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Sample records for postoperative nausea vomiting

  1. Postoperative nausea and vomiting following orthognathic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, C.; Brookes, C. D.; Rich, J.; Arbon, J.; Turvey, T. A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence and risk factors associated with postoperative nausea (PON) and vomiting (POV) after orthognathic surgery. A review of the clinical records of consecutively enrolled subjects (2008–2012) at a single academic institution was conducted between 9/2013 and 3/2014. Data on the occurrence of PON and POV and potential patient-related, intraoperative, and postoperative explanatory factors were extracted from the medical records. Logistic models were used for the presence/absence of postoperative nausea and vomiting separately. Data from 204 subjects were analyzed: 63% were female, 72% Caucasian, and the median age was 19 years. Thirty-three percent had a mandibular osteotomy alone, 27% a maxillary osteotomy alone, and 40% had bimaxillary osteotomies. Sixty-seven percent experienced PON and 27% experienced POV. The most important risk factors for PON in this series were female gender, increased intravenous fluids, and the use of nitrous oxide, and for POV were race, additional procedures, and morphine administration. The incidence of PON and POV following orthognathic surgery in the current cohort of patients, after the introduction of the updated 2007 consensus guidelines for the management of postoperative nausea and vomiting, has not decreased substantially from that reported in 2003–2004. PMID:25655765

  2. Alternative therapy applications for postoperative nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Chiravalle, Paulette; McCaffrey, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    The potential for postoperative nausea and vomiting is present in any patient who undergoes surgery and both are unpleasant and potentially dangerous consequences of surgery. Three types of complementary and alternative therapies that may help patients with postoperative nausea and vomiting include acupressure, acupuncture, and aromatherapy.

  3. [Prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting by lorazepam].

    PubMed

    Laraki, M; el Mouknia, M; Bouaguad, A; Idali, B; Benaguida, M

    1996-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess the efficacy of oral lorazepam on postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing thyroid surgery. Twenty-six patients were randomly assigned to two groups, and receiving orally, one hour before induction of anaesthesia, either 2.5 mg of lorazepam (n = 13) or a placebo (n = 13). Lorazepam reduced the incidence and especially the intensity of nausea. The incidence of vomiting in the lorazepam group was significantly lower than in the placebo group (14.5% vs 45%). The use of lorazepam for premedication thus reduces the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting. The advantages of this benzodiazepine are its ease of use, low cost and very low incidence of side effects.

  4. [Pediatric postoperative quality analysis : Pain and postoperative nausea and vomiting].

    PubMed

    Balga, I; Konrad, C; Meissner, W

    2013-09-01

    For the evaluation of postoperative pain therapy, nausea and vomiting (PONV), the Children's Hospital in Lucerne acts as a member of the postoperative quality improvement project QUIPSi for children. Initial results and the potential for evaluation of the postoperative pain therapy and PONV are presented here. The central questions are whether the postoperative therapy concept is sufficient and if QUIPSi serves as an ideal tool for postoperative quality improvement? Over a period of 1.5 years a total of 460 children aged between 4 to 17 years evaluated their postoperative pain, requirements for more analgesic medicine and the incidence of PONV according to a standardized questionnaire on the first postoperative day. The administration of analgesic medicine was recorded until finishing the questionnaire. In this study 5 pediatric outpatient operation groups (hernia repair n = 36, bone surgery n = 23, metal removal surgery n = 31, circumcision n = 65 and soft tissue surgery n = 49) and 9 pediatric inpatient operation groups (appendectomy n = 21, bone surgery n = 78, metal removal surgery n = 24, orchidopexy n = 31, combined operation (orchidopexy + hernia repair or circumcision) n = 14, otoplasty n = 9, tonsillectomy n = 41 and pectus excavatum surgery n = 6 and soft tissue surgery n=28) could be classified. All operation groups except the inpatient and outpatient soft tissue surgery groups received regional or infiltration anesthesia. Analgesic medicine was prescribed with the maximum permitted daily dose per kg body weight (paracetamol 100 mg/kgBW, metamizole 80 mg/kgBW, diclofenac 3 mg/kgBW and ibuprofen 40 mg/kgBW; in reserve tramadol 8 mg/kgBW and nalbuphine 2.4 mg/kgBW). The following operation groups complained of persistent pain (scale according to Hicks 0-10) and/or required more pain medicine (%): pediatric outpatients circumcision 5.1/19 %, pediatric inpatients appendectomy 6.5/43 %, tonsillectomy 6.4/32 %, pectus excavatum surgery 7.7/33 %, orchidopexy 4

  5. Postoperative nausea and vomiting: A simple yet complex problem

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Safiya Imtiaz; Nagarekha, D.; Hegade, Ganapati; Marutheesh, M.

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is one of the complex and significant problems in anesthesia practice, with growing trend toward ambulatory and day care surgeries. This review focuses on pathophysiology, pharmacological prophylaxis, and rescue therapy for PONV. We searched the Medline and PubMed database for articles published in English from 1991 to 2014 while writing this review using “postoperative nausea and vomiting, PONV, nausea-vomiting, PONV prophylaxis, and rescue” as keywords. PONV is influenced by multiple factors which are related to the patient, surgery, and pre-, intra-, and post-operative anesthesia factors. The risk of PONV can be assessed using a scoring system such as Apfel simplified scoring system which is based on four independent risk predictors. PONV prophylaxis is administered to patients with medium and high risks based on this scoring system. Newer drugs such as neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist (aprepitant) are used along with serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine subtype 3) receptor antagonist, corticosteroids, anticholinergics, antihistaminics, and butyrophenones for PONV prophylaxis. Combination of drugs from different classes with different mechanism of action are administered for optimized efficacy in adults with moderate risk for PONV. Multimodal approach with combination of pharmacological and nonpharmacological prophylaxis along with interventions that reduce baseline risk is employed in patients with high PONV risk. PMID:27746521

  6. [Postoperative nausea and vomiting and opioid-induced nausea and vomiting: guidelines for prevention and treatment].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Arnau, J I; Aguilar, J L; Bovaira, P; Bustos, F; De Andrés, J; de la Pinta, J C; García-Fernández, J; López-Alvarez, S; López-Olaondo, L; Neira, F; Planas, A; Pueyo, J; Vila, P; Torres, L M

    2010-10-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) causes patient discomfort, lowers patient satisfaction, and increases care requirements. Opioid-induced nausea and vomiting (OINV) may also occur if opioids are used to treat postoperative pain. These guidelines aim to provide recommendations for the prevention and treatment of both problems. A working group was established in accordance with the charter of the Sociedad Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación. The group undertook the critical appraisal of articles relevant to the management of PONV and OINV in adults and children early and late in the perioperative period. Discussions led to recommendations, summarized as follows: 1) Risk for PONV should be assessed in all patients undergoing surgery; 2 easy-to-use scales are useful for risk assessment: the Apfel scale for adults and the Eberhart scale for children. 2) Measures to reduce baseline risk should be used for adults at moderate or high risk and all children. 3) Pharmacologic prophylaxis with 1 drug is useful for patients at low risk (Apfel or Eberhart 1) who are to receive general anesthesia; patients with higher levels of risk should receive prophylaxis with 2 or more drugs and baseline risk should be reduced (multimodal approach). 4) Dexamethasone, droperidol, and ondansetron (or other setrons) have similar levels of efficacy; drug choice should be made based on individual patient factors. 5) The drug prescribed for treating PONV should preferably be different from the one used for prophylaxis; ondansetron is the most effective drug for treating PONV. 6) Risk for PONV should be assessed before discharge after outpatient surgery or on the ward for hospitalized patients; there is no evidence that late preventive strategies are effective. 7) The drug of choice for preventing OINV is droperidol.

  7. Alternative Therapies for the Prevention of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Stoicea, Nicoleta; Gan, Tong J.; Joseph, Nicholas; Uribe, Alberto; Pandya, Jyoti; Dalal, Rohan; Bergese, Sergio D.

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a complication affecting between 20 and 40% of all surgery patients, with high-risk patients experiencing rates of up to 80%. Recent studies and publications have shed light on the uses of alternative treatment for PONV through their modulation of endogenous opioid neuropeptides and neurokinin ligands. In addition to reducing PONV, hypnosis was reported to be useful in attenuating postoperative pain and anxiety, and contributing to hemodynamic stability. Music therapy has been utilized to deepen the sedation level and decrease patient anxiety, antiemetic and analgesic requirements, hospital length of stay, and fatigue. Isopropyl alcohol and peppermint oil aromatherapy have both been used to reduce postoperative nausea. With correct training in traditional Chinese healing techniques, acupuncture (APu) at the P6 acupoint has also been shown to be useful in preventing early PONV, postdischarge nausea and vomiting, and alleviating of pain. Electro-acupuncture (EAPu), as with APu, provided analgesic and antiemetic effects through release and modulation of opioid neuropeptides. These non-pharmacological modalities of treatment contribute to an overall patient wellbeing, assisting in physical and emotional healing. PMID:26734609

  8. Alternative Therapies for the Prevention of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting.

    PubMed

    Stoicea, Nicoleta; Gan, Tong J; Joseph, Nicholas; Uribe, Alberto; Pandya, Jyoti; Dalal, Rohan; Bergese, Sergio D

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a complication affecting between 20 and 40% of all surgery patients, with high-risk patients experiencing rates of up to 80%. Recent studies and publications have shed light on the uses of alternative treatment for PONV through their modulation of endogenous opioid neuropeptides and neurokinin ligands. In addition to reducing PONV, hypnosis was reported to be useful in attenuating postoperative pain and anxiety, and contributing to hemodynamic stability. Music therapy has been utilized to deepen the sedation level and decrease patient anxiety, antiemetic and analgesic requirements, hospital length of stay, and fatigue. Isopropyl alcohol and peppermint oil aromatherapy have both been used to reduce postoperative nausea. With correct training in traditional Chinese healing techniques, acupuncture (APu) at the P6 acupoint has also been shown to be useful in preventing early PONV, postdischarge nausea and vomiting, and alleviating of pain. Electro-acupuncture (EAPu), as with APu, provided analgesic and antiemetic effects through release and modulation of opioid neuropeptides. These non-pharmacological modalities of treatment contribute to an overall patient wellbeing, assisting in physical and emotional healing.

  9. Neurokinin-1 Receptor Antagonists in Preventing Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Meng; Zhang, Hao; Du, Bo-Xiang; Xu, Feng-Ying; Zou, Zui; Sui, Bo; Shi, Xue-Yin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Newly developed neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) antagonists have been recently tried in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to explore whether NK-1R antagonists were effective in preventing PONV. The PRISMA statement guidelines were followed. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that tested the preventive effects of NK-1R antagonists on PONV were identified by searching EMBASE, CINAHL, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library databases followed by screening. Data extraction was performed using a predefined form and trial quality was assessed using a modified Jadad scale. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of PONV. Meta-analysis was performed for studies using similar interventions. Network meta-analysis (NMA) was conducted to compare the anti-vomiting effects of placebo, ondansetron, and aprepitant at different doses. Fourteen RCTs were included. Meta-analysis found that 80 mg of aprepitant could reduce the incidences of nausea (3 RCTs with 224 patients, pooled risk ratio (RR) = 0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.47 to 0.75), and vomiting (3 RCTs with 224 patients, pooled RR = 0.13, 95% CI = 0.04 to 0.37) compared with placebo. Neither 40 mg (3 RCTs with 1171 patients, RR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.37 to 0.60) nor 125 mg (2 RCTs with 1058 patients, RR = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.13 to 0.78) of aprepitant showed superiority over 4 mg of ondansetron in preventing postoperative vomiting. NMA did not find a dose-dependent effect of aprepitant on preventing postoperative vomiting. Limited data suggested that NK-1R antagonists, especially aprepitant were effective in preventing PONV compared with placebo. More large-sampled high-quality RCTs are needed. PMID:25984662

  10. Morinda citrifolia Linn. for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Prapaitrakool, Sunisa; Itharat, Arunporn

    2010-12-01

    To be a preliminary, prospective, randomized double blinded, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of Morinda citrifolia Linn or noni for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in patients considered high risk for PONV after various types of surgery. The plant extract was prepared by boiling of dried noni fruit (maturity stage 3-4) then evaporated under standard procedure and processed into capsules. The doses were 150 mg, 300 mg and 600 mg which are equivalent to 5, 10 and 20 g of dried noni fruit, respectively. One hundred patients of ASA physical status I or II, aged 18-65 years, and considered at risk for PONV, were randomized to receive 150, 300, 600 mg of noni extract or a placebo orally 1 hours before surgery. Standard general anesthetic technique and postoperative analgesia were employed. Significantly fewer patients who had received the 600 mg noni extract experienced nausea during the first 6 hours compared to the placebo group (48% for the 600 mg noni group and 80% for the placebo group, p-value = 0.04). The incidence of PONV in other time periods was not statistically different for all three noni doses compared to the placebo group. No side effects were reported in all groups. Morinda citrifolia Linn. has an antiemetic property and prophylactic noni extract at 600 mg (equivalent to 20g of dried noni fruit or scopoletin 8.712 microg) effectively reduces the incidence of early postoperative nausea (0-6 hours).

  11. Pathophysiological and neurochemical mechanisms of postoperative nausea and vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Charles C.; Wallisch, William J.; Homanics, Gregg E.; Williams, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Clinical research shows that postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is caused primarily by the use of inhalational anesthesia and opioid analgesics. PONV is also increased by several risk predictors, including a young age, female sex, lack of smoking, and a history of motion sickness. Genetic studies are beginning to shed light on the variability in patient experiences of PONV by assessing polymorphisms of gene targets known to play roles in emesis (serotonin type 3, 5-HT3; opioid; muscarinic; and dopamine type 2, D2, receptors) and the metabolism of antiemetic drugs (e.g., ondansetron). Significant numbers of clinical trials have produced valuable information on pharmacological targets important for controlling PONV (e.g., 5-HT3 and D2), leading to the current multi-modal approach to inhibit multiple sites in this complex neural system. Despite these significant advances, there is still a lack of fundamental knowledge of the mechanisms that drive the hindbrain central pattern generator (emesis) and forebrain pathways (nausea) that produce PONV, particularly the responses to inhalational anesthesia. This gap in knowledge has limited the development of novel effective therapies of PONV. The current review presents the state of knowledge on the biological mechanisms responsible for PONV, summarizing both preclinical and clinical evidence. Finally, potential ways to advance the research of PONV and more recent developments on the study of postdischarge nausea and vomiting (PDNV) are discussed. PMID:24495419

  12. Postoperative nausea and vomiting: physiopathology, risk factors, prophylaxis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Veiga-Gil, L; Pueyo, J; López-Olaondo, L

    2017-04-01

    Recognising the importance of the prevention and early treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is essential to avoid postoperative complications, improve patient satisfaction and enable the development of major outpatient surgery and fast-track surgery. The topic of PONV might seem to have become stagnant, but we are moving forward. New concepts and problems like post-discharge nausea and vomiting, new risk factors and new drugs are appearing. However, there continue to be mistaken notions about PONV, such as the association between PONV and post-anaesthesia care unit stays, or assuming that it is a risk factore characteristic of the patient, anaesthesia or surgery when it is not. Perhaps, now is the moment to tackle PONV in a different manner, implementing guidelines and going for more aggressive prophylaxis in some groups of patients. We present an extensive review of this topic. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Aromatherapy for treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Hines, Sonia; Steels, Elizabeth; Chang, Anne; Gibbons, Kristen

    2012-04-18

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting is a common and unpleasant phenomenon and current therapies are not always effective for all patients. Aromatherapy has been suggested as a possible addition to the available treatment strategies. This review sought to establish what effect the use of aromatherapy has on the severity and duration of established postoperative nausea and vomiting and whether aromatherapy can be used with safety and clinical effectiveness comparable to standard pharmacological treatments. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 3); MEDLINE; EMBASE; CINAHL; CAM on PubMed; Meditext; LILACS; and ISI Web of Science as well as grey literature sources and the reference lists of retrieved articles. We conducted database searches up to August 2011. We included all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) where aromatherapy was used to treat postoperative nausea and vomiting. Interventions were all types of aromatherapy. Aromatherapy was defined as the inhalation of the vapours of any substance for the purposes of a therapeutic benefit. Primary outcomes were the severity and duration of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Secondary outcomes were adverse reactions, use of rescue anti-emetics and patient satisfaction with treatment. Two review authors assessed risk of bias in the included studies and extracted data. As all outcomes analysed were dichotomous, we used a fixed-effect model and calculated relative risk (RR) with associated 95% confidence interval (95% CI). The nine included studies comprised six RCTs and three CCTs with a total of 402 participants. The mean age and range data for all participants were not reported for all studies. The method of randomization in four of the six included RCTs was explicitly stated and was adequate. Incomplete reporting of data affected the completeness of the analysis. Compared with placebo, isopropyl alcohol vapour

  14. Pericardium-6 Acupressure for the Prevention of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    two groups. Key Words: Acupressure, Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting, Pericardium-six Meridian, Alternative Medicine , Traditional Chinese...western medicine has been unable to definitively explain why this phenomenon continues to occur. Acupressure at the pericardium-six meridian has been... Medicine vi PERICARDIUM-6 ACUPRESSURE FOR THE PREVENTION OF POSTOPERATIVE NAUSEA AND VOMITING by Robert Michael Woods THESIS

  15. An audit of post-operative nausea and vomiting, following cardiac surgery: scope of the problem.

    PubMed

    Mace, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    Post-operative nausea and vomiting is a major problem for patients following cardiac surgery. The literature in this area identifies that there are a number of individual patient and post-operative factors which increase the risk of post-operative nausea and vomiting, including female gender, non-smoker, age, use of opioids, pain and anxiety. An audit involving 200 patients, who had undergone cardiac surgery was implemented to assess/evaluate the incidence of nausea and vomiting for this patient group. Data collected included information relating to nausea and vomiting, pain, consumption of morphine and other individual patient variables. The results suggest that nausea and vomiting, is experienced by a large number of patients after cardiac surgery (67%), with the majority suffering on the first day after surgery. The duration of nausea and vomiting for most is short, but for a significant number (7%) it can last up to one-quarter of their initial post-operative course. The paper discusses key implications for practice arising from this project.

  16. Acupressure wristbands for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in adults undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Klein, Andrew A; Djaiani, George; Karski, Jacek; Carroll, Jo; Karkouti, Keyvan; McCluskey, Stuart; Poonawala, Humara; Shayan, Charles; Fedorko, Ludwik; Cheng, Davy

    2004-02-01

    To determine whether the application of acupressure bands would lead to a reduction in postoperative nausea and vomiting after cardiac surgery. Prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trial. University-affiliated tertiary care teaching hospital. Adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery. One hundred fifty-two patients were enrolled to receive either acupressure treatment (n = 75) or placebo (n = 77). All patients had acupressure bands placed on both wrists before induction of anesthesia; those in the treatment group had a bead placed in contact with the P6 point on the forearm. Patients were assessed for nausea, vomiting, and pain scores during the first 24 hours of the postoperative period. The incidences of nausea, vomiting, pain scores, and analgesic and antiemetic requirements were similar between the 2 groups. A subgroup analysis by gender implied that acupressure treatment may be effective only in female patients. Acupressure treatment did not lead to a reduction in nausea, vomiting, or antiemetic requirements in patients after cardiac surgery.

  17. Prevention and management of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a look at complementary techniques.

    PubMed

    Mamaril, Myrna E; Windle, Pamela E; Burkard, Joseph F

    2006-12-01

    Complementary modalities, used alone or in combination with pharmacologic therapies, play an important role in the prevention and management of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and post discharge nausea and vomiting (PDNV). This article will review the evidence for the effective use of complementary modalities: acupuncture and related techniques, aromatherapy, and music therapy that may be integrated in the perianesthesia nurse's plan of care to prevent or manage PONV.

  18. Effectiveness of Ginger Essential Oil on Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Abdominal Surgery Patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu Ri; Shin, Hye Sook

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of aromatherapy with ginger essential oil on nausea and vomiting in abdominal surgery patients. This was a quasi-experimental study with a nonequivalent control group and repeated measures. The experimental group (n = 30) received ginger essential oil inhalation. The placebo control group (n = 30) received normal saline inhalation. The level of postoperative nausea and vomiting was measured using a Korean version of the Index of Nausea, Vomiting, and Retching (INVR) at baseline and at 6, 12, and 24 h after aromatherapy administration. The data were collected from July 23 to August 22, 2012. Nausea and vomiting scores were significantly lower in the experimental group with ginger essential oil inhalation than those in the placebo control group with normal saline. In the experimental group, the nausea and vomiting scores decreased considerably in the first 6 h after inhaled aromatherapy with ginger essential oil. Findings indicate that ginger essential oil inhalation has implications for alleviating postoperative nausea and vomiting in abdominal surgery patients.

  19. Investigation of the Effects of Preoperative Hydration on the Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Yavuz, M. Selçuk; Kazancı, Dilek; Turan, Sema; Aydınlı, Bahar; Selçuk, Gökçe; Özgök, Ayşegül; Coşar, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) after laparoscopic cholecystectomy operations still continue to be a serious problem. Intravenous fluid administration has been shown to reduce PONV. Some patients have higher risk for PONV described by APFEL score. In this study, our aim was to determine the effects of preoperative intravenous hydration on postoperative nausea and vomiting in high Apfel scored patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy surgery. Patients and Methods. This study is performed with 50 female patients who had APFEL score 3-4 after ethics committee approval and informed consent was taken from patients. The patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1 (P1): propofol + preoperative hydration and group 2 (P2): propofol + no preoperative hydration. Results. When the total nausea VAS scores of groups P1 and P2 to which hydration was given or not given were compared, a statistically significant difference was detected at 8th and 12th hours (P = 0.001 and P = 0.041). It was observed that in group P1, which was given hydration, the nausea VAS score was lower. When the total number of patients who had nausea and vomiting in P1 and P2, more patients suffered nausea in P2 group. Discussion. Preoperative hydration may be effective in high Apfel scored patients to prevent postoperative nausea. PMID:24563861

  20. Intraoperative Gastric Suctioning and Postoperative Nausea, Retching, and Vomiting.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    the experimental group, and the stomach was evacuated. The anesthetic technique of oxygen/nitrous oxide/methohexital/succinylcholine/fentanyl was...Way Analysis of Variance. Based on the Fisher’s Exact Test, nausea occurred less frequently in the experimental group than in the control group for...Fisher’s Exact Test, nausea occurred less f quently in the experimental group than in the control roup for the re- covery room time-frame (p - 0.0371

  1. Prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting by metoclopramide combined with dexamethasone: randomised double blind multicentre trial

    PubMed Central

    Wallenborn, Jan; Gelbrich, Götz; Bulst, Detlef; Behrends, Katrin; Wallenborn, Hasso; Rohrbach, Andrea; Krause, Uwe; Kühnast, Thomas; Wiegel, Martin; Olthoff, Derk

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether 10 mg, 25 mg, or 50 mg metoclopramide combined with 8 mg dexamethasone, given intraoperatively, is more effective in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting than 8 mg dexamethasone alone, and to assess benefit in relation to adverse drug reactions. Design Four-armed, parallel group, double blind, randomised controlled clinical trial. Setting Four clinics of a university hospital and four district hospitals in Germany. Participants 3140 patients who received balanced or regional anaesthesia during surgery. Main outcome measures Postoperative nausea and vomiting within 24 hours of surgery (primary end point); occurrence of adverse reactions. Results Cumulative incidences (95% confidence intervals) of postoperative nausea and vomiting were 23.1% (20.2% to 26.0%), 20.6% (17.8% to 23.4%), 17.2% (14.6% to 19.8%), and 14.5% (12.0% to 17.0%) for 0 mg, 10 mg, 25 mg, and 50 mg metoclopramide. In the secondary analysis, 25 mg and 50 mg metoclopramide were equally effective at preventing early nausea (0-12 hours), but only 50 mg reduced late nausea and vomiting (> 12 hours). The most frequent adverse drug reactions were hypotension and tachycardia, with cumulative incidences of 8.8% (6.8% to 10.8%), 11.2% (9.0% to 13.4%), 12.9% (10.5% to 15.3%), and 17.9% (15.2% to 20.6%) for 0 mg, 10 mg, 25 mg, and 50 mg metoclopramide. Conclusion The addition of 50 mg metoclopramide to 8 mg dexamethasone (given intraoperatively) is an effective, safe, and cheap way to prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting. A reduced dose of 25 mg metoclopramide intraoperatively, with additional postoperative prophylaxis in high risk patients, may be equally effective and cause fewer adverse drug reactions. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN31625370. PMID:16861255

  2. Wrist acupressure for post-operative nausea and vomiting (WrAP): A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Marie; Rapchuk, Ivan; Doi, Suhail A; Spooner, Amy; Wendt, Tameka; Best, Jessica; Edwards, Melannie; O'Connell, Leanda; McCabe, Donna; McDonald, John; Fraser, John; Rickard, Claire

    2015-06-01

    Post-operative nausea and vomiting are undesirable complications following anaesthesia and surgery. It is thought that acupressure might prevent nausea and vomiting through an alteration in endorphins and serotonin levels. In this two-group, parallel, superiority, randomised control pilot trial we aimed to test pre-defined feasibility outcomes and provide preliminary evidence for the efficacy of PC 6 acupoint stimulation vs. placebo for reducing post-operative nausea and vomiting in cardiac surgery patients. Eighty patients were randomly assigned to either an intervention PC 6 acupoint stimulation via beaded intervention wristbands group (n=38) or placebo sham wristband group (n=42). The main outcome was assessment of pre-defined feasibility criteria with secondary outcomes for nausea, vomiting, rescue anti-emetic therapy, quality of recovery and adverse events. Findings suggest that a large placebo-controlled randomised controlled trial to test the efficacy of PC 6 stimulation on PONV in the post-cardiac surgery population is feasible and justified given the preliminary clinically significant reduction in vomiting in the intervention group in this pilot. The intervention was tolerated well by participants and if wrist acupressure of PC 6 acupoint is proven effective in a large trial it is a simple non-invasive intervention that could easily be incorporated into practice.

  3. Perspectives on transdermal scopolamine for the treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Philip, Beverly K; Leslie, John B; Taylor, Robert; Raffa, Robert B

    2012-06-01

    Transdermal scopolamine, a patch system that delivers 1.5 mg of scopolamine gradually over 72 hours following an initial bolus, was approved in the United States in 2001 for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in adults. Scopolamine (hyoscine) is a selective competitive anatagonist of muscarinic cholinergic receptors. Low serum concentrations of scopolamine produce an antiemetic effect. Transdermal scopolamine is effective in preventing PONV versus placebo [relative risk (RR)=0.77, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.61-0.98, P = 0.03] and a significantly reduced risk for postoperative nausea (RR=0.59, 95% CI, 0.48-0.73, P < 0.001), postoperative vomiting (RR=0.68, 95% CI, 0.61-0.76, P < 0.001), and PONV (RR 0.73, 95% CI, 0.60-0.88, P = 001) in the first 24 hours after the start of anesthesia.

  4. Efficacy of ginger on intraoperative and postoperative nausea and vomiting in elective cesarean section patients.

    PubMed

    Kalava, Arun; Darji, Sandip J; Kalstein, Allison; Yarmush, Joel M; SchianodiCola, Joseph; Weinberg, Jonathan

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of dry powdered ginger, given orally, on nausea and vomiting during and after an elective cesarean section performed under combined spinal epidural anesthesia. 239 women, ginger (n=116) and placebo (n=123), who underwent elective cesarean section at term under combined spinal-epidural anesthesia were provided with standard preoperative antiemetic treatment in addition to a randomized study drug. They were given two capsules (1g each) of either dry powdered ginger or placebo, one capsule a half-hour before induction of anesthesia and the second 2h after surgery. The study was double-blinded and the incidences of nausea and vomiting were assessed both intraoperatively and postoperatively. Levels of pain and pruritus were also assessed postoperatively. The intraoperative incidence of nausea was 52% and 61%, ginger versus placebo (p=0.149). The number of episodes of intraoperative nausea was less in the ginger group compared to placebo (mean difference was -0.396, 95% CI -0.738, -0.054) and the result was statistically significant (p=0.023). The incidence of intraoperative vomiting was 27.35% in the ginger group and 36.59% in the placebo group, and the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.126). The number of episodes of vomiting during surgery was less in the ginger group compared to placebo: (mean difference -0.158, 95% CI -0.626, 0.311) although statistically insignificant (p=0.505). Furthermore, postoperatively, there was no statistical difference in the incidence of nausea and vomiting assessed at 0, 2, 2 ½ and 24h after surgery. There were also no differences in postoperative pain or pruritus. Ginger given in dry powdered form reduced the number of episodes of intraoperative nausea compared to a placebo, but it had no effect on incidence of nausea, vomiting, or pain during and after an elective cesarean section performed under combined spinal epidural anesthesia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Does Neostigmine Administration Produce a Clinically Important Increase in Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting?

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ching-Rong; Sessler, Daniel I.; Apfel, Christian C.

    2005-01-01

    Neostigmine is used to antagonize neoromuscluar blocker-induced residual neuromuscular paralysis. Despite a previous meta-analysis, the effect of neostigmine on postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) remains unresolved. We reevaluated the effect of neostigmine on PONV while considering the different anticholinergics as potentially confounding factors. We performed a systematic literature search using Medline, Embase, Cochrane library, reference listings, and hand searching with no language restriction through December 2004 and identified 10 clinical, randomized, controlled trials evaluating neostigmine's effect on PONV. Data on nausea or vomiting from 933 patients were extracted for the early (0-6 h), delayed (6-24 h), and overall postoperative periods (0-24 h) and analyzed with RevMan 4.2 (Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, UK) and multiple logistic regression analysis. The combination of neostigmine with either atropine or glycopyrrolate did not significantly increase the incidence of overall (0-24 h) vomiting (relative risk (RR) 0.91 [0.70-1.18], P=0.48) or nausea (RR 1.24 [95% CI: 0.98-1.59], P=0.08). Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that that there was not a significant increase in the risk of vomiting with large compared with small doses of neostigmine. In contrast to a previous analysis, we conclude that there is insufficient evidence to conclude that neostigmine increases the risk of PONV. PMID:16243993

  6. Betamethasone in prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting following breast surgery.

    PubMed

    Olanders, Knut J; Lundgren, Gerd A E; Johansson, Anders M G

    2014-09-01

    To investigate whether betamethasone decreases the incidence of postoperative nausea/vomiting (PONV) and reduces postoperative pain following partial mastectomy. Prospective randomized, double-blinded study. Operating room and Postanesthesia Care Unit of a university hospital. 80 ASA physical status 1 and 2 women scheduled for elective breast cancer surgery. Patients were randomly allocated to two groups in double-blinded fashion: Group B (betamethasone; 37 pts) and Group C (control; 38 pts). Group B received 8 mg of betamethasone intravenously before the start of surgery. The rate of PONV and pain were recorded using a numeric rating scale (NRS; 0-10), as well as rescue doses of antiemetics (ondansetron) and analgesics (ketobemidone). There was a significant lower incidence of postoperative nausea (PON) scoring NRS ≥ 1 in Group B in the 4 to 12-hour period compared with Group C (P = 0.02). The cumulative incidence of PON was 57% in Group B versus 68% in Group C (P = 0.27). The overall incidence of postoperative vomiting (POV) was 18% and 20% in Groups B and C, respectively. Postoperative pain was reduced by 40% in Group B in the 4 to 12-hour period, but the mean dose of postoperative rescue analgesic did not differ between the groups. Preoperative betamethasone reduces the severity of PONV and pain in patients undergoing elective breast surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Treatment of established postoperative nausea and vomiting: a quantitative systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi-Kjellberg, Faranak; Henzi, Iris; Tramèr, Martin R

    2001-01-01

    Background The relative efficacy of antiemetics for the treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is poorly understood. Methods Systematic search (MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, bibliographies, any language, to 8.2000) for randomised comparisons of antiemetics with any comparator for the treatment of established PONV. Dichotomous data on prevention of further nausea and vomiting, and on side effects were combined using a fixed effect model. Results In seven trials (1,267 patients), 11 different antiemetics were tested without placebos; these data were not further analysed. Eighteen trials (3,809) had placebo controls. Dolasetron 12.5–100 mg, granisetron 0.1–3 mg, tropisetron 0.5–5 mg, and ondansetron 1–8 mg prevented further vomiting with little evidence of dose-responsiveness; with all regimens, absolute risk reductions compared with placebo were 20%–30%. The anti-nausea effect was less pronounced. Headache was dose-dependent. Results on propofol were contradictory. The NK1 antagonist GR205171, isopropyl alcohol vapor, metoclopramide, domperidone, and midazolam were tested in one trial each with a limited number of patients. Conclusions Of 100 vomiting surgical patients receiving a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, 20 to 30 will stop vomiting who would not have done so had they received a placebo; less will profit from the anti-nausea effect. There is a lack of evidence for a clinically relevant dose-response; minimal effective doses may be used. There is a discrepancy between the plethora of trials on prevention of PONV and the paucity of trials on treatment of established symptoms. Valid data on the therapeutic efficacy of classic antiemetics, which have been used for decades, are needed. PMID:11734064

  8. The effectiveness of inhalation isopropyl alcohol vs. granisetron for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Teran, Lara; Hawkins, John K

    2007-12-01

    We evaluated preemptive treatment for postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) with intravenous (IV) granisetron, 0.1 mg, introoperatively as compared with the use of 70% inhalation isopropyl alcohol and a control group for the prevention of PONV. We randomly assigned 57 women, 18 to 50 years old, undergoing laparoscopic procedures to 1 of 3 groups: (1) inhalation of 70% isopropyl alcohol, (2) 0.1 mg granisetron IV, and (3) no prophylactic treatment control. Participants were asked to rate their nausea and vomiting preoperatively, on arrival to postanesthesia care unit (PACU), at discharge from PACU, 6 hours after extubation, and 24 hours after extubation and any occurrence of nausea and vomiting using the numeric rating scale (NRS), 0 to 10. Group 1 experienced more PONV episodes than groups 2 and 3 during the 6- to 24-hour postsurgical timeframe (P = .02). There were no significant differences among the 3 groups in demographics, first episode of PONV, total number of episodes in 24 hours, NRS rating at rescue, and anesthetic duration. PONV and menstrual cycle phase had no positive correlation (P > .05). History of smoking, PONV, and motion sickness had no significant difference against any measure of PONV (P > .05).

  9. The Effect of Intravenous Midazolam on Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Grant, Michael C; Kim, Jimin; Page, Andrew J; Hobson, Deborah; Wick, Elizabeth; Wu, Christopher L

    2016-03-01

    Research has shown that high-risk surgical patients benefit from a multimodal therapeutic approach to prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). Our group sought to investigate the effect of administering IV midazolam on PONV. This meta-analysis included 12 randomized controlled trials (n = 841) of adults undergoing a variety of surgical procedures that investigated the effect of both preoperative and intraoperative IV midazolam on PONV in patients undergoing general anesthesia. Administration of IV midazolam was associated with significantly reduced PONV (risk ratio [RR] = 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43-0.70), nausea (RR = 0.62; 95% CI, 0.40-0.94), vomiting (RR = 0.61; 95% CI, 0.45-0.82), and rescue antiemetic administration (RR = 0.49; 95% CI, 0.37-0.65) within 24 hours. Individual subgroup analyses of trials excluding the use of thiopental for induction, trials of either female sex or high-risk surgery, trials involving nitrous oxide maintenance, and trials using midazolam in combination with known antiemetics all yielded similar reductions in PONV end points within 24 hours of surgery. Administration of preoperative or intraoperative IV midazolam is associated with a significant decrease in overall PONV, nausea, vomiting, and rescue antiemetic use. Providers may consider the administration of IV midazolam as part of a multimodal approach in preventing PONV.

  10. A prospective randomized study of the effectiveness of aromatherapy for relief of postoperative nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Nancy S; McCarthy, Mary S; Pierce, Roslyn M

    2014-02-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a major concern for patients having surgery under general anesthesia as it causes subjective distress along with increased complications and delays in discharge from the hospital. Aromatherapy represents a complementary and alternative therapy for the management of PONV. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of aromatherapy (QueaseEase, Soothing Scents, Inc, Enterprise, AL) versus an unscented inhalant in relieving PONV. One hundred twenty-one patients with postoperative nausea were randomized into a treatment group receiving an aromatic inhaler and a control group receiving a placebo inhaler to evaluate the effectiveness of aromatherapy. Initial and follow-up nausea assessment scores in both treatment and placebo groups decreased significantly (P < .01), and there was a significant difference between the two groups (P = .03). Perceived effectiveness of aromatherapy was significantly higher in the treatment group (P < .001). Aromatherapy was favorably received by most patients and represents an effective treatment option for postoperative nausea. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Postdischarge Nausea and Vomiting Remains Frequent After LeFort I Osteotomy Despite Implementation of a Multimodal Antiemetic Protocol Effective in Reducing Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Brookes, Carolyn Dicus; Turvey, Timothy A.; Phillips, Ceib; Kopp, Vincent; Anderson, Jay A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the prevalence of postdischarge nausea and vomiting (PDNV) after Le Fort I osteotomy with and without the use of a multimodal antiemetic protocol shown to decrease postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). Materials and Methods Consecutive patients undergoing Le Fort I osteotomy with or without additional procedures at a single academic institution formed the intervention cohort for an institutional review board–approved prospective clinical trial with a retrospective comparison group. The intervention cohort was managed with a multimodal antiemetic protocol. The comparison group consisted of consecutive patients who underwent similar surgical procedures at the same institution before protocol implementation. All patients were asked to complete a postdischarge diary documenting the occurrence of nausea and vomiting. Those who completed the diaries were included in this analysis. Data were analyzed with the Fisher exact test and the Wilcoxon rank sum test. A P value less than .05 was considered significant. Results Diaries were completed by 85% of patients in the intervention group (79 of 93) and 75% of patients in the comparison group (103 of 137). Patients in the intervention (n = 79) and comparison (n = 103) groups were similar in the proportion of patients with validated risk factors for PDNV, including female gender, history of PONV, age younger than 50 years, opioid use in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU), and nausea in the PACU (P = .37). The prevalence of PDNV was unaffected by the antiemetic protocol. After discharge, nausea was reported by 72% of patients in the intervention group and 60% of patients in the comparison group (P = .13) and vomiting was reported by 22% of patients in the intervention group and 29% of patients in the comparison group (P = .40). Conclusion Modalities that successfully address PONV after Le Fort I osteotomy might fail to affect PDNV, which is prevalent in this population. Future investigation will focus on

  12. The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting in women undergoing laparoscopy is influenced by the day of menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Beattie, W S; Lindblad, T; Buckley, D N; Forrest, J B

    1991-04-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting is a major cause of postoperative morbidity. It can lead to increased recovery time, delaying patient discharge and an increase in hospital costs. Past studies have shown that postoperative nausea and vomiting is more frequent in women than men, appears to elevate around the time of menarche and is reduced around the time of menopause. This retrospective review of a one-year experience of laparoscopic tubal ligation at our institute examined the effect of menstrual cycle on postoperative nausea and vomiting. The anaesthetic and surgical techniques were consistent for all patients. Patient data included age, weight, last day of menstrual cycle, the length of anaesthetic, the dose of inhalational agent, the dose of narcotic, emesis on emergence and whether or not droperidol was used. Of the the 235 patients in the study, the incidence of nausea and vomiting was 28%. One hundred fifty-eight had had no preoperative antiemetic and 77 had received droperidol. These two groups were analyzed separately. The incidence in the group not receiving droperidol was 33.5% and in the droperidol group, 16.9% (P less than 0.01). The incidence of nausea and vomiting was higher on the first eight menstrual days (51.6 vs 21.6, P less than 0.001), was highest on day five of the menstrual cycle and lowest on days 18, 19, and 20 where there was no nausea and vomiting. Droperidol reduced the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting but the variation in postoperative nausea and vomiting during the cycle persisted.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Efficacy of dexmedetomidine on postoperative nausea and vomiting: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xiao; Zhou, Miao; Feng, Jiao-Jiao; Wu, Liang; Fang, Shang-Ping; Ge, Xin-Yu; Sun, Hai-Jing; Ren, Peng-Cheng; Lv, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a frequent complication in postoperative period. The aim of the current meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy of dexmedetomidine on PONV. Methods: Two researchers independently searched PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The meta-analysis was performed with Review Manager. Results: Eighty-two trials with 6,480 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Dexmedetomidine reduced postoperative nausea (Risk Ratio (RR) = 0.61, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50 to 0.73) and vomiting (RR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.36 to 0.64) compared with placebo, with an effective dose of 0.5 ug/kg (RR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.34 to 0.62) and 1.0 ug/kg (RR = 0.29, 95% CI: 0.12 to 0.75), respectively. The antiemetic effect can only be achieved intravenously, not epidurally or intrathecally. The efficacy of dexmedetomidine was similar to that of widely used agents, such as propofol, midazolam etc., but better than opioid analgesics. Moreover, application of dexmedetomidine reduced intraoperative requirement of fentanyl (Standard Mean Difference = -1.91, 95% CI: -3.20 to -0.62). Conclusions: The present meta-analysis indicates that dexmedetomidine shows superiority to placebo, but not to all other anesthetic agents on PONV. And this efficacy may be related to a reduced consumption of intraoperative opioids. PMID:26550123

  14. Comparison of sugammadex and conventional reversal on postoperative nausea and vomiting: a randomized, blinded trial.

    PubMed

    Koyuncu, Onur; Turhanoglu, Selim; Ozbakis Akkurt, Cagla; Karcıoglu, Murat; Ozkan, Mustafa; Ozer, Cahit; Sessler, Daniel I; Turan, Alparslan

    2015-02-01

    To determine whether the new selective binding agent sugammadex causes less postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) than the cholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine. Prospective, randomized, double-blinded study. University-affiliated hospital. One hundred American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1 and 2 patients scheduled for extremity surgery. Patients were randomly assigned to neostigmine (70 μg/kg) and atropine (0.4 mg per mg neostigmine) or sugammadex 2 mg/kg for neuromuscular antagonism at the end of anesthesia, when 4 twitches in response to train-of-four stimulation were visible with fade. We recorded PONV, recovery parameters, antiemetic consumption, and side effects. Nausea and vomiting scores were lower in the sugammadex patients upon arrival in the postanesthesia care unit (med: 0 [min-max, 0-3] vs med: 0 [min-max, 0-3]; P < .05), but thereafter low and comparable. Postoperative antiemetic and analgesic consumption were similar in each group. Extubation (median [interquartile range], 3 [1-3.25] vs 4 [1-3.25]; P < .001) first eye opening (4 [3-7.25] vs 7 [5-11]; P < .001), and head lift (4 [2-7.25] vs 8 [11-25]; P < .001) in minutes were shorter in patients given sugammadex. Postoperative heart rates were significantly lower in all measured times patients given neostigmine. Nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking antagonism with sugammadex speeds recovery of neuromuscular strength but only slightly and transiently reduces PONV compared with neostigmine and atropine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Nausea and Vomiting

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drink small amounts of clear liquids to avoid dehydration. Nausea and vomiting are common. Usually, they are ... abdominal pain Headache and stiff neck Signs of dehydration, such as dry mouth, infrequent urination or dark ...

  16. Postoperative nausea and vomiting: comparison of the effect of postoperative meperidine or morphine in gynecologic surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Ezri, Tiberiu; Lurie, Samuel; Stein, Arnold; Evron, Shmuel; Geva, Daniel

    2002-06-01

    To evaluate the incidence and severity of postoperative nausea and vomiting in women receiving postoperative intravenous morphine or meperidine following gynecologic surgery. Prospective, double-blind, randomized study. Tertiary-care academic medical center. 200 ASA physical status I, II, and III patients scheduled for elective gynecologic surgery. Patients received either postoperative IV morphine (n = 100) or meperidine (n = 100) following gynecologic surgery. We compared pain scores, sedation scores, nausea scores, well-being scores, vomiting rate, and patient satisfaction in both groups 15, 30, 60, and 120 minutes after arrival in the postoperative anesthesia care unit. The vomiting rate was 8/100 versus 7/100 (at 15 min), 4/100 versus 26/100 (at 30 min) (p < 0.05), 3/100 versus 23/100 (at 60 min) (p < 0.05), and 0/100 versus 0/100 (at 120 min) in the morphine or meperidine groups, respectively. The pain and sedation scores were similar in both groups. No major complications were noted in either group. Our study demonstrates an advantage of the use of morphine rather than meperidine for pain control in the immediate postoperative period following gynecologic surgery.

  17. Effects of remifentanil versus nitrous oxide on postoperative nausea, vomiting, and pain in patients receiving thyroidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Kyoung; Yi, Myung Sub; Kang, Hyun; Choi, Geun-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Remifentanil and nitrous oxide (N2O) are 2 commonly used anesthetic agents. Both these agents are known risk factors for postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). However, remifentanil and N2O have not been directly compared in a published study. Remifentanil can induce acute tolerance or hyperalgesia, thus affecting postoperative pain. The objective of this retrospective study is to compare the effects of remifentanil and N2O on PONV and pain in patients receiving intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) after thyroidectomy. We analyzed the electronic medical records of 992 patients receiving fentanyl-based IV-PCA after thyroidectomy at Chung-Ang University Hospital from January 1, 2010 to April 30, 2016. We categorized the patients according to anesthetic agents used: group N2O (n = 745) and group remifentanil (n = 247). The propensity score matching method was used to match patients in the 2 groups based on their covariates. Finally, 128 matched subjects were selected from each group. There were no differences between groups for all covariates after propensity score matching. The numeric rating scale for nausea (0.55 ± 0.88 vs 0.27 ± 0.76, P = 0.01) was higher and complete response (88 [68.8%] vs 106 [82.8%], P = 0.001) was lower in group N2O compared with group remifentanil on postoperative day 0. However, the visual analog scale score for pain (3.47 ± 2.02 vs 3.97 ± 1.48, P = 0.025) was higher in group remifentanil than group N2O on postoperative day 0. In patients receiving IV-PCA after thyroidectomy, postoperative nausea was lower but postoperative pain was higher in group remifentanil. PMID:27741140

  18. RISK OF SEVERE AND REFRACTORY POSTOPERATIVE NAUSEA AND VOMITING IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING DIEP FLAP BREAST RECONSTRUCTION

    PubMed Central

    MANAHAN, MICHELE A.; BASDAG, BASAK; KALMAR, CHRISTOPHER L.; SHRIDHARANI, SACHIN M.; MAGARAKIS, MICHAEL; JACOBS, LISA K.; THOMSEN, ROBERT W.; ROSSON, GEDGE D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are commonly feared after general anesthesia and can impact results. The primary aim of our study was to examine incidence and severity of PONV by investigating complete response, or absence of PONV, to prophylaxis used in patients undergoing DIEP flaps. Our secondary aims were definition of the magnitude of risk, state of the art of interventions, clinical sequelae of PONV, and interaction between these variables, specifically for DIEP patients. Methods A retrospective chart review occurred for 29 patients undergoing DIEP flap breast reconstruction from September 2007 to February 2008. We assessed known patient and procedure-specific risks for PONV after DIEPs, prophylactic antiemetic regimens, incidence, and severity of PONV, postoperative antiemetic rescues, and effects of risks and treatments on symptoms. Results Three or more established risks existed in all patients, with up to seven risks per patient. Although 90% of patients received diverse prophylaxis, 76% of patients experienced PONV, and 66% experienced its severe form, emesis. Early PONV (73%) was frequent; symptoms were long lasting (average 20 hours for nausea and emesis); and multiple rescue medications were frequently required (55% for nausea, 58% for emesis). Length of surgery and nonsmoking statistically significantly impacted PONV. Conclusion We identify previously undocumented high risks for PONV in DIEP patients. High frequency, severity, and refractoriness of PONV occur despite standard prophylaxis. Plastic surgeons and anesthesiologists should further investigate methods to optimize PONV prophylaxis and treatment in DIEP flap patients. PMID:24038427

  19. Dexmedetomidine prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting on patients during general anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Shenhui; Liang, Dong Dong; Chen, Chengyu; Zhang, Minyuan; Wang, Junlu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a frequent complication in postoperative period. The aim of this article was to evaluate the effect of dexmedetomidine on PONV. Method: RevMan 5.3 software was applied for performing statistic analysis. Twenty-four trials with 2046 patients were included. Results: The PONV of the dexmedetomidine group was significantly lower compared with the placebo group (0.56, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.69). Subgroup analysis further confirmed the effect of dexmedetomidine (irrespective of administration mode) (P < 0.00001). Perioperative fentanyl consumption in dexmedetomidine group were also reduced significantly (P < 0.00001). Whereas, side effects such as bradycardia, hypotension increased in dexmedetomidine group (especially in loading dose mode and loading dose plus continuous infusion mode). Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine administrated in continuous infusion mode has the advantage to prevent PONV as well as reduce side effects such as bradycardia and hypotension. PMID:28072722

  20. Comparison of the effects of sugammadex and neostigmine on postoperative nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Yağan, Özgür; Taş, Nilay; Mutlu, Tuğçe; Hancı, Volkan

    The aim of our study is to compare the effects of sugammadex and neostigmine, used for neuromuscular blockage antagonism, on postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). Our study was completed with 98 ASA I-II risk patients undergoing endotracheal intubation under general anesthesia. At the end of the surgery patients were randomly divided into two groups given 2mgkg(-1) sugammadex (Group S) or 50μgkg(-1) neostigmine plus 0.2mgkg(-1) atropine (Group N). Monitoring and recording times were set as 1 hour postoperative and from 1-6, 6-12, and 12-24hours. The anti-emetic amounts administered were recorded. In the first hour postoperative 13 patients in Group N (27%) and 4 in Group S (8%) were observed to have nausea and/or vomiting and the difference was statistically significant (p=0.0016). During the 24 hours of monitoring there was no significant difference in the incidence and severity of PONV (p>0.05), however the number of patients given ondansetron for PONV treatment in Group N was statistically significantly higher than the number in Group S (16 in Group N, 6 in Group S, p<0.011). At the end of our study comparing neostigmine with sugammadex for neuromuscular blockage antagonism, we found use of sugammadex had lower incidence of PONV in the postoperative 1st hour and less anti-emetic use in 24 hours of monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. [Comparison of the effects of sugammadex and neostigmine on postoperative nausea and vomiting].

    PubMed

    Yağan, Özgür; Taş, Nilay; Mutlu, Tuğçe; Hancı, Volkan

    The aim of our study is to compare the effects of sugammadex and neostigmine, used for neuromuscular blockage antagonism, on postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). Our study was completed with 98 ASA I-II risk patients undergoing endotracheal intubation under general anesthesia. At the end of the surgery patients were randomly allocated into two groups given 2mgkg(-1) sugammadex (Group S) or 50μgkg(-1) neostigmine plus 0.2mgkg(-1) atropine (Group N). Monitoring and recording times were set as 1 hour postoperative and from 1-6, 6-12, and 12-24hours. The anti-emetic amounts administered were recorded. In the first postoperative hour 13 patients in Group N (27%) and 4 in Group S (8%) were observed to have nausea and/or vomiting and the difference was statistically significant (p=0.0016). During the 24hours of monitoring there was no significant difference in the incidence and severity of PONV (p>0.05), however the number of patients given ondansetron for PONV treatment in Group N was significantly higher than the number in Group S (16 in Group N, 6 in Group S, p<0.011). At the end of our study comparing neostigmine with sugammadex for neuromuscular blockage antagonism, we found use of sugammadex had lower incidence of PONV in the postoperative 1st hour and less anti-emetic use in 24hours of monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Efficacy of dexmedetomidine on postoperative nausea and vomiting: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xiao; Zhou, Miao; Feng, Jiao-Jiao; Wu, Liang; Fang, Shang-Ping; Ge, Xin-Yu; Sun, Hai-Jing; Ren, Peng-Cheng; Lv, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a frequent complication in postoperative period. The aim of the current meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy of dexmedetomidine on PONV. Methods: Two researchers independently searched PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The meta-analysis was performed with Review Manager. Results: Eighty-two trials with 6,480 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Dexmedetomidine reduced postoperative nausea (Risk Ratio (RR) = 0.61, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50 to 0.73) and vomiting (RR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.36 to 0.64) compared with placebo, with an effective dose of 0.5 μg/kg (RR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.34 to 0.62) and 1.0 μg/kg (RR = 0.29, 95% CI: 0.12 to 0.75), respectively. The antiemetic effect can only be achieved intravenously, not epidurally or intrathecally. The efficacy of dexmedetomidine was similar to that of widely used agents, such as propofol, midazolam etc., but better than opioid analgesics. Moreover, application of dexmedetomidine reduced intraoperative requirement of fentanyl (Standard Mean Difference = -1.91, 95% CI: -3.20 to -0.62). Conclusions: The present meta-analysis indicates that dexmedetomidine shows superiority to placebo, but not to all other anesthetic agents on PONV. And this efficacy may be related to a reduced consumption of intraoperative opioids. PMID:26309498

  3. A Comparative Evaluation of Ramosetron with Ondansetron for the Prevention of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Undergoing Urological Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Mujoo, Samiullah; Ali, Zulfiqar; Jehangir, Majid; Iqbal, Asif; Qayoom, Nargis; Lone, Abdul Qayoom

    2017-01-01

    Background: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a common problem causing distress to patients in the postoperative period. Younger age, gynecological surgeries, laparoscopic surgeries, female gender, volatile anesthetics, increased duration of anesthesia, and postoperative opioid use are associated with increased incidence of PONV. Aim: The present study was conducted to study the efficacy of ramosetron and its comparison with ondansetron in the prevention of PONV in patients undergoing pyelolithotomy, pyeloplasty, and upper ureterolithotomy. Methods: One hundred patients with physical status American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II, aged 20–60 years were enrolled in the study. Patients were randomly distributed to receive either injection ramosetron 0.3 mg intravenously (IV) or injection ondansetron 6 mg IV just before extubation. Results: There was no significant difference between the groups in age, gender, weight, duration of anesthesia, and duration of surgery. In the patients, who received ramosetron, it was observed that incidence of the episodes of nausea and vomiting increased with time after surgery. Each patient had an episode of nausea and an episode of vomiting during the 6–12 h interval. Similarly, two patients had episodes of nausea and two patients had episodes of vomiting at 18–24 h. This necessitated the increased need for rescue antiemetics with a total of four patients needing rescue antiemetics at 18–24 h. In patients receiving ondansetron, the episodes of nausea were more in number when compared with the ramosetron group. Twelve patients complained of nausea and thirteen patients had episodes of vomiting with the needfor rescue antiemetic in 14 patients. Both genders had a comparable incidence of nausea and vomiting. Conclusion: A single dose of IV ramosetron (0.3 mg) is more effective when compared with a single dose IV ondansetron (6 mg) in the prevention of PONV. We observed that the benefit was more in the later

  4. Pregabalin can decrease acute pain and postoperative nausea and vomiting in hysterectomy: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Ming; Xia, Min; Shan, Nan; Yuan, Ping; Wang, Dong-Lin; Shao, Jiang-He; Ma, Hui-Wen; Wang, Lu-Lu; Zhang, Yuan

    2017-08-01

    Whether the preoperative administration of pregabalin plays a beneficial role in controlling acute pain after hysterectomy is unknown. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine the efficacy and safety of the preoperative use of pregabalin to treat acute postoperative pain following hysterectomy. In April 2017, a systematic computer-based search was conducted in the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Google databases. RCTs comparing pregabalin with placebo in patients undergoing hysterectomy were retrieved. The primary endpoint was the visual analog scale (VAS) score with rest or mobilization at 2 h, 4 and 24 hours and cumulative morphine consumption at 2, 4, 24, and 48 hours. The secondary outcomes were complications of nausea, vomiting, sedation, and dizziness. After tests for publication bias and heterogeneity among studies were performed, the data were aggregated for random-effects models when necessary. Ten clinical studies with 1207 patients (pregabalin = 760, control = 447) were finally included in this meta-analysis. Preoperative administration of pregabalin was associated with a significant reduction of VAS with rest or mobilization at 2, 4, and 24 hours after hysterectomy. Further, the preoperative administration of pregabalin was associated with a reduction in total morphine consumption at 2, 4, 24, and 48 hours after hysterectomy. The occurrence of morphine-related complications (nausea and vomiting) was also reduced in the pregabalin group. However, the preoperative administration of pregabalin was associated with an increase in the occurrence of dizziness. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of sedation. The preoperative use of pregabalin reduced postoperative pain, total morphine consumption, and morphine-related complications following hysterectomy. The doses of pregabalin were different, and large heterogeneity was the limitation of

  5. Chewing gum for the treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Darvall, J N; Handscombe, M; Leslie, K

    2017-01-01

    A novel treatment, chewing gum, may be non-inferior to ondansetron in inhibiting postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in female patients after laparoscopic or breast surgery. In this pilot study, we tested the feasibility of a large randomized controlled trial. We randomized 94 female patients undergoing laparoscopic or breast surgery to ondansetron 4 mg i.v. or chewing gum if PONV was experienced in the postanaesthesia care unit (PACU). The primary outcome was full resolution of PONV, with non-inferiority defined as a difference between groups of <15% in a per protocol analysis. Secondary outcomes were PACU stay duration, anti-emetic rescue use, and acceptability of anti-emetic treatment. The feasibility of implementing the protocol in a larger trial was assessed. Postoperative nausea and vomiting in the PACU occurred in 13 (28%) ondansetron patients and 15 (31%) chewing gum patients (P=0.75). Three chewing gum patients could not chew gum when they developed PONV. On a per protocol basis, full resolution of PONV occurred in five of 13 (39%) ondansetron vs nine of 12 (75%) chewing gum patients [risk difference 37% (6.3-67%), P=0.07]. There was no difference in secondary outcomes between groups. Recruitment was satisfactory, the protocol was acceptable to anaesthetists and nurses, and data collection was complete. In this pilot trial, chewing gum was not inferior to ondansetron for treatment of PONV after general anaesthesia for laparoscopic or breast surgery in female patients. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of a larger, multicentred randomized controlled trial to investigate this novel therapy. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12615001327572. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The effect of transdermal scopolamine for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Antor, María A.; Uribe, Alberto A.; Erminy-Falcon, Natali; Werner, Joseph G.; Candiotti, Keith A.; Pergolizzi, Joseph V.; Bergese, Sergio D.

    2014-01-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is one of the most common and undesirable complaints recorded in as many as 70–80% of high-risk surgical patients. The current prophylactic therapy recommendations for PONV management stated in the Society of Ambulatory Anesthesia (SAMBA) guidelines should start with monotherapy and patients at moderate to high risk, a combination of antiemetic medication should be considered. Consequently, if rescue medication is required, the antiemetic drug chosen should be from a different therapeutic class and administration mode than the drug used for prophylaxis. The guidelines restrict the use of dexamethasone, transdermal scopolamine, aprepitant, and palonosetron as rescue medication 6 h after surgery. In an effort to find a safer and reliable therapy for PONV, new drugs with antiemetic properties and minimal side effects are needed, and scopolamine may be considered an effective alternative. Scopolamine is a belladonna alkaloid, α-(hydroxymethyl) benzene acetic acid 9-methyl-3-oxa-9-azatricyclo non-7-yl ester, acting as a non-selective muscarinic antagonist and producing both peripheral antimuscarinic and central sedative, antiemetic, and amnestic effects. The empirical formula is C17H21NO4 and its structural formula is a tertiary amine L-(2)-scopolamine (tropic acid ester with scopine; MW = 303.4). Scopolamine became the first drug commercially available as a transdermal therapeutic system used for extended continuous drug delivery during 72 h. Clinical trials with transdermal scopolamine have consistently demonstrated its safety and efficacy in PONV. Thus, scopolamine is a promising candidate for the management of PONV in adults as a first line monotherapy or in combination with other drugs. In addition, transdermal scopolamine might be helpful in preventing postoperative discharge nausea and vomiting owing to its long-lasting clinical effects. PMID:24782768

  7. Postoperative nausea and vomiting after general anesthesia for oral and maxillofacial surgery

    PubMed Central

    Apipan, Benjamas; Rummasak, Duangdee

    2016-01-01

    Background Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is one of the most common postoperative complications. Despite this, few papers have reported the incidence and independent risk factors associated with PONV in the context of oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS). Therefore, we sought to determine the incidence of PONV, as well as to identify risk factors for the condition in patients who had undergone OMFS under general anesthesia. Methods A total of 372 patients' charts were reviewed, and the following potential risk factors for PONV were analyzed: age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, history of PONV and/or motion sickness, duration of anesthesia, amount of blood loss, nasogastric tube insertion and retention and postoperative opioid used. Univariate analysis was performed, and variables with a P-value less than 0.1 were entered into a multiple logistic regression analysis, wherein P-values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results The overall incidence of PONV was 25.26%. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, the following variables were independent predictors of PONV: age < 30 years, history of PONV and/or motion sickness, and anesthesia duration > 4 h. Furthermore, the number of risk factors was proportional to the incidence of PONV. Conclusions The incidence of PONV in patients who have undergone OMFS varies from center to center depending on patient characteristics, as well as on anesthetic and surgical practice. Identifying the independent risk factors for PONV will allow physicians to optimize prophylactic, antiemetic regimens. PMID:28879315

  8. Systemic metoclopramide to prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting: a meta-analysis without Fujii's studies.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, G S; Castro-Alves, L J; Chang, R; Yaghmour, E; McCarthy, R J

    2012-11-01

    Previous evidence suggested that 10 mg systemic metoclopramide is not effective to prevent postoperative nausea and/or vomiting (PONV) in patients receiving general anaesthesia. However, the evidence included data with questioned validity by the author Yoshitaka Fujii. The objective of the current study was to examine the effect of a systemic dose of 10 mg metoclopramide to prevent PONV. This quantitative systematic review was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines. A wide search was performed to identify randomized clinical trials that evaluated systemic 10 mg metoclopramide as a prophylactic agent to reduce PONV. Meta-analysis was performed using a random-effect model. Thirty trials evaluating the effect of 10 mg systemic metoclopramide in 3328 subjects on PONV outcomes were included. Metoclopramide reduced the incidence of 24 h PONV compared with control, odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] of 0.58 (0.43-0.78), number needed to treat (NNT)=7.8. When evaluated as separate outcomes, metoclopramide also decreased the incidence of nausea over 24 h, OR (95% CI) of 0.51 (0.38-0.68), NNT=7.1, and vomiting over 24 h, OR (95% CI) of 0.51 (0.40-0.66), NNT=8.3. A post hoc analysis examining three studies with questioned validity performed by the author Yoshitaka Fujii that would meet criteria for inclusion in the current study did not demonstrate a significant benefit of metoclopramide compared with control on the incidence of 24 h PONV. Our findings suggest that metoclopramide 10 mg i.v. is effective to prevent PONV in patients having surgical procedures under general anaesthesia. Metoclopramide seems to be a reasonable agent to prevent PONV.

  9. Factors Associated with Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Undergoing an Ambulatory Hand Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Young Hak; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Nam, Kyung Pyo; Lee, Young Ho; Baek, Goo Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients undergoing ambulatory surgery under general anesthesia experience considerable levels of postoperative nausea and vomiting (N/V) after their discharge. However, those complications have not been thoroughly investigated in hand surgery patients yet. We investigated factors associated with postoperative N/V in patients undergoing an ambulatory hand surgery under general anesthesia and determined whether patients' satisfaction with this setting is associated with postoperative N/V levels. Methods We prospectively evaluated 200 consecutive patients who underwent ambulatory hand surgeries under general anesthesia to assess their postoperative N/V visual analogue scale (VAS) levels during the first 24 hours after surgery and their satisfaction with an ambulatory surgery setting. Potential predictors of postoperative N/V were; age, sex, body mass index, smoking behavior, a history of postoperative N/V after previous anesthesia or motion sickness, preoperative anxiety level and the duration time of anesthesia. We conducted multivariate analyses to identify factors associated with postoperative N/V levels. We also conducted multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine whether the N/V levels are associated with the patients' satisfaction with this setting. Here, potential predictors for satisfaction were sex, age, postoperative pain and N/V. Results Postoperative N/V were associated with a non-smoking history, a history of motion sickness and a high level of preoperative anxiety. Twenty-two patients (11%) were dissatisfied with the ambulatory setting and this dissatisfaction was independently associated with moderate (VAS 4-7) and high (VAS 8-10) levels of postoperative N/V and with a high level (VAS 8-10) of postoperative pain. Conclusions Although most of the patients were satisfied with the ambulatory surgery setting, moderate to high levels of N/V were associated with dissatisfaction of patients with this setting, suggesting a need for

  10. Pharmacological and psychosomatic treatments for an elderly patient with severe nausea and vomiting in reaction to postoperative stress.

    PubMed

    Otera, Masako; Machida, Takatsugu; Machida, Tomomi; Abe, Mai; Ichie, Masayoshi; Fukudo, Shin

    2015-10-01

    Here we present a case of successful treatment employing a mixed approach including pharmacological and psychosomatic treatments for a 72-year-old woman who experienced severe nausea and vomiting in reaction to postoperative stress from gastric cancer surgery. This case demonstrates that appropriate provision of psychosomatic treatments, including a psychotherapeutic session and autogenic training, enhances the efficacy of pharmacotherapy.

  11. Effect of acupressure on post-operative nausea and vomiting in cesarean section: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    A, Direkvand-Moghadam; A, Khosravi

    2013-10-01

    Because of potential side effects of chemical treatments and in order to decrease the risk of nausea and vomiting in post-operative patients, there is a necessary requirement for some alternative therapeutic methods such as Acupressure. The present randomized clinical trial study aimed to compare the effects of Acupressure and Metoclopramide on postoperative nausea and vomiting in Caesarean Sections. The patients who were subjected to caesarean surgeries, who were referred to the Ilam Mustafa Hospital in the west of Iran, were enrolled in this randomised clinical trial study. Totally, 102 patients who were selected for elective Caesarean Section were included in this study. Patients were randomly assigned to one of three groups, with 34 cases in each group. All groups were matched for effective factors on nausea and vomiting in inclusion and exclusion criteria. The control group did not receive any intervention, the second group received 10 mg Metoclopramide intravenously, immediately prior to anaesthesia induction and in the third group, Acupressure bands were applied at the P6 points on both wrists, 15 minutes before anaesthesia induction. Intra-operative and post-operative emetic episodes were recorded by a trained investigator. The patients who experienced nausea were evaluated on a linear numeric scale which ranged from 0 (no) to 10 (severe). Statistics and Results: The incidence of nausea and vomiting in postoperative periods was lower in Metoclopramide and Acupressure groups as compared that in the control group. The frequency of anti-emetic which was used was significantly higher in control group as compared to those in the other groups (p<0.001). No side effects or complications were caused by any intervention. In parturients who underwent caesarean deliveries which were performed under spinal anaesthesia in this study, use of Metoclopramide and Acupressure was found to be equally effective for reducing emetic symptoms (nausea, retching, and vomiting).

  12. Standardizing documentation for postoperative nausea and vomiting in the electronic health record.

    PubMed

    DeBlieck, Conni; LaFlamme, Anne Fishman; Rivard, Mary Jane; Monsen, Karen A

    2013-10-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) remains a common postoperative complication that causes patient discomfort and increases health care costs. Clinicians use the American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses (ASPAN) guideline to help prevent and treat PONV. However, the lack of standardized terminology in the electronic health record (EHR) and the lack of clinical decision support tools make it difficult for clinicians to document guideline implementation and to determine the effects of nursing care on PONV. To address this, we created a concept map of the Perioperative Nursing Data Set (PNDS) that illustrates the relationship between elements of this standardized nursing terminology and the ASPAN guideline, using the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms multidisciplinary terminology to fill any gaps. This mapping results in a standardized dataset specific to PONV for use in an EHR, which links nursing care to nursing diagnoses, interventions, and outcomes. The mapping and documentation in the EHR also allows standardized data collection for research, evaluation, and benchmarking, which makes perioperative nursing care of patients who are at risk for or experiencing PONV measureable and visible. Distributing this information to perioperative and perianesthesia nursing personnel, in addition to implementing risk assessment tools for PONV and clinical support alerts in electronic documentation systems, will help support implementation of the PONV clinical practice guideline in the EHR.

  13. Does measurement of preoperative anxiety have added value for predicting postoperative nausea and vomiting?

    PubMed

    Van den Bosch, Jolanda E; Moons, Karel G; Bonsel, Gouke J; Kalkman, Cor J

    2005-05-01

    Preoperative anxiety has been suggested as a predictor of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), but supporting data are lacking. We quantified the added predictive value of preoperative anxiety to established predictors of PONV in 1389 surgical inpatients undergoing various procedures, by using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Investigated predictors were a history of PONV or motion sickness, smoking, sex, age, ethnicity, body mass index, ASA physical status, surgery type, duration of anesthesia, anesthetic technique, and postoperative opioid analgesia. Anxiety was measured by the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale. The outcome was the occurrence of PONV in the first 24 h after surgery. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of a multivariate (logistic regression) model including sex, age, smoking, history of PONV or motion sickness, surgery type, and anesthetic technique was 0.72 (95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.74). There was a weak but significant association of anxiety with PONV, but the addition of anxiety to the model did not further increase the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Therefore, routine preoperative measurement of anxiety does not seem warranted, provided that the other predictors are already considered.

