Science.gov

Sample records for postoperative nausea vomiting

  1. Postoperative nausea and vomiting

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a long-standing issue, not a new concept in anesthesiology. Despite many studies over the last several decades, PONV remains a significant problem due to its complex mechanism. This review presents a summary of the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of PONV, focusing on preventive treatment, particularly the use of new drugs. In addition, we discuss the latest meta-analysis results regarding correct clinical use of classic drugs. I also summarize the latest trends of postdischarge nausea and vomiting and the pharmacogenetics, which is attracting a great deal of attention from other medical fields in PONV-related studies. Finally, we discuss the drawbacks of existing studies on PONV and suggest a focus for future investigations. PMID:25302092

  2. Postoperative nausea and vomiting following orthognathic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, C.; Brookes, C. D.; Rich, J.; Arbon, J.; Turvey, T. A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence and risk factors associated with postoperative nausea (PON) and vomiting (POV) after orthognathic surgery. A review of the clinical records of consecutively enrolled subjects (2008–2012) at a single academic institution was conducted between 9/2013 and 3/2014. Data on the occurrence of PON and POV and potential patient-related, intraoperative, and postoperative explanatory factors were extracted from the medical records. Logistic models were used for the presence/absence of postoperative nausea and vomiting separately. Data from 204 subjects were analyzed: 63% were female, 72% Caucasian, and the median age was 19 years. Thirty-three percent had a mandibular osteotomy alone, 27% a maxillary osteotomy alone, and 40% had bimaxillary osteotomies. Sixty-seven percent experienced PON and 27% experienced POV. The most important risk factors for PON in this series were female gender, increased intravenous fluids, and the use of nitrous oxide, and for POV were race, additional procedures, and morphine administration. The incidence of PON and POV following orthognathic surgery in the current cohort of patients, after the introduction of the updated 2007 consensus guidelines for the management of postoperative nausea and vomiting, has not decreased substantially from that reported in 2003–2004. PMID:25655765

  3. [Prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting by lorazepam].

    PubMed

    Laraki, M; el Mouknia, M; Bouaguad, A; Idali, B; Benaguida, M

    1996-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess the efficacy of oral lorazepam on postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing thyroid surgery. Twenty-six patients were randomly assigned to two groups, and receiving orally, one hour before induction of anaesthesia, either 2.5 mg of lorazepam (n = 13) or a placebo (n = 13). Lorazepam reduced the incidence and especially the intensity of nausea. The incidence of vomiting in the lorazepam group was significantly lower than in the placebo group (14.5% vs 45%). The use of lorazepam for premedication thus reduces the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting. The advantages of this benzodiazepine are its ease of use, low cost and very low incidence of side effects. PMID:8760643

  4. Postoperative nausea and vomiting: A simple yet complex problem

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Safiya Imtiaz; Nagarekha, D.; Hegade, Ganapati; Marutheesh, M.

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is one of the complex and significant problems in anesthesia practice, with growing trend toward ambulatory and day care surgeries. This review focuses on pathophysiology, pharmacological prophylaxis, and rescue therapy for PONV. We searched the Medline and PubMed database for articles published in English from 1991 to 2014 while writing this review using “postoperative nausea and vomiting, PONV, nausea-vomiting, PONV prophylaxis, and rescue” as keywords. PONV is influenced by multiple factors which are related to the patient, surgery, and pre-, intra-, and post-operative anesthesia factors. The risk of PONV can be assessed using a scoring system such as Apfel simplified scoring system which is based on four independent risk predictors. PONV prophylaxis is administered to patients with medium and high risks based on this scoring system. Newer drugs such as neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist (aprepitant) are used along with serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine subtype 3) receptor antagonist, corticosteroids, anticholinergics, antihistaminics, and butyrophenones for PONV prophylaxis. Combination of drugs from different classes with different mechanism of action are administered for optimized efficacy in adults with moderate risk for PONV. Multimodal approach with combination of pharmacological and nonpharmacological prophylaxis along with interventions that reduce baseline risk is employed in patients with high PONV risk. PMID:27746521

  5. Alternative Therapies for the Prevention of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting.

    PubMed

    Stoicea, Nicoleta; Gan, Tong J; Joseph, Nicholas; Uribe, Alberto; Pandya, Jyoti; Dalal, Rohan; Bergese, Sergio D

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a complication affecting between 20 and 40% of all surgery patients, with high-risk patients experiencing rates of up to 80%. Recent studies and publications have shed light on the uses of alternative treatment for PONV through their modulation of endogenous opioid neuropeptides and neurokinin ligands. In addition to reducing PONV, hypnosis was reported to be useful in attenuating postoperative pain and anxiety, and contributing to hemodynamic stability. Music therapy has been utilized to deepen the sedation level and decrease patient anxiety, antiemetic and analgesic requirements, hospital length of stay, and fatigue. Isopropyl alcohol and peppermint oil aromatherapy have both been used to reduce postoperative nausea. With correct training in traditional Chinese healing techniques, acupuncture (APu) at the P6 acupoint has also been shown to be useful in preventing early PONV, postdischarge nausea and vomiting, and alleviating of pain. Electro-acupuncture (EAPu), as with APu, provided analgesic and antiemetic effects through release and modulation of opioid neuropeptides. These non-pharmacological modalities of treatment contribute to an overall patient wellbeing, assisting in physical and emotional healing. PMID:26734609

  6. Alternative Therapies for the Prevention of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting.

    PubMed

    Stoicea, Nicoleta; Gan, Tong J; Joseph, Nicholas; Uribe, Alberto; Pandya, Jyoti; Dalal, Rohan; Bergese, Sergio D

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a complication affecting between 20 and 40% of all surgery patients, with high-risk patients experiencing rates of up to 80%. Recent studies and publications have shed light on the uses of alternative treatment for PONV through their modulation of endogenous opioid neuropeptides and neurokinin ligands. In addition to reducing PONV, hypnosis was reported to be useful in attenuating postoperative pain and anxiety, and contributing to hemodynamic stability. Music therapy has been utilized to deepen the sedation level and decrease patient anxiety, antiemetic and analgesic requirements, hospital length of stay, and fatigue. Isopropyl alcohol and peppermint oil aromatherapy have both been used to reduce postoperative nausea. With correct training in traditional Chinese healing techniques, acupuncture (APu) at the P6 acupoint has also been shown to be useful in preventing early PONV, postdischarge nausea and vomiting, and alleviating of pain. Electro-acupuncture (EAPu), as with APu, provided analgesic and antiemetic effects through release and modulation of opioid neuropeptides. These non-pharmacological modalities of treatment contribute to an overall patient wellbeing, assisting in physical and emotional healing.

  7. Alternative Therapies for the Prevention of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Stoicea, Nicoleta; Gan, Tong J.; Joseph, Nicholas; Uribe, Alberto; Pandya, Jyoti; Dalal, Rohan; Bergese, Sergio D.

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a complication affecting between 20 and 40% of all surgery patients, with high-risk patients experiencing rates of up to 80%. Recent studies and publications have shed light on the uses of alternative treatment for PONV through their modulation of endogenous opioid neuropeptides and neurokinin ligands. In addition to reducing PONV, hypnosis was reported to be useful in attenuating postoperative pain and anxiety, and contributing to hemodynamic stability. Music therapy has been utilized to deepen the sedation level and decrease patient anxiety, antiemetic and analgesic requirements, hospital length of stay, and fatigue. Isopropyl alcohol and peppermint oil aromatherapy have both been used to reduce postoperative nausea. With correct training in traditional Chinese healing techniques, acupuncture (APu) at the P6 acupoint has also been shown to be useful in preventing early PONV, postdischarge nausea and vomiting, and alleviating of pain. Electro-acupuncture (EAPu), as with APu, provided analgesic and antiemetic effects through release and modulation of opioid neuropeptides. These non-pharmacological modalities of treatment contribute to an overall patient wellbeing, assisting in physical and emotional healing. PMID:26734609

  8. Neurokinin-1 Receptor Antagonists in Preventing Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Meng; Zhang, Hao; Du, Bo-Xiang; Xu, Feng-Ying; Zou, Zui; Sui, Bo; Shi, Xue-Yin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Newly developed neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) antagonists have been recently tried in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to explore whether NK-1R antagonists were effective in preventing PONV. The PRISMA statement guidelines were followed. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that tested the preventive effects of NK-1R antagonists on PONV were identified by searching EMBASE, CINAHL, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library databases followed by screening. Data extraction was performed using a predefined form and trial quality was assessed using a modified Jadad scale. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of PONV. Meta-analysis was performed for studies using similar interventions. Network meta-analysis (NMA) was conducted to compare the anti-vomiting effects of placebo, ondansetron, and aprepitant at different doses. Fourteen RCTs were included. Meta-analysis found that 80 mg of aprepitant could reduce the incidences of nausea (3 RCTs with 224 patients, pooled risk ratio (RR) = 0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.47 to 0.75), and vomiting (3 RCTs with 224 patients, pooled RR = 0.13, 95% CI = 0.04 to 0.37) compared with placebo. Neither 40 mg (3 RCTs with 1171 patients, RR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.37 to 0.60) nor 125 mg (2 RCTs with 1058 patients, RR = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.13 to 0.78) of aprepitant showed superiority over 4 mg of ondansetron in preventing postoperative vomiting. NMA did not find a dose-dependent effect of aprepitant on preventing postoperative vomiting. Limited data suggested that NK-1R antagonists, especially aprepitant were effective in preventing PONV compared with placebo. More large-sampled high-quality RCTs are needed. PMID:25984662

  9. Pathophysiological and neurochemical mechanisms of postoperative nausea and vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Charles C.; Wallisch, William J.; Homanics, Gregg E.; Williams, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Clinical research shows that postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is caused primarily by the use of inhalational anesthesia and opioid analgesics. PONV is also increased by several risk predictors, including a young age, female sex, lack of smoking, and a history of motion sickness. Genetic studies are beginning to shed light on the variability in patient experiences of PONV by assessing polymorphisms of gene targets known to play roles in emesis (serotonin type 3, 5-HT3; opioid; muscarinic; and dopamine type 2, D2, receptors) and the metabolism of antiemetic drugs (e.g., ondansetron). Significant numbers of clinical trials have produced valuable information on pharmacological targets important for controlling PONV (e.g., 5-HT3 and D2), leading to the current multi-modal approach to inhibit multiple sites in this complex neural system. Despite these significant advances, there is still a lack of fundamental knowledge of the mechanisms that drive the hindbrain central pattern generator (emesis) and forebrain pathways (nausea) that produce PONV, particularly the responses to inhalational anesthesia. This gap in knowledge has limited the development of novel effective therapies of PONV. The current review presents the state of knowledge on the biological mechanisms responsible for PONV, summarizing both preclinical and clinical evidence. Finally, potential ways to advance the research of PONV and more recent developments on the study of postdischarge nausea and vomiting (PDNV) are discussed. PMID:24495419

  10. Pathophysiological and neurochemical mechanisms of postoperative nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Horn, Charles C; Wallisch, William J; Homanics, Gregg E; Williams, John P

    2014-01-01

    Clinical research shows that postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is caused primarily by the use of inhalational anesthesia and opioid analgesics. PONV is also increased by several risk predictors, including a young age, female sex, lack of smoking, and a history of motion sickness. Genetic studies are beginning to shed light on the variability in patient experiences of PONV by assessing polymorphisms of gene targets known to play roles in emesis (serotonin type 3, 5-HT3; opioid; muscarinic; and dopamine type 2, D2, receptors) and the metabolism of antiemetic drugs (e.g., ondansetron). Significant numbers of clinical trials have produced valuable information on pharmacological targets important for controlling PONV (e.g., 5-HT3 and D2), leading to the current multi-modal approach to inhibit multiple sites in this complex neural system. Despite these significant advances, there is still a lack of fundamental knowledge of the mechanisms that drive the hindbrain central pattern generator (emesis) and forebrain pathways (nausea) that produce PONV, particularly the responses to inhalational anesthesia. This gap in knowledge has limited the development of novel effective therapies of PONV. The current review presents the state of knowledge on the biological mechanisms responsible for PONV, summarizing both preclinical and clinical evidence. Finally, potential ways to advance the research of PONV and more recent developments on the study of postdischarge nausea and vomiting (PDNV) are discussed.

  11. Postoperative nausea and vomiting. A retrospective analysis in patients undergoing elective craniotomy.

    PubMed

    Fabling, J M; Gan, T J; Guy, J; Borel, C O; el-Moalem, H E; Warner, D S

    1997-10-01

    Nausea and vomiting are important complications after craniotomy, for which there are little published epidemiologic data. We retrospectively examined the incidence of postcraniotomy nausea and vomiting to define risk factors. Medical records from 199 adults undergoing elective craniotomy were identified. Data extracted from surgery and the initial 48 hours postoperatively included gender, age, supratentorial versus infratentorial craniotomy, type of anesthesia (general versus monitored anesthesia care), intraoperative fentanyl dose, duration of anesthesia, antiemetic administration intraoperatively and postoperatively, and incidence of postoperative nausea, emesis, and opioid use. Postoperative nausea was recorded in 99 patients (50%) and emesis in 78 patients (39%). Postoperative opioids were administered to 170 patients (85%). Antiemetics were given intraoperatively to 13 patients (7%) and postoperatively to 121 patients (61%). More women (61%) than men (37%) had nausea (P = 0.001); emesis (women = 46%; men = 31%, P = 0.03); and postoperative antiemetic use (women = 69%; men = 51%, P = 0.013). The incidence of postoperative nausea (P = 0.04) and vomiting (P = 0.06) was greater in patients having infratentorial surgery. Emesis was more frequent in younger patients (P = 0.03). Postoperative nausea and vomiting were independent of anesthetic duration, fentanyl dose, or postoperative opioid use and occurred with similar frequency after general anesthesia or monitored anesthesia care. We conclude that postoperative nausea and vomiting occur frequently after craniotomy. Infratentorial surgery, female gender, and younger age are significant risk factors for this complication. PMID:9339401

  12. Consensus guidelines for the management of postoperative nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Gan, Tong J; Diemunsch, Pierre; Habib, Ashraf S; Kovac, Anthony; Kranke, Peter; Meyer, Tricia A; Watcha, Mehernoor; Chung, Frances; Angus, Shane; Apfel, Christian C; Bergese, Sergio D; Candiotti, Keith A; Chan, Matthew Tv; Davis, Peter J; Hooper, Vallire D; Lagoo-Deenadayalan, Sandhya; Myles, Paul; Nezat, Greg; Philip, Beverly K; Tramèr, Martin R

    2014-01-01

    The present guidelines are the most recent data on postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and an update on the 2 previous sets of guidelines published in 2003 and 2007. These guidelines were compiled by a multidisciplinary international panel of individuals with interest and expertise in PONV under the auspices of the Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia. The panel members critically and systematically evaluated the current medical literature on PONV to provide an evidence-based reference tool for the management of adults and children who are undergoing surgery and are at increased risk for PONV. These guidelines identify patients at risk for PONV in adults and children; recommend approaches for reducing baseline risks for PONV; identify the most effective antiemetic single therapy and combination therapy regimens for PONV prophylaxis, including nonpharmacologic approaches; recommend strategies for treatment of PONV when it occurs; provide an algorithm for the management of individuals at increased risk for PONV as well as steps to ensure PONV prevention and treatment are implemented in the clinical setting.

  13. Prevention and management of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a look at complementary techniques.

    PubMed

    Mamaril, Myrna E; Windle, Pamela E; Burkard, Joseph F

    2006-12-01

    Complementary modalities, used alone or in combination with pharmacologic therapies, play an important role in the prevention and management of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and post discharge nausea and vomiting (PDNV). This article will review the evidence for the effective use of complementary modalities: acupuncture and related techniques, aromatherapy, and music therapy that may be integrated in the perianesthesia nurse's plan of care to prevent or manage PONV.

  14. Investigation of the Effects of Preoperative Hydration on the Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Yavuz, M. Selçuk; Kazancı, Dilek; Turan, Sema; Aydınlı, Bahar; Selçuk, Gökçe; Özgök, Ayşegül; Coşar, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) after laparoscopic cholecystectomy operations still continue to be a serious problem. Intravenous fluid administration has been shown to reduce PONV. Some patients have higher risk for PONV described by APFEL score. In this study, our aim was to determine the effects of preoperative intravenous hydration on postoperative nausea and vomiting in high Apfel scored patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy surgery. Patients and Methods. This study is performed with 50 female patients who had APFEL score 3-4 after ethics committee approval and informed consent was taken from patients. The patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1 (P1): propofol + preoperative hydration and group 2 (P2): propofol + no preoperative hydration. Results. When the total nausea VAS scores of groups P1 and P2 to which hydration was given or not given were compared, a statistically significant difference was detected at 8th and 12th hours (P = 0.001 and P = 0.041). It was observed that in group P1, which was given hydration, the nausea VAS score was lower. When the total number of patients who had nausea and vomiting in P1 and P2, more patients suffered nausea in P2 group. Discussion. Preoperative hydration may be effective in high Apfel scored patients to prevent postoperative nausea. PMID:24563861

  15. Palonosetron, Ondansetron, and Granisetron for antiemetic prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting - A comparative evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Kumkum; Singh, Ivesh; Gupta, Prashant K.; Chauhan, Himanshu; Jain, Manish; Rastogi, Bhawna

    2014-01-01

    Background: Postoperative nausea and vomiting is commonly associated with adverse consequences and hamper the postoperative recovery in spite of the availability of many antiemetic drugs and regimens for its prevention. The study was aimed to compare the prophylactic effects of intravenously administered palonosetron, ondansetron, and granisetron on prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after general anesthesia. Materials and Methods: This prospective, double-blind study, comprised 120 adult consented patients of ASA grade I and II of either gender, was carried out after approval of Institutional Ethical Committee. Patients were randomized into three equal groups of 40 patients each in double-blind manner. Group P received inj. palonosetron (0.075 mg), group O received inj. ondansetron (4 mg), and group G received inj. granisetron (2 mg) intravenously five minutes before induction of anesthesia. The need for rescue antiemetic, episode of postoperative nausea and vomiting, and side effects were observed for 12 hours in the post-anesthesia care unit. At the end of study, results were compiled and statistical analysis was done by using ANOVA, Chi-square test, and Kruskal Wallis Test. Value of P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The incidence of nausea and vomiting was maximal during the first four hours postoperatively. The complete control of postoperative nausea and vomiting for first 12 hours was achieved in 30% patients of ondansetron group, 55% patients of granisetron group, and 90% patients of palonosetron group. Safety profile was more with palonosetron. Conclusion: Palonosetron was comparatively highly effective to prevent the PONV after anesthesia due to its prolonged duration of action than ondansetron and granisetron. PMID:25886226

  16. Intravenous acetaminophen reduces postoperative nausea and vomiting: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Apfel, Christian C; Turan, Alparslan; Souza, Kimberly; Pergolizzi, Joseph; Hornuss, Cyrill

    2013-05-01

    Opioids are a key risk factor for postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). As intravenous (i.v.) acetaminophen reduces postoperative pain and opioid requirements, one would expect i.v. acetaminophen to be associated with a lower incidence of opioid-induced side effects, including PONV. We conducted a systematic search using Medline and Cochrane databases supplemented with hand search of abstract proceedings to identify randomized-controlled trials of i.v. acetaminophen. Inclusion criteria were (a) randomized for i.v. acetaminophen vs a placebo control, (b) general anesthesia, and (c) reported or obtainable PONV outcomes. Primary outcome was postoperative nausea and secondary outcome was postoperative vomiting. We included 30 studies with 2364 patients (1223 in the acetaminophen group, 1141 in the placebo group). The relative risk (95% confidence interval) was 0.73 (0.60-0.88) for nausea and 0.63 (0.45-0.88) for vomiting. Data showed significant heterogeneity for both nausea (P=0.02, I(2)=38%) and vomiting (P=0.006, I(2)=47%), but were homogeneous when studies were grouped according to timing of first administration: i.v. acetaminophen reduced nausea when given prophylactically either before surgery, 0.54 (0.40-0.74), or before arrival in the postanesthesia care unit, 0.67 (0.55-0.83); but not when given after the onset of pain, 1.12 (0.85-1.48). When i.v. acetaminophen was given prophylactically, the reduction of nausea correlated with the reduction of pain (odds ratio 0.66, 0.47-0.93), but not with reduction in postoperative opioids (odds ratio 0.89, 0.64-1.22). Prophylactically administered i.v. acetaminophen reduced PONV, mainly mediated through superior pain control.

  17. Wrist acupressure for post-operative nausea and vomiting (WrAP): A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Marie; Rapchuk, Ivan; Doi, Suhail A; Spooner, Amy; Wendt, Tameka; Best, Jessica; Edwards, Melannie; O'Connell, Leanda; McCabe, Donna; McDonald, John; Fraser, John; Rickard, Claire

    2015-06-01

    Post-operative nausea and vomiting are undesirable complications following anaesthesia and surgery. It is thought that acupressure might prevent nausea and vomiting through an alteration in endorphins and serotonin levels. In this two-group, parallel, superiority, randomised control pilot trial we aimed to test pre-defined feasibility outcomes and provide preliminary evidence for the efficacy of PC 6 acupoint stimulation vs. placebo for reducing post-operative nausea and vomiting in cardiac surgery patients. Eighty patients were randomly assigned to either an intervention PC 6 acupoint stimulation via beaded intervention wristbands group (n=38) or placebo sham wristband group (n=42). The main outcome was assessment of pre-defined feasibility criteria with secondary outcomes for nausea, vomiting, rescue anti-emetic therapy, quality of recovery and adverse events. Findings suggest that a large placebo-controlled randomised controlled trial to test the efficacy of PC 6 stimulation on PONV in the post-cardiac surgery population is feasible and justified given the preliminary clinically significant reduction in vomiting in the intervention group in this pilot. The intervention was tolerated well by participants and if wrist acupressure of PC 6 acupoint is proven effective in a large trial it is a simple non-invasive intervention that could easily be incorporated into practice. PMID:26051572

  18. Nausea and Vomiting

    MedlinePlus

    Nausea is an uneasy or unsettled feeling in the stomach together with an urge to vomit. Nausea and vomiting, or throwing up, are not diseases. ... small amounts of clear liquids to avoid dehydration. Nausea and vomiting are common. Usually, they are not ...

  19. Supplemental Oxygen Does Not Reduce Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting after Thyroidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Joris, Jean L.; Poth, Norbert J.; Djamadar, Ahmed M.; Sessler, Daniel I.; Hamoir, Etienne E.; Defêchereux, Thierry R.; Meurisse, Michel R.; Lamy, Maurice L.

    2005-01-01

    Summary Supplemental intra-operative oxygen (80%) halves the incidence of nausea and vomiting after open and laparoscopic abdominal surgery, perhaps by ameliorating the subtle intestinal ischemia associated with abdominal surgery. It is unlikely that thyroid surgery compromises intestinal perfusion. We therefore tested the hypothesis that supplemental perioperative oxygen does not reduce the risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) after thyroidectomy. As a positive control, we simultaneously evaluated the anti-nausea efficacy of droperidol. One hundred and fifty patients undergoing thyroidectomy were given sevoflurane anaesthesia. After induction, patients were randomly assigned to the following treatments: 1) 30% oxygen, balance nitrogen; 2) 80% oxygen, balance nitrogen; or 3) 30% oxygen with droperidol 0.625 mg. The overall incidence of nausea during the first 24 postoperative hours was 48% in the patients given 30% oxygen, 46% in those given 80% oxygen, and 22% in those given droperidol (P = 0.004). There were no significant differences between the 30% and 80% oxygen groups in incidence or severity of PONV, the need for rescue anti-emetics, or patient satisfaction. Droperidol significantly shortened the time to first meal. Supplemental oxygen was ineffective in preventing nausea and vomiting after thyroidectomy, but droperidol halved the incidence. PMID:14633758

  20. Evaluation of Oral Ginger Efficacy against Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting: A Randomized, Double - Blinded Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Montazeri, Akram Sadat; Hamidzadeh, Azam; Raei, Mehdi; Mohammadiun, Malihe; Montazeri, Azam Sadat; Mirshahi, Reza; Rohani, Hosein

    2013-01-01

    Background: Postoperative nausea and vomiting is one of the most common side effects associated with surgical procedures. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of ginger on intensity of nausea and vomiting after surgical procedures. Patients and Methods: This study was a randomized, double blinded, clinical trial. 160 eligible patients were randomly assigned into experimental or placebo groups. The experimental group received 4 capsules containing 250 mg ginger and placebo group received 4 placebo capsules 1 hour before surgery. The severity of nausea and vomiting was measured at 2, 4, 6 hours post operation using visual analogue scale and a structured questionnaire. The data were analyzed by independent t - test, Mann-Whitney U test, chi –square and GEE using SPSS 16 and STATA version 11. Results: Mean nausea score at 2 hours post operation was significantly lower in the experimental group (P= 0.04). Mean nausea score at 4 and 6 hours post operation was lower in the experimental group; however, there was no significant difference between the groups at any time post operation. The frequencies of nausea in the experimental group at 2 and 6 hours post operation were lower than that in the placebo group, however, at 2 hours post operation, it was borderline significant (P = 0.05) There was no significant differences between two group in the intensity of vomiting at any time. Conclusions: Use of ginger was effective at decreasing postoperative nausea. Ginger could be used as a safe antiemetic drug at post operation. PMID:24693389

  1. A quantitative systematic review of ondansetron in treatment of established postoperative nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed Central

    Tramèr, M. R.; Moore, R. A.; Reynolds, D. J.; McQuay, H. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To test the evidence for a dose-response with ondansetron for treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting and to establish whether differences in efficacy between doses are of clinical relevance. DESIGN: Quantitative systematic review of published randomised controlled trials. DATA SOURCES: Seven trials from 1991 to January 1996 retrieved from a systematic literature search (Medline, reference lists, hand searching of anaesthetic journals, manufacturer's database); no restriction on language. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Estimation of efficacy (incidence of complete control of further nausea and vomiting) by using odds ratios and the "number needed to treat" method for early (within 6 hours of administration) and late (within 24 hours) periods. RESULTS: Four placebo controlled trials with 1043 patients studied intravenous ondansetron 1 mg, 4 mg, or 8 mg. All doses were more efficacious than placebo in preventing further episodes of nausea or vomiting. For combined data, the point estimates for the number needed to treat were between 3.1 (8 mg) and 3.8 (1 mg) for early efficacy and between 4.1 (8 mg) and 4.8 (1 mg) for late efficacy, without significant differences between doses. No difference was found between ondansetron and droperidol in two trials with 129 patients or between ondansetron and metoclopramide in one trial with 80 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Further nausea and vomiting could be prevented with ondansetron compared with placebo in 25% of patients who had nausea or vomiting (number needed to treat, about 4). There was no evidence of a clinically relevant dose-response between 1 mg and 8 mg or a difference between ondansetron and either droperidol or metoclopramide in a limited dataset. A false impression of ondansetron's efficacy may arise because a quarter of all relevant published reports are duplicates, and reporting of study results is uncritical. PMID:9133892

  2. Effect of prophylactic ondansetron on postoperative nausea and vomiting after elective craniotomy.

    PubMed

    Kathirvel, S; Dash, H H; Bhatia, A; Subramaniam, B; Prakash, A; Shenoy, S

    2001-07-01

    This prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of ondansetron, a 5-HT3 antagonist, in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) after elective craniotomy in adult patients. The authors also tried to discover certain predictors for postcraniotomy nausea and vomiting. We studied 170 ASA physical status I and II patients, aged 15 to 70 years, undergoing elective craniotomy for resecting various intracranial tumors and vascular lesions. A standardized anesthesia technique and postoperative analgesia were used for all patients. Patients were divided into two groups and received either saline placebo (Group 1) or ondansetron 4 mg (Group 2) intravenously at the time of dural closure. Patients were extubated at the end of surgery and episodes of nausea and vomiting were noted for 24 hours postoperatively in the neurosurgical intensive care unit. Demographic data, duration of surgery, and anesthesia and analgesic requirements were comparable in both groups. Overall, a 24-hour incidence of postoperative emesis was significantly reduced in patients who received ondansetron compared with those who received a saline placebo (39% in Group 1 and 11% in Group 2, P = .001). There was a significant reduction in the frequency of emetic episodes and rescue antiemetic requirement in patients treated with ondansetron; however, ondansetron did not significantly reduce the incidence of nausea alone (14% in Group 2 vs 5% in Group 1, P = .065). Prophylactic ondansetron had a favorable influence on PONV outcome measures such as patient satisfaction and number needed to prevent emesis (3.5). Side effects were similar in both groups. We conclude that ondansetron 4 mg given at the time of dural closure is safe and effective in preventing emetic episodes after elective craniotomy in adult patients. PMID:11426094

  3. Total intravenous anaesthesia with propofol and alfentanil protects against postoperative nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Raftery, S; Sherry, E

    1992-01-01

    The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting and requirements for anti-emetic medication were assessed in 80 female patients undergoing day-case anaesthesia during assisted conception therapy. Anaesthesia was induced with alfentanil 50 micrograms.kg-1 and propofol 1 mg.kg-1; atracurium 0.5 mg.kg-1 was given to facilitate tracheal intubation. The patients were allocated to receive either total intravenous maintenance of anaesthesia with an infusion of propofol and increments of alfentanil (Group P) or inhalational maintenance of anaesthesia with nitrous oxide and enflurane (Group E). Postoperative nausea, retching, vomiting, requirements for anti-emetic therapy, and unplanned admission for overnight stay in hospital were recorded. Overall incidence of nausea was 64% in group E and 39% in Group P (P less than 0.05). Incidence of vomiting was 67% in Group E and 34% in Group P (P less than 0.05). Metoclopramide was requested by 62% of patients in Group E, and 32% of those in Group P (P less than 0.05); 21% of the patients in Group E were admitted to hospital overnight, while only 5% of the patients in Group P required unscheduled admission to hospital (P less than 0.05). We conclude that total intravenous anaesthesia with propofol and alfentanil is superior to inhalational maintenance with nitrous oxide and enflurane in that it is associated with less nausea and vomiting, less requirement for anti-emetic medication, and a lower probability of unplanned admission to hospital after day-care gynaecological surgery.

  4. Total intravenous anaesthesia with propofol and alfentanil protects against postoperative nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Raftery, S; Sherry, E

    1992-01-01

    The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting and requirements for anti-emetic medication were assessed in 80 female patients undergoing day-case anaesthesia during assisted conception therapy. Anaesthesia was induced with alfentanil 50 micrograms.kg-1 and propofol 1 mg.kg-1; atracurium 0.5 mg.kg-1 was given to facilitate tracheal intubation. The patients were allocated to receive either total intravenous maintenance of anaesthesia with an infusion of propofol and increments of alfentanil (Group P) or inhalational maintenance of anaesthesia with nitrous oxide and enflurane (Group E). Postoperative nausea, retching, vomiting, requirements for anti-emetic therapy, and unplanned admission for overnight stay in hospital were recorded. Overall incidence of nausea was 64% in group E and 39% in Group P (P less than 0.05). Incidence of vomiting was 67% in Group E and 34% in Group P (P less than 0.05). Metoclopramide was requested by 62% of patients in Group E, and 32% of those in Group P (P less than 0.05); 21% of the patients in Group E were admitted to hospital overnight, while only 5% of the patients in Group P required unscheduled admission to hospital (P less than 0.05). We conclude that total intravenous anaesthesia with propofol and alfentanil is superior to inhalational maintenance with nitrous oxide and enflurane in that it is associated with less nausea and vomiting, less requirement for anti-emetic medication, and a lower probability of unplanned admission to hospital after day-care gynaecological surgery. PMID:1531118

  5. Treatment of established postoperative nausea and vomiting: a quantitative systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi-Kjellberg, Faranak; Henzi, Iris; Tramèr, Martin R

    2001-01-01

    Background The relative efficacy of antiemetics for the treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is poorly understood. Methods Systematic search (MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, bibliographies, any language, to 8.2000) for randomised comparisons of antiemetics with any comparator for the treatment of established PONV. Dichotomous data on prevention of further nausea and vomiting, and on side effects were combined using a fixed effect model. Results In seven trials (1,267 patients), 11 different antiemetics were tested without placebos; these data were not further analysed. Eighteen trials (3,809) had placebo controls. Dolasetron 12.5–100 mg, granisetron 0.1–3 mg, tropisetron 0.5–5 mg, and ondansetron 1–8 mg prevented further vomiting with little evidence of dose-responsiveness; with all regimens, absolute risk reductions compared with placebo were 20%–30%. The anti-nausea effect was less pronounced. Headache was dose-dependent. Results on propofol were contradictory. The NK1 antagonist GR205171, isopropyl alcohol vapor, metoclopramide, domperidone, and midazolam were tested in one trial each with a limited number of patients. Conclusions Of 100 vomiting surgical patients receiving a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, 20 to 30 will stop vomiting who would not have done so had they received a placebo; less will profit from the anti-nausea effect. There is a lack of evidence for a clinically relevant dose-response; minimal effective doses may be used. There is a discrepancy between the plethora of trials on prevention of PONV and the paucity of trials on treatment of established symptoms. Valid data on the therapeutic efficacy of classic antiemetics, which have been used for decades, are needed. PMID:11734064

  6. Therapeutic modalities for the prophylactic management of postoperative nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Couture, Darren J; Maye, John P; O'brien, Denise; Beldia Smith, Ann

    2006-12-01

    The occurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) remains one of the most common complications after general anesthesia. The causes of PONV are multimodal, involving several physiologic pathways that stimulate the vomiting center, including the chemoreceptor trigger zone, the gastrointestinal tract, the vestibular system, the cerebral cortex, and the midbrain. Significant research has been published focusing on the use of different pharmacologic agents and varying anesthetic techniques to prevent and manage PONV. The addition of therapeutic modalities to the arsenal of prophylactic management techniques may decrease patient incidence of PONV by directing treatment to various pathways that stimulate the vomiting center. The purpose of this article is to review briefly the literature and discuss three therapeutic modalities for preventing PONV: perioperative oxygen administration, perioperative intravenous fluid administration, and differing fasting protocols.

  7. Postdischarge Nausea and Vomiting Remains Frequent After LeFort I Osteotomy Despite Implementation of a Multimodal Antiemetic Protocol Effective in Reducing Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Brookes, Carolyn Dicus; Turvey, Timothy A.; Phillips, Ceib; Kopp, Vincent; Anderson, Jay A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the prevalence of postdischarge nausea and vomiting (PDNV) after Le Fort I osteotomy with and without the use of a multimodal antiemetic protocol shown to decrease postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). Materials and Methods Consecutive patients undergoing Le Fort I osteotomy with or without additional procedures at a single academic institution formed the intervention cohort for an institutional review board–approved prospective clinical trial with a retrospective comparison group. The intervention cohort was managed with a multimodal antiemetic protocol. The comparison group consisted of consecutive patients who underwent similar surgical procedures at the same institution before protocol implementation. All patients were asked to complete a postdischarge diary documenting the occurrence of nausea and vomiting. Those who completed the diaries were included in this analysis. Data were analyzed with the Fisher exact test and the Wilcoxon rank sum test. A P value less than .05 was considered significant. Results Diaries were completed by 85% of patients in the intervention group (79 of 93) and 75% of patients in the comparison group (103 of 137). Patients in the intervention (n = 79) and comparison (n = 103) groups were similar in the proportion of patients with validated risk factors for PDNV, including female gender, history of PONV, age younger than 50 years, opioid use in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU), and nausea in the PACU (P = .37). The prevalence of PDNV was unaffected by the antiemetic protocol. After discharge, nausea was reported by 72% of patients in the intervention group and 60% of patients in the comparison group (P = .13) and vomiting was reported by 22% of patients in the intervention group and 29% of patients in the comparison group (P = .40). Conclusion Modalities that successfully address PONV after Le Fort I osteotomy might fail to affect PDNV, which is prevalent in this population. Future investigation will focus on

  8. Efficacy of dexmedetomidine on postoperative nausea and vomiting: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xiao; Zhou, Miao; Feng, Jiao-Jiao; Wu, Liang; Fang, Shang-Ping; Ge, Xin-Yu; Sun, Hai-Jing; Ren, Peng-Cheng; Lv, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a frequent complication in postoperative period. The aim of the current meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy of dexmedetomidine on PONV. Methods: Two researchers independently searched PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The meta-analysis was performed with Review Manager. Results: Eighty-two trials with 6,480 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Dexmedetomidine reduced postoperative nausea (Risk Ratio (RR) = 0.61, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50 to 0.73) and vomiting (RR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.36 to 0.64) compared with placebo, with an effective dose of 0.5 ug/kg (RR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.34 to 0.62) and 1.0 ug/kg (RR = 0.29, 95% CI: 0.12 to 0.75), respectively. The antiemetic effect can only be achieved intravenously, not epidurally or intrathecally. The efficacy of dexmedetomidine was similar to that of widely used agents, such as propofol, midazolam etc., but better than opioid analgesics. Moreover, application of dexmedetomidine reduced intraoperative requirement of fentanyl (Standard Mean Difference = -1.91, 95% CI: -3.20 to -0.62). Conclusions: The present meta-analysis indicates that dexmedetomidine shows superiority to placebo, but not to all other anesthetic agents on PONV. And this efficacy may be related to a reduced consumption of intraoperative opioids. PMID:26550123

  9. Effects of remifentanil versus nitrous oxide on postoperative nausea, vomiting, and pain in patients receiving thyroidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Kyoung; Yi, Myung Sub; Kang, Hyun; Choi, Geun-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Remifentanil and nitrous oxide (N2O) are 2 commonly used anesthetic agents. Both these agents are known risk factors for postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). However, remifentanil and N2O have not been directly compared in a published study. Remifentanil can induce acute tolerance or hyperalgesia, thus affecting postoperative pain. The objective of this retrospective study is to compare the effects of remifentanil and N2O on PONV and pain in patients receiving intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) after thyroidectomy. We analyzed the electronic medical records of 992 patients receiving fentanyl-based IV-PCA after thyroidectomy at Chung-Ang University Hospital from January 1, 2010 to April 30, 2016. We categorized the patients according to anesthetic agents used: group N2O (n = 745) and group remifentanil (n = 247). The propensity score matching method was used to match patients in the 2 groups based on their covariates. Finally, 128 matched subjects were selected from each group. There were no differences between groups for all covariates after propensity score matching. The numeric rating scale for nausea (0.55 ± 0.88 vs 0.27 ± 0.76, P = 0.01) was higher and complete response (88 [68.8%] vs 106 [82.8%], P = 0.001) was lower in group N2O compared with group remifentanil on postoperative day 0. However, the visual analog scale score for pain (3.47 ± 2.02 vs 3.97 ± 1.48, P = 0.025) was higher in group remifentanil than group N2O on postoperative day 0. In patients receiving IV-PCA after thyroidectomy, postoperative nausea was lower but postoperative pain was higher in group remifentanil. PMID:27741140

  10. Effects of intraoperative single bolus fentanyl administration and remifentanil infusion on postoperative nausea and vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyungsun; Doo, A Ram; Son, Ji-Seon; Kim, Jin-Wan; Lee, Ki-Jae; Kim, Dong-Chan

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the use of postoperative opioids is a well-known risk factor for postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), few studies have been performed on the effects of intraoperative opioids on PONV. We examined the effects of a single bolus administration of fentanyl during anesthesia induction and the intraoperative infusion of remifentanil on PONV. Methods Two hundred and fifty women, aged 20 to 65 years and scheduled for thyroidectomy, were allocated to a control group (Group C), a single bolus administration of fentanyl 2 µg/kg during anesthesia induction (Group F), or 2 ng/ ml of effect-site concentration-controlled intraoperative infusion of remifentanil (Group R) groups. Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane and 50% N2O. The incidence and severity of PONV and use of rescue antiemetics were recorded at 2, 6, and 24 h postoperatively. Results Group F showed higher incidences of nausea (60/82, 73% vs. 38/77, 49%; P = 0.008), vomiting (40/82, 49% vs. 23/77 30%; P = 0.041) and the use of rescue antiemetics (47/82, 57% vs. 29/77, 38%; P = 0.044) compared with Group C at postoperative 24 h. However, there were no significant differences in the incidence of PONV between Groups C and R. The overall incidences of PONV for postoperative 24 h were 49%, 73%, and 59% in Groups C, F, and R, respectively (P = 0.008). Conclusions A single bolus administration of fentanyl 2 µg/kg during anesthesia induction increases the incidence of PONV, but intraoperative remifentanil infusion with 2 ng/ml effect-site concentration did not affect the incidence of PONV. PMID:26885302

  11. Postoperative pain, nausea and vomiting among pre- and postmenopausal women undergoing cystocele and rectocele repair surgery

    PubMed Central

    Abaszadeh, Abolfazl; Yari, Fatemeh; Yousefi, Nazanin

    2015-01-01

    Background Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and postoperative pain are among the most common side-effects of surgery. Many factors, such as a change in the level of sex hormones, are reported to affect these complications. This study aimed to evaluate the probable effects of the menopause on PONV and postoperative pain. Methods Prospective study, in which a total number of 144 female patients undergoing cystocele or rectocele repair surgery under standardized spinal anesthesia were included. Patients were divided into two equally sized sample groups of pre- and postmenopausal women (n = 72). The occurrence of PONV, the severity of pain as assessed by visual analog scale (VAS) pain score, and the quantity of morphine and metoclopramide required were recorded at 2, 4, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h after surgery. Results The mean VAS pain score and the mean quantity of morphine required was higher among premenopausal women (P = 0.006). Moreover, these patients required more morphine for their pain management during the first 24 h after surgery compared to postmenopausal women (P < 0.0001). No difference was observed between the two groups regarding the incidence of PONV (P = 0.09 and P = 1.00 for nausea and vomiting, respectively) and the mean amount of metoclopramide required (P = 0.38). Conclusions Premenopausal women are more likely to suffer from postoperative pain after cystocele and rectocele repair surgery. Further studies regarding the measurement of hormonal changes among surgical patients in both pre- and postmenopausal women are recommended to evaluate the effects on PONV and postoperative pain. PMID:26634082

  12. Prophylaxis of intra- and postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients during cesarean section in spinal anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Matthias; Fröhlich, Christian W.; Hüttel, Christiane; Kranke, Peter; Mennen, Jan; Boessneck, Oliver; Lenz, Christian; Erbes, Thalia; Ernst, Jürgen; Kerger, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper describes a randomized prospective study conducted in 308 patients undergoing caesarean section in spinal anaesthesia at a single hospital between 2010 and 2012 to find a suitable anti-emetic strategy for these patients. Material/Methods Spinal anesthesia was performed in left prone position, at L3/L4 with hyperbaric 0.5% Bupivacaine according to a cc/cm body height ratio. There were no opioids given peri-operatively. The patients received either no prophylaxis (Group I) or tropisetron and metoclopramide (Group II) or dimenhydrinate and dexamethasone (Group III), or tropisetron as a single medication (Group IV). The primary outcome was nausea and/or vomiting (NV) in the intraoperative, early (0–2 h) or late (2–24 h) postoperative period. Multivariate statistical analysis was conducted with a regression analysis and a backward elimination of factors without significant correlation. Results All prophylactic agents significantly reduced NV incidence intraoperatively. Relative risk reduction for NV by prophylaxis was most effective (59.5%) in Group II (tropisetron and metoclopramide). In Group III (dimenhydrinate and dexamethasone), NV risk was reduced by 29.9% and by 28.7% in Group IV (tropisetron mono-therapy). The incidence of NV in the early (0–2 h) and the late (2–24 h) postoperative period was low all over (7.8%), but the relative risk reduction of NV in the early postoperative period was 54.1% (Group IV), 45.1% (Group III), and 34.8% (Group II), respectively. In the late postoperative period, there was no significant difference between the 4 groups. Conclusions We recommend a prophylactic medication with tropisetron 2 mg and metoclopramide 20 mg for patients during caesarean section. These agents are safe, reasonably priced, and highly efficient in preventing nausea and vomiting. PMID:24226381

  13. Efficacy of dexmedetomidine on postoperative nausea and vomiting: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xiao; Zhou, Miao; Feng, Jiao-Jiao; Wu, Liang; Fang, Shang-Ping; Ge, Xin-Yu; Sun, Hai-Jing; Ren, Peng-Cheng; Lv, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a frequent complication in postoperative period. The aim of the current meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy of dexmedetomidine on PONV. Methods: Two researchers independently searched PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The meta-analysis was performed with Review Manager. Results: Eighty-two trials with 6,480 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Dexmedetomidine reduced postoperative nausea (Risk Ratio (RR) = 0.61, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50 to 0.73) and vomiting (RR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.36 to 0.64) compared with placebo, with an effective dose of 0.5 μg/kg (RR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.34 to 0.62) and 1.0 μg/kg (RR = 0.29, 95% CI: 0.12 to 0.75), respectively. The antiemetic effect can only be achieved intravenously, not epidurally or intrathecally. The efficacy of dexmedetomidine was similar to that of widely used agents, such as propofol, midazolam etc., but better than opioid analgesics. Moreover, application of dexmedetomidine reduced intraoperative requirement of fentanyl (Standard Mean Difference = -1.91, 95% CI: -3.20 to -0.62). Conclusions: The present meta-analysis indicates that dexmedetomidine shows superiority to placebo, but not to all other anesthetic agents on PONV. And this efficacy may be related to a reduced consumption of intraoperative opioids. PMID:26309498

  14. Effects of gabapentin on early postoperative pain, nausea and vomiting in laparoscopic surgery for assisted reproductive technologies.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Sussan Soltani; Seyedi, Mirsadegh

    2008-07-15

    Prevention and treatment of postoperative pain, nausea and vomiting continues to be a major challenge in postoperative care. This study was designed to compare the effects of small dose of oral gabapentin with placebo as premedication on early postoperative pain, nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing ambulatory laparoscopic surgery for Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART). Seventy women undergoing ambulatory laparoscopic surgery were randomly assigned to receive oral gabapentin 300 mg or placebo as premedication 1 h before surgery. Patients were anesthetized with the same anesthetic techniques. Duration of anesthesia, severity of postoperative pain and presence of Post Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) were compared between the study groups. Demographic data and the duration of anesthesia were not statistically different between the study groups. There were significant differences in median VAS scores (25th-75th) measurements at all time points in the study groups (p < 0.05). Ten patients (28%) in control and one patient (0.02%) in gabapentin group required additional IV analgesic that was statistically significant (p = 0.012). Two patients in gabapentin and nine patients in placebo group had nausea (p = 0.022). None of patients in gabapentin but four patients in placebo group had vomiting (p = 0.114). Administration of oral gabapentin 300 mg before ambulatory laparoscopic surgeries, decreased postoperative pain, analgesic requirement and nausea.

