman presented with a nine months history of low fever and weight loss (> 30 kg). Physical examination disclosed generalized lymphadenopathy, skin lesions, abdominal distension, mild tachypnea and a left breast mass. Laboratory tests showed anemia; (prerenal) kidney injury, low serum albumin level; and negative serology for HIV and viral hepatitis. Computed tomography (neck/chest/abdomen) showed generalized lymph node enlargement, splenomegaly, pleural effusion and ascites. We performed thoracocentesis and paracentesis, and the findings were consistent with chylothorax and chylous ascites (with no neoplastic cells). Biopsies of the breast mass, skin and lymph nodes were performed and all of them showed large round yeast cells with multiple narrow-based budding daughter cells, characteristic of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Consequently, paracoccidioidomycosis was diagnosed, and liposomal amphotericin B was prescribed, as well as a high protein and low fat diet (supplemented with medium chain triglycerides). Even so, her clinical status worsened, requiring renal replacement therapy. She evolved with pneumonia, septic shock and respiratory failure and subsequently died. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a case with chylothorax and breast mass due to paracoccidioidomycosis. Additionally, we discuss: 1- the importance of the inclusion of this mycosis in the differential diagnosis of chylothorax and breast mass (breast cancer), especially in endemic areas; and 2- the possible mechanism involved in the development of chylous effusions. PMID:27410917

  14. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in refractory chylothorax due to liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Philipp; Strunk, Holger; Schild, Hans Heinz; Sauerbruch, Tilman

    2013-02-21

    A pleural effusion containing chylomicrons is termed chylothorax and results from leakage of lymph fluid into the pleural cavity. We report on the case of a 59-year-old woman with severe dyspnea due to a large chylothorax. She was known to have liver cirrhosis but no ascites. There was no history of trauma, cardiac function was normal and thorough diagnostic work-up did not reveal any signs of malignancy. In summary, no other etiology of the chylothorax than portal hypertension could be found. Therapy with diuretics as well as parenteral feeding failed to relieve symptoms. After a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) had successfully been placed, pleural effusion decreased considerably. Eight months later, TIPS revision had to be performed because of stenosis, resulting in remission from chylothorax. This case shows that even in the absence of ascites, chylothorax might be caused by portal hypertension and that TIPS can be an effective treatment option.

  15. Late-onset chylothorax after blunt chest trauma at an interval of 20 years: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Kamiyoshihara, Mitsuhiro; Ibe, Takashi; Kakegawa, Seiichi; Sato, Koji; Takise, Atsushi; Takeyoshi, Izumi

    2008-01-01

    We herein report an extremely rare case of a patient chylothorax at an interval of 20 years after thoracic vertebrae fractures, who underwent a successful thoracoscopic thoracic duct ligation and pleurodesis. A 51-year-old man was referred to our hospital with shortness of breath on effort about 1 month after participating in archery. Twenty years previously, he was involved in a traffic accident. At that time, the patient sustained trauma to the spine and suffered a spinal injury, thus resulting in paralysis in the lower part of his body. A chest roentgenogram and computed tomogram revealed a large amount of bilateral pleural effusion. After thoracentesis was performed, a diagnosis of chylothorax was made and the patient was hospitalized. Conservative management by a low-fat diet proved to be unsuccessful. The patient did not request pleurodesis, because pleural adhesions might impair pulmonary function. As a result, we decided to perform surgery. On the right side, we performed video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery by clipping the thoracic duct and applying an absorbable sealing material. Thereafter, pleurodesis was performed and OK-432 was instilled. Thereafter, the pleural fluid flow was almost completely stopped. On the left side, pleurodesis was effective. The patient has since remained symptom free and has been followed up on an outpatient basis for 9 months after the 100th postoperative day. We assumed that the chylothorax in this case was related to the earlier traffic accident.

  16. [Chylothorax--a rare complication of surgical ligation of patent ductus arteriosus in a premature infant-a case report].

    PubMed

    Stempniewicz, Krzysztof; Walas, Wojciech

    2007-01-01

    A case of left sided chylothorax in preterm infant is reported. The chylothorax was a complication of ligation of patent ductus arteriosus. Treatment consisted of parenteral nutrition, pleural taps, drainage of pleural cavity, mechanical ventilation and replacement of immunoprotein losses. When the lymph effusion reduced, enteral nutrition was started with a formula containing medium chain triglycerides. Treatment of this patient was successful.

  17. Midodrine: a novel therapeutic for refractory chylothorax.

    PubMed

    Liou, Douglas Z; Warren, Heather; Maher, Dermot P; Soukiasian, Harmik J; Melo, Nicolas; Salim, Ali; Ley, Eric J

    2013-09-01

    Thoracic duct injury is a rare but serious complication following surgery of the neck or chest that leads to uncontrolled chyle leak. Conventional management includes drainage, nutritional modification, or aggressive surgical interventions such as thoracic duct ligation, flap coverage, fibrin glue, or talc pleurodesis; few successful medical therapeutics are available. We report a case of a high-output chylothorax refractory to aggressive medical and surgical interventions. Chyle output decreased substantially after initiating midodrine, an α1-adrenergic agonist that causes vasoconstriction of the lymph system, reducing chyle flow. This case report suggests that midodrine may be a novel therapeutic for refractory chyle leaks.

  18. Treatment of chylothorax developed after congenital heart disease surgery: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Bulut, Ozgul; Gul, Doruk; Sevuk, Sibel; Mungan, Ilke; Buyukkayhan, Derya

    2015-01-01

    Chylothorax is defined as the accumulation of lymphatic fluid or chyle in the pleural space. Chylothorax treatment is composed of conservative; pleural drainage, termination of enteral feeding, total parenteral nutrition and supplementation with medium- chain triglycerides and surgical therapies; ductus thoracicus ligation, pleuroperitoneal shunts or pleuredesis. Nowadays, for cases among which conservative therapies fail, treatment with octreotide has been reported to be beneficial with promising results. A neonate who developed chylothorax after surgery performed for congenital heart disease was treated successfully with octreotide. PMID:28058372

  19. Chylothorax due to tuberculosis lymphadenitis

    PubMed Central

    Kutlu, Orkide; Demirbas, Soner; Sakin, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Chylothorax is a rare clinical condition characterized by high triglyceride and low cholesterol levels in milky pleural aspirate. Generally, it occurs through leakage of chyle as result of trauma or malignancy. Chylothorax due to tuberculous lymphadenitis is very rare clinical condition that has only been documented in a few cases. Although precise pathogenesis is not known, enlarged mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes are thought to be associated with opening of collateral anastomosis between thoracic duct and the azygos and intercostal veins by creating pressure on thoracic duct and cisterna chyli. Presently described is case of chylothorax thought to be due to compression from mediastinal tuberculous lymphadenitis, and which had complete remission after antituberculosis treatment. PMID:28275756

  20. VATS therapy of chylothorax caused by leiomyomatosis complicated with tuberous sclerosis complex

    PubMed Central

    Csiszkó, Adrienn; Herr, György; Sz. Kiss, Sándor; Hallay, Judit; Gyöngyösi, Zoltán; Szentkereszty, Zsolt

    2013-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis with tuberous sclerosis complex is a rare disease. One of the most frequent complications of lymphangioleiomyomatosis is pleural effusion (chylothorax) wich can be treated with the use of VATS. Authors report a case of pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis in a 56-year-old female patient with tuberous sclerosis complex with an 8-week history of recurrent chylothorax, dyspnea and debilitating weakness. By CT scan a flat tissue proliferation was seen in the site of the thoracic duct and it was supposed to be the reason for the pleural effusion. A VATS resection of this laesion and ligation of the thoracic duct was performed successfully. Chylothorax is often associated with pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis combined with tuberous sclerosis complex is extremely rare. In case of chylothorax VATS treatment is successful and may be the first choice. PMID:23741116

  1. Chylothorax and pseudochylothorax.

    PubMed

    Hillerdal, G

    1997-05-01

    Chylothorax is the occurrence of chylus (lymph) in the pleura due to damage to the thoracic duct. There is a high content of triglycerides, and chylomicrons can be seen. It is usually right-sided, since most of the duct is within the right hemithorax. With damage at the level of the aorta, the chyle will appear on the left. Traumatic rupture occurs after accidents or surgery. Of nontraumatic causes, the most common is a malignant lymphoma. Computed tomography (CT) scan of the thorax and upper abdomen should be performed. Lymphography can show where the leakage or blockage is situated. With repeated drains, large amounts of fat, proteins, and lymphocytes are lost. Treatment is with low-fat diet or parenteral nutrition to decrease the amount of chyle, but chemical pleurodesis or ligation of the thoracic duct, usually via thoracoscopy, is often necessary. Pseudochylothorax (cholesterol pleurisy) occurs with long-standing fluid in a fibrotic pleura. The fluid has a high content of cholesterol but no triglycerides or chylomicrons. In both conditions, the pleural fluid is thick, opalescent, whitish or the colour of cafe-au-lait.

  2. Coughing may lead to spontaneous chylothorax and chylous ascites.

    PubMed

    Adas, Gokhan; Karatepe, Oguzhan; Battal, Muharrem; Dogan, Yasar; Karyagar, Savas; Kutlu, Asim

    2007-12-31

    Chylous ascites is a rare form of ascites resulting from the accumulation of lymph in the abdominal cavity. It is due to an interruption in the lymphatic system. Surgical management is indicated in cases of recurrence or failure after conservative treatment. We report a case of spontaneous chylous peritonitis after chylothorax, which is a rare clinical event. The primary reason was unclear and the outcome of medical and surgical treatment was successful.

  3. Role of Interventional Radiology in the Management of Chylothorax: A Review of the Current Management of High Output Chylothorax

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, Stuart Mott, Nigel Koukounaras, Jim; Shoobridge, Jen; Hudson, Patricio Vargas

    2013-06-15

    Chylothorax is an uncommon type of pleural effusion whose etiology may be classified as traumatic or nontraumatic. Low-output chylothoraces usually respond well to conservative management, whereas high-output chylothoraces are more likely to require surgical or interventional treatment. Conservative management focuses on alleviation of symptoms, replacement of fluid and nutrient losses, and reduction of chyle output to facilitate spontaneous healing. Surgical management can be technically difficult due to the high incidence of variant anatomy and the high-risk patient population. Percutaneous treatments have rapidly developed and evolved during the past 14 years to represent a minimally invasive treatment compared with the more invasive nature of surgery. Percutaneous therapies provide a range of treatment options despite difficult or variant anatomy, with a reported high success rate coupled with low morbidity and mortality. This article is a review of etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of chylothorax, with a focus on interventional management techniques.

  4. Bilateral traumatic chylothorax treated by thoracic duct embolization: a rare treatment for an uncommon problem.

    PubMed

    Kurklinsky, Andrew K; McEachen, James C; Friese, Jeremy L

    2011-08-01

    Prolonged chylothorax is a rare, life-threatening, pleural effusion that may be encountered in the setting of trauma. Conservative treatment may be successful and is the traditional approach in cases of limited chyle output. Early surgical intervention is required in cases with large refractory chyle output, but may be associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Percutaneous thoracic duct embolization is an uncommon, minimally invasive, safe and effective treatment alternative. We report a case of successful thoracic duct embolization to treat large-volume chylothorax due to blunt trauma.

  5. Thoracic duct lymphography by subcutaneous contrast agent injection in a dog with chylothorax

    PubMed Central

    Iwanaga, T.; Tokunaga, S.; Momoi, Y.

    2016-01-01

    A 4-year-old male Japanese Shiba Inu presented with recurrent chylothorax. The thoracic duct was successfully imaged using computed tomography after the injection of an iodine contrast agent into the subcutaneous tissue surrounding the anus. The thoracic duct was successfully ligated and pericardectomy performed via an open thoracotomy. Pleural effusion improved but relapsed a week after the surgery. A second lymphography revealed a collateral thoracic duct that was not detected during the first lymphography. The collateral duct was ligated and chylothorax was resolved after the second surgery. The lymphography applied in this study was minimally-invasive and easily provided images of the thoracic duct in a dog with chylothorax. PMID:27995081

  6. High-volume bilateral chylothorax presenting with hypoxemia and shock in a pediatric patient following tracheostomy revision: a case report.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, Aaron L; Yu, Jane; Kuo, Kevin W

    2015-10-22

    Chylothorax is a rare complication of surgical neck dissection. This is the first reported pediatric case of bilateral chylothorax following cervical surgery and the first to occur after tracheoplasty. Chylothorax can lead to significant complications, including hypoxemia and shock, and requires timely treatment. This case report discusses the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of our patient and reviews possible pathophysiologic mechanisms to explain the development of postoperative bilateral chylous effusions. An 18-month-old white baby girl with a complex past medical history including choanal atresia, atrioventricular septal defect, failure to thrive, developmental delay, and tracheostomy dependence developed significant hypoxemia and shock following a routine tracehostomy revision. She was subsequently found to have developed massive bilateral chylothorax, requiring escalation of mechanical ventilation, thoracostomy tube drainage, vasoactive support, and eventual surgical ligation of her thoracic duct. Massive bilateral chylothorax is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication following tracheoplasty. Clinicians caring for this patient population postoperatively should be aware of this potential complication and its management.

  7. Chylothorax in dermatomyositis complicated with interstitial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Isoda, Kentaro; Kiboshi, Takao; Shoda, Takeshi

    2017-04-01

    Chylothorax is a disease in which chyle leaks and accumulates in the thoracic cavity. Interstitial pneumonia and pneumomediastinum are common thoracic manifestations of dermatomyositis, but chylothorax complicated with dermatomyositis is not reported. We report a case of dermatomyositis with interstitial pneumonia complicated by chylothorax. A 77-year-old woman was diagnosed as dermatomyositis with Gottron's papules, skin ulcers, anti-MDA5 antibody and rapid progressive interstitial pneumonia. Treatment with betamethasone, tacrolimus and intravenous high-dose cyclophosphamide was initiated, and her skin symptoms and interstitial pneumonia improved once. However, right-sided chylothorax began to accumulate and gradually increase, and at the same time, her interstitial pneumonia began to exacerbate, and skin ulcers began to reappear on her fingers and auricles. Although her chylothorax improved by fasting and parenteral nutrition, she died due to further exacerbations of dermatomyositis and interstitial pneumonia in spite of steroid pulse therapy, increase in the betamethasone dosage, additional intravenous high-dose cyclophosphamide and plasma pheresis. An autopsy showed no lesions such as malignant tumors in the thoracic cavity. This is the first report of chylothorax complicated by dermatomyositis with interstitial pneumonia.

  8. Chylothorax: a review of 18 cases.

    PubMed Central

    Fairfax, A J; McNabb, W R; Spiro, S G

    1986-01-01

    Eighteen patients who had developed a chylothorax during a 25 year period, 1955-80, were reviewed. The chylothoraces occurred as a complication of cardiothoracic surgery in 11 patients, of whom eight were children in the first decade of life. Five cases followed operations for coarctation of the aorta and two occurred as a complication of a Blalock shunt for Fallot's tetralogy. The chylothorax was evident within 48 hours of the operation in all but two patients. In seven cases a second operation was performed to prevent further chylous leakage and in two infants the thoracic duct was ligated. The remainder of the postsurgical chylothoraces responded to either continuous drainage or repeated aspiration and a low fat diet. There were no late sequelae of chylothorax following surgery. Spontaneous chylothorax was identified in seven patients and in five of these it was bilateral. Patients with spontaneous chylothorax were all adults and, despite treatment, had a poor prognosis. Three with malignant disease and two with pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis had died within two years of the appearance of the chylothorax. Two patients with chronic idiopathic chylothoraces survived for more than two years and one of these developed a secondary fibrothorax. PMID:3824274

  9. IgG4-related pleuritis with chylothorax.

    PubMed

    Kato, Eisuke; Takayanagi, Noboru; Ishiguro, Takashi; Kagiyama, Naho; Shimizu, Yoshihiko; Sugita, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    Presently, 6 cases of IgG4-related pleuritis have been reported. We encountered a patient who developed chylothorax due to IgG4-related disease. To our knowledge, such patients have not been reported. This patient developed right-sided chylothorax and left-sided non-chylothorax lymphocyte-predominant pleuritis. Elevated serum and pleural IgG4 concentrations and histopathological analysis of pleural biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of IgG4-related pleuritis. Left-sided pleuritis improved with corticosteroid therapy, but right-sided chylothorax persists. IgG4-related disease can be one cause of chylothorax.

  10. Chylothorax: a rare complication of tube thoracostomy.

    PubMed

    Limsukon, Atikun; Yick, Dennis; Kamangar, Nader

    2011-03-01

    Chylothorax resulting from chest tube injury to the thoracic duct is very rare and underreported. The purpose of this case report is to exemplify this rare but potentially significant complication of chest tube thoracostomy. An 86-year-old woman presented with sepsis and a massive right pleural effusion; she developed a chylous effusion with the pleural fluid triglyceride level of 158 mg/dL 2 days after a traumatic chest tube insertion. All investigations excluded common causes of non-traumatic chylothorax. The chylothorax improved after fasting and implementation of a medium-chain triglyceride diet. The optimal depth of insertion of the chest tube typically ranges from 5 to 15 cm, ensuring all sideports are within the chest and the proximal port is at least 2 cm beyond the rib margin. Traumatic chylothorax secondary to chest tube insertion should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with chylothorax after a thoracostomy tube. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Nontraumatic chylopericardium and chylothorax in premature neonates].

    PubMed

    Avrel'kina, E A; Ignat'eva, E N; Fediarova, M A; Pliukhin, S V

    2014-01-01

    Deaths of extremely premature babies undiagnosed as having spontaneous chylopericardium (CP) and chylothorax (CT) are analyzed. The specific features of these death cases are the polyetiology of CP/CT and the similarity of their pathogenesis in the absence of specific clinical symptomatology.

  12. Congenital chylothorax in newborn with trisomy 21.

    PubMed

    Lomauri, Kh

    2014-11-01

    Neonatal chylothorax results from the accumulation of chyle in the pleural space and may be either congenital or an acquired condition. Congenital chylothorax is most likely due to abnormal development or obstruction of the lymphatic system. It is often associated with hydrops fetalis. It can be idiopathic or may be associated with various chromosomal anomalies including Trisomy 21, Turner syndrome, Noonan syndrome, and other genetic abnormalities. Congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia and generalized lymphangiomatosis have also been reported to be associated with congenital chylothorax. Several case reports indicate that congenital chylothorax can recur in subsequent offspring, suggesting a possible underlying genetic etiology. It is important to identify infants with chylothorax, as there are specific issues that need to be addressed in the management of these patients. We present a case of newborn with trysomy 21 (trisomy 21 was diagnosed antenatally by amniocentesis with support of Association "Perinatology"), who developed moderate Respiratory Distress Syndrome, chest X-ray and US reveal pleural effusion on right side rapid intervention was made before deterioration, requiring intensive life-saving measures. In the neonate, chylous effusion is not a common cause of pleural effusions. It is characterized as an exudate because of the high protein and lipid content once the infant is fed. The fluid will be clear/yellow to slightly cloudy in the unfed state and will quickly become milky following feeding, as chylomicrons appear in the fluid. Lymphocytes predominate in the differential cell count of chyle. The volume of fluid output can be high, and management can be challenging. We review the common manifestations of congenital chylotoraxes and emphasize the importance of early diagnosis and intervention in preventing devastating outcomes from this condition.

  13. Congenital chylothorax treated with oral sildenafil: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Malleske, D T; Yoder, B A

    2015-05-01

    Congenital chylothorax (CC) can result from a congenital malformation or an acquired obstruction or disruption of the thoracic duct. Recently, oral administration of the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, sildenafil, was reported to be effective in resolving non-pulmonary lymphatic malformations in infants and young children. We report a case of CC in a late preterm infant with congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia where octreotide was not effective, but management with oral sildenafil was successful.

  14. Effects of tolvaptan on congestive heart failure complicated with chylothorax in a neonate.

    PubMed

    Sato, Nikiko; Sugiura, Tokio; Nagasaki, Rika; Suzuki, Kazutaka; Ito, Koichi; Kato, Takenori; Inukai, Sachiko; Saitoh, Shinji

    2015-10-01

    Tolvaptan is an oral vasopressin type 2 receptor antagonist that can be used for heart failure patients with hyponatremia or symptomatic congestion. Although the effects of tolvaptan in adults have been well documented, only limited information is available in children. The case of a neonate with congestive heart failure complicated with chylothorax after palliative surgery for transposition of the great arteries treated with tolvaptan is reported. Slow up-titration to 0.1 mg/kg successfully increased urine output and improved refractory congestive heart failure without hypernatremia. Subsequently, bodyweight and chylothorax decreased gradually. Moreover, the use of tolvaptan reduced the dosage of furosemide. Tolvaptan could be an alternative drug for neonates with congestive heart failure. Further large studies are needed to confirm the efficacy and identify the appropriate dose of tolvaptan in neonates.

  15. Chylothorax Associated with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Kohmoto, Osamu; Kawabe, Kazumi; Ono, Hideya; Yanagimoto, Ryuta; Arimoto, Junji; Hatada, Atsutoshi; Suruda, Tadatoshi; Minakata, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    An 80-year-old man who had suffered from chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and achieved complete remission was admitted to our hospital due to right pleural effusion. Thoracentesis revealed that the effusion was chyle. Lymphoscintigraphy showed an obstruction of the thoracic duct below the sternum. CD45-gated flow cytometry of the pleural effusion showed elevated numbers of CD5- and CD23-positive lymphocytes and a high serum level of soluble interleukin-2 receptor. These results suggested that the chylothorax was caused by the obstruction of the thoracic duct by the sludging of either abnormal lymphocytes of CLL or transformed malignant lymphoma cells. PMID:27980266

  16. Delayed primary closure of bladder exstrophy: immediate postoperative management leading to successful outcomes.

    PubMed

    Baradaran, Nima; Stec, Andrew A; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Gearhart, John P; Mathews, Ranjiv I

    2012-02-01

    To present the critical features of our postoperative plan for children undergoing delayed primary bladder closure because appropriate postoperative management is crucial to successful exstrophy repair. Using an institutionally approved database, patients with bladder exstrophy whose primary bladder closure was performed at least 1 month after birth were identified. All aspects of the postoperative management were reviewed. A total of 20 patients (18 boys) were identified: 19 with classic bladder extrosphy and 1 with an exstrophy variant. The patients underwent closure at a mean age of 9.9 months. All patients underwent pelvic osteotomy and immobilization for an average of 34.8 days. Analgesia was administered by way of a tunneled epidural catheter in 90% of patients for an average of 18.8 days, and 12 patients (60%) required adjunct intravenous analgesia. Bilateral ureteral catheters and suprapubic tubes were used in all patients. Total parenteral nutrition was administered to 10 (83%) of 12 patients who underwent closure after 2000. All patients received preoperative antibiotics and 2 weeks of postoperative intravenous antibiotics that was followed by oral prophylaxis. The mean hospital stay was 6.3 weeks. With an average follow-up of 7.4 years, delayed closure was 100% successful. Successful delayed primary closure of bladder exstrophy requires a multidisciplinary approach. The keys to success include osteotomy, pelvic immobilization, analgesia, nutritional support, maximal bladder drainage, and infection prophylaxis. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. [Cisterna chyli ablation in three cats with idiopathic chylothorax].

    PubMed

    Thiel, C; Held, S; Kramer, M

    2013-01-01

    Presentation of three cats with chronic, idiopathic chylothorax treated with ablation of the cisterna chyli as an additional or a sole surgical treatment. Results of clinical and diagnostic examination, therapy and course of disease in three cats as well as the surgical technique of ablation of the cisterna chyli in cats are described. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications regarding cisterna chyli ablation. Intraoperative visualization of the cisterna chyli is easily achieved by administering a small portion of a fatty aliment preoperatively or by injection of diluted methylene blue into the lymphatic system intraoperatively. Ablation of the cisterna chyli was performed following an unsuccessful ligation of the thoracic duct, in combination with the ligation of the thoracic duct and subtotal pericardectomy or as a single surgical treatment. Cisterna chyli ablation can be performed without complications in cats. This technique should be considered in cases of previously failed surgical therapy or as an adjunct therapy used with other surgical options to decrease the risk of recurrence.

  18. Idiopathic chylothorax and lymphedema in 2 whippet littermates

    PubMed Central

    Schuller, Simone; Le Garrérès, Alain; Remy, Isabelle; Peeters, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    Idiopathic chylothorax and limb edema was diagnosed in two 2-year-old male whippet siblings. The fact that the 2 related animals developed similar clinical signs at a young age may suggest a congenital or hereditary etiology. PMID:22547848

  19. Idiopathic chylothorax and lymphedema in 2 whippet littermates.

    PubMed

    Schuller, Simone; Le Garrérès, Alain; Remy, Isabelle; Peeters, Dominique

    2011-11-01

    Idiopathic chylothorax and limb edema was diagnosed in two 2-year-old male whippet siblings. The fact that the 2 related animals developed similar clinical signs at a young age may suggest a congenital or hereditary etiology.

  20. Chylothorax and chylopericardium in Behçet's diseases: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Zu, Ning; Lin, Bing; Wang, Guochun

    2013-07-01

    Behçet's disease (BD) with chylothorax and/or chylopericardium is uncommon. Here, we report a case of a 32-year-old man suffering BD with chylothorax and chylopericardium complications. We also review the literature and discuss clinical characteristics, possible pathogenesis, and treatment strategy of patients suffering BD with chylothorax and/or chylopericardium complications.

  1. Bilateral chylothorax after transsternal total thymectomy: resolution with short period of fasting and total parenteral nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinsik; Kim, Su Wan; Lee, Seogjae

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral chylothorax after transsternal total thymectomy is very rare, but can be a serious complication. Disruption of minor lymphatic channels in the anterior mediastinum which is remote from thoracic duct is considered to be the cause of chylothorax. We report the case of bilateral chylothorax followed by thymectomy which was treated with pleural drainage, total parenteral nutrition, and fasting without octreotide injection. PMID:27076983

  2. Pregnancy Complicated by Gorham–Stout Disease and Refractory Chylothorax

    PubMed Central

    Hellyer, Jessica; Oliver-Allen, Hunter; Shafiq, Majid; Tolani, Alisha; Druzin, Maurice; Jeng, Michael; Rockson, Stanley; Lowsky, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Gorham–Stout Disease (GSD) is a rare disorder of bony destruction due to lymphangiomatosis, and is often triggered by hormones. One complication of GSD is the development of chylothorax, which carries a high mortality rate. Very little experience has been published to guide management in GSD during pregnancy to optimize both fetal and maternal health. Case Study A 20-year-old woman with known GSD presented with shortness of breath at 18 weeks of pregnancy, due to bilateral chylothoraces which required daily drainage. To minimize chylous fluid formation, she was placed on bowel rest with total parenteral nutrition (limiting lipid intake) and received octreotide to decrease splanchnic blood flow and chylous fluid drainage. Treatment options were limited due to her pregnancy. Twice daily home chest tube drainage of a single lung cavity, total parenteral nutrition, octreotide, and albumin infusions allowed successful delivery of a healthy 37 weeks' gestation infant by cesarean delivery. Discussion This case illustrates the management of a rare clinical disease of bone resorption and lymphangiomatosis complicated by bilateral, refractory chylothoraces, triggered by pregnancy, in whom treatment options are limited, and the need for a multidisciplinary health care team to ensure successful maternal and fetal outcomes. PMID:27708981

  3. Spontaneous bilateral chylothorax with fatal outcome in a patient with melorheostosis.

    PubMed

    Leuenberger, Michèle; Braunwalder, Jan; Schmid, Ralph A; Stanga, Zeno

    2008-11-01

    We report a case of progressive, multifocal melorheostosis in a 28-year-old woman, with involvement of the left arm, chest, spine, and impressive soft tissue involvement. In the past, she had undergone multiple vascular interventions. She presented with spontaneous massive bilateral chylothorax. After conservative treatment without success, we conducted bilateral pleurodesis. This resulted in a clear reduction of pleural effusions, but her medical condition subsequently worsened due to progressive parenchymatous infiltrates, and increased interlobal pleural effusions. She ultimately died of global respiratory insufficiency. In patients with melorheostosis, involvement of the soft tissue can result in distinctive morbidity, and whenever possible, treatment should be conservative.

  4. Repeat Post-Op Voiding Trials: An Inconvenient Correlate with Success

    PubMed Central

    Ferrante, K.L.; Kim, H-Y.; Brubaker, L.; Wai, C.Y.; Norton, P.; Kraus, S.R.; Shepherd, J.; Sirls, L.T.; Nager, C.W.

    2014-01-01

    AIMS This study examined the association between the need for a repeat voiding trial after midurethral sling (MUS) surgery and 1-year success rates. METHODS We conducted this secondary analysis of the participants in the Urinary Incontinence Treatment Network Trial Of Midurethral Sling (TOMUS) study which compared retropubic vs. transobturator MUS. A standard voiding trial was attempted on all subjects. The ‘repeat voiding trial’ group included subjects discharged with catheterization. All others were considered ‘self voiding’. Success rates between the groups at 1 year were compared, followed by multivariate analyses controlling for previously reported clinical predictors of success. RESULTS Most women (76%) were self-voiding, while 24% required a repeat voiding trial. The objective success rate at 1 year was 85.8% in the repeat voiding trial group and 75.3% in the self-voiding group (p=0.01). Subjective success rate at 1 year was 61.0% in the repeat voiding trial group and 55.1% in the self-voiding group (p=0.23). Women in the repeat voiding trial group continued to demonstrate greater objective success than the self-voiding group in multivariate analysis that controlled for previous incontinence surgery, pad weight, urethral mobility, urge score and type of MUS (p=0.04, OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.03-3.22). CONCLUSIONS Women who require a repeat voiding trial following MUS surgery have greater objective success at 1 year postoperatively when compared to those who are self-voiding at the time of discharge. These results may help reassure women who require catheterization after MUS surgery that their outcome is not compromised by this immediate transient postoperative result. PMID:23983149

  5. Repeat post-op voiding trials: an inconvenient correlate with success.

    PubMed

    Ferrante, Kimberly L; Kim, Hae-Young; Brubaker, Linda; Wai, Cliff Y; Norton, Peggy A; Kraus, Stephen R; Shepherd, Jonathan; Sirls, Larry T; Nager, Charles W

    2014-11-01

    This study examined the association between the need for a repeat voiding trial after midurethral sling (MUS) surgery and 1-year success rates. We conducted this secondary analysis of the participants in the Urinary Incontinence Treatment Network trial of midurethral sling (TOMUS) study which compared retropubic versus transobturator MUS. A standard voiding trial was attempted on all subjects. The "repeat voiding trial" group included subjects discharged with catheterization. All others were considered "self voiding." Success rates between the groups at 1-year were compared, followed by multivariate analyses controlling for previously reported clinical predictors of success. Most women (76%) were self-voiding, while 24% required a repeat voiding trial. The objective success rate at 1-year was 85.8% in the repeat voiding trial group and 75.3% in the self-voiding group (P = 0.01). Subjective success rate at 1-year was 61.0% in the repeat voiding trial group and 55.1% in the self-voiding group (P = 0.23). Women in the repeat voiding trial group continued to demonstrate greater objective success than the self-voiding group in multivariate analysis that controlled for previous incontinence surgery, pad weight, urethral mobility, urge score, and type of MUS (P = 0.04, OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.03-3.22). Women who require a repeat voiding trial following MUS surgery have greater objective success at 1-year postoperatively when compared to those who are self-voiding at the time of discharge. These results may help reassure women who require catheterization after MUS surgery that their outcome is not compromised by this immediate transient post-operative result. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Bilateral spontaneous chylothorax after severe vomiting in children

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Antonio Lucas Lima; Romaneli, Mariana Tresoldi das Neves; Ramos, Celso Dario; Fraga, Andrea de Melo Alexandre; Pereira, Ricardo Mendes; Appenzeller, Simone; Marini, Roberto; Tresoldi, Antonia Teresinha

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To report the case of a child with bilateral chylothorax due to infrequent etiology: thoracic duct injury after severe vomiting. Case description: Girl, 7 years old, with chronic facial swelling started after hyperemesis. During examination, she also presented with bilateral pleural effusion, with chylous fluid obtained during thoracentesis. After extensive clinical, laboratory, and radiological investigation of the chylothorax etiology, it was found to be secondary to thoracic duct injury by the increased intrathoracic pressure caused by the initial manifestation of vomiting, supported by lymphoscintigraphy findings. Comments: Except for the neonatal period, chylothorax is an infrequent finding of pleural effusion in children. There are various causes, including trauma, malignancy, infection, and inflammatory diseases; however, the etiology described in this study is poorly reported in the literature. PMID:27178371

  7. Successful radiotherapy in postoperative recurrence of a primary mediastinal yolk sac tumor: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Maebayashi, Toshiya; Aizawa, Takuya; Ishibashi, Naoya; Fukushima, Shoko; Saito, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A woman in her 60s was evaluated for anterior chest pain. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a 50 mm mass with irregular contrast enhancement in the anterior mediastinum. α‐fetoprotein (AFP) level was elevated to 1188 ng/mL. A germ cell tumor was diagnosed, mostly comprising of a yolk sac tumor (YST). Two courses of chemotherapy with cisplatin (CDDP) and etoposide (VP16) were administered and surgical tumor resection was then performed. The final diagnosis was YST. CDDP and VP16 were continued postoperatively; however, because the AFP level increased about six months after surgery, the chemotherapy regimen was altered to bleomycin and CPT‐11. As the AFP again increased and a CT scan revealed tumor re‐enlargement, recurrent YST was diagnosed and radiotherapy was administered. The patient received a total of 60 Gy (2 Gy per fraction). The tumor started to shrink during radiotherapy and AFP levels decreased. By one month post‐radiotherapy, AFP levels had normalized and the tumor had disappeared. As of six years after radiotherapy, the patient remains alive without recurrence. Mediastinal YSTs are rare, and treatment usually includes surgery and preoperative and postoperative chemotherapy with cisplatin‐based regimens. Successful treatment with radiotherapy has occasionally been reported. Our patient showed recurrence of a YST after surgery and chemotherapy, but achieved long‐term survival after radiotherapy. Few patients with YST have undergone radiotherapy, but this approach was successful in our patient. In cases of postoperative recurrent YST resistant to chemotherapy, radiotherapy, together with salvage surgery, may offer a valuable option. PMID:27148423

  8. Dasatinib-induced chylothorax in chronic myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Shabber Agha; Bhatti, Hammad; Braver, Yvonne; Ali, Sayed K.

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary adverse events are common abnormalities associated with the use of dasatinib in chronic myeloid leukemia. We present a case of a 69-year-old man who suddenly developed a rare chylothorax pulmonary adverse event following 10 months of dasatinib treatment. PMID:28127140

  9. Fat-soluble vitamins and plasma and erythrocyte membrane fatty acids in chylothorax pediatric patients receiving a medium-chain triglyceride-rich diet.

    PubMed

    Densupsoontorn, Narumon; Jirapinyo, Pipop; Tirapongporn, Hathaichanok; Wongarn, Renu; Chotipanang, Kwanjai; Phuangphan, Phakkanan; Chongviriyaphan, Nalinee

    2014-11-01

    Post-operative chylothorax can be cured by a medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)-rich diet. However, there is concern that an MCT-rich diet results in clinical and biochemical deficiencies in fat-soluble vitamins and fatty acids. We compared fat-soluble vitamins status and fatty acids status before and after administration of an MCT-rich diet. Nine children with congenital heart disease developed chylothorax after cardiac surgery. Blood samples were drawn from each subject twice, first prior to administration of an MCT-rich diet and secondly when the chylothorax was clinically cured and the MCT diet discontinued. Both blood samples were analyzed for retinol and 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentrations, the ratio of α-tocopherol to total lipids (α-TE/TL), coagulogram, and the fatty acid composition in plasma and erythrocyte membrane phospholipids. In spite of a decrease in the α-TE/TL ratio (3.78 ± 0.89 vs 2.36 ± 0.44 mg/g, p<0.05), this decrease did not reach the deficiency cut-off level. Linoleic acid in both plasma and erythrocyte membrane lipids decreased significantly (25.25 ± 8.06 vs 14.25 ± 2.88%, and 11.19 ± 2.15 vs 6.89 ± 2.45%, respectively). Administration of an MCT-rich diet for treatment of postoperative chylothorax caused a reduction in vitamin E status and linoleic acid, but without any symptoms of deficiency.

  10. Postoperative pancreatic fistula successfully treated with "PEG-Like" endoscopic vacuum therapy.

    PubMed

    Bobkiewicz, Adam; Banasiewicz, Tomasz; Drews, Michał

    2015-04-01

    One of the latest methods for management of pancreaticogastrostomy (PG) leakage after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is endoscopic vacuum therapy. PD was performed on a 72-year-old man suffering from a nonfunctioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor of the head of the pancreas. On postoperative Day 6 after the primary surgery, postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) of the PG was revealed. Based on the International Study Group of Pancreatic Fistula recommendations, total parenteral nutrition, a regimen of somatostatin analogs, and intravenous antibiotics were implemented. The patient was qualified for a re-exploration because of the doubtful safety of percutaneous drainage of fluid collection detected in the ultrasonography scan. However, this management was not efficient. Endoscopic vacuum treatment (E-VAC) was initiated. The E-VAC was placed directly into the POPF site using a modified "percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG)-like" technique. Over the next few days, the E-VAC was started. The volume of fluid collection from percutaneous drainage rapidly decreased, whereas the volume of E-VAC the following day after vacuum therapy was approximately 1000 mL. There were no signs of leakage of PG confirmed with endoscopy, and there was no fluid collection from peripancreatic drainage. The E-VAC therapy was stopped after 6 days. The patient's general condition improved significantly. There were no abnormalities observable in both clinical and imaging examinations. In selected patients, the "PEG-like" modification can be used successfully in the management of POPF. This technique allows the E-VAC to be placed directly in the POPF site under the endoscopic camera, which is what makes this method safe and efficient.

  11. Mediastinal Lymphangioma and Chylothorax: Thoracic Involvement of Gorham's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, So Young; Im, Jung-Gi

    2002-01-01

    We report a case of mediastinal lymphangioma associated with Gorham's disease in a 38-year-old man who had suffered recurrent clavicular fractures during a seven-year period. Mediastinal widening associated with osteolysis of the clavicles and the sternal manubrium was revealed by chest radiography, while computed tomography demonstrated a cystic anterior mediastinal mass infiltrating mediastinal fat and associated with osseous destruction of the clavicles and manubrium. Chylothorax recurred during the course of the disease. PMID:12087203

  12. Development of bilateral chylothorax in a younger female secondary to tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Kant, Surya; Verma, Sanjay Kumar; Anand, Sunish C.; Prasad, Rajendra; Verma, Rajendra Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Chylothorax is a rare clinical entity characterized by a milky white aspirate with increased triglyceride levels. The commonest etiology is malignancy and trauma, and bilateral chylothorax, secondary to tuberculosis, is an extremely rare cause, as observed in the present case. PMID:21654988

  13. Risk factors for postoperative pancreatic fistula: Analysis of 539 successive cases of pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bing-Yang; Wan, Tao; Zhang, Wen-Zhi; Dong, Jia-Hong

    2016-09-14

    To analyze the risk factors for pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 539 successive cases of pancreaticoduodenectomy performed at our hospital from March 2012 to October 2015. Pancreatic fistula was diagnosed in strict accordance with the definition of pancreatic fistula from the International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula. The risk factors for pancreatic fistula were analyzed by univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 269 (49.9%) cases of pancreatic fistula occurred after pancreaticoduodenectomy, including 71 (13.17%) cases of grade A pancreatic fistula, 178 (33.02%) cases of grade B, and 20 (3.71%) cases of grade C. Univariate analysis showed no significant correlation between postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) and the following factors: age, hypertension, alcohol consumption, smoking, history of upper abdominal surgery, preoperative jaundice management, preoperative bilirubin, preoperative albumin, pancreatic duct drainage, intraoperative blood loss, operative time, intraoperative blood transfusion, Braun anastomosis, and pancreaticoduodenectomy (with or without pylorus preservation). Conversely, a significant correlation was observed between POPF and the following factors: gender (male vs female: 54.23% vs 42.35%, P = 0.008), diabetes (non-diabetic vs diabetic: 51.61% vs 39.19%, P = 0.047), body mass index (BMI) (≤ 25 vs > 25: 46.94% vs 57.82%, P = 0.024), blood glucose level (≤ 6.0 mmol/L vs > 6.0 mmol/L: 54.75% vs 41.14%, P = 0.002), pancreaticojejunal anastomosis technique (pancreatic duct-jejunum double-layer mucosa-to-mucosa pancreaticojejunal anastomosis vs pancreatic-jejunum single-layer mucosa-to-mucosa anastomosis: 57.54% vs 35.46%, P = 0.000), diameter of the pancreatic duct (≤ 3 mm vs > 3 mm: 57.81% vs 38.36%, P = 0.000), and pancreatic texture (soft vs hard: 56.72% vs 29.93%, P = 0.000). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that

  14. Prenatal Therapy Improves the Survival of Premature Infants with Congenital Chylothorax.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chia-Jung; Tsao, Po-Nien; Chen, Chien-Yi; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Liou, Jyun-You; Chou, Hung-Chieh

    2016-04-01

    Chylothorax is a rare condition among neonates, although it is considered clinically significant, as it is difficult to manage in these patients. In addition, the course of chylothorax varies widely. Therefore, we aimed to elucidate the clinical features and effect of prenatal therapy on the prognosis of congenital chylothorax in neonates. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all infants with congenital chylothorax who were admitted to National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan between January 2000 and December 2012. Their demographic characteristics, as well as their antenatal, perinatal, and postnatal information, were collected for our analysis of the mortality risk. We found 29 infants who were diagnosed with congenital chylothorax during the study period. The median gestational age at birth was 34 weeks (range, 28-41 weeks), and 71% of the infants presented with hydrops fetalis. Most cases of congenital chylothorax were bilateral (bilateral: 86.2%, unilateral: 13.79%), and the overall survival rate was 59.6%. Among the cases with a prenatal diagnosis at ≤ 34 weeks of gestation, infants who received prenatal therapy had a significantly higher survival rate, compared to infants who did not receive prenatal therapy (76.9% vs. 11%, respectively; p = 0.008). We found that infants whose chylothorax was diagnosed ≤ 34 weeks of gestation, and who subsequently received prenatal therapy, experienced a better perinatal condition and exhibited improved postnatal outcomes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Bilateral chylothorax complicating Mustard repair of transposition of the great vessels.

    PubMed

    Copeland, J G; Shaut, C

    1982-10-01

    Less than 60 cases of bilateral chylothorax have been previously reported, and only two of these involve complicated Mustard procedures. We describe herein a patient in whom severe bilateral chylothorax developed three weeks after Mustard repair of D transposition. Complete reversal of this condition was obtained with revision of the constricted interatrial baffle and ligation of the thoracic duct. This cases is compared clinically with previously reported instances of chylothorax, and the role of played by obstruction of the superior vena cava after a Mustard procedure for transposition of the great vessels is emphasized.

  16. Successes and pitfalls in the healing of neuropathic forefoot ulcerations with the IPOS postoperative shoe.

    PubMed

    Needleman, R L

    1997-07-01

    Unnecessary amputations can be avoided with the healing of foot ulcerations in neuropathic feet. Traditional approaches have relied on relieving plantar and other extrinsic foot pressures. A retrospective review was performed of the office records of patients with Wagner grade 1 and 2 neuropathic forefoot ulcerations who were prescribed an IPOS (Niagara Falls, NY) postoperative shoe. A total of .33 patients were in the chart review. Twenty-three of these patients were located and agreed to participate in a telephone survey. Patients showed a compliance of 78%. Seventy-seven percent of the patients healed their ulcers and wore prescription inserts and extra-depth shoes at a mean of 8 weeks. Seventy-eight percent of our telephone survey patients were either satisfied or satisfied with reservations. Problems or complications from wearing the IPOS postoperative shoe occurred with 38% of all patients.

  17. Dasatinib-induced pleural effusion: Chylothorax, an option to consider

    PubMed Central

    Ferreiro, Lucía; San-José, Esther; Suárez-Antelo, Juan; Valdés, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Dasatinib is a drug for treatment of oncogene fusion protein BCR-ABL-positive chronic myeloid leukemia and Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia resistant/intolerant to imatinib. Pleural effusion (PE) is a common adverse effect, and in this context, we present four cases seen due to this cause. One of them is a chylothorax. The PE grade is variable, and the physiopathology is not well established, although a block in T-lymphocyte function or inhibition of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β is suggested being involved. The PE is generally a lymphocyte-predominant exudate, but can also present as chylothorax. Several factors have been associated with its appearance, particularly the administration in two daily doses. Low grade (1–2) PEs usually respond well to interrupt the treatment while those of higher grade may also require therapeutic thoracentesis and corticosteroids. There are currently no firm guidelines that establish when to resort to one form of treatment or another. PMID:27803756

  18. Chylothorax as a complication of aortocoronary bypass. Two case reports and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Zakhour, B J; Drucker, M H; Franco, A A

    1988-01-01

    Iatrogenic chylothorax is a well-recognized complication following thoracic surgery, but is a rare occurrence after aortocoronary bypass. Only two cases have been previously reported. Two additional cases from our hospital are presented. All four male patients responded to conservative management within two weeks of initiation of treatment. Only 12 cases of chylothorax following median sternotomy have been reported (nine women and three men). Five of the nine women required surgical exploration after a course of unsuccessful management ranging from 14 to 26 days. The cause of the chylothorax was considered to be injury to lymphatic collaterals in the anterior mediastinum, which resulted in a retrograde chyle flow; the main duct remained intact. This article reviews the normal anatomy of the thoracic duct and variations of chylothorax, and describes the mechanism of injury in aortocoronary bypass, the prevention of this complication, and the results of treatment.

  19. Chylothorax following anterior thoraco-lumbar spine exposure. A case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Mora de Sambricio, A; Garrido Stratenwerth, E

    2015-01-01

    Pleural effusion is a possible complication of the thoraco-abdominal approach to the spine. It is more commonly a reactive effusion, but it also may be caused by hemothorax, empyema or, less commonly, a chylothorax. The case of a chylothorax is reported as a late onset complication of a double anterior and posterior instrumented fusion of the lumbar spine. Its management and clinical outcome, and a review of the literature is presented.

  20. Chylothorax in a patient with Hodgkin's lymphoma: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Janjetovic, Snjezana; Janning, Melanie; Daukeva, Liliana; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Fiedler, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Chylothorax is defined as chyle entering the pleural space. The most common causes of chylothorax are lymphoma followed by bronchogenic carcinoma and trauma. We report a case of chylothorax in a patient with Hodgkin's lymphoma. A 28-year old man was admitted to the hospital with exertional dyspnea and dry cough. A chest X-ray showed the large opacity on the left side suggesting to the presence of pleural effusion. The effusion was drained, and biochemical tests of the pleural fluid revealed high contents of triglycerides and, hence, confirmed the diagnosis of chylothorax. Cytology of the pleural fluid showed no evidence of Hodgkin's cells. Computer tomography scans of the chest and abdomen exhibited the presence of a soft tissue mass located in the left mediastinum. Mediastinal mass biopsy led to diagnosis of Hodgkin's lymphoma of the nodular sclerosis subtype. The patient received the standard treatment with two cycles of chemotherapy with prednisolone, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, bleomycin, procarbazine, and etoposide (BEACOPP), followed by an additional two cycles of therapy with doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD). After one cycle of chemotherapy, chylothorax initially decreased. Unfortunately, during the following courses of chemotherapy, the pleural effusion reoccurred and repeated pleural taps were necessary. According to the treatment protocol, radiation of the mediastinal bulk was performed after chemotherapy. Now, nearly one year after completion of radiotherapy, the chylothorax has significantly regressed and no further thoracocenteses were necessary. The case reveals an example of left-sided chylothorax as the first manifestation of Hodgkin's lymphoma in a young patient. In this case, radiotherapy was shown to be an effective treatment option for lymphoma-associated chylothorax unresponsive to chemotherapy.

  1. Retrograde Lymph Flow Leads to Chylothorax in Transgenic Mice with Lymphatic Malformations.

    PubMed

    Nitschké, Maximilian; Bell, Alexander; Karaman, Sinem; Amouzgar, Meelad; Rutkowski, Joseph M; Scherer, Philipp E; Alitalo, Kari; McDonald, Donald M

    2017-09-01

    Chylous pleural effusion (chylothorax) frequently accompanies lymphatic vessel malformations and other conditions with lymphatic defects. Although retrograde flow of chyle from the thoracic duct is considered a potential mechanism underlying chylothorax in patients and mouse models, the path chyle takes to reach the thoracic cavity is unclear. Herein, we use a novel transgenic mouse model, where doxycycline-induced overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C was driven by the adipocyte-specific promoter adiponectin (ADN), to determine how chylothorax forms. Surprisingly, 100% of adult ADN-VEGF-C mice developed chylothorax within 7 days. Rapid, consistent appearance of chylothorax enabled us to examine the step-by-step development in otherwise normal adult mice. Dynamic imaging with a fluorescent tracer revealed that lymph in the thoracic duct of these mice could enter the thoracic cavity by retrograde flow into enlarged paravertebral lymphatics and subpleural lymphatic plexuses that had incompetent lymphatic valves. Pleural mesothelium overlying the lymphatic plexuses underwent exfoliation that increased during doxycycline exposure. Together, the findings indicate that chylothorax in ADN-VEGF-C mice results from retrograde flow of chyle from the thoracic duct into lymphatic tributaries with defective valves. Chyle extravasates from these plexuses and enters the thoracic cavity through exfoliated regions of the pleural mesothelium. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Chylopericardium and bilateral chylothorax in a breast cancer patient].

    PubMed

    Zylberman, Marcelo; Losco, Federico; Nicolini, Carla; Halac, Sebastián; Patane, Karina; Petracci, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Non traumatic chylopericar dium is mostly secondary to infection, congenital or neoplastic disease that invade mediastinal lymph nodes and modify the normal lymphatic flow. It is associated to chylothorax in approximately 3% of cases. We report the case of a 52 years old woman with diagnosis of advanced breast cancer. She was admitted with bilateral pleural effusion and echocardiographic signs of cardiac tamponade. A CT scan disclosed multiple mediastinal lymphadenopathy. The level of tryglicerides in pleural effusion was 372 mg/dl. A percutaneous pericardiocentesis was performed, obtaining chyle, with 984 mg/dl of tryglicerides and cholesterol 90 mg/dl levels. Treatment strategy was modified. We reviewed pathophysiology, diagnostic criteria and treatment of this rare entity.

  3. Rapid Decline of Follicular Lymphoma-Associated Chylothorax after Low Dose Radiotherapy to Retroperitoneal Lymphoma Localization

    PubMed Central

    Borger, Jacques; Troost, Esther G. C.; Werner, Philo

    2014-01-01

    Chylothorax is caused by disruption or obstruction of the thoracic duct or its tributaries that results in the leakage of chyle into the pleural space. A number of interventions have been used to treat chylothorax including the treatment of the underlying disease. Lymphoma is found in 70% of cases with nontraumatic malignant aetiology. Although patients usually have advanced lymphoma, supradiaphragmatic disease is not always present. We discuss the case of a 63-year-old woman presenting with progressive respiratory symptoms due to chylothorax. She was diagnosed with a stage IIE retroperitoneal grade 1 follicular lymphoma extending from the coeliac trunk towards the pelvic inlet. Despite thoracocentesis and medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), diet chylothorax reoccurred. After low dose radiotherapy (2 × 2 Gy) to the abdominal lymphoma there was a marked decrease in lymphadenopathy at the coeliac trunk and a complete regression of the pleural fluid. In this case, radiotherapy was shown to be an effective nontoxic treatment option for lymphoma-associated chylothorax with long-term remission of pleural effusion. PMID:24891961

  4. Successful management of a refractory case of postoperative herniorrhaphy pain with extended duration pulsed radiofrequency

    PubMed Central

    Thapa, D; Ahuja, V; Verma, P; Das, C

    2016-01-01

    Chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) is a distressful condition following hernia surgery. A 25-year-old, 55 kg male patient presented with severe pain on the right side of the lower abdomen that radiated to the testicle and the inner side of the thigh. Patient was symptomatic since 5 months following inguinal herniorrhaphy surgery. The pain was not relieved with pharmacological and interventional nerve blocks. An ultrasound-guided ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric (II-IH) block with extended duration (42°C, four cycles of 120 s each) pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) and a diagnostic genital branch of genitofemoral nerve (GGFN) block provided pain relief. After 1-month, an extended duration PRF in GGFN resulted in complete resolution of symptoms. During a regular follow-up of 9 months, patient reported an improved quality-of-life. We believe the successful management of CPSP following hernia repair with single extended duration PRF of II-IH and GGFN has not been described in the literature. PMID:26955321

  5. A Rare Case of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus with Chylous Ascites and Chylothorax

    PubMed Central

    Soysal, Dilek Ersil; Hizar Turan, Sezin; Ozmen, Mustafa; Pekdiker, Mete; Kalender, Mehmet Eren; Koc, Emrah; Karakus, Volkan

    2013-01-01

    During the course of the disease a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) may develop inflammation of one or more serous membranes, resulting in pleural, peritoneal, or pericardial effusion. Chylous ascites and chylothorax have rarely been described in patients with SLE. Therefore, in parallel with the analysis of blood samples, detailed analysis of the effusions should be carried out. Supportive measures are often needed to relieve the symptoms of chylothorax or chylous ascites together with the treatment of the primary disease. The available literature had reported just 4 cases of chylous ascites and/or chylothorax in association with SLE, and this patient presented here is one of the rare cases apart from the reported ones. PMID:23864976

  6. Octreotide use in post-cardiac surgery chylothorax: a 12-year perspective.

    PubMed

    Aljazairi, Abdulrazaq Sheikh; Bhuiyan, Tauhid Ahmed; Alwadai, Abdullah Hasan; Almehizia, Rayd Abdulaziz

    2017-01-01

    Background Chylothorax following cardiothoracic surgery is a rare condition in pediatric patients with significant morbidity and mortality. Pharmacological management with octreotide suggests possible efficacy; however, current evidence is inadequate. The objective of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of octreotide as a therapeutic option in this clinical setting. Methods This was a 12-year single-center retrospective cohort study of all patients (birth to 18-years old) who received octreotide for management of post-cardiac surgery chylothorax between January 2003 to August 2015. The primary efficacy endpoint was resolution of chylothorax, categorized as complete (<2 mL·kg(-1)·day(-1)), partial (based on physician's judgement), or failed. The primary safety endpoint was any significant adverse drug reaction leading to discontinuation of octreotide therapy. Of the 46 patients identified as receiving octreotide for post-cardiac surgery chylothorax, 29 were included in efficacy and safety analyses. Results Resolution of chylothorax was achieved in 62% (complete in 28%, partial in 34%) of the total sample. The 38% who did not respond to octreotide therapy required thoracic duct ligation. The mean initial dose and duration of octreotide was 4 ± 3 µg·kg(-1)·h(-1) and 10 ± 5 days, respectively. Besides minor side-effects including transient hyperglycemia (45%), abdominal distension (3%), and tachycardia (>150 beats·min(-1); 10%), no patient developed a significant side-effect that required discontinuation of therapy. Conclusions Pharmacological management of post-cardiac surgery induced chylothorax with octreotide shows promising benefits with an acceptable safety profile.

  7. Postoperative Delirium

    PubMed Central

    Marcantonio, Edward R.

    2013-01-01

    Delirium (acute confusion) complicates 15% to 50% of major operations in older adults and is associated with other major postoperative complications, prolonged length of stay, poor functional recovery, institutionalization, dementia, and death. Importantly, delirium may be predictable and preventable through proactive intervention. Yet clinicians fail to recognize and address postoperative delirium in up to 80% of cases. Using the case of Ms R, a 76-year-old woman who developed delirium first after colectomy with complications and again after routine surgery, the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of delirium in the postoperative setting is reviewed. The risk of postoperative delirium can be quantified by the sum of predisposing and precipitating factors. Successful strategies for prevention and treatment of delirium include proactive multifactorial intervention targeted to reversible risk factors, limiting use of sedating medications (especially benzodiazepines), effective management of postoperative pain, and, perhaps, judicious use of antipsychotics. PMID:22669559

  8. Chylothorax and chylopericardium as the initial clinical manifestation of Behcet's disease.

    PubMed

    Moon, H; Lee, Y J; Lee, S I; Yoo, W H

    2008-02-01

    Behcet's disease (BD) is a chronic relapsing systemic vasculitic disorder affecting the arteries, veins, and vessels of any size. Large vein thrombosis in BD is not commonly developed and most commonly observed in the veins in the lower extremities and inferior or superior vena cava. In this report, a 18-year-old male patient with large vein thrombosis involving superior vena cava was presented. He was treated due to chylothorax and chylopericardium with SVC syndrome before diagnosis of BD. SVC thrombosis complicated by chylothorax and chyolpericardium can be a rare presenting initial symptom of BD.

  9. Chylothorax bilatéral au cours de la maladie de Behçet

    PubMed Central

    Zemed, Naaima; Amangar, Nadia; Herrak, Laila; Elftouh, Mustapha

    2015-01-01

    L'atteinte médiastino-pulmonaire de la maladie de Behçet est représentée essentiellement par la thrombose de la veine cave supérieure et l'angéite pulmonaire. L'association de la maladie et du chylothorax est rare, sa prise en charge n'est pas codifiée. Nous rapportant un cas clinique concernant la survenue d'un chylothorax bilatéral secondaire à une thrombose cave supérieure dans un contexte de maladie de Behçet. PMID:26185561

  10. Blood patch treatment of chylothorax following transthoracic oesophagogastrectomy: a novel technique to aid surgical management.

    PubMed

    Windhaber, R A J; Holbrook, A G; Krysztopik, R J

    2010-05-01

    Chylothorax is a well-recognised complication of oesophagectomy, occurring in around 3% of cases. If managed conservatively, the mortality rate can be over 50%. We describe our experience of managing a patient with a chylothorax following oesophagectomy, and the use of a blood patch (a novel technique) to overcome persistent leakage following re-operation. The authors feel that this technique has the potential for a wider application in the treatment of chyle leak, especially if combined with minimally invasive or radiological techniques.

  11. ACR Appropriateness Criteria(®) Chylothorax Treatment Planning.

    PubMed

    Majdalany, Bill S; Murrey, Douglas A; Kapoor, Baljendra S; Cain, Thomas R; Ganguli, Suvranu; Kent, Michael S; Maldonado, Fabien; McBride, Joseph J; Minocha, Jeet; Reis, Stephen P; Lorenz, Jonathan M; Kalva, Sanjeeva P

    2017-05-01

    Chylothorax is an uncommon but serious medical condition, which arises when intestinal lymphatic fluid leaks into the pleural space. Treatment strategies depend on the daily output and underlying etiology, which may be due to direct injury to lymphatic vessels or a nontraumatic disorder. Chest radiographs confirm the presence of pleural fluid and lateralize the process. In the setting of direct injury, lymphangiography can often be both diagnostic and facilitate a minimally invasive attempt at therapy. CT and MRI in this setting may be appropriate for cases when lymphangiography is not diagnostic. When the etiology is nontraumatic or unknown, CT or MRI can narrow the differential diagnosis, and lymphangiography is useful if a minimally invasive approach to treatment is desired. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Chylous Ascites: A Rare Complication of Thoracic Duct Embolization for Chylothorax

    SciTech Connect

    Gaba, Ron C. Owens, Charles A.; Bui, James T.; Carrillo, Tami C.; Knuttinen, M. Grace

    2011-02-15

    Thoracic duct embolization represents a safe and effective method to treat postsurgical chylothorax. Complications of this procedure are rare despite transabdominal puncture of lymphatic channels for thoracic duct access, and chylous ascites is unreported. Herein, we describe a case of chylous ascites formation after lymphatic puncture and attempted cannulation. Our management approach is also discussed.

  13. Feasibility and Efficacy of Defatted Human Milk in the Treatment for Chylothorax After Cardiac Surgery in Infants.

    PubMed

    Fogg, Kristi L; DellaValle, Diane M; Buckley, Jason R; Graham, Eric M; Zyblewski, Sinai C

    2016-08-01

    Chylothorax is a well-described complication after cardiothoracic surgery in children. Medical nutritional therapy for chylothorax includes medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) formulas and reduction in enteral long-chain triglyceride intake to reduce chyle production. Human milk is usually eliminated from the diet of infants with chylothorax because of its high long-chain triglyceride content. However, given the immunologic properties of human milk, young infants with chylothorax may benefit from using human milk over human milk substitutes. We performed a retrospective cohort study to describe the feasibility and efficacy of defatted human milk (DHM) for the treatment for chylothorax in infants after cardiac surgery and to compare growth outcomes between infants treated with DHM (n = 14) versus MCT formula (n = 21). There were no differences in mortality or length of hospital stay between the DHM and MCT formula treatment groups. The DHM treatment group had a significantly higher weight-for-age z-score at hospital discharge compared to the MCT formula group with median z-scores of -1 (-2 to 0.5) and -1.5 (-2 to 0), respectively (p = 0.02). In infants with chylothorax after cardiac surgery, DHM is a safe and feasible medical nutritional treatment and may have potential benefits for improved nutrition and growth.

  14. Simple visual review of pre- to post-operative renal ultrasound images predicts pyeloplasty success equally as well as geometric measurements: A blinded comparison with a gold standard.

    PubMed

    Kern, Adam J M; Schlomer, Bruce J; Timberlake, Matthew D; Peters, Craig A; Hammer, Matthew R; Jacobs, Micah A

    2017-04-28

    MAG3 diuretic renal scan remains the gold standard for determination of improvement in renal drainage following pyeloplasty for ureteropelvic junction obstruction. We hypothesized that (i) a change in geometric measurements between pre-operative and post-operative renal ultrasound (RUS) images and (ii) blinded simple visual review of images both would predict pyeloplasty success. To determine if simple visual review and/or novel geometric measurement of renal ultrasounds can detect pyeloplasty failure. This study was a retrospective, blinded comparison with a gold standard. Included were children aged ≤18 years undergoing pyeloplasty at our institution from 2009 to 2015. For each kidney, representative pre-operative and post-operative RUS images were chosen. Our standard for pyeloplasty success was improved drainage curve on MAG3 and lack of additional surgery. Measurements for collecting system circularity, roundness, and renal parenchymal to collecting system area ratio (RPCSR) were obtained by three raters (Figure), who were blinded to the outcome of the pyeloplasty. Changes in geometric measurements were analyzed as a diagnostic test for MAG3-defined pyeloplasty success using ROC curve analysis. In addition, six reviewers blinded to pyeloplasty success reviewed pre-operative and post-operative images visually for improved hydronephrosis and categorized pyeloplasty as success or failure based on simple visual review of RUS. Fifty-three repaired renal units were identified (50 children). There were five pyeloplasty failures, four of which underwent revision or nephrectomy. While all geometric measurements could discriminate pyeloplasty failure and success, the geometric measurements that discriminated best between pyeloplasty failure and success were change in collecting system roundness and change in RPCSR. Consensus opinion among six blinded reviewers using simple visual review had a sensitivity of 94% and PPV of 100% with respect to identifying pyeloplasty

  15. Management of chylothorax by percutaneous catheterization and embolization of the thoracic duct: prospective trial.

    PubMed

    Cope, C; Salem, R; Kaiser, L R

    1999-10-01

    To prospectively assess the efficacy of percutaneous transabdominal thoracic duct catheterization and embolization in the management of patients with high-output chylothoracic effusions. Eleven consecutive patients (four women and seven men; mean age, 53 years) were referred with chylothorax secondary to esophagectomy (n = 4), lobectomy (n = 1), lung transplant (n = 1), coronary artery bypass (n = 1), aortic graft (n = 2), lymphangioleiomyomatosis (n = 1), and gunshot wound (n = 1). Two patients were brought by ambulance and referred back to their hospital on the same day. Pedal lymphography was used to opacify the cisterna chyli or major retroperitoneal lymphatic trunks. When patent, these were punctured under local anesthesia with a fine needle and the thoracic duct was catheterized over a microguide wire with use of a 3-F catheter; the duct was embolized with platinum coils. Patients were followed up for decrease in thoracic drainage output and morbidity. There were no retroperitoneal ducts suitable for catheterization in six patients because of previous abdominal surgery, trauma, or lymphangioleiomyomatosis; the thoracic duct was successfully catheterized in five patients, a 45% technical success rate. Thoracic duct embolization was performed in four patients, with cure of effusion in two. In the other two patients, one with lymphangioleiomyomatosis and the other with nonchylous pleural fluid, continued effusion was successfully treated by means of pleurodesis. Of two patients with previous thoracic duct ligation, one was found to have the duct incompletely tied. The authors were surprised to find that previous major abdominal surgery, chronic aortic dissection, and lymphangioleiomyomatosis could obliterate major retroperitoneal lymphatic ducts and the cisterna chyli. Percutaneous study of the thoracic duct with aqueous contrast medium was more sensitive than lymphography with iodinated oil. There was no morbidity. Catheterization of the thoracic duct was

  16. Postoperative management.

    PubMed

    Schraag, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Most patients undergoing major aortic surgery have multiple comorbidities and are at high risk of postoperative complications that affect multiple organ systems. Different aortic pathologies and surgical repair techniques have specific impact on the postoperative course. Ischemia-reperfusion injury is the common denominator in aortic surgery and influences the integrity of end-organ function. Common postoperative problems include hemodynamic instability due to the immediate inflammatory response, renal impairment, spinal cord ischemia, respiratory failure with prolonged mechanical ventilation, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as ileus or mesenteric ischemia. Focused care bundles to establish homeostasis and a team working toward an early functional recovery determine the success of effective rehabilitation and outcomes after aortic surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Surgical management of chylopericardium and chylothorax in a patient with Behçet's disease.