  14. Preoperative dexamethasone reduces postoperative pain, nausea and vomiting following mastectomy for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Dexamethasone has been reported to reduce postoperative symptoms after different surgical procedures. We evaluated the efficacy of preoperative dexamethasone in ameliorating postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), and pain after mastectomy. Methods In this prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 70 patients scheduled for mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection were analyzed after randomization to treatment with 8 mg intravenous dexamethasone (n = 35) or placebo (n = 35). All patients underwent standardized procedures for general anesthesia and surgery. Episodes of PONV and pain score were recorded on a visual analogue scale. Analgesic and antiemetic requirements were also recorded. Results Demographic and medical variables were similar between groups. The incidence of PONV was lower in the dexamethasone group at the early postoperative evaluation (28.6% vs. 60%; p = 0.02) and at 6 h (17.2% vs. 45.8%; p = 0.03). More patients in the placebo group required additional antiemetic medication (21 vs. 8; p = 0.01). Dexamethasone treatment significantly reduced postoperative pain just after surgery (VAS score, 4.54 ± 1.55 vs. 5.83 ± 2.00; p = 0.004), at 6 h (3.03 ± 1.20 vs. 4.17 ± 1.24; p < 0.0005) and at 12 h (2.09 ± 0.85 vs. 2.54 ± 0.98; p = 0.04). Analgesics were required in more patients of the control group (21 vs. 10; p = 0.008). There were no adverse events, morbidity or mortality. Conclusions Preoperative intravenous dexamethasone (8 mg) can significantly reduce the incidence of PONV and pain in patients undergoing mastectomy with axillary dissection for breast cancer. Trial registration number NCT01116713 PMID:21182781

  15. The effect of nasogastric tube application during cardiac surgery on postoperative nausea and vomiting--a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Lavi, Ronit; Katznelson, Rita; Cheng, Davy; Minkovich, Leonid; Klein, Andy; Carroll, Jo; Karski, Jacek; Djaiani, George

    2011-02-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are significant morbidities following cardiac surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine if application of a nasogastric (NG) tube during cardiac surgery can reduce the prevalence of postoperative PONV. This study was a prospective randomized controlled trial. University tertiary referral center. Two hundred two patients undergoing elective cardiac procedures. Patients were prospectively enrolled and randomized to either receive or not receive an NG tube after induction of anesthesia. Standard anesthetic technique and postoperative care were employed in all patients. Preoperative demographic data, pain score, nausea score and incidence of vomiting were recorded early (0-8 hours) and late (8-16 hours) following extubation. Antiemetic and analgesic medications were compared between the 2 groups. One hundred three patients were randomized to no an NG tube (controls) and 99 received an NG tube as part of their perioperative management. Demographic data and surgical characteristics were similar between the 2 groups. However, the control group had more smokers. Incidence and severity of nausea, pain scores, and analgesic requirements were similar between the 2 groups. Prevalence of vomiting was more frequent in the control group (24%) than in the NG tube group (10%, p = 0.007), and was more frequent in patients who underwent valve and redo procedures. Use of an NG tube during cardiac surgery may reduce the incidence of postoperative vomiting. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Stimulation of the wrist acupuncture point PC6 for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Anna; Chan, Simon KC; Fan, Lawrence TY

    2015-01-01

    Background Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are common complications following surgery and anaesthesia. Antiemetic drugs are only partially effective in preventing PONV. An alternative approach is to stimulate the PC6 acupoint on the wrist. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2004, updated in 2009 and now in 2015. Objectives To determine the effectiveness and safety of PC6 acupoint stimulation with or without antiemetic drug versus sham or antiemetic drug for the prevention of PONV in people undergoing surgery. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Cochrane Library, Issue 12, 2014), MEDLINE (January 2008 to December 2014), EMBASE (January 2008 to December 2014), ISI Web of Science (January 2008 to December 2014), World Health Organization Clinical Trials Registry, ClinicalTrials.gov, and reference lists of articles to identify additional studies. We applied no language restrictions. Selection criteria All randomized trials of techniques that stimulated the PC6 acupoint compared with sham treatment or drug therapy, or combined PC6 acupoint and drug therapy compared to drug therapy, for the prevention of PONV. Interventions used in these trials included acupuncture, electro-acupuncture, transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation, transcutaneous nerve stimulation, laser stimulation, capsicum plaster, acu-stimulation device, and acupressure in people undergoing surgery. Primary outcomes were the incidences of nausea and vomiting after surgery. Secondary outcomes were the need for rescue antiemetic therapy and adverse effects. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias domains for each trial. We used a random-effects model and reported risk ratio (RR) with associated 95% confidence interval (95% CI). We used trial sequential analyses to help provide information on when we had reached firm evidence in cumulative meta

  17. [Prophylaxis of nausea and vomiting in the postoperative phase: relative effectiveness of droperidol and metoclopramide].

    PubMed

    Merker, M; Kranke, P; Morin, A M; Rüsch, D; Eberhart, L H J

    2011-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to conduct a meta-analysis of the results from randomized controlled trials investigating the relative efficacy of droperidol versus metoclopramide for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). A systematic literature search for randomized controlled trials comparing droperidol and metoclopramide for the prevention of PONV was performed according to the PRISMA recommendations. The incidence of PONV within the early (0-6 h) and cumulative postoperative periods (0-48 h) was collated and the pooled relative risk (RR) with the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. Results from a subgroup analysis are presented excluding the data of a Japanese group (Fujii et al.) which are given in parentheses. A total of 41 (30) trials with a total number of 3,491 (2,721) patients were included and of these 12 (8) trials with 1,403 (1,083) patients reported data of the early period and 32 (21) studies with 2,656 (1,836) patients comprised data of the cumulative period. A total of 1,797 (1,309) patients were treated with droperidol (0.25-5 mg) and 1,694 (1,412) with metoclopramide (5-50 mg). In the early period the risk for PONV after metoclopramide was 35% (95%-CI: 17-57%) higher than after prophylaxis with droperidol (without Fujii data: 46%; 23-73%). During the cumulative period the risk for PONV after metoclopramide was increased by 20% (95%-CI: 7-37%) compared to droperidol (without Fujii data: 25%; 4-50%). Due to heterogenous dosing of both drugs subgroup analyses with distinct dose intervals were performed with increments of 0.75 mg for droperidol and 7 mg for metoclopramide. Droperidol was superior in 17 (12) out of 19 (14) subgroup analyses. Comparing recommended doses of droperidol (0.75-1.5 mg) with low doses of metoclopramide (7-14 mg) and medium metoclopramide doses (14-21 mg) PONV was increased by 12% (95%-CI: -11% to 42%) and 32% (95%-CI: 4%-66%), respectively when metoclopramide instead of

  18. Factors associated to post-operative nausea and vomiting following oral and maxillofacial surgery: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Assis Filipe Medeiros; Queiroz, Salomão Israel Monteiro Lourenço; Germano, Adriano Rocha; da Silva, José Sandro Pereira

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to address and assess possible factors associated with nausea and vomiting (NV) following oral and maxillofacial surgery. A prospective study was carried out in the period from December 2013 to January 2016 targeting all attended cases in that period. For statistical analysis, Pearson chi-square and Fisher tests were used to verify association and ANOVA and Student's t tests to test for significant difference, p was defined as ≤0.05. The sample group consisted of 207 patients with an average age of 33.56 years (±13.23), and 70.5% of subjects were male. Calculations based on the predictive model showed that a female patient with prior history of nausea and vomiting who used opioids and had intra-oral surgical access would have a 96% chance of experiencing a nausea and vomiting episode. Other factors like age, being overweight, anesthesia, surgery duration, and duration of hospital stay also contribute so that these aspects must be paid careful attention prior to surgery to ensure a suitably orientated treatment that will avoid disturbances caused by post-operative nausea and vomiting. The occurrence of post-operative nausea and vomiting after oral and maxillofacial surgery was found to be more higher incidence associated to female patients who used opioids, who had a prior history of NV, whose surgery involved intra-oral access, who were in the second or third decades of their lives, who have above average weight, and who have long anesthesia when undergoing surgery, resulting in a long hospital stays.

  19. Comparison of two instruments for assessing risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Rachna; Hola, Eric T; Adamson, Robert T; Mathis, A Scott

    2008-03-01

    Two instruments for assessing patients' risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) were compared. The existing protocol (protocol 1) assessed PONV risk using 16 weighted risk factors and was used for both adults and pediatric patients. The new protocol (protocol 2) included a form for adults and a pediatric-specific form. The form for adults utilized the simplified risk score, calculated using a validated, nonweighted, 4-point scale, and categorized patients' risk of PONV as low, moderate, or high. The form for pediatric patients used a 7-point, non-weighted scale and categorized patients' risk of PONV as moderate or high. A list was generated of all patients who had surgery during August 2005, for whom protocol 1 was used, and during April 2006, for whom protocol 2 was used. Fifty patients from each time period were randomly selected for data analysis. Data collected included the percentage of the form completed, the development of PONV, the number of PONV risk factors, patient demographics, and the appropriateness of prophylaxis. The mean +/- S.D. number of PONV risk factors was significantly lower in the group treated according to protocol 2 ( p = 0.001), but fewer patients in this group were categorized as low or moderate risk and more patients were identified as high risk (p < 0.001). More patients assessed by protocol 2 received fewer interventions than recommended (p < 0.001); however, the frequency of PONV did not significantly differ between groups. Implementation of a validated and simplified PONV risk-assessment tool appeared to improve form completion rates and appropriate risk assessment; however, the rates of PONV remained similar and fewer patients received appropriate prophylaxis compared with patients assessed by the existing risk-assessment tool.

  20. A Factorial Trial of Six Interventions for the Prevention of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Apfel, Christian C.; Korttila, Kari; Abdalla, Mona; Kerger, Heinz; Turan, Alparslan; Vedder, Ina; Zernak, Carmen; Danner, Klaus; Jokela, Ritva; Pocock, Stuart J.; Trenkler, Stefan; Kredel, Markus; Biedler, Andreas; Sessler, Daniel I; Roewer, Norbert

    2005-01-01

    Background Untreated, one third of surgical patients suffer postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). The relative benefit of prophylactic interventions remains unknown, as does the efficacy of combining interventions. We therefore compared the efficacy of six antiemetic interventions and their combinations. Methods 5199 patients at high risk for PONV participated in a randomized, controlled trial of factorial design powered to evaluate interactions between up to three antiemetic interventions. 4123 patients were randomly assigned to one of 64 possible combinations of six prophylactic interventions: 1) 4 mg vs. no ondansetron; 2) 4 mg vs. no dexamethasone; 3) 1.25 mg vs. no droperidol; 4) propofol vs. a volatile anesthetic; 5) nitrogen vs. nitrous oxide; and 6) remifentanil vs. fentanyl. An additional 796 patients were randomized to 4 of all 6 interventions and an additional 280 patients were randomized to 80% oxygen in nitrogen as a third alternative to intervention 5. The blindly evaluated primary outcome was PONV within 24 hours. Results 5123 (99%) patients randomized to four interventions and 4086 of the 4123 patients (99%) randomized to all six interventions completed the study. Based on 4086 patients, ondansetron, dexamethasone, and droperidol each reduced PONV risk by about 26%. Propofol reduced risk by 19% and nitrogen by 12%; risk reduction with total intravenous anesthesia was thus similar to that resulting from antiemetics. All interventions acted independently, so that relative risk reduction for combined interventions could be estimated by the product of individual relative risk reductions. Similar results were obtained when all 5123 patients were analyzed. Conclusions Since each antiemetic drug and the total intravenous anesthesia similarly reduce relative risk, it seems sensible to use the least expensive or safest intervention first. Absolute risk is reduced less by additional interventions since the apparent baseline risk is already reduced. It is

  1. Incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting following gynecological laparoscopy: A comparison of standard anesthetic technique and propofol infusion.

    PubMed

    Bhakta, Pradipta; Ghosh, Bablu Rani; Singh, Umesh; Govind, Preeti S; Gupta, Abhinav; Kapoor, Kulwant Singh; Jain, Rajesh Kumar; Nag, Tulsi; Mitra, Dipanwita; Ray, Manjushree; Singh, Vikash; Mukherjee, Gauri

    2016-12-01

    To determine the safety, efficacy, and feasibility of propofol-based anesthesia in gynecological laparoscopies in reducing incidences of postoperative nausea and vomiting compared to a standard anesthesia using thiopentone/isoflurane. Randomized single-blind (for anesthesia techniques used) and double-blind (for postoperative assessment) controlled trial. Operation theater, postanesthesia recovery room, teaching hospital. Sixty ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) I and II female patients (aged 20-60 years) scheduled for gynecological laparoscopy were included in the study. Patients in Group A received standard anesthesia with thiopentone for induction and maintenance with isoflurane-fentanyl, and those in Group B received propofol for induction and maintenance along with fentanyl. All patients received nitrous oxide, vecuronium, and neostigmine/glycopyrrolate. No patient received elective preemptive antiemetic, but patients did receive it after more than one episode of vomiting. Assessment for incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting as well as other recovery parameters were carried out over a period of 24 hours. Six patients (20%) in Group A and seven patients (23.3%) in Group B experienced nausea. Two patients (6.66%) in Group B had vomiting versus 12 (40%) in Group A (p<0.05). Overall, the incidence of emesis was 60% and 30% in Groups A and B, respectively (p<0.05). All patients in Group B had significantly faster recovery compared with those in Group A. No patient had any overt cardiorespiratory complications. Propofol-based anesthesia was associated with significantly less postoperative vomiting and faster recovery compared to standard anesthesia in patients undergoing gynecological laparoscopy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. The Effectiveness of Acupuncture in Prevention and Treatment of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting - A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Kah Bik; Zhang, Ji-ping; Huang, Yong; Zhang, Zhang-jin

    2013-01-01

    Background Acupuncture therapy for preventive and treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting(PONV), a condition which commonly present after anaesthesia and surgery is a subject of growing interest. Objective This paper included a systematic review and meta-analysis on the effect of different type of acupuncture and acupoint selection in PONV prevention and treatment. Methods Randomised controlled trials(RCTs) comparing acupuncture with non-acupuncture treatment were identified from databases PubMed, Cochrane, EBSCO, Ovid, CNKI and Wanfangdata. Meta-analysis on eligible studies was performed using fixed-effects model with RevMan 5.2. Results were expressed as RR for dichotomous data, with 95%CI. Results Thirty RCTs, 1276 patients (intervention) and 1258 patients (control) were identified. Meta-analysis showed that PC6 acupuncture significantly reduced the number of cases of early vomiting (postoperative 0-6h) (RR=0.36, 95%CI 0.19,0.71; P=0.003) and nausea (postoperative 0-24h) (RR=0.25, 95%CI 0.10,0.61; P=0.002), but not early nausea (postoperative 0-6h) (RR=0.64, 95%CI 0.34,1.19; P=0.150) and vomiting (postoperative 0-24h) (RR=0.82, 95%CI 0.48,1.38; P=0.450). PC6 acupressure significantly reduced the number of cases of nausea (RR=0.71, 95%CI 0.57,0.87; P=0.001) and vomiting (RR=0.62, 95%CI 0.49,0.80; P=0.000) at postoperative 0-24h. PC6 electro-acupoint stimulation significantly reduced the number of cases of nausea (RR=0.49, 95%CI 0.38,0.63; P<0.000) and vomiting (RR=0.50, 95%CI 0.36,0.70; P<0.000) at postoperative 0-24h. Stimulation of PC6 with other acupoint(s) significantly reduced the number of cases of nausea and vomiting (RR=0.29, 95%CI 0.17,0.49; P<0.000) at postoperative 0-24h. Stimulation of other acupoint(s)(non PC6) also significantly reduced the number of cases of nausea and vomiting (RR=0.63, 95%CI 0.49,0.81; P=0.000) at postoperative 0-24h. However, the quality of study was generally low in studies of PC6 combined with other acupoint(s) and

  3. Morning Sickness: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... About ACOG Morning Sickness: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Morning Sickness: Nausea ... PDF Format Morning Sickness: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy Pregnancy How common is nausea and vomiting of ...

  4. Perioperative intravenous glucocorticoids can decrease postoperative nausea and vomiting and pain in total joint arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ping; Li, Xiwen; Sang, Lili; Huang, Jiangfa

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: This meta-analysis aimed to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of intravenous glucocorticoids for reducing pain intensity and postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Methods: PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Web of Science, and Google databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing intravenous glucocorticoids versus no intravenous glucocorticoids or sham for patients undergoing TJA. Outcomes included visual analogue scale (VAS) pain at 12, 24, and 48 hours; the occurrence of PONV; length of hospital stay; the occurrence of infection; and blood glucose levels after surgery. We calculated risk ratios (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) for dichotomous outcomes and the weighted mean difference (WMD) with a 95% CI for continuous outcomes. Trial sequential analysis was also used to verify the pooled results. Results: Thirteen clinical trials involving 821 patients were ultimately included in this meta-analysis. The pooled results indicated that intravenous steroids can decrease VAS at 12 hours (WMD = −8.54, 95% CI −11.55 to −5.53, P = 0.000; I2 = 35.1%), 24 hours (WMD = −7.48, 95% CI −13.38 to −1.59, P = 0.013; I2 = 91.8%), and 48 hours (WMD = −1.90, 95% CI −3.75 to −0.05, P = 0.044; I2 = 84.5%). Intravenous steroids can decrease the occurrence of PONV (RR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.44–0.73, P = 0.000; I2 = 33.1%). There was no significant difference in the length of hospital stay, occurrence of infection, and blood glucose levels after surgery. Conclusion: Intravenous glucocorticoids not only alleviate early pain intensity but also decrease PONV after TJA. More high-quality RCTs are required to determine the safety of glucocorticoids before making final recommendations. PMID:28353565

  5. Nausea and vomiting - adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... is from poisoning. You notice blood or dark, coffee-colored material in the vomit. Call a provider ... blood ? Are you vomiting anything that looks like coffee grounds? Are you vomiting undigested food? When was ...

  6. Dexamethasone versus standard treatment for postoperative nausea and vomiting in gastrointestinal surgery: randomised controlled trial (DREAMS Trial).

    PubMed

    2017-04-18

    Objectives To determine whether preoperative dexamethasone reduces postoperative vomiting in patients undergoing elective bowel surgery and whether it is associated with other measurable benefits during recovery from surgery, including quicker return to oral diet and reduced length of stay.Design Pragmatic two arm parallel group randomised trial with blinded postoperative care and outcome assessment.Setting 45 UK hospitals.Participants 1350 patients aged 18 or over undergoing elective open or laparoscopic bowel surgery for malignant or benign pathology.Interventions Addition of a single dose of 8 mg intravenous dexamethasone at induction of anaesthesia compared with standard care.Main outcome measures Primary outcome: reported vomiting within 24 hours reported by patient or clinician. vomiting with 72 and 120 hours reported by patient or clinician; use of antiemetics and postoperative nausea and vomiting at 24, 72, and 120 hours rated by patient; fatigue and quality of life at 120 hours or discharge and at 30 days; time to return to fluid and food intake; length of hospital stay; adverse events.Results 1350 participants were recruited and randomly allocated to additional dexamethasone (n=674) or standard care (n=676) at induction of anaesthesia. Vomiting within 24 hours of surgery occurred in 172 (25.5%) participants in the dexamethasone arm and 223 (33.0%) allocated standard care (number needed to treat (NNT) 13, 95% confidence interval 5 to 22; P=0.003). Additional postoperative antiemetics were given (on demand) to 265 (39.3%) participants allocated dexamethasone and 351 (51.9%) allocated standard care (NNT 8, 5 to 11; P<0.001). Reduction in on demand antiemetics remained up to 72 hours. There was no increase in complications.Conclusions Addition of a single dose of 8 mg intravenous dexamethasone at induction of anaesthesia significantly reduces both the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting at 24 hours and the need for rescue antiemetics for up

  7. The Effectiveness of Midazolam for Preventing Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Eun Jin; Kang, Hyun; Choi, Geun Joo; Baek, Chong Wha; Jung, Yong Hun; Woo, Young Choel

    2016-03-01

    Previous randomized controlled trials regarding the effectiveness of perioperative midazolam in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) have produced conflicting results. Consequently, the present systematic review was performed to assess the effect of perioperative administration of midazolam on PONV. The MEDLINE®, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched to identify all randomized controlled trials that investigated the effectiveness of midazolam under general anesthesia. The primary end points were defined as postoperative nausea (PON), postoperative vomiting (POV), and PONV. From 16 studies, 1433 patients were included in the final analysis. Compared with the control group, patients who received midazolam showed a lower overall incidence of PON (risk ratio [RR], 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40-0.65; I = 35%; number needed to treat [NNT] = 6; number of included studies [n] = 11), POV (RR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.33-0.65; I = 0%; NNT = 8; n = 10), and PONV (RR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.36-0.57; I = 31%; NNT = 3; n = 7). Perioperative administration of midazolam was effective in preventing PON, POV, and PONV.

  8. Palonosetron and Ramosetron Compared for Effectiveness in Preventing Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, EunJin; Choi, GeunJoo; Baek, ChongWha; Jung, YongHun; Woo, YoungCheol; Lee, SangSeok; Chang, YeoGoo

    2016-01-01

    Previous randomized controlled trials have reported conflicting findings on the superiority of palonosetron over ramosetron for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). Therefore, the present systematic review was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42016038120) and performed to compare the efficacy of perioperative administration of palonosetron to that of ramosetron for preventing PONV. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL to identify all randomized controlled trials that compared the effectiveness of perioperative administration of palonosetron to that of ramosetron. The primary endpoints were defined as the incidence of postoperative nausea (PON), postoperative vomiting (POV), and PONV. A total of 695 patients were included in the final analysis. Subgroup analysis was performed through administration times which were divided into two phases: the early phase of surgery and the end of surgery. Combined analysis did not show differences between palonosetron and ramosetron in the overall incidence of PON, POV or PONV. Palonosetron was more effective than ramosetron, when the administration time for the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist was during the early phase of the operation. Otherwise, ramosetron was more effective than palonosetron, when the administration time was at the end of surgery. However, the quality of evidence for each outcome was low or very low and number of included studies was small, limiting our confidence in findings. PMID:27992509

  9. Side Effects: Nausea and Vomiting

    Cancer.gov

    Types of nausea and vomiting caused by cancer treatment include: anticipatory, acute, and delayed. Controlling these side effects will help to prevent serious problems such as malnutrition and dehydration in people with cancer.

  10. Effects of remifentanil versus nitrous oxide on postoperative nausea, vomiting, and pain in patients receiving thyroidectomy: Propensity score matching analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Kyoung; Yi, Myung Sub; Kang, Hyun; Choi, Geun-Joo

    2016-10-01

    Remifentanil and nitrous oxide (N2O) are 2 commonly used anesthetic agents. Both these agents are known risk factors for postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). However, remifentanil and N2O have not been directly compared in a published study. Remifentanil can induce acute tolerance or hyperalgesia, thus affecting postoperative pain. The objective of this retrospective study is to compare the effects of remifentanil and N2O on PONV and pain in patients receiving intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) after thyroidectomy.We analyzed the electronic medical records of 992 patients receiving fentanyl-based IV-PCA after thyroidectomy at Chung-Ang University Hospital from January 1, 2010 to April 30, 2016. We categorized the patients according to anesthetic agents used: group N2O (n = 745) and group remifentanil (n = 247). The propensity score matching method was used to match patients in the 2 groups based on their covariates. Finally, 128 matched subjects were selected from each group.There were no differences between groups for all covariates after propensity score matching. The numeric rating scale for nausea (0.55 ± 0.88 vs 0.27 ± 0.76, P = 0.01) was higher and complete response (88 [68.8%] vs 106 [82.8%], P = 0.001) was lower in group N2O compared with group remifentanil on postoperative day 0. However, the visual analog scale score for pain (3.47 ± 2.02 vs 3.97 ± 1.48, P = 0.025) was higher in group remifentanil than group N2O on postoperative day 0.In patients receiving IV-PCA after thyroidectomy, postoperative nausea was lower but postoperative pain was higher in group remifentanil.

  11. [Effects of a novel method of anesthesia combining propofol and volatile anesthesia on the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing laparoscopic gynecological surgery].

    PubMed

    Kawano, Hiroaki; Ohshita, Naohiro; Katome, Kimiko; Kadota, Takako; Kinoshita, Michiko; Matsuoka, Yayoi; Tsutsumi, Yasuo M; Kawahito, Shinji; Tanaka, Katsuya; Oshita, Shuzo

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of a novel method of anesthesia combining propofol and volatile anesthesia on the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing laparoscopic gynecological surgery. Patients were randomly divided into three groups: those maintained with sevoflurane (Group S; n = 42), propofol (Group P; n = 42), or combined propofol and sevoflurane (Group PS; n = 42). We assessed complete response (no postoperative nausea and vomiting and no rescue antiemetic use), incidence of nausea and vomiting, nausea severity score, vomiting frequency, rescue antiemetic use, and postoperative pain at 2 and 24h after surgery. The number of patients who exhibited a complete response was greater in Groups P and PS than in Group S at 0-2h (74%; 76% and 43%; respectively, p = 0.001) and 0-24h (71%; 76%, and 38%; respectively, p < 0.0005). The incidence of nausea at 0-2h (Group S = 57%; Group P = 26% and Group PS = 21%; p = 0.001) and 0-24h (Group S = 62%; Group P = 29% and Group PS = 21%; p < 0.0005) was also significantly different among groups. However, there were no significant differences among groups in the incidence or frequency of vomiting or rescue antiemetic use at 0-24h. Combined propofol and volatile anesthesia during laparoscopic gynecological surgery effectively decreases the incidence of postoperative nausea. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Nausea and Vomiting

    MedlinePlus

    ... rice, fruit, and salty or high-protein, high-carbohydrate foods. Avoid fatty or spicy foods. Wait to ... article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/symptoms/nausea/basics/definition/SYM-20050736 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  13. Opioid-free total intravenous anaesthesia reduces postoperative nausea and vomiting in bariatric surgery beyond triple prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Ziemann-Gimmel, P; Goldfarb, A A; Koppman, J; Marema, R T

    2014-05-01

    Patients undergoing bariatric surgery are at high risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). Despite triple PONV prophylaxis, up to 42.7% of patients require antiemetic rescue medication (AERM). This prospective, randomized study was conducted from November 2011 to October 2012. In the Classic group (n=59), patients underwent general anaesthesia with volatile anaesthetics and opioids. In the Total i.v. anaesthesia (TIVA) group (n=60), patients underwent opioid-free TIVA with propofol, ketamine, and dexmedetomidine. The severity of PONV was assessed using a Likert scale (none, mild, moderate, and severe). Patients in both groups had similar clinical characteristics, surgical procedure, and PONV risk scores and required similar amounts of postoperative opioid. In the Classic group, 22 patients (37.3%) reported PONV compared with 12 patients (20.0%) in the TIVA group [P=0.04; risk 1.27 (1.01-1.61)]. The absolute risk reduction was 17.3% (number-needed-to-treat=6). The severity of nausea was statistically different in both groups (P=0.02). The severity of PONV was significantly worse in the Classic group. There was no difference either in the number of patients requiring AERM in the postoperative period or in the number of AERM doses required. This prospective randomized study demonstrates that opioid-free TIVA is associated with a large reduction in relative risk of PONV compared with balanced anaesthesia. Clinical trial registration NCT 01449708 (ClinicalTrials.gov).

  14. Effects of sugammadex vs. pyridostigmine-glycopyrrolate on post-operative nausea and vomiting: propensity score matching.

    PubMed

    Lee, O H; Choi, G J; Kang, H; Baek, C W; Jung, Y H; Woo, Y C; Oh, J; Park, Y H

    2017-01-01

    Sugammadex is a new agent that reverses neuromuscular blockade by aminosteroid neuromuscular blocker. This retrospective study compared the effects of sugammadex on post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) with those of a pyridostigmine-glycopyrrolate mixture. We reviewed the electronic medical records of 7179 patients who had received fentanyl-based, intravenous, patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) at Chung-Ang University Hospital between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2015. We categorized the patients into two groups on the basis of the type of reversal agent to neuromuscular blockade that was used: a traditional reversal agent (pyridostigmine-glycopyrrolate mixture; Group R; n = 7059) and sugammadex (Group S; n = 120). The propensity score matching method was then used to select 408 subjects in Group R and 115 subjects in Group S; on the basis of their covariates, these subjects were then matched with a counterpart in the other group. After propensity score matching, the two groups were well balanced with respect to all baseline covariates. In Group S, the numeric rating scale of nausea on day 0, as well as the number of patients who vomited on day 0, was lower than that in group R. Furthermore, Group S used fewer rescue antiemetics on day 0 and had a higher complete response on day 0. Sugammadex might be more beneficial for PONV compared to pyridostigmine-glycopyrrolate mixture for patients who have received opioid-based IV-PCA. © 2016 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The Association of CYP2D6 Genotype and Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Orthopedic Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wesmiller, Susan W.; Henker, Richard A.; Sereika, Susan M.; Donovan, Heidi S.; Meng, Li; Gruen, Gary S.; Tarkin, Ivan S.; Conley, Yvette P.

    2014-01-01

    The CYP2D6 gene encodes for an enzyme that is involved in the metabolism of more than 25% of all medications, including many opioids and antiemetics. It may contribute to the risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), a common surgical complication. However, little research has been conducted in this area. The purpose of this study was to explore the association of CYP2D6 genotypes with PONV in adult surgical trauma patients. Data from 112 patients (28% female) with single extremity fractures, aged 18–70 years, were analyzed. PONV was defined as present if patients reported nausea, were observed vomiting, or received medication for PONV. Saliva samples collected for DNA extraction and Taqman® allele discrimination and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were used to collect genotype data that were then used to assign CYP2D6 phenotype classification. The incidence of PONV was 38% in the postanesthesia care unit and increased to 50% when assessed at 48 hr. CYP2D6 classification results were 7 (6%) poor metabolizers, 34 (30%) intermediate metabolizers, and 71 (63%) extensive metabolizers. No ultrarapid metabolizers were identified. Patients who were classified as poor metabolizers had less PONV and higher pain scores. Gender and history of PONV, but not smoking, were also significant risk factors. Findings suggest variability in CYP2D6 impacts susceptibility to PONV. PMID:22718526

  16. Comparative Pharmacology and Guide to the Use of the Serotonin 5-HT3 Receptor Antagonists for Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting.

    PubMed

    Kovac, Anthony L

    2016-12-01

    Since the introduction of the serotonin 5-hydroxy tryptamine 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists in the early 1990s, the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and post-discharge nausea and vomiting (PDNV) has decreased, yet continues to be a problem for the surgical patient. The clinical application of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists has helped define the approach and role of these antiemetics in the prevention and treatment of PONV and PDNV. Pharmacological and clinical differences exist among these medications resulting in corresponding differences in effectiveness, safety, optimal dosage, time of administration, and use as combination and rescue antiemetic therapy. The clinical application of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist antiemetics has improved the prevention and treatment of PONV and PDNV. The most recent consensus guidelines for PONV published in 2014 outline the use of these antiemetics. The 5-HT3 receptor antagonists play an important role to help prevent PONV and PDNV in perioperative care pathways such as Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS). Comparisons and guidelines for use of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in relation to the risk for PONV and PDNV are reviewed.

  17. Efficacy of ondansetron vs. metoclopramide in prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Si-Jia; Xiong, Xian-Ze; Cheng, Tie-Yao; Lin, Yi-Xin; Cheng, Nan-Sheng

    2012-10-01

    The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting is truly high after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Ondansetron and metoclopramide may be effective in preventing it. Our aim was to estimate the efficacy of ondansetron vs. metoclopramide in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We searched MEDLINE (PubMed), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Science Citation Index Expanded, EMBASE etc. to obtain relevant randomized controlled trials until October 2011. Two authors independently assessed the trials for inclusion and extracted the data. The odds ratio (OR) for dichotomous data was used with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Sensitivity and subgroup analysis were performed, if necessary. The total incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting within 24 hours after laparoscopic cholecystectomy was 31% (74 of 235) in the ondansetron group and 56% (127 of 225) in the metoclopramide group (OR=0.33, 95%CI=0.22-0.49, p<0.00001, 12=49%). The total incidences of nausea and vomiting were lower in the ondansetron group (OR=0.28, 95%CI=0.15-0.54, p=0.0002, I²=0%) and (OR=0.31, 95%CI=0.17-0.55, p<0.0001, I²=0%), respectively. Based on the evidence, ondansetron has a better effect than metoclopramide for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. If we ignore the price factor, ondansetron is recommended for adhibition.

  18. Metoclopramide, versus its combination with dexamethasone in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ko-Iam, Wasana; Sandhu, Trichak; Paiboonworachat, Sahataya; Pongchairerks, Paisal; Junrungsee, Sunhawit; Chotirosniramit, Anon; Chotirosniramit, Narain; Chandacham, Kamtone; Jirapongcharoenlap, Tidarat

    2015-03-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are significant problems in laparoscopic surgery. Compare the prophylactic use of metoclopramide and its combination with dexamethasone in the prevention of PONV in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). One hundred patients aged 18 to 75 with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class 1-2 who candidates for elective LC at Chiang Mai University Hospital, were included in this double-blind, randomized controlled trial (parallel design). Patients were randomly divided into two groups, by 'Block offour 'randomization. Treatment group received 8 mg dexamethasone and 10 mg metoclopramide, and control group received 10 mg metoclopramide and normal saline solution 1.6 ml. These medications were administered intravenously when the gallbladder was removedfrom gallbladder bed. All of investigators, anesthetists, patients, care providers, and outcome assessor were blinded. Patients were asked to assess their nausea and vomiting at 2, 6, 12, and 24 hours postoperatively, and at discharge. The overall score of PONV in each patient based on afour-point whole number of nausea and vomiting by verbal rating scale 0-3 (0 = no nausea and vomiting, 1 = nausea, 2 = nausea with vomiting, and 3 = repeated vomiting >2 times). Fifty eligible patients were randomized to each group, and all were analyzed. There were no significant differences between baseline characteristics of patients in the two groups. The combination of dexamethasone and metoclopramide indicated a greater antiemetic effect with significant statistical analysis, odds ratio = 0.25 (95% confidence interval O. 11-0.55, p = 0.001). Thepostoperative hospital stay in the combined group and metoclopramide group were, 1 day = 47 (94%) and 37 (74%), >1 day = 3 (6%) and 13 (26%), respectively (p = 0.012). There were no postoperative complications occurred in both groups. Intravenous administration of dexamethasone combined with metoclopramide had significant effects in

  19. The effects of stimulation of acupressure point p6 on postoperative nausea and vomiting: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Nunley, Christy; Wakim, Judith; Guinn, Cherry

    2008-08-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) can complicate and delay patient recovery from general and neuraxial anesthesia. Even with a new generation of anesthetic drugs and antiemetics, a high number of patients are affected by PONV. PONV has a multifactor etiology, but there are ways to reduce its occurrence. Although it is not a traditionally recognized method, stimulation of acupressure points, specifically P6, has been identified as a potentially effective method of reducing PONV. This study is a state of the science paper reviewing research on both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic prophylaxis and various methods of acupressure. It was conducted to add information to the currently available knowledge regarding PONV in hopes of stimulating the use of acupressure for treatment of PONV. The study is divided into six categories: pathophysiology of PONV, background studies of PONV, nonpharmacologic prophylaxis, pharmacological prophylaxis, acupressure and related techniques, and benefits of routine antiemetic prophylaxis.

  20. Effects of intraoperative liberal fluid therapy on postoperative nausea and vomiting in children-A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ashok, Vighnesh; Bala, Indu; Bharti, Neerja; Jain, Divya; Samujh, Ram

    2017-08-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is one of the most distressing complications following surgery. Supplemental perioperative fluid therapy might be an effective strategy to reduce PONV in children. The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of intraoperative liberal fluid therapy with crystalloids on PONV in children. In this randomized trial, a total of 150 children of 3-7 years undergoing lower abdominal and penile surgery under general anesthesia were randomly assigned into two groups. "Restricted group" received 10 mL kg(-1) h(-1) and "Liberal group" received 30 mL kg(-1) h(-1) infusion of Ringer's lactate solution intraoperatively. All patients received a caudal block and intravenous paracetamol for analgesia. No opioids and muscle relaxants were used. All episodes of nausea-vomiting and the requirement of rescue antiemetic were assessed during 24 hours postoperatively. The incidence of PONV was significantly less in the liberal group patients as compared to the restricted group; 33 (45.8%) patients in the restricted group had vomiting as compared to 20 (27.4%) patients in the liberal group (RR 0.59, 95% CI: 0.38-0.93, P=.021). The adjusted odds ratio of PONV for the liberal group vs restricted group was 2.24 (95% CI: 1.12-4.48, P=.022). The incidence of fluid intake during the first 6 postoperative hours was significantly higher in the restricted group patients; 60 (83%) children in the restricted group complained of thirst as compared to 12 (17%) children in the liberal group (RR 0.19, 95% CI: 0.18-0.33, P=.0001). The parents of the liberal group were more satisfied as compared to the restricted group (mean difference -0.9, 95% CI: -1.8, -0.1, P=.04). None of the children had any complication attributed to the liberal fluid therapy. Liberal intraoperative fluid therapy was found to be effective in reducing PONV in children undergoing lower abdominal surgery. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. How patients fare after anaesthesia for elective surgery: a survey of postoperative nausea and vomiting, pain and confusion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun Zhi; Lee, Ruth Qianyi; Thinn, Kyu Kyu; Poon, Keah How; Liu, Eugene Hern Choon

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), and postoperative pain are common during the early postoperative period. In addition to these problems, elderly patients risk developing postoperative confusion. This study aimed to identify the risk factors associated with these problems, and the extent of these problems, in a Singapore inpatient surgical population. METHODS Over a period of six weeks, we surveyed 707 elective surgical inpatients aged ≥ 18 years who received general anaesthesia and/or regional anaesthesia. RESULTS The incidence of PONV was 31.8%(95% confidence interval [CI] 34.8–41.9). The incidence increased with increasing Apfel score (p < 0.001) and were higher in female patients (odds ratio [OR] 1.74, 95% CI 1.28–2.36), non-smokers (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.04–2.88), patients with a history of PONV and/or motion sickness (OR 3.45, 95% CI 2.38–5.24), patients who received opioids (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.03–1.88), and patients who received general anaesthesia (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.11–2.79). Moderate to severe pain at rest and with movement were reported in 19.9% and 52.5% of patients, respectively. Among the patients who were predicted to experience mild pain, 29.5% reported moderate pain and 8.1% reported severe pain. The prevalence of postoperative confusion was 3.9% in the geriatric population. CONCLUSION Higher Apfel scores were associated with a higher risk of PONV and multimodal treatment for postoperative pain management was found to be insufficient. The incidence of postoperative confusion was low in this study. PMID:25640098

  2. How patients fare after anaesthesia for elective surgery: a survey of postoperative nausea and vomiting, pain and confusion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun Zhi; Lee, Ruth Qianyi; Thinn, Kyu Kyu; Poon, Keah How; Liu, Eugene Hern

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), and postoperative pain are common during the early postoperative period. In addition to these problems, elderly patients risk developing postoperative confusion. This study aimed to identify the risk factors associated with these problems, and the extent of these problems, in a Singapore inpatient surgical population. Over a period of six weeks, we surveyed 707 elective surgical inpatients aged ≥ 18 years who received general anaesthesia and/or regional anaesthesia. The incidence of PONV was 31.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 34.8-41.9). The incidence increased with increasing Apfel score (p < 0.001) and were higher in female patients (odds ratio [OR] 1.74, 95% CI 1.28-2.36), non-smokers (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.04-2.88), patients with a history of PONV and/or motion sickness (OR 3.45, 95% CI 2.38-5.24), patients who received opioids (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.03-1.88), and patients who received general anaesthesia (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.11-2.79). Moderate to severe pain at rest and with movement were reported in 19.9% and 52.5% of patients, respectively. Among the patients who were predicted to experience mild pain, 29.5% reported moderate pain and 8.1% reported severe pain. The prevalence of postoperative confusion was 3.9% in the geriatric population. Higher Apfel scores were associated with a higher risk of PONV and multimodal treatment for postoperative pain management was found to be insufficient. The incidence of postoperative confusion was low in this study.

  3. Multimodal Protocol Reduces Post-operative Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Undergoing LeFort I Osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Brookes, Carolyn Dicus; Berry, John; Rich, Josiah; Golden, Brent A; Turvey, Timothy A; Blakey, George; Kopp, Vincent; Phillips, Ceib; Anderson, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess the impact of a multimodal antiemetic protocol on postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) after LeFort I osteotomy. Methods Consecutive subjects undergoing LeFort I osteotomy with or without additional procedures at a single academic institution were recruited as the intervention cohort for an IRB-approved prospective clinical trial with a retrospective comparison group. The intervention cohort was managed with a multimodal antiemetic protocol including total intravenous anesthesia; prophylactic ondansetron, steroids, scopolamine, and droperidol; gastric decompression at surgery end; opioid-sparing analgesia; avoidance of morphine and codeine; prokinetic erythromycin; and minimum 25 mL/kg fluids. The comparison group consisted of consecutive subjects from a larger study who underwent similar surgical procedures prior to protocol implementation. Data including occurrence of PONV were extracted from medical records. Data were analyzed bivariately with Fisher’s Exact and Wilcoxon Rank Sum Tests. Logistic regression was used to compare the likelihood of nausea and vomiting in the two cohorts controlling for demographic and surgery characteristics. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results The intervention (n=93) and comparison (n=137) groups were similar in terms of gender (58% and 65% female, P=0.29), race (72% and 71% Caucasian, P=0.85), age (median 19 and 20 years old, P=0.75), proportion of subjects with known risk factors for PONV (P=0.34), percentage undergoing bimaxillary surgery (60% for both groups), and percentage for whom surgery time was over 180 minutes (63% versus 59%, P=0.51). Prevalence of PON was significantly lower in the intervention group than the comparison group (24% versus 70%, P<0.0001). Prevalence of POV was likewise significantly lower in the intervention group (11% versus 28%, P=0.0013). The likelihood that subjects in the comparison group would experience nausea was 8.9 and vomiting 3.7 times higher than in the

  4. Effects of a novel method of anesthesia combining propofol and volatile anesthesia on the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing laparoscopic gynecological surgery.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Hiroaki; Ohshita, Naohiro; Katome, Kimiko; Kadota, Takako; Kinoshita, Michiko; Matsuoka, Yayoi; Tsutsumi, Yasuo M; Kawahito, Shinji; Tanaka, Katsuya; Oshita, Shuzo

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of a novel method of anesthesia combining propofol and volatile anesthesia on the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing laparoscopic gynecological surgery. Patients were randomly divided into three groups: those maintained with sevoflurane (Group S, n=42), propofol (Group P, n=42), or combined propofol and sevoflurane (Group PS, n=42). We assessed complete response (no postoperative nausea and vomiting and no rescue antiemetic use), incidence of nausea and vomiting, nausea severity score, vomiting frequency, rescue antiemetic use, and postoperative pain at 2 and 24h after surgery. The number of patients who exhibited a complete response was greater in Groups P and PS than in Group S at 0-2h (74%, 76% and 43%, respectively, p=0.001) and 0-24h (71%, 76% and 38%, respectively, p<0.0005). The incidence of nausea at 0-2h (Group S=57%, Group P=26% and Group PS=21%, p=0.001) and 0-24h (Group S=62%, Group P=29% and Group PS=21%, p<0.0005) was also significantly different among groups. However, there were no significant differences among groups in the incidence or frequency of vomiting or rescue antiemetic use at 0-24h. Combined propofol and volatile anesthesia during laparoscopic gynecological surgery effectively decreases the incidence of postoperative nausea. We term this novel method of anesthesia "combined intravenous-volatile anesthesia (CIVA)". Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Prophylactic administration of ondansetron in prevention of intrathecal morphine-induced pruritus and post-operative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Koju, Ram Bhakta; Gurung, Bandana Sharma; Dongol, Yashad

    2015-02-17

    Intrathecal morphine is commonly used for post caesarean analgesia. However, their use is frequently associated with the incidence of troublesome side effects such as nausea, vomiting and pruritus. Various mechanisms have been postulated for the opioid-induced pruritus, with a variety of medications with different mechanisms of actions formulated for the prevention and treatment. But, the results are inconsistent and hence the prevention and treatment of opioid-induced pruritus still remains a challenge. Ondansetron which is antiemetic, non-sedative and has no antianalgesic effect is an antagonist to 5-HT3 receptor, the receptor with which opioids interacts and imparts its effects. Ondansetron, thus, would be an attractive treatment strategy for both opioid-induced pruritus and post-operative nausea and vomiting. After the approval from institutional review committee and written consent received from the patient, 50 healthy parturients of ASA I and II physical status undergoing caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia were enrolled for the study. They were randomly categorized into placebo group (2 ml normal saline) and treatment group (2 ml of 4 mg ondansetron), each group containing 25 patients. Pruritus and post-operative nausea and vomiting scores were recorded up to 24 hours after the administration of intrathecal morphine. Statistical analysis was performed using chi-square test. The incidence, severity and necessity of treatment for pruritus in the treatment group was significantly reduced compared to the placebo group (16% vs 88%). Similarly, the risk of post-operative nausea and vomiting in the treatment group was less compared to the placebo group (8% vs 56%). Prophylactic administration of ondansetron to parturients receiving intrathecal morphine for post-operative analgesia provides a significant reduction of intrathecal morphine-induced pruritus and nausea and vomiting. CTRI/2015/01/005362 registered on 07/01/2015 in Clinical Trials Registry

  6. [Influence of acupuncture on postoperative pain, nausea and vomiting after visceral surgery : a prospective, randomized comparative study of metamizole and standard treatment].

    PubMed

    Grube, T; Uhlemann, C; Weiss, T; Meissner, W

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess repeated needle acupuncture in the treatment of postoperative pain and nausea after visceral surgery. Sixty-six patients undergoing visceral surgery (hysterectomy, cholecystectomy) were randomly assigned to group A (three sessions of needle acupuncture, n=21), group M (3x1000 mg metamizole, n=20), or group K (control, n=25). All patients received patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) using piritramide. To adjust for nonspecific effects due to physician-patient interaction during acupuncture sessions in group A, patients in groups M and K also received three standardized visits. Primary outcome parameters were defined as pain intensity, analgesic consumption, and frequency of nausea and vomiting in a period up to the morning of the second postoperative day. Patients in group A reported significant less pain, nausea, and vomiting compared to patients in group K. Mean cumulative piritramide consumption was significantly lower in group A (25.0 mg) than in group M (34.5 mg) and group K (55.2 mg). Repeated needle acupuncture may be effective in postoperative pain relief and the treatment of nausea and vomiting in the postoperative period. These effects seem not to be due solely to interaction between the acupuncturist and the patient.

  7. The influence of the weather and the phase of the moon on post-operative nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Kredel, M; Goepfert, C; Bassi, D; Roewer, N; Apfel, C C

    2006-04-01

    Post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is believed and previously reported to be influenced by the weather and the phase of the moon. We therefore determined the effects of specific and general weather patterns as well as the lunar phase on PONV in adults undergoing balanced inhalation anaesthesia. The incidence of PONV was prospectively evaluated in 1801 patients undergoing elective surgical, urologic and head and neck procedures. Air temperature, barometric pressure, air water vapour pressure and the general weather situation were obtained from the National Weather Institute in Germany on the days of surgery. Corresponding categories of temperature, pressure, vapour pressure and their day-to-day changes, the general weather situation and the phase of the moon were used to group the patient data. The differences between the proportion of patients having PONV and the proportion predicted to have PONV according to their calculated risk were determined for each category. Further, bivariate and multivariate testing was applied. Within 24 h after anaesthesia, PONV occurred in 555 of the patients (31%). There was no correlation between weather conditions and PONV occurrence or between the phase of the moon and PONV occurrence. Even when corrected for the patients' risk and other potentially confounding factors in multivariate logistic regression analysis, no statistically significant impact of the hypothesized factors could be detected. These data suggest that neither the weather nor the phases of the moon have any clinically relevant effect on the incidence of PONV after general anaesthesia.

  8. Controlled breathing with or without peppermint aromatherapy for postoperative nausea and/or vomiting symptom relief: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sites, Debra S; Johnson, Nancy T; Miller, Jacqueline A; Torbush, Pauline H; Hardin, Janis S; Knowles, Susan S; Nance, Jennifer; Fox, Tara H; Tart, Rebecca Creech

    2014-02-01

    With little scientific evidence to support use of aromatherapy for postoperative nausea and/or vomiting (PONV) symptoms, this study evaluated controlled breathing with peppermint aromatherapy (AR) and controlled breathing alone (CB) for PONV relief. A single blind randomized control trial design was used. On initial PONV complaint, symptomatic subjects received either CB (n = 16) or AR (n = 26) intervention based on randomization at enrollment. A second treatment was repeated at 5 minutes if indicated. Final assessment occurred 10 minutes post initial treatment. Rescue medication was offered for persistent symptoms. Among eligible subjects, PONV incidence was 21.4% (42/196). Gender was the only risk factor contributing to PONV symptoms (P = .0024). Though not statistically significant, CB was more efficacious than AR, 62.5% versus 57.7%, respectively. CB can be initiated without delay as an alternative to prescribed antiemetics. Data also support use of peppermint AR in conjunction with CB for PONV relief. Copyright © 2014 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The effectiveness of dry-cupping in preventing post-operative nausea and vomiting by P6 acupoint stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Farhadi, Khosro; Choubsaz, Mansour; Setayeshi, Khosro; Kameli, Mohammad; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Zadie, Zahra H.; Ahmadi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a common complication after general anesthesia, and the prevalence ranges between 25% and 30%. The aim of this study was to determine the preventive effects of dry cupping on PONV by stimulating point P6 in the wrist. Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial conducted at the Imam Reza Hospital in Kermanshah, Iran. The final study sample included 206 patients (107 experimental and 99 controls). Inclusion criteria included the following: female sex; age>18 years; ASA Class I-II; type of surgery: laparoscopic cholecystectomy; type of anesthesia: general anesthesia. Exclusion criteria included: change in the type of surgery, that is, from laparoscopic cholecystectomy to laparotomy, and ASA-classification III or more. Interventions are as follows: pre surgery, before the induction of anesthesia, the experimental group received dry cupping on point P6 of the dominant hand's wrist with activation of intermittent negative pressure. The sham group received cupping without activation of negative pressure at the same point. Main outcome was that the visual analogue scale was used to measure the severity of PONV. Results: The experimental group who received dry cupping had significantly lower levels of PONV severity after surgery (P < 0.001) than the control group. The differences in measure were maintained after controlling for age and ASA in regression models (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Traditional dry cupping delivered in an operation room setting prevented PONV in laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients. PMID:27661022

  10. Treatment of Nausea and Vomiting During Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Mustian, Karen M; Devine, Katie; Ryan, Julie L; Janelsins, Michelle C; Sprod, Lisa K; Peppone, Luke J; Candelario, Grace D; Mohile, Supriya G; Morrow, Gary R

    2014-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting are two of the most troubling side effects patients experience during chemotherapy. While newly available treatments have improved our ability to manage nausea and vomiting, anticipatory and delayed nausea and vomiting are still a major problem for patients receiving chemotherapy. Many cancer patients will delay or refuse future chemotherapy treatments and contemplate stopping chemotherapy altogether because of their fear of experiencing further nausea and vomiting. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the patho-psychophysiology of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and the recommended guidelines for treatment. PMID:24466408

  11. [Continuous epidural administration of droperidol to prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kenji; Higuchi, Jun; Sakio, Hideaki; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Onoda, Noboru

    2002-02-01

    This randomized double-blind trial was designed to evaluate the antiemetic effect of continuous epidural analgesia with droperidol mixed with bupivacaine and buprenorphine. We studied 78 patients for abdominal gynecological surgery under general-epidural anesthesia. After recovery from anesthesia, they received epidural administration of 0.25% bupivacaine 40 ml and buprenorphine 0.4 mg with or without droperidol 2.5-5.0 mg at a rate of 2 ml.h-1 for 24 hours. The addition of droperidol 5.0 mg led to serious undesirable effects. Droperidol 2.5 mg, however, showed not only significant antiemetic effect without any adverse action, but also the reduction of rescue analgesics. We conclude that the addition of a small dose of droperidol to epidural analgesics reduces the incidence of postoperative emesis and the requirement of rescue analgesics.

  12. Comparison of ondansetron and combination of ondansetron and dexamethasone as a prophylaxis for postoperative nausea and vomiting in adults undergoing elective laparoscopic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bhattarai, Basant; Shrestha, Santosh; Singh, Jeevan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Laparoscopic surgeries are the second most common cause of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), which would cause unexpected delay in hospital discharge. This study intends to compare the efficacy and safety of the combination of ondansetron and dexamethasone with ondansetron alone given as prophylaxis for PONV in adults undergoing elective laparoscopic surgery. Materials and Methods: One hundred adult patients undergoing elective laparoscopic surgeries were selected and were randomly divided into 2 groups of 50 each. Group I received 4 mg of ondansetron intravenously (i.v.), whereas Group II received ondansetron 4 mg and dexamethasone 4 mg i.v. just before induction of anesthesia. Postoperatively, the patients were assessed for episodes of nausea, vomiting, and need for rescue antiemetic at intervals of 0–2, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h. Postoperative pain scores and time for the first analgesic dose were also noted. Results: Results were analyzed statistically. Complete response defined as no nausea or emesis and no need for rescue antiemetic during first 24 h, was noted in 76% of patients who received ondansetron alone, while similar response was seen in 92% of patients in combination group. Rescue antiemetic requirement was less in combination group (8%) as compared with ondansetron group. Conclusion: Combination of ondanserton and dexamethasone is more effective in preventing post operative nausea vomiting in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery than ondansetron alone. PMID:21769200

  13. Total Intravenous Anesthesia with Propofol Reduces Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Undergoing Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy: A Prospective Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Young-Chul; Bai, Sun-Joon; Lee, Ki-Young; Shin, Seokyung; Choi, Eun Kyeong

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the effect of total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) with propofol on postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) after robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RLRP) in patients at low risk of developing PONV, in comparison to balanced anesthesia with desflurane. Materials and Methods Sixty two patients were randomly assigned to the Des or TIVA group. Propofol and remifentanil were used for induction of anesthesia in both groups and for maintenance of the anesthesia in the TIVA group. In the Des group, anesthesia was maintained with desflurane and remifentanil. In both groups, postoperative pain was controlled using fentanyl-based intravenous patient controlled analgesia, and ramosetron 0.3 mg was administered at the end of surgery. The incidence of PONV, severity of nausea and pain, and requirements of rescue antiemetics and analgesics were recorded. Results The incidence of nausea in the post-anesthetic care unit was 22.6% in the Des group and 6.5% in the TIVA (p=0.001) group. The incidence of nausea at postoperative 1-6 hours was 54.8% in the Des group and 16.1% in the TIVA group (p=0.001). At postoperative 6-48 hours, there were no significant differences in the incidence of nausea between groups. Conclusion In order to prevent PONV after RLRP in the early postoperative period, anesthesia using TIVA with propofol is required regardless of patient-related risk factors. PMID:23074122

  14. Effects of end tidal CO2 and venous CO2 levels on postoperative nausea and vomiting in paediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Altay, N; Yalçın, S; Aydoğan, H; Küçük, A; Yüce, H H

    2015-11-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a common complaint of paediatric surgical patients. The aim of this prospective study was to compare the effects of end tidal CO2 (PeCO2) and venous CO2 (PvCO2) in laryngeal mask (LMA) and face mask (FM) ventilation on the occurrence of PONV in paediatric patients with surgical interventions in the inguinal region. To date, no data regarding these parameters on PONV are available. Ninety children were randomized using the sealed-envelope method. Group 1 consisted of 45 patients whose airway was managed with LMA; Group 2 consisted of 45 patients whose airway was managed with FM. Induction of anaesthesia was performed via administration of 8% sevoflurane in a mixture of air/oxygen in all patients. In both groups, manually controlled ventilation was applied. Five (t1) and fifteen (t2) min after the start of surgery, venous blood samples were obtained and PeCO2 was determined. PeCO2 (t2) and PvCO2 (t2) levels and the occurrence of PONV were significantly increased in Group 2 compared to Group 1 (p < 0.005 for all). In both groups, the occurrence of PONV was positively correlated with BMI, PeCO2 (t2), and PvCO2 (t2) levels (p < 0.05 for all), whereas it was inversely correlated with SpO2 levels (p < 0.05 for all) in a bivariate analysis. We found that the PeCO2 (t2) and PvCO2 (t2) levels were independently associated with the occurrence of PONV in both groups. Our results showed that elevated levels of PeCO2 (t2) and PvCO2 (t2) are independent risk factors for PONV, and these parameters may be used as adjunctive tools to assess the occurrence of PONV.

  15. Low doses of haloperidol combined with ondansetron are not effective for prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting in susceptible patients.

    PubMed

    Veiga-Gil, Leonor; López-Olaondo, Luis; Pueyo, Javier; Callejas, Raquel; Duque, Paula; Carrascosa, Francisco

    2015-02-01

    In this observational study we reviewed the efficacy and side effects of different antiemetic combinations used in our hospital for postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) prophylaxis in high-risk women undergoing highly emetogenic surgery. After reviewing retrospectively the medical records of patients undergoing highly emetogenic elective surgeries under general anaesthesia, we selected 368 women whose Apfel risk score was ≥ 3 and receiving a combination of 2 antiemetics for PONV prophylaxis. We analysed the incidence of PONV at 2, 6, 12 and 24h after surgery, antiemetic rescue requirements, pattern of occurrence of PONV, side effects and level of sedation were also assessed. The main goal was complete response defined as no PONV within 24h after surgery. Ondansetron 4mg i.v. plus dexamethasone 8mg i.v. (O&Dex), haloperidol 1mg i.v. (O&Hal1), haloperidol 2mg i.v. (O&Hal2) or droperidol 1.25mg i.v. (O&Dro) were the combinations most frequently used. The complete response was better in groups O&Dex: 68.5% (CI: 58-78), O&Hal2: 64.1% (CI: 53-74) and O&Dro 63% (CI: 52-73) than in group O&Hal1: 41.3% (CI: 31-52) (p<0,01). Peak incidence of PONV occurred within the 2-6h period. The incidence of side effects was higher in group O&Hal2. In high risk patients for PONV who underwent highly emetogenic surgeries, the efficacy of low-dose haloperidol (1mg) in combination is limited. Higher doses (2mg) are more effective but its use is associated with a high incidence of side effects. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Ginger for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lindblad, Adrienne J; Koppula, Sudha

    2016-02-01

    Clinical questionCan ginger treat nausea and vomiting of pregnancy?Bottom lineIn the first trimester ginger might improve nausea and vomiting by about 4 points on a 40-point scale or stop vomiting for 1 in 3 women at 6 days. The largest study suggests no increase in fetal malformations or stillbirths, but smaller studies suggest otherwise.

  17. Ginger for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Lindblad, Adrienne J.; Koppula, Sudha

    2016-01-01

    Clinical question Can ginger treat nausea and vomiting of pregnancy? Bottom line In the first trimester ginger might improve nausea and vomiting by about 4 points on a 40-point scale or stop vomiting for 1 in 3 women at 6 days. The largest study suggests no increase in fetal malformations or stillbirths, but smaller studies suggest otherwise. PMID:26884528

  18. Recent advances, trends and economic considerations in the risk assessment, prevention and treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Kranke, Peter; Schuster, Frank; Eberhart, Leopold H

    2007-12-01

    During the last two decades there have been considerable achievements regarding the management of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). Due to the importance of these symptoms in the aim to streamline clinical processes and to improve patient satisfaction, the debate on the best strategies and also research that focuses on PONV continues. This review summarises the recent developments with respect to the management of PONV. Following a brief review on what is already known on the risk assessment, prevention and treatment of PONV, newer trends in the pharmacological prevention (dexamethasone, neurokinin-1 antagonists, multimodal prevention) will be discussed as well as new insights regarding the value of algorithms for the prevention of PONV. Further, pharmacogenetically based algorithms (according to the metaboliser status) as well as new treatment strategies (dexamethasone, multimodal treatment) will be covered. No drug so far can achieve a reduction of PONV of more than one third. Furthermore, all clinical studies consistently demonstrated that a combination treatment has a simple additive effect without any relevant interaction between different drugs or classes of drugs. The relative reduction of approximately 30% can also be expected from dexamethasone and it is likely that the substances presently in development and in an early clinical use (e.g., neurokinin-1 antagonists) will not represent the new panacea. However, they will probably replenish the existing antiemetic portfolio to better cope with high risk patients. Stratified prevention using pharmacogenetic knowledge is still in the early stages. Algorithms need to be customized to the local settings in order to prove efficient. Treatment remains a most important pillar and there is evidence that the principles of combining antiemetics to prolong effects and improve protection can be similarly applied to treatment. Recent developments in the area of PONV are more related to implementing the already

  19. Anesthesiologists' practice patterns for treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting in the ambulatory Post Anesthesia Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Macario, Alex; Claybon, Louis; Pergolizzi, Joseph V

    2006-01-01

    Background When patients are asked what they find most anxiety provoking about having surgery, the top concerns almost always include postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). Only until recently have there been any published recommendations, mostly derived from expert opinion, as to which regimens to use once a patient develops PONV. The goal of this study was to assess the responses to a written survey to address the following questions: 1) If no prophylaxis is administered to an ambulatory patient, what agent do anesthesiologists use for treatment of PONV in the ambulatory Post-Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU)?; 2) Do anesthesiologists use non-pharmacologic interventions for PONV treatment?; and 3) If a PONV prophylaxis agent is administered during the anesthetic, do anesthesiologists choose an antiemetic in a different class for treatment? Methods A questionnaire with five short hypothetical clinical vignettes was mailed to 300 randomly selected USA anesthesiologists. The types of pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions for PONV treatment were analyzed. Results The questionnaire was completed by 106 anesthesiologists (38% response rate), who reported that on average 52% of their practice was ambulatory. If a patient develops PONV and received no prophylaxis, 67% (95% CI, 62% – 79%) of anesthesiologists reported they would administer a 5-HT3-antagonist as first choice for treatment, with metoclopramide and dexamethasone being the next two most common choices. 65% (95% CI, 55% – 74%) of anesthesiologists reported they would also use non-pharmacologic interventions to treat PONV in the PACU, with an IV fluid bolus or nasal cannula oxygen being the most common. When PONV prophylaxis was given during the anesthetic, the preferred PONV treatment choice changed. Whereas 3%–7% of anesthesiologists would repeat dose metoclopramide, dexamethasone, or droperidol, 26% (95% confidence intervals, 18% – 36%) of practitioners would re-dose the 5-HT3-antagonist

  20. The influence of a prophylactic dose of dexamethasone for postoperative nausea and vomiting on plasma interleukin concentrations after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Ionescu, Daniela C; Hadade, Adina I; Mocan, Teodora A; Margarit, Simona D

    2014-04-01

    Little is known about the effects of small doses of dexamethasone used for the prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting on the innate host response. We studied the influence of dexamethasone 4 mg on the perioperative plasma concentrations of interleukins after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We hypothesised that there would be differences in pro-inflammatory interleukin concentrations in patients who received dexamethasone. A randomised controlled study. University hospital. Forty-six patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy under total intravenous anaesthesia were allocated randomly into one of two study groups; 42 patients completed the study. Patients in group 1 (dexamethasone, n = 22) received dexamethasone 4 mg and group 2 (n = 20) acted as controls. Plasma levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha and interleukins 1β, 6, 8, 10 and 13 were measured before anaesthesia, before surgery and 2 and 24 h after surgery. The frequency and number of episodes of postoperative nausea and vomiting were recorded. Areas under the curve of the percentage variation of interleukins 6 and 8 were significantly lower in the dexamethasone group. There were no significant differences between groups in the areas under the curve for tumour necrosis factor alpha and interleukins 1β, 10 and 13. The greatest variation in interleukin concentrations was 2 h postoperatively, when the concentration of interleukin 6 was greater in the control group, whereas the concentration of interleukin 10 was higher in the dexamethasone group. Twenty-four hours after surgery, only the concentration of interleukin 6 remained significantly increased in both groups (P = 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively). There were no significant differences between groups in respect of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Prophylactic dexamethasone given before laparoscopic cholecystectomy produced a significant decrease in concentrations of interleukins 6 and 8. Further studies are

  1. Comparison of Ramosetron with Palonosetron for Prevention of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Receiving Opioid-Based Intravenous Patient-Controlled Analgesia after Gynecological Laparoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Eun Jin; Jung, Yong Hun; Woo, Young Cheol

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to compare the effects of ramosetron and palonosetron in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in patients that received opioid-based intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) after gynecological laparoscopy. We reviewed the electronic medical records of 755 adults. Patients were classified into two groups, ramosetron (group R, n = 589) versus palonosetron (group P, n = 166). Based on their confounding factors, 152 subjects in each group were selected after the implementation of propensity score matching. The overall incidence of PONV at postoperative day (POD) 0 was lower in group R compared to group P (26.9% versus 36.8%; P = 0.043). The severity of nausea was lower in group R than in group P on postoperative day (POD) 0 (P = 0.012). Also, the complete responder proportion of patients was significantly higher in group R compared to that in group P on POD 0 (P = 0.043). In conclusion, ramosetron showed a greater efficacy in the prevention of postoperative nausea at POD 0 compared to palonosetron in patients after gynecological laparoscopy. PMID:28357406

  2. Nausea in Specific Phobia of Vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Höller, Yvonne; van Overveld, Mark; Jutglar, Heili; Trinka, Eugen

    2013-01-01

    Specific phobia of vomiting (SPOV) is a clinical condition with early onset, chronic course and substantial psychosocial impairment due to a rigorous avoidance behavior. A primary symptom which drives patients to consult a medical practitioner is nausea. In this study our aim was to further analyze this symptom of SPOV and examined its role in the development and manifestation of the phobia. We conducted an internet survey in the german SPOV-internet-forum. We calculated a nausea score and grouped participants in a high-and low-nausea group to examine the relationship between nausea and characteristics of the fear of vomiting. In this sample (N = 131), nausea was fairly common in most participants with fear of vomiting. Participants in the high-nausea group had significantly higher ratings of subjective fear and significantly longer duration of fear of vomiting. Additionally, the high-nausea group contained more participants with a body mass index below 19 than the low-nausea group. The present findings suggest that nausea is a core symptom in SPOV which is closely related to intensity of the fear, duration of the fear, and body weight. Future research should investigate if nausea-specific design of treatment could improve therapy outcome. PMID:25379248

  3. Nausea and vomiting in late pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Linseth, Glenda; Vari, Patty

    2005-05-01

    Nausea and vomiting in late pregnancy is a little-studied phenomenon. In this study of 116 midwestern women, 32% of the women had nausea and vomiting after 20 weeks gestation. The purpose of this study was to examine demographic, anthropometric, maternal health factors, and pregnancy outcomes in women who had late nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) and those that did not. Women who experienced late NVP had significantly higher parity, were older, gained less weight in pregnancy, and slept fewer hours per night than women who did not experience late NVP. By being aware of prenatal factors that may affect nausea and vomiting in late pregnancy, health care providers will be better able to maximize the quality of life for these women.

  4. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Nausea and Vomiting

    MedlinePlus

    ... least 1 hour before you eat or drink. ● ● Acupuncture lowers nausea and/or vomiting in some people. Talk with your nurse to learn more about acupuncture and other ways to feel better during treatment. ...

  5. When you have nausea and vomiting

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000122.htm When you have nausea and vomiting To use the sharing ... your medicines, tell your doctor or nurse. Things You Should Avoid You should avoid some specific kinds ...

  6. A randomized, double-blind study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of three different doses of palonosetron versus placebo for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Candiotti, Keith A; Kovac, Anthony L; Melson, Timothy I; Clerici, Giuseppina; Joo Gan, Tong

    2008-08-01

    In this randomized, double-blind study we assessed the efficacy and safety of three different doses of the 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist palonosetron, compared with placebo, on the incidence and severity of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) for 72 h postsurgery. Five hundred seventy-four patients undergoing either outpatient abdominal or gynecological laparoscopic surgery were stratified according to gender, history of PONV or motion sickness, and nonsmoking status. Patients with > or =2 PONV risk factors were eligible and randomized to receive one of three doses of IV palonosetron (0.025 mg, 0.050 mg, or 0.075 mg) or placebo immediately prior to induction of anesthesia. Co-primary efficacy end-points included complete response (CR: no emetic episodes and no rescue medication) during the 0 to 24 h and 24 to 72 h postoperative time intervals. A dose-response trend in the proportion of patients with a CR was observed with increasing doses of palonosetron in the first 24 hrs. CR rates for placebo and palonosetron 0.075 mg were 26% and 43%, respectively, for the 0 to 24 h postoperative interval (P = 0.004), and 41% and 49%, respectively, for the 24 to 72 h interval (P = 0.188). Compared with placebo, palonosetron 0.075 mg was associated with a significant downward shift toward less intense nausea (P = 0.042) and with significant reduction in the impact of PONV on patient functioning (P = 0.004) during the 0 to 24 h interval. A single 0.075-mg IV dose of palonosetron significantly increased the CR rate (no emetic episodes and no rescue medication) from 0 to 24 h, decreased nausea severity and patients experienced significantly less interference in their postoperative function due to PONV.

  7. Prophylactic isopropyl alcohol inhalation and intravenous ondansetron versus ondansetron alone in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in high-risk patients.

    PubMed

    Radford, Kennett D; Fuller, Thomas N; Bushey, Brent; Daniel, Carole; Pellegrini, Joseph E

    2011-08-01

    Patients identified as high risk for postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are often treated prophylactically with intravenous (IV) ondansetron and an additional agent. Limited options exist for a second agent with no adverse effects. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if combining the prophylactic inhalation of isopropyl alcohol (IPA) vapors, an agent with no adverse effects, with IV ondansetron would be more effective than IV ondansetron alone in the prevention of PONV in high-risk patients. A total of 76 patients at high risk for PONV were randomized into control (n = 38) and experimental (n = 38) groups. All patients received IV ondansetron before emergence from general anesthesia. In addition, the experimental group inhaled IPA vapors before induction. Severity of PONV was measured using a 0 to 10 verbal numeric rating scale. Other measured variables included time to onset and incidence of PONV, 24-hour composite nausea score, and satisfaction with nausea control. No significant differences in demographics, surgical or anesthesia time, number of risk factors, severity or incidence of PONV, or satisfaction scores were noted. Prophylactic inhalation of IPA vapors in combination with IV ondansetron was no more efficacious than IV ondansetron alone in the prevention of PONV in a high-risk population.