  15. Postoperative morphine requirements, nausea and vomiting following anaesthesia for tonsillectomy. Comparison of intravenous morphine and non-opioid analgesic techniques.

    PubMed

    Mather, S J; Peutrell, J M

    1995-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been shown to be as effective as opioid analgesia following tonsillectomy in children. Opioids are still frequently used but tonsillectomy is associated with a high incidence of vomiting. This study has attempted to assess postoperative analgesic consumption and nausea and vomiting after general anaesthesia for tonsillectomy using either paracetamol premedication, paracetamol plus a NSAID or intravenous morphine to provide postoperative analgesia. Some children required a rescue dose of morphine in the recovery room, including some who had received intravenous morphine at induction. Least supplementary morphine was required by those who had received paracetamol plus ketorolac. Postoperative nausea and vomiting was significantly less in the two groups which were not given intraoperative morphine. The number of vomiting incidents was also much less. We conclude that the preoperative administration of paracetamol alone provides satisfactory analgesia in many children but that supplementary analgesia is still required for some.

  16. Postoperative morphine requirements, nausea and vomiting following anaesthesia for tonsillectomy. Comparison of intravenous morphine and non-opioid analgesic techniques.

    PubMed

    Mather, S J; Peutrell, J M

    1995-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been shown to be as effective as opioid analgesia following tonsillectomy in children. Opioids are still frequently used but tonsillectomy is associated with a high incidence of vomiting. This study has attempted to assess postoperative analgesic consumption and nausea and vomiting after general anaesthesia for tonsillectomy using either paracetamol premedication, paracetamol plus a NSAID or intravenous morphine to provide postoperative analgesia. Some children required a rescue dose of morphine in the recovery room, including some who had received intravenous morphine at induction. Least supplementary morphine was required by those who had received paracetamol plus ketorolac. Postoperative nausea and vomiting was significantly less in the two groups which were not given intraoperative morphine. The number of vomiting incidents was also much less. We conclude that the preoperative administration of paracetamol alone provides satisfactory analgesia in many children but that supplementary analgesia is still required for some. PMID:7489439

  17. The effect of transdermal scopolamine for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Antor, María A.; Uribe, Alberto A.; Erminy-Falcon, Natali; Werner, Joseph G.; Candiotti, Keith A.; Pergolizzi, Joseph V.; Bergese, Sergio D.

    2014-01-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is one of the most common and undesirable complaints recorded in as many as 70–80% of high-risk surgical patients. The current prophylactic therapy recommendations for PONV management stated in the Society of Ambulatory Anesthesia (SAMBA) guidelines should start with monotherapy and patients at moderate to high risk, a combination of antiemetic medication should be considered. Consequently, if rescue medication is required, the antiemetic drug chosen should be from a different therapeutic class and administration mode than the drug used for prophylaxis. The guidelines restrict the use of dexamethasone, transdermal scopolamine, aprepitant, and palonosetron as rescue medication 6 h after surgery. In an effort to find a safer and reliable therapy for PONV, new drugs with antiemetic properties and minimal side effects are needed, and scopolamine may be considered an effective alternative. Scopolamine is a belladonna alkaloid, α-(hydroxymethyl) benzene acetic acid 9-methyl-3-oxa-9-azatricyclo non-7-yl ester, acting as a non-selective muscarinic antagonist and producing both peripheral antimuscarinic and central sedative, antiemetic, and amnestic effects. The empirical formula is C17H21NO4 and its structural formula is a tertiary amine L-(2)-scopolamine (tropic acid ester with scopine; MW = 303.4). Scopolamine became the first drug commercially available as a transdermal therapeutic system used for extended continuous drug delivery during 72 h. Clinical trials with transdermal scopolamine have consistently demonstrated its safety and efficacy in PONV. Thus, scopolamine is a promising candidate for the management of PONV in adults as a first line monotherapy or in combination with other drugs. In addition, transdermal scopolamine might be helpful in preventing postoperative discharge nausea and vomiting owing to its long-lasting clinical effects. PMID:24782768

  18. Pharmacological and psychosomatic treatments for an elderly patient with severe nausea and vomiting in reaction to postoperative stress.

    PubMed

    Otera, Masako; Machida, Takatsugu; Machida, Tomomi; Abe, Mai; Ichie, Masayoshi; Fukudo, Shin

    2015-10-01

    Here we present a case of successful treatment employing a mixed approach including pharmacological and psychosomatic treatments for a 72-year-old woman who experienced severe nausea and vomiting in reaction to postoperative stress from gastric cancer surgery. This case demonstrates that appropriate provision of psychosomatic treatments, including a psychotherapeutic session and autogenic training, enhances the efficacy of pharmacotherapy.

  19. Effective Dose of Ramosetron for Prophylaxis of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in High-Risk Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seongheon; Jeong, Sinho; Kim, Joungmin; Jeong, Seongwook

    2015-01-01

    Background. Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are common adverse events with an incidence of up to 80% in high-risk patients. Ramosetron, a selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, is widely used to prevent PONV. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effective dose of ramosetron for the prevention of PONV in high-risk patients. Methods. Fifty-one patients were randomly allocated to 3 groups and were administered ramosetron 0.3 mg (group A), 0.45 mg (group B), or 0.6 mg (group C), at the end of their surgery. The episodes of PONV were assessed 1, 6, 24, and 48 hours after the injection and all the adverse events were observed. Results. The complete response rate in the postoperative period 6–24 hours after the anesthesia was higher in group C than in group A: 93% versus 44%. Group C's experience score of Rhodes index was lower than group A's: 0.81 ± 2.56 versus 3.94 ± 5.25. No adverse drug reaction could be observed in all groups. Conclusions. The effective dose of ramosetron to be injected for the near-complete prophylaxis of PONV 6 to 24 hours after surgery in high-risk patients is a 0.6 mg bolus injection at the end of the surgery. PMID:26258145

  20. Preoperative dexamethasone reduces postoperative pain, nausea and vomiting following mastectomy for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Dexamethasone has been reported to reduce postoperative symptoms after different surgical procedures. We evaluated the efficacy of preoperative dexamethasone in ameliorating postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), and pain after mastectomy. Methods In this prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 70 patients scheduled for mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection were analyzed after randomization to treatment with 8 mg intravenous dexamethasone (n = 35) or placebo (n = 35). All patients underwent standardized procedures for general anesthesia and surgery. Episodes of PONV and pain score were recorded on a visual analogue scale. Analgesic and antiemetic requirements were also recorded. Results Demographic and medical variables were similar between groups. The incidence of PONV was lower in the dexamethasone group at the early postoperative evaluation (28.6% vs. 60%; p = 0.02) and at 6 h (17.2% vs. 45.8%; p = 0.03). More patients in the placebo group required additional antiemetic medication (21 vs. 8; p = 0.01). Dexamethasone treatment significantly reduced postoperative pain just after surgery (VAS score, 4.54 ± 1.55 vs. 5.83 ± 2.00; p = 0.004), at 6 h (3.03 ± 1.20 vs. 4.17 ± 1.24; p < 0.0005) and at 12 h (2.09 ± 0.85 vs. 2.54 ± 0.98; p = 0.04). Analgesics were required in more patients of the control group (21 vs. 10; p = 0.008). There were no adverse events, morbidity or mortality. Conclusions Preoperative intravenous dexamethasone (8 mg) can significantly reduce the incidence of PONV and pain in patients undergoing mastectomy with axillary dissection for breast cancer. Trial registration number NCT01116713 PMID:21182781

  1. Prevention and control of postoperative nausea and vomiting in post-craniotomy patients.

    PubMed

    Eberhart, L H J; Morin, A M; Kranke, P; Missaghi, N B; Durieux, M E; Himmelseher, S

    2007-12-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are the most frequent side-effects in the postoperative period, impairing subjective well-being and having economic impact due to delayed discharge. However, emetic symptoms can also cause major medical complications, and post-craniotomy patients may be at an increased risk. A review and critical appraisal of the existing literature on PONV in post-craniotomy patients, and a comparison of these findings with the current knowledge on PONV in the general surgical population, leads to the following conclusions: (1) Despite the lack of a documented case of harm caused by retching or vomiting in a post-craniotomy patient, the potential risk caused by arterial hypertension and high intra-abdominal/intra-thoracic pressure leading to high intracranial pressure, forces to avoid PONV in these patients. (2) There is unclarity about a specifically increased (or decreased) risk for PONV in post-craniotomy patients compared with other surgical procedures. (3) The decision whether or not to administer an antiemetic should not be based primarily on risk scores for PONV but on the likelihood for potential catastrophic consequences of PONV. If such a risk cannot be ruled out, a multimodal antiemetic approach should be considered regardless of the individual risk. (4) Randomized controlled trials with antiemetics in post-craniotomy patients are limited with respect to sample size and methodological quality. This also impacts upon the meaning of meta-analyses performed with trials that showed marked heterogeneity and inconclusive results. (5) No studies on the treatment of established PONV are available. This highlights the need to transfer knowledge about PONV treatment from other surgical procedures. (6) Despite the possibility that PONV in post-craniotomy patients can be triggered by specific conditions (e.g. surgery near the area postrema at the floor of the fourth ventricle with the vomiting centre located nearby), recommendations based on

  2. Risks and benefits of drugs used in the management of postoperative nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Sung, Y F

    1996-03-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is an age-old problem; more so since the blooming of ambulatory or day surgery centres within the last 2 decades. The aetiology of PONV is multifactorial. The incidence of PONV is usually higher in women and children than in men. PONV not only causes patient discomfort, anxiety in mild cases, and serious complications in severe cases, it also decreases cost efficiency. The benefits and risks of old and new antiemetic drugs used worldwide to treat PONV are discussed in this article, including the newly developed serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (5HT3) antagonists. All the medications currently used to treat PONV have both advantages and disadvantages. If used indiscriminately to treat patients who have no problems with PONV, the risks of adverse effects often outweigh the benefits. The patient's history and the nature of the surgery are good indicators for defining those at risk from PONV; for patients at risk preventive treatment is essential. However, it is almost impossible to pick one agent or one combination as the therapy of choice using the present available data. A patient history of a favourable response to a previously used antiemetic would make that drug the agent of choice. So far, the newcomers, the 5HT3 antagonists, have fewer reported adverse effects.

  3. Randomized, double-blinded comparison of tropisetron and placebo for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after supratentorial craniotomy.

    PubMed

    Madenoglu, Halit; Yildiz, Karamehmet; Dogru, Kudret; Kurtsoy, Ali; Güler, Gülen; Boyaci, Adem

    2003-04-01

    This prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of tropisetron in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting after elective supratentorial craniotomy in adult patients. We studied 65 ASA physical status I-III patients aged 18 to 76 years who were undergoing elective craniotomy for resection of various supratentorial tumors. Patients were divided into two groups and received either 2 mg of tropisetron (group T) or saline placebo (group P) intravenously at the time of dural closure. A standard general anesthetic technique was used. Episodes of nausea and vomiting and the need for rescue antiemetic medication were recorded during 24 hours postoperatively. Demographic data, duration of surgery and anesthesia, and sedation scores were comparable in both groups. Nausea occurred in 30% of group T patients and in 46.7% of group P patients (P >.05). The incidence of emetic episodes was 26.7% and 56.7% in the two groups (P <.05). Rescue antiemetic medication was needed in 26.7% and 60% of the patients (P <.05). Administration of a single dose of tropisetron (2 mg intravenously) given at the time of dural closure was effective in reducing postoperative nausea and vomiting after elective craniotomy for supratentorial tumor resection in adult patients. PMID:12657991

  4. Palonosetron and granisetron in postoperative nausea vomiting: A randomized double-blind prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Gugale, Amrita A.; Bhalerao, Pradnya Milind

    2016-01-01

    Background: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a common occurrence after laparoscopic surgeries. A number of pharmacological agents (antihistamines, butyrophenones, dopamine receptor antagonists) have been tried of which the 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor antagonists are devoid of most side effects and highly effective in prevention and treatment of PONV. Thus, we evaluated the effectiveness of granisetron and palonosetron in prevention of PONV after laparoscopic surgeries under general anesthesia. Aims: We conducted a study to evaluate the effectiveness of granisetron and palonosetron, to compare the duration of action and side effects if any, in patients undergoing elective laparoscopic surgery under general anesthesia. Settings and Design: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, comparative study. Sixty patients (18–65 years of age) of the American Society of Anesthesiologists Grade I and II undergoing elective laparoscopic surgeries were considered. Materials and Methods: They were randomly allocated into one of the two groups (Group G and Group P) of thirty patients each. Group G received injection granisetron 0.05 mg/kg; Group P received injection palonosetron 1.5 mcg/kg intravenous bolus 30 min before the induction of anesthesia. Statistical Tests: All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS® statistical package version 18.0 (Chicago: SPSS Inc). Two independent sample t-test was used for quantitative data, and the χ2 or Fisher's exact test was used for qualitative data. A difference was regarded as statistically significant at a P < 0.05. Results: The need for rescue antiemetic was significantly lower in Group P in the 24–72 h postoperative period (ρ - 0.007). The PONV score was significantly less in Group P in the same period (ρ - 0.008). The incidence of side effects was statistically insignificant in both the groups (ρ - 0.999). Conclusion: Prophylactic therapy with palonosetron is more effective than

  5. Comparison of palanosetron with ondansetron for postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Bhalla, Jyoti; Baduni, Neha; Bansal, Pooja

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a ‘big little’ problem especially after laparoscopic surgeries. Palanosetron is a new potent 5 hydroxy tryptamine 3 antagonists. In this randomized double blind clinical study we compared the effects of i.v. ondansetron and palanosetron administered at the end of surgery in preventing post-operative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 100 subjects between 18–60 years with Apfel score ≥2, were randomly assigned into one of the two groups, containing 50 patients each. Group A received ondansetron 4 mg i.v. and Group B received palanosetron 0.07 5mg i.v. both as bolus before induction. The incidence of nausea, retching and vomiting, incidence of total PONV, requirement of rescue antiemetics and adverse effects were evaluated during the first 24 h following end of surgery. RESULTS: The incidence of nausea was significantly lower in patients who had received palanosetron (16%) as compared to ondansetron (24%). Need of rescue antiemetics was significantly higher in patients receiving ondansetron (32%) as compared to palanosetron (16%). The incidence of total PONV was also significantly lower in group receiving palanosetron (20%) as compared to ondansetron (50%). Among the side effects, headache was noted significantly higher with ondansetron (20%) as compared to palanosetron (6%). CONCLUSION: Palanosetron has got better anti-nausea effect, less need of rescue antiemetics, favourable side effect profile and a decrease in the incidence of total PONV as compared to ondansetron in 24 h post operative period in patients undergoing laproscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia. PMID:26195878

  6. Biphasic dosing regimen of meclizine for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in a high-risk population.

    PubMed

    Bopp, Eric J; Estrada, T Jose L; Kilday, Jeremy M; Spradling, James C; Daniel, Carole; Pellegrini, Joseph E

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if giving 50 mg of meclizine the night before and on the day of surgery would effectively reduce postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) for the entire 24 hours after surgery in patients identified as being at high risk for PONV Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either 50 mg of oral meclizine (experimental group) or a placebo (control group) the night before and the day of surgery. All subjects were intravenously administered 4 mg of ondansetron before the conclusion of surgery. Seventy subjects (35 control; 35 experimental) were included in analysis. postoperaIn the placebo group we noted higher verbal numeric rating scale scores for nausea, a higher incidence oftive nausea and vomiting (PONV) continues to be a common complication after general anesthesia, with the incidence ranging from 17% to 87%.15 It has been reported that PONV increased antiemetic requirements, and lower overall anesthesia satisfaction scores at all time intervals measured, compared with the experimental group, but the differences were not statistically significant until analyzed by postoperative setting. No difference in sedation or side effects was noted between groups. Based on these results, we recommend that the administration of 50 mg of oral meclizine the night before and on the day of surgery be considered effective antiemetic prophylaxis in patients identified as having a high risk for PONV. PMID:20977130

  7. Nausea and vomiting - adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... is from poisoning. You notice blood or dark, coffee-colored material in the vomit. Call a provider ... blood ? Are you vomiting anything that looks like coffee grounds? Are you vomiting undigested food? When was ...

  8. Effect of prophylactic ondansetron on postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients on preoperative steroids undergoing craniotomy for supratentorial tumors.

    PubMed

    Wig, Jyotsna; Chandrashekharappa, Kiran Nagenahalli; Yaddanapudi, Lakshmi Narayana; Nakra, Dhiraj; Mukherjee, Kanchan Kumar

    2007-10-01

    The exact incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in patients on steroids undergoing neurosurgical procedures is not known. This prospective randomized double-blind study was planned to know the efficacy of prophylactic ondansetron in the prevention of PONV in patients on steroids as compared with placebo. Seventy adult patients of either sex who had received preoperative steroids (dexamethasone) for at least 24 hours and were scheduled to undergo craniotomy for supratentorial tumors were included. Patients were randomly allocated using a randomization chart to 1 of the 2 groups to receive either ondansetron 4 mg (group O) or 0.9% saline (group S) intravenously at the time of dural closure. Numeric Rating Scale score for nausea and pain intensity was recorded preoperatively and till 24 hours postoperatively. The 6-hour postoperative nausea score was significantly lower in group O [median, 0; interquartile range (IQR), 0 to 20] than in group S (median, 20; IQR, 0 to 20) (P<0.05). The incidence of vomiting was lower in group O (23%) than in group S (46%) (P<0.05). The total number of emetic episodes, the number of doses of rescue antiemetics given in the first 6 postoperative hours, and the total number of rescue antiemetics given were significantly lower in group O than in group S (P<0.05). Intravenous administration of 4 mg of ondansetron at the time of dural closure was effective in reducing the incidence of PONV and the rescue antiemetics requirement in patients on preoperative steroids undergoing craniotomy for supratentorial tumors. PMID:17893575

  9. Opioid induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Smith, Howard S; Laufer, Andras

    2014-01-01

    Opioids are broad spectrum analgesics that are an integral part of the therapeutic armamentarium to combat pain in the palliative care population. Unfortunately, among the adverse effects of opioids that may be experienced along with analgesia is nausea, vomiting, and/or retching. Although it is conceivable that in the future, using combination agents (opioids combined with agents which may nullify emetic effects), currently nausea/vomiting remains a significant issue for certain patients. However, there exists potential current strategies that may be useful in efforts to diminish the frequency and/or intensity of opioid-induced nausea/vomiting (OINV).

  10. Meclizine in combination with ondansetron for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in a high-risk population.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Carrie M; Benfield, Dennis A; Matern, Christina E; Kelly, Joseph A; Pellegrini, Joseph E

    2007-02-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is prevalent in surgical patients with known risk factors: general anesthesia, female, nonsmoker, motion sickness history, and PONV history. Common treatment involves ondansetron; however, the effects are short-lived, and supplemental medication may be required. Meclizine, a long-acting drug with a low side-effect profile, may be ideal in combination with ondansetron for at-risk patients. We randomized 77 subjects scheduled for general anesthesia and screened for 4 of 5 PONV risk factors for experimental or control group assignment. Severity of PONV was measured using a 0 to 10 verbal numeric rating scale (VNRS). Other measured variables included time to onset and incidence of PONV and total antiemetic requirements. No significant differences in demographics (excluding weight), surgical or anesthesia time, analgesic requirements, or nausea incidence in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) and same-day surgery unit were noted. The meclizine group had lower VNRS scores in the PACU at 15 (P = .013) and 45 (P = .006) minutes following rescue treatment. The incidence of nausea was lower in the meclizine vs. placebo group (10% vs. 29%) following discharge (P = .038). Prophylactic meclizine resulted in lower incidence and severity of PONV in a high-risk population, especially after rescue treatment. PMID:17304780

  11. Prognostic models and risk scores: can we accurately predict postoperative nausea and vomiting in children after craniotomy?

    PubMed

    Neufeld, Susan M; Newburn-Cook, Christine V; Drummond, Jane E

    2008-10-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a problem for many children after craniotomy. Prognostic models and risk scores help identify who is at risk for an adverse event such as PONV to help guide clinical care. The purpose of this article is to assess whether an existing prognostic model or risk score can predict PONV in children after craniotomy. The concepts of transportability, calibration, and discrimination are presented to identify what is required to have a valid tool for clinical use. Although previous work may inform clinical practice and guide future research, existing prognostic models and risk scores do not appear to be options for predicting PONV in children undergoing craniotomy. However, until risk factors are further delineated, followed by the development and validation of prognostic models and risk scores that include children after craniotomy, clinical judgment in the context of current research may serve as a guide for clinical care in this population. PMID:18939320

  12. How patients fare after anaesthesia for elective surgery: a survey of postoperative nausea and vomiting, pain and confusion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun Zhi; Lee, Ruth Qianyi; Thinn, Kyu Kyu; Poon, Keah How; Liu, Eugene Hern Choon

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), and postoperative pain are common during the early postoperative period. In addition to these problems, elderly patients risk developing postoperative confusion. This study aimed to identify the risk factors associated with these problems, and the extent of these problems, in a Singapore inpatient surgical population. METHODS Over a period of six weeks, we surveyed 707 elective surgical inpatients aged ≥ 18 years who received general anaesthesia and/or regional anaesthesia. RESULTS The incidence of PONV was 31.8%(95% confidence interval [CI] 34.8–41.9). The incidence increased with increasing Apfel score (p < 0.001) and were higher in female patients (odds ratio [OR] 1.74, 95% CI 1.28–2.36), non-smokers (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.04–2.88), patients with a history of PONV and/or motion sickness (OR 3.45, 95% CI 2.38–5.24), patients who received opioids (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.03–1.88), and patients who received general anaesthesia (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.11–2.79). Moderate to severe pain at rest and with movement were reported in 19.9% and 52.5% of patients, respectively. Among the patients who were predicted to experience mild pain, 29.5% reported moderate pain and 8.1% reported severe pain. The prevalence of postoperative confusion was 3.9% in the geriatric population. CONCLUSION Higher Apfel scores were associated with a higher risk of PONV and multimodal treatment for postoperative pain management was found to be insufficient. The incidence of postoperative confusion was low in this study. PMID:25640098

  13. Postoperative nausea and vomiting after total thyroidectomy: sevoflurane combined with prophylactic ramosetron vs. propofol-based total intravenous anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Hee; Jeong, Chang Young; Jeong, Seong Wook; Lee, Seong Heon; Kim, Hwi Jin

    2014-01-01

    Background The frequent and distressing adverse events (AEs) of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are of major concern in 63-84% of adult patients undergoing thyroidectomy. We conducted this prospective study to compare two prophylactic strategies; sevoflurane combined with ramosetron and propofol-based total intravenous anesthesia in a homogenous group of non-smoking women undergoing total thyroidectomy. Methods In the current prospective study, we enrolled a consecutive series of 64 female patients aged between 20 and 65 years with an American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status of I or II who were scheduled to undergo elective total thyroidectomy under general anesthesia. Patients were randomized to either the SR (sevoflurane and remifentanil) group or the TIVA group. We evaluated the incidence and severity of PONV, the use of rescue anti-emetics and the severity of pain during the first 24 h after surgery. Results There were no significant differences in the proportion of the patients with a complete response and the Rhodes index, including the occurrence score, distress score and experience score, between the two groups. In addition, there were no significant differences in the proportion of the patients who were in need of rescue anti-emetics or analgesics and the VAS scores between the two groups. Conclusions In conclusion, TIVA and ramosetron prophylaxis reduced the expected incidence of PONV in women undergoing total thyroidectomy. In addition, there was no significant difference in the efficacy during the first 24 h postoperatively between the two prophylactic regimens. PMID:24729844

  14. Morning Sickness: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Morning Sickness: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Morning Sickness: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy FAQ126, ... Your Practice Patient Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual ... Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  15. The effectiveness of dry-cupping in preventing post-operative nausea and vomiting by P6 acupoint stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Farhadi, Khosro; Choubsaz, Mansour; Setayeshi, Khosro; Kameli, Mohammad; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Zadie, Zahra H.; Ahmadi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a common complication after general anesthesia, and the prevalence ranges between 25% and 30%. The aim of this study was to determine the preventive effects of dry cupping on PONV by stimulating point P6 in the wrist. Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial conducted at the Imam Reza Hospital in Kermanshah, Iran. The final study sample included 206 patients (107 experimental and 99 controls). Inclusion criteria included the following: female sex; age>18 years; ASA Class I-II; type of surgery: laparoscopic cholecystectomy; type of anesthesia: general anesthesia. Exclusion criteria included: change in the type of surgery, that is, from laparoscopic cholecystectomy to laparotomy, and ASA-classification III or more. Interventions are as follows: pre surgery, before the induction of anesthesia, the experimental group received dry cupping on point P6 of the dominant hand's wrist with activation of intermittent negative pressure. The sham group received cupping without activation of negative pressure at the same point. Main outcome was that the visual analogue scale was used to measure the severity of PONV. Results: The experimental group who received dry cupping had significantly lower levels of PONV severity after surgery (P < 0.001) than the control group. The differences in measure were maintained after controlling for age and ASA in regression models (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Traditional dry cupping delivered in an operation room setting prevented PONV in laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients. PMID:27661022

  16. The impact of remifentanil on incidence and severity of postoperative nausea and vomiting in a university hospital-based ambulatory surgery center: a retrospective observation study

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Risa; Sato, Masami; Tanabe, Hiroko; Yazawa, Tomoko; Habara, Toshie; Fukuda, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Background Ambulatory surgery, including short-stay surgery, has become a common choice in clinical practice. For the success of ambulatory surgery, perioperative care with safe and effective anesthesia and postoperative analgesia, which can reduce the occurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), is essential. The effect of remifentanil on the occurrence and severity of PONV has not been thoroughly examined, particularly, in an ambulatory surgery setting. Here, we investigate whether remifentanil influences the occurrence and severity of PONV in a university hospital-based ambulatory unit. Methods We retrospectively analyzed a total of 1,765 cases of patients who had undergone general anesthesia at our ambulatory surgery unit. Parameters, such as occurrence and severity of nausea, vomiting or retching, use of antiemetic drugs, amount of postoperative analgesic and patient satisfaction, were extracted from the records and analyzed between the groups that received and not received remifentanil. Results Within 565 patients of the RF group, 39 patients (6.6%) experienced nausea, 7 patients (1.2%) experienced vomiting or retching, and 10 patients (1.8%) were given antiemetic; in addition, the maximum VAS value for nausea was 12.1 mm. In 1,200 patients of the non RF group, 102 patients (8.5%) experienced nausea, 19 patients (1.6%) experienced vomiting or retching, and 34 patients (2.8%) were given antiemetic, and the maximum VAS value was 13.2 mm. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Conclusions Our results indicate that remifentanil did not increase the occurrence of PONV in patients within the ambulatory surgery unit. PMID:24023997

  17. Treatment of Nausea and Vomiting During Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Mustian, Karen M; Devine, Katie; Ryan, Julie L; Janelsins, Michelle C; Sprod, Lisa K; Peppone, Luke J; Candelario, Grace D; Mohile, Supriya G; Morrow, Gary R

    2014-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting are two of the most troubling side effects patients experience during chemotherapy. While newly available treatments have improved our ability to manage nausea and vomiting, anticipatory and delayed nausea and vomiting are still a major problem for patients receiving chemotherapy. Many cancer patients will delay or refuse future chemotherapy treatments and contemplate stopping chemotherapy altogether because of their fear of experiencing further nausea and vomiting. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the patho-psychophysiology of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and the recommended guidelines for treatment. PMID:24466408

  18. Granisetron versus ondansetron for post-operative nausea and vomiting prophylaxis in elective craniotomies for brain tumors: A randomized controlled double-blind study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Priyanka; Sabharwal, Nikki; Kale, Suniti; Gupta, Mayank; Gogia, Anoop R.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) pose unique challenges in neurosurgical patients that warrant its study separate from other surgical groups. Setting and Design: This prospective, randomized, double-blind study was carried out to compare and to evaluate the efficacy and safety of three antiemetic combinations for PONV prophylaxis following craniotomy. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 anesthesiologist status I/II patients undergoing elective craniotomy for brain tumors were randomized into three groups, G, O and D, to receive single doses of dexamethasone 8 mg at induction with either granisetron 1 mg, ondansetron 4 mg or normal saline 2 ml at the time of dural closure respectively. Episodes of nausea, retching, vomiting and number of rescue antiemetic (RAE) were noted for 48 h post-operatively. Statistical Analysis: Analysis of variance with post-hoc significance and Chi-square test with fisher exact correction were used for statistical analysis. P <0.05 was considered to be significant and P < 0.001 as highly significant. Results: We found that the incidence and number of vomiting episodes and RAE required were significantly low in Group G and O compared with Group D; P < 0.05. However, incidence of nausea and retching were comparable among all groups. The anti-nausea and anti-retching efficacy of all the three groups was comparable. Conclusions: Single dose administration of granisetron 1 mg or ondansetron 4 mg at the time of dural closure with dexamethasone 8 mg provide an effective and superior prophylaxis against vomiting compared with dexamethasone alone without interfering with post-operative recovery and neurocognitive monitoring and hence important in post-operative neurosurgical care. PMID:25886108

  19. Palonosetron versus ondansetron as rescue medication for postoperative nausea and vomiting: a randomized, multicenter, open-label study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study compared palonosetron and ondansetron as rescue medications for postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in patients who received prophylactic ondansetron. Although guidelines recommend use of an agent from a different class when prophylaxis has failed, palonosetron has unique properties relative to other serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. Prior trials assessing its use for rescue have had conflicting results. Although palonosetron has compared favorably with ondansetron for PONV prevention, the drugs have not been compared in the rescue setting of failure of 5-HT3 receptor antagonist prophylaxis. Methods This was a randomized, open-label, multicenter trial comparing the efficacy and safety of intravenous palonosetron 0.075 mg and intravenous ondansetron 4 mg in patients experiencing PONV following laparoscopic abdominal or gynecological surgery despite prophylactic ondansetron. Results Of 239 patients screened, 220 were enrolled and 98 were treated for PONV: 48 and 50 in the palonosetron and ondansetron arms, respectively. Complete control during 72 hours after study drug administration was achieved in 25.0% of palonosetron recipients and 18.0% of ondansetron recipients (95% confidence interval [CI], -9.2, 23.3; p = 0.40). Corresponding incidences of vomiting were 29.2% for palonosetron and 48.0% for ondansetron (95% CI, -0.06, 37.7; p = 0.057), and 62.5% and 56.0% required additional rescue treatment, respectively (95% CI, -25.9, 12.9; p = 0.52). Other than a similar incidence of procedural pain in the 2 groups, the most common treatment-emergent adverse events, which were generally mild, were headache (14.6% vs 12.0%), constipation (8.3% vs 10.0%), and dizziness (6.3% vs 8.0%), for the palonosetron and ondansetron groups, respectively. Conclusions Palonosetron and ondansetron did not show differences in the primary efficacy endpoint of CC during the 72 hours after study drug administration. There was a trend toward less

  20. The efficacy of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after craniotomy: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, Susan M; Newburn-Cook, Christine V

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy of prophylactic administration of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists for postoperative nausea and vomiting in neurosurgical patients at 24 and 48+ hours. After a systematic search, 7 published randomized placebo controlled trials involving 448 craniotomy patients (222 treatment, 226 control) were included in the meta-analysis. Study drugs included ondansetron, granisetron, and tropisetron. The cumulative incidence of emesis was significantly reduced in the treatment group at 24 hours [relative risk (RR)=0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38-0.66] and 48+ hours (RR=0.52, 95% CI: 0.36-0.75). There were no differences between the treatment and control groups in the cumulative incidence of nausea at 24 hours (RR=0.76, 95% CI: 0.54-1.06) and 48+ hours (RR=0.81, 95% CI: 0.62-1.06). The cumulative incidence of both nausea and vomiting continued to increase after 24 hours in both groups. Despite the ability of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists to reduce emetic episodes, future investigations should seek to address the control of postoperative nausea and to reduce further postoperative emesis in this population. PMID:17198095

  1. A randomized, double-blinded comparison of ondansetron, granisetron, and placebo for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after supratentorial craniotomy.

    PubMed

    Jain, Virendra; Mitra, Jayanta K; Rath, Girija P; Prabhakar, Hemanshu; Bithal, Parmod K; Dash, Hari H

    2009-07-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are frequent and distressing complications after neurosurgical procedures. We evaluated the efficacy of ondansetron and granisetron to prevent PONV after supratentorial craniotomy. In a randomized double-blind, placebo controlled trial, 90 adult American Society of Anesthesiologists I, II patients were included in the study. A standard anesthesia technique was followed. Patients were divided into 3 groups to receive either placebo (saline), ondansetron 4 mg, or granisetron 1 mg intravenously at the time of dural closure. After extubation, episodes of nausea and vomiting were noted for 24 hours postoperatively. Statistical analysis was performed using chi2 test and 1-way analysis of variance. Demographic data, duration of surgery, intraoperative fluids and analgesic requirement, and postoperative pain (visual analog scale) scores were comparable in all 3 groups. It was observed that the incidence of vomiting in 24 hours, severe emetic episodes, and requirement of rescue antiemetics were less in ondansetron and granisetron groups as compared with placebo (P<0.001). Both the study drugs had comparable effect on vomiting. However, the incidence of nausea was comparable in all 3 groups (P=0.46). A favorable influence on the patient satisfaction scores, and number needed to prevent emesis was seen in the 2 drug groups. No significant correlation was found between neurosurgical factors (presence of midline shift, mass effect, pathologic diagnosis of tumor, site of tumor) and the occurrence of PONV. We conclude that ondansetron 4 mg and granisetron 1 mg are comparably effective at preventing emesis after supratentorial craniotomy. However, neither drugs prevented nausea effectively. PMID:19543000

  2. A randomized controlled comparison of electro-acupoint stimulation or ondansetron versus placebo for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Gan, Tong J; Jiao, Kui Ran; Zenn, Michael; Georgiade, Gregory

    2004-10-01

    In this study we evaluated the efficacy of electro-acupoint stimulation, ondansetron versus placebo for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). Patients undergoing major breast surgery under general anesthesia were randomized into active electro-acupoint stimulation (A), ondansetron 4 mg IV (O), or sham control (placement of electrodes without electro-acupoint stimulation; placebo [P]). The anesthetic regimen was standardized. The incidence of nausea, vomiting, rescue antiemetic use, pain, and patient satisfaction with management of PONV were assessed at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 min, and at 24 h. The complete response (no nausea, vomiting, or use of rescue antiemetic) was significantly more frequent in the active treatment groups compared with placebo both at 2 h (A/O/P = 77%/64%/42%, respectively; P = 0.01) and 24 h postoperatively (A/O/P = 73%/52%/38%, respectively; P = 0.006). The need for rescue antiemetic was less in the treatment groups (A/O/P = 19%/28%/54%; P = 0.04). Specifically, the incidence and severity of nausea were significantly less in the A group compared with the other groups, and in the O group compared with the P group (A/O/P = 19%/40%/79%, respectively). The A group experienced less pain in the postanesthesia care unit, compared with the O and P groups. Patients in the treatment groups were more satisfied with their management of PONV compared with placebo. When used for the prevention of PONV, electro-acupoint stimulation or ondansetron was more effective than placebo with greater degree of patient satisfaction, but electro-acupoint stimulation seems to be more effective in controlling nausea, compared with ondansetron. Stimulation at P6 also has analgesic effects.

  3. Nausea and vomiting in advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Pamela; LeGrand, Susan B; Walsh, Declan

    2014-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting are very common symptoms in cancer both treatment and non-treatment related. Many complications of advanced cancer such as gastroparesis, bowel and outlet obstructions, and brain tumors may have nausea and vomiting or either symptom alone. In a non-obstructed situation, nausea may be more difficult to manage and is more objectionable to patients. There is little research on management of these symptoms except the literature on chemotherapy induced nausea where guidelines exist. This article will review the etiologies of nausea and vomiting in advanced cancer and the medications which have been used to treat them. An etiology based protocol to approach the symptom is outlined.