    PubMed

    Al Jaaly, Emad; Baig, Kamran; Patni, Ravi; Anderson, John; Haskard, Dorian O

    2011-01-01

    Behçet's syndrome is a chronic multisystem inflammatory disease characterised classically by recurrent oral and genital ulcers with ocular lesions. It can affect blood vessels of all sizes, but involves veins more commonly than arterie. The presence of chylothorax in Behçet's syndrome is rare, with only a few cases cited in the literature. The most likely pathogenesis is SVC thrombosis with obstruction of the orifice of the thoracic duct resulting in leakage of chyle from the pleural lymphatics into the pleural space. The majority of the previously reported cases were managed medically without surgical intervention. We believe that this report describes the first use of surgery to ligate the thoracic duct and create a pericardial window in a Behçet's syndrome with chylothorax and chylopericardium.

  18. Septic necrosis of the midline wound in postoperative peritonitis. Successful management by debridement, myocutaneous advancement, and primary skin closure.

    PubMed Central

    Lévy, E; Palmer, D L; Frileux, P; Hannoun, L; Nordlinger, B; Tiret, E; Honiger, J; Parc, R

    1988-01-01

    Wound management following laparotomy for postoperative peritonitis and varying degrees of parietal necrosis remains a challenging and controversial problem. Because maintained peritoneal integrity and primary wound closure offer the best opportunity for survival, an original technique involving bilateral incisions to relax skin and rectus fascia is proposed. This technique permits medial myocutaneous advancement and primary tension-free skin closure of midline laparotomy incisions. Sixty-nine patients with severe postoperative peritonitis were treated according from 1980 through 1985. Nine of these patients died of advanced multiple organ failure soon after referral, and eight more died after prolonged treatment. Fourteen patients had one or more reoperations for complications. Only nine wound failures resulted, including five eviscerations and four wound infections followed by progressive dehiscence. The bilateral relaxing incisions healed secondarily without complication. Survivors developed midline wound hernia; ten of the 52 surviving patients have had these repaired. This method of primary closure is safe when performed in conjunction with rigorous surgical care of intraperitoneal infection and may enhance survival. We recommend the technique to surgeons who treat severe postoperative peritonitis and septic necrosis of midline laparotomy wounds. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 4. Fig. 7. Figs. 8A and B. Fig. 9. PMID:3281613

  19. Blunt traumatic tension chylothorax: Case report and mini-review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Idris, Kamal; Sebastian, Michael; Hefny, Ashraf F; Khan, Navidul Haq; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M

    2016-01-01

    Tension chylothorax following blunt thoracic trauma is an extremely rare condition. Here we report such a case and review its management. A 31-year-old man was involved in a road traffic collision. The car rolled over and the patient was ejected from the vehicle. On arrival at the Emergency Department the patient was conscious and haemodynamically stable. Clinical examination of the chest and abdomen was normal. The patient had sustained fractures of the sixth cervical vertebra and the tenth thoracic vertebra, left pleural effusion, haematoma around the descending aorta and fracture of the right clavicle. The left pleural effusion continued to increase in size and caused displacement of the trachea and mediastinum to the opposite side. An intercostal chest tube was inserted on the left side on the second day. It drained 1500 mL of milky, blood-stained fluid. We confirmed the diagnosis of chylothorax by a histopathological examination of a cell block prepared from the left pleural effusion using Oil red O stain. The patient was managed conservatively with chest tube drainage and fat free diet. The chylothorax completely resolved on the eighth day after the injury. The patient was discharged home on day 16. PMID:27900328

  20. Blunt traumatic tension chylothorax: Case report and mini-review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Idris, Kamal; Sebastian, Michael; Hefny, Ashraf F; Khan, Navidul Haq; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M

    2016-11-16

    Tension chylothorax following blunt thoracic trauma is an extremely rare condition. Here we report such a case and review its management. A 31-year-old man was involved in a road traffic collision. The car rolled over and the patient was ejected from the vehicle. On arrival at the Emergency Department the patient was conscious and haemodynamically stable. Clinical examination of the chest and abdomen was normal. The patient had sustained fractures of the sixth cervical vertebra and the tenth thoracic vertebra, left pleural effusion, haematoma around the descending aorta and fracture of the right clavicle. The left pleural effusion continued to increase in size and caused displacement of the trachea and mediastinum to the opposite side. An intercostal chest tube was inserted on the left side on the second day. It drained 1500 mL of milky, blood-stained fluid. We confirmed the diagnosis of chylothorax by a histopathological examination of a cell block prepared from the left pleural effusion using Oil red O stain. The patient was managed conservatively with chest tube drainage and fat free diet. The chylothorax completely resolved on the eighth day after the injury. The patient was discharged home on day 16.

  1. Hepatitis A Associated with Chylothorax: An Uncommon Presentation of a Common Infection.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Kayur; Shinde, Supriya; Rego, Sylvan; Shet, Anita

    2015-12-01

    Extra-hepatic manifestations have seldom been described with hepatitis A, which usually manifests as mild hepatic dysfunction. We report a 3-year-old boy presenting with 3 days of fever, vomiting, abdominal distention and scleral icterus. On examination, he had tachypnea, hepatosplenomegaly, ascites and right-sided pleural effusion. A diagnostic pleural tap yielded a milky, lymphocyte-predominant exudative aspirate, with pleural fluid triglycerides of 175 mg/dl, suggestive of chylothorax. Serology for anti-HAV IgM was positive in both blood and pleural fluid. The massive effusion causing collapse of the underlying lung was drained by tube thoracostomy, which was followed by complete resolution within 2 weeks. This is the first reported case of chylothorax associated with hepatitis A infection. This report highlights that pleural effusion associated with hepatitis A infection is usually a benign, self-limiting condition which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pleural effusion or chylothorax in a patient with acute viral hepatitis.

  2. Using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support preoperatively and postoperatively as a successful bridge to recovery in a patient with a large infarct-induced ventricular septal defect

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Samuel; Patel, Mitesh J.; Lima, Brian; Felius, Joost; Malyala, Rajasekhar S.; Chamogeorgakis, Themistokles; MacHannaford, Juan C.; Gonzalez-Stawinski, Gonzalo V.

    2016-01-01

    Rupture of the ventricular septum during acute myocardial infarction usually occurs within the first week. The event is usually followed by low cardiac output, heart failure, and multiorgan failure. Despite the many advances in the nonoperative treatment of heart failure and cardiogenic shock, including the intra-aortic balloon pump and a multitude of new inotropic agents and vasodilators, these do not supplant the need for operative intervention in these critically ill patients. This article describes the successful use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support as a bridge to recovery postoperatively in a patient with a large infarct-produced ventricular septal defect. PMID:27365878

  3. [Postoperative respiratory failure in patients with cancer of esophagus and gastric cardia].

    PubMed

    Mao, You-sheng; Zhang, De-chao; He, Jie; Zhang, Ru-gang; Cheng, Gui-yu; Sun, Ke-lin; Wang, Liang-jun; Yang, Lin

    2005-12-01

    We retrospectively analyzed the cause and death risk of 114 postoperative respiratory failure patients found in 3519 patients with esophageal cancer and 1495 patients with carcinoma of gastric cardia surgically treated between January 1992 and May 2003. To analyze the reasons causing postoperative respiratory failure in surgically treated esophageal or gastric cardia cancer patients, and the correlation between the death risk of postoperative respiratory failure and preoperative pulmonary function tests, postoperative complications, operation modes, history of preoperative accompanying diseases and so on using Binary Logistic Regression analysis and Chi-square tests (chi(2)) in SSPS statistics software. In this series, postoperative respiratory failure developed in 97 of 3519 (2.76%) esophageal cancer patients and 17 of 1495 (1.14%) gastric cardia cancer patients, which were mainly caused by severe respiratory tract infection (37.7%, 43/114) and operative complications (35.1%, 40/114) such as: anastomotic leakage or perforation of thoracic stomach, extensive bleeding during operation, chylothorax, etc, totally accounting for 72.8% (83/114). In contrast with lung cancer patients, most of the postoperative respiratory failure (69.3%) occurred in the patients who had perioperative complications but almost always normal preoperative pulmonary function tests. Other reasons to cause postoperative respiratory failure were: extubation in unconscious patients at the end of general anesthesia; over-infusion during operation; pulmonary artery embolism; severe arrhythmia and so on. All patients except 2 were treated in ICU by mechanic ventilation through intubation and/or tracheotomy. Eighty patients (70.2%) were intubated and/or had tracheotomy within 3 days postoperatively. Seventy patients (61.4%) were rescued successfully, whereas 44 cases (38.6%) died of postoperative respiratory failure and/or other postoperative complications. Univariate analysis and multivariate

  4. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt for Treatment of Cirrhosis-related Chylothorax and Chylous Ascites: Single-institution Retrospective Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Kikolski, Steven G. Aryafar, Hamed Rose, Steven C.; Roberts, Anne C.; Kinney, Thomas B.

    2013-08-01

    PurposeTo investigate the efficacy and safety of the use of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation to treat cirrhosis-related chylous collections (chylothorax and chylous ascites).MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed data from four patients treated for refractory cirrhosis-related chylous collections with TIPS at our institution over an 8 year period.ResultsOne patient had chylothorax, and three patients had concomitant chylothorax and chylous ascites. There were no major complications, and the only procedure-related complications occurred in two patients who had mild, treatable hepatic encephalopathy. All patients had improvement as defined by decreased need for thoracentesis or paracentesis, with postprocedure follow-up ranging from 19 to 491 days.ConclusionTIPS is a safe procedure that is effective in the treatment of cirrhosis-related chylous collections.

  5. Postoperative astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Swinger, C A

    1987-01-01

    With the numerous significant advances in surgical methodology--e.g., microinstrumentation, the operating microscope, the surgical keratometer, and intraocular lenses--that have been developed over the past two decades, both surgeons and patients have become increasingly aware of the final optic result of any surgical intervention. This is especially so since the development of refractive surgery, where good uncorrected vision is frequently the final arbiter of success. We have progressed to the stage where the optic manipulation of the cornea, whether intentional or otherwise, can be understood in terms of a number of variables. These include the preparation and closure of the surgical wound, the choice of suture material, and both intraoperative and postoperative manipulations. Where these have failed and postoperative astigmatism still occurs, a number of surgical procedures are available to reduce the astigmatic error to an acceptable level.

  6. Lymphangiopathy in neurofibromatosis 1 manifesting with chylothorax, pericardial effusion, and leg edema

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Stollberger, Claudia; Stubenberger, Elisabeth; Tschakoschian, Sasan

    2013-01-01

    Background This case report documents the affliction of the lymph vessels as a phenotypic feature of neurofibromatosis-1 (NF-1). Methodology Routine transthoracic echocardiography, computed tomography scan of the thorax, magnetic resonance angiography of the renal arteries, and conventional digital subtraction angiography were applied. Comprehensive NF-1 mutation analysis was carried out by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis, long-range reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and multiple-ligation probe assay. All other investigations were performed using routine, well-established techniques. Results The subject is a 34-year-old, half-Chinese male; NF-1 was suspected at age 15 years for the first time. His medical history included preterm birth, mild facial dysmorphism, “café au lait” spots, subcutaneous and paravertebral fibromas, multifocal tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, and heart failure in early infancy. Noncalcified bone fibromas in the femur and tibia were detected at age 8 years. Surgical right leg lengthening was carried out at age 11 years. Bilateral renal artery stenosis, stenosis and aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery, and an infrarenal aortic stenosis were detected at age 15 years. Leg edema and ectasia of the basilar artery were diagnosed at age 18 years. After an episode with an erysipela at age 34 years, he developed pericardial and pleural effusion during a 4-month period. Stenosis of the left subclavian vein at the level of thoracic duct insertion was detected. After repeated pleural punctures, pleural effusion was interpreted as chylothorax. Reduction of lymph fluid production by diet and injection of talcum into the pleural cavity had a long-term beneficial effect on the chylothorax. Leg edema and chylothorax were attributed to affliction of the lymph vessels by the NF-1. Discussion Lymphangiopathy resulting in impaired lymph fluid flow and sequestration of lymph fluid into the pleural sinus and the legs may be a

  7. Spontaneous Resolution of Chylothorax-Associated Lymphoma Treated with External Beam Radiotherapy: A Case Report and Comprehensive Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Timothy K; Boldt, R Gabriel; Louie, Alexander V

    2016-01-01

    Chylothorax is a rare complication of advanced lymphoma. We present the case of an 80-year-old man diagnosed with B cell lymphoma presenting with a right chylothorax secondary to a large retroperitoneal mass. His disease was not responsive to initial treatment with chemotherapy. Fractionated radiotherapy to a dose of 2,000 cGy in five fractions was delivered to the retroperitoneal mass, and the chylothorax improved significantly within days of initiation of treatment. PMID:27733965

  8. Portal vein stent placement for the treatment of postoperative portal vein stenosis: long-term success and factor associated with stent failure.

    PubMed

    Kato, Atsushi; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Ohtsuka, Masayuki; Yoshitomi, Hideyuki; Furukawa, Katsunori; Miyazaki, Masaru

    2017-02-01

    Portal vein stenosis develops due to different causes including postoperative inflammation and oncological processes. However, limited effective therapy is available for portal vein stenosis. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of a portal vein stent for portal vein stenosis after hepatobiliary pancreatic surgery and to determine the factors associated with stent patency. From December 2003 to December 2015, portal vein stents were implanted in 29 patients who had portal vein stenosis after hepatobiliary pancreatic surgery. We conducted a retrospective analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of portal vein stent placement. Twelve clinical variables were analyzed for their role in stent patency. The symptoms before portal vein stent placements included nine patients with hepatic encephalopathy, six patients with gastrointestinal bleeding, four patients with ascites, and four patients with hyperbilirubinemia. Portal vein thrombosis due to postoperative portal stenosis was found in four patients. Portal vein stent were successfully implanted without any major complications. Of the 21 patients with symptoms, 17 showed improvement, and stent patency was maintained in 22 (76%) patients. The presence of a collateral vein is the only variable related to the development of an occlusion after portal stenting. Portal vein stent were implanted safely and had good long-term patency. This procedure is useful to relieve portal hypertension-related symptoms and to improve the quality of life. Our data strongly suggest that embolization to block blood flow in a collateral vein during portal vein stent placement will improve the patency of the stent.

  9. A new validated score for detecting patient-reported success on postoperative ICIQ-SF: a novel two-stage analysis from two large RCT cohorts.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Debjyoti; Mostafa, Alyaa; Abdel-Fattah, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    The Patient Global Impression of Improvement (PGI-I) and International Consultation of Incontinence Questionnaire - Short Form (ICIQ-SF) are validated instruments for the assessment of patient reported outcome measures (PROM) following treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI). However, there is a paucity of evidence as to what represents a successful postintervention ICIQ-SF score. To determine the correlation between the postoperative ICIQ-SF scores with the PGI-I outcomes, the latter was considered one of the standard PROM following surgical treatment for SUI. The aim of this study was to determine, and if appropriate validate, an ICIQ-SF cut-off score that can predict a successful PROM as determined by PGI-I. Four large datasets yielding 674 ICIQ-SF score/PGI-I outcome data pairs were used in this study for (a) determining and (b) validating the cut-off ICIQ-SF score for a successful PGI-I outcome. Two long-term follow-up datasets were used representing follow-up periods of 3 and 8 years of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) performed between April 2005 and April 2007 in a tertiary urogynaecology centre in Scotland, UK. All patients had urodynamic SUI or mixed urinary incontinence (MUI, with predominant SUI) and were randomized to treatment with either an inside-out or an outside-in transobturator tape (TVT-O or TOT, respectively) as a sole procedure. The datasets yielded 432 ICIQ-SF score/PGI-I outcome data pairs. Successful outcome was defined as "very much improved/much improved" on the PGI-I scale. SPSS v. 22.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY) was used for all statistical analyses. The correlations and cut-off scores generated were then validated on two independent datasets representing the 1-year and 4-year follow-up periods of the multicentre RCT in six units in the UK. The datasets yielded 242 ICIQ-SF score/PGI-I outcome data pairs. All patients had urodynamic SUI or MUI (with predominant SUI) and were randomized to either adjustable single incision

  10. Influence of prior radiotherapy on the development of postoperative complications and success of free tissue transfers in head and neck cancer reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Bengtson, B P; Schusterman, M A; Baldwin, B J; Miller, M J; Reece, G P; Kroll, S S; Robb, G L; Goepfert, H

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether prior radiotherapy had any effect on the development of postoperative complications in patients undergoing microvascular tissue transfers for reconstruction of head and neck cancer. A prospective database was used to review 354 consecutive patients who had a total of 368 free tissue transfers limited to the head and neck during the 4-year period from July 1988 to June 1992. Postoperative complications in 167 patients who received preoperative radiotherapy (XRT) were compared with those of 187 patients who did not undergo radiotherapy preoperatively (NR). No statistical differences in complications or flap loss between the two groups were noted using the chi 2 test or Fisher's exact test (p > 0.2). Total flap loss occurred in 5.3% of the XRT group (9 of 169) and 5.0% of the NR patient group (10 of 199), and partial flap loss occurred in 4.1% of the irradiated patients and 2.5% of the nonirradiated patients. Major wound complications requiring additional surgery occurred in 16% of the XRT group and 11% of the NR group. Minor wound complications that did not require further surgery occurred in 21% of the irradiated patients and 18% of the nonirradiated patients. No significant difference in the timing or dose of preoperative radiation, previous neck dissection, or anastomotic type could be documented in failed versus successful flaps (two-tailed t-test, p > 0.80, and chi 2, p > 0.2). Our results show that, in a large group of cancer patients undergoing free tissue transfers to the head and neck, prior radiotherapy or surgery did not predispose them to a higher rate of acute flap loss or wound complications than their nonirradiated cohorts.

  11. Management of Postoperative Respiratory Failure.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Michael S; Berfield, Kathleen S; Abbaszadeh, Ryan V

    2015-11-01

    Despite best efforts, postoperative complications such as postoperative respiratory failure may occur and prompt recognition of the process and management is required. Postoperative respiratory failure, such as postoperative pneumonia, postpneumonectomy pulmonary edema, acute respiratory distress-like syndromes, and pulmonary embolism, are associated with high morbidity and mortality. The causes of these complications are multifactorial and depend on preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors, some of which are modifiable. The article identifies some of the risk factors, causes, and treatment strategies for successful management of the patient with postoperative respiratory failure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Rare case of massive congenital bilateral chylothorax in a hydropic fetus with true mosaicism 47,XXX/46,XX.

    PubMed

    Cremonini, Giorgio; Poggi, Alice; Capucci, Roberta; Vesce, Fortunato; Patella, Alfredo; Marci, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Fetal congenital chylothorax is a rare condition that occurs sporadically or can be associated with abnormal karyotype or structural chromosomal anomalies. We report a unique case of fetal congenital bilateral chylothorax associated with mosaicism 47,XXX/46,XX. A female fetus affected by massive bilateral hydrothorax and ascites was diagnosed at 34(+1) weeks of gestation. Previous ultrasonographic exams were completely normal. Immune causes of hydrops were excluded. Elective cesarean section was performed soon after bilateral thoracocentesis. The analysis of drained pleural fluid revealed its lymphatic nature. The fetal karyotyping, performed on chorionic villi at the 11th week, had shown mosaicism 47,XXX/46,XX, later confirmed in the newborn's blood. We hypothesized that chylothorax may be part of the phenotypic spectrum of 47 XXX karyotype and we suggest an ultrasound follow-up of the fetus at closer intervals than the routine timing for this condition, even if it is not usually characterized by severe phenotypic features. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. Pleural omentalisation with en bloc ligation of the thoracic duct and pericardiectomy for idiopathic chylothorax in nine dogs and four cats.

    PubMed

    Bussadori, Roberto; Provera, Alessandra; Martano, Marina; Morello, Emanuela; Gonzalo-Orden, Josè Manuel; La Rosa, Giuseppe; Stefano, Nicoli; Maria, Repetto Silvia; Sara, Zabarino; Buracco, Paolo

    2011-05-01

    Conventional treatment of idiopathic chylothorax (IC) involves thoracic duct (TD) ligation (with/without lymphagiography) combined with subphrenic pericardiectomy. Nine dogs and four cats with IC, which received intrathoracic omentalisation with TD en bloc ligation (not preceded by lymphangiography) and subphrenic pericardiectomy, were evaluated retrospectively. Seven of nine dogs and 3/4 cats were still alive and disease-free at the time of reporting (range 10-53 and 19-31 months, respectively). Clinical signs of IC did not decrease after the first surgery in one cat and one dog; in another dog clinical signs recurred after 5 months. Overall efficacy rate of this one-stage combined procedure was 77% (6 months), 73% (12 months), and 57% (24 months). Where a second surgery was performed in case of failure, the success rate in dogs was 89% (6 months) and 80% (24 months). Addition of pleural omentalisation to TD en bloc ligation and subphrenic pericardiectomy does not seem to improve results when compared with published data and at present does not seem advisable as a first choice.

  14. [Postoperative hypothyroidism].

    PubMed

    Olifirova, O S; Trynov, N N

    2015-01-01

    There is a number of factors such as the thyroidectomy and limiting subtotal thyroid resection against the background of euthyroidism and initial hypothyroidism (in any extent of operation) which leads to the prediction of early postoperative hypothyroidism origin during 10 days of the postoperative peri- od. The early postoperative hypothyroidism is accompanied by activation processes of lipid peroxide oxidation and at the same time by reduction of antioxidant protection.

  15. Intérêt de la scintigraphie lymphatique et place de la chirurgie dans les chylothorax congénitaux

    PubMed Central

    Methlouthi, Jihène; Mahdhaoui, Nabiha; Bellalah, Manel; Selsabil, Nouir; Hedia, Ayache; Sfar, Raja; Essabah, Habib; Abdellatif, Nouri; Sonia, Nouri; Hassen, Seboui

    2016-01-01

    Le chylothorax est défini par l'accumulation du liquide lymphatique dans la cavité pleurale. Il existe 3 catégories distinctes chez le nouveau-né: les chylothorax congénitaux (CC), les chylothorax malformatifs ou syndromiques (CM) et les chylothorax post-opératoires (CO). Bien que rare, le chylothorax représente la cause la plus fréquente des épanchements pleuraux en période néonatale. Son diagnostic positif est facile par analyse du liquide pleural, mais son mécanisme et surtout l'intégrité du canal thoracique et ses collatérales est parfois difficile à préciser. La lymphoscintigraphie représente l'examen de choix dans le diagnostic etipathogénique. Ce moyen de diagnostic peut être couplé, si possible, au SPECT-CT (single photon emission tomography/computed tomography) permettant de donner des renseignements plus précis, notamment sur le plan anatomique. Sa prise en charge repose sur le drainage du liquide pleural, la suppression des graisses alimentaires et la nutrition parentérale. Le recours à la chirurgie est préconisé devant l'échec du traitement médical. Nous rapportons l'observation d'un nouveau-né porteur d'un chylothorax unilatéral, n'ayant pas répondu au traitement médical. La lymphoscintigraphie avait permis de diagnostiquer le mécanisme étiopathogénique et par conséquent, de guider le traitement chirurgical. PMID:28154676

  16. Correlation of persistent stress urinary incontinence with quality of life after suspension procedures: is continence the only decisive postoperative criterion of success?

    PubMed

    Filbeck, T; Ullrich, T; Pichlmeier, U; Kiel, H J; Wieland, W F; Roessler, W

    1999-08-01

    To determine objective continence rates and to include in the evaluation subjective assessment of continence and quality of life by the affected patients and correlate these with the objective continence rates in a retrospective study. One hundred thirty-three female patients in our clinic underwent suspension procedures for stress urinary incontinence, 68 undergoing a Burch colposuspension and 65 a Raz bladder neck suspension. The continence rate was evaluated by questionnaire and compared with patients' postoperative self-assessment of continence and pre- and postoperative quality of life assessments. For the 105 women returning evaluable questionnaires (57 Burch and 48 Raz procedure), the continence rate was 69.5% (75.4% in the Burch group, 60.4% in the Raz group). Mild incontinence requiring 1 to 2 sanitary pads daily was found in 19.3% of the Burch group and 31.3% of the Raz group. Moderate incontinence requiring 3 to 5 pads daily was found in 5.3% of the Burch and 8.3% of the Raz group. No patients had severe incontinence (more than 5 pads daily). Both groups showed statistically significant improvement in postoperative quality of life. Despite persistent incontinence, the satisfaction rate was comparable to that of continent patients. The results show that in addition to objective parameters, subjective assessment of quality of life is a factor that should be included in the postoperative evaluation of surgical results.

  17. Aeromedical transport of a patient with massive chylothorax following pneumonectomy for mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Deviri, Ehud; Caine, Yehezkel; Henig-Hadar, Avinoam; Saute, Milton; Ish Tov, Eytan

    2009-11-01

    Long-distance transportation of a patient in an unstable condition is a challenging operation. When circumstances require using a commercial flight it is even more so. A 57-yr-old man in Israel underwent extrapleural pneumonectomy for mesothelioma, following which he developed a massive chylothorax of more than 6 L x d(-1). Due to the failure of medical treatment and the high operative risk under such conditions, it was decided to transfer him to the United States by commercial flight for a percutaneous, fluoroscopy-guided closure of the thoracic duct. The patient was accompanied by a physician and a nonmedical assistant and occupied a first-class seat enclosed by curtains. He arrived at the departure airport in a hypovolemic state with low cardiac output and blood pressure of 78/60 Torr. During the flight he was treated with intravenous fluids, chest physiotherapy, and oxygen. In addition, fibrin clots blocked the drainage system on two occasions, requiring corrective action. On arrival in the United States the patient's condition had improved: his blood pressure was 123/91 Torr with a capillary oxygen saturation of 95% without supplementary oxygen. During the 18 h in transit (11 h in flight) he had lost more than 5 L of lymph. Under carefully controlled circumstances it is possible to use commercial flights to transport patients whose condition is unstable and complicated. Safety can be increased by focusing on the specific problems associated with the clinical condition and anticipating possible adverse events during the flight.

  18. Postoperative atelectasis.

    PubMed

    Massard, G; Wihlm, J M

    1998-08-01

    Postoperative atelectasis is a common problem following any surgery. Limited atelectasis is usually well-tolerated and easily reversible. However, complete atelectasis of the remaining lung following partial lung resection may be poorly tolerated. Thoracic surgical procedures increase the risk because pain, thoracic muscle injury, chest wall instability, and diaphragmatic dysfunction impair clearance of secretions by cough. In addition, patients with lung diseases are prone to increased bronchial secretions. Prophylaxis includes preoperative and postoperative physiotherapy and medications, which should be graded in accordance to the individual patient's risk factors. Large atelectasis requires bronchoscopy to remove mucous plugs. Tracheostomy should be considered in patients with relapsing atelectasis or swallow disorders.

  19. The role of the operating room nurse manager in the successful implementation of preoperative briefings and postoperative debriefings in the VHA Medical Team Training Program.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Lori D; Paull, Douglas E; Mazzia, Lisa M; Falzetta, Lisa; Hay, James; Neily, Julia; Mills, Peter D; Carney, Brian; Bagian, James P

    2010-10-01

    To improve communication within surgical teams, Veterans Health Administration (VHA) implemented a Medical Team Training Program (MTT) based on the principles of crew resource management. One hundred two VHA facilities were analyzed. Nursing leadership participation in the planning stages of the program was compared with outcomes at follow-up. Nurse manager participation in planning was associated with higher rates of implementation of preoperative briefing and postoperative debriefing. Nurse managers are a critical component in the planning phase of team training programs focused on OR clinical staff. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Do postoperative radiographically verified technical success, improved cosmesis, and trunk shift corroborate with patient-reported outcomes in Lenke 1C adolescent idiopathic scoliosis?

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shallu; Bünger, Cody Eric; Andersen, Thomas; Sun, Haolin; Wu, Chunsen; Hansen, Ebbe Stender

    2015-07-01

    To examine correlation between postoperative radiographic and cosmetic improvements in Lenke 1C adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) with patients' self-rated outcomes of health and disability at follow-up as determined by the Scoliosis Research Society questionnaire (SRS-30), Oswestry Disability Index score (ODI) and measure of overall health quality Euroqol-5d (EQ-5D). 24 Lenke 1C scoliosis patients, mean age 16.5 (12.8-38.1) years, treated with posterior pedicle screw-only construct, were included. The coronal profile indices (radiographic and cosmetic) regarding magnitude of spinal deformity and truncal balance were measured preoperatively, postoperatively and at final follow-up. A comprehensive index of overall back symmetry was also measured by means of the Posterior Trunk Symmetry Index (POTSI). Pearson's correlation analysis determined the association between the radiographic-cosmetic indices and patient-rated outcomes. Mean follow-up for the cohort was 4.4 (±1.86) years. The thoracic apical vertebra-first thoracic vertebra horizontal distance (AV-TI) correction had significant correlation with function, self-image, and mental health SRS-30 scores (0.55, 0.54, 0.66). Similarly, thoracic apical vertebra horizontal translation from central sacral vertical line (AV-CSVL) correction at follow-up had significant correlation with self-image and management domains (0.57, 0.50). Follow-up POTSI correlated well with SRS-30 and EQ-5D scores (r = -0.64, -0.54). Postoperative leftward trunk shift/spinal imbalance did not influence overall cosmesis and outcomes; significant spinal realignment was evident in follow-up resulting in physiological balance and acceptable cosmesis and outcomes. Significant, but less than "perfect" correlations were observed between the radiographic, cosmetic measures and patient-rated outcomes. Thoracic AV-CSVL, AV-T1 correction and POTSI associated significantly with SRS-30 scores. Whereas, thoracic Cobb angle, Cobb correction, and

  1. [Postoperative pain.].

    PubMed

    Bergmann, H

    1987-07-01

    A short survey about the different methods available for producing postoperative analgesia is given, the goal being to make it clear to the clinician that there are quite a number of techniques to be used although the everyday clinical practice often sticks to simple and not too effective methods of pain treatment following surgery. Initially presenting short informations about the neurophysiology of pain and the pathogenesis and causes of postoperative pain two main groups of producing analgesia are then discussed.Thefirst group deals with the systemic use of analgesics be it nonnarcotic analgesic antipyretics or narcotic analgesics (opioids). As for the first subgroup the peripheral action of these drugs (metamizol, acetylsalicylic acid, paracetamol) is brought about by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins. These substances can only be used for very moderate postoperative pain f.i. following head and neck surgery. The strong acting opioids belong to the second subgroup. Recent informations on receptor sites in the brain and cord and the subgrouping of the receptors throws new light on the understanding of the different effects of these drugs and on the pathomechanisms of agonistic, antagonistic and mixed activities. The clinically used opioids then are mentioned (morphine, fentanyl, methadon, pethidin, piritramide, tilidin, buprenorphin and pentazocine) and dosage, duration of action, antagonisms and untoward side effects are presented. Stress is laid on the recent development of patient-controlled analgesia with all its advantages. Thesecond main group of methods for postoperative analgesia consists of regional anesthesia techniques as there are brachial plexus block, intercostal block and the continuous epidural analgesia using both local anesthetics and spinal opioids. The brachial plexus block in continuous form is absolutely able to prevent pain after operations in the shoulder-arm-region and can be prolonged even for weeks using catheter techniques. The

  2. Rethinking Our Definition of Postoperative Success: A Comparative Analysis of Three Upper Eyelid Retraction Repair Techniques Using Novel Metrics to Capture Functional and Aesthetic Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jacob A; Clark, Thomas J E; Zimmerman, M Bridget; Allen, Richard C; Nerad, Jeffrey A; Carter, Keith D; Shriver, Erin M

    2017-02-10

    To compare 3 upper eyelid retraction repair techniques and introduce novel metrics, which enhance the analysis of postoperative aesthetic outcomes. Retrospective review with Image J 1.48 digital analysis of patients who underwent repair of thyroid-related upper eyelid retraction at the University of Iowa from 1996 to 2014 via 1 of 3 surgical techniques, septum-opening levator recession with Muellerectomy, modified septum-preserving levator recession with Muellerectomy, and modified septum-preserving full-thickness blepharotomy, was conducted. Photographs were obtained preoperatively, 3 to 6 months postoperatively, and at last follow up (>6 months) and evaluated by digital image analysis (denoted by "i"). Outcome measures assessed were marginal reflex distance (iMRD1), temporal-to-nasal ratio, tarsal platform show (iTPS), pupil to visible eyelid crease, brow fat span (iBFS), tarsal platform show to brow fat span ratio (iTPS:iBFS), and tarsal platform show minimizing power (iTPS-minimizing power). A total of 121 eyelids (28 septum-opening levator recession with Muellerectomy, 66 septum-preserving levator recession with Muellerectomy, and 27 septum-preserving full-thickness blepharotomy) from 74 patients were evaluated with a mean follow up of 24.2 months. There were no statistically significant differences between techniques in terms of iMRD1 or temporal-to-nasal ratio reduction at either time point (intertechnique p values of 0.17 to >0.99). The percentage of eyelids from subjects undergoing bilateral intervention that achieved a final iMRD1 between 2.50 mm and 4.50 mm was similar (intertechnique p value of 0.23), with no difference regarding the number of subjects demonstrating iMRD1 symmetry within 1 mm (intertechnique p value of 0.15). Though iTPS elongation was greater at 3 to 6 months with septum-opening compared with the combined septum-preserving techniques (p value of 0.04), this difference was not maintained at final follow up (p value of >0.99). There was

  3. Postoperative hyperkalemia.

    PubMed

    Ayach, Taha; Nappo, Robert W; Paugh-Miller, Jennifer L; Ross, Edward A

    2015-03-01

    Hyperkalemia occurs frequently in hospitalized patients and is of particular concern for those who have undergone surgery, with postoperative care provided by clinicians of many disciplines. This review describes the normal physiology and how multiple perioperative factors can disrupt potassium homeostasis and lead to severe elevations in plasma potassium concentration. The pathophysiologic basis of diverse causes of hyperkalemia was used to broadly classify etiologies into those with altered potassium distribution (e.g. increased potassium release from cells or other transcellular shifts), reduced urinary excretion (e.g. reduced sodium delivery, volume depletion, and hypoaldosteronism), or an exogenous potassium load (e.g. blood transfusions). Surgical conditions of particular concern involve: rhabdomyolysis from malpositioning, trauma or medications; bariatric surgery; vascular procedures with tissue ischemia; acidosis; hypovolemia; and volume or blood product resuscitation. Certain acute conditions and chronic co-morbidities present particular risk. These include chronic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, many outpatient preoperative medications (e.g. beta blockers, salt substitutes), and inpatient agents (e.g. succinylcholine, hyperosmolar volume expanders). Clinicians need to be aware of these pathophysiologic mechanisms for developing perioperative hyperkalemia as many of the risks can be minimized or avoided.

  4. Mediastinal micro-vessels clipping during lymph node dissection may contribute to reduce postoperative pleural drainage

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Shi; Wang, Xing; Lv, Chao; Phan, Kevin; Wang, Yuzhao; Wang, Jia; Yang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Background Postoperative pleural drainage markedly influences the length of postoperative stay and financial costs of medical care. The aim of this study is to retrospectively investigate potentially predisposing factors related to pleural drainage after curative thoracic surgery and to explore the impact of mediastinal micro-vessels clipping on pleural drainage control after lymph node dissection. Methods From February 2012 to November 2013, 322 consecutive cases of operable non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) undergoing lobectomy and mediastinal lymph node dissection with or without application of clipping were collected. Total and daily postoperative pleural drainage were recorded. Propensity score matching (1:2) was applied to balance variables potentially impacting pleural drainage between group clip and group control. Analyses were performed to compare drainage volume, duration of chest tube and postoperative hospital stay between the two groups. Variables linked with pleural drainage in whole cohort were assessed using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results Propensity score matching resulted in 197 patients (matched cohort). Baseline patient characteristics were matched between two groups. Group clip showed less cumulative drainage volume (P=0.020), shorter duration of chest tube (P=0.031) and postoperative hospital stay (P=0.022) compared with group control. Risk factors significantly associated with high-output drainage in multivariable logistic regression analysis were being male, age >60 years, bilobectomy/sleeve lobectomy, pleural adhesion, the application of clip applier, duration of operation ≥220 minutes and chylothorax (P<0.05). Conclusions This study suggests that mediastinal micro-vessels clipping during lymph node dissection may reduce postoperative pleural drainage and thus shorten hospital stay. PMID:27076936

  5. Postoperative management of lower extremity amputation.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, T; Goldberg, S; Pollak, J

    2000-08-01

    Postoperative management of lower extremity amputation continues to evolve with advances in prosthetic technology, surgical technique, and rehabilitation considerations. Almost 50 years ago, the first immediate postoperative prosthesis was conceived, and has been used since with varying degrees of success. More recently, use of the removable rigid dressing combined with aggressive physical therapy has been found to be a safe and cost-effective method of treatment for the new amputee.

  6. Postoperative singultus: an osteopathic approach.

    PubMed

    Petree, Kristie; Bruner, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    Singultus, or hiccups, is a common medical condition. Despite exponential leaps in medicine, the pathophysiologic cause remains poorly defined. Persistent singultus has been associated with conditions such as pulmonary embolism and myocardial infarction. Singultus is also a well-known postoperative complication. The criterion standard of care for patients with singultus involves ruling out lethal pathologic causes, attempting physical stimulation with Valsava maneuvers or drinking water, and, if no relief has been achieved, administering drugs to ease the symptoms. The authors report a case of a man whose postoperative singultus was successfully managed with osteopathic manipulative treatment. This approach addresses many of the possible underlying neuromechanical causes of the aberrant reflex with minimal potential for adverse effects. Physicians should consider osteopathic manipulative treatment in the care of patients with singultus.

  7. A Rare Case of Angioimmunoblastic T-Cell Lymphoma with Epstein-Barr Virus-Negative Reed-Sternberg-Like B-Cells, Chylous Ascites, and Chylothorax.

    PubMed

    Willemsen, Mathijs; Dielis, Arne W J H; Samarska, Iryna V; Koster, Ad; van Marion, Arienne M

    2017-01-01

    Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma is a rare non-Hodgkin lymphoma with dismal prognosis. The median age of presentation ranges from 62 to 69 years with generalized lymphadenopathy, B symptoms, and hepatosplenomegaly as the most prevalent symptoms. The combination of B-cell and T-cell proliferations is common in AITL and the B-cell component may resemble Reed-Sternberg-like B-cells. Epstein-Barr virus is estimated to be present in 80-95% of AITL biopsies. Only a handful of EBV-negative AITL cases with EBV-negative RS-like B-cells have been reported over the last decade. We present a rare case of EBV-negative AITL with chylous ascites and chylothorax. Microscopic and immunohistochemical analysis revealed the presence of EBV-negative Reed-Sternberg-like B-cells in the tumor.

  8. [Postoperative pain in craniotomy].

    PubMed

    Peón, Andréa Ungaro; Diccini, Solange

    2005-01-01

    In the postoperative period, 47% to 75% of the patients report some degree of pain. This study aimed to evaluate pain in the pre and postoperative period of patients submitted to craniotomy. This prospective research was carried out at the neurosurgery unit of a large Brazilian hospital. For a quantitative evaluation of pain, the verbal numeric 0-10 rating scale was used. Forty patients with a mean age of 36 years were evaluated. In the preoperative period, 34 (85%) patients indicated headache as the main cause of pain. In the postoperative period, 37 (93%) patients complained of pain while three (7%) reported absence of pain. Pain peaks were observed on the 2nd postoperative day, when 12 (32%) of the patients reported severe pain and 10 (27%) moderate pain. Absence of severe pain occurred after the 8th postoperative day. It was concluded that protocols of analgesia in craniotomy are needed, such as training nurses to better evaluate and handle pain.

  9. Understanding postoperative fatigue.

    PubMed

    Rose, E A; King, T C

    1978-07-01

    Performance characteristics of the central nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory and muscular systems in man postoperatively have received little investigative attention, despite the well known syndrome of postoperative fatigue. The impairmen in perception and psychomotor skills that has been shown to result from caloric restriction, bedrest, sedation and sleep deprivation suggests that a similar deficit may occur after surgical procedures. After a simple elective surgical procedure, maximal oxygen uptake decreases and the adaptability of heart rate to submaximal workloads is impaired. Similar deleterious effects on cardiorespiratory performance have been documented with starvation and bedrest; an understanding of cardiorespiratory performance postoperatively awaits further investigation. Maximal muscular force of contraction is also impaired by caloric restriction and bedrest, suggesting that similar effects may be seen in the postoperative state, although this has not been studied. A better understanding of the syndrome of postoperative fatigue could be achieved by a descriptive analysis of physiologic performance postoperatively. Such descriptive data could form the basis for objective evaluation of therapeutic measures intended to improve performance, such as nutritional supplementation and pharmacologic intervention. The observation that exercise with the patient in the supine position may decrease the impairment in maximal aerobic power otherwise expected in immobilized patients suggests that controlled exercise therapy may be of value in reducing physiologic impairment postoperatively.

  10. [Chronic postoperative pain].

    PubMed

    Cachemaille, Matthieu; Blanc, Catherine

    2016-06-22

    Chronic postoperative pain remains a frequent pathology whose global impact approximates 20 and 30% and accounts for 20% of the consultations in a pain center. Risk factors consider firstly each patient's feature and comorbidity and also different surgical procedures with their technical approach. Neuropathic pain compared to nociceptive pain is a great component in the postoperative period and needs to be recognized by specific tests (DN4). Pain prevention involves risk factors' detection, appropriate anesthetic support and effective postoperative pain management. Treatment is based on the type of pain and includes a multimodal analgesia with interventional pain therapy.

  11. [Characteristics of postoperative peritonitis].

    PubMed

    Lock, J F; Eckmann, C; Germer, C-T

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative peritonitis is still a life-threatening complication after abdominal surgery and approximately 10,000 patients annually develop postoperative peritonitis in Germany. Early recognition and diagnosis before the onset of sepsis has remained a clinical challenge as no single specific screening test is available. The aim of therapy is a rapid and effective control of the source of infection and antimicrobial therapy. After diagnosis of diffuse postoperative peritonitis surgical revision is usually inevitable after intestinal interventions. Peritonitis after liver, biliary or pancreatic surgery is managed as a rule by means of differentiated therapy approaches depending on the severity.

  12. Postoperative permanent pressure alopecia.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zi Yun; Ngian, Jan; Chong, Claudia; Chong, Chin Ted; Liew, Qui Yin

    2016-04-01

    A 49-year-old Chinese female underwent elective laparoscopic assisted Whipple's surgery lasting 12 h. This was complicated by postoperative pressure alopecia at the occipital area of the scalp. Pressure-induced hair loss after general anaesthesia is uncommon and typically temporary, but may be disconcerting to the patient. We report this case of postoperative permanent pressure alopecia due to its rarity in the anaesthesia/local literature, and review the risk factors for its development.

  13. Successful balloon dilatation for postoperative caval stenosis caused by primary venorrhaphy for traumatic retro-hepatic caval injury in a three-year-old child: Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Masui, Daisuke; Iinuma, Yasushi; Hirayama, Yutaka; Nitta, Kohju; Iida, Hisataka; Otani, Tetsuya; Yokoyama, Naoyuki; Sato, Seiichi; Numano, Fujito; Yagi, Minoru

    2015-09-01

    Inferior vena cava injuries are highly lethal. We experienced a case of retrohepatic inferior vena cava injury as a result of blunt trauma in a three-year-old female. Because the site of bleeding of the IVC was identified, we repaired it with running sutures. An attempt at primary repair resulted in postoperative narrowing of the vena cava. There was pressure gradient of the right atrium and inferior vena cava, and collateral circulation developed. Since it was also found that the haemodynamics was unstable, the child underwent another intervention before the stenosis of the IVC was fixed. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no previous reports of therapeutic radiological intervention for stenosis that developed after treatment of a traumatic IVC injury. The IVC in the present case recovered enough patency so that the collateral venous flow could be decreased after balloon dilatation angioplasty.

  14. Postoperative intussusception in children.

    PubMed

    Türkyilmaz, Z; Sönmez, K; Demiroğullari, B; Karabulut, R; Ozen, I O; Moralioğlu, S; Başaklar, A C; Kale, N

    2005-04-01

    Postoperative intussusception (POI) is an uncommon cause of postoperative mechanical bowel obstruction in children. Four cases of POI during a period of 15 years (1987-2001) were analysed retrospectively. Symptoms developed after a median period of 2.5 days following the operation. All cases were succesfully treated with operative manual reduction. POI occurs after a wide variety of surgical procedures and is often difficult to diagnose because the symptoms are often obscure. As a conclusion, we state that reaching a diagnose requires a high index of suspicion.

  15. Kidney dysfunction in the postoperative period.

    PubMed

    Sear, J W

    2005-07-01

    The development of perioperative acute renal failure is associated with a high incidence of morbidity and mortality. Although this incidence varies with different surgical procedures and with the definition used for renal failure, we now understand better the aetiology of the underlying problem. However, successful strategies to provide renal protection or strategies for 'rescue therapy' are either lacking, unsubstantiated by randomized clinical trials, or show no significant efficacy. The present review considers the physiology and pharmacology of the kidney; the characterization of tests of renal function; the cause of postoperative renal dysfunction; what is presently available for its prevention and treatment; and the effect of postoperative renal impairment on patient outcome.

  16. Postoperative global amnesia reversed with flumazenil.

    PubMed

    Rinehart, Joseph B; Baker, Brandee; Raphael, Darren

    2012-07-01

    Global postoperative amnesia (profound anterograde and retrograde amnesia) is rare and usually attributed to transient global amnesia-a poorly understood condition with no broadly accepted mechanism. We report an incident of probable transient global amnesia in a patient after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogram under general anesthesia, which was successfully treated with flumazenil. On the basis of the results of flumazenil administration in this and a previous case report, we would recommend a trial dose of 0.2 mg for cases of global postoperative amnesia, repeated if the first dose seems effective.

  17. Postoperative pyoderma gangrenosum: a rare complication after appendectomy.

    PubMed

    Faghihi, G; Abtahi-Naeini, B; Nikyar, Z; Jamshidi, K; Bahrami, A

    2015-01-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is an uncommon inflammatory ulcerative skin disease. It is characterized by painful progressive necrosis of the wound margins. Rarely, postoperative pyoderma gangrenosum (PPG) manifests as a severe disturbance of wound healing following surgical interventions. Only rare cases of this complication have been reported after appendectomy. We report a case of PPG in a 29-year-old female after appendectomy. She was successfully treated with oral prednisolone. Postoperative pyoderma gangrenosum should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of any postoperative delayed wound healing, because this disease is simply distinguished from a postoperative wound.

  18. Postoperative intravenous morphine titration.

    PubMed

    Aubrun, F; Mazoit, J-X; Riou, B

    2012-02-01

    Relief of acute pain during the immediate postoperative period is an important task for anaesthetists. Morphine is widely used to control moderate-to-severe postoperative pain and the use of small i.v. boluses of morphine in the post-anaesthesia care unit allows a rapid titration of the dose needed for adequate pain relief. The essential principle of a titration regimen must be to adapt the morphine dose to the pain level. Although morphine would not appear to be the most appropriate choice for achieving rapid pain relief, this is the sole opioid assessed in many studies of immediate postoperative pain management using titration. More than 90% of the patients have pain relief using a protocol of morphine titration and the mean dose required to obtain pain relief is 12 (7) mg, after a median of four boluses. Sedation is frequent during i.v. morphine titration and should be considered as a morphine-related adverse event and not evidence of pain relief. The incidence of ventilatory depression is very low when the criteria to limit the dose of i.v. morphine are enforced. Morphine titration can be used with caution in elderly patients, in children, or in obese patients. In practice, i.v. morphine titration allows the physician to meet the needs of individual patients rapidly and limits the risk of overdose making this method the first step in postoperative pain management.

  19. Postoperative incentive spirometry use.

    PubMed

    Hassanzadeh, Hamid; Jain, Amit; Tan, Eric W; Stein, Benjamin E; Van Hoy, Megan L; Stewart, Nadine N; Lemma, Mesfin A

    2012-06-01

    The authors hypothesized that the use of incentive spirometry by orthopedic patients is less than the recommended level and is affected by patient-related factors and type of surgery. To determine its postoperative use, the authors prospectively surveyed all patients in their institution's general orthopedic ward who had undergone elective spine surgery or total knee or hip arthroplasty during a consecutive 3-month period in 2010, excluding patients with postoperative delirium or requiring a monitored bed. All 182 patients (74 men, 108 women; average age, 64.5 years; range, 32-88 years; spine group, n=55; arthroplasty group, n=127), per protocol, received preoperative spirometry education by a licensed respiratory therapist (recommended use, 10 times hourly) and reinforcement education by nurses. Patients were asked twice daily (morning and evening) regarding their spirometry use during the previous 1-hour period by a registered nurse on postoperative days 1 through 3. All data were collected by the same 2 nurses using the same standardized questionnaire. Spirometry use was correlated with surgery type, postoperative day/time, and patient's age and sex. Student's t test, Spearman test, and one-way analysis of variance were used to compare differences (P<.05). Spirometry use averaged 4.1 times per hour (range, 0-10 times). No statistical correlations were found between spirometry use and age. Sex did not influence spirometry use. The arthroplasty group reported significantly higher use than did the spine group: 4.3 and 3.5 times per hour, respectively. Mean use increased significantly between postoperative days 1, 2, and 3.

  20. Postoperative pain management.

    PubMed

    Joshi, G P

    1994-01-01

    Inadequately treated pain is a major cause of unanticipated hospital admissions after ambulatory surgery. The ability to provide adequate pain relief by simple methods that are readily available to the day-care patient in his or her home environment is one of the major challenges for providers of ambulatory surgery and anesthesia. The increasing number of extensive and painful surgical procedures (e.g., laparoscopic cholecystectomy, laminectomy, knee construction, hysterectomies) being undertaken on an ambulatory basis presents new challenges with respect to acute postoperative pain. Hence the availability of more sophisticated and effective treatment modalities, such as ambulatory PCA and continuous local and regional anesthetic blocks, with minimal side effects, are necessary to optimize the benefits of ambulatory surgery for both patient and health care provider. However, outcome studies are needed to evaluate the effect of these newer therapeutic approaches with respect to postoperative side effects and other important recovery parameters. Recent studies suggest that factors other than pain per se must be controlled to reduce postoperative morbidity and facilitate the recovery process. Not surprisingly, the anesthetic technique can influence analgesic requirement in the early postoperative period. Although oral analgesic agents will continue to play an important role, the adjunctive use of local anesthetic agents is likely to assume an even greater role in the future. Use of drug combinations (e.g., opiates and local anesthetics, opiates and NSAIDs) may provide improved analgesia with fewer side effects. Finally, safer and simpler analgesic delivery systems are needed to improve our ability to provide cost-effective pain relief after ambulatory surgery. In conclusion, as a result of our enhanced understanding of the mechanisms of acute pain and the physiological basis of nociception, the provision of "stress-free" anesthesia with minimal postoperative

  1. Postoperative pain treatment for ambulatory surgery.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Narinder

    2007-03-01

    One of the most significant changes in surgical practice during the last two decades has been the growth of ambulatory surgery. Adequate postoperative analgesia is a prerequisite for successful ambulatory surgery. Recent studies have shown that large numbers of patients suffer from moderate to severe pain during the first 24-48 hr. The success of fast-tracking depends to a considerable extent on effective postoperative pain management routines and the cost saving of outpatient surgery may be negated by unanticipated hospital admission for poorly treated pain. Depending on the intensity of postoperative pain current management includes the use of analgesics such as paracetamol, NSAIDs including coxibs and tramadol as single drugs or in combination as part of balanced (multimodal) analgesia. However, in the ambulatory setting many patients suffer from pain at home in spite of multimodal analgesic regimens. Sending patients home with perineural, incisional, and intra-articular catheters is a new and evolving area of postoperative pain management. Current evidence suggests that these techniques are effective, feasible and safe in the home environment if appropriate patient selection routines and organization for follow-up are in place.

  2. Keratophakia--postoperative astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Swinger, C A; Troutman, R C; Forman, J S

    1987-01-01

    Forty-nine cases of primary keratophakia and 13 cases of secondary keratophakia were analyzed for postoperative astigmatism. For primary cases, the surgically induced astigmatism was 1.55 D, whereas for secondary cases it was 0.19 D (insignificant). There was a tendency for both procedures to induce against-the-rule astigmatism, and both procedures were found capable of producing irregular astigmatism.

  3. [Factors affecting postoperative pain].

    PubMed

    Soler Company, E; Faus Soler, M; Montaner Abasolo, M; Morales Olivas, F; Martínez-Pons Navarro, V

    2001-04-01

    To determine the influence on the intensity of postoperative pain of the following variables: sex, age, type of surgery, surgical approach, anesthetic technique and analgesia administered. Six hundred twenty-three hospitalized patients were enrolled from the units of general and digestive surgery, gynecology and obstetrics, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology, traumatology and orthopedics, and urology. Pain intensity was measured on a visual analog scale (VAS) when the patient left the post-anesthesia recovery ward (PARU) and 24 and 48 h after surgery, and on a verbal evaluation scale (VES) during the first and second days after surgery. Gynecology is the department where the most pain is reported, both when the patient leaves the PARU (>= 4 for 56.6% of patients) and during the first day on the ward (71.3% of patients suffer pain of moderate or high intensity). The correlation of pain with duration of procedure was strongest in the urology and surgery units, with common variances of 32.3% and 23.4%, respectively. More pain is felt during open procedures in the traumatology and urology units, which is not the case in gynecology and surgery. Patients receiving general anesthesia leave the PARU with pain at 3.4 +/- 1.8 cm on the VAS scale, versus 1.3 +/- 1.6 cm for patients receiving locoregional anesthesia. Patients who received only ketorolac for pain in the PARU generally experienced less intense pain (2.5 +/- 2.0 cm) than did those who received metamizol (3.3 +/- 1.5 cm), morphine (4.0 +/- 1.8 cm) or tramadol (4.5 +/- 1.8 cm). Surgical department, surgical approach, anesthetic technique and, finally, analgesic administered are the factors that determine the intensity of postoperative pain. These factors should therefore be taken into account when establishing treatment protocols to assure adequate control of postoperative pain. Neither sex nor age were determining factors for the intensity of postoperative pain.

  4. [Pathophysiology of postoperative pain].

    PubMed

    Wordliczek, J; Dobrogowski, J

    2000-01-01

    The rapid progress in neurophysiology and neuropharmacology has made it possible to understand an entire series of pain-related processes. The discovery of endogenic opioid system, the noradrenergic and serotoninergic antinociceptive systems, peripheral opioid receptors and of the role of NMDA, muscarinic and nicotinic receptors in nociception allowed for an optimization of pain treatment through the use of new drugs and therapies. An appropriate pain treatment procedure prevents the development of persistent postoperative pain, which is described as a pathological chronic pain that endures following the operation despite normal healing process having taken place in affected tissues.

  5. Postoperative conversion disorder.

    PubMed

    Afolabi, Kola; Ali, Sameer; Gahtan, Vivian; Gorji, Reza; Li, Fenghua; Nussmeier, Nancy A

    2016-05-01

    Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder in which psychological stress causes neurologic deficits. A 28-year-old female surgical patient had uneventful general anesthesia and emergence but developed conversion disorder 1 hour postoperatively. She reported difficulty speaking, right-hand numbness and weakness, and right-leg paralysis. Neurologic examination and imaging revealed no neuronal damage, herniation, hemorrhage, or stroke. The patient mentioned failing examinations the day before surgery and discontinuing her prescribed antidepressant medication, leading us to diagnose conversion disorder, with eventual confirmation by neuroimaging and follow-up examinations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Postoperative urinary retention.

    PubMed

    Darrah, Daniela M; Griebling, Tomas L; Silverstein, Jeffrey H

    2009-09-01

    Postoperative urinary retention (PUR) is a common complication of surgery and anesthesia. The risk of retention is especially high after anorectal surgery, hernia repair, and orthopedic surgery and increases with advancing age. Certain anesthetic and analgesic modalities, particularly spinal anesthesia with long-acting local anesthetics and epidural analgesia, promote the development of urinary retention. Portable ultrasound provides rapid and accurate assessment of bladder volume and aids in the diagnosis and management of PUR. Catheterization is recommended when bladder volume exceeds 600 mL to prevent the negative sequelae of prolonged bladder overdistention.

  7. Postoperative fluid management

    PubMed Central

    Kayilioglu, Selami Ilgaz; Dinc, Tolga; Sozen, Isa; Bostanoglu, Akin; Cete, Mukerrem; Coskun, Faruk

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative care units are run by an anesthesiologist or a surgeon, or a team formed of both. Management of postoperative fluid therapy should be done considering both patients’ status and intraoperative events. Types of the fluids, amount of the fluid given and timing of the administration are the main topics that determine the fluid management strategy. The main goal of fluid resuscitation is to provide adequate tissue perfusion without harming the patient. The endothelial glycocalyx dysfunction and fluid shift to extracellular compartment should be considered wisely. Fluid management must be done based on patient’s body fluid status. Patients who are responsive to fluids can benefit from fluid resuscitation, whereas patients who are not fluid responsive are more likely to suffer complications of over-hydration. Therefore, common use of central venous pressure measurement, which is proved to be inefficient to predict fluid responsiveness, should be avoided. Goal directed strategy is the most rational approach to assess the patient and maintain optimum fluid balance. However, accessible and applicable monitoring tools for determining patient’s actual fluid need should be further studied and universalized. The debate around colloids and crystalloids should also be considered with goal directed therapies. Advantages and disadvantages of each solution must be evaluated with the patient’s specific condition. PMID:26261771

  8. Diagnosis, Prevention and Management of Postoperative Pulmonary Edema

    PubMed Central

    Bajwa, SJ Singh; Kulshrestha, A

    2012-01-01

    Postoperative pulmonary edema is a well-known postoperative complication caused as a result of numerous etiological factors which can be easily detected by a careful surveillance during postoperative period. However, there are no preoperative and intraoperative criteria which can successfully establish the possibilities for development of postoperative pulmonary edema. The aims were to review the possible etiologic and diagnostic challenges in timely detection of postoperative pulmonary edema and to discuss the various management strategies for prevention of this postoperative complication so as to decrease morbidity and mortality. The various search engines for preparation of this manuscript were used which included Entrez (including Pubmed and Pubmed Central), NIH.gov, Medknow.com, Medscape.com, WebMD.com, Scopus, Science Direct, MedHelp.org, yahoo.com and google.com. Manual search was carried out and various text books and journals of anesthesia and critical care medicine were also searched. From the information gathered, it was observed that postoperative cardiogenic pulmonary edema in patients with serious cardiovascular diseases is most common followed by noncardiogenic pulmonary edema which can be due to fluid overload in the postoperative period or it can be negative pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE). NPPE is an important clinical entity in immediate post-extubation period and occurs due to acute upper airway obstruction and creation of acute negative intrathoracic pressure. NPPE carries a good prognosis if promptly diagnosed and appropriately treated with or without mechanical ventilation. PMID:23439791

  9. [Postoperative analgesia and dexamethasone].

    PubMed

    Miralles, F S; Cárceles, M D; Micol, J A; Hernández, J; del Pino, A

    1989-01-01

    A randomized, double-blind, prospective study was carried out in 100 patients who had undergone some type of surgical treatment in order to evaluate the degree of pain and relief of pain, the degree of achieved analgesia according to the opinion of the observer and consumption of analgesic agents. The evaluation was carried out on seven occasions during the first 12 hours of the postoperative period. Patients received dexamethasone (4 mg before or after the operation or 8 mg after the operation), 6-methylprednisolone (16 mg at the end of the operation) or nothing (control group). Regardless of type, dose or timing of administration of the drugs, all patients receiving corticosteroids presented less pain, more relief of pain (expressed by themselves or in opinion of the observer) and needed lower doses of analgesics during the studied time.

  10. Imaging of postoperative shoulder instability.

    PubMed

    De Filippo, M; Pesce, A; Barile, A; Borgia, D; Zappia, M; Romano, A; Pogliacomi, F; Verdano, M; Pellegrini, A; Johnson, K

    2017-03-01

    Postoperative imaging in shoulder instability is still a challenge for radiologists due to various postsurgical anatomical findings that could be considered pathologic in treated shoulder. For this reason is very important a deep knowledge about surgical procedures, anatomical changes after surgery and the appropriate diagnostic imaging modalities to work up the symptomatic postoperative shoulder. Postoperative imaging options include use conventional radiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), MRI arthrography, computed tomography (CT) and CT arthrography. The purpose of our review is to explain the different surgical procedures and to describe postoperative changes detected with radiological imaging.

  11. [Postoperative complications in plastic surgery].

    PubMed

    Vogt, P M

    2009-09-01

    Plastic surgery covers a broad spectrum of diseases and conditions in the areas of reconstructive surgery, hand, burn and aesthetic surgery. Besides acquired defects or malformations an increasing number of patients are being treated for surgical or multimodal complications. In a considerable number of patients plastic and reconstructive surgery remains the only therapeutic alternative after other therapy has failed. Therefore complication management in plastic surgery is of utmost importance for a successful outcome. In addition patient expectations in the results of plastic surgery as a discipline of invention and problem solving are steadily increasing. This challenge is reflected in clinical patient management by intensive research in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Patients in plastic surgery are recruited from all age groups of either gender, involving traumatic and oncologic as well as congenital and aesthetic disorders. The demographics of aging, multimorbidity and obesity pose new challenges to plastic surgery. Although age over 70 years is not an independent risk factor per se for complications in plastic surgery, e.g. for complex free flap transfer, medical problems are present at a higher rate, which is to be expected in this age group. Risk factors such as alcoholism and coronary heart diseases seem to be independent predictors of perioperative complications. Therefore older patients can also benefit from plastic surgery and recurrent operations by the corresponding risk and complication management. Complication management necessitates careful patient selection, estimation of operative risks and patient-adapted selection of procedures. In addition to expertise in plastic surgery a thorough knowledge of non-surgical and surgical back-up procedures for technical incidents as well as vascular circulatory and wound healing disorders is required to deal successfully with complications in plastic surgery. This article presents these specific

  12. Post-operative hyponatraemic encephalopathy: a successful outcome despite hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Suan, C; Pozo, G Yerga

    2014-02-01

    Hyponatraemia is the most common electrolyte disorder encountered in clinical practice. Symptomatic hyponatraemia reflects brain damage because of cerebral swelling. Some coexisting factors such as extreme ages, hypoxia and female sex are associated with poor prognosis. In this report, we describe the case of a 75-year-old patient who suffered from hyponatraemic encephalopathy after elective vaginal hysterectomy under spinal anaesthesia. After being transferred to the ward, she developed nausea, vomiting, hypertensive crisis and intense anxiety. These symptoms were followed by grand mal seizure. Serum sodium level was 108 mmol/l. She also presented hypoxia, considered an aggravating factor, which was probably caused by the combination of benzodiazepine intake and cerebral oedema. However, fast raise of serum sodium level was achieved by immediate treatment with hypertonic saline, and she was discharged home without any sequelae.

  13. Delayed postoperative hematoma formation after inflatable penile prosthesis implantation.

    PubMed

    Garber, Bruce B; Bickell, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Infrequent but serious postoperative complications following inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) insertion include infection, malfunction, and bleeding. Although prior publications report methods to reduce immediate postoperative bleeding, there is little in the literature concerning the etiology, diagnosis, imaging, and management of delayed bleeding after IPP insertion. The aim of the study was to review cases of delayed postoperative bleeding following IPP insertion in a large single-surgeon series. We carried out a retrospective chart review of 600 patients implanted with a Coloplast Titan IPP with One-Touch Release pump by a single surgeon, and analyzed cases of delayed postoperative bleeding. The main outcome measure was an analysis of the incidence, causes, diagnostic methods, treatment, and final outcome of these cases. Three out of 600 consecutive patients (0.5%) developed a delayed (defined as >5 days postoperative) hematoma following IPP insertion. All patients presented postoperatively with a swollen surgical site, and all were evaluated with a pelvic computed tomography scan to completely define the extent of the hematoma. Two patients developed a delayed hematoma because of excessive physical activity; the remaining patient bled because of premature administration of enoxaparin sodium (Lovenox) by his cardiologist. All three patients were successfully treated with hospital admission, intravenous antibiotics, wound exploration, hematoma evacuation, and antibiotic washout. All three IPPs were successfully salvaged; none developed peri-prosthetic infection. The incidence of delayed postoperative hematoma following IPP surgery was 0.5% in our series of 600 cases. All cases were successfully managed with intravenous antibiotics, hematoma evacuation, and antibiotic washout. Because of the low incidence of this complication, definitive statements concerning prevention and management cannot be made. However, we now recommend avoiding postoperative

  14. Mild analgesics in postoperative pain

    PubMed Central

    Tammisto, T.; Tigerstedt, I.

    1980-01-01

    1 The intensity of postoperative pain is influenced by many factors, for example, individual variation, site of incision and type of operation, anaesthetic technique, and the interval from the end of operation to the appearance of pain. 2 These factors affect the efficacy of analgesics. 3 Mild analgesics provide adequate pain relief in half of our patients in the immediate postoperative phase when the pain is slight to moderate. 4 The maximum effect of mild analgesics corresponds to that produced by morphine 6-10 mg. Adequate analgesia may not therefore be provided for the treatment of severe postoperative pain unless narcotic analgesics have been used peroperatively. 5 When mild analgesics are combined with narcotics synergism is achieved. 6 As postoperative pain decreases with time, mild analgesics usually provide adequate pain relief on the first and following postoperative days. PMID:7437275

  15. [Therapeutic approach to postoperative anemia].

    PubMed

    Bisbe Vives, E; Moltó, L

    2015-06-01

    Postoperative anemia is a common finding in patients who undergo major surgery, and it can affect early rehabilitation and the return to daily activities. Allogeneic blood transfusion is still the most widely used method for restoring hemoglobin levels rapidly and effectively. However, the potential risks of transfusions have led to the review of this practice and to a search for alternative measures for treating postoperative anemia. The early administration of intravenous iron appears to improve the evolution of postoperative hemoglobin levels and reduce allogeneic transfusions, especially in patients with significant iron deficiency or anemia. What is not clear is whether this treatment heavily influences rehabilitation and quality of life. There is a lack of well-designed, sufficiently large, randomized prospective studies to determine whether postoperative or perioperative intravenous iron treatment, with or without recombinant erythropoietin, has a role in the recovery from postoperative anemia, in reducing transfusions and morbidity rates and in improving exercise capacity and quality of life.