  8. [Combination effects of capsicum plaster at the Korean hand acupuncture points k-d2 with prophylactic antiemetic on postoperative nausea and vomiting after gynecologic laparoscopy].

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyun Jung; Park, Sang Youn

    2013-04-01

    This study was done to evaluate the combination effects of capsicum plaster at the Korean hand acupuncture points K-D2 with prophylactic antiemetic on Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV). An experimental research design (a randomized, a double-blinded, and a placebo-control procedure) was used. The participants were female patients undergoing gynecologic laparoscopy; the control group (n=34) received intravenous prophylactic ramosetron 0.3mg, while the experimental group (n=34) had Korean Hand Therapy additionally. In the experimental group, capsicum plaster was applied at K-D2 of both 2nd and 4th fingers by means of Korean Hand Therapy for a period of 30 minutes before the induction of anesthesia and removed 8 hours after the laparoscopy. The occurrence of nausea, nausea intensity and need for rescue with antiemetic in the experimental group was significantly less than in the control group 2 hours after surgery. Results of the study show capsicum plaster at K-D2 is an effective method for reducing PONV in spite of the low occurrence of PONV because of the prophylactic antiemetic medication.

  9. Aprepitant in a multimodal approach for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in high-risk patients: is there such a thing as "too many modalities"?

    PubMed

    Hache, John J; Vallejo, Manuel C; Waters, Jonathan H; Williams, Brian A

    2009-04-28

    Postoperative and postdischarge nausea and vomiting (PONV and PDNV, respectively) add morbidity to perioperative outcomes. Combining some antiemetic agents of different mechanisms is more effective than using single agents, although this concept has not yet been tested extensively with aprepitant. Consecutive high-risk patients for PONV (n = 100) were given preoperative aprepitant 40 mg before surgery and were followed perioperatively. Female patients receiving general anesthesia (n = 81) were selected for data analysis. The primary endpoints were PONV/PDNV in the 48 h after surgery. For patients included in the data analysis, using Apfel PONV risk factors, the median risk count was four out of four. PONV and PDNV incidences were 21% (95% CI: 14-31%) and 37% (95% CI: 27-48%), respectively. Two patients experienced PACU (postanesthesia care unit) vomiting and two patients experienced emesis postdischarge. When using regression modeling and comparing patients who received one or two vs. three or four mechanistically unique antiemetics (added to preoperative aprepitant), while adjusting for surgical case duration, the three or four additional antiemetic group showed more PONV/PDNV (Odds Ratio 3.73, 95% CI 1.3-10.9, p = 0.016) than did the one or two additional drug group. There were no other predictors of PONV/PDNV (transabdominal surgery, four vs. three Apfel risk factors) in these patients. The low incidence of vomiting (2-5%) suggests the potential importance of aprepitant in a multimodal antiemetic regimen. However, there may be the potential that too many unique antiemetic mechanisms combined with preoperative aprepitant may actually increase the incidence of perioperative nausea.

  10. Preoperative Use of 10-mg Metoclopramide and 50-mg Dimenhydrinate in the Prophylaxis of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Elective Caesarean Births: A Prospective Randomized Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Hüseyinoğlu, Ürfettin; Ülker, Kahraman

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy and outcomes of preoperative prophylactic metoclopramide and dimenhydrinate use in elective cesarean births. Participants (n = 84) scheduled for elective cesarean births were randomized equally into placebo (10 cc 0.9 % NaCl), 10-mg metoclopramide or 50-mg dimenhydrinate groups. Oral alimentation was prohibited 8 h before the surgery; however, patients continued drinking water until 4 h before surgery. Placebo and antiemetics were administered 1 h before the anticipated procedure in a 5-ml syringe. In metoclopramide and dimenhydrinate group, an ampoule of the agents was completed to 5 ml by adding 0.9 % NaCl. In the control group 5 ml of 0.9 % NaCl was used. All prophylactic agents were administered intramuscularly. All patients received a general anesthesia. The placebo group (control group) was compared with the metoclopramide and dimenhydrinate groups. Demographic data including maternal age, height, weight, body mass index, gravidity, parity, miscarriage, induced abortion, the number of offspring, and the medical history did not show significant differences among the three groups. Postoperative nausea, vomiting, and the use of rescue medication ratios were significantly lower in metoclopramide and dimenhydrinate groups compared with the placebo group (p < 0.05); however, the difference between the metoclopramide and dimenhydrinate groups was not significant (p > 0.05). Dimenhydrinate and metoclopramide significantly decrease postoperative nausea, vomiting, and the need for rescue antiemetic medication. Both agents have similar efficacy and may be used as an alternative to each other.

  11. Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: a review.

    PubMed

    Jarnfelt-Samsioe, A

    1987-07-01

    Throughout pregnancy, women with nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy showed a different metabolic pattern compared to asymptomatic pregnancies. Women suffering from nausea and vomiting seem to have a low "functional reserve" of their liver capacity and could tentatively be described as hypersensitive to estrogens or their metabolites, e.g., catecholestrogens. These steroids have "emetic" properties, which might be explained by their direct stimulation of area postrema. It is known that estrogens increase the brain's excitability. Another possible mechanism could be by interacting with liver metabolism, resulting in the production of irregular metabolites, which in turn possess "emetic" qualities.

  12. [The effect of corticosteroids in children and adolescents after tonsillectomy in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting, pain and bleeding].

    PubMed

    Ploner, Sandra; Gruber, Elisabeth; Mantovan, Franco

    2014-05-01

    Tonsillectomy and adenotomy are the most common pediatric surgical procedures, with approximately five millions performed each year worldwide (O'Mathúna, Wiffen & Conlon, 2010). However, this procedure is accompanied by significant postoperative morbidity, which may include postoperative pain, postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), poor oral intake with consequent dehydration and postoperative bleeding (Hanasono et al., 2004). If pain is not treated effectively, it can cause avoidance behaviors related to further healthcare. Inadequate pain management has been found to increase morbidity and mortality rates in postoperative patients of all ages (O'Mathúna, Wiffen & Conlon, 2010). In addition, there is an increase in the incidence of PONV: 40% in children with pain compared to 16% in children without pain. PONV also disturbs significantly the wellbeing and patient satisfaction, it can lead to a substantial prolongation of time in the recovery room with increased costs of personal care. In pediatric patients PONV is the most common cause of the approximately 1% to 2% of unplanned hospitalizations following outpatient surgery (Rüsch et al., 2010). The incidence of bleeding after tonsillectomy is approximately 0.5-10%, with deaths occurring in 1 in 20,000 patients (Kim et al., 2011). In recent years, several scientists have explored the effect ofcorticosteroids in the reduction of morbidity after tonsillectomy. In this publication, the question is addressed to what extent perioperatively administered corticosteroids can reduce pain, PONV and postoperative bleeding in the context of tonsillectomy in children and adolescents. For this purpose, a narrative literature analysis of the electronic databases and journals was conducted. There is evidence that corticosteroids can reduce postoperative morbidity. However, no evident and clear recommendation can be drawn from the advices of the various studies.

  13. Nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction More than half of pregnant women suffer from nausea and vomiting, which typically begins by the 4th week and disappears by the 16th week of pregnancy. The cause of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy is unknown, but may be due to the rise in human chorionic gonadotrophin concentration. In 1 in 200 women, the condition progresses to hyperemesis gravidarum, which is characterised by prolonged and severe nausea and vomiting, dehydration, and weight loss. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatment for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy? What are the effects of treatments for hyperemesis gravidarum? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2008 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 30 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acupressure; acupuncture; antihistamines; corticosteroids; corticotrophins; diazepam; dietary interventions other than ginger; domperidone; ginger; metoclopramide; ondansetron; phenothiazines; and pyridoxine (vitamin B6). PMID:21726485

  14. Granisetron versus Granisetron-Dexamethasone for Prevention of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Pediatric Strabismus Surgery: A Randomized Double-Blind Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shende, Dilip; Kumar, Neeraj; Ray, Bikash Ranjan; Mohan, Virender Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Efficacy of granisetron and combination of granisetron and dexamethasone was evaluated for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in children undergoing elective strabismus surgery. Methods. A total of 136 children (1–15 years) were included. Children received either granisetron (40 mcg/kg) [group G] or combination of granisetron (40 mcg/kg) and dexamethasone (150 mcg/kg) [group GD]. Intraoperative fentanyl requirement and incidence and severity of oculocardiac reflex were assessed. PONV severity was assessed for first 24 hours and if score was >2, it was treated with metoclopramide. Postoperative analgesia was administered with intravenous fentanyl and ibuprofen. Results. The demographic profile, muscles operated, and fentanyl requirement were comparable. Complete response to PONV in first 24 hours was observed in 75% (51/68) of children in group G and 76.9% (50/65) of children in group GD, which was comparable statistically (p = 0.96, Fisher exact test; OR 1.11, 95% CI 0.50, 2.46). Incidence of PONV between 0 and 24 hours was comparable. One child in group G required rescue antiemetic in first 24 hours and none of the children had severe PONV in group GD. There was no significant difference in incidence or severity of oculocardiac reflex. Conclusion. Dexamethasone did not increase efficacy of granisetron for prevention of PONV in elective pediatric strabismus surgery. Registration number of clinical trial was CTRI/2009/091/001000. PMID:26925101

  15. Granisetron versus Granisetron-Dexamethasone for Prevention of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Pediatric Strabismus Surgery: A Randomized Double-Blind Trial.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Renu; Shende, Dilip; Maitra, Souvik; Kumar, Neeraj; Ray, Bikash Ranjan; Mohan, Virender Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Efficacy of granisetron and combination of granisetron and dexamethasone was evaluated for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in children undergoing elective strabismus surgery. Methods. A total of 136 children (1-15 years) were included. Children received either granisetron (40 mcg/kg) [group G] or combination of granisetron (40 mcg/kg) and dexamethasone (150 mcg/kg) [group GD]. Intraoperative fentanyl requirement and incidence and severity of oculocardiac reflex were assessed. PONV severity was assessed for first 24 hours and if score was >2, it was treated with metoclopramide. Postoperative analgesia was administered with intravenous fentanyl and ibuprofen. Results. The demographic profile, muscles operated, and fentanyl requirement were comparable. Complete response to PONV in first 24 hours was observed in 75% (51/68) of children in group G and 76.9% (50/65) of children in group GD, which was comparable statistically (p = 0.96, Fisher exact test; OR 1.11, 95% CI 0.50, 2.46). Incidence of PONV between 0 and 24 hours was comparable. One child in group G required rescue antiemetic in first 24 hours and none of the children had severe PONV in group GD. There was no significant difference in incidence or severity of oculocardiac reflex. Conclusion. Dexamethasone did not increase efficacy of granisetron for prevention of PONV in elective pediatric strabismus surgery. Registration number of clinical trial was CTRI/2009/091/001000.

  16. Sufentanil infusion before extubation suppresses coughing on emergence without delaying extubation time and reduces postoperative analgesic requirement without increasing nausea and vomiting after desflurane anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jea Yeun; Lim, Byung Gun; Park, Hye Yoon

    2012-01-01

    Background Coughing, hypertension, tachycardia, and even laryngospasm can occur due to airway irritation during emergence from anesthesia. We investigated the effect of maintaining a sufentanil infusion during emergence from anesthesia by evaluating the incidence of cough and recovery profiles at extubation. Methods In total, eighty-four patients undergoing an elective laparoscopic hysterectomy were randomly divided into two sufentanil groups and a control group. During emergence, sufentanil was administered in the sufentanil groups at a rate of 0.2 µg/kg/hr (Group S1) or 0.3 µg/kg/hr (Group S2), and saline was administered to the control group. Cough score, hemodynamic changes, and recovery profiles, such as duration from skin closure to a bispectral index of 80, to eye opening at verbal command, to tracheal extubation and the total duration of study solution infusion, were recorded. The pain score, the total volume of administered patient-controlled analgesia (PCA), and the postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) score were evaluated 1, 6, and 24 hours after surgery. Results Groups S1 and S2 showed significantly lower cough scores and smaller hemodynamic changes on extubation compared to Group C. Recovery profiles showed no significant differences among the three groups. Pain score, PONV at 1 hour postoperatively, and the total volume of PCA administered at all evaluation times were significantly lower in Groups S1 and S2 than in the control group. However, pain score, and PONV at 6 hours and 24 hours postoperatively showed no significant differences. Conclusions A sufentanil infusion (0.2-0.3 µg/kg/hr) during emergence from desflurane anesthesia may suppress coughing on extubation in patients with body mass indexes (BMI) of 21-26 without delaying extubation time. It may also reduce the postoperative analgesic requirement without increasing PONV. PMID:22778885

  17. [Effect of intraoperative esmolol infusion on anesthetic, analgesic requirements and postoperative nausea-vomitting in a group of laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients].

    PubMed

    Dereli, Necla; Tutal, Zehra Baykal; Babayigit, Munire; Kurtay, Aysun; Sahap, Mehmet; Horasanli, Eyup

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative pain and nausea/vomitting (PNV) are common in laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients. Sympatholytic agents might decrease requirements for intravenous or inhalation anesthetics and opioids. In this study we aimed to analyze effects of esmolol on intraoperative anesthetic-postoperative analgesic requirements, postoperative pain and PNV. Sixty patients have been included. Propofol, remifentanil and vecuronium were used for induction. Study groups were as follows; I - Esmolol infusion was added to maintenance anesthetics (propofol and remifentanil), II - Only propofol and remifentanil was used during maintenance, III - Esmolol infusion was added to maintenance anesthetics (desflurane and remifentanil), IV - Only desflurane and remifentanil was used during maintenance. They have been followed up for 24h for PNV and analgesic requirements. Visual analog scale (VAS) scores for pain was also been evaluated. VAS scores were significantly lowest in group I (p=0.001-0.028). PNV incidence was significantly lowest in group I (p=0.026). PNV incidence was also lower in group III compared to group IV (p=0.032). Analgesic requirements were significantly lower in group I and was lower in group III compared to group IV (p=0.005). Heart rates were significantly lower in esmolol groups (group I and III) compared to their controls (p=0.001) however blood pressures were similar in all groups (p=0.594). Comparison of esmolol groups with controls revealed that there is a significant decrease in anesthetic and opioid requirements (p=0.024-0.03). Using esmolol during anesthetic maintenance significantly decreases anesthetic-analgesic requirements, postoperative pain and PNV. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Anticipatory nausea and vomiting due to chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kamen, Charles; Tejani, Mohamedtaki A.; Chandwani, Kavita; Janelsins, Michelle; Peoples, Anita R.; Roscoe, Joseph A.; Morrow, Gary R.

    2013-01-01

    As a specific variation of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, anticipatory nausea and vomiting (ANV) appears particularly linked to psychological processes. The three predominant factors related to ANV are classical conditioning; demographic and treatment-related factors; and anxiety or negative expectancies. Laboratory models have provided some support for these underlying mechanisms for ANV. ANV may be treated with medical or pharmacological interventions, including benzodiazepines and other psychotropic medications. However, behavioral treatments, including systematic desensitization, remain first line options for addressing ANV. Some complementary treatment approaches have shown promise in reducing ANV symptoms. Additional research into these approaches is needed. This review will address the underlying models of ANV and provide a discussion of these various treatment options. PMID:24157982

  19. A randomised controlled trial on the efficacy and side-effect profile (nausea/vomiting/sedation) of morphine-6-glucuronide versus morphine for post-operative pain relief after major abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Binning, Alexander R; Przesmycki, Krzysztof; Sowinski, Piotr; Morrison, Lachlan M M; Smith, Terry W; Marcus, Paul; Lees, James P; Dahan, Albert

    2011-04-01

    Morphine is the first choice of treatment of severe post-operative pain, despite the occurrence of often discomforting (post-operative nausea or vomiting (PONV)) and sometimes dangerous (sedation, respiratory depression) side effects. Literature data indicate that morphine's active metabolite, morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G), is a powerful analgesic with a possibly more favourable side-effect profile. In this multi-centre randomised controlled clinical trial patients undergoing major abdominal surgery were randomised to M6G or morphine treatment. Treatment started 30-60 min prior to the end of surgery and was continued postoperatively, after patients were titrated to comfort, via patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) for 24-48 h. Pain intensity, nausea, vomiting and sedation scores were collected at regular intervals. In the study 268 patients were randomised to M6G and 249 to morphine. Withdrawal due to insufficient pain relief occurred predominantly just after surgery and was higher in the M6G group (16.8%) than in the morphine group (8.8%), suggesting a slower onset of analgesia for M6G compared to morphine. Subjects who continued on PCA remained equi-analgesic throughout the study. During the first 24h, nausea levels showed a 27% difference in favour of M6G which narrowly failed to reach statistical significance (P=0.052). Sub-analysis showed a significant reduction in nausea levels in females on M6G (30% difference, P=0.034). In all patients, similar reductions of 30-35% were observed in anti-emetic use, vomiting, PONV (a combined measure of nausea and vomiting) in favour of M6G, persisting for the first 24h postoperatively. Reductions in sedation were observed in the first 4h post-operative period for M6G patients.

  20. Post-operative nausea and vomiting: update on predicting the probability and ways to minimize its occurrence, with focus on ambulatory surgery.

    PubMed

    Öbrink, Emma; Jildenstål, Pether; Oddby, Eva; Jakobsson, Jan G

    2015-03-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting "the little big problem" after surgery/anaesthesia is still a common side-effect compromising quality of care, delaying discharge and resumption of activities of daily living. A huge number of studies have been conducted in order to identify risk factors, preventive and therapeutic strategies. The Apfel risk score and a risk based multi-modal PONV prophylaxis is advocated by evidence based guidelines as standards of care but is not always followed. Tailored anaesthesia and pain management avoiding too liberal dosing of anaesthetics and opioid analgesics is also essential in order to reduce risk. Thus multi-modal opioid sparing analgesia and a risk based PONV prophylaxis should be provided in order to minimise the occurrence. There is however still no way to guarantee an individual patient that he or she should not experience any PONV. Further studies are needed trying to identify risk factors and ways to tailor the individual patient prevention/therapy are warranted. The present paper provides a review around prediction, factors influencing the occurrence and the management of PONV with a focus on the ambulatory surgical patient.

  1. Comparison of different hypotensive anaesthesia techniques in orthognathic surgery with regard to intraoperative blood loss, quality of the surgical field, and postoperative nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Lin, S; Chen, C; Yao, C-F; Chen, Y-A; Chen, Y-R

    2016-12-01

    Sixty-three consecutive patients undergoing bimaxillary surgery between June and August 2015 were included in this study. Twenty-one patients were included in each of three study groups. In group 1, sevoflurane was the sole maintenance anaesthesia agent used; in group 2, propofol was the predominant agent, in addition to a reduced amount of sevoflurane; in group 3, patients received sevoflurane until fixation was completed, at which point it was switched to propofol. The mean intraoperative blood loss (ml) was 707.14±290.74 in group 1, 917.62±380.30 in group 2, and 750.00±331.84 in group 3; the difference between groups 1 and 2 was significant (P=0.047). The mean score for the quality of surgical field assessment was 1.32±0.44 in group 1, 2.04±0.49 in group 2, and 1.45±0.53 in group 3 (P=0.003). The postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) rate was 28.6% in group 1, 9.5% in group 2, and 14.3% in group 3 (P=0.343). The quality of the surgical field was significantly better in groups 1 and 3 than in group 2. The average blood loss in group 1 was also significantly less than in group 2. The PONV rates were lower than those reported in other studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. The Effect of Parental Metoclopramide, in Conjunction with a General Anesthetic, on the Incidence of Postoperative Nausea, Retching and Vomiting in an Ambulatory Surgical Setting.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    control group was not given metoclopramide in conjunction with their general anesthetic. In the experimental group, five patients received metoclopramide...dreaded because of its association with the experience of nausea and vomiting. Furthermore, the individual often attributed these symptoms to the...anesthetic experience itself. Bonica (1958:532) stated that "despite improvements in anesthetic experience and agents, the almost h a n a e s h t i n .4

  3. [Role of migraine history in the development of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing general and combined general-epidural anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Khoronenko, V E; Baskakov, D S

    2014-01-01

    To assess the role of migraine history in the development of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in patients undergoing general and combined general-epidural anaesthesia. 127 women with oncogynecological pathology were randomized into 3 groups according to anaesthesia method. Patients of the group C (comparative group; n = 43; 18 with migraine) received general anaesthesia. Patients of the Group CA (n = 40; 19 with migraine) received combined general-epidural anaesthesia. Patients of the group D (n = 44; 19 with migraine) received general anaesthesia with adding of Droperidolum. All patients received standard prophylactics of PONV- Ondansetronum 8 mg and dexamethasone 8 mg intravenous. In the group C a PONV occurred in 15 of 43 women (34.9%). PONV occurred in 6 of 18 women with migraine (33.3%) and in 9 of 25 women without migraine (36%). In the group CA a PONV occurred in 10 of 40 women (25%). PONV occurred in 8 of 19 women with migraine (42.1%) and in 2 of 21 women without migraine (9.5%; p = 0.036 in comparison with group C). In the group D a PONV occurred in 8 of 44 women (18.2%). PONV occurred in 1 of 19 women with migraine (5.3% p = 0.03 in comparison with group C and p = 0.008 with group CA) and in 7 of 25 women without migraine (28%; there was no significant difference with groups C and CA). Migraine history is a significant risk factor of PONV. Epidural component of anaesthesia does not effect on frequency of PONV in women with migraine, but Droperidolum use allows increasing the frequency of PONV.

  4. The effects of dexamethasone and metoclopramide on early and late postoperative nausea and vomiting in women undergoing myomectomy under spinal anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Tobi, K U; Imarengiaye, C O; Amadasun, F E

    2014-01-01

    Post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV); early or late, has detrimental effects on surgical patients such as surgical wound disruption, esophageal tear and delayed discharge from the post anesthetic care unit. This study evaluated the effects of dexamethasone-metoclopramide (DM) in the prevention of early and late PONV in women undergoing myomectomy under subarachnoid block. Following approval from the Research and Ethics Committee of the Hospital, informed consent was obtained from each prospective patient. Patients were randomly allocated to either the DM group, metoclopramide only (MO) group or dexamethasones only (DO) group using the computer-generated random numbers in sealed envelopes. Immediately after the induction of spinal anesthesia, the DM group received intravenous (i.v.) dexamethasone 8 mg and metoclopramide 10 mg, the MO group received metoclopramide 10 mg i.v and the DO group received dexamethasone 8 mg i.v. The incidence of early and late PONV formed the primary outcome. A total of 90 patients, with aged range between 21-64 years were studied. Dexamethasone alone group had the highest incidence of 40% for early but no for late PONV ( P = 0.003) Metoclopramide alone group had an incidence of 29.97% for early PONV and 26.6% for late PONV. There was reduced incidence of both early and late PONV in the DM group, but of lesser magnitude than DO or MO respectively. Dexamethasone protects against the incidence of late PONV with a minimal effect on early PONV. The combination of dexamethasone and metoclopramide had comparable effect on both and of better magnitude than metoclopramide alone.

  5. Chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting--prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Kynan; Cain, Michael; Nowak, Anna K

    2007-09-01

    Chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting are among the most feared consequences of cancer treatment. Recent developments in drug treatment make the goal of no nausea or vomiting during chemotherapy realistic. In this article we review the pathogenesis and management of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting. Regimens to prevent chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting are guided by the emetogenic potential of the chemotherapeutic agents used. Combined prophylactic therapy targets different pathways, improving the efficacy of prevention and treatment of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting. General practitioners have an important role in patients undergoing chemotherapy by reinforcing the importance of prophylactic treatment and administering rescue treatment for patients with breakthrough or prolonged nausea and vomiting postchemotherapy.

  6. The effect of aprepitant for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing gynecologic surgery with intravenous patient controlled analgesia using fentanyl: aprepitant plus ramosetron vs ramosetron alone

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Se-Jin; Lee, Su Myung; Ok, Si Young; Kim, Sang Ho; Park, Sun-Young; Kim, Mun-Gyu

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an aprepitant, neurokinin-1(NK1) receptor antagonist, for reducing postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) for up to 24 hours in patients regarded as high risk undergoing gynecological surgery with intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA) using fentanyl. Methods In this randomized, open label, case-control study 84 gynecological surgical patients receiving a standardized general anesthesia were investigated. Patients were randomly allocated to receive aprepitant 80 mg P.O. approximately 2-3 hours before operation (aprepitant group) or none (control group). All patients received ramosetron 0.3 mg IV after induction of anesthesia. The incidence of PONV, severity of nausea, and use of rescue antiemetics were evaluated for up to 24 hours postoperatively. Results The incidence of nausea was significantly lower in the aprepitant group (50.0%) compared to the control group (80.9%) during the first 24 hours following surgery. The incidence of vomiting was significantly lower in the aprepitant group (4.7%) compared to the control group (42.8%) during the first 24 hours following surgery. In addition, the severity of nausea was less among those in the aprepitant group compared with the control group over a period of 24 hours post-surgery (P < 0.05). Use of rescue antiemetics was lower in the aprepitant group than in the control group during 24 hours postoperatively (P < 0.05). Conclusions In patients regarded as high risk undergoing gynecological surgery with IV PCA using fentanyl, the aprepitant plus ramosetron ware more effective than ramosetron alone to decrease the incidence of PONV, use of rescue antiemetics and nausea severity for up to 24 hours postoperatively. PMID:23060978

  7. Nausea and vomiting after gynaecological surgery: a meta-analysis of factors affecting their incidence.

    PubMed

    Haigh, C G; Kaplan, L A; Durham, J M; Dupeyron, J P; Harmer, M; Kenny, G N

    1993-10-01

    A total of 1442 patients who had major gynaecological surgery were recruited into three multicentre studies using a standard general anaesthetic technique in order to assess the efficacy of various doses of orally administered ondansetron in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. A total of 1257 patients were included in this analysis: 420 received oral formulations of placebo and 212, 296 and 329 received ondansetron 1, 8 and 16 mg, respectively. The following factors were measured in these studies and were considered to have a possible influence on the proportion of patients experiencing postoperative nausea and vomiting: age of patient; volatile anaesthetic; intraoperative dose of fentanyl; postoperative dose of morphine; country; anaesthesia duration; neuromuscular blocker; neuromuscular block antagonist; premedicant; recovery time; type of surgery; antiemetic treatment; body weight. Using a process of elimination based on logistic regression techniques, the factors found to be the most important influences on the frequencies of nausea and vomiting were antiemetic treatment, type of surgery, neuromuscular blocker, country, volatile anaesthetic and age. A statistically significant interaction between type of surgery and age was observed. Adjusted probabilities of nausea and vomiting were obtained from the model, including all the above factors, together with the type of surgery by age interaction. Ondansetron 8 mg showed the smallest adjusted probability of nausea (0.54) and vomiting (0.34) and placebo the greatest (nausea 0.75, vomiting 0.61). A similar pattern of adjusted probabilities over neuromuscular blocking agents was seen for nausea and vomiting, with the greatest occurring in patients receiving pancuronium (nausea 0.74, vomiting 0.57) and the least in patients receiving alcuronium (nausea 0.59, vomiting 0.38).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Practice Bulletin Summary No. 153: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    2015-09-01

    Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy is a common condition that affects the health of the pregnant woman and her fetus. It can diminish the woman's quality of life and also significantly contributes to health care costs and time lost from work (1, 2). Because "morning sickness" is common in early pregnancy, the presence of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy may be minimized by obstetricians, other obstetric providers, and pregnant women and, thus, undertreated (1). Furthermore, some women do not seek treatment because of concerns about safety of medications (3). Once nausea and vomiting of pregnancy progresses, it can become more difficult to control symptoms; treatment in the early stages may prevent more serious complications, including hospitalization (4). Mild cases of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy may be resolved with lifestyle and dietary changes, and safe and effective treatments are available for more severe cases. The woman's perception of the severity of her symptoms plays a critical role in the decision of whether, when, and how to treat nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. In addition, nausea and vomiting of pregnancy should be distinguished from nausea and vomiting related to other causes. The purpose of this document is to review the best available evidence about the diagnosis and management of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy.

  9. Practice Bulletin No. 153: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    2015-09-01

    Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy is a common condition that affects the health of the pregnant woman and her fetus. It can diminish the woman's quality of life and also significantly contributes to health care costs and time lost from work (). Because "morning sickness" is common in early pregnancy, the presence of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy may be minimized by obstetricians, other obstetric providers, and pregnant women and, thus, undertreated (). Furthermore, some women do not seek treatment because of concerns about safety of medications (). Once nausea and vomiting of pregnancy progresses, it can become more difficult to control symptoms; treatment in the early stages may prevent more serious complications, including hospitalization (). Mild cases of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy may be resolved with lifestyle and dietary changes, and safe and effective treatments are available for more severe cases. The woman's perception of the severity of her symptoms plays a critical role in the decision of whether, when, and how to treat nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. In addition, nausea and vomiting of pregnancy should be distinguished from nausea and vomiting related to other causes. The purpose of this document is to review the best available evidence about the diagnosis and management of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy.

  10. Why is the neurobiology of nausea and vomiting so important?

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Charles C.

    2008-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting are important as biological systems for drug side effects, disease co-morbidities, and defenses against food poisoning. Vomiting can serve the function of emptying a noxious chemical from the gut, and nausea appears to play a role in a conditioned response to avoid ingestion of offending substances. The sensory pathways for nausea and vomiting, such as gut and vestibular inputs, are generally defined but the problem of determining the brain’s final common pathway and central pattern generator for nausea and vomiting is largely unsolved. A neurophysiological analysis of brain pathways provides an opportunity to more closely determine the neurobiology of nausea and vomiting and its prodromal signs (e.g., cold sweating, salivation). PMID:17996982

  11. Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E; Pittler, M H

    2000-03-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is often advocated as beneficial for nausea and vomiting. Whether the herb is truly efficacious for this condition is, however, still a matter of debate. We have performed a systematic review of the evidence from randomized controlled trials for or against the efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting. Six studies met all inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Three on postoperative nausea and vomiting were identified and two of these suggested that ginger was superior to placebo and equally effective as metoclopramide. The pooled absolute risk reduction for the incidence of postoperative nausea, however, indicated a non-significant difference between the ginger and placebo groups for ginger 1 g taken before operation (absolute risk reduction 0.052 (95% confidence interval -0.082 to 0.186)). One study was found for each of the following conditions: seasickness, morning sickness and chemotherapy-induced nausea. These studies collectively favoured ginger over placebo.

  12. Systematic review on the recurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting after a first episode in the recovery room – implications for the treatment of PONV and related clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Eberhart, Leopold HJ; Frank, Silke; Lange, Henning; Morin, Astrid M; Scherag, André; Wulf, Hinnerk; Kranke, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Background Despite the presence of a plethora of publications on the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) only little is known how to treat established symptoms. Besides the high effort of performing these efficacy trials (much more patients must give their consent than are actually included in a study) and ethical concerns, little is known about the rate of re-occurring PONV/vomiting after placebo. As a consequence investigators will have difficulties defining a clinically relevant effect for the new treatment which is crucial for any planning. A quantitative systematic review was performed in order to provide more reliable estimates of the incidence of re-occurring PONV/vomiting after placebo and to help investigators defining a clinically relevant treatment effect. Methods A systematic search of the literature was performed using an extended search strategy of a previous review. Data on the recurrence of PONV (any nausea or emetic symptom) and vomiting (retching or vomiting) was extracted from published reports treating PONV with placebo and unpublished results from two observational trials where no treatment was given. A nonlinear random effects model was used to calculate estimates of the recurrence of symptoms and their 95%-confidence intervals (95%-CI). Results A total of 29 trials (including the unpublished data) were eligible for the calculations. Depending on the length of observation after administering placebo or no treatment the recurrence rate of PONV was between 65% (95%-CI: 53%...75%) and 84% (95%-CI: 73%...91%) and that of vomiting was between 65% (95%-CI: 44%...81%) and 78% (95%-CI: 59%...90%). Conclusion Almost all trials showed a considerable and consistently high rate of recurrence of emetic symptoms after placebo highlighting the need for a consequent antiemetic treatment. Future (placebo) controlled efficacy trials may use the presented empirical estimates for defining clinically relevant effects and for statistical power

  13. Is ginger beneficial for nausea and vomiting? An update of the literature.

    PubMed

    Marx, Wolfgang; Kiss, Nicole; Isenring, Liz

    2015-06-01

    Nausea and vomiting can pose a significant burden to patients in a variety of clinical settings. Previous evidence suggests that ginger may be an effective treatment for these symptoms; however, current evidence has been mixed. This article discusses recent clinical trials that have investigated ginger as a treatment for multiple types of nausea and vomiting. In addition, the potential mechanisms of action of ginger will be discussed. This article identified nine studies and seven reviews that investigated ginger for morning sickness, postoperative nausea and vomiting, chemotherapy-induced, and antiretroviral-induced nausea and vomiting. All studies reported that ginger provided a significant reduction in nausea and vomiting; however, the clinical relevance of some studies is less certain. Common limitations within the literature include the lack of standardized extracts, poorly controlled or blinded studies, and limited sample size. In addition, recent evidence has provided further support for 5-HT3 receptor antagonism as a mechanism by which ginger may exert its potentially beneficial effect on nausea and vomiting. The results of studies in this article suggest that ginger is a promising treatment for nausea and vomiting in a variety of clinical settings and possesses a clinically relevant mechanism. However, further studies are required to address the limitations in the current clinical literature before firm recommendations for its use can be made.

  14. Central Aspects of Nausea and Vomiting in GI Disorders.

    PubMed

    Singh, Prashant; Kuo, Braden

    2016-12-01

    Nausea and vomiting result from continuous interactions among gastrointestinal, central nervous system, and autonomic nervous system. Despite being closely associated, central pathways of nausea and vomiting appear to be at least partly different and nausea is no longer considered only a penultimate step of vomiting. Although our understanding of central pathways of nausea has improved over the last one decade, it is still very basic. Afferent pathways from gastrointestinal tract via vagus, vestibular system, and chemoreceptor trigger zone project to nucleus tractus solitarius which, in turn, relays the signal to central pattern generator initiating multiple downstream pathways. This central nausea pathway appears to be under constant modulation by autonomic nervous system and cerebral cortex. There is also some evidence that central pathway of chronic nausea is different from that of acute nausea and closely resembles that of neuropathic pain. This improved understanding has modified the way we can approach the treatment of acute and chronic nausea. While conventional therapies such as antiemetics (antiserotoninergic, antihistaminic, antidopaminergic) and prokinetics are commonly used to manage acute nausea, they are not as effective in improving chronic nausea. Recently, neuromodulators such as tricyclic antidepressants, gabapentin, olanzapine, benzodiazepines, and cannabinoids have been shown to have antinausea effect. There is a need to study the utility of these drugs in managing chronic functional nausea. Improving our understanding of central and peripheral circuitry of nausea will allow us to better utilize the currently available drugs and develop new therapeutic options.

  15. [Prophylaxis of chemotherapy-induced vomiting and nausea].

    PubMed

    Tóth, Judit; Szántó, János

    2008-12-01

    Chemotherapy-induced vomiting and nausea is the most common adverse event of anticancer therapy. In different guide-lines (MASCC, NCCN, ESMO and ASCO) antiemetic prophylaxis is directed toward the emetogenic potential of the chemotherapy and the type of vomiting and nausea. Chemotherapeutic agents are classified into four emetic risk groups: high, moderate, low, and minimal. Steroids, dexamethasone, metoclopramide, cannabinoids, benzodiazepines, 5-HT3 receptor antagonists (ondansetron, granisetron, tropisetron) and a new group of antiemetics, the neurokinin1 receptor antagonists are used to prevent anticipatory, acute and delayed vomiting and nausea. This paper examines evidence-based recommendations for optimal use of antiemetics.

  16. [Medical treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting].

    PubMed

    Herrstedt, Jørn

    2007-02-26

    Patients consider nausea and vomiting among the worst side effects of chemotherapy. This paper reviews the development of antiemetics during the past 12 years, focusing on the neurokinin (NK)1-receptor antagonist, aprepitant, and the new 5-HT3-receptor antagonist palonosetron. Evidence-based recommendations for prophylaxis of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting are given. Antiemetics are effective in prevention of vomiting, but less effective against nausea. Therefore studies with potential new antiemetics, such as olanzapine and ghrelin are awaited with suspense.

  17. Acupuncture and PC6 stimulation for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing elective laparoscopic resection of colorectal cancer: a study protocol for a three-arm randomised pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kun Hyung; Kim, Dae Hun; Bae, Ji Min; Son, Gyung Mo; Kim, Kyung Hee; Hong, Seung Pyo; Yang, Gi Young; Kim, Hee Young

    2017-01-01

    Introduction This study aims to assess the feasibility of acupuncture and a Pericardium 6 (PC6) wristband as an add-on intervention of antiemetic medication for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in patients undergoing elective laparoscopic colorectal cancer resection. Methods and analysis A total of 60 participants who are scheduled to undergo elective laparoscopic resection of colorectal cancer will be recruited. An enhanced recovery after surgery protocol using standardised antiemetic medication will be provided for all participants. Participants will be equally randomised into acupuncture plus PC6 wristband (Acupuncture), PC6 wristband alone (Wristband), or no acupuncture or wristband (Control) groups using computer-generated random numbers concealed in opaque, sealed, sequentially numbered envelopes. For the acupuncture combined with PC6 wristband group, the embedded auricular acupuncture technique for preoperative anxiolysis and up to three sessions of acupuncture treatments with manual and electrical stimulation within 48 hours after surgery will be provided by qualified Korean medicine doctors. The PC6 wristband will be applied in the Acupuncture and Wristband groups, beginning 1 hour before surgery and lasting 48 hours postoperatively. The primary outcome will be the number of participants who experience moderate or severe nausea, defined as nausea at least 4 out of 10 on a severity numeric rating scale or vomiting at 24 hours after surgery. Secondary outcomes, including symptom severity, participant global assessments and satisfaction, quality of life, physiological recovery, use of medication and length of hospital stay, will be assessed. Adverse events and postoperative complications will be measured for 1 month after surgery. Ethics and dissemination All participants will provide written informed consent. The study has been approved by the institutional review board (IRB). This pilot trial will inform a full

  18. [Prevention and control of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Raposo, César; Feliú-Batlle, Jaime; Feliú-Batle, Jaime; González-Baróna, Manuel

    2006-02-04

    Nausea and vomiting are considered one of the most distressing side-effects of chemotherapy. Complete control of acute and delayed emesis improves quality of life and increases adherence to treatment. The frequency of nausea and vomiting depends primarily on the emetogenic potential of the chemotherapeutic agents used. With the standard antiemetic therapy (5HT-3 receptor antagonists in combination with dexamethasone) approximately 13% of patients receiving chemotherapy have vomiting in the acute phase and almost 50% in the delayed phase. A new group of antiemetic drugs, the neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists, in combination with standard therapy significantly improves emesis protection in the acute and in the delayed phase, although control of nausea is not so effective. Nowadays chemotherapy-induced emesis still occurs. Recent developments in antiemetic therapy and responsibility to achieve the best control of nausea and vomiting in patients receiving chemotherapy justified a review of this problem, which is frequently underestimated by physicians and nurses.

  19. Nausea, Vomiting, and Hiccups: A Review of Mechanisms and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Daniel E.

    2010-01-01

    Nausea, vomiting, and hiccups are troubling complications associated with sedation and general anesthesia. This article will review the basic pathophysiology of these events and current recommendations for their prevention and management. PMID:21174569

  20. Taking ginger for nausea and vomiting during pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Kiran; Einarson, Adrienne; Koren, Gideon

    2002-01-01

    QUESTION: Many of my patients prefer to use natural or herbal medicines, such as ginger, before taking drugs to treat nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Is there evidence that ginger is safe to use during pregnancy? Is it effective? ANSWER: Although ginger is used in many cultures to treat the symptoms of nausea and vomiting, no trials have established its safety for use during pregnancy. On the other hand, its efficacy has been documented in two randomized, blinded controlled trials. PMID:12371300

  1. Nausea, vomiting and return of bowel function after colorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Karen L; Zhu, Ying-Yan; Tacey, Mark A

    2015-11-01

    Although patterns of return of bowel function (ROBF) following colorectal surgery with enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programmes have been well delineated, regular morphine use is uncommon. This study describes the patterns of post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and ROBF in this context. Patients undergoing elective major colorectal surgery on an ERAS programme over 1 year were included. Patient details, intra-operative course, post-operative management, outcomes and complications were collected retrospectively from clinical records. Statistical analysis was performed using Stata version 12. A total of 136/142 (96%) patients received morphine for post-operative analgesia. Most (112/142, 79%) experienced either no vomiting (87/142, 61%) or small amounts (25/142, 18%). On average, patients without an ileostomy passed flatus and opened their bowels after 2.4 and 4.3 days, those with an ileostomy taking 1.5 and 2.1 days. Vomiting was not related to ROBF (P = 0.370) or overall complications; wound complications (odds ratio (OR) = 8.1, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.0-32.5), electrolyte abnormalities (OR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.2-7.1) and length of stay (hazard ratio = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.2-1.5) were related. Most patients do not experience PONV in this context. ROBF is predictable without prolonged delays. This information could be used to allow confident early discharge and identify patients whose deviation from normal may indicate complications. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  2. The effect of acupressure on nausea and vomiting after cesarean section under spinal anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Noroozinia, Heydar; Mahoori, Alireza; Hasani, Ebrahim; Gerami-Fahim, Mohsen; Sepehrvand, Nariman

    2013-04-06

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is one of the most common postoperative complications. Aside from pharmacological interventions, other complementary healing modalities have been introduced to assist patients in decreasing PONV and improving postoperative outcomes. This study examined acupressure as a safe complement to the more traditional approach of using drugs to prevent and/or relieve nausea and vomiting in the Cesarean section (C/S) under spinal anesthesia. In a prospective randomized clinical trial, 152 patients who were candidate for elective C/S under spinal anesthesia were evaluated in two groups (acupressure vs control groups). Subjects in the acupressure group received constant pressure by a specific wrist elastic band (without puncture of the skin) on the Nei-Guan acupuncture point, 30 min prior to spinal anesthesia. The incidence of PONV was assessed during the surgery, at recovery room and at 1st, 2nd and 3rd two hours after the surgery. Significant differences in the incidence of the post-operative nausea and vomiting were found between the acupressure and control groups, with a reduction in the incidence rate of nausea from 35.5% to 13.2%. The amount of vomitus and the degree of discomfort were, respectively, less and lower in the study group. In view of the total absence of side-effects in acupressure, its application is worthy. Our study confirmed the effectiveness of acupressure in preventing post-operative nausea and vomiting, when applied 30 minutes prior to surgery.

  3. Acupuncture in the Management of Intraoperative Nausea and Vomiting.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Francisco; Oliveira, Carmen; Losa, Nuno

    2016-12-01

    Intraoperative and postoperative nausea and vomiting (IONV and PONV, respectively) are common complications of anesthesia with significant associated morbidity. Strategies for their prevention and treatment have been organized in pharmacological and nonpharmacological measures. Acupuncture at PC6 has demonstrated efficacy in randomized trials, although evidence regarding its efficacy in treating IONV and PONV has not yet been fully established. We present the case of a patient who underwent peripheral vascular surgery on a limb under a subarachnoid block and who developed IONV refractory to conventional pharmacological therapy. Acupuncture at the PC6 and the TF4 points proved to be an effective alternative treatment to conventional pharmacological treatment and resulted in almost immediate cessation of IONV. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Ginger for prevention or treatment of drug-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Dabaghzadeh, Fatemeh; Khalili, Hossein; Dashti-Khavidaki, Simin

    2014-01-01

    In this review, potential benefits of oral ginger for prevention or management of drug- induced nausea and vomiting were evaluated based on the available evidences. By searching medical resources including Scopus, PubMed, Medline, Cochrane central register of controlled trials and Cochrane database systematic reviews, available evidences were collected. Ginger, zingiber, nausea and vomiting were considered as keywords. Various studies have evaluated effects of ginger in prevention and management of nausea and vomiting in different conditions such as pregnancy, chemotherapy, and post-operation. Evidences regarding anti-emetic effect of ginger in prevention and treatment of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting are limited and results are conflicting. More randomized clinical trials should be conducted to confirm efficacy of ginger in this regards. Ginger showed promising and attractive effects in preventing post-operative nausea and vomiting at least as add-on therapy. The exact role of ginger as anti-emetic in prevention of post- operative nausea and vomiting can be elucidated by future randomized clinical trials.

  5. Can nausea and vomiting be treated with ginger extract?

    PubMed

    Giacosa, A; Morazzoni, P; Bombardelli, E; Riva, A; Bianchi Porro, G; Rondanelli, M

    2015-04-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a spice traditionally used to treat indigestion, nausea and vomiting. Ginger extracts accelerate gastric emptying and stimulate gastric antral contractions. These effects are mainly due to the presence of gingerols and shogaols and their activity on cholinergic M receptors and serotonergic 5-HT and 5-HT receptors. Various researches on this subject have led to controversial results, due to the chemical instability of ginger extracts and particularly of gingerols, which are readily-oxidizable substances. A systematic review of double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized studies highlighted the potential efficacy of ginger on the prevention and treatment of nausea and vomiting of various origins, even though additional controlled studies are needed. This review focuses on pregnancy-induced nausea and vomiting and on chemotherapy induced nausea, and hypothesizes a therapeutic role for ginger extracts in case of side effects, as an alternative to traditional prokinetic drugs such as domperidone, levosulpiride or metoclopramide.

  6. A Single Perioperative Injection of Dexamethasone Decreases Nausea, Vomiting, and Pain after Laparoscopic Donor Nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Yamanaga, Shigeyoshi; Posselt, Andrew Mark; Freise, Chris Earl; Kobayashi, Takaaki; Tavakol, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    Background. A single dose of perioperative dexamethasone (8–10 mg) reportedly decreases postoperative nausea, vomiting, and pain but has not been widely used in laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN). Methods. We performed a retrospective cohort study of living donors who underwent LDN between 2013 and 2015. Donors who received a lower dose (4–6 mg)  (n = 70) or a higher dose (8–14 mg) of dexamethasone (n = 100) were compared with 111 donors who did not receive dexamethasone (control). Outcomes and incidence of postoperative nausea, vomiting, and pain within 24 h after LDN were compared before and after propensity-score matching. Results. The higher dose of dexamethasone reduced postoperative nausea and vomiting incidences by 28% (P = 0.010) compared to control, but the lower dose did not. Total opioid use was 29% lower in donors who received the higher dose than in control (P = 0.004). The higher dose was identified as an independent factor for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting. Postoperative complication rates and hospital stays did not differ between the groups. After propensity-score matching, the results were the same as for the unmatched analysis. Conclusion. A single perioperative injection of 8–14 mg dexamethasone decreases antiemetic and narcotic requirements in the first 24 h, with no increase in surgical complications. PMID:28210502

  7. Does dexamethasone prevent subarachnoid meperidin-induced nausea, vomiting and pruritus after cesarean delivery?

    PubMed Central

    Banihashem, Nadia; Hasannasab, Bahman; Alereza, Hakimeh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Opioid-induced side effects such as nausea and vomiting and pruritus are common and may be more debilitating than pain itself. We performed a study to assess the efficacy of dexamethasone in reducing postoperative nausea, vomiting, and pruritus in patients receiving neuraxial anesthesia with meperidine. Methods: Fifty-two women undergoing cesarean section were enrolled in the study. The control group and dexamethasone group received intravenously normal saline and dexamethasone, respectively, before spinal anesthesia. The occurrence of postoperative nausea, vomiting, and pruritus was assessed for 24 h in both groups. Results: The overall incidence of nausea and vomiting during the 24 h follow-up period was 37% and 22.2% for group saline and 20% and 12% for group dexamethasone, respectively (P=0.175, 0.469). The incidence of pruritus was not significantly different between the two groups. Pruritus severity was significantly less in the dexamethasone group than in the saline group (P=0.019). Conclusion: Prophylactic dexamethasone does not reduce the incidence of subarachnoid meperidine-induced nausea, vomiting, and pruritus in women undergoing cesarean delivery. PMID:23956711

  8. Treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Inrhaoun, Hanane; Kullmann, Tamás; Elghissassi, Ibrahim; Mrabti, Hind; Errihani, Hassan

    2012-12-01

    Recent improvements in medical oncology include both development of anticancer and supportive therapy. Serotonin receptor antagonists were introduced in clinical practice 20 years ago. Since then, the prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting allows continuing efficacious chemotherapy that earlier had to be stopped sometimes for intolerance. This anniversary review summarises the current antiemetic arsenal focussing on the most potent antiemetic drugs such as serotonin and substance P receptor antagonists. Antiemetic treatment improves quality of life under chemotherapy and contributes to the survival benefit as well. In spite of the use of these new drugs, a significant number of patients still experience nausea and vomiting. Special complications like delayed emesis can be alleviated by combination therapies. Prevention and optimal management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting should be a goal for most patients receiving emetogenic chemotherapy.

  9. A Prospective Study of Nausea and Vomiting After Breast Cancer Surgery.

    PubMed

    Wesmiller, Susan W; Bender, Catherine M; Conley, Yvette P; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Ahrendt, Gretchen; Bonaventura, Marguerite; Sereika, Susan M

    2017-06-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and post-discharge nausea and vomiting (PDNV) continue to be common and disturbing complications experienced after surgery, particularly in women and especially in women undergoing breast cancer surgery. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence and risk factors associated with PONV and PDNV from preoperative to 48 hours postoperatively in 97 women scheduled for breast cancer surgery. Prospective, comparative design. After informed consent was obtained, women scheduled for breast cancer surgery were evaluated for incidence of vomiting, as well as the presence and severity of nausea from the preoperative holding area for 48 hours following surgery. Vomiting was assessed as both a nominally scaled, binary variable (Yes/No) and as a continuous variable to measure separate emetic events. Nausea was measured on an 11point verbal numeric scale with 0 being the absence of nausea and 10 representing the highest level of nausea ever experienced. Twenty-nine (29.8%) women experienced nausea, and nine (9%) women experienced nausea and vomiting while in the post-anesthesia care unit despite close attention to the need for prophylactic antiemetic medications. Women who experienced PONV had higher levels of pain and received more opioids than those women who did not experience PONV. Women who received intravenous acetaminophen did not experience less PONV in this study. PDNV occurred more frequently than PONV, with 34 women (35%) reporting occurrence after discharge. About 13 women who did not experience PONV while in the PACU subsequently experienced PDNV after leaving the hospital, evidence for the importance of patient discharge teaching regarding these symptoms. Although clinical guidelines are necessary, our observation is that nurses in the PACU setting continuously challenge themselves to individualize the combination of medications and activities for each patient to reduce PONV after surgery. Copyright © 2016 American

  10. Alternative Methods to Treat Nausea and Vomiting from Cancer Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhi, Mohammad Ali; Ebadi, Ahmad; Talaeizadeh, Abdolhassan; Rahmani, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting (CINV) is among the most intensive side effects and critical concerns for patients with cancer. Most of these patients experience nausea and vomiting after chemotherapy. Sometimes, this is so annoying that it may prevent them from continuing the therapy. With the recent advances, a variety of therapeutic methods are innovated and applied to control CINV. Among them, the main methods include medicinal therapy, relaxation, and herbal therapy. Yet, using dexamethasone together with massage therapy and ginger is identified as the most effective method. PMID:26634155

  11. Risk Assessment of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in the Intravenous Patient-Controlled Analgesia Environment: Predictive Values of the Apfel's Simplified Risk Score for Identification of High-Risk Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Shin Hyung; Shin, Yang-Sik; Oh, Young Jun; Lee, Jeong Rim; Chung, Sung Chan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Opioid-based intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA) is popular method of postoperative pain control, but many patients suffer from IV PCA-related postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). In this retrospective observational study, we have determined independent predictors of IV PCA-related PONV and predictive values of the Apfel's simplified risk score in pursuance of identifying high-risk patients. Materials and Methods We analyzed 7000 patients who received IV PCA with background infusion after elective surgery. Patients who maintained IV PCA for a postoperative period of 48 hr (completion group, n=6128) were compared with those who have discontinued IV PCA within 48 hr of surgery due to intractable PONV (cessation group, n=872). Patients, anesthetics, and surgical factors known for predicting PONV were evaluated by logistic regression analysis to identify independent predictors of IV PCA related intractable PONV. Results In a stepwise multivariate analysis, weight, background infusion dose of fentanyl, addition of ketolorac to PCA, duration of anesthesia, general anesthesia, head and neck surgery, and Apfel's simplified risk score were revealed as independent risk factors for intractable PONV followed by the cessation of IV PCA. In addition, Apfel's simplified risk score, which demonstrated the highest odds ratio among the predictors, was strongly correlated with the cessation rate of IV PCA. Conclusion Multimodal prophylactic antiemetic strategies and dose reduction of opioids may be considered as strategies for the prevention of PONV with the use of IV PCA, especially in patients with high Apfel's simplified risk scores. PMID:23918581

  12. Risk assessment of postoperative nausea and vomiting in the intravenous patient-controlled analgesia environment: predictive values of the Apfel's simplified risk score for identification of high-risk patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shin Hyung; Shin, Yang-Sik; Oh, Young Jun; Lee, Jeong Rim; Chung, Sung Chan; Choi, Yong Seon

    2013-09-01

    Opioid-based intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA) is popular method of postoperative pain control, but many patients suffer from IV PCA-related postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). In this retrospective observational study, we have determined independent predictors of IV PCA-related PONV and predictive values of the Apfel's simplified risk score in pursuance of identifying high-risk patients. We analyzed 7000 patients who received IV PCA with background infusion after elective surgery. Patients who maintained IV PCA for a postoperative period of 48 hr (completion group, n=6128) were compared with those who have discontinued IV PCA within 48 hr of surgery due to intractable PONV (cessation group, n=872). Patients, anesthetics, and surgical factors known for predicting PONV were evaluated by logistic regression analysis to identify independent predictors of IV PCA related intractable PONV. In a stepwise multivariate analysis, weight, background infusion dose of fentanyl, addition of ketolorac to PCA, duration of anesthesia, general anesthesia, head and neck surgery, and Apfel's simplified risk score were revealed as independent risk factors for intractable PONV followed by the cessation of IV PCA. In addition, Apfel's simplified risk score, which demonstrated the highest odds ratio among the predictors, was strongly correlated with the cessation rate of IV PCA. Multimodal prophylactic antiemetic strategies and dose reduction of opioids may be considered as strategies for the prevention of PONV with the use of IV PCA, especially in patients with high Apfel's simplified risk scores.

  13. Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: exploring patients’ subjective experience

    PubMed Central

    Salihah, Noor; Mazlan, Nik; Lua, Pei Lin

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to explore the subjective experience of nausea and vomiting during chemotherapy treatment among breast cancer patients and the impacts on their daily lives. Methods A qualitative descriptive study was conducted in breast cancer patients who received chemotherapy and had experienced nausea and/or vomiting. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and analyzed using content analysis based on Giorgi’s method. Results Of 15 patients who participated, 13 were included in the final analysis (median age =46 years, interquartile range [IQR] =6.0; all were Malays). Vomiting was readily expressed as the “act of throwing up”, but nausea was a symptom that was difficult to describe. Further exploration found great individual variation in patterns, intensity, and impact of these chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) symptoms. While not all patients expressed CINV as bothersome, most patients described the symptom as quite distressing. CINV was reported to affect many aspects of patients’ lives particularly eating, physical, emotional, and social functioning, but the degree of impacts was unique to each patient. One of the important themes that emerged was the increase in worship practices and “faith in God” among Malay Muslim patients when dealing with these adverse effects. Conclusion CINV continues to be a problem that adversely affects the daily lives of patients, hence requiring better understandings from the health care professionals on patients’ needs and concerns when experiencing this symptom. PMID:27110121

  14. Ginger Essence Effect on Nausea and Vomiting After Open and Laparoscopic Nephrectomies

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Fatemeh Sadat; Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Some studies reported that ginger was effective in prevention or treatment of post-surgical nausea and vomiting; however, there are controversies. In addition, no study compared the effects of ginger on nausea and vomiting after open and laparoscopic nephrectomies. Objectives: The current study aimed to compare the effect of ginger essence on nausea and vomiting after open versus laparoscopic nephrectomies. Patients and Methods: A randomized, placebo trial was conducted on two groups of patients, 50 open and 50 laparoscopic nephrectomy. Half of the subjects in each group received ginger essence and the other half received placebo. Using a visual analogue scale the severity of nausea was assessed every 15 minutes for the first two post-operative hours and the sixth hour. Frequency of vomiting was counted until the sixth hour. The placebo subgroups were treated similarly. Descriptive statistics were employed. Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests, paired and independent samples t-test and repeated measure analysis of variance were used to analyze the data. Results: Repeated measure analysis of variance showed that the type of surgery and the type of intervention as factors had significant effects on the nausea severity scores in the nine successive measurements (P < 0.001). In the first two post-operative hours, the mean vomiting episodes was 2.92 ± 0.70 in the subjects who underwent open surgery and received placebo while it was 0.16 ± 0.37 in patients with the same surgery but receiving ginger essence (P = 0.001). The mean vomiting episodes was 6.0 ± 1.33 in the subjects who underwent laparoscopic surgery and received placebo while it was 1.39 ± 0.78 in patients with the same surgery but receiving ginger essence (P = 0.001). Conclusions: Using ginger essence was effective in reducing nausea and vomiting not only in the subjects who underwent open nephrectomy but also in the subjects of laparoscopic nephrectomy. Using ginger essence is suggested as a

  15. Emerging treatments in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Grunberg, Steven M; Slusher, Barbara; Rugo, Hope S

    2013-02-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a concern for many cancer patients. It can have an enormous impact on quality of life. CINV occurring in the first 24 hours after treatment is considered acute, and CINV occurring on days 2 through 5 after treatment is considered delayed. Anticipatory nausea and depression can also occur when patients are reminded of their chemotherapy treatment. CINV can lead to weight changes, fatigue, and the need for additional medications. Even mild to moderate CINV can increase health care utilization and costs, as well as delay treatment. Nausea and vomiting are separate events, although their mechanisms are entwined. Drugs that stop vomiting do not necessarily treat nausea. Control of CINV allows patients to complete treatment and to minimize use of health care resources and additional medications. Current antiemesis agents, such as 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) antagonists and neurokinin-1 (NK-1) antagonists, have markedly decreased hospitalization for chemotherapy and have nearly eliminated acute emesis. The second-generation 5-HT3 receptor palonosetron has a unique pharmacology that makes it especially effective at preventing delayed emesis.

  16. Impact of a prophylactic combination of dexamethasone-ondansetron on postoperative nausea and vomiting in obese adult patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy during closed-loop propofol-remifentanil anaesthesia: A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Bataille, Aurélien; Letourneulx, Jacques-Florian; Charmeau, Alain; Lemedioni, Pascale; Léger, Philippe; Chazot, Thierry; Le Guen, Morgan; Diemunsch, Pierre; Fischler, Marc; Liu, Ngai

    2016-12-01

    In obese patients, the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) following sleeve gastrectomy under titration of total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) and the relevance of risk factors to indicate prophylaxis is unknown. The hypothesis was that after automated TIVA, prophylaxis reduces PONV following laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Our objective was to determine the incidence of PONV and evaluate the efficacy of dexamethasone and ondansetron as prophylaxis when automated intravenous anaesthesia is employed. A randomised, placebo-controlled, single-centre, double-blinded study. Secondary care centre in New Caledonia from June 2013 to January 2014. A total of 122 patients were randomised and 117 (92 women) were included in the analysis (58 in the prophylaxis group and 59 in the placebo group). Eligibility criteria included at least two of the known risk factors for PONV: female sex, nonsmoking status, prior history of PONV or motion sickness and expected postoperative opioid analgesia. Exclusion criteria included disorders limiting the use of the bispectral index. All patients received propofol and remifentanil controlled by the same automated system during induction and maintenance of general anaesthesia. The controller modifies the calculated effect-site concentrations according to bispectral index values. Patients received either intravenous dexamethasone 4 mg after tracheal intubation and ondansetron 4 mg during skin closure, or placebo. The primary endpoint was the cumulative incidences of 24-h PONV and severe PONV (vomiting or nausea with a score of ≥4 on an 11-point verbal rating scale). Data are presented as percentage (95% confidence interval). PONV in the first 24 h occurred in 45 (34 to 60)% of patients who received prophylaxis and 54 (41 to 67)% in the placebo group (P = 0.35). The numbers of patients who suffered severe PONV [19 (10 to 32)% in the prophylaxis group vs. 20 (11 to 33)%, P = 1, in the placebo group] and who

  17. Interventions for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Anne; Dowswell, Therese; Haas, David M; Doyle, Mary; O’Mathúna, Dónal P

    2014-01-01

    Background Nausea, retching and vomiting are very commonly experienced by women in early pregnancy. There are considerable physical and psychological effects on women who experience these symptoms. This is an update of a review of interventions for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy previously published in 2003. Objectives To assess the effectiveness and safety of all interventions for nausea, vomiting and retching in early pregnancy, up to 20 weeks’ gestation. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (28 May 2010). Selection criteria All randomised controlled trials of any intervention for nausea, vomiting and retching in early pregnancy. We excluded trials of interventions for hyperemesis gravidarum which are covered by another review. We also excluded quasi-randomised trials and trials using a crossover design. Data collection and analysis Four review authors, in pairs, reviewed the eligibility of trials and independently evaluated the risk of bias and extracted the data for included trials. Main results Twenty-seven trials, with 4041 women, met the inclusion criteria. These trials covered many interventions, including acupressure, acustimulation, acupuncture, ginger, vitamin B6 and several antiemetic drugs. We identified no studies of dietary or other lifestyle interventions. Evidence regarding the effectiveness of P6 acupressure, auricular (ear) acupressure and acustimulation of the P6 point was limited. Acupuncture (P6 or traditional) showed no significant benefit to women in pregnancy. The use of ginger products may be helpful to women, but the evidence of effectiveness was limited and not consistent. There was only limited evidence from trials to support the use of pharmacological agents including vitamin B6, and anti-emetic drugs to relieve mild or moderate nausea and vomiting. There was little information on maternal and fetal adverse outcomes and on psychological, social or economic outcomes. We

  18. The pharmacologic management of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Niebyl, Jennifer R; Briggs, Gerald G

    2014-02-01

    Nausea and vomiting are common in early pregnancy. Forty percent or more of pregnant women may continue to suffer beyond the first trimester and 10% beyond the second trimester. A focus of the assessment is to confirm that the nausea and vomiting is due to the pregnancy and not some other cause. Nonpharmacologic options, particularly dietary modification, are a mainstay of treatment. For those who continue to experience symptoms, pharmacologic management can be employed. The combination of doxylamine succinate/pyridoxine hydrochloride was reintroduced in the United States following FDA approval in early 2013. The product was given a pregnancy safety rating of A and is recommended as first-line pharmacologic treatment for NVP. Other options include antihistamines, metoclopramide, ondansetron, phenothiazines, and after the first trimester, corticosteroids.

  19. Comparison of the Prophylactic Antiemetic Efficacy of Aprepitant Plus Palonosetron Versus Aprepitant Plus Ramosetron in Patients at High Risk for Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting After Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Prospective Randomized-controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Kyung; Kim, Dong Gyeong; Jeon, Younghoon

    2016-10-01

    We compared the antiemetic efficacy of aprepitant plus palonosetron versus aprepitant plus ramosetron in patients after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A total of 88, nonsmoking, female patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly allocated to 2 groups of 44 each who received palonosetron 0.075 mg (aprepitant plus palonosetron group) and ramosetron 0.3 mg (aprepitant plus ramosetron group) after induction of anesthesia. All patients received aprepitant 80 mg 2 hours before surgery. The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), use of rescue antiemetic, pain severity, and any side effects were assessed for 24 hours after surgery. The incidence of PONV and use of rescue antiemetic were less in aprepitant plus palonosetron group than in aprepitant plus ramosetron group for 24 hours after surgery (P<0.05, respectively). There was no difference in pain severity and side effects including headache and drowsiness. Aprepitant plus palonosetron significantly prevents PONV, compared with aprepitant plus ramosetron in patients at high risk for PONV after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  20. Investigating the effects of inhaling ginger essence on post-nephrectomy nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Hosseini, Fatemeh Sadat

    2015-12-01

    There is a knowledge gap regarding the effects of ginger essence on postoperative nausea and vomiting. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of ginger essence on post-nephrectomy nausea and vomiting. A randomized controlled trial was conducted. This study was conducted from third April to first October 2014 in Labbafinejad hospital, Tehran, Iran. Totally, 120 nephrectomy patients were randomly allocated to either the treatment or the control groups. After nephrectomy, we applied two drops of ginger essence to a 2 × 2-inch gauze that was attached to the patients' collars in the treatment group to allow patients to inhale the evaporated essence along with the air room and then repeated every 30 min for two hours. The control group was similarly treated with normal saline. Nausea was assessed using a visual analogue scale every 30 min for two hours and at the sixth hour after surgery. The paired- and independent-samples t and repeated measures analysis of variance tests were used for data analysis. The means nausea intensity were in the treatment and the control groups were 7.09 ± 1.59 and 7.40 ± 1.71 at thirty minutes after surgery (P value > 0.05). However, the mean nausea intensity in the treatment group at the four subsequent times were significantly lower than the control group (P value < 0.001). The numbers of vomiting episodes at two and six hours after the surgery were 0.88 ± 0.78 and 2.58 ± 1.35, in the treatment group and 4.80 ± 1.87 and 2.58 ± 1.35 in the control group. The differences between the two groups regarding the numbers of vomiting episodes were statistically significant (P value < 0.001). Inhaling ginger essence has positive effect on postoperative nausea and vomiting. Using ginger essence for managing postoperative nausea and vomiting is recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Hypnosis for the Management of Anticipatory Nausea and Vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Kravits, Kathy G.

    2015-01-01

    CASE STUDYBJ is a 34-year-old woman who was diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer. She was treated with surgical removal of the primary tumor and sentinel node biopsy. Following surgery, she received chemotherapy. She was given antiemetic therapy prior to and immediately following chemotherapy. She began to experience significant and persistent nausea with intermittent episodes of vomiting after the second cycle of chemotherapy. She completed her chemotherapy but still experienced nausea and vomiting in response to several cues, such as smelling food cooking and going to the hospital. Her nausea and vomiting resulted in segregation from her family during meal time, which negatively impacted her quality of life. A hypnosis consultation was requested, and BJ was cooperative. She reported feeling very nauseated at the time of the interview. Hypnosis was discussed; her questions were answered, and the potential risks and benefits of hypnosis were reviewed. She agreed that she would like to try hypnosis. A hypnosis assessment was conducted and revealed that she had a history of profound motion sickness and severe, chronic childhood trauma associated with feelings of anxiety and hypervigilance. The therapeutic suggestions that were used with BJ included hypnotic suggestions for relaxation and removal of discomfort. A metaphor describing the central processing of the anticipatory nausea and vomiting as a thermostat that could be adjusted to reduce and eliminate the sensation was used to suggest that she could control her perceptions and in turn control the nausea. Posthypnotic suggestions included that at the earliest awareness of discomfort, rubbing the throat would eliminate that discomfort, and cooking aromas would be transformed into her favorite fragrance. Reversal went smoothly, and BJ reported satisfaction with the experience. BJ experienced significant reduction in symptoms after the first session. She had two more sessions, at which time she was able to eat

  2. Treating nausea and vomiting in palliative care: a review

    PubMed Central

    Glare, Paul; Miller, Jeanna; Nikolova, Tanya; Tickoo, Roma

    2011-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting are portrayed in the specialist palliative care literature as common and distressing symptoms affecting the majority of patients with advanced cancer and other life-limiting illnesses. However, recent surveys indicate that these symptoms may be less common and bothersome than has previously been reported. The standard palliative care approach to the assessment and treatment of nausea and vomiting is based on determining the cause and then relating this back to the “emetic pathway” before prescribing drugs such as dopamine antagonists, antihistamines, and anticholinergic agents which block neurotransmitters at different sites along the pathway. However, the evidence base for the effectiveness of this approach is meager, and may be in part because relevance of the neuropharmacology of the emetic pathway to palliative care patients is limited. Many palliative care patients are over the age of 65 years, making these agents difficult to use. Greater awareness of drug interactions and QTc prolongation are emerging concerns for all age groups. The selective serotonin receptor antagonists are the safest antiemetics, but are not used first-line in many countries because there is very little scientific rationale or clinical evidence to support their use outside the licensed indications. Cannabinoids may have an increasing role. Advances in interventional gastroenterology are increasing the options for nonpharmacological management. Despite these emerging issues, the approach to nausea and vomiting developed within palliative medicine over the past 40 years remains relevant. It advocates careful clinical evaluation of the symptom and the person suffering it, and an understanding of the clinical pharmacology of medicines that are available for palliating them. PMID:21966219

  3. A new pharmacologic treatment for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Fantasia, Heidi Collins

    2014-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) affects up to 80 percent of pregnant women. This condition is usually self-limiting, but the symptoms can be distressing and interfere with work, social activities and sleep. Symptoms can often be managed by diet and lifestyle changes, but these interventions may not be successful for everyone. In April 2013, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved doxylamine succinate 10 mg/pyridoxine hydrochloride 10 mg (Diclegis) as the first medication to specifically treat NVP in more than 30 years. This article reviews the indications, dosage and nursing interventions associated with using doxylamine succinate/pyridoxine to treat NVP.