  4. Nausea in Specific Phobia of Vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Höller, Yvonne; van Overveld, Mark; Jutglar, Heili; Trinka, Eugen

    2013-01-01

    Specific phobia of vomiting (SPOV) is a clinical condition with early onset, chronic course and substantial psychosocial impairment due to a rigorous avoidance behavior. A primary symptom which drives patients to consult a medical practitioner is nausea. In this study our aim was to further analyze this symptom of SPOV and examined its role in the development and manifestation of the phobia. We conducted an internet survey in the german SPOV-internet-forum. We calculated a nausea score and grouped participants in a high-and low-nausea group to examine the relationship between nausea and characteristics of the fear of vomiting. In this sample (N = 131), nausea was fairly common in most participants with fear of vomiting. Participants in the high-nausea group had significantly higher ratings of subjective fear and significantly longer duration of fear of vomiting. Additionally, the high-nausea group contained more participants with a body mass index below 19 than the low-nausea group. The present findings suggest that nausea is a core symptom in SPOV which is closely related to intensity of the fear, duration of the fear, and body weight. Future research should investigate if nausea-specific design of treatment could improve therapy outcome. PMID:25379248

  5. Drugs to Treat Nausea and Vomiting

    MedlinePlus

    ... state settlement of consumer fraud claims regarding the marketing of the prescription drug Neurontin (gabapentin). Women People Who May Have Higher Risk of Nausea and Vomiting Those under the age of 50 Women who had morning sickness during ...

  6. When you have nausea and vomiting

    MedlinePlus

    ... you have nausea and vomiting: Avoid greasy and processed foods, and foods that contain a lot of salt. ... of these are white breads, pastries, doughnuts, sausage, fast-food burgers, fried foods, chips, and many canned foods. ...

  7. Radiation-induced nausea and vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Mohsen; Namimoghadam, Amir; Korouni, Roghaye; Fashiri, Paria; Borzoueisileh, Sajad; Elahimanesh, Farideh; Amiri, Fatemeh; Moradi, Ghobad

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite the improvements in cancer screening and treatment, it still remains as one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Nausea and vomiting as the side effects of different cancer treatment modalities, such as radiotherapy, are multifactorial and could affect the treatment continuation and patient quality of life. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the possible linkage between ABO blood groups and radiation-induced nausea and vomiting (RINV), also its incidence and affecting factors. One hundred twenty-eight patients referring to Tohid hospital of Sanandaj, Iran, were selected and the patients and treatment-related factors were determined in a cross-sectional study. Patients’ nausea and vomiting were recorded from the onset of treatment until 1 week after treatment accomplishment. Also, previous possible nausea and vomiting were recorded. The frequencies of nausea and vomiting and their peak time were examined during the treatment period. The association between ABO blood group and the incidence of radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (RINV) were significant and it seems that A blood group patients are the most vulnerable individuals to these symptoms. The association between Rhesus antigen and the time of maximum severity of RINV may indicate that Rhesus antigen affects the time of maximum severity of RINV. The incidence of RINV was not affected by karnofsky performance status, but it was related to the severity of RINV. Furthermore, among the factors affecting the incidence of nausea and vomiting, nausea and vomiting during patient's previous chemotherapy, radiotherapy region, and background gastrointestinal disease were shown to be three important factors. In addition to familiar RINV-affecting factors, ABO blood group may play an important role and these results address the needs for further studies with larger sample size. PMID:27495037

  8. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, and multicenter trial of prophylactic effects of ramosetronon postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) after craniotomy: comparison with ondansetron

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Craniotomy patients have a high incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). This prospective, randomized, double-blind, multi-center study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of prophylactic ramosetron in preventing PONV compared with ondansetron after elective craniotomy in adult patients. Methods A total of 160 American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I–II patients aged 19–65 years who were scheduled to undergo elective craniotomy for various intracranial lesions were enrolled in this study. All patients received total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) with propofol and remifentanil. Patients were randomly allocated into three groups to receive ondansetron (4 mg; group A, n  =  55), ondansetron (8 mg; group B, n  =  54), or ramosetron (0.3 mg; group C, n  =  51) intravenously at the time of dural closure. The incidence of PONV, the need for rescue antiemetics, pain score, patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) consumption, and adverse events were recorded 48 h postoperatively. Results Among the initial 160 patients, 127 completed the study and were included in the final analysis. The incidences of PONV were lower (nausea, 14% vs. 59% and 41%, respectively; P  <  0.001; vomiting, P  =  0.048) and the incidence of complete response was higher (83% vs. 37% and 59%, respectively; P  <  0.001) in group C than in groups A and B at 48 h postoperatively. There were no significant differences in the incidence of PONV or need for rescue antiemetics 0–2 h postoperatively, but significant differences were observed in the incidence of PONV and complete response among the three groups 2–48 h postoperatively. No statistically significant intergroup differences were observed in postoperative pain, PCA consumption, or adverse events. Conclusion Intravenous administration of ramosetron at 0.3 mg reduced the incidence of PONV and rescue antiemetic requirement in craniotomy patients

  9. P6 acupoint stimulation for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing craniotomy: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is 50 to 79% after neurosurgery. Our study is designed to evaluate the efficacy of pericardium 6 (P6; also known as Neiguan) acupoint stimulation versus placebo, and versus routine antiemetic for the prevention of PONV after craniotomy, as well as to compare the efficacy of invasive acupuncture with non-invasive transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on P6. Methods/design This is a single-center, prospective, double-blind, five-arm, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial (RCT). All groups will be given routine intravenous ondansetron 8 mg administered before skin closure. Upon regaining consciousness from general anaesthesia, patients will receive one of five interventions: 1) P6 acupuncture bilaterally for 30 minutes, stimulated every 10 minutes to keep de qi sensation; 2) sham acupuncture bilaterally for 30 minutes with no stimulation; 3) P6 stimulation via active TENS electrodes bilaterally for 30 minutes, with stimulation frequency and intensity set to when de qi sensation is felt; 4) sham P6 stimulation via inactive TENS electrode bilaterally for 30 minutes; and 5) usual practice of pharmacological emesis prevention. The incidence of postoperative vomiting during the first 24 hours is the main outcome. Secondary outcomes include: complete response rate, severity of nausea, total rescue metoclopramide dose used and patient satisfaction with PONV management. Discussion The results from this study could potentially confirm that P6 acupoint stimulation is an effective adjunct to standard antiemetic drug therapy for the prevention of PONV in patients undergoing craniotomy. Our study may also confirm that conventional acupuncture is more effective than TENS. Trial registration This study is registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-TRC-13003026. PMID:23710881

  10. Palonosetron and aprepitant for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients indicated for laparoscopic gynaecologic surgery: a double-blind randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is one of the most common postsurgical complications. Palonosetron, a 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonist, is effective for PONV prevention. Herein, we compared palonosetron and aprepitant (a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist) for PONV prevention in patients indicated for laparoscopic gynaecologic surgery. Methods Ninety-three patients who were scheduled to undergo laparoscopic gynaecologic surgery under general anaesthesia were assigned to receive either a single intravenous injection of 0.075-mg palonosetron or 40-mg oral aprepitant in a double-blind randomised trial. The primary efficacy end points included complete response (visual analogue scale [VAS] nausea score <4 and no use of rescue therapy) 0–48 h after surgery. Nausea severity (0–10) and use of rescue therapy were monitored for 0–48 h. The secondary efficacy end points were the effect of aprepitant quantified using a 10-point VAS for pain, consumption of intravenous patient-controlled analgesia, and use of rescue analgesics. Results Aprepitant was non-inferior to palonosetron in terms of complete response 0–48 hours after surgery (74% vs. 77%). At 0 and 2 h after administration, the nausea severity with 40-mg aprepitant was significantly lesser than that with 0.075-mg palonosetron (P < 0.05). At 6 and 24 h after administration, fentanyl consumption with 40-mg aprepitant was significantly lower than that with 0.075-mg palonosetron. Greater amounts of rescue analgesics were required in the aprepitant group. Conclusions Palonosetron and aprepitant were both effective for PONV prevention in the patients indicated for laparoscopic gynaecologic surgery. The drugs can be used in combination for multimodal therapy because they bind to different receptors. More research is needed to evaluate the effects of aprepitant on pain management in humans. PMID:25165427

  11. The effect of combination treatment using palonosetron and dexamethasone for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting versus dexamethasone alone in women receiving intravenous patient-controlled analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Ryoo, Seung-hwa; Yoo, Jae Hwa; Kim, Mun Gyu; Lee, Ki Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of palonosetron combined with dexamethasone for the prevention of PONV compared to dexamethasone alone in women who received intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) using fentanyl. Methods In this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, 204 healthy female patients who were scheduled to undergo elective surgery under general anesthesia followed by IV-PCA for postoperative pain control were enrolled. Patients were divided into two groups: the PD group (palonosetron 0.075 mg and dexamethasone 5 mg IV; n = 102) and the D group (dexamethasone 5 mg IV; n = 102). The treatments were given after the induction of anesthesia. The incidence of nausea, vomiting, severity of nausea, and the use of rescue anti-emetics during the first 48 hours after surgery were evaluated. Results The incidence of PONV was significantly lower in the PD group compared with the D group during the 0-24 hours (43 vs. 59%) and 0-48 hours after surgery (45 vs. 63%) (P < 0.05). The severity of nausea during the 6-24 hours after surgery was significantly less in the PD group compared with the D group (P < 0.05). The incidence of rescue antiemetic used was significantly lower in the PD group than in the D group during the 0-6 hours after surgery (13.1 vs. 24.5%) (P < 0.05). Conclusions Palonosetron combined with dexamethasone was more effective in preventing PONV compared to dexamethasone alone in women receiving IV-PCA using fentanyl. PMID:26045930

  12. Incidence and Risk Factors of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Patients with Fentanyl-Based Intravenous Patient-Controlled Analgesia and Single Antiemetic Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jong Bum; Shim, Yon Hee; Lee, Youn-Woo; Lee, Jeong Soo; Choi, Jong-Rim

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the incidence and risk factors of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in patients with fentanyl-based intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) and single antiemetic prophylaxis of 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5 HT3)-receptor antagonist after the general anesthesia. Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, incidence and risk factors for PONV were evaluated with fentanyl IV-PCA during postoperative 48 hours after various surgeries. Results Four hundred-forty patients (23%) of 1878 had showed PONV. PCA was discontinued temporarily in 268 patients (14%), mostly due to PONV (88% of 268 patients). In multivariate analysis, female, non-smoker, history of motion sickness or PONV, long duration of anesthesia (>180 min), use of desflurane and intraoperative remifentanil infusion were independent risk factors for PONV. If one, two, three, four, five, or six of these risk factors were present, the incidences of PONV were 18%, 19%, 22%, 31%, 42%, or 50%. Laparoscopic surgery and higher dose of fentanyl were not risk factors for PONV. Conclusion Despite antiemetic prophylaxis with 5 HT3-receptor antagonist, 23% of patients with fentanyl-based IV-PCA after general anesthesia showed PONV. Long duration of anesthesia and use of desflurane were identified as risk factors, in addition to risk factors of Apfel's score (female, non-smoker, history of motion sickness or PONV). Also, intraoperative remifentanil infusion was risk factor independent of postoperative opioid use. As the incidence of PONV was up to 50% according to the number of risk factors, risk-adapted, multimodal or combination therapy should be applied. PMID:25048507

  13. Gender-Specific Differences in Low-Dose Haloperidol Response for Prevention of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting: A Register-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Prüll, Kathrin; Weninger, Ernst; Mansmann, Ulrich; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Jovanovic, Alexander; Pollwein, Bernhard; Chappell, Daniel; Zwissler, Bernhard; von Dossow, Vera

    2016-01-01

    Background Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is one of the most common and distressing complications after general anesthesia and surgery, with young non-smoking females receiving postoperative opioids being high-risk patients. This register-based study aims to evaluate the effect of low-dose haloperidol (0.5 mg intravenously) directly after induction of general anesthesia to reduce the incidence of PONV in the postoperative anesthesiological care unit (PACU). Methods Multivariable regression models were used to investigate the association between low-dose haloperidol and the occurrence of PONV using a patient registry containing 2,617 surgical procedures carried out at an university hospital. Results Haloperidol 0.5 mg is associated with a reduced risk of PONV in the total collective (adjusted odds ratio = 0.75, 95% confidence interval: [0.56, 0.99], p = 0.05). The results indicate that there is a reduced risk in male patients (adjusted odds ratio = 0.45, 95% confidence interval: [0.28, 0.73], p = 0.001) if a dose of 0.5 mg haloperidol was administered while there seems to be no effect in females (adjusted odds ratio = 1.02, 95% confidence interval: [0.71, 1.46], p = 0.93). Currently known risk factors for PONV such as female gender, duration of anesthesia and the use of opioids were confirmed in our analysis. Conclusion This study suggests that low-dose haloperidol has an antiemetic effect in male patients but has no effect in female patients. A confirmation of the gender-specific effects we have observed in this register-based cohort study might have major implications on clinical daily routine. PMID:26751066

  14. Anticipatory nausea and vomiting due to chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kamen, Charles; Tejani, Mohamedtaki A; Chandwani, Kavita; Janelsins, Michelle; Peoples, Anita R; Roscoe, Joseph A; Morrow, Gary R

    2014-01-01

    As a specific variation of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, anticipatory nausea and vomiting (ANV) appears particularly linked to psychological processes. The three predominant factors related to ANV are classical conditioning; demographic and treatment-related factors; and anxiety or negative expectancies. Laboratory models have provided some support for these underlying mechanisms for ANV. ANV may be treated with medical or pharmacological interventions, including benzodiazepines and other psychotropic medications. However, behavioral treatments, including systematic desensitization, remain first line options for addressing ANV. Some complementary treatment approaches have shown promise in reducing ANV symptoms. Additional research into these approaches is needed. This review will address the underlying models of ANV and provide a discussion of these various treatment options.

  15. Prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting with a subhypnotic dose of Propofol in patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery: A prospective, randomized, double-blind study

    PubMed Central

    Naghibi, Khosrou; Kashefi, Parviz; Azarnoush, Hamed; Zabihi, Parisa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a common complication after general anesthesia in patients undergoing elective lower abdominal surgery. We aimed to compare the effect of a sub hypnotic dose of Propofol in the prevention of PONV after lower abdominal surgery with that of the conventional antiemetic drug Metoclopramide. Materials and Methods: In this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 104 patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class I or II status, aged 18–65 years, and undergoing elective lower abdominal surgery were randomized to one of four groups (n = 26 each). The patients in the four groups were administered intravenously Propofol 20 mg (G1), Propofol 30 mg (G2), Metoclopramide 10 mg (G3), and placebo (G4), 15 min before skin closure. All episodes of PONV during the first 24 h after anesthesia were recorded by an investigator who was blinded to treatment assignment. Results: There were no significant differences between the treatment groups with regard to their gender, age, ASA class, duration of surgery, duration of recovery time and hospital stay, and also body mass index (BMI) (P > 0.05). The prevalence of PONV 0-6 h after anesthesia was 23.08% with Propofol 20 mg (P = 0.005), 15.38% with Propofol 30 mg (P = 0.016), 15.38% with Metoclopramide 10 mg (P = 0.016), compared to 30.77% with placebo (P = 0.005). Conclusions: Administration of a subhypnotic dose of Propofol (30 mg) was found to be as effective as 10 mg Metoclopramide in reducing the incidence and severity of PONV in adult patients undergoing elective lower abdominal surgeries under Isoflurane-based anesthesia in the early postoperative period. PMID:25789261

  16. Treatment of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Einarson, Adrienne; Maltepe, Caroline; Boskovic, Rada; Koren, Gideon

    2007-01-01

    QUESTION My patient has severe nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP). I am having difficulty treating her, as nothing she has tried so far has been really effective. I heard that there is some new information regarding the treatment of this condition. ANSWER Even a less severe case of NVP can have serious adverse effects on the quality of a woman’s life, affecting her occupational, social, and domestic functioning, and her general well-being; therefore, it is very important to treat this condition appropriately and effectively. There are safe and effective treatments available. We have updated Motherisk’s NVP algorithm to include recent relevant published data, and we describe some other strategies that deal with secondary symptoms related to NVP. PMID:18077743

  17. [COMPARISON OF THE OCCURRENCE RATE OF NAUSEA AND VOMITING AFTER TRANSCUTANEOUS NEPHROLITHOTRIPSY: SEVOFLURANE OR PROPOFOL].

    PubMed

    Ruhd, O A; Naumenko, O V

    2015-05-01

    Impact of various kinds of general anesthesia while performing transcutaneous endoscopic interventions on kidneys on postoperative occurrence and rate of nausea and vomiting were studied. Propofol and sevofluran were used for support of general anesthesia conduction. There was established, that if optimal depth of anesthesia is maintained (bispectral index 40 - 60 units), the rate of nausea and vomiting occurrence do not depend on the kind of anesthesia applied--total intravenous or the inhalation one. PMID:26419041

  18. Practice Bulletin Summary No. 153: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    2015-09-01

    Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy is a common condition that affects the health of the pregnant woman and her fetus. It can diminish the woman's quality of life and also significantly contributes to health care costs and time lost from work (1, 2). Because "morning sickness" is common in early pregnancy, the presence of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy may be minimized by obstetricians, other obstetric providers, and pregnant women and, thus, undertreated (1). Furthermore, some women do not seek treatment because of concerns about safety of medications (3). Once nausea and vomiting of pregnancy progresses, it can become more difficult to control symptoms; treatment in the early stages may prevent more serious complications, including hospitalization (4). Mild cases of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy may be resolved with lifestyle and dietary changes, and safe and effective treatments are available for more severe cases. The woman's perception of the severity of her symptoms plays a critical role in the decision of whether, when, and how to treat nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. In addition, nausea and vomiting of pregnancy should be distinguished from nausea and vomiting related to other causes. The purpose of this document is to review the best available evidence about the diagnosis and management of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy.

  19. Systematic review on the recurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting after a first episode in the recovery room – implications for the treatment of PONV and related clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Eberhart, Leopold HJ; Frank, Silke; Lange, Henning; Morin, Astrid M; Scherag, André; Wulf, Hinnerk; Kranke, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Background Despite the presence of a plethora of publications on the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) only little is known how to treat established symptoms. Besides the high effort of performing these efficacy trials (much more patients must give their consent than are actually included in a study) and ethical concerns, little is known about the rate of re-occurring PONV/vomiting after placebo. As a consequence investigators will have difficulties defining a clinically relevant effect for the new treatment which is crucial for any planning. A quantitative systematic review was performed in order to provide more reliable estimates of the incidence of re-occurring PONV/vomiting after placebo and to help investigators defining a clinically relevant treatment effect. Methods A systematic search of the literature was performed using an extended search strategy of a previous review. Data on the recurrence of PONV (any nausea or emetic symptom) and vomiting (retching or vomiting) was extracted from published reports treating PONV with placebo and unpublished results from two observational trials where no treatment was given. A nonlinear random effects model was used to calculate estimates of the recurrence of symptoms and their 95%-confidence intervals (95%-CI). Results A total of 29 trials (including the unpublished data) were eligible for the calculations. Depending on the length of observation after administering placebo or no treatment the recurrence rate of PONV was between 65% (95%-CI: 53%...75%) and 84% (95%-CI: 73%...91%) and that of vomiting was between 65% (95%-CI: 44%...81%) and 78% (95%-CI: 59%...90%). Conclusion Almost all trials showed a considerable and consistently high rate of recurrence of emetic symptoms after placebo highlighting the need for a consequent antiemetic treatment. Future (placebo) controlled efficacy trials may use the presented empirical estimates for defining clinically relevant effects and for statistical power

  20. Antiemetic Medicines: OTC Relief for Nausea and Vomiting

    MedlinePlus

    ... as an antidiarrheal (medicine to treat diarrhea). Certain antihistamines may help prevent nausea and vomiting caused by ... Bismuth subsalicylate works by protecting the stomach lining. Antihistamines appear to dull the inner ear’s ability to ...

  1. Taking ginger for nausea and vomiting during pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Kiran; Einarson, Adrienne; Koren, Gideon

    2002-01-01

    QUESTION: Many of my patients prefer to use natural or herbal medicines, such as ginger, before taking drugs to treat nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Is there evidence that ginger is safe to use during pregnancy? Is it effective? ANSWER: Although ginger is used in many cultures to treat the symptoms of nausea and vomiting, no trials have established its safety for use during pregnancy. On the other hand, its efficacy has been documented in two randomized, blinded controlled trials. PMID:12371300

  2. Can nausea and vomiting be treated with ginger extract?

    PubMed

    Giacosa, A; Morazzoni, P; Bombardelli, E; Riva, A; Bianchi Porro, G; Rondanelli, M

    2015-04-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a spice traditionally used to treat indigestion, nausea and vomiting. Ginger extracts accelerate gastric emptying and stimulate gastric antral contractions. These effects are mainly due to the presence of gingerols and shogaols and their activity on cholinergic M receptors and serotonergic 5-HT and 5-HT receptors. Various researches on this subject have led to controversial results, due to the chemical instability of ginger extracts and particularly of gingerols, which are readily-oxidizable substances. A systematic review of double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized studies highlighted the potential efficacy of ginger on the prevention and treatment of nausea and vomiting of various origins, even though additional controlled studies are needed. This review focuses on pregnancy-induced nausea and vomiting and on chemotherapy induced nausea, and hypothesizes a therapeutic role for ginger extracts in case of side effects, as an alternative to traditional prokinetic drugs such as domperidone, levosulpiride or metoclopramide.

  3. [Emetophobia: morbid fear of vomiting and nausea].

    PubMed

    Snaebjarnardottir, Kolfinna; Sigurdsson, Engilbert

    2014-05-01

    Emetophobia is an intense, irrational fear or anxiety of or pertaining to vomiting. It is classified among specific phobias in ICD-10 and DSM-IV. This disorder is often hidden because of the shame associated with it among sufferers. As a result emetophobia has been studied less than most other anxiety disorders. Not much is known about the epidemiology, treatment and outcome of this disorder. We describe a woman in her thirties who has been living with emetophobia since she experienced emesis two successive Christmas Eves as a child. Subsequently her fear of vomiting has influenced many aspects of her daily life.

  4. Risk Assessment of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in the Intravenous Patient-Controlled Analgesia Environment: Predictive Values of the Apfel's Simplified Risk Score for Identification of High-Risk Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Shin Hyung; Shin, Yang-Sik; Oh, Young Jun; Lee, Jeong Rim; Chung, Sung Chan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Opioid-based intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA) is popular method of postoperative pain control, but many patients suffer from IV PCA-related postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). In this retrospective observational study, we have determined independent predictors of IV PCA-related PONV and predictive values of the Apfel's simplified risk score in pursuance of identifying high-risk patients. Materials and Methods We analyzed 7000 patients who received IV PCA with background infusion after elective surgery. Patients who maintained IV PCA for a postoperative period of 48 hr (completion group, n=6128) were compared with those who have discontinued IV PCA within 48 hr of surgery due to intractable PONV (cessation group, n=872). Patients, anesthetics, and surgical factors known for predicting PONV were evaluated by logistic regression analysis to identify independent predictors of IV PCA related intractable PONV. Results In a stepwise multivariate analysis, weight, background infusion dose of fentanyl, addition of ketolorac to PCA, duration of anesthesia, general anesthesia, head and neck surgery, and Apfel's simplified risk score were revealed as independent risk factors for intractable PONV followed by the cessation of IV PCA. In addition, Apfel's simplified risk score, which demonstrated the highest odds ratio among the predictors, was strongly correlated with the cessation rate of IV PCA. Conclusion Multimodal prophylactic antiemetic strategies and dose reduction of opioids may be considered as strategies for the prevention of PONV with the use of IV PCA, especially in patients with high Apfel's simplified risk scores. PMID:23918581

  5. Chronic nausea and vomiting: insights into underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Törnblom, H; Abrahamsson, H

    2016-05-01

    Chronic nausea and vomiting are common and debilitating symptoms in adults. There are some fundamental problems that make our understanding of mechanisms difficult, diagnostic definitions of patient-cohorts being central. As there is no unifying mechanism with a direct link to chronic nausea or vomiting, it is most likely that several mechanisms interact, e.g., pylorus function and its relation to gastric emptying, or gastric sensory and motor function. In this mini-review, we highlight the roles and evidence for brain-gut interactions as well as gastrointestinal neurophysiologic, motor, sensory, and hormonal factors involved in the pathophysiology of chronic nausea and vomiting. There are factors not mentioned in the text, mostly as they are not well characterized in the setting of chronic symptoms or only in animal models. PMID:27106677

  6. Alternative Methods to Treat Nausea and Vomiting from Cancer Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sheikhi, Mohammad Ali; Ebadi, Ahmad; Talaeizadeh, Abdolhassan; Rahmani, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting (CINV) is among the most intensive side effects and critical concerns for patients with cancer. Most of these patients experience nausea and vomiting after chemotherapy. Sometimes, this is so annoying that it may prevent them from continuing the therapy. With the recent advances, a variety of therapeutic methods are innovated and applied to control CINV. Among them, the main methods include medicinal therapy, relaxation, and herbal therapy. Yet, using dexamethasone together with massage therapy and ginger is identified as the most effective method. PMID:26634155

  7. Alternative Methods to Treat Nausea and Vomiting from Cancer Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhi, Mohammad Ali; Ebadi, Ahmad; Talaeizadeh, Abdolhassan; Rahmani, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting (CINV) is among the most intensive side effects and critical concerns for patients with cancer. Most of these patients experience nausea and vomiting after chemotherapy. Sometimes, this is so annoying that it may prevent them from continuing the therapy. With the recent advances, a variety of therapeutic methods are innovated and applied to control CINV. Among them, the main methods include medicinal therapy, relaxation, and herbal therapy. Yet, using dexamethasone together with massage therapy and ginger is identified as the most effective method. PMID:26634155

  8. [Principles of managing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting].

    PubMed

    Takiuchi, Hiroya; Kawabe, Shinichiro; Goto, Masahiro; Ota, Syunsuke; Kii, Takayuki; Tanaka, Toshimitsu; Nishitani, Hitoshi; Kuwakado, Shin; Katsu, Ken-ichi

    2006-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (emesis) can significantly affect a patient's quality of life, leading to poor compliance with further chemotherapy treatment. For patients treated with emetogenic chemotherapy, it is very important to prevent nausea and vomiting completely. The incidence and severity of nausea and/or vomiting in patients receiving chemotherapy are affected by numerous factors, including: 1) the specific chemotherapeutic agents used; 2) their dosage; 3) the schedule and route of administration; and 4) individual patient variability. Approximately 70 to 80% of all cancer patients receiving chemotherapy experience emesis, whereas 10% to 44% experience anticipatory emesis. The following general principles are recommended. 1) A 5-HT3 receptor antagonist should be administered prior to each day's 1st dose of moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy. 2) Dexamethasone should be administered once daily either orally or intravenously for every day of moderately or highly-emetogenic chemotherapy and for 2-3 days after chemotherapy for regimens that are likely to cause significant delayed-emesis. 3) The most effective way to treat anticipatory nausea and/or vomiting is to prevent it by using optimal antiemetic therapy during every cycle of treatment.

  9. Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: exploring patients’ subjective experience

    PubMed Central

    Salihah, Noor; Mazlan, Nik; Lua, Pei Lin

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to explore the subjective experience of nausea and vomiting during chemotherapy treatment among breast cancer patients and the impacts on their daily lives. Methods A qualitative descriptive study was conducted in breast cancer patients who received chemotherapy and had experienced nausea and/or vomiting. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and analyzed using content analysis based on Giorgi’s method. Results Of 15 patients who participated, 13 were included in the final analysis (median age =46 years, interquartile range [IQR] =6.0; all were Malays). Vomiting was readily expressed as the “act of throwing up”, but nausea was a symptom that was difficult to describe. Further exploration found great individual variation in patterns, intensity, and impact of these chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) symptoms. While not all patients expressed CINV as bothersome, most patients described the symptom as quite distressing. CINV was reported to affect many aspects of patients’ lives particularly eating, physical, emotional, and social functioning, but the degree of impacts was unique to each patient. One of the important themes that emerged was the increase in worship practices and “faith in God” among Malay Muslim patients when dealing with these adverse effects. Conclusion CINV continues to be a problem that adversely affects the daily lives of patients, hence requiring better understandings from the health care professionals on patients’ needs and concerns when experiencing this symptom. PMID:27110121

  10. Prevention and management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Moradian, Saeed; Howell, Doris

    2015-05-01

    Nausea and vomiting are among the most frequently experienced toxic side-effects associated with chemotherapy. Although nausea and vomiting can result from surgery or radiotherapy, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is potentially the most severe and most distressing. Estimates regarding the incidence of CINV vary depending on the treatment administered and individual patient characteristics.The impact of CINV on quality of life (QoL) and daily activities is considerable. Pharmacological treatments are considered routine for CINV. Clinical guidelines now recommend that patients receiving moderate emetic chemotherapy (MEC) regimens be preferentially treated with palonosetron, the 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonist, in combination with dexamethasone. In addition, it has shown that single-dose fosaprepitant is equivalent to the standard 3-day aprepitant regimen (the neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor antagonist). Despite these advances in antiemetic management, approximately 50% of patients receiving chemotherapy still experience nausea and/or vomiting. Further improvements are still desirable, particularly in the prevention and treatment of delayed CINV. Non-pharmacological interventions can be possible adjuncts to standard anti-emetic therapy. Using new technologies to collect patient-reported outcomes may improve the accuracy of assessment, provide a better picture of the patient's experience of these symptoms, and provide a means to simultaneously monitor symptoms, educate patients, and collect longitudinal data.

  11. Neurochemical mechanisms and pharmacologic strategies in managing nausea and vomiting related to cyclic vomiting syndrome and other gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Bashashati, Mohammad; McCallum, Richard W

    2014-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting are common gastrointestinal complaints which could be triggered by stimuli in both the peripheral and central nervous systems. They may be considered as defense mechanisms when threatening toxins/agents enter the gastrointestinal tract or there is excessive retention of gastrointestinal contents due to obstruction. The pathophysiology of nausea and vomiting is complex and much still remains unknown. Therefore, treatments are restricted or ineffective in many cases. Nausea and vomiting with functional etiologies including cyclic vomiting syndrome are challenging in gastroenterology. In this article, we review potential pathways, neurochemical transmitters, and their receptors which are possibly involved in the pathophysiology of nausea and vomiting including the entity cyclic vomiting syndrome.

  12. Ginger Essence Effect on Nausea and Vomiting After Open and Laparoscopic Nephrectomies

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Fatemeh Sadat; Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Some studies reported that ginger was effective in prevention or treatment of post-surgical nausea and vomiting; however, there are controversies. In addition, no study compared the effects of ginger on nausea and vomiting after open and laparoscopic nephrectomies. Objectives: The current study aimed to compare the effect of ginger essence on nausea and vomiting after open versus laparoscopic nephrectomies. Patients and Methods: A randomized, placebo trial was conducted on two groups of patients, 50 open and 50 laparoscopic nephrectomy. Half of the subjects in each group received ginger essence and the other half received placebo. Using a visual analogue scale the severity of nausea was assessed every 15 minutes for the first two post-operative hours and the sixth hour. Frequency of vomiting was counted until the sixth hour. The placebo subgroups were treated similarly. Descriptive statistics were employed. Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests, paired and independent samples t-test and repeated measure analysis of variance were used to analyze the data. Results: Repeated measure analysis of variance showed that the type of surgery and the type of intervention as factors had significant effects on the nausea severity scores in the nine successive measurements (P < 0.001). In the first two post-operative hours, the mean vomiting episodes was 2.92 ± 0.70 in the subjects who underwent open surgery and received placebo while it was 0.16 ± 0.37 in patients with the same surgery but receiving ginger essence (P = 0.001). The mean vomiting episodes was 6.0 ± 1.33 in the subjects who underwent laparoscopic surgery and received placebo while it was 1.39 ± 0.78 in patients with the same surgery but receiving ginger essence (P = 0.001). Conclusions: Using ginger essence was effective in reducing nausea and vomiting not only in the subjects who underwent open nephrectomy but also in the subjects of laparoscopic nephrectomy. Using ginger essence is suggested as a

  13. Interventions for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Anne; Dowswell, Therese; Haas, David M; Doyle, Mary; O’Mathúna, Dónal P

    2014-01-01

    Background Nausea, retching and vomiting are very commonly experienced by women in early pregnancy. There are considerable physical and psychological effects on women who experience these symptoms. This is an update of a review of interventions for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy previously published in 2003. Objectives To assess the effectiveness and safety of all interventions for nausea, vomiting and retching in early pregnancy, up to 20 weeks’ gestation. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (28 May 2010). Selection criteria All randomised controlled trials of any intervention for nausea, vomiting and retching in early pregnancy. We excluded trials of interventions for hyperemesis gravidarum which are covered by another review. We also excluded quasi-randomised trials and trials using a crossover design. Data collection and analysis Four review authors, in pairs, reviewed the eligibility of trials and independently evaluated the risk of bias and extracted the data for included trials. Main results Twenty-seven trials, with 4041 women, met the inclusion criteria. These trials covered many interventions, including acupressure, acustimulation, acupuncture, ginger, vitamin B6 and several antiemetic drugs. We identified no studies of dietary or other lifestyle interventions. Evidence regarding the effectiveness of P6 acupressure, auricular (ear) acupressure and acustimulation of the P6 point was limited. Acupuncture (P6 or traditional) showed no significant benefit to women in pregnancy. The use of ginger products may be helpful to women, but the evidence of effectiveness was limited and not consistent. There was only limited evidence from trials to support the use of pharmacological agents including vitamin B6, and anti-emetic drugs to relieve mild or moderate nausea and vomiting. There was little information on maternal and fetal adverse outcomes and on psychological, social or economic outcomes. We

  14. The pharmacologic management of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Niebyl, Jennifer R; Briggs, Gerald G

    2014-02-01

    Nausea and vomiting are common in early pregnancy. Forty percent or more of pregnant women may continue to suffer beyond the first trimester and 10% beyond the second trimester. A focus of the assessment is to confirm that the nausea and vomiting is due to the pregnancy and not some other cause. Nonpharmacologic options, particularly dietary modification, are a mainstay of treatment. For those who continue to experience symptoms, pharmacologic management can be employed. The combination of doxylamine succinate/pyridoxine hydrochloride was reintroduced in the United States following FDA approval in early 2013. The product was given a pregnancy safety rating of A and is recommended as first-line pharmacologic treatment for NVP. Other options include antihistamines, metoclopramide, ondansetron, phenothiazines, and after the first trimester, corticosteroids.

  15. Managing women with nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Canadian consensus.

    PubMed Central

    2000-01-01

    QUESTION: I have a 30-year-old pregnant patient who is asthmatic and is taking prednisone. Whenever she decreases her prednisone dose, her nausea increases tremendously even though she is taking two tablets of doxylamine and pyridoxine combination (Diclectin) daily. She is already at 26 weeks' gestation, and I really do not want her to continue the prednisone beyond what is needed for her asthma, but two attempts to taper prednisone off failed because of unbearable nausea. ANSWER: Several controlled trials show the efficacy of prednisone for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP), but your case is fascinating in proving the point by challenge-rechallenge. You should try to decrease the prednisone while increasing doxylamine and pyridoxine to its recommended dose of two tablets before sleep, one in the morning, and on in the afternoon. PMID:10690484

  16. Hypnosis for the Management of Anticipatory Nausea and Vomiting.

    PubMed

    Kravits, Kathy G

    2015-01-01

    CASE STUDYBJ is a 34-year-old woman who was diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer. She was treated with surgical removal of the primary tumor and sentinel node biopsy. Following surgery, she received chemotherapy. She was given antiemetic therapy prior to and immediately following chemotherapy. She began to experience significant and persistent nausea with intermittent episodes of vomiting after the second cycle of chemotherapy. She completed her chemotherapy but still experienced nausea and vomiting in response to several cues, such as smelling food cooking and going to the hospital. Her nausea and vomiting resulted in segregation from her family during meal time, which negatively impacted her quality of life. A hypnosis consultation was requested, and BJ was cooperative. She reported feeling very nauseated at the time of the interview. Hypnosis was discussed; her questions were answered, and the potential risks and benefits of hypnosis were reviewed. She agreed that she would like to try hypnosis. A hypnosis assessment was conducted and revealed that she had a history of profound motion sickness and severe, chronic childhood trauma associated with feelings of anxiety and hypervigilance. The therapeutic suggestions that were used with BJ included hypnotic suggestions for relaxation and removal of discomfort. A metaphor describing the central processing of the anticipatory nausea and vomiting as a thermostat that could be adjusted to reduce and eliminate the sensation was used to suggest that she could control her perceptions and in turn control the nausea. Posthypnotic suggestions included that at the earliest awareness of discomfort, rubbing the throat would eliminate that discomfort, and cooking aromas would be transformed into her favorite fragrance. Reversal went smoothly, and BJ reported satisfaction with the experience. BJ experienced significant reduction in symptoms after the first session. She had two more sessions, at which time she was able to eat

  17. Interventions for preventing nausea and vomiting in women undergoing regional anaesthesia for caesarean section

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, James D; Gyte, Gillian ML; Paranjothy, Shantini; Brown, Heather C; Broughton, Hannah K; Thomas, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Background Nausea and vomiting are distressing symptoms which are experienced commonly during caesarean section under regional anaesthesia and can also occur in the period following the procedure. Objectives To assess the efficacy of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions given prophylactically to prevent nausea and vomiting in women undergoing regional anaesthesia for caesarean section. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (27 February 2012) and reference lists of identified studies. Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and excluded quasi-RCTs and cross-over studies. Data collection and analysis Review authors independently assessed the studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and carried out data extraction. Data entry was checked. Main results Fifty-two studies met the inclusion criteria but only 41 studies, involving 5046 women, provided useable data for the review involving women having caesareans under regional anaesthesia. The majority of the studies involved women undergoing elective caesarean section. Only two studies included emergency surgery, however, they did not stratify data according to type of surgery. The studies covered numerous comparisons, but the majority of studies involved 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, dopamine receptor antagonists, corticosteroids or acupressure. Studies were mainly small and of unclear quality. Three classes of intervention were found to be effective in at least three out of four of our primary outcomes (intraoperative nausea, intraoperative vomiting, postoperative nausea and postoperative vomiting). These interventions were 5-HT3 antagonists, dopamine antagonists and sedatives. Other classes of intervention were effective for fewer than three of our primary outcomes. With 5-HT antagonists, we found a reduction in intraoperative nausea (average risk ratio (RR) 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46 to 0.88, eight studies

  18. Treating nausea and vomiting in palliative care: a review

    PubMed Central

    Glare, Paul; Miller, Jeanna; Nikolova, Tanya; Tickoo, Roma

    2011-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting are portrayed in the specialist palliative care literature as common and distressing symptoms affecting the majority of patients with advanced cancer and other life-limiting illnesses. However, recent surveys indicate that these symptoms may be less common and bothersome than has previously been reported. The standard palliative care approach to the assessment and treatment of nausea and vomiting is based on determining the cause and then relating this back to the “emetic pathway” before prescribing drugs such as dopamine antagonists, antihistamines, and anticholinergic agents which block neurotransmitters at different sites along the pathway. However, the evidence base for the effectiveness of this approach is meager, and may be in part because relevance of the neuropharmacology of the emetic pathway to palliative care patients is limited. Many palliative care patients are over the age of 65 years, making these agents difficult to use. Greater awareness of drug interactions and QTc prolongation are emerging concerns for all age groups. The selective serotonin receptor antagonists are the safest antiemetics, but are not used first-line in many countries because there is very little scientific rationale or clinical evidence to support their use outside the licensed indications. Cannabinoids may have an increasing role. Advances in interventional gastroenterology are increasing the options for nonpharmacological management. Despite these emerging issues, the approach to nausea and vomiting developed within palliative medicine over the past 40 years remains relevant. It advocates careful clinical evaluation of the symptom and the person suffering it, and an understanding of the clinical pharmacology of medicines that are available for palliating them. PMID:21966219

  19. A new pharmacologic treatment for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Fantasia, Heidi Collins

    2014-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) affects up to 80 percent of pregnant women. This condition is usually self-limiting, but the symptoms can be distressing and interfere with work, social activities and sleep. Symptoms can often be managed by diet and lifestyle changes, but these interventions may not be successful for everyone. In April 2013, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved doxylamine succinate 10 mg/pyridoxine hydrochloride 10 mg (Diclegis) as the first medication to specifically treat NVP in more than 30 years. This article reviews the indications, dosage and nursing interventions associated with using doxylamine succinate/pyridoxine to treat NVP.