  16. Management of postoperative hemorrhage after pancreatoduodenectomy.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Yoo-Seok; Kim, Sun-Whe; Her, Kyu-Hee; Park, Yoon-Chan; Ahn, Young Joon; Jang, Jin-Young; Park, Sang-Jae; Suh, Kyung-Suk; Han, Joon-Koo; Lee, Kuhn Uk; Park, Yong-Hyun

    2003-01-01

    Hemorrhage after pancreatoduodenectomy is a severe, life-threatening complication. This study was conducted to determine the guidelines appropriate for the prevention and management of hemorrhagic complications. We reviewed the medical records of 456 patients who had undergone pancreatoduodenectomy at our hospital between 1991 and 2000. Significant postoperative bleeding occurred in 21 patients (4.6%). Early bleeding (within the 5th postoperative day) caused by improper intraoperative hemostasis occurred in 5 of these cases; 3 of whom were saved by prompt operation and one by conservative management. The other 16 cases consisted of late bleeding (after the 5th postoperative day), of which 12 patients (75%) experienced pancreatic leaks and 8 pseudoaneurysms of major arteries. "Sentinel bleeding" was evident in 8 cases. Angiographic embolization was performed in 8 cases, 7 of which were successful. Reoperation was tried in 7 cases with complete hemostasis being achieved in 2. As a result, 15 of 21 patients obtained complete hemostasis and the mortality rate from hemorrhage was 28.6% (6/21). Rapid decision-making is mandatory when bleeding stigmata such as pseudoaneurysm on CT and sentinel bleeding are noted. Prompt operation for early bleeding and angiographic embolization for late bleeding are recommended. In order to prevent hemorrhage after pancreatoduodenectomy, meticulously performed hemostasis and the avoidance of pancreatic anastomotic leaks are essential.

  17. [Postoperative imaging of the shoulder].

    PubMed

    Wörtler, K; Rummeny, E J

    2004-06-01

    Correct interpretation of imaging findings in the postoperative shoulder is impaired by surgical distortion of normal anatomy and possible artifacts. Advanced postoperative imaging of the shoulder in addition to the selection of the best suited modality necessitates familiarity with the surgical procedure that has been performed and its consecutive morphological changes. This article reviews the most common arthroscopic and open techniques used for treatment of shoulder instability, lesions of the superior labral-bicipital complex, primary impingement, and rotator cuff tears, their typical postoperative imaging findings, as well as the diagnostic performance of cross sectional imaging techniques in the detection of recurrent lesions and complications.

  18. Postoperative complications of spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Swann, Matthew C; Hoes, Kathryn S; Aoun, Salah G; McDonagh, David L

    2016-03-01

    A variety of surgical approaches are available for the treatment of spine diseases. Complications can arise intraoperatively, in the immediate postoperative period, or in a delayed fashion. These complications may lead to severe or even permanent morbidity if left unrecognized and untreated [1-4]. Here we review a range of complications in the early postoperative period from more benign complications such as postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) to more feared complications leading to permanent loss of neurological function or death [5]. Perioperative pain management is covered in a separate review (Chapter 8).

  19. [Management of postoperative pancreatic fistula].

    PubMed

    Hackert, T; Büchler, M W

    2015-06-01

    The occurrence of a postoperative pancreatic fistula is one of the most important complications following pancreatic resections. The frequency of this complication varies between 3 % after pancreatic head resection and up to 35 % following distal pancreatectomy. In 2005, the international definition of postoperative pancreatic fistula was standardized according to the approach of the International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS) including an A-C grading system of the severity. Consequently, results from different studies have become comparable and the historically reported fistula rates can be evaluated more critically. The present review summarises the currently available data on incidence, risk factors, fistula-associated complications and management of postoperative pancreatic fistula.

  20. Imaging of the Postoperative Orbit.

    PubMed

    Learned, Kim O; Nasseri, Farbod; Mohan, Suyash

    2015-08-01

    Imaging evaluation of the postoperative orbit remains challenging even for the expert neuroradiologist. This article provides a simplified framework for understanding the complex postoperative appearances of the orbit, in an attempt to enhance the diagnostic accuracy of postoperative computed tomography and MR imaging of the orbit. Readers are familiarized with the normal appearances of common eye procedures and orbit reconstructions to help avoid interpretative pitfalls. Also reviewed are imaging features of common surgical complications, and evaluation of residual/recurrent neoplasm in the setting of oncologic imaging surveillance.

  1. Reduction of postoperative adhesion development.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Michael P

    2016-10-01

    Despite use of meticulous surgical techniques, and regardless of surgical access via laparotomy or laparoscopy, postoperative adhesions develop in the vast majority of women undergoing abdominopelvic surgery. Such adhesions represent not only adhesion reformation at sites of adhesiolysis, but also de novo adhesion formation at sites of surgical procedures. Application of antiadhesion adjuvants compliment the benefits of meticulous surgical techniques, providing an opportunity to further reduce postoperative adhesion development. Improved understanding of the pathophysiology of adhesion development and distinguishing variations in the molecular biologic mechanisms from adhesion-free peritoneal repair represent future opportunities to improve the reduction of postoperative adhesions. Optimization of the reduction of postoperative adhesions will likely require identification of unique, personalized approaches in each individual, representing interindividual variation in peritoneal repair processes. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Surgical reoperations for postoperative peritonitis].

    PubMed

    Stătescu, G; Cărăuşu, Mihaela

    2011-01-01

    In our clinical study postoperative peritonitis represent 17.01% by operations for neglected peritonitis. The other abdominal complications are eviscerations, postoperative oclusions and residual abscesses. We have to analize the incidence, etiology, diagnosis and surgical management of 25 cases by postoperative peritonitis which appears after operations of 147 cases by neglected peritonitis. The semiology of a postoperative peritonitis it is easy to recognize in young pacients with reactions which appear in a few days after operations : pain localised to the abdominal area well localised in an area in which palpation show contraction. In a few hours the pain became flow. It appears fever,nausea,vommiting and all the clinical signs of peritonitis. The highest prevalence of postoperative peritonitis for which we perform reoperations it appears after appendectomy in 18 cases with fatality 11.11%; next are coming reoperations on stomac and duodenum 4 cases with rate of fatality by 50%, reoperations on small bowell in 2 cases with fatality by 50% and reoperations of big bowell (1 case). On our series of postoperative peritonitis we have a global rate of fatality by 20% from all cases. We have considered this level well in comparison with the dates from another similar experience which show us a rate of fatality which are gone until 90%. Our media of reoperations were about three operations on each cases. If we compare with first operation for neglected peritonitis we have observe that in reoperations we change our plans in the way of making faster minimum necesary because of high risk to dead of this cases. Clinical diagnosis by postoperative peritonitis is difficult to establish and only follow up very care clinical signs of this cases beneath laboratory findings (leucogram, uree, ionogram) and with radiological examination (CT) can tell us about postoperative peritonitis.

  3. Transarterial embolization for postoperative hemorrhage after abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong; Kim, Jae-Kyu; Yoon, Woong; Heo, Suk-Hee; Lee, Eun-Ju; Park, Jin-Gyoon; Kang, Heoung-Keun; Cho, Chol-Kyoon; Chung, Sang-Young

    2005-03-01

    The study goal was to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and clinical outcome of transarterial embolization for postoperative hemorrhage after abdominal surgery. Thirty-three patients were referred for angiography because of gastrointestinal or intra-abdominal bleeding after abdominal surgery. Urgent angiography and transarterial embolization was performed in all 33 patients. The clinical and angiographic features were retrospectively reviewed. Angiography revealed a discrete bleeding focus in 26 (79%) of 33 patients. Transarterial embolization was technically successful in 24 (92%) of 26 patients with a discrete bleeding focus. Rebleeding occurred in four (17%) of 24 patients. They were successfully managed with repeat embolization. There was no procedure-related complication during follow-up period. Angiography has a high detection rate of bleeding site in patients with postoperative hemorrhage after abdominal surgery. Transarterial embolization is considered to be an effective and safe means in the management of postoperative hemorrhage.

  4. Reducing the Risk of Postoperative Genital Complications in Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dossanova, ?ssem; Lozovoy, Vasiliy; Wood, Dan; ??nekenova, ?enzhekyz; Botabayeva, ?igul; Dossanov, Bolatbek; Lozovaya, Yelena; ?marov, ?algat

    2016-01-01

    The reproductive system of adolescents is exposed to a high risk of anomalies. In spite of the successes of surgical correction, the percentage of postoperative complications remains high. Special attention should be paid to circumcision, which is regarded as a religious tradition in many countries and carried out with sanitary violations. This…

  5. [Pediatric postoperative quality analysis : Pain and postoperative nausea and vomiting].

    PubMed

    Balga, I; Konrad, C; Meissner, W

    2013-09-01

    For the evaluation of postoperative pain therapy, nausea and vomiting (PONV), the Children's Hospital in Lucerne acts as a member of the postoperative quality improvement project QUIPSi for children. Initial results and the potential for evaluation of the postoperative pain therapy and PONV are presented here. The central questions are whether the postoperative therapy concept is sufficient and if QUIPSi serves as an ideal tool for postoperative quality improvement? Over a period of 1.5 years a total of 460 children aged between 4 to 17 years evaluated their postoperative pain, requirements for more analgesic medicine and the incidence of PONV according to a standardized questionnaire on the first postoperative day. The administration of analgesic medicine was recorded until finishing the questionnaire. In this study 5 pediatric outpatient operation groups (hernia repair n = 36, bone surgery n = 23, metal removal surgery n = 31, circumcision n = 65 and soft tissue surgery n = 49) and 9 pediatric inpatient operation groups (appendectomy n = 21, bone surgery n = 78, metal removal surgery n = 24, orchidopexy n = 31, combined operation (orchidopexy + hernia repair or circumcision) n = 14, otoplasty n = 9, tonsillectomy n = 41 and pectus excavatum surgery n = 6 and soft tissue surgery n=28) could be classified. All operation groups except the inpatient and outpatient soft tissue surgery groups received regional or infiltration anesthesia. Analgesic medicine was prescribed with the maximum permitted daily dose per kg body weight (paracetamol 100 mg/kgBW, metamizole 80 mg/kgBW, diclofenac 3 mg/kgBW and ibuprofen 40 mg/kgBW; in reserve tramadol 8 mg/kgBW and nalbuphine 2.4 mg/kgBW). The following operation groups complained of persistent pain (scale according to Hicks 0-10) and/or required more pain medicine (%): pediatric outpatients circumcision 5.1/19 %, pediatric inpatients appendectomy 6.5/43 %, tonsillectomy 6.4/32 %, pectus excavatum surgery 7.7/33 %, orchidopexy 4

  6. Post-operative urinary retention.

    PubMed

    Steggall, Martin; Treacy, Colm; Jones, Mark

    Urinary retention is a common complication of surgery and anaesthesia. The risk of post-operative urinary retention is increased following certain surgical procedures and anaesthetic modalities, and with patients' advancing age. Patients at increased risk of post-operative urinary retention should be identified before surgery or the condition should be identified and treated in a timely manner following surgery. If conservative measures do not help the patient to pass urine, the bladder will need to be drained using either an intermittent catheter or an indwelling urethral catheter, which can result in catheter-associated urinary tract infections. This article provides an overview of normal bladder function, risk factors for developing post-operative urinary retention, and treatment options. Guidance drawn from the literature aims to assist nurses in identifying at-risk patients and inform patient care.

  7. Postoperative intussusception in children: a keen diagnosis in postoperative ileus.

    PubMed

    Yalçın, Sule; Karnak, Ibrahim; Ciftçi, Arbay O; Tanyel, F Cahit; Senocak, Mehmet Emin

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the patients who developed postoperative intussusception after a variety of intraabdominal procedures in order to identify the differentiating features and facilitate the prompt recognition and management of this entity. Fourteen patients with postoperative intussusception following an abdominal surgery between 1993 and 2010 were analyzed retrospectively. The primarily applied surgeries were: repair of diaphragmatic hernia (n=3), choledochal cyst excision (n=2), extraction of surrenal neuroblastoma (n=2), Duhamel operation (n=1), colostomy closure (n=1), Nissen fundoplication with (n=1) and without (n=1) gastrostomy, gastropexy (n=1), gastrostomy and jejunostomy (n=1), and manual reduction of ileocolic intussusception (n=1), with a median duration of 135 minutes (120-240). Patients were reoperated on the 3rd day (2-16); intussusception was ileoileal in 11, and was manually reduced in 12 of all patients. Postoperative intussusception differs from other cases of invagination with respect to the pathogenesis, clinical presentation and therapeutic approach. The original operations are mostly the major and lengthy ones, with vicinity to the diaphragm. Awareness of this entity by surgeons and differentiation from other causes of postoperative ileus are obligatory for prompt recognition and management.

  8. Lower Postoperative Scar Height is Associated with Increased Postoperative Trichiasis 1 Year after Bilamellar Tarsal Rotation Surgery.

    PubMed

    Merbs, Shannath L; Oktavec, Kathleen C; Munoz, Beatriz E; Perlini, Erin F; West, Sheila K; Othman, Majid S; Gower, Emily W

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between postoperative scar height and surgical success of the bilamellar tarsal rotation (BLTR) procedure, commonly used to correct trichiasis secondary to trachoma. Using data from the Partnership for the Rapid Elimination of Trachoma surgical trial, comparing the new trachomatous trichiasis (TT) clamp with standard BLTR instrumentation, 145 sequential participants (245 eyelids) at their 1-year postoperative visit were examined. We measured internal and external scar heights from the upper eyelid margin for nasal, central and temporal sections and compared these to recurrence location at 1 year. We calculated odds of location-specific postoperative trichiasis and examined possible risk factors associated with postoperative trichiasis. A total of 77 eyelids (31%) had postoperative trichiasis, which most commonly occurred centrally. Regardless of instrumentation used, the closer the internal scar was to the eyelid margin, the higher the proportion that had recurrence, until 4.5 mm, at which point, the proportion leveled off. In bivariate analyses, the odds of central recurrence were significantly higher at all three locations when the internal scar height was <4.5 mm compared to higher scars. In multivariate analyses, central scar height <4.5 mm and severe baseline trichiasis were independently associated with central postoperative trichiasis. Internal scar height <4.5 mm measured 1 year after surgery is more likely to be associated with postoperative trichiasis. Given these findings and the current World Health Organization recommendation for an incision height of 3.0 mm, further study into optimum incision height to minimize postoperative trichiasis is warranted.

  9. Intraoperative gastrojejunoscopy-assisted fistulojejunostomy for postoperative pancreatic fistula.

    PubMed

    Toihata, Tasuku; Hashimoto, Daisuke; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Chikamoto, Akira; Beppu, Toru; Baba, Hideo

    2014-11-01

    Postoperative pancreatic fistula is a known complication after pancreaticojejunostomy. When an anastomosis collapses completely, two-stage reconstruction is necessary. Herein, we describe the case of a 70-year-old woman who underwent subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy with pancreaticojejunostomy after she had developed a severe postoperative pancreatic fistula. The pancreaticojejunostomy was divided, and an external pancreatic drainage tube was placed. Four months later, fistulojejunostomy between the pancreas and the stump of the jejunum was performed successfully using intraoperative gastrojejunoscopy. © 2014 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Postoperative Management of the Physiological Effects of Spinal Anesthesia.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Jennifer; Helwig, Elizabeth

    2016-08-01

    Spinal anesthesia is a common regional anesthesia used in ambulatory and hospital settings. Spinal anesthesia has been shown to reduce postoperative pain and morbidity in certain populations. Understanding the physiological changes during spinal anesthesia can help predict and manage side effects including hypotension, bradycardia, decreased expiration, nausea, vomiting, and urinary retention. This article describes the physiological effects of spinal anesthesia in a body systems approach, describes how to assess the spinal level, and presents common side effects seen postoperatively and how to successfully manage and treat these patients. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Thalidomide induces mucosal healing in postoperative Crohn disease endoscopic recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Huiqin; Wang, Xinying; Liu, Side

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Thalidomide has been successful use in patients with refractory Crohn disease (CD) in recent years. Methods: We collected the data of a postoperative CD patient who was prescribed thalidomide to induce remission and reviewed the relevant literatures. Results: A 51-year-old female was diagnosed as CD after an urgent terminal intestinal resection and presented endoscopic recurrence despite the prophylactic treatment with azathioprine (AZA). Fortunately, she achieved mucosal healing (MH) at a low dose of thalidomide for 15 months. Conclusion: Thalidomide is effective to induce MH in the postoperative CD endoscopic recurrence. PMID:27603389

  12. Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation: Incidence, Mechanisms, and Clinical Correlates.

    PubMed

    Yadava, Mrinal; Hughey, Andrew B; Crawford, Thomas Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Atrial fibrillation is the most commonly encountered arrhythmia after cardiac surgery. Although usually self-limiting, it represents an important predictor of increased patient morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. Numerous studies have attempted to determine the underlying mechanisms of postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) with varied success. A multifactorial pathophysiology is hypothesized, with inflammation and postoperative β-adrenergic activation recognized as important contributing factors. The management of POAF is complicated by a paucity of data relating to the outcomes of different therapeutic interventions in this population. This article reviews the literature on epidemiology, mechanisms, and risk factors of POAF, with a subsequent focus on the therapeutic interventions and guidelines regarding management.

  13. [Postoperative management of hip and knee endoprostheses].

    PubMed

    Seitz, S; Rüther, W

    2012-10-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is often accompanied by massive destruction of the smaller and larger joints even with early therapy using antirheumatic drugs. In these cases total joint arthroplasty is the only surgical option, especially for the knee and hip joint. Knowledge of the specific disease-related postoperative characteristics is a prerequisite for the successful treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. As dislocation of the arthroplastic joint does not occur more often in rheumatoid arthritis, the risk of periprosthetic infection is increased due to the use of biologicals. Therefore, a perioperative optimization is obligatory. In order to facilitate independence in daily living physiotherapy in combination with aids such as arthritis crutches, gripping pliers or raised toilet seat need to be started as soon as possible after surgical treatment. To achieve this goal it is recommended to refer patients with inflammatory arthritis to inpatient rehabilitation facilities. With respect to the specific postoperative treatment after joint replacement the long-term results are comparable with those from patients with primary osteoarthritis.

  14. A new postoperative otoplasty dressing technique using cyanoacrylate tissue adhesives.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Miriam; Foehn, Matthias; Wedler, Volker

    2010-04-01

    There are many techniques for cosmetic surgery of the ears and also many different procedures for postoperative treatment. The postoperative dressing is described as important for a successful outcome. We present our method of postoperative dressing in the form of liquid bonding. Cyanoacrylate tissue adhesives as liquid bonding agents are used for fixation of the pinna at the mastoid area. After 10-14 days the bonding can be easily removed. No huge dressings, tapes, or plasters are necessary. The patients are satisfied with the light dressing; they do not feel ashamed to appear in public. We have found this dressing technique to be simple and economical, especially because of the use of the bonding for skin closure before. It can be used after otoplasty with an anterior or a posterior approach.

  15. Postoperative Pain in Children After Dentistry Under General Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Michelle; Copp, Peter E.; Haas, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, severity, and duration of postoperative pain in children undergoing general anesthesia for dentistry. This prospective cross-sectional study included 33 American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) Class I and II children 4–6 years old requiring multiple dental procedures, including at least 1 extraction, and/or pulpectomy, and/or pulpotomy of the primary dentition. Exclusion criteria were children who were developmentally delayed, cognitively impaired, born prematurely, taking psychotropic medications, or recorded baseline pain or analgesic use. The primary outcome of pain was measured by parents using the validated Faces Pain Scale-Revised (FPS-R) and Parents' Postoperative Pain Measure (PPPM) during the first 72 hours at home. The results showed that moderate-to-severe postoperative pain, defined as FPS-R ≥ 6, was reported in 48.5% of children. The prevalence of moderate-to-severe pain was 29.0% by FPS-R and 40.0% by PPPM at 2 hours after discharge. Pain subsided over 3 days. Postoperative pain scores increased significantly from baseline (P < .001, Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank test). Moderately good correlation between the 2 pain measures existed 2 and 12 hours from discharge (Spearman rhos correlation coefficients of 0.604 and 0.603, P < .005). In conclusion, children do experience moderate-to-severe pain postoperatively. Although parents successfully used pain scales, they infrequently administered analgesics. PMID:26650492

  16. Late-Onset Postoperative Junctional Ectopic Tachycardia in Nonsurgical Procedures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijun; Shang, Xiaoke; Qiu, Qiu; Lu, Rong; Xiao, Shuna; Li, Dingyang; Yu, Jie; Zhang, Changdong; Xia, Cheng; Zhou, Hongmei; Zhang, Gangcheng

    2016-07-27

    Postoperative junctional ectopic tachycardia (JET) is a narrow complex tachycardia and most frequently occurs during and after surgical repair of certain types of congenital heart defects. Postoperative junctional ectopic tachycardia may produce unfavorable hemodynamics that prolongs stays in the cardiac intensive care unit and hospital, prolongs time on a ventilator, and occasionally requires the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as rescue therapy. The present report describes a rare case of late-onset postoperative junctional ectopic tachycardia, which occurred 13 days after the deployment of a perimembranous ventricular septal defect (PmVSD) occluder in a 17-year-old female teenager. To the best of our knowledge, late-onset postoperative junctional ectopic tachycardia has not previously been reported as a complication in nonsurgical procedures. In this case, the junctional ectopic tachycardia remained resistant to medicines and the haemodynamic imbalance caused a serious life-threatening situation in the patient. The occluder was removed by an emergent thoracotomy; then, the patient was successfully cured by being supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The findings suggest that during follow-up management, the physician should pay attention postoperatively to junctional ectopic tachycardia even after discharge from the hospital.

  17. [Fibrin glue injection therapy with diluted thrombin for complicated postoperative fistulas following digestive surgery].

    PubMed

    Tono, Takeshi; Murakami, Masahiro; Ohtsuru, Minoru; Monden, Takushi

    2014-11-01

    Fibrin glue injection is used for treating postoperative digestive fistulas; however, this method is not always successful, especially in cases of complicated fistulas. Generally, the fibrin glue coagulates immediately after application before it reaches the end of the fistulas. Based on the results of an in vitro study of tensile strength and coagulation time, we utilized fibrin glue injection therapy with diluted thrombin solution (× 30) for treating refractory postoperative complicated fistulas in 23 cancer patients. In 20 of these patients, the fistulas were successfully closed after an average of 2.0 treatment cycles. This simple method of fibrin glue injection with diluted thrombin is useful for treating complicated postoperative digestive fistulas.

  18. Postoperative delirium and cognitive dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Deiner, S; Silverstein, J H

    2009-12-01

    Postoperative delirium and cognitive dysfunction (POCD) are topics of special importance in the geriatric surgical population. They are separate entities, whose relationship has yet to be fully elucidated. Although not limited to geriatric patients, the incidence and impact of both are more profound in geriatric patients. Delirium has been shown to be associated with longer and more costly hospital course and higher likelihood of death within 6 months or postoperative institutionalization. POCD has been associated with increased mortality, risk of leaving the labour market prematurely, and dependency on social transfer payments. Here, we review their definitions and aetiology, and discuss treatment and prevention in elderly patients undergoing major non-cardiac surgery. Good basic care demands identification of at-risk patients, awareness of common perioperative aggravating factors, simple prevention interventions, recognition of the disease states, and basic treatments for patients with severe hyperactive manifestations.

  19. Postoperative pain assessment after septorhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Wittekindt, D; Wittekindt, C; Schneider, G; Meissner, W; Guntinas-Lichius, O

    2012-06-01

    Postoperative pain after septorhinoplasty and its optimal management has not been described in detail. Fifty-two adult septorhinoplasty patients were included in a prospective cohort single center study. Patients' and surgical characteristics were evaluated. Outcome and process parameters were analyzed using the questionnaires of the German-wide project Quality Improvement in Postoperative Pain Management (QUIPS) on the first postoperative day. Pain during the first operative day after septorhinoplasty was moderate. Pain management predominately consisted of remifentanil intraoperatively, metamizole in the recovery room, in combination with piritramide in one-third of the patients, and metamizole on ward. Patients younger than 31 years were less satisfied with pain management (P = 0.018). Open rhinoplasty was associated with less satisfaction with pain management (P = 0.007). Use of rib grafts led to more mobility, breathing, sleeping and mood disturbances (P = 0.003, 0.047; 0.047; 0.022, respectively). Preoperative pain counseling was followed by higher satisfaction, less breathing and mood disturbances after surgery (P = 0.021; 0.004; 0.046, respectively). Opioids in the recovery room in addition to non-opioids and treatment with non-opioids on ward led to less maximal pain (P = 0.027 and 0.040, respectively). We conclude that QUIPS is an easy tool to evaluate the quality of postoperative pain management following rhinoplasty. Preoperative pain counseling, specific care for patients with rib grafts, consequent use of opioids in the recovery room in addition to non-opioids, and use of non-opioids on ward seem to be effective to improve pain management after septorhinoplasty.

  20. Postoperative (pressure) alopecia following sacrocolpopexy.

    PubMed

    Bagaria, Madhu; Luck, Ali Maria

    2015-06-01

    Postoperative alopecia is a rare occurrence seen after a variety of surgical procedures performed under general anesthesia. The speculated cause is pressure-induced ischemia due to prolonged head immobilization. This case describes a patient who developed this complication after undergoing sacrocolpopexy. A 57-year-old postmenopausal Caucasian female was consented to undergo a robotic-assisted sacrocolpopexy, perineoplasty, and midurethral sling with possible conversion to an open procedure. The indication was symptomatic proximal and distal rectocele with foreshortened vagina. It was converted to laparotomy due to difficult presacral dissection. Her total operative time was 540 with 240 min in the Trendelenburg position. No intraoperative hypotension or excessive blood loss was noted. She started complaining of scalp pain in the postoperative recovery area. She developed soreness, crusting, and later alopecia in the same area. It was noted at her 3-week office visit. Referral was made for dermatology and anesthesiology evaluation. There was spontaneous full recovery by the 5th month. Postoperative alopecia is a rare condition mimicking alopecia areata but it is preceded by inciting events. There is some evidence to suggest that it is a preventable condition by frequent head repositioning during surgery. This case report is intended to increase the surgeon's awareness about this rare complication as its occurrence can be distressing for the patient.

  1. Hartmann's reversal is associated with high postoperative adverse events.

    PubMed

    Aydin, H Nail; Remzi, Feza H; Tekkis, Paris P; Fazio, Victor W

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the preva lence and pattern of surgical and medical adverse events in patients undergoing Hartmann's reversal for diverticular dis ease. A comparison of postoperative outcomes is made be tween Hartmann's reversal and primary resection and anas tomosis. Data were collected from patients who underwent successful Hartmann's reversal (Group 1 n=121) and primary resection and anastomosis (Group 2 n=731) for diverticular disease in a single center from January 1981 to May 2003. Multivariate logistic regression was used to compare early postoperative mortality, medical and surgical complications and readmission rates between the two groups. Hartmann's reversal was associ ated with a higher prevalence of surgical or medical com plications compared with primary resection and anastomo sis (43.8 percent and 9.1 percent for Hartmann's reversal vs. 26.0 percent and 4.8 percent for primary resection and anastomosis). There was no difference in the readmissior rates (7.2 percent vs. 7.6 percent, respectively, P = 0.88) or early postoperative mortality (1.7 percent vs. 0.7 percent, P = 0.25) between Hartmann's reversal and primary resection and anastomosis. The need for reoperation, prolonged ileus respiratory tract infections, and renal failure were more common adverse events in the Hartmann's reversal group (P < 0.01). Having controlled for the number of comorbid conditions, extent of diverticular disease, severity of peri toneal contamination (Mannheim Peritonitis Index), and op erative urgency, patients who underwent Hartmann's rever sal were 2.1 times more likely to have adverse surgical events during their postoperative period (95 percent confidence interval for odds ratio = 1.3-3.3). Hartmann's reversal is a complex surgical procedure that is associated with a high prevalence of postoperative adverse events in comparison with primary resection and anastomosis. To minimize the prevalence of such adverse events, patients who undergo

  2. Postoperative Acute Pulmonary Embolism Following Pulmonary Resections.

    PubMed

    Shonyela, Felix Samuel; Yang, Shuangqiang; Liu, Bo; Jiao, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative acute pulmonary embolism after pulmonary resections is highly fatal complication. Many literatures have documented cancer to be the highest risk factor for acute pulmonary embolism after pulmonary resections. Early diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism is highly recommended and computed tomographic pulmonary angiography is the gold standard in diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism. Anticoagulants and thrombolytic therapy have shown a great success in treatment of acute pulmonary embolism. Surgical therapies (embolectomy and inferior vena cava filter replacement) proved to be lifesaving but many literatures favored medical therapy as the first choice. Prophylaxis pre and post operation is highly recommended, because there were statistical significant results in different studies which supported the use of prophylaxis in prevention of acute pulmonary embolism. Having reviewed satisfactory number of literatures, it is suggested that thoroughly preoperative assessment of patient conditions, determining their risk factors complicating to pulmonary embolism and the use of appropriate prophylaxis measures are the key options to the successful minimization or eradication of acute pulmonary embolism after lung resections.

  3. [Postoperative pain control in The Netherlands].

    PubMed

    van den Nieuwenhuyzen, M C; Janss, R A; Brand, R; van Kleef, J W

    1994-04-30

    To determine how postoperative analgesia care is managed in the Netherlands. Descriptive study (questionnaire). Departments of anaesthesiology in all 168 Dutch hospitals. Questionnaires were sent inquiring about postoperative pain therapies and their complications, the organisation and management of postoperative analgesic care, the importance of effective pain control, factors of influence on patient's assessment of pain and the management of the quality of postoperative analgesia. The questionnaires of 73% (n = 122) of the hospitals were suitable for analysis. Locoregional analgesic techniques are used, but intermittent intramuscular administration of an opioid is still the analgesic therapy of choice in the postoperative period. 89% of the interviewed anaesthesiologists assess the average intensity of postoperative pain as moderate or severe, and more than half of the interviewed anaesthesiologists answered that effective postoperative pain management is of substantial influence on the postoperative recovery of the patient. It is essential to improve postoperative pain control in the Netherlands. Frequent assessments and precise documentation of the intensity of pain and pain relief, on which further therapy can be based, might be a first step in improving postoperative pain control. Optimal postoperative pain management requires the input of equipment and staff.

  4. NSAIDs in the Treatment of Postoperative Pain.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anita; Bah, Maimouna

    2016-11-01

    Postoperative pain results in multiple undesirable physiologic and psychological outcomes, and it should be managed in a multimodal approach. This article reviews the latest scientific literature of NSAIDs in the treatment of postoperative pain. The goal is to answer the following questions: (1) Are NSAIDs effective in the postoperative period? (2) Are NSAIDs safe in all surgical patients? and (3) Are adverse effects of NSAIDs increased or diminished in the acute postoperative period? NSAIDs are safe and effective in the treatment of postoperative pain, and they should be administered to all postoperative surgical patients unless contraindicated. Based on literature, NSAIDs have been shown to increase patient satisfaction and decrease opioid requirements, minimizing opiate-induced adverse events. They have no increased incidence of adverse effects during the acute postoperative period. NSAIDs and COX-2 inhibitors, however, should be used with caution in colorectal surgery as they are proven to increase the risk of anastomotic leak.

  5. Nefopam and Ketamine Comparably Enhance Postoperative Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Kapfer, Barbara; Alfonsi, Pascal; Guignard, Bruno; Sessler, Daniel I.; Chauvin, Marcel

    2005-01-01

    Summary Opioids alone sometimes provide insufficient postoperative analgesia. Co-administration of drugs may reduce opioid use and to improve opioid efficacy. We therefore tested the hypothesis that administration of ketamine or nefopam, to postoperative patients with pain only partly alleviated by morphine, limits the amount of subsequent opioid necessary to produce adequate analgesia. Patients (n=77) recovering from major surgery were given up to 9 mg intravenous morphine. Those still suffering from pain were randomly assigned to blinded administration of: 1) isotonic saline (Control, n=21); 2) ketamine 10 mg (Ketamine, n=22); or, 3) nefopam 20 mg (Nefopam, n=22). Three-mg morphine boluses were subsequently given at 5-minute intervals until adequate analgesia was obtained, or 60 minutes elapsed after the beginning of the study drug administration, or ventilation became insufficient (respiratory rate < 10 breath/minute or saturation by pulse oxymetery < 95%). Supplemental morphine (i.e., after test drug administration) requirements were significantly greater in the Control group [17 ± 10 (SD) mg] than in the Nefopam (10 ± 5 mg, P < 0.005) or Ketamine (9 ± 5 mg, P < 0.001) groups. Morphine titration was successful in all Ketamine and Nefopam patients, but failed in four Control patients (two from respiratory toxicity and two from persistent pain). Tachycardia and profuse sweating were more frequent in patients given nefopam and sedation was greater with ketamine; however, the incidence of other potential complications did not differ between groups. Implications We conclude that ketamine 10 mg and nefopam 20 mg comparably potentiate opioid analgesia, each reducing opioid need by approximately 40%. Ketamine administration was associated with sedation whereas nefopam produced tachycardia and sweating. However, none of the side effects was serious. Either drug can thus be used to potentiate opioid analgesia. PMID:15616073

  6. Postoperative activity restrictions: any evidence?

    PubMed

    Weir, Larissa F; Nygaard, Ingrid E; Wilken, Jason; Brandt, Debra; Janz, Kathleen F

    2006-02-01

    Because of a widespread but untested belief that increased intra-abdominal pressure contributes to pelvic floor disorders, physicians commonly restrict various activities postoperatively. Our aim was to describe intra-abdominal pressures during common physical activities. Thirty women of wide age and weight ranges who were not undergoing treatment for pelvic floor disorders performed 3 repetitions of various activities while intra-abdominal pressures (baseline and maximal) were approximated via microtip rectal catheters. We calculated median peak and net pressures (centimeters of H(2)O). We assessed correlations between abdominal pressures and body mass index, abdominal circumference, and grip strength (a proxy for overall strength). P < .025 was considered significant. Median peak abdominal pressures ranged from 48 (lifting 8 lb from a counter) to 150 (lifting 35 lb from the floor), with much variation. Many activities did not raise the intra-abdominal pressure more than simply getting out of a chair, including lifting 8, 13, and 20 lb from a counter, lifting 8 or 13 lb from the floor, climbing stairs, walking briskly, or doing abdominal crunches. Body mass index and abdominal circumference each correlated positively with peak, but not net, pressures. Age and grip strength were not associated with abdominal pressure. Some activities commonly restricted postoperatively have no greater effect on intra-abdominal pressures than unavoidable activities like rising from a chair. How lifting is done impacts intra-abdominal pressure. Many current postoperative guidelines are needlessly restrictive. Further research is needed to determine whether increased intra-abdominal pressure truly promotes pelvic floor disorders. III.

  7. Cognitive Trajectories after Postoperative Delirium

    PubMed Central

    Saczynski, Jane S.; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Quach, Lien; Fong, Tamara G.; Gross, Alden; Inouye, Sharon K.; Jones, Richard N.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Delirium is common after cardiac surgery and may be associated with long-term changes in cognitive function. We examined postoperative delirium and the cognitive trajectory during the first year after cardiac surgery. METHODS We enrolled 225 patients 60 years of age or older who were planning to undergo coronary-artery bypass grafting or valve replacement. Patients were assessed preoperatively, daily during hospitalization beginning on postoperative day 2, and at 1, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Cognitive function was assessed with the use of the Mini–Mental State Examination (MMSE; score range, 0 to 30, with lower scores indicating poorer performance). Delirium was diagnosed with the use of the Confusion Assessment Method. We examined performance on the MMSE in the first year after surgery, controlling for demographic characteristics, coexisting conditions, hospital, and surgery type. RESULTS The 103 participants (46%) in whom delirium developed postoperatively had lower pre-operative mean MMSE scores than those in whom delirium did not develop (25.8 vs. 26.9, P<0.001). In adjusted models, those with delirium had a larger drop in cognitive function (as measured by the MMSE score) 2 days after surgery than did those without delirium (7.7 points vs. 2.1, P<0.001) and had significantly lower postoperative cognitive function than those without delirium, both at 1 month (mean MMSE score, 24.1 vs. 27.4; P<0.001) and at 1 year (25.2 vs. 27.2, P<0.001) after surgery. With adjustment for baseline differences, the between-group difference in mean MMSE scores was significant 30 days after surgery (P<0.001) but not at 6 or 12 months (P = 0.056 for both). A higher percentage of patients with delirium than those without delirium had not returned to their preoperative baseline level at 6 months (40% vs. 24%, P = 0.01), but the difference was not significant at 12 months (31% vs. 20%, P = 0.055). CONCLUSIONS Delirium is associated with a significant decline in

  8. Postoperative analgesia for supratentorial craniotomy.

    PubMed

    Dilmen, Ozlem Korkmaz; Akcil, Eren Fatma; Tunali, Yusuf; Karabulut, Esra Sultan; Bahar, Mois; Altindas, Fatis; Vehid, Hayriye; Yentur, Ercument

    2016-07-01

    The prevalence of moderate to severe pain is high in patients following craniotomy. Although optimal analgesic therapy is mandatory, there is no consensus regarding analgesic regimen for post-craniotomy pain exists. This study aimed to investigate the effects of morphine and non-opioid analgesics on postcraniotomy pain. This prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study included eighty three patients (ASA 1, II, and III) scheduled for elective supratentorial craniotomy. Intravenous dexketoprofen, paracetamol and metamizol were investigated for their effects on pain intensity, morphine consumption and morphine related side effects during the first 24h following supratentorial craniotomy. Patients were treated with morphine based patient controlled analgesia (PCA) for 24h following surgery and randomized to receive supplemental IV dexketoprofen 50mg, paracetamol 1g, metamizol 1g or placebo. The primary endpoint was pain intensity, secondary endpoint was the effects on morphine consumption and related side effects. When the whole study period was analyzed with repeated measures of ANOVA, the pain intensity, cumulative morphine consumption and related side effects were not different among the groups (p>0.05). This study showed that the use of morphine based PCA prevented moderate to severe postoperative pain without causing any life threatening side effects in patients undergoing supratentorial craniotomy with a vigilant follow up during postoperative 24h. Although we could not demonstrate statistically significant effect of supplemental analgesics on morphine consumption, it was lower in dexketoprofen and metamizol groups than control group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Postoperative radiotherapy of prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Guérif, S; Latorzeff, I; Lagrange, J-L; Hennequin, C; Supiot, S; Garcia, A; François, P; Soulié, M; Richaud, P; Salomon, L

    2014-10-01

    Between 10 and 40% of patients who have undergone a radical prostatectomy may have a biologic recurrence. Local or distant failure represents the possible patterns of relapse. Patients at high-risk for local relapse have extraprostatic disease, positive surgical margins or seminal vesicles infiltration or high Gleason score at pathology. Three phase-III randomized clinical trials have shown that, for these patients, adjuvant irradiation reduces the risk of tumoral progression without higher toxicity. Salvage radiotherapy for late relapse allows a disease control in 60-70% of the cases. Several research in order to improve the therapeutic ratio of the radiotherapy after prostatectomy are evaluate in the French Groupe d'Étude des Tumeurs Urogénitales (Gétug) and of the French association of urology (Afu). The Gétug-Afu 17 trial will provide answers to the question of the optimal moment for postoperative radiotherapy for pT3-4 R1 pN0 Nx patients, with the objective of comparing an immediate treatment to a differed early treatment initiated at biological recurrence. The Gétug-Afu 22 questions the place of a short hormonetherapy combined with image-guided, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in adjuvant situation for a detectable prostate specific antigen (PSA). The implementation of a multicenter quality control within the Gétug-Afu in order to harmonize a modern postoperative radiotherapy will allow the development of a dose escalation IMRT after surgery.

  10. Effect of rebamipide ophthalmic suspension on the success of lacrimal stent intubation.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Masashi; Ueki, Mari; Oku, Hidehiro; Sato, Bunpei; Ikeda, Tsunehiko

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of the postoperative administration of rebamipide ophthalmic suspension on the success rate of lacrimal stent intubation (LSI) for the treatment of primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction (PANDO). This comparative interventional cohort study investigated 110 consecutive patients with PANDO who were treated with LSI and followed up for 12 months postoperatively at one institution. LSI was performed by one surgeon, and all patients received identical postoperative care. Among the total 110 patients, 71 underwent LSI with postoperative administration of rebamipide ophthalmic suspension, and 39 underwent LSI without administration of the suspension. Data related to patient age, gender, laterality, and postoperative administration of rebamipide ophthalmic suspension were collected and used as independent variables, and logistic regression analyses were performed to compare the anatomical success rate at 12 months postoperatively between patients with and without postoperative administration of the suspension. The anatomical success rate of LSI in patients with and without postoperative administration of rebamipide ophthalmic suspension was 90.1 and 69.2 %, respectively. A comparison of these success rates showed statistical significance, in that the rate of treatment success was higher in PANDO patients who underwent LSI with postoperative administration of the suspension [odds ratio (OR), 3.37; P < 0.05]. The findings of this study show that postoperative administration of rebamipide ophthalmic suspension increases the rate of anatomical success in patients who undergo LSI for the treatment of PANDO.

  11. Success Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boffey, D. Barnes; Boffey, David M.

    1993-01-01

    Describes success counseling, a counseling approach based on the principles of William Glasser's control theory and reality therapy that helps campers examine their wants and needs, evaluate their own behaviors, and see the connections between behavior and the ability to meet basic needs for love, power, fun, and freedom. Provides examples of…

  12. Project Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meredith, Larry D.

    Project Success consists of after-school, weekend, and summer educational programs geared toward minority and disadvantaged students to increase their numbers seeking postsecondary education from the Meadville, Pennsylvania area. The project is funded primarily through the Edinboro University of Pennsylvania, whose administration is committed to…

  13. Project Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meredith, Larry D.

    Project Success consists of after-school, weekend, and summer educational programs geared toward minority and disadvantaged students to increase their numbers seeking postsecondary education from the Meadville, Pennsylvania area. The project is funded primarily through the Edinboro University of Pennsylvania, whose administration is committed to…

  14. Success Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boffey, D. Barnes; Boffey, David M.

    1993-01-01

    Describes success counseling, a counseling approach based on the principles of William Glasser's control theory and reality therapy that helps campers examine their wants and needs, evaluate their own behaviors, and see the connections between behavior and the ability to meet basic needs for love, power, fun, and freedom. Provides examples of…

  15. Nurses management of post-operative pain.

    PubMed

    Buckley, H

    2000-06-01

    Nurses have the responsibility of adequately managing patients' post-operative pain. This literature review assesses whether nurses' management of post-operative pain is adequate or not, according to the literature findings. The findings reveal that nurses' management of patients' post-operative pain is not adequate and implies the concurrent need for improved nurse education and practice. The findings also indicate a need for ongoing research of this phenomenon.

  16. [Intramedullary glioma. Postoperative MRI aspects].

    PubMed

    Borocco, A; Idir, A; Joubert, E; Lacroix, C; Hurth, M; Doyon, D

    1995-06-01

    MRI is the standard exploration of intramedullary tumours. Following up the patients is of prime importance to detect and treat possible recurrences at an early stage. The purpose of this paper is to specify the postoperative MRI semiology of intraspinal gliomas. During the 1986-1992 period, 47 patients operated upon in the Bicêtre hospital for primary intraspinal tumours were followed up with high-field MR (1.5 Tesla, Signa, G.E.). The retrospective visual study was carried out by two neuro-radiologists. The patients' group consisted of 24 women and 23 men aged from 15 to 67 years (mean 38 years). The tumours treated were 29 ependymomas and 18 astrocytomas. Eighty-five MRI examinations were analysed. Most of them comprised at least two planes in T1 and T2-weighted spin echo sequences with gadolinium injection, then only T1-weighted spin echo sequences after gadolinium injection (0.1 mmol/kg). The mean postoperative follow up period in the 47 patients was 32 months (range 7 to 84 months). Contrast enhancement of the spinal cord was observed in 20 cases. In the 6 patients with recurrence (5 astrocytomas, 1 malignant ependymoma) there was a segmental increase of spinal cord volume with contrast enhancement after gadolinium injection. In 3 out of these 6 patients clinical deterioration appeared later than MRI semiology. In clinically stable patients neither enhancement nor increase in spinal cord size was found in 27 cases, and enhancement alone was noted in 12 cases. There was no reliable criterion in the analysis of post gadolinium signal enhancement that could be used to differentiate recurrence from cicatricial contrast enhancement.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Postoperative analgesia by intravenous clonidine.

    PubMed

    Bernard, J M; Hommeril, J L; Passuti, N; Pinaud, M

    1991-10-01

    Clonidine, an alpha 2 adrenoreceptor agonist, has nonopiate antinociceptive properties, which might be an alternative for postoperative analgesia free of opioid-induced side effects. To document the analgesic properties of intravenous clonidine during the postoperative period, 50 ASA physical status 1 patients, immediately after spinal fusion, were randomly assigned to two groups, blindly administered either clonidine (5 micrograms/kg infused the 1st h and then 0.3 microgram-1.kg-1.h-1 during 11 h) or a placebo. A visual analog scale graded from 0 (no pain) to 100 mm was used to assess pain before clonidine or placebo administration (T0), at the end of the loading dose (T1) and then every 2 h (T3, T5, T7, T9, and T11). Morphine (0.1 mg/kg) was administered intramuscularly after each pain measurement if the score was greater than 50 mm. No morphine was given at T0. Hemodynamics, blood gases and plasma clonidine concentrations were measured each time the pain score was measured. The pain score decreased from 42 +/- 5 to 26 +/- 3 mm (mean +/- standard error) in the clonidine group whereas it was unchanged in the placebo group despite a greater morphine requirement (dose for each patient: 3.8 +/- 1 vs. 10.8 +/- 1.2 mg). Clonidine delayed the onset of pain and the first request for morphine injection. Mean arterial pressure decreased to 74 +/- 2 mmHg in the clonidine group (-26 +/- 2 vs. -15 +/- 2% in the placebo group at T11) despite a significant increase in the cumulative fluid volume.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Evaluation of the postoperative breast.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, E B

    1992-01-01

    With widespread use of mammography for breast cancer screening, the number of surgical procedures has also increased. Overlapping with radiographic signs of malignancy, including masses, areas of asymmetric density and architectural distortion, microcalcifications, and skin thickening, postsurgical changes may make mammographic evaluation difficult. After tumor excision and irradiation where breast alterations are more profound and prolonged, the task of distinguishing recurrent tumor from scarring or fat necrosis is even more challenging. Mammograms after breast conservation therapy for carcinoma or after cosmetic surgery require correlation with physical findings and the surgical procedures that were performed. Responses of tissue to lumpectomy and radiation, such as breast edema and skin thickening, are most pronounced 6 to 12 months after treatment, gradually resolving within 1 to 3 years. Carefully tailored mammographic studies will promote the dual goal of early detection of local tumor recurrence and avoidance of misinterpreting postoperative and irradiation changes as malignancy. Sequential examinations should begin with a postoperative preradiation mammogram for residual carcinoma, particularly when microcalcifications have been present, followed by the baseline postradiation examination at 6 months with the next study 6 months later (1 year after initial treatment). Mammograms of the treated breast may be performed at intervals of 6 months until radiographic stability has been recognized. Annual studies thereafter are suggested. The contralateral, unaffected breast should be evaluated mammographically according to screening guidelines or clinical concerns. Mammograms performed after cosmetic and reconstructive procedures should be correlated with the surgical techniques and clinical history. Modified views for silicone implants can maximize visualization of breast parenchyma. Ultrasonography is a useful complement to mammography in demonstrating the

  19. One-stage excision of massive cervicomediastinal lymphangioma in the newborn.

    PubMed

    Cozzi, Denis A; Zani, Augusto; d'Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Piserà, Antonietta; Roggini, Mario; Cozzi, Francesco

    2007-09-01

    We report the first neonate successfully treated with one-stage complete excision of massive cervicomediastinal lymphangioma producing alarming respiratory distress. Early postoperative course was complicated by refractory bilateral chylothorax, which effectively responded to insertion of external pleuroperitoneal shunts. At the 6-year follow-up, the child remains symptom free and recurrence free. One-stage resection for cervicomediastinal lymphangioma is curative and well tolerated even shortly after birth.

  20. Computed tomography of the postoperative lumbar spine

    SciTech Connect

    Teplick, J.G.; Haskin, M.E.

    1983-11-01

    In the postoperative patient ordinary radiographs of the spine generally add very little information, revealing the usual postoperative bone changes and often postoperative narrowing of the intervertebral space. Myelography may sometimes be informative, showing evidence of focal arachnoiditis or a focal defect at the surgical site. However, the latter finding is difficult to interpret. As experience with high-resolution CT scanning of the lumbar spine has been increasing, it is becoming apparent that this noninvasive and easily performed study can give considerably more information about the postoperative spine than any of the other current imaging methods. About 750 patients with previous lumbar laminectomies had CT scanning within a 28 month period.

  1. Postoperative infections in obstetrics and gynecology.

    PubMed

    Jaiyeoba, Oluwatosin

    2012-12-01

    Postoperative infection is the most commonly seen complication of surgery in obstetrics and gynecology. The use of antibiotic prophylaxis has greatly decreased though not completely eliminated this adverse outcome. Postoperative infections include wound cellulitis, wound abscess, endomyometritis, pelvic cellulitis, and pelvic abscess. Infections usually manifest as fever and greater than normal postoperative pain. Refractory fevers maybe because of septic pelvic vein thrombophlebitis or maybe noninfectious in origin. Broad-spectrum antibiotics should be initiated as soon as possible when diagnosis of postoperative infection is made; most patients will respond to treatment within 24 to 48 hours when appropriate antibiotics are selected.

  2. Treatment of complex postoperative lumbosacral wounds in nonparalyzed patients.

    PubMed

    Wendt, J R; Gardner, V O; White, J I

    1998-04-01

    Postoperative infections after back operations can produce complex wounds with myonecrosis, deep dead space, and exposed orthopedic hardware, bone, and dura. Three ambulatory patients with complex postoperative back wounds that resulted from infections were treated successfully with antibiotics, debridement, irrigation, and closure of deep dead space with a superior gluteal muscle flap. Several surgical maneuvers can be performed to increase the length of the superior gluteal muscle flap. The inferior portion of the gluteus maximus was left intact to preserve gluteus maximus function. All three patients obtained healed wounds. The exposed A.O. plating system was not removed. There has not been any recurrence of infections. The superior gluteal muscle flap is a reasonable flap to fill deep dead space in the low back and has some advantages over free flaps.

  3. Endovascular management of postoperative pseudoaneurysms of the external carotid artery.

    PubMed

    Cohen, José E; Gomori, John M; Moscovici, Samuel; Grigoriadis, Savvas; Ramirez de Noriega, Fernando; Itshayek, Eyal

    2012-05-01

    Hemorrhage secondary to postoperative pseudoaneurysm is a rare event, but may complicate the clinical course of straightforward and common interventions such as sinonasal procedures, tonsillectomy, and maxillofacial and plastic surgeries. We report our experience with the endovascular management of iatrogenic pseudoaneurysm in eight patients who had undergone recent craniomaxillofacial surgery. Computed tomography (CT), including CT-angiography, detected only three of the eight lesions. In all patients, endovascular embolization achieved successful occlusion of the pseudoaneurysm without local or general procedure-related complications. Immediate proximal arterial occlusion with detachable coils was performed in every case, and pseudoaneurysm coiling was performed in three cases presenting with active hemorrhage. Endovascular therapy proved to be safe and effective in the management of postoperative pseudoaneurysms. Surgeons involved in the craniomaxillofacial procedures should be aware of this complication and its management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Postoperative Hyperthermia of Unknown Origin Treated With Dantrolene Sodium

    PubMed Central

    Inada, Hirohito; Jinno, Shigeharu; Kohase, Hikaru; Fukayama, Haruhisa; Umino, Masahiro

    2005-01-01

    An 11-year-old girl was scheduled for alveolar cleft bone grafting with an iliac bone under general anesthesia. Anesthesia was performed with 70% nitrous oxide, 30% oxygen, and propofol. On the first and second postoperative day, persistent hyperthermia was observed. Because the administration of diclofenac sodium had not been effective for the hyperthermia, dantrolene sodium was given. Her body temperature gradually dropped and returned to normal level on the fifth postoperative day. The hyperthermia in the present case might have been caused by a rapidly elevated muscle metabolism in response to pain and stress after the propofol anesthesia. The oral administration of dantrolene sodium successfully lowered the patient's high body temperature. PMID:15859445

  5. Postoperative surgical complications of lymphadenohysterocolpectomy

    PubMed Central

    Marin, F; Pleşca, M; Bordea, CI; Voinea, SC; Burlănescu, I; Ichim, E; Jianu, CG; Nicolăescu, RR; Teodosie, MP; Maher, K; Blidaru, A

    2014-01-01

    Rationale The current standard surgical treatment for the cervix and uterine cancer is the radical hysterectomy (lymphadenohysterocolpectomy). This has the risk of intraoperative accidents and postoperative associated morbidity. Objective The purpose of this article is the evaluation and quantification of the associated complications in comparison to the postoperative morbidity which resulted after different types of radical hysterectomy. Methods and results Patients were divided according to the type of surgery performed as follows: for cervical cancer – group A- 37 classic radical hysterectomies Class III Piver - Rutledge -Smith ( PRS ), group B -208 modified radical hysterectomies Class II PRS and for uterine cancer- group C -79 extended hysterectomies with pelvic lymphadenectomy from which 17 patients with paraaortic lymphnode biopsy . All patients performed preoperative radiotherapy and 88 of them associated radiosensitization. Discussion Early complications were intra-abdominal bleeding ( 2.7% Class III PRS vs 0.48% Class II PRS), supra-aponeurotic hematoma ( 5.4% III vs 2.4% II) , dynamic ileus (2.7% III vs 0.96% II) and uro - genital fistulas (5.4% III vs 0.96% II).The late complications were the bladder dysfunction (21.6% III vs 16.35% II) , lower limb lymphedema (13.5% III vs 11.5% II), urethral strictures (10.8% III vs 4.8% II) , incisional hernias ( 8.1% III vs 7.2% II), persistent pelvic pain (18.91% III vs 7.7% II), bowel obstruction (5.4% III vs 1.4% II) and deterioration of sexual function (83.3% III vs 53.8% II). PRS class II radical hysterectomy is associated with fewer complications than PRS class III radical hysterectomy , except for the complications of lymphadenectomy . A new method that might reduce these complications is a selective lymphadenectomy represented by sentinel node biopsy . In conclusion PRS class II radical hysterectomy associated with neoadjuvant radiotherapy is a therapeutic option for the incipient stages of cervical cancer

  6. Principles of postoperative anterior cruciate ligament rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Saka, Tolga

    2014-01-01

    It is known that anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction needs to be combined with detailed postoperative rehabilitation in order for patients to return to their pre-injury activity levels, and that the rehabilitation process is as important as the reconstruction surgery. Literature studies focus on how early in the postoperative ACL rehabilitation period rehabilitation modalities can be initiated. Despite the sheer number of studies on this topic, postoperative ACL rehabilitation protocols have not been standardized yet. Could common, “ossified” knowledge or modalities really prove themselves in the literature? Could questions such as “is postoperative brace use really necessary?”, “what are the benefits of early restoration of the range of motion (ROM)?”, “to what extent is neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) effective in the protection from muscular atrophy?”, “how early can proprioception training and open chain exercises begin?”, “should strengthening training start in the immediate postoperative period?” be answered for sure? My aim is to review postoperative brace use, early ROM restoration, NMES, proprioception, open/closed chain exercises and early strengthening, which are common modalities in the very comprehensive theme of postoperative ACL rehabilitation, on the basis of several studies (Level of Evidence 1 and 2) and to present the commonly accepted ways they are presently used. Moreover, I have presented the objectives of postoperative ACL rehabilitation in tables and recent miscellaneous studies in the last chapter of the paper. PMID:25232521

  7. [Postoperative mental disorders in cardiovascular surgery].

    PubMed

    Tonković, Dinko; Marinić, Dragan Korolija; Baronica, Robert; Oberhofer, Dagmar; Pavlović, Danijela Bandić; Perić, Mladen

    2012-03-01

    Postoperative mental disorders are a common complication of cardiovascular surgery, with serious consequences. The main types of postoperative mental disorders include postoperative delirium and postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Their incidence ranges up to 15%-80%. Postoperative mental disorders may be reversible and irreversible. Although reversible in most cases, postoperative mental disorders are associated with increased mortality, morbidity and increasing costs of treatment. The treatment is usually symptomatic and may be associated with dangerous side effects. Safer and more effective is preventive action. Preoperative preventive action need to recognize, avoid and optimize risk factors. Intraoperative prevention involves maintaining optimal oxygenation of the brain during cardiovascular surgery. For postoperative prevention, multimodal approach is applied. It includes early extubation, early enteral nutrition, early mobilization, regular evaluation of cognitive function, activation of cognitive function and optimal analgesia, which requires teamwork of medical staff who care for patients. Combining all these methods can show promising results in reducing the incidence of postoperative mental disorders as a complication in cardiovascular surgery.

  8. Epidural Analgesia in the Postoperative Period

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    violations. VI ABSTRACT Postoperative pain is an unwanted side effect of surgery, and is associated with many postoperative complications...This descriptive study was conducted to determine which surgical patients experienced the most analgesia with the fewest side effects when...epidural medication, side effects , incidence of breakthrough pain, and treatments were recorded and cross-tabulated. The following surgical categories

  9. Preoperative Sleep Disruption and Postoperative Delirium

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Jacqueline M.; Sands, Laura P.; Newman, Stacey; Meckler, Gabriela; Xie, Yimeng; Gay, Caryl; Lee, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To describe preoperative and postoperative sleep disruption and its relationship to postoperative delirium. Design: Prospective cohort study with 6 time points (3 nights pre-hospitalization and 3 nights post-surgery). Setting: University medical center. Patients: The sample consisted of 50 English-speaking patients ≥ 40 years of age scheduled for major non-cardiac surgery, with an anticipated hospital stay ≥ 3 days. Interventions: None. Measurements and results: Sleep was measured before and after surgery for a total of 6 days using a wrist actigraph to quantify movement in a continuous fashion. Postoperative delirium was measured by a structured interview using the Confusion Assessment Method. Sleep variables for patients with (n = 7) and without (n = 43) postoperative delirium were compared using the unpaired Student t-tests or χ2 tests. Repeated measures analysis of variance for the 6 days was used to examine within-subject changes over time and between group differences. The mean age of the patients was 66 ± 11 years (range 43–91 years), and it was not associated with sleep variables or postoperative delirium. The incidence of postoperative delirium observed during any of the 3 postoperative days was 14%. For the 7 patients who subsequently developed postoperative delirium, wake after sleep onset (WASO) as a percentage of total sleep time was significantly higher (44% ± 22%) during the night before surgery compared to the patients who did not subsequently developed delirium (21% ± 20%, p = 0.012). This sleep disruption continued postoperatively, and to a greater extent, for the first 2 nights after surgery. Patients with WASO < 10% did not experience postoperative delirium. Self-reported sleep disturbance did not differ between patients with vs. without postoperative delirium. Conclusions: In this pilot study of adults over 40 years of age, sleep disruption was more severe before surgery in the patients who experienced postoperative

  10. Postoperative Recovery of Light Sensitivity in Eyes with Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment.

    PubMed

    Ooshiro, Tomohiro; Iijima, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether postoperative light sensitivity recovers completely to the level prior to the development of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) after successful surgery. We retrospectively studied 44 eyes of 44 patients with RRD who were successfully operated and who underwent Humphrey central 30-2 perimetry postoperatively. The averaged total deviation in Humphrey perimetry in the reattached retina was compared with that of the horizontal or vertical counterpart in the preoperatively non-detached retina. The averaged total deviation in the reattached retina was significantly lower than in its counterpart (p < 0.0001). The averaged residual loss of light sensitivity did not correlate with postoperative visual acuity (p = 0.8047) or with its change (p = 0.1242). Light sensitivity in the detached retina in eyes with RRD does not completely recover after successful surgery. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Management of postoperative spinal infections

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Vishal; Meredith, Dennis S; Kepler, Christopher K; Huang, Russel C

    2012-01-01

    Postoperative surgical site infection (SSI) is a common complication after posterior lumbar spine surgery. This review details an approach to the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of SSIs. Factors contributing to the development of a SSI can be split into three categories: (1) microbiological factors; (2) factors related to the patient and their spinal pathology; and (3) factors relating to the surgical procedure. SSI is most commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus. The virulence of the organism causing the SSI can affect its presentation. SSI can be prevented by careful adherence to aseptic technique, prophylactic antibiotics, avoiding myonecrosis by frequently releasing retractors and preoperatively optimizing modifiable patient factors. Increasing pain is commonly the only symptom of a SSI and can lead to a delay in diagnosis. C-reactive protein and magnetic resonance imaging can help establish the diagnosis. Treatment requires acquiring intra-operative cultures to guide future antibiotic therapy and surgical debridement of all necrotic tissue. A SSI can usually be adequately treated without removing spinal instrumentation. A multidisciplinary approach to SSIs is important. It is useful to involve an infectious disease specialist and use minimum serial bactericidal titers to enhance the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy. A plastic surgeon should also be involved in those cases of severe infection that require repeat debridement and delayed closure. PMID:23330073

  12. Postoperative radicular neuroma. Case report.

    PubMed

    Erman, T; Tuna, M; Göçer, A I; Idan, F; Akgül, E; Zorludemir, S

    2001-11-15

    Lumbar discectomy is the most common surgical procedure performed in neurosurgery clinics. Such a large number of procedures underscore not only the prevalence of conditions such as intervertebral disc herniation, but also the strong belief of surgeons that the operation does provide benefits to patients suffering from sciatica. In spite of this belief, sciatic pain may continue after the surgery. The recurrence of sciatic and/or back pain after primary discectomy is called the "failed back surgery syndrome." The rate of the complications involved in standard lumbar discectomy ranges from 5.4 to 14%. One of the complications of the lumbar disc surgery is nerve root injury. The complication rate of this injury ranges from 0.7 to 2.2%. Postoperative radicular neuroma must be considered in differential diagnosis for the patient who has failed back surgery syndrome. In this study the authors evaluate a patient who had undergone surgery for lumbar disc herniation and suffered intractable pain. A traumatic radicular neuroma is demonstrated and the pertinent literature is presented.

  13. Hypothermic anesthesia attenuates postoperative proteolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, D J; Brooks, D C; Pressler, V M; Hulton, N R; Colpoys, M F; Smith, R J; Wilmore, D W

    1986-01-01

    The catabolic response that commonly occurs after major operation is characterized by net skeletal muscle proteolysis and accelerated nitrogen excretion. This response was absent in patients undergoing cardiac surgical procedures associated with the combination of cardiopulmonary bypass, narcotic anesthesia, neuromuscular blockade, and hypothermia. Forearm nitrogen release was 422 +/- 492 nmol/100 ml X min on the first postoperative day, approximately 25% of preoperative values (1677 +/- 411, p less than 0.05). Nitrogen excretion and the degree of negative nitrogen balance were comparable to levels observed in nonstressed, fasting subjects. The potential role of hypothermia, high-dose fentanyl anesthesia, and neuromuscular blockade in modifying the catabolic response to laparotomy and retroperitoneal dissection was further evaluated in animal studies. Six hours after operation, amino acid nitrogen release from the hindquarter was 84% less than control values (p less than 0.05). Nitrogen excretion and urea production were also reduced compared to normothermic controls. It is concluded that the combination of hypothermia, narcotic anesthesia, and neuromuscular blockade attenuates the catabolic response to injury and thus may be useful in the care of critically ill surgical patients. PMID:3767477

  14. Recovery from post-operative anaemia.

    PubMed

    Wallis, J P; Wells, A W; Whitehead, S; Brewster, N

    2005-10-01

    Acceptance of lower transfusion thresholds and shorter post-operative stays results in patients leaving hospital after surgery with lower haemoglobin (Hb) than previously. We undertook a prospective observational study to assess the haematological response to post-operative anaemia and to determine the utility of quality of life (QoL) measures in assessing the impact of anaemia on such patients. Thirty patients undergoing unilateral hip arthroplasty had blood samples taken and QoL questionnaires administered pre-operatively and at 7, 28 and 56 days post-operatively. Increased erythropoiesis was evident at day 7 post-operatively. Approximately two-thirds of the post-operative Hb deficit was corrected by day 28. There was evidence of functional iron deficiency in more than one-quarter of patients at day 56. QoL scores used did not show any relationship with Hb in the post-operative period. Red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3DPG) levels increased in proportion to the degree of post-operative anaemia. We concluded that substantial recovery of Hb occurs between day 7 and day 28 post-operatively. Complete recovery of Hb may be delayed beyond day 56 due to development of iron deficiency. Patients are at significant risk of developing post-operative iron deficiency depending on operative blood loss and pre-operative iron stores. Increased red cell 2,3DPG may offset the effect of anaemia on oxygen delivery. We found no evidence that anaemia produces a measurable effect on chosen QoL scores in the post-operative period.

  15. Succession planning.

    PubMed

    Catanzaro, Thomas E

    2006-03-01

    This article provides the reader with an appreciation of the diverse elements that go into a buy-sell, affiliation, or merger situation for veterinary practices. In the changing market place of American veterinary medicine, old paradigms no longer hold comfort. The generational differences are briefly explored herein as well as the new economic realities. A few examples are offered to illustrate just how much variability exists in the current business of veterinary medicine and the subsequent practice transitions needed to enhance value. Functioning models are explored, as well as affiliation and merger options. Practice valuation is discussed in general terms, referencing the cutting-edge factors. The six-point summary provides almost all practices a solid operational base for daily operations and succession planning.