  4. Interventions for preventing nausea and vomiting in women undergoing regional anaesthesia for caesarean section

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, James D; Gyte, Gillian ML; Paranjothy, Shantini; Brown, Heather C; Broughton, Hannah K; Thomas, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Background Nausea and vomiting are distressing symptoms which are experienced commonly during caesarean section under regional anaesthesia and can also occur in the period following the procedure. Objectives To assess the efficacy of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions given prophylactically to prevent nausea and vomiting in women undergoing regional anaesthesia for caesarean section. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (27 February 2012) and reference lists of identified studies. Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and excluded quasi-RCTs and cross-over studies. Data collection and analysis Review authors independently assessed the studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and carried out data extraction. Data entry was checked. Main results Fifty-two studies met the inclusion criteria but only 41 studies, involving 5046 women, provided useable data for the review involving women having caesareans under regional anaesthesia. The majority of the studies involved women undergoing elective caesarean section. Only two studies included emergency surgery, however, they did not stratify data according to type of surgery. The studies covered numerous comparisons, but the majority of studies involved 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, dopamine receptor antagonists, corticosteroids or acupressure. Studies were mainly small and of unclear quality. Three classes of intervention were found to be effective in at least three out of four of our primary outcomes (intraoperative nausea, intraoperative vomiting, postoperative nausea and postoperative vomiting). These interventions were 5-HT3 antagonists, dopamine antagonists and sedatives. Other classes of intervention were effective for fewer than three of our primary outcomes. With 5-HT antagonists, we found a reduction in intraoperative nausea (average risk ratio (RR) 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46 to 0.88, eight studies

  5. [Pharmacoeconomical model for cost calculation using a study on prophylaxis of nausea and vomiting in the postoperative phase as an example. Cost effectiveness analysis of a tropisetron supplemented desflurane anaesthesia in comparison to a propofol total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA)].

    PubMed

    Eberhart, L H J; Bernert, S; Wulf, H; Geldner, G

    2002-06-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are among the most frequent complications after general anaesthesia. Avoiding these symptoms is of utmost importance for most patients; PONV is not only a major source of discomfort for patients but also a cause of additional costs for the patients and the health care provider. The economical impact of PONV will become even more important in the near future because the number of surgical procedures performed on an ambulatory basis is increasing. The following article gives a short overview of the terminology and measures used in pharmacoeconomical studies concerning PONV. Furthermore the economical aspects of a low-flow anaesthesia supplemented with the 5-HT(3)-antagonist tropisetron compared with a total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) using propofol are described. For this comparison a decision analysis was performed using data of a randomised control trial on 150 female patients undergoing major gynaecological surgery. The patients were randomised to receive a total intravenous anaesthesia with propofol-alfentanil or a balanced anaesthesia with desfluran (fresh gas flow 1 l.min(-1)) supplemented by 2 mg tropisetron at the end of surgery. Indirect costs associated with anaesthesia using desflurane-tropisetron (4.94 Euro) are not different from that of propofol-TIVA (4.81 Euro) because of a similar incidence of PONV in the PACU. Furthermore, the total cost for 100 min general anaesthesia is higher in the desflurane-tropisetron group (30.94 Euro) compared with the TIVA group (24.55 Euro) due to the decreasing acquisition costs of propofol in the last 2 years. Total intravenous anaesthesia with propofol is more cost-efficient than balanced anaesthesia with desflurane and additional tropisetron as a prophylactic antiemetic.

  6. Ginger in the prevention of nausea and vomiting: a review.

    PubMed

    Palatty, Princy Louis; Haniadka, Raghavendra; Valder, Bhavishya; Arora, Rajesh; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2013-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting are physiological processes experienced by every human being at some stage of their life. They are complex protective mechanisms and the symptoms are influenced by the emetogenic response and stimuli. However, when these symptoms recur frequently, they can significantly reduce the quality of life and can also be detrimental to health. The existing antiemetic agents are ineffective against certain stimuli, are expensive, and possess side effects. Herbal medicines have been shown to be effective antiemetics, and among the various plants studied, the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, commonly known as ginger, has been used as a broad-spectrum antiemetic in the various traditional systems of medicine for over 2000 years. Various preclinical and clinical studies have shown ginger to possess antiemetic effects against different emetogenic stimuli. However, conflicting reports especially in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and motion sickness prevent us from drawing any firm conclusion. The current review for the first time summarizes the results. An attempt is also made to address the lacunae in these published studies and emphasize aspects that need further investigations for it to be of use in clinics in the future.

  7. Sensitizing Effects of Pretreatment Measures on Cancer Chemotherapy Nausea and Vomiting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gard, Diane; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explored sensitizing effects of pretreatment assessment on posttreatment chemotherapy nausea and vomiting and interactive effects of personal dispositions for information seeking. Oncology patients rated side effects experienced previously (experimental condition), or parking conditions (control). Posttreatment, nausea of experimentals was…

  8. Sensitizing Effects of Pretreatment Measures on Cancer Chemotherapy Nausea and Vomiting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gard, Diane; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explored sensitizing effects of pretreatment assessment on posttreatment chemotherapy nausea and vomiting and interactive effects of personal dispositions for information seeking. Oncology patients rated side effects experienced previously (experimental condition), or parking conditions (control). Posttreatment, nausea of experimentals was…

  9. Current Pharmacotherapy for Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Janelsins, Michelle C.; Tejani, Mohamed; Kamen, Charles; Peoples, Anita; Mustian, Karen M.; Morrow, Gary R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Nausea and vomiting are two of the most frequent and troubling side effects patients experience during chemotherapy, interfering with compliance with cancer therapies and quality of life. While newly available treatments have improved our ability to manage nausea and vomiting, anticipatory and delayed nausea and vomiting are still major problems for patients receiving chemotherapy. Many cancer patients consider delaying future chemotherapy cycles and some contemplate stopping chemotherapy altogether because of their fear of experiencing further nausea and vomiting. Areas Covered The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the patho-psychophysiology of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, the recommended guidelines for treatment, current agents in late-stage clinical trials, and future research needs to address the continued challenges of treatment-related nausea and vomiting. Expert Opinion Despite advances in pharmaceutical and behavioral therapies, and the provision of standard clinical guidelines for effectively managing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), patients continue to experience CINV. Moreover, control of nausea, acute and delayed, and anticipatory nausea and vomiting (ANV) remains an important, unmet need among cancer patients. It is critical to focus attention on better understanding the mechanisms underlying nausea, anticipatory symptoms, and delayed symptoms. PMID:23496347

  10. Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: cost effective pharmacologic treatments.

    PubMed

    Reichmann, James P; Kirkbride, Michael S

    2008-12-01

    Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) can range from morning sickness to moderate NVP to hyperemesis gravidarum (HG). If it is left unmanaged, health plans may pay for expensive unproven outpatient therapies that are not necessary for treatment of simple morning sickness or moderate NVP. Meanwhile, patients with serious hyperemesis gravidarum whose treatment is delayed may suffer needlessly, ending up with multiple hospitalizations or emergency room (ER) visits. Two expensive, heavily marketed outpatient therapies with scant supportive evidence in the treatment of NVP have recently emerged and some health plans are providing coverage without a thorough review of the medical evidence or cost implications. Health plans may have an opportunity to save a significant amount and to improve member satisfaction by utilizing evidence-based knowledge of pharmacologic interventions that are driven, in order, by known safety, proven efficacy, and cost effectiveness.

  11. Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: pathophysiology and therapeutic principles.

    PubMed

    Bayo, Juan; Fonseca, Paula J; Hernando, Susana; Servitja, S; Calvo, A; Falagan, S; García, Estefanía; González, Iria; de Miguel, María José; Pérez, Quionia; Milena, Ana; Ruiz, Antonio; Barnadas, Agustí

    2012-06-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a major determinant of quality of life in cancer patients. In addition, the perceptions that oncology professionals have about CINV quite often do not coincide with reality. Antineoplastic agents and their combinations can be categorised according to their emetogenic level, and this categorisation is helpful for classifying the severity of CINV and treating it. All CINV treatment guidelines emphasise the need to administer prophylaxis to patients who receive highly or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy. With the introduction of NK1 receptor antagonists, the control of acute and delayed CINV after highly or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy schedules has improved in the great majority of patients. NK1 receptor antagonists have been demonstrated to improve the control of CINV in all risk subgroups of patients.

  12. Management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Dewan, Pooja; Singhal, Swati; Harit, Deepika

    2010-02-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a significant problem in the treatment of children with cancer. The last decade has seen a variety of newer antiemetics being evaluated for CINV; their efficacy and side effects need to be assessed in children. This article attempts to highlight this revised management of CINV. Online search; journals. Search period: 6 months. Newer drugs (aprepitant, fosapritant and newer 5HT3 antagonists) have been found to be effective in CINV: both acute and delayed phases. Most of the available literature is, however, based on adult oncology patients, with a few trials on adolescent patients. Every child receiving treatment for cancer should be evaluated for possible CINV. Their treatment should take into account the emetogenic potential of the chemotherapeutic drugs. Newer antiemetic drugs have good efficacy and can be tried in pediatric patients, especially in children > 11 years of age.

  13. Pharmacogenetics of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Sugino, Shigekazu; Janicki, Piotr K

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is associated with distressing adverse effects observed in patients during cytotoxic chemotherapy. One of the potential factors explaining suboptimal response to currently used antiemetics is variability in genes encoding enzymes and proteins that play a role in the action of antiemetic drugs. Pharmacogenomics studies of CINV are sparse and focus mainly on polymorphisms associated with serotonin receptor, drug metabolism and drug transport. Currently, the role of pharmacogenetics in mechanisms of CINV has not been fully unraveled, and it is premature to implement results of pharmacogenetic association studies of antiemetic drugs in clinical practice. More uniform studies, with genetic profiles and biomarkers relevant for the proposed target and transporter mechanisms, are needed.

  14. Olanzapine for the prevention and treatment of chronic nausea and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Navari, Rudolph M

    2014-01-05

    Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic agent of the thiobenzodiazepine class. It blocks multiple neurotransmitter receptors including dopaminergic at D1, D2, D3, D4 brain receptors, serotonergic at 5-HT2a, 5-HT2c, 5-HT3, 5-HT6 receptors, catecholamines at alpha1 adrenergic receptors, acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors, and histamine at H1 receptors. Olanzapine has five times the affinity for 5-HT2 receptors than D2 receptors and has been used to treat schizophrenia and delirium. Olanzapine's activity at multiple receptors, particularly at the D2, 5-HT2c, and 5-HT3 receptors which appear to be involved in nausea and emesis, has prompted its use in the treatment of nausea and vomiting refractory to standard antiemetics. Case reports and formal clinical trials have demonstrated its efficacy in the treatment of chronic nausea, the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and emesis, and the treatment of breakthrough chemotherapy-induced nausea and emesis. Phase II and phase III clinical trials have demonstrated that there is a significant improvement in nausea when olanzapine is added to guideline directed prophylactic antiemetic agents 5-HT3 receptor antagonists and tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonists in patients receiving moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy Common side effects of olanzapine when used over a period of months include weight gain as well as an association with the onset of diabetes mellitus, but these effects have not been seen with short term use of daily doses of less than one week. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. The effect of counselling on nausea and vomiting in pregnancy in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Isbir, Gözde Gökçe; Mete, Samiye

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of follow-up counselling on the duration and severity of nausea and vomiting in pregnant women. This study is quasi-experimental and included 62 pregnant women with nausea and vomiting. The group that received counselling was considered to be the experimental group, and the group that received a standard outpatient clinic service was the control group. Data were collected with a demographic data form, that is, the Nausea and Vomiting in Pregnancy Instrument and Pregnancy Unique Quantification of Emesis and Nausea. Significance tests of the differences between two mean values, the Mann-Whitney U test and survival analyses were used to test the hypotheses. In pregnant women with mild or moderate nausea and vomiting, nausea and vomiting terminated in a significantly shorter time in the experimental group than in the control group (p <0.001), but this difference was not significant for pregnant women with severe nausea and vomiting (p > 0.05). In addition, the number of weekly telephone follow-ups in the experimental group was significantly smaller (p <0.001). Counselling effectively reduced the duration and severity of mild or moderate nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. However, it did not affect the duration of severe nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of aromatherapy on postoperative nausea in women undergoing surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Ferruggiari, Luisa; Ragione, Barbara; Rich, Ellen R; Lock, Kathleen

    2012-08-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a common source of patient discomfort and decreased satisfaction. Aromatherapy has been identified as a complementary modality for the prevention and management of PONV. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of aromatherapy on the severity of postoperative nausea (PON) in women undergoing surgical procedures in the postanesthesia care unit. Women complaining of PON received traditional antiemetics, inhalation of peppermint oil, or saline vapor. A visual analog scale was used to rate nausea at the first complaint; at 5 minutes after intervention; and, if nausea persisted, at 10 minutes after intervention. At both 5 and 10 minutes, statistical analysis showed no significant differences between intervention and nausea rating. Obtaining eligible subjects was challenging. Although many women consented, most received intraoperative antiemetics and did not report nausea postoperatively. Copyright © 2012 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Current pharmacotherapy for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Janelsins, Michelle C; Tejani, Mohamedtaki A; Kamen, Charles; Peoples, Anita R; Mustian, Karen M; Morrow, Gary R

    2013-04-01

    Nausea and vomiting are two of the most frequent and troubling side effects patients experience during chemotherapy, interfering with compliance with cancer therapies and quality of life. While newly available treatments have improved our ability to manage nausea and vomiting, anticipatory and delayed nausea and vomiting are still major problems for patients receiving chemotherapy. Many cancer patients consider delaying future chemotherapy cycles and some contemplate stopping chemotherapy altogether because of their fear of experiencing further nausea and vomiting. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the pathopsychophysiology of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), the recommended guidelines for treatment, and current agents in late-stage clinical trials, and future research needs to address the continued challenges of treatment-related nausea and vomiting. Despite advances in pharmaceutical and behavioral therapies, and the provision of standard clinical guidelines for effectively managing CINV, patients continue to experience it. Moreover, control of nausea, acute and delayed, and anticipatory nausea and vomiting remains an important, unmet need among cancer patients. It is critical to focus attention on better understanding the mechanisms underlying nausea, anticipatory symptoms and delayed symptoms.

  18. Chlorpromazine, placebo and droperidol in the treatment of nausea and vomiting associated with cisplatin therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Stuart-Harris, R.; Buckman, R.; Starke, I.; Wiltshaw, E.

    1983-01-01

    The use of cisplatin may be associated with severe nausea and vomiting. Two separate, randomized, double-blind trials, comparing the anti-emetic effect of chlorpromazine with placebo and chlorpromazine with droperidol, were conducted in patients receiving cisplatin for ovarian cancer. Chlorpromazine was statistically superior to placebo in the control of nausea and vomiting in those patients treated with chlorpromazine had significantly less nausea than with droperidol, but there were no other significant differences between chlorpromazine and droperidol. Toxicities of chlorpromazine and droperidol were similar. Chlorpromazine shows useful activity against cisplatin nausea and vomiting. PMID:6353396

  19. Nausea and vomiting in advanced cancer: the Cleveland Clinic protocol.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mona; Davis, Mellar; LeGrand, Susan; Walsh, Declan; Lagman, Ruth

    2013-03-01

    Nausea and vomiting are common and distressing symptoms in advanced cancer. Both are multifactorial and cause significant morbidity, nutritional failure, and reduced quality of life. Assessment includes a detailed history, physical examination and investigations for reversible causes. Assessment and management will be influenced by performance status, prognosis, and goals of care. Several drug classes are effective with some having the added benefit of multiple routes of administration. It is our institution's practice to recommend metoclopramide as the first drug with haloperidol as an alternative antiemetic. Dexamethasone should be used for patients with central nervous system metastases or bowel obstruction. If your patient is near death, empiric metoclopramide, haloperidol or chlorpromazine is used without further investigation. For patients with a better prognosis, we exclude reversible causes and use the same first-line antiemetics, metoclopramide and haloperidol. For those who do not respond to first-line single antiemetics, olanzapine is second line and ondansetron is third. Rarely do we use combination therapy or cannabinoids. Olanzapine as a single agent has a distinct advantage over antiemetic combinations. It improves compliance, reduces drug interactions and has several routes of administration. Antiemetics, anticholinergics, octreotide and dexamethasone are used in combination to treat bowel obstruction. In opiod-na'ive patients, we prefer haloperidol, glycopyrrolate and an opioid as the first-line treatment and add or substitute octreotide and dexamethasone in those who do not respond. Non-pharmacologic interventions (mechanical stents and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes) are used when nausea is refractory to medical management or for home-going management to relieve symptoms, reduce drug costs and rehospitalization.

  20. Dronabinol treatment of refractory nausea and vomiting related to peritoneal carcinomatosis.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Sarah L; Sheyner, Inna; Stover, Karen T; Stewart, Jonathan T

    2015-02-01

    Nausea and vomiting are common and often highly distressing symptoms in advanced cancer and in hospice and palliative medicine practice. Nausea and vomiting generally respond well to correction of the underlying etiology (when possible) and appropriate selection of antiemetic medication, but up to 7% of patients will have refractory symptoms. Dronabinol is extensively studied for chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting, but there are only a few case reports of its use in nausea and vomiting unrelated to chemotherapy. We report a patient with end-stage ovarian cancer with peritoneal carcinomatosis and refractory nausea and vomiting who responded dramatically to addition of dronabinol. Dronabinol is usually well tolerated and may have several novel mechanisms of antiemetic action; further study of its scope of efficacy is warranted.

  1. Optimal management of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Neda; Maltepe, Caroline; Einarson, Adrienne

    2010-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) is a common medical condition in pregnancy with significant physical and psychological morbidity. Up to 90% of women will suffer from NVP symptoms in the first trimester of pregnancy with up to 2% developing hyperemesis gravidarum which is NVP at its worst, leading to hospitalization and even death in extreme cases. Optimal management of NVP begins with nonpharmacological approaches, use of ginger, acupressure, vitamin B6, and dietary adjustments. The positive impact of these noninvasive, inexpensive and safe methods has been demonstrated. Pharmacological treatments are available with varying effectiveness; however, the only drug marketed specifically for the treatment of NVP in pregnancy is Diclectin® (vitamin B6 and doxylamine). In addition, the Motherisk algorithm provides a guideline for use of safe and effective drugs for the treatment of NVP. Optimal medical management of symptoms will ensure the mental and physical wellbeing of expecting mothers and their developing babies during this often stressful and difficult time period. Dismissing NVP as an inconsequential part of pregnancy can have serious ramifications for both mother and baby. PMID:21151729

  2. Maternal Influences on Nausea and Vomiting in Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Olshan, Andrew F.; Savitz, David A.; Herring, Amy H.; Daniels, Julie L.; Peterson, Herbert B.; Martin, Sandra L.

    2014-01-01

    Symptoms of nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy (NVP) are common among pregnant women, but whether some women are more likely than others to experience these symptoms has not been well established. We examined potential risk factors for NVP symptom severity, timing of onset, and duration. We included 2,407 newly pregnant women who participated in a prospective cohort study on early pregnancy health between 2000 and 2004 in three U.S. cities. Data on NVP and other health information were collected through telephone interviews, early gestation ultrasound, and medical record abstractions. Generalized linear models were used to model possible risk factors for each NVP characteristic. Eighty-nine percent of women had NVP; for 99% of these, symptoms started in the first trimester. None of the characteristics examined were associated with having NVP. Among those with NVP, increasing risk of delayed symptoms onset was associated with advancing maternal age; increased risks were also seen among non-Hispanic Black [Risk ratio (RR) = 4.3, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.6,11.6] and Hispanic women (RR = 2.3, 95% CI:0.4,11.5). NVP symptoms for multigravidae were more likely to last beyond the first trimester with each additional pregnancy. Most pregnant women experienced NVP. Nearly all of them, regardless of characteristics examined, had symptoms beginning in the first trimester. Maternal age, race/ethnicity, and gravidity were associated with delayed onset and symptoms that persisted into the second trimester. PMID:20012346

  3. Oral intake of ginger for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting among women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Müzeyyen; Ozdemir, Leyla

    2015-10-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is among the most common and distressing symptoms experienced by patients receiving cancer treatment. Nurses play a substantial role in the prevention and management of CINV. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is often advocated as beneficial for nausea and vomiting. Whether the herb is truly efficacious for this condition is, however, still a matter of debate. This experimental randomized, controlled trial was done to assess the effect of ginger on chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting. All patients in the study (N = 60) received standard antiemetic drugs. The patients in the study group (n = 30) also received oral ginger for the first three days of the chemotherapy cycle. No intervention was performed in the control group (n = 30) except for the routine antiemetic treatment. Nausea severity and the number of vomiting and retching episodes were measured four times each day for the first five days of the chemotherapy cycle in the patient diary. Nausea severity was evaluated using a numeric scale ranging from 0 (no nausea) to 10 (very severe nausea). The researchers analyzed the five-day mean score of nausea severity and the number of vomiting and retching episodes. Based on this comparison, nausea severity and the number of vomiting episodes were significantly lower in the intervention group than in the control group (p > 0.05). However, the change in the number of retching episodes between the intervention and control groups was not statistically significant (p > 0.05).

  4. Nausea and vomiting in Iranian Traditional Medicine based on Avicenna’s viewpoint

    PubMed Central

    Nazari, Mohammad; Taghizadeh, Ali; Orafaei, Hossein; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Bazzaz, Mojtaba Mousavi; shokri, Jafar; Shokri, Sadegh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nausea and vomiting decrease one’s quality of life significantly, and, despite various treatments, they are still uncontrollable, especially in acute illness. Perhaps it would be useful to search for new concepts and therapies for dealing with these issues at other medical schools. The aim of this research was to elucidate the causes of nausea and vomiting in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM) based on Avicenna’s viewpoint in The Book of “Canon of medicine”. Methods: We reviewed the Canon of Medicine and other reference textbooks of ITM to get the experts’ viewpoints, such as Kamel-al-Sanaeh, Al-Havi, and Zakhireh-kharazmshahi, and we searched PubMed, Scopus, Embase, ISI and Science Iranian Database (SID) in November and December 2014 using keywords. Results: Basic terms associated with nausea and vomiting in ITM are Gha’y (vomiting), Tahavo’a (retching), Gathayan (nausea), and Taghallob-al-nafs (continuous nausea). Different factors can induce these problems with direct or indirect change in the quantity/quality of humors in the body’s systems or the stomach. Treatments are based on the correction of humors and modifications of lifestyle. ITM has recommended medicinal herbs for severe nausea and vomiting. For example, they may be effective in treating chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). Conclusion: ITM suggests that almost the nausea and vomiting associated with almost all major diseases originate from abnormalities in either the quantity/quality of humors. The gold standard for managing nausea and vomiting is lifestyle modifications with attention to responsible humors. Some therapeutic protocols in ITM may be applicable today. Perhaps redefining the diseases and updating the expression of these concepts and approaches can lead to the development of complementary and alternative treatments for nausea and vomiting. PMID:26120413

  5. Cannabinoids As Potential Treatment for Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Rock, Erin M.; Parker, Linda A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the advent of classic anti-emetics, chemotherapy-induced nausea is still problematic, with vomiting being somewhat better managed in the clinic. If post-treatment nausea and vomiting are not properly controlled, anticipatory nausea—a conditioned response to the contextual cues associated with illness-inducing chemotherapy—can develop. Once it develops, anticipatory nausea is refractive to current anti-emetics, highlighting the need for alternative treatment options. One of the first documented medicinal uses of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) was for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), and recent evidence is accumulating to suggest a role for the endocannabinoid system in modulating CINV. Here, we review studies assessing the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids and manipulations of the endocannabinoid system in human patients and pre-clinical animal models of nausea and vomiting. PMID:27507945

  6. Exercise Induced Nausea and Vomiting: Another Sign of Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma Preferably in Young Patients?

    PubMed Central

    King, Kathryn S.; Darmani, Nissar; Adams, Karen T.; Pacak, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Objective A cohort of nine patients, mostly young adults, presented with a new symptom of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma: exercise induced nausea and vomiting. The aim of this report is to present this symptom of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma and to suggest a hypothesis for the observation. Design This is a prospective study looking at the patient accounts of the reported symptom and the clinical data on the patients disease. Methods Following a 2000 report from a paraganglioma patient of the experience of exercise induced nausea and vomiting, researchers and clinicians at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma protocol, began asking patients about instances of nausea and vomiting induced through exercise. A cohort of nine patients reporting exercise induced nausea and vomiting was found and their clinical data are analyzed and presented here. Results Exercise induced nausea and vomiting in pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma patients is most likely due to the elevation of circulating catecholamines that activate adrenergic receptors of the area postrema, which induces nausea and vomiting. Succinate dehydrogenase subunit B mutations/deletions were prevalent in the patients described. Conclusions Post exercise nausea and vomiting should be considered as a symptom of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma and should be addressed in the clinical evaluation of these patients, especially in young adults. PMID:20960160

  7. Aprepitant: a review of its use in the prevention of nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Curran, Monique P; Robinson, Dean M

    2009-01-01

    Aprepitant (Emend) is a neurokinin-1 (NK(1)) receptor antagonist that is able to alleviate the emetic effects of substance P. When combined with a standard regimen of a corticosteroid (dexamethasone) and a serotonin 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist (ondansetron), oral aprepitant (125 mg on day 1 then 80 mg once daily on days 2 and 3) was effective in the prevention of acute and delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) associated with single or multiple cycles of highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC). This aprepitant regimen was also effective in the prevention of CINV in patients treated with single or multiple cycles of moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC). A single oral dose of aprepitant 40 mg administered prior to patients undergoing abdominal surgery was also effective in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). Aprepitant was generally well tolerated. Aprepitant is a recommended option for the treatment of PONV, and when combined with a corticosteroid and 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist is a recommended regimen for the treatment of CINV.

  8. Study of the Effect of Mint Oil on Nausea and Vomiting During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Pasha, Hajar; Behmanesh, Fereshteh; Mohsenzadeh, Farideh; Hajahmadi, Mahmood; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar

    2012-01-01

    Background Approximately 80 percent of pregnant women suffer by some degree of nausea and vomiting. But the treatment of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy is rarely successful. Objectives The aim of this study was evaluation the effect of mint on nausea and vomiting during pregnancy that its treatment in some recent research has been effective. Materials and Methods In this double blind RCT, 60 pregnant women with nausea and vomiting of pregnancy were sampled and divided into two groups with Block-randomized method. mint group, in addition to giving the routine training, for four consecutive nights, before sleeping, a bowel of water whit four drops of pure mint essential oil placed on the floor near their beds and in control groups were used four drops of normal saline . The severity of nausea by using Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and severity of vomiting by counting the number of its in 7 days prior, 4 days during, and 7 days after intervention were assessed. Results The results showed that the severity of nausea and vomiting did not differ between the two groups in 7days before and after intervention by using repeated measurement test. But during intervention, the severity of nausea showed a decreasing trend (especially in 4th night) in the mint and an increasing trend in the control group. The severity of nausea within 7 days after the intervention had a decreasing trend in both groups; however, the intensity was lower in the mint than saline group but not statically significant. No meaningful relationship has been detected during and after intervention for the intensity of vomiting. Conclusions The results of study showed that peppermint essential oil hasn't the effect on nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. PMID:23396673

  9. The Effect of Ondansetron and Dexamethasone on Nausea and Vomiting under Spinal Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Kalani, Navid; Zabetian, Hasan; Sanie, Mohammad Sadegh; Deylami, Mansour; Radmehr, Mohammad; Sahraei, Reza; Kargar Jahromi, Hossein; Kooti, Wesam

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND During abdominal surgery under regional anesthesia, nausea may happen due to several contributing factors. This study compared the effects of ondansetron and dexamethasone on nausea and vomiting under spinal anesthesia. METHODS One hundred and twenty patients of 15 to 35 years old with ASA class I and II were enrolled. Before administering either ondansetron or dexamethasone, blood pressure and heart rate of the patients were recorded. The patients received 70 mg of 5% lidocaine for spinal anesthesia. Patients who received 6 mg of ondansetron were considered as group A, while group B received 8 mg of dexamethasone. The level of nausea and vomiting, blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate of each patient was measured at 1, 5, 10, 15 and 30 minutes after spinal anesthesia and during recovery (every 5 minutes). RESULTS There was a significant difference between nausea and vomiting between the two groups after spinal anesthesia within the first and fifth minutes. There was no significant difference between nausea and vomiting between the two groups within 10, 15 and 30 minutes and during recovery at 5, 10, 15 and 30 minutes. CONCLUSION Dexamethasone and ondansetron were shown to equally reduce the incidence of nausea and vomiting under spinal anesthesia and can be recommended as a good choice for prevention of nausea and vomiting during surgeries. PMID:28289619

  10. Aprepitant, Granisetron, & Dexamethasone in Preventing Nausea & Vomiting in Pts. Receiving Cyclophosphamide Before a Stem Cell Transplant

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-12

    Breast Cancer; Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms; Nausea and Vomiting; Neuroblastoma; Ovarian Cancer; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor

  11. Maternal susceptibility to nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: is the vestibular system involved?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, F. Owen

    2002-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy shares many characteristics with motion sickness, a vestibular dependent phenomenon. A number of physiologic changes that occur in normal pregnancy are also known to accompany nausea and vomiting in patients with motion sickness and certain vestibular disorders. This chapter summarizes some shared features of both phenomena. The unmasking of subclinical vestibular disorders may account for some cases of hyperemesis gravidarum. Hormonal effects on neurotransmitter function may also play a role in nausea and vomiting of pregnancy and in some vestibular disorders; however, the specific neural mechanisms of nausea and vomiting have not been identified. Until the neurochemical processes underlying these phenomena are understood, prevention and management will remain in the domain of astute, but so far limited, clinical observation.

  12. Maternal susceptibility to nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: is the vestibular system involved?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, F. Owen

    2002-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy shares many characteristics with motion sickness, a vestibular dependent phenomenon. A number of physiologic changes that occur in normal pregnancy are also known to accompany nausea and vomiting in patients with motion sickness and certain vestibular disorders. This chapter summarizes some shared features of both phenomena. The unmasking of subclinical vestibular disorders may account for some cases of hyperemesis gravidarum. Hormonal effects on neurotransmitter function may also play a role in nausea and vomiting of pregnancy and in some vestibular disorders; however, the specific neural mechanisms of nausea and vomiting have not been identified. Until the neurochemical processes underlying these phenomena are understood, prevention and management will remain in the domain of astute, but so far limited, clinical observation.

  13. Prevention of Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Abhishek; Roy, Shubham; Malik, Abhidha; Julka, P K; Rath, G K

    2015-01-01

    The supportive care of patients receiving antineoplastic treatment has dramatically improved over the past few years and development of effective measures to prevent nausea and vomiting after chemotherapy serves as one of the most important examples of this progress. A patient who starts cancer treatment with chemotherapy lists chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting as among their greatest fears. Inadequately controlled emesis impairs functional activity and quality of life, increases the use of health care resources, and may occasionally compromise adherence to treatment. New insights into the pathophysiology of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, a better understanding of the risk factors for these effects, and the availability of new antiemetic agents have all contributed to substantial improvements in emetic control. This review focuses on current understanding of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and the status of pharmacological interventions for their prevention and treatment.

  14. Effects of Modification of Pain Protocol on Incidence of Post Operative Nausea and Vomiting.

    PubMed

    Schwarzkopf, Ran; Snir, Nimrod; Sharfman, Zachary T; Rinehart, Joseph B; Calderon, Michael-David; Bahn, Esther; Harrington, Brian; Ahn, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    A Perioperative Surgical Home (PSH) care model applies a standardized multidisciplinary approach to patient care using evidence-based medicine to modify and improve protocols. Analysis of patient outcome measures, such as postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), allows for refinement of existing protocols to improve patient care. We aim to compare the incidence of PONV in patients who underwent primary total joint arthroplasty before and after modification of our PSH pain protocol. All total joint replacement PSH (TJR-PSH) patients who underwent primary THA (n=149) or TKA (n=212) in the study period were included. The modified protocol added a single dose of intravenous (IV) ketorolac given in the operating room and oxycodone immediate release orally instead of IV Hydromorphone in the Post Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU). The outcomes were (1) incidence of PONV and (2) average pain score in the PACU. We also examined the effect of primary anesthetic (spinal vs. GA) on these outcomes. The groups were compared using chi-square tests of proportions. The incidence of post-operative nausea in the PACU decreased significantly with the modified protocol (27.4% vs. 38.1%, p=0.0442). There was no difference in PONV based on choice of anesthetic or procedure. Average PACU pain scores did not differ significantly between the two protocols. Simple modifications to TJR-PSH multimodal pain management protocol, with decrease in IV narcotic use, resulted in a lower incidence of postoperative nausea, without compromising average PACU pain scores. This report demonstrates the need for continuous monitoring of PSH pathways and implementation of revisions as needed.

  15. Effect of Acupressure on Nausea-Vomiting in Patients With Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Avc, Hatice Sevil; Ovayolu, Nimet; Ovayolu, Özlem

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of acupressure, applied at P6 (Neiguan) acupuncture point, on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia. This was a randomized controlled trial conducted on patients with myeloblastic leukemia. A total of 90 patients, who received the same chemotherapy regimen and antiemetic therapy, were included in the study as 30 patients in the control group, 30 patients in the band group, and 30 patients in the pressure group. Although acupressure was applied by placing wristbands at P6 acupuncture point of both wrists in patients of the band group for totally 4 days, acupressure was applied with the use of finger pressure in patients of the pressure group for totally 4 days. No intervention was made in patients of the control group other than the routine antiemetic therapy. The data of the study were collected by using a questionnaire and nausea-vomiting chart. Severity of nausea-vomiting was assessed by using the visual analog scale on this chart. It was determined that the acupressure band applied to the patients included in the study reduced number and severity of nausea-vomiting (P < .05); however, the acupressure applied with pressure did not affect number and severity of nausea-vomiting (P > .05). It was found that the acupressure band was effective for reducing the chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

  16. Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: the importance of acute antiemetic control.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Frederick M

    2003-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting are two of the most feared side effects of cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting can be broadly categorized as acute (occurring within 24 hours of therapy), delayed (persisting for 6-7 days after therapy), or anticipatory (occurring prior to chemotherapy administration). Breakthrough and refractory nausea and vomiting describe the symptoms of uncontrolled emesis. Evidence suggests that good control of nausea and vomiting during the acute period correlates with the control of delayed emesis. Conversely, protection failure during the first 24 hours has a high predictive value for delayed emesis in the same cycle. The 5-HT(3)-receptor antagonists, regarded as the 'gold standard' in antiemetic therapy, are the first-line treatment for moderately and highly emetogenic chemotherapy and radiotherapy regimens in adults and children. Evidence suggests that the 5-HT(3)-receptor antagonists administered in combination with corticosteroids afford the best protection from symptoms of acute emesis and, by extrapolation, the most effective prevention of delayed emesis. Antiemetic therapeutic guidelines stress that the goal of therapy is to prevent cytostatic-induced nausea and vomiting. Therefore, the prophylactic use of the most effective antiemetic regimen-taking into consideration the emetogenicity of the chemotherapy and individual patient characteristics-must be adhered to in order to prevent acute, delayed, and anticipatory nausea and vomiting.

  17. The effect of oral clonidine premedication on nausea and vomiting after ear surgery.

    PubMed

    Taheri, Arman; Javadimanesh, Mohammad Ali; Ashraf, Haleh

    2010-06-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a most distressing adverse event for surgical patients with a considerable economic impact .The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of clonidine given orally for PONV in patients undergoing anesthesia for outpatient ear surgery. Sixty patients 30.2 +/- 9.9 years, scheduled for ear surgery, were randomly assigned to one of two groups (clonidine or placebo) in a double-blinded manner. Anesthesia was standardized laryngeal mask airway, fentanyl, propofol, halothane, nitrous oxide. A complete response, defined as no PONV and no need for rescue antiemetic medication, during the first 24 h after anesthesia was 33% with placebo and 67% with clonidine, respectively (P. 0.01). No clinically adverse event was observed in any of the groups. Oral premedication with clonidine reduced the rate of PONV in patients undergoing outpatient ear surgery.

  18. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Oral Versus Intravenous Administration of a Nonnarcotic Analgesia Protocol Following Pediatric Craniosynostosis Corrections on Nausea and Vomiting Rates.

    PubMed

    Fearon, Jeffrey A; Dimas, Vanessa; Ditthakasem, Kanlaya; Herbert, Morley A

    2015-09-01

    The authors' center uses a nonnarcotic postoperative regimen following craniosynostosis corrections. Despite opioid avoidance, the authors noted that some children still experienced nausea and vomiting following the oral administration of either acetaminophen or ibuprofen. This study sought to evaluate whether intravenous administration of these medications might reduce nausea and vomiting rates. A total of 50 children undergoing craniosynostosis corrections were prospectively randomized to a control group given only oral ibuprofen (10 mg/kg) and acetaminophen (15 mg/kg), or a treatment group given only intravenous ketorolac (0.5 mg/kg) and acetaminophen (15 mg/kg). All patients were assessed for postoperative nausea and vomiting by a blinded research nurse. Twenty-eight patients randomized to the oral control group, and 22 to the intravenous treatment group. No statistically significant differences were identified between groups, including: age, weight, sex, before history of severe postoperative nausea and vomiting, or procedure. With similar anesthesia times there was significantly more vomiting episodes in the oral group (71% versus 41%). Using a multivariate logistic regression, controlling for age, weight and procedure, the odds ratio for vomiting in the oral control versus intravenous experimental groups was 3.61 (95% CI 1.11-1.76; P = 0.033), and for postoperative nausea was 14.0 (95% CI 1.40-71.69, P = 0.010). The authors found a significant reduction in nausea and vomiting among children randomized to receive intravenous medications. In addition, the intravenous delivery of medications has the theoretical advantage of insuring an effective full dose delivery. Based on these findings, our standard process is to preferentially manage all children following craniosynostosis corrections with intravenous nonnarcotics.

  19. Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in breast cancer patients: a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Booth, Christopher M; Clemons, Mark; Dranitsaris, George; Joy, Anil; Young, Scott; Callaghan, Walter; Trudeau, Maureen; Petrella, Teresa

    2007-09-01

    Despite advances in the prevention and treatment of emesis, nausea and vomiting are still considered by patients to be among the most severe and feared adverse effects of chemotherapy for breast cancer. There is, however, a paucity of prospective data documenting the prevalence and severity of emesis in patients with breast cancer in the era of modern antiemetics. This prospective multicenter study evaluated chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in patients with breast cancer. Patients were given a daily diary to record the frequency and severity of nausea and vomiting during the first 5 days following chemotherapy. Data were collected until either the cessation of chemotherapy or the administration of a maximum of 6 cycles of treatment. Data are available from 143 patients who received a total of 766 cycles of chemotherapy. Prevalence rates of any nausea or any vomiting were, respectively, 37% and 13% at 24 hours and 70% and 15% during days 2-5. Severe emesis was reported by fewer than 10% of patients. Risk factors associated with CINV included age younger than 40 years, nausea expectation, not eating before treatment, and low alcohol use. The prevalence of severe CINV for breast cancer was relatively low compared with the prevalence reported in the literature. As a result of the observational design of this study, the results may better reflect the "true" prevalence of nausea and vomiting than do estimates from previously reported randomized controlled trials. Several patient characteristics that predict which patients are at increased risk of developing severe symptoms were identified.

  20. Neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Fahad

    2012-07-01

    Chemotherapy can be a life-prolonging treatment for many cancer patients, but it is often associated with profound nausea and vomiting that is so distressing that patients may delay or decline treatment to avoid these side effects. The discovery of several NK1 receptor antagonists is a big revolution to dealt this problem. NK1 receptor antagonists prevent both acute and delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). These agents act centrally at NK-1 receptors in vomiting centers within the central nervous system to block their activation by substance P released as an unwanted consequence of chemotherapy. By controlling nausea and vomiting, these agents help improve patients' daily living and their ability to complete multiple cycles of chemotherapy. They are effective for both moderately and highly emetogenic chemotherapy regimens. Their use might be associated with increased infection rates; however, additional appraisal of specific data from RCTs is needed.

  1. A brief review of current scientific evidence involving aromatherapy use for nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Lua, Pei Lin; Zakaria, Noor Salihah

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compile existing scientific evidence regarding the effects of essential oils (EOs) administered via inhalation for the alleviation of nausea and vomiting. CINAHL, PubMed, and EBSCO Host and Science Direct databases were searched for articles related to the use of EOs and/or aromatherapy for nausea and vomiting. Only articles using English as a language of publication were included. Eligible articles included all forms of evidence (nonexperimental, experimental, case report). Interventions were limited to the use of EOs by inhalation of their vapors to treat symptoms of nausea and vomiting in various conditions regardless of age group. Studies where the intervention did not utilize EOs or were concerned with only alcohol inhalation and trials that combined the use of aromatherapy with other treatments (massage, relaxations, or acupressure) were excluded. Five (5) articles met the inclusion criteria encompassing trials with 328 respondents. Their results suggest that the inhaled vapor of peppermint or ginger essential oils not only reduced the incidence and severity of nausea and vomiting but also decreased antiemetic requirements and consequently improved patient satisfaction. However, a definitive conclusion could not be drawn due to methodological flaws in the existing research articles and an acute lack of additional research in this area. The existing evidence is encouraging but yet not compelling. Hence, further well-designed large trials are needed before confirmation of EOs effectiveness in treating nausea and vomiting can be strongly substantiated.

  2. [An assessment tool for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and intervention outcomes].

    PubMed

    Aimono, Yuka; Suzuki, Shunichi; Nemoto, Masahiko; Saito, Yoshiko; Aoyama, Yoshifumi; Joko, Fuyuko; Maruyama, Tsunehiko; Kamoshida, Toshiro

    2013-12-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting(CINV)is the most unpleasant side effect for patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. Moderately emetic anticancer drugs show a wide range of emetic frequencies, and the use or nonuse of antiemetics is optionally described without specifics. In the present study, we clarified the state of CINV presentation caused by moderately emetic anticancer drugs using the MASCC Antiemesis Tool, a nausea-and-vomiting evaluation tool developed by the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer(MASCC)for patients with colorectal cancer. Of the 32 subjects, 5 (15.6%)had vomiting and 22(68.8%)experienced nausea. The timing of their occurrence and their nausea scores were accurately and easily clarified. This study's findings suggested that the current regimens need to be reviewed, particularly because all patients exhibited late nausea; therefore, we modified our antiemetic regimens through the Cancer Chemotherapy Regimen Review Board of this hospital. After the modification was introduced, significant improvement was seen in the control of both acute and late nausea/vomiting.

  3. Study protocol for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a single preoperative steroid dose to prevent nausea and vomiting after thyroidectomy: the tPONV study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Postoperative nausea and vomiting after general anesthesia is not only an unpleasant problem affecting 20-30% of surgical patients but may also lead to severe postoperative complications. There is a particularly high incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting following thyroidectomy. Dexamethasone has been described as highly effective against chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and has been proposed as a first-line method of postoperative nausea and vomiting prophylaxis. Despite this possible beneficial effect, the prophylactic administration of dexamethasone before surgery to prevent or ameliorate postoperative nausea and vomiting has not been established. A bilateral superficial cervical plexus block during thyroid surgery under general anesthesia significantly reduces pain. Of even greater clinical importance, this block prevents the need for postoperative opioids. Therefore, patients undergoing thyroidectomy and a bilateral superficial cervical plexus block are an ideal group to investigate the efficacy of dexamethasone for postoperative nausea and vomiting. These patients have a high incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting and do not require opioids. They have no abdominal surgery, which can cause nausea and vomiting via a paralytic ileus. Combined with the highly standardized anesthesia protocol in use at our institution, this setting allows all known biases to be controlled. Methods/design We will perform a parallel two-arm, randomized (1:1), double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-center trial. Adults (≥18 years) scheduled for primary partial or total thyroidectomy because of a benign disease will be eligible for inclusion. The participants will be randomized to receive a single, intravenous preoperative dose of either 8 mg of dexamethasone in 2 ml saline (treatment group) or saline alone (placebo group). All the patients will receive a bilateral superficial cervical plexus block and standardized anesthesia. The primary

  4. The Effectiveness of Ginger in the Prevention of Nausea and Vomiting during Pregnancy and Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Lete, Iñaki; Allué, José

    2016-01-01

    The rhizomes of Zingiber officinale (ginger) have been used since ancient times as a traditional remedy for gastrointestinal complaints. The most active ingredients in ginger are the pungent principles, particularly gingerols and shogaols. Various preclinical and clinical studies have evaluated ginger as an effective and safe treatment for nausea and vomiting in the context of pregnancy and as an adjuvant treatment for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Here, we provide an update and analysis of ginger use for the prevention of nausea and vomiting, with a focus on the types and presentations of ginger available. We also examine the pharmacokinetic properties of ginger and highlight the type and posology of ginger and its metabolites. PMID:27053918

  5. [Nausea, vomiting and quality of life in women with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Gozzo, Thais de Oliveira; Moysés, Aline Maria Bonini; da Silva, Pamina Roberta; de Almeida, Ana Maria

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the quality of life (QoL) of women with breast cancer during chemotherapy and to identify the incidence of nausea and vomiting during the treatment Data were assessed with the application of the instrument of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, EORTC-QLQ-C30 Portuguese version and breast cancer module BR-23, which was applied before, in the middle and in the end of the treatment. The participants were 79 women, of which 93% had nausea and 87% had vomited at least once during the treatment. QoL showed a slight decrease during treatment. Cronbach's alpha for each application of the questionnaires was 0.890492, 0.936392 and 0.937639. The availability of treatment information and guidelines on the management of nausea and vomiting is crucial for the proper management of the toxicities of chemotherapy.

  6. The Effectiveness of Ginger in the Prevention of Nausea and Vomiting during Pregnancy and Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lete, Iñaki; Allué, José

    2016-01-01

    The rhizomes of Zingiber officinale (ginger) have been used since ancient times as a traditional remedy for gastrointestinal complaints. The most active ingredients in ginger are the pungent principles, particularly gingerols and shogaols. Various preclinical and clinical studies have evaluated ginger as an effective and safe treatment for nausea and vomiting in the context of pregnancy and as an adjuvant treatment for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Here, we provide an update and analysis of ginger use for the prevention of nausea and vomiting, with a focus on the types and presentations of ginger available. We also examine the pharmacokinetic properties of ginger and highlight the type and posology of ginger and its metabolites.

  7. Optimal management of severe nausea and vomiting in migraine: improving patient outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Láinez, Miguel JA; García-Casado, Ana; Gascón, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Migraine is a common and potentially disabling disorder for patients, with wide-reaching implications for health care services, society, and the economy. Nausea and vomiting during migraine attacks are common symptoms that affect at least 60% of patients suffering from migraines. These symptoms are often more disabling than the headache itself, causing a great burden on the patient’s life. Nausea and vomiting may delay the use of oral abortive medication or interfere with oral drug absorption. Therefore, they can hinder significantly the management and treatment of migraine (which is usually given orally). The main treatment of pain-associated symptoms of migraine (such as nausea and vomiting) is to stop the migraine attack itself as soon as possible, with the effective drugs at the effective doses, seeking if necessary alternative routes of administration. In some cases, intravenous antiemetic drugs are able to relieve a migraine attack and associated symptoms like nausea and vomiting. We performed an exhaustive PubMed search of the English literature to find studies about management of migraine and its associated symptoms. Search terms were migraine, nausea, and vomiting. We did not limit our search to a specific time period. We focused on clinical efficacy and tolerance of the various drugs and procedures based on data from human studies. We included the best available studies for each discussed drug or procedure. These ranged from randomized controlled trials for some treatments to small case series for others. Recently updated books and manuals on neurology and headache were also consulted. We herein review the efficacy of the different approaches in order to manage nausea and vomiting for migraine patents. PMID:24143125

  8. Optimal management of severe nausea and vomiting in migraine: improving patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Láinez, Miguel Ja; García-Casado, Ana; Gascón, Francisco

    2013-10-11

    Migraine is a common and potentially disabling disorder for patients, with wide-reaching implications for health care services, society, and the economy. Nausea and vomiting during migraine attacks are common symptoms that affect at least 60% of patients suffering from migraines. These symptoms are often more disabling than the headache itself, causing a great burden on the patient's life. Nausea and vomiting may delay the use of oral abortive medication or interfere with oral drug absorption. Therefore, they can hinder significantly the management and treatment of migraine (which is usually given orally). The main treatment of pain-associated symptoms of migraine (such as nausea and vomiting) is to stop the migraine attack itself as soon as possible, with the effective drugs at the effective doses, seeking if necessary alternative routes of administration. In some cases, intravenous antiemetic drugs are able to relieve a migraine attack and associated symptoms like nausea and vomiting. We performed an exhaustive PubMed search of the English literature to find studies about management of migraine and its associated symptoms. Search terms were migraine, nausea, and vomiting. We did not limit our search to a specific time period. We focused on clinical efficacy and tolerance of the various drugs and procedures based on data from human studies. We included the best available studies for each discussed drug or procedure. These ranged from randomized controlled trials for some treatments to small case series for others. Recently updated books and manuals on neurology and headache were also consulted. We herein review the efficacy of the different approaches in order to manage nausea and vomiting for migraine patents.

  9. Inverse association between severe nausea and vomiting in pregnancy and some congenital abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Czeizel, Andrew E; Puhó, Erzsébet; Acs, Nándor; Bánhidy, Ferenc

    2006-03-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the possible association between nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy and congenital abnormalities. The prevalence of medically-recorded severe nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy in cases with congenital abnormalities and their available matched population controls without any defect was compared in the population-based large data set of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance System of congenital abnormalities, 1980-1996. Of 22,843 cases with as 25 different congenital abnormality groups, 1,713 (7.5%) cases had mothers with medically recorded and treated severe nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. Of 38,151 matched population controls, 3,777 (9.9%) had mothers with severe nausea and vomiting (adjusted prevalence odds ratio (POR) with 95% CI: 0.74, 0.68-0.79). Five congenital abnormality groups: cleft lip with or without cleft palate (0.50, 0.37-0.70), posterior cleft palate (0.53, 0.32-0.89), renal a/dysgenesis (0.23, 0.06-0.96), obstructive defects of urinary tract (0.32, 0.18-0.58), and cardiovascular malformations (0.68, 0.57-0.81) had mothers with a lower prevalence of severe nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (adjusted PORs with 95% CI included in parentheses). Of 25 congenital abnormality groups, 22 had POR lower than 1. Thus in this study the mothers of cases with congenital abnormalities were 26% less likely to have had severe nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy than the mothers of population controls without congenital abnormalities.

  10. FACTORS RELATED TO ABDOMINAL PAIN IN GASTROPARESIS: CONTRAST TO PATIENTS WITH PREDOMINANT NAUSEA AND VOMITING

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Factors associated with abdominal pain in gastroparesis are incompletely evaluated and comparisons of pain versus other symptoms are limited. This study related pain to clinical factors in gastroparesis and contrasted pain/discomfort- with nausea/vomiting-predominant disease. Methods Clinical and scintigraphy data were compared in 393 patients from 7 centers of the NIDDK Gastroparesis Clinical Research Consortium with moderate-severe (Patient Assessment of Upper Gastrointestinal Disorders Symptoms [PAGI-SYM] score ≥3) vs. none-mild (PAGI-SYM <3) upper abdominal pain and predominant pain/discomfort vs. nausea/vomiting. Key Results Upper abdominal pain was moderate-severe in 261 (66%). Pain/discomfort was predominant in 81 (21%); nausea/vomiting was predominant in 172 (44%). Moderate-severe pain was more prevalent with idiopathic gastroparesis and with lack of infectious prodrome (P≤0.05) and correlated with scores for nausea/vomiting, bloating, lower abdominal pain/discomfort, bowel disturbances, and opiate and antiemetic use (P<0.05) but not gastric emptying or diabetic neuropathy or control. Gastroparesis severity, quality of life, and depression and anxiety were worse with moderate-severe pain (P≤0.008). Factors associated with moderate-severe pain were similar in diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis. Compared to predominant nausea/vomiting, predominant pain/discomfort was associated with impaired quality of life, greater opiate, and less antiemetic use (P<0.01), but similar severity and gastric retention. Conclusions & Inferences Moderate-severe abdominal pain is prevalent in gastroparesis, impairs quality of life, and is associated with idiopathic etiology, lack of infectious prodrome, and opiate use. Pain is predominant in one fifth of gastroparetics. Predominant pain has at least as great an impact on disease severity and quality of life as predominant nausea/vomiting. PMID:23414452

  11. Treatment of heartburn and acid reflux associated with nausea and vomiting during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Law, Ruth; Maltepe, Caroline; Bozzo, Pina; Einarson, Adrienne

    2010-01-01

    QUESTION In addition to suffering from nausea and vomiting of pregnancy, which is being treated with antiemetics, some of my pregnant patients complain of heartburn and acid reflux. Should these symptoms also be treated and, if so, which acid-reducing medications are safe for use during pregnancy? ANSWER Increased severity of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy is associated with the presence of heartburn and acid reflux. Antacids, histamine-2 receptor antagonists, and proton pump inhibitors can be used safely during pregnancy, as large studies have been published with no evidence of adverse fetal effects. PMID:20154244

  12. Treatment of heartburn and acid reflux associated with nausea and vomiting during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Law, Ruth; Maltepe, Caroline; Bozzo, Pina; Einarson, Adrienne

    2010-02-01

    In addition to suffering from nausea and vomiting of pregnancy, which is being treated with antiemetics, some of my pregnant patients complain of heartburn and acid reflux. Should these symptoms also be treated and, if so, which acid-reducing medications are safe for use during pregnancy? Increased severity of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy is associated with the presence of heartburn and acid reflux. Antacids, histamine-2 receptor antagonists, and proton pump inhibitors can be used safely during pregnancy, as large studies have been published with no evidence of adverse fetal effects.

  13. Fosaprepitant for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Ruhlmann, Christina H; Herrstedt, Jørn

    2012-02-01

    For patients receiving cancer chemotherapy, the ongoing development of antiemetic treatment is of significant importance. Patients consider nausea and vomiting among the most distressing symptoms of chemotherapy, and as new antiemetics have been very successful in prevention of vomiting, agents effective against nausea have become one of the major unmet needs. The neurokinin (NK)(1) receptor antagonist aprepitant potentiates the antiemetic efficacy of the combination of a serotonin receptor antagonist and a corticosteroid. Fosaprepitant (intravenous prodrug of aprepitant) given as a single intravenous dose of 150 mg can replace the aprepitant 3-day oral regimen. This article focuses on the development and clinical application of fosaprepitant.

  14. Regulation of nausea and vomiting by cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system

    PubMed Central

    Sharkey, Keith A.; Darmani, Nissar A.; Parker, Linda A.

    2013-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting (emesis) are important elements in defensive or protective responses that animals use to avoid ingestion or digestion of potentially harmful substances. However, these neurally-mediated responses are at times manifested as symptoms of disease and they are frequently observed as side-effects of a variety of medications, notably those used to treat cancer. Cannabis has long been known to limit or prevent nausea and vomiting from a variety of causes. This has led to extensive investigations that have revealed an important role for cannabinoids and their receptors in the regulation of nausea and emesis. With the discovery of the endocannabinoid system, novel ways to regulate both nausea and vomiting have been discovered that involve the production of endogenous cannabinoids acting centrally. Here we review recent progress in understanding the regulation of nausea and vomiting by cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system, and we discuss the potential to utilize the endocannabinoid system in the treatment of these frequently debilitating conditions. PMID:24184696

  15. New treatments on the horizon for chemoradiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Ruhlmann, Christina H; Herrstedt, Jørn

    2016-08-01

    Antiemetic prophylaxis for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, and the development of new antiemetic drugs are expanding areas of research. However, studies of antiemetic prophylaxis in chemoradiotherapy have not been prioritised, and little is known about the proper timing, duration, and combination of antiemetic drugs for the prevention of chemoradiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (C-RINV). The article summarises the available antiemetic studies, the evidence for antiemetic prophylaxis of C-RINV, and the future perspectives for antiemetic research in chemoradiotherapy. Antiemetic prophylaxis for patients receiving concomitant chemoradiotherapy has, for many years, been an orphan research area. The distinction between acute and delayed nausea and vomiting does not apply to fractionated radiotherapy, and prophylaxis should be considered to cover the entire course of treatment and not only the acute and delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. The best prophylaxis in women receiving fractionated radiotherapy and concomitant weekly cisplatin is a combination of the neurokinin receptor antagonist fosaprepitant with palonosetron and dexamethasone. Even with this three-drug combination nausea is a significant problem and the effect of multi-receptor targeting antiemetics such as olanzapine and amisulpride should be explored in this setting.

  16. Olanzapine as an antiemetic in refractory nausea and vomiting in advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Manish; Brito-Dellan, Norman; Davis, Mellar P; Leach, Marie; Lagman, Ruth

    2003-06-01

    Nausea and vomiting are difficult symptoms to manage in patients with advanced cancer. Several classes of antiemetics are available, including phenothiazines, butyrophenones, substituted benzamides and selective serotonin antagonists, as well as corticosteroids. Most patients will respond to either single agents or combinations that frequently include corticosteroids. A minority of patients will have nausea that fails to respond. The atypical antipsychotic, olanzapine, relieves nausea in some patients failing to respond to the usual antiemetics. Two case reports are presented and the rationale for olanzapine's benefit is discussed.

  17. The role of vagal neurocircuits in the regulation of nausea and vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Babic, Tanja; Browning, Kirsteen N.

    2014-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting are among the most frequently occurring symptoms observed by clinicians. While advances have been made in understanding both the physiological as well as the neurophysiological pathways involved in nausea and vomiting, the final common pathway(s) for emesis have yet to be defined. Regardless of the difficulties in elucidating the precise neurocircuitry involved in nausea and vomiting, it has been accepted for over a century that the locus for these neurocircuits encompasses several structures within the medullary reticular formation of the hindbrain and that the role of vagal neurocircuits in particular are of critical importance. The afferent vagus nerve is responsible for relaying a vast amount of sensory information from thoracic and abdominal organs to the central nervous system. Neurons within the nucleus of the tractus solitarius not only receive these peripheral sensory inputs but have direct or indirect connections with several other hindbrain, midbrain and forebrain structures responsible for the co-ordination of the multiple organ systems. The efferent vagus nerve relays the integrated and co-ordinated output response to several peripheral organs responsible for emesis. The important role of both sensory and motor vagus nerves, and the available nature of peripheral vagal afferent and efferent nerve terminals, provides extensive and readily accessible targets for the development of drugs to combat nausea and vomiting. PMID:24184670

  18. Does oral buffered sodium supplementation reduce nausea and vomiting during an ultramarathon?

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Martin D; Stuempfle, Kristin J

    2016-01-01

    This work examines whether nausea or vomiting during an ultramarathon are due to a fluid or electrolyte imbalance, and if these symptoms can be reduced through the use of buffered sodium supplements. Starters (n = 376) of a 161.3-km ultramarathon underwent body weight measurements, 74.5% completed a post-race questionnaire, and 53.0% also underwent a post-race blood draw. The incidence of nausea or vomiting progressively increased during the race, and affected 60% of runners overall. Weight change and rate of sodium intake in supplements or in buffered sodium supplements did not differ between those with and without nausea or vomiting. Post-race serum sodium concentration also did not differ between those with and without symptoms in the last race segment. We conclude that weight change, the rate of sodium intake in supplements or in buffered sodium supplements, and serum sodium concentration are not related to symptoms of nausea or vomiting during a 161-km ultramarathon.

  19. [Results and lessons of an innovating chemotherapy-induced nauseas and vomiting management strategy].

    PubMed

    Jandard, Vincent; Guillaudin, Morgane; Bédrossian, Sacha; Breton, David; Camus, Gisèle; Paillet, Michel; Rivière, Frédéric; Le Floch, Hervé; Reignier, Stéphanie; Rimlinger, Hervé; Hervouet, Marc; Vaylet, Fabien; Margery, Jacques; Bohand, Xavier

    2013-09-01

    Current chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting management guidelines recommend taking into account the emetogenic potential of the chemotherapy employed as well as individual risk factors to such effects. We performed an interventional prospective study to assess the impact of an innovating therapeutic optimization strategy. The latter combines current guidelines application to a specific consultation in order to individualize the treatment. This study included 170 patients and covered a total of 1,746 days of various chemotherapies. Among these patients, 86.5% never vomited and 53.8% never had any nausea or vomiting. These results seem generally better than the ones found in the literature with all kinds of chemotherapies. Regarding them, we have attempted to highlight the determining criteria for a successful antiemetic treatment.

  20. Characteristics of Patients with Chronic Unexplained Nausea and Vomiting and Normal Gastric Emptying

    PubMed Central

    Pasricha, Pankaj J.; Colvin, Ryan; Yates, Katherine; Hasler, William L.; Abell, Thomas L.; Ünalp-Arida, Aynur; Nguyen, Linda; Farrugia, Gianrico; Koch, Kenneth L.; Parkman, Henry P.; Snape, William J.; Lee, Linda; Tonascia, James; Hamilton, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims Chronic nausea and vomiting with normal gastric emptying is a poorly understood syndrome; we analyzed its characteristics. Methods We collected and analyzed data from 425 patients with chronic nausea and vomiting, enrolled at 6 centers by the Gastroparesis Clinical Research Consortium in the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Gastroparesis Registry. Results Among the patients, 319 (75%) had delayed emptying, defined by the results of a standardized, low-fat meal, and 106 had normal gastric emptying. Patients with or without delayed emptying did not differ in age, sex, or race, although those with normal gastric emptying were less likely to be diabetic. Symptom severity indices were similar between groups for nausea, retching, vomiting, stomach fullness, inability to complete a meal, feeling excessively full after meals, loss of appetite, bloating, and visibly larger stomach. There were no differences in health care utilization, quality of life indices, depression, or trait anxiety scores. However, state anxiety scores were slightly higher among patients with delayed gastric emptying. Total gastroparesis cardinal symptom index scores were not correlated with gastric retention after 2 or 4 hours in either group. Patients with the syndrome were not adequately captured by the stand-alone criteria for the Rome III diagnoses of chronic idiopathic nausea and functional vomiting. With rare exceptions, the diagnosis remained stable after a 48-weeks follow-up period. Conclusions Patients with nausea and vomiting with normal gastric emptying represent a significant medical problem and are, for the most part, indistinguishable from those with gastroparesis. This syndrome is not categorized in the medical literature—it might be a separate clinical entity. PMID:21397732

  1. Cancer and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: a focus on olanzapine.

    PubMed

    Bosnjak, Snezana M; Dimitrijevic, Jelena; Djordjevic, Fedja

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of review is to critically present the evidence supporting the use of olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic, as an antiemetic for cancer and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). Two phase III clinical studies demonstrated superior efficacy of olanzapine in comparison with the neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists (NK1RA) for substance P (aprepitant, fosaprepitant) in the prevention of nausea after highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Olanzapine is inexpensive and the replacement of NK1RA with olanzapine can reduce the costs of the prevention of CINV. The addition of olanzapine to aprepitant-containing combination regimens for the prevention of CINV was also investigated, and has the potential to further improve the prevention of CINV after highly emetogenic chemotherapy or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy, without substantial increase in costs. In the treatment of uncontrolled ('breakthrough') CINV, olanzapine was more effective than metoclopramide. Existing clinical data also support the use of olanzapine to relieve a cluster of gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with advanced cancer (chronic nausea, vomiting, and anorexia). When used in cancer patients, olanzapine is well tolerated, with sedation being the major dose-limiting side effect. Existing data from clinical trials justify further research of the role of olanzapine in the prevention of CINV. Olanzapine may be used instead of or in addition to NK1RA in the preventive antiemetic regimens. Olanzapine-containing preventive regimens may provide better nausea control after chemotherapy. When used instead of NK1RA it may also provide substantial reduction in costs of CINV prevention. In patients with advanced cancer, olanzapine was effective against a cluster of gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea, vomiting, and anorexia). The use of olanzapine as an antiemetic for CINV, or to relieve nausea, vomiting, and anorexia in palliative care is currently off-label.

  2. Ginger-Mechanism of action in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: A review.

    PubMed

    Marx, Wolfgang; Ried, Karin; McCarthy, Alexandra L; Vitetta, Luis; Sali, Avni; McKavanagh, Daniel; Isenring, Liz

    2017-01-02

    Despite advances in antiemetic therapy, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) still poses a significant burden to patients undergoing chemotherapy. Nausea, in particular, is still highly prevalent in this population. Ginger has been traditionally used as a folk remedy for gastrointestinal complaints and has been suggested as a viable adjuvant treatment for nausea and vomiting in the cancer context. Substantial research has revealed ginger to possess properties that could exert multiple beneficial effects on chemotherapy patients who experience nausea and vomiting. Bioactive compounds within the rhizome of ginger, particularly the gingerol and shogaol class of compounds, interact with several pathways that are directly implicated in CINV in addition to pathways that could play secondary roles by exacerbating symptoms. These properties include 5-HT3, substance P, and acetylcholine receptor antagonism; antiinflammatory properties; and modulation of cellular redox signaling, vasopressin release, gastrointestinal motility, and gastric emptying rate. This review outlines these proposed mechanisms by discussing the results of clinical, in vitro, and animal studies both within the chemotherapy context and in other relevant fields. The evidence presented in this review indicates that ginger possesses multiple properties that could be beneficial in reducing CINV.

  3. Delayed Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting in the Hematology Population: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Gonella, Silvia; Di Giulio, Paola

    2015-08-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is one of the most bothersome problems experienced by patients with cancer and results in serious complications. Considerable progress has been made in the management of acute CINV, but many patients receiving chemotherapy still complain of delayed nausea. In particular, delayed CINV affects patients in the hematology population who typically undergo several frontline chemotherapy regimens, multiday conditioning regimens, and salvage treatments. However, no international guidelines exist for the prevention of CINV in this population. This article provides a literature review of the pathophysiologic mechanisms of delayed CINV as well as the etiologies, assessment strategies, and potential therapies in this population. A narrative review of the literature was performed. Nurses fulfill an important role in the assessment of delayed symptoms by ensuring adequate measurement of the duration, frequency, severity, and distress caused by nausea, vomiting, and retching. A systematic assessment of retching, in addition to nausea and vomiting, that involves patients' assessment of their own symptoms may enhance the accuracy of clinical reports, leading to improved tolerability of chemotherapy and patient quality of life. In addition, nurses may actively contribute to the development of specific guidelines for hematologic malignancies and a patient risk factor algorithm for optimizing the tolerability of chemotherapy.

  4. Ondansetron Versus Dehydrobenzoperidol and Metoclopramide for Management of Postoperative Nausea in Laparoscopic Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dabbous, Aliya; Jabbour Khoury, Samar; Chehab, Imad Rachid; Bartelmaos, Tonine

    2001-01-01

    Background: In this prospective, randomized, double-blind study, we compared the efficacy of ondansetron versus dehydrobenzoperidol (droperidol) or metoclopramide in the treatment of established postoperative nausea and vomiting in 200 adult patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery under general anesthesia. Methods: One hundred seventy-three American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) I and II patients satisfied inclusion criteria. Fifty-seven patients received ondansetron 4 mg (group O), 57 patients were given droperidol 1.25 mg (group D), and 59 patients received metoclopramide 10 mg (group M). Antiemetic efficacy was compared at 10 minutes and 30 minutes after the administration of the study drug. Results: At 10 minutes, nausea scores in group O dropped from 8.3 to 3.7, in group D from 8.5 to 5, and in group M from 8.4 to 6.7; (P < 0.05 between the three groups). At 30 minutes, nausea scores were 1.3 in group O, 1.7 in group D, and 5 in group M; (P < 0.05 between group M and the other two groups). In the droperidol group, 25% of patients developed sedation. Patient satisfaction was best with ondansetron. Conclusions: Both ondansetron and droperidol were more effective in the treatment of established postoperative nausea and vomiting than was metoclopramide. However, patients were satisfied best with ondansetron, which acts faster and causes less sedation than droperidol. PMID:11394426

  5. Pharmacovigilance in Hospice/Palliative Care: Net Effect of Haloperidol for Nausea or Vomiting.

    PubMed

    Digges, Madeline; Hussein, Akram; Wilcock, Andrew; Crawford, Gregory B; Boland, Jason W; Agar, Meera R; Sinnarajah, Aynharan; Currow, David C; Johnson, Miriam J

    2017-08-03

    Haloperidol is widely prescribed as an antiemetic in patients receiving palliative care, but there is limited evidence to support and refine its use. To explore the immediate and short-term net clinical effects of haloperidol when treating nausea and/or vomiting in palliative care patients. A prospective, multicenter, consecutive case series. Twenty-two sites, five countries: consultative, ambulatory, and inpatient services. When haloperidol was started in routine care as an antiemetic, data were collected at three time points: baseline; 48 hours (benefits); day seven (harms). Clinical effects were assessed using the National Cancer Institute's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI CTCAE). Data were collected (May 2014-March 2016) from 150 patients: 61% male; 86% with cancer; mean age 72 (standard deviation 11) years and median Australian-modified Karnofsky Performance Scale 50 (range 10-90). At baseline, nausea was moderate (88; 62%) or severe (11; 8%); 145 patients reported vomiting, with a baseline NCI CTCAE vomiting score of 1.0. The median (range) dose of haloperidol was 1.5 mg/24 hours (0.5-5 mg/24 hours) given orally or parenterally. Five patients (3%) died before further data collection. At 48 hours, 114 patients (79%) had complete resolution of their nausea and vomiting, with greater benefit seen in the resolution of nausea than vomiting. At day seven, 37 (26%) patients had a total of 62 mild/moderate harms including constipation 25 (40%); dry mouth 13 (21%); and somnolence 12 (19%). Haloperidol as an antiemetic provided rapid net clinical benefit with low-grade, short-term harms.