  20. Olanzapine for the prevention and treatment of chronic nausea and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Navari, Rudolph M

    2014-01-01

    Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic agent of the thiobenzodiazepine class. It blocks multiple neurotransmitter receptors including dopaminergic at D1, D2, D3, D4 brain receptors, serotonergic at 5-HT2a, 5-HT2c, 5-HT3, 5-HT6 receptors, catecholamines at alpha1 adrenergic receptors, acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors, and histamine at H1 receptors. Olanzapine has five times the affinity for 5-HT2 receptors than D2 receptors and has been used to treat schizophrenia and delirium. Olanzapine's activity at multiple receptors, particularly at the D2, 5-HT2c, and 5-HT3 receptors which appear to be involved in nausea and emesis, has prompted its use in the treatment of nausea and vomiting refractory to standard antiemetics. Case reports and formal clinical trials have demonstrated its efficacy in the treatment of chronic nausea, the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and emesis, and the treatment of breakthrough chemotherapy-induced nausea and emesis. Phase II and phase III clinical trials have demonstrated that there is a significant improvement in nausea when olanzapine is added to guideline directed prophylactic antiemetic agents 5-HT3 receptor antagonists and tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonists in patients receiving moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy Common side effects of olanzapine when used over a period of months include weight gain as well as an association with the onset of diabetes mellitus, but these effects have not been seen with short term use of daily doses of less than one week.

  1. Peppermint oil: a treatment for postoperative nausea.

    PubMed

    Tate, S

    1997-09-01

    This paper describes a research study to investigate the efficacy of peppermint oil as a treatment for postoperative nausea. It uses a three-condition experimental design using statistical analysis to compare groups. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to establish significance and the Mann-Whitney test to differentiate significance between the groups. The control, placebo and experimental groups of gynaecological patients were compared, using variables known to affect postoperative nausea. They were found to be homogeneous for the purposes of the study. A statistically significant differences was demonstrated on the day of operation, using the Kruskal-Wallis test, P = 0.0487. Using the Mann-Whitney test the difference was shown to be between the placebo and experimental group (U = 3; P = 0.02). The experimental group also required less traditional antiemetics and received more opioid analgesia postoperatively. The total cost of the treatment was 48 pence per person.

  2. Recent Advances in Preventing Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Syed Sameer; Schwartzberg, Lee S

    2016-08-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) remains an important adverse effect of cancer therapy. The goal of CINV prophylaxis is to reduce the morbidity associated with nausea and vomiting, as well as to preserve quality of life, while maintaining the desired chemotherapy regimen. The US Food and Drug Administration has recently approved new therapies for prevention of CINV, including the neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor antagonist rolapitant and the fixed-dose combination of the second-generation 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor antagonist palonosetron with the novel NK1 receptor antagonist netupitant. Alternative agents, like the atypical antipsychotic olanzapine, have also expanded the options available for preventing delayed and refractory CINV. Consensus guidelines for prevention of CINV from several organizations are generally consistent with one another and are updated based on expert review of available clinical trial data. This article will address changes in CINV guidelines over the past 5 years and provide updates on recently approved agents and agents that are expected to be approved, based on published phase III trials. It will also explore other factors affecting optimal CINV control, including the role of patient-related risk factors and the role of physician adherence to antiemetic guidelines in reducing the residual risk of CINV. PMID:27539626

  3. Ginger in the prevention of nausea and vomiting: a review.

    PubMed

    Palatty, Princy Louis; Haniadka, Raghavendra; Valder, Bhavishya; Arora, Rajesh; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2013-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting are physiological processes experienced by every human being at some stage of their life. They are complex protective mechanisms and the symptoms are influenced by the emetogenic response and stimuli. However, when these symptoms recur frequently, they can significantly reduce the quality of life and can also be detrimental to health. The existing antiemetic agents are ineffective against certain stimuli, are expensive, and possess side effects. Herbal medicines have been shown to be effective antiemetics, and among the various plants studied, the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, commonly known as ginger, has been used as a broad-spectrum antiemetic in the various traditional systems of medicine for over 2000 years. Various preclinical and clinical studies have shown ginger to possess antiemetic effects against different emetogenic stimuli. However, conflicting reports especially in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and motion sickness prevent us from drawing any firm conclusion. The current review for the first time summarizes the results. An attempt is also made to address the lacunae in these published studies and emphasize aspects that need further investigations for it to be of use in clinics in the future.

  4. Sensitizing Effects of Pretreatment Measures on Cancer Chemotherapy Nausea and Vomiting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gard, Diane; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explored sensitizing effects of pretreatment assessment on posttreatment chemotherapy nausea and vomiting and interactive effects of personal dispositions for information seeking. Oncology patients rated side effects experienced previously (experimental condition), or parking conditions (control). Posttreatment, nausea of experimentals was…

  5. Current Pharmacotherapy for Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Janelsins, Michelle C.; Tejani, Mohamed; Kamen, Charles; Peoples, Anita; Mustian, Karen M.; Morrow, Gary R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Nausea and vomiting are two of the most frequent and troubling side effects patients experience during chemotherapy, interfering with compliance with cancer therapies and quality of life. While newly available treatments have improved our ability to manage nausea and vomiting, anticipatory and delayed nausea and vomiting are still major problems for patients receiving chemotherapy. Many cancer patients consider delaying future chemotherapy cycles and some contemplate stopping chemotherapy altogether because of their fear of experiencing further nausea and vomiting. Areas Covered The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the patho-psychophysiology of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, the recommended guidelines for treatment, current agents in late-stage clinical trials, and future research needs to address the continued challenges of treatment-related nausea and vomiting. Expert Opinion Despite advances in pharmaceutical and behavioral therapies, and the provision of standard clinical guidelines for effectively managing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), patients continue to experience CINV. Moreover, control of nausea, acute and delayed, and anticipatory nausea and vomiting (ANV) remains an important, unmet need among cancer patients. It is critical to focus attention on better understanding the mechanisms underlying nausea, anticipatory symptoms, and delayed symptoms. PMID:23496347

  6. Pharmacogenetics of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Sugino, Shigekazu; Janicki, Piotr K

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is associated with distressing adverse effects observed in patients during cytotoxic chemotherapy. One of the potential factors explaining suboptimal response to currently used antiemetics is variability in genes encoding enzymes and proteins that play a role in the action of antiemetic drugs. Pharmacogenomics studies of CINV are sparse and focus mainly on polymorphisms associated with serotonin receptor, drug metabolism and drug transport. Currently, the role of pharmacogenetics in mechanisms of CINV has not been fully unraveled, and it is premature to implement results of pharmacogenetic association studies of antiemetic drugs in clinical practice. More uniform studies, with genetic profiles and biomarkers relevant for the proposed target and transporter mechanisms, are needed.

  7. Cannabinoids As Potential Treatment for Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting.

    PubMed

    Rock, Erin M; Parker, Linda A

    2016-01-01

    Despite the advent of classic anti-emetics, chemotherapy-induced nausea is still problematic, with vomiting being somewhat better managed in the clinic. If post-treatment nausea and vomiting are not properly controlled, anticipatory nausea-a conditioned response to the contextual cues associated with illness-inducing chemotherapy-can develop. Once it develops, anticipatory nausea is refractive to current anti-emetics, highlighting the need for alternative treatment options. One of the first documented medicinal uses of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) was for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), and recent evidence is accumulating to suggest a role for the endocannabinoid system in modulating CINV. Here, we review studies assessing the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids and manipulations of the endocannabinoid system in human patients and pre-clinical animal models of nausea and vomiting. PMID:27507945

  8. Gabapentin for Postoperative Vomiting in Children Requiring Posterior Fossa Tumor Resection.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ko-Chun; Yang, Yung-Li; Fan, Pi-Chuan

    2015-10-01

    Gabapentin is well known for its pain control and antiepileptic effect, but its antiemetic effect is poorly investigated. Here we report on effective gabapentin use for refractory vomiting after craniotomy in two children with medulloblastoma in the fourth ventricle. The two pediatric patients (an 11-year-old girl and a 4-year-old boy) underwent near-total excision of the tumor via craniotomy. Both patients suffered from refractory postoperative nausea and vomiting, treated with multiple traditional antiemetic drugs but without relief. After gabapentin intake, their nausea and vomiting improved from one to two episodes per day to complete resolution of symptoms. This report suggests that gabapentin may be a novel antiemetic therapeutic intervention for patients with refractory nausea and vomiting after craniotomy.

  9. Optimal management of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Neda; Maltepe, Caroline; Einarson, Adrienne

    2010-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) is a common medical condition in pregnancy with significant physical and psychological morbidity. Up to 90% of women will suffer from NVP symptoms in the first trimester of pregnancy with up to 2% developing hyperemesis gravidarum which is NVP at its worst, leading to hospitalization and even death in extreme cases. Optimal management of NVP begins with nonpharmacological approaches, use of ginger, acupressure, vitamin B6, and dietary adjustments. The positive impact of these noninvasive, inexpensive and safe methods has been demonstrated. Pharmacological treatments are available with varying effectiveness; however, the only drug marketed specifically for the treatment of NVP in pregnancy is Diclectin® (vitamin B6 and doxylamine). In addition, the Motherisk algorithm provides a guideline for use of safe and effective drugs for the treatment of NVP. Optimal medical management of symptoms will ensure the mental and physical wellbeing of expecting mothers and their developing babies during this often stressful and difficult time period. Dismissing NVP as an inconsequential part of pregnancy can have serious ramifications for both mother and baby. PMID:21151729

  10. Optimal management of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Neda; Maltepe, Caroline; Einarson, Adrienne

    2010-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) is a common medical condition in pregnancy with significant physical and psychological morbidity. Up to 90% of women will suffer from NVP symptoms in the first trimester of pregnancy with up to 2% developing hyperemesis gravidarum which is NVP at its worst, leading to hospitalization and even death in extreme cases. Optimal management of NVP begins with nonpharmacological approaches, use of ginger, acupressure, vitamin B6, and dietary adjustments. The positive impact of these noninvasive, inexpensive and safe methods has been demonstrated. Pharmacological treatments are available with varying effectiveness; however, the only drug marketed specifically for the treatment of NVP in pregnancy is Diclectin(®) (vitamin B6 and doxylamine). In addition, the Motherisk algorithm provides a guideline for use of safe and effective drugs for the treatment of NVP. Optimal medical management of symptoms will ensure the mental and physical wellbeing of expecting mothers and their developing babies during this often stressful and difficult time period. Dismissing NVP as an inconsequential part of pregnancy can have serious ramifications for both mother and baby.

  11. Cannabinoids As Potential Treatment for Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Rock, Erin M.; Parker, Linda A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the advent of classic anti-emetics, chemotherapy-induced nausea is still problematic, with vomiting being somewhat better managed in the clinic. If post-treatment nausea and vomiting are not properly controlled, anticipatory nausea—a conditioned response to the contextual cues associated with illness-inducing chemotherapy—can develop. Once it develops, anticipatory nausea is refractive to current anti-emetics, highlighting the need for alternative treatment options. One of the first documented medicinal uses of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) was for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), and recent evidence is accumulating to suggest a role for the endocannabinoid system in modulating CINV. Here, we review studies assessing the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids and manipulations of the endocannabinoid system in human patients and pre-clinical animal models of nausea and vomiting. PMID:27507945

  12. Nausea and Vomiting during Pregnancy and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Samantha E.; Starr, Jacqueline R.; Collett, Brent R.; Speltz, Matthew L.; Werler, Martha M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) is the most common complication of pregnancy. NVP has been associated with improved fetal outcomes, but its association with childhood neurodevelopmental outcomes has rarely been studied. Methods Subjects were children aged 5–12 years (n=560) who were controls in a previously conducted case-control study of prenatal risk factors for craniofacial malformations. Information on NVP, including trimester, duration, and treatment, was collected through a maternal interview conducted within three years of delivery. Neurocognition was assessed using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-III) and the Beery-Buktenica Test of Visual Motor Integration (VMI-5). Psychosocial outcomes, including internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, were measured by maternal-report using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and teacher-report, using the Teacher Report Form (TRF). Linear regression models were used to calculate adjusted mean differences (adjMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) on test scores for children exposed and unexposed to NVP in-utero. Differences based on trimester, duration, and treatment were assessed. Results NVP was reported among 63% of women and was most common in early pregnancy. Children exposed to NVP performed worse on the VMI-5 (adjMD:−3.04; CI: −5.02, −1.06), but exhibited few other differences from unexposed children. Durations of NVP ≥4 months were associated with poorer scores on PPVT-III (adjMD: −2.52), VMI-5 (adjMD: −5.41), and CBCL (adjMD:3.38(Internalizing) and adjMD:4.19(Externalizing)). Conclusions Overall there were few differences between children exposed and unexposed to NVP. NVP was associated with slightly worse visual-motor performance, and prolonged NVP and NVP extending late into pregnancy were associated with poorer scores on several neurodevelopmental measures. PMID:25327160

  13. Rolapitant for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Navari, Rudolph M

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting is a significant clinical issue which affects patient's quality of life and treatment decisions. Significant improvements in the control of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting have occurred in the past 15 years with the introduction of new antiemetic agents 5-HT3, receptor antagonists, neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonists, and olanzapine. Aprepitant was the first NK-1 receptor antagonist introduced (2003) for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in combination with a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist and dexamethasone. A second NK-1 receptor antagonist netupitant was approved for use in October 2014. Phase III clinical trials of an additional NK-1 receptor antagonist rolapitant have been completed, and the data have been submitted for regulatory approval. A description of rolapitant and its role in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting will be presented, along with a comparison of the other neurolinin-1 receptor antagonists aprepitant and netupitant.

  14. Maternal susceptibility to nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: is the vestibular system involved?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, F. Owen

    2002-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy shares many characteristics with motion sickness, a vestibular dependent phenomenon. A number of physiologic changes that occur in normal pregnancy are also known to accompany nausea and vomiting in patients with motion sickness and certain vestibular disorders. This chapter summarizes some shared features of both phenomena. The unmasking of subclinical vestibular disorders may account for some cases of hyperemesis gravidarum. Hormonal effects on neurotransmitter function may also play a role in nausea and vomiting of pregnancy and in some vestibular disorders; however, the specific neural mechanisms of nausea and vomiting have not been identified. Until the neurochemical processes underlying these phenomena are understood, prevention and management will remain in the domain of astute, but so far limited, clinical observation.

  15. Aprepitant, Granisetron, & Dexamethasone in Preventing Nausea & Vomiting in Pts. Receiving Cyclophosphamide Before a Stem Cell Transplant

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-12

    Breast Cancer; Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms; Nausea and Vomiting; Neuroblastoma; Ovarian Cancer; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor

  16. Effect of Herbal Therapy to Intensity Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Cancer Patients.

    PubMed Central

    Montazeri, Akram Sadat; Raei, Mehdi; Ghanbari, Atefeh; Dadgari, Ali; Montazeri, Azam Sadat; Hamidzadeh, Azam

    2013-01-01

    Background: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting are the most important complications for cancer patients as its prevalence has been reported to be about 54-96 percent. ginger has been used for medicinal purposes including nausea and vomiting in traditional Persian, Chinese and Indian pharmacopoeia. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of complimentary ginger among cancer patients experiencing nausea and vomiting. Material and Methods: A randomized cross-over clinical trial was carried out on patients under chemotherapy treatment for at least 2 episodes of chemotherapy and at least 2 episodes of previous experience of nausea and vomiting. Subjects of this study received 2 different complementary regimes with 250mg ginger capsule in regime A and placebo capsule in regime B. subjects of the study were crossed over to receive the other regime during the two cycles of chemotherapy. Results: Findings of the study indicated that subjects receiving ginger showed significant reduction in frequency and intensity of nausea and vomiting compared to placebo receiving subjects. Conclusions: According to finding of this study, in accordance to most of other researches, ginger is an effective agent to reduce chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. However, there are some researches supporting ginger as a moderate antiemetic agent among cancerous patients under chemotherapy. PMID:24693415

  17. The effect of massage therapy on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in pediatric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mazlum, Seyedreza; Chaharsoughi, Narges Toghian; Banihashem, Abdolah; Vashani, Hamidreza Behnam

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nausea and vomiting are the most common and unpleasant side effects of chemotherapy, and they may prevent successful treatment completion. Antiemetics not only cannot control nausea and vomiting completely but also have numerous side effects. So it is necessary to find other methods for a better control. This study aimed to assess the effect of massage therapy on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in pediatric cancer. Materials and Methods: In this randomized controlled clinical trial study, 70 patients (4-18 years of age) under chemotherapy were divided into two (massage therapy and control) groups randomly. In the massage group at 0.5 h and 24 h before and 24 h after chemotherapy, the patients were massaged (Swedish massage) for 20 min, respectively. All indices of nausea and vomiting (incidence, severity, time, and length) were assessed by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and BARF scales and other questionnaires and documented. Results: The results of Mann–Whitney and chi-squire tests indicated that in the massage group, the incidence of nausea was 25.7%, the severity, length, and times of nausea were 20%, 54 min, and 0.35 times, respectively, and the severity and times of vomiting were 0.24 scores and 0.31 times lower than those of the control group (P < 0.05), respectively. But vomiting incidence in the two groups showed no significant difference (P = 0.192). Conclusions: Massage therapy reduced chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. So, nurses can use it and educate it to the patients’ families. Nurses, besides using it clinically, can provide instructions to families for involving them in the treatment process and they feel they are more efficate in care of their suffering children. PMID:24403922

  18. Refractory nausea and vomiting in the setting of well-controlled idiopathic intracranial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Dennis L; Rosenbaum, Rachel A; Diaz, Jonathan R

    2014-06-03

    Summary A 27-year-old woman with a history of recurrent nausea and vomiting in the setting of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) was admitted for control of unremitting nausea and vomiting. Initial antiemetic therapy included optimisation of IIH therapy by titrating acetazolamide, in addition to using ondansetron and metoclopramide as needed, with minimal relief. She was ultimately treated with palonosetron with complete resolution of her acute nausea. Nausea, often treated with 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, approved for perioperative and chemotherapy-induced nausea, are used off-label to treat nausea and vomiting outside of those settings. The efficacy of different regimens has been compared in the literature and continues to remain controversial. When choosing from different 5-HT3 antagonists there are other considerations, in addition to efficacy to consider: dosing schedule, half-life, time of onset, duration and cost-to-benefit ratio, and although one 5-HT3 antagonist may not have been effective, another one may be. In our case palonosetron, with a significantly longer half-life than other 5-HT3 antagonists, was effective in resolving nausea when compared with the more commonly used ondansetron.

  19. The Effectiveness of Ginger in the Prevention of Nausea and Vomiting during Pregnancy and Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lete, Iñaki; Allué, José

    2016-01-01

    The rhizomes of Zingiber officinale (ginger) have been used since ancient times as a traditional remedy for gastrointestinal complaints. The most active ingredients in ginger are the pungent principles, particularly gingerols and shogaols. Various preclinical and clinical studies have evaluated ginger as an effective and safe treatment for nausea and vomiting in the context of pregnancy and as an adjuvant treatment for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Here, we provide an update and analysis of ginger use for the prevention of nausea and vomiting, with a focus on the types and presentations of ginger available. We also examine the pharmacokinetic properties of ginger and highlight the type and posology of ginger and its metabolites. PMID:27053918

  20. The Effectiveness of Ginger in the Prevention of Nausea and Vomiting during Pregnancy and Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Lete, Iñaki; Allué, José

    2016-01-01

    The rhizomes of Zingiber officinale (ginger) have been used since ancient times as a traditional remedy for gastrointestinal complaints. The most active ingredients in ginger are the pungent principles, particularly gingerols and shogaols. Various preclinical and clinical studies have evaluated ginger as an effective and safe treatment for nausea and vomiting in the context of pregnancy and as an adjuvant treatment for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Here, we provide an update and analysis of ginger use for the prevention of nausea and vomiting, with a focus on the types and presentations of ginger available. We also examine the pharmacokinetic properties of ginger and highlight the type and posology of ginger and its metabolites. PMID:27053918

  1. Inverse association between severe nausea and vomiting in pregnancy and some congenital abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Czeizel, Andrew E; Puhó, Erzsébet; Acs, Nándor; Bánhidy, Ferenc

    2006-03-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the possible association between nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy and congenital abnormalities. The prevalence of medically-recorded severe nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy in cases with congenital abnormalities and their available matched population controls without any defect was compared in the population-based large data set of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance System of congenital abnormalities, 1980-1996. Of 22,843 cases with as 25 different congenital abnormality groups, 1,713 (7.5%) cases had mothers with medically recorded and treated severe nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. Of 38,151 matched population controls, 3,777 (9.9%) had mothers with severe nausea and vomiting (adjusted prevalence odds ratio (POR) with 95% CI: 0.74, 0.68-0.79). Five congenital abnormality groups: cleft lip with or without cleft palate (0.50, 0.37-0.70), posterior cleft palate (0.53, 0.32-0.89), renal a/dysgenesis (0.23, 0.06-0.96), obstructive defects of urinary tract (0.32, 0.18-0.58), and cardiovascular malformations (0.68, 0.57-0.81) had mothers with a lower prevalence of severe nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (adjusted PORs with 95% CI included in parentheses). Of 25 congenital abnormality groups, 22 had POR lower than 1. Thus in this study the mothers of cases with congenital abnormalities were 26% less likely to have had severe nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy than the mothers of population controls without congenital abnormalities.

  2. FACTORS RELATED TO ABDOMINAL PAIN IN GASTROPARESIS: CONTRAST TO PATIENTS WITH PREDOMINANT NAUSEA AND VOMITING

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Factors associated with abdominal pain in gastroparesis are incompletely evaluated and comparisons of pain versus other symptoms are limited. This study related pain to clinical factors in gastroparesis and contrasted pain/discomfort- with nausea/vomiting-predominant disease. Methods Clinical and scintigraphy data were compared in 393 patients from 7 centers of the NIDDK Gastroparesis Clinical Research Consortium with moderate-severe (Patient Assessment of Upper Gastrointestinal Disorders Symptoms [PAGI-SYM] score ≥3) vs. none-mild (PAGI-SYM <3) upper abdominal pain and predominant pain/discomfort vs. nausea/vomiting. Key Results Upper abdominal pain was moderate-severe in 261 (66%). Pain/discomfort was predominant in 81 (21%); nausea/vomiting was predominant in 172 (44%). Moderate-severe pain was more prevalent with idiopathic gastroparesis and with lack of infectious prodrome (P≤0.05) and correlated with scores for nausea/vomiting, bloating, lower abdominal pain/discomfort, bowel disturbances, and opiate and antiemetic use (P<0.05) but not gastric emptying or diabetic neuropathy or control. Gastroparesis severity, quality of life, and depression and anxiety were worse with moderate-severe pain (P≤0.008). Factors associated with moderate-severe pain were similar in diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis. Compared to predominant nausea/vomiting, predominant pain/discomfort was associated with impaired quality of life, greater opiate, and less antiemetic use (P<0.01), but similar severity and gastric retention. Conclusions & Inferences Moderate-severe abdominal pain is prevalent in gastroparesis, impairs quality of life, and is associated with idiopathic etiology, lack of infectious prodrome, and opiate use. Pain is predominant in one fifth of gastroparetics. Predominant pain has at least as great an impact on disease severity and quality of life as predominant nausea/vomiting. PMID:23414452

  3. Optimal management of severe nausea and vomiting in migraine: improving patient outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Láinez, Miguel JA; García-Casado, Ana; Gascón, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Migraine is a common and potentially disabling disorder for patients, with wide-reaching implications for health care services, society, and the economy. Nausea and vomiting during migraine attacks are common symptoms that affect at least 60% of patients suffering from migraines. These symptoms are often more disabling than the headache itself, causing a great burden on the patient’s life. Nausea and vomiting may delay the use of oral abortive medication or interfere with oral drug absorption. Therefore, they can hinder significantly the management and treatment of migraine (which is usually given orally). The main treatment of pain-associated symptoms of migraine (such as nausea and vomiting) is to stop the migraine attack itself as soon as possible, with the effective drugs at the effective doses, seeking if necessary alternative routes of administration. In some cases, intravenous antiemetic drugs are able to relieve a migraine attack and associated symptoms like nausea and vomiting. We performed an exhaustive PubMed search of the English literature to find studies about management of migraine and its associated symptoms. Search terms were migraine, nausea, and vomiting. We did not limit our search to a specific time period. We focused on clinical efficacy and tolerance of the various drugs and procedures based on data from human studies. We included the best available studies for each discussed drug or procedure. These ranged from randomized controlled trials for some treatments to small case series for others. Recently updated books and manuals on neurology and headache were also consulted. We herein review the efficacy of the different approaches in order to manage nausea and vomiting for migraine patents. PMID:24143125

  4. Patient-practitioner perception gap in treatment-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Vidall, Cheryl; Sharma, Sangeeta; Amlani, Bharat

    2016-09-01

    This UK cohort analysis of a European survey evaluated the differences between health professionals and cancer patients regarding the perceived incidence, impact and drug management of chemotherapy/radiotherapy-induced nausea/vomiting (CINV/RINV). The UK healthcare system is unique in that it has dedicated oncology clinical nurse specialists. The analysis found that more patients experienced nausea following their most recent treatment cycle than vomiting. Health professionals overestimated the incidence of CINV/RINV but underestimated its impact on patients' daily lives, particularly in cases of mild and moderate nausea/vomiting. The level of antiemetic cover initiated and degree of symptom control was often suboptimal. Patients under-reported symptoms, primarily because they considered nausea/vomiting an inevitable side effect of treatment. Altogether, 42% of patients reported full adherence to their antiemetic regimen. Leading factors for non-adherence included not having a 'preventive mindset', low symptom severity and a reluctance to increase pill burden. In conclusion, there is a perceptual gap between health professionals and patients around experiences of CINV/RINV. Advances in management depend on enhancing health professional-patient communication, and reporting and understanding nausea as a distinct issue. PMID:27615540

  5. Does oral buffered sodium supplementation reduce nausea and vomiting during an ultramarathon?

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Martin D; Stuempfle, Kristin J

    2016-01-01

    This work examines whether nausea or vomiting during an ultramarathon are due to a fluid or electrolyte imbalance, and if these symptoms can be reduced through the use of buffered sodium supplements. Starters (n = 376) of a 161.3-km ultramarathon underwent body weight measurements, 74.5% completed a post-race questionnaire, and 53.0% also underwent a post-race blood draw. The incidence of nausea or vomiting progressively increased during the race, and affected 60% of runners overall. Weight change and rate of sodium intake in supplements or in buffered sodium supplements did not differ between those with and without nausea or vomiting. Post-race serum sodium concentration also did not differ between those with and without symptoms in the last race segment. We conclude that weight change, the rate of sodium intake in supplements or in buffered sodium supplements, and serum sodium concentration are not related to symptoms of nausea or vomiting during a 161-km ultramarathon. PMID:26967492

  6. [Use of musical experiences as therapy for symptoms of nausea and vomiting in chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Silva, Gabriela Jorge; Fonseca, Mirlene dos Santos; Rodrigues, Andrea Bezerra; de Oliveira, Patrícia Peres; Brasil, Débora Rabelo Magalhães; Moreira, Maysa Mayran Chaves

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of musical experiments in nausea and vomiting associated with antineoplastic chemotherapy, and to identify changes in vital parameters of the patients who participated in the experience. This is a descriptive, transversal study, level II, which used a quantitative approach, conducted with thirteen patients from an outpatient chemotherapy unit, of a private hospital in São Paulo City. Two instruments were used, one of them proposed by MASCC (Multinational Association on Supportive Care in Cancer). The participants were predominantly females, aged 40 to 60 years, married and with breast cancer. Heart rate has decreased in 77% of the sample, and the reduction of nausea occurred in 100% of patients after the first musical experience, and in 85% after the second one. Patients reported disbelief in music in relieving nausea and vomiting before the sessions, and relief of nausea after them. It was concluded that there was a statistically significant reduction of the symptoms nausea and vomiting after the musical experiences. PMID:25271590

  7. Characteristics of Patients with Chronic Unexplained Nausea and Vomiting and Normal Gastric Emptying

    PubMed Central

    Pasricha, Pankaj J.; Colvin, Ryan; Yates, Katherine; Hasler, William L.; Abell, Thomas L.; Ünalp-Arida, Aynur; Nguyen, Linda; Farrugia, Gianrico; Koch, Kenneth L.; Parkman, Henry P.; Snape, William J.; Lee, Linda; Tonascia, James; Hamilton, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims Chronic nausea and vomiting with normal gastric emptying is a poorly understood syndrome; we analyzed its characteristics. Methods We collected and analyzed data from 425 patients with chronic nausea and vomiting, enrolled at 6 centers by the Gastroparesis Clinical Research Consortium in the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Gastroparesis Registry. Results Among the patients, 319 (75%) had delayed emptying, defined by the results of a standardized, low-fat meal, and 106 had normal gastric emptying. Patients with or without delayed emptying did not differ in age, sex, or race, although those with normal gastric emptying were less likely to be diabetic. Symptom severity indices were similar between groups for nausea, retching, vomiting, stomach fullness, inability to complete a meal, feeling excessively full after meals, loss of appetite, bloating, and visibly larger stomach. There were no differences in health care utilization, quality of life indices, depression, or trait anxiety scores. However, state anxiety scores were slightly higher among patients with delayed gastric emptying. Total gastroparesis cardinal symptom index scores were not correlated with gastric retention after 2 or 4 hours in either group. Patients with the syndrome were not adequately captured by the stand-alone criteria for the Rome III diagnoses of chronic idiopathic nausea and functional vomiting. With rare exceptions, the diagnosis remained stable after a 48-weeks follow-up period. Conclusions Patients with nausea and vomiting with normal gastric emptying represent a significant medical problem and are, for the most part, indistinguishable from those with gastroparesis. This syndrome is not categorized in the medical literature—it might be a separate clinical entity. PMID:21397732

  8. Phase II trial of encapsulated ginger as a treatment for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Zick, Suzanna M.; Ruffin, Mack T.; Lee, Julia; Normolle, Daniel P.; Siden, Rivka; Alrawi, Sara; Brenner, Dean E.

    2014-01-01

    Goals of work Ginger has been used to treat numerous types of nausea and vomiting. Ginger has also been studied for its efficacy for acute chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). However, its efficacy for delayed CINV in a diverse oncology population is unknown. Materials and methods We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 162 patients with cancer who were receiving chemotherapy and had experienced CINV during at least one previous round of chemotherapy. All participants were receiving a 5-HT3 receptor antagonists and/or aprepitant. Participants were randomized to receive either 1.0 g ginger, 2.0 g ginger daily, or matching placebo for 3 days. The primary outcome was change in the prevalence of delayed CINV. Secondary outcomes included acute prevalence of CINV, acute and delayed severity of CINV, and assessment of blinding. Main results There were no differences between groups in the prevalence of delayed nausea or vomiting, prevalence of acute CINV, or severity of delayed vomiting or acute nausea and vomiting. Participants who took both ginger and aprepitant had more severe acute nausea than participants who took only aprepitant. Participants were able to accurately guess which treatment they had received. Ginger appeared well tolerated, with no difference in all adverse events (AEs) and significantly less fatigue and miscellaneous AEs in the ginger group. Conclusions Ginger provides no additional benefit for reduction of the prevalence or severity of acute or delayed CINV when given with 5-HT3 receptor antagonists and/or aprepitant. PMID:19005687

  9. Dosimetric Predictors of Radiation-induced Acute Nausea and Vomiting in IMRT for Nasopharyngeal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Victor H.F.; Ng, Sherry C.Y.; Leung, T.W.; Au, Gordon K.H.; Kwong, Dora L.W.

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: We wanted to investigate dosimetric parameters that would predict radiation-induced acute nausea and vomiting in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for undifferentiated carcinoma of the nasopharynx (NPC). Methods and Materials: Forty-nine consecutive patients with newly diagnosed NPC were treated with IMRT alone in this prospective study. Patients receiving any form of chemotherapy were excluded. The dorsal vagal complex (DVC) as well as the left and right vestibules (VB-L and VB-R, respectively) were contoured on planning computed tomography images. A structure combining both the VB-L and the VB-R, named VB-T, was also generated. All structures were labeled organs at risk (OAR). A 3-mm three-dimensional margin was added to these structures and labeled DVC+3 mm, VB-L+3 mm, VB-R+3 mm, and VB-T+3 mm to account for physiological body motion and setup error. No weightings were given to these structures during optimization in treatment planning. Dosimetric parameters were recorded from dose-volume histograms. Statistical analysis of parameters' association with nausea and vomiting was performed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results: Six patients (12.2%) reported Grade 1 nausea, and 8 patients (16.3%) reported Grade 2 nausea. Also, 4 patients (8.2%) complained of Grade 1 vomiting, and 4 patients (8.2%) experienced Grade 2 vomiting. No patients developed protracted nausea and vomiting after completion of IMRT. For radiation-induced acute nausea, V40 (percentage volume receiving at least 40Gy) to the VB-T and V40>=80% to the VB-T were predictors, using univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, V40>=80% to the VB-T was the only predictor. There were no predictors of radiation-induced acute vomiting, as the number of events was too small for analysis. Conclusions: This is the first study demonstrating that a V40 to the VB-T is predictive of radiation-induced acute nausea. The vestibules should be labeled as sensitive OARs, and

  10. The Effect of Lemon Inhalation Aromatherapy on Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy: A Double-Blinded, Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Yavari kia, Parisa; Safajou, Farzaneh; Shahnazi, Mahnaz; Nazemiyeh, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy are amongst the most common complaints that effects on both the physical and mental conditions of the pregnant women. Due to the increasing tendency of women to use herbal medications during pregnancy, the effect of lemon inhalation aromatherapy on nausea and vomiting of pregnancy was investigated in this study. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of lemon inhalation aromatherapy on nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized clinical trial in which 100 pregnant women with nausea and vomiting who had eligibility criteria were randomly divided into intervention and control groups based on four- and six-random block sampling method. Lemon essential oil and placebo were given to the intervention and control groups, respectively, to inhale it as soon as they felt nausea. The nausea, vomiting, and retch intensity were investigated 24 hours before and during the four days of treatment by means of PUQE-24 (24-hour Pregnancy Unique Quantification of Emesis). Results: There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups in the mean scores of nausea and vomiting on the second and fourth days (P = 0.017 and P = 0.039, respectively). The means of nausea and vomiting intensity in the second and fourth days in the intervention group were significantly lower than the control group. In addition, in intragroup comparison with ANOVA with repeated measures, the nausea and vomiting mean in the five intervals, showed a statistically significant difference in each group (P < 0.001 and P = 0.049, respectively). Conclusions: Lemon scent can be effective in reducing nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. PMID:24829772

  11. Nausea and Vomiting following Balanced Xenon Anesthesia Compared to Sevoflurane: A Post-Hoc Explorative Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fahlenkamp, Astrid V.; Stoppe, Christian; Cremer, Jan; Biener, Ingeborg A.; Peters, Dirk; Leuchter, Ricarda; Eisert, Albrecht; Apfel, Christian C.; Rossaint, Rolf; Coburn, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Objective Like other inhalational anesthetics xenon seems to be associated with post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV). We assessed nausea incidence following balanced xenon anesthesia compared to sevoflurane, and dexamethasone for its prophylaxis in a randomized controlled trial with post-hoc explorative analysis. Methods 220 subjects with elevated PONV risk (Apfel score ≥2) undergoing elective abdominal surgery were randomized to receive xenon or sevoflurane anesthesia and dexamethasone or placebo after written informed consent. 93 subjects in the xenon group and 94 subjects in the sevoflurane group completed the trial. General anesthesia was maintained with 60% xenon or 2.0% sevoflurane. Dexamethasone 4mg or placebo was administered in the first hour. Subjects were analyzed for nausea and vomiting in predefined intervals during a 24h post-anesthesia follow-up. Results Logistic regression, controlled for dexamethasone and anesthesia/dexamethasone interaction, showed a significant risk to develop nausea following xenon anesthesia (OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.02–5.19, p = 0.044). Early-onset nausea incidence was 46% after xenon and 35% after sevoflurane anesthesia (p = 0.138). After xenon, nausea occurred significantly earlier (p = 0.014), was more frequent and rated worse in the beginning. Dexamethasone did not markedly reduce nausea occurrence in both groups. Late-onset nausea showed no considerable difference between the groups. Conclusion In our study setting, xenon anesthesia was associated with an elevated risk to develop nausea in sensitive subjects. Dexamethasone 4mg was not effective preventing nausea in our study. Group size or dosage might have been too small, and change of statistical analysis parameters in the post-hoc evaluation might have further contributed to a limitation of our results. Further trials will be needed to address prophylaxis of xenon-induced nausea. Trial Registration EU Clinical Trials EudraCT-2008-004132-20 ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  12. Prevention of nausea and vomiting: methods and utility after surgery in cancer patients?

    PubMed

    Firoozabadi, Mehdi Dehghani; Rahmani, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Most cancer patients experience nausea and vomiting after surgery. Today, many methods of treatment have been developed and used for the control of such symptoms. The most important are drug therapy, relaxation, oxygen therapy and gas therapy. In addition, dexamethasone, massage therapy and using a Venturi mask have also proven effective. Due to the nature of gas consumption which leads to nausea it is recommended that use of N2O in the operating room be avoided or applied in combination with oxygen or other gases with fewer complications. PMID:25854338

  13. Recent advances in pharmacotherapy of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Prasan R.

    2012-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting remain among the most feared side effects of chemotherapy for cancer patients. Significant progress has been made in the last 15 years in developing more effective and better-tolerated measures to minimize chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). During the 1990s, the selective 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonists were first introduced for the treatment of CINV, and resulted in more effective and better tolerated treatment of CINV. Despite recent progress, however, a significant number of patients still develop CINV, particularly during the 2-5-day period (delayed emesis) following chemotherapy. There is evidence that this may be an underappreciated problem on the part of some caregivers. Recently, two new antiemetics, aprepitant, the first member of the neurokinin-1 antagonists, and palonosetron, a second-generation 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonist, received regulatory approval in the U.S. Both represent useful additions to the therapeutic armamentarium for the management of CINV. PMID:23378940

  14. Nabilone therapy for cannabis withdrawal presenting as protracted nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Lam, Philip W; Frost, David W

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis is one of the most commonly used recreational drugs worldwide. Psychoactive properties of the principal compound, δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol include euphoria, a sense of relaxation and increased appetite. Chronic cannabis use has been associated with the development of a withdrawal syndrome on abrupt discontinuation. Withdrawal symptoms typically begin within 24 h of abstinence and manifest as irritability, nervousness, sleep disturbances and decreased appetite. There is growing evidence that supports the use of plant-derived and synthetic cannabinoids for the treatment of cannabis withdrawal. In this case report, we present 20-year-old woman who developed protracted nausea and vomiting secondary to cannabis withdrawal and was successfully treated with nabilone. Nausea and vomiting is not listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-5 diagnostic criteria for cannabis withdrawal syndrome and is an uncommon symptom presentation. PMID:25246463

  15. Nabilone therapy for cannabis withdrawal presenting as protracted nausea and vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Philip W; Frost, David W

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis is one of the most commonly used recreational drugs worldwide. Psychoactive properties of the principal compound, δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol include euphoria, a sense of relaxation and increased appetite. Chronic cannabis use has been associated with the development of a withdrawal syndrome on abrupt discontinuation. Withdrawal symptoms typically begin within 24 h of abstinence and manifest as irritability, nervousness, sleep disturbances and decreased appetite. There is growing evidence that supports the use of plant-derived and synthetic cannabinoids for the treatment of cannabis withdrawal. In this case report, we present 20-year-old woman who developed protracted nausea and vomiting secondary to cannabis withdrawal and was successfully treated with nabilone. Nausea and vomiting is not listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-5 diagnostic criteria for cannabis withdrawal syndrome and is an uncommon symptom presentation. PMID:25246463

  16. Nabilone therapy for cannabis withdrawal presenting as protracted nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Lam, Philip W; Frost, David W

    2014-09-22

    Cannabis is one of the most commonly used recreational drugs worldwide. Psychoactive properties of the principal compound, δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol include euphoria, a sense of relaxation and increased appetite. Chronic cannabis use has been associated with the development of a withdrawal syndrome on abrupt discontinuation. Withdrawal symptoms typically begin within 24 h of abstinence and manifest as irritability, nervousness, sleep disturbances and decreased appetite. There is growing evidence that supports the use of plant-derived and synthetic cannabinoids for the treatment of cannabis withdrawal. In this case report, we present 20-year-old woman who developed protracted nausea and vomiting secondary to cannabis withdrawal and was successfully treated with nabilone. Nausea and vomiting is not listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-5 diagnostic criteria for cannabis withdrawal syndrome and is an uncommon symptom presentation.