  16. Interventional radiology in the treatment of early postoperative biliary complications.

    PubMed

    Fonio, P; Cassinis, M C; Rapellino, A; Righi, D; Gandini, G

    2013-04-01

    We sought to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of percutaneous treatment of early postoperative biliary complications. The primary aims were to evaluate clinical and technical success and complications and perioperative mortality, and secondary aims were to evaluate treatment duration and recurrence rate. Between March 2007 and March 2010, 75 patients (42 men and 33 women; age range, 17-88 years; mean age, 60.8 years) underwent interventional radiology procedures to treat early postoperative biliary complications of biliary and pancreatic-duodenal surgery with biliodigestive anastomosis (37.7%), laparoscopic cholecystectomy (30.6%), hepatic resection (21.1%) and several other surgical procedures (10.6%). Complications included fistulas (73%), stenoses (20%) and complete bile duct transections (7%). Interventional radiology achieved complete clinical success in 74 cases (85.9%) and in particular in 95.2% of fistulas, 76.5% of stenoses and 33.3% of complete bile duct transections. Mean indwelling catheter time was 34.9 days, with an average of 4.1 procedures. There were two cases of severe haemobilia (2.3%). Minor complications occurred in 7% of cases. Perioperative mortality rate was 1.2% and overall recurrence rate 6.7% (range, 1-18 months; mean, 10 months), with recurrences occurring predominantly in stenoses. All patients were retreated successfully. Percutaneous procedures are feasible, effective and safe for treating early postoperative biliary complications. They provide a valuable alternative to presendoscopy, which is precluded in many of these patients, and to surgery, which has higher morbidity and mortality rates.

  17. Proficiency of eye drop instillation in postoperative cataract patients in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Murdoch, Amanda; Bassett, Ken; Dharamsi, Shafik

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of postoperative instruction on proficiency of eye drop instillation following cataract surgery, and to determine whether such proficiency correlates with the prevalence and/or duration of irritation and pain experienced in operated eyes. This was a prospective, nonrandomized control trial with an educational intervention conducted via a single eye clinic in Accra, Ghana. The 218 subjects who completed the study were postoperative cataract surgery patients whose surgery had been funded by the nongovernmental organization Unite for Sight. Patients were evaluated on their ability to administer eye drops correctly on their first attempt on postoperative day one. If unsuccessful, patients were given an educational session that consisted of verbal instructions and an educational video. Both groups (successful and unsuccessful) on the first postoperative day were tested again for proficiency on postoperative day 30. The baseline group was evaluated only on postoperative day 30 and consisted of 36 patients. Of the 133 patients who received the educational session on eye drop instillation, 112 (84%) exhibited proficiency on postoperative day 30 as compared with 29 of 49 patients (59%) who did not receive the intervention. Additionally, there were fewer reports of pain and irritation following cataract extraction in the patients who received the educational session. This study supports the efficacy of patient education in improving proficiency in eye drop instillation and in reducing pain and irritation following cataract extraction surgeries.

  18. Sleep disturbances and quality of life in postoperative management after esophagectomy for esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aims of this prospective study were to analyze the predictors of postoperative sleep disturbance after esophagectomy for cancer and to identify patients at risk for postoperative hypnotic administration. Methods Sixty two consecutive patients who underwent cancer-related esophagectomy were enrolled in this study from May 2011 to February 2012. Data about perioperative management, postoperative complications, ICU stay, and vasopressor, hypnotic, and painkiller administration were retrieved. The EORTC QLQ-C30 was used and global quality of life (QL2 item) and sleep disturbance (SL item) were the primary endpoints. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results Postoperative request of hypnotics independently predicted bad quality of life outcome. Sleep disturbance after esophagectomy was independently predicted by the duration of dopamine infusion in the ICU and the daily request of benzodiazepines. Even in this case, only sleep disturbance at diagnosis revealed to be an independent predictor of hypnotic administration need. ROC curve analysis showed that sleep disturbance at diagnosis was a good predictor of benzodiazepine request (AUC = 73%, P = 0.02). Conclusions The use of vasopressors in the ICU affects sleep in the following postoperative period and the use of hypnotics is neither completely successful nor lacking in possible consequences. Sleep disturbance at diagnosis can successfully predict patients who can develop sleep disturbance during the postoperative period. PMID:24886219

  19. Deep brain stimulation: postoperative issues.

    PubMed

    Deuschl, Günther; Herzog, Jan; Kleiner-Fisman, Galit; Kubu, Cynthia; Lozano, Andres M; Lyons, Kelly E; Rodriguez-Oroz, Maria C; Tamma, Filippo; Tröster, Alexander I; Vitek, Jerrold L; Volkmann, Jens; Voon, Valerie

    2006-06-01

    Numerous factors need to be taken into account when managing a patient with Parkinson's disease (PD) after deep brain stimulation (DBS). Questions such as when to begin programming, how to conduct a programming screen, how to assess the effects of programming, and how to titrate stimulation and medication for each of the targeted sites need to be addressed. Follow-up care should be determined, including patient adjustments of stimulation, timing of follow-up visits and telephone contact with the patient, and stimulation and medication conditions during the follow-up assessments. A management plan for problems that can arise after DBS such as weight gain, dyskinesia, axial symptoms, speech dysfunction, muscle contractions, paresthesia, eyelid, ocular and visual disturbances, and behavioral and cognitive problems should be developed. Long-term complications such as infection or erosion, loss of effect, intermittent stimulation, tolerance, and pain or discomfort can develop and need to be managed. Other factors that need consideration are social and job-related factors, development of dementia, general medical issues, and lifestyle changes. This report from the Consensus on Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease, a project commissioned by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons and the Movement Disorder Society, outlines answers to a series of questions developed to address all aspects of DBS postoperative management and decision-making with a systematic overview of the literature (until mid-2004) and by the expert opinion of the authors. The report has been endorsed by the Scientific Issues Committee of the Movement Disorder Society and the American Society of Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery.

  20. Postoperative bezoar ileus after early enteral feeding.

    PubMed

    Dedes, Konstantin J; Schiesser, Marc; Schäfer, Markus; Clavien, Pierre-Alain

    2006-01-01

    Postoperative enteral nutrition is a widely accepted route of application for nutrition formulas due to a low complication rate, a good acceptance by patients. and a favorable cost-effectiveness. We report three cases of bezoar ileus after early postoperative enteral nutrition, using a fine needle jejunostomy (FNJ) in two cases and a nasoduodenal tube in one case. A male patient who underwent gastric resection for a gastrointestinal stroma tumor and was nourished through an fine needle jejunostomy developed an acute abdomen on the seventh postoperative day. Surgical exploration revealed a mechanical ileus caused by denaturated nutrition formula distal to the catheter tip. The second case, a female patient, underwent gastric resection for a gastric cancer and on the fourth postoperative day developed acute onset of abdominal pain. Intraoperative findings were the same as described in the first case. The third case, a male patient with necrotizing cholecystitis, underwent open cholecystectomy. Postoperative enteral feeding was performed using a nasoduodenal tube. He developed a small bowel obstruction on the 17th postoperative day that was caused by an intraluminal bezoar. In conclusion, bezoar formation represents an underestimated complication of postoperative enteral feeding. Acute onset of abdominal pain and the development of small bowel obstruction are the main clinical symptoms of this severe complication. The pathogenesis of bezoar formation remains unclear.

  1. Postoperative wound care regimen in open septorhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Serin, Gediz Murat; Polat, Senol; Aksoy, Elif; İnanlı, Selçuk

    2010-11-01

    The many benefits of the open-approach septorhinoplasty should not be excluded on the basis of columellar scarring alone. Technical factors that contributed to the favorable outcome of the columellar scar included proper planning of location and design of the incision used, meticulous closure, and good postoperative care. In the current study, we describe a simple postoperative wound care procedure that allows clean visualized wound with less crust formation, easy removal of the sutures by the surgeon, and better columellar scar in the early postoperative period.

  2. Primary closure for postoperative mediastinitis in children.

    PubMed

    Ohye, Richard G; Maniker, Robert B; Graves, Holly L; Devaney, Eric J; Bove, Edward L

    2004-09-01

    Mediastinitis affects approximately 1% of children undergoing median sternotomy. Conventional therapy involves debridement followed by open wound care with delayed closure, days to weeks of closed suction or antimicrobial irrigation, and vacuum-assisted closure or muscle flap closure. We hypothesized that primary closure without prolonged suction or irrigation is an effective, less traumatic treatment for mediastinitis in children. From January 1986 to July 2002, 6705 procedures involving median sternotomy were performed at the C. S. Mott Children's Hospital, resulting in 57 cases of mediastinitis (0.85%). Cases were divided into 2 groups, with 42 cases treated with primary closure and 15 cases treated with delayed or muscle flap closure. The 42 cases of primary closure comprised the primary study group of this institutional review board-approved, retrospective analysis. Patient demographics, surgical variables, mediastinitis-related parameters, and outcomes were evaluated. One patient had recurrent mediastinitis for an overall infection eradication rate of 97% (40/41). Three patients (7%) required re-exploration for suspected ongoing infection. Of these re-explorations, 1 patient had evidence of continued mediastinitis. The remaining 2 patients with sepsis of unclear cause had no clinical or culture evidence of recurrent infection. One of these patients ultimately died of sepsis without active mediastinitis for a hospital survival of 97% (41/42). No significant differences could be detected between the treatment successes and failures in this small cohort of patients. Simple primary closure is an effective means to treat selected cases of postoperative mediastinitis in children. The results compare favorably with other more lengthy or debilitating treatments.

  3. Does Apolipoprotein E Genotype Increase Risk of Postoperative Delirium?

    PubMed Central

    Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha; Ngo, Long; Kosar, Cyrus M.; Fong, Tamara G.; Jones, Richard N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is associated with postoperative delirium incidence, severity, and duration in older patients free of dementia at baseline. Design, Setting, Participants We examined 557 non-demented patients age ≥70 undergoing major non-cardiac surgery enrolled in the Successful Aging after Elective Surgery (SAGES) Study. Measurements We considered three ApoE measures: ε2, ε4 carriers vs. non-carriers, and a three-category ApoE measure. Delirium was determined using the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) and chart review. We used generalized linear models to estimate the association between ApoE and delirium incidence, severity (peak CAM Severity [CAM-S] score), and days. Results ApoE ε2 and ε4 was present in 15% and 19% respectively, and postoperative delirium occurred in 24%. Among patients with delirium, the mean peak CAM-S score was 8.0 (standard deviation 4), with most patients experiencing one or two delirium days (51% or 28%, respectively). After adjusting for age, sex, surgical procedure, and preoperative cognitive function, ApoE ε4 and ε2 carrier status were not associated with postoperative delirium: RR for ε4=1.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-1.5 and RR for ε2=0.9, 95% CI 0.6-1.4. No association between ApoE and delirium severity or number of delirium days was observed. Conclusions In older surgery patients free of dementia, our findings do not support the hypothesis that the ApoE genotype does not confer either risk or protection in postoperative delirium incidence, severity, or duration. Thus, an important genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's Disease does not affect risk of delirium. PMID:26238230

  4. Use of Probiotics as Prophylaxis for Postoperative Infections

    PubMed Central

    Jeppsson, Bengt; Mangell, Peter; Thorlacius, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Postoperative bacterial infections are common despite prophylactic administration of antibiotics. The wide-spread use of antibiotics in patients has contributed to the emergence of multiresistant bacteria. A restricted use of antibiotics must be followed in most clinical situations. In surgical patients there are several reasons for an altered microbial flora in the gut in combination with an altered barrier function leading to an enhanced inflammatory response to surgery. Several experimental and clinical studies have shown that probiotics (mainly lactobacilli) may reduce the number of potentially pathogenia bacteria (PPM) and restore a deranged barrier function. It is therefore of interest to test if these abilities of probiotics can be utilized in preoperative prophylaxis. These factors may be corrected by perioperative administration of probiotics in addition to antibiotics. Fourteen randomized clinical trials have been presented in which the effect of such regimens has been tested. It seems that in patients undergoing liver transplantation or elective surgery in the upper gastrointestinal tract prophylactic administration of different probiotic strains in combination with different fibers results in a three-fold reduction in postoperative infections. In parallel there seems to be a reduction in postoperative inflammation, although that has not been studied in a systematic way. The use of similar concepts in colorectal surgery has not been successful in reducing postoperative infections. Reasons for this difference are not obvious. It may be that higher doses of probiotics with longer duration are needed to influence microbiota in the lower gastrointestinal tract or that immune function in colorectal patients may not be as important as in transplantation or surgery in the upper gastrointestinal tract. The favorable results for the use of prophylactic probiotics in some settings warrant further controlled studies to elucidate potential mechanisms, impact on gut

  5. Successful Lecturing

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, H Liesel; Longworth, David L; Hewson, Mariana G; Stoller, James K

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In a study conducted over 3 large symposia on intensive review of internal medicine, we previously assessed the features that were most important to course participants in evaluating the quality of a lecture. In this study, we attempt to validate these observations by assessing prospectively the extent to which ratings of specific lecture features would predict the overall evaluation of lectures. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS After each lecture, 143 to 355 course participants rated the overall lecture quality of 69 speakers involved in a large symposium on intensive review of internal medicine. In addition, 7 selected participants and the course directors rated specific lecture features and overall quality for each speaker. The relations among the variables were assessed through Pearson correlation coefficients and cluster analysis. Regression analysis was performed to determine which features would predict the overall lecture quality ratings. The features that most highly correlated with ratings of overall lecture quality were the speaker's abilities to identify key points (r = .797) and be engaging (r = .782), the lecture clarity (r = .754), and the slide comprehensibility (r = .691) and format (r = .660). The three lecture features of engaging the audience, lecture clarity, and using a case-based format were identified through regression as the strongest predictors of overall lecture quality ratings (R2= 0.67, P = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS We have identified core lecture features that positively affect the success of the lecture. We believe our findings are useful for lecturers wanting to improve their effectiveness and for educators who design continuing medical education curricula. PMID:10886470

  6. [Acupuncture for postoperative pain, a literature review].

    PubMed

    Fuentealba Cargill, Francisca; Biagini Alarcón, Leandro

    2016-03-01

    There is evidence that acupuncture may relieve pain. To assess the evidence about the effectiveness of acupuncture to relieve postoperative pain. A systematic review of the literature selecting controlled clinical trials and systematic reviews comparing acupuncture with standard pain management. The value and quality of reports were evaluated using Jadad scale and STRICTA protocol. Pain intensity and analgesic consumption were the primary endpoints sought. Five controlled trials and two systematic reviews were selected. A meta-analysis was not feasible due to the heterogeneity of studies. In the postoperative period of tonsillectomy, acupuncture reduced pain by 36 and 22% at 20 minutes and two hours, respectively. In knee replacement, acupuncture reduced pain by 2% and analgesic consumption by 42%. In the postoperative period of dental interventions, acupuncture reduced pain by 24% at two hours. Acupuncture may be useful to manage postoperative pain, but more controlled studies are required.

  7. Postoperative Delirium in the Geriatric Patient

    PubMed Central

    Schenning, Katie J.; Deiner, Stacie G.

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Postoperative delirium, a common complication in older surgical patients, is independently associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Patients over the age of 65 years receive greater than 1/3 of the over 40 million anesthetics delivered yearly in the United States. This number is expected to increase with the aging of the population. Thus, it is increasingly important that perioperative clinicians who care for geriatric patients have an understanding of the complex syndrome of postoperative delirium. PMID:26315635

  8. [Postoperative fever in orthopedic and urologic surgery].

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Federico; Myburg, Cristina; Lanfranconi, Marisa B; Urtasun, Martin; De Oca, Luis Montes; Silberman, Andres; Lambierto, Alberto; Gnocchi, Cesar A

    2008-01-01

    Post-operative fever incidence varies widely. In clean and clean-contaminated surgery the non-infectious fever is more frequent than the infectious fever. We performed a prospective study including 303 patients who underwent orthopedic and urologic elective surgery. The aims of our study were to investigate the incidence of post-operative fever, its etiology, the relationship between time of onset and the etiology, and the usefulness of extensive fever work-up to determine post-operative infection. The incidence of post-operative fever was 14% (42/303) of which 81% (34/42) was noninfectious and 19% (8/42) was infectious. The etiology of the fever in the first 48 hours after surgery was always non-infectious (p < 0.001). An extensive fever work-up was performed in patients who presented fever only after the initial 48 hours of surgery with normal physical examination (n = 19) consisting of chest x-ray, blood (2) and urine cultures. The chest x-ray was normal in all the patients, the urine cultures were positive in four cases (21%, IC 95%: 6-45) and the blood cultures in only one case (5%, IC 95%: 0.1-26). Seven patients had post-operative infections without fever as a clinical sign. The most frequently observed etiology of post-operative fever was non-infectious, related to the normal inflammatory host response to surgery. Based on the present results, the extensive fever work-up performed to investigate post-operative infection does not seem to be a useful tool. The diagnosis of post-operative infection was based on clinical follow up and the correct interpretation of the patient's symptoms and signs.

  9. Epidural Analgesia in the Postoperative Period

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    an unwanted side effect of surgery, and is associated with many postoperative complications. This descriptive study was conducted to determine which...surgical patients experienced the most analgesia with the fewest side effects when receiving epidural analgesia in the postoperative period. A...hospital. A description of the patients age, gender, type of surgery, type of epidural medication, side effects , incidence of breakthrough pain, and

  10. [Caloric substrates in postoperative parenteral nutrition].

    PubMed

    De Salvo, L; Romairone, E; Ansaldo, G L; Mattioli, G

    1991-05-31

    The paper describes the carbohydrate, lipidic and nitrogen metabolism of the postoperative period which is subdivided into an early and a late phase. Since the metabolism of caloric substrates in the early postoperative period is a stress metabolism with glucose intolerance and wide protein catabolism, the authors emphasise that an insufficient caloric intake is worse than the fasting state and suggest that alternative caloric sources, such as branched chain amino acids, fatty acids and, even, ketonic bodies, should be used.

  11. Successful Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierrehumbert, R.

    2012-12-01

    In an observational science, it is not possible to test hypotheses through controlled laboratory experiments. One can test parts of the system in the lab (as is done routinely with infrared spectroscopy of greenhouse gases), but the collective behavior cannot be tested experimentally because a star or planet cannot be brought into the lab; it must, instead, itself be the lab. In the case of anthropogenic global warming, this is all too literally true, and the experiment would be quite exciting if it weren't for the unsettling fact that we and all our descendents for the forseeable future will have to continue making our home in the lab. There are nonetheless many routes though which the validity of a theory of the collective behavior can be determined. A convincing explanation must not be a"just-so" story, but must make additional predictions that can be verified against observations that were not originally used in formulating the theory. The field of Earth and planetary climate has racked up an impressive number of such predictions. I will also admit as "predictions" statements about things that happened in the past, provided that observations or proxies pinning down the past climate state were not available at the time the prediction was made. The basic prediction that burning of fossil fuels would lead to an increase of atmospheric CO2, and that this would in turn alter the Earth's energy balance so as to cause tropospheric warming, is one of the great successes of climate science. It began in the lineage of Fourier, Tyndall and Arrhenius, and was largely complete with the the radiative-convective modeling work of Manabe in the 1960's -- all well before the expected warming had progressed far enough to be observable. Similarly, long before the increase in atmospheric CO2 could be detected, Bolin formulated a carbon cycle model and used it to predict atmospheric CO2 out to the year 2000; the actual values come in at the high end of his predicted range, for

  12. Late bioprosthetic mitral valve thrombosis: a link with postoperative heparin-induced thrombocytopenia?

    PubMed

    Bouallal, Rachid; Montaigne, David; Fayad, George; Auffray, Jean Luc; Asseman, Philippe; Ennezat, Pierre Vladimir

    2009-11-01

    Bioprosthetic valve thrombosis is considered extremely unlikely, thus usually allowing patients to avoid long-term anticoagulation. The authors report the case of a patient with late bioprosthetic mitral valve thrombosis associated with a history of postoperative heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. The patient successfully underwent mitral valve replacement.

  13. Bowel Obstruction in the Postoperative Period of Laparoscopic Inguinal Hernia Repair (TAPP): Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez, J.A.; Solís, M.A.; Valdéz, G.; Valencia, S.; Weber, A.

    1998-01-01

    A case is presented of a male patient that presented with intestinal obstruction in the early postoperative period of a transabdominal preperitoneal inguinal repair (TAPP) that was diagnosed and repaired successfully using laparoscopy. Whenever a total extraperitoneal procedure (TEP) cannot be performed, the peritoneal closure of the TAPP should be done water-tight using interrupted stitches of absorbable monofilament sutures. PMID:9876754

  14. [Diagnosis and treatment for postoperative lobar torsion].

    PubMed

    Li, Hou-huai; Zhang, Qing-zhen; Xu, Lin; Chen, Liang; Wei, Yong-xiang; Wang, Yong-hong

    2007-07-17

    To analyze retrospectively 8 cases of postoperative lobar torsion after thoracotomy. 8 cases of postoperative lobar torsion were collected (5 men and 3 women; median age, 55.0 +/- 7.7 years), including lobectomy 4 (left upper lobe of lung 2, right upper lobe of lung 2), esophageal carcinosectomy 2, resection of schwannoma in the right upper mediastinum 1, and descending aorta replacement 1. The postoperative lobar torsions were right middle lobe 2, right upper lobe 1, left upper lobe 3, left lower lobe 1, left lung 1. The median peak temperature was 38.4 degrees C (range, 37.8 - 40.2 degrees C) and the median white blood cell count was 10.6 x 10(9) cells/L (range, 9.3 - 14.9 x 10(9) cell/L) during the first 48 hours postoperatively. Postoperative radiographs demonstrated pulmonary infiltrates and volume loss in 6 patients and complete opacification in 2 patients. The diagnosis of lobar torsion was made a median of 4 days (range, 2 - 14 days) after the initial operation; 6 patients underwent resection of lung and recovered; 2 had the injured lobe or lung rotated and died. Complications after reoperation included respiratory failure in 2 patients, atrial arrhythmia in 2 patients. Median hospitalization was 24 days and range from 10 to 56 days. The mobilization of hilus of lung or residual pulmonary atelectasis is the main mechanism of the lobar torsion after thoracotomy. Lobar torsion represents a difficult diagnostic dilemma in the early postoperative period after thoracotomy. Exploratory thoracotomy must be performed without delay. The injured parenchyma should be sacrificed unless the diagnosis is obtained very early. When the injured lobe or lung is rotated back into normal position, simultaneous endotracheal suction is very important to prevent aspiration of fluid from the obstructed part of the bronchial tree to the uninvolved segments and dangerous postoperative hypoxia.

  15. Improving postoperative radiotherapy following radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Lipman, D; Pieters, B R; De Reijke, Theo M

    2017-10-01

    Prostate cancer has one of the highest incidences in the world, with good curative treatment options like radiotherapy and radical prostatectomy. Unfortunately, about 30% of the patients initially treated with curative intent will develop a recurrence and need adjuvant treatment. Five randomized trials covered the role of postoperative radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy, but there is still a lot of debate about which patients should receive postoperative radiotherapy. Areas covered: This review will give an overview on the available literature concerning post-operative radiotherapy following radical prostatectomy with an emphasis on the five randomized trials. Also, new imaging techniques like prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography (PSMA-PET) and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) and the development of biomarkers like genomic classifiers will be discussed in the search for an improved selection of patients who will benefit from postoperative radiotherapy following radical prostatectomy. With new treatment techniques like Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy, toxicity profiles will be kept low. Expert commentary: Patients with biochemical recurrence following radical prostatectomy with an early rise in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) will benefit most from postoperative radiotherapy. In this way, patients with only high risk pathological features can avoid unnecessary treatment and toxicity, and early intervention in progressing patients would not compromise the outcome.

  16. Incorporating Postoperative Debriefing Into Surgical Education.

    PubMed

    Francis, David O; Eavey, Roland D; Wright, Harry V; Sinard, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the feasibility and utility of a postoperative "debriefing" process to improve the educational value of surgical procedures. Residents provided a baseline preintervention assessment of personal and attending surgeon current practice for seeking and receiving feedback on performance after an operative case. Surgeons subsequently were educated (the intervention) about the purpose and content of the postoperative debriefing initiative. Each resident completed 8 surgical cases (minimum) in which the debriefing process occurred. A survey was completed after each debriefing and at study completion that inquired about utility, educational value, and feasibility. Descriptive results are reported and comparisons made with Fisher's exact tests, when appropriate. In all, 69% of residents felt the attending surgeon "sometimes or always" identified aspects of the case that they performed competently preintervention compared with 93% postintervention. Overall, 56% of residents were aware of the attending surgeon's impression of their performance preintervention compared with 93% postintervention. Nearly all residents planned on making postoperative debriefing a routine part of self-assessment (93%). Most felt that the duration of time required for debriefing was "just right" (93%) and felt that the process to be "easy and effective" (86%). Resident respondents indicated the postoperative debriefing process was educational, desirable, and feasible. We have made the postoperative debriefing a routine practice in the surgical education of Vanderbilt Otolaryngology residents. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Nursing documentation of postoperative pain management.

    PubMed

    Idvall, Ewa; Ehrenberg, Anna

    2002-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that nursing documentation is often deficient in its recording of pain assessment and treatment. In Sweden, documentation of the care process, including assessment, is a legal obligation. The aim of this study was to describe nursing documentation of postoperative pain management and nurses' perceptions of the records in relation to current regulations and guidelines. The sample included nursing records of postoperative care on the second postoperative day from 172 patients and 63 Registered Nurses from surgical wards in a central county hospital in Sweden. The records were reviewed for content and comprehensiveness based on regulations and guidelines for postoperative pain management. Three different auditing instruments were used. The nurses were asked if the documentation concurred with current regulations and guidelines. The result showed that pain assessment was based mainly on patients' self-report, but less than 10% of the records contained notes on systematic assessment with a pain assessment instrument. Pain location was documented in 50% of the records and pain character in 12%. About 73% of the nurses reported that the documentation concurred with current regulations and guidelines. The findings indicate that significant flaws existed in nurses' recording of postoperative pain management, of which the nurses were not aware.

  18. Management of postoperative recurrence of Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    van Lent, Anja U; D'Haens, Geert R

    2013-01-01

    The course of Crohn's disease (CD) is unpredictable and potentially destructive. The percentage of patients requiring surgery at some stage in their disease accumulates to over 70%. After resection of the affected intestine, reappearance of CD occurs in the majority of patients. Prophylactic medical therapy to reduce the rate of postoperative recurrence has been proven to be effective, yet the incidence of recurrence remains high. Patient profiling (risk stratification) is important in this postoperative setting. High-risk patients (associated with e.g. smoking, the need of repetitive surgery and penetrating disease) require strong immunosuppressive treatment, which should be commenced immediately after surgery, when recurrent disease activity begins. Additionally, early screening endoscopy should be performed to monitor treatment effect. The efficacy of thiopurines is shown to be higher than mesalazine or imidazole antibiotics alone for preventing and ameliorating endoscopic recurrence of CD postoperatively; however, anti-tumor necrosis factors (anti-TNFs) are increasingly considered the most potent agents. In patients with a risk factor for early postoperative recurrence, the first line of treatment is 6-mercaptopurine, in combination with imidazole antibiotics if tolerated, followed by anti-TNFs. When lesions are found at colonoscopy, therapy should be upscaled. We propose a treatment algorithm to direct therapeutic management of CD postoperatively. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. [Postoperative rehabilitation in patients with peripheral nerve lesions].

    PubMed

    Petronić, I; Marsavelski, A; Nikolić, G; Cirović, D

    2003-01-01

    Injuries of extremities can be followed by various neuromuscular complications. Injury of peripheral nerves directly depended on the topographic localization of injury (fractures, cuts, contusions). The neuromuscular complications were diagnosed and under follow-up, based on clinical, x-ray, neurologic and neurophysiological findings. The timing of physical treatment and assessment of the necessary neurosurgical intervention depended on the obtained findings. After surgeries, we continued to apply physical treatment and rehabilitation. The aim of the paper was to assess the significance of proper timing for surgery and adequate postoperative rehabilitation, as well as treatment results, depending on the extent of peripheral nerve injury. Based on the study condocted in the period from 2000-2002, most surgeries were done on the ulnar nerve (4 pts), median nerve (4 pts), radial nerve (3 pts), peroneal nerve (2 pts) and plexus brachialis (3 pts). Paresis and peripheral nerve paralysis, associated with sensibility disorders, predominated in clinical features. In most patients surgery was done during the first 3-6 months after injury. In early postoperative Postoperative rehabilitation in patients with peripherial treatment positioning of extremities with electrotherapy were most often used in early postoperative treatment, Bioptron and dosed kinesitherapy. Depending on the neurophysiological findings, in later treatment stage we included electrostimulation, thermotherapy, kinesitherapy and working therapy, with the necessary application of static and dynamic orthroses. Study results showed that the success of treatment depended on the extent of injury, i.e. whether suture of liberalization of the nerve had been done, on the adequate timing of surgery, as well as on the adequate timing and application of physical therapy and rehabilitation. More rapid and complete functional recovery was achieved if the interval between injury and surgery was shorter, as well as

  20. [Postoperative colon tonus after partial resection of the large intestine].

    PubMed

    Kreis, M E; Huge, A; Zittel, T T; Kasparek, M; Starlinger, M J; Becker, H D; Jehle, E C

    1998-01-01

    Only limited data are available on postoperative colonic motility in patients. We investigated colonic tone and motility after large bowel resection in 20 patients. A combined barostat/manometry catheter was placed intraoperatively. Postoperative colonic motility increased day by day. Barostat bag volumes were reduced on postoperative day 1 compared to postoperative day 2 and 3 indicating increased colonic tone on the 1st postoperative day. The use of morphine-like analgesics was highest right after surgery but might not explain increased colonic tone on postoperative day 1 since morphine has been shown to decrease colonic tone. Possibly, increased postoperative sympathetic activity which caused reduced splanchnic blood flow may be responsible for the apparent increase in postoperative colonic tone. The recording of colonic motility in the early postoperative period is feasible with a combined manometry/barostat catheter. These investigations may improve the understanding of the pathophysiology of postoperative colonic ileus.

  1. Recent Advances in Postoperative Pain Management

    PubMed Central

    Vadivelu, Nalini; Mitra, Sukanya; Narayan, Deepak

    2010-01-01

    Good pain control after surgery is important to prevent negative outcomes such as tachycardia, hypertension, myocardial ischemia, decrease in alveolar ventilation, and poor wound healing. Exacerbations of acute pain can lead to neural sensitization and release of mediators both peripherally and centrally. Clinical wind up occurs from the processes of N-Methyl D-Aspartate (NMDA) activation, wind up central sensitization, long-term potentiation of pain (LTP), and transcription-dependent sensitization. Advances in the knowledge of molecular mechanisms have led to the development of multimodal analgesia and new pharmaceutical products to treat postoperative pain. The new pharmacological products to treat postoperative pain include extended-release epidural morphine and analgesic adjuvants such as capsaicin, ketamine, gabapentin, pregabalin dexmetomidine, and tapentadol. Newer postoperative patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) in modes such as intranasal, regional, transdermal, and pulmonary presents another interesting avenue of development. PMID:20351978

  2. Postoperative maladaptive behavioral changes in children.

    PubMed

    Yuki, Koichi; Daaboul, Dima G

    2011-06-01

    Induction of anesthesia can be a very stressful period for a child and his family and can be associated with increased risk of psychological disturbances. These disturbances are categorized as preoperative anxiety, emergence delirium and postoperative behavioral changes. Several tools have been developed to measure these psychological manifestations as well as the baseline personality traits of these patients. Postoperative negative behavioral changes, such as sleep and eating disorders, separation anxiety, temper tantrum, aggression toward authorities, may occur in up to 60% of all children undergoing general anesthesia. Several studies found a strong association between these postoperative behavioral changes, the distress of the child on induction and his individual personality characteristics, although a cause-effect relationship could not be determined. Understanding the risk factors for behavior changes helps us determine the best way for prevention and treatment of these changes in the perioperative period.

  3. VLAP: results immediately post-op

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowles, Robert S.

    1996-05-01

    Visual laser ablation of the prostate (VLAP) has been shown to be as effective with fewer complications than TURP in the treatment of bladder outlet obstruction secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia. Questions have been raised about VLAP regarding prolonged irritative and obstructive voiding symptoms postoperatively. It is postulated that these symptoms are due to the slow slough of necrotic debris following VLAP. In an effort to improve upon the technique of VLAP, patients underwent lasing of the prostate in the routine manner (2, 4, 8, and 10 o'clock positions with sixty watts for sixty seconds) using Nd:YAG free beam energy. A bladder neck incision was then performed using a contact laser fiber. International prostate symptom score assessments were done preoperatively; one week and six weeks postoperatively. Post void residual urine volumes and prostate size were also evaluated. The findings indicate that symptom scores and post void residual urine volumes have significantly improved within ten days postoperatively using this technique.

  4. The neuroinflammatory response of postoperative cognitive decline

    PubMed Central

    Vacas, Susana; Degos, Vincent; Feng, Xiaomei; Maze, Mervyn

    2013-01-01

    Background Aseptic surgical trauma provokes a homeostatic neuroinflammatory response to promote healing and protect the organism from further injury. When this response is dysregulated, harmful consequences can follow, including postoperative cognitive decline. Sources of data We performed a comprehensive search on PubMed related to postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Areas of agreement Although the precise pathogenic mechanisms for POCD remain unclear, certain risk factors are known. Areas of controversy The mechanisms that lead to exaggerated and persistent neuroinflammation and the best way to counteract it are still unknown. Areas for developing research It is imperative that we identify the underlying processes that increase the risk of cognitive decline in elderly surgical patients. In this review we explore non-resolution of inflammation as an underlying cause of developing exaggerated and persistent POCD. If interventions can be developed to promote resolution of neuroinflammation, the patient's postoperative recovery will be enhanced and long-term consequences can be prevented. PMID:23558082

  5. Postoperative stereotactic body radiotherapy for spinal metastases.

    PubMed

    Alghamdi, Majed; Tseng, Chia-Lin; Myrehaug, Sten; Maralani, Pejman; Heyn, Chris; Soliman, Hany; Lee, Young; Ruschin, Mark; Da Costa, Leodante; Yang, Victor; Campbell, Mikki; Sahgal, Arjun

    2017-09-01

    Spine is a common site of metastases in cancer patients. Spine surgery is indicated for select patients, typically those with mechanical instability and/or malignant epidural spinal cord (or cauda equina) compression. Although post-operative conventional palliative external beam radiation therapy has been the standard of care, technical improvements in radiation planning and image-guided radiotherapy have allowed for the application of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) to the spine. Spine SBRT is intended to ablate residual tumor and optimize local control by delivering several fold greater biologically effective doses. Early clinical experience of postoperative spinal SBRT report encouraging results in terms of safety and efficacy. In this review, we summarize the clinical and technical aspects pertinent to a safe and effective practice of postoperative SBRT for spinal metastases.

  6. Postoperative wound management after cleft lip surgery.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Krisztián; Mommaerts, Maurice Y

    2011-09-01

    Our aim was to describe the postoperative management and wound care protocol after primary cleft lip closure, as it has been used in the Bruges Cleft and Craniofacial Center at the supraregional teaching hospital AZ St. Jan, Bruges, between June 1, 1991, and July 1, 2009. The postoperative management and wound care included the use of a Logan bow, long-acting local anesthetic, elbow restraints, antibiotic therapy, crust removal with normal saline solution, and a special local wound ointment that was prepared at our center. During the last 19 years, 199 unilateral and 103 bilateral cleft lip patients have been repaired. 2.6% showed postoperative infection and/or dehiscence. One percent required readmission for reoperation. In 1.6%, inflammatory reaction was treated with oral antibiotics. The specific wound dressing ointment, as it is prepared in our department, could meet the requirements of primary wound management after cleft lip closure.

  7. Postoperative Pain Trajectories in Cardiac Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, C. Richard; Zaslansky, Ruth; Donaldson, Gary W.; Shinfeld, Amihay

    2012-01-01

    Poorly controlled postoperative pain is a longstanding and costly problem in medicine. The purposes of this study were to characterize the acute pain trajectories over the first four postoperative days in 83 cardiac surgery patients with a mixed effects model of linear growth to determine whether statistically significant individual differences exist in these pain trajectories, and to compare the quality of measurement by trajectory with conventional pain measurement practices. The data conformed to a linear model that provided slope (rate of change) as a basis for comparing patients. Slopes varied significantly across patients, indicating that the direction and rate of change in pain during the first four days of recovery from surgery differed systematically across individuals. Of the 83 patients, 24 had decreasing pain after surgery, 24 had increasing pain, and the remaining 35 had approximately constant levels of pain over the four postoperative days. PMID:22448322

  8. A special type of postoperative intussusception: ileoileal intussusception after surgical reduction of ileocolic intussusception in infants and children.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yu Zuo; Chen, Hui; Wang, Wei Lin

    2009-04-01

    Postoperative ileoileal intussusception after surgical reduction of ileocolic intussusception in infants and children is extremely rare, and no reports of this special type of postoperative small bowel intussusception have been found in the literature. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical charts of 6 infants and children with postoperative ileoileal intussusception that occurred after surgical reduction of ileocolic intussusception between January 1994 and December 2006. Clinical features, diagnostic strategy, operative findings, and outcome were analyzed. All 6 cases of postoperative ileoileal intussusception after surgery for ileocolic intussusception occurred within 1 week after the initial operation. The clinical manifestation was intestinal obstruction without abdominal palpable mass or bloody stool. Abdominal ultrasound examination revealed the target sign in 5 cases. Manual reduction of the intussusception was performed successfully at reoperation in each instance. The clinical symptoms of postoperative ileoileal intussusception after operations for ileocolic intussusception are not typical. A second postoperative (ileoileal) intussusception should be kept in mind after surgical reduction of the first (ileocolic) intussusception in children. In any atypical postoperative ileus, a sonographic study should be done to rule out the diagnosis of postoperative intussusception. Once this condition is diagnosed, surgical treatment should be performed as soon as possible.

  9. [Risk factors for early postoperative death after total correction of tetralogy of Fallot: analysis of 20 cases].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Wu; Zhang, Wei-Da; Yuan, Bin-Bin; Mei, Ru-Gang; Wang, Xiao-Li; Li, Jie

    2009-06-01

    To identify the risk factors of early postoperative death after total correction of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). A retrospective analysis was conducted among 356 patients undergoing total correction of TOF by opening heart surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass. Of these patients, 20 died in the early postoperative period, and the possible risk factors for early postoperative death were analyzed in view of the surgical indication, surgical approaches, myocardial protection and postoperative management. Of the 20 fatal cases, death occurred due to low cardiac output syndrome in 11 cases, respiratory failure in 4 cases, kidney failure or multiple organ failure in 3 cases, acute left heart failure in 1 case, and cerebrovascular accident in 1 case. Young age at repair and poor development of the pulmonary vessels and left ventricle are high risk factors for postoperative low cardiac output syndrome. Postoperative death following surgical correction of TOF is associated mainly with the surgical skills and approaches. Appropriate cardiopulmonary bypass and effective measures for myocardial protection are critical to ensure the surgical success, and proper postoperative management and close monitoring may help reduce postoperative death in surgical patients with TOF.

  10. Postoperative Delirium in the Geriatric Patient.

    PubMed

    Schenning, Katie J; Deiner, Stacie G

    2015-09-01

    Postoperative delirium, a common complication in older surgical patients, is independently associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Patients older than 65 years receive greater than one-third of the more than 40 million anesthetics delivered yearly in the United States. This number is expected to increase with the aging of the population. Thus, it is increasingly important that perioperative clinicians who care for geriatric patients have an understanding of the complex syndrome of postoperative delirium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Management of postoperative complications: general approach.

    PubMed

    Sanguineti, V Ana; Wild, Jason R; Fain, Mindy J

    2014-05-01

    The goal of postoperative management is to promote early mobility and avoid postoperative complications, recognizing the potentially devastating impact of complications on elderly patients with hip fracture. The recommended approach involves early mobilization; freedom from tethers (indwelling urinary catheters and other devices); effective pain control; treating malnutrition; preventing pressure ulcers; reducing risk for pulmonary, urinary, and wound infections; and managing cognition. This carefully structured and patient-centered management provides older, vulnerable patients their best chance of returning to their previous level of functioning as quickly and safety as possible.

  12. Epidural analgesia improves postoperative nitrogen balance.

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, M R; Fernades, A; Mordhorst, R; Kehlet, H

    1978-01-01

    Postoperative nitrogen balance was monitored in twelve patients undergoing hysterectomy under either epidural analgesia or general anaesthesia. The mean cumulative five-day nitrogen losses were significantly lower after epidural analgesia than after general anaesthesia. Nitrogen sparing presumably results from inhibiting the stress-induced release of catabolic hormones, since epidural analgesia abolished postoperative hyperglycaemia and increase in plasma cortisol concentrations. No adverse effects of inhibiting the stress response were observed. Neurogenic stimuli thus play a crucial part in the catabolic response to surgery. Inhibiting the endocrine metabolic response to trauma by neurogenic blockade may reduce the morbidity precipitated in high-risk patients by the catabolic response to surgery. PMID:638618

  13. Pathogenesis of postoperative oral surgical pain.

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Cliff K. S.; Seymour, R. A.

    2003-01-01

    Pain is a major postoperative symptom in many oral surgical procedures. It is a complex and variable phenomenon that can be influenced by many factors. Good management of oral surgical pain requires a detailed understanding of the pathogenesis of surgical pain. This article aims at reviewing postoperative pain from a broad perspective by looking into the nociception, neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and neuropharmacology of pain. Therapeutic recommendations are made after reviewing the evidence from the literature for maximizing the efficacy of pain management techniques for oral surgical pain. PMID:12722900

  14. [Optimizing post-operative pain management in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Garcia, João Batista Santos; Bonilla, Patricia; Kraychette, Durval Campos; Flores, Fernando Cantú; Valtolina, Elizabeth Diaz Perez de; Guerrero, Carlos

    Post-operative pain management is a significant problem in clinical practice in Latin America. Insufficient or inappropriate pain management is in large part due to insufficient knowledge, attitudes and education, and poor communications at various levels. In addition, the lack of awareness of the availability and importance of clear policies and guidelines for recording pain intensity, the use of specific analgesics and the proper approach to patient education have led to the consistent under-treatment of pain management in the region. However, these problems are not insurmountable and can be addressed at both the provider and patient level. Robust policies and guidelines can help insure continuity of care and reduce unnecessary variations in practice. The objective of this paper is to call attention to the problems associated with Acute Post-Operative Pain (APOP) and to suggest recommendations for their solutions in Latin America. A group of experts on anesthesiology, surgery and pain developed recommendations that will lead to more efficient and effective pain management. It will be necessary to change the knowledge and behavior of health professionals and patients, and to obtain a commitment of policy makers. Success will depend on a positive attitude and the commitment of each party through the development of policies, programs and the promotion of a more efficient and effective system for the delivery of APOP services as recommended by the authors of this paper. The writing group believes that implementation of these recommendations should significantly enhance efficient and effective post-operative pain management in Latin America. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Post-operative rehabilitation and nutrition in osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Mobasheri, Ali; Trovato, Francesca Maria; Szychlinska, Marta Anna; Imbesi, Rosa; Castrogiovanni, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative process involving the progressive loss of articular cartilage, synovial inflammation and structural changes in subchondral bone that lead to loss of synovial joint structural features and functionality of articular cartilage. OA represents one of the most common causes of physical disability in the world. Different OA treatments are usually considered in relation to the stage of the disease. In the early stages, it is possible to recommend physical activity programs that can maintain joint health and keep the patient mobile, as recommended by OA Research Society International (OARSI) and European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR). In the most severe and advanced cases of OA, surgical intervention is necessary. After, in early postoperative stages, it is essential to include a rehabilitation exercise program in order to restore the full function of the involved joint. Physical therapy is crucial for the success of any surgical procedure and can promote recovery of muscle strength, range of motion, coordinated walking, proprioception and mitigate joint pain. Furthermore, after discharge from the hospital, patients should continue the rehabilitation exercise program at home associated to an appropriate diet. In this review, we analyze manuscripts from the most recent literature and provide a balanced and comprehensive overview of the latest developments on the effect of physical exercise on postoperative rehabilitation in OA. The literature search was conducted using PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar, using the keywords ‘osteoarthritis’, ‘rehabilitation’, ‘exercise’ and ‘nutrition’. The available data suggest that physical exercise is an effective, economical and accessible to everyone practice, and it is one of the most important components of postoperative rehabilitation for OA. PMID:26962431

  16. Post-operative rehabilitation and nutrition in osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Mobasheri, Ali; Trovato, Francesca Maria; Szychlinska, Marta Anna; Imbesi, Rosa; Castrogiovanni, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative process involving the progressive loss of articular cartilage, synovial inflammation and structural changes in subchondral bone that lead to loss of synovial joint structural features and functionality of articular cartilage. OA represents one of the most common causes of physical disability in the world. Different OA treatments are usually considered in relation to the stage of the disease. In the early stages, it is possible to recommend physical activity programs that can maintain joint health and keep the patient mobile, as recommended by OA Research Society International (OARSI) and European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR). In the most severe and advanced cases of OA, surgical intervention is necessary. After, in early postoperative stages, it is essential to include a rehabilitation exercise program in order to restore the full function of the involved joint. Physical therapy is crucial for the success of any surgical procedure and can promote recovery of muscle strength, range of motion, coordinated walking, proprioception and mitigate joint pain. Furthermore, after discharge from the hospital, patients should continue the rehabilitation exercise program at home associated to an appropriate diet. In this review, we analyze manuscripts from the most recent literature and provide a balanced and comprehensive overview of the latest developments on the effect of physical exercise on postoperative rehabilitation in OA. The literature search was conducted using PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar, using the keywords 'osteoarthritis', 'rehabilitation', 'exercise' and 'nutrition'. The available data suggest that physical exercise is an effective, economical and accessible to everyone practice, and it is one of the most important components of postoperative rehabilitation for OA.

  17. Air leakage on the postoperative day: powerful factor of postoperative recurrence after thoracoscopic bullectomy

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hyun Woo; Kye, Yeo Kon; Kim, Kyung Soo

    2016-01-01

    Background Primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) is a relatively common disorder in young patients. Although various surgical techniques have been introduced, recurrence after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) remains high. The aim of study was to identify the risk factors for postoperative recurrence after thoracoscopic bullectomy in the spontaneous pneumothorax. Methods From January 2011 through March 2013, two hundreds and thirty two patients underwent surgery because of pneumothorax. Patients with a secondary pneumothorax, as well as cases of single port surgery, an open procedure, additional pleural procedure (pleurectomy, pleural abrasion) or lack of medical records were excluded. The records of 147 patients with PSP undergoing 3-port video-assisted thoracoscopic bullectomy with staple line coverage using an absorbable polyglycolic acid (PGA) sheet were retrospectively reviewed. Results The median age was 19 years (range, 11−34 years) with male predominance (87.8%). Median postoperative hospital stay was 3 days (range, 1−10 days) without mortality. Complications were developed in five patients. A total of 24 patients showed postoperative recurrence (16.3%). Younger age less than 17 years old and immediate postoperative air leakage were risk factors for postoperative recurrence after thoracoscopic bullectomy by multivariate analysis. Conclusions Immediate postoperative air leakage was the risk factor for postoperative recurrence. However, further study will be required for the correlation of air leakage with recurrence. PMID:26904217

  18. Correlation of postoperative pain to quality of recovery in the immediate postoperative period.

    PubMed

    Wu, Christopher L; Rowlingson, Andrew J; Partin, Alan W; Kalish, Murray A; Courpas, Genevieve E; Walsh, Patrick C; Fleisher, Lee A

    2005-01-01

    It is unclear whether the severity of postoperative pain may affect patients' quality of recovery in the immediate postoperative period (within 2 weeks of surgery). This was a prospective, observational study in patients undergoing elective radical retropubic prostatectomy. All patients received a standardized intraoperative general or spinal anesthetic followed by intravenous patient-controlled analgesia. Visual analog scores for pain at rest, pain with activity, and nausea along with the QoR, an instrument validated to assess quality of recovery in the postoperative period, and Brief Fatigue Inventory were assessed on postoperative days 1 to 3, 7, and 30. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale was assessed on postoperative days 7 and 30. We found that the severity of pain both at rest and with activity correlated with a decrease in quality of recovery as assessed by the QoR. Our findings suggest that an increase in postoperative pain is correlated with a decrease in a patient's quality of recovery in the immediate postoperative period.

  19. Principles of post-operative patient care.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Elaine

    Surgery causes physiological stress on the body and carries inherent risks such as shock and haemorrhage. This article discusses cardiogenic and hypovolaemic shock and outlines the principles of safe and effective post-operative care, including recognising hypovolaemia, maintaining fluid balance and administering pain control.

  20. Preoperative anemia and postoperative outcomes after hepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Tohme, Samer; Varley, Patrick R.; Landsittel, Douglas P.; Chidi, Alexis P.; Tsung, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Background Preoperative anaemia is associated with adverse outcomes after surgery but outcomes after liver surgery specifically are not well established. We aimed to analyze the incidence of and effects of preoperative anemia on morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing liver resection. Methods All elective hepatectomies performed for the period 2005–2012 recorded in the American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) database were evaluated. We obtained anonymized data for 30-day mortality and major morbidity (one or more major complication), demographics, and preoperative and perioperative risk factors. We used multivariable logistic regression models to assess the adjusted effect of anemia, which was defined as (hematocrit <39% in men, <36% in women), on postoperative outcomes. Results We obtained data for 12,987 patients, of whom 4260 (32.8%) had preoperative anemia. Patients with preoperative anemia experienced higher postoperative major morbidity and mortality rates compared to those without anemia. After adjustment for predefined variables, preoperative anemia was an independent risk factor for postoperative major morbidity (adjusted OR 1.21, 1.09–1.33). After adjustment, there was no significant difference in postoperative mortality for patients with or without preoperative anemia (adjusted OR 0.88, 0.66–1.16). Conclusion Preoperative anemia is independently associated with an increased risk of major morbidity in patients undergoing hepatectomy. Therefore, it is crucial to readdress preoperative blood management in anemic patients prior to hepatectomy. PMID:27017165

  1. Postoperative nausea and vomiting following orthognathic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, C.; Brookes, C. D.; Rich, J.; Arbon, J.; Turvey, T. A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence and risk factors associated with postoperative nausea (PON) and vomiting (POV) after orthognathic surgery. A review of the clinical records of consecutively enrolled subjects (2008–2012) at a single academic institution was conducted between 9/2013 and 3/2014. Data on the occurrence of PON and POV and potential patient-related, intraoperative, and postoperative explanatory factors were extracted from the medical records. Logistic models were used for the presence/absence of postoperative nausea and vomiting separately. Data from 204 subjects were analyzed: 63% were female, 72% Caucasian, and the median age was 19 years. Thirty-three percent had a mandibular osteotomy alone, 27% a maxillary osteotomy alone, and 40% had bimaxillary osteotomies. Sixty-seven percent experienced PON and 27% experienced POV. The most important risk factors for PON in this series were female gender, increased intravenous fluids, and the use of nitrous oxide, and for POV were race, additional procedures, and morphine administration. The incidence of PON and POV following orthognathic surgery in the current cohort of patients, after the introduction of the updated 2007 consensus guidelines for the management of postoperative nausea and vomiting, has not decreased substantially from that reported in 2003–2004. PMID:25655765

  2. Influences of gender on postoperative morphine consumption.

    PubMed

    Periasamy, Sivakumar; Poovathai, Raja; Pondiyadanar, Srinivasan

    2014-12-01

    Gender related differences on morphine consumption during postoperative period following abdominal surgeries. Four hundred and fifty ASA I & II patients of either sex (male =231, female = 219), between the age group of 18-65 y undergoing elective intra abdominal surgeries under general anaesthesia were included for the study. Patients with preexisting pain either acute or chronic preoperatively were excluded from the study. Anaesthesia and analgesia protocol during surgery was standardized. Postoperatively, a loading dose was given to achieve the visual analogue scale (VAS) of ≤30 and subjects were connected to patient control analgesia (PCA) pump containing 0.4 mg/ml of morphine configured to deliver a bolus dose (1 mg) with a 5 min lock-out period. The total analgesic requirements along with VAS (visual analog scale) score were analysed between males and females in the first 24 h postoperatively. All demographic data and between group comparisons were analysed with student t-test. Within group comparisons were done by using one-way-ANOVA test and Tukey's Honestly significant Difference test. During the first 24 h, males consumed significantly higher amount of morphine (34.35 ± 6.68 mg) when compared to females (26.78 ± 7.14 mg), p < 0.001. We conclude that men require more morphine in the postoperative period than women.

  3. Postoperative sore throat: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    El-Boghdadly, K; Bailey, C R; Wiles, M D

    2016-06-01

    Postoperative sore throat has a reported incidence of up to 62% following general anaesthesia. In adults undergoing tracheal intubation, female sex, younger age, pre-existing lung disease, prolonged duration of anaesthesia and the presence of a blood-stained tracheal tube on extubation are associated with the greatest risk. Tracheal intubation without neuromuscular blockade, use of double-lumen tubes, as well as high tracheal tube cuff pressures may also increase the risk of postoperative sore throat. The expertise of the anaesthetist performing tracheal intubation appears to have no influence on the incidence in adults, although it may in children. In adults, the i-gel(™) supraglottic airway device results in a lower incidence of postoperative sore throat. Cuffed supraglottic airway devices should be inflated sufficiently to obtain an adequate seal and intracuff pressure should be monitored. Children with respiratory tract disease are at increased risk. The use of supraglottic airway devices, oral, rather than nasal, tracheal intubation and cuffed, rather than uncuffed, tracheal tubes have benefit in reducing the incidence of postoperative sore throat in children. Limiting both tracheal tube and supraglottic airway device cuff pressure may also reduce the incidence. © 2016 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  4. Mirtazapine: a solution for postoperative gastroparesis?

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, Marianne; Buddhdev, Pranai; Peter, Michael; Diggory, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the case of a 52-year-old man with an obstructed para-oesophageal hiatus hernia who required a gastropexy, who postoperatively developed gastroparesis which inadequately responded to conventional prokinetics including erythromycin, metoclopramide, ondansetron, and domperidone. The patient’s symptoms were relieved rapidly with a trial of mirtazapine. A review of related literature is presented. PMID:21847421

  5. Intra- and Postoperative Electrocochleography May Be Predictive of Final Electrode Position and Postoperative Hearing Preservation

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, Brendan P.; Holder, Jourdan T.; Dwyer, Robert T.; Gifford, René H.; Noble, Jack H.; Bennett, Marc L.; Rivas, Alejandro; Wanna, George B.; Haynes, David S.; Labadie, Robert F.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The objectives of the current study were to (1) determine the relationship between electrocochleography (ECochG), measured from the cochlear implant (CI) electrode array during and after implantation, and postoperative audiometric thresholds, (2) determine the relationship between ECochG amplitude and electrode scalar location determined by computerized tomography (CT); and (3) determine whether changes in cochlear microphonic (CM) amplitude during electrode insertion were associated with postoperative hearing. Materials and Methods: Eighteen subjects undergoing CI with an Advanced Bionics Mid-Scala device were prospectively studied. ECochG responses were recorded using the implant coupled to a custom signal recording unit. ECochG amplitude collected intraoperatively concurrent with CI insertion and at activation was compared with audiometric thresholds postoperatively. Sixteen patients also underwent postoperative CT to determine scalar location and the relationship to ECochG measures and residual hearing. Results: Mean low-frequency pure tone average (LFPTA) increased following surgery by an average of 28 dB (range 8–50). Threshold elevation was significantly greater for electrodes with scalar dislocation. No correlation was found between intraoperative ECochG and postoperative behavioral thresholds collapsed across frequency; however, mean differences in thresholds measured by intraoperative ECochG and postoperative audiometry were significantly smaller for electrodes inserted completely within scala tympani (ST) vs. those translocating from ST to scala vestibuli. A significant correlation was observed between postoperative ECochG thresholds and behavioral thresholds obtained at activation. Discussion: Postoperative audiometry currently serves as a marker for intracochlear trauma though thresholds are not obtained until device activation or later. When measured at the same time-point postoperatively, low-frequency ECochG thresholds correlated

  6. Postoperative diabetes insipidus associated with pituitary apoplexy during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kita, Daisuke; Hayashi, Yasuhiko; Sano, Hiroki; Takamura, Toshinari; Hayashi, Yutaka; Tachibana, Osamu; Hamada, Jun-ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Pituitary apoplexy during pregnancy is so rare that only 15 cases (12 pituitary adenomas, 2 lymphocytic neurohypophysitis, and 1 normal pituitary gland) have been published to date. Here, we report the case of a pregnant woman presenting with pituitary apoplexy from a nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma and provide a possible mechanism and management option for postoperative diabetes insipidus (DI). A 26-year-old woman presented with sudden onset of headache and bitemporal hemianopsia in the 26th week of her first pregnancy. Magnetic resonance imaging clearly revealed an 18 mm pituitary mass with a fluid-fluid level component displacing the optic chiasma upward. Endonasal endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery was successfully carried out 7 days after the onset of symptoms. DI became apparent immediately after the operation and was not controllable by arginine vasopressin (AVP) but by 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP) instead. This finding suggests an association between DI and vasopressinase secretion from the placenta, because vasopressinase can degrade AVP but not DDAVP. DI had diminished by the time the patient delivered a healthy girl at the 40th week of gestation. Postoperative DI associated with pituitary apoplexy during pregnancy should be treated by DDAVP, which is not affected by placental vasopressinase secretion.

  7. Current Techniques for Postoperative Monitoring of Microvascular Free Flaps.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Nasir; Zhang, Shuhao; Kale, Santosh S

    Free tissue transfer (FTT) is used in patients with complicated reconstructive needs; it can provide stable wound coverage, improved aesthetic appearance, and restore functional deficits. Despite the high success rates of free flaps, vascular occlusion is a significant risk leading to flap failure. Many studies have demonstrated that the salvage rate for flaps is inversely related to the time between onset of a vascular problem and its surgical correction. As a result, ongoing postoperative monitoring of free flaps for adequate perfusion is imperative to allow timely and accurate diagnosis of vascular compromise. Close monitoring and prompt notification of the physician if vascular compromise occurs are typically undertaken by first-line nurses. We conducted an integrative literature to identify and evaluate commonly used techniques for monitoring vascular free flaps during the postoperative period. We searched PubMed and Science Direct electronic databases, using the key words: "free-flap" and "monitoring." This article discusses commonly monitoring modalities, along with their advantages and limitations. Whereas large academic institutions may have an experienced nursing staff specifically trained in effective methods for monitoring free flap patients, this situation may not exist in all hospitals where free flap surgeries are performed. We describe techniques that allow easy and timely detection of flap compromise by nursing staff while reducing interuser variability.

  8. Successful microsurgical replantation of an amputated penis

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Sanchit; Date, Shivprasad V.; Gupta, Arunesh; Baliarsing, Amresh S.

    2016-01-01

    Penile amputation is an uncommon injury for which immediate surgical replantation is warranted. Microsurgical replantation is the “standard” method for penile replantation. Early replantation yields a high success and low complication rate. We report a case of a 34-year-old male who presented with amputation at the proximal penile shaft which was successfully replanted using microsurgical techniques. Minor skin necrosis was noted post-operatively which was debrided and covered with skin graft. Follow-up at 6 months showed satisfactory cosmetic appearance, normal voiding, return of sensations and erectile function. The level of evidence was V. PMID:27274131

  9. Cryotherapy on postoperative rehabilitation of joint arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Ni, Sheng-Hui; Jiang, Wen-Tong; Guo, Lei; Jin, Yu-Heng; Jiang, Tian-Long; Zhao, Yuyan; Zhao, Jie

    2015-11-01

    The effectiveness of cryotherapy on joint arthroplasty recovery remains controversial. This systematic review was conducted to assess the effectiveness of cryotherapy in patients after joint arthroplasty. Comprehensive literature searches of several databases including Cochrane Library (2013), MEDLINE (1950-2013), and Embase (1980-2013) were performed. We sought randomised controlled trials that compared the experimental group received any form of cryotherapy with any control group after joint arthroplasty. The main outcomes were postoperative blood loss, adverse events, and pain. Analyses were performed with Revman 5.0. Results were shown as mean differences (MD) and standard deviations or as risk difference and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Ten trials comprised 660 total knee arthroplastys and three trials comprised 122 total hip arthroplastys (THAs) met the inclusion criteria. Blood loss was significantly decreased by cryotherapy (MD = -109.68; 95 % CI -210.92 to -8.44; P = 0.03). Cryotherapy did not increase the risk of adverse effect (n.s.). Cryotherapy decreased pain at the second day of postoperative (MD = -1.32; 95 % CI -2.37 to -0.27; P = 0.0003), but did not decreased pain at the first and third day of postoperative (n.s.). Cryotherapy appears effective in these selected patients after joint arthroplasty. The benefits of cryotherapy on blood loss after joint arthroplasty were obvious. However, the subgroup analysis indicated that cryotherapy did not decreased blood loss after THA. Cryotherapy did not increase the risk of adverse effect. Cryotherapy decreased pain at the second day of postoperative, but did not decreased pain at the first and third day of postoperative. II.

  10. Preoperative prediction of severe postoperative pain.

    PubMed

    Kalkman, C J; Visser, K; Moen, J; Bonsel, G J; Grobbee, D E; Moons, K G M

    2003-10-01

    We developed and validated a prediction rule for the occurrence of early postoperative severe pain in surgical inpatients, using predictors that can be easily documented in a preoperative setting. A cohort of surgical inpatients (n=1416) undergoing various procedures except cardiac surgery and intracranial neurosurgery in a University Hospital were studied. Preoperatively the following predictors were collected: age, gender, type of scheduled surgery, expected incision size, blood pressure, heart rate, Quetelet index, the presence and severity of preoperative pain, health-related quality of life the (SF-36), Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS). The outcome was the presence of severe postoperative pain (defined as Numeric Rating Scale > or =8) within the first hour postoperatively. Multivariate logistic regression in combination with bootstrapping techniques (as a method for internal validation) was used to derive a stable prediction model. Independent predictors of severe postoperative pain were younger age, female gender, level of preoperative pain, incision size and type of surgery. The area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.71 (95% CI: 0.68-0.74). Adding APAIS scores (measures of preoperative anxiety and need for information), but not STAI, provided a slightly better model (ROC area 0.73). The reliability of this extended model was good (Hosmer and Lemeshow test p-value 0.78). We have demonstrated that severe postoperative pain early after awakening from general anesthesia can be predicted with a scoring rule, using a small set of variables that can be easily obtained from all patients at the preoperative visit. Before this internally validated preoperative prediction rule can be applied in clinical practice to support anticipatory pain management, external validation in other clinical settings is necessary.

  11. A Minimally Invasive Approach For Treating Postoperative Seromas After Incisional Hernia Repair

    PubMed Central

    Lehr, Shannon C.

    2001-01-01

    Background: The most frequent wound complication following repair of large incisional hernias is seroma formation, especially when the use of a mesh onlay requires extensive subcutaneous undermining. Treatment options for postoperative seromas include observation for spontaneous resolution, percutaneous aspiration, closed suction drainage, abdominal binders, and sclerosant. Methods: A novel technique for treating persistent postoperative seromas is presented herein. This technique involves a 3-puncture minimally invasive approach that can be performed in an outpatient setting. Evacuation of serous fluid and fibrinous debris is followed by argon beam scarification of the seroma cavity lining. Talc slurry is then introduced into the cavity. Three patients have been treated with this technique. Results: All 3 patients had successful ablation of seromas that had persisted despite standard treatment modalities. Conclusion: A minimally invasive approach is a reasonable and safe alternative for treating persistent postoperative seromas. PMID:11548834

  12. Hemodynamic assessment of pre- and post-operative aortic coarctation from MRI.

    PubMed

    Ralovich, Kristóf; Itu, Lucian; Mihalef, Viorel; Sharma, Puneet; Ionasec, Razvan; Vitanovski, Dime; Krawtschuk, Waldemar; Everett, Allen; Ringel, Richard; Navab, Nassir; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2012-01-01

    Coarctation of the aorta (CoA), is a congenital defect characterized by a severe narrowing of the aorta, usually distal to the aortic arch. The treatment options include surgical repair, stent implantation, and balloon angioplasty. In order to evaluate the physiological significance of the pre-operative coarctation and to assess the post-operative results, the hemodynamic analysis is usually performed by measuring the pressure gradient (deltaP) across the coarctation site via invasive cardiac catheterization. The measure of success is reduction of the (deltaP > 20 mmHg) systolic blood pressure gradient. In this paper, we propose a non-invasive method based on Computational Fluid Dynamics and MR imaging to estimate the pre- and post-operative hemodynamics for both native and recurrent coarctation patients. High correlation of our results and catheter measurements is shown on corresponding pre- and post-operative examination of 5 CoA patients.

  13. Double-exposure duplication of preoperative and postoperative 2 X 2 transparencies.

    PubMed

    Smith, H W

    1977-01-01

    Before and after photographs in plastic surgery are an essential part of the patient's record. They also provide visual data to supplement both primary and continuing education lectures. When successive photographs are used in lectures, a sharp visual memory is required to compare effectively the preoperative and postoperative photograph. The method presented in this article uses a specially constructed frame used as an accessory for one of the common commercial slide copiers. This device makes it possible to copy, duplicate, and frame preoperative and postoperative 2 X 2 transparencies onto a single 2 X 2 transparency without any additional work on the original, such as framing, cutting, and remounting. This technique leaves the original preoperative and postoperative 2 X 2 transparency slides intact for possible use elsewhere in the same lecture or subsequent lectures on the same subject.

  14. Postoperative adjuvant therapy of breast cancer. Oncology Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    Oncology Overviews are a service of the International Cancer Research Data Bank (ICRDB) Program of the National Cancer Institute, intended to facilitate and promote the exchange of information between cancer scientists by keeping them aware of literature related to their research being published by other laboratories throughout the world. Each Oncology Overview represents a survey of the literature associated with a selected area of cancer research. It contains abstracts of articles which have been selected and organized by researchers associated with the field. Contents: Postoperative chemotherapy; Postoperative radiotherapy; Postoperative hormone therapy; Postoperative immunotherapy and chemoimmunotherapy; Postoperative multimodal therapy; Prognostic factors in postoperative adjuvant therapy.