  6. The Effect of Lemon Inhalation Aromatherapy on Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy: A Double-Blinded, Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Yavari kia, Parisa; Safajou, Farzaneh; Shahnazi, Mahnaz; Nazemiyeh, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy are amongst the most common complaints that effects on both the physical and mental conditions of the pregnant women. Due to the increasing tendency of women to use herbal medications during pregnancy, the effect of lemon inhalation aromatherapy on nausea and vomiting of pregnancy was investigated in this study. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of lemon inhalation aromatherapy on nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized clinical trial in which 100 pregnant women with nausea and vomiting who had eligibility criteria were randomly divided into intervention and control groups based on four- and six-random block sampling method. Lemon essential oil and placebo were given to the intervention and control groups, respectively, to inhale it as soon as they felt nausea. The nausea, vomiting, and retch intensity were investigated 24 hours before and during the four days of treatment by means of PUQE-24 (24-hour Pregnancy Unique Quantification of Emesis). Results: There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups in the mean scores of nausea and vomiting on the second and fourth days (P = 0.017 and P = 0.039, respectively). The means of nausea and vomiting intensity in the second and fourth days in the intervention group were significantly lower than the control group. In addition, in intragroup comparison with ANOVA with repeated measures, the nausea and vomiting mean in the five intervals, showed a statistically significant difference in each group (P < 0.001 and P = 0.049, respectively). Conclusions: Lemon scent can be effective in reducing nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. PMID:24829772

  7. Antiemetic medication for prevention and treatment of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting in childhood.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Robert S; Gopaul, Shireen; Gibson, Faith; Houghton, Elizabeth; Craig, Jean V; Light, Kate; Pizer, Barry

    2010-09-08

    Nausea and vomiting are still a problem for children undergoing treatment for malignancies despite new antiemetic therapies. Optimising antiemetic regimens could improve quality of life by reducing nausea, vomiting and associated clinical problems. To assess the effectiveness and adverse events of pharmacological interventions in controlling anticipatory, acute and delayed nausea and vomiting in children and young people (aged < 18 years) about to receive/receiving chemotherapy. Searches included CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and LILACS, trial registries from their earliest records to February 2008, and ASCO, MASCC and SIOP conference proceedings from 2001 to 2007. We examined references of systematic reviews and contacted trialists for information on further studies. Two authors independently screened abstracts to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared a pharmacological antiemetic, cannabinoid or benzodiazepine with placebo or any alternative active intervention in children and young people (< 18 years) with a diagnosis of cancer who were to receive chemotherapy. Two authors independently extracted outcome and quality data from each RCT. When appropriate, we undertook meta-analysis. We included 28 studies which examined a range of different antiemetics, used different doses and comparators, and reported a variety of outcomes. The quality and quantity of included studies limited the exploration of heterogeneity to narrative approaches only.The majority of quantitative data related to the complete control of acute vomiting (22 studies). Adverse events were reported in 24 studies and nausea outcomes in 10 studies.The addition of dexamethasone to 5-HT(3) antagonists was assessed in two studies for complete control of vomiting (pooled relative risk (RR) 2.03; 95% CI 1.35 to 3.04). Three studies compared granisetron 20 mcg/kg with 40 mcg/kg for complete control of vomiting (pooled RR 0.93; 95% CI 0.80 to 1.07). No other pooled analyses were possible

  8. Antiemetic medication for prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in childhood.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Robert S; Friend, Amanda J; Gibson, Faith; Houghton, Elizabeth; Gopaul, Shireen; Craig, Jean V; Pizer, Barry

    2016-02-02

    Nausea and vomiting remain a problem for children undergoing treatment for malignancies despite new antiemetic therapies. Optimising antiemetic regimens could improve quality of life by reducing nausea, vomiting, and associated clinical problems. This is an update of the original systematic review. To assess the effectiveness and adverse events of pharmacological interventions in controlling anticipatory, acute, and delayed nausea and vomiting in children and young people (aged less than 18 years) about to receive or receiving chemotherapy. Searches included the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, PsycINFO, conference proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, International Society of Paediatric Oncology, Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer, and ISI Science and Technology Proceedings Index from incept to December 16, 2014, and trial registries from their earliest records to December 2014. We examined references of systematic reviews and contacted trialists for information on further studies. We also screened the reference lists of included studies. Two review authors independently screened abstracts in order to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared a pharmacological antiemetic, cannabinoid, or benzodiazepine with placebo or any alternative active intervention in children and young people (less than 18 years) with a diagnosis of cancer who were to receive chemotherapy. Two review authors independently extracted outcome and quality data from each RCT. When appropriate, we undertook meta-analysis. We included 34 studies that examined a range of different antiemetics, used different doses and comparators, and reported a variety of outcomes. The quality and quantity of included studies limited the exploration of heterogeneity to narrative approaches only.The majority of quantitative data related to the complete control of acute vomiting (27 studies). Adverse events were

  9. Nausea and Vomiting following Balanced Xenon Anesthesia Compared to Sevoflurane: A Post-Hoc Explorative Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fahlenkamp, Astrid V.; Stoppe, Christian; Cremer, Jan; Biener, Ingeborg A.; Peters, Dirk; Leuchter, Ricarda; Eisert, Albrecht; Apfel, Christian C.; Rossaint, Rolf; Coburn, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Objective Like other inhalational anesthetics xenon seems to be associated with post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV). We assessed nausea incidence following balanced xenon anesthesia compared to sevoflurane, and dexamethasone for its prophylaxis in a randomized controlled trial with post-hoc explorative analysis. Methods 220 subjects with elevated PONV risk (Apfel score ≥2) undergoing elective abdominal surgery were randomized to receive xenon or sevoflurane anesthesia and dexamethasone or placebo after written informed consent. 93 subjects in the xenon group and 94 subjects in the sevoflurane group completed the trial. General anesthesia was maintained with 60% xenon or 2.0% sevoflurane. Dexamethasone 4mg or placebo was administered in the first hour. Subjects were analyzed for nausea and vomiting in predefined intervals during a 24h post-anesthesia follow-up. Results Logistic regression, controlled for dexamethasone and anesthesia/dexamethasone interaction, showed a significant risk to develop nausea following xenon anesthesia (OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.02–5.19, p = 0.044). Early-onset nausea incidence was 46% after xenon and 35% after sevoflurane anesthesia (p = 0.138). After xenon, nausea occurred significantly earlier (p = 0.014), was more frequent and rated worse in the beginning. Dexamethasone did not markedly reduce nausea occurrence in both groups. Late-onset nausea showed no considerable difference between the groups. Conclusion In our study setting, xenon anesthesia was associated with an elevated risk to develop nausea in sensitive subjects. Dexamethasone 4mg was not effective preventing nausea in our study. Group size or dosage might have been too small, and change of statistical analysis parameters in the post-hoc evaluation might have further contributed to a limitation of our results. Further trials will be needed to address prophylaxis of xenon-induced nausea. Trial Registration EU Clinical Trials EudraCT-2008-004132-20 ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  10. Olanzapine: An Antiemetic Option for Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Brafford, Megan V.; Glode, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Despite the appropriate use of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic preventative measures, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) can be debilitating and can decrease quality of life for many patients. In addition, patients may be unwilling to continue chemotherapy treatment due to the uncontrollable nausea and vomiting associated with their therapy. Refractory CINV can occur at any point in a treatment cycle, despite adequate therapy for acute and delayed CINV. Current prevention strategies include using serotonin (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, corticosteroids, and/or neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists. Unfortunately, more pharmacologic options are needed to treat refractory CINV. The current standard of care for the treatment of refractory CINV includes phenothiazines, metoclopramide, butyrophenones, corticosteroids, cannabinoids, anticholinergics, and 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic agent of the thiobenzodiazepine class, has the ability to target many different receptors, making it an attractive antiemetic agent. PMID:25032030

  11. Nabilone therapy for cannabis withdrawal presenting as protracted nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Lam, Philip W; Frost, David W

    2014-09-22

    Cannabis is one of the most commonly used recreational drugs worldwide. Psychoactive properties of the principal compound, δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol include euphoria, a sense of relaxation and increased appetite. Chronic cannabis use has been associated with the development of a withdrawal syndrome on abrupt discontinuation. Withdrawal symptoms typically begin within 24 h of abstinence and manifest as irritability, nervousness, sleep disturbances and decreased appetite. There is growing evidence that supports the use of plant-derived and synthetic cannabinoids for the treatment of cannabis withdrawal. In this case report, we present 20-year-old woman who developed protracted nausea and vomiting secondary to cannabis withdrawal and was successfully treated with nabilone. Nausea and vomiting is not listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-5 diagnostic criteria for cannabis withdrawal syndrome and is an uncommon symptom presentation. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  12. Economic and clinical burden of opioid-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Bruce D

    2017-01-01

    Opioids are the standard of care for treating moderate-to-severe pain; however, their efficacy can be limited by adverse events (AEs), including nausea and vomiting. Opioid-induced nausea and vomiting (OINV) is an inherent adverse effect of opioid treatment, exerting effects centrally and peripherally. Opioid-related AEs can impact treatment adherence and discontinuation, which can result in inadequate pain management. OINV may persist long-term, negatively affecting patient functional outcomes, physical and mental health, patient satisfaction, and overall costs of treatment. Multiple factors may contribute to OINV, including activation of opioid receptors in the chemoreceptor trigger zone, vestibular apparatus, and gastrointestinal tract. Prophylactic or early treatment with antiemetics may be appropriate for patients who are at high risk for OINV.

  13. Use of acupuncture in the control of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Bao, Ting

    2009-05-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is one of the most common and feared side effects of chemotherapy. Despite recent advances in pharmacologic antiemetic therapy, additional treatment for breakthrough CINV is needed. Acupuncture is a safe medical procedure with minimal side effects; several randomized controlled clinical trials have suggested its efficacy in controlling this side effect. A recent meta-analysis of those trials demonstrated that acupuncture significantly reduced the proportion of patients experiencing acute chemotherapy-induced vomiting. Those trials, however, did not show that acupuncture significantly alleviated acute chemotherapy-induced nausea or delayed CINV. The clinical relevance of these results were limited by the fact that they predated the use of aprepitant and that only 1 or 2 acupuncture points were stimulated during acupuncture treatment. More clinical trials to study the effect of acupuncture with additional antiemetic acupuncture points in adjunct to modern pharmacologic antiemetic therapy are needed.

  14. International Patterns of Practice in the Management of Radiation Therapy-induced Nausea and Vomiting

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, Kristopher; Zhang Liying; Lutz, Stephen; Baardwijk, Angela van; Linden, Yvette van der; Holt, Tanya; Arnalot, Palmira Foro; Lagrange, Jean-Leon; Maranzano, Ernesto; Liu, Rico; Wong, Kam-Hung; Wong, Lea-Choung; Vassiliou, Vassilios; Corn, Benjamin W.; De Angelis, Carlo; Holden, Lori; Wong, C. Shun; Chow, Edward

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To investigate international patterns of practice in the management of radiation therapy-induced nausea and vomiting (RINV). Methods and Materials: Oncologists prescribing radiation therapy in the United States, Canada, The Netherlands, Australia, New Zealand, Spain, Italy, France, Hong Kong, Singapore, Cyprus, and Israel completed a Web-based survey that was based on 6 radiation therapy-only clinical cases modeled after the minimal-, low-, moderate-, and high-emetic risk levels defined in the antiemetic guidelines of the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer. For each case, respondents estimated the risks of nausea and vomiting separately and committed to an initial management approach. Results: In total, 1022 responses were received. Risk estimates and management decisions for the minimal- and high-risk cases varied little and were in line with guideline standards, whereas those for the low- and moderate-risk cases varied greatly. The most common initial management strategies were as follows: rescue therapy for a minimal-risk case (63% of respondents), 2 low-risk cases (56% and 80%), and 1 moderate-risk case (66%); and prophylactic therapy for a second moderate-risk case (75%) and a high-risk case (95%). The serotonin (5-HT){sub 3} receptor antagonists were the most commonly recommended prophylactic agents. On multivariate analysis, factors predictive of a decision for prophylactic or rescue therapy were risk estimates of nausea and vomiting, awareness of the American Society of Clinical Oncology antiemetic guideline, and European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology membership. Conclusions: Risk estimates and management strategies for RINV varied, especially for low- and moderate-risk radiation therapy cases. Radiation therapy-induced nausea and vomiting are under-studied treatment sequelae. New observational and translational studies are needed to allow for individual patient risk

  15. Nausea/vomiting · tachycardia · unintentional weight loss · Dx?

    PubMed

    Selen, Daryl J; Gilbert, Matthew P

    2017-02-01

    A 22-year-old woman presented to the emergency department (ED) with a 24-hour history of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, generalized abdominal pain, and mild headache. She denied shortness of breath, chest pain, or anxiety, and didn't have a history of cardiac problems. The physical examination revealed tachycardia (heart rate, 135 beats/min) and a respiratory rate of 24 breaths per minute.

  16. Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid reduces nausea-induced conditioned gaping in rats and vomiting in Suncus murinus

    PubMed Central

    Rock, E M; Kopstick, R L; Limebeer, C L; Parker, L A

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE We evaluated the anti-emetic and anti-nausea properties of the acid precursor of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), and determined its mechanism of action in these animal models. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We investigated the effect of THCA on lithium chloride- (LiCl) induced conditioned gaping (nausea-induced behaviour) to a flavour, and context (a model of anticipatory nausea) in rats, and on LiCl-induced vomiting in Suncus murinus. Furthermore, we investigated THCA's ability to induce hypothermia and suppress locomotion [rodent tasks to assess cannabinoid1 (CB1) receptor agonist-like activity], and measured plasma and brain THCA and THC levels. We also determined whether THCA's effect could be blocked by pretreatment with SR141716 (SR, a CB1 receptor antagonist). KEY RESULTS In rats, THCA (0.05 and/or 0.5 mg·kg−1) suppressed LiCl-induced conditioned gaping to a flavour and context; the latter effect blocked by the CB1 receptor antagonist, SR, but not by the 5-hydroxytryptamine-1A receptor antagonist, WAY100635. In S. murinus, THCA (0.05 and 0.5 mg·kg−1) reduced LiCl-induced vomiting, an effect that was reversed with SR. A comparatively low dose of THC (0.05 mg·kg−1) did not suppress conditioned gaping to a LiCl-paired flavour or context. THCA did not induce hypothermia or reduce locomotion, indicating non-CB1 agonist-like effects. THCA, but not THC was detected in plasma samples. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS THCA potently reduced conditioned gaping in rats and vomiting in S. murinus, effects that were blocked by SR. These data suggest that THCA may be a more potent alternative to THC in the treatment of nausea and vomiting. PMID:23889598

  17. Aprepitant--where do we stand in the control of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting?

    PubMed

    Sarcev, T; Secen, N; Zaric, B; Milovancev, A

    2008-01-01

    Despite progress in the area of supportive care in oncology in the last two decades, nausea and vomiting continue to be significant side effects of cancer therapy. These symptoms can escalate over time and can result in patients' refusal to continue with chemotherapy. Introduction of serotonin (5-HT3) receptor antagonists was a major therapeutic advance in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting with enhanced efficacy when corticosteroids were added. However, these agents have limited protection in the acute phase of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting with little or no effect over the delayed phase. The aim of this review was to introduce a new class of antiemetics, a selective high-affinity antagonist at human substance P neurokinin 1 (NK(1)) receptors-aprepitant. Its pharmacological characteristics as well as its efficacy are reviewed. Aprepitant appears to be well tolerated but, due to its inhibitory effect on cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 3A4, it can lead to significant drug interactions, resulting in need for dose modification of concomitant therapy. The addition of aprepitant to 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists and corticosteroids was found to be superior to the combination of 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists and corticosteroids alone in patients treated with highly and moderately emetogenic chemotherapy. Clinical trials with aprepitant and other antiemetic agents are warranted to determine a regimen that will ensure complete protection from both acute and delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, thus contributing to improved supportive care and patients' quality of life (QoL).

  18. International patterns of practice in the management of radiation therapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Kristopher; Zhang, Liying; Lutz, Stephen; van Baardwijk, Angela; van der Linden, Yvette; Holt, Tanya; Arnalot, Palmira Foro; Lagrange, Jean-Léon; Maranzano, Ernesto; Liu, Rico; Wong, Kam-Hung; Wong, Lea-Choung; Vassiliou, Vassilios; Corn, Benjamin W; De Angelis, Carlo; Holden, Lori; Wong, C Shun; Chow, Edward

    2012-09-01

    To investigate international patterns of practice in the management of radiation therapy-induced nausea and vomiting (RINV). Oncologists prescribing radiation therapy in the United States, Canada, The Netherlands, Australia, New Zealand, Spain, Italy, France, Hong Kong, Singapore, Cyprus, and Israel completed a Web-based survey that was based on 6 radiation therapy-only clinical cases modeled after the minimal-, low-, moderate-, and high-emetic risk levels defined in the antiemetic guidelines of the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer. For each case, respondents estimated the risks of nausea and vomiting separately and committed to an initial management approach. In total, 1022 responses were received. Risk estimates and management decisions for the minimal- and high-risk cases varied little and were in line with guideline standards, whereas those for the low- and moderate-risk cases varied greatly. The most common initial management strategies were as follows: rescue therapy for a minimal-risk case (63% of respondents), 2 low-risk cases (56% and 80%), and 1 moderate-risk case (66%); and prophylactic therapy for a second moderate-risk case (75%) and a high-risk case (95%). The serotonin (5-HT)₃ receptor antagonists were the most commonly recommended prophylactic agents. On multivariate analysis, factors predictive of a decision for prophylactic or rescue therapy were risk estimates of nausea and vomiting, awareness of the American Society of Clinical Oncology antiemetic guideline, and European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology membership. Risk estimates and management strategies for RINV varied, especially for low- and moderate-risk radiation therapy cases. Radiation therapy-induced nausea and vomiting are under-studied treatment sequelae. New observational and translational studies are needed to allow for individual patient risk assessment and to refine antiemetic guideline management

  19. Does midline shift predict postoperative nausea in brain tumor patients undergoing awake craniotomy? A retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, M W; McDonagh, David L; Phillips-Bute, Barbara; James, Michael L; Friedman, Allan H; Gan, Tong J

    2013-09-01

    The presence of midline shift on neuroradiologic studies in brain tumor patients represents mass effect from the tumor and surrounding edema. We hypothesized that baseline cerebral edema as measured by midline shift would increase postoperative nausea (PON). We studied the incidence of PON in brain tumor patients, with and without midline shift on preoperative magnetic resonance (MRI) or computed tomographic (CT) imaging, undergoing awake craniotomy. After IRB approval, we retrospectively extracted data from perioperative records between January 2005 and December 2010. Post-craniotomy nausea and pain scores were collected. Intraoperative anti-emetic, anesthetic, and analgesic regimens were assessed. Both the rescue anti-emetic and cumulative postoperative analgesic requirements were collected up to 12 hours postoperatively. The amount of midline shift on preoperative neuroimaging was gathered from radiology reports. Univariate comparisons between groups (no midline shift vs. midline shift) were made with t-tests for continuous variables, and chi-square tests for categorical variables. A multivariable analysis was performed to identify predictors of postoperative nausea. Limitations of this study include the retrospective design and the inability to gather accurate data regarding vomiting from the medical record. Data from 386 patients were available for analysis. Patients were divided into two groups: no midline shift (n = 283) and midline shift (n = 103). The mean midline shift distance was 5.96 mm (95% CI [5.32, 6.59]). There was no difference in the incidence of nausea or pain scores between the two groups. More malignant brain tumor patients were in the midline shift group, as determined by the postoperative histopathological diagnosis (P < 0.05). Patients in the midline shift group also had longer anesthesia and surgical times (P < 0.05). In patients undergoing a standardized anesthetic for awake craniotomy for tumor resection, the presence of preoperative

  20. Cannabinoids in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: beyond prevention of acute emesis.

    PubMed

    Slatkin, Neal E

    2007-05-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) remains a significant problem in the care of cancer patients. Although the use of serotonin (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, as well as neurokinin-1 inhibitors, has reduced rates of acute emesis, many patients still experience acute vomiting; moreover, these agents have reduced efficacy in preventing nausea, delayed CINV, and breakthrough CINV. Nausea, in particular, continues to have a major--and often overlooked--impact on patients' quality of life. Optimizing the treatment for CINV likely will involve combinations of agents that inhibit the numerous neurotransmitter systems involved in nausea and vomiting reflexes. Cannabinoids are active in many of these systems, and two oral formulations, dronabinol (Marinol) and nabilone (Cesamet), are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in CINV refractory to conventional antiemetic therapy. Agents in this class have shown superiority to dopamine receptor antagonists in preventing CINV, and there is some evidence that the combination of a dopamine antagonist and cannabinoid is superior to either alone and is particularly effective in preventing nausea. The presence of side effects from the cannabinoids may have slowed their adoption into clinical practice, but in a number of comparative clinical trials, patients have expressed a clear preference for the cannabinoid, choosing its efficacy over any undesired effects. Improvement in antiemetic therapy across the entire spectrum of CINV will involve the use of agents with different mechanisms of action in concurrent or sequential combinations, and the best such combinations should be identified. In this effort, the utility of the cannabinoids should not be overlooked.

  1. Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting: A Narrative Review to Inform Dietetics Practice.

    PubMed

    Marx, Wolfgang; Kiss, Nicole; McCarthy, Alexandra L; McKavanagh, Dan; Isenring, Liz

    2016-05-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) are common symptoms experienced by patients with cancer that influence nutrition. They exert a detrimental effect on dietary intake, risk of malnutrition, and quality of life. Whereas CINV are primarily managed with medication, nutrition and dietetics practitioners play an important role in the management of CINV-related complications such as reduced dietary intake. This review discusses the burden of nausea and vomiting that patients with cancer can experience, including the effect on quality of life, nutritional status, and treatment outcomes. Implications for dietetics practice include the need to explore the nature of reported symptoms, identify predisposing risk factors, and to consider the use of a variety of interventions that are individualized to a patient's symptoms. There are little clinical data regarding effective dietetic interventions for nausea and vomiting. In summary, this review discusses dietetics-related issues surrounding CINV, including the pathophysiology, risk factors, prevalence, and both pharmacologic and dietetic treatment options. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Olanzapine for the prophylaxis and rescue of chemotherapyinduced nausea and vomiting (CINV): a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Leonard; Chiu, Nicholas; Chow, Ronald; Zhang, Liying; Pasetka, Mark; Stinson, Jordan; Lechner, Breanne; Pulenzas, Natalie; Verma, Sunil; Chow, Edward; DeAngelis, Carlo

    2016-07-01

    While the efficacy of olanzapine in the prophylaxis of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) has been documented, the literature on the use of olanzapine as a rescue medication for breakthrough CINV has been scarce. The following study retrospectively evaluated the safety and efficacy of olanzapine for the treatment of breakthrough CINV. The efficacy and safety of olanzapine in the prophylactic setting was also examined in a smaller cohort. Electronic medical records of adult patients aged >17 years receiving a prescription for olanzapine from the Odette Cancer Centre Pharmacy at Sunnybrook Hospital between January 2013 and June 2015 were reviewed retrospectively. Inclusion criteria required receiving one or more doses of olanzapine for the rescue or prophylaxis of CINV and documentation of the outcome. A total of 154 patients and 193 treatment cycles were included in the breakthrough setting, while a total of 16 patients and 20 treatment cycles were included in the prophylaxis setting. In the breakthrough setting, 88% of cases experienced improved nausea, while 21% of cases reported improved vomiting. In the prophylactic setting, 100% of cases experienced improved nausea, while 65% achieved improved vomiting. A total of 43% of cases in the breakthrough setting and 65% of cases in the prophylactic setting experienced sedation. Olanzapine is effective in improving CINV in both the prophylactic and breakthrough settings. The safety, efficacy, and appropriate dosage of olanzapine for the rescue of breakthrough CINV should be prospectively evaluated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT).

  3. Nausea and vomiting induced by gastrointestinal radiation therapy: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Kristopher; Poon, Michael; Chow, Edward

    2015-06-01

    Radiation therapy-induced nausea and vomiting (RINV) are common and troublesome symptoms among patients receiving radiation therapy for gastrointestinal cancers. Their impact on function, quality of life and, ultimately, cancer control warrant a review of their incidence, underlying mechanisms, treatments and research themes. Research in RINV is underrepresented relative to that in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. The incidence of RINV among patients receiving modern day radiation therapy is questioned and supportive care practice patterns vary among radiation oncologists. Antiemetic guideline recommendations for prophylactic and rescue therapy are based solely on the anatomic region being irradiated and not other patient-related, radiation therapy-related, or organ-specific dosimetric factors that likely modulate the risk of RINV. Dosimetric predictors are likely the most attainable biomarker moving forward, but only early steps have been taken. The small bowel and stomach will be the best first candidates for study among patients with gastrointestinal cancers. Studies of the mechanisms underlying RINV are conspicuously lacking. A new generation of observational studies and therapeutic clinical trials is needed, and more attention must be given to the relative impact of nausea and vomiting on the function and quality of life among specific homogeneous patient populations. Optimal supportive care strategies for RINV following radiation therapy for gastrointestinal cancers are lacking, and will not be known until future research answers the many open questions regarding the mechanisms underlying RINV, the true incidence and impact of these symptoms among patients and the best way to predict and mitigate them.

  4. Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: a review of the pathology and compounding opportunities.

    PubMed

    Zur, Eyal

    2013-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy can have serious adverse effects on the quality of a woman's life, affecting her occupational, social, and domestic functioning, and her general well-being; therefore, it is very important to treat this condition appropriately and effectively. Evidence-based algorithms support the use of oral pyridoxine alone or combined with doxylamine as first-line treatment. Promethazine or dimenhydrinate, known as a second-line treatment, should be added to the first-line treatment or should be added only to pyridoxine according to different algorithms. In most of the world, there is a lack of approved medicines using this combination approach known as the first-line treatment. Therefore, compounding pharmacists should supply the demand by compounding 10-mg pyridoxine hydrochloride and 10-mg doxylamine succinate slow-release capsules. Since transdermal promethazine does not exist world wide, and, since this medicine has significant added values compared to the oral/rectal dosage forms, compounding pharmacists should offer physicians transdermal promethazine as a second-line therapy in nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. This review summarizes the nausea and vomiting in pregnancy problems and discusses the compounding opportunities that exist in this common and wide-spread pathology in order to improve a woman's quality of life.

  5. Risk factors of patients with and without postoperative nausea (PON).

    PubMed

    Dienemann, Jacqueline; Hudgens, Amanda N; Martin, Dana; Jones, Holly; Hunt, Ronald; Blackwell, Richard; Norton, H James; Divine, George

    2012-08-01

    This purpose of this analysis was to study risk factors of postoperative nausea (PON) and their strength. Data were obtained during the screening phase of a controlled clinical trial of aromatherapy for PON. In a sample of 1151 postsurgical subjects, 301 (26.2%) reported PON. Significant risk factors identified in the order of odds ratios for nausea were female gender, gastrointestinal surgery, use of volatile anesthesia gases, history of PON, history of motion sickness, and use of opioids after surgery. Although still over 1.0, the risk factors of length of surgery over 1 hour and gynecologic surgery had the lowest odds ratios. Likelihood of nausea increased significantly with the number of significant risk factors (P<.0001). Administration of preventive antiemetic medication also increased with the number of significant risk factors (P<.0001). Among 301 subjects reporting nausea, 49 (16.28%) received preventive medication. Despite prevention efforts, PON remains a substantial side effect for many surgical patients.

  6. Intravenous palonosetron compared with a combination of ramosetron and dexamethasone in preventing post operative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing gynaecological surgeries under spinal anaesthesia, a randomised study

    PubMed Central

    Narayanappa, Archana B; Gurulingaswamy, Shivakumar; Prabhakaraiah, Umesh N; Gurushanth, Somsundar R; Sapare, Vinay; Goud, Nagaraj

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: Post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is one of the most common complications in patients undergoing gynaecological surgeries under spinal anaesthesia (SA). Palonosetron has the unique property of controlling 'delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting' when compared to older serotonin antagonists. This study compared the effectiveness of palonosetron with a combination of ramosetron and dexamethasone in preventing PONV. Methods: Sixty patients undergoing gynaecological surgeries under SA were randomly allocated into two groups of thirty each, to receive either a combination of 0.3 mg of ramosetron and 8 mg of dexamethasone intravenously (IV) (Group RD) or 0.075 mg of palonosetron IV (Group P). The incidence of PONV, number of complete responders (no nausea, vomiting or use of rescue anti-emetics) and severity of nausea were evaluated during intra- and post-operative period. Results: The incidence of complete responders during intraoperative period was 80.0% in Group RD and 76.7% in Group P (P = 0.074) whereas postoperatively at 0–2 h and 2–6 h, it was 73.3% and 83.3% in Group RD respectively as compared to 46.6% and 56.6% in Group P respectively (P = 0.016 and P = 0.024). The incidence of PONV during 24 h of post-operative period was 30.00% in Group RD as compared to 60.00% in Group P (P = 0.0195). Nausea severity score and use of rescue anti-emetics did not vary between the groups. Conclusion: Combination of ramosetron and dexamethasone is more effective than palonosetron alone in preventing PONV in patients undergoing gynaecological surgeries under SA. PMID:28250483

  7. Ondansetron in Treating Patients With Advanced Cancer and Chronic Nausea and Vomiting Not Caused by Cancer Treatment

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-01

    Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Nausea and Vomiting; Precancerous Condition; Small Intestine Cancer; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  8. Palonosetron Hydrochloride in Preventing Nausea and Vomiting Caused by Radiation Therapy in Patients With Primary Abdominal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-07

    Anal Cancer; Carcinoma of the Appendix; Colorectal Cancer; Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Liver Cancer; Nausea and Vomiting; Pancreatic Cancer; Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer

  9. [Tropisetron for the prevention of nausea and vomiting during chemotherapy: multicenter clinical study].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, J; Bronfman, L; Cao, C; Vásquez, A; Derio, L; Rosas, J; del Castillo, C; Yáñez, M; Fodor, M; Gallardo, J; Cerda, B; Torres, R; Orlandi, L; Orlandi, F; Kleinman, S; Vogel, C

    1996-08-01

    The antiemetic effect of tropisetron was studied in 97 cancer patients (67 men, 30 women) receiving cisplatin in doses of 75 mg/m2 or higher. On 279 chemotherapy cycles studied (max 6 per patient) 5 mg of tropisetron was administered once a day i.v on day 1 and p.o. on days 2 to 6. Efficacy preventing vomiting and nausea was measured in 24 hour period as: complete control O episodes, major control 1 to 2 episodes, minor control 3 to 4 episodes and no control 5 or more episodes. Satisfactory vomiting control (complete and major) was 69%, 63%, 82%, 88%, 96% and 96% in days 1 to 6 of cycle 1. Satisfactory nausea control (complete and major) for the same days was 70%, 66%, 72%, 85%, 92% and 97%. Similar data was obtained for the subsequent cycles. Complete vomiting control was obtained in 47%, 35%, 56%, 72%, 81% and 84% and for nausea in 42%, 39%, 48%, 64%, 81% and 87%. 19 patients presented adverse effects (19.6%). Only 2 headache episodes had a definite relation with the antiemetic drug. 12 patients discontinued the medication; 6 due to drug inefficacy, 2 to illness unrelated to the drug, 1 to lack of collaboration, and 3 due to other reasons. We conclude that tropisetron allows satisfactory control of acute and delayed vomiting in a high percentage of patients treated with high doses of cisplatin. The drug does not have significant secondary effects. Tropisetron administration in only one daily dose implies an evident advantage and a treatment cost reduction.

  10. Preventing opioid-induced nausea and vomiting: Rest your head and close your eyes?

    PubMed Central

    Heuser, Fabian; Schulz, Christian; Sağlam, Murat; Ramaioli, Cecilia; Heuberger, Maria; Wagner, Klaus J.; Jahn, Klaus; Schneider, Erich; Brandt, Thomas; Glasauer, Stefan; Lehnen, Nadine

    2017-01-01

    Although opioid-induced nausea and vomiting (OINV) is common and debilitating, its mechanism is still unclear. Recently, we suggested that opioids affect semicircular canal function and that this leads to a mismatch between canal input and other sensory information during head motion, which triggers OINV. Here, we assess if visual input is relevant for this mismatch. In a randomized-controlled crossover study 14 healthy men (26.9±3.4 years, mean±SD) were tested twice, once blindfolded and once with eyes open, with at least one-day washout. The opioid remifentanil was administered intravenously (0.15 μg/kg/min) for 60 minutes. After a thirty-minutes resting period, subjects’ head and trunk were passively moved. Nausea was rated before remifentanil start (T0), before the movement intervention (T30) and after 60 minutes (T60) of administration. At rest (T0, T30), median nausea ratings were zero whether subjects were blindfolded or not. Movement triggered nausea independently of visual input (nausea rating 1.5/3.0 (median/interquartile range) in the blindfolded, 2.5/6 in the eyes-open condition, χ2(1) = 1.3, p = 0.25). As movement exacerbates OINV independently of visual input, a clash between visual and semicircular canal information is not the relevant trigger for OINV. To prevent OINV, emphasis should be put on head-rest, eye-closure is less important. PMID:28291842

  11. Aprepitant versus ondansetron in preoperative triple-therapy treatment of nausea and vomiting in neurosurgery patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bergese, Sergio; Viloria, Adolfo; Uribe, Alberto; Antor, Alejandra; Fernandez, Soledad

    2012-08-03

    The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is 50% to 80% after neurosurgery. The common prophylactic treatment for postoperative nausea and vomiting is a triple therapy of droperidol, promethazine and dexamethasone. Newer, more effectives methods of prophylaxis are being investigated. We designed this prospective, double-blind, single-center study to compare the efficacy of ondansetron, a neurokinin-1 antagonist, and aprepitant, as a substitute for droperidol, in the prophylactic treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting after neurosurgery. After obtaining institutional review board approval; 176 patients, 18 to 85 years of age with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classifications I to III, who did not receive antiemetics 24 h before surgery and were expected to undergo general anesthesia for neurosurgery lasting longer than 2 h were included in this study. After meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria and providing written informed consent, patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to one of two treatment groups: aprepitant or ondansetron. The objective of this study was to conduct a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group and single-center trial to compare and evaluate the efficacies of aprepitant versus ondansetron. Patients received oral aprepitant 40 mg OR oral dummy pill within 2 h prior to induction. At induction, a combination of intravenous dexamethasone 10 mg, promethazine 25 mg, and ondansetron 4 mg OR dummy injection was administered. Therefore, all patients received one dummy treatment and three active PONV prophylactic medications: dexamethasone 10 mg, promethazine 25 mg, and either aprepitant 40 mg OR ondansetron 4 mg infusion. The primary outcome measures were the episodes and severity of nausea and vomiting; administration of rescue antiemetic; and opioid consumption for 120 h postoperatively. Standard safety assessments included adverse event reports, physical and laboratory data, awakening

  12. Opportunities for the replacement of animals in the study of nausea and vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, AM; Rudd, JA; Tattersall, FD; Aziz, Q; Andrews, PLR

    2009-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting are among the most common symptoms encountered in medicine as either symptoms of disease or side effects of treatments. Developing novel anti-emetics and identifying emetic liability in novel chemical entities rely on models that can recreate the complexity of these multi-system reflexes. Animal models (especially the ferret and dog) are the current gold standard; however, the selection of appropriate models is still a matter of debate, especially when studying the subjective human sensation of nausea. Furthermore, these studies are associated with animal suffering. Here, following a recent workshop held to review the utility of animal models in nausea and vomiting research, we discuss the limitations of some of the current models in the context of basic research, anti-emetic development and emetic liability detection. We provide suggestions for how these limitations may be overcome using non-animal alternatives, including greater use of human volunteers, in silico and in vitro techniques and lower organisms. PMID:19371333

  13. Management of Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Navari, Rudolph M

    2017-06-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is associated with a significant deterioration in quality of life and is perceived by patients as a major adverse effect of the treatment. This review summarizes the safety and efficacy of current antiemetic agents for the prevention of CINV in children. Information on antiemetic prophylaxis for CINV in children was obtained from a literature review of current peer-reviewed articles and recent international guidelines. The literature review and the international antiemetic guidelines provide recommendations for use of specific antiemetics in children based on the emetogenicity of the chemotherapy. 5-Hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists have been safe and effective in the prevention of acute emesis with a few patients experiencing mild headache. No adequate studies have been conducted to date for specific recommendations for the prevention of delayed nausea and vomiting in children. The neurokinin (NK)-1 receptor antagonist aprepitant has been approved by the US FDA for use in children of a specific age and weight. No studies for the NK1 receptor antagonists netupitant and rolapitant in children have been conducted. Olanzapine, an antipsychotic, has been shown to be safe and effective in preventing nausea and emesis in adult patients receiving chemotherapy. Its use in children has been limited to children with poor control of CINV; more studies are necessary in this population. In conclusion, practitioners should follow international antiemetic guidelines to provide patients with the specific antiemetics in the recommended dose for the highest possible quality of care.

  14. Review of acupressure studies for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting control.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiyeon; Dodd, Marylin; Dibble, Suzanne; Abrams, Donald

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this review was to evaluate the effects of a noninvasive intervention, acupressure, when combined with antiemetics for the control of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). Ten controlled acupressure studies were included in this review. The review evaluated one quasi-experimental and nine randomized clinical trials, which included two specific acupressure modalities, that is, acupressure band and finger acupressure. The effects of the acupressure modalities were compared study by study. Four of seven acupressure band trials supported the positive effects of acupressure, whereas three acupressure band trials yielded negative results regarding the possible effects of acupressure; however, all the studies with negative results had methodological issues. In contrast, one quasi-experimental and two randomized finger acupressure trials all supported the positive effects of acupressure on CINV control. The reported effects of the two acupressure modalities in each phase of CINV produced variable results. Acupressure bands were effective in controlling acute nausea, whereas finger acupressure controlled delayed nausea and vomiting. The overall effect of acupressure was strongly suggestive but not conclusive. Differences in the acupressure modality, the emetic potential of chemotherapeutic agents, antiemetic use, and sample characteristics of each study made study-to-study comparisons difficult. Suggestive effects of acupressure, cost-effectiveness, and the noninvasiveness of the interventions encourage researchers to further investigate the efficacy of this modality. Acupressure should be strongly recommended as an effective, nonpharmacologic adjuvant intervention for CINV control if its positive effects are reproduced in future acupressure clinical trials.

  15. The safety of antiemetic medications for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Navari, Rudolph M

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is associated with a significant deterioration in quality of life and is perceived by patients as a major adverse effect of the treatment. The purpose of the review is to determine the safety and efficacy of current antiemetic agents. Information on antiemetic guideline recommended antiemetics derived from PubMed showed that the first and second generation 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists have been safe and effective in the control of acute emesis with a small number of patients experiencing mild headache, diarrhea, or constipation. Improvement in the prevention of delayed emesis has occurred with the neurokinin (NK)-1 receptor antagonists aprepitant, netupitant, and rolapitant with mild headache, constipation, hiccups, and fatigue the most commonly reported adverse events. Olanzapine, an antipsychotic that blocks multiple neurotransmitters in the central nervous system, appears to be effective in the prevention of nausea and emesis with mild short term sedation the only reported adverse event. The current antiemetics that are recommended by the various international antiemetic guidelines are safe and effective in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting when used in the recommended doses. Practitioners should consult the antiemetic guidelines for patients receiving chemotherapy.

  16. Safety and efficacy of antiemetics used to treat nausea and vomiting in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Leathem, A M

    1986-08-01

    The safety and efficacy of antiemetic drugs used in the treatment of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy are reviewed. Confirmation of the teratogenicity of drugs in humans is difficult; the risk can be estimated from results of cohort studies and case-control studies. The possible teratogenicity of Bendectin (doxylamine succinate and pyridoxine hydrochloride) was studied thoroughly; although the risk was minimal, the drug was withdrawn from the U.S. market. Whether phenothiazines are teratogenic has still not been conclusively determined. A large number of epidemiological studies have not shown meclizine to be teratogenic in humans. More information about metoclopramide is necessary before it can be safely recommended for use during pregnancy. The risks of using dimenhydrinate and diphenhydramine appear to be low. Pyridoxine is considered safe for use during pregnancy, but its efficacy in treating nausea and vomiting has not been determined. The relative efficacy of these agents has not been determined. The available data suggest that meclizine and dimenhydrinate are the antiemetics that present the lowest risk of teratogenicity; meclizine is the drug of first choice. Phenothiazines should be reserved for treating persistent vomiting that threatens the maternal nutritional status.

  17. Update on the management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting – focus on palonosetron

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Michelle; Popovic, Marko; Pasetka, Mark; Pulenzas, Natalie; Ahrari, Soha; Chow, Edward; DeAngelis, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Nausea and vomiting are major adverse effects of chemotherapy and can greatly impact patients’ quality of life. Although chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) prevalence is high, treatment remains difficult. Palonosetron is a 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonist (5-HT3RA) approved for treatment of CINV. The purpose of this review is to discuss existing and emerging therapeutic options, and examine studies focusing on palonosetron with regards to efficacy, pharmacology, tolerability, safety, and patient-derived outcomes. Methods A literature search was conducted using Ovid MEDLINE and EMBASE to identify relevant studies using palonosetron alone or in combination with other antiemetics. Studies were extracted if they included complete response (CR), complete control (CC), no nausea, no vomiting, and no rescue medications as an endpoint. Studies were also included if safety endpoints were examined. Results Palonosetron alone has been shown to improve CR and CC rates for patients receiving low, moderate, or high emetogenic chemotherapy. Rates were further improved with the addition of dexamethasone, a corticosteroid. Furthermore, the addition of neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists, such as netupitant markedly improved efficacy profiles compared to palonosetron alone. Aprepitant is an antiemetic that has exhibited positive results in combination with palonosetron. Recently, a new drug consisting of netupitant and palonosetron (NEPA) has demonstrated significantly more efficacious prevention of CINV. Regardless of the combination, palonosetron has been well tolerated. The most common adverse events were constipation, headache, fatigue, and dizziness, with the majority of patients describing them as only mild or moderate. Conclusion Palonosetron, alone or with other antiemetics, has improved CINV treatment due to its ability to significantly reduce delayed phases of CINV, compared to similar 5-HT3RAs. Palonosetron is both more effective than first

  18. Update on the management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting - focus on palonosetron.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Michelle; Popovic, Marko; Pasetka, Mark; Pulenzas, Natalie; Ahrari, Soha; Chow, Edward; DeAngelis, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting are major adverse effects of chemotherapy and can greatly impact patients' quality of life. Although chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) prevalence is high, treatment remains difficult. Palonosetron is a 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonist (5-HT3RA) approved for treatment of CINV. The purpose of this review is to discuss existing and emerging therapeutic options, and examine studies focusing on palonosetron with regards to efficacy, pharmacology, tolerability, safety, and patient-derived outcomes. A literature search was conducted using Ovid MEDLINE and EMBASE to identify relevant studies using palonosetron alone or in combination with other antiemetics. Studies were extracted if they included complete response (CR), complete control (CC), no nausea, no vomiting, and no rescue medications as an endpoint. Studies were also included if safety endpoints were examined. Palonosetron alone has been shown to improve CR and CC rates for patients receiving low, moderate, or high emetogenic chemotherapy. Rates were further improved with the addition of dexamethasone, a corticosteroid. Furthermore, the addition of neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists, such as netupitant markedly improved efficacy profiles compared to palonosetron alone. Aprepitant is an antiemetic that has exhibited positive results in combination with palonosetron. Recently, a new drug consisting of netupitant and palonosetron (NEPA) has demonstrated significantly more efficacious prevention of CINV. Regardless of the combination, palonosetron has been well tolerated. The most common adverse events were constipation, headache, fatigue, and dizziness, with the majority of patients describing them as only mild or moderate. Palonosetron, alone or with other antiemetics, has improved CINV treatment due to its ability to significantly reduce delayed phases of CINV, compared to similar 5-HT3RAs. Palonosetron is both more effective than first generation 5-HT3RAs and safer, as it

  19. The nurse's role in managing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: an international survey.

    PubMed

    Krishnasamy, Meinir; Kwok-Wei So, Winnie; Yates, Patsy; de Calvo, Luz Esperanza Ayala; Annab, Rachid; Wisniewski, Tami; Aranda, Sanchia

    2014-01-01

    Nurses play a substantial role in the prevention and management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). This study set out to describe nurses' roles in the prevention and management of CINV and to identify any gaps that exist across countries. A self-reported survey was completed by 458 registered nurses who administered chemotherapy to cancer patients in Australia, China, Hong Kong, and 9 Latin American countries. More than one-third of participants regarded their own knowledge of CINV as fair to poor. Most participants (>65%) agreed that chemotherapy-induced nausea and chemotherapy-induced vomiting should be considered separately (79%), but only 35% were confident in their ability to manage chemotherapy-induced nausea (53%) or chemotherapy-induced vomiting (59%). Only one-fifth reported frequent use of a standardized CINV assessment tool and only a quarter used international clinical guidelines to manage CINV. Participants perceived their own knowledge of CINV management to be insufficient. They recognized the need to develop and use a standardized CINV assessment tool and the importance of adopting international guidelines to inform the management of CINV. Findings indicate that international guidelines should be made available to nurses in clinically relevant and easily accessible formats, that a review of chemotherapy assessment tools should be undertaken to identify reliable and valid measures amenable to use in a clinical settings, and that a CINV risk screening tool should be developed as a prompt for nurses to enable timely identification of and intervention for patients at high risk of CINV.

  20. Treatment of Nausea and Vomiting in Pregnancy: Factors Associated with ED Revisits

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Brian R.; Sharp, Kristen M.; Patterson, Brian; Dooley-Hash, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) is a condition that commonly affects women in the first trimester of pregnancy. Despite frequently leading to emergency department (ED) visits, little evidence exists to characterize the nature of ED visits or to guide its treatment in the ED. Our objectives were to evaluate the treatment of NVP in the ED and to identify factors that predict return visits to the ED for NVP. Methods We conducted a retrospective database analysis using the electronic medical record from a single, large academic hospital. Demographic and treatment variables were collected using a chart review of 113 ED patient visits with a billing diagnosis of “nausea and vomiting in pregnancy” or “hyperemesis gravidarum.” Logistic regression analysis was used with a primary outcome of return visit to the ED for the same diagnoses. Results There was wide treatment variability of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy patients in the ED. Of the 113 patient visits, 38 (33.6%) had a return ED visit for NVP. High gravidity (OR 1.31, 95% CI [1.06–1.61]), high parity (OR 1.50 95% CI [1.12–2.00]), and early gestational age (OR 0.74 95% CI [0.60–0.90]) were associated with an increase in return ED visits in univariate logistic regression models, while only early gestational age (OR 0.74 95% CI [0.59–0.91]) was associated with increased return ED visits in a multiple regression model. Admission to the hospital was found to decrease the likelihood of return ED visits (p=0.002). Conclusion NVP can be difficult to manage and has a high ED return visit rate. Optimizing care with aggressive, standardized treatment in the ED and upon discharge, particularly if factors predictive of return ED visits are present, may improve quality of care and reduce ED utilization for this condition. PMID:27625723

  1. Overview of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy with an emphasis on vitamins and ginger.

    PubMed

    Niebyl, Jennifer R; Goodwin, T Murphy

    2002-05-01

    Patients suffering from nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) frequently do not receive therapy, in part because of fears of adverse effects of medications on the fetus. Several vitamin-based and herbal therapies have been shown to be effective and safe. Two randomized trials of vitamin B(6) have shown a benefit in reducing NVP. Women taking periconceptional multivitamins are less likely to have severe NVP. The combination of vitamin B(6) and doxylamine (previously marketed in the United States as Bendectin) has been shown to be safe for the fetus and effective in reducing NVP. Ginger was shown, in 2 studies, to reduce NVP. Vitamin B(1) (thiamine) deficiency can lead to Wernicke's encephalopathy in women with severe NVP. Replacement is needed for all women with vomiting of more than 3 weeks' duration. Prophylaxis with multivitamins and therapy with B(6), with or without doxylamine, are safe and effective therapies for NVP.

  2. The management of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy and hyperemesis gravidarum--a 2013 update.

    PubMed

    Maltepe, Caroline; Koren, Gideon

    2013-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) affects up to 85% of all pregnancies, yet many physicians are uncertain as to how to best treat their patients in the presence of controversial data on fetal risks. This review provides an update on the management of NVP, including pharmacological and non pharmacological approaches Due to a high rate of recurrent symptoms, it is important for women to receive early treatment to reduce the severity of symptoms with the aim of preventing hospitalization and improving quality of life.

  3. Current treatment of nausea and vomiting associated with gastroparesis: antiemetics, prokinetics, tricyclics.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Jeremy; Wo, John M

    2009-01-01

    Gastroparesis is a symptomatic chronic disorder characterized by delayed gastric emptying without a mechanical obstruction. Gastroparesis is most often associated with diabetes, gastric surgery, and systemic disorders affecting the neuromuscular control of the stomach. However, no underlying etiology can be found in up to 40% of patients, a condition referred to as idiopathic gastroparesis. Due to the numerous potential etiologies and the highly variable clinical manifestations, the management of gastroparesis is particularly challenging. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the use of antiemetics, prokinetics, and tricyclics for the treatment for nausea and vomiting associated with gastroparesis.

  4. Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Invading the Duodenum and Presenting as Idiopathic Gastroparesis with Nausea and Vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Cengia, Brent T.; Stuart, Paula S.

    2016-01-01

    A 65-year-old woman presented with a 5-month history of nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. Prior esophagogastrodudenoscopy showed retained food and delayed gastric emptying, but abdominal computed tomography was normal. The working diagnosis was idiopathic gastroparesis. Subsequently, an electrogastrogram test showed normal 3-cycle-per-minute activity, although it was suggestive of obstructive gastroparesis. Repeat esophagogastrodudenoscopy showed obstruction at the postbulbar duodenum. Repeat abdominal computed tomography revealed a 2.2 x 1.6-cm mass in the pancreaticoduodenal groove narrowing the descending duodenum and aspiration of the mass revealed adenocarcinoma. PMID:27807571

  5. Optimizing treatment outcomes in patients at risk for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Nancy

    2012-06-01

    Prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is crucial in maximizing patients' quality of life and optimizing outcomes of cancer therapy, and can be done more effectively than ever before. Appropriate antiemetic therapy combined with targeted patient education, clear communication, and management of patient expectations results in optimal emetogenic control. Oncology nurses play a critical role in the prevention and management of CINV. This column reviews the history and pathophysiology of treatments for CINV, as well as patient- and chemotherapy-specific risk factors that should be considered to optimize treatment outcomes in patients with CINV.

  6. Should doxylamine-pyridoxine be used for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy?

    PubMed

    Persaud, Navindra; Chin, Jessica; Walker, Mark

    2014-04-01

    Doxylamine-pyridoxine is the first-line agent for the treatment of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) according to Canadian guidelines, and this combination is commonly prescribed to pregnant women. There is limited evidence that doxylamine-pyridoxine is more effective than pyridoxine alone. There is stronger support for the safety of pyridoxine monotherapy than for the combination of doxylamine-pyridoxine during pregnancy, and some conflicting evidence links doxylamine-pyridoxine use to pyloric stenosis and childhood malignancies. The role of doxylamine-pyridoxine as the first-line pharmacological treatment for NVP in Canada should be reconsidered.

  7. Aprepitant Reduces Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Pediatric Patients with Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Duggin, Kelly; Tickle, Kelly; Norman, Gina; Yang, Jie; Wang, Chong; Cross, Shane J.; Gajjar, Amar; Mandrell, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) are common and distressing side effects in patients with brain tumors and may be associated with radiation and the administration of highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC). Pediatric antiemetic guidelines recommend administration of a 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5HT3) receptor antagonists and the addition of aprepitant, a neurokinin 1 (NK1) antagonist with corticosteroids for the treatment of HEC. However, challenges persist in treating CINV in patients with brain tumors as corticosteroids are contraindicated due to potential impairment of the blood brain barrier permeability. Our objective was to determine whether a 5HT3 receptor antagonist and the addition of aprepitant, a neurokinin 1 (NK1) antagonist without a corticosteroid, were effective in reducing HEC vomiting in pediatric brain tumors. Methods A retrospective review found that 18 patients with a history of high-grade vomiting during radiation were prescribed a 5HT3 receptor antagonist and aprepitant without a corticosteroid during their first course of HEC. To determine the efficacy of aprepitant without a corticosteroid, each recipient was matched with two controls that did not received aprepitant. Results During HEC, controls without aprepitant were more likely to have grade 2 or higher vomiting than the aprepitant recipients (p = 0.03; odds ratio = 4.15; 95% confidence interval [1.59, 10.82]), after controlling for radiation-associated vomiting toxicity. Discussion Significantly less vomiting was identified in children receiving HEC and prescribed a 5HT3 receptor antagonist and aprepitant. Findings suggest that the addition of a NK1 antagonist may be beneficial to emetic control in this highly vulnerable population. PMID:24972782

  8. Development of aprepitant, the first neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, Richard; Ferreira, Juan Camilo Arjona; Hughes, David; Brands, Jos; Hale, Jeff; Mattson, Britta; Mills, Sandy

    2011-03-01

    Chemotherapy can be a life-prolonging treatment for many cancer patients, but it is often associated with profound nausea and vomiting that is so distressing that patients may delay or decline treatment to avoid these side effects. EMEND (aprepitant) is the first and only neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonist available on the market for the prevention of acute and delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). Aprepitant acts centrally at NK-1 receptors in vomiting centers within the central nervous system to block their activation by substance P released as an unwanted consequence of chemotherapy. By controlling nausea and vomiting, EMEND helps improve patients' daily living and their ability to complete multiple cycles of chemotherapy. The development of aprepitant included a novel nanoparticle formulation to optimize oral absorption and innovative chemistry to discover a prodrug form suitable for intravenous administration to improve compliance and convenience for healthcare professionals and cancer patients.

  9. The Effect of Ginger Extract on the Incidence and Severity of Nausea and Vomiting After Cesarean Section Under Spinal Anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Zeraati, Hossein; Shahinfar, Javad; Imani Hesari, Shiva; Masrorniya, Mahnaz; Nasimi, Fatemeh

    2016-10-01

    Nausea and vomiting are one of the most common complications of cesarean sections under spinal anesthesia. Recently, the use of drugs to treat nausea and vomiting has decreased, and nonpharmaceutical and alternative traditional medicine are often preferred. This study aimed to determine the effect of ginger extract on the incidence and severity of nausea and vomiting after cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, 92 pregnant women, each of whom underwent a cesarean section under spinal anesthesia, were divided in two groups: a control group and an intervention group. The intervention group received 25 drops of ginger extract in 30 cc of water, and the control group received 30 cc of water one hour before surgery. The incidence and severity of nausea and vomiting were assessed during the surgery and two and four hours after the surgery using a self-report scale. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software and statistical tests. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of maternal age, duration of fasting, duration of surgery, and confounding factors (P > 0.05). According to an independent t-test, there was a significant relationship between the two groups in terms of the incidence and mean severity score of nausea and vomiting during the cesarean section (P < 0.05). However, no statistically significant relationship was found between the two groups in terms of the incidence and mean severity score of nausea and vomiting two and four hours after surgery (P > 0.05). The findings of this study showed that ginger extract can be used for the prevention of nausea and vomiting during cesarean section under spinal anesthesia.

  10. The Effect of Ginger Extract on the Incidence and Severity of Nausea and Vomiting After Cesarean Section Under Spinal Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Zeraati, Hossein; Shahinfar, Javad; Imani Hesari, Shiva; Masrorniya, Mahnaz; Nasimi, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Nausea and vomiting are one of the most common complications of cesarean sections under spinal anesthesia. Recently, the use of drugs to treat nausea and vomiting has decreased, and nonpharmaceutical and alternative traditional medicine are often preferred. Objectives This study aimed to determine the effect of ginger extract on the incidence and severity of nausea and vomiting after cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. Methods In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, 92 pregnant women, each of whom underwent a cesarean section under spinal anesthesia, were divided in two groups: a control group and an intervention group. The intervention group received 25 drops of ginger extract in 30 cc of water, and the control group received 30 cc of water one hour before surgery. The incidence and severity of nausea and vomiting were assessed during the surgery and two and four hours after the surgery using a self-report scale. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software and statistical tests. Results There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of maternal age, duration of fasting, duration of surgery, and confounding factors (P > 0.05). According to an independent t-test, there was a significant relationship between the two groups in terms of the incidence and mean severity score of nausea and vomiting during the cesarean section (P < 0.05). However, no statistically significant relationship was found between the two groups in terms of the incidence and mean severity score of nausea and vomiting two and four hours after surgery (P > 0.05). Conclusions The findings of this study showed that ginger extract can be used for the prevention of nausea and vomiting during cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. PMID:27847700

  11. Nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy: Effects on food intake and diet quality.

    PubMed

    Crozier, Sarah R; Inskip, Hazel M; Godfrey, Keith M; Cooper, Cyrus; Robinson, Sian M

    2017-10-01

    Experiences of nausea and/or vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) vary greatly, but the paucity of studies with pre-pregnancy dietary data mean that little is known about the effects of NVP on diet. Using an administered food frequency questionnaire, diet was assessed before pregnancy and at 11 and 34 weeks' gestation in 2270 participants in a UK birth cohort study (Southampton Women's Survey). Experience of NVP in early pregnancy was graded as none, mild, moderate, or severe. Participants reported their level of food consumption as more, the same, or less than before pregnancy. "Prudent" diet scores (derived using principal component analysis) were used to describe participants' diet quality before, in early and late pregnancy. In early pregnancy, 89% of women were nauseous, although most commonly, the NVP experienced was mild (48%) or moderate (30%); 11% had severe NVP. A total of 39% of women reported an increase in their level of food intake in early pregnancy; 34% reported a reduction. Increasing severity of nausea was associated with changes in intake of a range of foods, most notably reduced consumption of vegetables, tea/coffee, rice/pasta, breakfast cereals, beans/pulses and citrus fruits/fruit juices and increased consumption of white bread, and soft drinks. Increasing severity of nausea was also associated with decreasing prudent diet score from before to early pregnancy, such that women with severe nausea had prudent diet scores 0.29 SDs lower than those with no nausea (P < 0.001). However, this was transient as NVP was not related to change in diet quality from before to late pregnancy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Preventing and alleviating patients' symptoms of nausea and vomiting while in the care of the ambulance service - a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Westerlund, Anders; Vicente, Veronica; Hjelte Judell, Oscar; Lindström, Veronica

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the ambulance personnel's experiences of preventing and alleviating patients' symptoms of nausea and vomiting. Nausea is a common symptom in patients taken care of by the ambulance service. It is a complex subjective phenomenon and can cause several different illnesses. The ambulance personnel have an important assignment in preventing and alleviating nausea through early interventions. A descriptive and qualitative design including 16 semi-structured interviews and content analysis was used. One main category was identified: Adjusting care and medical treatment based on the individual patient's needs. By adjusting the care and medical treatment based on patients' individual needs and previous experience, the ambulance personnel experienced a possible relief of the patients' suffering caused by nausea and vomiting. In addition to the known multitude of underlying pathologies of nausea, the way of driving and the environment in the ambulances also may have an impact on the patients' nausea. A variety of nursing interventions and medical treatments are reported to be used to alleviate nausea for patients cared for by the ambulance service, but further research is needed to evaluate if and how the interventions have an effect on the patients' experiences. The findings in our study can be used when developing guidelines on how to care for patients suffering nausea and vomiting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prophylaxis versus treatment: Is there a better way to manage radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting?

    SciTech Connect

    Horiot, Jean-Claude . E-mail: horiotjc@dijon.fnclcc.fr

    2004-11-15

    Nausea and vomiting are two of the most distressing side effects of radiotherapy and cytotoxic drugs, which currently are often combined to treat moderately advanced and advanced solid tumors. Inadequate control of these symptoms may result in significant patient suffering and decrease in the patient's quality of life, which has been shown to decrease patients' compliance to treatment, with potential impact on disease outcome. It is, therefore, important that radiation oncologists recognize the need for adequate prophylactic treatment of radiation-induced nausea and vomiting (RINV) to avoid the detrimental effects on patients' quality of life, and optimize chances for cure. The 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT{sub 3})-receptor antagonists have been proved to provide effective antiemetic therapy in patients undergoing highly emetogenic radiotherapy. Nevertheless, several large surveys have shown that optimal treatments are not always used. Hence, a risk exists that waiting for RINV symptoms rather than prescribing prophylactic antiemetic treatment may lead to increased patient suffering, poorer disease control, and less cost-effective therapy options. Prophylactic management with an effective 5-HT{sub 3}-receptor antagonist should offer a better treatment option for patients at high to moderate risk of RINV. Adequate control of RINV should contribute to patient compliance to treatment, improved therapy outcomes, and decreased burdens on nursing and health care resources.

  14. A meta-analysis of olanzapine for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-fei; Feng, Yun; Chen, Ying; Gao, Bei Li; Han, Bao-hui

    2014-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is associated with a significant deterioration in quality of life and is one of the reasons for the discontinuation of treatment. Olanzapine is known as an atypical antipsychotic agent, but it has been reported to be effective in treating refractory CINV due to its broad and potent inhibitory activity at multiple receptors involved in the nausea and vomiting pathways. This study was conducted to assess the efficacy of olanzapine for the prevention of CINV after moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy. After a search of Medline (Ovid), PubMed, CNKI, Wanfang and Weipu from 1990 to October 2013, all randomised controlled trials of olanzapine for the prevention of CINV were included in this study. The meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.0.19 software. 6 studies involving 726 total patients were included, of which 441 were Chinese oncology patients. We found that for both general populations and Chinese populations, antiemetic regimens including olanzapine are more effective at reducing CINV than regimens that do not include olanzapine, especially in the delayed phase of CINV. PMID:24770591

  15. Prevention of Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Undergoing Oral Anticancer Therapies for Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Catarina; Pacheco, Teresa Raquel; Sousa, Ana Rita; Pulido, Catarina; Quintela, António; Costa, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is still a common and debilitating side effect despite recent advances in its prevention and treatment. The intrinsic emetogenicity of chemotherapy agents allowed grouping into four risk groups (high, moderate, low, and minimal risk of emetogenicity). The prevention of acute and delayed CINV for intravenous agents and one day regimens is well studied, although, there are few data about management of CINV induced by oral cytotoxic agents and targeted therapies, usually administered in extended regimens of daily oral use. Until now treatment of nausea and vomiting caused by oral antineoplastic agents remains largely empirical. The level of evidence of prophylactic antiemetics recommended for these agents is low. There are differences in the classification of emetogenic potential of oral antineoplastic agents between the international guidelines and different recommendations for prophylactic antiemetic regimens. Herein we review the evidence for antiemetic regimens for the most used oral antineoplastic agents for solid tumors and propose antiemetic regimens for high to moderate risk and low to minimal risk of emetogenicity. PMID:26421283

  16. Nausea and vomiting and dietary cravings and aversions during pregnancy in South African women.

    PubMed

    Walker, A R; Walker, B F; Jones, J; Verardi, M; Walker, C

    1985-05-01

    Frequency and severity of nausea and of vomiting during pregnancy, and of pronounced dietary cravings and aversions, were determined in a series of South African rural and urban black, Indian, coloured (European-African-Malay) and white women. Frequency of severe nausea ranged from 3.8% in rural blacks to 19.8% in white women, and of severe vomiting from 3.1% in rural blacks to 17.8% in white and Indian women. Proportions in the other groups were intermediate. Pronounced cravings, claimed by 67-84% in the various groups, included sour, savoury and sweet foods, also fruit and milk. Aversions were claimed by 45-81% of the women in the different groups with meat, fish, coffee and fatty foods, the foods most often avoided. Pica, the consumption of such substances as earth, clay, varied ethnically and regionally; frequency was high in rural and urban black women (44.0% and 38.3%), but much lower (5%) in Indian, coloured and white women.

  17. Hypnosis and Therapy for a Case of Vomiting, Nausea, and Pain.

    PubMed

    Lankton, Stephen R

    2015-07-01

    In this case study the author illustrates the treatment of idiopathic gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms that practitioners sometimes encounter and for which none of the usual medical explanations apply. In this case, the symptoms have deeply personal and intricate causes that are explicated for the reader. A 20-year old female was vomiting six to eight times a day, accompanied with pain and nausea, for 2 years. She had medical intervention for almost that same duration. She had numerous uneventful medical tests, her gall bladder removed, and had exhausted hope for a medical cure. Working with a resource-building approach in therapy her vomiting was stopped within 6 weeks and her nausea in the following 7th week (or 13th session). Hypnosis was used during each session along with a protocol referred to as Self-Image Thinking (Lankton & Lankton, 1983/2008, 1986/2007; Lankton, 2008) to rehearse novel experiences and behaviors that she would implement in her social environment each week. She provided yearly follow-up phone contacts for 3 years and the latest contact was 1 month before this article was written. She remains symptom-free.

  18. Prevention of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting: a focus on aprepitant.

    PubMed

    Sankhala, Kamalesh K; Pandya, Devesh M; Sarantopoulos, John; Soefje, Scott A; Giles, Francis J; Chawla, Sant P

    2009-12-01

    Nausea and vomiting is one of the most feared side effects of chemotherapy; however, in the past 20 years, a better understanding of the pathophysiology of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) has led to the introduction of newer antiemetics, which have improved the management of this side effect. This article reviews the prevention of CINV and the role of aprepitant, the first of the newest class of antiemetics, the neurokinin-1 inhibitors. A brief description of the pathophysiology of CINV and the background on the prevention of CINV using the 5-HT(3) antagonists is outlined. The pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, drug interactions and various clinical studies with aprepitant are reviewed. The literature about aprepitant is reviewed focusing on the role of aprepitant in the management of CINV in relationship to other commonly used antiemetics. The literature was searched regarding aprepitant and its pharmacological characteristics, pharmacokinetics, drug interactions and various clinical studies. Aprepitant has a significant role in the management of CINV, as it allows the majority of patients to complete their chemotherapies without significant morbidity. Its use in a variety of clinical settings in cancer patients needs to be further explored.

  19. Management of Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Patients on Multiday Cisplatin Based Combination Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ranganath, Praveen; Einhorn, Lawrence; Albany, Costantine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction of cisplatin based chemotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of germ cell tumors. A common side effect of multiday cisplatin chemotherapy is severe nausea and vomiting. Considerable progress has been made in the control of these side effects since the introduction of cisplatin based chemotherapy in the 1970s. Germ cell tumor which is a model for a curable neoplasm has also turned into an excellent testing ground to develop effective strategies to prevent chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in multiday cisplatin based regimens. The use of combination of a 5-hydroxytryptamine (HT)3 receptor antagonist, a neurokinin-1 (NK1) antagonist, and dexamethasone has greatly improved our ability to prevent and control acute and delayed CINV. Mechanism and pattern of CINV with multiday chemotherapy may differ from those in single day chemotherapy and therefore efficacy of antiemetic drugs as observed in single day chemotherapy may not be applicable. There are only few randomized clinical trials with special emphasis on multiday chemotherapy. Further studies are essential to determine the efficacy, optimal dose, and duration of the newer agents and combinations in multiday cisplatin based chemotherapy. PMID:26425563

  20. Prevention of Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Undergoing Oral Anticancer Therapies for Solid Tumors.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ana Lúcia; Abreu, Catarina; Pacheco, Teresa Raquel; Macedo, Daniela; Sousa, Ana Rita; Pulido, Catarina; Quintela, António; Costa, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is still a common and debilitating side effect despite recent advances in its prevention and treatment. The intrinsic emetogenicity of chemotherapy agents allowed grouping into four risk groups (high, moderate, low, and minimal risk of emetogenicity). The prevention of acute and delayed CINV for intravenous agents and one day regimens is well studied, although, there are few data about management of CINV induced by oral cytotoxic agents and targeted therapies, usually administered in extended regimens of daily oral use. Until now treatment of nausea and vomiting caused by oral antineoplastic agents remains largely empirical. The level of evidence of prophylactic antiemetics recommended for these agents is low. There are differences in the classification of emetogenic potential of oral antineoplastic agents between the international guidelines and different recommendations for prophylactic antiemetic regimens. Herein we review the evidence for antiemetic regimens for the most used oral antineoplastic agents for solid tumors and propose antiemetic regimens for high to moderate risk and low to minimal risk of emetogenicity.

  1. Cannabinoids in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Todaro, Barbara

    2012-04-01

    Before the introduction of the serotonin receptor antagonists (5-HT3 receptor antagonists) in the early 1990s, limited effective options were available to prevent and treat chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). In 1985, the FDA approved 2 cannabinoid derivatives, dronabinol and nabilone, for the treatment of CINV not effectively treated by other agents. Today, the standard of care for prevention of CINV for highly and moderately emetogenic chemotherapy is a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, dexamethasone, with or without aprepitant or fosaprepitant. With the approval of safer and more effective agents, cannabinoids are not recommended as first-line treatment for the prevention of CINV and are reserved for patients with breakthrough nausea and vomiting. Because of medical and legal concerns, the use of marijuana is not recommended for management of CINV and is not part of the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Antiemesis. Although patients may like to pursue this treatment option in states that have approved the use of marijuana for medical purposes, its use remains legally and therapeutically controversial.

  2. Efficacy and cost: avoiding undertreatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Viale, Pamela Hallquist; Grande, Carolyn; Moore, Susan

    2012-08-01

    Although nausea and vomiting occur in patients with cancer for various reasons, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) remains one of the most distressing symptoms associated with cancer therapy. Despite advances in the management of that side effect, patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy continue to report CINV. Oncology nurses should be aware of advances in the management of CINV. Healthcare provider perceptions of CINV may not accurately represent actual occurrence of the symptom, and CINV may affect patients' quality of life or even treatment adherence for selected patients. Although evidence-based guidelines are available, not all healthcare providers, including oncology nurses, follow recommendations for prevention of CINV. Inadequately treated CINV can lead to increased resource costs, as well as patient suffering. This article will review the evidence for the cost of inadequately treated CINV, as well as current clinical guidelines for management of this symptom. Oncology nurses are critical in the assessment and management of CINV, as well as in making recommendations for practice improvement.