  17. Taurine attenuates chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Islambulchilar, Mina; Asvadi, Iraj; Sanaat, Zohreh; Esfahani, Ali; Sattari, Mohammadreza

    2015-01-01

    Taurine has multiple physiological activities and it is decreased by chemotherapy. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of oral taurine supplementation on the incidence of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Forty young patients aged over 16 (range: 16-23 years) suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (all receiving same chemotherapy regimen) were recruited for the study at the beginning of maintenance course of their chemotherapy. The study population was randomized in a double-blind manner to receive either taurine or placebo (2 g per day orally, divided into two doses, taken 6 h after chemotherapeutic agents) for 6 months. Life quality and adverse effects including nausea and vomiting, taste and smell alterations, and weariness were assessed using a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson's Chi-square test. Of 40 participants, 32 finished the study (14 female and 18 male; mean age 19.2 ± 1.9 years). Four treatment and four placebo arm patients discontinued: one immigrated from the province, one died during the study, and six refused to continue. The results indicated that taurine-supplemented patients reported a significant (P < 0.05) improvement in chemotherapy-induced nausea and/or vomiting after taking taurine during study. Taurine significantly improved chemotherapy-induced taste and smell alterations (P < 0.05). Moreover, taurine significantly reduced weariness compared to placebo group (P < 0.05). This study showed that taurine co-administration decreased chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting during the maintenance therapy in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. PMID:25323734

  18. International Patterns of Practice in the Management of Radiation Therapy-induced Nausea and Vomiting

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, Kristopher; Zhang Liying; Lutz, Stephen; Baardwijk, Angela van; Linden, Yvette van der; Holt, Tanya; Arnalot, Palmira Foro; Lagrange, Jean-Leon; Maranzano, Ernesto; Liu, Rico; Wong, Kam-Hung; Wong, Lea-Choung; Vassiliou, Vassilios; Corn, Benjamin W.; De Angelis, Carlo; Holden, Lori; Wong, C. Shun; Chow, Edward

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To investigate international patterns of practice in the management of radiation therapy-induced nausea and vomiting (RINV). Methods and Materials: Oncologists prescribing radiation therapy in the United States, Canada, The Netherlands, Australia, New Zealand, Spain, Italy, France, Hong Kong, Singapore, Cyprus, and Israel completed a Web-based survey that was based on 6 radiation therapy-only clinical cases modeled after the minimal-, low-, moderate-, and high-emetic risk levels defined in the antiemetic guidelines of the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer. For each case, respondents estimated the risks of nausea and vomiting separately and committed to an initial management approach. Results: In total, 1022 responses were received. Risk estimates and management decisions for the minimal- and high-risk cases varied little and were in line with guideline standards, whereas those for the low- and moderate-risk cases varied greatly. The most common initial management strategies were as follows: rescue therapy for a minimal-risk case (63% of respondents), 2 low-risk cases (56% and 80%), and 1 moderate-risk case (66%); and prophylactic therapy for a second moderate-risk case (75%) and a high-risk case (95%). The serotonin (5-HT){sub 3} receptor antagonists were the most commonly recommended prophylactic agents. On multivariate analysis, factors predictive of a decision for prophylactic or rescue therapy were risk estimates of nausea and vomiting, awareness of the American Society of Clinical Oncology antiemetic guideline, and European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology membership. Conclusions: Risk estimates and management strategies for RINV varied, especially for low- and moderate-risk radiation therapy cases. Radiation therapy-induced nausea and vomiting are under-studied treatment sequelae. New observational and translational studies are needed to allow for individual patient risk

  19. Significantly Elevated Serum Lipase in Pregnancy with Nausea and Vomiting: Acute Pancreatitis or Hyperemesis Gravidarum?

    PubMed Central

    Hooshvar, Nina; Tice, Daphne; Kao, Elaine; Nawabi, Suhalia; Jones, Steven; Zhang, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Hyperemesis gravidarum is a severe manifestation of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy and it is associated with weight loss and metabolic abnormalities. It is known that abnormal laboratory values, including mildly elevated serum lipase level, could be associated with hyperemesis gravidarum. However, in this case report details of two women with hyperemesis gravidarum but with significantly elevated serum lipase levels were discussed. These patients presented with severe nausea and vomiting but without abdominal pain. They were found to have severely elevated lipase levels over 1,000 units/liter. In the absence of other findings of pancreatitis, they were treated with conservative measures for hyperemesis gravidarum, with eventual resolution to normal lipase levels. Although significantly elevated lipase level in pregnant patients with nausea and vomiting is a concern for acute pancreatitis, these two cases of significantly elevated serum lipase without other clinical findings of pancreatitis led to this report that serum lipase could be quite elevated in hyperemesis gravidarum and that it might not be an accurate biochemical marker for acute pancreatitis. Imaging studies are thus necessary to establish the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. PMID:25709846

  20. Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: a review of the pathology and compounding opportunities.

    PubMed

    Zur, Eyal

    2013-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy can have serious adverse effects on the quality of a woman's life, affecting her occupational, social, and domestic functioning, and her general well-being; therefore, it is very important to treat this condition appropriately and effectively. Evidence-based algorithms support the use of oral pyridoxine alone or combined with doxylamine as first-line treatment. Promethazine or dimenhydrinate, known as a second-line treatment, should be added to the first-line treatment or should be added only to pyridoxine according to different algorithms. In most of the world, there is a lack of approved medicines using this combination approach known as the first-line treatment. Therefore, compounding pharmacists should supply the demand by compounding 10-mg pyridoxine hydrochloride and 10-mg doxylamine succinate slow-release capsules. Since transdermal promethazine does not exist world wide, and, since this medicine has significant added values compared to the oral/rectal dosage forms, compounding pharmacists should offer physicians transdermal promethazine as a second-line therapy in nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. This review summarizes the nausea and vomiting in pregnancy problems and discusses the compounding opportunities that exist in this common and wide-spread pathology in order to improve a woman's quality of life.

  1. Ondansetron in Treating Patients With Advanced Cancer and Chronic Nausea and Vomiting Not Caused by Cancer Treatment

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-01

    Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Nausea and Vomiting; Precancerous Condition; Small Intestine Cancer; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  2. Palonosetron Hydrochloride in Preventing Nausea and Vomiting Caused by Radiation Therapy in Patients With Primary Abdominal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-11

    Anal Cancer; Carcinoma of the Appendix; Colorectal Cancer; Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Liver Cancer; Nausea and Vomiting; Pancreatic Cancer; Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer

  3. Opportunities for the replacement of animals in the study of nausea and vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, AM; Rudd, JA; Tattersall, FD; Aziz, Q; Andrews, PLR

    2009-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting are among the most common symptoms encountered in medicine as either symptoms of disease or side effects of treatments. Developing novel anti-emetics and identifying emetic liability in novel chemical entities rely on models that can recreate the complexity of these multi-system reflexes. Animal models (especially the ferret and dog) are the current gold standard; however, the selection of appropriate models is still a matter of debate, especially when studying the subjective human sensation of nausea. Furthermore, these studies are associated with animal suffering. Here, following a recent workshop held to review the utility of animal models in nausea and vomiting research, we discuss the limitations of some of the current models in the context of basic research, anti-emetic development and emetic liability detection. We provide suggestions for how these limitations may be overcome using non-animal alternatives, including greater use of human volunteers, in silico and in vitro techniques and lower organisms. PMID:19371333

  4. Treatment of Nausea and Vomiting in Pregnancy: Factors Associated with ED Revisits

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Brian R.; Sharp, Kristen M.; Patterson, Brian; Dooley-Hash, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) is a condition that commonly affects women in the first trimester of pregnancy. Despite frequently leading to emergency department (ED) visits, little evidence exists to characterize the nature of ED visits or to guide its treatment in the ED. Our objectives were to evaluate the treatment of NVP in the ED and to identify factors that predict return visits to the ED for NVP. Methods We conducted a retrospective database analysis using the electronic medical record from a single, large academic hospital. Demographic and treatment variables were collected using a chart review of 113 ED patient visits with a billing diagnosis of “nausea and vomiting in pregnancy” or “hyperemesis gravidarum.” Logistic regression analysis was used with a primary outcome of return visit to the ED for the same diagnoses. Results There was wide treatment variability of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy patients in the ED. Of the 113 patient visits, 38 (33.6%) had a return ED visit for NVP. High gravidity (OR 1.31, 95% CI [1.06–1.61]), high parity (OR 1.50 95% CI [1.12–2.00]), and early gestational age (OR 0.74 95% CI [0.60–0.90]) were associated with an increase in return ED visits in univariate logistic regression models, while only early gestational age (OR 0.74 95% CI [0.59–0.91]) was associated with increased return ED visits in a multiple regression model. Admission to the hospital was found to decrease the likelihood of return ED visits (p=0.002). Conclusion NVP can be difficult to manage and has a high ED return visit rate. Optimizing care with aggressive, standardized treatment in the ED and upon discharge, particularly if factors predictive of return ED visits are present, may improve quality of care and reduce ED utilization for this condition. PMID:27625723

  5. Treatment of Nausea and Vomiting in Pregnancy: Factors Associated with ED Revisits

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Brian R.; Sharp, Kristen M.; Patterson, Brian; Dooley-Hash, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) is a condition that commonly affects women in the first trimester of pregnancy. Despite frequently leading to emergency department (ED) visits, little evidence exists to characterize the nature of ED visits or to guide its treatment in the ED. Our objectives were to evaluate the treatment of NVP in the ED and to identify factors that predict return visits to the ED for NVP. Methods We conducted a retrospective database analysis using the electronic medical record from a single, large academic hospital. Demographic and treatment variables were collected using a chart review of 113 ED patient visits with a billing diagnosis of “nausea and vomiting in pregnancy” or “hyperemesis gravidarum.” Logistic regression analysis was used with a primary outcome of return visit to the ED for the same diagnoses. Results There was wide treatment variability of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy patients in the ED. Of the 113 patient visits, 38 (33.6%) had a return ED visit for NVP. High gravidity (OR 1.31, 95% CI [1.06–1.61]), high parity (OR 1.50 95% CI [1.12–2.00]), and early gestational age (OR 0.74 95% CI [0.60–0.90]) were associated with an increase in return ED visits in univariate logistic regression models, while only early gestational age (OR 0.74 95% CI [0.59–0.91]) was associated with increased return ED visits in a multiple regression model. Admission to the hospital was found to decrease the likelihood of return ED visits (p=0.002). Conclusion NVP can be difficult to manage and has a high ED return visit rate. Optimizing care with aggressive, standardized treatment in the ED and upon discharge, particularly if factors predictive of return ED visits are present, may improve quality of care and reduce ED utilization for this condition.

  6. Should doxylamine-pyridoxine be used for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy?

    PubMed

    Persaud, Navindra; Chin, Jessica; Walker, Mark

    2014-04-01

    Doxylamine-pyridoxine is the first-line agent for the treatment of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) according to Canadian guidelines, and this combination is commonly prescribed to pregnant women. There is limited evidence that doxylamine-pyridoxine is more effective than pyridoxine alone. There is stronger support for the safety of pyridoxine monotherapy than for the combination of doxylamine-pyridoxine during pregnancy, and some conflicting evidence links doxylamine-pyridoxine use to pyloric stenosis and childhood malignancies. The role of doxylamine-pyridoxine as the first-line pharmacological treatment for NVP in Canada should be reconsidered.

  7. Gastrointestinal Diseases in Pregnancy: Nausea, Vomiting, Hyperemesis Gravidarum, Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease, Constipation, and Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Body, Cameron; Christie, Jennifer A

    2016-06-01

    Many disorders of the gastrointestinal tract are common in pregnancy. Elevated levels of progesterone may lead to alterations in gastrointestinal motility which could contribute to nausea, vomiting, and/or GERD. Pregnancy-induced diarrhea may be due to elevated levels prostaglandins. This article reviews the normal physiologic and structural changes associated with pregnancy that could contribute to many of the common gastrointestinal complaints in pregnant patients. Additionally, the appropriate clinical and laboratory evaluations, other pathologic conditions that should be included in the differential, as well as the nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic therapies for each of these conditions is discussed. PMID:27261898

  8. Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Invading the Duodenum and Presenting as Idiopathic Gastroparesis with Nausea and Vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Cengia, Brent T.; Stuart, Paula S.

    2016-01-01

    A 65-year-old woman presented with a 5-month history of nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. Prior esophagogastrodudenoscopy showed retained food and delayed gastric emptying, but abdominal computed tomography was normal. The working diagnosis was idiopathic gastroparesis. Subsequently, an electrogastrogram test showed normal 3-cycle-per-minute activity, although it was suggestive of obstructive gastroparesis. Repeat esophagogastrodudenoscopy showed obstruction at the postbulbar duodenum. Repeat abdominal computed tomography revealed a 2.2 x 1.6-cm mass in the pancreaticoduodenal groove narrowing the descending duodenum and aspiration of the mass revealed adenocarcinoma. PMID:27807571

  9. Overshadowing as prevention of anticipatory nausea and vomiting in pediatric cancer patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Emesis and nausea are side effects induced by chemotherapy. These effects lead to enormous stress and strain on cancer patients. Further consequences may include restrictions in quality of life, cachexia or therapy avoidance. Evidence suggests that cancer patients develop the side effects of nausea and vomiting in anticipation of chemotherapy. Contextual cues such as smell, sounds or even the sight of the clinic may evoke anticipatory nausea and vomiting prior to infusion. Anticipatory nausea and vomiting are problems that cannot be solved by administration of antiemetica alone. The purpose of the proposed randomized placebo-controlled trial is to use an overshadowing technique to prevent anticipatory nausea and vomiting and to decrease the intensity and duration of post-treatment nausea and vomiting. Furthermore, the effect on anxiety, adherence and quality of life will be evaluated. Methods/Design Fifty-two pediatric cancer patients will be evenly assigned to two groups: an experimental group and a control group. The participants, hospital staff and data analysts will be kept blinded towards group allocation. The experimental group will receive during three chemotherapy cycles a salient piece of candy prior to every infusion, whereas the control group will receive flavorless placebo tablets. Discussion If an effectiveness of the overshadowing technique is proven, implementation of this treatment into the hospitals’ daily routine will follow. The use of this efficient and economic procedure should aid a reduced need for antiemetics. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN30242271/ PMID:23782493

  10. Antiemetic Therapy With or Without Olanzapine in Preventing Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Patients With Cancer Receiving Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This randomized phase III trial studies antiemetic therapy with olanzapine to see how well they work compared to antiemetic therapy alone in preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with cancer receiving highly emetogenic (causes vomiting) chemotherapy. Antiemetic drugs, such as palonosetron hydrochloride, ondansetron, and granisetron hydrochloride, may help lessen or prevent nausea and vomiting in patients treated with chemotherapy. |

  11. Hypnosis and Therapy for a Case of Vomiting, Nausea, and Pain.

    PubMed

    Lankton, Stephen R

    2015-07-01

    In this case study the author illustrates the treatment of idiopathic gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms that practitioners sometimes encounter and for which none of the usual medical explanations apply. In this case, the symptoms have deeply personal and intricate causes that are explicated for the reader. A 20-year old female was vomiting six to eight times a day, accompanied with pain and nausea, for 2 years. She had medical intervention for almost that same duration. She had numerous uneventful medical tests, her gall bladder removed, and had exhausted hope for a medical cure. Working with a resource-building approach in therapy her vomiting was stopped within 6 weeks and her nausea in the following 7th week (or 13th session). Hypnosis was used during each session along with a protocol referred to as Self-Image Thinking (Lankton & Lankton, 1983/2008, 1986/2007; Lankton, 2008) to rehearse novel experiences and behaviors that she would implement in her social environment each week. She provided yearly follow-up phone contacts for 3 years and the latest contact was 1 month before this article was written. She remains symptom-free.

  12. Fosaprepitant Dimeglumine: A Review in the Prevention of Nausea and Vomiting Associated with Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Garnock-Jones, Karly P

    2016-09-01

    Intravenous fosaprepitant dimeglumine (Emend(®) for injection, IVEmend(®); henceforth referred to as fosaprepitant) is a prodrug of and is rapidly converted to the antiemetic aprepitant, and is approved in several countries worldwide (as part of an antiemetic regimen) for the prevention of nausea and vomiting associated with highly and moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC and MEC). This narrative review discusses the pharmacological properties of intravenous fosaprepitant and its clinical efficacy and tolerability in the prevention of nausea and vomiting associated with HEC and MEC. In large, randomized phase III clinical trials, a single intravenous dose of fosaprepitant 150 mg was an effective and generally well tolerated addition to an antiemetic regimen that included dexamethasone and a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist in adult cancer patients undergoing treatment with HEC or MEC. It was also noninferior to an oral aprepitant-based regimen in adult cancer patients undergoing HEC treatment. The tolerability profile of a fosaprepitant-based regimen was typical of that in patients receiving emetogenic chemotherapy, and adverse events were generally consistent with those observed with an aprepitant-based regimen. Fosaprepitant provides a useful addition to antiemetic therapy regimens. PMID:27510503

  13. Determinants of women's decision making on whether to treat nausea and vomiting of pregnancy pharmacologically.

    PubMed

    Baggley, Anne; Navioz, Yvette; Maltepe, Caroline; Koren, Gideon; Einarson, Adrienne

    2004-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) affects up to 80% of all women to some degree during their pregnancies. Diclectin (doxylamine and pyridoxine [vitamin B6]) has been on the Canadian market for many years and is indicated as the drug of choice for the treatment of NVP. However, some women choose not to treat NVP with pharmacologic measures, perhaps due to a persistent fear of teratogenic risk. The objective of this study was to determine the factors that influence a woman's decision not to treat NVP with pharmacologic measures. Fifty-nine women recruited from the Motherisk Nausea and Vomiting Helpline completed a questionnaire. All were informed that Diclectin was considered safe for use during pregnancy. At a follow-up telephone call, 34% were not using any pharmacologic treatment, and of those who were taking the drug, 26% were using less than the recommended dose. Reasons cited for not using the medication were insufficient safety data, preference for non-pharmacologic methods, and being made to feel uncomfortable by the physician. Of the women who did use Diclectin, the most convincing reassuring information that it was safe to use came from friends and family. Many other factors play a large role in a women's decision making.

  14. Tongue piercing and chronic abdominal pain with nausea and vomiting--two cases.

    PubMed

    Chung, Myung Kyu; Chung, Danielle; LaRiccia, Patrick J

    2015-01-01

    Chronic upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms of unclear etiology are frustrating to patients and physicians alike. The integrative medicine procedures of acupuncture and neural therapy may provide treatment options. Tongue piercing, which is prevalent in 5.6% of the adolescent population, may be a contributing factor in upper gastrointestinal symptoms. The objectives of the study were as follows: (1) To demonstrate the usefulness of an integrative medicine treatment approach in two cases of patients with chronic abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting of unclear etiology who had failed standard medical management. (2) To identify scars from tongue piercings as a possible contributing factor in chronic upper GI symptoms of unclear etiology. Two retrospective case studies are presented of young adult females who were seen in a private multi-physician integrative medicine practice in the US. The patients were treated with neural therapy and acupuncture. The desired outcome was the cessation or reduction of the frequency of abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Both patients had resolution of their symptoms. From this study, we have concluded the following: (1) Tongue scars from tongue rings may be causes of chronic upper gastrointestinal symptoms. (2) Neural therapy and acupuncture may be helpful in the treatment of chronic upper GI symptoms related to tongue scars.

  15. Hypnosis and Therapy for a Case of Vomiting, Nausea, and Pain.

    PubMed

    Lankton, Stephen R

    2015-07-01

    In this case study the author illustrates the treatment of idiopathic gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms that practitioners sometimes encounter and for which none of the usual medical explanations apply. In this case, the symptoms have deeply personal and intricate causes that are explicated for the reader. A 20-year old female was vomiting six to eight times a day, accompanied with pain and nausea, for 2 years. She had medical intervention for almost that same duration. She had numerous uneventful medical tests, her gall bladder removed, and had exhausted hope for a medical cure. Working with a resource-building approach in therapy her vomiting was stopped within 6 weeks and her nausea in the following 7th week (or 13th session). Hypnosis was used during each session along with a protocol referred to as Self-Image Thinking (Lankton & Lankton, 1983/2008, 1986/2007; Lankton, 2008) to rehearse novel experiences and behaviors that she would implement in her social environment each week. She provided yearly follow-up phone contacts for 3 years and the latest contact was 1 month before this article was written. She remains symptom-free. PMID:26046717

  16. Management of Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Patients on Multiday Cisplatin Based Combination Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ranganath, Praveen; Einhorn, Lawrence; Albany, Costantine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction of cisplatin based chemotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of germ cell tumors. A common side effect of multiday cisplatin chemotherapy is severe nausea and vomiting. Considerable progress has been made in the control of these side effects since the introduction of cisplatin based chemotherapy in the 1970s. Germ cell tumor which is a model for a curable neoplasm has also turned into an excellent testing ground to develop effective strategies to prevent chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in multiday cisplatin based regimens. The use of combination of a 5-hydroxytryptamine (HT)3 receptor antagonist, a neurokinin-1 (NK1) antagonist, and dexamethasone has greatly improved our ability to prevent and control acute and delayed CINV. Mechanism and pattern of CINV with multiday chemotherapy may differ from those in single day chemotherapy and therefore efficacy of antiemetic drugs as observed in single day chemotherapy may not be applicable. There are only few randomized clinical trials with special emphasis on multiday chemotherapy. Further studies are essential to determine the efficacy, optimal dose, and duration of the newer agents and combinations in multiday cisplatin based chemotherapy. PMID:26425563

  17. Prevention of Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Undergoing Oral Anticancer Therapies for Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Ana Lúcia; Abreu, Catarina; Pacheco, Teresa Raquel; Macedo, Daniela; Sousa, Ana Rita; Pulido, Catarina; Quintela, António; Costa, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is still a common and debilitating side effect despite recent advances in its prevention and treatment. The intrinsic emetogenicity of chemotherapy agents allowed grouping into four risk groups (high, moderate, low, and minimal risk of emetogenicity). The prevention of acute and delayed CINV for intravenous agents and one day regimens is well studied, although, there are few data about management of CINV induced by oral cytotoxic agents and targeted therapies, usually administered in extended regimens of daily oral use. Until now treatment of nausea and vomiting caused by oral antineoplastic agents remains largely empirical. The level of evidence of prophylactic antiemetics recommended for these agents is low. There are differences in the classification of emetogenic potential of oral antineoplastic agents between the international guidelines and different recommendations for prophylactic antiemetic regimens. Herein we review the evidence for antiemetic regimens for the most used oral antineoplastic agents for solid tumors and propose antiemetic regimens for high to moderate risk and low to minimal risk of emetogenicity. PMID:26421283

  18. Management of Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Patients on Multiday Cisplatin Based Combination Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ranganath, Praveen; Einhorn, Lawrence; Albany, Costantine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction of cisplatin based chemotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of germ cell tumors. A common side effect of multiday cisplatin chemotherapy is severe nausea and vomiting. Considerable progress has been made in the control of these side effects since the introduction of cisplatin based chemotherapy in the 1970s. Germ cell tumor which is a model for a curable neoplasm has also turned into an excellent testing ground to develop effective strategies to prevent chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in multiday cisplatin based regimens. The use of combination of a 5-hydroxytryptamine (HT)3 receptor antagonist, a neurokinin-1 (NK1) antagonist, and dexamethasone has greatly improved our ability to prevent and control acute and delayed CINV. Mechanism and pattern of CINV with multiday chemotherapy may differ from those in single day chemotherapy and therefore efficacy of antiemetic drugs as observed in single day chemotherapy may not be applicable. There are only few randomized clinical trials with special emphasis on multiday chemotherapy. Further studies are essential to determine the efficacy, optimal dose, and duration of the newer agents and combinations in multiday cisplatin based chemotherapy. PMID:26425563

  19. Prophylaxis versus treatment: Is there a better way to manage radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting?

    SciTech Connect

    Horiot, Jean-Claude . E-mail: horiotjc@dijon.fnclcc.fr

    2004-11-15

    Nausea and vomiting are two of the most distressing side effects of radiotherapy and cytotoxic drugs, which currently are often combined to treat moderately advanced and advanced solid tumors. Inadequate control of these symptoms may result in significant patient suffering and decrease in the patient's quality of life, which has been shown to decrease patients' compliance to treatment, with potential impact on disease outcome. It is, therefore, important that radiation oncologists recognize the need for adequate prophylactic treatment of radiation-induced nausea and vomiting (RINV) to avoid the detrimental effects on patients' quality of life, and optimize chances for cure. The 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT{sub 3})-receptor antagonists have been proved to provide effective antiemetic therapy in patients undergoing highly emetogenic radiotherapy. Nevertheless, several large surveys have shown that optimal treatments are not always used. Hence, a risk exists that waiting for RINV symptoms rather than prescribing prophylactic antiemetic treatment may lead to increased patient suffering, poorer disease control, and less cost-effective therapy options. Prophylactic management with an effective 5-HT{sub 3}-receptor antagonist should offer a better treatment option for patients at high to moderate risk of RINV. Adequate control of RINV should contribute to patient compliance to treatment, improved therapy outcomes, and decreased burdens on nursing and health care resources.

  20. Predicting postoperative vomiting among orthopedic patients receiving patient-controlled epidural analgesia using SVM and LR.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsin-Yun; Gong, Cihun-Siyong Alex; Lin, Shih-Pin; Chang, Kuang-Yi; Tsou, Mei-Yung; Ting, Chien-Kun

    2016-01-01

    Patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) has been applied to reduce postoperative pain in orthopedic surgical patients. Unfortunately, PCEA is occasionally accompanied by nausea and vomiting. The logistic regression (LR) model is widely used to predict vomiting, and recently support vector machines (SVM), a supervised machine learning method, has been used for classification and prediction. Unlike our previous work which compared Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) with LR, this study uses a SVM-based predictive model to identify patients with high risk of vomiting during PCEA and comparing results with those derived from the LR-based model. From January to March 2007, data from 195 patients undergoing PCEA following orthopedic surgery were applied to develop two predictive models. 75% of the data were randomly selected for training, while the remainder was used for testing to validate predictive performance. The area under curve (AUC) was measured using the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (ROC). The area under ROC curves of LR and SVM models were 0.734 and 0.929, respectively. A computer-based predictive model can be used to identify those who are at high risk for vomiting after PCEA, allowing for patient-specific therapeutic intervention or the use of alternative analgesic methods. PMID:27247165

  1. Predicting postoperative vomiting among orthopedic patients receiving patient-controlled epidural analgesia using SVM and LR

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hsin-Yun; Gong, Cihun-Siyong Alex; Lin, Shih-Pin; Chang, Kuang-Yi; Tsou, Mei-Yung; Ting, Chien-Kun

    2016-01-01

    Patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) has been applied to reduce postoperative pain in orthopedic surgical patients. Unfortunately, PCEA is occasionally accompanied by nausea and vomiting. The logistic regression (LR) model is widely used to predict vomiting, and recently support vector machines (SVM), a supervised machine learning method, has been used for classification and prediction. Unlike our previous work which compared Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) with LR, this study uses a SVM-based predictive model to identify patients with high risk of vomiting during PCEA and comparing results with those derived from the LR-based model. From January to March 2007, data from 195 patients undergoing PCEA following orthopedic surgery were applied to develop two predictive models. 75% of the data were randomly selected for training, while the remainder was used for testing to validate predictive performance. The area under curve (AUC) was measured using the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (ROC). The area under ROC curves of LR and SVM models were 0.734 and 0.929, respectively. A computer-based predictive model can be used to identify those who are at high risk for vomiting after PCEA, allowing for patient-specific therapeutic intervention or the use of alternative analgesic methods. PMID:27247165

  2. 5-HT3 receptors as important mediators of nausea and vomiting due to chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Navari, Rudolph M

    2015-10-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is associated with a significant deterioration in quality of life. The emetogenicity of the chemotherapeutic agents, repeated chemotherapy cycles, and patient risk factors significantly influence CINV. The use of a combination of a 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonist, dexamethasone, and a neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonist has significantly improved the control of acute and delayed emesis in single-day chemotherapy. The first generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have been very effective in the control of chemotherapy induced emesis in the first 24 h postchemotherapy (acute emesis), but have not been as effective against delayed emesis (24-120 h postchemotherapy). Palonosetron, a second generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonist with a different half-life, a different binding capacity, and a different mechanism of action than the first generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonists appears to be the most effective agent in its class. Despite the control of emesis, nausea has not been well controlled by current agents. Olanzapine, a FDA approved antipsychotic that blocks multiple neurotransmitters: dopamine at D1, D2, D3, D4 brain receptors, serotonin at 5-HT2a, 5-HT2c, 5-HT3, 5-HT6 receptors, catecholamines at alpha1 adrenergic receptors, acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors, and histamine at H1 receptors, has emerged in recent trials as an effective preventative agent for chemotherapy-induced emesis and nausea, as well as a very effective agent for the treatment of breakthrough emesis and nausea. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane channels and transporters in cancers.

  3. Non-analgesic effects of opioids: opioid-induced nausea and vomiting: mechanisms and strategies for their limitation.

    PubMed

    Coluzzi, Flaminia; Rocco, Alessandra; Mandatori, Ilenia; Mattia, Consalvo

    2012-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting are common gastrointestinal symptoms following opioid administration, for either chronic or acute pain management. As a consequence, patients' dissatisfaction has a negative impact on treatment efficacy. A number of mechanisms have been identified, involving both central and peripheral sites. This article will review the pathophysiology of opioid-induced nausea and vomiting and the various pharmacological treatments currently available for its management. Preventive strategies and therapeutic approaches are evaluated in the perioperative setting and in chronic pain. Newer drugs include second generation serotonin receptor antagonists (palonosetron) and neurokinin-1 (NK-1) antagonists (aprepitant).

  4. A randomized, double-blind comparison of ondansetron versus placebo for prevention of nausea and vomiting after infratentorial craniotomy.

    PubMed

    Fabling, Jennifer M; Gan, Tong J; El-Moalem, Habib E; Warner, David S; Borel, Cecil O

    2002-04-01

    Ondansetron was compared with placebo for nausea and vomiting prophylaxis after fentanyl/isoflurane/relaxant anesthesia and infratentorial craniotomy. Eight milligrams intravenous ondansetron or vehicle was administered at skin closure. Nausea, emesis, and antiemetic use were recorded at 0, 0.5, 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 hours. There were no significant intergroup differences for nausea incidence at any interval, but cumulatively the placebo group was 3.2 times more likely to develop nausea during the first 12 hours (P = .04). Nausea incidence was bimodal in both groups, peaking during the first 1 to 4 hours. A nadir occurred at 8 to 12 hours, but nausea increased during the next 36 hours. By 48 hours, approximately 40% of patients in both groups were still nauseated. Reduced vomiting frequency was seen with ondansetron at 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours (P < .05). Despite rescue antiemetics, emesis occurred in an irregular pattern with episodes still observed in 35% of placebo patients at 48 hours. For ondansetron, emesis was infrequent for the first 12 hours but then a persistent increase was observed (48 hours, 22%). The incidence of rescue antiemetic use was 65% for both groups. There was no effect of gender. Nausea and vomiting are frequent and protracted after infratentorial craniotomy. Administration of single-dose ondansetron (8 mg intravenously) at wound closure was partially effective in reducing acute nausea and vomiting but had little delayed benefit. Scheduled prophylactic administration of antiemetic therapy during the first 48 hours after infratentorial craniotomy should be evaluated for efficacy and safety. PMID:11907389

  5. Fosaprepitant dimeglumine for the management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: patient selection and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Candelario, Nellowe; Lu, Marvin Louis Roy

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a debilitating side effect of antineoplastic agents. Several treatment regimens are used to address this problem. Fosaprepitant is a neurokinin-1 receptor blocker used in the prevention and treatment of CINV, especially for moderately and severely emetogenic chemotherapy. It is highly effective in the treatment of delayed CINV. Data from previous studies show that fosaprepitant is noninferior to aprepitant in the management of CINV. Fosaprepitant is given as a single-dose intravenous infusion, thus offering better patient compliance. The dose-limiting side effect of fosaprepitant is an infusion-related reaction, ranging from pain at the infusion site to thrombophlebitis. This side effect has been reported with coadministration of anthracycline agents. PMID:27382332

  6. Fosaprepitant dimeglumine for the management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: patient selection and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Candelario, Nellowe; Lu, Marvin Louis Roy

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a debilitating side effect of antineoplastic agents. Several treatment regimens are used to address this problem. Fosaprepitant is a neurokinin-1 receptor blocker used in the prevention and treatment of CINV, especially for moderately and severely emetogenic chemotherapy. It is highly effective in the treatment of delayed CINV. Data from previous studies show that fosaprepitant is noninferior to aprepitant in the management of CINV. Fosaprepitant is given as a single-dose intravenous infusion, thus offering better patient compliance. The dose-limiting side effect of fosaprepitant is an infusion-related reaction, ranging from pain at the infusion site to thrombophlebitis. This side effect has been reported with coadministration of anthracycline agents. PMID:27382332

  7. Potential effects of pleasant and cold stimuli on nausea and vomiting induced by disgusting tastes.

    PubMed

    Gonella, Silvia; Dimonte, Valerio

    2016-05-01

    Several pharmacological agents have disgusting tastes that are perceived strongly in the back of the mouth and may trigger nausea and vomiting (NV), resulting in poor adherence to medication schedules and negative impacts on clinical outcomes. Pleasant stimuli and cold temperature lessen the disgusting stimuli, lowering NV through different mechanisms. A pleasant stimulus can mask an unpleasant one, presumably through lateral inhibitory connections in the local neuronal circuit. Similarly, temperature deeply influences taste perception because the response to bitter as well as to salty and sour has been found to assume a reversed U-shaped form, being reduced by cooling to 18°C and enhanced by warming to 30-37°C. This Review describes the mechanisms by which pleasant and cold stimuli may mask emetogenic disgusting stimuli and identifies the potential clinical applications of cooling for inhibiting objectionable drug-related gustatory reactions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26896189

  8. Preemptive Treatment of Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Maltepe, Caroline; Koren, Gideon

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To determine whether the initiation of treatment (preemptive treatment) before the symptoms of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) versus when the symptoms begin can improve the outcome in patients at a high risk for recurrence of severe NVP. Study Design. Prospective, randomized controlled trial. Results. Preemptive therapy conferred a significant reduction in HG as compared to the previous pregnancy (P = 0.047). In the preemptive arm, there were 2.5-fold fewer cases of moderate-severe cases of NVP than those in the control group (15.4% versus 39.13%) in the first 3 weeks of NVP (P = 0.05). In the preemptive group, significantly more women had their NVP resolved before giving birth (78.2% versus 50%) (P < 0.002). Conclusions. Preemptive treatment with antiemetics is superior to the treatment that starts only when the symptoms have already occurred in decreasing the risk of severe forms of NVP. PMID:23476657

  9. Less is more: reducing the reliance on animal models for nausea and vomiting research.

    PubMed

    Robinson, V

    2009-07-01

    Animals have been used as experimental models for centuries and their use has enabled researchers to make significant advances in many areas of human health and disease. However, this is not always the case and there are limitations in using animal models as surrogates for humans, which have hampered the development of efficacious therapeutics for some pathologies. Scientific limitations, together with ethical concerns, legislative changes and the current economic climate are driving researchers to look for and develop alternative non-animal research tools. Technological advances in tissue engineering, 'omics' approaches and in silico modelling for example, are enabling scientists to conduct their research without using animals in a broad range of disciplines, including complex multi-system reflexes such as nausea and vomiting.

  10. Integration of vestibular and emetic gastrointestinal signals that produce nausea and vomiting: potential contributions to motion sickness.

    PubMed

    Yates, Bill J; Catanzaro, Michael F; Miller, Daniel J; McCall, Andrew A

    2014-08-01

    Vomiting and nausea can be elicited by a variety of stimuli, although there is considerable evidence that the same brainstem areas mediate these responses despite the triggering mechanism. A variety of experimental approaches showed that nucleus tractus solitarius, the dorsolateral reticular formation of the caudal medulla (lateral tegmental field), and the parabrachial nucleus play key roles in integrating signals that trigger nausea and vomiting. These brainstem areas presumably coordinate the contractions of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles that result in vomiting. However, it is unclear whether these regions also mediate the autonomic responses that precede and accompany vomiting, including alterations in gastrointestinal activity, sweating, and changes in blood flow to the skin. Recent studies showed that delivery of an emetic compound to the gastrointestinal system affects the processing of vestibular inputs in the lateral tegmental field and parabrachial nucleus, potentially altering susceptibility for vestibular-elicited vomiting. Findings from these studies suggested that multiple emetic inputs converge on the same brainstem neurons, such that delivery of one emetic stimulus affects the processing of another emetic signal. Despite the advances in understanding the neurobiology of nausea and vomiting, much is left to be learned. Additional neurophysiologic studies, particularly those conducted in conscious animals, will be crucial to discern the integrative processes in the brain stem that result in emesis.

  11. Integration of Vestibular and Emetic Gastrointestinal Signals that Produce Nausea and Vomiting: Potential Contributions to Motion Sickness

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Bill J.; Catanzaro, Michael F.; Miller, Daniel J.; McCall, Andrew A.

    2014-01-01

    Vomiting and nausea can be elicited by a variety of stimuli, although there is considerable evidence that the same brainstem areas mediate these responses despite the triggering mechanism. A variety of experimental approaches showed that nucleus tractus solitarius, the dorsolateral reticular formation of the caudal medulla (lateral tegmental field), and the parabrachial nucleus play key roles in integrating signals that trigger nausea and vomiting. These brainstem areas presumably coordinate the contractions of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles that result in vomiting. However, it is unclear whether these regions also mediate the autonomic responses that precede and accompany vomiting, including alterations in gastrointestinal activity, sweating, and changes in blood flow to the skin. Recent studies showed that delivery of an emetic compound to the gastrointestinal system affects the processing of vestibular inputs in the lateral tegmental field and parabrachial nucleus, potentially altering susceptibility for vestibular-elicited vomiting. Findings from these studies suggested that multiple emetic inputs converge on the same brainstem neurons, such that delivery of one emetic stimulus affects the processing of another emetic signal. Despite the advances in understanding the neurobiology of nausea and vomiting, much is left to be learned. Additional neurophysiologic studies, particularly those conducted in conscious animals, will be crucial to discern the integrative processes in the brainstem that result in emesis. PMID:24736862

  12. The role of cannabinoids in regulation of nausea and vomiting, and visceral pain.

    PubMed

    Malik, Zubair; Baik, Daniel; Schey, Ron

    2015-02-01

    Marijuana derived from the plant Cannabis sativa has been used for the treatment of many gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, including anorexia, emesis, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and others. However, its psychotropic side effects have often limited its use. Several cannabinoid receptors, which include the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1), CB2, and possibly GPR55, have been identified throughout the GI tract. These receptors may play a role in the regulation of food intake, nausea and emesis, gastric secretion and gastroprotection, GI motility, ion transport, visceral sensation, intestinal inflammation, and cell proliferation in the gut. However, the regulation of nausea and vomiting by cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system has shed new knowledge in this field. Thus far, despite evidence of visceral sensitivity inhibition in animal models, data in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients is scarce and not supportive. Furthermore, many compounds that either act directly at the receptor or increase (or reduce) ligand availability have the potential to affect other brain functions and cause side effects. Novel drug targets such as FAAH and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inhibitors appear to be promising in animal models, but more studies are necessary to prove their efficiency. The promise of emerging drugs that are more selective and peripherally acting suggest that, in the near future, cannabinoids will play a major role in managing an array of GI diseases.

  13. The role of cannabinoids in regulation of nausea and vomiting, and visceral pain.

    PubMed

    Malik, Zubair; Baik, Daniel; Schey, Ron

    2015-02-01

    Marijuana derived from the plant Cannabis sativa has been used for the treatment of many gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, including anorexia, emesis, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and others. However, its psychotropic side effects have often limited its use. Several cannabinoid receptors, which include the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1), CB2, and possibly GPR55, have been identified throughout the GI tract. These receptors may play a role in the regulation of food intake, nausea and emesis, gastric secretion and gastroprotection, GI motility, ion transport, visceral sensation, intestinal inflammation, and cell proliferation in the gut. However, the regulation of nausea and vomiting by cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system has shed new knowledge in this field. Thus far, despite evidence of visceral sensitivity inhibition in animal models, data in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients is scarce and not supportive. Furthermore, many compounds that either act directly at the receptor or increase (or reduce) ligand availability have the potential to affect other brain functions and cause side effects. Novel drug targets such as FAAH and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inhibitors appear to be promising in animal models, but more studies are necessary to prove their efficiency. The promise of emerging drugs that are more selective and peripherally acting suggest that, in the near future, cannabinoids will play a major role in managing an array of GI diseases. PMID:25715910

  14. Choice of study endpoint significantly impacts the results of breast cancer trials evaluating chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Ng, Terry; Mazzarello, Sasha; Wang, Zhou; Hutton, Brian; Dranitsaris, George; Vandermeer, Lisa; Smith, Stephanie; Clemons, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Multiple endpoints can be used to evaluate chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). These endpoints reflect the various combinations of vomiting, nausea and rescue antiemetic use in the acute (0-24 h), delayed (>24-120 h) and overall (0-120 h) periods after chemotherapy. As the choice of outcome measure could potentially change the interpretation of clinical trial results, we evaluated CINV rates using different endpoints on a single dataset from a prospective cohort. Data from 177 breast cancer patients receiving anthracycline and cyclophosphamide-based chemotherapy was used to calculate CINV control rates using the 15 most commonly reported CINV endpoints. As nausea remains such a significant symptom, we explored the frequency at which pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical company-funded studies included measures of nausea in their primary study endpoint. CINV control rates ranged from 12.5 %, 95 % (CI 7.6-17.4 %) for total control (no vomiting, no nausea and no rescue medication) in the overall period to 77.4 %, 95 % (CI 71.2-83.6 %) for no vomiting in the overall period. Similar differences were found in the acute and delayed periods. Non-pharmaceutical company-funded trials were more likely to include a measure of nausea in the primary study outcome (9/18, 50 %) than pharmaceutical-funded trials (1/12, 8.3 %). The choice of trial endpoint has an important impact on reported CINV control rates and could significantly impact on interpretation of the results. Primary endpoints of studies, including those mandated by regulatory bodies, should account for nausea to reflect patient experience. Reporting of endpoints should be more comprehensive to allow for cross-trial comparisons.