  15. Intraoperative, postoperative and reoperative problems with ileoanal pouches.

    PubMed

    Sagar, P M; Pemberton, J H

    2012-04-01

    Proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) has been developed and refined since its introduction in the late 1970s. Nonetheless, it is a procedure associated with significant morbidity. The aim of this review was to provide a structured approach to the challenges that surgeons and physicians encounter in the management of intraoperative, postoperative and reoperative problems associated with ileoanal pouches. The review was based on relevant studies identified from an electronic search of MEDLINE, Embase and PubMed databases from 1975 to April 2011. There were no language or publication year restrictions. Original references in published articles were reviewed. Although the majority of patients experience long-term success with an ileoanal pouch, significant morbidity surrounds IPAA. Surgical intervention is often critical to achieve optimal control of the situation. A structured management plan will minimize the adverse consequences of the problems associated with pouches. Copyright © 2012 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. A Minimally Invasive Approach for Postoperative Pancreatic Fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Yamazaki, Shintaro Kuramoto, Kenmei; Itoh, Yutaka; Watanabe, Yoshika; Ueda, Toshisada

    2003-11-15

    Pancreas fistula is a well-known and severe complication of pancreaticoduodenectomy. It is difficult to control with conservative therapy, inducing further complications and severe morbidity. Until now, re-operation has been the only way to resolve pancreatic fistula causing complete dehiscence of the pancreatic-enteric anastomosis (complete pancreatic fistula). Percutaneous transgastric fistula drainage is one of the treatments for pancreatic fistula. This procedure allows both pancreas juice drainage and anastomosis re-construction at the same time. This is effective and minimally invasive but difficult to adapt to a long or complicated fistula. In particular, dilatation of the main pancreatic duct is indispensable. This paper reports the successful resolution of a postoperative pancreatic fistula by a two-way-approach percutaneous transgastric fistula drainage procedure. Using a snare catheter from the fistula and a flexible guidewire from the transgastric puncture needle, it can be performed either with or without main pancreatic duct dilatation.

  17. Intraoperative and postoperative complications of laparoscopic pyeloplasty: a single surgical team experience with 236 cases.

    PubMed

    Fedelini, Paolo; Verze, Paolo; Meccariello, Clemente; Arcaniolo, Davide; Taglialatela, Domenico; Mirone, Vincenzo G

    2013-10-01

    To describe and analyze a single surgical team's experience with intraoperative and postoperative complications arising from the Anderson-Hynes transperitoneal laparoscopic pyeloplasty (LP) procedure in the treatment of patients with ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO). There were 236 consecutive patients who underwent transperitoneal LP over a period of 8 years (2004-2012). These patients' records were retrospectively analyzed for intraoperative and postoperative complications. Of the 236 patients, 111 (47.0%) were males and 125 (53%) were females. In 226 patients, surgical indication was primary UPJO, and in 10 patients, recurrent obstruction. Two hundred and eleven patients (89.4%) were symptomatic. Mean operative time was 96.5 minutes (range 45-360 min). The mean blood loss was 20 mL (range 5-500 mL), and no blood transfusions were necessary. The overall success rate was 97% (229 patients) with a mean follow-up of 38 months (range 6-84 mos). In 86 of the 94 patients who presented with a crossing vessel (91.5%), the anomalous crossing vessel was transposed to the ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) dorsally because of evident obstruction. The mean postoperative hospital stay was 4.2 days (range 3-14 days). All 211 preoperative symptomatic patients reported a complete resolution of symptoms after the procedure. Intraoperative incidents occurred in nine (3.8%) patients, while postoperative complications occurred in 32 (13.5%) patients. Our retrospective analysis confirms that LP is an efficacious and safe procedure resulting in a reported success rate of 97% and a concomitant low level of intraoperative (3.8%) and postoperative complications (13.6%). Major complications necessitating active management occur in a low percentage of cases (5.9% of patients). The most frequent and severe intraoperative complications are related to the Double-J stent insertion. The most common postoperative complication is urine leakage.

  18. Decreasing postoperative narcotics in reconstructive pelvic surgery: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Reagan, Krista M L; O'Sullivan, David M; Gannon, Richard; Steinberg, Adam C

    2017-09-01

    Postoperative pain control is crucial to any successful recovery plan. Many currently used medication regimens are narcotic-focused. The objective of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of a multimodal pain regimen after pelvic reconstructive surgery. The primary outcome measure was narcotic use. Secondary outcomes included pain, nausea, and constipation. Patients were randomized to either usual care postoperative treatment or multimodal pain regimen. Usual care included no specific preoperative or intraoperative medications, and postoperative narcotics with ibuprofen. Multimodal pain regimen included preoperative and postoperative celecoxib, gabapentin, intraoperative and postoperative intravenous and oral acetaminophen and ibuprofen, and narcotics as needed. All narcotics were converted to milligram equivalents of oral morphine for standardization according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines where conversion factors for oral hydrocodone = 1, oral oxycodone = 1.5, and oral hydromorphone = 4. Patients were given the validated Brief Pain Inventory survey preoperatively (baseline), at postoperative day 1, and 1 week postoperatively. At 1 week, bowel function and narcotics usage was assessed. Seventy patients were randomized to the usual care arm and 68 to the multimodal pain regimen arm. Patients in the multimodal pain regimen arm used significantly fewer intravenous narcotics in the operating room (90.7 ± 39.1 mg vs 104.6 ± 33.5 mg; P = .026) and while in the hospital (10.8 ± 15.1 mg vs 31.2 ± 29.6 mg; P < .001) and were more likely to use 0 oral narcotics after discharge to home (34.8% of patients vs 10.6%; P = .001). Of the patients who did use oral narcotics after discharge to home, there was no difference in amount used between groups (121.3 ± 103.7 mg in the multimodal pain regimen arm vs 153.0 ± 113.8 mg in the usual care arm; P = .139). Total narcotic usage (operating room + hospital + home) was significantly less in

  19. Development and implementation of a dedicated postoperative evaluation service to improve compliance of postoperative visits

    PubMed Central

    Vacanti, Joshua Charles; Urman, Richard Dennis; Sarin, Pankaj; Liu, Xiaoxia; Kodali, Bhavani Shankar

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Postoperative patient evaluation is an integral component of perioperative care. An audit of our anesthesia department's records demonstrated a compliance rate of <50%. We postulated that the development of clinical anesthesia service dedicated to performing such evaluations would improve compliance significantly. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study examined postoperative follow-up completion rate at a large academic center. Data were collected from 58,000 anesthetics during three periods, between each of which an intervention was introduced. The first period examined completion rate when postoperative evaluations were left to the team performing the anesthetic. During the second period, this task was delegated to groups of anesthesiologists based on surgical subspecialty; these smaller groups utilized rotating residents. The third period examined completion rate after implementation of a postoperative evaluation service. All periods utilized the department's electronics database to identify operative patients. The number of adverse anesthesia events reported was also recorded. Results: A significant difference in the proportions of compliance with postoperative evaluations among all three periods was detected. Compliance was 47% during period one and improved to 66% during period two. During period three, which employed a postoperative evaluation service, compliance was 83%. The number of adverse events reported per month increased significantly following the first study period from 95 reported monthly events to 215 and 201 in the second and third periods, respectively. Conclusion: By creating a dedicated postoperative evaluation service using available technology, we improved postoperative evaluation completion rate from 47% to 83%, and demonstrated a significant increase in the number of adverse events reported. Based on this, we support the deployment of a dedicated service as a quality improvement initiative. PMID:25788778

  20. Simplified cesarean section: a strategic surgical approach to minimize postoperative infectious morbidity.

    PubMed

    Pelosi

    1998-07-01

    Objective: A simplified method of cesarean delivery aimed at minimizing postoperative morbidity is illustrated.Methods: Two hundred consecutive cesarean deliveries were performed by the authors' simplified cesarean technique. Mean patient age was 27 years (range 17-46), and mean weight was 169 pounds (range 112-414). Indications for cesarean delivery included dystocia or failure to progress in labor (38%), repeat cesarean (32%), malpresentation (11.5%), fetal distress (9.5%), and other (9%).Results: Simplified cesarean delivery was successfully completed in all cases. Mean operating time was 16 minutes (range 9-33), mean blood loss was 460 mL (range 100-1150), and mean postsurgical hospitalization time was 72 hours (range 36-120). No bowel, bladder, or vascular injuries occurred. Postoperative febrile morbidity occurred in one patient (0.5%), ileus occurred in one patient (0.5%), and blood transfusion was administered to one patient (0.5%). No cases of wound infection, wound dehiscence, hematoma, or incisional hernia occurred. All patients were ambulatory on the first postoperative day. All but one patient (99.5%) tolerated a regular diet on the first postoperative day.Conclusions: The authors' technique of cesarean section appears to be a safe and efficient method for cesarean delivery associated with minimal postoperative infectious morbidity and rapid resumption of bowel and ambulatory function.

  1. Lidocaine for preventing postoperative sore throat.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yuu; Nakayama, Takeo; Nishimori, Mina; Sato, Yuki; Furuya, Hitoshi

    2009-07-08

    Sore throat is a common side effect of general anaesthesia and is reported by between 30% and 70% of patients after tracheal intubation. The likelihood of a sore throat varies with the type, diameter, and cuff pressure of the endotracheal tube used. If intubation is essential, it may be helpful to give drugs prophylactically to alleviate postoperative sore throat. Local anaesthetics and steroids have been used for this purpose. The objective of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness and any harms of topical and systematic lidocaine for the prevention of postoperative sore throat in adults undergoing endotracheal intubation as part of general anaesthesia. We searched CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 3), MEDLINE (January 1966 to June 2007), and EMBASE (1980 to June 2007). We also contacted manufacturers and researchers in the field. We included randomized controlled trials of topical and systemic prophylactic lidocaine therapy versus control (using air or saline) that reported on the risk and severity of postoperative sore throat as an outcome. Two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We contacted study authors for additional information, such as the risk of adverse effects. We included 1232 patients from 15 studies; 672 patients received topical or systemic lidocaine therapy and 560 patients were allocated to the control group. Both the topical and systemic lidocaine therapy significantly reduced the risk of postoperative sore throat (risk ratio (RR) 0.58; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.41 to 0.82). To evaluate the severity of sore throat on a visual analogue scale (VAS), 219 patients received topical or systemic lidocaine therapy and 152 patients were allocated to the control groups. The severity of sore throat was reduced (mean difference (MD) -11.9; 95% CI -16.44 to -7.32), an effect that neared statistical significance. The adverse effects of lidocaine were not reported in these studies. Our systematic review

  2. Single dose dihydrocodeine for acute postoperative pain.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J E; McQuay, H J; Moore, R A

    2000-01-01

    Dihydrocodeine is a synthetic opioid analgesic developed in the early 1900s. Its structure and pharmacokinetics are similar to that of codeine and it is used for the treatment of postoperative pain or as an antitussive. It is becoming increasingly important to assess the relative efficacy and harm caused by different treatments. Relative efficacy can be determined when an analgesic is compared with control under similar clinical circumstances. To quantitatively assess the analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of single-dose dihydrocodeine compared with placebo in randomised trials in moderate to severe postoperative pain. Published reports were identified from a variety of electronic databases including Medline, Biological Abstracts, Embase, the Cochrane Library and the Oxford Pain Relief Database. Additional studies were identified from the reference lists of retrieved reports. The following inclusion criteria were used: full journal publication, clinical trial, random allocation of patients to treatment groups, double blind design, adult patients, pain of moderate to severe intensity at baseline, postoperative administration of study drugs, treatment arms which included dihydrocodeine and placebo and either oral or injected (intramuscular or intravenous) administration of study drugs. Data collection and analysis: Summed pain intensity and pain relief data over 4-6 hours were extracted and converted into dichotomous information to yield the number of patients obtaining at least 50% pain relief. This was used to calculate relative benefit and number-needed-to-treat for one patient to obtain at least 50% pain relief. Single-dose adverse effect data were collected and used to calculate relative risk and number-needed-to-harm. Fifty-two reports were identified as possible randomised trials which assessed dihydrocodeine in postoperative pain. Four reports met the inclusion criteria; all assessed oral dihydrocodeine. Three reports (194 patients) compared

  3. Post-operative pulmonary complications after thoracotomy

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Saikat

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary complications are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the post-operative period after thoracotomy. The type of complications and the severity of complications depend on the type of thoracic surgery that has been performed as well as on the patient's pre-operative medical status. Risk stratification can help in predicting the possibility of the post-operative complications. Certain airway complications are more prone to develop with thoracic surgery. Vocal cord injuries, bronchopleural fistulae, pulmonary emboli and post-thoracic surgery non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema are some of the unique complications that occur in this subset of patients. The major pulmonary complications such as atelectasis, bronchospasm and pneumonia can lead to respiratory failure. This review was compiled after a search for search terms within ‘post-operative pulmonary complications after thoracic surgery and thoracotomy’ on search engines including PubMed and standard text references on the subject from 2000 to 2015. PMID:26556921

  4. Modeling the Temporal Evolution of Postoperative Complications

    PubMed Central

    Feld, Shara I.; Cobian, Alexander G.; Tevis, Sarah E.; Kennedy, Gregory D.; Craven, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    Post-operative complications have a significant impact on patient morbidity and mortality; these impacts are exacerbated when patients experience multiple complications. However, the task of modeling the temporal sequencing of complications has not been previously addressed. We present an approach based on Markov chain models for characterizing the temporal evolution of post-operative complications represented in the American College of Surgeons National Surgery Quality Improvement Program database. Our work demonstrates that the models have significant predictive value. In particular, an inhomogenous Markov chain model effectively predicts the development of serious complications (coma longer than a day, cardiac arrest, myocardial infarction, septic shock, renal failure, pneumonia) and interventional complications (unplanned re-intubation, longer than 2 days on a ventilator and bleeding transfusion). PMID:28269851

  5. "Walking the dog" to enhance postoperative recovery.

    PubMed

    Ward, Cynthia W

    2013-11-01

    Nurses on an adult surgical unit perceived a decrease in patients' mobility and an increase in postoperative complications, which led to an initiative to motivate patients to ambulate. The questions addressed in this study refer to adult patients having surgery: Is there a relationship between ambulation and length of stay (LOS)? Did "walking the dog" affect how early and how many times they ambulated? Did "walking the dog" affect the incidence of postoperative complications? Photos of dogs were made available and patients were encouraged to "walk the dog" at least three times daily. Although this intervention didn't lead to a significant difference in LOS or complications, patients anecdotally reported an increased motivation to ambulate.

  6. [The endoscopic management of postoperative biliary fistulae].

    PubMed

    Uribarrena, R; Simón, M A; Sebastián, J J; Gomollón, F; Bajador, E; Botella, M T; Cabrera, T

    1994-10-01

    We report a series of 15 patients with a postoperative biliary fistula treated by endoscopic sphincterotomy. The exact location of the bile leak was revealed by ERCP in 13 cases (87%): cystic duct remnant in 6 (39%), intrahepatic biliary tree in 4 (26%), and main bile duct in 3 (20%). In all cases a distal obstacle (ie: retained stones, hydatid material) to bile flow was also found in ERCP. Treatment consisted of endoscopic sphincterotomy and subsequent removal of the distal obstacle, and could be completed in 13 (87%) cases. In our experience the treatment of postoperative biliary fistula with a distal obstruction bile flow by endoscopic sphincterotomy is a safe and effective procedure, and should be recommended as the first option in those patients.

  7. Postoperative pelvic pain: An imaging approach.

    PubMed

    Farah, H; Laurent, N; Phalippou, J; Bazot, M; Giraudet, G; Serb, T; Poncelet, E

    2015-10-01

    Postoperative pelvic pain after gynecological surgery is a readily detected but unspecific sign of complication. Imaging as a complement to physical examination helps establish the etiological diagnosis. In the context of emergency surgery, vascular, urinary and digestive injuries constitute the most frequent intraoperative complications. During the follow-up of patients who had undergone pelvic surgery, imaging should be performed to detect recurrent disease, postoperative fibrosis, adhesions and more specific complications related to prosthetic material. Current guidelines recommend using pelvic ultrasonography as the first line imaging modality whereas the use of pelvic computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging should be restricted to specific situations, depending on local availability of equipment and suspected disease.

  8. Factors affecting postoperative range of motion after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Gatha, Nehal M; Clarke, Henry D; Fuchs, Robin; Scuderi, Giles R; Insall, John N

    2004-10-01

    One hundred thirty five patients with osteoarthritis who underwent total knee arthroplasty (TKA) were evaluated to determine whether specific pre- and postoperative variables were correlated with the postoperative range of motion. Age, sex, pre- and postoperative range of motion, pre- and postoperative Knee Society scores, intraoperative patellar thickness before and after resurfacing, pre- and postoperative radiographic patellar height (as determined by the Insall-Salvati and Blackburn-Peel ratios), and preoperative radiographic alignment were recorded for each patient. Regression analysis was performed to identify whether any variables were correlated with the postoperative range of motion or Knee Society scores. The only variable that was significantly correlated with postoperative range of motion was the preoperative range of motion. This study suggests that among the variables evaluated, the preoperative range of motion was the only significant predictor of postoperative range of motion.

  9. Predicting postoperative gait in cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Galarraga C, Omar A; Vigneron, Vincent; Dorizzi, Bernadette; Khouri, Néjib; Desailly, Eric

    2016-11-09

    In this work, postoperative lower limb kinematics are predicted with respect to preoperative kinematics, physical examination and surgery data. Data of 115 children with cerebral palsy that have undergone single-event multilevel surgery were considered. Preoperative data dimension was reduced utilizing principal component analysis. Then, multiple linear regressions with 80% confidence intervals were performed between postoperative kinematics and bilateral preoperative kinematics, 36 physical examination variables and combinations of 9 different surgical procedures. The mean prediction errors on test vary from 4° (pelvic obliquity and hip adduction) to 10° (hip rotation and foot progression), depending on the kinematic angle. The unilateral mean sizes of the confidence intervals vary from 5° to 15°. Frontal plane angles are predicted with the lowest errors, however the same performance is achieved when considering the postoperative average signals. Sagittal plane angles are better predicted than transverse plane angles, with statistical differences with respect to the average postoperative kinematics for both plane's angles except for ankle dorsiflexion. The mean prediction errors are smaller than the variability of gait parameters in cerebral palsy. The performance of the system is independent of the preoperative state severity of the patient. Even if the system is not yet accurate enough to define a surgery plan, it shows an unbiased estimation of the most likely outcome, which can be useful for both the clinician and the patient. More patients' data are necessary for improving the precision of the model in order to predict the kinematic outcome of a large number of possible surgeries and gait patterns.

  10. Postoperative Rehabilitation After Rotator Cuff Repair

    PubMed Central

    Mollison, Scott; Shin, Jason J.; Glogau, Alexander; Beavis, R. Cole

    2017-01-01

    Background: Postoperative rehabilitation after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (ARCR) remains controversial and suffers from limited high-quality evidence. Therefore, appropriate use criteria must partially depend on expert opinion. Hypothesis/Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine and report on the standard and modified rehabilitation protocols after ARCR used by member orthopaedic surgeons of the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM) and the Arthroscopy Association of North America (AANA). We hypothesized that there will exist a high degree of variability among rehabilitation protocols. We also predict that surgeons will be prescribing accelerated rehabilitation. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A 29-question survey in English language was sent to all 3106 associate and active members of the AOSSM and the AANA. The questionnaire consisted of 4 categories: standard postoperative protocol, modification to postoperative rehabilitation, operative technique, and surgeon demographic data. Via email, the survey was sent on September 4, 2013. Results: The average response rate per question was 22.7%, representing an average of 704 total responses per question. The most common immobilization device was an abduction pillow sling with the arm in neutral or slight internal rotation (70%). Surgeons tended toward later unrestricted passive shoulder range of motion at 6 to 7 weeks (35%). Strengthening exercises were most commonly prescribed between 6 weeks and 3 months (56%). Unrestricted return to activities was most commonly allowed at 5 to 6 months. The majority of the respondents agreed that they would change their protocol based on differences expressed in this survey. Conclusion: There is tremendous variability in postoperative rehabilitation protocols after ARCR. Five of 10 questions regarding standard rehabilitation reached a consensus statement. Contrary to our hypothesis, there was a trend toward later

  11. Postoperative radiation and implant capsule contraction

    SciTech Connect

    Caffee, H.H.; Mendenhall, N.P.; Mendenhall, W.M.; Bova, F.J.

    1988-01-01

    Occasionally radiation is required as adjunctive therapy following mastectomy for breast cancer. The effects of radiation on a developing implant capsule are unknown, but they are very important in relation to the increased use of immediate reconstruction. Experiments were performed on rabbits to study the effects of postoperative radiation therapy on capsule contraction and thickness. The results of these experiments suggest that radiation has no effect on implant capsules.

  12. Postoperative Chemoradiotherapy for Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jin-hong; Choi, Eun Kyung; Ahn, Seung Do; Lee, Sang-wook; Song, Si Yeol; Yoon, Sang Min; Kim, Young Seok; Lee, Yu Sun; Lee, Sung-Gyu; Hwang, Shin; Lee, Young-Joo; Park, Kwang-Min; Kim, Tae Won; Chang, Heung Moon; Lee, Jae-Lyun; Kim, Jong Hoon

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of postoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy using three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and to identify the prognostic factors that influence survival in patients with extrahepatic bile duct cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed the data from 101 patients with extrahepatic bile duct cancer who had undergone postoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy using three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. Of the 101 patients, 52 (51%) had undergone complete resection (R0 resection) and 49 (49%) had microscopic or macroscopic residual tumors (R1 or R2 resection). The median radiation dose was 50 Gy. Also, 85 patients (84%) underwent concurrent chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil. Results: The median follow-up period was 47 months for the surviving patients. The 5-year overall survival rate was 34% for all patients. A comparison between patients with R0 and R1 resection indicated no significant difference in the 5-year overall survival (44% vs. 33%, p = .2779), progression-free survival (35% vs. 22%, p = .3107), or locoregional progression-free survival (75% vs. 63%, p = .2784) rates. An analysis of the first failure site in the 89 patients with R0 or R1 resection indicated isolated locoregional recurrence in 7 patients. Elevated postoperative carbohydrate antigen 19-9 level was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (p = .001) and progression-free survival (p = .033). A total of 3 patients developed Grade 3 or greater late toxicity. Conclusion: Adjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy using three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy appears to improve locoregional control and survival in extrahepatic bile duct cancer patients with R1 resection. The postoperative carbohydrate antigen 19-9 level might be a useful prognostic marker to select patients for more intensified adjuvant therapy.

  13. Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy Occurring in the Postoperative Period.

    PubMed

    Deniz, Süleyman; Bakal, Ömer; İnangil, Gökhan; Şen, Hüseyin; Özkan, Sezai

    2015-02-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy simulates acute myocardial infarction, and it is characterised by reversible left ventricular failure. A case of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy diagnosed after emergency angiography performed in a patient with evidence of acute myocardial infarction in the postoperative period will be described in this report. Transurethral resection of a bladder tumour (TUR-BT) was performed in a 92-year-old male patient by the urology clinic. The patient was transferred to the post-anaesthesia care unit after the operation. An echocardiography was performed because of the sudden onset of dyspnoea, tachycardia (140-150 beats per minute, rhythm-atrial fibrillation) and ST-segment elevation on electrocardiography (ECG) at the first postoperative hour, and midapical dyskinesia was detected at the patient. An immediate angiography was performed due to suspicion of acute coronary syndrome. Patent coronary arteries and temporary aneurysmatic dilatation of the apex of the heart were revealed by angiography. As a result of these findings, the patient was diagnosed with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy by the cardiology service. The patient was discharged uneventfully following 10 days in the intensive care unit. Aneurysm of the apex of the left ventricle and normal anatomy of the coronary arteries in the angiography have diagnostic value for Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Diuretics (furosemide) and beta-blockers (metoprolol) are commonly used for the treatment of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Even though Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a rare and benign disease, it should be kept in mind in patients suspected for acute myocardial infarction in the postoperative period.

  14. Relationship between anesthesia and postoperative endophthalmitis

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Hou-Chuan; Tseng, Wei-Cheng; Pao, Shu-I; Wong, Chih-Shung; Huang, Ren-Chih; Chan, Wei-Hung; Wu, Zhi-Fu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Previous study showed that patients under general anesthesia (GA) had nasopharyngeal secretions on the face at the end of ocular surgery, especially in propofol-based total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA), it might induce postoperative endophthalmitis. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective study to compare the incidence of endophthalmitis after ocular surgery under topical, inhalation anesthesia, and propofol-based TIVA in our medical center from 2011 to 2015. A total of 21,032 patients were included, and we evaluated epidemiologic factors, systemic diseases, other ocular pathologic characteristics, complications during the surgery, technique of ocular surgery, method of antibiotic prophylaxis, vitreous culture, and vision outcome in these patients. Fifteen endophthalmitis cases among 21,032 operations reported, equaling an incidence of 0.071%. The incidence rates under topical, inhalation anesthesia, and propofol-based TIVA were 0.083%, 0.039%, and 0%, respectively (P = 0.39). Moreover, the risk of endophthalmitis under GA (0.024%) was significantly lower than topical anesthesia (0.083%) (P < 0.001). We also found that elder was the risk factor for endophthalmitis following ocular surgery. In conclusion, propofol-based TIVA or inhalation anesthesia did not increase the risk of endophthalmitis after ocular surgery. Thus, GA was not a risk factor for postoperative endophthalmitis. By contrast, elder was the risk factor for postoperative endophthalmitis. PMID:28328861

  15. [Transurethral electrostimulation in the therapy of postoperative disorders of bladder emptying following extended hysterectomy].

    PubMed

    Wehnert, J; Sage, S

    1987-01-01

    As a suitable method of the treatment of postoperative voiding disturbance following gynaecological surgery (hysterectomy) the indirect electrostimulation of detrusor vesicae is presented. It is possible with this method to treat the congenital (myelomeningocele) and the obtained (spinal cord dysfunction) but also the disturbances following hysterectomy successfully. In cases with such a hypotonic bladder the stimulation of the bladder wall is made with an intermittent application of exponential current so that sufficient contractions to the voiding will occur after the treatment.

  16. [Postoperative period in previously irradiated lung cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Bronskaia, K L; Zaikina, L V; Grigor'eva, S P

    1978-01-01

    The postoperative period in 62 patients with lung cancer was studied in a comparative aspect. Preoperative use of radiotherapy influences but insignificantly the postoperative course. As a whole, the incidence of postoperative complications and mortality does not differ considerably from that in patients not irradiated with a Betatron. The state of blood coagulation was studied before and prior to surgery in 34 patients previously irradiated with a Betatron. Following the irradiation some changes indicative of hypocoagulation were revealed. In the early postoperative period (2d--10th day postoperatively) a marked increase in the fibrinogen "A" content is observed.

  17. Postoperative complications after thoracic surgery for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Maugeri, Laura; Corbo, Giuseppe Maria; Valente, Salvatore

    2004-01-01

    Postoperative complications and related risk factors after lung reduction surgery are analyzed based on a review of the literature. In particular the pathogenesis of some of postoperative respiratory disorders is carefully assessed. Most commonly cardiac arrhythmias, respiratory failure, bronchopleural fistula are observed. Main risk factors for postoperative complications are old age, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary disease, poor nutritional state, neoadjuvant therapy. Attention should be paid to all these factors, both in preoperative assessment and postoperative care, to prevent and promptly treat postoperative complications.

  18. Successful Postoperative Treatment of a Lumbosacral Ulcer in a Neonate after Myelomeningocele

    PubMed Central

    Meszes, Angéla; Tálosi, Gyula; Máder, Krisztina; Kiss, Judit; Sánta, Csilla; Kemény, Lajos; Csoma, Zsanett

    2014-01-01

    Wound care in neonates demands special awareness of the anatomical and physiological characteristics of their skin, and the danger of adverse mechanical and toxicological events. Here, we present the case of a full-term neonate born with myelomeningocele. Following the closing surgery on the 3rd day of postuterine life, the operated region became inflamed, the sutures opened and a necrotic discharging ulcer developed. Besides parenteral antibiotic treatment based on the microbiological findings, intelligent hydrofiber dressings were applied to the wound with regard to the special characteristics of wound care in neonates. After 72 days, the ulcer had healed with a small residual scar, and the infant is currently demonstrating normal physical and mental development. PMID:24707251

  19. Postoperative Prostate-Specific Antigen Velocity Independently Predicts for Failure of Salvage Radiotherapy After Prostatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    King, Christopher R. Presti, Joseph C.; Brooks, James D.; Gill, Harcharan; Spiotto, Michael T.

    2008-04-01

    Purpose: Identification of patients most likely to benefit from salvage radiotherapy (RT) using postoperative (postop) prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics. Methods and Materials: From 1984 to 2004, 81 patients who fit the following criteria formed the study population: undetectable PSA after radical prostatectomy (RP); pathologically negative nodes; biochemical relapse defined as a persistently detectable PSA; salvage RT; and two or more postop PSAs available before salvage RT. Salvage RT included the whole pelvic nodes in 55 patients and 4 months of total androgen suppression in 56 patients. The median follow-up was >5 years. All relapses were defined as a persistently detectable PSA. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards multivariable analysis were performed for all clinical, pathological, and treatment factors predicting for biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS). Results: There were 37 biochemical relapses observed after salvage RT. The 5-year bRFS after salvage RT for patients with postop prostate-specific antigen velocity {<=}1 vs. >1 ng/ml/yr was 59% vs. 29%, p = 0.002. In multivariate analysis, only postop PSAV (p = 0.0036), pre-RT PSA level {<=}1 (p = 0.037) and interval-to-relapse >10 months (p = 0.012) remained significant, whereas pelvic RT, hormone therapy, and RT dose showed a trend (p = {approx}0.06). PSAV, but not prostate-specific antigen doubling time, predicted successful salvage RT, suggesting an association of zero-order kinetics with locally recurrent disease. Conclusions: Postoperative PSA velocity independently predicts for the failure of salvage RT and can be considered in addition to high-risk features when selecting patients in need of systemic therapy following biochemical failure after RP. For well-selected patients, salvage RT can achieve high cure rates.

  20. Anterior Chamber Depth and Refractive Change in Late Postoperative Capsular Bag Distension Syndrome: A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min Kyu; Wee, Won Ryang; Kwon, Ji-Won; Han, Young Keun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the characteristic findings and effects of laser capsulotomy in patients with late postoperative capsular bag distension syndrome (CBDS). Methods Twenty patients diagnosed with late postoperative CBDS between July 2010 and August 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Before and 1 week after capsulotomy, changes in the anterior chamber depth (ACD) were assessed using ultrasound biomicroscopy. Changes in the refractive status and uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) were also measured 1 week and 1 month after capsulotomy. For patients who received bilateral cataract surgery, preoperative ACD and axial length measured by IOLMaster were compared between the two eyes. Results Twenty-two eyes from 20 patients who had undergone laser capsulotomy showed a mean UCVA improvement of 0.27 ± 0.24 logMAR (range, 0.00–0.90). ACD was increased by an average of +0.04 mm (95% confidence interval, +0.01 to +0.06 mm, p = 0.034), equivalent to predicted refractive change of +0.10 D. The discrepancy between actual (+1.33 D) and predicted refractive change after capsulotomy suggests that refractive change may not be generated from IOL displacement in late postoperative CBDS. Preoperative ACD was deeper in the eye with late postoperative CBDS in all bilaterally pseudophakic patients (mean, 3.68 mm vs. 3.44 mm in the fellow eye, p = 0.068). Conclusions Late postoperative CBDS showed refractive changes that were resolved successfully after laser capsulotomy. The convex lens effects of opalescent material in the distended capsular bag may play a major role in myopic shift. A larger preoperative ACD is possibly associated with the development of late postoperative CBDS. PMID:25910003

  1. Anterior chamber depth and refractive change in late postoperative capsular bag distension syndrome: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min Kyu; Wee, Won Ryang; Kwon, Ji-Won; Han, Young Keun

    2015-01-01

    To assess the characteristic findings and effects of laser capsulotomy in patients with late postoperative capsular bag distension syndrome (CBDS). Twenty patients diagnosed with late postoperative CBDS between July 2010 and August 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Before and 1 week after capsulotomy, changes in the anterior chamber depth (ACD) were assessed using ultrasound biomicroscopy. Changes in the refractive status and uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) were also measured 1 week and 1 month after capsulotomy. For patients who received bilateral cataract surgery, preoperative ACD and axial length measured by IOLMaster were compared between the two eyes. Twenty-two eyes from 20 patients who had undergone laser capsulotomy showed a mean UCVA improvement of 0.27 ± 0.24 logMAR (range, 0.00-0.90). ACD was increased by an average of +0.04 mm (95% confidence interval, +0.01 to +0.06 mm, p = 0.034), equivalent to predicted refractive change of +0.10 D. The discrepancy between actual (+1.33 D) and predicted refractive change after capsulotomy suggests that refractive change may not be generated from IOL displacement in late postoperative CBDS. Preoperative ACD was deeper in the eye with late postoperative CBDS in all bilaterally pseudophakic patients (mean, 3.68 mm vs. 3.44 mm in the fellow eye, p = 0.068). Late postoperative CBDS showed refractive changes that were resolved successfully after laser capsulotomy. The convex lens effects of opalescent material in the distended capsular bag may play a major role in myopic shift. A larger preoperative ACD is possibly associated with the development of late postoperative CBDS.

  2. Reiki therapy for postoperative oral pain in pediatric patients: Pilot data from a double-blind, randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, Anjana; Lin, Yuting; Oron, Assaf P.; Doorenbos, Ardith Z.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the effects of Reiki as an adjuvant therapy to opioid therapy for postoperative pain control in pediatric patients. Methods This was a double-blind, randomized controlled study of children undergoing dental procedures. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either Reiki therapy or the control therapy (sham Reiki) preoperatively. Postoperative pain scores, opioid requirements, and side effects were assessed. Family members were also asked about perioperative care satisfaction. Multiple linear regressions were used for analysis. Results Thirty-eight children participated. The blinding procedure was successful. No statistically significant difference was observed between groups on all outcome measures. Implications Our study provides a successful example of a blinding procedure for Reiki therapy among children in the perioperative period. This study does not support the effectiveness of Reiki as an adjuvant therapy to opioid therapy for postoperative pain control in pediatric patients. PMID:24439640

  3. Reiki therapy for postoperative oral pain in pediatric patients: pilot data from a double-blind, randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Anjana; Lin, Yuting; Oron, Assaf P; Doorenbos, Ardith Z

    2014-02-01

    To examine the effects of Reiki as an adjuvant therapy to opioid therapy for postoperative pain control in pediatric patients. This was a double-blind, randomized controlled study of children undergoing dental procedures. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either Reiki therapy or the control therapy (sham Reiki) preoperatively. Postoperative pain scores, opioid requirements, and side effects were assessed. Family members were also asked about perioperative care satisfaction. Multiple linear regressions were used for analysis. Thirty-eight children participated. The blinding procedure was successful. No statistically significant difference was observed between groups on all outcome measures. Our study provides a successful example of a blinding procedure for Reiki therapy among children in the perioperative period. This study does not support the effectiveness of Reiki as an adjuvant therapy to opioid therapy for postoperative pain control in pediatric patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Postoperative Pain after Hybrid Video-assisted Thoracic Surgery].

    PubMed

    Murata, Yutaka; Mizota, Toshiyuki; Fukuda, Kazuhiko

    2015-12-01

    Hybrid video-assisted thoracic surgery (hybrid VATS), combining television monitoring and direct visualization through mini-thoracotomy, has been established as a secure and minimally invasive operation for lung cancer. This study aimed to determine postoperative pain levels after hybrid VATS in which intraoperative internal intercostal nerve block is performed. We also examined whether additional use of postoperative continuous infusion of fentanyl improves postoperative pain control. Data from 131 patients undergoing hybrid VATS were retrospectively analyzed. Thoracoscopic, internal intercostal nerve block was performed at the end of the procedure. Postoperative pain levels after hybrid VATS, and the impact of postoperative continuous infusion of fentanyl on postoperative pain levels and the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) were examined. 46.6% of patients experienced severe postoperative pain (numerical rating scale 7-10) after hybrid VATS. Postoperative continuous infusion of fentanyl was not associated with reduction in postoperative pain score, but was independently associated with PONV [odds ratio 3.44 (1.52-8.20); P = 0.0027]. Intraoperative internal intercostal nerve block did not provide sufficient analgesia after hybrid VATS. Additional use of postoperative continuous infusion of fentanyl did not reduce pain score, but increased the incidence of PONV.

  5. Alvimopan, for Postoperative Ileus Following Bowel Resection

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, Conor P.; Wolff, Bruce G.; Viscusi, Eugene R.; Senagore, Anthony J.; Fort, John G.; Du, Wei; Techner, Lee; Wallin, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To obtain further analysis regarding specific outcomes and alvimopan doses in bowel resection (BR) patients. Summary Background Data: Although postoperative ileus (POI) is common after BR, there is currently no recognized treatment or prevention available. Alvimopan, a novel, peripherally active mu-opioid receptor antagonist, accelerated GI recovery after BR or hysterectomy in 3 phase III trials. Methods: A pooled retrospective subset analysis of BR patients in alvimopan phase III trials was performed. Randomized BR patients received alvimopan 6 mg (n = 397), 12 mg (n = 413), or placebo (n = 402) ≥2 hours before surgery and twice daily until hospital discharge for ≤7 days. The primary endpoint of each trial was time to recovery of GI function. Hospital discharge order (DCO) written, readmission, and morbidities were also assessed. Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyze treatment effects on time-to-event endpoints. Results: Alvimopan (6 or 12 mg) significantly accelerated GI recovery (GI-3; hazard ratio = 1.28 and 1.38, respectively; P ≤ 0.001 for both). Alvimopan significantly accelerated time to DCO written by 16 hours for 6 mg and 18 hours for 12 mg (P < 0.001 for both) from a mean of 147 hours for placebo. Alvimopan-treated patients had reduced postoperative morbidity compared with placebo, and incidence of prolonged hospital stay or readmission was significantly reduced (P < 0.001). Tolerability profiles were similar among groups. Conclusions: Alvimopan significantly accelerated GI recovery in BR patients. A 12-mg dose provided more consistent benefits across both sexes and all ages. Postoperative morbidity rates, prolonged hospital stay, and rates of hospital readmission were significantly reduced. Alvimopan reduces the consequences of POI after BR. PMID:17435541

  6. The Postoperative Pain Assessment Skills pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    McGillion, Michael; Dubrowski, Adam; Stremler, Robyn; Watt-Watson, Judy; Campbell, Fiona; McCartney, Colin; Victor, J Charles; Wiseman, Jeffrey; Snell, Linda; Costello, Judy; Robb, Anja; Nelson, Sioban; Stinson, Jennifer; Hunter, Judith; Dao, Thuan; Promislow, Sara; McNaughton, Nancy; White, Scott; Shobbrook, Cindy; Jeffs, Lianne; Mauch, Kianda; Leegaard, Marit; Beattie, W Scott; Schreiber, Martin; Silver, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Pain-related misbeliefs among health care professionals (HCPs) are common and contribute to ineffective postoperative pain assessment. While standardized patients (SPs) have been effectively used to improve HCPs’ assessment skills, not all centres have SP programs. The present equivalence randomized controlled pilot trial examined the efficacy of an alternative simulation method – deteriorating patient-based simulation (DPS) – versus SPs for improving HCPs’ pain knowledge and assessment skills. METHODS: Seventy-two HCPs were randomly assigned to a 3 h SP or DPS simulation intervention. Measures were recorded at baseline, immediate postintervention and two months postintervention. The primary outcome was HCPs’ pain assessment performance as measured by the postoperative Pain Assessment Skills Tool (PAST). Secondary outcomes included HCPs knowledge of pain-related misbeliefs, and perceived satisfaction and quality of the simulation. These outcomes were measured by the Pain Beliefs Scale (PBS), the Satisfaction with Simulated Learning Scale (SSLS) and the Simulation Design Scale (SDS), respectively. Student’s t tests were used to test for overall group differences in postintervention PAST, SSLS and SDS scores. One-way analysis of covariance tested for overall group differences in PBS scores. RESULTS: DPS and SP groups did not differ on post-test PAST, SSLS or SDS scores. Knowledge of pain-related misbeliefs was also similar between groups. CONCLUSIONS: These pilot data suggest that DPS is an effective simulation alternative for HCPs’ education on postoperative pain assessment, with improvements in performance and knowledge comparable with SP-based simulation. An equivalence trial to examine the effectiveness of deteriorating patient-based simulation versus standardized patients is warranted. PMID:22184553

  7. Postoperative Mycoplasma hominis infections after neurosurgical intervention.

    PubMed

    Whitson, Wesley J; Ball, Perry A; Lollis, S Scott; Balkman, Jason D; Bauer, David F

    2014-08-01

    Mycoplasma hominis is a rare cause of infection after neurosurgical procedures. The Mycoplasma genus contains the smallest bacteria discovered to date. Mycoplasma are atypical bacteria that lack a cell wall, a feature that complicates both diagnosis and treatment. The Gram stain and some types of culture media fail to identify these organisms, and typical broad-spectrum antibiotic regimens are ineffective because they act on cell wall metabolism. Mycoplasma hominis commonly colonizes the genitourinary tract in a nonvirulent manner, but it has caused postoperative, postpartum, and posttraumatic infections in various organ systems. The authors present the case of a 17-year-old male with a postoperative intramedullary spinal cord abscess due to M. hominis and report the results of a literature review of M. hominis infections after neurosurgical procedures. Attention is given to time to diagnosis, risk factors for infection, ineffective antibiotic regimens, and final effective antibiotic regimens to provide pertinent information for the practicing neurosurgeon to diagnose and treat this rare occurrence. A PubMed search was performed to identify reports of M. hominis infections after neurosurgical procedures. Eleven cases of postneurosurgical M. hominis infection were found. No other cases of intramedullary spinal cord abscess were found. Initial antibiotic coverage was inadequate in all cases, and diagnosis was delayed in all cases. Multiple surgical interventions were often needed. Once appropriate antibiotics were started, patients typically experienced rapid resolution of their neurological symptoms. In 27% of cases, a suspicious genitourinary source other than urinary catheterization was identified. Postoperative M. hominis infections are rarely seen after neurosurgical procedures. They are typically responsive to appropriate antibiotic therapy. Mycoplasma infection may cause prolonged hospitalization and multiple returns to the operating room due to delay in

  8. [Postoperative radiation therapy in lung carcinom].

    PubMed

    Bouchaab, H; Peters, S; Ozsahin, M; Peguret, N; Gonzales, M; Lovis, A

    2014-05-21

    Locally advanced non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is a very heterogeous disease, the role of postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) in pN2 patients with completly resected NSCLC remains controversial. Although an improvment in local control has been described in several studies, the effect on survival has been contradictory or inconclusive. Retrospective evaluation suggest a positive effect of PORT in high risk patients with pN2 disease: RI-resected NSCLC, bulky and multilevel N2. However further evaluation of PORT in prospectively randomized studies in completely resected pN2 NSCLC is needed.

  9. [A technic to avoid postoperative intestinal hypodynamia].

    PubMed

    Pérez Rodríguez, J; Gaztambide Casellas, J; Argos Rodríguez, M D; Vargas Vallejo, J; García Mérida, M; Galiano Duro, E; López Pérez, G A

    1984-04-15

    The hypodynamic postoperative ileus in children, has as main cause the circle gastric distension-reflex intestinal ileus, produced by the swallowed air. The gastric emptying system-through a Levin tube from the stomach is not usually sufficient to get off all the swallowed air. Nevertheless, a continuous suction from the lower third of oesophagus, through a double lumen sump tube is twelve times more effective in the getting off de air before it comes into the stomach, without need of a nasogastric tube.

  10. [Endoscopic management of postoperative biliary fistulas].

    PubMed

    Farca, A; Moreno, M; Mundo, F; Rodríguez, G

    1991-01-01

    Biliary fistulas have been managed by surgical correction with no good results. From 1986 to 1990, endoscopic therapy was attempted in 24 patients with postoperative persistent biliary-cutaneous fistulas. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography demonstrated residual biliary stones in 19 patients (79%). The mean fistula drainage was 540 ml/day, and in 75% the site of the fistula was near the cistic duct stump. Sphincterotomy with or without biliary stent placement resulted in rapid resolution of the fistula in 23 patients (95.8%). In those patients treated with biliary stents the fistula healed spectacularly in 24-72 hrs.

  11. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography in the investigation of the persistent postoperative bile leak.

    PubMed

    Kissin, C M; Grundy, A

    1987-01-01

    Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTHC) is now a widely available, inexpensive investigation with a low incidence of complications, especially in the nonobstructed system, and a high success rate. Its role in the management of obstructive jaundice is well established but it is only infrequently performed in the investigation of persistent bile leakage following biliary tract surgery. Four cases are reported in which the superior demonstration of biliary anatomy provided by PTHC allowed successful identification of the site of postoperative biliary leakage. We compared PTHC with other diagnostic imaging techniques available and conclude that it is a safe, accurate, and reliable technique.

  12. Pharmacological and psychosomatic treatments for an elderly patient with severe nausea and vomiting in reaction to postoperative stress.

    PubMed

    Otera, Masako; Machida, Takatsugu; Machida, Tomomi; Abe, Mai; Ichie, Masayoshi; Fukudo, Shin

    2015-10-01

    Here we present a case of successful treatment employing a mixed approach including pharmacological and psychosomatic treatments for a 72-year-old woman who experienced severe nausea and vomiting in reaction to postoperative stress from gastric cancer surgery. This case demonstrates that appropriate provision of psychosomatic treatments, including a psychotherapeutic session and autogenic training, enhances the efficacy of pharmacotherapy.

  13. Attitudes of Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendarvis, Faye

    This document investigates the attitudes of successful individuals, citing the achievement of established goals as the criteria for success. After offering various definitions of success, the paper focuses on the importance of self-esteem to success and considers ways by which the self-esteem of students can be improved. Theories of human behavior…

  14. Postoperative Swallowing Assessment After Lung Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Brooke; Byers, Sara; Wasserman-Wincko, Tamara; Smith, Libby; Hathaway, Bridget; Bhama, Jay; Shigemura, Norihisa; Hayanga, J W Awori; D'Cunha, Jonathan; Johnson, Jonas T

    2017-07-01

    Dysphagia, aspiration, and potential pneumonia represent a major source of morbidity in patients undergoing lung transplantation. Conditions that potentiate dysphagia and aspiration include frailty and prolonged intubation. Our group of speech-language pathologists has been actively involved in performance of a bedside evaluation of swallowing, and instrumental evaluation of swallowing with modified barium swallow, and postoperative management in patients undergoing lung transplantation. All lung transplant patients from April 2009 to September 2012 were evaluated retrospectively. A clinical bedside examination was performed by the speech-language pathology team, followed by a modified barium swallow or fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. A total of 321 patients were referred for evaluation. Twenty-four patients were unable to complete the evaluation. Clinical signs of aspiration were apparent in 160 patients (54%). Deep laryngeal penetration or aspiration were identified in 198 (67%) patients during instrumental testing. A group of 81 patients (27%) had an entirely normal clinical examination, but were found to have either deep penetration or aspiration. The majority of patients aspirate after lung transplantation. Clinical bedside examination is not sensitive enough and will fail to identify patients with silent aspiration. A standard of practice following lung transplantation has been established that helps avoid postoperative aspiration associated with complications. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Percutaneous management of postoperative anastomotic biliary strictures.

    PubMed

    Saad, Wael E A

    2008-06-01

    Postoperative anastomotic biliary strictures can occur after surgery in bile ducts belonging to transplanted or native (nontransplanted) livers. The majority of postoperative anastomotic strictures encountered by interventional radiologists are most likely in liver transplant recipients due to the large and growing liver transplant recipient population worldwide compared with patients with native livers and biliary enteric anastomoses. They occur after 2.5 to 13% of liver transplantations and they represent at least one-half of biliary strictures encountered after liver transplantation. Anastomotic biliary strictures are considered technical in nature, accentuated by fibrosis and scarring that may be secondary to, if not exacerbated by, graft ischemia. There are numerous variables in the percutaneous transhepatic balloon dilation protocols applied to treat anastomotic biliary strictures. These include (1) types of balloons, (2) how long balloons are inflated, (3) how frequently patients return for additional dilation sessions, and (4) the interval(s) at which they return. No alteration in these variables has proven to improve long-term patency. In addition, new technology such as cutting balloons and stents has not been fully evaluated to determine their effect on long-term patency. The current article describes the overall theme of balloon dilation protocols for the management of anastomotic biliary strictures and discusses possible future management of such strictures.

  16. [Postoperative findings in the spinal column].

    PubMed

    Lieb, J M; Ulmer, S; Kelm, J; Shariat, K; Stippich, C; Ahlhelm, F J

    2011-09-01

    Postoperative imaging after spinal surgery is usually performed to document the correct positioning of implants or to rule out complications if patients still suffer from pain after surgery. Depending on the question various imaging modalities can be used all of which have benefits and limitations. Conventional X-ray is used for the documentation of the correct positioning of spinal implants, stability (olisthesis) and during follow-up to rule out fractures or instability of the implants, whereas soft tissue changes cannot be completely assessed. Besides these indications, imaging is usually performed because of ongoing symptoms (pain for the most part) of the patients. Soft tissue changes including persistent or recurrent herniated disc tissue, hematoma or infection can best be depicted using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which should be performed within the immediate postoperative period to be able to distinguish physiological development of scar tissue from inflammatory changes in the area of the surgical approach. Often imaging alone cannot differentiate between these and imaging can therefore only be considered as an adjunct. Computed tomography is the modality of choice for the evaluation of bony structures and an adjunct of new therapies such as image-guided application of cement for kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty.

  17. Postoperative Patient Satisfaction After Laparoscopic Supracervical Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Gardanis, Konstantinos; Bojahr, Bernd; de Wilde, Rudy Leon

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate postoperative patient satisfaction in women after laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy (LASH). Methods: A retrospective study by a mailed questionnaire among 2334 women who underwent hysterectomy via LASH at the MIC-Klinik, Berlin, between 1998 and 2004 was conducted. Indications for LASH were uterus myomatosus, adenomyosis uteri, disorders of bleeding, and genital descensus. The LASH operation technique was standardized and remained consistent throughout the observation period. Pearson's test for metric variables, Spearman's rank correlation test for ordinal data, Mann-Whitney U test, and Kruskal-Wallis test were used. Results: Of the 2334 questionnaires mailed, 1553 were returned and 1431 (61.3%) of those could be analyzed. Almost 94% (93.9%) of the women were highly satisfied with the outcome, 5.6% reported medium satisfaction, and 0.5% were not satisfied. There was no significant difference in patient satisfaction with regard to the different indication for LASH. Conclusion: This study demonstrates high postoperative patient satisfaction after LASH. The rate of highly satisfied women might be increased by carefully choosing the right indications for LASH and improving operation techniques. This is important for widening acceptance of this innovative new operation standard. PMID:23743380

  18. Postoperative Alterations in Taste and Smell

    PubMed Central

    Elterman, Kelly Galina; Mallampati, Seshagiri Rao; Kaye, Alan David; Urman, Richard Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Context: Alterations in taste and smell, including but not limited to anosmia, ageusia, hypogeusia, and dysgeusia, have been described in association with various medications, including anesthetic agents. Frequently, these symptoms occur 1-2 weeks after medication administration and last several months. While such a phenomenon is a rare occurrence, it nonetheless can significantly impact patients’ satisfaction and quality of life. Evidence Acquisition: The methodology consisted of a thorough literature search using the MEDLINE and Cochrane databases utilizing keywords such as anosmia, ageusia, olfactory disorders, postoperative, and anesthesia. Results: Our results yielded several previously published case report, and were not limited to a specific type of anesthesia. Based on available literature, we review the physiology of taste and smell as well as the medications associated with loss of these senses. We describe perioperative agents that could lead to postoperative complications associated with anosmia and and ageusia. Conclusions: Based on available literature recommendations for anesthesiologists caring for patients at risk for this occurrence are presented in this review. The symptoms are usually temporary as in the majority of the patients the sensory receptor cells are able to regenerate themselves after injury. Anesthesia providers need to aware of this phenomenon to be able to reassure patients and possibly avoid anesthetic techniques associated with anosmia and ageusia. PMID:25599025

  19. Postoperative respiratory failure: pathogenesis, prediction, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Canet, Jaume; Gallart, Lluís

    2014-02-01

    This review discusses our present understanding of postoperative respiratory failure (PRF) pathogenesis, risk factors, and perioperative-risk reduction strategies. PRF, the most frequent postoperative pulmonary complication, is defined by impaired blood gas exchange appearing after surgery. PRF leads to longer hospital stays and higher mortality. The time frame for recognizing when respiratory failure is related to the surgical-anesthetic insult remains imprecise, however, and researchers have used different clinical events instead of blood gas measures to define the outcome. Still, studies in specific surgical populations or large patient samples have identified a range of predictors of PRF risk: type of surgery and comorbidity, mechanical ventilation, and multiple hits to the lung have been found to be relevant in most of these studies. Recently, risk-scoring systems for PRF have been developed and are being applied in new controlled trials of PRF-risk reduction measures. Current evidence favors carefully managing intraoperative ventilator use and fluids, reducing surgical aggression, and preventing wound infection and pain. PRF is a life-threatening event that is challenging for the surgical team. Risk prediction scales based on large population studies are being developed and validated. We need high-quality trials of preventive measures, particularly those related to ventilator use in both high risk and general populations.

  20. Predicting the success of cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Murphy, S B; Donderi, D C

    1980-03-01

    Fifty-four elderly patients with cataracts were tested with a questionnaire and a series of visual-motor learning and performance tasks immediately before, 7 weeks after, and 16 weeks after cataract surgery. The goal was to learn whether postoperative performance and questionnaire responses could be predicted from the preoperative tasks. Twenty-two elderly people without diagnosed cataracts did the same tasks at comparable intervals to establish normal performance levels and reliabilities. The amount of activity before surgery (walking, shopping, gardening, sewing, etc.) and the ability to learn a new visual-motor coordination were positively correlated with successful recovery as assessed by several measures including spontaneously expressed satisfaction.

  1. Influence of the Preoperative Decision-Making Process on the Postoperative Outcome after Hysterectomy for Benign Uterine Pathologies.

    PubMed

    Radosa, J C; Radosa, C G; Kastl, C; Mavrova, R; Gabriel, L; Gräber, S; Wagenpfeil, G; Baum, S; Hamza, A; Joukhadar, R; Juhasz-Böss, I; Heimes, A-S; Meyberg-Solomayer, G; Solomayer, E-F; Radosa, M P

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess whether the preoperative decision-making process might influence treatment success in premenopausal women undergoing hysterectomy for benign uterine pathologies Materials and Methods: All premenopausal women treated with hysterectomy for benign uterine pathologies between April 2011 and June 2013 at a tertiary university center were enrolled in this prospective observational cohort study. Five parameters of the preoperative decision-making process were assessed upon their correlation with postoperative quality of life, sexual function and patients' satisfaction. These outcome measures were assessed for the pre- and postoperative (six months after surgery) status using two validated questionnaires (EQ-5D and "female sexual function index" (FSFI). Patients' satisfaction with the postoperative outcome was assessed with a self-developed questionnaire. Results: 255 of 402 (63 %) patients completed the study. A correlation between the co-variables "interval between first counseling and decision to surgery", "subjectively perceived quality of the preoperative counseling" and "certainty in the decision for the intervention" and postoperative outcomes were found. The co-variables "person mainly responsible for election of hysterectomy mode" and "discussion of decision for surgery with others" showed no influence on postoperative patients-reported outcomes. Conclusion: We found a correlation between certain parameters of the preoperative decision-making process and postoperative patient-reported sexual function, quality of life and patients' satisfaction in premenopausal women undergoing hysterectomy for benign uterine pathologies. An optimization of these factors could contribute to an improvement in treatment outcomes.

  2. Post-operative antibiotics after appendectomy and post-operative abscess development: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Michael J; Harrison, Ewen; Paterson-Brown, Simon

    2013-02-01

    Appendectomy is one of the most common emergency operations. Prophylaxis against infective complications involves post-operative antibiotics. There is no consensus as to the optimum antibiotic regimen. This study aimed to assess the relation between the duration of the post-operative antibiotic administration and intra-abdominal infections (IAIs). All patients who underwent appendectomy between September 1, 2009, and August 31, 2010, were identified. The appearance of the appendix at operation, post-operative antibiotics, white blood cell count, and temperature at the time of conversion of intravenous (IV) to oral antibiotics were compiled. IAIs were assessed as the final outcome. Two hundred sixty six patients underwent appendectomy-188 for simple appendicitis and 78 for complicated appendicitis. There were 18 IAIs (6.8%) overall, 10 (12.8%) after complicated appendicitis and eight (4.2%) after simple appendicitis. Prolonging antibiotics beyond the operation in the simple appendicitis group did not alter the incidence of IAI. Similarly, in the complicated appendicitis group, prolonging antibiotics beyond five days did not alter the incidence of IAI. Furthermore, in patients with complicated appendicitis, the presence of leukocytosis, fever, or both when IV antibiotics were converted to oral drugs was associated with the development of IAI (p=0.013). In simple appendicitis, post-operative antibiotics may not be beneficial at all. In complicated appendicitis, prolonging the course of antibiotics was not associated with a reduced IAI rate. However, cessation of IV antibiotics when fever or leukocytosis was present was associated with IAI development.

  3. Postoperative Bleeding Risk for Oral Surgery under Continued Clopidogrel Antiplatelet Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zeuch, Jürgen; Haase, Martina; Semmusch, Jan; Eichhorn, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Object. To determine the incidence of postoperative bleeding for oral osteotomy carried out under continued monoantiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel and dual therapy with clopidogrel/aspirin. Design. Retrospective single center observatory study of two study groups and a control group. Methods. A total of 64 and 60 oral osteotomy procedures carried out under continued monoclopidogrel therapy and dual clopidogrel/aspirin therapy, respectively, were followed for two weeks for postoperative bleeding. Another 281 similar procedures were also followed as a control group. All oral osteotomy procedures were carried out on an outpatient basis. Results. We observed postoperative bleeding in 2/281 (0.7%) cases in the control group, in 1/64 (1.6%) cases in the clopidogrel group, and in 2/60 (3.3%) cases in the dual clopidogrel/aspirin group. The corresponding 95% confidence intervals are 0–1.7%, 0–4.7%, and 0–7.8%, respectively, and the incidences did not differ significantly among the three groups (P > 0.09). Postoperative hemorrhage was treated successfully in all cases with local measures. No changes of antiplatelet medication, transfusion, nor hospitalisation were necessary. No major cardiovascular events were recorded. Conclusions. Our results indicate that minor oral surgery can be performed safely under continued monoantiplatelet medication with clopidogrel or dual antiplatelet medication with clopidogrel/aspirin. PMID:25632402

  4. [Suspected case of postoperative malignant hyperthermia treated with dantrolene one week after neurosurgery].

    PubMed

    Itoh, Kazushi; Nishibe, Shinichi; Usuda, Yutaka; Kitamura, Akira

    2014-10-01

    We report the case of a 16-year-old man who presented with hyperthermia (>40°C), an elevated creatine kinase level (>64,000 IU · l-1), and myoglobinuria one week after undergoing two successive neurosurgeries for a brain hemorrhage under sevoflurane anesthesia. After having been diagnosed with suspicious atypical postoperative malignant hyperthermia, he was treated with dantrolene and his symptoms disappeared on the day of dantrolene administration. Central hyperthermia is defined as hyperthermia associated with thermoregulatory dysfunction after brainstem injury. Postoperative malignant hyperthermia can sometimes be difficult to distinguish from central hyperthermia, especially after neurosurgery. We could not eliminate the possibility of central hyperthermia as a cause of hyperthermia in the present patient If marked postoperative hyperthermia must be addressed immediately and managed appropriately in neurosurgical patients and dantrolene having few serious side effects, we were able to control his symptoms immediately after the infusion of dantrolene. Therefore, the administration of dantrolene should be considered when treating unidentified postoperative hyperthermia after a neurosurgical procedure.

  5. Helmet noninvasive mechanical ventilation in patients with acute postoperative respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Redondo Calvo, Francisco Javier; Madrazo, Maria; Gilsanz, Fernando; Uña, Rafael; Villazala, Rubén; Bernal, Ginés

    2012-05-01

    The physiological and clinical effects of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) on acute postoperative respiratory failure are relatively unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the prediction factors for failure in the use of NIV with a helmet in this context. This was a prospective observational study. The use of NIV was assessed for a period of 2 years in a postoperative ICU. Demographic data were collected, as well as acute respiratory failure (ARF) and arterial gas readings. Hemodynamic changes were assessed using pulse contour cardiac output technology, and the clinical development of subjects was recorded. All subjects who developed ARF were treated using NIV as their primary care, depending on whether the technique was successful or the subject required intubation. The risk factors that determined failure in the application of NIV were subsequently determined. Of the 99 subjects presenting with postoperative ARF treated with NIV using a helmet, 74 did not require intubation (74.7%). Following a multivariate analysis using logistic regression, we determined that there are 3 independent risk factors for the failure of NIV. Three factors were associated with respiratory failure: ARDS, pneumonia, and lack of improvement with NIV in 1 hour (increase in the P(aO(2))/F(IO(2))). NIV using a helmet could provide an effective alternative to conventional ventilation in selected patients with postoperative ARF.

  6. Systemic Trans- and Postoperative Evaluations of Patients Undergoing Dental Implant Surgery.

    PubMed

    Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Santiago Junior, Joel Ferreira; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza; Moreno, Amália; Villa, Luiz Marcelo Ribeiro; Dekon, Stefan Fiuza de Carvalho; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio Perri; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline

    2016-03-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the trans- and postoperative systemic characteristics of patients undergoing dental implant surgery and to investigate the relationship between pre- and post- surgery anxiety levels. Thirty-nine patients were analyzed in 3 call centers to determine anxiety levels, pain levels, and preoperative and postoperative histories using the State-Trait (STAI) questionnaire. A total of 93 dental implants were installed, with a success rate of 100%. The most frequently reported systemic disease was hypertension. There was a significantly higher rate of effective clamping (torque) to the mandibular bone than to the maxillary bone. The association between postoperative surgical complications and longer operative time was not significant, but there was a significant correlation between the alteration of mouth opening and daily routine activities and a significant decrease in anxiety levels between the day of surgery and the postoperative time point (p =0.006). A longer surgical time was associated with surgery-related complications and with a higher anxiety index on the preoperative evaluation.