  3. An update on palonosetron hydrochloride for the treatment of radio/chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Fabi, Alessandra; Malaguti, Paola

    2013-04-01

    Nausea and vomiting are well recognized in different clinical situations, suggesting that no single mechanism is likely to be responsible for their production. Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) can have a negative impact on quality of life and this may lead to a refusal of curative therapy or to a decline in palliative benefits offered by cytotoxic treatment. Palonosetron is a new agent in the class of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists (5-HT3RAs), and differs from the other agents by its higher receptor-binding affinity and longer half-life. These pharmacological properties have resulted in improved antiemetic activity in clinical trials, particularly in the treatment of delayed CINV following moderate emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC). A systematic review of the medical literature was completed to inform this update. MEDLINE, the Cochrane Collaboration Library and meeting materials from ASCO and MASCC were all searched. Palonosetron was the only serotonin receptor antagonist approved for prevention of delayed CINV caused by MEC and its use was incorporated in guideline recommendations. To date, several treatment settings such as multiple day chemotherapy require further studies to improve emesis related to therapy.

  4. Tongue piercing and chronic abdominal pain with nausea and vomiting--two cases.

    PubMed

    Chung, Myung Kyu; Chung, Danielle; LaRiccia, Patrick J

    2015-01-01

    Chronic upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms of unclear etiology are frustrating to patients and physicians alike. The integrative medicine procedures of acupuncture and neural therapy may provide treatment options. Tongue piercing, which is prevalent in 5.6% of the adolescent population, may be a contributing factor in upper gastrointestinal symptoms. The objectives of the study were as follows: (1) To demonstrate the usefulness of an integrative medicine treatment approach in two cases of patients with chronic abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting of unclear etiology who had failed standard medical management. (2) To identify scars from tongue piercings as a possible contributing factor in chronic upper GI symptoms of unclear etiology. Two retrospective case studies are presented of young adult females who were seen in a private multi-physician integrative medicine practice in the US. The patients were treated with neural therapy and acupuncture. The desired outcome was the cessation or reduction of the frequency of abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Both patients had resolution of their symptoms. From this study, we have concluded the following: (1) Tongue scars from tongue rings may be causes of chronic upper gastrointestinal symptoms. (2) Neural therapy and acupuncture may be helpful in the treatment of chronic upper GI symptoms related to tongue scars.

  5. Evaluating the Effect of Zingiber Officinalis on Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Receiving Cisplatin Based Regimens

    PubMed Central

    Fahimi, Fanak; Khodadad, Kian; Amini, Somayeh; Naghibi, Farzaneh; Salamzadeh, Jamshid; Baniasadi, Shadi

    2011-01-01

    Ginger, the rhizome of Zingiber officinalis, has long been used as herbal medicine for its antiemetic effect. For evaluating the effect of zingiber officinalis on nausea and vomiting (N and V) in patients receiving cisplatin based regimens, a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over clinical trial was carried out in patients receiving cisplatin in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. The patients were randomly assigned to receive ginger capsules (rhizome of zingiber officinalis) or placebo in their first cycle of the study. All patients received standard antiemetics for chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). The patients were crossed-over to receive ginger or placebo in their next cycle of chemotherapy. Among 36 eligible patients who received both cycles of treatment, there were no difference in prevalence, severity, and duration of both acute and delayed N and V. Addition of ginger to the standard antiemetic regimen has shown no advantage in reducing acute and delayed N and V in patients with cisplatin-based regimen in this study. PMID:24250368

  6. Postoperative vomiting and fever following tonsillectomy in Enugu, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okafor, U V; Nwosu, J N; Onyekwulu, F A

    2013-01-01

    To determine the incidence of postoperative vomiting and fever in patients that had tonsillectomy in our centre over a five year period. The hospital records (case files) of patients that had tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy under general anaesthesia at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria from January 2004 to December 2008 were retrieved and analyzed. Patients that had an adenoidectomy only were excluded. The patients were of the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) I to III status. There were fifty two (52) patients that had tonsillectomy and adenotonsillectomy under general anaesthesia during the period under review. Forty one (41) patients were between the ages of 1-13 years (78%) and eleven (11) patients between the ages of 18-62 years (12%). There were 32 males and 20 females. The average age for all the patients was 9.03 years. There were seven (7) patients with post operative vomiting (13.4%). These included four (4) patients in the paediatric population (9.75%) and three (3) in the adult population (27.2%). Twenty one (21) patients (40.3%) developed postoperative fever. There were no deaths The other significant morbidity was postoperative pain. The number of patients that had tonsillectomy in our center was small compared to other studies. The incidence of postoperative vomiting in this study is lower than that reported from Western World, showing possible racial variations, a trend that has been reported in some earlier studies in Black populations.

  7. Antiemetic Therapy With or Without Olanzapine in Preventing Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Patients With Cancer Receiving Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This randomized phase III trial studies antiemetic therapy with olanzapine to see how well they work compared to antiemetic therapy alone in preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with cancer receiving highly emetogenic (causes vomiting) chemotherapy. Antiemetic drugs, such as palonosetron hydrochloride, ondansetron, and granisetron hydrochloride, may help lessen or prevent nausea and vomiting in patients treated with chemotherapy. |

  8. Incidence of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting with moderately emetogenic chemotherapy: ADVICE (Actual Data of Vomiting Incidence by Chemotherapy Evaluation) study.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Yolanda; Cajaraville, Gerardo; Virizuela, Juan Antonio; Álvarez, Rosa; Muñoz, Andrés; Olariaga, Olatz; Tamés, María José; Muros, Begoña; Lecumberri, María Jose; Feliu, Jaime; Martínez, Purificación; Adansa, Juan Carlos; Martínez, María José; López, Rafael; Blasco, Ana; Gascón, Pere; Calvo, Virginia; Luna, Pablo; Montalar, Joaquín; Del Barrio, Patricia; Tornamira, María Victoria

    2015-09-01

    This study aims to determine the incidence of nausea and vomiting (CINV) after moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC), under medical practice conditions and the accuracy with which physicians perceive CINV. Chemotherapy-naive patients receiving MEC between April 2012 and May 2013 were included. Patients completed a diary of the intensity of nausea and number of vomiting episodes. Complete response and complete protection were assessed as secondary endpoints. Of 261 patients included, 240 were evaluated. Median age was 64 years, 44.2 % were female and 11.2 % were aged less than 50 years; 95.3 % of patients received a combination of 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (5-HT3) antagonist + corticosteroid as antiemetic treatment. Vomiting within 5 days of chemotherapy administration occurred in 20.8 %, nausea in 42 % and significant nausea in 23.8 % of patients. An increase in the percentage of patients with significant nausea (from 9.4 to 21.7 %) and vomiting (from 9.2 to 16.5 %) was observed from the acute to the delayed phase. Complete response was 84.2 % in the acute phase, 77 % in the late phase and 68.9 % in overall period. Complete protection was 79.5 % in the acute phase, 68.8 % in the late phase and 62.4 % throughout the study period. Physicians estimated prophylaxis would be effective for 75 % of patients receiving MEC, compared with 54.1 % obtained from patients' diary. Despite receiving prophylactic treatment, 31 % of patients did not achieve a complete response and 38 % complete protection. In general, nausea was worse controlled than vomiting. The results also showed the late phase was worse controlled than the acute phase in all variables. Healthcare providers overestimated the effectiveness of antiemetic prophylaxis.

  9. How to improve the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting? The French NAVI study.

    PubMed

    Vanbockstael, Julie; Coquan, Elodie; Gouerant, Sophie; Allouache, Djelila; Faveyrial, Audrey; Noal, Sabine; Delcambre, Corinne; Galais, Marie-Pierre; Héron, Jean-François; Lefebvre, Anne-Charlotte; Sevin, Emmanuel; Hrab, Ioana; Polycarpe, Florence; André, Michel; Kaluzinski, Laure; Gervais, Radj; Gunzer, Katharina; Vié, Brigitte; Saucier, Gilles; Lemenand, Noëmie; Grellard, Jean-Michel; Clarisse, Bénédicte; Dugué, Audrey Emmanuelle; Joly, Florence

    2016-03-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) still remain frequent. The procedure for announcing the diagnosis (PAD) was an emblematic measure of the first French Plan Cancer aiming at providing patients with time to listen, information after cancer diagnosis, and discussion on treatments and their side effects. We aimed at assessing the risk factors of CINV, focusing on patients' satisfaction with the PAD. This prospective multicentre study assessed the frequency and intensity of CINV among chemonaïve patients during the first cycle of treatment. CINV was defined by ≥1 emetic episode or reported nausea intensity ≥3 on a 0-10 scale. Multivariate analysis was used to identify factors related to global CINV onset including satisfaction with the PAD (satisfaction score ≥the median on a 0-10 scale). Data from 291 patients (women, 85.2%; mean age, 57 years) were analyzed. Most patients (69.4%) received highly emetogenic chemotherapy regimens and 77.7% received antiemetic drugs consistent with international guidelines. Acute, delayed and overall CINV were experienced by 40.4, 34.8 and 52.4% of patients, respectively. Sixty-seven per cent of patients were satisfied with the PAD. No relation was noted between PAD satisfaction and CINV onset. The nausea and vomiting dimension of the QLQ-C30 questionnaire before chemotherapy (OR 3.62), motion sickness history (OR 2.73), highly emetogenic CT (OR 2.73), anxiety (OR 1.99) and younger age (OR 1.96) were independent predictive factors. Although patients were mostly satisfied with the PAD, half of them experienced CINV. A state of anxiety could be identified during the PAD to be managed.

  10. The effect of heartburn and acid reflux on the severity of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Simerpal Kaur; Maltepe, Caroline; Koren, Gideon

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heartburn (HB) and acid reflux (RF) in the non-pregnant population can cause nausea and vomiting; therefore, it is plausible that in women with nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP), HB/RF may increase the severity of symptoms. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether HB/RF during pregnancy contribute to increased severity of NVP. METHODS: A prospectively collected cohort of women who were experiencing NVP and HB, RF or both (n=194) was studied. The Pregnancy-Unique Quantification of Emesis and Nausea (PUQE) scale and its Well-being scale was used to compare the severity of the study cohort’s symptoms. This cohort was compared with a group of women experiencing NVP but no HB/RF (n=188). Multiple linear regression was used to control for the effects of confounding factors. RESULTS: Women with HB/RF reported higher PUQE scores (9.6±2.6) compared with controls (8.9±2.6) (P=0.02). Similarly, Well-being scores for women experiencing HB/RF were lower (4.3±2.1) compared with controls (4.9±2.0) (P=0.01). Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that increased PUQE scores (P=0.003) and decreased Well-being scores (P=0.005) were due to the presence of HB/RF as opposed to confounding factors such as pre-existing gastrointestinal conditions/symptoms, hyperemesis gravidarum in previous pregnancies and comorbidities. CONCLUSION: The present cohort study is the first to demonstrate that HB/RF are associated with increased severity of NVP. Managing HB/RF may improve the severity of NVP. PMID:19373420

  11. Poor chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting control in children receiving intermediate or high dose methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Vol, Helen; Flank, Jacqueline; Lavoratore, Sara R; Nathan, Paul C; Taylor, Tracey; Zelunka, Elyse; Maloney, Anne Marie; Lee Dupuis, L

    2016-03-01

    Chemotherapy emetogenicity is the most important known determinant of chemotherapy-induced vomiting (CIV) in children. However, direct evidence regarding the emetogenic potential of chemotherapeutic agents in children is limited. This study describes the prevalence of complete control of acute and delayed phase chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in children receiving methotrexate. The prevalence of anticipatory CINV is described, and risk factors for CINV are explored. English-speaking children (4 to 18 years) receiving intermediate-dose (ID-MTX: >1 to <12 g/m(2)/dose) or high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX: ≥12 g/m(2)/dose) participated in this prospective study. Emetic episodes, nausea severity, and antiemetic administration were documented for 24 h from the start of the methotrexate infusion (acute phase) and for up to a further 168 h (delayed phase). CINV prophylaxis was provided at the discretion of the treating physician. Anticipatory CINV was assessed in the 24 h preceding chemotherapy. Complete CINV control was defined as no emetic episodes and no nausea. Thirty children (mean age, 11.8 ± 4 years; ID-MTX, 20; HD-MTX, 10) completed the study. CINV prophylaxis included the following: ondansetron/granisetron plus dexamethasone or nabilone. Few patients experienced complete CINV control (ID-MTX: acute phase 20%, delayed phase 5%; HD-MTX: acute phase 0%, delayed phase 30%). Complete emesis control was higher (ID-MTX: acute phase 70%, delayed phase 50%; HD-MTX: acute phase 70%, delayed phase 60%). Anticipatory CINV was reported by 6/28 patients (21%). Patient age, sex, and history of motion sickness were not significant predictors of CINV. The poor complete CINV control rate in children receiving methotrexate confirms the classification of HD-MTX as highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) and suggests that ID-MTX be reclassified as HEC.

  12. Activity-based cost analysis of opioid-related nausea and vomiting among inpatients.

    PubMed

    Eberhart, Leopold; Koch, Tilo; Kranke, Peter; Rüsch, Dirk; Torossian, Alexander; Nardi-Hiebl, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Nausea and/or vomiting (N/V) are frequent side effects of opioid drugs. These are of major concerns to patients and caregivers and only few studies have focused on their economical costs. This is a prospective, nonproduct-related, activity-based evaluation of personnel and material costs of opioid-related N/V among inpatients. Data were obtained from surgical, general medicine, and palliative care wards at 16 German hospitals of different size, healthcare mandate, and ownership. According to predefined criteria, of 462 documented N/V events, 340 were diagnosed as opioid related. Elicited activities and pharmacological interventions for N/V episodes followed local standards. Both materials used and the time engaged to treat patients with N/V were documented on an "ad hoc" activity recording form. The total cost of an opioid-related N/V episode was calculated based on standard wages of the involved personnel and standard costs of the inherent materials used. Mean staff tenure time for handling an episode of N/V was 26.2 ± 19.8 minutes (nausea 16.9 ± 28.7 minutes; nausea + vomiting: 33.4 ± 26.8 minutes). In the German context, this corresponds to average personnel costs of €18.06 ± 13.64. Material cost contributes to another €13.49 ±13.38 of costs mainly depending on acquisition costs of antiemetic drugs. N/V showed to have impact on workload of nurses and (to lesser extent) physicians and economic burden of €31 ± 22 for each N/V episode. In view of these results, the potential costs of strategies to minimize the incidence of N/V (use of antiemetics and/or the use of new analgesics) should be outweighed against the incurred costs of N/V.

  13. Metoclopramide for nausea and vomiting prophylaxis during and after Caesarean delivery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mishriky, B M; Habib, A S

    2012-03-01

    Nausea and vomiting occur commonly during and after Caesarean delivery (CD) performed under neuraxial anaesthesia. Metoclopramide is a prokinetic agent reported to be safe in parturients. This meta-analysis assesses the efficacy of metoclopramide for prophylaxis against intra- and postoperative nausea and vomiting (IONV and PONV) in parturients undergoing CD under neuraxial anaesthesia. We performed a literature search of MEDLINE (1966-2011), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE (1947-2011), Google scholar, and CINAHL for randomized controlled trials which compared metoclopramide with placebo in women having CD under neuraxial anaesthesia. Eleven studies with 702 patients were included in the analysis. Administration of metoclopramide (10 mg) resulted in a significant reduction in the incidence of ION and IOV when given before block placement [relative risk (RR) (95% confidence interval, 95% CI)=0.27 (0.16, 0.45) and 0.14 (0.03, 0.56), respectively] or after delivery [RR (95% CI)=0.38 (0.20, 0.75) and 0.34 (0.18, 0.66), respectively]. The incidence of early (0-3 or 0-4 h) PON and POV [RR (95% CI)=0.47 (0.26, 0.87) and 0.45 (0.21, 0.93), respectively] and overall (0-24 or 3-24 h) PON (RR 0.69; 95% CI 0.52, 0.92) were also reduced with metoclopramide. Extra-pyramidal side-effects were not reported in any patient. In conclusion, this review suggests that metoclopramide is effective and safe for IONV and PONV prophylaxis in this patient population. Given the quality of the studies and the infrequent use of neuraxial opioids, these results should be interpreted with caution in current practice and further studies are needed to confirm those findings.

  14. Clinical roundtable monograph: New data in emerging treatment options for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Gary R; Navari, Rudolph M; Rugo, Hope S

    2014-03-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) has long been one of the most troublesome adverse effects of chemotherapy, leading to significant detriments in quality of life and functioning, increased economic costs, and, in some cases, the discontinuation of effective cancer therapy. The past 2 decades have witnessed a dramatic increase in the number of effective antiemetic agents, with the introduction of the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT₃]) receptor antagonists (ondansetron, granisetron, and palonosetron), the neurokinin-1 (NK₁) receptor antagonists (aprepitant and fosaprepitant), and the identification of other agents that have demonstrated efficacy against CINV, including corticosteroids. These agents often provide excellent control of emesis. Nausea, however, has proven more intractable, particularly in the days after administration of chemotherapy. Newer antiemetic agents under study may provide additional CINV control, particularly against delayed nausea. New agents undergoing review by the US Food and Drug Administration for the prevention of CINV include the novel NK₁ receptor antagonist rolapitant and a fixed-dose combination consisting of the novel NK₁ receptor antagonist netupitant and palonosetron (NEPA). Adherence to clinical practice guidelines has been shown to significantly improve CINV control. As antiemetic therapy continues to evolve, it will be important for clinicians to stay informed of new developments and changes in guidelines.

  15. Recent advances and updated guidelines in the management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Schwartzberg, Lee S; Grunberg, Steven M; Kris, Mark G

    2011-11-01

    One of the most dreaded side effects of anticancer treatment, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) plays a significant role in cancer patients' morbidity and quality of life. The management of CINV has been refined over the past several decades, and CINV can now be addressed with targeted prophylactic medications aimed at inhibiting the molecular pathways involved in emesis, including serotonin receptor antagonists and neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists. Advances in the understanding of the physiology of CINV, coupled with the introduction of several agents that inhibit activation of these receptors, are reflected in current CINV guidelines. These guidelines, which are largely similar, provide recommendations based on expert review of available clinical trial data. Despite the availability of effective prophylaxis, many patients still suffer from CINV. To minimize these side effects, clinicians should ensure widespread adoption and implementation of at least 1 CINV guideline in their practice. Even when the recommendations are followed, a small group of patients continue to experience CINV, often in the form of nausea, for which few treatments are effective. Current and future studies will begin to delineate the specific pathways for the development of nausea, hopefully leading to the identification of novel agents and regimens with improved efficacy in this setting.

  16. Olanzapine for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hocking, Christopher M; Kichenadasse, Ganessan

    2014-04-01

    Newer drugs incorporated in prophylactic regimens for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) have resulted in significantly reduced rates of this feared complication of cytotoxic chemotherapy. However, both delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and breakthrough CINV remain difficult areas of management and require novel treatment strategies. Recent randomized trial evidence has suggested that olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic, may have a role in both the prevention and treatment of CINV. A systematic review was conducted to assess the efficacy of olanzapine in (a) preventing CINV in highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) and moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC) and (b) the treatment of breakthrough CINV. The toxicity of olanzapine in this setting was also reviewed. MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews databases were searched to identify all randomized clinical trials (RCTs) investigating olanzapine in patients receiving chemotherapy. A total of 488 patients from three trials of CINV prophylaxis and 323 patients from three trials of breakthrough CINV were included. Regimens including olanzapine were associated with significant improvements in CINV prevention with both HEC and MEC. Single agent olanzapine for breakthrough nausea was superior to standard alternative options. Data from RCTs support the use of an olanzapine containing combination regimen as an option for CINV prophylaxis and single agent olanzapine for the treatment of breakthrough CINV. In the included trials, the short duration of olanzapine appears safe and well tolerated.

  17. The Effects of Acupressure on Meridian Energy as well as Nausea and Vomiting in Lung Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chi-Hsiang; Yang, Li-Yu

    2017-03-01

    Nausea and vomiting are the most common side effects of antineoplastic chemotherapy. However, only a small number of studies have been conducted in Taiwan to determine the efficacy of acupressure in treating these side effects in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. In this quasi-experimental study, we aimed to explore the effects of acupressure on meridian energy as well as nausea and vomiting in 70 lung cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Patients were assigned to the experimental or control group based on order of hospital admission. The experimental group received acupressure on "Neiguan (PC6)" and "Gongsun (SP4)" points, and the control group received sham acupoint patches on "Houxi (SI3)" point. The results showed that the mean meridian energy in the experimental group after acupressure was significantly higher than in the control group ( F = 28.71, p < .001). The experimental group had significantly less nausea ( p < .001) and vomiting ( p = .006) during the delayed phase than the control group. In conclusion, acupressure significantly increased the mean meridian energy and effectively decreased the severity of nausea and vomiting in lung cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. We recommend that clinical nurses provide acupressure as an intervention to relieve nausea and vomiting in patients receiving chemotherapy.

  18. Delayed Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting: Pathogenesis, Incidence, and Current Management

    PubMed Central

    Rapoport, Bernardo L.

    2017-01-01

    Even when chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) can be effectively controlled in the acute phase, it may still occur in the delayed phase. Identifying at-risk patients is complex and requires consideration of clinical, personal, demographic, and behavioral factors. Delayed CINV has a significant detrimental effect on patients’ daily life and is responsible for significant healthcare resource utilization. Patients who do not experience acute CINV are not necessarily exempt from delayed CINV, and healthcare professionals have been shown to underestimate the incidence of delayed CINV. Failure to protect against CINV during the first cycle of chemotherapy is the most significant independent risk factor for delayed CINV during subsequent cycles. Addition of a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist to antiemetic prophylactic regimens involving a 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor antagonist and a corticosteroid helps to ameliorate delayed CINV, particularly vomiting. Netupitant and rolapitant are second-generation neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists that provide effective prophylaxis against delayed chemotherapy-induced vomiting and also have an antinausea benefit. All of the neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists with the exception of rolapitant inhibit or induce cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), and a reduced dose of dexamethasone (a CYP3A4 substrate) should be administered with aprepitant or netupitant; by contrast, this is not necessary with rolapitant. Here we review specific challenges associated with delayed CINV, its pathophysiology, epidemiology, treatment, and outcomes relative to acute CINV, and its management within the larger context of overall CINV. PMID:28194109

  19. Olanzapine for the Prevention of Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting.

    PubMed

    Navari, Rudolph M; Qin, Rui; Ruddy, Kathryn J; Liu, Heshan; Powell, Steven F; Bajaj, Madhuri; Dietrich, Leah; Biggs, David; Lafky, Jacqueline M; Loprinzi, Charles L

    2016-07-14

    We examined the efficacy of olanzapine for the prevention of nausea and vomiting in patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy. In a randomized, double-blind, phase 3 trial, we compared olanzapine with placebo, in combination with dexamethasone, aprepitant or fosaprepitant, and a 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3-receptor antagonist, in patients with no previous chemotherapy who were receiving cisplatin (≥70 mg per square meter of body-surface area) or cyclophosphamide-doxorubicin. The doses of the three concomitant drugs administered before and after chemotherapy were similar in the two groups. The two groups received either 10 mg of olanzapine orally or matching placebo daily on days 1 through 4. Nausea prevention was the primary end point; a complete response (no emesis and no use of rescue medication) was a secondary end point. In the analysis, we included 380 patients who could be evaluated (192 assigned to olanzapine, and 188 to placebo). The proportion of patients with no chemotherapy-induced nausea was significantly greater with olanzapine than with placebo in the first 24 hours after chemotherapy (74% vs. 45%, P=0.002), the period from 25 to 120 hours after chemotherapy (42% vs. 25%, P=0.002), and the overall 120-hour period (37% vs. 22%, P=0.002). The complete-response rate was also significantly increased with olanzapine during the three periods: 86% versus 65% (P<0.001), 67% versus 52% (P=0.007), and 64% versus 41% (P<0.001), respectively. Although there were no grade 5 toxic effects, some patients receiving olanzapine had increased sedation (severe in 5%) on day 2. Olanzapine, as compared with placebo, significantly improved nausea prevention, as well as the complete-response rate, among previously untreated patients who were receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02116530.).

  20. Olanzapine for the Prevention of Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Navari, Rudolph M.; Qin, Rui; Ruddy, Kathryn J.; Liu, Heshan; Powell, Steven F.; Bajaj, Madhuri; Dietrich, Leah; Biggs, David; Lafky, Jacqueline M.; Loprinzi, Charles L.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND We examined the efficacy of olanzapine for the prevention of nausea and vomiting in patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy. METHODS In a randomized, double-blind, phase 3 trial, we compared olanzapine with placebo, in combination with dexamethasone, aprepitant or fosaprepitant, and a 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3–receptor antagonist, in patients with no previous chemotherapy who were receiving cisplatin (≥70 mg per square meter of body-surface area) or cyclophosphamide–doxorubicin. The doses of the three concomitant drugs administered before and after chemotherapy were similar in the two groups. The two groups received either 10 mg of olanzapine orally or matching placebo daily on days 1 through 4. Nausea prevention was the primary end point; a complete response (no emesis and no use of rescue medication) was a secondary end point. RESULTS In the analysis, we included 380 patients who could be evaluated (192 assigned to olanzapine, and 188 to placebo). The proportion of patients with no chemotherapy-induced nausea was significantly greater with olanzapine than with placebo in the first 24 hours after chemotherapy (74% vs. 45%, P = 0.002), the period from 25 to 120 hours after chemotherapy (42% vs. 25%, P = 0.002), and the overall 120-hour period (37% vs. 22%, P = 0.002). The complete-response rate was also significantly increased with olanzapine during the three periods: 86% versus 65% (P<0.001), 67% versus 52% (P = 0.007), and 64% versus 41% (P<0.001), respectively. Although there were no grade 5 toxic effects, some patients receiving olanzapine had increased sedation (severe in 5%) on day 2. CONCLUSIONS Olanzapine, as compared with placebo, significantly improved nausea prevention, as well as the complete-response rate, among previously untreated patients who were receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02116530.) PMID:27410922

  1. 5-HT3 receptors as important mediators of nausea and vomiting due to chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Navari, Rudolph M

    2015-10-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is associated with a significant deterioration in quality of life. The emetogenicity of the chemotherapeutic agents, repeated chemotherapy cycles, and patient risk factors significantly influence CINV. The use of a combination of a 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonist, dexamethasone, and a neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonist has significantly improved the control of acute and delayed emesis in single-day chemotherapy. The first generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have been very effective in the control of chemotherapy induced emesis in the first 24 h postchemotherapy (acute emesis), but have not been as effective against delayed emesis (24-120 h postchemotherapy). Palonosetron, a second generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonist with a different half-life, a different binding capacity, and a different mechanism of action than the first generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonists appears to be the most effective agent in its class. Despite the control of emesis, nausea has not been well controlled by current agents. Olanzapine, a FDA approved antipsychotic that blocks multiple neurotransmitters: dopamine at D1, D2, D3, D4 brain receptors, serotonin at 5-HT2a, 5-HT2c, 5-HT3, 5-HT6 receptors, catecholamines at alpha1 adrenergic receptors, acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors, and histamine at H1 receptors, has emerged in recent trials as an effective preventative agent for chemotherapy-induced emesis and nausea, as well as a very effective agent for the treatment of breakthrough emesis and nausea. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane channels and transporters in cancers.

  2. Medications Used to Treat Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy and the Risk of Selected Birth Defects

    PubMed Central

    Anderka, Marlene; Mitchell, Allen A.; Louik, Carol; Werler, Martha M.; Hernández-Diaz, Sonia; Rasmussen, Sonja A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) occurs in up to 80% of pregnant women, yet its association with birth outcomes is not clear. Several medications are used for the treatment of NVP; however, data are limited on their possible associations with birth defects. Methods Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), a multi-site population-based case-control study, we examined whether NVP or its treatment was associated with the most common non-cardiac defects in the NBDPS (non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P), cleft palate alone (CP), neural tube defects (NTDs), and hypospadias) compared to randomly-selected non-malformed live births. Results Among the 4524 cases and 5859 controls included in this study, 67.1% reported first trimester NVP, and 15.4% of them reported using at least one agent for NVP. Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy was not associated with CP or NTDs, but modest risk reductions were observed for CL/P (aOR=0.87, 0.77–0.98), and hypospadias (OR=0.84, 0.72–0.98). In regards to treatments for NVP in the first trimester, the following adjusted associations were observed with an increased risk: proton pump inhibitors and hypospadias (aOR=4.36, 1.21–15.81), steroids and hypospadias (aOR=2.87, 1.03–7.97), and ondansetron and CP (aOR=2.37, 1.18–4.76), while antacids were associated with a reduced risk for CL/P (aOR=0.58, 0.38–0.89). Conclusions Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy was not observed to be associated with an increased risk of birth defects, but possible risks related to three treatments (i.e. proton pump inhibitors, steroids and ondansetron), which could be chance findings, warrant further investigation. PMID:22102545

  3. Olanzapine for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gidey, Kidu; Mamo, Ayele; Yohannes, Berhane; Matso, Tsehay; Melaku, Tsegaye

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) remains the most distressing event in patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC). Objective: Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of olanzapine containing regimen in preventing acute, delayed and overall phases of CINV. Methods: PubMed, EBSCO, and Cochrane central register of controlled trials electronic databases were searched to identify RCTs that compared the effects of olanzapine with non-olanzapine regimen in preventing CINV. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that compared olanzapine containing regimen with non-olanzapine regimen were included. The primary outcomes were the percentage of patients achieving no vomiting or no nausea in acute, delayed and overall phases. Results: 13 RCTs that enrolled 1686 participants were included in this meta-analysis. 852 patients were assigned to olanzapine and 834 patients were assigned to non-olanzapine regimen (other standard antiemetic regimen). The percentages of no emesis achieved were 87.5%, 76.2%, 73.6% in olanzapine versus 76.7%, 61.8%, and 56.4% in non-olanzapine regimen in acute, delayed and overall phases, respectively. The percentages of no nausea were 82%, 64.3%, 61.6% in olanzapine group versus 71.3%, 41.8%, and 40.6% in non-olanzapine group in acute, delayed and overall phases, respectively. In general, olanzapine containing regimen achieved statistical superiority to non-olanzapine regimen in no vomiting endpoint in acute phase (OR 2.16; 95%CI 1.60 to 2.91, p<0.00001; I-square=5%; p=0.40), delayed phase (OR 2.28; 95%CI 1.1.46 to 3.54, p=0.0003; I-square=65%; p=0.001) and overall phase (OR 2.48; 95%CI 1.59 to 3.86, p<0.0001; I-square=69%; p< 0.0001). Conclusion: The current meta-analysis showed that olanzapine was statistically and clinically superior to non-olanzapine regimen in preventing CINV in most domains of the parameters. PMID:28503222

  4. Successful treatment of chronic nausea and vomiting related to body piercing and tattooing with integrative medicine interventions.

    PubMed

    Chung, M Kyu; LaRiccia, Patrick J

    2015-01-01

    Chronic nausea and vomiting of uncertain etiology can be debilitating and uncomfortable for patients while frustrating for clinicians. This article presents the case of a young woman with chronic nausea and vomiting of unknown etiology resulting from body piercing and tattoo scars on body areas that Chinese Medicine asserts are related to the gastrointestinal system. The patient had long-term total resolution after 1 treatment session consisting of neural therapy for scars resulting from a tongue ring, belly ring, and tattoo near her left wrist along with acupuncture treatment. The research community is called to further evaluate the possible association of body piercing and tattooing with nausea and vomiting along with the possible treatment options of neural therapy and acupuncture.

  5. Predicting postoperative vomiting among orthopedic patients receiving patient-controlled epidural analgesia using SVM and LR.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsin-Yun; Gong, Cihun-Siyong Alex; Lin, Shih-Pin; Chang, Kuang-Yi; Tsou, Mei-Yung; Ting, Chien-Kun

    2016-06-01

    Patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) has been applied to reduce postoperative pain in orthopedic surgical patients. Unfortunately, PCEA is occasionally accompanied by nausea and vomiting. The logistic regression (LR) model is widely used to predict vomiting, and recently support vector machines (SVM), a supervised machine learning method, has been used for classification and prediction. Unlike our previous work which compared Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) with LR, this study uses a SVM-based predictive model to identify patients with high risk of vomiting during PCEA and comparing results with those derived from the LR-based model. From January to March 2007, data from 195 patients undergoing PCEA following orthopedic surgery were applied to develop two predictive models. 75% of the data were randomly selected for training, while the remainder was used for testing to validate predictive performance. The area under curve (AUC) was measured using the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (ROC). The area under ROC curves of LR and SVM models were 0.734 and 0.929, respectively. A computer-based predictive model can be used to identify those who are at high risk for vomiting after PCEA, allowing for patient-specific therapeutic intervention or the use of alternative analgesic methods.

  6. A literature review of the effectiveness of ginger in alleviating mild-to-moderate nausea and vomiting of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bryer, Eva

    2005-01-01

    Mild-to-moderate nausea and vomiting of pregnancy affects up to 80% of all pregnancies. Concern about antiemetic use and the time-limited nature of symptoms has restrained the development of effective treatment approaches, yet supportive, dietary, and lifestyle changes may be ineffective. This article reviews 4 recent well-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical studies that provide convincing evidence for the effectiveness of ginger in treating nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. It also provides a dosage update for the various forms of ginger.

  7. Less is more: reducing the reliance on animal models for nausea and vomiting research.

    PubMed

    Robinson, V

    2009-07-01

    Animals have been used as experimental models for centuries and their use has enabled researchers to make significant advances in many areas of human health and disease. However, this is not always the case and there are limitations in using animal models as surrogates for humans, which have hampered the development of efficacious therapeutics for some pathologies. Scientific limitations, together with ethical concerns, legislative changes and the current economic climate are driving researchers to look for and develop alternative non-animal research tools. Technological advances in tissue engineering, 'omics' approaches and in silico modelling for example, are enabling scientists to conduct their research without using animals in a broad range of disciplines, including complex multi-system reflexes such as nausea and vomiting.

  8. Prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in elderly cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Jan Nyrop; Herrstedt, Jørn

    2009-09-01

    There is a global and continuing increase in the population of elderly people. This is particularly true among patients with cancer including those receiving chemotherapy. There are no guidelines that in particular address prophylaxis of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in the elderly. Elderly have a potential decreased risk of CINV due to the fact that they are often treated with less emetic chemotherapy and due to the fact that high age is protective. On the other hand, elderly have an increased risk of toxicity from antiemetics due to age-related decrease in organ function, use of poly-pharmacy with increased risk of drug-drug interactions and due to co-morbidity. Compliance needs to be carefully evaluated, particularly in patients with high risk of non-compliance, such as elderly with dementia and impaired vision.

  9. Fosaprepitant dimeglumine for the management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: patient selection and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Candelario, Nellowe; Lu, Marvin Louis Roy

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a debilitating side effect of antineoplastic agents. Several treatment regimens are used to address this problem. Fosaprepitant is a neurokinin-1 receptor blocker used in the prevention and treatment of CINV, especially for moderately and severely emetogenic chemotherapy. It is highly effective in the treatment of delayed CINV. Data from previous studies show that fosaprepitant is noninferior to aprepitant in the management of CINV. Fosaprepitant is given as a single-dose intravenous infusion, thus offering better patient compliance. The dose-limiting side effect of fosaprepitant is an infusion-related reaction, ranging from pain at the infusion site to thrombophlebitis. This side effect has been reported with coadministration of anthracycline agents. PMID:27382332

  10. Rolapitant hydrochloride: prophylactic treatment for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Navari, R

    2016-08-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a significant clinical issue which affects patients' quality of life as well as treatment decisions. Significant improvements in the control of CINV have occurred in the past 15 years with the introduction of new antiemetic agents: 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonists and olanzapine. Aprepitant was the first NK1 receptor antagonist introduced (2003) for the prevention of CINV in combination with a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist and dexamethasone. Two additional NK1 receptor antagonists, netupitant and rolapitant, were approved by the FDA in 2014 and 2015, respectively. A description of rolapitant and its role in CINV will be presented, along with a comparison to the other NK1 receptor antagonists, aprepitant and netupitant. Copyright 2016 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  11. Addressing the value of novel therapies in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Schwartzberg, Lee

    2014-12-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a troubling side effect of cancer treatment and is often poorly controlled. As a consequence, CINV is associated with substantially increased costs of care and significant interference with patients' lives. Inadequate control over CINV results from factors that include failure to provide guideline-adherent prophylactic medication and limitations in available therapies. Newer serotonin receptor antagonists, such as palonosetron, and addition of neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonists to treatment have significantly decreased both acute and delayed CINV. A fixed-dose combination of palonosetron and a new NK-1 receptor, netupitant, is significantly superior to palonosetron alone and has small, but consistent, numerical advantages over aprepitant plus palonosetron for prevention of CINV. The combination of a serotonin receptor antagonist plus an NK-1 receptor antagonist has been shown to be cost-effective for prevention of CINV and the availability of a fixed-dose combination of netupitant and palonosetron may enhance this benefit.

  12. Palonosetron for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Mori-Vogt, Sherry; Blazer, Marlo

    2013-08-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) remains both a feared side effect of cancer treatment and a focus of many supportive care initiatives/guidelines. The class of medications known as serotonin receptor antagonists (5-HT3RAs) are integral in the prevention of CINV from both moderately and highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Palonosetron (ALOXI(®)), a second-generation 5-HT3RA, has a higher affinity for the 5-HT3 receptor, has a longer half-life and has unique interactions with the 5-HT3 receptor compared with the current first-generation 5-HT3RA such as ondansetron, granisetron, dolasetron and tropisetron. This may allow palonosetron an advantage in control of CINV. This review article examines the available evidence, the pharmacokinetics and the safety and tolerability of palonosetron in the prevention of CINV.

  13. Patient-centered management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Grunberg, Steven

    2012-04-01

    Oncology providers frequently underestimate the incidence of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), and patients often are reluctant to report symptoms. Inadequate patient-provider communication is a significant barrier to optimal management of this debilitating toxicity. The author reviews relevant published data and methods to optimize the clinical care of patients receiving chemotherapy with moderate-to-high emetogenic potential. Patient reticence plus physician expectations that patients will report symptoms accurately lead to lapses in communication and suboptimal clinical care. Communication strategies should serve to encourage patients to share the responsibility for establishing goals of therapy and understanding the risks and benefits of their selected antiemetic regimen, thereby becoming active participants in their own cancer care.

  14. Palonosetron hydrochloride for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Ruhlmann, Christina; Herrstedt, Jørn

    2010-02-01

    A large number of different 5-hydroxytryptamine (HT)(3) receptor antagonists have been marketed with the indication of preventing nausea and vomiting induced by chemotherapy--palonosetron is the most recently developed of these. Pharmacologic studies have revealed that palonosetron has a long half-life, a high affinity for 5-HT(3) receptors, exhibits allosteric binding to 5-HT(3) receptors and possess positive cooperativity. Although interesting, pharmacologic differences are only useful if they result in clinical advantages, such as an increase in efficacy and/or an improvement in tolerability. We summarize preclinical and clinical studies of palonosetron and compare the efficacy and tolerability with the other 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists, ondansetron, granisetron and dolasetron.

  15. Diffuse abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting due to retroperitoneal fibrosis: a rare but often missed diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Netzer, P; Binek, J; Hammer, B

    1997-10-01

    Retroperitoneal fibrosis is a rare chronic inflammatory disease usually involving the ureters, retroperitoneal vessels and nerves; however, any intestinal organ may also be involved. In recent years, a few successful immunosuppressive treatments of this disease have been described and surgery can, therefore, probably be avoided in most cases. We report here on a case of secondary retroperitoneal fibrosis with compression and midline deviation of the ureters and impaired renal function which was probably caused by ergotamine abuse because of migraine. The patient complained of diffuse abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. After immunosuppressive treatment with azathioprine and prednisone for a year, we observed a complete resolution of the retroperitoneal mass on computed tomography, although renal function remained impaired. Eleven months after the cessation of treatment, the patient had not relapsed.

  16. How evidence-based is the information on the internet about nausea and vomiting of pregnancy?

    PubMed

    Sacks, Samantha; Abenhaim, Haim A

    2013-08-01

    The Internet has become an important source of information about pregnancy and about health related concerns in general. This study assessed the quality of information available on the Internet for the common problem of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP). We used three search terms, "nausea and vomiting in pregnancy," "morning sickness," and "hyperemesis gravidarum," to identify the most popular sites as rated by Google. With modifications of previously described tools, the quality of the websites was rated in three categories: accountability using the Silberg criteria, presentation using a modified Abbott's score, and readability using the Flesch-Kincaid grade level score. Subsequently the information on the websites was compared with the SOGC guideline on management of NVP. We identified 24 unique websites as most popular. The overall scores for accountability indicated poor quality, with only 25% of the websites meeting the required criteria and less than one half of the sites indicating authorship and credentials. Esthetic appeal criteria were met in over 75% of the websites. The readability score of the websites was significantly above the score recommended for the general population, with an average Flesch-Kincaid Grade level score of 10.7 (max = 12). Eighty-seven percent of the websites contained accurate, evidence-based recommendations according to the information provided in the SOGC clinical practice guideline on management of NVP. Overall, the majority of information available online is accurate; however, the web pages demonstrated poor accountability and targeted an audience with a higher reading ability than the general population. Consideration of these findings would help create easy to navigate, credible web pages containing information to help women make informed decisions during pregnancy.

  17. Aromatherapy as treatment for postoperative nausea: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Ronald; Dienemann, Jacqueline; Norton, H James; Hartley, Wendy; Hudgens, Amanda; Stern, Thomas; Divine, George

    2013-09-01

    Postoperative nausea (PON) is a common complication of anesthesia and surgery. Antiemetic medication for higher-risk patients may reduce but does not reliably prevent PON. We examined aromatherapy as a treatment for patients experiencing PON after ambulatory surgery. Our primary hypothesis was that in comparison with inhaling a placebo, PON will be reduced significantly by aromatherapy with (1) essential oil of ginger, (2) a blend of essential oils of ginger, spearmint, peppermint, and cardamom, or (3) isopropyl alcohol. Our secondary hypothesis was that the effectiveness of aromatherapy will depend upon the agent used. A randomized trial of aromatherapy with patients who reported nausea in the postanesthesia care unit was conducted at one ambulatory surgical center. Eligibility criteria were adult, able to give consent, and no history of coagulation problems or allergy to the aromatherapy agents. Before surgery, demographic and risk factors were collected. Patients with a nausea level of 1 to 3 on a verbal descriptive scale (0-3) received a gauze pad saturated with a randomly chosen aromatherapy agent and were told to inhale deeply 3 times; nausea (0-3) was then measured again in 5 minutes. Prophylactic and postnausea antiemetics were given as ordered by physicians or as requested by the patient. A total of 1151 subjects were screened for inclusion; 303 subjects reporting nausea were enrolled (26.3%), and 301 meeting protocol were analyzed (26.2%). The change in nausea level was significant for the blend (P < 0.001) and ginger (P = 0.002) versus saline but not for alcohol (P < 0.76). The number of antiemetic medications requested after aromatherapy was also significantly reduced with ginger or blend aromatherapy versus saline (P = 0.002 and P < 0.001, respectively). The hypothesis that aromatherapy would be effective as a treatment for PON was supported. On the basis of our results, future research further evaluating aromatherapy is warranted. Aromatherapy is

  18. Integration of Vestibular and Emetic Gastrointestinal Signals that Produce Nausea and Vomiting: Potential Contributions to Motion Sickness

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Bill J.; Catanzaro, Michael F.; Miller, Daniel J.; McCall, Andrew A.

    2014-01-01

    Vomiting and nausea can be elicited by a variety of stimuli, although there is considerable evidence that the same brainstem areas mediate these responses despite the triggering mechanism. A variety of experimental approaches showed that nucleus tractus solitarius, the dorsolateral reticular formation of the caudal medulla (lateral tegmental field), and the parabrachial nucleus play key roles in integrating signals that trigger nausea and vomiting. These brainstem areas presumably coordinate the contractions of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles that result in vomiting. However, it is unclear whether these regions also mediate the autonomic responses that precede and accompany vomiting, including alterations in gastrointestinal activity, sweating, and changes in blood flow to the skin. Recent studies showed that delivery of an emetic compound to the gastrointestinal system affects the processing of vestibular inputs in the lateral tegmental field and parabrachial nucleus, potentially altering susceptibility for vestibular-elicited vomiting. Findings from these studies suggested that multiple emetic inputs converge on the same brainstem neurons, such that delivery of one emetic stimulus affects the processing of another emetic signal. Despite the advances in understanding the neurobiology of nausea and vomiting, much is left to be learned. Additional neurophysiologic studies, particularly those conducted in conscious animals, will be crucial to discern the integrative processes in the brainstem that result in emesis. PMID:24736862

  19. Palonosetron for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Navari, Rudolph M

    2014-12-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is associated with a significant deterioration in quality of life. The emetogenicity of the chemotherapeutic agents, repeated chemotherapy cycles, and patient risk factors significantly influence CINV. The introduction of 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists has been a major factor in the improvement of the prevention of chemotherapy-induced acute and delayed emesis. Palonosetron , a second-generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonist with a different half-life, a different binding capacity, and a different mechanism of action than the first-generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonists appears to be the most effective agent in this drug class. Palonosetron's chemistry, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, metabolism, clinical efficacy, including comparison with other antiemetics, role in controlling nausea, potential role in multi-day chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation, and overall safety are discussed. The clinical data in the literature have established palonosetron as the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist of choice in terms of efficacy and safety for the prevention of CINV for patients receiving moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Three international guidelines have listed palonosetron as the preferred 5-HT3 receptor antagonist. Due to its higher efficacy, the use of palonosetron may be more cost effective compared to the generic first-generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. Clinical organizations' pharmacy and formulary committees should consider efficacy when making recommendations for agents for the prevention of CINV.

  20. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Marx, Wolfgang M; Teleni, Laisa; McCarthy, Alexandra L; Vitetta, Luis; McKavanagh, Dan; Thomson, Damien; Isenring, Elisabeth

    2013-04-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a common side-effect of cytotoxic treatment. It continues to affect a significant proportion of patients despite the widespread use of antiemetic medication. In traditional medicine, ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been used to prevent and treat nausea in many cultures for thousands of years. However, its use has not been confirmed in the chemotherapy context. To determine the potential use of ginger as a prophylactic or treatment for CINV, a systematic literature review was conducted. Reviewed studies comprised randomized controlled trials or crossover trials that investigated the anti-CINV effect of ginger as the sole independent variable in chemotherapy patients. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. All studies were assessed on methodological quality and their limitations were identified. Studies were mixed in their support of ginger as an anti-CINV treatment in patients receiving chemotherapy, with three demonstrating a positive effect, two in favor but with caveats, and two showing no effect on measures of CINV. Future studies are required to address the limitations identified before clinical use can be recommended.

  1. The role of cannabinoids in regulation of nausea and vomiting, and visceral pain.

    PubMed

    Malik, Zubair; Baik, Daniel; Schey, Ron

    2015-02-01

    Marijuana derived from the plant Cannabis sativa has been used for the treatment of many gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, including anorexia, emesis, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and others. However, its psychotropic side effects have often limited its use. Several cannabinoid receptors, which include the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1), CB2, and possibly GPR55, have been identified throughout the GI tract. These receptors may play a role in the regulation of food intake, nausea and emesis, gastric secretion and gastroprotection, GI motility, ion transport, visceral sensation, intestinal inflammation, and cell proliferation in the gut. However, the regulation of nausea and vomiting by cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system has shed new knowledge in this field. Thus far, despite evidence of visceral sensitivity inhibition in animal models, data in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients is scarce and not supportive. Furthermore, many compounds that either act directly at the receptor or increase (or reduce) ligand availability have the potential to affect other brain functions and cause side effects. Novel drug targets such as FAAH and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inhibitors appear to be promising in animal models, but more studies are necessary to prove their efficiency. The promise of emerging drugs that are more selective and peripherally acting suggest that, in the near future, cannabinoids will play a major role in managing an array of GI diseases.

  2. Recent developments in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV): a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Jordan, K; Jahn, F; Aapro, M

    2015-06-01

    The prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) has been revolutionized over the past 25 years. Guideline-based treatment means that vomiting can be prevented in the majority, but not in all patients. Therefore, antiemetic research continues with the goal of optimizing CINV control for all patients. This comprehensive review summarizes the research efforts in this field over the past few years. Emerging from this research are two new antiemetic agents, netupitant/palonosetron, the first antiemetic combination agent and rolapitant, a new NK1RA. In addition, studies have evaluated the benefits of olanzapine and ginger, explored optimal combinations of agents for delayed CINV prevention, confirmed that dexamethasone-sparing regimens are effective, and demonstrated the value of NK1RAs in high-dose chemotherapy settings as well as with certain moderately emetogenic chemotherapies such as carboplatin. Research has also validated the correlation between antiemetic guideline adherence and improved CINV control. Finally, regulatory authorities have utilized extreme caution in retiring some 5-HT3RAs or decreasing their maximum dose. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Corticosteroids for adult patients with advanced cancer who have nausea and vomiting (not related to chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or surgery).

    PubMed

    Vayne-Bossert, Petra; Haywood, Alison; Good, Phillip; Khan, Sohil; Rickett, Kirsty; Hardy, Janet R

    2017-07-03

    Nausea is a common symptom in advanced cancer, with a prevalence of up to 70%. While nausea and vomiting can be related to cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or surgery, a significant number of people with advanced cancer also suffer from nausea unrelated to such therapies. Nausea and vomiting may also cause psychological distress, and have a negative impact on the quality of life of cancer patients; similarly to pain, nausea is often under-treated. The exact mechanism of action of corticosteroids on nausea is unclear, however, they are used to manage a number of cancer-specific complications, including spinal cord compression, raised intracranial pressure, and lymphangitis carcinomatosis. They are also commonly used in palliative care for a wide variety of non-specific indications, such as pain, nausea, anorexia, fatigue, and low mood. However, there is little objective evidence of their efficacy in symptom control, and corticosteroids have a wide range of adverse effects that are dose and time dependent. In view of their widespread use, it is important to seek evidence of their effects on nausea and vomiting not related to cancer treatment. To assess the effects of corticosteroids on nausea and vomiting not related to chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or surgery in adult cancer patients. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE Ovid, Embase Ovid, CINAHL EBSCO, Science Citation Index Web of Science, Latin America and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS), Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science Web of Science, and clinical trial registries, from inception to 23rd August 2016. Any double-blind randomised or prospective controlled trial that included adults aged 18 years and over with advanced cancer with nausea and vomiting not related to chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or surgery were eligible for the review, when using corticosteroids as antiemetic treatment. All review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We used arithmetic means

  4. Olanzapine and Betamethasone Are Effective for the Treatment of Nausea and Vomiting due to Metastatic Brain Tumors of Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, M.; Komuro, K.; Ohara, K.

    2014-01-01

    Brain lesions originating from metastasis of colorectal cancer represent 3–5% of all brain metastases and are relatively rare. Of all distant metastases of colorectal cancer, those to the liver are detected in 22–29% of cases, while those to the lungs are detected in 8–18% of cases. In contrast, brain metastasis is quite rare, with a reported incidence ranging from 0.4 to 1.8%. Treatments for metastatic brain tumors include surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and supportive care with steroids, etc. Untreated patients exhibit a median survival of only approximately 1 month. The choice of treatment for brain metastasis depends on the number of lesions, the patient's general condition, nerve findings and presence of other metastatic lesions. We herein report the case of a 78-year-old male who presented with brain metastases originating from rectal carcinoma. He suffered from nausea, vomiting, anorexia and vertigo during body movement. He received antiemetics, glycerol and whole brain radiation therapy; however, these treatments proved ineffective. Olanzapine therapy was started at a dose of 1.25 mg every night. The persistent nausea disappeared the next day, and the frequency of vomiting subsequently decreased. The patient was able to consume solid food. Olanzapine is an antipsychotic that has recently been used as palliative therapy for refractory nausea and vomiting in patients receiving chemotherapy. We consider that olanzapine was helpful as a means of supportive care for the treatment of nausea and vomiting due to brain metastasis. PMID:24574944

  5. QoL evaluation of olanzapine for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting comparing with 5-HT3 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Tan, L; Zhang, H; Li, H; Liu, X; Yan, Z; Chen, J; Yang, H; Zhang, D

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of olanzapine in preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) and improving the quality of life (QoL) of patients with cancer during chemotherapy. Two hundred twenty-nine patients with cancer who received chemotherapy from January 2008 to August 2008 were enrolled, and they were randomised to receive olanzapine or a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist. The patients completed a CINV questionnaire once daily on days 1-5 and a QoL questionnaire on days 0 and 6. The complete response (CR) rates for nausea (76.85% versus 46.2%) and vomiting (84.3% versus 67.6%) were significantly higher in the olanzapine group than in the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist group for delayed CINV but not for acute CINV. The CR rates for nausea (76.85% versus 44.44%) and vomiting (85.95% versus 67.59%) were also significantly higher in the olanzapine group for the 5 days post-chemotherapy. After chemotherapy, global health status, emotional functioning, and insomnia were improved in the olanzapine group but worsened in the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist group, whereas cognitive functioning and appetite loss were unchanged. Moreover, olanzapine significantly improved global health status, emotional functioning, social functioning, fatigue, nausea/vomiting, insomnia, and appetite loss. Olanzapine improved the QoL of patients with cancer during chemotherapy, in part by reducing the incidence of delayed CINV. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. A review of olanzapine as an antiemetic in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and in palliative care patients.

    PubMed

    Fonte, C; Fatigoni, S; Roila, F

    2015-08-01

    Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic agent that blocks multiple neuronal receptors involved in the nausea and vomiting pathways. It has therefore been studied for the prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced emesis and in patients in palliative care presenting nausea and vomiting refractory to standard antiemetics. Some studies have shown that olanzapine was not inferior to aprepitant in the prophylaxis of highly and moderately emetogenic chemotherapy and that it increased the rate of complete response when added to a combination of a 5-HT3 antagonist, aprepitant and dexamethasone. These studies present so many shortcomings, however, that they do not permit us to draw any firm conclusions. Oral olanzapine showed superior antiemetic efficacy to metoclopramide as rescue treatment to control breakthrough emesis induced by chemotherapy. However, an oral formulation is not appropriate because in patients with vomiting or severe nausea the mere ingestion of an oral drug could induce emesis. Finally, in palliative care olanzapine could control or reduce the intensity of nausea and vomiting refractory to standard antiemetics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cannabinoids for nausea and vomiting in adults with cancer receiving chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lesley A; Azariah, Fredric; Lavender, Verna T C; Stoner, Nicola S; Bettiol, Silvana

    2015-11-12

    Cannabis has a long history of medicinal use. Cannabis-based medications (cannabinoids) are based on its active element, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and have been approved for medical purposes. Cannabinoids may be a useful therapeutic option for people with chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting that respond poorly to commonly used anti-emetic agents (anti-sickness drugs). However, unpleasant adverse effects may limit their widespread use. To evaluate the effectiveness and tolerability of cannabis-based medications for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in adults with cancer. We identified studies by searching the following electronic databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and LILACS from inception to January 2015. We also searched reference lists of reviews and included studies. We did not restrict the search by language of publication. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared a cannabis-based medication with either placebo or with a conventional anti-emetic in adults receiving chemotherapy. At least two review authors independently conducted eligibility and risk of bias assessment, and extracted data. We grouped studies based on control groups for meta-analyses conducted using random effects. We expressed efficacy and tolerability outcomes as risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We included 23 RCTs. Most were of cross-over design, on adults undergoing a variety of chemotherapeutic regimens ranging from moderate to high emetic potential for a variety of cancers. The majority of the studies were at risk of bias due to either lack of allocation concealment or attrition. Trials were conducted between 1975 and 1991. No trials involved comparison with newer anti-emetic drugs such as ondansetron. Comparison with placebo People had more chance of reporting complete absence of vomiting (3 trials; 168 participants; RR 5.7; 95% CI 2.6 to 12.6; low quality evidence

  8. Use of olanzapine for the relief of nausea and vomiting in patients with advanced cancer: a multicenter survey in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kaneishi, Keisuke; Nishimura, Kazunori; Sakurai, Norio; Imai, Kengo; Matsuo, Naoki; Takahashi, Naoko; Okamoto, Kenichiro; Suga, Akihiko; Sano, Hiromi; Maeda, Isseki; Nishina, Haruhiro; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Morita, Tatsuya; Iwase, Satoru

    2016-06-01

    Nausea and vomiting are among the most common and distressing symptoms in patients with advanced cancer. Olanzapine, an antipsychotic agent, is known to have an affinity for multiple neurotransmitter receptors. Previous studies have reported olanzapine to be efficacious in the treatment of nausea and vomiting. Although it has been administered at a number of facilities, its applicability to treat nausea and vomiting in patients with advanced cancer is poorly understood. We investigated the use of olanzapine for nausea and vomiting in patients with advanced cancer at multiple centers. This retrospective study was carried out at seven palliative care units and three facilities with palliative care teams in Japan from 2013 to 2015. The dosage of olanzapine, treatment duration, and duration from initial use until death were collected from the medical records. One hundred and eight patients met our inclusion criteria. The average dose of olanzapine was 3.6 mg (2.5 mg, n = 61; 5 mg, n = 46; 10 mg, n = 1) and average treatment duration was 18.7 days. The average duration from initial use until death was 39.0 days. There were no differences in the duration of administration until death between olanzapine doses (2.5 and 5 mg). Our results suggest that olanzapine have been used in patients with poor prognoses for nausea and vomiting in patients with advanced cancer. Conducting a prospective trial would further yield promising results.

  9. Effect of concord grape juice on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ingersoll, Gail L; Wasilewski, Amy; Haller, Michele; Pandya, Kishan; Bennett, John; He, Hua; Hoffmire, Claire; Berry, Cynthia

    2010-03-01

    To determine the feasibility of administering a flavonoid-rich adjunctive treatment (Concord grape juice) for the management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV); to evaluate the usefulness of existing measures for assessing CINV frequency and severity, quality of life, control over life events, and psychological state; to identify any actual or potential adverse events associated with frequent grape juice intake; and to provide preliminary data concerning the effect of Concord grape juice on CINV, quality of life, perceived control over life events, and psychological state. Double-blind, randomized clinical trial. A cancer center in an academic health science center in the northeastern United States. 77 adult patients with cancer receiving moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy agents. Participants drank 4 oz. of grape juice or placebo prior to meals for one week following each of four chemotherapy treatment cycles. They recorded frequency, duration, and distress of nausea, vomiting, and retching daily, beginning the evening of chemotherapy administration and continuing for seven days. Data were analyzed with generalized estimating equations methodology to model differences between groups over time. Nausea and vomiting frequency, duration, and distress; quality of life; control over decision making; and psychological state. Nausea and vomiting frequency, duration, and distress were lower for experimental group members, although a high attrition rate (50%) resulted in insufficient power to detect statistically significant differences over time. Greater levels of anxiety, depression, and hostility at baseline were related to nausea and vomiting, quality of life, and perceived control over decision making. The effect of grape juice flavonoids on CINV should be investigated further with a larger sample to determine whether preliminary findings are supported. Alterations to the study protocol will be necessary to decrease attrition. Flavonoid

  10. Impact of nausea/vomiting on quality of life as a visual analogue scale-derived utility score.

    PubMed

    Grunberg, S M; Boutin, N; Ireland, A; Miner, S; Silveira, J; Ashikaga, T

    1996-11-01

    Pharmacoeconomic analysis is often based upon incremental cost per increase in survival (cost-effectiveness). Using this definition supportive care measures, which increase quality but not quantity of life, generate a zero denominator and cannot be directly compared with other components of health care cost. Cost-utility analysis, which measures incremental cost per increase in quality-adjusted life-years (QALY), where QALY = utility score x time at risk, addresses this problem, since successful supportive intervention increases the utility score and thus provides a finite denominator in QALY even when absolute survival is unchanged. However, utility scores for various supportive care modalities have not been well defined. As a pilot study to generate a first approximation of a utility score for nausea/vomiting, we used a rating scale technique and administered two visual analogue scale questions to 30 patients completing a cycle of chemotherapy. Patients rated their global quality of life during their previous cycle of chemotherapy with hypothetical absence or presence of nausea/vomiting as the only variable. The study population included 8 male and 22 female patients, with a median age of 56 years. The most common malignancies were breast cancer (8 patients), lung cancer (7 patients), and hematologic malignancies (7 patients). On a 100 mm visual analogue scale, the mean score for overall quality of life during chemotherapy was 79 mm without nausea/vomiting and 27 mm with nausea/vomiting (P < 0.001, paired t-test). The implied marked increase in utility with relief of nausea/vomiting suggests a significant impact on cost-utility analysis. Similar methodology could be used to estimate utility scores in other areas of supportive care.

  11. Reviewing the evidence for using continuous subcutaneous metoclopramide and ondansetron to treat nausea & vomiting during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Reichmann, James P; Kirkbride, Michael S

    2012-05-01

    To examine the medical evidence regarding the clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of the application of continuous subcutaneous metoclopramide and ondansetron to treat nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. All of the published peer-reviewed articles on the subject were assembled and assigned a level of evidence based on research design. The search uncovered one level II matched, controlled trial and three level III uncontrolled, retrospective case series published in peer review journals, as well as a book chapter. The book chapter, although not subjected to the peer-review process, is included in this review due to the paucity of other evidence. The matched cohort trial showed that continuous subcutaneous metoclopramide is significantly less-tolerated than continuous subcutaneous ondansetron (31.8% vs. 4.4%; P < 0.001). The four case series reported complete symptom resolution for 63.9% to 75% of the patients. Complications arose in 24.9% to 30.5% of the selected cases that were severe enough to require discontinuation of therapy. Complications included side effects of a worsening of symptoms. All of the trials are retrospective and observational in nature and, therefore, subject to the limitations inherent in the research design. Absent the benefit of meaningful cohort controls, comparative statements effectiveness cannot be substantiated with the available data. Randomized, controlled trials of sufficient power are necessary before long-term continuous subcutaneous metoclopramide or ondansetron can be used on a widespread basis to treat nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. Cost approximations in the case series are reported and, when compared to the cost of other methods of treatment previously published in the medical literature, the therapy appears to be cost-prohibitive. However, definitive statements cannot be made regarding cost-effectiveness until clinical efficacy is demonstrated through a sufficiently powered, well-designed, randomized control

  12. Reviewing current and emerging antiemetics for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Natale, James J

    2015-01-01

    This review provides background information on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) classification and pathophysiology and reviews various antiemetic agents for CINV prophylaxis, including corticosteroids, serotonin receptor antagonists (5-HT3 RAs), tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonists (NK1 RAs), and olanzapine. Other less commonly used agents are briefly discussed. Practical considerations are reviewed as well, including emetogenicity of chemotherapeutic regimens, patient-specific risk factors for CINV, principles of CINV management, health economics outcome research, and quality of life. Available data on the newly FDA-approved antiemetic combination netupitant/palonosetron (NEPA) is also reviewed. Prevention of CINV is an important goal in managing patients with cancer and is especially difficult with respect to nausea and delayed CINV. Corticosteroids are a mainstay of CINV prophylaxis and are usually given in combination with other therapies. The 5-HT3 RA palonosetron has shown increased efficacy over other agents in the same class for prevention of delayed emesis with moderately emetogenic chemotherapy and NK1 RAs improve emesis prevention in combination with 5-HT3 RAs and dexamethasone. Olanzapine has shown efficacy for CINV prophylaxis and the treatment of breakthrough CINV. The new combination therapy, NEPA, has been shown to be efficacious for the prevention of acute, delayed, and overall CINV. Risk factors that have been identified for CINV include gender, age, and alcohol intake. It is important to assess the emetogenicity of chemotherapy regimens as well as the potential impact of patient risk factors in order to provide adequate prophylaxis. Acute and delayed CINV are severe, burdensome side effects of chemotherapy; however, new data on prevention and the discovery of new agents can further improve CINV control.

  13. Efficacy of Ginger in Control of Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Doxorubicin-Based Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Mansour; Porouhan, Pezhman; Mohammadianpanah, Mohammad; Omidvari, Shapour; Mosalaei, Ahmad; Ahmadloo, Niloofar; Nasrollahi, Hamid; Hamedi, Seyed Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting are among the most serious side effects of chemotherapy, in some cases leading to treatment interruption or chemotherapy dose reduction. Ginger has long been known as an antiemetic drug, used for conditions such as motion sickness, nausea-vomiting in pregnancy, and post-operation side effects. One hundred and fifty female patients with breast cancer entered this prospective study and were randomized to receive ginger (500 mg ginger powder, twice a day for 3 days) or placebo. One hundred and nineteen patients completed the study: 57 of them received ginger and 62 received ginger for the frst 3 chemotherapy cycles. Mean age in all patients was 48.6 (25-79) years. After 1st chemotherapy, mean nausea in the ginger and control arms were 1.36 (±1.31) and 1.46 (±1.28) with no statistically significant difference. After the 2nd chemotherapy session, nausea score was slightly more in the ginger group (1.36 versus 1.32). After 3rd chemotherapy, mean nausea severity in control group was less than ginger group [1.37 (±1.14), versus 1.42 (±1.30)]. Considering all patients, nausea was slightly more severe in ginger arm. In ginger arm mean nausea score was 1.42 (±0.96) and in control arm it was 1.40 (±0.92). Mean vomiting scores after chemotherapy in ginger arm were 0.719 (±1.03), 0.68 (±1.00) and 0.77 (±1.18). In control arm, mean vomiting was 0.983 (±1.23), 1.03 (±1.22) and 1.15 (±1.27). In all sessions, ginger decreased vomiting severity from 1.4 (±1.04) to 0.71 (±0.86). None of the differences were significant. In those patients who received the AC regimen, vomiting was less severe (0.64±0.87) compared to those who received placebo (1.13±1.12), which was statistically significant (p-value <0.05). Further and larger studies are needed to draw conclusions.

  14. Management of platinum-based chemotherapy-induced acute nausea and vomiting: is there a superior serotonin receptor antagonist?

    PubMed

    Hamadani, Mehdi; Chaudhary, Lubna; Awan, Farrukh T; Khan, Jawad K; Kojouri, Kiarash; Ozer, Howard; Tfayli, Arafat

    2007-06-01

    The last decade has witnessed the great impact of 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor (5-HT(3))antagonists in revolutionizing the management of platinum-based chemotherapy-induced acute nausea and vomiting (CINV). However, despite the availability of a variety of 5-HT(3) antagonists, little data is published to support superiority of one drug over another, leaving the choice of serotonin receptor antagonist largely empirical. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network and American Society of Clinical Oncology guidelines for management of chemotherapy-associated nausea and vomiting cleary endorse the use of serotonin receptor antagonist; however, no single agent is preferred over the rest. Data for patients (n=159) receiving platinum-based chemotherapy regimens were retrospectively collected . Patients getting 5-HT(3) antagonists without steriods or those with known history of brain metastasis, gastroparesis, and intestinal obstruction were not eligible for the study. Patient characteristics including age, gender, primary diagnosis, history of heavy alcohol intake, chemotherapy regimen administered , number of cycles, and Eastern Cooperative Group performance status at the start of therapy were noted. Primary outcome was the complete control of platinum-induced acute nausea and vomiting. Secondary outcome measures included control of > or = grade 1 nausea or vomiting, comparison of two doses of dexamethasone, and antiemetic eficacy among various platinum drugs. National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria version 2.0 was used to assess toxicity. A total of 126 patients received 369 cycles of platinum-based therapy. Dolasetron ( n=157), granisetron ( n=81), and ondansetron ( n=131) achieved complete control of vomiting in 89.8, 95.5, and 92.3% (p=0.67) of cycles, respectively. Respectively, complete nausea control was observed in 68.1, 75.3 and, 69.4% (p=0.50). Dexamethasone 20 mg was not superior to 10 mg in complete control of nausea and vomiting ( p= 0.15 and p=0

  15. Neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Lucas Vieira; Souza, Fabiano Hahn; Brunetto, Andre Tesainer; Sasse, Andre Deeke; da Silveira Nogueira Lima, João Paulo

    2012-09-05

    The addition of neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) antagonists to antiemetic regimens has substantially reduced chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). We sought to systematically review the overall impact of NK1R antagonists on CINV prevention. We systematically searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases, and meeting proceedings for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated NK1R antagonists plus standard antiemetic therapy for CINV prevention. Complete response (CR) to therapy was defined as the absence of emesis and the absence of rescue therapy. The endpoints were defined as CR in the overall phase (during the first 120 hours of chemotherapy), CR in the acute phase (first 24 hours), and the delayed phase (24-120 hours) after chemotherapy, nausea, and toxicity. Subgroup analyses evaluated the type of NK1R antagonist used, the emetogenic potential of the chemotherapy regimen, and prolonged use of 5-HT3 (serotonin) receptor antagonists, a class of standard antiemetic agents. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effects model. Statistical tests for heterogeneity were one-sided; statistical tests for effect estimates and publication bias were two-sided. Seventeen trials (8740 patients) were included in this analysis. NK1R antagonists increased the CR rate in the overall phase from 54% to 72% (OR = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.46 to 0.57, P < .001). CR and nausea were improved in all phases and subgroups. The expected side effects from NK1R antagonists did not statistically significantly differ from previous reports; however, this analysis suggests that the incidence of severe infection increased from 2% to 6% in the NK1R antagonist group (three RCTs with a total of 1480 patients; OR = 3.10; 95% CI = 1.69 to 5.67, P < .001). NK1R antagonists increased CINV control in the acute, delayed, and overall phases. They are effective for both moderately and highly emetogenic chemotherapy regimens. Their use might be

  16. Dronabinol for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting unresponsive to antiemetics

    PubMed Central

    May, Megan Brafford; Glode, Ashley E

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is one of the most common symptoms feared by patients, but may be prevented or lessened with appropriate medications. Several antiemetic options exist to manage CINV. Corticosteroids, serotonin receptor antagonists, and neurokinin receptor antagonists are the classes most commonly used in the prevention of CINV. There are many alternative drug classes utilized for the prevention and management of CINV such as antihistamines, benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, cannabinoids, and dopamine receptor antagonists. Medications belonging to these classes generally have lower efficacy and are associated with more adverse effects. They are also not as well studied compared to the aforementioned agents. This review will focus on dronabinol, a member of the cannabinoid class, and its role in CINV. Cannabis sativa L. (also known as marijuana) contains naturally occurring delta-9-tetrahydrocannibinol (delta-9-THC). The synthetic version of delta-9-THC is the active ingredient in dronabinol that makes dronabinol an orally active cannabinoid. Evidence for clinical efficacy of dronabinol will be analyzed in this review as monotherapy, in combination with ondansetron, and in combination with prochlorperazine. PMID:27274310

  17. A Report of Nausea and Vomiting with Discontinuation of Chronic Use of Salvia divinorum.

    PubMed

    Travis, C R; Ray, G A; Marlowe, K F

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. This is the first reported case of gastrointestinal symptoms associated with withdrawal after chronic use of this substance. Case Presentation. A 51-year-old Caucasian woman was referred to a hospital with a 3-day history of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal discomfort. She reported no sick family members or contact with anyone who was ill. She did report smoking 3-5 cigarettes of the herb "Salvia" consistently for 3-4 months and quit approximately 48 hours before symptoms appeared. Her use of the herb had been consistent; she smoked several cigarettes each day. Laboratory results were essentially normal including the white blood cell count. She received symptomatic treatment and was released after one day. Discussion. Salvinorin A, a kappa-opioid receptor agonist, is the major active ingredient of S. divinorum. The unique opioid properties of this herb may explain its ability to cause changes in intestinal transit time. Conclusion. A 51-year-old woman possibly developed gastrointestinal manifestations suggestive of withdrawal from Salvia divinorum after smoking the substance consistently for 3 to 4 months. The widespread use of this herb will make the potential for withdrawal syndromes more commonplace.