  15. A review of olanzapine as an antiemetic in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and in palliative care patients.

    PubMed

    Fonte, C; Fatigoni, S; Roila, F

    2015-08-01

    Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic agent that blocks multiple neuronal receptors involved in the nausea and vomiting pathways. It has therefore been studied for the prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced emesis and in patients in palliative care presenting nausea and vomiting refractory to standard antiemetics. Some studies have shown that olanzapine was not inferior to aprepitant in the prophylaxis of highly and moderately emetogenic chemotherapy and that it increased the rate of complete response when added to a combination of a 5-HT3 antagonist, aprepitant and dexamethasone. These studies present so many shortcomings, however, that they do not permit us to draw any firm conclusions. Oral olanzapine showed superior antiemetic efficacy to metoclopramide as rescue treatment to control breakthrough emesis induced by chemotherapy. However, an oral formulation is not appropriate because in patients with vomiting or severe nausea the mere ingestion of an oral drug could induce emesis. Finally, in palliative care olanzapine could control or reduce the intensity of nausea and vomiting refractory to standard antiemetics.

  16. Reviewing current and emerging antiemetics for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Natale, James J

    2015-01-01

    This review provides background information on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) classification and pathophysiology and reviews various antiemetic agents for CINV prophylaxis, including corticosteroids, serotonin receptor antagonists (5-HT3 RAs), tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonists (NK1 RAs), and olanzapine. Other less commonly used agents are briefly discussed. Practical considerations are reviewed as well, including emetogenicity of chemotherapeutic regimens, patient-specific risk factors for CINV, principles of CINV management, health economics outcome research, and quality of life. Available data on the newly FDA-approved antiemetic combination netupitant/palonosetron (NEPA) is also reviewed. Prevention of CINV is an important goal in managing patients with cancer and is especially difficult with respect to nausea and delayed CINV. Corticosteroids are a mainstay of CINV prophylaxis and are usually given in combination with other therapies. The 5-HT3 RA palonosetron has shown increased efficacy over other agents in the same class for prevention of delayed emesis with moderately emetogenic chemotherapy and NK1 RAs improve emesis prevention in combination with 5-HT3 RAs and dexamethasone. Olanzapine has shown efficacy for CINV prophylaxis and the treatment of breakthrough CINV. The new combination therapy, NEPA, has been shown to be efficacious for the prevention of acute, delayed, and overall CINV. Risk factors that have been identified for CINV include gender, age, and alcohol intake. It is important to assess the emetogenicity of chemotherapy regimens as well as the potential impact of patient risk factors in order to provide adequate prophylaxis. Acute and delayed CINV are severe, burdensome side effects of chemotherapy; however, new data on prevention and the discovery of new agents can further improve CINV control.

  17. Dexamethasone Reduces Nausea and Vomiting but not Pain after Thyroid Surgery: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo; Wang, Huixia

    2014-01-01

    Background Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a common complication after thyroidectomy. The aim of this article was to evaluate the efficacy of dexamethasone for prevention of PONV and pain in patients undergoing thyroidectomy. Material/Methods We performed this meta-analysis based on the QUORUM (Quality of Reporting of Meta-analyses) guidelines. Our study included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared preoperative single-dose administration of dexamethasone with no dexamethasone in patients undergoing thyroidectomy. The primary outcome was occurrence and severity of PONV, and the secondary outcomes included pain, use of analgesics, and steroid-related complications. Results Seven RCTs were included, with a total of 611 patients. A statistically and clinically significant difference in the incidence and severity of PONV was found in favor of dexamethasone (SMD, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.13–0.41; P<0.00001; SMD, 0.53; 95% CI, −1.03 to −0.03; P=0.04). However, there was no significant difference in reduction of pain severity and analgesic consumption in using dexamethasone (SMD, −0.83; 95% CI, −1.85 to 0.18; P=0.14; SMD, −0.19; 95% CI, −0.43 to 0.04; P=0.10). No steroid-related complications were noted. Conclusions A single preoperative administration of dexamethasone reduced the incidence and severity of PONV but not pain severity and analgesic consumption in patients undergoing thyroidectomy. Further studies with a larger sample size are needed to further explore the efficacy of dexamethasone on postoperative pain severity and analgesic consumption. PMID:25549754

  18. Dronabinol for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting unresponsive to antiemetics

    PubMed Central

    May, Megan Brafford; Glode, Ashley E

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is one of the most common symptoms feared by patients, but may be prevented or lessened with appropriate medications. Several antiemetic options exist to manage CINV. Corticosteroids, serotonin receptor antagonists, and neurokinin receptor antagonists are the classes most commonly used in the prevention of CINV. There are many alternative drug classes utilized for the prevention and management of CINV such as antihistamines, benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, cannabinoids, and dopamine receptor antagonists. Medications belonging to these classes generally have lower efficacy and are associated with more adverse effects. They are also not as well studied compared to the aforementioned agents. This review will focus on dronabinol, a member of the cannabinoid class, and its role in CINV. Cannabis sativa L. (also known as marijuana) contains naturally occurring delta-9-tetrahydrocannibinol (delta-9-THC). The synthetic version of delta-9-THC is the active ingredient in dronabinol that makes dronabinol an orally active cannabinoid. Evidence for clinical efficacy of dronabinol will be analyzed in this review as monotherapy, in combination with ondansetron, and in combination with prochlorperazine. PMID:27274310

  19. A Report of Nausea and Vomiting with Discontinuation of Chronic Use of Salvia divinorum

    PubMed Central

    Travis, C. R.; Ray, G. A.; Marlowe, K. F.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. This is the first reported case of gastrointestinal symptoms associated with withdrawal after chronic use of this substance. Case Presentation. A 51-year-old Caucasian woman was referred to a hospital with a 3-day history of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal discomfort. She reported no sick family members or contact with anyone who was ill. She did report smoking 3–5 cigarettes of the herb “Salvia” consistently for 3-4 months and quit approximately 48 hours before symptoms appeared. Her use of the herb had been consistent; she smoked several cigarettes each day. Laboratory results were essentially normal including the white blood cell count. She received symptomatic treatment and was released after one day. Discussion. Salvinorin A, a kappa-opioid receptor agonist, is the major active ingredient of S. divinorum. The unique opioid properties of this herb may explain its ability to cause changes in intestinal transit time. Conclusion. A 51-year-old woman possibly developed gastrointestinal manifestations suggestive of withdrawal from Salvia divinorum after smoking the substance consistently for 3 to 4 months. The widespread use of this herb will make the potential for withdrawal syndromes more commonplace. PMID:22611407

  20. The use of CAM by women suffering from nausea and vomiting during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Hollyer, Taras; Boon, Heather; Georgousis, Alexia; Smith, Michael; Einarson, Adrienne

    2002-01-01

    Background Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP) affects two-thirds of pregnant women to varying degrees and over the years many modalities have been used to try to alleviate this often debilitating condition. There is a paucity of information in the literature about the use or efficacy of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for the treatment of this condition that affects so many women. Our primary objective was to examine the prevalence of CAM usage by women suffering from NVP. Our secondary objective was to ascertain if women had any supervision in the use of these treatments. Methods Women who called The Motherisk NVP helpline, were asked after the counseling session to complete a questionnaire, which included demographic data as well as information about their CAM use. Results Seventy women completed the questionnaire. 61% reported using CAM therapies, of which the three most popular were: ginger, vitamin B6 and acupressure. 21% of those who reported using CAM, had consulted CAM practitioners, 8% their physicians or pharmacists and 71% discussed the usage with family, friends and other allied health professionals. Women who did not use CAM stated they would probably use these modalities if there was more information about the safety in pregnancy. Conclusion Pregnant women with NVP are mirroring the trend in the general population of the use of CAM. They are also using CAM therapies with little supervision from practitioners experienced in the use of these modalities. PMID:12033990

  1. The Leading Concerns of American Women with Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy Calling Motherisk NVP Helpline

    PubMed Central

    Madjunkova, Svetlana; Maltepe, Caroline; Koren, Gideon

    2013-01-01

    Background. Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) is the most common medical condition of pregnancy, affecting up to 85% of expecting mothers. In the USA, there is no FDA-approved medication for the treatment of NVP. Objective. To identify the primary concerns of American women leading them to contact the Motherisk NVP Helpline and to characterize the severity of their symptoms and therapy offered in order to develop improved and customized counseling for them. Methods. We reviewed the intake forms of the American women who called the NVP Helpline from 2008 to 2012. We extracted their state of residence, demographic data, severity of NVP symptoms, and other available clinical characteristics. Results. A total of 195 forms were reviewed. Of these, 86% called for information on management of NVP with/without questions about fetal drug safety, while 14% called solely about drug safety during pregnancy/breastfeeding. The majority of women were Caucasian, in their thirties, educated, employed, married and in their second pregnancy. Of them 95% were suffering from moderate-to-severe condition with 13% having hyperemesis gravidarum. Conclusion. American women need more information on the management of NVP and on a variety of its aspects in addition to the safety and effectiveness of antiemetic medications. Their leading concern was the use of doxylamine and vitamin B6 combination for NVP treatment followed by the use of ondansetron. PMID:23690784

  2. Dronabinol for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting unresponsive to antiemetics.

    PubMed

    May, Megan Brafford; Glode, Ashley E

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is one of the most common symptoms feared by patients, but may be prevented or lessened with appropriate medications. Several antiemetic options exist to manage CINV. Corticosteroids, serotonin receptor antagonists, and neurokinin receptor antagonists are the classes most commonly used in the prevention of CINV. There are many alternative drug classes utilized for the prevention and management of CINV such as antihistamines, benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, cannabinoids, and dopamine receptor antagonists. Medications belonging to these classes generally have lower efficacy and are associated with more adverse effects. They are also not as well studied compared to the aforementioned agents. This review will focus on dronabinol, a member of the cannabinoid class, and its role in CINV. Cannabis sativa L. (also known as marijuana) contains naturally occurring delta-9-tetrahydrocannibinol (delta-9-THC). The synthetic version of delta-9-THC is the active ingredient in dronabinol that makes dronabinol an orally active cannabinoid. Evidence for clinical efficacy of dronabinol will be analyzed in this review as monotherapy, in combination with ondansetron, and in combination with prochlorperazine. PMID:27274310

  3. PC6 acupoint stimulation for the prevention of postcardiac surgery nausea and vomiting: a protocol for a two-group, parallel, superiority randomised clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Marie; Rickard, Claire; Rapchuk, Ivan; Shekar, Kiran; Marshall, Andrea P; Comans, Tracy; Doi, Suhail; McDonald, John; Spooner, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are frequent but unwanted complications for patients following anaesthesia and cardiac surgery, affecting at least a third of patients, despite pharmacological treatment. The primary aim of the proposed research is to test the efficacy of PC6 acupoint stimulation versus placebo for reducing PONV in cardiac surgery patients. In conjunction with this we aim to develop an understanding of intervention fidelity and factors that support, or impede, the use of PC6 acupoint stimulation, a knowledge translation approach. Methods and analysis 712 postcardiac surgery participants will be recruited to take part in a two-group, parallel, superiority, randomised controlled trial. Participants will be randomised to receive a wrist band on each wrist providing acupressure to PC six using acupoint stimulation or a placebo. Randomisation will be computer generated, use randomly varied block sizes, and be concealed prior to the enrolment of each patient. The wristbands will remain in place for 36 h. PONV will be evaluated by the assessment of both nausea and vomiting, use of rescue antiemetics, quality of recovery and cost. Patient satisfaction with PONV care will be measured and clinical staff interviewed about the clinical use, feasibility, acceptability and challenges of using acupressure wristbands for PONV. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval will be sought from appropriate Human Research Ethics Committee/s before start of the study. A systematic review of the use of wrist acupressure for PC6 acupoint stimulation reported minor side effects only. Study progress will be reviewed by a Data Safety Monitoring Committee (DSMC) for nausea and vomiting outcomes at n=350. Dissemination of results will include conference presentations at national and international scientific meetings and publications in peer-reviewed journals. Study participants will receive a one-page lay-summary of results. Trial registration number

  4. Casopitant: a novel NK1-receptor antagonist in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Ruhlmann, Christina; Herrstedt, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) are among the most feared and distressing symptoms experienced by patients with cancer. The knowledge of the pathogenesis and neuropharmacology of CINV has expanded enormously over the last decades, the most significant discoveries being the role of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)3- and neurokinin (NK)1 receptors in the emetic reflex arch. This has led to the development of two new classes of antiemetics acting as highly selective antagonists at one of these receptors. These drugs have had a huge impact in the protection from chemotherapy-induced vomiting, whereas the effect on nausea seems to be limited. The first NK1 receptor antagonist, aprepitant, became clinically available in 2003, and casopitant, the second in this class of antiemetics, has now completed phase III trials. This review delineates the properties and clinical use of casopitant in the prevention of CINV. PMID:19536319

  5. Critical appraisal of drug therapy for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: II. Efficacy and safety of diclectin (doxylamine-B6).

    PubMed

    Bishai, R; Mazzotta, P; Atanackovic, G; Levichek, Z; Pole, M; Magee, L A; Koren, G

    2000-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy is the most common condition in pregnancy and affects up to 80% of all pregnant women. There are a large number of pharmacological agents that are effective for the treatment of nausea and vomiting associated with conditions such as motion sickness and gastrointestinal conditions; however, their use in pregnancy is limited by the lack of sufficient data on their potential teratogenic effects. The efficacy of the delayed-release combination of doxylamine and pyridoxine (Bendectin, Diclectin) has been shown in several randomized, controlled trials. The present review aims to refute the unsubstantiated beliefs that Diclectin is unsafe when used in the treatment of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy.

  6. Patterns of antiemetic prophylaxis for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in China

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Xianglong; Zhang, Jie; Ji, Xin; Gao, Jie; Ji, Jiafu

    2016-01-01

    Background Few studies have attempted to evaluate the use of antiemetic therapy for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) at a national level in China or to assess how treatment regimens adhere to current guidelines. Methods We searched the China Health Insurance Research Association (CHIRA) Database to identify patients with cancer who were ≥18 years old and received either moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC and HEC, respectively) between 2008 and 2012. Patients’ characteristics as well as usage of specific antiemetic regimens were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results Of the 14,548 patients included in the study, 6,477 received HEC while 8,071 were treated with MEC. Approximately 89.9% used antiemetics prophylactically to prevent acute CINV and 71.5% for delayed CINV while 9.0% were prescribed antiemetics as rescue therapy. A significantly lower proportion of patients treated with HEC received prophylactic antiemetic therapy for delayed CINV as compared to those treated with MEC (59.4% vs. 81.3%; P<0.001). The HEC group had a slightly lower proportion of patients using a mixed regimen containing a 5-HT3 antagonist to prevent both acute and delayed CINV than the MEC group (P≤0.012); however, a higher proportion received a mixed regimen containing corticosteroids (P≤0.007). Although more than half of the patients in the HEC group took three antiemetics to prevent acute and delayed CINV, these rates were significantly lower than those of the MEC group (both P<0.001). Finally, analysis of the regimens used revealed that there is over-utilization of drugs within the same class of antiemetic. Conclusions These findings indicate that more attention is needed for treatment of delayed CINV, in terms of both overall use and the components of a typical treatment regimen. PMID:27199514

  7. Treatments for hyperemesis gravidarum and nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: a systematic review and economic assessment.

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, Amy; McParlin, Catherine; Robson, Stephen C; Beyer, Fiona; Moloney, Eoin; Bryant, Andrew; Bradley, Jennifer; Muirhead, Colin; Nelson-Piercy, Catherine; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy; Norman, Justine; Simpson, Emma; Swallow, Brian; Yates, Laura; Vale, Luke

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) affects up to 85% of all women during pregnancy, but for the majority self-management suffices. For the remainder, symptoms are more severe and the most severe form of NVP - hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) - affects 0.3-1.0% of pregnant women. There is no widely accepted point at which NVP becomes HG. OBJECTIVES This study aimed to determine the relative clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of treatments for NVP and HG. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PsycINFO, Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux (CAB) Abstracts, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, British Nursing Index, Science Citation Index, Social Sciences Citation Index, Scopus, Conference Proceedings Index, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, Health Economic Evaluations Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects were searched from inception to September 2014. References from studies and literature reviews identified were also examined. Obstetric Medicine was hand-searched, as were websites of relevant organisations. Costs came from NHS sources. REVIEW METHODS A systematic review of randomised and non-randomised controlled trials (RCTs) for effectiveness, and population-based case series for adverse events and fetal outcomes. Treatments: vitamins B6 and B12, ginger, acupressure/acupuncture, hypnotherapy, antiemetics, dopamine antagonists, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonists, intravenous (i.v.) fluids, corticosteroids, enteral and parenteral feeding or other novel treatment. Two reviewers extracted data and quality assessed studies. Results were narratively synthesised; planned meta-analysis was not possible due to heterogeneity and incomplete reporting. A simple economic evaluation considered

  8. Inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase attenuates vomiting in Suncus murinus and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol attenuates nausea in rats

    PubMed Central

    Sticht, Martin A; Long, Jonathan Z; Rock, Erin M; Limebeer, Cheryl L; Mechoulam, Raphael; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Parker, Linda A

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE To evaluate the role of 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2AG) in the regulation of nausea and vomiting using animal models of vomiting and of nausea-like behaviour (conditioned gaping). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Vomiting was assessed in shrews (Suncus murinus), pretreated with JZL184, a selective monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inhibitor which elevates endogenous 2AG levels, 1 h before administering the emetogenic compound, LiCl. Regulation of nausea-like behaviour in rats by exogenous 2AG or its metabolite arachidonic acid (AA) was assessed, using the conditioned gaping model. The role of cannabinoid CB1 receptors, CB2 receptors and cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition in suppression of vomiting or nausea-like behaviour was assessed. KEY RESULTS JZL184 dose-dependently suppressed vomiting in shrews, an effect prevented by pretreatment with the CB1 receptor inverse agonist/antagonist, AM251. In shrew brain tissue, JZL184 inhibited MAGL activity in vivo. In rats, 2AG suppressed LiCl-induced conditioned gaping but this effect was not prevented by AM251 or the CB2 receptor antagonist, AM630. Instead, the COX inhibitor, indomethacin, prevented suppression of conditioned gaping by 2AG or AA. However, when rats were pretreated with a high dose of JZL184 (40 mg·kg−1), suppression of gaping by 2AG was partially reversed by AM251. Suppression of conditioned gaping was not due to interference with learning because the same dose of 2AG did not modify the strength of conditioned freezing to a shock-paired tone. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Our results suggest that manipulations that elevate 2AG may have anti-emetic or anti-nausea potential. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Cannabinoids in Biology and Medicine. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012.165.issue-8. To view Part I of Cannabinoids in Biology and Medicine visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011.163.issue-7 PMID:21470205

  9. Blood Samples From Patients With Cancer Treated on a Clinical Trial to Control Nausea and Vomiting During Donor Stem Cell Transplant

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-11

    Breast Cancer; Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms; Nausea and Vomiting; Neuroblastoma; Ovarian Cancer; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor

  10. A physiological perspective for utility or futility of alcohol-based hand rub gel against nausea-vomiting: is it P-6 acupoint or transnasal aroma?

    PubMed

    Gupta, Deepak; Mazumdar, Ashish; Stellini, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Nausea-vomiting is a common and unpleasant phenomenon with numerous underlying mechanisms and pathways that are not always well elucidated. In clinical practice, refractory nausea-vomiting is encountered in several settings. Antiemetic medications may reduce these symptoms but are not always effective in all patients. In the absence of a well-defined optimal strategy for management of nausea-vomiting, the search for better approaches to treat this distressing symptom continues. One of the alternative treatment approaches is a compounded formulation called ABHR gel that is comprised of multiple antiemetic medications and has been shown to be useful for symptomatic relief in some patients with refractory nausea-vomiting. It has been suggested that alternative mechanisms should be explored to explain the perceived efficacy of ABHR gel, because transdermal absorption leading to nil-to-minimal or subtherapeutic blood concentrations of active ingredients does not explain the role of ABHR gel in the treatment of nausea-vomiting. In the current paper, we discuss possible mechanisms that may explain ABHR transdermal gel's efficacy. Compounded ABHR transdermal gel formulation's efficacy in antagonizing nausea-vomiting that has been recently questioned may be explained by alternative mechanisms mediated through the P-6 acupoint stimulation and facial-nasal, cooling-related counterstimulation.

  11. Putting evidence into practice: evidence-based interventions to prevent, manage, and treat chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Tipton, Janelle M; McDaniel, Roxanne W; Barbour, Laurel; Johnston, Mary Pat; Kayne, Marilyn; LeRoy, Patricia; Ripple, Marita L

    2007-02-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) continues to have a considerable effect on the physical and psychological well-being of patients with cancer, despite significant advances in antiemetic drugs since the 1990s. This article reviews and summarizes past and current empirical evidence related to interventions for CINV. A resource that summarizes evidence-based interventions for CINV is critical for effective management of this distressing symptom. Pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions are appraised. Finally, gaps in the literature and opportunities for research, education, and practice changes are discussed.

  12. How evidence-based is the information on the internet about nausea and vomiting of pregnancy?

    PubMed

    Sacks, Samantha; Abenhaim, Haim A

    2013-08-01

    Contexte : Internet est devenu une importante source de renseignements au sujet de la grossesse et des préoccupations de santé en général. Cette étude a évalué la qualité des renseignements disponibles sur Internet pour ce qui est des problèmes courants de la nausée et du vomissement pendant la grossesse (NVG). Méthodes : Nous avons utilisé trois termes de recherche (« nausea and vomiting in pregnancy », « morning sickness » et « hyperemesis gravidarum ») pour identifier les sites les plus populaires, tels que classés par Google. Au moyen de modifications apportées à des outils déjà décrits, la qualité des sites Web a été évaluée en fonction de trois critères : la responsabilité (au moyen des critères Silberg), la présentation (au moyen d’un score Abbott modifié) et la lisibilité (au moyen du score de niveau de langue Flesch-Kincaid). Par la suite, les renseignements offerts par ces sites Web ont été comparés aux renseignements offerts par la directive clinique de la SOGC sur la prise en charge des NVG. Résultats : Nous avons identifié 24 sites Web particuliers comme étant les plus populaires. Les scores globaux en matière de responsabilité ont indiqué une piètre qualité, seulement 25 % des sites Web satisfaisant aux critères requis et moins de la moitié de ces sites indiquant le nom du ou des auteurs et leurs références. Les critères traitant de l’attrait esthétique ont été satisfaits pour ce qui est de plus de 75 % des sites Web. Le score de lisibilité de ces sites Web se situait considérablement au-dessus du score recommandé pour la population générale (score de niveau de langue Flesch-Kincaid moyen de 10,7 [max. = 12]). Quatre-vingt-sept pour cent de ces sites Web contenaient des recommandations précises et factuelles, conformes aux renseignements offerts dans la directive clinique de la SOGC sur la prise en charge des NVG. Conclusion : De façon globale, la majorité des

  13. The value of integrating pre-clinical data to predict nausea and vomiting risk in humans as illustrated by AZD3514, a novel androgen receptor modulator.

    PubMed

    Grant, Claire; Ewart, Lorna; Muthas, Daniel; Deavall, Damian; Smith, Simon A; Clack, Glen; Newham, Pete

    2016-04-01

    Nausea and vomiting are components of a complex mechanism that signals food avoidance and protection of the body against the absorption of ingested toxins. This response can also be triggered by pharmaceuticals. Predicting clinical nausea and vomiting liability for pharmaceutical agents based on pre-clinical data can be problematic as no single animal model is a universal predictor. Moreover, efforts to improve models are hampered by the lack of translational animal and human data in the public domain. AZD3514 is a novel, orally-administered compound that inhibits androgen receptor signaling and down-regulates androgen receptor expression. Here we have explored the utility of integrating data from several pre-clinical models to predict nausea and vomiting in the clinic. Single and repeat doses of AZD3514 resulted in emesis, salivation and gastrointestinal disturbances in the dog, and inhibited gastric emptying in rats after a single dose. AZD3514, at clinically relevant exposures, induced dose-responsive "pica" behaviour in rats after single and multiple daily doses, and induced retching and vomiting behaviour in ferrets after a single dose. We compare these data with the clinical manifestation of nausea and vomiting encountered in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer receiving AZD3514. Our data reveal a striking relationship between the pre-clinical observations described and the experience of nausea and vomiting in the clinic. In conclusion, the emetic nature of AZD3514 was predicted across a range of pre-clinical models, and the approach presented provides a valuable framework for predicition of clinical nausea and vomiting.

  14. The value of integrating pre-clinical data to predict nausea and vomiting risk in humans as illustrated by AZD3514, a novel androgen receptor modulator.

    PubMed

    Grant, Claire; Ewart, Lorna; Muthas, Daniel; Deavall, Damian; Smith, Simon A; Clack, Glen; Newham, Pete

    2016-04-01

    Nausea and vomiting are components of a complex mechanism that signals food avoidance and protection of the body against the absorption of ingested toxins. This response can also be triggered by pharmaceuticals. Predicting clinical nausea and vomiting liability for pharmaceutical agents based on pre-clinical data can be problematic as no single animal model is a universal predictor. Moreover, efforts to improve models are hampered by the lack of translational animal and human data in the public domain. AZD3514 is a novel, orally-administered compound that inhibits androgen receptor signaling and down-regulates androgen receptor expression. Here we have explored the utility of integrating data from several pre-clinical models to predict nausea and vomiting in the clinic. Single and repeat doses of AZD3514 resulted in emesis, salivation and gastrointestinal disturbances in the dog, and inhibited gastric emptying in rats after a single dose. AZD3514, at clinically relevant exposures, induced dose-responsive "pica" behaviour in rats after single and multiple daily doses, and induced retching and vomiting behaviour in ferrets after a single dose. We compare these data with the clinical manifestation of nausea and vomiting encountered in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer receiving AZD3514. Our data reveal a striking relationship between the pre-clinical observations described and the experience of nausea and vomiting in the clinic. In conclusion, the emetic nature of AZD3514 was predicted across a range of pre-clinical models, and the approach presented provides a valuable framework for predicition of clinical nausea and vomiting. PMID:26876616

  15. Prevention of cisplatin-based chemotherapy-induced delayed nausea and vomiting using triple antiemetic regimens: a mixed treatment comparison

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongjia; Le, Qiqi; Liu, Shanshan; Zong, Shaoqi; Zheng, Leizhen; Hou, Fenggang

    2016-01-01

    A variety of triple antiemetic regimens are being used to prevent cisplatin-based chemotherapy induced delayed emesis and nausea in cancer patients. We performed a network meta-analysis to compare the efficacies of the different regimens. Electronic searches of the PubMed, Cochrane Library and MEDLINE databases were performed to identify randomized controlled trials, and data were analyzed using JAGS, Stata 14.0 and R project. The primary outcome was a complete response (CR). The secondary outcomes were no vomiting (NV) and no nausea (NN). Among the 398 studies identified, 10 were eligible and included, providing data on nine regimens. In the CR analysis, the absolute rank of netupitant + palonosetron + dexamethasone (NEPA) was 0.8579. In the NV and NN analyses, NEPA's absolute ranks were 0.8631 and 0.7902, respectively. The compliance of patients treated with rolapitant + granisetron + dexamethasone (RGD) was the best due to a low incidence of adverse events, and good compliance was also observed with NEPA. It was difficult to achieve good compliance with aprepitant + granisetron + dexamethasone (AGD). Overall, NEPA was the best regimen, and aprepitant + ondansetron + dexamethasone (AOD) is also worthy of recommendation because of its low cost and good effect. For patients with severe constipation, hiccups, asthenia and/or delayed nausea, RGD is worthy of consideration. PMID:27015550

  16. Prevalence of Colonic Motor or Evacuation Disorders in Patients Presenting with Chronic Nausea and Vomiting Evaluated by a Single Gastroenterologist in a Tertiary Referral Practice

    PubMed Central

    Kolar, Gururaj J.; Camilleri, Michael; Burton, Duane; Nadeau, Ashley; Zinsmeister, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Nausea and vomiting are thought to result from upper gastrointestinal dysfunctions. Our clinical observations led to the hypothesis that colonic motor dysfunction is associated with nausea and vomiting. Methods We reviewed electronic medical records (EMR) of 149 patients presenting with complaints of nausea and/or vomiting in a tertiary gastroenterology practice to investigate the association with disorders of colonic motor or evacuation disorders. We extracted demographics, gastric emptying (GE in 149) and colonic transit (CT in 138) of solids, ascending colon emptying half time (AC t1/2), rectal evacuation by anorectal manometry (ARM) in 91 and balloon expulsion test (BE) in 55 patients. We estimated the proportions with delayed GE or CT, based on the 5th percentile of GE (in 319) and CT in 220 healthy volunteers using same method. Key Results Among 11 patients with nausea and/or vomiting with only GE measured, 5 had delayed and 6 normal GE. Among the 149 patients, 77 (52%) patients had evacuation disorders, confirmed by objective tests in 68 patients, and clinical examination in 9 patients. In the 138 patients with both GE and CT measured, 106 (76%) had both normal GE and CT, 11 (8%) only delayed GE, 16 (11%) normal GE with delayed CT, and 5 (3%) delayed GE and CT. Among 21 patients (15%) with delayed CT, 9 had slow AC t1/2 and 12 evacuation disorder. Conclusions & Inferences In patients with chronic nausea and/or vomiting in gastroenterology practice, evaluation of colonic motility and rectal evacuation should be considered, since about half the patients have abnormal functions that conceivably contribute to the presenting nausea and/or vomiting. PMID:24118658

  17. Searching for Evidence to Support the Use of Ginger in the Prevention of Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting.

    PubMed

    Bossi, Paolo; Cortinovis, Diego; Cossu Rocca, Maria; Roila, Fausto; Seminara, Patrizia; Fabi, Alessandra; Canova, Stefania; Verri, Elena; Fatigoni, Sonia; Iannace, Alessandro; Macchi, Fabio; Ripamonti, Carla

    2016-06-01

    Patients with cancer frequently use dietary supplementation and herbal therapies to control symptoms of disease and adverse effects of cancer therapy. Despite the widespread use of dietary supplementation and herbal therapies in oncology, robust scientific evidence in this area is lacking. Not only do these products need to be tested in large and well-designed observational or randomized studies, but their manufacturing process must be improved to achieve higher levels of standardization in product quality. Ginger is frequently used to counteract chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), and some suggestions that it might be effective against CINV come from randomized and/or crossover clinical trials. However, several limitations in the methods of these studies limit their power and generalizability. The authors are conducting a randomized, double-blind study with a large sample size and homogeneous inclusion criteria in order to evaluate the efficacy of a well-standardized ginger extract in reducing nausea in patients with cancer. The widespread use of standardized herbal therapies and natural components among patients requires that scientific and rigorous research strategies are applied in this field to guide the physicians and the patients in safer use. PMID:27115042

  18. Cannabinoid 2 (CB2) receptor agonism reduces lithium chloride-induced vomiting in Suncus murinus and nausea-induced conditioned gaping in rats.

    PubMed

    Rock, Erin M; Boulet, Nathalie; Limebeer, Cheryl L; Mechoulam, Raphael; Parker, Linda A

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to investigate the potential anti-emetic and anti-nausea properties of targeting the cannabinoid 2 (CB2) receptor. We investigated the effect of the selective CB2 agonist, HU-308, on lithium chloride- (LiCl) induced vomiting in Suncus murinus (S. murinus) and conditioned gaping (nausea-induced behaviour) in rats. Additionally, we determined whether these effects could be prevented by pretreatment with AM630 (a selective CB2 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist). In S. murinus, HU-308 (2.5, 5mg/kg, i.p.) reduced, but did not completely block, LiCl-induced vomiting; an effect that was prevented with AM630. In rats, HU-308 (5mg/kg, i.p.) suppressed, but did not completely block, LiCl-induced conditioned gaping to a flavour; an effect that was prevented by AM630. These findings are the first to demonstrate the ability of a selective CB2 receptor agonist to reduce nausea in animal models, indicating that targeting the CB2 receptor may be an effective strategy, devoid of psychoactive effects, for managing toxin-induced nausea and vomiting. PMID:27263826

  19. Comparing pyridoxine and doxylamine succinate-pyridoxine HCl for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: A matched, controlled cohort study.

    PubMed

    Pope, Eliza; Maltepe, Caroline; Koren, Gideon

    2015-07-01

    Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) is a common gestational condition. This is the first study to compare the use of vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) versus Diclectin (doxylamine succinate-pyridoxine HCl) for NVP symptoms. Participants were pregnant women with NVP who used either pyridoxine or doxylamine succinate-pyridoxine HCl for ≥4 days prior to calling the Motherisk NVP Helpline. Women receiving pyridoxine only (n = 80) were matched to a woman taking doxylamine succinate-pyridoxine HCl only (n = 80), accounting for potential confounders and baseline level of NVP, measured by the Pregnancy Unique Quantification of Emesis (PUQE) score. Change in NVP severity after a week of therapy with either pyridoxine or doxylamine succinate-pyridoxine HCl was quantified using the PUQE-24 scale, which describes NVP symptoms 24 hours prior to their call. Doxylamine succinate-pyridoxine HCl use found a significant reduction in PUQE score, compared with pyridoxine (+0.5 versus -0.2, P < .05; negative denotes worsening). This association was especially prominent in women with more severe symptoms, where doxylamine succinate-pyridoxine HCl use saw a mean improvement of 2.6 versus 0.4 with pyridoxine (P < .05). As well, doxylamine succinate-pyridoxine HCl use was associated with fewer women experiencing moderate to severe scores after a week of treatment, compared with the pyridoxine group (7 versus 17, P < .05), despite similar baseline PUQE scores.

  20. Doxylamine succinate–pyridoxine hydrochloride (Diclegis) for the management of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Nuangchamnong, Nina; Niebyl, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) is common and often undertreated, in part due to fears of adverse effects of medications on the fetus during early pregnancy. In April 2013, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved doxylamine succinate 10 mg and pyridoxine hydrochloride (a vitamin B6 analog) 10 mg as a delayed-release combination pill called Diclegis for the treatment of NVP. Diclegis is currently the only medication that is FDA-approved for the indication of NVP. This review addresses the historical context, safety, efficacy, pharmacology, and practical role of doxylamine and pyridoxine for the management of NVP. The reintroduction of this doxylamine–pyridoxine combination pill into the American market fills a therapeutic gap in the management of NVP left by the removal of the same active drugs marketed over 30 years ago in the form of Bendectin. The substantial amount of safety data accumulated over the years makes it one of the few drugs that qualify for FDA Pregnancy Category A status. In the hierarchical approach to pharmacological treatment of NVP, the combination of doxylamine and pyridoxine should thus be first-tier. PMID:24748822

  1. Nausea: a review of pathophysiology and therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Prashant; Yoon, Sonia S.; Kuo, Braden

    2016-01-01

    The sensation of nausea is a common occurrence with diverse causes and a significant disease burden. Nausea is considered to function as a protective mechanism, warning the organism to avoid potential toxic ingestion. Less adaptive circumstances are also associated with nausea, including post-operative nausea, chemotherapy-induced nausea, and motion sickness. A common definition of nausea identifies the symptom as a precursor to the act of vomiting. The interaction, though present, does not appear to be a simple relationship. Nausea is unfortunately the ‘neglected symptom’, with current accepted therapy generally directed at improving gastrointestinal motility or acting to relieve emesis. Improved understanding of the pathophysiological basis of nausea has important implications for exploiting novel mechanisms or developing novel therapies for nausea relief. PMID:26770271

  2. Profile Analysis of Chemotherapy-induced Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Treated with Concomitant Temozolomide and Radiotherapy: Results of a Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    MATSUDA, Masahide; YAMAMOTO, Tetsuya; ISHIKAWA, Eiichi; NAKAI, Kei; AKUTSU, Hiroyoshi; ONUMA, Kuniyuki; MATSUMURA, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Temozolomide (TMZ) as a concomitant and adjuvant chemotherapy to radiotherapy following maximal surgical resection is the established standard therapy for patients with newly diagnosed high-grade glioma. However, detailed analysis of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) associated with concomitant TMZ has not been sufficiently described. We prospectively analyzed the profile of CINV associated with concomitant TMZ. Eighteen consecutive patients with newly diagnosed high-grade glioma treated with concomitant chemoradiotherapy including TMZ were enrolled. CINV was recorded using a daily diary including nausea assessment, emetic episodes, degree of appetite suppression, and antiemetic medication use. The observed incidence rates of all grade nausea, moderate/severe (CTC grade 2, 3) nausea, emetic episodes, and appetite suppression for the overall period were 89%, 39%, 39%, and 83%, respectively. Moderate/severe nausea and severe (CTC grade 3) appetite suppression were frequently observed during the delayed phase of the treatment. Emetic episodes and moderate/severe nausea were significantly correlated with female gender. Moderate/severe nausea and severe appetite suppression were significantly correlated with low lymphocyte counts before chemoradiotherapy. For CINV associated with concomitant TMZ, enhanced antiemetic therapy focused on the delayed phase of the treatment will likely be beneficial, especially in female patients with a low lymphocyte count before chemoradiotherapy. PMID:26345664

  3. Hollow silicon microneedle array based trans-epidermal antiemetic patch for efficient management of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharbikar, Bhushan N.; Kumar S., Harish; Kr., Sindhu; Srivastava, Rohit

    2015-12-01

    Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting (CINV) is a serious health concern in the treatment of cancer patients. Conventional routes for administering anti-emetics (i.e. oral and parenteral) have several drawbacks such as painful injections, poor patient compliance, dependence on skilled personnel, non-affordability to majority of population (parenteral), lack of programmability and suboptimal bioavailability (oral). Hence, we have developed a trans-epidermal antiemetic drug delivery patch using out-of-plane hollow silicon microneedle array. Microneedles are pointed micron-scale structures that pierce the epidermal layer of skin to reach dermal blood vessels and can directly release the drug in their vicinity. They are painless by virtue of avoiding significant contact with dermal sensory nerve endings. This alternate approach gives same pharmacodynamic effects as par- enteral route at a sparse drug-dose requirement, hence negligible side-effects and improved patient compliance. Microneedle design attributes were derived by systematic study of human skin anatomy, natural micron-size structures like wasp-sting and cactus-spine and multi-physics simulations. We used deep reactive ion etching with Bosch process and optimized recipe of gases to fabricate high-aspect-ratio hollow silicon microneedle array. Finally, microneedle array and polydimethylsiloxane drug reservoir were assembled to make finished anti-emetic patch. We assessed microneedles mechanical stability, physico-chemical properties and performed in-vitro, ex- vivo and in-vivo studies. These studies established functional efficacy of the device in trans-epidermal delivery of anti-emetics, its programmability, ease of use and biosafety. Thus, out-of-plane hollow silicon microneedle array trans-epidermal antiemetic patch is a promising strategy for painless and effective management of CINV at low cost in mainstream healthcare.