  7. Systemic Trans- and Postoperative Evaluations of Patients Undergoing Dental Implant Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Junior, Joel Ferreira Santiago; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza; Moreno, Amália; Villa, Luiz Marcelo Ribeiro; de Carvalho Dekon, Stefan Fiuza; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio Perri; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to examine the trans- and postoperative systemic characteristics of patients undergoing dental implant surgery and to investigate the relationship between pre- and post- surgery anxiety levels. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-nine patients were analyzed in 3 call centers to determine anxiety levels, pain levels, and preoperative and postoperative histories using the State–Trait (STAI) questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 93 dental implants were installed, with a success rate of 100%. The most frequently reported systemic disease was hypertension. There was a significantly higher rate of effective clamping (torque) to the mandibular bone than to the maxillary bone. The association between postoperative surgical complications and longer operative time was not significant, but there was a significant correlation between the alteration of mouth opening and daily routine activities and a significant decrease in anxiety levels between the day of surgery and the postoperative time point (p=0.006). CONCLUSION: A longer surgical time was associated with surgery-related complications and with a higher anxiety index on the preoperative evaluation. PMID:27074177

  8. Postoperative Pain Following Foot and Ankle Surgery: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Loretta B.; Wagner, Dominic; Witten, Daniela M.; Martinez-Diaz, Gabriel J.; Brook, Nancy S.; Toussaint, Michele; Carroll, Ian R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Orthopaedic procedures have been reported to have the highest incidence of pain compared to other types of operations. There are limited studies in the literature that investigate postoperative pain. Materials and Methods A prospective study of 98 patients undergoing orthopedic foot and ankle operations was undertaken to evaluate their pain experience. A Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) was administered preoperatively and postoperatively. Results The results showed that patients who experienced pain before the operation anticipated feeling higher pain intensity immediately postoperatively. Patients, on average, experienced higher pain intensity 3 days after the operation than anticipated. The postoperative pain intensity at 3 days was the most severe, while postoperative pain intensity at 6 weeks was the least severe. Age, gender and preoperative diagnosis (acute versus chronic) did not have a significant effect on the severity of pain that patients experienced. Six weeks following the operation, the majority of patients felt no pain. In addition, the severity of preoperative pain was highly predictive of their anticipated postoperative pain and 6-week postoperative pain, and both preoperative pain and anticipated pain predict higher immediate postoperative pain. Conclusion The intensity of patients' preoperative pain was predictive of the anticipated postoperative pain. Patients' preoperative pain and anticipated postoperative pain were independently predictive of the 3-day postoperative pain. The higher pain intensity a patient experienced preoperatively suggested that their postoperative pain severity would be greater. Therefore, surgeons should be aware of these findings when treating postoperative pain after orthopaedic foot and ankle operations. PMID:19026197

  9. Prediction of Postoperative Pain using Path Analysis in Older Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kinjo, Sakura; Sands, Laura P.; Lim, Eunjung; Paul, Sudeshna; Leung, Jacqueline M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Effective postoperative pain management is important for older surgical patients since pain affects perioperative outcomes. A prospective cohort study was conducted to describe the direct and indirect effects of patient risk factors and pain treatment in explaining levels of postoperative pain in older surgical patients. Methods We studied patients who were 65 years of age or older and were scheduled for major non-cardiac surgery with a postoperative hospital stay of at least 2 days. The numeric rating scale (0 = no pain, 10 = worst possible pain) was used to measure pain levels before surgery and once daily for 2 days after surgery. Path analysis was performed to examine the association between predictive variables and postoperative pain levels. Results Three hundred fifty patients were studied. The results reveal that preoperative pain level, use of preoperative opioids, female gender, higher ASA physical status, and postoperative pain control methods were the strongest predictors of postoperative pain as measured the first day after surgery. Younger age, greater preoperative symptoms of depression and lower cognitive function also contributed to higher postoperative pain levels. Pain levels on the second day after surgery were strongly predicted by preoperative pain level, use of preoperative opioids, surgical risk, and pain and opioid dose on postoperative day 1. However, younger age, female gender, higher ASA physical status, greater preoperative symptoms of depression, lower cognitive function and postoperative pain control methods indirectly contributed to pain levels on the second day after surgery. Conclusion Although preoperative pain and use of preoperative opioids have the strongest effects on postoperative pain, clinicians should be aware that other factors such as age, gender, surgical risk, preoperative cognitive impairment and depression also contribute to reported postoperative pain. Based on significant statistical correlations, these

  10. Single dose dipyrone for acute postoperative pain

    PubMed Central

    Derry, Sheena; Faura, Clara; Edwards, Jayne; McQuay, Henry J; Moore, R Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Dipyrone (metamizole) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used in some countries to treat pain (postoperative, colic, cancer, and migraine); it is banned in others because of an association with life-threatening blood agranulocytosis. This review updates a 2001 Cochrane review, and no relevant new studies were identified, but additional outcomes were sought. Objectives To assess the efficacy and adverse events of single dose dipyrone in acute postoperative pain. Search methods The earlier review searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS and the Oxford Pain Relief Database to December 1999. For the update we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE,EMBASE and LILACS to February 2010. Selection criteria Single dose, randomised, double-blind, placebo or active controlled trials of dipyrone for relief of established moderate to severe postoperative pain in adults. We included oral, rectal, intramuscular or intravenous administration of study drugs. Data collection and analysis Studies were assessed for methodological quality and data extracted by two review authors independently. Summed total pain relief over six hours (TOTPAR) was used to calculate the number of participants achieving at least 50% pain relief. Derived results were used to calculate, with 95% confidence intervals, relative benefit compared to placebo, and the number needed to treat (NNT) for one participant to experience at least 50% pain relief over six hours. Use and time to use of rescue medication were additional measures of efficacy. Information on adverse events and withdrawals was collected. Main results Fifteen studies tested mainly 500 mg oral dipyrone (173 participants), 2.5 g intravenous dipyrone (101), 2.5 g intramuscular dipyrone (99); fewer than 60 participants received any other dose. All studies used active controls (ibuprofen, paracetamol, aspirin, flurbiprofen, ketoprofen, dexketoprofen, ketorolac, pethidine, tramadol, suprofen); eight used placebo controls. Over 70% of participants

  11. Single dose dipyrone for acute postoperative pain.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jayne; Meseguer, Fuensanta; Faura, Clara; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J; Derry, Sheena

    2010-09-08

    Dipyrone (metamizole) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used in some countries to treat pain (postoperative, colic, cancer, and migraine); it is banned in others because of an association with life-threatening blood agranulocytosis. This review updates a 2001 Cochrane review, and no relevant new studies were identified, but additional outcomes were sought. To assess the efficacy and adverse events of single dose dipyrone in acute postoperative pain. The earlier review searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS and the Oxford Pain Relief Database to December 1999. For the update we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE,EMBASE and LILACS to February 2010. Single dose, randomised, double-blind, placebo or active controlled trials of dipyrone for relief of established moderate to severe postoperative pain in adults. We included oral, rectal, intramuscular or intravenous administration of study drugs. Studies were assessed for methodological quality and data extracted by two review authors independently. Summed total pain relief over six hours (TOTPAR) was used to calculate the number of participants achieving at least 50% pain relief. Derived results were used to calculate, with 95% confidence intervals, relative benefit compared to placebo, and the number needed to treat (NNT) for one participant to experience at least 50% pain relief over six hours. Use and time to use of rescue medication were additional measures of efficacy. Information on adverse events and withdrawals was collected. Fifteen studies tested mainly 500 mg oral dipyrone (173 participants), 2.5 g intravenous dipyrone (101), 2.5 g intramuscular dipyrone (99); fewer than 60 participants received any other dose. All studies used active controls (ibuprofen, paracetamol, aspirin, flurbiprofen, ketoprofen, dexketoprofen, ketorolac, pethidine, tramadol, suprofen); eight used placebo controls.Over 70% of participants experienced at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours with oral dipyrone 500 mg compared to 30

  12. [Postoperative dementia: toxicity of nitrous oxide].

    PubMed

    El Otmani, H; El Moutawakil, B; Moutaouakil, F; Gam, I; Rafai, M A; Slassi, I

    2007-01-01

    Post-operative neuropsychiatric manifestations represent a frequent situation and may be due to several aetiologies. The responsibility of vitamin B12 deficiency must be evoked, especially in case of anaesthesia with a currently used substance: nitrous oxide. A 65 year-old man with no medical history, presented problems walking and memory loss 16 days after surgery for femoral prosthesis. Neurological examination revealed paraplegia with syndrome of combined degeneration of the spinal cord. The exploration of cognitive functions showed disorientation in time with memory disorders and disturbance of executive functioning. There was no apraxia, aphasia or agnosia. There were neither psychotic symptoms nor mood changes. MMS was at 18/30. Red blood count revealed an anaemia with macrocytosis (MGV=120 3). Vitamin B12 rate was very low (less than 30 g/l). Folate blood level was normal. Brain MRI showed moderate cerebral atrophy. Other investigations led to the diagnosis of Biermer's disease (fundic atrophy at biopsy with presence in the serum of antibodies to intrinsic factor). The diagnosis of neurological attack related to a vitamin B12 deficiency secondary to Biermer's disease was established, but the appearance of disorders in the post-operative period suggested the existence of an added factor. The recovery of informations revealed that anaesthesia was maintained by nitrous oxide during two hours and the patient exhibited pre-operative anaemia with macrocytosis. The hypothesis of decompensation of latent vitamin B12 deficiency by nitrous oxide was evoked. Replacement therapy by vitamin B12 induced real improvement of the cognitive impairment. MMS increased to 25/30. Cognitive impairment due to vitamin B12 deficiency is rarely dominated by isolated memory disorders. An authentic dementia is exceptional. Our patient had a dementia diagnosed on the basis of DSM IV criteria including memory disorders, disturbance of executive functioning and significant impairment in

  13. Predictive Factors of Postoperative Pain and Postoperative Anxiety in Children Undergoing Elective Circumcision: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Tsamoudaki, Stella; Ntomi, Vasileia; Yiannopoulos, Ioannis; Christianakis, Efstratios; Pikoulis, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Background Although circumcision for phimosis in children is a minor surgical procedure, it is followed by pain and carries the risk of increased postoperative anxiety. This study examined predictive factors of postoperative pain and anxiety in children undergoing circumcision. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of children scheduled for elective circumcision. Circumcision was performed applying one of the following surgical techniques: sutureless prepuceplasty (SP), preputial plasty technique (PP), and conventional circumcision (CC). Demographics and base-line clinical characteristics were collected, and assessment of the level of preoperative anxiety was performed. Subsequently, a statistical model was designed in order to examine predictive factors of postoperative pain and postoperative anxiety. Assessment of postoperative pain was performed using the Faces Pain Scale (FPS). The Post Hospitalization Behavior Questionnaire study was used to assess negative behavioral manifestations. Results A total of 301 children with a mean age of 7.56 ± 2.61 years were included in the study. Predictive factors of postoperative pain measured with the FPS included a) the type of surgical technique, b) the absence of siblings, and c) the presence of postoperative complications. Predictive factors of postoperative anxiety included a) the type of surgical technique, b) the level of education of mothers, c) the presence of preoperative anxiety, and d) a history of previous surgery. Conclusions Although our study was not without its limitations, it expands current knowledge by adding new predictive factors of postoperative pain and postoperative anxiety. Clearly, further randomized controlled studies are needed to confirm its results. PMID:26495079

  14. The low specificity of postoperative perfusion lung scan defects.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, I; Aukland, P; Hirsh, J; Coates, G; Cockshott, P; Taylor, R; Hull, R

    1981-01-01

    Ventilation and perfusion lung scans were performed preoperatively and postoperatively in 169 patients and classified blindly according to preset criteria. Perfusion lung scan abnormalities were present in 25 (15%) of the preoperative scans and 42 (25%) of the postoperative scans; 16 (38%) of the 42 abnormal postoperative scans were identical to the preoperative scans. Perfusion defects indicating a "high probability" of pulmonary embolism (lobar or segmental defects) were present in 5 preoperative scans and 10 postoperative scans; the 10 postoperative scans were classified as showing "definite" (5), "possible" (1) or "no" (4) pulmonary embolism on the basis of the preoperative scan and the ventilation scan; none of the 10 patients had clinical evidence of pulmonary embolism. Venous thrombosis was present in 12 patients, including 4 of the patients whose lung scans showed definite pulmonary embolism. Thus, postoperative perfusion lung scan defects are potentially misleading even when large. PMID:7459778

  15. Immediate postoperative complications in transsphenoidal pituitary surgery: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Tumul; Prabhakar, Hemanshu; Bithal, Parmod K.; Schaller, Bernhard; Dash, Hari Hara

    2014-01-01

    Background: Considering the important role of pituitary gland in regulating various endocrine axes and its unique anatomical location, various postoperative complications can be anticipated resulting from surgery on pituitary tumors. We examined and categorized the immediate postoperative complications according to various tumor pathologies. Materials and Methods: We carried out a prospective study in 152 consecutive patients and noted various postoperative complications during neurosurgical intensive care unit stay (within 48 hrs of hospital stay) in patients undergoing transsphenoidal removal of pituitary tumors. Results: In our series, various groups showed different postoperative complications out of which, cerebrospinal fluid leak was the commonest followed by diabetes insipidus, postoperative nausea and vomiting, and hematoma at operation site. Conclusion: Various immediate postoperative complications can be anticipated in transsphenoidal pituitary surgery even though, it is considered to be relatively safe. PMID:25191182

  16. Modification of planned postoperative occlusion in orthognathic surgery, based on computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing-engineered preoperative surgical simulation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Moon-Key; You, Tae-Kwon; Lee, Ji-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    In orthognathic surgery, it is important to have a planned postoperative occlusion. A 3-dimensional preoperative simulation, based on 3-dimensional optically scanned occlusion data, can predict how the planned postoperative occlusion will affect the maxilla-mandibular relationship that results from orthognathic surgery. In this study we modified the planned postoperative occlusion, based on computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing-engineered preoperative surgical simulations. This modification made it possible to resolve the facial asymmetry of the patient successfully with a simple bilateral intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy and no additional maxillary or mandibular surgery.

  17. [Antioxidant therapy in combined treatment of postoperative intestinal paresis].

    PubMed

    Magomedov, M A

    2004-01-01

    Method of treatment of postoperative intestinal paresis with antioxidant emoxipin in experiment demonstrated that stabilization of redox processes and antioxidant systems in intestinal tissues leads to compensation of energy deficiency and recovery of intestinal peristalsis. Clinical use of this method in combined treatment of patients with postoperative intestinal paresis in acute generalized peritonitis reduces time of postoperative intestinal paresis and intoxication, lethality reduced 1,7-fold.

  18. Postoperative alopecia: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Boyer, J D; Vidmar, D A

    1994-11-01

    Postoperative alopecia is the temporary or permanent loss of hair that occurs following prolonged immobilization during general anesthesia and intubation. The clinical and histopathologic aspects of a typical case are described and the literature reviewed. Localized pressure-induced ischemia is the likely cause. Patients at highest risk for permanent hair loss include those subject to cardiac or gynecologic surgical procedures where the combined intraoperative and postoperative intubation time exceeds twenty-four hours. Frequent intraoperative and postoperative head repositioning provides excellent prophylaxis.

  19. Prediction of postoperative dyspnea and chronic respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Junichi; Ueda, Kazuhiro; Sano, Fumiho; Hayashi, Masataro; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2015-05-01

    Even among patients considered to be functionally eligible for major lung resection, some experience postoperative dyspnea. Based on our previous study with quantitative computed tomography (CT), we hypothesized that postoperative dyspnea is associated with the collapse of the remaining lung, and thus, prediction of the postoperative lung volume may contribute to risk assessment for postoperative dyspnea. We measured the emphysematous lung volume and functional lung volume (FLV) separately on whole lung CT using an image analysis software in 290 patients undergoing major lung resection for cancer between January 2006 and December 2012. The postoperative FLV was predicted by a stepwise multiple regression analysis. Fourteen patients complained of postoperative dyspnea (complicated group), five of them presented with chronic respiratory failure. The postoperatively measured FLV was significantly lower in the complicated group than in the control group (P < 0.01). The postoperative FLV could be calculated using preoperative variables, including the forced vital capacity, number of resected segments, FLV, and emphysematous lung volume. The predicted postoperative FLV was significantly lower in the complicated group than in the control group (P < 0.01, area under the curve = 0.78; sensitivity 86%; specificity 73%). The predicted postoperative FLV was also useful in distinguishing complicated patients from matched-control patients who had similar preoperative pulmonary function (P = 0.02). Postoperative dyspnea is likely accompanied by a collapse of the remaining lung. Quantitative assessment of the lung morphology on preoperative CT is useful to screen for patients at risk of postoperative dyspnea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Clinical and functional considerations in some cases of postoperative endophthalmitis].

    PubMed

    Muşat, O; Toma, Oana; Cristescu, R; Coman, Corina; Asandi, R; Burcea, M

    2013-01-01

    We present 3 cases of postsurgery endophthalmitis, with good initial operatory technique, which were admitted in our hospital within variable time, to which a second surgery was performed, with good postoperative evolution, without any inflammatory signs and preserving the eye. We analyse the pre and post-operative treatment of endophthalmitis, but also the ways to prevent the appearance of this post-operative complication.

  1. [Clinical and functional considerations in some cases of postoperative endophthalmitis].

    PubMed

    Muşat, O; Marinescu, Oana; Cristescu, R; Coman, Corina; Asandi, R

    2012-01-01

    We present 3 cases of postsurgery endophthalmitis, with good initial operatory technique, which were admitted in our hospital within variable time, to which a second surgery was performed, with good postoperative evolution, without any inflamatory signs and preserving the eye. We analyse the pre and post-operative treatment of endophthalmitis, but also the ways to prevent the appearance of this post-operative complication.

  2. Postoperative conversion disorder in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Judge, Amy; Spielman, Fred

    2010-11-01

    According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV (DSM IV), conversion disorder is classified as a somatoform illness and defined as an alteration or loss of physical function because of the expression of an underlying psychological ailment. This condition, previously known as hysteria, hysterical neurosis, or conversion hysteria occurs rarely, with an incidence of 11-300 cases per 100,000 people (American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th edn. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1994). Presentation after an anesthetic is exceptional. After thorough review of the literature, fewer than 20 cases have been documented, with only two instances in patients younger than 18 years of age after general anesthesia; both were mild in nature. We present a severe case of postoperative conversion disorder that developed upon emergence from anesthesia in a previously healthy 16-year-old girl following direct laryngoscopy with vocal fold injection.

  3. Postoperative radionuclide evaluation of osteoid osteomas

    SciTech Connect

    Ghelman, B.; Vigorita, V.J.

    1983-02-01

    Five cases of clinically suspected osteoid osteomas were studied by preoperative injection of technetium-99m methylene disphosphonate, intraoperative localization with a radiation-sensitive scintillation probe, and postoperative examination of the entire tissue specimen (including the presumed nidus and surrounding bone). Microradiography and light microscopy were also used. In addition, a new autoradiography technique was introduced in which the excised surgical specimen was placed on undeveloped x-ray film for pathologic localization, diagnosis of the lesions, and a study of the relative intensity of radioactive uptake in the nidus vs. surrounding bone. Autoradiography revealed that the nidus showed the greatest concentration of radioactivity, followed by the surrounding bone. The authors conclude that /sup 99m/Tc can be used clinically in localizing osteoid osteomas and that preoperative and intraoperative scanning can assist in conservative surgical excision. For small lesions, autoradiography assists the pathologist in identifying an osteoid osteoma.

  4. Post-operative consequences of hemodynamic optimization.

    PubMed

    Lazkani, A; Lebuffe, G

    2016-12-01

    Hemodynamic optimization begins with a medical assessment to identify the high-risk patients. This stratification is needed to customize the choice of hemodynamic support that is best adapted to the patient's level of risk, integrating the use of the least invasive procedures. The macro-circulatory hemodynamic approach aims to maintain a balance between oxygen supply (DO2) and oxygen demand (VO2). Volume replacement plays a crucial role based on the titration of fluid boluses according to their effect on measured stroke volume or indices of preload dependency. Good function of the microcirculatory system is the best guarantee to achieve this goal. An assessment of the DO2/VO2 ratio is needed for guidance in critical situations where tissue hypoxia may occur. Overall, all of these strategies are based on objective criteria to guide vascular replacement and/or tissue oxygenation in order to improve the patient's post-operative course by decreasing morbidity and hospital stay.

  5. Hair Transplantation: Preventing Post-operative Oedema.

    PubMed

    Gholamali, Abbasi; Sepideh, Pojhan; Susan, Emami

    2010-05-01

    Swelling or oedema of forehead or eyelids is a common consequence of hair transplantation surgery. However, this results in increased morbidity and absence from work due to unaesthetic appearance. To study various physical and therapeutic modalities to reduce or completely prevent the occurrence of such oedema. Three hundred forty hair transplant patients were recruited in the study and were categorized into 8 groups depending upon the intervention employed. There were 32 dropouts in the study due to various reasons. Patients who were administered steroid with tumescent solution had the highest number of patients without oedema, with only 3 out of 117 patients developing oedema. Physical measures like position of head during sleeping, application of occlusion bands or ice packs did not show satisfactory results. Addition of triamcinolone to tumescent anaesthetic solution is a very effective technique of preventing post-operative swelling.

  6. Management of postoperative complications of lymphadenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Charruf, Amir Zeide; de Oliveira, Rodrigo José; Jacob, Carlos Eduardo; Cecconello, Ivan; Zilberstein, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains a disease with poor prognosis, mainly due to its late diagnosis. Surgery remains as the only treatment with curative intent, where the goal is radical resection with free-margin gastrectomy and extended lymphadenectomy. Over the last two decades there has been an improvement on postoperative outcomes. However, complications rate is still not negligible even in high volume specialized centers and are directly related mainly to the type of gastric resection: total or subtotal, combined with adjacent organs resection and the extension of lymphadenectomy (D1, D2 and D3). The aim of this study is to analyze the complications specific-related to lymphadenectomy in gastric cancer surgery. PMID:28138657

  7. Lidocaine for preventing postoperative sore throat.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yuu; Nakayama, Takeo; Nishimori, Mina; Tsujimura, Yuka; Kawaguchi, Masahiko; Sato, Yuki

    2015-07-14

    Sore throat is a common side-effect of general anaesthesia and is reported by between 30% and 70% of patients after tracheal intubation. The likelihood of a sore throat varies with the type, diameter, and cuff pressure of the endotracheal tube used. If intubation is essential, it may be helpful to give drugs prophylactically to alleviate postoperative sore throat. Local anaesthetics and steroids have been used for this purpose. This review was originally published in 2009 and was updated in 2015. The objective of this review was to evaluate the efficacy and any harm caused by topical and systemic lidocaine used prophylactically to prevent postoperative sore throat in adults undergoing general anaesthesia with endotracheal intubation. We searched CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 9), MEDLINE (January 1966 to October 2013), and EMBASE (1980 to October 2013). We also contacted manufacturers and researchers in the field. The original search was undertaken in June 2007. We reran the search in February 2015 and found four studies of interest. We will deal with those studies when we next update the review. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of topical and systemic prophylactic lidocaine therapy versus control (using air or saline) that reported on the risk and severity of postoperative sore throat as an outcome. Two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We contacted study authors for additional information, such as the risk of any adverse effects. We included 19 studies involving 1940 participants in this updated review. Of those 1940 participants, 952 received topical or systemic lidocaine therapy and 795 were allocated to the control groups. Topical and systemic lidocaine therapy appeared to reduce the risk of postoperative sore throat (16 studies, 1774 participants, risk ratio (RR) was 0.64 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.48 to 0.85), the quality of the evidence was low), although when only high-quality trials were

  8. MR imaging evaluation of the postoperative meniscus.

    PubMed

    Russo, A; Capasso, R; Varelli, C; Laporta, A; Carbone, M; D'Agosto, G; Giovine, S; Zappia, M; Reginelli, A

    2017-03-01

    MR imaging has been widely evaluated in the assessment of patients with recurrent or residual symptoms following meniscal surgery. Importantly, the causes of such symptoms may relate to failure or complication of the surgical procedure, a possible recurrent or residual meniscal tear, or may be related to other causes of joint symptoms, including tears of the contralateral meniscus, or local hyaline cartilage, or marrow abnormalities subjacent to or distant to the meniscal surgical site. The complex diagnostic issues involved in the MR imaging evaluation of the postoperative meniscus were identified in early MR imaging studies. The knowledge of the normal MR imaging appearance of the knee after the more common repair procedures will allow radiologists to recognize complications associated with such procedures. In this article, we discuss the MR imaging evaluation of the knee after meniscal surgery.

  9. Postoperative small bowel fistula: back to basics.

    PubMed

    Bissett, I P

    2000-07-01

    Twenty-one patients presenting between January 1992 and January 1998 with postoperative small bowel fistula were reviewed and their management and outcome were recorded. There were six jejunal and 15 ileal fistulae. Seven fistulae were low output and 14 high output. The management principles included: (i) initial resuscitation and skin care; (ii) early surgery for sepsis, or for a high-output fistula which showed no signs of decrease by 10 days, or total wound breakdown. Surgery involved, where possible, fistula resection with double enterostomy, a feeding gastrostomy and abdominal drainage; and (iii) enteral feeding with refeeding of enterostomy output into the distal stoma if required to correct fluid and electrolyte imbalance and malnutrition. Five patients died and in the other 16 their fistulae closed and they are alive and well.

  10. An Assessment of Postoperative Outpatient Cases

    PubMed Central

    Ogg, T. W.

    1972-01-01

    A total of 100 outpatients in the North-East of Scotland were given a simple anaesthetic of propanidid, nitrous oxide, oxygen, and halothane. The study was undertaken to assess what happened to patients when they left hospital after outpatient surgery. An outpatient questionnaire was used, and results show that 31% of patients journeyed home unaccompanied by a responsible person, 73% of car owners drove within 24 hours of the operation, and 9% drove themselves home. Postoperative symptoms of drowsiness (26%), headache (27%), nausea (22%), and dizziness (11%) were recorded, and a higher incidence of symptoms was recorded when surgery exceeded 15 minutes. A new form for outpatient operative procedures in Aberdeen has been devised with modern legal implications in mind. PMID:4643394

  11. Ketamine gargling and postoperative sore throat.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, S K; Bhattarai, B; Singh, J

    2010-01-01

    Tracheal intubation is a foremost cause of trauma to the airway mucosa, resulting in postoperative sorethroat (POST). The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of ketamine gargle with placebo in preventing POST after endotracheal intubation. Forty patients scheduled for elective surgery under general anaesthesia were enrolled in this randomized, control trial. Patients were randomly allocated into two groups of 20 patients each: Group C, gargling with drinking water 30 ml; Group K, gargling with ketamine 50 mg in drinking water 30 ml for 30 s, 5 min before induction of anaesthesia. POST was graded at 4, 8, and 24 hours respectively after operation on a four- point scale (0-3). POST occurred more frequently in Group C, when compared with Group K at 4, 8, and 24 hours. Ketamine gargle reduces the incidence of POST after endotracheal intubation.

  12. [Postoperative respiratory therapy using incentive spirometry].

    PubMed

    Mang, H; Weindler, J; Zapf, C L

    1989-04-01

    The optimal methods of prophylaxis and therapy of postoperative respiratory complications in surgical patients are still open to discussion. In spite of numerous recent clinical investigations, there is still no specific and universally acceptable therapeutic concept. In our department, we identify patients at risk of pulmonary complications by adequate screening, i.e. medical history, physical examination, chest X-ray, and spirometry. In the postoperative period there are a sequence of stages starting with early mobilization, respiratory therapy (including incentive spirometry and IPPB), and when necessary, controlled mechanical ventilation. We have measured and documented the flows and volumes required of patients using various types of incentive spirometer. In addition, we review on the literature and describe our experience with the technique, handling, and organization of sustained maximal inspiration (SMI). After thoracic or major upper abdominal surgery, all lung volumes decrease due to impairment of rib cage movement, changes in chest wall muscle tone, an increase in lung recoil, and airway closure. At the end of each expiration some of the smallest airways collapse either partly or totally. This process continues to some extent until, normally, a deep breath recruits the alveoli. Sighs to the limit of total lung capacity or oscillations of the expiratory baseline ought to be responsible for this effect in healthy humans; the same purpose is intended in incentive spirometry. For this therapy, it is mandatory that the central airways are not occluded by mucus and that the patient is able to breath volumes exceeding his normal tidal volume.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Prostate cancer postoperative nomogram scores and obesity.

    PubMed

    Major, Jacqueline M; Klonoff-Cohen, Hillary S; Pierce, John P; Slymen, Donald J; Saltzstein, Sidney L; Macera, Caroline A; Mercola, Dan; Kattan, Michael W

    2011-02-24

    Nomograms are tools used in clinical practice to predict cancer outcomes and to help make decisions regarding management of disease. Since its conception, utility of the prostate cancer nomogram has more than tripled. Limited information is available on the relation between the nomograms' predicted probabilities and obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the predictions from a validated postoperative prostate cancer nomogram were associated with obesity. We carried out a cross-sectional analysis of 1220 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) in southern California from 2000 to 2008. Progression-free probabilities (PFPs) were ascertained from the 10-year Kattan postoperative nomogram. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In the present study, aggressive prostate cancer (Gleason ≥7), but not advanced stage, was associated with obesity (p = 0.01). After adjusting for age, black race, family history of prostate cancer and current smoking, an inverse association was observed for 10-year progression-free predictions (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.28-0.90) and positive associations were observed for preoperative PSA levels (OR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.01-1.50) and Gleason >7 (OR = 1.45; 95% CI = 1.11-1.90). Obese RP patients were more likely to have lower PFP values than non-obese patients, suggesting a higher risk of experiencing prostate cancer progression. Identifying men with potentially higher risks due to obesity may improve disease prognosis and treatment decision-making.

  14. Postoperative electromyographic profile in human jejunum.

    PubMed Central

    Ducerf, C; Duchamp, C; Pouyet, M

    1992-01-01

    The postoperative electromyographic profile of the proximal jejunum and its evolution during recovery from surgery were defined in fasted humans after cholecystectomy. An intraluminal probe supporting four groups of bipolar electrodes was transnasally inserted at the end of surgery to allow continuous recording of jejunal electrical activity over 4 consecutive days. Electromyographic activity was characterized by an early reappearance of phase 3 of migrating myoelectric complexes (MMC) lasting 5.2 +/- 0.6 minutes and occurring at 38.1 +/- 3.1-minute intervals at day 1 after surgery. During the 4 days after surgery, there was an increased duration of MMC, mainly consisting of phase 2 occurrence with an increased duration and lengthening of the MMC cycle. The amplitude of spikes during phase 3 increased. During the postoperative period, characterized by an inversion of the circadian rhythm, the velocity of propagation was higher (p less than 0.05) between 18:00 and 06:00 (4.0 +/- 0.5 cm/minute) than between 06:00 and 18:00 (3.1 +/- 0.3 cm/minute). In contrast, the duration of phase 2 was lower during nighttime (18:00 to 06:00) than during daytime. The authors conclude that during the early (1 to 2 days) period after cholecystectomy, the jejunal electromyographic activity is limited to phase 3 activity, but that a normal fasted pattern is recovered after 4 days. A progressive reorganization and coordination of the intestinal tract may account for this delay. PMID:1543395

  15. Correlation between Extension-Block K-wire Insertion Angle and Postoperative Extension Loss in Mallet Finger Fracture.

    PubMed

    Lee, S K; Kim, Y H; Moon, K H; Choy, W S

    2017-10-09

    Extension-block pinning represents a simple and reliable surgical technique. Although this procedure is commonly performed successfully, some patients develop postoperative extension loss. To date, the relationship between extension-block Kirschner wire (K-wire) insertion angle and postoperative extension loss in mallet finger fracture remains unclear. We aimed to clarify this relationship and further evaluate how various operative and non-operative factors affect postoperative extension loss after extension-block pinning for mallet finger fracture. A retrospective study was conducted to investigate a relationship between extension block K-wire insertion angle and postoperative extension loss. The inclusion criteria were: 1) a dorsal intra-articular fracture fragment involving 30% of the base of the distal phalanx with or without volar subluxation of the distal phalanx; and (2)<3 weeks delay from the injury without treatment. Extension-block K-wire insertion angle and fixation angle of the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint were assessed using lateral radiograph at immediate postoperative time. Postoperative extension loss was assessed by using lateral radiograph at latest follow-up. Extension-block K-wire insertion angle was defined as the acute angle between extension block K-wire and longitudinal axis of middle phalangeal head. DIP joint fixation angle was defined as the acute angle between the distal phalanx and middle phalanx longitudinal axes. Seventy five patients were included. The correlation analysis revealed that extension-block K-wire insertion angle had a negative correlation with postoperative extension loss, whereas fracture size and time to operation had a positive correlation. (correlation coefficient for extension block K-wire angle: -0.66, facture size:+0.67, time to operation:+0.60) When stratifying patients in terms of negative and positive fixation angle of the DIP joint,the independent t-test showed that mean postoperative extension loss is

  16. Predicting postoperative exercise capacity after major lung resection.

    PubMed

    Nagamatsu, Yoshinori; Sueyoshi, Susumu; Tsubuku, Tatsuji; Kawasaki, Masayuki; Akagi, Yoshito

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates whether postoperative exercise capacity can be predicted from preoperative lung perfusion scintigraphy and the number of subsegments resected. We studied 315 patients, with 158 being assigned odd numbers and 157 being assigned even numbers. In the 158 patients assigned odd numbers, the predicted postoperative VO2 max/m2 (ppo VO2 max/m2) was obtained from the results of lung perfusion scintigraphy and the number of subsegments scheduled for resection. We then examined correlations with the actual values, 2 weeks and 1 month postoperatively, to obtain a regression equation (Series 1). In the 157 patients assigned even numbers, the ppo VO2 max/m2 corrected by the regression equation derived from Series 1 (corrected-ppo VO2 max/m2) was compared with the actual values, 2 weeks and 1 month postoperatively, to establish whether the postoperative VO2 max/m2 could be predicted. The regression equation between the ppo VO2 max/m2 and its actual value was y = 0.83x + 103, 2 weeks postoperatively, and y = 0.923x + 82, 1 month postoperatively. The difference between the corrected-ppo VO2 max/m2 and the actual postoperative value was small. Calculating the residual [Formula: see text]o2 max/m2 preoperatively from the results of lung perfusion scintigraphy and the number of segments scheduled for resection is useful for predicting postoperative exercise capacity.

  17. [A possible protocol for postoperative management in laparoscopic cholecystectomy].

    PubMed

    Ionescu, D; Vlad, L; Iancu, C; Puia, C; Al Hajjar, N; Munteanu, D; Bălă, O; Pop, F

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the "Prospect" programme (sponsored by Pfizer) is to create possible evidence-based protocols related to the management of postoperative pain after certain type of surgical intervention (e.g. hernia repairs, hysterectomies, etc.). This article is introducing the protocol for laparoscopic cholecystectomy for both day-case and longer hospital admission cases. The protocol is designed for preoperative, intra and postoperative period, choosing only those measures which were effective for postoperative pain, published in the literature. We are also presenting an analyze of our 13,000 laparoscopic cholecystectomies, from "Prospect" protocol point of view, and what we should do to improve the management of postoperative pain.

  18. Critical care nursing in acute postoperative neurosurgical patients.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Christin

    2015-03-01

    The nursing discipline is vital throughout patients' hospital progression. One of the most critical moments in the hospital stay is the postoperative period. Neurosurgical patients require a high level of nursing care and vigilance and additional postoperative monitoring in intensive care units designed specifically for this demographic. In the postoperative setting, patient care must be transferred from anesthesia to nursing in a manner that is continuous and safe. This article focuses on neurosurgical patients in the postoperative period, the assessment of these patients, and critical care nursing, with emphasis on common issues and interventions for this dynamic patient population.

  19. [Postoperative infectious-inflammatory complications of endoscopic surgery for urolithiasis].

    PubMed

    Akilov, F A; Mukhtarov, Sh T; Giiasov, Sh I; Mirkhamidov, D Kh; Nasirov, F R; Muratova, N B

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective analysis of 1027 percutaneous radioendoscopic surgeries for upper urinary tract stones was performed. Postoperative acute pyelonephritis was the most common complication (11.2%), the frequency of which was significantly dependent on the presence of source of infection in the urinary tract, and the frequency of intra- and postoperative complications. When performing PPN, patients with urolithiasis and with the presence of the initial infection in the urinary tract, intra- and postoperative complications should be referred to the group of patients with a high risk of postoperative infectious and inflammatory complications. The analysis showed that the development of acute pyelonephritis after PPN increases the cost of treatment by 25%.

  20. Evaluation of adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy for lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, C.K.; Stryker, J.H.; O'Neill, M. Jr.; DeMuth, W.E. Jr.

    1982-11-01

    One hundred eighteen patients with lung cancer were retrospectively analyzed to determine whether postoperative radiotherapy (RT) improves survival. Patterns of treatment failure and three year NED (no evidence of disease) survival rates were assessed according to extent of tumor spread, histology, and treatment method. Patients with hilar or mediastinal node metastases were at higher risk of local failure compared to those with negative nodes. Postoperative RT reduced local recurrence and improved 3 year survival among patients with positive nodes. However, postoperative RT did not improve survival among those with negative nodes. Our data indicated that patients with positive hilar or mediastinal nodes may require postoperative RT to improve survival.

  1. Risk factors for postoperative pneumonia after gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Miki, Yuichiro; Makuuchi, Rie; Tokunaga, Masanori; Tanizawa, Yutaka; Bando, Etsuro; Kawamura, Taiichi; Terashima, Masanori

    2016-05-01

    The number of elderly patients undergoing gastrectomy for gastric cancer is increasing. Yet, although elderly patients are at high risk of postoperative pneumonia, no study has sufficiently investigated which clinicopathological factors are significant risk factors for the development of this complication after gastrectomy with lymph node dissection. We reviewed the medical records of 750 patients who underwent gastrectomy between January 2010 and May 2012, to establish the incidence of postoperative pneumonia (Clavien-Dindo grade II or higher). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the risk factors for postoperative pneumonia. Thirty-two patients (4.3 %) suffered postoperative pneumonia, diagnosed as grades I, II, IIIa, and IVa, in 2 (0.3 %), 28 (3.7 %), 1 (0.2 %), and 1 (0.2 %) patient(s), respectively. Univariate analysis revealed that age (≥75 years), sex (male), diabetes mellitus (DM), a history of smoking, and impairment of respiratory function were significantly associated with postoperative pneumonia. Multivariate analysis revealed that age, impaired postoperative respiratory function, DM, and blood transfusion were independent risk factors for postoperative pneumonia. Age, impaired postoperative respiratory function, DM, and blood transfusion were identified as independent risk factors for postoperative pneumonia after gastrectomy.

  2. Fertility Clinic Success Rates

    MedlinePlus

    ... Defects ART and Autism 2013 Assisted Reproductive Technology Fertility Clinic Success Rates Report Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir 2013 ART Fertility Clinic Success Rates Report [PDF - 1MB] Bookmarks and thumbnails are available ...

  3. Teaching Succession with Forests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronck, David R.

    1982-01-01

    Suggesting advantages of using forests to teach succession, briefly outlines procedures for gathering evidence of succession including numbers, ages, and sizes of trees. Five plot studies conducted by students at the University of Victoria are also described. (DC)

  4. Theme: Local Program Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, William G.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Includes "Professional Propagation" (Camp); "Managing Human Resources with Local Program Success (LPS)" (Daley); "Profit Sharing with LPS" (Moses); "Partners for Success" (Mecey- Smith); "Achieving LPS by Collaborating with Partners, Allies and Volunteers" (Oglesby); LPS...Just What Agricultural…

  5. Teaching Succession with Forests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronck, David R.

    1982-01-01

    Suggesting advantages of using forests to teach succession, briefly outlines procedures for gathering evidence of succession including numbers, ages, and sizes of trees. Five plot studies conducted by students at the University of Victoria are also described. (DC)

  6. On Postoperative Day Balloon Angioplasty for Salvage of Newly-Placed, Flow-Limiting Native Arteriovenous Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae Young; Yoo, Chang Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To report result and usefulness of immediate postoperative balloon angioplasty of de novo arteriovenous fistula (AVF) with limited flow just after creation. Materials and Methods: From January 1, 2012 to March 31, 2014, 1,270 patients received native AVF creations in a single vascular clinic. In twenty-four patients (1.9% of total AVF creation), immediate postoperative balloon angioplasty was performed because of limited flow on palpation (only pulsation or no thrill) just after AVF creation. Medical records were reviewed retrospectively; technical success (restoration of AVF flow)/clinical success (growing as functional AVF) rate, maturation time, primary patency rate and fistula survival outcome were analyzed during a mean 10.8 months of follow-up. Results: Technical/clinical success rate was 95.8% (23/24 cases); AVF flow was restored after balloon angioplasty, and all the flow-restorated AVFs grew as functional AVFs with mean±standard deviation, 4.5±1.5 weeks of maturation time. In seven (30.4%) patients, a secondary balloon angioplasty was needed to enhance maturation. The overall primary patency after immediate postoperative balloon angioplasty was 69.6% at 1 and 6 months and 59.0% at 12 months. There was 1 complication (operation site hematoma). Conclusion: Immediate postoperative balloon angioplasty for salvage of newly-placed, flow-limiting native AVF is a useful, effective and safe procedure. PMID:26217640

  7. The modern staged repair of classic bladder exstrophy: a detailed postoperative management strategy for primary bladder closure.

    PubMed

    Stec, Andrew A; Baradaran, Nima; Schaeffer, Anthony; Gearhart, John P; Matthews, Ranjiv I

    2012-10-01

    Successful primary bladder closure of classic bladder exstrophy sets the stage for development of adequate bladder capacity and eventual voided continence. The postoperative pathway following primary bladder closure at the authors' institution is quantitatively and qualitatively detailed. Sixty-five consecutive newborns (47 male) undergoing primary closure of classic bladder exstrophy were identified and data were extracted relating to immediate postoperative care. Overall success rate was utilized to validate the pathway. Mean age at time of primary closure was 4.6 days and mean hospital stay was 35.8 days. Osteotomy was performed in 19 patients (mean age 8.8 days), and was not required in 39 infants (mean age 2.9 days). All patients were immobilized for 4 weeks. Tunneled epidural analgesia was employed in 61/65 patients. All patients had ureteral catheters and a suprapubic tube, along with a comprehensive antibiotic regimen. Postoperative total parenteral nutrition was commonly administered, and enteral feedings started around day 4.6. Our success rate of primary closure was 95.4%. A detailed and regimented plan for bladder drainage, immobilization, pain control, nutrition, antimicrobial prophylaxis, and adequate healing time is a cornerstone for the postoperative management of the primary closure of bladder exstrophy. Copyright © 2011 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of postoperative endoscopy upon clinical outcomes after endoscopic sinus surgery

    PubMed Central

    Schlosser, Rodney J.; Storck, Kristina; Smith, Timothy L.; Mace, Jess C.; Rudmik, Luke; Shahangian, Arash; Soler, Zachary M.

    2015-01-01

    Background After endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS), endoscopy is used to gauge surgical success and clinical outcomes. Prior studies have not examined this topic prospectively using validated outcome metrics across multiple institutions. Methods A multi-institutional, prospective study of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) who underwent ESS completed the SinoNasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22), missed productivity and medication usage questionnaires 6 months postoperatively. Lund-Kennedy endoscopy scoring (LKES) was performed with reviewers blinded to patient-reported data. A control cohort of non-CRS patients was recruited for comparison. Results Complete data was available on 183 CRS patients and 48 non-CRS control patients. Approximately 50% of patients achieve perfect or near perfect endoscopy (LKES 0-2) after ESS. Postoperative endoscopy correlated with total SNOT-22 scores (r=0.278, p<0.001), with the strongest correlations to rhinologic and extra-nasal subdomains in the nasal polyp cohort. Improved postoperative endoscopy was associated with decreased antibiotic and oral steroid usage, but had little association with missed productivity. Among patients who achieved near perfect postoperative endoscopy, those with nasal polyps had SNOT-22 scores that were similar to non-CRS control patients (mean SNOT-22 17.7 and 16.3, respectively). However, CRS patients without nasal polyps remained more symptomatic than non-CRS controls and CRS with nasal polyp patients despite nearly perfect endoscopy (mean SNOT-22 21.6). Conclusions Postoperative endoscopy correlates with SNOT-22 and medication usage in CRS patients. Polyp patients who achieve near perfect endoscopy have similar symptoms to healthy controls, however, non-polyp patients with near perfect endoscopy still have rhinologic and extra-nasal symptoms that are worse than healthy controls. PMID:26458330

  9. Impact of postoperative endoscopy upon clinical outcomes after endoscopic sinus surgery.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Rodney J; Storck, Kristina; Smith, Timothy L; Mace, Jess C; Rudmik, Luke; Shahangian, Arash; Soler, Zachary M

    2016-02-01

    After endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS), endoscopy is used to gauge surgical success and clinical outcomes. Prior studies have not examined this topic prospectively using validated outcome metrics across multiple institutions. A multi-institutional, prospective study of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) who underwent ESS completed the 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22), missed productivity, and medication usage questionnaires 6 months postoperatively. Lund-Kennedy endoscopy scoring (LKES) was performed with reviewers blinded to patient-reported data. A control cohort of non-CRS patients was recruited for comparison. Complete data was available on 183 CRS patients and 48 non-CRS control patients. Approximately 50% of patients achieve perfect or near perfect endoscopy (LKES 0 to 2) after ESS. Postoperative endoscopy correlated with total SNOT-22 scores (r = 0.278, p < 0.001), with the strongest correlations to rhinologic and extranasal subdomains in the nasal polyp cohort. Improved postoperative endoscopy was associated with decreased antibiotic and oral steroid usage, but had little association with missed productivity. Among patients who achieved near perfect postoperative endoscopy, those with nasal polyps had SNOT-22 scores that were similar to non-CRS control patients (mean SNOT-22 scores 17.7 and 16.3, respectively). However, CRS patients without nasal polyps remained more symptomatic than non-CRS controls and CRS with nasal polyps patients despite nearly perfect endoscopy (mean SNOT-22 score 21.6). Postoperative endoscopy correlates with SNOT-22 and medication usage in CRS patients. Polyp patients who achieve near perfect endoscopy have similar symptoms to healthy controls; however, nonpolyp patients with near perfect endoscopy still have rhinologic and extranasal symptoms that are worse than healthy controls. © 2015 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  10. 010. Coronary artery bypass in prior left pneumonectomy postoperative use of iloprost

    PubMed Central

    Ignatiadis, Agisilaos; Ampatzidou, Fotini; Kechagioglou, George; Antoniou, Konstantinos; Michail, Nikolaos; Karaiskos, Theodoros; Sileli, Maria; Drossos, George

    2015-01-01

    Background The rare procedure of coronary artery bypass in a prior left pneumonectomy patient characterized by postoperative cardiopulmonary complications. Acute right heart failure due to anatomic and physiologic changes because of pneumonectomy is the most serious complication. It is very helpful to prevent this condition by reducing pulmonary vascular resistance index which represents the right heart afterload. In our case we have recorded the favorable hemodynamic effects of inhaled Iloprost. Methods A 60-year-old man presented to our department with acute coronary syndrome. He had undergone a left pneumonectomy nine years ago because of bronchial carcinoma. Coronary angiography, which was performed during acute coronary syndrome, revealed left main disease (70% stenosis) and 50% stenosis in right coronary artery. Pulmonary function tests revealed severe restrictive disease: forced vital capacity (FVC): 1.47 L (30% of predicted) and forced expiratory volume (FEV) 1: 1.41 L (25% of predicted). Coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) procedure was successfully completed with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and patient was transferred in ICU. Patient’s inotropic support was 0.1 μg/kg/min Epinephrine and 0.06 μg/kg/min Noradrenaline. In the ICU, in order to avoid RV dysfunction the patient was ventilated with low tidal volume, Vt 6 mL/kg and with low positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). He was under careful fluid balance. Hemodynamic profile revealed high values of PVRI. This undesirable high RV afterload was managed with inhaled Iloprost (prostacyclin analogue) because of its elective pulmonary vessels dilator properties. Results The patient was extubated 5 hours postoperatively. Postoperative vigorous chest physiotherapy and bronchodilation due to transient brochospasm contributed to the uncomplicated respiratory function. The patient discharged on 7th postop day. Conclusions CABG in postpneumonectomy patients is a challenging procedure. The use of selective

  11. Postoperative observation of children after endoscopic type 1 posterior laryngeal cleft repair.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Nathan S; Liu, Judy Z; Bhushan, Bharat; Holinger, Lauren D; Schroeder, James W

    2015-01-01

    To report the perioperative management and surgical outcomes in a large series of pediatric patients with endoscopically repaired type 1 posterior laryngeal cleft (PLC). Case series with chart review. Urban, tertiary care, free-standing pediatric hospital. Patients who underwent endoscopic carbon dioxide laser-assisted repair of type 1 posterior laryngeal clefts between January 2006 and December 2012. Medical records were reviewed. Fifty-four patients (34 male) underwent repair of type 1 PLC. Median age was 25.5 months (range, 2-120 months). Indications for repair included aspiration (n = 39; 72%), chronic bronchitis (n = 13; 24%), and stridor with feeds (n = 2; 4%). No children remained intubated postoperatively. Thirty-three patients (61%) stayed in overnight observation ("Obs PLC") and 21 patients (39%) stayed in the pediatric intensive care unit ("PICU PLC") postoperatively. Between Obs PLC and PICU PLC groups, there was no significant difference in age (mean 22 vs 30 months, respectively; P = .28). Comorbidities were similar between the groups. Symptoms improved in 41 of the 54 patients (76%). No postoperative complications were noted. Two patients required revision PLC repair. The cost of admitting a patient to a lower acuity location was estimated to be 60% less per day than cost of a PICU admission. The endoscopic surgical repair of a type 1 PLC is successful and has a low morbidity and complication rate. Patients may be safely managed in an observation unit and without postoperative intubation. This approach achieved a marked cost reduction in postoperative care. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  12. Does ovarian suspension following laparoscopic surgery for endometriosis reduce postoperative adhesions? An RCT.

    PubMed

    Hoo, Wee Liak; Stavroulis, Andreas; Pateman, Kate; Saridogan, Ertan; Cutner, Alfred; Pandis, George; Tong, Edward N C; Jurkovic, Davor

    2014-04-01

    Is temporary ovarian suspension following laparoscopic surgery for severe pelvic endometriosis an effective method for reducing the prevalence of postoperative ovarian adhesions? Temporary ovarian suspension for 36-48 h following laparoscopic treatment of severe endometriosis does not result in a significant reduction of postoperative ovarian adhesions. Pelvic adhesions often develop following laparoscopic surgery for severe pelvic endometriosis. Adhesions can cause chronic pelvic pain and fertility problems compromising the success of treatment. Small observational studies suggested that temporary postoperative ovarian suspension to the abdominal wall may significantly reduce the prevalence of postoperative ovarian adhesions. This was a prospective within group comparison double-blind RCT. We recruited premenopausal women with severe pelvic endometriosis who required extensive laparoscopic surgery with preservation of the uterus and ovaries. Severity of the disease and eligibility for inclusion were determined at surgery. A total of 55 women were randomized to unilateral ovarian suspension for 36-48 h, 52 of which were included in the final analysis. Both ovaries were routinely suspended to the anterior abdominal wall during surgery. At the end of the operation, each woman was randomized to having only one ovary suspended postoperatively. The suture suspending the contralateral ovary was cut and a new transabdominal suture was inserted to act as a placebo. Both sutures were removed 36-48 h after surgery prior to discharge. Three months after surgery, all women attended for a detailed transvaginal ultrasound scan to assess ovarian mobility. Both the women and the ultrasound operators were blinded as to the side of postoperative ovarian suspension. The primary outcome was the prevalence of ovarian adhesions as described on ultrasound examination. Secondary outcomes were the severity of adhesions and the presence and intensity of postoperative pain. All 55

  13. Military Business Success

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT Military Business Success By: Lieutenant...TITLE AND SUBTITLE: Military Business Success 6. AUTHOR(S) Ahmad, Mohamad Krastev, Radostin Puciato, Arkadiusz 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING...unlimited. MILITARY BUSINESS SUCCESS Mohamad Ahmad, Lieutenant Colonel, Malaysian Air Force Radostin Krastev, Captain, Bulgarian Air

  14. Success, Failure, and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary B.; Fisher, Judith L.

    In order to discover the effects of success and failure on subsequent aggressiveness, 26 male and 55 female college students were randomly assigned to success, failure, and neutral conditions. Those in the success condition were led to feel they were superior to other college students on a task, those in the failure condition were led to feel they…

  15. Success in Science, Success in Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, Mariann R.

    2016-08-25

    This is a series of four different scientific problems which were resolved through collaborations. They are: "Better flow cytometry through novel focusing technology", "Take Off®: Helping the Agriculture Industry Improve the Viability of Sustainable, Large-Production Crops", "The National Institutes of Health's Models of Infectious Disease Agent Study (MIDAS)", and "Expanding the capabilities of SOLVE/RESOLVE through the PHENIX Consortium." For each one, the problem is listed, the solution, advantages, bottom line, then information about the collaboration including: developing the technology, initial success, and continued success.

  16. Does preoperative risk for delirium moderate the effects of postoperative pain and opiate use on postoperative delirium?

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Jacqueline M.; Sands, Laura P.; Lim, Eunjung; Tsai, Tiffany L.; Kinjo, Sakura

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether preoperative risk for delirium moderates the effect of postoperative pain and opioids on the development of postoperative delirium. Design Prospective cohort study Setting University medical center Participants Patients ≥ 65 years of age scheduled for major noncardiac surgery Measurements A structured interview was conducted pre- and post-operatively to determine the presence of delirium, defined using the Confusion Assessment Method. We first developed a prediction model to determine which patients were at high vs. low risk for the development of delirium based on preoperative patient data. We then computed a logistic regression model to determine whether preoperative risk for delirium moderates the effect of postoperative pain and opioids on incident delirium. Results Of 581 patients, 40% developed delirium on days 1 or 2 after surgery. Independent preoperative predictors of postoperative delirium included lower cognitive status, a history of central nervous system disease, high surgical risk, and major spine and joint arthroplasty surgery. Compared to the patients at low preoperative risk for developing delirium, the relative risk for postoperative delirium for those in the high preoperative risk group was 2.38 (95% CI = 1.67–3.40). A significant three-way interaction indicates that preoperative risk for delirium significantly moderated the effect of postoperative pain and opioid use on the development of delirium. Among patients at high preoperative risk for development of delirium who also had high postoperative pain and received high opioid doses, the incidence of delirium was 72%, compared to 20% among patients with low preoperative risk, low postoperative pain and received low opioid doses. Conclusions High levels of postoperative pain and using high opioid doses increased risk for postoperative delirium for all patients. However, the highest incidence of delirium was among patients who had high preoperative risk for

  17. [The Freiburg monosyllable word test in postoperative cochlear implant diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Hey, M; Brademann, G; Ambrosch, P

    2016-08-01

    The Freiburg monosyllable word test represents a central tool of postoperative cochlear implant (CI) diagnostics. The objective of this study is to test the equivalence of different word lists by analysing word comprehension. For patients whose CI has been implanted for more than 5 years, the distribution of suprathreshold speech intelligibility outcomes will also be analysed. In a retrospective data analysis, speech understanding for 626 CI users word correct scores were evaluated using a total of 5211 lists with 20 words each. The analysis of word comprehension within each list shows differences in mean and in the kind of distribution function. There are lists which show a significant difference of their mean word recognition to the overall mean. The Freiburg monosyllable word test is easy to administer at suprathreshold speech level for CI recipients, and typically has a saturation level above 80 %. The Freiburg monosyllable word test can be performed successfully by the majority of CI patients. The limited balance of the test lists elicits the conclusion that an adaptive test procedure with the Freiburg monosyllable test does not make sense. The Freiburg monosyllable test can be restructured by resorting all words across lists, or by omitting individual words of a test list to increase the reliability of the test. The results show that speech intelligibility in quiet should also be investigated in CI recipients al levels below 70 dB.

  18. [Treatment of external postoperative fistulas of the gastrointestinal tract].

    PubMed

    Urbanowicz, K; Malinowski, P

    1997-01-01

    In the years 1985-1996 82 patients with postoperative external fistulas of gastrointestinal tract (pefgt) were treated in the Department of General Surgery of Hospital in Olsztyn. The age of the patient varied from 18 to 70 years. 37 patients were women and 45 man. Volume of excreted fluid fluctuated from 100 ml to 3000 ml per day. The most frequent cause of pefgt was dehiscence of the anastomosis of jejunum in 31 patients, and operations of complications of gastric or duodenal ulcer disease in 30 patients. 54 patients underwent medical treatment. It was based on compensation of disorders in water and electrolyte balance and acid-base equilibrium, nutritional treatment, protection of the skin, suction of the excreted fluid, controlling of foci of infection, rehabilitation. 7 patients were reoperated for the purpose of closing the fistula and 21 to drain abscess or to stop bleeding. 57 (70%) out of 82 patients recovered, 25 (30%) died. In this number 14 patients among 54 treated conservatively and 11 out from 28 operated. The most frequent cause of death was sepsis (15 patients). The conservative treatment including TPN is successful in majority of patients with pefgt and indispensable in patients treated operatively. Special attention should be given for coexisting intraperitoneal abscessa, peritonitis and sepsis.

  19. Percutaneous management of postoperative duodenal stump leakage with foley catheter.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jung Suk; Lee, Hae Giu; Chun, Ho Jong; Choi, Byung Gil; Lee, Sang Hoon; Hahn, Seong Tai; Ohm, Joon Young

    2013-10-01

    This study was designed to evaluate retrospectively the safety and efficacy of the percutaneous management of duodenal stump leakage with a Foley catheter after subtotal gastrectomy. Ten consecutive patients (M:F = 9:1, median age: 64 years) were included in this retrospective study. The duodenal stump leakages were diagnosed in all the patients within a median of 10 days (range, 6-20). At first, the patients underwent percutaneous drainage on the day of or the day after confirmation of the presence of duodenal stump leakage, and then the Foley catheters were replaced at a median of 9 days (range, 6-38) after the percutaneous drainage. Foley catheters were placed successfully in the duodenal lumen of all the patients under a fluoroscopic guide. No complication was observed during and after the procedures in all the patients. All of the patients started a regular diet 1 day after the Foley catheter placement. The patients were discharged at a median of 7 days (range, 5-14) after the Foley catheter placement. The catheters were removed in an outpatient clinic 10-58 days (median, 28) after the Foley catheter placement. Fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous Foley catheter placement may be a safe and effective treatment option for postoperative duodenal stump leakage and may allow for shorter hospital stays, earlier oral intake, and more effective control of leakage sites.

  20. Postoperative normalization of left ventricular noncompaction and new echocardiographic signs in aorta to left ventricular tunnel.

    PubMed

    Malakan Rad, Elaheh; Zeinaloo, Ali Akbar

    2013-04-01

    We report postoperative normalization of left ventricular noncompaction in a neonate undergoing successful neonatal surgery for type II aorta to left ventricular tunnel (ALVT) associated with a large patent ductus arteriosus, floppy and extremely redundant anterior mitral leaflet, right coronary artery arising directly from the tunnel, and severe left ventricular noncompaction. We also described 2 novel echocardiographic findings in ALVT including "triple wavy line sign" on M-mode echocardiography which disappeared 1 month after operation and "abnormally increased left ventricular posterior wall motion" on M-mode of standard parasternal long-axis view on color tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) that also normalized postoperatively. We showed that proper definition of endocardial border is extremely important in strain and strain rate imaging in the context of left ventricular noncompaction. Preoperative longitudinal strain and strain rate were significantly decreased in comparison to radial strain and strain rate. Circumferential strain and strain rate were normal. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Catheters, wires, tubes and drains on postoperative radiographs of pediatric cardiac patients: the whys and wherefores.

    PubMed

    Teele, Sarah A; Emani, Sitaram M; Thiagarajan, Ravi R; Teele, Rita L

    2008-10-01

    Surgical treatment of congenital heart disease has advanced dramatically since the first intracardiac repairs in the mid-20th century. Previously inoperable lesions have become the focus of routine surgery and patients are managed successfully in intensive care units around the world. As a result, increasing numbers of postoperative images are processed by departments of radiology in children's hospitals. It is important that the radiologist accurately documents and describes the catheters, wires, tubes and drains that are present on the chest radiograph. This article reviews the reasons for the placement and positioning of perioperative equipment in children who have surgical repair of atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect or transposition of the great arteries. Also included are a brief synopsis of each cardiac anomaly, the surgical procedure for its correction, and an in-depth discussion of the postoperative chest radiograph including illustrations of catheters, wires, tubes and drains.

  2. Endoscopic microwave coagulation therapy of postoperative hemorrhage from a stapled anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Umano, Yasukazu; Horiuchi, Tetsuya; Inoue, Masaya; Shono, Yoshiharu; Oku, Yoshimasa; Tanishima, Hiroyuki; Tsuji, Takeshi; Tabuse, Katsuyoshi

    2005-01-01

    We experienced three cases of postoperative hemorrhage from a stapled gastrointestinal anastomosis, and established endoscopic microwave coagulation therapy (EMCT) with a cylinder-type electrode. We were able to treat postoperative hemorrhage over the entire circumference of stapled anastomosis successfully. Two patients had undergone a lower third thoracic esophagogastrectomy through a left thoraco-abdominal approach for gastric cancer in the cardia, while the other case had undergone Billroth I gastrectomy. They each had fresh bleeding from the stapled anastomosis after the operation. Emergency endoscopic examination was immediately performed. Endoscopy revealed bleeding on the suture line. We performed hemostasis endoscopically with microwave coagulation therapy safely. They were discharged from the hospital without complications such as leakage and stenosis. Since EMCT with the cylinder-type electrode can coagulate shallowly and widely, it is very effective for hemorrhage from a stapled anastomosis.

  3. Postoperative Change in Ocular Torsion in Intermittent Exotropia: Relationship with Postoperative Surgical Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju-Yeun; Hwang, Sungsoon; Oh, Shin Yeop; Park, Kyung-Ah; Oh, Sei Yeul

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether objective ocular torsion in intermittent exotropia (IXT) changes after recession surgery, and to evaluate the relationship between change in ocular torsion and clinical parameters in IXT. Sixty patients between 3 and 14 years of age underwent lateral rectus (LR) recession for IXT. Digital fundus photographs were obtained from both eyes of each subject and the disc-foveal angle (ocular torsion) was calculated using image software. We compared the preoperative and postoperative amount of ocular torsion, and analyzed the correlation between the difference in ocular torsion (DOC) and clinical parameters including age, duration of strabismus, stereoacuity, amount of preoperative exodeviation, and mean dose response. We categorized the patients according to DOC value: positive DOC value as group 1, and negative DOC value as group 2. A correlation between ocular torsion dominance and fixation preference was also investigated using the Kappa test. The mean ocular torsion was 15.8 ± 4.6 degrees preoperatively and 13.7 ± 5.1 degrees postoperatively. Compared with preoperative values, the mean ocular torsion showed a significant decrease after LR recession (p<0.001), and a greater preoperative ocular torsion was significantly associated with the amount of DOC (r = 0.37, p<0.001). Degree of stereopsis, mean dose-response, and postoperative exodeviation were significantly different between group 1 (positive DOC) and group 2 (negative DOC) (p<0.001, 0.030, and 0.001 respectively). The Kappa test showed that there was a significant correlation between the dominance of ocular torsion and fixation preference (p = 0.020). Therefore, change in ocular torsion after LR recession can be a useful supplementary indicator for evaluating the degree of fusional control and for predicting postoperative surgical response in IXT. PMID:27622574

  4. Postoperative respiratory failure after cardiac surgery: use of noninvasive ventilation.

    PubMed

    García-Delgado, Manuel; Navarrete, Inés; García-Palma, Maria José; Colmenero, Manuel

    2012-06-01

    To analyze the use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in respiratory failure after extubation in patients after cardiac surgery, the factors associated with respiratory failure, and the need for reintubation. Retrospective observational study. Intensive care unit in a university hospital. Patients (n = 63) with respiratory failure after extubation after cardiac surgery over a 3-year period. Mechanical NIV. Demographic and surgical data, respiratory history, causes of postoperative respiratory failure, durations of mechanical ventilation and spontaneous breathing, gas exchange values, and the mortality rate were recorded. Of 1,225 postsurgical patients, 63 (5.1%) underwent NIV for respiratory failure after extubation. The median time from extubation to the NIV application was 40 hours (18-96 hours). The most frequent cause of respiratory failure was lobar atelectasis (25.4%). The NIV failed in 52.4% of patients (33/63) who had a lower pH at 24 hours of treatment (7.35 v 7.42, p = 0.001) and a higher hospital mortality (51.5% v 6.7%, p = 0.001) than those in whom NIV was successful. An interval <24 hours from extubation to NIV was a predictive factor for NIV failure (odds ratio, 4.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-17.9), whereas obesity was associated with NIV success (odds ratio, 0.22; 95% confidence interval, 0.05-0.91). Reintubation was required in half of the NIV-treated patients and was associated with an increased hospital mortality rate. Early respiratory failure after extubation (≤24 hours) is a predictive factor for NIV failure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Interventions for treating inadvertent postoperative hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Warttig, Sheryl; Alderson, Phil; Campbell, Gillian; Smith, Andrew F

    2014-11-20

    Inadvertent postoperative hypothermia (a drop in core body temperature to below 36°C) occurs as an effect of surgery when anaesthetic drugs and exposure of the skin for long periods of time during surgery result in interference with normal temperature regulation. Once hypothermia has occurred, it is important that patients are rewarmed promptly to minimise potential complications. Several different interventions are available for rewarming patients. To estimate the effectiveness of treating inadvertent perioperative hypothermia through postoperative interventions to decrease heat loss and apply passive and active warming systems in adult patients who have undergone surgery. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2014, Issue 2), MEDLINE (Ovid SP) (1956 to 21 February 2014), EMBASE (Ovid SP) (1982 to 21 February 2014), the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science (1950 to 21 February 2014) and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), EBSCO host (1980 to 21 February 2014), as well as reference lists of articles. We also searched www.controlled-trials.com and www.clincialtrials.gov. Randomized controlled trials of postoperative warming interventions aiming to reverse hypothermia compared with control or with each other. Three review authors identified studies for inclusion in this review. One review author extracted data and completed risk of bias assessments; two review authors checked the details. Meta-analysis was conducted when appropriate by using standard methodological procedures as expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We included 11 trials with 699 participants. Ten trials provided data for analysis. Trials varied in the numbers and types of participants included and in the types of surgery performed. Most trials were at high or unclear risk of bias because of inappropriate or unclear randomization procedures, and because blinding of assessors and participants generally was

  6. Postoperative headache following acoustic neuroma resection: occipital nerve injuries are associated with a treatable occipital neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Ducic, Ivica; Felder, John M; Endara, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    To demonstrate that occipital nerve injury is associated with chronic postoperative headache in patients who have undergone acoustic neuroma excision and to determine whether occipital nerve excision is an effective treatment for these headaches. Few previous reports have discussed the role of occipital nerve injury in the pathogenesis of the postoperative headache noted to commonly occur following the retrosigmoid approach to acoustic neuroma resection. No studies have supported a direct etiologic link between the two. The authors report on a series of acoustic neuroma patients with postoperative headache presenting as occipital neuralgia who were found to have occipital nerve injuries and were treated for chronic headache by excision of the injured nerves. Records were reviewed to identify patients who had undergone surgical excision of the greater and lesser occipital nerves for refractory chronic postoperative headache following acoustic neuroma resection. Primary outcomes examined were change in migraine headache index, change in number of pain medications used, continued use of narcotics, patient satisfaction, and change in quality of life. Follow-up was in clinic and via telephone interview. Seven patients underwent excision of the greater and lesser occipital nerves. All met diagnostic criteria for occipital neuralgia and failed conservative management. Six of 7 patients experienced pain reduction of greater than 80% on the migraine index. Average pain medication use decreased from 6 to 2 per patient; 3 of 5 patients achieved independence from narcotics. Six patients experienced 80% or greater improvement in quality of life at an average follow-up of 32 months. There was one treatment failure. Occipital nerve neuroma or nerve entrapment was identified during surgery in all cases where treatment was successful but not in the treatment failure. In contradistinction to previous reports, we have identified a subset of patients in whom the syndrome of

  7. Success in Primary School. Success in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, 2010

    2010-01-01

    A quality education system is not measured solely by national test scores, but by whether all students are successful in primary school. This simply stated goal is surprisingly difficult to achieve where substantial numbers of children are at risk of failing to complete a primary education. This paper explores the challenges and the diverse…

  8. [Peri- and postoperative pain therapy with mechanical patient-controlled disposable analgesia pumps in general surgery. Report of initial trial].

    PubMed

    Fieseler, H G; Vogt, B; Menges, H W

    1996-01-01

    The patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) or "ondemand analgesia" is a pain-relieving therapy, which is regulated and monitored by the patient himself. Postoperative pain therapy is the main approach for PCA, which facilitates a long-term, individually controlled pain relief. In certain situations we use mechanical PCA-pumps filled with piritramid (Dipidolor) as an opioid-analgetic for reducing postoperative pain. This kind of therapy needs the acceptance and understanding of the patient as a main condition for the success. Beside an increase of patients' comfort and patients' independence of analgetic demand from the medical staff a reduction in postoperative complications can be expected, the time of hospitalisation might be decreased.