  18. Nausea, vomiting, and heartburn in pregnancy: a prospective look at risk, treatment, and outcome.

    PubMed

    Naumann, Christopher R; Zelig, Craig; Napolitano, Peter G; Ko, Cynthia W

    2012-08-01

    To examine risk factors, treatment, and outcomes for nausea/vomiting (N/V) and heartburn during pregnancy. We included 2731 women from a prospective cohort study of gallbladder disease in pregnancy. Subjects completed questionnaires at enrollment, early third trimester, and 4-6 weeks postpartum. We used logistic regression to examine independent predictors of upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Ninety-five percent of pregnant women experienced either heartburn and/or N/V. Independent predictors for heartburn included prepregnancy heartburn (OR 5.28, 95% CI 3.78-7.37), multigravidity, prepregnancy body mass index, and pregnancy weight gain. Independent predictors for N/V included prepregnancy N/V (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.52-3.31), other digestive problems prepregnancy, younger age, single gestation, and carrying a female fetus. 11% of women with N/V and 47% of women with heartburn used pharmacologic therapy. Infants born to women with heartburn had significantly higher birth weights (p = 0.03), but gestational age at delivery was not significantly different. N/V was not associated with birth weight or gestational age at delivery. 19.7% of women with heartburn during pregnancy reported postpartum heartburn. Heartburn and N/V are common pregnancy symptoms, particularly among women with a history of such symptoms. Neither condition appears to adversely affect the outcome of pregnancy. Pregnancy-related heartburn predisposes to early postpartum heartburn.

  19. Dronabinol for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting unresponsive to antiemetics.

    PubMed

    May, Megan Brafford; Glode, Ashley E

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is one of the most common symptoms feared by patients, but may be prevented or lessened with appropriate medications. Several antiemetic options exist to manage CINV. Corticosteroids, serotonin receptor antagonists, and neurokinin receptor antagonists are the classes most commonly used in the prevention of CINV. There are many alternative drug classes utilized for the prevention and management of CINV such as antihistamines, benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, cannabinoids, and dopamine receptor antagonists. Medications belonging to these classes generally have lower efficacy and are associated with more adverse effects. They are also not as well studied compared to the aforementioned agents. This review will focus on dronabinol, a member of the cannabinoid class, and its role in CINV. Cannabis sativa L. (also known as marijuana) contains naturally occurring delta-9-tetrahydrocannibinol (delta-9-THC). The synthetic version of delta-9-THC is the active ingredient in dronabinol that makes dronabinol an orally active cannabinoid. Evidence for clinical efficacy of dronabinol will be analyzed in this review as monotherapy, in combination with ondansetron, and in combination with prochlorperazine.

  20. Differential clinical pharmacology of rolapitant in delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV)

    PubMed Central

    Rashad, Noha; Abdel-Rahman, Omar

    2017-01-01

    Rolapitant is a highly selective neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist, orally administered for a single dose of 180 mg before chemotherapy with granisetron D1, dexamethasone 8 mg BID on day 2–4. It has a unique pharmacological characteristic of a long plasma half-life (between 163 and 183 hours); this long half-life makes a single use sufficient to cover the delayed emesis risk period. No major drug–drug interactions between rolapitant and dexamethasone or other cytochrome P450 inducers or inhibitors were observed. The clinical efficacy of rolapitant was studied in two phase III trials in highly emetogenic chemotherapy and in one clinical trial in moderately emetogenic chemotherapy. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving a complete response (defined as no emesis or use of rescue medication) in the delayed phase (>24–120 hours after chemotherapy). In comparison to granisetron (10 μg/kg intravenously) and dexamethasone (20 mg orally) on day 1, and dexamethasone (8 mg orally) twice daily on days 2–4 and placebo, rolapitant showed superior efficacy in the control of delayed and overall emesis. This review aims at revising the pharmacological characteristics of rolapitant, offering an updated review of the available clinical efficacy and safety data of rolapitant in different clinical settings, highlighting the place of rolapitant in the management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) among currently available guidelines, and exploring the future directions of CINV management. PMID:28392676

  1. Differential pharmacology and clinical utility of rolapitant in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Rapoport, Bernardo Leon

    2017-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a debilitating side effect of many cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens. CINV typically manifests during two well-defined time periods (acute and delayed phases). The acute phase is the first 24 hours after chemotherapy and is largely managed with 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor antagonists. The delayed phase, a 5-day at-risk period during which patients are not often in direct contact with their health care provider, remains a significant unmet medical need. Neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonists have demonstrated protection against acute and delayed CINV in patients treated with highly emetogenic chemotherapy and moderately emetogenic chemotherapy when used in combination with a 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor antagonist and dexamethasone. Furthermore, recent data indicate that this protection is maintained over multiple treatment cycles. Rolapitant, a selective and long-acting NK-1 receptor antagonist, is approved as oral formulation for the prevention of delayed CINV in adults. This review discusses the differential pharmacology and clinical utility of rolapitant in preventing CINV compared with other NK-1 receptor antagonists. PMID:28260945

  2. Effects of ginger for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Maggie; Corbin, Renee; Leung, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy (NVEP) is commonly encountered in family medicine. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a popular nonpharmacological treatment but consensus of its use is lacking. We conducted a meta-analysis of clinical trials using ginger for NVEP as published in PubMed and EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and all EBM reviews. Studies satisfying 3 criteria were selected: (1) randomized placebo-controlled design; (2) use of ginger or Z. officinale; and (3) extractable data on improvement in NVEP. Data were synthesized into pooled odd ratios based on the random effects model, and results were tabulated with the aid of Forest plots. We identified 135 potentially relevant records; only 6 studies met the final criteria. Of the total 508 subjects, 256 and 252 subjects were randomly assigned to receive ginger and placebo, respectively. The use of ginger (∼1 g daily) for at least 4 days is associated with a 5-fold likelihood of improvement in NVEP. Heterogeneity among the clinical studies were acknowledged in the final interpretation of results. Despite the widespread use of ginger in the diet, its clinic value and safety profile in treating NVEP is still unknown. Our meta-analysis suggests that ginger is an effective nonpharmacological treatment for NVEP.

  3. The Leading Concerns of American Women with Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy Calling Motherisk NVP Helpline

    PubMed Central

    Madjunkova, Svetlana; Maltepe, Caroline; Koren, Gideon

    2013-01-01

    Background. Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) is the most common medical condition of pregnancy, affecting up to 85% of expecting mothers. In the USA, there is no FDA-approved medication for the treatment of NVP. Objective. To identify the primary concerns of American women leading them to contact the Motherisk NVP Helpline and to characterize the severity of their symptoms and therapy offered in order to develop improved and customized counseling for them. Methods. We reviewed the intake forms of the American women who called the NVP Helpline from 2008 to 2012. We extracted their state of residence, demographic data, severity of NVP symptoms, and other available clinical characteristics. Results. A total of 195 forms were reviewed. Of these, 86% called for information on management of NVP with/without questions about fetal drug safety, while 14% called solely about drug safety during pregnancy/breastfeeding. The majority of women were Caucasian, in their thirties, educated, employed, married and in their second pregnancy. Of them 95% were suffering from moderate-to-severe condition with 13% having hyperemesis gravidarum. Conclusion. American women need more information on the management of NVP and on a variety of its aspects in addition to the safety and effectiveness of antiemetic medications. Their leading concern was the use of doxylamine and vitamin B6 combination for NVP treatment followed by the use of ondansetron. PMID:23690784

  4. A Report of Nausea and Vomiting with Discontinuation of Chronic Use of Salvia divinorum

    PubMed Central

    Travis, C. R.; Ray, G. A.; Marlowe, K. F.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. This is the first reported case of gastrointestinal symptoms associated with withdrawal after chronic use of this substance. Case Presentation. A 51-year-old Caucasian woman was referred to a hospital with a 3-day history of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal discomfort. She reported no sick family members or contact with anyone who was ill. She did report smoking 3–5 cigarettes of the herb “Salvia” consistently for 3-4 months and quit approximately 48 hours before symptoms appeared. Her use of the herb had been consistent; she smoked several cigarettes each day. Laboratory results were essentially normal including the white blood cell count. She received symptomatic treatment and was released after one day. Discussion. Salvinorin A, a kappa-opioid receptor agonist, is the major active ingredient of S. divinorum. The unique opioid properties of this herb may explain its ability to cause changes in intestinal transit time. Conclusion. A 51-year-old woman possibly developed gastrointestinal manifestations suggestive of withdrawal from Salvia divinorum after smoking the substance consistently for 3 to 4 months. The widespread use of this herb will make the potential for withdrawal syndromes more commonplace. PMID:22611407

  5. Treatment of Breakthrough and Refractory Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting.

    PubMed

    Navari, Rudolph M

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant progress in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) with the introduction of new antiemetic agents, 30-50% of patients receiving moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC or HEC) and guideline directed prophylactic antiemetics develop breakthrough CINV. International guidelines recommend the treatment of breakthrough CINV with an agent from a drug class that was not used in the prophylactic antiemetic regimen and recommend using the breakthrough medication continuously rather than using it on an as needed basis. There have been very few studies on the treatment of breakthrough CINV. A recent double-blind, randomized, phase III study suggested that olanzapine may be an effective agent for the treatment of breakthrough CINV. Refractory CINV occurs when patients develop CINV during subsequent cycles of chemotherapy when antiemetic prophylaxis has not been successful in controlling CINV in earlier cycles. Patients who develop refractory CINV should be considered for a change in their prophylactic antiemetic regimen. If significant anxiety exists, a benzodiazepine may be added to the prophylactic regimen. If a refractory patient is receiving HEC, olanzapine may be added to the prophylactic regimen. If the patient is receiving MEC, olanzapine or an NK-1 receptor antagonist may be added to the prophylactic regimen.

  6. Emerging Role of Olanzapine for Prevention and Treatment of Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting.

    PubMed

    DeRemer, David L; Clemmons, Amber B; Orr, Julianne; Clark, Stephen Michael; Gandhi, Arpita Shah

    2016-02-01

    The prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) continues to pose a challenge for clinicians. The development of 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) antagonists and neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists (NK1 -RAs) have demonstrated significant improvements in acute and delayed CINV for highly and moderately emetogenic chemotherapy. Delayed and breakthrough CINV, however, continue to be difficult to manage despite available treatment agents. Randomized clinical trial data suggest that olanzapine, a second-generation thienobenzodiazepine, traditionally used in the treatment of manifestations of psychotic disorders, is an effective agent in these clinical settings. The short-term use of olanzapine has a favorable adverse event profile and was not associated with grade 3 or 4 toxicity in a phase III study. Olanzapine is recommended as an option within first-line prophylaxis for CINV in the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines and is an option for treatment of refractory CINV in the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer/European Society for Medical Oncology and NCCN guidelines. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  7. Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: an overview and comparison of three consensus guidelines.

    PubMed

    Tageja, Nishant; Groninger, Hunter

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) remains one of the most debilitating toxicities associated with cancer treatment. In recent decades, significant strides have been made in our understanding of the pathophysiology of CINV, making way to more effective targeted pharmacotherapies, especially 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor antagonists and neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonists. As much as 70%-80% of CINV can be prevented with appropriate administration of available antiemetics. Nevertheless, fear of CINV still may diminish cancer treatment adherence. To assimilate and summarise the rapidly growing body of clinical research literature on CINV, three professional organisations-the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer/European Society for Medical Oncology, the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network-have created CINV management guidelines. While these respective guidelines are developed from similar consensus processes using similar clinical research literature, their results demonstrate several key differences in recommended strategies. This article aims to provide an overview of CINV pathophysiology, compare and contrast three expert guidelines and offer considerations for future clinical and research challenges. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Safety evaluation of aprepitant for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Ruhlmann, Christina H; Herrstedt, Jørn

    2011-05-01

    Aprepitant is the only neurokinin (NK(1)) receptor antagonist (RA) approved for prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). Aprepitant is co-administered with a 5-HT(3) RA and a corticosteroid. Although aprepitant is safe, in most clinical settings potential drug-drug interactions need to be considered before prescription. This article thoroughly reviews aprepitant and, in particular, clinically relevant safety aspects of the drug. The literature review was performed using Medline with the following search terms: adverse events, aprepitant, chemotherapy, CYP3A4, MK-0869, neurokinin(1) receptor antagonist, safety and tolerability. The recommended antiemetic regimen of aprepitant, a 5-HT(3) RA and a corticosteroid is safe. The combination of aprepitant, a 5-HT(3) RA and dexamethasone is now the gold standard of antiemetic treatment in prevention of CINV induced by HEC, or by the combination of an anthracycline and cyclophosphamide. The intravenous formulation of aprepitant used as a single dose is expected to be of benefit to cancer patients.

  9. Netupitant/Palonosetron: A Review in the Prevention of Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M

    2015-12-01

    An oral fixed combination of netupitant/palonosetron (NEPA; Akynzeo(®)) is available for use in the prevention of acute and delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). Netupitant is a highly selective neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist and palonosetron is a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist with a distinct pharmacological profile. Complete response rates during the delayed, acute and overall phases were significantly higher with single-dose netupitant 300 mg plus palonosetron 0.5 mg than with single-dose palonosetron 0.5 mg in cycle 1 of cisplatin-based highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) in a phase II trial and with single-dose netupitant/palonosetron 300/0.5 mg than with single-dose palonosetron 0.5 mg in cycle 1 of anthracycline-cyclophosphamide (AC) moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC) in a phase III trial; the greater efficacy of netupitant/palonosetron was maintained over repeated cycles of AC MEC in the phase III trial. In another phase III trial, netupitant/palonosetron 300/0.5 mg was effective over repeated cycles of non-AC MEC or HEC. Netupitant/palonosetron was well tolerated, with no cardiac safety concerns. The convenience of administering netupitant/palonosetron as a single dose in a fixed combination has the potential to improve adherence to CINV prevention guidelines. In conclusion, netupitant/palonosetron is an important option to consider in the prevention of acute and delayed CINV in patients receiving MEC or HEC.

  10. Palonosetron for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Navari, Rudolph M

    2010-07-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is associated with a significant deterioration in quality of life. The emetogenicity of the chemotherapeutic agents, repeated chemotherapy cycles and patient characteristics (e.g., female gender, younger age, low alcohol consumption and history of motion sickness) are the major risk factors for CINV. This article provides a detailed description of palonosetron, a second-generation 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT(3)) receptor antagonist, which has been approved for the prevention of acute CINV in patients receiving either moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy and for the prevention of delayed CINV in patients receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy. In recent studies, compared with the first-generation 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists, palonosetron in combination with dexamethasone demonstrated better control of delayed CINV in patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy and had a similar safety profile. Owing to its efficacy in controlling both acute and delayed CINV, palonosetron may be very effective in the clinical setting of multiple-day chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation.

  11. Treatment of Breakthrough and Refractory Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Navari, Rudolph M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant progress in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) with the introduction of new antiemetic agents, 30–50% of patients receiving moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC or HEC) and guideline directed prophylactic antiemetics develop breakthrough CINV. International guidelines recommend the treatment of breakthrough CINV with an agent from a drug class that was not used in the prophylactic antiemetic regimen and recommend using the breakthrough medication continuously rather than using it on an as needed basis. There have been very few studies on the treatment of breakthrough CINV. A recent double-blind, randomized, phase III study suggested that olanzapine may be an effective agent for the treatment of breakthrough CINV. Refractory CINV occurs when patients develop CINV during subsequent cycles of chemotherapy when antiemetic prophylaxis has not been successful in controlling CINV in earlier cycles. Patients who develop refractory CINV should be considered for a change in their prophylactic antiemetic regimen. If significant anxiety exists, a benzodiazepine may be added to the prophylactic regimen. If a refractory patient is receiving HEC, olanzapine may be added to the prophylactic regimen. If the patient is receiving MEC, olanzapine or an NK-1 receptor antagonist may be added to the prophylactic regimen. PMID:26421294

  12. Granisetron Extended-Release Injection: A Review in Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting.

    PubMed

    Deeks, Emma D

    2016-12-01

    An extended-release (ER) subcutaneously injectable formulation of the first-generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonist granisetron is now available in the USA (Sustol(®)), where it is indicated for the prevention of acute and delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) following moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC) or anthracycline and cyclophosphamide combination chemotherapy regimens in adults. Granisetron ER is administered as a single subcutaneous injection and uses an erosion-controlled drug-delivery system to allow prolonged granisetron release. Primary endpoint data from phase III studies after an initial cycle of chemotherapy indicate that, when used as part of an antiemetic regimen, granisetron ER injection is more effective than intravenous ondansetron in preventing delayed CINV following highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC); is noninferior to intravenous palonosetron in preventing both acute CINV following MEC or HEC and delayed CINV following MEC; and is similar, but not superior, to palonosetron in preventing delayed CINV following HEC. The benefits of granisetron ER were seen in various patient subgroups, including those receiving anthracycline plus cyclophosphamide-based HEC, and (in an extension of one of the studies) over multiple MEC or HEC cycles. Granisetron ER injection is generally well tolerated, with an adverse event profile similar to that of ondansetron or palonosetron. Thus, granisetron ER injection expands the options for preventing both acute and delayed CINV in adults with cancer receiving MEC or anthracycline plus cyclophosphamide-based HEC.

  13. The outpatient management and special considerations of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Clark, Shannon M; Dutta, Eryn; Hankins, Gary D V

    2014-12-01

    With 50-90% of pregnant women experiencing nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP), the burden of illness can become quite significant if symptoms are under-treated and/or under-diagnosed, thus allowing for progression of the disease. The majority of these women will necessitate at least one visit with a provider to specifically address NVP, and up to 10% or greater will require pharmacotherapy after failure of conservative measures to adequately control symptoms. As a result, initiation of prompt and effective treatment in the outpatient setting is ideal. Once NVP is diagnosed and treatment is started, it is crucial to track symptoms in order to assess for a decrease in or resolution of symptoms as well as an escalation in symptoms requiring additional therapy. Of note, co-existing gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), Helicobacter pylori infection, and psychosocial factors may have a negative impact on the management of NVP. Ultimately, every woman has her own perception of disease severity and desire for treatment. It is critical that both the provider and patient be proactive in the diagnosis and management of NVP.

  14. Re-analysis of safety data supporting doxylamine use for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chin, Jessica W S; Gregor, Sarah; Persaud, Navindra

    2014-09-01

    Antihistamines are commonly used to treat nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP). We re-analyzed the 24 primary studies cited in a 1997 meta-analysis that concluded antihistamine use for NVP was safe as they had been studied in more than 200,000 participating women and the pooled odds ratio for congenital malformations was 0.76 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.60-0.94). Our analysis of this meta-analysis showed that 139,414 women were included in 22 original studies involving antihistamines, 129,108 of which were in studies involving doxylamine. In these studies, 23,485 women were exposed to antihistamines, 14,624 of which were exposed to doxylamine. The summary relative risk (cohort studies) and odds ratio (case-control studies) for congenital malformations from antihistamine exposure were 1.09 (95% CI: 1.01-1.18) and 1.04 (95% CI: 0.91-1.19), and for doxylamine exposure, the summary relative risk and odds ratio were 0.94 (95% CI: 0.80-1.10) and 1.07 (95% CI: 0.93-1.23), respectively. Although not a new systematic review, our re-analysis demonstrates that the safety data for antihistamines, and doxylamine in particular, are based on many fewer than 200,000 participating women and exposures, and that doxylamine use is not associated with a decreased risk of malformations as previously reported.

  15. Amisulpride in the prevention of nausea and vomiting induced by cisplatin-based chemotherapy: a dose-escalation study.

    PubMed

    Herrstedt, Jørn; Summers, Yvonne; Daugaard, Gedske; Christensen, Thomas B; Holmskov, Karin; Taylor, Paul D; Fox, Gabriel M; Molassiotis, Alexander

    2017-08-11

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the antiemetic effect of the dopamine D2- and dopamine D3-receptor antagonist, amisulpride, in patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy. This dose-finding, non-comparative study investigated the antiemetic effect and safety of increasing doses (2.5, 7.5 and 20 mg) of amisulpride against acute nausea and vomiting in the period 0-24 h after initiation of cisplatin-based chemotherapy. The 20 mg dose was also investigated in combination with the 5-HT3-receptor antagonist, ondansetron. The primary parameter was complete response (0-24 h), defined as no emesis and no need for rescue antiemetics. Secondary parameters were number of emetic episodes, severity of nausea and time to first emetic episode and start of nausea. A total of 51 patients were enrolled and evaluable. None of the 10 patients in the 2.5 and 7.5 mg groups obtained a CR. In the 20 mg monotherapy cohort, two of the 18 subjects (11%) had a CR, 3/18 (17%) had no emesis and 12/18 (67%) had no significant nausea. Seven subjects (39%) had no nausea at all (a VAS score < 5 mm). In the combination (ondansetron plus amisulpride) cohort, 19/23 (83%; 90% confidence interval: 65-94%) had a CR and 14/23 (61%) had no nausea at all. Amisulpride has antiemetic effect against cisplatin-induced acute nausea and vomiting. The effect against nausea is of particular interest. Randomised studies are warranted to further explore the effect and safety of amisulpride.

  16. The Impact of Prophylactic Dexamethasone on Nausea and Vomiting after Thyroidectomy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Zhenhong; Jiang, Yuming; Xiao, Mingjia; Zhou, Ruiyao

    2014-01-01

    Background We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the impact of prophylactic dexamethasone on post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV), post-operative pain, and complications in patients undergoing thyroidectomy. Methods We searched Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the prophylactic effect of dexamethasone versus placebo with or without other antiemetics for PONV in patients undergoing thyroidectomy. Meta-analyses were performed using RevMan 5.0 software. Results Thirteen RCTs that considered high quality evidence including 2,180 patients were analyzed. The meta-analysis demonstrated a significant decrease in the incidence of PONV (RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.63, P<0.00001), the need for rescue anti-emetics (RR 0.42, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.57, P<0.00001), post-operative pain scores (WMD –1.17, 95% CI –1.91 to –0.44, P = 0.002), and the need for rescue analgesics (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.50–0.83, P = 0.0008) in patients receiving dexamethasone compared to placebo, with or without concomitant antiemetics. Dexamethasone 8–10mg had a significantly greater effect for reducing the incidence of PONV than dexamethasone 1.25–5mg. Dexamethasone was as effective as other anti-emetics for reducing PONV (RR 1.25, 95% CI 0.86–1.81, P = 0.24). A significantly higher level of blood glucose during the immediate post-operative period in patients receiving dexamethasone compared to controls was the only adverse event. Conclusions Prophylactic dexamethasone 8–10mg administered intravenously before induction of anesthesia should be recommended as a safe and effective strategy for reducing the incidence of PONV, the need for rescue anti-emetics, post-operative pain, and the need for rescue analgesia in thyroidectomy patients, except those that are pregnant, have diabetes mellitus, hyperglycemia, or contraindications for dexamethasone. More high quality trials are warranted to

  17. PC6 acupoint stimulation for the prevention of postcardiac surgery nausea and vomiting: a protocol for a two-group, parallel, superiority randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Marie; Rickard, Claire; Rapchuk, Ivan; Shekar, Kiran; Marshall, Andrea P; Comans, Tracy; Doi, Suhail; McDonald, John; Spooner, Amy

    2014-11-13

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are frequent but unwanted complications for patients following anaesthesia and cardiac surgery, affecting at least a third of patients, despite pharmacological treatment. The primary aim of the proposed research is to test the efficacy of PC6 acupoint stimulation versus placebo for reducing PONV in cardiac surgery patients. In conjunction with this we aim to develop an understanding of intervention fidelity and factors that support, or impede, the use of PC6 acupoint stimulation, a knowledge translation approach. 712 postcardiac surgery participants will be recruited to take part in a two-group, parallel, superiority, randomised controlled trial. Participants will be randomised to receive a wrist band on each wrist providing acupressure to PC six using acupoint stimulation or a placebo. Randomisation will be computer generated, use randomly varied block sizes, and be concealed prior to the enrolment of each patient. The wristbands will remain in place for 36 h. PONV will be evaluated by the assessment of both nausea and vomiting, use of rescue antiemetics, quality of recovery and cost. Patient satisfaction with PONV care will be measured and clinical staff interviewed about the clinical use, feasibility, acceptability and challenges of using acupressure wristbands for PONV. Ethics approval will be sought from appropriate Human Research Ethics Committee/s before start of the study. A systematic review of the use of wrist acupressure for PC6 acupoint stimulation reported minor side effects only. Study progress will be reviewed by a Data Safety Monitoring Committee (DSMC) for nausea and vomiting outcomes at n=350. Dissemination of results will include conference presentations at national and international scientific meetings and publications in peer-reviewed journals. Study participants will receive a one-page lay-summary of results. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry--ACTRN12614000589684. Published by the BMJ

  18. Medical, social, and legal implications of treating nausea and vomiting of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Brent, Robert

    2002-05-01

    This article will deal with medical, social, and legal implications of treating nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP). Clinical problems occur when the symptoms become exaggerated and result in debilitation, dehydration, and hospitalization. The treatment of NVP in its early stages has the implication that it will prevent the more serious complications, including hospitalization. Therapeutic modalities discussed in this conference that have been used or are being tested are primarily symptomatic treatments (antihistamines, Bendectin (Merrell Dow; Cincinatti, Ohio), phenothiazines, hypnosis, accupressure, relaxation behavioral modification, audiogenic feedback training, newer medications, diet, and nutritional support). Bendectin is probably the most studied medication with regard to its reproductive effects, and the studies clearly demonstrate that therapeutic doses of Bendectin have no measurable reproductive risks to the mother or the fetus. In spite of Bendectin's record of safety, numerous nonmeritorious congenital malformation lawsuits were filed and went to trial, and that junk science was presented at these trials. The Bendectin era focused our attention on the area of nonmeritorious litigation and junk science, which could have an effect on any new or less well-studied therapies, because such a high percentage of women are treated for NVP. Because 3% of the offspring will be affected with birth defects, the potential for litigation is immense. The solutions are (1) for legal problems, the medical community should focus their attention on junk scientists and their junk science, over which physicians should have some authority, and (2) for the treatment problem, it would seem most logical that a major research effort should be directed toward brain receptors that are involved in these physiologic effects. Furthermore, it would be imperative to study the array of molecules, both natural and manufactured, that can interact with these receptors for the

  19. Casopitant: a novel NK1-receptor antagonist in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Ruhlmann, Christina; Herrstedt, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) are among the most feared and distressing symptoms experienced by patients with cancer. The knowledge of the pathogenesis and neuropharmacology of CINV has expanded enormously over the last decades, the most significant discoveries being the role of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)3- and neurokinin (NK)1 receptors in the emetic reflex arch. This has led to the development of two new classes of antiemetics acting as highly selective antagonists at one of these receptors. These drugs have had a huge impact in the protection from chemotherapy-induced vomiting, whereas the effect on nausea seems to be limited. The first NK1 receptor antagonist, aprepitant, became clinically available in 2003, and casopitant, the second in this class of antiemetics, has now completed phase III trials. This review delineates the properties and clinical use of casopitant in the prevention of CINV. PMID:19536319

  20. Fosaprepitant: a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Navari, Rudolph M

    2008-11-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a distressing and common adverse event associated with cancer treatment. Updated antiemetic guidelines were published in 2008 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network and, in 2006, by the American Society of Clinical Oncology, which have included the use of the new and more effective antiemetic agents 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT(3)) receptor antagonist and neurokinin (NK)-1 receptor antagonist. Aprepitant is a selective NK-1 receptor antagonist approved as part of combination therapy with a corticosteroid and a 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist for the prevention of acute and delayed CINV in patients receiving moderately and highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Fosaprepitant (also known as MK-0517 and L-758,298) is a water-soluble phosphoryl prodrug for aprepitant, which, when administered intravenously, is converted to aprepitant within 30 min of intravenous administration via the action of ubiquitous phosphatases. Owing to the rapid conversion of fosaprepitant to the active form (aprepitant), fosaprepitant 115 mg provided the same aprepitant exposure in terms of AUC as aprepitant 12 mg orally, and fosaprepitant is expected to provide a correspondingly similar antiemetic effect as aprepitant. Clinical studies have suggested that fosaprepitant could be appropriate as an intravenous alternative to the aprepitant oral capsule. In a study in healthy subjects, fosaprepitant 115 mg was generally well tolerated at a final drug concentration of 1 mg/ml, and fosaprepitant 115 mg was AUC bioequivalent to aprepitant 125 mg. Fosaprepitant in the dose of 115 mg has been approved by the US FDA, the EU and the Australian authorities on day 1 of a 3-day oral aprepitant regimen, with oral aprepitant administered on days 2 and 3. Fosaprepitant may be a useful parenteral alternative to oral aprepitant. Further study is needed to clarify the utility of fosaprepitant in the prevention of CINV and to clarify optimal dosing regimens that may

  1. Postoperative vomiting (POV) in the paediatric outpatient general surgical population.

    PubMed

    Goh, J C; Ng, A S; Sim, K M

    1999-03-01

    To determine the incidence of postoperative vomiting (POV) in the paediatric outpatient general surgical population, the factors affecting POV and the incidence of unplanned admissions contributed by POV. One hundred and ninety-nine children below 13 yeas of age undergoing elective outpatient general surgical procedures were enrolled into this prospective study. Anaesthesia was induced either intravenously or via the inhalational route. It was then maintained with nitrous oxide, oxygen and isoflurane or halothane. The age, sex, body weight, duration of fasting, administration of trimeprazine, type of general surgical procedure, maintenance technique for general anaesthesia, duration of general anaesthesia, the administration of opiods or local anaesthetics and the incidence of POV were noted. The results were analysed initially with chi-squared test and subsequently subjected to multivariate logistic regression analysis and stepwise variable selection method. The incidence of POV was 8.5%. Duration of general anaesthesia greater than one hour was associated with a significantly higher incidence of POV. Postoperative emesis did not contribute to unplanned admissions in these day surgical patients.

  2. Critical appraisal of drug therapy for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: II. Efficacy and safety of diclectin (doxylamine-B6).

    PubMed

    Bishai, R; Mazzotta, P; Atanackovic, G; Levichek, Z; Pole, M; Magee, L A; Koren, G

    2000-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy is the most common condition in pregnancy and affects up to 80% of all pregnant women. There are a large number of pharmacological agents that are effective for the treatment of nausea and vomiting associated with conditions such as motion sickness and gastrointestinal conditions; however, their use in pregnancy is limited by the lack of sufficient data on their potential teratogenic effects. The efficacy of the delayed-release combination of doxylamine and pyridoxine (Bendectin, Diclectin) has been shown in several randomized, controlled trials. The present review aims to refute the unsubstantiated beliefs that Diclectin is unsafe when used in the treatment of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy.

  3. Treatments for hyperemesis gravidarum and nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: a systematic review and economic assessment.

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, Amy; McParlin, Catherine; Robson, Stephen C; Beyer, Fiona; Moloney, Eoin; Bryant, Andrew; Bradley, Jennifer; Muirhead, Colin; Nelson-Piercy, Catherine; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy; Norman, Justine; Simpson, Emma; Swallow, Brian; Yates, Laura; Vale, Luke

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) affects up to 85% of all women during pregnancy, but for the majority self-management suffices. For the remainder, symptoms are more severe and the most severe form of NVP - hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) - affects 0.3-1.0% of pregnant women. There is no widely accepted point at which NVP becomes HG. OBJECTIVES This study aimed to determine the relative clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of treatments for NVP and HG. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PsycINFO, Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux (CAB) Abstracts, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, British Nursing Index, Science Citation Index, Social Sciences Citation Index, Scopus, Conference Proceedings Index, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, Health Economic Evaluations Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects were searched from inception to September 2014. References from studies and literature reviews identified were also examined. Obstetric Medicine was hand-searched, as were websites of relevant organisations. Costs came from NHS sources. REVIEW METHODS A systematic review of randomised and non-randomised controlled trials (RCTs) for effectiveness, and population-based case series for adverse events and fetal outcomes. Treatments: vitamins B6 and B12, ginger, acupressure/acupuncture, hypnotherapy, antiemetics, dopamine antagonists, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonists, intravenous (i.v.) fluids, corticosteroids, enteral and parenteral feeding or other novel treatment. Two reviewers extracted data and quality assessed studies. Results were narratively synthesised; planned meta-analysis was not possible due to heterogeneity and incomplete reporting. A simple economic evaluation considered

  4. Inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase attenuates vomiting in Suncus murinus and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol attenuates nausea in rats

    PubMed Central

    Sticht, Martin A; Long, Jonathan Z; Rock, Erin M; Limebeer, Cheryl L; Mechoulam, Raphael; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Parker, Linda A

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE To evaluate the role of 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2AG) in the regulation of nausea and vomiting using animal models of vomiting and of nausea-like behaviour (conditioned gaping). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Vomiting was assessed in shrews (Suncus murinus), pretreated with JZL184, a selective monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inhibitor which elevates endogenous 2AG levels, 1 h before administering the emetogenic compound, LiCl. Regulation of nausea-like behaviour in rats by exogenous 2AG or its metabolite arachidonic acid (AA) was assessed, using the conditioned gaping model. The role of cannabinoid CB1 receptors, CB2 receptors and cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition in suppression of vomiting or nausea-like behaviour was assessed. KEY RESULTS JZL184 dose-dependently suppressed vomiting in shrews, an effect prevented by pretreatment with the CB1 receptor inverse agonist/antagonist, AM251. In shrew brain tissue, JZL184 inhibited MAGL activity in vivo. In rats, 2AG suppressed LiCl-induced conditioned gaping but this effect was not prevented by AM251 or the CB2 receptor antagonist, AM630. Instead, the COX inhibitor, indomethacin, prevented suppression of conditioned gaping by 2AG or AA. However, when rats were pretreated with a high dose of JZL184 (40 mg·kg−1), suppression of gaping by 2AG was partially reversed by AM251. Suppression of conditioned gaping was not due to interference with learning because the same dose of 2AG did not modify the strength of conditioned freezing to a shock-paired tone. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Our results suggest that manipulations that elevate 2AG may have anti-emetic or anti-nausea potential. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Cannabinoids in Biology and Medicine. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012.165.issue-8. To view Part I of Cannabinoids in Biology and Medicine visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011.163.issue-7 PMID:21470205

  5. Inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase attenuates vomiting in Suncus murinus and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol attenuates nausea in rats.

    PubMed

    Sticht, Martin A; Long, Jonathan Z; Rock, Erin M; Limebeer, Cheryl L; Mechoulam, Raphael; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Parker, Linda A

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the role of 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2AG) in the regulation of nausea and vomiting using animal models of vomiting and of nausea-like behaviour (conditioned gaping). Vomiting was assessed in shrews (Suncus murinus), pretreated with JZL184, a selective monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inhibitor which elevates endogenous 2AG levels, 1 h before administering the emetogenic compound, LiCl. Regulation of nausea-like behaviour in rats by exogenous 2AG or its metabolite arachidonic acid (AA) was assessed, using the conditioned gaping model. The role of cannabinoid CB(1) receptors, CB(2) receptors and cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition in suppression of vomiting or nausea-like behaviour was assessed. JZL184 dose-dependently suppressed vomiting in shrews, an effect prevented by pretreatment with the CB(1) receptor inverse agonist/antagonist, AM251. In shrew brain tissue, JZL184 inhibited MAGL activity in vivo. In rats, 2AG suppressed LiCl-induced conditioned gaping but this effect was not prevented by AM251 or the CB(2) receptor antagonist, AM630. Instead, the COX inhibitor, indomethacin, prevented suppression of conditioned gaping by 2AG or AA. However, when rats were pretreated with a high dose of JZL184 (40 mg·kg(-1) ), suppression of gaping by 2AG was partially reversed by AM251. Suppression of conditioned gaping was not due to interference with learning because the same dose of 2AG did not modify the strength of conditioned freezing to a shock-paired tone. Our results suggest that manipulations that elevate 2AG may have anti-emetic or anti-nausea potential. This article is part of a themed section on Cannabinoids in Biology and Medicine. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012.165.issue-8. To view Part I of Cannabinoids in Biology and Medicine visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011.163.issue-7. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  6. [Impact of environmental factors on the incidence of posteropative nausea and vomiting. Influence of the weather and cycle of the moon].

    PubMed

    Eberhart, L H; Jakobi, G; Winterhalter, M; Georgieff, M

    2000-10-01

    In a survey concerning postoperative nausea and vomiting an unexpected high number of the participants stressed the impact of environmental factors, like weather and--even more surprising--the phase of the moon, on the occurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the influence of these factors on the incidence of PONV. On 203 days within the 19-month study period, 2488 patients were followed up for at least 24 hours postoperatively to determine the occurrence of PONV. For each day the actual incidence of PONV was compared with the mean predicted risk of PONV calculated with two risk scores for prediction of PONV (Koivuranta, 1997; Apfel, 1998). 32 days with the most significant difference between actual and predicted incidence of PONV were analysed retrospectively by two biometeorological experts, who were blind to the information whether each day was associated with a high or low incidence of PONV, evaluated the possible impact of the weather of these days. To analyse the influence of the cycle of the moon it was prospectively classified into four different phases. The two biometeorologists rated 22 out of the presented 32 days correctly. The likelihood p that this rating happened by chance is 0.0251, assuming that the likelihood for predicting each day correctly is 0.5 (independent Bernoulli-experiments, e.g. throwing a coin). However, days with a high or low incidence of PONV were equally distributed within the four phases of the moon (p = 0.97; chi 2-test with Yates' correction). Results from this analysis suggest that the weather may have some impact on the occurrence of PONV. However, our data do not support the hypothesis that the phases of the moon have any influence on this symptom.

  7. A randomized crossover trial on the effect of compression stockings on nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Erika; Amsler, Felix

    2017-01-01

    Introduction This study aimed to assess the impact of wearing compression stockings on women’s quality of life (QoL) associated with nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy (NVP). Methods In this randomized, open, single-center, crossover study, 74 women were assigned 1:1 to 2 weeks with compression stockings followed by 2 weeks without or vice versa. The main outcomes were NVP-associated QoL, leg-related QoL, and dizziness, as assessed by the Nausea and Vomiting in Pregnancy Quality of Life (NVPQOL) questionnaire, Chronic Venous Disease Quality of Life (CIVIQ) questionnaire, and questions on dizziness at baseline and after each 2-week period, respectively. Daily NVP was assessed using the modified Pregnancy-Unique Quantification of Emesis and Nausea (PUQE) questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson’s chi-square and independent t-tests. Results Fifty-eight women completed the study. QoL scores improved with compression treatment; changes in mean total scores were as follows: NVPQOL, −36.7 with compression vs −21.7 without (P<0.0001); and CIVIQ, −4.5 with compression vs +1.4 without (P=0.001). Mean dizziness scores were −3.2 with compression vs −0.4 without (P<0.0001). PUQE mean total score (standard deviation) was 4.9 (2.3) with compression vs 5.5 (2.2) without (P=0.042). Discussion Wearing of compression stockings in early pregnancy may improve nausea and vomiting-associated symptoms in addition to improving QoL factors. PMID:28260949

  8. A randomized crossover trial on the effect of compression stockings on nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Erika; Amsler, Felix

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the impact of wearing compression stockings on women's quality of life (QoL) associated with nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy (NVP). In this randomized, open, single-center, crossover study, 74 women were assigned 1:1 to 2 weeks with compression stockings followed by 2 weeks without or vice versa. The main outcomes were NVP-associated QoL, leg-related QoL, and dizziness, as assessed by the Nausea and Vomiting in Pregnancy Quality of Life (NVPQOL) questionnaire, Chronic Venous Disease Quality of Life (CIVIQ) questionnaire, and questions on dizziness at baseline and after each 2-week period, respectively. Daily NVP was assessed using the modified Pregnancy-Unique Quantification of Emesis and Nausea (PUQE) questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson's chi-square and independent t-tests. Fifty-eight women completed the study. QoL scores improved with compression treatment; changes in mean total scores were as follows: NVPQOL, -36.7 with compression vs -21.7 without (P<0.0001); and CIVIQ, -4.5 with compression vs +1.4 without (P=0.001). Mean dizziness scores were -3.2 with compression vs -0.4 without (P<0.0001). PUQE mean total score (standard deviation) was 4.9 (2.3) with compression vs 5.5 (2.2) without (P=0.042). Wearing of compression stockings in early pregnancy may improve nausea and vomiting-associated symptoms in addition to improving QoL factors.

  9. Blood Samples From Patients With Cancer Treated on a Clinical Trial to Control Nausea and Vomiting During Donor Stem Cell Transplant

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-11

    Breast Cancer; Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms; Nausea and Vomiting; Neuroblastoma; Ovarian Cancer; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor

  10. Prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and the role of neurokinin 1 inhibitors: from guidelines to clinical practice in solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Di Maio, Massimo; Bria, Emilio; Banna, Giuseppe L; Puglisi, Fabio; Garassino, Marina C; Lorusso, Domenica; Perrone, Francesco

    2013-02-01

    A significant proportion of cancer patients experience nausea or vomiting during the course of their disease, either because of the cancer itself or because of the treatment received. Highly or moderately emetogenic drugs are part of the standard chemotherapy regimens frequently used in patients with lung cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and several other common solid tumors. In this review, we describe the impact of nausea and vomiting in patients receiving chemotherapy, and the main progress achieved in the prophylaxis of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting with the introduction of neurokinin 1 inhibitors. The adherence to existing guidelines is particularly important to avoid suboptimal prophylaxis and maximize patients' outcome. This review is focused on lung, breast, ovarian, and colorectal cancer, which are among the solid tumors characterized by a numeric and clinical relevance of the chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting issue because of the wide use of highly and/or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy regimens.

  11. Clinical management of postoperative vomiting after strabismus surgery in children.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yoshitaka

    2010-04-01

    Strabismus surgery is frequently performed operation in children. Despite improvements in anesthetic and surgical technique, postoperative vomiting (POV) after pediatric strabismus surgery is still being experienced by 41-88% when antiemetic prophylactics are not administered. Various antiemetics are currently available for the prevention and treatment of POV after strabismus surgery in children. Many studies have been conducted using therapeutic regimens to reduce POV. These drugs include traditional antiemetics (droperidol, metoclopramide, scopolamine, dixyradine, and dimenhydrinate), non-traditional antiemetics (dexamethasone, propofol, clonidine, midazolam, and lidocaine), and antiserotonins (ondansetron, granisetron, tropisetron, dolasetron, and ramosetron). Antiserotonins are more effective than traditional antiemetics, but these drugs are not entirely effective, perhaps because most of them act through the blockade on one type of receptor. Combination antiemetic therapy with antiserotonin (ondansetron, granisetron) plus droperidol or dexamethasone is highly effective for the prophylaxis against POV. Non-pharmacological techniques include acustimulation, acupressure, and acupuncture at P6 (Nei-Kuwan) point, Korean hand point (K-K9), and BL-10 (Tianzhu)-BL-11 (Dazhu)-GB-34 (Yanglinquan) points. For the treatment of established POV, antiserotonin (granisetron) is more effective than traditional antiemetics (droperidol, metoclopramide). Clildren undergoing strabismus surgery should be considered to receive these clinical strategies as mentioned above for the prevention and treatment of POV.

  12. Humanistic and economic burden of nausea and vomiting among migraine sufferers.

    PubMed

    Gajria, Kavita; Lee, Lulu K; Flores, Natalia M; Aycardi, Ernesto; Gandhi, Sanjay K

    2017-01-01

    While studies have demonstrated the economic burden of migraines in terms of quality of life, health care resource use (HRU), and costs, there exists a notable paucity of data comparing such outcomes among migraineurs with nausea and vomiting (N/V) and those without. The current study aimed to address this gap. This was a retrospective study using data from the 2013 US National Health and Wellness Survey, a cross-sectional, internet-based survey. Respondents self-reported their migraine with or without N/V along with demographics and outcomes including depression (Patient Health Questionnaire total score; PHQ-9), sleep problems (11-item total score of sleep problems), HRU (number of physician visits, emergency room [ER] visits, and hospitalizations) and Work Productivity and Activity Impairment-General Health Scale (WPAI-GH), and associated mean annual costs. Generalized linear models, adjusting for covariates, assessed the burden of N/V on all outcomes. Among all migraineurs (N=7,855), 73.4% were female, mean age was 41.82 years old, and 57.6% reported experiencing N/V. Adjusting for covariates, migraineurs with N/V vs without N/V had higher mean PHQ-9 scores (7.91 vs 7.02, p<0.001) and mean sleep problems (3.29 vs 2.64, p<0.001). Mean ER visits were more frequent among migraineurs with N/V than those without N/V (0.48 vs 0.38, p=0.001). This difference translated into a 26.3% increase in estimated mean ER costs (N/V=US$1,499 vs without N/V=US$1,187, p=0.002). Mean percentage activity impairment was higher in migraineurs with N/V than in those without N/V (37.73% vs 35.12%, p=0.002) and migraineurs with N/V had higher work productivity loss costs (N/V=US$10,344 vs without N/V=US$9,218, p=0.016). Migraine patients with N/V reported worse depression, sleep problems, and activity impairment, and higher ER visits than those without N/V. Migraine with N/V was also associated with an increase in mean annual ER visit costs and work productivity loss costs. Study findings

  13. Humanistic and economic burden of nausea and vomiting among migraine sufferers

    PubMed Central

    Gajria, Kavita; Lee, Lulu K; Flores, Natalia M; Aycardi, Ernesto; Gandhi, Sanjay K

    2017-01-01

    Background While studies have demonstrated the economic burden of migraines in terms of quality of life, health care resource use (HRU), and costs, there exists a notable paucity of data comparing such outcomes among migraineurs with nausea and vomiting (N/V) and those without. The current study aimed to address this gap. Methods This was a retrospective study using data from the 2013 US National Health and Wellness Survey, a cross-sectional, internet-based survey. Respondents self-reported their migraine with or without N/V along with demographics and outcomes including depression (Patient Health Questionnaire total score; PHQ-9), sleep problems (11-item total score of sleep problems), HRU (number of physician visits, emergency room [ER] visits, and hospitalizations) and Work Productivity and Activity Impairment-General Health Scale (WPAI-GH), and associated mean annual costs. Generalized linear models, adjusting for covariates, assessed the burden of N/V on all outcomes. Results Among all migraineurs (N=7,855), 73.4% were female, mean age was 41.82 years old, and 57.6% reported experiencing N/V. Adjusting for covariates, migraineurs with N/V vs without N/V had higher mean PHQ-9 scores (7.91 vs 7.02, p<0.001) and mean sleep problems (3.29 vs 2.64, p<0.001). Mean ER visits were more frequent among migraineurs with N/V than those without N/V (0.48 vs 0.38, p=0.001). This difference translated into a 26.3% increase in estimated mean ER costs (N/V=US$1,499 vs without N/V=US$1,187, p=0.002). Mean percentage activity impairment was higher in migraineurs with N/V than in those without N/V (37.73% vs 35.12%, p=0.002) and migraineurs with N/V had higher work productivity loss costs (N/V=US$10,344 vs without N/V=US$9,218, p=0.016). Conclusion Migraine patients with N/V reported worse depression, sleep problems, and activity impairment, and higher ER visits than those without N/V. Migraine with N/V was also associated with an increase in mean annual ER visit costs and work

  14. Pre-emptive therapy for severe nausea and vomiting of pregnancy and hyperemesis gravidarum.

    PubMed

    Koren, G; Maltepe, Caroline

    2004-08-01

    Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) affects 80% of pregnancies. Its severe form, hyperemesis gravidarum (HG), results in dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, the need for hospitalisation and can, rarely, be fatal. This was a prospective, open-labelled, controlled, interventional study to evaluate the effectiveness of pre-emptive treatment of NVP symptoms in women who experienced severe NVP or HG in their previous pregnancy. Twenty-five women who reported severe symptoms of NVP with or without HG in their previous pregnancy were recruited and counselled to commence the use of antiemetics as soon as they became aware of the present pregnancy, and no later than the beginning of symptoms. They were followed-up prospectively through the index pregnancy for symptoms of NVP, and were counselled continuously as to how to modify antiemetic doses based on symptoms. A comparison group consisted of randomly selected women also counselled by us for NVP, who had also had severe NVP in the previous pregnancy, but who did not call before a planned pregnancy and thus could not be offered pre-emptive therapy. The recruited women commenced pre-emptive drug therapy for NVP before conception or up to 7 weeks' gestation, before the appearance of NVP symptoms in all cases. In comparison to the previous pregnancy, only eight of these 18 women experienced a HG again in the index pregnancy (P = 0.01). The majority of study the women had an improvement in severity of NVP symptoms compared to the previous pregnancy. In the comparison group (n = 35), symptoms in the index pregnancy remained severe in 28 cases (80%), decreased to moderate in six (16.6%) and decreased to mild in five cases (13.9%). There were five cases of HG in the previous pregnancy and three in the index pregnancy. The pre-emptive group was improved significantly compared to the control group (P = 0.01). Pre-emptive symptom management appears to be effective in preventing severe NVP in general, and HG in particular. Women

  15. A physiological perspective for utility or futility of alcohol-based hand rub gel against nausea-vomiting: is it P-6 acupoint or transnasal aroma?

    PubMed

    Gupta, Deepak; Mazumdar, Ashish; Stellini, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Nausea-vomiting is a common and unpleasant phenomenon with numerous underlying mechanisms and pathways that are not always well elucidated. In clinical practice, refractory nausea-vomiting is encountered in several settings. Antiemetic medications may reduce these symptoms but are not always effective in all patients. In the absence of a well-defined optimal strategy for management of nausea-vomiting, the search for better approaches to treat this distressing symptom continues. One of the alternative treatment approaches is a compounded formulation called ABHR gel that is comprised of multiple antiemetic medications and has been shown to be useful for symptomatic relief in some patients with refractory nausea-vomiting. It has been suggested that alternative mechanisms should be explored to explain the perceived efficacy of ABHR gel, because transdermal absorption leading to nil-to-minimal or subtherapeutic blood concentrations of active ingredients does not explain the role of ABHR gel in the treatment of nausea-vomiting. In the current paper, we discuss possible mechanisms that may explain ABHR transdermal gel's efficacy. Compounded ABHR transdermal gel formulation's efficacy in antagonizing nausea-vomiting that has been recently questioned may be explained by alternative mechanisms mediated through the P-6 acupoint stimulation and facial-nasal, cooling-related counterstimulation.

  16. A comparison between maropitant and metoclopramide for the prevention of morphine-induced nausea and vomiting in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzutti, Augusto M.; Martín-Flores, Manuel; Litterio, Nicolás J.; Himelfarb, Martín A.; Invaldi, Sergio H.; Zarazaga, María P.

    2017-01-01

    Morphine is widely used as a preanesthetic agent in dogs, but it often produces signs of nausea and vomiting. Maropitant (MRP) and metoclopramide (MCP) prevent emesis attributable to the opioid agent apomorphine in dogs. We evaluated the antiemetic efficacy and the discomfort in response to SQ injection of MRP [1 mg/kg body weight (BW)], MCP (0.5 mg/kg BW), and normal saline (SAL; 0.1 mL/kg BW) administered to 63 dogs, 45 minutes prior to morphine (0.5 mg/kg BW) and acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg BW). Dogs were observed for signs of nausea (ptyalism, lip licking, and increased swallowing) and vomiting for 30 minutes after morphine/acepromazine. The incidence of emesis was 0% for MRP, 38% for MCP, and 71% for SAL (P < 0.001). The incidence of signs of nausea was not different between groups. Discomfort due to injection was higher after MRP (48%), than after MCP (9.8%) and SAL (4.8%) (P < 0.001). PMID:28042152

  17. Reduction of nausea and vomiting from epidural opioids by adding droperidol to the infusate in home-bound patients.

    PubMed

    Aldrete, J A

    1995-10-01

    In 184 adult patients with severe nonmalignant low back pain from postlaminectomy syndrome, temporary lumbar epidural catheters were infused with either 0.25% bupivacaine 92 mL, fentanyl 600 micrograms, and droperidol 5 mg (Group A), or 0.25% bupivacaine 92 mL, fentanyl 600 micrograms, and NaCl 0.9% 2 mL (Group B). Infusion rates ranged from 0.5 to 2 mL per hour, with an option for turning the infusion off when the patient had no pain and turning it on when the pain returned. Infusions were continued from 2 to 55 days, during which time the patient was at home. In Group A, only two patients had nausea without emesis, while in Group B, nausea occurred in 18 patients (P < 0.04) and four vomited (P < 0.05). The number of patients with headache, pruritus, somnolence, and/or numbness was minimal and without statistically significant group differences. During treatments, pain levels were 2 or less on a 10-cm visual analogue scale. Added to the epidural infusate, droperidol appears to significantly reduce nausea and vomiting in ambulatory patients receiving fentanyl and bupivacaine in extended epidural infusions. The possibility that droperidol potentiates analgesic effects could not be evaluated.

  18. A comparison between maropitant and metoclopramide for the prevention of morphine-induced nausea and vomiting in dogs.

    PubMed

    Lorenzutti, Augusto M; Martín-Flores, Manuel; Litterio, Nicolás J; Himelfarb, Martín A; Invaldi, Sergio H; Zarazaga, María P

    2017-01-01

    Morphine is widely used as a preanesthetic agent in dogs, but it often produces signs of nausea and vomiting. Maropitant (MRP) and metoclopramide (MCP) prevent emesis attributable to the opioid agent apomorphine in dogs. We evaluated the antiemetic efficacy and the discomfort in response to SQ injection of MRP [1 mg/kg body weight (BW)], MCP (0.5 mg/kg BW), and normal saline (SAL; 0.1 mL/kg BW) administered to 63 dogs, 45 minutes prior to morphine (0.5 mg/kg BW) and acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg BW). Dogs were observed for signs of nausea (ptyalism, lip licking, and increased swallowing) and vomiting for 30 minutes after morphine/acepromazine. The incidence of emesis was 0% for MRP, 38% for MCP, and 71% for SAL (P < 0.001). The incidence of signs of nausea was not different between groups. Discomfort due to injection was higher after MRP (48%), than after MCP (9.8%) and SAL (4.8%) (P < 0.001).

  19. Computational prediction of state anxiety in Asian patients with cancer susceptible to chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Yap, Kevin Yi-Lwern; Low, Xiu Hui; Chui, Wai Keung; Chan, Alexandre

    2012-04-01

    State anxiety, a risk factor for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), is a subjective symptom and difficult to quantify. Clinicians need appropriate anxiety measures to assess patients' risks of CINV. This study aimed to determine the anxiety characteristics that can predict CINV based on computational analysis of an objective assessment tool. A single-center, prospective, observational study was carried out between January 2007 and July 2010. Patients with breast, head and neck, and gastrointestinal cancers were recruited and treated with a variety of chemotherapy protocols and appropriate antiemetics. Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting characteristics and antiemetic use were recorded using a standardized diary, whereas patients' anxiety characteristics were evaluated using the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Principal component (PC) analysis was performed to analyze the anxiety characteristics. A subset known as principal variables, which had the highest PC weightings, was identified for patients with and without complete response, complete protection, and complete control. Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting events and anxiety characteristics of 710 patients were collated; 51%, 30%, and 20% were on anthracycline-, oxaliplatin-, and cisplatin-based therapies, respectively. Most patients suffered from delayed CINV, with decreasing proportions achieving complete response (58%), complete protection (42%), and complete control (27%). Seven symptoms (fear of dying, fear of the worst, unable to relax, hot/cold sweats, nervousness, faintness, numbness) were identified as potential CINV predictors. This study demonstrates the usefulness of PC analysis, an unsupervised machine learning technique, to identify 7 anxiety characteristics that are useful as clinical CINV predictors. Clinicians should be aware of these characteristics when assessing CINV in patients on emetogenic chemotherapies.

  20. The effects of food on opioid-induced nausea and vomiting and pharmacological parameters: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Raffa, Robert B; Colucci, Robert; Pergolizzi, Joseph V

    2017-09-01

    Opioids remain the standard of care for treating moderate to severe pain resulting from surgery or injury in cases of acute pain, and are recommended for patients who have not responded to nonopioid analgesics. Effective management of pain has an impact on clinical course and often depends on achieving an acceptable balance between opioid efficacy, safety, and tolerability. Common opioid-related adverse events such as nausea and vomiting are associated with an overall lower achievement of effective pain management and patient satisfaction. However, in practice, clinicians employ various strategies to maximize efficacy, minimize these adverse effects, and ensure the careful, judicious, and evidence-based use of opioids for patients who require them. Typical strategies for management and minimization of these types of adverse events include dose reduction, dose titration, opioid rotation, prescription for an antiemetic, and recommending the patient take opioids with food. Overall, the most straightforward approach that clinicians tend to employ that does not require additional visits or adjustment of prescriptions, is to recommend patients take opioids with food. However, given the current climate with opioids, it is critical and imperative that decisions for use of opioids be grounded in a solid and thorough evidence-base. In fact, several opioids are recommended to be taken explicitly with or without food because of interactions with abuse-deterrent technologies that can cause increased adverse events or inadequate analgesia. Therefore, we sought to review, synthesize, and summarize the literature for randomized, controlled trials and other studies to support the hypothesis that taking opioids with food reduces opioid-related events such as nausea and vomiting. Based on the current evidence we surveyed, the recommendation to take opioids with food does not appear to consistently and unequivocally reduce nausea and vomiting and, in many cases, increases the

  1. Effect of Ginger and Chamomile on Nausea and Vomiting Caused by Chemotherapy in Iranian Women with Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sanaati, Fateme; Najafi, Safa; Kashaninia, Zahra; Sadeghi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) places a significant burden on the patient. Herbal agents are the most commonly complementary therapies used among the public. This study was done to determine the effect of ginger and chamomile capsules on nausea and vomiting in cases undergoing chemotherapy for breast cancer (BC). In a randomized, double-blind and clinical trial study, 65 women with BC undergoing chemotherapy were referred to Breast Cancer Research Center, Tehran, Iran, between May 2013 to June 2014. Regimen for ginger group for 5 days before and 5 days after chemotherapy was: 2 times a day and 500 mg capsules of powdered ginger root in addition to a routine antiemetic regimen consisting of dexamethasone, metoclopramide and aprepitant (DMA) capsules. Chamomile group similarly was: 2 times a day and 500 mg capsules of Matricaria chamomilla extract in addition to a routine antiemetic regimen consisting of DMA capsules. Control group, routine antiemetic regimen consisting of DMA capsules. There were no significant differences between the ginger, chamomile and control groups regarding age. Drugs used for chemotherapy were identical and duration of disease was also matched (1-4 months). Ginger and chamomile were both significantly effective for reducing the frequency of vomiting, there being no significant difference between the ginger and chamomile groups. Moreover, unlike the chamomile, ginger significantly influenced the frequency of nausea. According to the findings of this study, it should be declared that taking ginger capsules (1 g/day) might relieve CINV safely. Nurses dealing directly with cancer patients should be responsible for providing educational programs for patients and their families about how to deal with their drug regimens and associated side effects.

  2. Role of olanzapine in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting on platinum-based chemotherapy patients: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Sandip; Kwatra, Gagandeep; Alice K, Pamela; Badyal, Dinesh

    2017-01-01

    Even with the use of modern antiemetic drugs, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is still a cause of great distress to the patients. Olanzapine, primarily marketed as an antipsychotic, was found to reduce nausea and vomiting in some chemotherapy patients. But it was never tested in Indian population with a diverse genetic background. The present study aims to evaluate the role of olanzapine in CINV in patients receiving platinum-based chemotherapy. The study was a randomized, controlled, assessor-blinded study on 100 chemotherapy-naïve consenting patients receiving any one from cisplatin, carboplatin or oxaliplatin. The control group (n = 50) received palonosetron and dexamethasone in the approved therapeutic dose from the day 1 of chemotherapy. The test group (n = 50) received additional olanzapine 10 mg/day from day 1 for five consecutive days. CINV and quality of life (QoL) were assessed. Vomiting was significantly less among the olanzapine-treated patients. Control of delayed emesis was significantly better in this group (complete response among 96 vs. 42 % in the control group, p value <0.0001). Incidence and severity of nausea was significantly less in this group. Failure of anti-CINV measure was 4 % in this group compared to 26 % of the patients of the control group during overall days 1-5. Though sedation was more in these olanzapine-treated patients, there was no dose-limiting adverse event. Quality of life was also better among the olanzapine-treated patients. Olanzapine was found to be effective as add-on in the control of CINV.

  3. Olanzapine for prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in children and adolescents: a multi-center, feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Flank, J; Schechter, T; Gibson, P; Johnston, D L; Orsey, A D; Portwine, C; Sung, L; Dupuis, L L

    2017-08-30

    There are no prospective pediatric trials evaluating olanzapine for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) prevention. This study evaluated the feasibility of a trial of olanzapine to evaluate the contribution of olanzapine to CINV control in pediatric oncology patients. Patients < 18 years receiving CINV prophylaxis with ondansetron/granisetron/palonosetron ± dexamethasone ± aprepitant were eligible to participate in this prospective, single-arm, open-label study. All patients received olanzapine (0.14 mg/kg/dose; max 10 mg/dose) once daily orally starting before the first chemotherapy dose and continuing for up to four doses after the last chemotherapy administration. A future trial was considered feasible if mean time to enroll 15 patients was ≤ 12 months/site, ≥ 12/15 took at least half of the planned olanzapine doses, and ≤ 3/15 experienced significant sedation or dizziness despite dose reduction. The proportion of children who experienced complete CINV control (no nausea, vomiting, or retching) was described. Fifteen patients (range 4.1-17.4 years) participated; mean recruitment period was 9.3 months/site. All patients took at least half of the planned olanzapine doses. Six patients experienced sedation which resolved with olanzapine dose reduction (N = 5) or bedtime administration (N = 1). Olanzapine was stopped in one patient with blurry vision and in another with increased plasma GGT values. In both the acute and delayed phases, eight patients experienced complete control of vomiting but almost all (14/15) had nausea. A pediatric trial of olanzapine for CINV control is feasible. Our findings will inform the design of a future study.

  4. Pharmacological mechanisms of 5-HT₃ and tachykinin NK₁ receptor antagonism to prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Camilo; Slusher, Barbara S

    2012-06-05

    Nausea and vomiting are among the most common and distressing consequences of cytotoxic chemotherapies. Nausea and vomiting can be acute (0-24h) or delayed (24-72 h) after chemotherapy administration. The introduction of 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists in the 90s was a major advance in the prevention of acute emesis. These receptor antagonists exhibited similar control on acute emesis but had no effect on delayed emesis. These findings led to the hypothesis that serotonin plays a central role in the mechanism of acute emesis but a lesser role in the pathogenesis of delayed emesis. In contrast, delayed emesis has been largely associated with the activation of neurokinin 1 (NK(1)) receptors by substance P. However, in 2003, a new 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist was introduced into the market; unlike first generation 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists, palonosetron was found to be effective in preventing both acute and delayed chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting. Recent mechanistic studies have shown that palonosetron, in contrast to first generation receptor antagonists, exhibits allosteric binding to the 5-HT(3) receptor, positive cooperativity, persistent inhibition of receptor function after the drug is removed and triggers 5-HT(3) receptor internalization. Further, in vitro and in vivo experiments have shown that palonosetron can inhibit substance P-mediated responses, presumably through its unique interactions with the 5-HT(3) receptor. It appears that the crossroads of acute and delayed emeses include interactions among the 5-HT(3) and NK(1) receptor neurotransmitter pathways and that inhibitions of these interactions lend the possibility of improved treatment that encompasses both acute and delayed emeses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Guideline for the prevention and treatment of anticipatory nausea and vomiting due to chemotherapy in pediatric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Dupuis, L Lee; Robinson, Paula D; Boodhan, Sabrina; Holdsworth, Mark; Portwine, Carol; Gibson, Paul; Phillips, Robert; Maan, Cathy; Stefin, Nancy; Sung, Lillian

    2014-08-01

    This guideline provides an approach to the prevention and treatment of anticipatory chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in children. It was developed by an international, inter-professional panel using AGREE II methods and is based on systematic literature reviews. Evidence-based recommendations for pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions to prevent and treat anticipatory CINV in children receiving antineoplastic agents are provided. Gaps in the evidence used to support the recommendations are identified. The contribution of this guideline to anticipatory CINV control in children requires prospective evaluation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. 8-Way Randomized Controlled Trial of Doxylamine, Pyridoxine and Dicyclomine for Nausea and Vomiting during Pregnancy: Restoration of Unpublished Information

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rujun; Persaud, Navindra

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We report information about an unpublished 1970s study (“8-way” Bendectin Study) that aimed to evaluate the relative therapeutic efficacy of doxylamine, pyridoxine, and dicyclomine in the management of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. We are publishing the trial's findings according to the restoring invisible and abandoned trials (RIAT) initiative because the trial was never published. Design Double blinded, multi-centred, randomized placebo-controlled study. Setting 14 clinics in the United States. Participants 2308 patients in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy with complaints of nausea or vomiting were enrolled. Interventions Each patient was randomized to one of eight arms: placebo, doxylamine/pyridoxine/dicylcomine, doxylamine/pyridoxine, dicylomine/pyridoxine, doxylamine, dicyclomine/pyridoxine, pyridoxine and dicyclomine. Each patient was instructed to take 2 tablets at bedtime and 1 additional tablet in the afternoon or morning if needed, for 7 nights. Outcomes Reported outcomes included the number of hours of nausea reported by patients, the frequency of vomiting reported by patients and the overall efficacy of medication as judged by physicians. Results Data from 1599 (69% of those randomized) participants were analyzed. Based on the available summary data of physician evaluation of symptoms and ignoring missing data and data integrity issues, the proportion of participants who were “evaluated moderate or excellent” was greater in each of the seven active treatment groups when compared with placebo (57%): doxylamine/pyridoxine/dicylcomine (14% absolute difference versus placebo; 95% CI: 4 to 24), doxylamine/pyridoxine (21; 95% CI 11 to 30), dicylomine/pyridoxine (21; 95% CI 11 to 30), doxylamine (20; 95% CI 10 to 29), dicyclomine/pyridoxine (4; 95% CI -6 to 14), pyridoxine (9; 95% CI -1 to 19) and dicyclomine (4; 95% CI -6 to 14). Based on incomplete information, the most common adverse events were apparently drowsiness and fatigue

  7. Cannabinoids for control of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting: quantitative systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Tramèr, Martin R; Carroll, Dawn; Campbell, Fiona A; Reynolds, D John M; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J

    2001-01-01

    Objective To quantify the antiemetic efficacy and adverse effects of cannabis used for sickness induced by chemotherapy. Design Systematic review. Data sources Systematic search (Medline, Embase, Cochrane library, bibliographies), any language, to August 2000. Studies 30 randomised comparisons of cannabis with placebo or antiemetics from which dichotomous data on efficacy and harm were available (1366 patients). Oral nabilone, oral dronabinol (tetrahydrocannabinol), and intramuscular levonantradol were tested. No cannabis was smoked. Follow up lasted 24 hours. Results Cannabinoids were more effective antiemetics than prochlorperazine, metoclopramide, chlorpromazine, thiethylperazine, haloperidol, domperidone, or alizapride: relative risk 1.38 (95% confidence interval 1.18 to 1.62), number needed to treat 6 for complete control of nausea; 1.28 (1.08 to 1.51), NNT 8 for complete control of vomiting. Cannabinoids were not more effective in patients receiving very low or very high emetogenic chemotherapy. In crossover trials, patients preferred cannabinoids for future chemotherapy cycles: 2.39 (2.05 to 2.78), NNT 3. Some potentially beneficial side effects occurred more often with cannabinoids: “high” 10.6 (6.86 to 16.5), NNT 3; sedation or drowsiness 1.66 (1.46 to 1.89), NNT 5; euphoria 12.5 (3.00 to 52.1), NNT 7. Harmful side effects also occurred more often with cannabinoids: dizziness 2.97 (2.31 to 3.83), NNT 3; dysphoria or depression 8.06 (3.38 to 19.2), NNT 8; hallucinations 6.10 (2.41 to 15.4), NNT 17; paranoia 8.58 (6.38 to 11.5), NNT 20; and arterial hypotension 2.23 (1.75 to 2.83), NNT 7. Patients given cannabinoids were more likely to withdraw due to side effects 4.67 (3.07 to 7.09), NNT 11. Conclusions In selected patients, the cannabinoids tested in these trials may be useful as mood enhancing adjuvants for controlling chemotherapy related sickness. Potentially serious adverse effects, even when taken short term orally or intramuscularly, are likely

  8. Antiemetic use for nausea and vomiting in adult emergency department patients: randomized controlled trial comparing ondansetron, metoclopramide, and placebo.