  4. Pharmacogenetic predictors of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy severity and response to antiemetic therapy: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) is a common condition. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between response to antiemetics in the treatment of NVP and genetic polymorphisms in the serotonin receptor subunit genes HTR3A and HTR3B. Methods Pregnant women ≥18 years of age with NVP starting antiemetic therapy with promethazine, prochlorperazine, metoclopramide, or ondansetron at ≤ 16 weeks gestational age were eligible. The study recruited 29 women with complete data and sampling who returned for their one week follow-up and were genotyped for HTR3A and HTR3B polymorphisms. Severity of NVP was captured (using Pregnancy Unique Quantification of Emesis (PUQE) and Quality of Life (QOL) tools) upon enrollment and after one week of antiemetic therapy. These measures were correlated with pharmacogenetic variability. Results Subjects with genotype associated with high serotonin affinity of the 5-HT3B receptor (rs1176744, CC) required more antiemetic medications (p < 0.001) than other subjects. Those with genotypes associated with increased expression of the 5-HT3A receptor subunit (rs1062613, CT or TT) had worse final PUQE scores (p = 0.01) than other subjects while rs3782025 variants carriers had significantly better initial (p = 0.02) and final (p = 0.02) PUQE scores than other subjects. Conclusions HTR3B and HTR3A gene variants may contribute to variability in response to antiemetic therapy for NVP. PMID:23786674

  5. Preliminary efficacy and safety of an oromucosal standardized cannabis extract in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Marta; Pérez, Eulàlia; Abanades, Sergio; Vidal, Xavier; Saura, Cristina; Majem, Margarita; Arriola, Edurne; Rabanal, Manel; Pastor, Antoni; Farré, Magí; Rams, Neus; Laporte, Joan-Ramon; Capellà, Dolors

    2010-01-01

    AIMS Despite progress in anti-emetic treatment, many patients still suffer from chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). This is a pilot, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II clinical trial designed to evaluate the tolerability, preliminary efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of an acute dose titration of a whole-plant cannabis-based medicine (CBM) containing delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, taken in conjunction with standard therapies in the control of CINV. METHODS Patients suffering from CINV despite prophylaxis with standard anti-emetic treatment were randomized to CBM or placebo, during the 120 h post-chemotherapy period, added to standard anti-emetic treatment. Tolerability was measured as the number of withdrawals from the study during the titration period because of adverse events (AEs). The endpoint for the preliminary efficacy analysis was the proportion of patients showing complete or partial response. RESULTS Seven patients were randomized to CBM and nine to placebo. Only one patient in the CBM arm was withdrawn due to AEs. A higher proportion of patients in the CBM group experienced a complete response during the overall observation period [5/7 (71.4%) with CMB vs. 2/9 (22.2%) with placebo, the difference being 49.2% (95% CI 1%, 75%)], due to the delayed period. The incidence of AEs was higher in the CBM group (86% vs. 67%). No serious AEs were reported. The mean daily dose was 4.8 sprays in both groups. CONCLUSION Compared with placebo, CBM added to standard antiemetic therapy was well tolerated and provided better protection against delayed CINV. These results should be confirmed in a phase III clinical trial. PMID:21039759

  6. Determinants of Adherence to Delayed-Release Doxylamine and Pyridoxine in Patients with Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Costantine, Maged M.; Matok, Ilan; Chiossi, Guisseppe; Clark, Shannon; Miodovnik, Menachem; Umans, Jason G.; Caritis, Steve; Hankins, Gary D.V.; Koren, Gideon

    2012-01-01

    Objective Women often hesitate to take medications in pregnancy due to fears of perceived potential fetal damage. The authors’ objective is to identify the determinants of adherence to delayed release doxylamine-pyridoxine (Diclectin®) in patients with nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP). Methods The authors performed a pre-specified secondary analysis of a multicenter double blind randomized controlled trial of Diclectin® vs. placebo for the treatment of NVP. Data on adherence to study medication were collected in all patients. The primary outcome of this analysis was adherence with study medication, which was determined by pill counting and patient diaries. The treatment regimen in the original trial was not fixed and depended on patient’s symptoms. There was no difference in the adherence rates between subjects in the Diclectin® or placebo arms of the study, so the 2 arms were analyzed as one cohort. The degree of adherence was analyzed in the various subgroups. Subsequently, a multiple linear regression model was constructed to identify predictors to adherence. Results 258 women were included in this analysis. There was no difference in adherence rates according to ethnicity, race or the presence of adverse events. Gravidity, average number of prescribed tablets per day, site of enrollment, and change in NVP severity measured by the pregnancy unique-quantification of emesis (PUQE) score were associated with adherence. In multivariable analysis, average number of tablets per day, change in PUQE, number of treatment days, site of enrollment were significantly predictive of adherence, with the former being negatively correlated. Conclusion adherence to antinauseants for NVP is affected by number of tablets prescribed per day, and treatment duration and effectiveness. PMID:22972538

  7. The safety of higher than standard dose of doxylamine-pyridoxine (Diclectin) for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Atanackovic, G; Navioz, Y; Moretti, M E; Koren, G

    2001-08-01

    A delayed-release combination of doxylamine-pyridoxine (D-P) (Diclectin) is the only approved antiemetic medication for use in pregnancy in Canada. The standard recommended dose is up to 4 tablets a day, regardless of body weight or severity of symptoms. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of adverse maternal and fetal effects and pregnancy outcome in 225 women taking Diclectin at the recommended (n = 123) or higher than recommended (n = 102) doses. In this observational, prospective study, one-third (33.6%) of women reported having adverse effects (sleepiness, tiredness, and/or drowsiness) temporally related to the medication. There was no association between the dose per kg and rates of reported maternal adverse effects with doses ranging from 0.1 mg/kg to 2.0 mg/kg (1-12 tablets). Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) was reported as severe by the majority (75.8%) of women. Mean birth weight (BW) was 3,400 g and gestational age (GA) 39 weeks. Multivariate analysis revealed that only prepregnancy weight and GA predicted lower BW, not the dose of D-P or the severity of NVP. There were two pregnancies with major malformation, a finding that is consistent with the rates of birth defects in the general population. It was concluded that the higher than standard dose of Diclectin, when calculated per kg of body weight, does not affect either the incidence of maternal adverse effects or pregnancy outcome. If needed, Diclectin can be given at doses higher than 4 tablets/day to normalize for body weight or optimize efficacy.

  8. Nausea and Vomiting (PDQ)

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the body. Mental changes. Loss of appetite . Malnutrition . Dehydration . A torn esophagus. Broken bones. Reopening of ... motion sickness. A history of morning sickness. Dehydration . Malnutrition . Recent surgery . Radiation therapy . Patients who have acute ...

  9. Nausea and Vomiting

    MedlinePlus

    ... of HELICOBACTER PYLORI. See your doctor. Use an antacid to relieve pain and discomfort. You may need ... eating? Yes You may have HEARTBURN. Use an antacid to relieve pain and discomfort. If the pain ...

  10. Loss of Interstitial Cells of Cajal and Patterns of Gastric Dysrhythmia in Patients with Chronic Unexplained Nausea and Vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Angeli, Timothy R.; Cheng, Leo K.; Du, Peng; Wang, Tim Hsu-Han; Bernard, Cheryl E.; Vannucchi, Maria-Giuliana; Faussone-Pellegrini, Maria Simonetta; Lahr, Christopher; Vather, Ryash; Windsor, John A.; Farrugia, Gianrico; Abell, Thomas L.; O’Grady, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Chronic unexplained nausea and vomiting (CUNV) is a debilitating disease of unknown cause. Symptoms of CUNV substantially overlap with those of gastroparesis, so the diseases therefore may share pathophysiologic features. We investigated this hypothesis by quantifying densities of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) and mapping slow wave abnormalities in patients with CUNV vs controls. Methods Clinical data and gastric biopsy specimens were collected from 9 consecutive patients with at least 6 months of continuous symptoms of CUNV, but normal gastric emptying, treated at the University of Mississippi Medical Center, and from 9 controls (individuals undergoing bariatric surgery but free of gastrointestinal disease or diabetes). ICCs were counted and ultrastructural analyses were performed on tissue samples. Slow-wave propagation profiles were defined by high-resolution electrical mapping (256 electrodes; 36 cm2). Results from patients with CUNV were compared to those of controls as well as patients with gastroparesis who were previously studied by identical methods. Results Patients with CUNV had fewer ICCs than controls (mean 3.5 vs 5.6 bodies/field; P<.05), with mild ultrastructural abnormalities in the remaining ICCs. Slow-wave dysrhythmias were identified in all 9 subjects with CUNV vs only 1/9 controls. Dysrhythmias included abnormalities of initiation (stable ectopic pacemakers, unstable focal activities) and conduction (retrograde propagation, wave front collisions, conduction blocks, and re-entry), operating across bradygastric, normal (range 2.4−3.7 cycles/min), and tachygastric frequencies; dysrhythmias showed velocity anisotropy (mean 3.3 mm/s longitudinal vs 7.6 mm/s circumferential, P<.01). ICCs were less depleted in patients with CUNV than those with gastroparesis (mean 3.5 vs 2.3 bodies/field; P<.05), but slow-wave dysrhythmias were similar between groups. Conclusions This study defined cellular and bioelectrical abnormalities in

  11. Appropriateness of Taped versus Live Relaxation in the Systematic Desensitization of Anticipatory Nausea and Vomiting in Cancer Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Gary R.

    1984-01-01

    Investigated whether the relaxation part of systematic desensitization could be learned by cancer patients from a prerecorded audiotape. Results showed four of five patients assigned to a taped-relaxation group experienced nausea while listening to the audiotape, whereas none of five patients taught muscle relaxation in person reported nausea. (BH)

  12. Prophylaxis of Radiation-Induced Nausea and Vomiting Using 5-Hydroxytryptamine-3 Serotonin Receptor Antagonists: A Systematic Review of Randomized Trials

    SciTech Connect

    Salvo, Nadia; Doble, Brett; Khan, Luluel; Amirthevasar, Gayathri; Dennis, Kristopher; Pasetka, Mark; DeAngelis, Carlo; Tsao, May; Chow, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To systematically review the effectiveness and safety of 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor antagonists (5-HT3 RAs) compared with other antiemetic medication or placebo for prophylaxis of radiation-induced nausea and vomiting. Methods and Materials: We searched the following electronic databases: MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials, and Web of Science. We also hand-searched reference lists of included studies. Randomized, controlled trials that compared a 5-HT3 RA with another antiemetic medication or placebo for preventing radiation-induced nausea and vomiting were included. We excluded studies recruiting patients receiving concomitant chemotherapy. When appropriate, meta-analysis was conducted using Review Manager (v5) software. Relative risks were calculated using inverse variance as the statistical method under a random-effects model. We assessed the quality of evidence by outcome using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. Results: Eligibility screening of 47 articles resulted in 9 included in the review. The overall methodologic quality was moderate. Meta-analysis of 5-HT3 RAs vs. placebo showed significant benefit for 5-HT3 RAs (relative risk [RR] 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57-0.86 for emesis; RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.73-0.96 for nausea). Meta-analysis comparing 5-HT3 RAs vs. metoclopramide showed a significant benefit of the 5-HT3 RAs for emetic control (RR 0.27, 95% CI 0.15-0.47). Conclusion: 5-Hydroxytryptamine-3 RAs are superior to placebo and other antiemetics for prevention of emesis, but little benefit was identified for nausea prevention. 5-Hydroxytryptamine-3 RAs are suggested for prevention of emesis. Limited evidence was found regarding delayed emesis, adverse events, quality of life, or need for rescue medication. Future randomized, controlled trials should evaluate different 5-HT3 antiemetics and new agents with novel mechanisms of action such at the NK

  13. Does pharmacogenomics account for variability in control of acute chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting with 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor antagonists?

    PubMed

    Trammel, Morgan; Roederer, Mary; Patel, Jai; McLeod, Howard

    2013-06-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting is one of the most concerning adverse drug effects from cytotoxic chemotherapy. Despite appropriate use of antiemetic guidelines, 20-30 % of patients experience breakthrough nausea and vomiting secondary to chemotherapy. To assess the variability of 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor antagonist efficacy caused by genetic variation, a review of the available literature was conducted. From the literature, three sources of pharmacogenomic variability were identified: polymorphisms associated with 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor subunits, drug metabolism via cytochromes P450, and drug transport in the body. Testing for receptor subunit polymorphisms is not applicable to a clinical setting at this time; however, cytochrome P450 2D6 testing is FDA-approved and widely accessible. Cytochrome P450 2D6 ultrarapid metabolizers and poor metabolizers displayed altered antiemetic efficacy when compared with intermediate metabolizers and extensive metabolizers. We postulate that testing for cytochrome P450 2D6 phenotypes may be the most accessible way to provide individualized antiemetic therapy in the future.

  14. The efficacy of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists for the prevention of postoperative vomiting following craniotomy: two studies in children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, Susan M; Newburn-Cook, Christine V

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to estimate the efficacy of prophylactic administration of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists for postoperative vomiting (POV) in pediatric craniotomy patients at 24 hours. By updating a previously published systematic literature search, we found a recently published pediatric study to combine with the one already identified. The two published randomized placebo-controlled trials were combined for a total of 135 participants aged 2 to 20 (79 treatment and 56 controls). The only study drug was ondansetron. The combined relative risk (RR) of vomiting was not statistically significant in the treatment group compared to the control group (RR = 0.77; 95% CI: 0.50-1.19). There was also no evidence of efficacy for ondansetron in reducing the use of rescue antiemetics in the treatment group compared to the control group (RR = .71; 95% CI: 0.34-1.49). While combining these randomized placebo-controlled trials did not show efficacy for ondansetron in preventing POV in craniotomy patients aged 2 to 20, a clinically significant effect cannot be excluded, as even the combined sample size remained small. Thus, there is no current evidence for or against this class of drugs for preventing POV in children after craniotomy, and clinical decision-making must be based on studies in other populations and clinical experience. Ongoing assessment of nausea and vomiting and ongoing evaluation of the effectiveness of treatments in individual children and young adults remains an essential part of perianesthesia and postoperative neuroscience nursing. PMID:19397073

  15. [Clinical study on the inhibitory effect of a 5-HT3 antagonist, granisetron, for nausea and vomiting induced by chemotherapy (CHOP, VEPA, high-dose ETP) for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Sasai, Y; Misawa, S; Iwai, T; Tamura, A; Nakazawa, N; Ueda, Y; Kaneko, H; Horiike, S; Yokota, S; Taniwaki, M; Kashima, K; Tsuda, S; Ookawara, Y; Nakao, M; Nakagawa, H; Fujii, H

    1998-04-01

    The antiemetic effect of granisetron on nausea and vomiting induced by cancer chemotherapy (CHOP, VEPA, VEPA-B, massive dose of ETP) was studied in fifty patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. There was almost no difference in the inhibitory effect by regimen, with the rates of perfect inhibition of nausea and vomiting standing at 55.6% to 60%. Nausea and vomiting was perfectly controlled in 60% of 35 patients receiving CHOP therapy. As a part of this study, a comparison was made of perfect inhibitory effect on nausea and vomiting by potency of chemotherapy under the potency scale of 750 mg/m2 of CPA as 1, revealing no significant difference in the rates of complete inhibition as 71.4% for a drug potency of less than 0.8 vs 52.4% for 0.8 or above (p = 0.26). However, it was clear that the higher the dose of chemotherapy, the lower the rate of complete inhibition. The results confirmed the high efficacy and safety of granisetron in the treatment of nausea and vomiting induced by cancer chemotherapy.

  16. Granisetron, Aprepitant, and Dexamethasone in Preventing Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Receiving Chemotherapy for Stage II, III, or IV Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-16

    Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Nausea and Vomiting; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  17. Characteristics of women with nausea and vomiting of pregnancy who chose to continue compassionate use of placebo after a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Matok, I; Umans, J; Feghali, M N; Clark, S; Caritis, S; Miodovnik, M; Hankins, G; Mattison, D R; Nordeng, H; Koren, G

    2013-08-01

    The placebo effect has not been characterised in pregnant women suffering from nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP). Our aim was to characterise determinants of the placebo effect in women treated with placebo for NVP. We analysed data from a multicentre, double blind randomised controlled trial of Diclectin (delayed release doxylamine and pyridoxine) vs placebo for the treatment of NVP. A total of 127 women in the placebo arm and 130 in the active arm provided evaluable data for this analysis. Women who chose to continue placebo on a compassionate basis (n = 41) had significantly better improvement in symptoms of NVP and higher Wellbeing scores than those who did not ask to continue compassionate use. Results were similar in the active drug arm. The request to continue compassionate use of either placebo or active drug could be predicted by greater improvement in symptoms of NVP during the trial period.

  18. The delayed-release combination of doxylamine and pyridoxine (Diclegis®/Diclectin ®) for the treatment of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Madjunkova, Svetlana; Maltepe, Caroline; Koren, Gideon

    2014-06-01

    Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) affects up to 85 % of all pregnancies. Effective treatment can greatly improve a woman's quality of life, reduce the risk for maternal and fetal complications, and reduce healthcare costs. Unfortunately, many women receive either no pharmacological treatment or are recommended therapies for which fetal safety and efficacy have not been established. First-line treatment of NVP, as recommended by several leading healthcare and professional organizations, is the combination of doxylamine and pyridoxine. This combination, formulated as a 10 mg/10 mg delayed-release tablet, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of NVP in April 2013 under the brand name Diclegis(®), and has been on the Canadian market since 1979, currently under the brand name Diclectin(®). The efficacy of Diclegis(®)/Diclectin(®) has been demonstrated in several clinical trials, and, more importantly, studies on more than 200,000 women exposed to doxylamine and pyridoxine in the first trimester of pregnancy have demonstrated no increased fetal risk for congenital malformations and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. The present review aims to present the scientific evidence on the effectiveness and fetal safety of Diclegis(®)/Diclectin(®) for the treatment of NVP to justify its use as first-line treatment for NVP.

  19. Effect of Brain Stem and Dorsal Vagus Complex Dosimetry on Nausea and Vomiting in Head and Neck Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ciura, Katherine; McBurney, Michelle; Nguyen, Baongoc; Pham, Mary; Rebueno, Neal; Fuller, Clifton D.; Guha-Thakurta, Nandita; Rosenthal, David I.

    2011-04-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is becoming the treatment of choice for many head and neck cancer patients. IMRT reduces some toxicities by reducing radiation dose to uninvolved normal tissue near tumor targets; however, other tissues not irradiated using previous 3D techniques may receive clinically significant doses, causing undesirable side effects including nausea and vomiting (NV). Irradiation of the brainstem, and more specifically, the area postrema and dorsal vagal complex (DVC), has been linked to NV. We previously reported preliminary hypothesis-generating dose effects associated with NV in IMRT patients. The goal of this study is to relate brainstem dose to NV symptoms. We retrospectively studied 100 consecutive patients that were treated for oropharyngeal cancer with IMRT. We contoured the brainstem, area postrema, and DVC with the assistance of an expert diagnostic neuroradiologist. We correlated dosimetry for the 3 areas contoured with weekly NV rates during IMRT. NV rates were significantly higher for patients who received concurrent chemotherapy. Post hoc analysis demonstrated that chemoradiation cases exhibited a trend towards the same dose-response relationship with both brainstem mean dose (p = 0.0025) and area postrema mean dose (p = 0.004); however, both failed to meet statistical significance at the p {<=} 0.002 level. Duration of toxicity was also greater for chemoradiation patients, who averaged 3.3 weeks with reported Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTC-AE), compared with an average of 2 weeks for definitive RT patients (p = 0.002). For definitive RT cases, no dose-response trend could be ascertained. The mean brainstem dose emerged as a key parameter of interest; however, no one dose parameter (mean/median/EUD) best correlated with NV. This study does not address extraneous factors that would affect NV incidence, including the use of antiemetics, nor chemotherapy dose schedule specifics before and during RT. A

  20. Validation of a food-frequency questionnaire for assessing vitamin intake of Japanese women in early and late pregnancy with and without nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Jwa, Seung Chik; Ogawa, Kohei; Kobayashi, Minatsu; Morisaki, Naho; Sago, Haruhiko; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    Maternal vitamin intake during pregnancy is crucial for pregnancy outcomes and the child's subsequent health. However, there are few valid instruments for assessing vitamin intake that address the effects of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP). This study aimed to investigate the validity of a FFQ concerning vitamin intake during early and late pregnancy with and without NVP. The participants comprised 200 Japanese pregnant women who completed the FFQ and from whom blood samples were taken in early and late pregnancy. Energy-adjusted dietary vitamin intakes (vitamin C, folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin A, vitamin E and vitamin D) from FFQ were compared with their blood concentrations. A subgroup of women with NVP was investigated. In early pregnancy, significant correlations between FFQ and biomarkers were observed for vitamin C (r 0·27), folate (r 0·18) and vitamin D (r 0·26) in women with NVP and for vitamin A (r 0·18), vitamin B12 (r 0·24) and vitamin D (r 0·23) in women without NVP. No significant correlations were observed in either group for vitamins B6 or E. In late pregnancy, similar significant associations were observed for vitamin C (r 0·27), folate (r 0·22), vitamin B6 (r 0·18), vitamin B12 (r 0·27) and vitamin A (r 0·15); coefficients were higher among women without NVP. Our study demonstrates that the FFQ is a useful tool for assessing intake of several important vitamins in early and late pregnancy regardless of NVP status. PMID:27547390

  1. Nausea and acupressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... make you feel better. It is similar to acupuncture. Acupressure and acupuncture work by changing the pain messages that nerves ... the wrist, it presses on these pressure points. Acupuncture is often used for nausea or vomiting related ...

  2. Phase III Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Gabapentin for the Prevention of Delayed Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Receiving Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy, NCCTG N08C3 (Alliance)

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Debra L.; Thanarajasingam, Gita; Sloan, Jeff A.; Diekmann, Brent; Fuloria, Jyotsna; Kottschade, Lisa A.; Lyss, Alan P.; Jaslowski, Anthony J.; Mazurczak, Miroslaw A.; Blair, Scott C.; Terstriep, Shelby; Loprinzi, Charles L.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Despite targeted antiemetics, data support an unmet need related to the management of delayed nausea and vomiting (NV). Promising pilot data informed this phase III trial evaluating gabapentin for delayed NV from highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC). METHODS Participants were randomized to receive prophylactic treatment with 20 mg of dexamethasone and a 5HT3 receptor antagonist (RA) on the day of chemotherapy, followed by gabapentin 300 mg twice a day and dexamethasone (dex) or placebo and dex after HEC. Gabapentin/placebo was started the day of chemotherapy and continued through day 5 for the first chemotherapy cycle, whereas dex was titrated down on days 2–4. The primary end point was complete response (CR), defined as no emesis and no use of rescue medications on days 2–6, using an NV diary. The percentages of those in each group with a CR were compared by Fisher’s exact test. RESULTS Four hundred thirty patients were enrolled in this study. Forty-seven percent of patients in the gabapentin arm and 41% in the placebo arm had a CR (P = .23). Mean number of emesis episodes was <0.5 daily, and mean nausea severity was <2 (mild). In both arms, patient satisfaction with NV control was greater than 8 (with 10 being perfectly satisfied). There were no significant differences in unwanted side effects. CONCLUSIONS In this study, gabapentin did not significantly improve delayed NV. Patients were satisfied with the control of their nausea and vomiting irrespective of arm. The use of a 5HT3 RA and dexamethasone provided good control of nausea and vomiting for most patients. PMID:25043153

  3. Children's vomiting following posterior fossa surgery: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Neufeld, Susan M; Newburn-Cook, Christine V; Schopflocher, Donald; Dundon, Belinda; Yu, Herta; Drummond, Jane E

    2009-01-01

    Background Nausea and vomiting is a problem for children after neurosurgery and those requiring posterior fossa procedures appear to have a high incidence. This clinical observation has not been quantified nor have risk factors unique to this group of children been elucidated. Methods A six year retrospective chart audit at two Canadian children's hospitals was conducted. The incidence of nausea and vomiting was extracted. Hierarchical multivariable logistic regression was used to quantify risk and protective factors at 120 hours after surgery and early vs. late vomiting. Results The incidence of vomiting over a ten day postoperative period was 76.7%. Documented vomiting ranged from single events to greater than 20 over the same period. In the final multivariable model: adolescents (age 12 to <17) were less likely to vomit by 120 hours after surgery than other age groups; those who received desflurane, when compared to all other volatile anesthetics, were more likely to vomit, yet the use of ondansetron with desflurane decre kelihood. Children who had intraoperative ondansetron were more likely to vomit in the final multivariable model (perhaps because of its use, in the clinical judgment of the anesthesiologist, for children considered at risk). Children who started vomiting in the first 24 hours were more likely to be school age (groups 4 to <7 and 7 to <12) and receive desflurane. Nausea was not well documented and was therefore not analyzed. Conclusion The incidence of vomiting in children after posterior fossa surgery is sufficient to consider all children requiring these procedures to be at high risk for POV. Nausea requires better assessment and documentation. PMID:19594935

  4. Endocannabinoid Mechanisms Influencing Nausea.

    PubMed

    Sticht, Martin A; Rock, Erin M; Limebeer, Cheryl L; Parker, Linda A

    2015-01-01

    One of the first recognized medical uses of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol was treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Although vomiting is well controlled with the currently available non-cannabinoid antiemetics, nausea continues to be a distressing side effect of chemotherapy and other disorders. Indeed, when nausea becomes conditionally elicited by the cues associated with chemotherapy treatment, known as anticipatory nausea (AN), currently available antiemetics are largely ineffective. Considerable evidence demonstrates that the endocannabinoid system regulates nausea in humans and other animals. In this review, we describe recent evidence suggesting that cannabinoids and manipulations that enhance the functioning of the natural endocannabinoid system are promising treatments for both acute nausea and AN.

  5. Safety, efficacy, and patient acceptability of single-dose fosaprepitant regimen for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Celio, Luigi; Ricchini, Francesca; De Braud, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    Control of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a crucial factor in ensuring that patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy can get the full benefit of therapy. Current antiemetic guidelines recommend that the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) antagonist aprepitant should be used as part of a combination regimen with dexamethasone and a serotonin receptor antagonist for the prevention of CINV in patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC). Fosaprepitant is a water-soluble N-phosphoryl derivative of aprepitant that, when infused, is rapidly metabolized back to an active aprepitant. The existing literature in PubMed about fosaprepitant was screened and selected in order to address the emerging data from two randomized clinical trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of a single-dose fosaprepitant regimen. These phase III trials demonstrated that fosaprepitant given as a single intravenous dose of 150 mg was either noninferior to the conventional 3-day aprepitant or significantly superior to placebo for the prevention of acute and delayed CINV in patients receiving high-dose cisplatin. In both trials, fosaprepitant was well tolerated although more frequent infusion-site adverse events were observed with fosaprepitant. The new dosage regimen of fosaprepitant, therefore, would be an option for CINV control in patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy. The clinical efficacy is consistent with the findings from a time-on-target, positron-emission tomography study evaluating the NK-1R occupancy in the central nervous system (CNS) over 5 days after a single-dose infusion of 150 mg fosaprepitant in healthy participants. The single-dose regimen is capable of blocking more than 90% of the NK-1Rs in the CNS for at least 48 hours after infusion, which is sufficient to control delayed CINV for 2 to 5 days after HEC. The new dosage regimen of fosaprepitant can provide a simplified treatment option that maintains high protection while ensuring adherence

  6. Radiology case of the month. Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea in a patient with hepatitis C and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Diffuse, severe gastric-wall thickening, consistent with edema.

    PubMed

    Mabry, Christian; Hutchings, John; Sanders, Charles; Neitzschman, Harold

    2012-01-01

    The patient is a 42-year-old male with a past medical history of HIV/AIDS (his most recent CD4 count, four months before admission, was 19) and hepatitis C who presented to the Emergency Department complaining of one week of persistent nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. His admit labs were as follows: hemoglobin of 11.8, hematocrit of 35, total protein of 6.0, albumin of 1.6, total bilirubin of 2.3, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) of 141, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) of 146, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of 31. Computed tomography (CT) images of the abdomen and pelvis with contrast were obtained (Figures 1 - 4).

  7. Fosaprepitant Dimeglumine, Palonosetron Hydrochloride, and Dexamethasone in Preventing Nausea and Vomiting Caused by Cisplatin in Patients With Stage III or Stage IV Head and Neck Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-05-07

    Nausea and Vomiting; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx

  8. Single-dose fosaprepitant for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting associated with moderately emetogenic chemotherapy: results of a randomized, double-blind phase III trial†

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, C.; Jordan, K.; Green, S. A.; Camacho, E.; Khanani, S.; Beckford-Brathwaite, E.; Vallejos, W.; Liang, L. W.; Noga, S. J.; Rapoport, B. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background To establish the role of antiemetic therapy with neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor antagonists (RAs) in nonanthracycline and cyclophosphamide (AC)-based moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC) regimens, this study evaluated single-dose intravenous (i.v.) fosaprepitant for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) associated with non-AC MEC. Patients and methods In this international, phase III, double-blind trial, adult cancer subjects scheduled to receive ≥1 non-AC MEC on day 1 were randomized to a regimen comprising single-dose i.v. fosaprepitant 150 mg or placebo along with ondansetron and dexamethasone on day 1; control regimen recipients received ondansetron on days 2 and 3. Primary end points were the proportion of subjects achieving a complete response (CR; no vomiting and no use of rescue medication) in the delayed phase (25–120 h after MEC initiation) and safety. Secondary end points included CR in the overall and acute phases (0–120 and 0–24 h after MEC initiation, respectively) and no vomiting in the overall phase. Nausea and the Functional Living Index-Emesis were assessed as exploratory end points. Results The fosaprepitant regimen improved CR significantly in the delayed (78.9% versus 68.5%; P < 0.001) and overall (77.1% versus 66.9%; P < 0.001) phases, but not in the acute phase (93.2% versus 91.0%; P = 0.184), versus control. In the overall phase, the proportion of subjects with no vomiting (82.7% versus 72.9%; P < 0.001) and no significant nausea (83.2% versus 77.9%; P = 0.030) was also significantly improved with the fosaprepitant regimen. The fosaprepitant regimen was generally well tolerated. Conclusion Single-dose fosaprepitant added to a 5-HT3 RA and dexamethasone was well tolerated and demonstrated superior control of CINV (primary end point achieved) associated with non-AC MEC. This is the first study to evaluate NK1 RA therapy as an i.v. formulation in a well-defined non-AC MEC population. Clinical

  9. Emetophobia: A fear of vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Faye, Abhijeet D.; Gawande, Sushil; Tadke, Rahul; Kirpekar, Vivek C.; Bhave, Sudhir H.

    2013-01-01

    Emetophobia is an intense, irrational fear of vomiting including fear of feeling nausea, seeing or hearing another person vomit, or seeing vomitus itself. It may occur at any age and we need to understand its symptomatology. We report a case of emetophobic child whose fear of vomiting started after an attack of acute appendicitis. In the initial stage, fear was limited to vomiting, later it became generalized to a fear of seeing the vomitus, worries that parents may suffer vomiting, fear of vomiting in public places followed by avoiding social activities. Patient improved on short course of anti-anxiety drugs and Graded Exposure Therapy. PMID:24459314

  10. A retrospective study of R-CHOP/CHOP therapy-induced nausea and vomiting in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients: a comparison of intravenous and oral 5-HT3 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Tsutomu; Kumanomidou, Satoshi; Takami, Saki; Okada, Takahiro; Adachi, Koji; Jo, Yumi; Ikejiri, Fumiyoshi; Onishi, Chie; Kawakami, Koshi; Miyake, Takaaki; Inoue, Masaya; Moriyama, Ichiro; Suzuki, Ritsuro; Suzumiya, Junji

    2016-09-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a serious problem for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. The CHOP regimen is the standard treatment for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and is categorized as highly or moderately emetogenic in the CINV guidelines. The efficacy of oral 5-HT3 receptor antagonists is equivalent to that of the intravenous form in patients with solid tumors, but there is no clear comparative data for the use of these agents NHL patients receiving CHOP. We analyzed retrospective CINV data from medical records of 72 NHL patients who received CHOP or rituximab-combined CHOP therapy (R-CHOP). All patients received 5-HT3 receptor antagonists alone for prevention of CINV; 39 of the patients received an intravenous form (mostly granisetron) and 33 an oral form (all ramosetron). Complete response (CR: defined as no vomiting and no rescue therapy) was observed in 58 of 72 patients (80.6 %) overall (0-120 h post-CHOP). The CR rate was not statistically different in patients treated with oral or intravenous 5-HT3 receptor antagonists (82.1 vs 78.8 %, P = 0.77). These findings suggest that oral 5-HT3 receptor antagonists represent a good alternative to intravenous forms in NHL receiving CHOP/R-CHOP chemotherapy. Further studies are needed to identify the optimal anti-emetic supportive therapy for NHL. PMID:27312042

  11. Addition of the Neurokinin-1-Receptor Antagonist (RA) Aprepitant to a 5-Hydroxytryptamine-RA and Dexamethasone in the Prophylaxis of Nausea and Vomiting Due to Radiation Therapy With Concomitant Cisplatin

    SciTech Connect

    Jahn, Franziska; Jahn, Patrick; Sieker, Frank; Vordermark, Dirk; Jordan, Karin

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: To assess, in a prospective, observational study, the safety and efficacy of the addition of the neurokinin-1-receptor antagonist (NK1-RA) aprepitant to concomitant radiochemotherapy, for the prophylaxis of radiation therapy–induced nausea and vomiting. Patients and Methods: This prospective observational study compared the antiemetic efficacy of an NK1-RA (aprepitant), a 5-hydroxytryptamine-RA, and dexamethasone (aprepitant regimen) versus a 5-hydroxytryptamine-RA and dexamethasone (control regimen) in patients receiving concomitant radiochemotherapy with cisplatin at the Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Halle (Saale), Germany. The primary endpoint was complete response in the overall phase, defined as no vomiting and no use of rescue therapy in this period. Results: Fifty-nine patients treated with concomitant radiochemotherapy with cisplatin were included in this study. Thirty-one patients received the aprepitant regimen and 29 the control regimen. The overall complete response rates for cycles 1 and 2 were 75.9% and 64.5% for the aprepitant group and 60.7% and 54.2% for the control group, respectively. Although a 15.2% absolute difference was reached in cycle 1, a statistical significance was not detected (P=.22). Furthermore maximum nausea was 1.58 ± 1.91 in the control group and 0.73 ± 1.79 in the aprepitant group (P=.084); for the head-and-neck subset, 2.23 ± 2.13 in the control group and 0.64 ± 1.77 in the aprepitant group, respectively (P=.03). Conclusion: This is the first study of an NK1-RA–containing antiemetic prophylaxis regimen in patients receiving concomitant radiochemotherapy. Although the primary endpoint was not obtained, the absolute difference of 10% in efficacy was reached, which is defined as clinically meaningful for patients by international guidelines groups. Randomized phase 3 studies are necessary to further define the potential role of an NK1-RA in this setting.

  12. The neurophysiology of vomiting.

    PubMed

    Andrews, P L; Hawthorn, J

    1988-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting can be induced by a wide variety of stimuli such as pregnancy, space travel, raised intracranial pressure, radiation and cytotoxic drugs. The mechanisms by which all these diverse stimuli culminate in a final common act is unknown. From studies in the 1950s a model of the emetic reflex emerged consisting of a chemoreceptor trigger zone in the area postrema and a vomiting centre in the brain stem. This concept has been reviewed and revised in the light of recent studies. Many discussions of emesis involve detailed descriptions of the gastrointestinal events associated with the act of vomiting only-nausea and retching receiving little attention. Here we have tried to give a broader view by considering the neurophysiology of such events and have included nausea and retching, phenomena that are usually inseparable from vomiting. The possible biological function of these events is also discussed. The involvement of visceral systems (such as the heart, airways and gut) is included, and particular attention is paid to vagal mechanisms underlying the changes in gut motor activity. Emesis has long been thought to be organized by a 'vomiting centre'; the possibility that this vomiting centre could be the parvocellular reticular formation is reviewed, as is the concept that the 'centre' is larger than an anatomically defined single group of cells. The mechanism of action of two clinically relevant emetic stimuli--radiation and cytotoxic drugs-is considered in detail. Recent studies of the antiemetic properties of novel 5-HT-3 receptor antagonists against radiation and cytotoxic drug-induced vomiting are discussed; these studies suggest that important advances will be made in the treatment of emesis induced by these and other related agents.

  13. Clinical Practices and Outcomes on Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting Management in South Korea: Comparison with Asia-Pacific Data of the Pan Australasian Chemotherapy Induced Emesis Burden of Illness Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myung Ah; Cho, Eun Kyung; Oh, Sung Yong; Ahn, Joong Bae; Lee, Ji Yun; Thomas, Burke; Jung, Hun; Kim, Jong Gwang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study reported patient outcomes of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) prophylaxis for highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) and moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC) regimens and evaluated its adherence to acute-phase CINV prophylaxis in the Korean population subset of the Pan Australasian Chemotherapy Induced Emesis burden of illness (PrACTICE) study. Materials and Methods This subgroup analysis evaluated 158 Korean patients receiving HEC or MEC and compared the data (wherever possible) with that of 648 patients from the Asia-Pacific (AP) region. Study endpoints included evaluation of primary CINV prophylaxis and adherence to acute-phase CINV prophylaxis in cycle 1 (American Society of Clinical Oncology [ASCO] Quality Oncology Practice Initiative [QOPI]). Results In South Korea and the AP, a 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor antagonist (5HT3-RA) prophylaxis for the acute phase was administered to 79/80 patients (98.8%) for HEC and 70/71 patients (98.6%) for MEC regimens (QOPI-1). Triple regimen (corticosteroid–5HT3-RA–neurokinin 1-RA) was initiated in 46/80 patients (57.5%) for prophylaxis of acute CINV in cycle 1 of HEC (QOPI-3). Double regimen (corticosteroid–5HT3-RA, with or within NK1-RA) was initiated in 61/71 patients (83.1%) for control of acute CINV in cycle 1 of MEC a(QOPI-2). Conclusion Active management of CINV is necessary in cycle 1 of HEC in South Korea, despite higher rates than the AP region. Adherence to the international guidelines for CINV prophylaxis requires attention in the acute phase in cycle 1 of the HEC regimen. PMID:26875197

  14. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Nausea and Vomiting

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tea ••Water ••Chicken—broiled or baked without the skin ••Cream of wheat or rice cereal ••Crackers or pretzels ••Oatmeal ••Pasta or noodles ••Potatoes—boiled, without the skin ••White rice ••White toast ••Bananas ••Canned fruit such ...

  15. Nausea and Vomiting in Infants and Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... is your infant throwing up small amounts of formula after a feeding? Yes This is probably "SPITTING UP," a common occurrence for infants on formula. Less common is a LACTOSE INTOLERANCE or MILK ...

  16. Prophylaxis and management of postoperative nausea and vomiting in enhanced recovery protocols: Expert Opinion statement from the American Society for Enhanced Recovery (ASER).

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ruchir; Soto, Roy

    2016-01-01

    International experience and evidence-based practices have shown that reduction in variability through use of protocolized perioperative care improves surgical outcomes and reduces costs to patients and healthcare systems. In this series of Expert Opinions, we provide consensus recommendations for the various components of perioperative care to aid with the development of enhanced recovery after surgery protocols.

  17. Preventing Vomiting Caused by Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... vomiting and help prevent these symptoms during future cycles of chemotherapy . It is very important to call or see your doctor if you cannot keep food or water in your body because of severe nausea and ...