  9. Postoperative refraction in the second eye having cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Leffler, Christopher T; Wilkes, Martin; Reeves, Juliana; Mahmood, Muneera A

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Previous cataract surgery studies assumed that first-eye predicted and observed postoperative refractions are equally important for predicting second-eye postoperative refraction. Methods. In a retrospective analysis of 173 patients having bilateral sequential phacoemulsification, multivariable linear regression was used to predict the second-eye postoperative refraction based on refractions predicted by the SRK-T formula for both eyes, the first-eye postoperative refraction, and the difference in IOL selected between eyes. Results. The first-eye observed postoperative refraction was an independent predictor of the second eye postoperative refraction (P < 0.001) and was weighted more heavily than the first-eye predicted refraction. Compared with the SRK-T formula, this model reduced the root-mean-squared (RMS) error of the predicted refraction by 11.3%. Conclusions. The first-eye postoperative refraction is an independent predictor of the second-eye postoperative refraction. The first-eye predicted refraction is less important. These findings may be due to interocular symmetry.

  10. Importance of pre- and postoperative physiotherapy in pediatric cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Cavenaghi, Simone; Moura, Silvia Cristina Garcia de; Silva, Thalis Henrique da; Venturinelli, Talita Daniela; Marino, Lais Helena Carvalho; Lamari, Neuseli Marino

    2009-01-01

    Lung complications during postoperative of pediatric heart surgery are frequently highlighting atelectasis and pneumonia. Physiotherapy has an important role in the treatment of these complications. We reviewed and update the physiotherapy performance in the preoperative and in the postoperative lung complication of pediatric cardiac surgery. We noted efficacy of physiotherapy treatment through different specific techniques and the need for development of new studies.

  11. Alternative therapy applications for postoperative nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Chiravalle, Paulette; McCaffrey, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    The potential for postoperative nausea and vomiting is present in any patient who undergoes surgery and both are unpleasant and potentially dangerous consequences of surgery. Three types of complementary and alternative therapies that may help patients with postoperative nausea and vomiting include acupressure, acupuncture, and aromatherapy.

  12. [Postoperative astigmatism after penetrating corneal grafts (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schwöbel, M

    1975-08-04

    232 cases of penetrating grafts from 1961-1972 have been studied. 141 (60%) were evaluated for visual acuity and corneal astigmatism. Since the introduction of the running suture (1966) postoperative complications have markedly decreased, visual acuity is in the average good and even very good. Patients operated for keratokonus however show higher postoperative astigmatism than patients operatedfor other corneal diseases.

  13. Fast track surgery accelerates the recovery of postoperative insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dong-jie; Zhang, Sheng; He, Wei-ling; Chen, Hua-yun; Cai, Shi-rong; Chen, Chuang-qi; Song, Xin-ming; Cui, Ji; Ma, Jin-Ping; Zhang, Chang-Hua; He, Yu-Long

    2012-09-01

    Few clinical studies or randomized clinical trial results have reported the impact of fast track surgery on postoperative insulin sensitivity. This study aimed to investigate the effects of fast track surgery on postoperative insulin sensitivity in patients undergoing elective open colorectal resection. Controlled, randomized clinical trial was conducted from November 2008 to January 2009 with one-month post-discharge follow-up. Seventy patients with colorectal carcinoma requiring colorectal resection were randomized into two groups: a fast track group (35 cases) and a conventional care group (35 cases). All included patients received elective open colorectal resection with combined tracheal intubation and general anesthesia. Clinical parameters (complication rates, return of gastrointestinal function and postoperative length of stay), stress index and insulin sensitivity were evaluated in both groups perioperatively. Sixty-two patients finally completed the study, 32 cases in the fast-track group and 30 cases in the conventional care group. Our findings revealed a significantly faster recovery of postoperative insulin sensitivity on postoperative day 7 in the fast-track group than that in the conventional care group. We also found a significantly shorter length of postoperative stay and a significantly faster return of gastrointestinal function in patients undergoing fast-track rehabilitation. Fast track surgery accelerates the recovery of postoperative insulin sensitivity in elective surgery for colorectal carcinoma with a shorter length of postoperative hospital stay.

  14. Effectiveness of a postoperative disposition protocol for sleep apnea surgery.

    PubMed

    Rocke, Daniel; Sharp, Scott; Wiener, Dana; Puscas, Liana; Lee, Walter T

    2013-01-01

    1) Evaluate the effectiveness of a postoperative disposition protocol for upper airway surgery in patients with sleep apnea. 2) Compare the cost-effectiveness of outpatient and overnight observational sleep apnea surgery versus surgical intensive care admission determined by preoperative screening criteria. A new preoperative protocol for sleep apnea surgery was instituted at the Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center in 2008 to triage patients undergoing sleep apnea surgery to one of three postoperative dispositions: intensive care, routine ward bed, or discharge home. An Institutional Review Board approved retrospective chart review of patients undergoing sleep apnea surgery between May 2008 and January 2012 was performed. Postoperative complications and cost comparisons were assessed between each of the three postoperative disposition groups. 115 patients underwent sleep apnea surgery between July 2008 and January 2012. 11 patients were excluded leaving 104 patients in the final analysis. Median follow-up was 1.25months. Overall complication rate was 12.5%. Eight complications occurred in the group triaged to intensive care, and 5 occurred in those triaged to lesser levels of postoperative care. All serious complications occurred during the immediate postoperative period. Based on only room charges, $125,275 was saved over the 3.6years of this study. A post operative disposition protocol can be effectively used to triage patients to less than intensive postoperative care. In institutions like the Durham VA, where sleep apnea patients were routinely triaged to intensive care, postoperative resources will be more efficiently utilized. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. [One case of postoperative facial paralysis after first branchial fistula].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia; Xu, Yaosheng

    2015-12-01

    Pus overflow from patent's fistula belew the left face near mandibular angle 2 years agowith a little pain. Symptoms relieved after oral antibiotics. This symptom frequently occurred in the past six months. Postoperative facial paralysis occurred after surgery, and recovered after treatment. It was diagnosed as the postoperative facial paralysis after first branchial fistula surgery.

  16. Chronic postoperative pain: recent findings in understanding and management

    PubMed Central

    Correll, Darin

    2017-01-01

    Chronic postoperative pain is a poorly recognized potential outcome from surgery. It affects millions of patients every year, with pain lasting for months to years, resulting in patient suffering and ensuing economic consequences. The operations with the highest incidence of chronic postoperative pain are amputations, thoracotomies, cardiac surgery, and breast surgery. Other risk factors include preoperative pain, psychological factors, demographics, and the intensity of acute postoperative pain. Attempts to prevent chronic postoperative pain have often led to debatable results. This article presents data from recently published studies examining the incidence, risk factors, mechanisms, treatment options, and preventive strategies for chronic postoperative pain in adults. In summary, many of the previously identified risk factors for chronic postoperative pain have been confirmed and some novel ones discovered, such as the importance of the trajectory of acute pain and the fact that catastrophizing may not always be predictive. The incidence of chronic postoperative pain hasn’t changed over time, and there is limited new information regarding an effective preventive therapy. For example, pregabalin may actually cause more harm in certain surgeries. Further research is needed to demonstrate whether multimodal analgesic techniques have the best chance of significantly reducing the incidence of chronic postoperative pain and to determine which combination of agents is best for given surgical types and different patient populations. PMID:28713565

  17. Postoperative Refraction in the Second Eye Having Cataract Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Leffler, Christopher T.; Wilkes, Martin; Reeves, Juliana; Mahmood, Muneera A.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Previous cataract surgery studies assumed that first-eye predicted and observed postoperative refractions are equally important for predicting second-eye postoperative refraction. Methods. In a retrospective analysis of 173 patients having bilateral sequential phacoemulsification, multivariable linear regression was used to predict the second-eye postoperative refraction based on refractions predicted by the SRK-T formula for both eyes, the first-eye postoperative refraction, and the difference in IOL selected between eyes. Results. The first-eye observed postoperative refraction was an independent predictor of the second eye postoperative refraction (P < 0.001) and was weighted more heavily than the first-eye predicted refraction. Compared with the SRK-T formula, this model reduced the root-mean-squared (RMS) error of the predicted refraction by 11.3%. Conclusions. The first-eye postoperative refraction is an independent predictor of the second-eye postoperative refraction. The first-eye predicted refraction is less important. These findings may be due to interocular symmetry. PMID:24533181

  18. [Post-operative pain therapy of a chronic pain patient].

    PubMed

    Pawlik, Michael T; Ittner, Karl Peter

    2006-11-01

    Post-operative pain therapy of chronic pain patients poses a challenge. Here we report the perioperative management of a 39-year-old male under chronic therapy with oxycodon, gabapentin and tolperison. Particular the pharmacointeractions regarding premedication and postoperative dose finding of opioids with intravenous PCIA are discussed.

  19. Pre- and Postoperative Studies of Plasma Calcitonin in Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Phillip W.; Heath, Hunter; Sizemore, Glen W.

    1979-01-01

    The importance of calcitonin in the homeostatic response to the chronic hypercalcemia of primary hyperparathyroidism is uncertain. To clarify this issue, we have used a new, sensitive radioimmunoassay for human calcitonin to measure basal plasma calcitonin concentrations in 50 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (32 female, 18 male). We assayed calcium-stimulated calcitonin concentrations preoperatively in 22 of the patients (16 female, 6 male) and postoperatively in 6. Finally, we assayed pentagastrin-stimulated calcitonin concentrations preoperatively in eight of the patients (three female, five male). Plasma calcitonin values after an overnight fast were indistinguishable from those in normal subjects (mean±SE, males, 48±3 normal and 46±5 pg/ml hyperparathyroid, females, 31±2 normal and 37±3 pg/ml hyperparathyroid.) Among hyperparathyroid patients of both sexes, increases of calcitonin during Ca infusion (15 mg Ca/kg in 4 h) were within normal limits. However, the mean maximal increase of calcitonin was significantly lower in hyperparathyroid than in normal subjects (P < 0.05). In six patients normocalcemic 5-15 mo after parathyroid surgery, fasting plasma calcitonin values were not significantly different, but responses to Ca infusion were greater than preoperatively (Δ calcitonin ±SE: 13±4 preoperatively and 53±35 pg/ml postoperatively). The mean maximal increase of calcitonin after pentagastrin (0.5 μg/kg i.v.) was slightly lower than normal in the patients (mean±SE, males, 45±8 normal and 38±10 pg/ml hyperparathyroid, females, 6±2 normal and 0 pg/ml hyperparathyroid). Thus, primary hyperparathyroidism is accompanied by normal steady-state concentrations of circulating calcitonin, and normal-to-blunted C-cell responses to pentagastrin or induced hypercalcemia, the response to calcium generally increasing after successful parathyroid surgery. These results clearly show that primary hyperparathyroidism is not characterized by

  20. Aspiration prevention protocol: decreasing postoperative pneumonia in heart surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Starks, Bobbie; Harbert, Christy

    2011-10-01

    BACKGROUND Postoperative pneumonia contributes to morbidity and mortality in patients who have open heart surgery. OBJECTIVES To determine if measures to reduce aspiration in patients after cardiothoracic surgery would decrease the occurrence of postoperative pneumonia. METHODS All patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery from April 2008 through October 2008 were prospectively enrolled in the study. An aspiration prevention protocol was developed and implemented in a 24-bed intensive care unit. The protocol incorporated a bedside swallowing evaluation by a speech therapist and progressive oral intake. RESULTS In the 6 months before development and implementation of the protocol, postoperative pneumonia developed in 11% of patients. After implementation of the protocol, no patients had postoperative pneumonia (P < .01). CONCLUSIONS Implementing an aspiration prevention protocol was effective in reducing the occurrence of postoperative pneumonia in patients who had cardiothoracic surgery.

  1. Postoperative Immunosuppression After Open and Laparoscopic Liver Resection: Assessment of Cellular Immune Function and Monocytic HLA-DR Expression

    PubMed Central

    Haacke, Nadine; Meisel, Christian; Unterwalder, Nadine; Fikatas, Panagiotis; Schmidt, Sven C.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Major abdominal procedures are strongly associated with postoperative immunosuppression and subsequent increased patient morbidity. It is believed that laparoscopic surgery causes less depletion of the systemic immune function because of the reduced tissue trauma. Various cytokines and monocytic HLA-DR expression have been successfully implemented to assess postoperative immune function. The aim of our study was to show the difference in immunologic profiles after minimally invasive versus conventional liver resection. Methods: Ten animals underwent either laparoscopic or conventional open left lateral liver resection. Flow cytometric characteristics of HLA-DR expression on monocytes and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cellular secretion of tumor necrosis factor α, interferon γ, interleukin 6, and interleukin 8 were measured and analyzed in ex vivo whole blood samples. Intraoperative and postoperative clinical outcome parameters were also documented and evaluated. Results: All animals survived the procedures. Postoperative complications were fever (n = 3), wound infections (n = 2), and biloma (n = 1). Open surgery showed a morbidity rate of 80% compared with 40% after laparoscopic surgery. Laparoscopic liver resection showed no postoperative immunoparalysis. Major histocompatibility complex class II expression in this group was elevated, whereas the open surgery group showed decreased major histocompatibility complex class II expression on postoperative day 1. Postoperative secretion of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6, and interferon γ was lower in the open surgery group. Elevated transaminase levels after laparoscopy might have resulted from an ischemia/reperfusion injury caused by the capnoperitoneum. Conclusion: Major immunoparalysis depression was not observed in either group. Laparoscopic surgery shows a tendency to improve immunologic recovery after liver resection. PMID:24398205

  2. Postoperative radionuclide evaluation of osteoid osteomas

    SciTech Connect

    Ghelman, B.; Vigorita, V.J.

    1983-02-01

    Five cases of clinically suspected osteoid osteomas were studied by preoperative injectin of technetium-99m methylene disphosphonate, intraoperative localization with a radiation-sensitive scintillation probe, and postoperative examination of the entire tissue specimen (including the presumed nidus and surrounding bone). Microradiography and light microscopy were also used. In addition, a new autoradiography technique was introduced in which the excised surgical specimen was placed on undeveloped x-ray film for pathologic localizaton, diagnosis of the lesions, and a study of the relative intensity of radioactive uptake in the nidus vs. surrounding bone. Autoradiography revealed that the nidus showed the greatest concentration of radioactivity, followed by the surrounding bone. The authors conclude that lt. slashsup 99mlt. slashTc can be used clinically in localizing osteoid osteomas and that preoperative and intraoperative scanning can assist in conservative surgical excision, e.g., minimal extirpation of bone in delicate areas such as the spine. For small lesions, autoradiography assists the pathologist in identifying an osteoid osteoma.

  3. Evaluation of the postoperative lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Herrera Herrera, I; Moreno de la Presa, R; González Gutiérrez, R; Bárcena Ruiz, E; García Benassi, J M

    2013-01-01

    Given the prevalence of low back pain, surgical interventions on the lumbar spine are becoming more common. Among the many surgical procedures available for these interventions, the most common are laminectomy and discectomy. In 10 to 40% of patients who undergo surgical interventions on the lumbar spine, low back pain is not completely alleviated or it recurs, and these cases fall into the category of « failed back surgery syndrome ». This syndrome can have many different causes and multiple factors are often involved. It is important not to confuse the normal postoperative findings with those specific to failed back surgery syndrome. Deciding which imaging technique to use will depend on the type of surgical intervention, whether metallic orthopedic material was used, and the clinical suspicion. It is essential to know the advantages and limitations of the available imaging techniques to ensure the optimal evaluation of these patients, especially after interventions carried out with instrumentation to minimize the artifacts due to these materials. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Optimizing post-operative Crohn's disease treatment.

    PubMed

    Domènech, Eugeni; Mañosa, Míriam; Lobatón, Triana; Cabré, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    Despite the availability of biological drugs and the widespread and earlier use of immunosuppressants, intestinal resection remains necessary in almost half of the patients with Crohn's disease. The development of new mucosal lesions in previously unaffected intestinal segments (a phenomenon known as post-operative recurrence, POR) occur within the first year in up to 80% if no preventive measure is started soon after resectional surgery, leading to clinical manifestations (clinical recurrence) and even needing new intestinal resection (surgical recurrence) in some patients. That is the reason why endoscopic monitoring has been recommended within 6 to 12 months after surgery. Active smoking is the only indisputable risk factor for early POR development. Among several evaluated drugs, only thiopurine and anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy seem to be effective and feasible in the long-term both for preventing or even treating recurrent lesions, at least in a proportion of patients. However, to date, it is not clear which patients should start with one or another drug right after surgery. It is also not well established how and how often POR should be assessed in patients with a normal ileocolonoscopy within the first 12 months.

  5. Pterygia: Single-fraction postoperative beta irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Beyer, D.C. )

    1991-02-01

    A retrospective evaluation was performed with records of 128 patients with 146 eyes that underwent applications of strontium-90 after pterygium excisions performed between 1982 and 1988. With a median follow-up of 13 months, 135 eyes were evaluable. Most pterygia (127 of 135) were treated with a single postoperative application of Sr-90 that delivered 3,000 cGy of beta radiation in one fraction. The actuarial freedom from relapse was 87%; all recurrences occurred within the first 18 months, and 46% of these within the first 3 months. Of the 13 recurrences, 10 have been re-treated with surgery and a second course of beta irradiation with excellent results. All eight eyes for which follow-up was available had no evidence of disease. The ultimate control rate was 96.3% for the series. Correlation of various treatment parameters, including age, bilaterality, prior recurrence, and interval from surgery to irradiation, was performed, and no statistically significant difference was seen. No serious complications have developed. Transient conjunctivitis and photophobia were almost universally seen, with five cases lasting beyond 5 months. The authors conclude that a single application of Sr-90 after surgery is effective and safe in managing pterygia.

  6. Ketamine gargle for attenuating postoperative sore throat.

    PubMed

    Canbay, O; Celebi, N; Sahin, A; Celiker, V; Ozgen, S; Aypar, U

    2008-04-01

    Tracheal intubation is a foremost cause of trauma to the airway mucosa, resulting in postoperative sore throat (POST) with reported incidences of 21-65%. We compared the effectiveness of ketamine gargles with placebo in preventing POST after endotracheal intubation. Forty-six, ASA I-II, patients undergoing elective surgery for septorhinoplasty under general anaesthesia were enrolled in this prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blind study. Patients were randomly allocated into two groups of 23 subjects each: Group C, saline 30 ml; Group K, ketamine 40 mg in saline 30 ml. Patients were asked to gargle this mixture for 30 s, 5 min before induction of anaesthesia. POST was graded at 0, 2, 4, and 24 h after operation on a four-point scale (0-3). POST occurred more frequently in Group C, when compared with Group K, at 0, 2, and 24 h and significantly more patients suffered severe POST in Group C at 4 and 24 h compared with Group K (P<0.05). Ketamine gargle significantly reduced the incidence and severity of POST.

  7. Risk Factors for Postoperative Shivering After Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Masanori; Hitosugi, Takashi; Esaki, Kanako; Yokoyama, Takeshi

    2016-12-01

    Postoperative shivering is a frequent complication of anesthesia. However, there are few reports about postoperative shivering in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Postoperative shivering in patients after osteotomy was observed from April 2008 to September 2015. This retrospective study investigated the risk factors of postoperative shivering in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Anesthesia records of patients who underwent an osteotomy of the maxilla or mandible were checked. A patient's background (gender, age, height, and weight), anesthesia time, operative time, fentanyl, remifentanil, fluid volume, urine volume, blood loss volume, agent for anesthetic maintenance, rectal temperature at the end of surgery, and type of surgery were recorded in addition to the occurrence of postoperative shivering. In the univariate analysis, the Fisher exact test and the χ(2) test were used, and a multivariable analysis was performed using stepwise logistic regression to determine risk factors of postoperative shivering. In this study, 233 cases were investigated, and 24 patients (11.5%) had postoperative shivering. The occurrence of postoperative shivering was correlated with blood loss volume (shivering group, 633.9 ± 404.8 mL; nonshivering group, 367.0 ± 312.6 mL; P < .01) and core temperature at the end of surgery (shivering group, 37.2 ± 0.6°C; nonshivering group, 37.5 ± 0.5°C; P < .01). Two variables were associated with postoperative shivering. Rectal temperature at the end of surgery was the highest risk factor (odds ratio = 2.560277; 95% confidence interval, 1.236774-5.327362), and blood loss volume was the next highest risk factor (odds ratio = 0.997733; 95% confidence interval, 0.999-0998). Clinicians should pay attention to postoperative shivering not only in patients with hypothermia but also in patients with substantial blood loss. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of postoperative range of motion on functional activities after posterior cruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Merrill A; Lutgring, Joseph D; Davis, Kenneth E; Berend, Michael E

    2008-04-01

    Range of motion is recognized as an important indicator of the success of a total knee replacement; however, an optimal range of motion has yet to be defined. This study was designed to determine the optimal range of motion for knee function after total knee arthroplasty with a posterior cruciate-retaining prosthesis. We retrospectively reviewed 5556 primary total knee arthroplasties performed with posterior cruciate-retaining prostheses between 1983 and 2003. The relationship between postoperative range of motion and pain, walking ability, stair-climbing ability, and knee function scores was examined at three to five years postoperatively. The relationship between a postoperative flexion contracture or hyperextension and knee function was also examined. Patients with 128 degrees to 132 degrees of motion obtained the highest scores for pain, walking, and knee function and the highest Knee Society scores. The outcomes became substantially compromised with motion of <118 degrees . Patients with 133 degrees to 150 degrees of motion had the highest scores for stair-climbing. A postoperative flexion contracture and hyperextension were associated with lower scores for pain, walking, stair-climbing, and knee function. The best functional results following total knee arthroplasty are achieved with 128 degrees to 132 degrees of motion. A postoperative flexion contracture and hyperextension of >or=10 degrees are associated with a poorer outcome except that stair-climbing is improved with more motion.

  9. Using a virtual breakthrough series collaborative to reduce postoperative respiratory failure in 16 Veterans Health Administration hospitals.

    PubMed

    Zubkoff, Lisa; Neily, Julia; Mills, Peter D; Borzecki, Ann; Shin, Marlena; Lynn, Marilyn M; Gunnar, William; Rosen, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) Virtual Breakthrough Series (VBTS) process was used in an eight-month (June 2011-January 2012) quality improvement (QI) project to improve care related to reducing postoperative respiratory failure. The VBTS collaborative drew on Patient Safety Indicator 11: Postoperative Respiratory Failure Rate to guide changes in care at the bedside. Sixteen Veterans Health Administration hospitals, each representing a regional Veterans Integrated Service Network, participated in the QI project. During the prework phase (initial two months), hospitals formed multidisciplinary teams, selected measures related to their goals, and collected baseline data. The six-month action phase included group conference calls in which the faculty presented clinical background on the topic, discussed evidence-based processes of care, and/or presented content regarding reducing postoperative respiratory failure. During a final, six-month continuous improvement and spread phase, teams were to continue implementing changes as part of their usual processes. The six most commonly reported interventions to reduce postoperative respiratory failure focused on improving incentive spirometer use, documenting implementation of targeted interventions, oral care, standardized orders, early ambulation, and provider education. A few teams reported reduced ICU readmissions for respiratory failure. The VBTS collaborative helped teams implement process changes to help reduce postoperative respiratory complications. Teams reported initial success at implementing site-specific improvements using real-time data. The VBTS model shows promise for knowledge sharing and efficient multifacility improvement efforts, although long-term sustainability and testing in these and other settings need to be examined.

  10. Managing Success: Collective Bargaining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godshall, Clark J.

    2002-01-01

    Describes four ways school business officials achieve success with collective bargaining: Maintaining relationships, separating the relationship from the problem, building credibility and cooperation, and "futuring." (PKP)

  11. [Postoperative pain management. Aims and organization of a strategy for postoperative acute pain therapy].

    PubMed

    Nolli, M; Nicosia, F

    2000-09-01

    The Health Services, not only the Italian one, is under pressure because of request for improving treatment quality and the financial need for reorganization and cost-saving. It's required a rationalization of intervention, together with a careful choice of the best and cheapest techniques and the demonstration of their efficacy. The anaesthesia service activity, in a period of cost rationalization and funds restriction should be aimed to appropriate outcome measures corrected by both patient's risk factors and surgical-anaesthesiological case-mix. The development of a complete strategy for surgical pain management might run into two phases. The first phase, internal and mono-specialistic, should develop like the creation of an Acute Pain Team. The main processes are: focusing the problem (charge of the care), training, information, teaching methodology (timing, methods, drugs, techniques, etc.) and the audit (before and after changes). The main aims are the evaluation of the level of analgesia and pain relief or patient's satisfaction which are partial endpoints useful to demonstrate the improvement and the efficacy of the new pain management strategies. The second phase, multidisciplinary, is directed toward the creation of a Postoperative Evaluation Team. The main objective is to set up a collaborative clinical group able to identify the criteria for quality, efficacy and safety. The major purpose is the evaluation of major outcome measures: surgical outcome, morbidity, mortality and length of hospitalization. The improvement in the quality of postoperative pain treatment goes through a better organization and a progressive increase of the already available therapy. The achievement of the result and the quality projects depend on the interaction among staff members with different behaviours and settings. Internal teaching and training, continuous education for doctors and nurses, and external information, marketing and improvement of attractive capability of

  12. PSAT and AP Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palin, Raymond J.

    2001-01-01

    Through evaluation of 73 eleventh-grade students over three years, explores the extent to which standardized test scores and other academic factors predict success on the Advanced Placement (AP) exam in U.S. history. Finds that standardized scores, grade point average, and anticipated college majors are closely related to AP success. (CMK)

  13. Focused on Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In January 2011, the California Community Colleges Board of Governors formed a task force to chart a roadmap for system-wide focus on student success. The task force identified best practices and designed evidence-based recommendations to ensure student success is a driving theme in colleges. This comprehensive plan, known as the Student Success…

  14. Student Success. January 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Student Success" is EPI's occasional e-magazine dedicated to the discussion of retaining students in higher education. In this issue: (1) Seven Guiding Questions for Student Retention (Watson Scott Swail); (2) Interview: George Kuh and the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE); (3) The Review: Student Success looks at a new book edited by…

  15. Student Success Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fresno City Coll., CA.

    The Student Success Project at Fresno City College (FCC), in California, is structured around 13 student success core indicators for which activities and completion timelines are developed annually. This report presents data on the status of the indicators as of 1994 and describes activities planned for 1995. Following an introduction, a list of…

  16. Student Success. March 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Student Success" is EPI's occasional e-magazine dedicated to the discussion of retaining students in higher education. Over the course of the next issues of "Student Success," the Educational Policy Institute (EPI) will explore three questions about retention on our college campuses. Part I will look at the barriers to student retention, both…

  17. Measuring Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Christopher; Bensimon, Estela Mara; Dowd, Alicia C.; Kleiman, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Student success is at the heart of both institutional effectiveness and the community college mission, yet measuring such success at community colleges is problematic. This article highlights three efforts to grapple with this problem--a multistate work group of system- and state-level policymakers to create an improved set of student success…

  18. Achieving cooperative success

    Treesearch

    Kimberly Zeuli

    2006-01-01

    Success of a cooperative depends on the foundation built during its organization. Successful businesses are not started overnight. Careful and deliberate planning must be started long before the co-op opens its doors. This chapter begins with an outline of six fundamental steps that should be followed when organizing any cooperative. From initial concept to the start...

  19. Principal Experiences of Succession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Farla Gay

    2015-01-01

    This multiple case study explored the experiences of school principals and the usefulness of Peters' (2011) succession planning model. Ten purposefully selected principals from varying grade levels were interviewed; none reported a formal succession plan, and all had been assistant principals. The study concluded the assistant principal position…

  20. Exploring MBA Career Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Amanda; Hodgkinson, Myra

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the meaning of career success in relation to the attainment of an MBA degree, for a group of experienced managers. In so doing, the paper aims to consider the adequacy of MBA career success, defined solely in terms of external criteria. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 36 in-depth interviews…

  1. Swedish Successful Schools Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoog, Jonas; Johansson, Olof; Olofsson, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of a follow-up study of two Swedish schools in which, five years previously, the principals had been successful leaders. Had this success been maintained? Design/methodology/approach: Two schools were revisited to enable the authors to interview principals and teachers as well as…

  2. Striving for Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills-Novoa, Beverly; Coughlin, Eileen V.

    1994-01-01

    Features a self-assessment tool which encourages college campuses to look at the success factors needed to undergird alcohol and other drug prevention programs. Self-assessment based on characteristics of successful programs provides a strategic planning method, evaluation tool, and the needed benchmarks to ensure progress. Provides examples of…

  3. Measuring Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Christopher; Bensimon, Estela Mara; Dowd, Alicia C.; Kleiman, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Student success is at the heart of both institutional effectiveness and the community college mission, yet measuring such success at community colleges is problematic. This article highlights three efforts to grapple with this problem--a multistate work group of system- and state-level policymakers to create an improved set of student success…

  4. Momentum and Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunz, William

    2008-01-01

    Success begets success and opportunity begets opportunity. This principle is something that the author sees at work in his own life. One example of opportunities begetting opportunities is the experience he had at the Academy of Science and Technology to practice his programming skills. The Academy served as a great training ground for what would…

  5. Successful Community Development Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Thomas G.

    This paper sketches several successful community economic development programs that have implications for rural education. Case studies are used to discuss community characteristics that contribute to development success. In Virginia, a Community Certification Program offers statewide business recruitment services to communities that meet program…

  6. Three Tiers to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Rhonda; Stepanek, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses a three-tiered, differentiated curriculum in a response to intervention (RTI) framework that has successfully raised achievement at all levels, but is particularly successful with ninth-grade students. Walla Walla (Washington) School District implemented the three-tiered intervention program as a series of differentiated…

  7. Student Success Center Toolkit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobs For the Future, 2014

    2014-01-01

    "Student Success Center Toolkit" is a compilation of materials organized to assist Student Success Center directors as they staff, launch, operate, and sustain Centers. The toolkit features materials created and used by existing Centers, such as staffing and budgeting templates, launch materials, sample meeting agendas, and fundraising…

  8. The Successful Retardate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albizu-Miranda, Carlos; And Others

    To study the prevalence of mental retardation in Puerto Rico, the proportional distribution of successful retardates, and the processes accounting for success and failure, a random sample of 4,771 adults between the ages of 23 and 49 was screened by the Stanford Binet Form L and a vocabulary test. From this sample, the estimated retardation rate…

  9. Examining Management Success Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quatrano, Louis A.

    The derivation of a model of management success potential in hospitals or health services administration is described. A questionnaire developed to assess management success potential in health administration students was voluntarily completed by approximately 700 incoming graduate students in 35 university health services administration programs…

  10. Predictors of Postsecondary Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, Vanessa; Smerdon, Becky; Sambolt, Megan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this brief is to provide information to state, district, and school personnel seeking support to determine whether their students are on a path to postsecondary success. The College and Career Readiness and Success Center (CCRS Center) has received technical assistance requests from a number of states regarding factors that predict…

  11. Success in Library School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magrill, Rose Mary; Rinehart, Constance

    1979-01-01

    Data on admission characteristics and performance in library school were collected for students entering the A.M.L.S. program at the University of Michigan. Success measures--completion of degree, G.P.A., and amount of time required to complete degree--showed little relation to admission variables in determining success. (Author/MBR)

  12. Examining Management Success Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quatrano, Louis A.

    The derivation of a model of management success potential in hospitals or health services administration is described. A questionnaire developed to assess management success potential in health administration students was voluntarily completed by approximately 700 incoming graduate students in 35 university health services administration programs…

  13. Principal Experiences of Succession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Farla Gay

    2015-01-01

    This multiple case study explored the experiences of school principals and the usefulness of Peters' (2011) succession planning model. Ten purposefully selected principals from varying grade levels were interviewed; none reported a formal succession plan, and all had been assistant principals. The study concluded the assistant principal position…

  14. Fear of Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petty, Steve

    Fear of success in a group of high school students (N=127) was studied, with research findings supporting the following generalizations: (1) high school students with an intermediate level of self-esteem have greater fear of success than those with high and low levels of self-esteem; (2) high school students with BSRI (Bem Sex Role Inventory)…

  15. Getting Set for Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Rita, Emilio

    These career development materials consist of three booklets: the text, success portfolio, and facilitator's guide. Unit 1 in the text tests the students' coping skills. Contracts in the success portfolio for this unit enable the student to determine the sources of stress and ways of coping; describe different procedures for managing time; assess…

  16. Patterns of Postoperative Delirium in Children.

    PubMed

    Meyburg, Jochen; Dill, Mona-Lisa; Traube, Chani; Silver, Gabrielle; von Haken, Rebecca

    2017-02-01

    Intensive care delirium is a substantial problem in adults. Intensive care delirium is increasingly recognized in pediatrics in parallel with the development of specific scoring systems for children. However, little is known about the fluctuating course of intensive care delirium in children after surgery and possible implications on diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Patients that needed treatment in the PICU following elective surgery were screened for intensive care delirium with the Cornell Assessment of Pediatric Delirium. When the patients were awake (Richmond Agitation and Sedation Score > -3), two trained investigators conducted the Cornell Assessment of Pediatric Delirium twice daily for five consecutive days. Ninety-three patients aged 0 to 17 years. Eight hundred forty-five assessments completed. Of the 845 scores, 230 were consistent with delirium (27.2%). Sixty-one patients (65.5%) were diagnosed with intensive care delirium. Half of these patients (n = 30; 32.2%) had a short-lasting delirium that resolved within 24 hours, and half (n = 31; 33.3%) had delirium of longer duration. Delirium could be clearly distinguished from sedation by analysis of individual test items of the Cornell Assessment of Pediatric Delirium. Time spent delirious had a measurable effect on outcome variables, including hospital length of stay. Most postoperative PICU patients develop intensive care delirium. Some have a short-lasting course, which underlines the need for early screening. Our findings support the view of delirium as a continuum of acute neurocognitive disorder. Further research is needed to investigate prophylactic and treatment approaches for intensive care delirium.

  17. Early Postoperative Complications after Oncoplastic Reduction.

    PubMed

    Mattingly, Anne E; Ma, Zhenjun; Smith, Paul D; Kiluk, John V; Khakpour, Nazanin; Hoover, Susan J; Laronga, Christine; Lee, M Catherine

    2017-10-01

    Breast-conserving surgery with adjuvant radiation therapy (BCT) has been established as safe oncologically. Oncoplastic breast surgery uses both oncologic and plastic surgery techniques for breast conservation to improve cosmetic outcomes. We evaluated the risk factors associated with complications after oncoplastic breast reduction. A single-institution, institutional review board-approved, retrospective review of electronic medical records of female patients with breast cancer who underwent oncoplastic breast reduction from 2008 to 2014. A review of electronic medical records collected relevant medical history, clinical and pathological information, and data on postoperative complications within 6 months stratified into major or minor complications. Categorical variables analyzed with the χ(2) exact method; continuous variables were analyzed with the Wilcoxon rank sum test exact method. We identified 59 patients; 4 required re-excision for positive margins, and 1 moved on to completion mastectomy. The overall complication rate was 33.9% (n = 20): 12 major (20.3%) and 8 minor (13.6%). Of the continuous variables (age, body mass index, and tissue removed), increased age was associated with minor complications (P = 0.02). Among the categorical variables (stratified body mass index, prior breast surgery, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, vascular disease, pulmonary disease, and stratified weight of tissue removed), none were associated with overall or major complications. Pulmonary disease was associated with minor complications (P = 0.03). Bilateral versus unilateral oncoplastic breast reduction showed no statistically significant increase in complications. The overall complication rate after oncoplastic breast reduction was markedly higher than that in nationally published data for breast-conserving surgery. The complication rate resembled more closely the complication rate after bilateral mastectomy with immediate reconstruction. No risk factors

  18. Success that lasts.

    PubMed

    Nash, Laura; Stevenson, Howard

    2004-02-01

    Pursuing success can feel like shooting in a landscape of moving targets: Every time you hit one, five more pop up from another direction. We are under constant pressure to do more, get more, be more. But is that really what success is all about? Laura Nash and Howard Stevenson interviewed and surveyed hundreds of professionals to study the assumptions behind the idea of success. They then built a practical framework for a new way of thinking about success--a way that leads to personal and professional fulfillment instead of feelings of anxiety and stress. The authors' research uncovered four irreducible components of success: happiness (feelings of pleasure or contentment about your life); achievement (accomplishments that compare favorably against similar goals others have strived for); significance (the sense that you've made a positive impact on people you care about); and legacy (a way to establish your values or accomplishments so as to help others find future success). Unless you hit on all four categories with regularity, any one win will fail to satisfy. People who achieve lasting success, the authors learned, tend to rely on a kaleidoscope strategy to structure their aspirations and activities. This article explains how to build your own kaleidoscope framework. The process can help you determine which tasks you should undertake to fulfill the different components of success and uncover areas where there are holes. It can also help you make better choices about what you spend your time on and the level of energy you put into each activity. According to Nash and Stevenson, successful people who experience real satisfaction achieve it through the deliberate imposition of limits. Cultivating your sense of "just enough" can help you set reachable goals, tally up more true wins, and enjoy lasting success.

  19. Risk factors for postoperative complications in robotic general surgery.

    PubMed

    Fantola, Giovanni; Brunaud, Laurent; Nguyen-Thi, Phi-Linh; Germain, Adeline; Ayav, Ahmet; Bresler, Laurent

    2017-03-01

    The feasibility and safety of robotically assisted procedures in general surgery have been reported from various groups worldwide. Because postoperative complications may lead to longer hospital stays and higher costs overall, analysis of risk factors for postoperative surgical complications in this subset of patients is clinically relevant. The goal of this study was to identify risk factors for postoperative morbidity after robotic surgical procedures in general surgery. We performed an observational monocentric retrospective study. All consecutive robotic surgical procedures from November 2001 to December 2013 were included. One thousand consecutive general surgery patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean overall postoperative morbidity and major postoperative morbidity (Clavien >III) rates were 20.4 and 6 %, respectively. This included a conversion rate of 4.4 %, reoperation rate of 4.5 %, and mortality rate of 0.2 %. Multivariate analysis showed that ASA score >3 [OR 1.7; 95 % CI (1.2-2.4)], hematocrit value <38 [OR 1.6; 95 % CI (1.1-2.2)], previous abdominal surgery [OR 1.5; 95 % CI (1-2)], advanced dissection [OR 5.8; 95 % CI (3.1-10.6)], and multiquadrant surgery [OR 2.5; 95 % CI (1.7-3.8)] remained independent risk factors for overall postoperative morbidity. It also showed that advanced dissection [OR 4.4; 95 % CI (1.9-9.6)] and multiquadrant surgery [OR 4.4; 95 % CI (2.3-8.5)] remained independent risk factors for major postoperative morbidity (Clavien >III). This study identifies independent risk factors for postoperative overall and major morbidity in robotic general surgery. Because these factors independently impacted postoperative complications, we believe they could be taken into account in future studies comparing conventional versus robot-assisted laparoscopic procedures in general surgery.

  20. Clinicopathological factors predictive of postoperative seizures in patients with gliomas.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pei; Liang, Tingyu; Zhang, Chuanbao; Cai, Jinquan; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Baoshi; Qiu, Xiaoguang; Yao, Kun; Li, Guilin; Wang, Haoyuan; Jiang, Chuanlu; You, Gan; Jiang, Tao

    2016-02-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common manifestations in gliomas and has a severe effect on the life expectancy and quality of life of patients. The aim of our study was to assess the potential connections between clinicopathological factors and postoperative seizure. We retrospectively investigated a group of 147 Chinese high-grade glioma (HGG) patients with preoperative seizure to examine the correlation between postoperative seizure and clinicopathological factors and prognosis. Univariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with postoperative seizures. Survival function curves were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. 53 patients (36%) were completely seizure-free (Engel class I), and 94 (64%) experienced a postoperative seizure (Engel classes II, III, and IV). A Chi-squared analysis showed that anaplastic oligodendroglioma/anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (AO/AOA) (P=0.05), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression (P=0.0004), O(6)-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) expression (P=0.011), and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression (P=0.045) were all significantly different. A logistic regression analysis showed that MGMT expression (P=0.05), EGFR expression (P=0.001), and AO/AOA (P=0.038) are independent factors of postoperative seizure. Patients with lower MGMT and EGFR expression and AO/AOA showed more frequent instances of postoperative seizure. Postoperative seizure showed no statistical significance on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Our study identified clinicopathological factors related to postoperative seizure in HGGs and found two predictive biomarkers of postoperative seizure: MGMT and EGFR. These findings provided insight treatment strategies aimed at prolonging survival and improving quality of life. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Awake extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in patients with severe postoperative acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Hye Ju; Cho, Woo Hyun; Kim, Dohyung

    2016-01-01

    A clinical trial of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as an alternative ventilator tool is being performed as a new indication for ECMO. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of awake ECMO to increase the success rate of weaning patients from ECMO and ventilator care during treatment of postoperative severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We retrospectively analyzed the clinical reports of 10 patients who underwent awake ECMO due to postoperative ARDS between August 2012 and May 2015. We analyzed patient history, the partial arterial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ratio, and patient outcome. Seven patients (70%) were weaned from ECMO without difficulty; one patient failed to maintain awake ECMO, was re-intubated after 2 days of awake ECMO, and was re-tried on awake ECMO after 4 days of ventilator care. We weaned that patient from ECMO 2 days later. We weaned a total of eight patients (80%) from awake ECMO. The ECMO duration of surviving patients was 9.13±2.2 days (range, 6-12 days), and mean ventilator use duration was 6.8±4.7 days (range, 2-16 days). Two cases failed awake ECMO and died due to disease aggravation. Awake ECMO was a useful weaning strategy after severe postoperative ARDS, as it avoids long-duration use of mechanical ventilation. Additionally, it is possible for patients to breathe spontaneously, which might prevents respiratory muscle dystrophy.

  2. Implantable Doppler Probes for Postoperatively Monitoring Free Flaps: Efficacy. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Tzu-Yen; Lee, Yao-Chou; Lin, You-Cheng; Wong, Stanley Thian-Sze; Hsueh, Yuan-Yu; Kuo, Yao-Lung; Shieh, Shyh-Jou

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although clinical assessment remains the gold standard for monitoring the circulation of free flaps, several adjunct techniques promote timely salvage by detecting circulation compromise early. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy of an implantable Doppler probe for postoperatively monitoring free flaps. Materials and Methods: English-language articles evaluating the efficacy of implantable Doppler probes compared with clinical assessment for postoperatively monitoring free flaps were analyzed. The outcome measures were total flap failure rates, salvage rates, sensitivity, false-positive rates, and positive likelihood ratios. Results: Of the 504 citations identified, 6 comparative studies were included for meta-analysis. An implantable Doppler probe significantly lowered the flap failure rate (risk ratio: 0.40; 95% confidence interval: 0.21–0.75) and raised the successful salvage rate (risk ratio: 1.73; 95% confidence interval: 1.16–2.59). Pooled sensitivity was higher (1.00 vs 0.98), the positive likelihood ratio was lower (72.16 vs 220.48), and the false-positive rate was higher (0.01 vs 0) in the implantable Doppler probe group than in the clinical assessment group. Conclusion: An implantable Doppler probe is significantly more efficacious than clinical assessment for postoperatively monitoring free flaps. PMID:27975015

  3. Longitudinal diffusion changes following postoperative delirium in older people without dementia.

    PubMed

    Cavallari, Michele; Dai, Weiying; Guttmann, Charles R G; Meier, Dominik S; Ngo, Long H; Hshieh, Tammy T; Fong, Tamara G; Schmitt, Eva; Press, Daniel Z; Travison, Thomas G; Marcantonio, Edward R; Jones, Richard N; Inouye, Sharon K; Alsop, David C

    2017-09-05

    To investigate the effect of postoperative delirium on longitudinal brain microstructural changes, as measured by diffusion tensor imaging. We studied a subset of the larger Successful Aging after Elective Surgery (SAGES) study cohort of older adults (≥70 years) without dementia undergoing elective surgery: 113 participants who had diffusion tensor imaging before and 1 year after surgery. Postoperative delirium severity and occurrence were assessed during the hospital stay using the Confusion Assessment Method and a validated chart review method. We investigated the association of delirium severity and occurrence with longitudinal diffusion changes across 1 year, adjusting for age, sex, vascular comorbidity, and baseline cognitive performance. We also assessed the association between changes in diffusion and cognitive performance across the 1-year follow-up period, adjusting for age, sex, education, and baseline cognitive performance. Postoperative delirium occurred in 25 participants (22%). Delirium severity and occurrence were associated with longitudinal diffusion changes in the periventricular, frontal, and temporal white matter. Diffusion changes were also associated with changes in cognitive performance across 1 year, although the cognitive changes did not show significant association with delirium severity or occurrence. Our study raises the possibility that delirium has an effect on the development of brain microstructural abnormalities, which may reflect brain changes underlying cognitive trajectories. Future studies are warranted to clarify whether delirium is the driving factor of the observed changes or rather a correlate of a vulnerable brain that is at high risk for neurodegenerative processes. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  4. Use of Postoperative Palatal Obturator After Total Palatal Reconstruction With Radial Forearm Fasciocutaneous Free Flap.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Euicheol C; Jung, Young Ho; Shin, Jin-yong

    2015-07-01

    A 67-year-old-male patient visited our hospital for a mass on the soft palate of approximately 5.0 × 6.0  cm in size. He was diagnosed with adenoid cystic carcinoma and reconstruction after total palate resection was planned. After ablative surgery, a radial forearm free flap procedure was successfully performed to cover the hard and soft palates. However, wound disruption occurred twice during the postoperative period. When a palate defect is reconstructed using a soft tissue free flap, flap drooping by gravitation and the flap itself can generate irregularity in the lower contour of the palate and, in the long-term, insufficiencies of velopharyngeal function, speech, and mastication. To complement such functional and aesthetic problems caused by flap drooping, conventional prosthetics and new operative techniques have been discussed. However, overcoming wound disruption caused by flap drooping in the acute postoperative period has not been discussed. In this case, the temporary use of a palatal obturator during the postoperative period was beneficial after soft tissue reconstruction of the palate.

  5. Effect of postoperative use of nasal oxygen catheter supplementation in wound healing following total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Helito, Camilo Partezani; Junqueira, Jader Joel Machado; Gobbi, Ricardo Gomes; Angelini, Fábio Janson; Rezende, Marcia Uchoa; Tírico, Luis Eduardo Passarelli; Demange, Marco Kawamura; da Mota e Albuquerque, Roberto Freire; Pécora, José Ricardo; Camanho, Gilberto Luis

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Healing is an event that is fundamental to the success of total knee arthroplasty. The aims of the present study were to compare the rates of complications related to wound healing between two groups of volunteers submitted to total knee arthroplasty and to evaluate the effects of postoperative oxygen supplementation by means of a nasal catheter. METHOD: A total of 109 patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty were randomized into two groups, namely, groups that did and did not receive postoperative oxygen supplementation via a nasal catheter. The surgical wound was monitored every day during the hospital stay and on the 7th, 14th, 21st, 30th and 42nd postoperative days. Characteristics related to healing were observed, including hyperemia, dehiscence, necrosis, phlyctenules and deep and superficial infection. RESULTS: There were no cases of deep infection. Hyperemia was statistically correlated with the total number of complications in the groups, with oxygen demonstrated to be a protective factor against hyperemia. Approximately 30% of the patients who exhibited hyperemia had other complications, independent of oxygen supplementation. CONCLUSION: Oxygen supplementation following total knee arthroplasty was shown to be effective in diminishing hyperemia around the operative wound. The development of hyperemia was a precursor to other complications, irrespective of whether oxygen supplementation was used. PMID:25518030

  6. Factors associated with noninvasive ventilation failure in postoperative acute respiratory insufficiency: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Wallet, Florent; Schoeffler, Mathieu; Reynaud, Marie; Duperret, Serge; Workineh, Sintayou; Viale, Jean Paul

    2010-03-01

    Few data are available on the efficacy of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in postoperative patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF). Seventy-two patients coming from the surgical wards with postoperative ARF were retrospectively evaluated. The major characteristics of patients who were intubated were compared with the characteristics of those who were not after a trial of NIV. Predictive factors for failure of NIV were analysed. Out of 72 patients with ARF after surgery who were treated with NIV, 42 avoided intubation (58%). On a univariate analysis, a decrease in the paO2/FiO2 ratio after 1 h of NIV (223 +/- 84 to 160 +/- 68 mmHg, P < 0.05) was associated with NIV failure and need for tracheal intubation because of nosocomial pneumonia and an increased simplified acute physiology score (SAPS) 2. In a multivariate analysis, nosocomial pneumonia [odds ratio (OR) 4.189; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.383-12.687] and SAPS 2 higher than 35 (OR 4.969; 95% CI 1.627-15.172) were independent predictive factors of NIV failure. NIV success was associated with a reduced ICU stay (16.8 vs. 26.1 days, P < 0.001). NIV could be considered in postoperative patients who presented with ARF. Nosocomial pneumonia is predictive of NIV failure.

  7. Postoperative Infection After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Gobbi, Alberto; Karnatzikos, Georgios; Chaurasia, Sanyam; Abhishek, Mudhigere; Bulgherhoni, Erica; Lane, John

    2015-01-01

    Context: Infection after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is uncommon; if it occurs, it can lead to disastrous complications. Objective: To analyze post-ACLR infections and identify related complications to provide the most effective treatment protocol. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: Among approximately 1850 ACLRs performed by a single surgeon over the past 20 years, 7 cases of post-ACLR infection were identified (incidence, 0.37%). Five patients presenting with low-severity infection were successfully treated without any complication or residual functional disability. The remaining 2 patients, although successfully treated, presented with minor residual limitations. From a literature review, 16 studies including 246 cases of infection were reported among 35,795 ACLRs, making the rate of infection 0.68% (range, 0.14%-2.6%). Conclusion: With proper treatment protocols, post-ACLR infection is rare but can compromise outcomes. PMID:26603553

  8. Postoperative management for PIP joint pyrocarbon arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Feldscher, Sheri B

    2010-01-01

    Although protocols provide therapists with the scaffolding with which to build a treatment program, it is the judgment, knowledge, and skills of the therapist, and how the one uses such information that allows for modification of a protocol when deemed necessary. This therapist outlines how she modified a postsurgical protocol by using anatomy, biomechanics, the literature, and clinical judgment. This article describes the methodical approach used to successfully modify a standard postsurgical protocol after a PIP joint arthroplasty.

  9. A Practical Approach to Preventing Postoperative Recurrence in Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Hashash, Jana G; Regueiro, Miguel

    2016-05-01

    Postoperative Crohn's disease recurrence remains common, and preventing additional surgery remains a challenge. A critical step to postoperative management of Crohn's disease is being able to identify patients who should receive immediate postoperative therapy from the patients who can wait for recurrence prior to starting medications. All patients, regardless of their risk for recurrence, are advised to undergo a colonoscopy at 6 to 12 months after surgery to evaluate for endoscopic evidence of Crohn's disease. Further management of patients depends on symptoms and the presence or absence of endoscopic recurrence.

  10. [Value of adjuvant physiotherapy in postoperative pain management].

    PubMed

    Bullmann, V; Weber, T P; Kienle, B; Schulte, T L

    2008-10-01

    In times of limited financial and human resources the application of adjuvant physiotherapy postoperatively in orthopaedic patients requires reevaluation. In the early postoperative course physiotherapy improves the patients' mobility. However, it is not able to reduce the need for pain medication. It is intended to minimize complications and to mobilize and motivate the patients early. In contrast, massages are of minor importance in the immediate postoperative course and are applied only in a few selected cases. Cryotherapy plays a major role especially after shoulder and knee surgery. On the other hand, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and acupuncture are applied only in selected patients after orthopaedic surgery, e.g., after limb amputation.

  11. Postoperative Necrotizing Scleritis: A Report of Four Cases

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sudipta; Saurabh, Kumar; Biswas, Jyotrimay

    2014-01-01

    Postoperative necrotizing scleritis should be considered in cases of persistent localized postoperative inflammation following all forms of surgical trauma. We present the history, clinical findings, and follow-up data of four patients with postoperative necrotizing scleritis. The clinical records of four patients who developed scleritis following ocular surgery were retrospectively reviewed. The first step in managing necrotizing scleritis is to rule out infectious etiology. Surgically induced necrotizing scleritis is an immune-mediated condition that can coexist with concomitant infectious condition, i.e. endophthalmitis, but response to immunosuppression leads to resolution of the disease and verifies the diagnosis. PMID:25371644

  12. Factors affecting postoperative blood loss in children undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Faraoni, David; Van der Linden, Philippe

    2014-02-11

    We hypothesized that the influence of cyanotic disease on postoperative blood loss is closely related to age in children undergoing cardiac surgery. Here, we demonstrate that the presence of a cyanotic disease is associated with increased postoperative blood loss in children aged 1 to 6 months. Children with cyanotic disease and aged<1 month who received fresh frozen plasma during cardiopulmonary bypass had less postoperative blood loss and higher maximal clot firmness on FIBTEM than cyanotic children from all other groups. Additional studies are needed to define optimal pathophysiology-based management in children undergoing cardiac surgery.

  13. [Pre- and postoperative ocular blood flow in transconjunctival orbital surgery].

    PubMed

    Grusha, Ia O; Kiseleva, T N; Danilov, S S; Markosian, A G

    2014-01-01

    to evaluate the pre- and postoperative ocular blood flow in patients with post-traumatic orbital deformities who underwent transconjunctival orbital reconstruction. A total of 40 patients with post-traumatic deformities of the inferior and medial orbital walls were examined before and after transconjunctival "Alloplant" implantation to the orbit. Before the surgery, blood flow deficiency in a. ophthalmica and elevation in peripheral vascular resistance were found in all patients. Postoperatively, orbital hemodynamic parameters were restored and remained stable over the whole follow-up period. Post-traumatic disturbances of regional blood flow are revealed and postoperative changes of the relevant parameters are assessed.

  14. Promoting safety of postoperative orthopaedic patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Veney, Amy J

    2013-01-01

    Orthopaedic patients with obstructive sleep apnea are at risk for postoperative complications related to administration of pain medications, anxiolytics, and antiemetics. They are more likely to experience respiratory and cardiac complications, be transferred to an intensive care unit, or have an increased length of stay in the hospital. This informational article is for nurses who care for postoperative orthopaedic patients with obstructive sleep apnea. The focus is on promoting patient safety through communication, vigilant postoperative sedation assessment, and nursing interventions that include appropriate patient positioning, patient education, and involving patients and their families in care.

  15. Preoperative and postoperative care in cosmetic laser resurfacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Adam T.; Becker, Daniel G.

    2001-05-01

    Advances in laser technology have allowed the application of lasers to cosmetic facial skin resurfacing. While this application has been extremely advantageous to patients, the development of pre- and postoperative therapeutic regimens was necessary to mitigate potential complications associated with laser resurfacing. Potential complications of laser resurfacing include prolonged postoperative erythema, hyperpigmentation, hypopigmentation, herpetic, bacterial or candidal infection, and other concerns including scarring and abnormal wound healing. In this report we review the state of the art of preoperative and postoperative care for cosmetic laser resurfacing.

  16. Remote Postoperative Epidural Hematoma after Brain Tumor Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Ho-Jung; Park, Jae-Sung; Jeun, Sin-Soo

    2015-01-01

    A postoperative epidural hematoma (EDH) is a serious and embarrassing complication, which usually occurs at the site of operation after intracranial surgery. However, remote EDH is relatively rare. We report three cases of remote EDH after brain tumor surgery. All three cases seemed to have different causes of remote postoperative EDH; however, all patients were managed promptly and showed excellent outcomes. Although the exact mechanism of remote postoperative EDH is unknown, surgeons should be cautious of the speed of lowering intracranial pressure and implement basic procedures to prevent this hazardous complication of brain tumor surgery. PMID:26605271

  17. MRI Markers of Neurodegenerative and Neurovascular Changes in Relation to Postoperative Delirium and Postoperative Cognitive Decline.

    PubMed

    Kant, Ilse M J; de Bresser, Jeroen; van Montfort, Simone J T; Slooter, Arjen J C; Hendrikse, Jeroen

    2017-06-28

    Postoperative delirium (POD) and postoperative cognitive decline (POCD) are common in elderly patients. The aim of the present review was to explore the association of neurodegenerative and neurovascular changes with the occurrence of POD and POCD. Fifteen MRI studies were identified by combining multiple search terms for POD, POCD, and brain imaging. These studies described a total of 1,422 patients and were all observational in design. Neurodegenerative changes (global and regional brain volumes) did not show a consistent association with the occurrence of POD (four studies) or POCD (two studies). In contrast, neurovascular changes (white matter hyperintensities and cerebral infarcts) were more consistently associated with the occurrence of POD (seven studies) and POCD (five studies). In conclusion, neurovascular changes appear to be consistently associated with the occurrence of POD and POCD, and may identify patients at increased risk of these conditions. Larger prospective studies are needed to study the consistency of these findings and to unravel the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Postoperative executive function in adult moyamoya disease: a preliminary study of its functional anatomy and behavioral correlates.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yu; Li, Yan-Jiang; Guo, Qi-Hao; Liu, Xing-Dang; Liu, Zhuang; Ni, Wei; Su, Jia-Bin; Yang, Heng; Jiang, Han-Qiang; Xu, Bin; Gu, Yu-Xiang; Mao, Ying

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE Chronic frontal hemodynamic disturbances are associated with executive dysfunction in adult patients with moyamoya disease (MMD). However, the impact of surgical revascularization on executive dysfunction and its underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine the postoperative radiological correlates of cognitive improvement and thereby explore its underlying mechanism. METHODS Fourteen patients who met the inclusion criteria were identified at Huashan Hospital, were operated on, and were successfully followed up for 6 months. Postoperative changes in cortical perfusion and regional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) were examined by SPECT and resting-state functional MRI, respectively. Executive function was evaluated by 2 tests (Trail Making Test Part B and the summation of executive subtests of Memory and Executive Screening [MES-EX]). Follow-up neuropsychological outcomes were then correlated with radiological changes to identify nodes functioning as leading contributors to postoperative executive outcomes. RESULTS All patients underwent successful unilateral bypass procedures, with some operations performed on the left side and some on the right side. At the 6-month follow-up, the baseline and follow-up test scores for the different sides did not differ significantly. The group with good collaterals (Matsushima Grade A, 9 patients) exhibited significantly increased postoperative perfusion (change in [△] hemodynamics) in bilateral frontal (left, p = 0.009; right, p = 0.003) and left parietal lobe (p = 0.014). The Spearman's correlation test suggested that only the right frontal lobe exhibited significant positive postoperative radiological correlates with cognitive performance (△MES-EX vs △hemodynamics, r = 0.620, p = 0.018; △MES-EX vs △ALFF, r = 0.676, p = 0.008; △hemodynamics vs △ALFF, r = 0.547, p = 0.043). Subsequent regional ALFF analysis revealed that the right dorsolateral prefrontal

  19. Successful grant writing.

    PubMed

    Koppelman, Gerard H; Holloway, John W

    2012-03-01

    Obtaining research funding is central to the research process. However many (clinician-) scientists receive little, or no, training in the process of writing a successful grant application. In an era of reductions in research budgets and application success rates, the ability to construct a well presented, clear, articulate proposal is becoming more important than ever. Obtaining grants is a method to achieve your long term research goals. If you are able to formulate these long term goals, it is relevant to explore the market and investigate all potential grant opportunities. Finally, we will provide an outline of key elements of successful research grants.

  20. Full-thickness myotomy is associated with higher rate of postoperative gastroesophageal reflux disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xue-Hong; Tan, Yu-Yong; Zhu, Hong-Yi; Li, Chen-Jie; Liu, De-Liang

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare long-term occurrence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) between two different types of peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) for achalasia. METHODS We included all patients with achalasia who underwent POEM at our hospital from August 2011 to October 2012 and had complete GERD evaluation with ≥ 3 years of follow-up. They were divided into circular or full-thickness myotomy groups according to the depth of myotomy. Demographics, Eckardt score, manometry results, 24-h pH monitoring, and GERD symptoms were recorded and compared between the two groups. RESULTS We studied 56 patients (32 circular myotomy and 24 full-thickness myotomy) with complete GERD evaluation. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of treatment success (defined as Eckardt score ≤ 3), postoperative Eckardt score, mean basal lower esophageal sphincter pressure, and 4-s integrated relaxation pressure (4sIRP). Postoperative abnormal esophageal acid exposure was found in 25 patients (44.6%). A total of 13 patients (23.2%) had GERD symptoms and 12 had esophagitis (21.4%). Clinically relevant GERD (abnormal esophageal acid exposure associated with GERD symptoms and/or esophagitis) was diagnosed in 13 patients (23.2%). Multivariate analysis revealed that full-thickness myotomy and low level of postoperative 4sIRP were predictive factors for clinically relevant GERD. CONCLUSION Efficacy and manometry are comparable between achalasia patients treated with circular or full-thickness myotomy. But patients with full-thickness myotomy and low postoperative 4sIRP have more GERD. PMID:27895430

  1. Postoperative characteristics of infants who developed necrotizing enterocolitis with different postnatal ages

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaowen; Li, Lei; Wang, Yan; Deng, Chun; Guo, Chunbao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Our goal was to investigate the surgical procedures, postoperative complications, and survival with regard to different onset timing of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). We performed a retrospective review of medical records with a diagnosis of NEC between 2005 and 2016. The cutoff was set at 10 days for early onset ≤10 days and late onset over 10 days. Propensity score matching was performed to adjust for any baseline differences. In 53 paired patients, clinical outcomes, including, mortality, postoperative complications, and length of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stay, were evaluated on the basis of early or late-onset NEC. Successful 1:1 matching propensity score matching was performed with 208 infants. Mortality for early-onset NEC infants was lower than that of early late NEC infants (P = .026). A lower overall postoperative complication rate, including infectious complications [19 (35.8) vs 29 (54.7); odds ratio, 0.462, confidence interval (CI) 0.212–1.008, P = .039], was noted in patients with early-onset NEC compared with infants with late-onset NEC. NICU stay and major complication were marginal different between the 2 groups. Comparison of feeding outcomes revealed that the time to achieve full enteral feeds was significantly longer for those with late-onset NEC (18.1 ± 11.5 vs 26.3 ± 15.6, P = .008). The infants who develop NEC after 10 days of life do influence postoperative outcome survival or other clinically important outcomes after laparotomy. PMID:28796074

  2. Robotic rectovesical fistula repair: a successful approach.

    PubMed

    Oderda, Marco; Bonet, Xavier; Campobasso, Davide; Gaston, Richard

    2014-08-01

    To describe our technique of robotic rectovesical fistula (RVF) repair through the report of a case unique for its pathogenesis. RVF is a rare but devastating complication of prostatic surgery and can nowadays be managed with a minimally invasive approach. We describe in detail all the steps of our robotic RVF repair, performed on a 76-year-old man who developed RVF after radical prostatectomy. The RVF had been induced by tissue erosion due to Hem-o-lok(®) (Teleflex Medical, Research Triangle Park, NC) clips and had been unsuccessfully treated with an over-the-scope clip. Our surgery was successful with an operative time of 70 minutes and an estimated blood loss of 150 mL. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged on postoperative Day 3. Our technique of robotic RVF repair was safe and effective. Care must be taken when considering new, endoscopic devices for the cure of RVF. A prospective study with a long follow-up is advised to validate our results.

  3. Predicting postoperative intraocular lens position and refraction.

    PubMed

    Preussner, Paul-Rolf; Wahl, Jochen; Weitzel, Daniela; Berthold, Silke; Kriechbaum, Katharina; Findl, Oliver

    2004-10-01

    To predict the postoperative IOL position and refraction as accurately as possible independent of individualization of the parameters. Universitats-Augenklinik, Mainz, Germany, and Vienna, Austria. One patient cohort (189 eyes, Vienna) was used to calibrate the prediction method, which was then applied to a second cohort (65 eyes, Mainz). All calculations were based on consistent numerical ray tracing of the pseudophakic eye using the original manufacturer's intraocular lens (IOL) data (radii, thickness, refractive index). A new algorithm to predict IOL position was developed. Ultrasound (US) axial lengths were calibrated relative to partial coherence interferometry (PCI). Corneal radii extracted from topography were checked against radii measured with the IOLMaster (Zeiss) and by Littmann keratometry. Zero mean prediction errors for IOL position and refraction were obtained without adjusting the parameters and with PCI lengths or US lengths calibrated relative to the PCI values. There was no significant loss of accuracy of US data compared to PCI data. Corneal radii extracted from topography were slightly but statistically significantly different from the Littmann values, and they were more accurate than the latter with respect to prediction error. The measured mean central IOL position (distance from posterior corneal surface) for all IOL types was 4.580 mm, a value very close to the mean recalculated from A-constants (4.587 mm). The difference in the individual central IOL position relative to the mean value depended only linearly (ie, no higher orders such as square or cubic are needed) on axial length, with the mean central IOL position as a free parameter. This parameter should be 4.6 +/- 0.2 mm (the same value as independently measured or recalculated) to obtain zero steepness of the prediction error as a function of axial length, producing zero bias for long and short eyes. Calculation errors from formulas and confusing adjusting parameters can be avoided

  4. [Postoperative peritonitis: pronostic factors of mortality].

    PubMed

    Marzougui, Y; Missaoui, K; Hannachi, Z; Dhibi, Y; Kouka, J; Dziri, C; Houissa, M

    2014-01-01

    The postoperative peritonitis (POP) remains formidable conditions due to a high mortality rate of between 20 and 80%. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors for mortality. This study is a retrospective, descriptive analysis carried out over a period of 09 years (1/1/2003 - 30/11/2011) and interesting 102 patients supported for POP following general surgery. Achieved in department of General Surgery B Charles Nicolle hospital Tunis. The parameters measured included epidemiological data, data related to the Initial Surgical Intervention and reoperation for POP, terms of management and evolution. Bacteriological data were also seized. The incidence of POP was 0.90%. The average age of our patients was 58 +/- 19 years with a sex ratio of 1.08. Forty-seven percent of our patients belonged to the ASAII class. The initial operation was performed urgently in 49 patients (48%) with a majority belonging to the class II Altemeier (49.01%). Colorectal pathology (373%) and hepatobiliay (176%) were the most frequent reasons for the initial intervention. The frequency of clinical signs were fever (75.5%), hypothermia (6.9%), abdominal pain (725%), abdominal distension (46.1%), productive gastric aspiration (30.4%), abdominal defense (25.5%), externalizing the digestive fluid (25.5%), vomiting (19.6%), diarrhea (12.7%), tachycardia (569%), oliguria (42.2%), respiratory failure (40.2%), hypotension (35.3%), neuropsychiatric disorders ( 23.5%) and jaundice (69%). The treatment period was 2.95 +/- 3.16 days. The surgical recovery time was 78 days +/- 5.66. At the time of reoperation, the APACHE II score was 8.43 +/- 6.26 and 25.1 +/- MPI score 8.53. The POP was generalized in 52.9% of cases with purulent peritoneal fluid in 51% of cases. The most common cause was the dropping of the anastomosis (59.8%). Empirical antibiotic therapy was appropriate in 69.44 % of cases. The mortality rate was 39.2%. Multivariate analysis using multiple logistic regression identified the

  5. Goodbye Career, Hello Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komisar, Randy

    2000-01-01

    Success in today's economy means throwing out the old career rules. The "noncareer" career is driven by passion for the work and has the fluidity and flexibility needed in the contemporary workplace. (JOW)

  6. SUCCESS Data and Information

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-11-19

    ... SUbsonic aircraft: Contrail & Clouds Effects Special Study ( SUCCESS ) is a NASA field program using ... aircraft and ground based measurements to investigate the effects of subsonic aircraft on contrails, cirrus clouds and atmospheric ...