    PubMed

    Egerton-Warburton, Diana; Meek, Robert; Mee, Michaela J; Braitberg, George

    2014-11-01

    We compare efficacy of ondansetron and metoclopramide with placebo for adults with undifferentiated emergency department (ED) nausea and vomiting. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 2 metropolitan EDs in Melbourne, Australia. Eligible patients with ED nausea and vomiting were randomized to receive 4 mg intravenous ondansetron, 20 mg intravenous metoclopramide, or saline solution placebo. Primary outcome was mean change in visual analog scale (VAS) rating of nausea severity from enrollment to 30 minutes after study drug administration. Secondary outcomes included patient satisfaction, need for rescue antiemetic treatment, and adverse events. Of 270 recruited patients, 258 (95.6%) were available for analysis. Of these patients, 87 (33.7%) received ondansetron; 88 (34.1%), metoclopramide; and 83 (32.2%), placebo. Baseline characteristics between treatment groups and recruitment site were similar. Mean decrease in VAS score was 27 mm (95% confidence interval [CI] 22 to 33 mm) for ondansetron, 28 mm (95% CI 22 to 34 mm) for metoclopramide, and 23 mm (95% CI 16 to 30 mm) for placebo. Satisfaction with treatment was reported by 54.1% (95% CI 43.5% to 64.5%), 61.6% (95% CI 51.0% to 71.4%), and 59.5% (95% CI 48.4% to 69.9%) for ondansetron, metoclopramide, and placebo, respectively; rescue medication was required by 34.5% (95% CI 25.0% to 45.1%), 17.9% (95% CI 10.8% to 27.2%), and 36.3% (95% CI 26.3% to 47.2%), respectively. Nine minor adverse events were reported. Reductions in nausea severity for this adult ED nausea and vomiting population were similar for 4 mg intravenous ondansetron, 20 mg intravenous metoclopramide, and placebo. There was a trend toward greater reductions in VAS ratings and a lesser requirement for rescue medication in the antiemetic drug groups, but differences from the placebo group did not reach significance. The majority of patients in all groups were satisfied with treatment. Copyright © 2014

  9. Rotavirus Stimulates Release of Serotonin (5-HT) from Human Enterochromaffin Cells and Activates Brain Structures Involved in Nausea and Vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Engblom, David; Karlsson, Thommie; Rodriguez-Diaz, Jesus; Buesa, Javier; Taylor, John A.; Loitto, Vesa-Matti; Magnusson, Karl-Eric; Ahlman, Håkan; Lundgren, Ove; Svensson, Lennart

    2011-01-01

    Rotavirus (RV) is the major cause of severe gastroenteritis in young children. A virus-encoded enterotoxin, NSP4 is proposed to play a major role in causing RV diarrhoea but how RV can induce emesis, a hallmark of the illness, remains unresolved. In this study we have addressed the hypothesis that RV-induced secretion of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) by enterochromaffin (EC) cells plays a key role in the emetic reflex during RV infection resulting in activation of vagal afferent nerves connected to nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and area postrema in the brain stem, structures associated with nausea and vomiting. Our experiments revealed that RV can infect and replicate in human EC tumor cells ex vivo and in vitro and are localized to both EC cells and infected enterocytes in the close vicinity of EC cells in the jejunum of infected mice. Purified NSP4, but not purified virus particles, evoked release of 5-HT within 60 minutes and increased the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in a human midgut carcinoid EC cell line (GOT1) and ex vivo in human primary carcinoid EC cells concomitant with the release of 5-HT. Furthermore, NSP4 stimulated a modest production of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3), but not of cAMP. RV infection in mice induced Fos expression in the NTS, as seen in animals which vomit after administration of chemotherapeutic drugs. The demonstration that RV can stimulate EC cells leads us to propose that RV disease includes participation of 5-HT, EC cells, the enteric nervous system and activation of vagal afferent nerves to brain structures associated with nausea and vomiting. This hypothesis is supported by treating vomiting in children with acute gastroenteritis with 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. PMID:21779163

  10. Rotavirus stimulates release of serotonin (5-HT) from human enterochromaffin cells and activates brain structures involved in nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Hagbom, Marie; Istrate, Claudia; Engblom, David; Karlsson, Thommie; Rodriguez-Diaz, Jesus; Buesa, Javier; Taylor, John A; Loitto, Vesa-Matti; Magnusson, Karl-Eric; Ahlman, Håkan; Lundgren, Ove; Svensson, Lennart

    2011-07-01

    Rotavirus (RV) is the major cause of severe gastroenteritis in young children. A virus-encoded enterotoxin, NSP4 is proposed to play a major role in causing RV diarrhoea but how RV can induce emesis, a hallmark of the illness, remains unresolved. In this study we have addressed the hypothesis that RV-induced secretion of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) by enterochromaffin (EC) cells plays a key role in the emetic reflex during RV infection resulting in activation of vagal afferent nerves connected to nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and area postrema in the brain stem, structures associated with nausea and vomiting. Our experiments revealed that RV can infect and replicate in human EC tumor cells ex vivo and in vitro and are localized to both EC cells and infected enterocytes in the close vicinity of EC cells in the jejunum of infected mice. Purified NSP4, but not purified virus particles, evoked release of 5-HT within 60 minutes and increased the intracellular Ca²⁺ concentration in a human midgut carcinoid EC cell line (GOT1) and ex vivo in human primary carcinoid EC cells concomitant with the release of 5-HT. Furthermore, NSP4 stimulated a modest production of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP₃), but not of cAMP. RV infection in mice induced Fos expression in the NTS, as seen in animals which vomit after administration of chemotherapeutic drugs. The demonstration that RV can stimulate EC cells leads us to propose that RV disease includes participation of 5-HT, EC cells, the enteric nervous system and activation of vagal afferent nerves to brain structures associated with nausea and vomiting. This hypothesis is supported by treating vomiting in children with acute gastroenteritis with 5-HT₃ receptor antagonists.

  11. Aromatherapy with peppermint, isopropyl alcohol, or placebo is equally effective in relieving postoperative nausea.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Lynn A; Gross, Jeffrey B

    2004-02-01

    To determine whether aromatherapy can reduce postoperative nausea, the investigators studied 33 ambulatory surgery patients who complained of nausea in the PACU. After indicating the severity of nausea on a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS), subjects received randomized aromatherapy with isopropyl alcohol, oil of peppermint, or saline (placebo). The vapors were inhaled deeply through the nose from scented gauze pads held directly beneath the patients' nostrils and exhaled slowly through the mouth. Two and 5 minutes later, the subjects rated their nausea on the VAS. Overall nausea scores decreased from 60.6 +/- 4.3 mm (mean +/- SE) before aromatherapy to 43.1 +/- 4.9 mm 2 minutes after aromatherapy (P <.005), and to 28.0 +/- 4.6 mm 5 minutes after aromatherapy (P < 10(-6)). Nausea scores did not differ between the treatments at any time. Only 52% of the patients required conventional intravenous (IV) antiemetic therapy during their PACU stay. Overall satisfaction with postoperative nausea management was 86.9 +/- 4.1 mm and was independent of the treatment group. Aromatherapy effectively reduced the perceived severity of postoperative nausea. The fact that a saline "placebo" was as effective as alcohol or peppermint suggests that the beneficial effect may be related more to controlled breathing patterns than to the actual aroma inhaled.

  12. Translation and psychometric assessment of the Persian version of the Rhodes Index of Nausea, Vomiting and Retching (INVR) scale for the assessment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Moradian, S; Shahidsales, S; Ghavam Nasiri, M R; Pilling, M; Molassiotis, A; Walshe, C

    2014-11-01

    No tools are available to assess or measure the experience of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) for Persian/Farsi speakers. The purpose of this study is to translate the Rhodes Index of Nausea, Vomiting and Retching (INVR) scale for use with Persian-speaking cancer patients. A sample of 94 cancer patients were recruited from a cancer research centre in Mashhad-Iran. A standard two phase process of scale translation and validation was conducted. In phase I, standard 'forward-backward' translation procedure was used to translate the original version of the INVR questionnaire into Persian. The translated questionnaire was reviewed and revised and a Persian version of the scale was produced. In the second phase, a multiphase instrumentation study describing the internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the translated version was conducted. The inter-item correlation measured by Cronbach's alpha was 0.88. Test/re-test reliability was measured by the weighted kappa and was between 0.63 and 0.79, indicating 'substantial agreement' and stability between the initial and subsequent administrations for each item. These results demonstrate that the Persian version of the INVR is acceptable for use among Iranian cancer patients. Researchers could use this study as a model for future translation and application of psychometric instrumentation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Impact of chemotherapy-associated nausea and vomiting on patients' functional status and on costs: survey of five Canadian centres.

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, B J; Rusthoven, J; Rocchi, A; Latreille, J; Fine, S; Vandenberg, T; Laberge, F

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effect of chemotherapy-associated nausea and emesis on patients' functional status and on costs to the health care system, the patients and society before antagonists to the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) receptor subtype 5-HT3 became available. DESIGN: A 5-day prospective survey between February and May 1991 of patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer. Data were obtained from questionnaires completed by nurses and patients. SETTING: Five Canadian cancer treatment centres in Ontario (three) and Quebec (two). PATIENTS: Outpatients and inpatients 18 years of age and older who were scheduled to receive chemotherapy with a moderate to high potential for emesis as defined by standardized criteria. Patients were excluded if they were scheduled to receive an investigational antiemetic or had received chemotherapy within the previous 7 days. Of the 128 who were eligible, 112 agreed to participate; 107 returned the completed questionnaire, but the data for 15 were excluded because the patients received multiple-day chemotherapy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The degree of nausea (on a seven-point scale) and the frequency of emesis (vomiting or retching) were recorded for each day of the survey. Functional status was assessed before and after chemotherapy by means of the Functional Living Index-Emesis (FLIE). The direct health care costs and the indirect costs (e.g., of time off work) associated with nausea and emesis were estimated from the survey responses and secondary data sources. RESULTS: On the day of chemotherapy 38 of the 92 patients (41%) experienced emesis with or without nausea, and over the 5 days of the survey 72 patients (78%) reported at least one episode of nausea or emesis. The absolute risk of either problem decreased over time, but the risk of nausea relative to emesis increased over time. The FLIE scores indicated significant worsening of functional status after chemotherapy. On the day after treatment the main impact was from

  14. Inhaled peppermint oil for postop nausea in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Patricia; Hawrylack, Helen; Mooney, Ruth

    2016-07-01

    Postoperative nausea is a common occurrence that is very uncomfortable for patients and may result in complications including pain, strain at the surgical site, aspiration, and possible dehiscence. Antiemetics used to manage the nausea cause many adverse reactions, such as dysrhythmias and/or drowsiness resulting in an unwillingness to ambulate or perform deep-breathing exercises. Previous studies have reported a decrease in nausea following the use of peppermint oil. Researchers obtained informed consent from 123 patients for this study; 34 (28%) of them experienced nausea and were offered a nasal inhaler that contained peppermint oil. The average nausea rating before the use of peppermint oil was 3.29 (SD, 1.0) on a scale of 0 to 5, with 5 being the greatest nausea. Two minutes later, the average nausea rating was 1.44 (SD, 1.3). Using paired t-tests, these differences were found to be statistically significant (P = 0.000). The researchers concluded that peppermint oil inhalation is a viable first-line treatment for nausea in postoperative cardiac surgery patients.

  15. A phase II trial of prophylactic olanzapine combined with palonosetron and dexamethasone for preventing nausea and vomiting induced by cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Akimitsu; Ura, Takashi; Asano, Chisa; Haegawa, Ikue; Nomura, Motoo; Komori, Azusa; Narita, Yukiya; Taniguchi, Hiroya; Kadowaki, Shigenori; Muro, Kei; Horio, Yoshitsugu; Yoshida, Tatsuya; Oze, Isao; Kajita, Masaki; Mizutani, Akiyoshi

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of olanzapine in combination with palonosetron and dexamethasone for patients receiving cisplatin (≥50 mg/m(2) ), because this antiemetic therapy has not been sufficiently examined in patients receiving cisplatin. We conducted a phase II study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of olanzapine in combination with palonosetron and dexamethasone for chemotherapy naïve patients receiving cisplatin (≥50 mg/m(2) ). Patients received prophylactic dexamethasone (20 mg IV, day 1), palonosetron (0.75 mg IV, day 1), and olanzapine (10 mg, days 1-4). The patients were monitored for emesis and nausea for 120 h after chemotherapy. The primary endpoint was the complete response (CR) rate, which was defined as no vomiting episodes and no use of rescue medication for the overall period. CR rates of 65% and 45% would indicate the potential usefulness and the lower limit of interest, respectively. Fifty-one patients, including 37 esophageal cancer patients were enrolled, of whom 41 (80%) completed the treatment protocol as planned. The complete response rate for the overall period was 43% (95% confidence interval: 29-58); the primary endpoint was not met. Vomiting was frequently observed, with the overall rate of 51%. Most events occurred during 24-72 h after chemotherapy. Somnolence was observed in 73% of the patients, but it was well tolerated in most cases. Olanzapine combined with palonosetron and dexamethasone did not prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting induced by cisplatin as expected. The safety of this antiemetic therapy was confirmed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Prevention of cisplatin-based chemotherapy-induced delayed nausea and vomiting using triple antiemetic regimens: a mixed treatment comparison

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongjia; Le, Qiqi; Liu, Shanshan; Zong, Shaoqi; Zheng, Leizhen; Hou, Fenggang

    2016-01-01

    A variety of triple antiemetic regimens are being used to prevent cisplatin-based chemotherapy induced delayed emesis and nausea in cancer patients. We performed a network meta-analysis to compare the efficacies of the different regimens. Electronic searches of the PubMed, Cochrane Library and MEDLINE databases were performed to identify randomized controlled trials, and data were analyzed using JAGS, Stata 14.0 and R project. The primary outcome was a complete response (CR). The secondary outcomes were no vomiting (NV) and no nausea (NN). Among the 398 studies identified, 10 were eligible and included, providing data on nine regimens. In the CR analysis, the absolute rank of netupitant + palonosetron + dexamethasone (NEPA) was 0.8579. In the NV and NN analyses, NEPA's absolute ranks were 0.8631 and 0.7902, respectively. The compliance of patients treated with rolapitant + granisetron + dexamethasone (RGD) was the best due to a low incidence of adverse events, and good compliance was also observed with NEPA. It was difficult to achieve good compliance with aprepitant + granisetron + dexamethasone (AGD). Overall, NEPA was the best regimen, and aprepitant + ondansetron + dexamethasone (AOD) is also worthy of recommendation because of its low cost and good effect. For patients with severe constipation, hiccups, asthenia and/or delayed nausea, RGD is worthy of consideration. PMID:27015550

  17. Comparison between 5-day aprepitant and single-dose fosaprepitant meglumine for preventing nausea and vomiting induced by cisplatin-based chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ando, Yosuke; Hayashi, Takahiro; Ito, Kaori; Suzuki, Eri; Mine, Naoyuki; Miyamoto, Ayumi; Oya, Miyuki; Matsuda, Hidezo; Isaji, Ami; Nakanishi, Toru; Imaizumi, Kazuyoshi; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Okada, Tatsuyoshi; Sakurai, Kazuo; Naito, Kensei; Uyama, Ichiro; Kawada, Kenji; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Yamada, Shigeki

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to compare the preventive effect of 5-day administration of aprepitant with single administration of fosaprepitant meglumine against nausea and vomiting symptoms due to highly emetogenic chemotherapy regimens comprising cisplatin (CDDP). Subjects were inpatients who underwent chemotherapy for gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, lung cancer, or head and neck cancer with a regimen comprising 60 mg/m(2) or higher dose of CDDP. In this randomised, open-label, controlled study, the subjects were assigned to a group given aprepitant for 5 days or a group given a single administration of fosaprepitant meglumine. The nausea and vomiting symptoms that emerged within 7 days after the first CDDP administration were investigated with a questionnaire form; the results were compared between the two groups. Risk factors affecting nausea and vomiting symptoms were also investigated. Of the 101 patients enrolled, 93 patients were included (48 in the 5-day aprepitant group and 45 in the single fosaprepitant meglumine group). No significant intergroup differences in the complete response rate or the complete control rate were found over the entire period. The nausea score tended to increase from day 3 in both groups, but no significant intergroup difference was observed. Furthermore, the investigation of risk factors affecting moderate or severe nausea symptoms indicated that the fosaprepitant meglumine administration was not a risk factor. Single administration of fosaprepitant meglumine was not inferior to 5-day administration of aprepitant for preventing acute and delayed nausea and vomiting symptoms occurring after administration of CDDP (60 mg/m(2) or higher).

  18. The value of integrating pre-clinical data to predict nausea and vomiting risk in humans as illustrated by AZD3514, a novel androgen receptor modulator.

    PubMed

    Grant, Claire; Ewart, Lorna; Muthas, Daniel; Deavall, Damian; Smith, Simon A; Clack, Glen; Newham, Pete

    2016-04-01

    Nausea and vomiting are components of a complex mechanism that signals food avoidance and protection of the body against the absorption of ingested toxins. This response can also be triggered by pharmaceuticals. Predicting clinical nausea and vomiting liability for pharmaceutical agents based on pre-clinical data can be problematic as no single animal model is a universal predictor. Moreover, efforts to improve models are hampered by the lack of translational animal and human data in the public domain. AZD3514 is a novel, orally-administered compound that inhibits androgen receptor signaling and down-regulates androgen receptor expression. Here we have explored the utility of integrating data from several pre-clinical models to predict nausea and vomiting in the clinic. Single and repeat doses of AZD3514 resulted in emesis, salivation and gastrointestinal disturbances in the dog, and inhibited gastric emptying in rats after a single dose. AZD3514, at clinically relevant exposures, induced dose-responsive "pica" behaviour in rats after single and multiple daily doses, and induced retching and vomiting behaviour in ferrets after a single dose. We compare these data with the clinical manifestation of nausea and vomiting encountered in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer receiving AZD3514. Our data reveal a striking relationship between the pre-clinical observations described and the experience of nausea and vomiting in the clinic. In conclusion, the emetic nature of AZD3514 was predicted across a range of pre-clinical models, and the approach presented provides a valuable framework for predicition of clinical nausea and vomiting.

  19. The effects of acupuncture point Pericardium 6 on hydromorphone-induced nausea and vomiting in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Scallan, Elizabeth M; Simon, Bradley T

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of needling at acupuncture point Pericardium 6 on hydromorphone-induced nausea and vomiting. Randomized controlled clinical study. Eighty-one mixed-breed, healthy dogs aged 1.8 ± 1.6 years and weighing 14.5 ± 5.6 kg, admitted for elective ovariohysterectomy (n = 75) or castration (n = 6). Dogs were randomly assigned to one of three groups: acupuncture at Pericardium 6 (AT, n = 27); alternative acupuncture at Lung 5 (ST, n = 27), and no acupuncture (CT, n = 27). During time 0-30 minutes (baseline), occurrences of hypersalivation, vomiting and licking were recorded. At 30 minutes, subjects were administered hydromorphone (0.1 mg kg(-1) ) in combination with acepromazine (0.03 mg kg(-1) ) intramuscularly. During time 30-45 minutes (post-injection), occurrences of hypersalivation, vomiting and licking were recorded by an observer unaware of group assignment. Groups were compared using a Kruskal-Wallis test followed by a Dunn's post-test, or Fisher's exact tests when appropriate. There were no significant differences in age, weight or baseline observations among groups. Vomiting incidence post-injection was higher in the CT (20/27, 74.1%) and ST (22/27, 81.5%) groups than in the AT (10/27, 37.0%) group (p = 0.0129 and p = 0.002, respectively). The number of vomiting episodes [median (range)] after opioid administration was higher in the ST [1 (1-6)] than the AT [0 (0-2)] group (p = 0.0040). There were no differences in the median number of vomiting episodes between the ST and CT [1 (0-3)] or AT and CT groups. There were no differences in hypersalivation or licking among groups after hydromorphone-acepromazine administration. Pericardium 6 acupuncture reduced the incidence of hydromorphone-induced vomiting in healthy dogs. This cost-effective technique can improve patient well-being and comfort during the perioperative period. © 2016 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia

  20. The Preliminary Effects of Massage and Inhalation Aromatherapy on Chemotherapy-Induced Acute Nausea and Vomiting: A Quasi-Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial.

    PubMed

    Zorba, Pinar; Ozdemir, Leyla

    2017-04-20

    Despite pharmacological treatment, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) are observed in patients. This quasi-randomized controlled pilot study evaluated the feasibility and preliminary effects of massage and inhalation aromatherapies on chemotherapy-induced acute nausea/vomiting. Seventy-five patients with breast cancer were randomly grouped into 1 of 3 groups: massage (n = 25), inhalation (n = 25), and control (n = 25). The patients in the massage group received 20-minute aromatherapy foot massage, whereas those in the inhalation group received 3-minute inhalation aromatherapy before their second, third, and fourth chemotherapy cycles. The control group underwent only the routine treatment. A nausea, vomiting, and retching patient follow-up form was used to evaluate nausea severity by visual analog scale and frequency of vomiting and retching. The incidence of nausea and retching was significantly higher in the control group than in the other groups in the third and fourth chemotherapy cycles (P < .001). Furthermore, in these 2 cycles, the incidence of nausea and retching was significantly lower in the massage group than in the inhalation group (P < .001). Nausea severity was significantly lower among patients in the massage and inhalation groups than in the control group in all 3 cycles (P < .001). Nausea severity was significantly lower in the massage and inhalation aromatherapy groups than in the control group. Nausea and retching incidence was reduced in the aromatherapy groups compared with that in the control group. Nonpharmacological approaches are recommended for managing CINV. Massage and inhalation aromatherapy seems promising regarding the management of CINV.

  1. Management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting : focus on newer agents and new uses for older agents.

    PubMed

    Navari, Rudolph M

    2013-03-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is associated with a significant deterioration in quality of life. The emetogenicity of the chemotherapeutic agents, repeated chemotherapy cycles, and patient risk factors significantly influence CINV. The use of a combination of a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, dexamethasone and a neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor antagonist has significantly improved the control of acute and delayed emesis in single-day chemotherapy. Palonosetron, a second-generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonist with a different half-life, a different binding capacity and a different mechanism of action than the first-generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonists appears to be the most effective agent in its class. Aprepitant, the first and only agent clinically available in the NK1 receptor antagonist drug class has been used effectively as an additive agent to the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists and dexamethasone to control CINV. Rolapitant and netupitant are other NK1 receptor antagonists that are currently in phase III clinical trials. Despite the control of emesis, nausea has not been well controlled by current agents. Olanzapine, a US-FDA approved antipsychotic, has emerged in recent trials as an effective preventative agent for CINV, as well as a very effective agent for the treatment of breakthrough emesis and nausea. Clinical trials using gabapentin, cannabinoids and ginger have not been definitive regarding their efficacy in the prevention of CINV. Additional studies are necessary for the control of nausea and for the control of CINV in the clinical settings of multiple-day chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation.

  2. Does nausea and vomiting of pregnancy play a role in the association found between maternal caffeine intake and fetal growth restriction?

    PubMed

    Boylan, S M; Greenwood, D C; Alwan, N; Cooke, M S; Dolby, V A; Hay, A W M; Kirk, S F L; Konje, J C; Potdar, N; Shires, S; Simpson, N A B; Taub, N; Thomas, J D; Walker, J J; White, K L M; Wild, C P; Cade, J E

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between nausea and vomiting in pregnancy and (a) fetal growth restriction; and (b) maternal caffeine metabolism and fetal growth restriction. A cohort of 2,643 pregnant women, aged 18-45 years, attending two UK maternity units between 8 and 12 weeks gestation, was recruited. A validated tool assessed caffeine intake at different stages of pregnancy and caffeine metabolism was assessed from a caffeine challenge test. Experience of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy was self-reported for each trimester. Adjustment was made for confounders, including salivary cotinine as a biomarker of current smoking status. There were no significant associations between fetal growth restriction and nausea and vomiting in pregnancy, even after adjustment for smoking and alcohol intake. There were no significant differences in the relationship between caffeine intake and fetal growth restriction between those experiencing symptoms of nausea and vomiting and those who did not, for either the first (p = 0.50) or second trimester (p = 0.61) after adjustment for smoking, alcohol intake and caffeine half-life. There were also no significant differences in the relationship between caffeine half-life and fetal growth restriction between those experiencing symptoms of nausea and vomiting and those who did not, for either the first trimester (p = 0.91) or the second trimester (p = 0.45) after adjusting for smoking, alcohol intake and caffeine intake. The results from this study show no evidence that the relationship between maternal caffeine intake and fetal growth restriction is modified by nausea and vomiting in pregnancy.

  3. Associations between Nausea, Vomiting, Fatigue and Health-Related Quality of Life of Women in Early Pregnancy: The Generation R Study

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Guannan; Korfage, Ida J.; Groen, Esther Hafkamp-de; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Mautner, Eva; Raat, Hein

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the independent associations between nausea, vomiting, fatigue and health-related quality of life of women in early pregnancy in the Generation R study, which is a prospective mother and child cohort. Analyses were based on 5079 women in early pregnancy in the Rotterdam area, the Netherlands. The information on nausea, vomiting and fatigue in the previous three months was measured in the questionnaire at enrollment, as well as potential confounders (i.e., maternal/gestational age, ethnic background, educational level, parity, marital status, body mass index, tobacco and alcohol use, chronic/infectious conditions, uro-genital conditions/symptoms, sleep quality, headache, anxiety, and depression). Health-related quality of life was assessed by the 12-item Short Form Health Survey and physical and mental component summary scores were calculated. Multivariate regression models were performed to evaluate the independent associations of the presence of nausea, vomiting and fatigue with health-related quality of life, adjusting for potential confounders. 33.6% of women experienced daily presence of nausea, 9.6% for vomiting and 44.4% for fatigue. Comparing with women who never reported nausea, vomiting and fatigue, women with daily presence of at least one of these symptoms had significantly lower scores of physical component summary and mental component summary, after adjusting for potential confounders. Our study shows how common nausea, vomiting and fatigue are among women in early pregnancy and how much each of these symptoms negatively impact on health-related quality of life. We call for awareness of this issue from health care professionals, pregnant women and their families. PMID:27814390

  4. Assessment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in women with breast cancer: a Neuman systems model framework.

    PubMed

    Bourdeanu, Laura; Dee, Vivien

    2013-01-01

    The importance of nursing theory and models for the development of the nursing profession is becoming increasingly evident in literature. This article demonstrates the use of the Betty Neuman Systems Model (NSM) to assess, as well as determine the predictors of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in patients diagnosed with breast cancer receiving doxorubicin-based chemotherapy. The selection of the model for practice reflects the congruency between the level of severity of CINV and the patient-related risk factors. In addition, the NSM was used to determine the appropriate nursing interventions necessary to strengthen the flexible lines of defense and the lines of resistance in addition to maintaining system stability.

  5. Blood tests for investigating maternal wellbeing. 4. When nausea and vomiting in pregnancy becomes pathological: hyperemesis gravidarum.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) is commonplace, with many midwives frequently counselling women in their care. But how do midwives know when NVP becomes pathological? Although hyperemesis gravidarum (HEG) is less common, midwives must be able to recognise and differentiate between these two conditions, especially as HEG has the potential to have a detrimental effect on maternal and fetal wellbeing. The physiological impact of HEG is well documented but what often goes unacknowledged is the psychological, social, occupational and familial impact it also has on a woman's life. Knowledge about the aetiology of HEG and treatment options available is essential but a timely initial diagnosis is paramount. For this to occur the midwife must be skilled in history taking, clinical examination and utilisation of serum blood tests--specifically electrolytes and urea. An understanding of how electrolyte levels can cause pathology is vital if the midwife wishes to interpret blood tests for women with this condition.

  6. Olanzapine in the treatment of refractory nausea and vomiting: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Langley-DeGroot, Michael; Ma, Joseph D; Hirst, Jeremy; Roeland, Eric J

    2015-06-01

    The role of olanzapine in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is supported from randomized controlled trials and national consensus guidelines such as the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. In contrast, the role of olanzapine in refractory non-CINV is limited to case reports/series, retrospective studies, one pilot study, and one randomized controlled trial in patients with major depressive disorder. We present a case of a 36-year-old man with dyskeratosis congenita and refractory non-CINV over several years in which low-dose olanzapine was effective and tolerable. We aim to contribute to the growing evidence supporting the use of olanzapine for refractory non-CINV. Furthermore, we review and summarize the literature regarding olanzapine in the CINV and non-CINV settings.

  7. Ginger to reduce nausea and vomiting during pregnancy: evidence of effectiveness is not the same as proof of safety.

    PubMed

    Tiran, Denise

    2012-02-01

    Ginger is a common traditional remedy taken by numerous women experiencing nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP). There is considerable evidence to support its effectiveness as an anti-emetic, but also increasing concern over its safety. Ginger is a powerful herbal medicine which acts pharmacologically and thus has specific indications, contraindications, precautions and side-effects, the most notable of which is an anticoagulant action. Midwives and other professionals advising women in early pregnancy about strategies for coping with NVP should be aware of the risks and benefits of ginger in order to provide comprehensive and safe information to expectant mothers. This paper reviews some of the contemporary research evidence which demonstrates that ginger is not a universally appropriate or safe choice for women with NVP and offers a checklist for professionals advising expectant mothers.

  8. Comparison of healthcare resource use between patients receiving ondansetron or palonosetron as prophylaxis for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Yu-Chen; McDonnell, Anne; Klinger, Elissa; Fowler, Bridget; Matta, Lina; Voit, Daniel; Reddy, Prabashni

    2011-09-01

    To analyze the differences between ondansetron and palonosetron in healthcare resource use (i.e., inpatient/ outpatient encounters) among patients receiving intraperitoneal cisplatin. A medical record review was performed. Intraperitoneal cisplatin administrations for gynecological cancers from January through June 2006 and from October 2007 through June 2008 were divided into two groups based on the serotonin-receptor antagonist used. The occurrence of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV)-related hospital readmissions, emergency department visits, and outpatient encounters occurring within 7 days after cisplatin administration was compared. CINV-related resource use was defined as events associated with dehydration, hypovolemia, nausea/vomiting, hypokalemia, constipation, shortness of breath, or syncope/collapse. Ondansetron or palonosetron was used in 39 and 89 cisplatin administrations, respectively. The baseline characteristics were similar between the groups with mean age of 59 years and ovarian cancer being the most common cancer. Length of stay was approximately 2 days. Palonosetron was always administered as a single-day therapy while one- or multi-day ondansetron therapy was administered in 27% and 73% of cycles, respectively. A trend towards more CINV-related hospitalizations with ondansetron versus palonosetron was observed (5.1% vs. 0%, p = 0.09) with no significant difference in other CINV-related encounters. Palonosetron was associated with a trend to a lower risk of CINV-related hospital readmission than ondansetron in patients receiving intraperitoneal cisplatin for gynecological cancers, although not statistically significant. The duration of ondansetron therapy might be suboptimal with 27% of patients receiving only 1 day of therapy during hospital stay. These findings need to be confirmed in future studies.

  9. Psychometric assessment of the Chinese version of the MASCC Antiemesis Tool (MAT) for measuring chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jing-Yu; Suen, Lorna K P; Molassiotis, Alex

    2016-09-01

    This paper aims to assess the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the MASCC Antiemesis Tool (MAT) for measuring chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). This was a psychometric study using a panel of experts and a prospective observational design. Six experts were invited to identify the content validity and face validity of the MAT, and 115 cancer patients were then recruited from three provincial medical centers in Fuzhou, China. The MAT was self-completed by the patients on the first and the fifth day after receiving the most recent chemotherapy, and patients also rated daily the Index of Nausea, Vomiting, and Retching (INVR) during the first 5 days after chemotherapy. Content validity was measured by the index of the content validity (CVI). Construct validity was estimated by the contrasted groups approach. Concurrent validity was measured by exploring the correlations between the INVR and MAT scores. The reliability of the MAT was examined by Cronbach's alpha and item-to-total correlations. One hundred and eleven subjects returned the completed measures. High content validity was determined. Contrasted groups analysis clearly discriminated the differences on the CINV symptom experiences between different age and gender groups. Excellent concurrent validity was identified, with the Spearman's correlation coefficient between the MAT total score and the INVR overall total score of 0.94 (P < 0.001). Cronbach's alpha for the MAT was 0.73, and the item-to-total correlations ranged from 0.50 to 0.71. The MAT Chinese version is a valid, reliable, and convenient instrument for measuring CINV in Chinese cancer patients.

  10. Neurokinin-1 inhibitors in the prevention of nausea and vomiting from highly emetogenic chemotherapy: a network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Omar

    2016-09-01

    A network meta-analysis of the comparative effectiveness of neurokinin 1 (NK-1) inhibitors in the prophylaxis of highly emetogenic chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting has been conducted. Eligible studies included randomized trials evaluating aprepitant, fosaprepitant, netupitant (NEPA), casopitant and rolapitant containing regimens in the setting of highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Primary outcomes of interest include complete response (CR) and rate of no significant nausea. After preclusion of ineligible studies, 19 studies were included in the final analysis. The majority of the regimens containing NK-1 inhibitors (including NEPA, aprepitant/palonosetron (palono)/dexamethasone (dexa), casopitant/granisetron (grani) or ondansetron (ondan)/dexa, aprepitant/ondan/dexa) are better than regimens not containing them (palono/dexa, ondan/dexa, grani/dexa) in terms of achieving a CR in the overall phase. Moreover, casopitant/grani or ondan/dexa and aprepitant/grani or ondan/dexa are better than rolapitant/ondan or grani/dexa in terms of CR achievement [odds ratio (OR) 1.62, 95% credible interval (CrI) 1.14-2.23, and OR 1.28, 95% CrI 1.01-1.59, respectively]. Taking into consideration the limitations of cross-trial comparisons, regimens containing neurokinin inhibitors are associated with higher CR rates than regimens not containing them. Moreover, casopitant and aprepitant regimens seem to be more effective than rolapitant regimens.

  11. Antiemetic activity of volatile oil from Mentha spicata and Mentha × piperita in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Tayarani-Najaran, Z; Talasaz-Firoozi, E; Nasiri, R; Jalali, N; Hassanzadeh, MK

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study is aimed at determining the efficacy of Mentha spicata (M. spicata) and Mentha × piperita (M. × piperita) in preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). Methods: This was a randomised, double-blind clinical trial study. Prior to the study, patients were randomly assigned into four groups to receive M. spicata or M. × piperita. Statistical analysis included the χ2 test, relative risk, and Student’s t-test. Fifty courses were analysed for each group that met our eligibility criteria. The treatment and placebo groups applied essential oils of M. spicata, M. × piperita, or a placebo, while the control group continued with their previous antiemetic regimen. Patients or guardians recorded the number of emetic events, the intensity of nausea over 20 h of chemotherapy, as well as any possible adverse effects that occurred during this time. Results: There was a significant reduction in the intensity and number of emetic events in the first 24 h with M. spicata and M. × piperita in both treatment groups (p < 0.05) when compared with the control and no adverse effects were reported. The cost of treatment was also reduced when essential oils were used. Conclusion: M. spicata or M. × piperita essential oils are safe and effective for antiemetic treatment in patients, as well as being cost effective. PMID:23390455

  12. Antiemetic activity of volatile oil from Mentha spicata and Mentha × piperita in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Tayarani-Najaran, Z; Talasaz-Firoozi, E; Nasiri, R; Jalali, N; Hassanzadeh, Mk

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed at determining the efficacy of Mentha spicata (M. spicata) and Mentha × piperita (M. × piperita) in preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). This was a randomised, double-blind clinical trial study. Prior to the study, patients were randomly assigned into four groups to receive M. spicata or M. × piperita. Statistical analysis included the χ(2) test, relative risk, and Student's t-test. Fifty courses were analysed for each group that met our eligibility criteria. The treatment and placebo groups applied essential oils of M. spicata, M. × piperita, or a placebo, while the control group continued with their previous antiemetic regimen. Patients or guardians recorded the number of emetic events, the intensity of nausea over 20 h of chemotherapy, as well as any possible adverse effects that occurred during this time. There was a significant reduction in the intensity and number of emetic events in the first 24 h with M. spicata and M. × piperita in both treatment groups (p < 0.05) when compared with the control and no adverse effects were reported. The cost of treatment was also reduced when essential oils were used. M. spicata or M. × piperita essential oils are safe and effective for antiemetic treatment in patients, as well as being cost effective.

  13. Searching for Evidence to Support the Use of Ginger in the Prevention of Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting.

    PubMed

    Bossi, Paolo; Cortinovis, Diego; Cossu Rocca, Maria; Roila, Fausto; Seminara, Patrizia; Fabi, Alessandra; Canova, Stefania; Verri, Elena; Fatigoni, Sonia; Iannace, Alessandro; Macchi, Fabio; Ripamonti, Carla

    2016-06-01

    Patients with cancer frequently use dietary supplementation and herbal therapies to control symptoms of disease and adverse effects of cancer therapy. Despite the widespread use of dietary supplementation and herbal therapies in oncology, robust scientific evidence in this area is lacking. Not only do these products need to be tested in large and well-designed observational or randomized studies, but their manufacturing process must be improved to achieve higher levels of standardization in product quality. Ginger is frequently used to counteract chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), and some suggestions that it might be effective against CINV come from randomized and/or crossover clinical trials. However, several limitations in the methods of these studies limit their power and generalizability. The authors are conducting a randomized, double-blind study with a large sample size and homogeneous inclusion criteria in order to evaluate the efficacy of a well-standardized ginger extract in reducing nausea in patients with cancer. The widespread use of standardized herbal therapies and natural components among patients requires that scientific and rigorous research strategies are applied in this field to guide the physicians and the patients in safer use.

  14. Rolapitant for the prevention of delayed nausea and vomiting over initial and repeat courses of emetogenic chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Rapoport, Bernardo; van Eeden, Ronwyn; Smit, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a debilitating side effect of many cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens. Although sustained antiemetic control across repeated chemotherapy cycles is important for cancer treatment continuation, few studies have investigated the efficacy of antiemetic prophylaxis over multiple chemotherapy cycles. Areas covered: Here we discuss the use of antiemetic hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor and neurokinin (NK)-1 receptor antagonists for prevention of CINV, limiting our review to clinical trials in the context of multiple-cycle chemotherapy, with a focus on the NK-1 receptor antagonist rolapitant. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists may be effective in controlling CINV over repeated chemotherapy cycles, but evidence comes primarily from noncomparative studies. NK-1 receptor antagonists provide increased protection against CINV but differences in endpoint selection and methods of analysis preclude meaningful comparisons between agents. Rolapitant shows sustained control of emesis and nausea over multiple cycles of chemotherapy, and compared to other NK-1 receptor antagonists, has a longer half-life and reduced potential for cytochrome P450 3A4-mediated drug-drug interactions. Expert commentary: Trial design should be a key consideration in future studies of CINV therapies, including analytical methods utilized, choice of endpoints, and methods for accounting for nonresponders and patient attrition over multiple cycles of chemotherapy.

  15. Results of a compassionate-use program using intravenous ondansetron to prevent nausea and vomiting in patients receiving emetogenic cancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Berry, W R; House, K W; Lee, J T; Plagge, P B; Meshad, M W; Grapski, R

    1992-12-01

    This study reports the effectiveness and side effects of intravenous ondansetron as a single-agent antiemetic therapy for patients receiving emetogenic cancer chemotherapy under a compassionate-use program for patients not enrolled in controlled clinical trials. Patients were > or = 7 years old and had uncontrolled nausea and vomiting or intolerable side effects with standard antiemetics administered with previous cancer chemotherapy. All patients received ondansetron 0.15 mg/kg every 4 hours x 3 daily doses beginning 30 minutes prior to emetogenic chemotherapy. Patients could receive ondansetron for up to 5 consecutive days of chemotherapy. One hundred ninety patients received ondansetron during chemotherapy treatments that were similar to previous cycles of chemotherapy during which the patients had received standard antiemetics (identical chemotherapy or differing only by addition/deletion of chemotherapy agents of low emetogenicity). Chemotherapy regimens included cisplatin (n = 99; 52%), doxorubicin (without cisplatin, n = 52; 27%), and other drugs (n = 39; 21%). Patient experiences with nausea and vomiting and side effects with ondansetron and with previous standard antiemetics were rated on a scale of 1 to 10 (1, did not experience; 10, as bad as could be). On the nausea and vomiting scale, 74% of patients improved on ondansetron relative to standard antiemetics. Mean nausea and vomiting scales were 3.9 for ondansetron and 7.7 for standard antiemetics (P < .001). On the side effects scale, 62% of patients improved with ondansetron. Mean side effect scores were 1.8 for ondansetron and 4.5 for standard antiemetics (P < .001). One hundred nine patients assessed the effect of nausea and vomiting on their quality of life by means of the Functional Living Index-Emesis. On a 100-point scale (100=best quality of life), quality of life scores were 65.5 for ondansetron and 39.5 for standard antiemetics (P < .01). Functional Living Index-Emesis scores were higher for

  16. Visual diagnosis: an 11-month-old with nausea, vomiting, and an abdominal mass.

    PubMed

    Whittington, Laura A; Stevens, David C; Jones, Sarah A; Mayo, Julie M

    2013-12-01

    Children with intussusception can present with a wide variety of symptoms, including vomiting, fever,lethargy, and abdominal pain. The classic triad of abdominal pain, hematochezia, and palpable abdominal mass is seen in a few patients.• Early diagnosis of intussusception depends on a high level of clinical suspicion in any child with non specific abdominal findings followed by appropriate radiographic or ultrasonographic evaluation and confirmation with a contrast enema.• Abdominal radiography, although an appropriate component of the initial workup for gastrointestinal symptoms, lacks the sensitivity to reliably exclude the presence of intussusception.• Because ultrasonography is a safe, sensitive, and specific test for the diagnosis of intussusceptions, it should be performed early whenever there is clinical suspicion of intussusception.• Contrast enema is the gold standard for diagnosis and first-line treatment of intussusception. There is an increasing trend for pneumatic reduction of intussusception compared with hydrostatic reduction.Intravenous placement, fluid resuscitation, and notification of the pediatric surgeon should be completed before contrast enema.

  17. Frequency of vomiting during the postoperative period in hydromorphone-treated dogs undergoing orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Stern, Leah C; Palmisano, Matthew P

    2012-08-01

    To determine the frequency of postoperative vomiting in dogs undergoing routine orthopedic surgery that were treated with hydromorphone and whether that frequency would vary on the basis of administration route. Noncontrolled clinical trial. Animals-58 client-owned dogs with cranial cruciate ligament deficiency. Before surgery, all dogs received hydromorphone (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb], IM or IV) and 41 dogs also received acepromazine. Anesthesia was induced with diazepam and propofol and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. Dogs subsequently underwent surgical stabilization of the stifle joint. After surgery, dogs were randomly assigned to receive hydromorphone (0.1 mg/kg) via one of the following routes: IM, IV quickly (for 1 to 2 seconds), or IV slowly (for approx 1 minute). Dogs were monitored for vomiting. A median of 4 doses of hydromorphone/dog was administered after surgery. One dog was observed to regurgitate once prior to postoperative IM administration of hydromorphone; no dogs vomited at any point during the study period, regardless of the method of hydromorphone administration. The method of hydromorphone administration had no apparent effect on the likelihood of dogs vomiting. Because no dogs vomited, a particular administration method cannot be recommended. However, findings suggested that hydromorphone can be administered to dogs following orthopedic surgery without a clinically important risk of vomiting or regurgitation.

  18. Efficacy of olanzapine for the prophylaxis of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ting; Liu, Qianxin; Lu, Min; Ma, Lingyue; Zhou, Ying; Cui, Yimin

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of olanzapine for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). The literature was searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy of olanzapine for the prophylaxis of CINV using PubMed, Embase, Central, as well as clinicaltrials.gov for unpublished studies. The endpoints of the study were the number of patients who achieved a complete response (CR; no emesis and no rescue) and no nausea in the acute, delayed and overall phases. Two authors independently selected studies, assessed the risk of bias and extracted data. The included RCTs were analysed using RevMan 5.3 provided by the Cochrane Collaboration. Ten RCTs were identified for the meta-analysis. Compared with other antiemetic agents, olanzapine significantly improved the CR in the delayed and overall phases, but did not enhance the CR in the acute phase. For the control of CINV, olanzapine was better than and comparable with aprepitant in the acute phase and delayed phase, respectively. Compared with placebo, treatment with 5 mg and 10 mg olanzapine exhibited similar efficacy in terms of the CR in the delayed and overall phases. Olanzapine is an excellent alternative for the prophylaxis of CINV. Olanzapine 5 mg per day should be recommended as the initial dose because of equivalent efficacy to a 10 mg dose but a lower potential risk of side effects. Further studies are needed to explore the optimal combination of medicines. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  19. Anti-nausea effects and pharmacokinetics of ondansetron, maropitant and metoclopramide in a low-dose cisplatin model of nausea and vomiting in the dog: a blinded crossover study.

    PubMed

    Kenward, Hannah; Elliott, Jonathan; Lee, Terry; Pelligand, Ludovic

    2017-08-16

    Nausea is a subjective sensation which is difficult to measure in non-verbal species. The aims of this study were to determine the efficacy of three classes of antiemetic drugs in a novel low dose cisplatin model of nausea and vomiting and measure change in potential nausea biomarkers arginine vasopressin (AVP) and cortisol. A four period cross-over blinded study was conducted in eight healthy beagle dogs of both genders. Dogs were administered 18 mg/m(2) cisplatin intravenously, followed 45 min later by a 15 min infusion of either placebo (saline) or antiemetic treatment with ondansetron (0.5 mg/kg; 5-HT3 antagonist), maropitant (1 mg/kg; NK1 antagonist) or metoclopramide (0.5 mg/kg; D2 antagonist). The number of vomits and nausea associated behaviours, scored on a visual analogue scale, were recorded every 15 min for 8 h following cisplatin administration. Plasma samples were collected to measure AVP, cortisol and antiemetic drug concentrations. The placebo treated group vomited an average number of 7 times (range 2-13). None of the dogs in either the ondansetron or maropitant treated groups vomited during the observation period. The onset of nausea-like behaviour in the placebo-treated group occurred at t3.5h and peaked at t4.75h with nausea behaviour score of 58.5 ± 4.6 mm. Ondansetron and maropitant reduced overall the area under the curve of nausea behaviour score by 90% and 25%, respectively. Metoclopramide had no effect on either vomiting or nausea. Cisplatin-induced nausea and vomiting caused concomitant increases in AVP and cortisol. In the placebo-treated group, AVP and cortisol increased from t2.5h, peaked at t5h (11.3 ± 2.9 pmol L(-1) and 334.0 ± 46.7 nmol/L, respectively) and returned to baseline by t8h. AVP and cortisol increases were completely prevented by ondansetron and only partially by maropitant, while metoclopramide had no effect. The terminal half-lives (harmonic mean ± pseudo SD) for ondansetron, maropitant and

  20. Doxylamine succinate–pyridoxine hydrochloride (Diclegis) for the management of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Nuangchamnong, Nina; Niebyl, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) is common and often undertreated, in part due to fears of adverse effects of medications on the fetus during early pregnancy. In April 2013, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved doxylamine succinate 10 mg and pyridoxine hydrochloride (a vitamin B6 analog) 10 mg as a delayed-release combination pill called Diclegis for the treatment of NVP. Diclegis is currently the only medication that is FDA-approved for the indication of NVP. This review addresses the historical context, safety, efficacy, pharmacology, and practical role of doxylamine and pyridoxine for the management of NVP. The reintroduction of this doxylamine–pyridoxine combination pill into the American market fills a therapeutic gap in the management of NVP left by the removal of the same active drugs marketed over 30 years ago in the form of Bendectin. The substantial amount of safety data accumulated over the years makes it one of the few drugs that qualify for FDA Pregnancy Category A status. In the hierarchical approach to pharmacological treatment of NVP, the combination of doxylamine and pyridoxine should thus be first-tier. PMID:24748822

  1. International antiemetic guidelines on chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV): content and implementation in daily routine practice.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Karin; Gralla, Richard; Jahn, Franziska; Molassiotis, Alex

    2014-01-05

    Over the past decades major improvements in the management of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) were obtained. With the correct use of antiemetic drugs, CINV can be prevented in almost 70%, and even up to, 80% of patients. Treatment guidelines enable physicians to integrate the latest clinical research into their daily practice. The large volume of rapidly evolving clinical data has been summarised and incorporated into treatment recommendations by well-known and reliable institutions. These organisations include the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC), the European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO), the American Society for Clinical Oncology (ASCO), and National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN). However, despite the availability of these guidelines, there is an emerging evidence that adherence to, and implementation of, treatment recommendations is less than optimal. This review will especially focus on the content of the current antiemetic guidelines and will address the important question of how these guidelines are implemented in routine practice. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. 2016 updated MASCC/ESMO consensus recommendations: Prevention of acute chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in children.

    PubMed

    Dupuis, L Lee; Sung, Lillian; Molassiotis, Alexander; Orsey, Andrea D; Tissing, Wim; van de Wetering, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    To update the 2009 recommendations for the prevention of acute chemotherapy-induced emesis in children. We updated the original systematic literature search. Randomized studies were included in the evidence to support this guideline if they were primary studies fully published in full text in English or French; included only children less than 18 years old or, for mixed studies of adults and children, reported the pediatric results separately or the median or mean age was no more than 13 years; evaluated acute chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) prophylaxis; provided sufficient information to permit determination of the emetogenicity of the antineoplastic therapy administered or the study investigators stated the emetogenicity of the chemotherapy administered; included an implicit or explicit definition of complete acute CINV response; described the antiemetic regimen in full; and reported the complete acute CINV response rate as a proportion. Twenty-five randomized studies, including eight published since 2009, met the criteria for inclusion in this systematic review. Prophylaxis with a 5-HT3 antagonist (granisetron or ondansetron or palonosetron or tropisetron) ± dexamethasone ± aprepitant is recommended for children receiving highly or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy. For children receiving chemotherapy of low emetogenicity, a 5-HT3 antagonist is recommended. The findings of several randomized trials were used to update recommendations for the prevention of acute CINV. However, significant research gaps remain and must be addressed before CINV control in children can be optimized.

  3. Doxylamine succinate-pyridoxine hydrochloride (Diclegis) for the management of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: an overview.

    PubMed

    Nuangchamnong, Nina; Niebyl, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) is common and often undertreated, in part due to fears of adverse effects of medications on the fetus during early pregnancy. In April 2013, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved doxylamine succinate 10 mg and pyridoxine hydrochloride (a vitamin B6 analog) 10 mg as a delayed-release combination pill called Diclegis for the treatment of NVP. Diclegis is currently the only medication that is FDA-approved for the indication of NVP. This review addresses the historical context, safety, efficacy, pharmacology, and practical role of doxylamine and pyridoxine for the management of NVP. The reintroduction of this doxylamine-pyridoxine combination pill into the American market fills a therapeutic gap in the management of NVP left by the removal of the same active drugs marketed over 30 years ago in the form of Bendectin. The substantial amount of safety data accumulated over the years makes it one of the few drugs that qualify for FDA Pregnancy Category A status. In the hierarchical approach to pharmacological treatment of NVP, the combination of doxylamine and pyridoxine should thus be first-tier.

  4. Comparing pyridoxine and doxylamine succinate-pyridoxine HCl for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: A matched, controlled cohort study.

    PubMed

    Pope, Eliza; Maltepe, Caroline; Koren, Gideon

    2015-07-01

    Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) is a common gestational condition. This is the first study to compare the use of vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) versus Diclectin (doxylamine succinate-pyridoxine HCl) for NVP symptoms. Participants were pregnant women with NVP who used either pyridoxine or doxylamine succinate-pyridoxine HCl for ≥4 days prior to calling the Motherisk NVP Helpline. Women receiving pyridoxine only (n = 80) were matched to a woman taking doxylamine succinate-pyridoxine HCl only (n = 80), accounting for potential confounders and baseline level of NVP, measured by the Pregnancy Unique Quantification of Emesis (PUQE) score. Change in NVP severity after a week of therapy with either pyridoxine or doxylamine succinate-pyridoxine HCl was quantified using the PUQE-24 scale, which describes NVP symptoms 24 hours prior to their call. Doxylamine succinate-pyridoxine HCl use found a significant reduction in PUQE score, compared with pyridoxine (+0.5 versus -0.2, P < .05; negative denotes worsening). This association was especially prominent in women with more severe symptoms, where doxylamine succinate-pyridoxine HCl use saw a mean improvement of 2.6 versus 0.4 with pyridoxine (P < .05). As well, doxylamine succinate-pyridoxine HCl use was associated with fewer women experiencing moderate to severe scores after a week of treatment, compared with the pyridoxine group (7 versus 17, P < .05), despite similar baseline PUQE scores.

  5. Cannabinoid 2 (CB2) receptor agonism reduces lithium chloride-induced vomiting in Suncus murinus and nausea-induced conditioned gaping in rats.

    PubMed

    Rock, Erin M; Boulet, Nathalie; Limebeer, Cheryl L; Mechoulam, Raphael; Parker, Linda A

    2016-09-05

    We aimed to investigate the potential anti-emetic and anti-nausea properties of targeting the cannabinoid 2 (CB2) receptor. We investigated the effect of the selective CB2 agonist, HU-308, on lithium chloride- (LiCl) induced vomiting in Suncus murinus (S. murinus) and conditioned gaping (nausea-induced behaviour) in rats. Additionally, we determined whether these effects could be prevented by pretreatment with AM630 (a selective CB2 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist). In S. murinus, HU-308 (2.5, 5mg/kg, i.p.) reduced, but did not completely block, LiCl-induced vomiting; an effect that was prevented with AM630. In rats, HU-308 (5mg/kg, i.p.) suppressed, but did not completely block, LiCl-induced conditioned gaping to a flavour; an effect that was prevented by AM630. These findings are the first to demonstrate the ability of a selective CB2 receptor agonist to reduce nausea in animal models, indicating that targeting the CB2 receptor may be an effective strategy, devoid of psychoactive effects, for managing toxin-induced nausea and vomiting.

  6. The Influence of Oral Ginger before Operation on Nausea and Vomiting after Cataract Surgery under General Anesthesia: A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Seidi, Jamal; Ebnerasooli, Shahrokh; Shahsawari, Sirous; Nzarian, Simin

    2017-01-01

    Background According to Iranian traditional medicine, using safe ginger may contribute to taking less chemical medicines and result in fewer side effects. Objective To determine the influence of using ginger before operation on nausea and vomiting, after cataract surgery under general anesthesia. Methods This study was a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial conducted at Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences in 2015. 122 candidates of cataract surgery were randomly allocated in three groups. The first group received a ginger capsule in a single 1 g dose, the second received two separate doses of ginger capsule each containing 500 mg and the third group received placebo capsule before operation. The patients were examined and studied for the level of nausea and occurrence of vomiting for 6 hours after the operation. The intensity of nausea was scored from zero to ten, based upon Visual Analog Scale. SPSS version 20 was used to analyze the data. We used Chi square and Kruskal-Wallis test for the analyses of outcomes. Results The frequency and intensity of nausea and the frequency of vomiting after operation among those who had taken the ginger capsule in 2 separate 500 mg doses was less than the other 2 groups. This difference was significant (p<0.05). Conclusion As the results of the study indicated, using ginger as safe medicine, which could act complementary to chemical medicines was really useful in reducing the frequency and intensity of nausea and vomiting after cataract surgery. As this study found, the maximum efficiency of ginger was when it had been taken regularly and constantly in separate doses. Trial Registration The trial was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (http://www.irct.ir) with the Irct ID: IRCT2015062122853N1 Funding This research was supported by the research cluster grant (93/132) from Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran. PMID:28243400

  7. Review of oral fixed-dose combination netupitant and palonosetron (NEPA) for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Lorusso, Vito; Karthaus, Meinolf; Aapro, Matti

    2015-01-01

    Current guidelines recommend the combination of a neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor antagonist (RA) and a 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) RA, together with corticosteroids, in order to prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting with anthracycline-cyclophosphamide and highly emetogenic chemotherapy, and it is to be considered with moderately emetogenic chemotherapy. Netupitant and palonosetron (NEPA) is a fixed-dose combination of netupitant, a novel, highly selective NK1 RA, and palonosetron, a new-generation 5-HT3 RA, targeting two major emetic pathways in a single oral capsule. In clinical trials, NEPA administered on day 1 together with dexamethasone was highly effective and well tolerated in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with solid tumors undergoing moderately emetogenic chemotherapy or highly emetogenic chemotherapy. NEPA offers maximal convenience, and as a simple guideline-based regimen, has the potential to improve adherence to guidelines.

  8. Nausea: a review of pathophysiology and therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Prashant; Yoon, Sonia S.; Kuo, Braden

    2016-01-01

    The sensation of nausea is a common occurrence with diverse causes and a significant disease burden. Nausea is considered to function as a protective mechanism, warning the organism to avoid potential toxic ingestion. Less adaptive circumstances are also associated with nausea, including post-operative nausea, chemotherapy-induced nausea, and motion sickness. A common definition of nausea identifies the symptom as a precursor to the act of vomiting. The interaction, though present, does not appear to be a simple relationship. Nausea is unfortunately the ‘neglected symptom’, with current accepted therapy generally directed at improving gastrointestinal motility or acting to relieve emesis. Improved understanding of the pathophysiological basis of nausea has important implications for exploiting novel mechanisms or developing novel therapies for nausea relief. PMID:26770271

  9. Validation of a food frequency questionnaire for Japanese pregnant women with and without nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Kohei; Jwa, Seung-Chik; Kobayashi, Minatsu; Morisaki, Naho; Sago, Haruhiko; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2017-05-01

    No previous study has shown the validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in early pregnancy with consideration of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of a FFQ in early pregnancy for Japanese pregnant women. We included 188 women before 15 weeks of gestation and compared estimated nutrient intake and food group intake based on a modified FFQ with that based on 3-day dietary records (DRs). Spearman's rank correlation coefficients, adjusting energy intake and attenuating within-person error, were calculated. Subgroup analysis for those with and without NVP was conducted. We also examined the degree of appropriate classification across categories between FFQ and DRs through division of consumption of nutrients and food groups into quintiles. Crude Spearman's correlation coefficients of nutrients ranged from 0.098 (sodium) to 0.401 (vitamin C), and all of the 36 nutrients were statistically significant. In 27 food groups, correlation coefficients ranged from -0.015 (alcohol) to 0.572 (yogurt), and 81% were statistically significant. In subgroup analysis, correlation coefficients in 89% of nutrients and 70% of food groups in women with NVP and 97% of nutrients and 74% of food groups in women without NVP were statistically significant. On average, 63.7% of nutrients and 60.4% of food groups were classified into same or adjacent quintiles according to the FFQ and DRs. The FFQ is a useful instrument, regardless of NVP, for assessing the diet of women in early pregnancy in Japan. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Microemulsion as a tool for the transdermal delivery of ondansetron for the treatment of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Al Abood, Raid M; Talegaonkar, Sushama; Tariq, Mohammad; Ahmad, Farhan J

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop a microemulsion (ME) formulation for transdermal delivery of ondansetron for chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). For the formulation development oil was selected on the basis of drug solubility in it while the surfactants and co-surfactants (S(mix)) were screened on the basis of their capacity to solubilize the oil as well as their efficiency to provide the microemulsion area. The microemulsion existence ranges were defined through the construction of the pseudo-ternary phase diagram and various formulations were developed. Effect of surfactant and cosurfactant mass ratio (S(mix)) on the microemulsion formation and its permeation through excised rat skin was studied. A significant increase in permeability parameters such as steady-state flux (J(ss)), permeability coefficient (K(p)), and enhancement ratio (ER) was observed in ME. Formulation B4 which consisted of 0.5% (w/w) of ondansetron, 5% (w/w) of oleic acid, 30% (w/w) S(mix) (2:1, Tween 20 and PEG 400) and 64.5% (w/w) of distilled water showed the best permeability profile. The formulation B4 was subjected to various in vitro attributes and converted to microemulsion gel (OMG). In order to predict the efficacy, pharmacokinetic studies were performed and pharmacokinetic profile was compared with ondansetron conventional gel (OCG) and oral marketed syrup (ONDANZ). The absorption of ondansetron from OMG resulted in 6.03 fold increase in bioavailability as compared to oral conventional syrup and 9.66 times with reference to the OCG gel. The future perspective includes preclinical, toxicological and clinical studies for developing clinically viable formulation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hollow silicon microneedle array based trans-epidermal antiemetic patch for efficient management of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharbikar, Bhushan N.; Kumar S., Harish; Kr., Sindhu; Srivastava, Rohit

    2015-12-01

    Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting (CINV) is a serious health concern in the treatment of cancer patients. Conventional routes for administering anti-emetics (i.e. oral and parenteral) have several drawbacks such as painful injections, poor patient compliance, dependence on skilled personnel, non-affordability to majority of population (parenteral), lack of programmability and suboptimal bioavailability (oral). Hence, we have developed a trans-epidermal antiemetic drug delivery patch using out-of-plane hollow silicon microneedle array. Microneedles are pointed micron-scale structures that pierce the epidermal layer of skin to reach dermal blood vessels and can directly release the drug in their vicinity. They are painless by virtue of avoiding significant contact with dermal sensory nerve endings. This alternate approach gives same pharmacodynamic effects as par- enteral route at a sparse drug-dose requirement, hence negligible side-effects and improved patient compliance. Microneedle design attributes were derived by systematic study of human skin anatomy, natural micron-size structures like wasp-sting and cactus-spine and multi-physics simulations. We used deep reactive ion etching with Bosch process and optimized recipe of gases to fabricate high-aspect-ratio hollow silicon microneedle array. Finally, microneedle array and polydimethylsiloxane drug reservoir were assembled to make finished anti-emetic patch. We assessed microneedles mechanical stability, physico-chemical properties and performed in-vitro, ex- vivo and in-vivo studies. These studies established functional efficacy of the device in trans-epidermal delivery of anti-emetics, its programmability, ease of use and biosafety. Thus, out-of-plane hollow silicon microneedle array trans-epidermal antiemetic patch is a promising strategy for painless and effective management of CINV at low cost in mainstream healthcare.

  12. [Region-wide professional practice evaluation with regards to antiemetic prescription into chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting].

    PubMed

    Tavernier, Jérôme; Jouannet-Romaszko, Mireille; Bertucat, Helena; Marchiset, Nathalie; Bahadoor, Mohum; Chevrier, Régine

    2016-01-01

    The anticancer drug technical commission (COTECH) of the Auvergne OMEDIT has set up a region-wide professional practice evaluation (PPE) with regards to antiemetic prescription practices in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), in order to evaluate their compliance with OMEDIT's guidelines. Are not included pediatric and hematologic protocols. A prospective survey was carried from November 2013 to January 2014 out in 14 medical centers in Auvergne. This clinical audit was based on the HAS (national healthcare authority) framework and used as a reference regional standards based on the MASCC Antiemetic Guidelines. Altogether, 346 antiemetic prescriptions were compared to guidelines. We observed respectively 81 % and 42 % conformity rates in acute and delayed emesis for high emesis risk chemotherapy (HE); 86 % and 35 % conformity rates in acute and delayed emesis for moderate emesis risk chemotherapy (ME); 66 % and 85 % conformity rates in acute and delayed emesis for low emesis risk chemotherapy (LE). These results highlight deficiencies in compliance with guidelines, especially in the management of delayed CINV in HE and ME chemotherapy. The COTECH identified three priority improvement areas: under-prescribe NK1 antagonists in HE cure; under-prescribe corticosteroid; over-prescribe 5HT3 antagonists for delayed emesis. The COTECH is publicizing these results all over the Auvergne region, together with a reminder of recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Determinants of Adherence to Delayed-Release Doxylamine and Pyridoxine in Patients with Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Costantine, Maged M.; Matok, Ilan; Chiossi, Guisseppe; Clark, Shannon; Miodovnik, Menachem; Umans, Jason G.; Caritis, Steve; Hankins, Gary D.V.; Koren, Gideon

    2012-01-01

    Objective Women often hesitate to take medications in pregnancy due to fears of perceived potential fetal damage. The authors’ objective is to identify the determinants of adherence to delayed release doxylamine-pyridoxine (Diclectin®) in patients with nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP). Methods The authors performed a pre-specified secondary analysis of a multicenter double blind randomized controlled trial of Diclectin® vs. placebo for the treatment of NVP. Data on adherence to study medication were collected in all patients. The primary outcome of this analysis was adherence with study medication, which was determined by pill counting and patient diaries. The treatment regimen in the original trial was not fixed and depended on patient’s symptoms. There was no difference in the adherence rates between subjects in the Diclectin® or placebo arms of the study, so the 2 arms were analyzed as one cohort. The degree of adherence was analyzed in the various subgroups. Subsequently, a multiple linear regression model was constructed to identify predictors to adherence. Results 258 women were included in this analysis. There was no difference in adherence rates according to ethnicity, race or the presence of adverse events. Gravidity, average number of prescribed tablets per day, site of enrollment, and change in NVP severity measured by the pregnancy unique-quantification of emesis (PUQE) score were associated with adherence. In multivariable analysis, average number of tablets per day, change in PUQE, number of treatment days, site of enrollment were significantly predictive of adherence, with the former being negatively correlated. Conclusion adherence to antinauseants for NVP is affected by number of tablets prescribed per day, and treatment duration and effectiveness. PMID:22972538

  14. Fosaprepitant (MK-0517): a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Navari, Rudolph M

    2007-12-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a distressing and common adverse event associated with cancer treatment. Updated anti-emetic guidelines were published in 2007 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network and in 2006 by the American Society of Clinical Oncology, which have included the use of the new and more effective anti-emetic agents (5-hydroxytryptamine-3 [5-HT(3)] receptor antagonists and neurokinin-1 [NK-1] receptor antagonists). Aprepitant is a selective NK-1 receptor antagonist approved as part of combination therapy with a corticosteroid and a 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist for the prevention of acute and delayed CINV. Fosaprepitant (also known as MK-0517 and L-758,298) is a water-soluble phosphoryl prodrug for aprepitant, which, when administered intravenously, is converted to aprepitant within 30 min after intravenous administration via the action of ubiquitous phosphatases. Because fosaprepitant is rapidly converted to the active form (aprepitant), it is expected to provide the same aprepitant exposure in terms of AUC, and a correspondingly similar anti-emetic effect. Clinical studies have suggested that fosaprepitant could be appropriate as an intravenous alternative to the aprepitant oral capsule. In a study in healthy subjects, fosaprepitant was well tolerated up to 150 mg (1 mg/ml), and fosaprepitant 115 mg was bioequivalent in its AUC to aprepitant 125 mg. Fosaprepitant 115 mg has been submitted for FDA approval as an alternative on day 1 of a 3-day oral aprepitant regimen, with oral aprepitant administered on days 2 and 3. Fosaprepitant may be a useful parenteral alternative to oral aprepitant. Further study is needed to clarify the use of fosaprepitant for the prevention of CINV, and to clarify optimal dosing regimens that may be appropriate substitutes for oral aprepitant.

  15. Use of antiemetics in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: review and focus on the Belgian situation.

    PubMed

    Van den Brande, Jan; Brouwer, Aaltje; Peeters, Marc

    2014-06-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a common, distressing, debilitating and costly side effect, experienced by up to 90% of patients receiving highly emetogenic drugs. During the last 20 years great advances have been made in the prevention and treatment of CINV. Aprepitant (a neurokinin-1 antagonist) and palonosetron (a 5-HT3 antagonist) are the most recent additions to the available armamentarium. The aim of this paper is to review the most recent findings concerning the pathophysiology and prevention of CINV, and the international guidelines currently in place for its prevention and treatment. Among the treatments available, 5-HT3 antagonists and NK-1 antagonists are compared. In a large meta-analysis (8 studies in 3 592 patients) statistically significant differences in favour of palonosetron compared with first-generation 5-HT3 antagonists have been demonstrated in the prevention of acute, delayed and overall CINV. A recent, large phase III randomized, gender-stratified, double-blind trial in 848 patients receiving a broad range of moderately emetogenic chemotherapy regimens with a variety of tumour types showed superiority of an aprepitant triple regimen compared to a control regimen of ondansetron and dexamethasone. A new combined 5-HT3/ NK-1 treatment, called NEPA (palonosetron/netupitant), has provided very promising preliminary data and is awaited with great anticipation by clinicians. The specific Belgian situation in terms of Health Authorities recommendations and reimbursement policies is also presented. It is concluded that further improvements are still desirable, particularly in the prevention and treatment of delayed emesis.

  16. Preliminary efficacy and safety of an oromucosal standardized cannabis extract in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Marta; Pérez, Eulàlia; Abanades, Sergio; Vidal, Xavier; Saura, Cristina; Majem, Margarita; Arriola, Edurne; Rabanal, Manel; Pastor, Antoni; Farré, Magí; Rams, Neus; Laporte, Joan-Ramon; Capellà, Dolors

    2010-01-01

    AIMS Despite progress in anti-emetic treatment, many patients still suffer from chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). This is a pilot, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II clinical trial designed to evaluate the tolerability, preliminary efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of an acute dose titration of a whole-plant cannabis-based medicine (CBM) containing delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, taken in conjunction with standard therapies in the control of CINV. METHODS Patients suffering from CINV despite prophylaxis with standard anti-emetic treatment were randomized to CBM or placebo, during the 120 h post-chemotherapy period, added to standard anti-emetic treatment. Tolerability was measured as the number of withdrawals from the study during the titration period because of adverse events (AEs). The endpoint for the preliminary efficacy anal