  7. Goodbye Career, Hello Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komisar, Randy

    2000-01-01

    Success in today's economy means throwing out the old career rules. The "noncareer" career is driven by passion for the work and has the fluidity and flexibility needed in the contemporary workplace. (JOW)

  8. [Responsibilities of the resident in anesthesiology and postoperative care].

    PubMed

    Barrios Flores, L F

    2004-01-01

    Among medical specialties, anesthesiology/postoperative care has one of the highest rates of malpractice claims. This article treats the responsibilities of interns and residents in anesthesiology, their supervisors, and the institutions where they practice and receive training.

  9. [PRINCIPLES OF POSTOPERATIVE DRUG THERAPY OF COMPLICATED DUODENAL ULCERS].

    PubMed

    Denisova, E V; Nazarov, V E

    2015-01-01

    The article highlights the principles of individualized drug therapy of complicated duodenal ulcers in the postoperative period, based on the removal of the pathophysiological changes that occurred after different types of medical or surgical benefits.

  10. Aqueous acupuncture for postoperative pain--a matched controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Chen, S C; Lu, S N; Lai, C T; Jean, J Y; Hsiao, C L; Hsu, P T

    1991-09-01

    The analgesic effects of acupuncture are well-documented. Aqueous acupuncture, or point injection, is a conveniently modified modern acupuncture method. This matched controlled trial was carried out to evaluate the effects of aqueous acupuncture in postoperative pain control. A total of 12 patients were selected as age-, sex- and operative-style-matched controls. In treating group, 2 to 5 ml of 20% glucose solution was injected into Ho-Ku (LI 4) and Yang-Ling-Chuan (GB 34) when patients had regained conciousness from operation anesthesia. The pain intensity were recorded as score system included verbal, sleep disturbance and use of narcotics. In comparisons with the control group, the intensity of postoperative pain, and the amounts and frequency of narcotics used were significantly lower in the study group, especially for the first 12 postoperative hours. Aqueous acupuncture is a convenient and effective procedure in postoperative pain control.

  11. The effect of hospital organizational characteristics on postoperative complications.

    PubMed

    Knight, Margaret

    2013-12-01

    To determine if there is a relationship between the risk of postoperative complications and the nonclinical hospital characteristics of bed size, ownership structure, relative urbanicity, regional location, teaching status, and area income status. This study involved a secondary analysis of 2006 administrative hospital data from a number of U.S. states. This data, gathered annually by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) via the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) Healthcare Utilization Project (HCUP), was analyzed using probit regressions to measure the effects of several nonclinical hospital categories on seven diagnostic groupings. The study model included postoperative complications as well as additional potentially confounding variables. The results showed mixed outcomes for each of the hospital characteristic groupings. Subdividing these groupings to correspond with the HCUP data analysis allowed a greater understanding of how hospital characteristics' may affect postoperative outcomes. Nonclinical hospital characteristics do affect the various postoperative complications, but they do so inconsistently.

  12. Motor neurone disease presenting as postoperative respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Walker, H C; Dinsdale, D; Abernethy, D A

    2006-02-01

    We present the case of a woman who developed respiratory failure in the postoperative period secondary to previously unsuspected motor neurone disease. This case highlights the difficulty in detecting subtle neuromuscular weakness during anaesthetic pre-assessment.

  13. Special postoperative diet orders: Irrational, obsolete, and imprudent.

    PubMed

    Sriram, Krishnan; Ramasubramanian, Vidhya; Meguid, Michael M

    2016-04-01

    There are no indications to prescribed special diets for postoperative patients. Low-sodium and low-fat or low-cholesterol diets are examples of restricted diets, especially in patients with heart disease and atherosclerosis. These restricted diets are unpalatable. Postoperative nausea, paralytic ileus, and vomiting caused by residual anesthetic effects and opioids used for pain control further contribute to the problem. Long-term adherence to these diets is necessary to derive benefits. Prescribing regular and palatable diets in the immediate postoperative period to meet protein and energy goals is important for wound healing and is commensurate with best clinical practices. In the following, we review the pertinent literature and offer clinical evidence that routine special diet orders for postoperative patients are not necessary.

  14. Evaluation of aromatherapy in treating postoperative pain: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung T; Wajda, Michael; Cuff, Germaine; Serota, David; Schlame, Michael; Axelrod, Deborah M; Guth, Amber A; Bekker, Alex Y

    2006-12-01

    This study compared the analgesic efficacy of postoperative lavender oil aromatherapy in 50 patients undergoing breast biopsy surgery. Twenty-five patients received supplemental oxygen through a face mask with two drops of 2% lavender oil postoperatively. The remainder of the patients received supplemental oxygen through a face mask with no lavender oil. Outcome variables included pain scores (a numeric rating scale from 0 to 10) at 5, 30, and 60 minutes postoperatively, narcotic requirements in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU), patient satisfaction with pain control, as well as time to discharge from the PACU. There were no significant differences in narcotic requirements and recovery room discharge times between the two groups. Postoperative lavender oil aromatherapy did not significantly affect pain scores. However, patients in the lavender group reported a higher satisfaction rate with pain control than patients in the control group (P = 0.0001).

  15. [Postoperative nocardiosis caused by Nocardia otitidiscaviarum: pitfalls and delayed diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Bonnet, F; Donay, J-L; Fieux, F; Marie, O; de Kerviler, E; Jacob, L

    2007-01-01

    Nocardiosis is an uncommon infection, which is exceptionally present as a postoperative event. A case of postoperative pulmonary and cerebro-meningeal infection caused by Nocardia otitidiscaviarum after a leg amputation in a diabetic patient is reported. Diagnosis has been delayed and the clinical, radiological and microbiological causes of this delay are assessed from a quality of care management point of view. Recommendations are proposed regarding physicians' role and optimized microbiological procedures for recognition of slowly growing nocardial strains.

  16. Postoperative colonic motility and tone in patients after colorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Huge, A; Kreis, M E; Zittel, T T; Becker, H D; Starlinger, M J; Jehle, E C

    2000-07-01

    Colonic motility is crucial for the resolution of postoperative ileus. However, few data are available on postoperative colonic motility and no data on postoperative colonic tone. We aimed to characterize postoperative colonic tone and motility in patients. Nineteen patients were investigated with combined barostat and manometry recordings after left colonic surgery. During surgery a combined recording catheter was placed in the colon with two barostat bags and four manometry channels cephalad to the anastomosis. Recordings were performed twice daily from Day 1 to Day 3 after surgery. Manometry showed an increasing colonic motility index, which was a mean (+/- standard error of the mean) of 37 +/- 5 mmHg/minute on Day 1, 87 +/- 19 mmHg/minute on Day 2, and 102 +/- 13 mmHg/minute on Day 3 (P < 0.05 for Day 1 vs. Day 2 and Day 2 vs. Day 3). Low barostat bag volumes indicating a high colonic tone were observed on Day 1 after surgery and increased subsequently (barostat bag I was 19 +/- 4, 32 +/- 6, and 32 +/- 6 ml; barostat bag II was 13 +/- 1, 19 +/- 3, and 22 +/- 5 ml on Days 1, 2, and 3, respectively; for both barostat bags P < 0.05 for Day 1 vs. Day 2 but not Day 2 vs. Day 3). Colonic motility increased during the postoperative course. The low barostat bag volumes indicated a high colonic tone postoperatively which would correspond to a contracted rather than to a distended colon. High colonic tone postoperatively may be relevant for pharmacologic treatment of postoperative ileus.

  17. How military nurses rationalize their postoperative pain assessment decisions.

    PubMed

    Harper, Phil; Ersser, Steven; Gobbi, Mary

    2007-09-01

    This paper is a report of a study to explore how military nurses rationalize their postoperative pain assessment decisions, particularly when these differ from patients' pain self-reports. Postoperative pain is a complex phenomenon influenced by many factors that make assessment difficult. Nurses are taught to believe what patients say about their pain. However, their attitudes to pain are influenced by their cultural background and they may disagree with patients' self-reports. Military nurses belong to a military culture with different pain attitudes that may also influence their postoperative pain assessment. An ethnomethodological ethnography study was carried out in 2003. A purposive sample of 29 British military surgical/orthopaedic Registered Nurses were interviewed to identify their taken-for-granted assumptions and commonsense cultural knowledge surrounding postoperative pain assessment. The data were analysed using a systematic process of inductive reasoning aided by Non-numerical, Unstructured Data for Indexing, Searching and Theorizing (QSR N6, NUD*IST). Participants told two distinct stories in their postoperative pain narratives. The first, the cultural story, described how military nurses normally assess postoperative pain and revealed taken-for-granted assumptions surrounding this assessment. However, when military nurses believe that patients over- or under-report their pain, the cultural story was challenged through a collective story in which nurses used their commonsense knowledge to account for these differences. Postoperative pain assessment within a military culture is complex, but all nurses need to be aware that their socialization into different nursing cultures may influence their attitudes to postoperative pain assessment.

  18. Factors associated with postoperative sensitivity of amalgam restorations.

    PubMed

    Al-Omari, Qasem D; Al-Omari, Wael M; Omar, Ridwaan

    2009-01-01

    Postoperative sensitivity is a common clinical problem with restorative treatments. To identify factors that may be predictive of reported postoperative sensitivity to cold following placement of class I and II amalgam restorations in primary carious lesions. One hundred and twenty patients were recruited. Patients were telephoned on days two and seven postoperatively and asked about sensitivity to cold and its intensity. If sensitivity remained up to day seven, patients were also contacted on days 30 and 90. Of the 51 teeth that had sensitivity at day two, 17 experienced mild pain, 26 were moderately painful and eight had severe pain. The percentage of females experiencing postoperative sensitivity was higher than that of males at days two, seven and 30 (P=0.000, 0.016 and 0.028, respectively). Younger patients reported significantly more postoperative sensitivity than older ones at day two (P=0.010) but not at days seven and 30 (P=0.157 and 0.877). Postoperative sensitivity did not differ among the different tooth types at days two, seven and 30 (P=0.219, 0.236 and 0.338, respectively), nor with respect to class I and class II cavities at days two, seven and 30 (P=0.219, 0.769 and 0.259, respectively). Patients who had some pre-operative pain had significantly more postoperative sensitivity (P=0.000, 0.000, and 0.004 at days two, seven and 30, respectively). Regression analysis suggested that younger patients, females, and pre-operative sensitivity to cold might be predictive of postoperative sensitivity following placement of amalgam restorations.

  19. The role of postoperative chest radiography in pediatric tracheotomy.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, J S; Sulek, M; de Jong, A; Friedman, E M

    2001-07-30

    A postoperative chest radiograph has traditionally been obtained after tracheotomies to evaluate for the presence of a pneumothorax and to assess tube position. Several recent studies in adults have questioned the usefulness of routine postoperative chest radiography in uncomplicated cases, but the role of post-operative chest radiography in pediatric patients has not been previously reviewed. We performed this study to examine the clinical utility of post-tracheotomy chest radiography in pediatric patients and determine if this routine practice impacts patient management enough to merit continued usage. A retrospective review was performed of 200 consecutive pediatric patients who underwent tracheotomies by the otolaryngology service in a tertiary care pediatric hospital from January 1994 to June 1999. All patients received postoperative chest radiographs. Five of 200 patients had a new postoperative radiographic finding, with three requiring interventions. Two patients required chest tube placement for pneumothorax, and one patient required tracheostomy tube change for repositioning. Fifty-one patients, including both pneumothoraces, exhibited clinical signs of pneumothorax (decreased breath sounds or oxygen saturation) in the immediate postoperative period. Chest X-ray ruled out a pneumothorax in the remaining 49 patients. The majority of these 51 patients were less than 2 years old (94%, P=0.002) or weighed less than 17 kg (89%, P=0.004). Postoperative chest X-rays yielded clinically relevant information in 168 patients that fell into one or more of four high risk categories: age less than 2, weight less than 17 kg, emergent procedures, or concomitant central line placement. Avoiding chest X-rays in the remaining 32 patients would have resulted in potential savings of $5000, which does not reflect the actuarial cost of a missed complication. Since the majority of our patients (84%) fell into a high-risk category, we feel it would be prudent to continue

  20. Postoperative Copeptin Concentration Predicts Diabetes Insipidus After Pituitary Surgery.

    PubMed

    Winzeler, Bettina; Zweifel, Christian; Nigro, Nicole; Arici, Birsen; Bally, Martina; Schuetz, Philipp; Blum, Claudine Angela; Kelly, Christopher; Berkmann, Sven; Huber, Andreas; Gentili, Fred; Zadeh, Gelareh; Landolt, Hans; Mariani, Luigi; Müller, Beat; Christ-Crain, Mirjam

    2015-06-01

    Copeptin is a stable surrogate marker of vasopressin release; the peptides are stoichiometrically secreted from the neurohypophysis due to elevated plasma osmolality or nonosmotic stress. We hypothesized that following stress from pituitary surgery, patients with neurohypophyseal damage and eventual diabetes insipidus (DI) would not exhibit the expected pronounced copeptin elevation. The objective was to evaluate copeptin's accuracy to predict DI following pituitary surgery. This was a prospective multicenter observational cohort study. Three Swiss or Canadian referral centers were used. Consecutive pituitary surgery patients were included. Copeptin was measured postoperatively daily until discharge. Logistic regression models and diagnostic performance measures were calculated to assess relationships of postoperative copeptin levels and DI. Of 205 patients, 50 (24.4%) developed postoperative DI. Post-surgically, median [25th-75th percentile] copeptin levels were significantly lower in patients developing DI vs those not showing this complication: 2.9 [1.9-7.9] pmol/L vs 10.8 [5.2-30.4] pmol/L; P < .001. Logistic regression analysis revealed strong association between postoperative copeptin concentrations and DI even after considering known predisposing factors for DI: adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 1.41 (1.16-1.73). DI was seen in 22/27 patients with copeptin <2.5 pmol/L (positive predictive value, 81%; specificity, 97%), but only 1/40 with copeptin >30 pmol/L (negative predictive value, 95%; sensitivity, 94%) on postoperative day 1. Lack of standardized DI diagnostic criteria; postoperative blood samples for copeptin obtained during everyday care vs at fixed time points. In patients undergoing pituitary procedures, low copeptin levels despite surgical stress reflect postoperative DI, whereas high levels virtually exclude it. Copeptin therefore may become a novel tool for early goal-directed management of postoperative DI.

  1. Comparison of methods to facilitate postoperative bowel function.

    PubMed

    Crainic, Christina; Erickson, Kathie; Gardner, Janet; Haberman, Sheri; Patten, Pam; Thomas, Pat; Hays, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Improving postoperative return of bowel function after abdominal surgery is an important nursing and medical goal. One promising intervention to achieve this goal is to have patients chew gum several times per day in the early postoperative period to stimulate the cephalic-vagal reflex and bowel peristalsis. A study to determine if return of gastrointestinal function after abdominal surgery could be hastened by the simple intervention of chewing gum or sucking on hard candy three times per day is described.

  2. Clinical recommendations for postoperative care after heart transplantation in children: 21 years of a single-center experience

    PubMed Central

    Azeka, Estela; Jatene, Marcelo Biscegli; Tanaka, Ana Cristina; Galas, Filomena Regina; Hajjar, Ludhmilla Abrahao; Miura, Nana; Auler, Jose Otávio Costa

    2014-01-01

    Heart transplantation is an option for children with complex congenital heart disease and cardiomyopathies. A patient's quality of life and long-term survival depend on successful management of the surgical complications and adverse side effects of immunosuppression. The purpose of this review was to summarize the practical management of postoperative care in this patient population and to make recommendations for the future. PMID:24860859

  3. What is the Effect of No Endodontic Debridement on Postoperative Pain for Symptomatic Teeth with Pulpal Necrosis?

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Raquel; Drum, Melissa; Reader, Al; Nusstein, John; Fowler, Sara; Beck, Mike

    2016-03-01

    Patients without a dentist or access to care may present to emergency rooms with pain. They are often prescribed medications until they can be treated. There are no studies to show if emergency endodontic debridement is better than giving medications during this symptomatic period. The purpose of this prospective, randomized study was to compare debridement versus no debridement on postoperative pain in emergency patients with symptomatic teeth, a pulpal diagnosis of necrosis, and a periapical radiolucency. Ninety-five patients presenting with moderate to severe pain were analyzed. The patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: group 1 received anesthesia and endodontic debridement, and group 2 received anesthesia but no debridement. At the end of the appointment, all patients were given ibuprofen/acetaminophen. If needed, they could receive an escape medication. Patients received a 5-day diary to record their pain levels and medication taken. Success was defined as no or mild postoperative pain and no use of escape medication. Success data were analyzed using a logistic regression. Both groups had a decrease in postoperative pain and medication use over the 5 days. The debridement group had a significantly higher success rate than the no debridement group. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups with respect to escape drug use. Patients receiving debridement or no debridement had a decrease in postoperative pain over the 5 days. Debridement resulted in a statistically higher success rate, but there was no significant difference in the need for escape medication. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Postoperative temporary neurological deficits in adults with moyamoya disease.

    PubMed

    Ohue, Shiro; Kumon, Yoshiaki; Kohno, Kanehisa; Watanabe, Hideaki; Iwata, Shiinji; Ohnishi, Takanori

    2008-03-01

    Several authors have reported temporary neurologic deterioration after revascularization surgery in some patients with moyamoya disease. The present study examined the incidence and mechanisms of PONDs in adult patients with moyamoya disease. Postoperative neurological deficits were retrospectively evaluated 1 month or less postoperatively on 32 hemispheric sides of 17 symptomatic adult patients with moyamoya disease treated surgically with direct and/or indirect revascularization. Various PONDs were observed in 9 sides (28%) from 7 patients 1 month or less after surgery. Symptoms were recognized in 7 (39%) of 18 sides with ischemic onset, and 2 (14%) of 14 sides with hemorrhagic onset. Postoperative neurological deficits were usually observed 1 week or less after surgery, and resolved within 2 weeks. Postoperative neurological deficits were divided into 3 groups based on duration of symptoms: single transient neurologic deficits in 3 sides; repeated transient neurologic deficits in 3 sides; and continuous neurologic deficits in 3 sides. Radiologic examinations demonstrated no ischemic changes in any patients, and subsequent focal hyperemia after surgery on 3 sides. Postoperative neurological deficits occurred more frequently in younger patients or those with poor vascular response before surgery. Postoperative neurological deficits frequently occur in patients with moyamoya disease, but are temporary. These deficits appear to result from focal hyperperfusion after surgery, rather than from ischemic changes.

  5. Postoperative pain relief following hysterectomy: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Raghvendra, K. P.; Thapa, Deepak; Mitra, Sukanya; Ahuja, Vanita; Gombar, Satinder; Huria, Anju

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women experience moderate to severe postoperative pain following total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH). The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a new modality for providing postoperative pain relief in these patients. Materials and Methods: The present study was a single center, prospective randomized trial. After the Institutional Ethics Committee approval and informed consent, patients were randomized to either epidural group: Epidural block placement + general anesthesia (GA) or TAP group: Single shot TAP block + GA. Patients in both the groups received standard general anesthetic technique and intravenous tramadol patient-controlled analgesia in the postoperative period. Patients were monitored for tramadol consumption, visual analog scale (VAS) both at rest and on coughing, hemodynamics, and side effects at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 h postoperatively. Results: The total consumption of tramadol in 24 h was greater in TAP group as compared to epidural group (68.8 [25.5] vs. 5.3 [11.6] mg, P < 0.001). The VAS scores at rest and on coughing were higher in TAP group as compared to the epidural group at 6, 8, 12, and 24 h postoperatively (P < 0.05). None of the patients in either group had any adverse effects. Conclusion: Epidural analgesia provided greater tramadol-sparing effect with superior analgesia postoperatively as compared to TAP block in patients up to 24 h following TAH. PMID:27499592

  6. Laparoscopic Surgery Can Reduce Postoperative Edema Compared with Open Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dong; Gong, Jianfeng; Cao, Lei; Wei, Yao; Guo, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The study aimed to investigate the impact of laparoscopic surgery and open surgery on postoperative edema in Crohn's disease. Methods. Patients who required enterectomy were divided into open group (Group O) and laparoscopic group (Group L). Edema was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis preoperatively (PRE) and on postoperative day 3 (POD3) and postoperative day 5 (POD5). The postoperative edema was divided into slight edema and edema by an edema index, defined as the ratio of total extracellular water to total body water. Results. Patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery had better clinical outcomes and lower levels of inflammatory and stress markers. A total of 31 patients (26.05%) developed slight edema and 53 patients (44.54%) developed edema on POD3. More patients developed postoperative edema in Group O than in Group L on POD3 (p = 0.006). The value of the edema index of Group O was higher than that of Group L on POD3 and POD5 (0.402 ± 0.010 versus 0.397 ± 0.008, p = 0.001; 0.401 ± 0.009 versus 0.395 ± 0.007, p = 0.039, resp.). Conclusions. Compared with open surgery, laparoscopic surgery can reduce postoperative edema, which may contribute to the better outcomes of laparoscopic surgery over open surgery. PMID:27777583

  7. Determining the effect of intraperitoneal pethidine on postoperative pain.

    PubMed

    Jahromi, S Abbas Hosseini; Valami, S Massumeh Hosseini; Yaghoubi, Siamak

    2011-02-01

    The main problem in the postoperative period is pain relief. Adequate postoperative analgesia not only leads to patient's comfort but also decreases morbidity, nursing care and time of hospitalization. Determination of the effect of intraperitoneal pethidine on postoperative pain in women scheduled for elective tubal ligation was undertaken. In a double blind clinical trial study of 60 women, ASA I, 25-45 years old, were enrolled for elective tubal ligation in Kosar hospital in Qazvin, IRAN. Patients were randomly divided in two equal groups (30 each).One group received pethidine intraperitoneally and the other group received equal amount of placebo in the same region. The intensity of postoperative pain was evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS) for about 8 hours. Incidence of nausea was also evaluated. Data was transformed to SPSS software. Then data analysis was performed by U-test. There was no significant statistical difference with regard to age, weight, and time of operation between the two groups. The mean score of pain was significantly lower in intraperitoneal pethidine group than placebo group but the incidence of nausea in the intraperitoneal pethidine group was more than in placebo group (P < 0.05). Thus, intraperitoneal pethidine decreases postoperative pain but increases postoperative nausea.

  8. Perspectives of Swedish patients on postoperative pain management.

    PubMed

    Idvall, Ewa; Bergqvist, Anna; Silverhjelm, Jenny; Unosson, Mitra

    2008-06-01

    This study aimed to describe the perspectives of surgical patients towards postoperative pain management during their hospital stay. Thirty strategically chosen postoperative inpatients from different surgical wards in a university hospital in Sweden participated. A qualitative, descriptive approach using individual interviews was chosen. These were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed according to a qualitative content analysis. The patients' descriptions of postoperative pain management indicated that pain was a symptom that was always in focus, either because it was constantly present or because pain could appear abruptly during different activities and movements. Although the focus was on pain and an awareness that it should be relieved or avoided, the solutions were often routine, short-term, and involved the regular intake of drugs, plus additional medication if needed for an acute pain episode. From the patients' descriptions of their experience with postoperative pain management, we distinguished three categories: "patients' pain knowledge", "patients' pain management approaches", and "patients' views of health-care professionals". The findings from this study highlight important aspects of nursing care that should receive greater attention in postoperative pain management. The patients' narratives could be a valuable asset in the quality improvement of postoperative pain management as these narratives highlight episodes difficult to elicit in other ways.

  9. Timing of postoperative respiratory emergencies: when do they really occur?

    PubMed

    Weingarten, Toby N; Warner, Lindsay L; Sprung, Juraj

    2017-02-01

    Opioid-induced postoperative respiratory depression has garnered attention and calls for vigilance. However, a higher level of monitoring equates to increased use of hospital resources and is impractical to apply for all postoperative patients. Understanding the temporal pattern of postoperative respiratory emergency occurrences would allow for improved triage of monitoring resources for high-risk patients. Our objective is to describe the temporal pattern of risk of postoperative opioid-induced respiratory failure. The literature suggests that postoperative opioid-induced respiratory depression is more frequent and severe than previously believed. In response, national patient advocacy groups have proposed improved postoperative monitoring of high-risk patients, especially those with sleep-disordered breathing. Published series of patients who have had adverse respiratory events suggest that the first 24 postsurgical hours comprise the period of highest risk, with most events occurring within the first 12 h. Further, study findings have suggested that adverse respiratory events often occur shortly after administration of opioid analgesics. Emerging evidence indicates that the first postsurgical day carries the highest risk of adverse respiratory events, and this risk is often associated with opioid administration. Resources for increased monitoring should be directed to these high-risk times.

  10. Postoperative pain management and proinflammatory cytokines: animal and human studies.

    PubMed

    Shavit, Yehuda; Fridel, Keren; Beilin, Benzion

    2006-12-01

    The postoperative period is associated with neuroendocrine, metabolic, and immune alterations, which are the combined result of tissue damage, anesthesia, postoperative pain, and psychological stress. Limited evidence indicates that pain management in the postoperative period can affect the outcome of the surgery, reducing cardiac, pulmonary, and metabolic complications. Recent evidence indicates that pain and immune factors, especially proinflammatory cytokines, mutually interact and influence each other. A series of animal studies demonstrates that effective preemptive analgesia improved postoperative recovery, and this effect was enhanced by coadministration of IL-1ra together with the preemptive analgesics. Furthermore, preemptive analgesia attenuated surgery-induced PGE(2) production in the amygdala and the activation of the HPA axis. IL-1 signaling is required for the production of amygdala PGE(2) in response to surgical stress, and may thus affect the physiological and psychological aspects of surgical stress. These reports suggest that short-term effective analgesia can have long-lasting beneficial effects on surgery recovery. They further suggest that IL-1 blockade should be considered in the clinical management of pain associated with peripheral or nerve injury. Another series of human studies describes an interaction between the effectiveness of postoperative pain relief and surgery-associated immune alterations: In three separate studies, the more effective pain management technique was associated with diminished surgery-induced immune alterations, especially diminished elevation of IL-1. Reduced elevation of postoperative IL-1 and effective pain relief may both contribute to an attenuated illness response and a better surgery outcome.

  11. Outcomes associated with postoperative delirium after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Mangusan, Ralph Francis; Hooper, Vallire; Denslow, Sheri A; Travis, Lucille

    2015-03-01

    Delirium after surgery is a common condition that leads to poor outcomes. Few studies have examined the effect of postoperative delirium on outcomes after cardiac surgery. To assess the relationship between delirium after cardiac surgery and the following outcomes: length of stay after surgery, prevalence of falls, discharge to a nursing facility, discharge to home with home health services, and use of inpatient physical therapy. Electronic medical records of 656 cardiac surgery patients were reviewed retrospectively. Postoperative delirium occurred in 161 patients (24.5%). Patients with postoperative delirium had significantly longer stays (P < .001) and greater prevalence of falls (P < .001) than did patients without delirium. Patients with delirium also had a significantly greater likelihood for discharge to a nursing facility (P < .001) and need for home health services if discharged to home (P < .001) and a significantly higher need for inpatient physical therapy (P < .001). Compared with patients without postoperative delirium, patients who had this complication were more likely to have received zolpidem and benzodiazepines postoperatively and to have a history of arrhythmias, renal disease, and congestive heart failure. Patients who have delirium after cardiac surgery have poorer outcomes than do similar patients without this complication. Development and implementation of an extensive care plan to address postoperative delirium is necessary for cardiac surgery patients who are at risk for or have delirium after the surgery. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  12. Prevention of Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation: Novel and Safe Strategy Based on the Modulation of the Antioxidant System

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    Postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia following cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation. The pathogenesis of postoperative AF is multifactorial. Oxidative stress, caused by the unavoidable ischemia–reperfusion event occurring in this setting, is a major contributory factor. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-derived effects could result in lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, or DNA oxidation of cardiac tissue, thus leading to functional and structural myocardial remodeling. The vulnerability of myocardial tissue to the oxidative challenge is also dependent on the activity of the antioxidant system. High ROS levels, overwhelming this system, should result in deleterious cellular effects, such as the induction of necrosis, apoptosis, or autophagy. Nevertheless, tissue exposure to low to moderate ROS levels could trigger a survival response with a trend to reinforce the antioxidant defense system. Administration of n−3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), known to involve a moderate ROS production, is consistent with a diminished vulnerability to the development of postoperative AF. Accordingly, supplementation of n−3 PUFA successfully reduced the incidence of postoperative AF after coronary bypass grafting. This response is due to an up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes, as shown in experimental models. In turn, non-enzymatic antioxidant reinforcement through vitamin C administration prior to cardiac surgery has also reduced the postoperative AF incidence. Therefore, it should be expected that a mixed therapy result in an improvement of the cardioprotective effect by modulating both components of the antioxidant system. We present novel available evidence supporting the hypothesis of an effective prevention of postoperative AF including a two-step therapeutic strategy: n−3 PUFA followed by vitamin C supplementation to patients scheduled for cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation. The present study should

  13. Clinical value of CT-based preoperative software assisted lung lobe volumetry for predicting postoperative pulmonary function after lung surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wormanns, Dag; Beyer, Florian; Hoffknecht, Petra; Dicken, Volker; Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin; Lange, Tobias; Thomas, Michael; Heindel, Walter

    2005-04-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate a morphology-based approach for prediction of postoperative forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) after lung resection from preoperative CT scans. Fifteen Patients with surgically treated (lobectomy or pneumonectomy) bronchogenic carcinoma were enrolled in the study. A preoperative chest CT and pulmonary function tests before and after surgery were performed. CT scans were analyzed by prototype software: automated segmentation and volumetry of lung lobes was performed with minimal user interaction. Determined volumes of different lung lobes were used to predict postoperative FEV1 as percentage of the preoperative values. Predicted FEV1 values were compared to the observed postoperative values as standard of reference. Patients underwent lobectomy in twelve cases (6 upper lobes; 1 middle lobe; 5 lower lobes; 6 right side; 6 left side) and pneumonectomy in three cases. Automated calculation of predicted postoperative lung function was successful in all cases. Predicted FEV1 ranged from 54% to 95% (mean 75% +/- 11%) of the preoperative values. Two cases with obviously erroneous LFT were excluded from analysis. Mean error of predicted FEV1 was 20 +/- 160 ml, indicating absence of systematic error; mean absolute error was 7.4 +/- 3.3% respective 137 +/- 77 ml/s. The 200 ml reproducibility criterion for FEV1 was met in 11 of 13 cases (85%). In conclusion, software-assisted prediction of postoperative lung function yielded a clinically acceptable agreement with the observed postoperative values. This method might add useful information for evaluation of functional operability of patients with lung cancer.

  14. Placement of a new fully covered self-expanding metal stent for postoperative biliary strictures and leaks not responding to plastic stenting.

    PubMed

    Luigiano, Carmelo; Bassi, Marco; Ferrara, Francesco; Fabbri, Carlo; Ghersi, Stefania; Morace, Carmela; Consolo, Pierluigi; Maimone, Antonella; Galluccio, Gabriella; D'Imperio, Nicola; Cennamo, Vincenzo

    2013-04-01

    Fully covered self-expanding metal stents (FCSEMSs) are now being used to treat postoperative biliary strictures (BSs) and biliary leaks (BLs). The aim of this study was to assess the safety and effectiveness of a new FCSEMS (Wallflex) in patients with postoperative BSs and BLs after failure of traditional endoscopic treatment. Between January 2010 and December 2011, 16 patients (10 patients with postcholecystectomy BSs, 4 with postcholecystectomy BLs, and 2 with postorthotopic liver transplantation BSs) were enrolled. The technical and clinical success rate was 100%. All FCSEMSs were removed after a mean of 141 days. Complications occurred in 7 cases: 2 postprocedure pain, 2 mild pancreatitis, 1 early distal, and 2 late proximal FCSEMS migration. The overall long-term clinical success rate was 94% after a mean follow-up of 13 months. In our experience, the placement of FCSEMSs is an effective and secure method of treating refractory postoperative BSs or BLs.

  15. Ipsilateral Irradiation for Oral and Oropharyngeal Carcinoma Treated With Primary Surgery and Postoperative Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Vergeer, Marije R.; Doornaert, Patricia; Jonkman, Anja; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.; Ende, Piet L.A. van den; Jong, Martin A. de; Leemans, C. Rene; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to evaluate the contralateral nodal control (CLNC) in postoperative patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancer treated with ipsilateral irradiation of the neck and primary site. Late radiation-induced morbidity was also evaluated. Methods and Materials: The study included 123 patients with well-lateralized squamous cell carcinomas treated with surgery and unilateral postoperative irradiation. Most patients had tumors of the gingiva (41%) or buccal mucosa (21%). The majority of patients underwent surgery of the ipsilateral neck (n = 102 [83%]). The N classification was N0 in 73 cases (59%), N1 or N2a in 23 (19%), and N2b in 27 cases (22%). Results: Contralateral metastases developed in 7 patients (6%). The 5-year actuarial CLNC was 92%. The number of lymph node metastases was the only significant prognostic factor with regard to CLNC. The 5-year CLNC was 99% in N0 cases, 88% in N1 or N2a cases, and 73% in N2b cases (p = 0.008). Borderline significance (p = 0.06) was found for extranodal spread. Successful salvage could be performed in 71% of patients with contralateral metastases. The prevalence of Grade 2 or higher xerostomia was 2.6% at 5 years. Conclusions: Selected patients with oral or oropharyngeal carcinoma treated with primary surgery and postoperative ipsilateral radiotherapy have a very high CLNC with a high probability of successful salvage in case of contralateral metastases. However, bilateral irradiation should be applied in case of multiple lymph node metastases in the ipsilateral neck, particularly in the presence of extranodal spread. The incidence of radiation-induced morbidity is considerably lower as observed after bilateral irradiation.

  16. Incidence of Post-Operative Sepsis and Role of Charlson Co-Morbidity Score for Predicting Postoperative Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Emami-Razavi, Seyed Hassan; Mohammadi, Atefeh; Alibakhshi, Abbas; Jalali, Mehdi; Ghajarzadeh, Mahsa

    2016-05-01

    Sepsis and septic shock are among mortality causes following major surgeries. The Charlson co-morbidity index consists of 19 weighted categories related to chronic health which measures the burden of co-morbidity. The goal of this study was to determine the incidence of postoperative sepsis in patients underwent gynecological and gastrointestinal cancer surgeries and predictive role of Charlson index for this situation. Two hundred and twenty-two patients who underwent gynecological and gastrointestinal cancer surgeries were evaluated. Sixty-four (28.6%) patients developed SIRS postoperatively. Forty-four (19.7%) patients developed sepsis postoperatively. Mean age, duration of hospitalization and surgery, the Charlson score were significantly higher in patients who developed sepsis than other cases. Blood transfusion and Charlson score were independent predictors of sepsis occurrence. Charlson co-morbidity index is a predictive factor for developing postoperative sepsis.

  17. Postoperative infusional continuous regional analgesia. A technique for relief of postoperative pain following major extremity surgery.

    PubMed

    Malawer, M M; Buch, R; Khurana, J S; Garvey, T; Rice, L

    1991-05-01

    A new technique using postoperative infusional continuous regional analgesia (PICRA) for postoperative pain relief was investigated in 23 surgical patients treated by amputation (12 patients) or by limb-salvage resection operations (11 patients). Bupivacaine was delivered into peripheral nerve sheaths via catheters placed therein at the time of surgery. Only patients in whom the nerves were easily accessible were treated. Catheters were placed in the axillary sheath, the lumbosacral trunk, and the femoral nerve sheaths of patients treated with shoulder girdle and pelvic procedures (resections and amputations), and within the sciatic nerve sheath of those treated with lower extremity procedures. The anesthetic agent was delivered at controllable rates. Regional analgesia was obtained in the operative site with minimal motor or sensory decrease. To assess the efficacy of this technique, the results of this study group were compared with those of a matched group of 11 patients treated with similar surgical procedures but who received epidural morphine. Eleven of the 23 patients on PICRA required no supplemental narcotic agents. The mean level of the narcotic agents required by the remaining 13 PICRA patients was approximately one third of that required by the matched group of 11 patients receiving epidural morphine. Overall, the patients on PICRA had an 80% reduction of narcotic requirements when compared to the historical controls. The technique is reliable and can be performed by the surgeon, requiring about a ten-minute increase in operating time. It has potentially wide application in orthopedics in procedures in which the major nerves are easily accessible (e.g., pelvic fractures and revision hip surgery) and for patients with intractable pain of the extremities.

  18. Postoperative management of noniatrogenic traumatic bile duct injuries: role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, J S; Spinelli, K S; Dua, K S

    2006-06-01

    Endoscopic therapy for iatrogenic bile duct injuries is well established. Abdominal trauma-related biliary injuries, however, are complex in nature. The role of endoscopic therapy for these patients needs further evaluation. A retrospective study investigated nine patients who had surgery for abdominal trauma (4 gunshot, 4 crush, and 1 stab injury), presented postoperatively with noniatrogenic biliary injuries, and underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography (ERCP). The ERCP was successful for all the patients. Eight patients had significant bile leak at intra- or extra-hepatic sites, and one patient was discovered to have complete cutoff of the common hepatic duct. All bile leaks were treated successfully using biliary sphincterotomy with or without transpapillary stenting. No complications of ERCP were observed. In this case series, ERCP was found to be useful as a diagnostic and therapeutic method for managing noniatrogenic traumatic biliary injuries in patients who had undergone previous surgery for abdominal trauma. The ERCP results were similar to those for iatrogenic bile duct injuries.

  19. Successful ageing for psychiatrists.

    PubMed

    Peisah, Carmelle

    2016-04-01

    This paper aims to explore the concept and determinants of successful ageing as they apply to psychiatrists as a group, and as they can be applied specifically to individuals. Successful ageing is a heterogeneous, inclusive concept that is subjectively defined. No longer constrained by the notion of "super-ageing", successful ageing can still be achieved in the face of physical and/or mental illness. Accordingly, it remains within the reach of most of us. It can, and should be, person-specific and individually defined, specific to one's bio-psycho-social and occupational circumstances, and importantly, reserves. Successful professional ageing is predicated upon insight into signature strengths, with selection of realistic goal setting and substitution of new goals, given the dynamic nature of these constructs as we age. Other essential elements are generativity and self-care. Given that insight is key, taking a regular stock or inventory of our reserves across bio-psycho-social domains might be helpful. Importantly, for successful ageing, this needs to be suitably matched to the professional task and load. This lends itself to a renewable personal ageing plan, which should be systemically adopted with routine expectations of self-care and professional responsibility. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  20. [Discussion on reconstruction of the postoperative defect after oral floor carcinoma resection].

    PubMed

    Tian, Hao; Yu, Jianjun; Li, Zan; Zhou, Xiao; Dai, Jie

    2014-02-01

    To explore the reconstruction approaches and indications in repairing of postoperative defect after resection of oral floor carcinoma. To review the clinical data of 106 patients with oral floor carcinoma treated by radical resection with simultaneous reconstruction in the Department of Head and Neck Surgery at our hospital from July 2003 to March 2013, and to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of various repair methods. The patients were followed up for 2 months to 10 years. Their 3-year survival rate was 63.6% (42/66) and 5-year survival rate was 57.7% (30/52). One case had sternocleidomastoid myocutaneous flap necrosis, and was successfully repaired with elective pectoralis major myocutaneous flap. Another one case showed partial strap muscle flap necrosis, and the wound was well healed after debridement and dressing changes. Three cases of free flap crisis because of poor blood supply were successfully cured by flap emergency exploration. The rest were well healed. The eating and language function of the patients could meet the general needs of life. At the time of radical resection of oral floor carcinoma, an appropriate repair method should be selected according to many factors such as disease conditions, defect size, patients' physical constitution, etc. Generally, adjacent pedicle flap is not recommended. Prosthodontics membrane, free forearm flap, free anterolateral thigh flap, pectoralis major myocutaneous flap and free fibula flap can basically meet the need of repair of the postoperative defect after resection of oral floor carcinoma, therefore, are recommended.

  1. Maintenance of hardware after early postoperative infection following fracture internal fixation.

    PubMed

    Berkes, Marschall; Obremskey, William T; Scannell, Brian; Ellington, J Kent; Hymes, Robert A; Bosse, Michael

    2010-04-01

    The development of a deep wound infection in the presence of hardware after open reduction and internal fixation presents a clinical dilemma, and there is scant literature to aid in decision-making. The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of osseous union with maintenance of hardware after the development of postoperative infection within six weeks after internal fixation of a fracture. The present study included 121 patients from three level-I trauma centers, retrospectively identified from billing and trauma registries, in whom 123 postoperative wound infections with positive intraoperative cultures had developed within six weeks after internal fixation of acute fractures. The incidence of fracture union without hardware removal was calculated, and the parameters that predicted success or failure were evaluated. Eighty-six patients (eighty-seven fractures; 71%) had fracture union with operative débridement, retention of hardware, and culture-specific antibiotic treatment and suppression. Predictors of treatment failure were open fracture (p = 0.03) and the presence of an intramedullary nail (p = 0.01). Several variables were not significant but trended toward an association with failure, including smoking, infection with Pseudomonas species, and involvement of the femur, tibia, ankle, or foot. Deep infection after internal fixation of a fracture can be treated successfully with operative débridement, antibiotic suppression, and retention of hardware until fracture union occurs. These results may be improved by patient selection based on certain risk factors and the specific bacteria and implants involved.

  2. Trans-tamponade optical coherence tomography: postoperative imaging in gas-filled eyes.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Justis P; Yuan, Alex; Kaiser, Peter K; Dhoot, Dilsher; Sears, Jonathan E; Martin, Daniel F; Singh, Rishi P; Srivastava, Sunil K

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the feasibility of trans-tamponade optical coherence tomography and evaluate factors contributing to image quality and acquisition success. Retrospective case series of eyes receiving Postoperative Day 1 optical coherence tomography imaging after vitrectomy and gas tamponade. The quality of the scans was graded by three independent expert readers. Clinical and surgical variables were recorded and correlated with scan quality. Eighty eyes were included in the study. An image quality classification scheme was developed (0-4, 0 = no image and 4 = comparable quality to trans-fluid optical coherence tomography). In 51 scans (64%), visualization of the inner retina and retinal pigment epithelium was achieved (Grades 2-4) but with variable image quality of the retinal layers. Twenty-nine scans (36%) achieved visualization of all retinal layers (Grades 3-4). Only 9 scans (11%) were of comparable quality to fluid-filled eyes (Grade 4). Pseudophakia (P = 0.0001), shorter operative times (P = 0.007), and macular surgery (P = 0.002) correlated with scan quality. An optimum scan protocol was developed to facilitate maximum quality images. Successful trans-tamponade optical coherence tomography through gas on Postoperative Day 1 is possible but significant variability exists in scan quality.

  3. Effects of preoperative and postoperative enteral nutrition on postoperative nutritional status and immune function of gastric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ding, Dayong; Feng, Ye; Song, Bin; Gao, Shuohui; Zhao, Jisheng

    2015-03-01

    Effects of preoperative one week enteral nutrition (EN) support on the postoperative nutritional status, immune function and inflammatory response of gastric cancer patients were investigated. 106 cases of gastric cancer patients were randomly divided into preoperative one week EN group (trial group) and early postoperative EN group (control group), which were continuously treated with EN support until the postoperative 9th day according to different treatment protocols. All the patients were checked for their body weight, skinfold thickness, upper arm circumference, white blood cell count (WBC), albumin (ALB), prealbumin (PA), C-reactive protein (CRP), humoral immunity (IgA, IgG), T cell subsets (CD4, CD8 and CD4/CD8), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), etc. on the preoperative and the postoperative 1st and 10th day, respectively. PA and IgG levels of the experimental group were higher than those of the control group on the postoperative 10th day, whereas IL-6 level of the experimental group was lower than that of the control group. EN support for preoperative gastric cancer patients will improve the postoperative nutritional status and immune function, alleviate inflammatory response, and facilitate the recovery of patients.

  4. Bangladesh becomes "success story".

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    The State Minister for Health and Family of Bangladesh, Dr. Mohammed Amanullah, highlighted some of the successes being achieved by his country in lowering fertility and improving the lives of the people since the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. Some of these successes include practical measures to eliminate violence against women; introduction of a quota for women in public sector employment; and launching of the Health and Population Sector Program to provide a one-stop, full range of essential reproductive health, family planning and child health services through an integrated delivery mechanism. Moreover, the Minister informed the Forum participants that their success is attributable to many factors which include support from the government, from non-governmental organizations, civil society, mass media, religious and other community leaders, intersectoral collaboration, microcredit and income-generation activities.

  5. Definition of successful defibrillation.

    PubMed

    Koster, Rudolph W; Walker, Robert G; van Alem, Anouk P

    2006-12-01

    The definition of defibrillation shock "success" endorsed by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation since the publication of Guidelines 2000 for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiac Care has been removal of ventricular fibrillation at 5 secs after shock delivery. Although this success criterion provides a direct assessment of the primary task of a shock, it may not be the only clinically useful measure of shock outcome. We evaluated a different defibrillation success criterion to determine whether it could provide additional insight into the relative performance of different defibrillation shocks. A randomized study comparing monophasic and biphasic waveform shocks is reported with return of organized rhythm as the primary outcome measure of defibrillation success. A total of 120 patients with out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation as the first recorded rhythm were treated with defibrillation with automated external defibrillators. Return of organized rhythm (two QRS complexes, <5 secs apart, <60 secs after defibrillation) was achieved in 31 monophasic shock (45%) and 35 biphasic shock (69%) patients (relative risk, 1.53, 95% confidence interval, 1.11-2.10). Logistic regression analysis revealed that shock waveform was the strongest independent predictor of return of organized rhythm (odds ratio, 4.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.67-10.0). Defibrillation success with the conventional International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation criterion was very high (91% and 98%, respectively) and not significantly different between groups. Return of organized rhythm proved to be a more sensitive measure of relative defibrillation shock performance than the conventional shock success criterion. Inclusion of return of organized rhythm as an end point in future clinical research could help discern more subtle defibrillation shock effects and contribute to further optimization of defibrillation technology.

  6. A qualitative report of patient problems and postoperative instructions.

    PubMed

    Atchison, Kathryn A; Black, Edward E; Leathers, Richard; Belin, Thomas R; Abrego, Mirna; Gironda, Melanie W; Wong, Daniel; Shetty, Vivek; DerMartirosian, Claudia

    2005-04-01

    While surgery related stress may interfere with the patient's ability to concentrate on instructions, language difficulty or low health literacy may also impede appropriate doctor/patient communication. The purpose of this study is to understand from a sample of minority patients the types of problems encountered during healing and the level of information regarding elements of postoperative instructions they recalled receiving at an inner-city safety net hospital. We initiated a qualitative study to understand the care sequence process and provision of informed consent and postoperative instruction. African American or Latino patients, 18 years of age or older, who had third molars removed under general anesthesia or received treatment for a mandibular fracture were recruited to participate in a focus group to discuss their treatment. Patients described their problem and any informed consent given about treatment risks and benefits and postoperative information they recalled. A total of 137 former patients were approached, 57 agreed to participate (42%) and 34 of those (60%) completed the interview. Subjects included 14 females and 20 males. Five categories of patient problems were reported: physical, eating, treatment-related, psychosocial, and other problems. People reported 5 categories of coping strategies: medication use, physical treatments, dietary solutions, rest, and clinical assistance. Twenty people recalled being given informed consent, and 5 participants recalled no elements of informed consent. Overall, 14 participants recalled elements of postoperative instruction. Gaps in patient understanding of postoperative care suggest room for improvement in postoperative instructions. Additional research is necessary to design and test high-quality postoperative instructions for surgical treatment and recovery in populations with limited health related literacy.

  7. Review of Postoperative Delirium in Geriatric Patients Undergoing Hip Surgery.

    PubMed

    Rizk, Paul; Morris, William; Oladeji, Philip; Huo, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Postoperative delirium is a serious complication following hip surgery in elderly patients that can adversely affect outcomes in both hip fracture and arthroplasty surgery. Recently, the incidence of hip fracture in the Medicare population was estimated at approximately 500 000 patients per year, with the majority treated surgically. The annual volume of total hip arthroplasty is nearly 450 000 patients and is projected to increase over the next 15 to 20 years. Subsequently, the incidence of postoperative delirium will rise. The incidence of postoperative delirium after hip surgery in the elderly patients ranges between 4% and 53%, and it is identified as the most common surgical complication of older patients. The most common risk factors include advanced age, hip fracture surgery (vs elective hip surgery), and preoperative delirium/cognitive impairment. Exact pathophysiology has not been fully defined. It is hypothesized that imbalances in cortical neurotransmitters or inflammatory cytokine pathway mechanisms contribute to delirium. Development of postoperative delirium is associated with longer hospital stay, increased medical complications, and poorer short-term functional outcome. Patients who develop postoperative delirium are also at increased risk for cognitive decline beyond the acute phase. Following acute care, postoperative delirium is associated with the need for a higher level of care, an additional cost. Management of postoperative delirium centers on prevention and early recognition. Medical prophylaxis has been demonstrated to have limited utility. Utilization of delirium detection methods contributed to early recognition. The most effective means of prevention involved a multidisciplinary team focused on adequate hydration, optimization of analgesia, reduction in polypharmacy, aggressive physiotherapy, and early recognition of the delirium symptoms.

  8. Review of Postoperative Delirium in Geriatric Patients Undergoing Hip Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Morris, William; Oladeji, Philip; Huo, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative delirium is a serious complication following hip surgery in elderly patients that can adversely affect outcomes in both hip fracture and arthroplasty surgery. Recently, the incidence of hip fracture in the Medicare population was estimated at approximately 500 000 patients per year, with the majority treated surgically. The annual volume of total hip arthroplasty is nearly 450 000 patients and is projected to increase over the next 15 to 20 years. Subsequently, the incidence of postoperative delirium will rise. The incidence of postoperative delirium after hip surgery in the elderly patients ranges between 4% and 53%, and it is identified as the most common surgical complication of older patients. The most common risk factors include advanced age, hip fracture surgery (vs elective hip surgery), and preoperative delirium/cognitive impairment. Exact pathophysiology has not been fully defined. It is hypothesized that imbalances in cortical neurotransmitters or inflammatory cytokine pathway mechanisms contribute to delirium. Development of postoperative delirium is associated with longer hospital stay, increased medical complications, and poorer short-term functional outcome. Patients who develop postoperative delirium are also at increased risk for cognitive decline beyond the acute phase. Following acute care, postoperative delirium is associated with the need for a higher level of care, an additional cost. Management of postoperative delirium centers on prevention and early recognition. Medical prophylaxis has been demonstrated to have limited utility. Utilization of delirium detection methods contributed to early recognition. The most effective means of prevention involved a multidisciplinary team focused on adequate hydration, optimization of analgesia, reduction in polypharmacy, aggressive physiotherapy, and early recognition of the delirium symptoms. PMID:27239384

  9. Risk factors for postoperative bleeding after thyroid surgery.

    PubMed

    Promberger, R; Ott, J; Kober, F; Koppitsch, C; Seemann, R; Freissmuth, M; Hermann, M

    2012-03-01

    Postoperative bleeding after thyroid surgery is a feared and life-threatening complication. The aim of the study was to identify risk factors for postoperative bleeding, with special emphasis on the impact of the individual surgeon and the time to diagnosis of the complication. Data on consecutive thyroid operations were collected prospectively in a database over 30 years and analysed retrospectively for potential risk factors for postoperative bleeding. There were 30,142 operations and postoperative bleeding occurred in 519 patients (1·7 per cent). Risk factors identified were older age (odds ratio (OR) 1·03 per year), male sex (OR 1·64), extent of resection (OR up to 1·41), bilateral procedure (OR 1·99) and operation for recurrent disease (OR 1·54). The risk of complications among individual surgeons differed by up to sevenfold. Postoperative bleeding occurred in 336 (80·6 per cent) of 417 patients within the first 6 h after surgery. Postoperative bleeding was diagnosed after 24 h in ten patients (2·4 per cent), all of whom had bilateral procedures. Nine patients required urgent tracheostomy. Three patients died, giving a mortality rate of 0·01 per cent overall and 0·6 per cent among patients who had surgery for postoperative bleeding. Observation for up to 24 h is recommended for the majority of patients undergoing bilateral thyroid surgery in an endemic goitre area. Same-day discharge is feasible in selected patients, especially after a unilateral procedure. Quality improvement by continuous outcome monitoring and retraining of individual surgeons is suggested. Copyright © 2012 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Predictive Factors Involved in Development of Postoperative Pulmonary Complications.

    PubMed

    Saraçoğlu, Ayten; Yavru, Ayşen; Küçükgöncü, Semra; Tüzüner, Filiz; Karadeniz, Meltem; Başaran, Burcu; Şentürk, Nüzhet Mert

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, we applied the method of the multi-center Prospective Evaluation of a Risk Score for postoperative pulmonary Complications in Europe (PERISCOPE) study, which was designed to predict postoperative complications and funded by the European Society of Anaesthesiology, to patients in our institution with the aim of prospectively analyzing the postoperative risk factors of pulmonary complications. One hundred patients over 18 years of age who had emergency or elective non-thoracic or non-obstetric surgery under general anaesthesia or neuraxial blocks were included in the study. Collected data regarding the preoperative and postoperative period were filled in separate forms for all patients. A total of 11 patients developed pulmonary complications. We observed respiratory failure in 8 patients, pleural effusion in 3 patients, atelectasis in 5 patients, bronchospasm in 3 patients, and pneumothorax in 1 patient. In the univariate logistic regression model, patient age, gender, weight, rate of preoperative respiratory symptoms, cough test results, American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) score, and the duration of surgery did not significantly increase the complication risk (p>0.05). However, in the univariate logistic regression model, the presence of respiratory symptoms increased the risk for complications approximately 5.34-fold (p=0.014). There was an increase in the possibility of complications in parallel with the increase in the duration of postoperative hospital stay (p=0.012). More respiratory symptoms (p=0.019) and longer hospital stay (6.5 vs. 3.5 days respectively, p=0.029) were recorded in patients with postoperative pulmonary complications. Considering patients undergoing non-thoracic or non-obstetric surgery, the prevalence of postoperative pulmonary complications is higher in patients diagnosed with respiratory symptoms in the preoperative period. These complications significantly extend the length of hospital stay.

  11. Analysis of Unplanned Postoperative Admissions to the Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Timothy D; Gabriel, Rodney A; Dutton, Richard P; Urman, Richard D

    2017-08-01

    To investigate factors associated with unplanned postoperative admissions to the intensive care unit (ICU). Data from the National Anesthesia Clinical Outcomes Registry (NACOR) were analyzed. We performed univariate and multivariate logistic regression to identify patient- and surgery-specific characteristics associated with unplanned postoperative ICU admission. We also recorded the prevalence of Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) and International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision ( ICD-9) billing codes and outcomes for unplanned postoperative ICU admissions. Of 23 341 130 records in the database, 2 910 738 records met our inclusion criteria. A higher American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status (ASA PS) class, case duration greater than 4 hours, and advanced age were associated with a greater likelihood of unplanned ICU admission. Vascular and thoracic surgery patients were more likely to have an unplanned ICU admission. The most common CPT and ICD-9 codes involved repair of femur/hip fracture, bowel resection, and acute postoperative pain. Large community hospitals were more likely than university hospitals to have unplanned postoperative ICU admissions. Patients in the unplanned postoperative ICU admission group were more likely to have experienced intraoperative cardiac arrest, hemodynamic instability, or respiratory failure and were more likely to die in the immediate perioperative period. Our study is the first diverse analysis of unplanned postoperative ICU admissions in the literature across multiple specialties and practice models. We found an association of advanced age, higher ASA PS class, and duration of procedure with unplanned ICU admission after surgery. Surgical specialties and procedures with the most unplanned ICU admissions could be areas for quality improvement and clinical pathways in the future.

  12. Postoperative Acute Respiratory Failure In Patients Treated Surgically For Goiters.

    PubMed

    Buła, Grzegorz; Mucha, Ryszard; Paliga, Michał; Truchanowski, Witold; Gawrychowski, Jacek

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to present a clinical picture, treatment and prognosis regarding patients who developed acute respiratory failure (ARF) while treated surgically for a goiter. A total of 3810 patients were treated for goiters between 2008 to 2013. Symptoms of postoperative ARF were recognized in 39 (1%) patients. Symptoms of postoperative ARF were a postoperative hemorrhage in 31 (79.4%), lymphorrhagia in 1 (2.6%), bilateral paralysis of recurrent laryngeal nerves in 6 (15.4%) and acute circulatory - respiratory failure in 1 (2.6%). Postoperative hemorrhage appeared in 19 patients operated for nodular goiter, 4 with a retrosternal nodular goiter, 1x nontoxic recurrent retrosternal nodular goiter, 1x toxic recurrent retrosternal goiter nodular goiter, 2x Graves'goiter and 4x with malignant goiter. The cause of hemorrhage was parenchymal bleeding from the stumps and / or short neck muscles (29x), arterial bleeding (1x) and bleeding into the subcutaneous tissue (1x). Massive lymphorrhagia appeared as a result of damage to the thoracic duct after total thyroidectomy due to papillary thyroid carcinoma with cervical lymph node dissection on the left side. All patients who were diagnosed with bilateral paralysis of RLN, tracheostomy was performed. Of all 39 patients who underwent surgery two died - one in 6 days after surgery due to myocardial infarction, and another as a result of micropulmonary embolism and acute circulatory - respiratory failure in 18 hours after surgery. 1. The most frequent causes of acute respiratory failure in postoperative period are a hemorrhage from the operation site and bilateral paralysis of recurrent laryngeal nerves. 2. Acute postoperative respiratory failure is an indication for postoperative wound revision.

  13. Impact of a multifaceted program to prevent postoperative delirium in the elderly: the CONFUCIUS stepped wedge protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Postoperative delirium is common in the elderly and is associated with a significant increase in mortality, complications, length of hospital stay and admission in long care facility. Although several interventions have proved their effectiveness to prevent it, the Cochrane advises an assessment of multifaceted intervention using rigorous methodology based on randomized study design. Our purpose is to present the methodology and expected results of the CONFUCIUS trial, which aims to measure the impact of a multifaceted program on the prevention of postoperative delirium in elderly. Method/Design Study design is a stepped wedge cluster randomized trial within 3 surgical wards of three French university hospitals. All patients aged 75 and older, and admitted for scheduled surgery will be included. The multifaceted program will be conducted by mobile geriatric team, including geriatric preoperative consultation, training of the surgical staff and implementation of the Hospital Elder Life Program, and morbidity and mortality conference related to delirium cases. The primary outcome is based on postoperative delirium rate within 7 days after surgery. This program is planned to be implemented along four successive time periods within all the surgical wards. Each one will be affected successively to the control arm and to the intervention arm of the trial and the order of program introduction within each surgical ward will be randomly assigned. Based on a 20% reduction of postoperative delirium rate (ICC = 0.25, α = 0.05, β = 0.1), three hundred sixty patients will be included i.e. thirty patients per service and per time period. Endpoints comparison between intervention and control arms of the trial will be performed by considering the cluster and time effects. Discussion Better prevention of delirium is expected from the multifaceted program, including a decrease of postoperative delirium, and its consequences (mortality, morbidity, postoperative

  14. Postoperative myocardial infarction and cardiac death. Predictive value of dipyridamole-thallium imaging and five clinical scoring systems based on multifactorial analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lette, J.; Waters, D.; Lassonde, J.; Dube, S.; Heyen, F.; Picard, M.; Morin, M. )

    1990-01-01

    Sixty-six patients unable to complete a standard preoperative exercise test because of physical limitations were studied to determine the predictive value of individual clinical parameters, of clinical scoring systems based on multifactorial analysis, and of dipyridamole-thallium imaging before major general and vascular surgery. Study endpoints were limited to postoperative myocardial infarction or cardiac death before hospital discharge. There were nine postoperative cardiac events (seven deaths and two nonfatal infarctions). There was no statistical correlation between cardiac events and preoperative clinical descriptors, including individual clinical parameters, the Dripps-American Surgical Association score, the Goldman Cardiac Risk Index score, the Detsky Modified Cardiac Risk Index score, Eagle's clinical markers of low surgical risk, and the probability of postoperative events as determined by Cooperman's equation. There were no cardiac events in 30 patients with normal dipyridamole-thallium scans or in nine patients with fixed myocardial perfusion defects. Of 21 patients with reversible perfusion defects who underwent surgery, nine had a postoperative cardiac event (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 43%). In the six other patients with reversible defects, preoperative angiography showed severe coronary disease or cardiomyopathy. Thus in patients unable to complete a standard exercise stress test, postoperative outcome cannot be predicted clinically before major general and vascular surgery, whereas dipyridamole-thallium imaging successfully identified all patients who sustained a postoperative cardiac event.

  15. The use of topical aqueous suppressants in the prevention of postoperative intraocular pressure elevation following pars plana vitrectomy with long-acting gas tamponade.

    PubMed Central

    Mittra, R A; Pollack, J S; Dev, S; Han, D P; Mieler, W F; Connor, T B

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine if topical aqueous suppressant therapy applied after pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with gas tamponade successfully prevents postoperative elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP). METHODS: A prospective, controlled study was performed on patients who met inclusion criteria and underwent PPV with gas tamponade (SF6 18%-20% or C3F8 12%-16%) over a 1-year period. Treatment eyes received topical aqueous suppressants at the end of surgery. Postoperative IOP checks were performed at 4 to 6 hours, 1 day, and 1 week. RESULTS: Twenty-one control (C) and 20 treatment (T) eyes met the inclusion criteria. The IOP (in mm Hg) measured at 4 to 6 hours (23.05 [C], 14.73 [T] and 1 day (23.24 [C], 17.28 [T]) postoperatively showed a statistically significant difference between the groups (P = .0038) at 4 to 6 hours, and a trend toward significance (P = .057) at 1 day. Eleven control and 3 treatment eyes had an IOP spike above 25 mm Hg at 4 to 6 hours or 1 day postoperatively (P = .02), and 6 control and 1 treatment eye had a postoperative IOP above 30 mm Hg. A pressure rise above 40 mm Hg was seen in 2 control eyes and no treatment eyes. CONCLUSIONS: Use of topical aqueous suppressants following PPV with long-acting gas tamponade is effective in preventing significant postoperative IOP elevation in a majority of cases. PMID:10360287

  16. Progression of degenerative changes of the biceps tendon after successful rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Norimasa; Sugaya, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Momoko; Miyauchi, Hikaru; Matsuki, Keisuke; Tokai, Morihito; Kawai, Nobuaki; Onishi, Kazutomo; Ueda, Yusuke; Hoshika, Shota

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the morphologic changes in the biceps tendon using ultrasonography before and after successful arthroscopic posterosuperior rotator cuff repair. Forty-four patients (44 shoulders) underwent arthroscopic posterosuperior rotator cuff repair with 1-year postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) follow-up. The patients comprised 22 men and 22 women with an average age of 61 years. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of the biceps tendon in the bicipital groove was measured, and the vascularity in the bicipital groove was graded as 0 to 3, based on the signal density of the anterior circumflex artery, using power Doppler ultrasonography. The preoperative and postoperative CSA and vascularity grades were compared. The pain score on the University of California, Los Angeles Shoulder Rating Scale was used to analyze the correlation between vascularity and postoperative pain. The average preoperative and postoperative CSA of the biceps tendon was 15.4 ± 6.5 and 17.9 ± 7.5 mm(2), respectively. The postoperative CSA was significantly larger than the preoperative CSA (P < .01). Although no significant difference in the vascularity of the bicipital groove was observed between preoperative and postoperative grading, a negative correlation was observed between the vascularity and postoperative pain score on the University of California, Los Angeles scale (r = -0.369). The biceps tendon in the bicipital groove becomes thicker over time, even after successful posterosuperior rotator cuff repair. In addition, an increase in the vascularity around the biceps tendon in the groove is correlated with pain symptoms after successful repair. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. CTE Credentialing Certifies Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2011-01-01

    According to "Webster's Dictionary", a credential is something that gives a title to credit or confidence. The certificates and diplomas earned in career and technical education (CTE) are providing students with both the credits to help them find success in the workplace or in further education, as well as the confidence of knowing they have the…

  18. The Cult of Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senechal, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Success has meant wealth, virtue, excellence, wisdom, personal contentment, or any combination of these, but its definition has flattened over time, particularly in the past few decades. A combination of economic anxiety, aggressive advertising, ubiquitous ratings, and verbal vagueness has led to an emphasis on the external aspects of…

  19. Success Stories Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douthitt, Frieda; And Others

    This packet contains the stories of 20 successful alumni of Ohio's secondary vocational programs and postsecondary technical schools. They have been reproduced as loose-leaf camera-ready art. Suggested uses for these one-page biographies with accompanying photograph include the following: illustrations for use in speeches; reproduction of complete…

  20. Measuring strategic success.

    PubMed

    Gish, Ryan

    2002-08-01

    Strategic triggers and metrics help healthcare providers achieve financial success. Metrics help assess progress toward long-term goals. Triggers signal market changes requiring a change in strategy. All metrics may not move in concert. Organizations need to identify indicators, monitor performance.