  18. The role of platelet count, mean platelet volume, and the mean platelet volume/platelet count ratio in predicting postoperative vomiting in children after deep sedation

    PubMed Central

    Canpolat, Dilek G.; Dogruel, Fatma; Gönen, Zeynep B.; Yılmaz, Canay; Zararsız, Gökmen; Alkan, Alper

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the role of hemogram parameters such as platelet count (PLT), mean platelet volume (MPV), and the MPV/PLT ratio in predicting the risk of postoperative vomiting (POV) in children after tooth extraction under deep sedation. Methods: A total of 100 American Society of Anesthesiology Classification I and II pediatric patients who underwent tooth extraction procedures under a standard anesthetic method were included in the study between 2012 and 2014. The study took place at the Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Erciyes University, Erciyes, Turkey Fifty patients without POV (group 1) and 50 patients with POV (group 2) were retrospectively selected randomly from the records of 885 consecutive patients. Age, gender, duration of the operation, and preoperative hemogram findings were recorded. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between the 2 groups in terms of MPV (p<0.001), PLT (p=0.006), and MPV/PLT (p<0.001) ratio. Mean platelet volume and MPV/PLT ratio were higher in group 2, whereas PLT was higher in group 1. Conclusion: The PLT count, MPV, and MPV/PLT ratio may be used to predict POV in children. PMID:27652358

  19. Immediate postoperative complications in transsphenoidal pituitary surgery: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Tumul; Prabhakar, Hemanshu; Bithal, Parmod K.; Schaller, Bernhard; Dash, Hari Hara

    2014-01-01

    Background: Considering the important role of pituitary gland in regulating various endocrine axes and its unique anatomical location, various postoperative complications can be anticipated resulting from surgery on pituitary tumors. We examined and categorized the immediate postoperative complications according to various tumor pathologies. Materials and Methods: We carried out a prospective study in 152 consecutive patients and noted various postoperative complications during neurosurgical intensive care unit stay (within 48 hrs of hospital stay) in patients undergoing transsphenoidal removal of pituitary tumors. Results: In our series, various groups showed different postoperative complications out of which, cerebrospinal fluid leak was the commonest followed by diabetes insipidus, postoperative nausea and vomiting, and hematoma at operation site. Conclusion: Various immediate postoperative complications can be anticipated in transsphenoidal pituitary surgery even though, it is considered to be relatively safe. PMID:25191182

  20. Comparison of Postoperative Events between Spinal Anesthesia and General Anesthesia in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xian-Xue; Zhou, Quan; Pan, Dao-Bo; Deng, Hui-Wei; Zhou, Ai-Guo; Guo, Hua-Jing; Huang, Fu-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Background. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is usually carried out under general anesthesia. There were a few studies which have found spinal anesthesia as a safe alternative. We aimed to evaluate the postoperative events between spinal anesthesia and general anesthesia in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library (from inception to January 2016) for eligible studies. The primary outcome was the visual analogue scale score. Secondary outcomes included postoperative nausea and vomiting and urine retention 24 hours postoperatively. We calculated pooled risk ratios and 95% confidence interval using random- or fixed-effects models. Results. Eight trials involving 723 patients were listed. Meta-analysis showed that patients in spinal anesthesia groups have lower visual analogue scale score 24 hours postoperatively. There were significant decreases in the occurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting in spinal anesthesia group when compared with general anesthesia group (odds ratios: 0.38, 95% confidence interval: 0.19-0.76; P = 0.006) with heterogeneity accepted (I (2) = 13%; P = 0.33), while urine retention rate was increased in patients with spinal anesthesia (odds ratios: 4.95, 95% confidence interval: 1.24-19.71; P = 0.02) without any heterogeneity (I (2) = 0%; P = 0.98). Conclusions. Spinal anesthesia may be associated with less postoperative pain and postoperative nausea and vomiting compared with general anesthesia. PMID:27525282

  1. Comparison of Postoperative Events between Spinal Anesthesia and General Anesthesia in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xian-Xue; Zhou, Quan; Deng, Hui-Wei; Zhou, Ai-Guo; Guo, Hua-Jing; Huang, Fu-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Background. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is usually carried out under general anesthesia. There were a few studies which have found spinal anesthesia as a safe alternative. We aimed to evaluate the postoperative events between spinal anesthesia and general anesthesia in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library (from inception to January 2016) for eligible studies. The primary outcome was the visual analogue scale score. Secondary outcomes included postoperative nausea and vomiting and urine retention 24 hours postoperatively. We calculated pooled risk ratios and 95% confidence interval using random- or fixed-effects models. Results. Eight trials involving 723 patients were listed. Meta-analysis showed that patients in spinal anesthesia groups have lower visual analogue scale score 24 hours postoperatively. There were significant decreases in the occurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting in spinal anesthesia group when compared with general anesthesia group (odds ratios: 0.38, 95% confidence interval: 0.19–0.76; P = 0.006) with heterogeneity accepted (I2 = 13%; P = 0.33), while urine retention rate was increased in patients with spinal anesthesia (odds ratios: 4.95, 95% confidence interval: 1.24–19.71; P = 0.02) without any heterogeneity (I2 = 0%; P = 0.98). Conclusions. Spinal anesthesia may be associated with less postoperative pain and postoperative nausea and vomiting compared with general anesthesia. PMID:27525282

  2. Use of preoperative gabapentin significantly reduces postoperative opioid consumption: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Arumugam, Sudha; Lau, Christine SM; Chamberlain, Ronald S

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Effective postoperative pain management is crucial in the care of surgical patients. Opioids, which are commonly used in managing postoperative pain, have a potential for tolerance and addiction, along with sedating side effects. Gabapentin’s use as a multimodal analgesic regimen to treat neuropathic pain has been documented as having favorable side effects. This meta-analysis examined the use of preoperative gabapentin and its impact on postoperative opioid consumption. Materials and methods A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify randomized control trials that evaluated preoperative gabapentin on postoperative opioid consumption. The outcomes of interest were cumulative opioid consumption following the surgery and the incidence of vomiting, somnolence, and nausea. Results A total of 1,793 patients involved in 17 randomized control trials formed the final analysis for this study. Postoperative opioid consumption was reduced when using gabapentin within the initial 24 hours following surgery (standard mean difference −1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI]: −1.96 to −0.73; P<0.001). There was a significant reduction in morphine, fentanyl, and tramadol consumption (P<0.05). While a significant increase in postoperative somnolence incidence was observed (relative risk 1.30, 95% CI: 1.10–1.54, P<0.05), there were no significant effects on postoperative vomiting and nausea. Conclusion The administration of preoperative gabapentin reduced the consumption of opioids during the initial 24 hours following surgery. The reduction in postoperative opioids with preoperative gabapentin increased postoperative somnolence, but no significant differences were observed in nausea and vomiting incidences. The results from this study demonstrate that gabapentin is more beneficial in mastectomy and spinal, abdominal, and thyroid surgeries. Gabapentin is an effective analgesic adjunct, and clinicians should consider its use in multimodal treatment

  3. Use of preoperative gabapentin significantly reduces postoperative opioid consumption: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Arumugam, Sudha; Lau, Christine SM; Chamberlain, Ronald S

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Effective postoperative pain management is crucial in the care of surgical patients. Opioids, which are commonly used in managing postoperative pain, have a potential for tolerance and addiction, along with sedating side effects. Gabapentin’s use as a multimodal analgesic regimen to treat neuropathic pain has been documented as having favorable side effects. This meta-analysis examined the use of preoperative gabapentin and its impact on postoperative opioid consumption. Materials and methods A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify randomized control trials that evaluated preoperative gabapentin on postoperative opioid consumption. The outcomes of interest were cumulative opioid consumption following the surgery and the incidence of vomiting, somnolence, and nausea. Results A total of 1,793 patients involved in 17 randomized control trials formed the final analysis for this study. Postoperative opioid consumption was reduced when using gabapentin within the initial 24 hours following surgery (standard mean difference −1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI]: −1.96 to −0.73; P<0.001). There was a significant reduction in morphine, fentanyl, and tramadol consumption (P<0.05). While a significant increase in postoperative somnolence incidence was observed (relative risk 1.30, 95% CI: 1.10–1.54, P<0.05), there were no significant effects on postoperative vomiting and nausea. Conclusion The administration of preoperative gabapentin reduced the consumption of opioids during the initial 24 hours following surgery. The reduction in postoperative opioids with preoperative gabapentin increased postoperative somnolence, but no significant differences were observed in nausea and vomiting incidences. The results from this study demonstrate that gabapentin is more beneficial in mastectomy and spinal, abdominal, and thyroid surgeries. Gabapentin is an effective analgesic adjunct, and clinicians should consider its use in multimodal treatment

  4. Vomiting as a reliable sign of concussion.

    PubMed

    Ledic, Darko; Sosa, Ivan; Linic, Ines Strenja; Cvijanovic, Olga; Kovacevic, Miljenko; Desnica, Andrej; Banicek, Ivanka

    2012-01-01

    Concussion is the most common type of traumatic brain injury, with headache being the most frequent symptom of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) (including dizziness, vomiting, nausea, lack of motor coordination or difficulty balancing). Concussion may be caused by a blow to the head, or by acceleration forces without a direct impact. Often, MTBI occurs as the result of a sports injury. Loss of consciousness is always present, unlike vomiting. Therefore, we hypothesize vomiting to be considered as a cardinal sign of concussion. Stimulation of vomiting centres finally triggers vomiting. Professional boxers and mixed martial arts competitions reluctantly agree with stringent rules and protective clothing. We discuss the issue of further protection for those engaged in these and other sports. PMID:21983351

  5. Efficacy of triplet regimen antiemetic therapy for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in bone and soft tissue sarcoma patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy, and an efficacy comparison of single-shot palonosetron and consecutive-day granisetron for CINV in a randomized, single-blinded crossover study.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Norio; Shirai, Toshiharu; Nishida, Hideji; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Tanzawa, Yoshikazu; Takeuchi, Akihiko; Igarashi, Kentaro; Inatani, Hiroyuki; Shimozaki, Shingo; Kato, Takashi; Aoki, Yu; Higuchi, Takashi; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-01

    The first aim of this study was to evaluate combination antiemetic therapy consisting of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists (NK-1RAs), and dexamethasone for multiple high emetogenic risk (HER) anticancer agents in bone and soft tissue sarcoma. The second aim was to compare the effectiveness of single-shot palonosetron and consecutive-day granisetron in a randomized, single-blinded crossover study. A single randomization method was used to assign eligible patients to the palonosetron or granisetron arm. Patients in the palonosetron arm received a palonosetron regimen during the first and third chemotherapy courses and a granisetron regimen during the second and fourth courses. All patients received NK-1RA and dexamethasone. Patients receiving the palonosetron regimen were administered 0.75 mg palonosetron on day 1, and patients receiving the granisetron regimen were administered 3 mg granisetron twice daily on days 1 through 5. All 24 patients in this study received at least 4 chemotherapy courses. A total of 96 courses of antiemetic therapy were evaluated. Overall, the complete response CR rate (no emetic episodes and no rescue medication use) was 34%, while the total control rate (a CR plus no nausea) was 7%. No significant differences were observed between single-shot palonosetron and consecutive-day granisetron. Antiemetic therapy with a 3-drug combination was not sufficient to control chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) during chemotherapy with multiple HER agents for bone and soft tissue sarcoma. This study also demonstrated that consecutive-day granisetron was not inferior to single-shot palonosetron for treating CINV.

  6. Cyclic vomiting and compulsive bathing with chronic cannabis abuse.

    PubMed

    Chepyala, Pavan; Olden, Kevin W

    2008-06-01

    Cannabis is commonly recognized for its antiemetic properties. However, chronic cannabis use can lead to paroxysmal vomiting. In some patients this vomiting can take on a pattern identical to cyclic vomiting syndrome. Interestingly cyclic vomiting syndrome has been associated with compulsive bathing which patients report can relieve their intense feelings of nausea and lessen their vomiting intensity. We report a case of a patient with chronic cannabis use who developed symptoms similar to cyclic vomiting syndrome who also engaged in compulsive bathing behavior as observed by members of the medical and nursing staff. The patient reported that frequent hot showers would prevent him from vomiting and also relieve his concomitant abdominal pain. Previous hospitalizations at our hospital for the same complaint also noted similar showering behavior. During the hospital stay, the patient agreed to engage in a outpatient drug rehabilitation program which he subsequently completed. Abstinence from cannabis use caused the patients vomiting symptoms and abdominal pain to disappear completely. Likewise, his compulsive showering behavior also ceased. Other investigators have reported similar findings in patients with cyclic vomiting syndrome who initially used cannabis to treat their vomiting episodes but subsequently found that it contributed to their vomiting. Our patient has lead us to conclude that in patients seen for chronic severe vomiting and abdominal pain which has no obvious structural or chemical etiology and which is accompanied by compulsive showering and/or bathing behavior a diagnosis of cyclic vomiting syndrome with concomitant cannabis abuse needs to be considered. PMID:18456571

  7. Thermoregulatory correlates of nausea in rats and musk shrews.

    PubMed

    Ngampramuan, Sukonthar; Cerri, Matteo; Del Vecchio, Flavia; Corrigan, Joshua J; Kamphee, Amornrat; Dragic, Alexander S; Rudd, John A; Romanovsky, Andrej A; Nalivaiko, Eugene

    2014-03-30

    Nausea is a prominent symptom and major cause of complaint for patients receiving anticancer chemo- or radiation therapy. The arsenal of anti-nausea drugs is limited, and their efficacy is questionable. Currently, the development of new compounds with anti-nausea activity is hampered by the lack of physiological correlates of nausea. Physiological correlates are needed because common laboratory rodents lack the vomiting reflex. Furthermore, nausea does not always lead to vomiting. Here, we report the results of studies conducted in four research centers to investigate whether nausea is associated with any specific thermoregulatory symptoms. Two species were studied: the laboratory rat, which has no vomiting reflex, and the house musk shrew (Suncus murinus), which does have a vomiting reflex. In rats, motion sickness was induced by rotating them in their individual cages in the horizontal plane (0.75 Hz, 40 min) and confirmed by reduced food consumption at the onset of dark (active) phase. In 100% of rats tested at three centers, post-rotational sickness was associated with marked (~1.5°C) hypothermia, which was associated with a short-lasting tail-skin vasodilation (skin temperature increased by ~4°C). Pretreatment with ondansetron, a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, which is used to treat nausea in patients in chemo- or radiation therapy, attenuated hypothermia by ~30%. In shrews, motion sickness was induced by a cyclical back-and-forth motion (4 cm, 1 Hz, 15 min) and confirmed by the presence of retching and vomiting. In this model, sickness was also accompanied by marked hypothermia (~2°C). Like in rats, the hypothermic response was preceded by transient tail-skin vasodilation. In conclusion, motion sickness is accompanied by hypothermia that involves both autonomic and thermoeffector mechanisms: tail-skin vasodilation and possibly reduction of the interscapular brown adipose tissue activity. These thermoregulatory symptoms may serve as physiological

  8. Nausea and the quest for the perfect anti-emetic.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Paul L R; Sanger, Gareth J

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of anti-emetic agents is reviewed to illustrate the large database (>129,000 papers in PubMed) available for potential data mining and to provide a background to the shift in interest to nausea from vomiting. Research on nausea extends to identification of biomarkers for diagnosis/clinical trials and to understanding why nausea is such a common dose-limiting toxicity of diverse therapeutic agents. The lessons learned for translation from animals to humans, from the discovery of the anti-vomiting effects of 5-HT3 and NK1 receptor antagonists, is discussed in terms of the similarities between the emetic pathways and their pharmacology, and also in terms of the limitations of rodent models of "nausea" (pica, conditioned taste aversion, conditioned gaping and disgust). The review focuses on the established view that anti-emetics are more efficacious against vomiting than nausea. In particular we examine studies of 5-HT3, NK1 and D2 receptor antagonists, gabapentin and various receptor agonists. The potential for targeting anti-nausea agents is then considered, by targeting mechanisms which correct delayed gastric emptying (prokinetics), the rise in plasma vasopressin (AVP) and/or act at central targets revealed by the growing knowledge of cortical regions activated/inhibited in subjects reporting nausea. Modulation of the projections from the brainstem to the cortical areas responsible for the genesis of the sensation of nausea provides the most likely approach to a target at which an anti-nausea drug could be targeted with the expectation that it would affect nausea from multiple causes.

  9. Functional Nausea in Children.

    PubMed

    Kovacic, Katja; Di Lorenzo, Carlo

    2016-03-01

    Chronic nausea is a highly prevalent, bothersome, and difficult-to-treat symptom among adolescents. When chronic nausea presents as the predominant symptom and is not associated with any underlying disease, it may be considered a functional gastrointestinal disorder and named "functional nausea." The clinical features of functional nausea and its association with comorbid conditions provide clues to the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. These may include gastrointestinal motor and sensory disturbances, autonomic imbalance, altered central nervous system pathways, or a combination of these. This review summarizes the current knowledge on mechanisms and treatment strategies for chronic, functional nausea in children.

  10. Efficacy of Postoperative Continuous Wound Infiltration With Local Anesthesia After Open Hepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yu; Yong, Li Zhe

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Local anesthetic wound infiltration is widely used as an effective adjunct during multimodal postoperative pain management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of continuous wound infusion of ropivacaine in postoperative pain relief, opioid sparing, incidence of nausea and vomiting, and bowel and liver function improvement in patients undergoing open hepatectomy. Methods: Forty patients undergoing open hepatectomy were enrolled in this prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Patients were divided into 2 groups: the 0.9% saline continuous infusion group (the control group; n=20) and the ropivacaine continuous infusion group (the Ropi group; n=20). Outcomes measured postoperatively were pain score at rest and on movement, sufentanil consumption, incidence of nausea and vomiting, and sedation score across 48 postoperative hours. Time to bowel recovery, liver function change, mean length of hospitalization, patient satisfaction, and other data after 48 postoperative hours were collected until hospital discharge. Results: Pain scores at rest were lower for the ropivacaine group and reached significance after 8 and 16 hours (P<0.01). Sufentanil consumption (41.50±21.80 vs. 89.70±35.22 μg; P<0.01) after 48 hours, time to bowel recovery (1.80±0.70 vs. 3.15±1.04 d; P<0.01), incidence of nausea and vomiting (1.75±0.72 vs. 2.40±0.68; P<0.05), and mean length of hospitalization (5.6±2.44 vs. 7.35±2.85 d; P<0.01) were significantly reduced, and the sedation score and liver function change were also comparable between the 2 groups. There was no difference with respect to pain scores on movement, nor with respect to patient satisfaction. Conclusions: Surgical wound infusion with ropivacaine after hepatectomy can improve pain relief at rest and accelerate recovery and discharge. PMID:24281275

  11. Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Evidence-based treatment algorithm.

    PubMed Central

    Levichek, Zina; Atanackovic, Gardana; Oepkes, Dick; Maltepe, Carolyn; Einarson, Adrienne; Magee, Laura; Koren, Gideon

    2002-01-01

    QUESTION: One of my patients suffers from a moderate-to-severe form of morning sickness. She responded only partially to doxylamine and pyridoxine (Dicletin), and I wish to try adding another medication. What should my priority be? ANSWER: An algorithm used by Motherisk to manage thousands of patients takes a hierarchical approach to this condition. This approach is evidence based with regard to fetal safety as well as efficacy. PMID:11889884

  12. Vomiting (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Centers First Aid: Dehydration First Aid: Vomiting E. Coli Dehydration Influenza (Flu) "Stomach Flu" What's Puke? Food ... to Fever Babysitting: Dealing With Vomiting Dehydration E. Coli Gastrointestinal Infections and Diarrhea Contact Us Print Resources ...

  13. WITHDRAWN: (440) Opioid-Induced Nausea and Vomiting (OINV) in Post-Operative Patients: A Comparison of CL-108 to Hydrocodone 7.5 mg/Acetaminophen 325 mg.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Stephen; Patrick, Kyle; Daniels, Stephen; Royall, Steven; Schachtel, Emily; Zhang, Bing; Marino, Mark; Schachtel, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    The Publisher regrets that this abstract is an accidental duplication of abstract (436), also published in the 2016 American Pain Society Scientific Meeting abstracts supplement: J Pain 17:S83, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2016.01.413. The duplicate abstract (440) has therefore been withdrawn. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy. PMID:27105852

  14. Longitudinal Analysis of the Development of Anticipatory Nausea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrykowski, Michael A.; Redd, William H.

    1987-01-01

    Interviewed chemotherapy outpatients (N=71) before and after chemotherapy infusions to assess the course of development of anticipatory nausea and vomiting (ANV). Revealed that onset of ANV early in the course of chemotherapy was associated with a pattern of low, stable levels of anxiety while later onset was characterized by a pattern of…

  15. Xylitol Gum Chewing to Achieve Early Postoperative Restoration of Bowel Motility After Laparoscopic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yunhui; Zhang, Qianwen; Qiao, Lin; Lv, Donghao; Ruan, Jiaying; Chen, Hongqin; Gong, Junming; Shi, Gang

    2015-08-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of postoperative xylitol gum chewing on gastrointestinal functional recovery after laparoscopy. Altogether, 120 patients undergoing elective gynecologic laparoscopy were randomly divided into 2 groups of 60 each (final numbers: 53 controls, 56 patients). Controls underwent a routine postoperative regimen. Starting 6 hour after surgery, study patients chewed mint-flavored, sugarless xylitol gum until flatus occurred thrice a day. Other postoperative management was routine. First bowel sounds, first flatus, first bowel movement, and discharge times were recorded. Symptoms included abdominal distension, nausea, and vomiting. First flatus and first bowel sounds occurred significantly (P<0.001) earlier in the study patients. No significant differences were found for first defecation time, hospitalization duration, or mild/severe intestinal obstruction (all P>0.05). Thus, xylitol gum chewing after laparoscopy can effectively shorten the time to first flatus and helps with postoperative gastrointestinal functional recovery. It is simple, convenient, and well tolerated. PMID:26121546

  16. Xylitol Gum Chewing to Achieve Early Postoperative Restoration of Bowel Motility After Laparoscopic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yunhui; Zhang, Qianwen; Qiao, Lin; Lv, Donghao; Ruan, Jiaying; Chen, Hongqin; Gong, Junming; Shi, Gang

    2015-08-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of postoperative xylitol gum chewing on gastrointestinal functional recovery after laparoscopy. Altogether, 120 patients undergoing elective gynecologic laparoscopy were randomly divided into 2 groups of 60 each (final numbers: 53 controls, 56 patients). Controls underwent a routine postoperative regimen. Starting 6 hour after surgery, study patients chewed mint-flavored, sugarless xylitol gum until flatus occurred thrice a day. Other postoperative management was routine. First bowel sounds, first flatus, first bowel movement, and discharge times were recorded. Symptoms included abdominal distension, nausea, and vomiting. First flatus and first bowel sounds occurred significantly (P<0.001) earlier in the study patients. No significant differences were found for first defecation time, hospitalization duration, or mild/severe intestinal obstruction (all P>0.05). Thus, xylitol gum chewing after laparoscopy can effectively shorten the time to first flatus and helps with postoperative gastrointestinal functional recovery. It is simple, convenient, and well tolerated.

  17. Aprepitant for the management of nausea with inpatient IV dihydroergotamine

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Denise E.; Tso, Amy R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy and tolerability of oral aprepitant, a substance P/neurokinin A receptor antagonist, in controlling nausea associated with IV dihydroergotamine (DHE) administered for medically refractory migrainous headache in patients not responding to standard antiemetics or with a history of uncontrolled nausea with DHE. Methods: This was a retrospective chart review of prospectively collected hourly diary data and clinical notes of patients hospitalized between 2011 and 2015 for inpatient treatment with DHE. Patients were classified using the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition (beta version). Peak and average daily nausea scores from hourly diaries, or daily entries of notes, and concurrent antiemetic use were collected and tabulated. Results: Seventy-four patients, of whom 24 had daily diaries, with chronic migraine with or without aura, with or without medication overuse, or new daily persistent headache of a migrainous type, were identified. In 36 of 57 cases in which aprepitant was administered during hospitalization, there was a 50% reduction in the average daily number of as-needed antinausea medications. Of 57 patients, 52 reported that the addition of aprepitant improved nausea. Among 21 of 24 patients with hourly diary data, nausea scores were reduced and in all 12 with vomiting there was cessation of emesis after aprepitant was added. Aprepitant was well tolerated with no treatment emergent adverse events. Conclusions: Aprepitant can be effective in the treatment of refractory DHE-induced nausea and emesis. Given the broader issue of troublesome nausea and vomiting in acute presentations of migraine, general neurologists may consider what place aprepitant has in the management of such patients. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class IV evidence that for patients with medically refractory migraine receiving IV DHE, oral aprepitant reduces nausea. PMID:27629088

  18. Postoperative pain relief with epidural buprenorphine versus epidural butorphanol in laparoscopic hysterectomies: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Dona Elsa; Ganapathi, P.; Anish Sharma, N. G.; Shankaranarayana, P.; Aiyappa, D. S.; Nazim, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of postoperative analgesia with epidural buprenorphine and butorphanol tartrate. Methods: Sixty patients who were scheduled for elective laparoscopic hysterectomies were randomly enrolled in the study. At the end of the surgery, in study Group A 1 ml (0.3 mg) of buprenorphine and in Group B 1 ml (1 mg) of butorphanol tartrate both diluted to 10 ml with normal saline was injected through the epidural catheter. Visual analog pain scales (VAPSs) were assessed every hour till the 6th h, then 2nd hourly till the 12th h. To assess sedation, Ramsay sedation score was used. The total duration of postoperative analgesia was taken as the period from the time of giving epidural drug until the patients first complain of pain and the VAPS is more than 6. Patients were observed for any side effects such as respiratory depression, nausea, vomiting, hypotension, bradycardia, pruritus, and headache. Results: Buprenorphine had a longer duration of analgesia when compared to butorphanol tartrate (586.17 ± 73.64 vs. 342.53 ± 47.42 [P < 0.001]). Nausea, vomiting (13% vs. 10%), and headache (20% vs. 13%) were more in buprenorphine group; however, sedation score and pruritus (3% vs. 6%) were found to be more with butorphanol. Conclusion: Epidural buprenorphine significantly reduced pain and increased the quality of analgesia with a longer duration of action and was a better alternative to butorphanol for postoperative pain relief. PMID:26957696

  19. Chronic idiopathic nausea.

    PubMed

    Kovacic, Katja; Chelimsky, Gisela

    2014-04-01

    Chronic nausea is a prevalent but poorly described symptom in adolescents. It often co-occurs with other functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) but may also present in isolation. A multitude of triggers and complex neural pathways underlie the sensation of nausea. These include gastrointestinal and blood-borne insults, dysmotility, vestibular or central nervous system pathways, an aberrant autonomic nervous system, and psychosocial factors. Although clinical algorithms are lacking, diagnosis is typically made on the basis of a thorough clinical history and without extensive testing. Treatment is mainly empiric and may be directed at comorbid symptoms such as migraine, delayed gastric emptying, orthostatic intolerance, and visceral hypersensitivity. Chronic idiopathic nausea is an increasingly prevalent symptom that needs careful clinical assessment and individualized treatment plans.

  20. A Significant Reduction in Paediatric Post-Tonsillectomy Vomiting through Audit

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, AMD; Emery, PJ

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Postoperative vomiting occurs more frequently after tonsillectomy than any other commonly performed paediatric operation. Postoperative vomiting is also the commonest cause of morbidity and re-admission following tonsillectomy. We present a successful completed audit cycle and literature review on the subject. PATIENTS AND METHODS Data on the risk factors for postoperative vomiting, whether the patient vomited and details of the patient's vomitus were collected prospectively on consecutive patients and compared with a gold standard. Changes in practice were agreed and a second cycle performed. RESULTS Two cycles and a total of 107 patients were included in the audit. A significant reduction in vomiting from 27% to 11% was achieved following the introduction of routine use of intravenous dexamethasone during surgery. CONCLUSIONS This simple prospective audit of paediatric post-tonsillectomy vomiting has resulted in a statistically significant reduction in vomiting which would appear to be due to use of intra-operative steroids. PMID:18430338

  1. Efficacy of therapeutic suggestions for improved postoperative recovery presented during general anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Block, R I; Ghoneim, M M; Sum Ping, S T; Ali, M A

    1991-11-01

    There have been claims that the postoperative course of patients may be improved by presentation during general anesthesia of therapeutic suggestions which predict a rapid and comfortable postoperative recovery. This study evaluated the effectiveness of such therapeutic suggestions under double-blind and randomized conditions. A tape recording predicting a smooth recovery during a short postoperative stay without pain, nausea, or vomiting was played during anesthesia to about half the patients (N = 109), while the remaining, control patients were played a blank tape instead (N = 100). The patients were primarily undergoing operations on the fallopian tubes, total abdominal hysterectomy, vertical banding gastroplasty, cholecystectomy, and ovarian cystectomy or myomectomy. The anesthesia methods consisted of either isoflurane with 70% nitrous oxide in oxygen to produce end-tidal concentrations of 1.0, 1.3, or 1.5 MAC; or 70% nitrous oxide in oxygen combined with high or low doses of opioids. Assessments of the efficacy of the therapeutic suggestions in the recovery room and throughout the postoperative hospital stay included: the frequency of administration of analgesic and antiemetic drugs; opioid doses; the incidence of fever; nausea, retching, and vomiting; other gastrointestinal and urinary symptoms; ratings of pain; ratings of anxiety; global ratings of the patients' physical and psychological recoveries by the patients and their nurses; and length of postoperative hospital stay. There were no meaningful, significant differences in postoperative recovery of patients receiving therapeutic suggestions and controls. These negative results were not likely to be due to insensitivity of the assessments of recovery, as they showed meaningful interrelations among themselves and numerous differences in recovery following different types of surgery. Widespread utilization of therapeutic suggestions as a routine operating room procedure seems premature in the absence of

  2. Dezocine Prevents Postoperative Hyperalgesia in Patients Undergoing Open Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Fang; Zhou, Jie; Xia, Suyun; Xu, Huan; Wang, Xiangrui

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Postoperative hyperalgesia is very frequent and hard to treat. Dezocine is widely used and has a modulatory effect for thermal hyperalgesia in animal models. So, this study was designed to investigate the potential role of dezocine in decreasing postoperative hyperalgesia for patients undergoing open abdominal surgery. Methods. This is a randomized, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled trial. 50 patients for elective open gastrectomy were randomly allocated to either a true treatment group (0.15 mg/kg intravenous dezocine at the end of surgery) or a sham treatment group (equivalent volume of saline) in a 1 : 1 ratio. Patients were followed up for 48 hours postoperatively and pain threshold to Von Frey filaments, pain scores, PCIA consumption, rescue analgesics use, sedation score, and occurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting were recorded. Results. Patients in the true treatment group experienced statistically significantly higher pain threshold on forearm and smaller extent of peri-incisional hyperalgesia than the sham treatment group. Rescue analgesic use, cumulative PCIA consumption, and pain scores were statistically significantly decreased in the true treatment group compared to the sham treatment group. Conclusions. Dezocine offers a significant antihyperalgesic and analgesic effect in patients undergoing elective open gastrectomy for up to 48 hours postoperatively. PMID:26170890

  3. Cyclical vomiting syndrome: Recognition, assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Tan, Michelle Ln; Liwanag, Maria Janelle; Quak, Seng Hock

    2014-08-01

    Cyclical vomiting syndrome (CVS) is a functional, debilitating disorder of childhood frequently leading to hospitalization. Affected children usually experience a stereotypical pattern of vomiting though it may vary between different individuals. The vomiting is intense often bilious, and accompanied by disabling nausea. Identifiable precipitating factors for CVS include psychosocial stressors, infections, lack of sleep and occasionally even food triggers. Often, it may be difficult to distinguish episodes of CVS from other causes of acute abdomen and altered consciousness. Thus, the diagnosis of CVS remains largely one of exclusion. Investigations routinely done during the work-up of a child with suspected CVS include both blood and imaging modalities. Plasma lactate, ammonia, amino acid and acylcarnitine profiles as well as urine organic acid profile are indicated to exclude inborn errors of metabolism. The treatment remains challenging and targeted at prevention or shortening of the attacks and can be considered as abortive, supportive and prophylactic. Use of non-pharmacological therapy is also part of the management of CVS. The prognosis of CVS is variable. More insight into the pathogenesis of this disorder as well as role of non-pharmacological therapy is needed. PMID:25254185

  4. Present-day challenges and future solutions in postoperative pain management: results from PainForum 2014

    PubMed Central

    Kuusniemi, Kristiina; Pöyhiä, Reino

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a summary of presentations on postoperative pain control by the authors at the 2014 PainForum meeting in People’s Republic of China. Postoperative pain is often untreated or undertreated and may lead to subsequent chronic pain syndromes. As more procedures migrate to the outpatient setting, postoperative pain control will become increasingly more challenging. Evidence-based guidelines for postoperative pain control recommend pain assessment using validated tools on a consistent basis. In this regard, consistency may be more important than the specific tool selected. Many hospitals have introduced a multidisciplinary acute pain service (APS), which has been associated with improved patient satisfaction and fewer adverse events. Patient education is an important component of postoperative pain control, which may be most effective when clinicians chose a multimodal approach, such as paracetamol (acetaminophen) and opioids. Opioids are a mainstay of postoperative pain control but require careful monitoring and management of side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and somnolence. Opioids may be administered using patient-controlled analgesia systems. Protocols for postoperative pain control can be very helpful to establish benchmarks for pain management and assure that clinicians adhere to evidence-based standards. The future of postoperative pain control around the world will likely involve more and better established APSs and greater communication between patients and clinicians about postoperative pain. The changes necessary to implement and move forward with APSs is not a single step but rather one of continuous improvement and ongoing change. PMID:26893579

  5. The relationship between gastric motility and nausea: gastric prokinetic agents as treatments.

    PubMed

    Sanger, Gareth J; Broad, John; Andrews, Paul L R

    2013-09-01

    Nausea is one of a cluster of symptoms described subjectively by patients with delayed gastric emptying. The mechanisms and treatments are unclear (anti-emetic drugs are not fully effective against nausea). Can nausea be relieved by stimulating gastric emptying? Physostigmine (together with atropine) has been shown experimentally to stimulate gastric motility, relieve nausea and restore normal gastric motility. Is this mimicked by gastric prokinetic drugs? The answer is complicated by mixed pharmacology. Metoclopramide increases gastric motility by activating myenteric 5-HT4 receptors but also directly inhibits vomiting via D2 and 5-HT3 receptor antagonism; relationships between increased gastric motility and relief from nausea are therefore unclear. Similarly, the D2 receptor antagonist domperidone has direct anti-emetic activity. Nevertheless, more selective 5-HT4 and motilin receptor agonists (erythromycin, directly stimulating gastric motility) inhibit vomiting in animals; low doses of erythromycin can also relieve symptoms in patients with gastroparesis. Ghrelin stimulates gastric motility and appetite mostly via vagus-dependent pathways, and inhibits vomiting in animals. To date, ghrelin receptor activation has failed to consistently improve gastric emptying or symptoms in patients with gastroparesis. We conclude that nausea can be relieved by gastric prokinetic drugs, but more clinical studies are needed using drugs with selective activity. Other mechanisms (e.g. ghrelin, vagal and central pathways, influencing a mechanistic continuum between appetite and nausea) also require exploration. These and other issues will be further explored in a forthcoming special issue of the European Journal of Pharmacology, which focusses on mechanisms of nausea and vomiting.

  6. Comparison the effects of paracetamol with sufentanil infusion on postoperative pain control after craniotomy in patients with brain tumor

    PubMed Central

    Hassani, Ebrahim; Mahoori, Alireza; Sane, Shahryar; Tolumehr, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients experience severe pain after craniotomy surgery that leads to discomfort. Our target in this study that performed in interventional method is an evaluation of sufentanil and paracetamol effect on postoperative pain control in patients undergone craniotomy surgery at Urmia Imam Khomeini Hospital. Materials and Methods: Totally, 45 patients between the ages 18 and 65 were studied. The effect of sufentanil and paracetamol medicines in pain management, hemodynamic stability, and side effects compared with control group that were receiving morphine (subcutaneous [SC]) in 3 groups of 15 people at time 0, 2, 4, 12 and 24-h were evaluated. Collected data were included and monitoring blood pressure, O2 Sat, heart rate (HR) and pain, nausea, vomiting and use of morphine. Results: According to the analysis of results, there was a significant difference between 3 groups on postoperative pain (P < 0.05). In patients that used sufentanil, pain score of visual analog scale (VAS) is lowest and in the paracetamol group the highest VAS score was seen. There was a significant difference in HR between 3 groups (P < 0.05). Maximum average of HR was observed in the paracetamol group. There was a significant difference in mean arterial pressure between 3 groups (P < 0.05). In paracetamol group, there was the highest value (99.3). There was no significant difference in Glasgow Coma scale and SPO2 between 3 groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Sufentanil compared to morphine (which is routinely used for patients pain control after craniotomy surgery) has better pain control, less nausea and vomiting, and better hemodynamic stability. Although paracetamol has the least nausea and vomiting, it has the lowest quality of pain relief. PMID:25821764

  7. Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Initially described in children, cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) is an idiopathic disorder that affects patients of all ages and is characterized by recurrent episodes of vomiting separated by symptom-free intervals or baseline health. Frequent misdiagnoses and delays in diagnosis often lead to years of recurrent vomiting. Similarities in the clinical features and symptoms of children and adults with CVS are often linked to migraines. Association with mitochondrial disorders and neuroendocrine dysfunction have been described in the pediatric CVS literature, whereas migraines, anxiety, and panic are common in adults with CVS. Various psychological, infectious, and physical stressors commonly precipitate episodes of CVS. Treatment is mostly empiric, with few controlled therapeutic studies conducted thus far. Associations with migraines have aided in developing pharmacologic treatment strategies for prophylaxis as well as abortive therapy during episodes, including the use of trip-tans. Most children outgrow CVS with time, though some children transition to migraine headaches or continue to have CVS as adults. Improved recognition of CVS in adults, along with the emergence of data in the use of anticonvulsants and antiemetics, may help further delineate pathophysiologic connections and therapeutic options for this debilitating disorder.

  8. Comparison of Conorphone, A Mixed Agonist-Antagonist Analgesic, to Codeine for Postoperative Dental Pain

    PubMed Central

    Dionne, Raymond A.; Wirdezk, Peggy R.; Butler, Donald P.; Fox, Philip C.

    1984-01-01

    The analgesic efficacy of two doses of conorphone (20 and 40 mg), a mixed agonist-antagonist analgesic, were compared to two doses of codeine for postoperative pain in the oral surgery model. Each subject received 2 of the 4 possible treatment at two separate sessions in an incomplete block, single crossover design. Both doses of conorphone and the 60 mg dose of codeine were superior to 30 mg of codeine for the various indices of analgesic activity. The 40 mg dose of conorphone resulted in a high incidence of side effects (25/30 subjects) such as drowsiness, dizziness, nausea and vomiting. The low dose of conorphone resulted in side effects similar to 60 mg of codeine with the exception of a greater incidence of drowsiness. These data suggest that while 40 mg of conorphone may not be well tolerated clinically, 20 mg of conorphone may be an alternative to 60 mg of codeine for postoperative pain. PMID:6597688

  9. Effects of intra-operative maintenance of general anaesthesia with propofol on postoperative pain outcomes - a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Q; Choi, S W; Wong, S S C; Irwin, M G; Cheung, C W

    2016-10-01

    Propofol is used both for induction and maintenance of anaesthesia. Recent evidence shows that propofol has analgesic properties. This meta-analysis evaluated differences in postoperative analgesia between general anaesthetic maintenance with intravenous propofol and inhalational anaesthetics. Fourteen trials met inclusion criteria and were included. Our outcomes were pain scores 2 and 24 h after surgery. No significant difference in pain scores was found at 2 h after surgery (Hedge's g (95% CI) -0.120 (-0.415-0.175) (p = 0.425). Propofol was associated with a statistically significant, albeit marginal, reduction in pain scores 24 h after surgery (Hedge's g (95% CI) -0.134 (-0.248 to -0.021) (p = 0.021). Data were insufficient to allow a meaningful analysis regarding 24-h morphine-equivalent consumption. Propofol was associated with reduced postoperative nausea and vomiting (relative risk (95%CI) 0.446 (0.304-0.656) (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggests that propofol improves postoperative analgesia compared with inhalational anaesthesia 24 h after surgery, with a lower incidence of nausea and vomiting. PMID:27506326

  10. Effects of intra-operative maintenance of general anaesthesia with propofol on postoperative pain outcomes - a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Q; Choi, S W; Wong, S S C; Irwin, M G; Cheung, C W

    2016-10-01

    Propofol is used both for induction and maintenance of anaesthesia. Recent evidence shows that propofol has analgesic properties. This meta-analysis evaluated differences in postoperative analgesia between general anaesthetic maintenance with intravenous propofol and inhalational anaesthetics. Fourteen trials met inclusion criteria and were included. Our outcomes were pain scores 2 and 24 h after surgery. No significant difference in pain scores was found at 2 h after surgery (Hedge's g (95% CI) -0.120 (-0.415-0.175) (p = 0.425). Propofol was associated with a statistically significant, albeit marginal, reduction in pain scores 24 h after surgery (Hedge's g (95% CI) -0.134 (-0.248 to -0.021) (p = 0.021). Data were insufficient to allow a meaningful analysis regarding 24-h morphine-equivalent consumption. Propofol was associated with reduced postoperative nausea and vomiting (relative risk (95%CI) 0.446 (0.304-0.656) (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggests that propofol improves postoperative analgesia compared with inhalational anaesthesia 24 h after surgery, with a lower incidence of nausea and vomiting.

  11. Rectus sheath block for postoperative analgesia in patients with mesenteric vascular occlusion undergoing laparotomy: A randomized single-blinded study

    PubMed Central

    Elbahrawy, Khaled; El-Deeb, Alaa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acute mesenteric ischemia is a life-threatening vascular emergency that requires early diagnosis, immediate anticoagulation, and intervention to restore mesenteric blood flow adequately. Aims: To investigate the effect of rectus sheath block (RSB) for postoperative analgesia in patients with mesenteric vascular occlusion. Settings and Design: Forty patients with mesenteric vascular occlusion, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II or III, scheduled for laparotomy were enrolled in this study. Subjects and Methods: Patients were randomized into two groups; control group (C Group) and rectus block group (RB Group). In both groups, general anesthesia was induced fentanyl 1 μg/kg with sleeping dose of propofol and 0.15 mg/kg cisatracurium. Then, anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane in oxygen 100%. In RB Group, under aseptic condition, RSB guided by ultrasound was performed. Surgery is then continued and intravenous fentanyl patient-controlled analgesia pump started. Postoperative pain, sedation, and opioid side effects were assessed. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 19.0, Chicago, IL, USA). Results: Patients in the RB Group consumed statistically significant less opioid in comparison to control group either intraoperatively or postoperatively. Mean pain scores were statistically significant less in RB Group than in the control group at 2, 4, and 6 h postoperatively. Sedation score, incidence of nausea and vomiting were statistically significant less in the RB Group in comparison to control group. More patients’ satisfaction was reported in the RB Group. Conclusions: Ultrasound-guided RSB resulted in postoperative reduction of pain scores and opioid consumption compared with general anesthesia alone. Moreover, RSB was associated with better patient satisfaction and less nausea and vomiting. PMID:27746544

  12. Effect of Dexmedetomidine in Preventing Postoperative Side Effects for Laparoscopic Surgery: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials and Trial Sequential Analysis (PRISMA).

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoqi; Zhang, Licheng; Lou, Shenghan; Chen, Yuxiang; Cao, Yanxiang; Wang, Ruirui; Zhang, Lihai; Tang, Peifu

    2016-03-01

    Dexmedetomidine (DEX) has been used extensively for patients during surgery. Some studies found that DEX could reduce the incidence of postoperative side effects in laparoscopic surgical patients. However, no firm conclusions were made about it.The authors searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials testing DEX administrated in laparoscopic surgical patients and reporting on postoperative nausea, vomiting, shivering, heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), or extubation time after surgery or within 1 hour in postoperative care unit. Trial sequential analysis (TSA) was used for RCTs comparing DEX with placebo or no treatment in laparoscopic surgery patients. A protocol for this meta-analysis has been registered on PROSPERO (http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero) and the registration number is CRD42015020226.Fifteen studies (899 patients) were included. DEX could significantly reduce the incidence of postoperative nausea (risk ratio [RR] and 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43 [0.28, 0.66], P < 0.0001), vomiting (RR and 95% CI, 0.36 [0.18, 0.72], P = 0.004), shivering (RR and 95% CI, 0.19 [0.11, 0.35], P < 0.00001), rescue antiemetic (RR and 95% CI, 0.18 [0.07, 0.47], P = 0.0006), and increase the incidence of dry mouth (RR and 95% CI, 7.40 [2.07, 26.48], P = 0.002) comparing with the control group. In addition, firm conclusions can be made on the results of postoperative nausea according to the TSA. Meta-analysis showed that DEX group had a significantly lower heart rate (mean difference [MD] and 95% CI, -14.21 [-18.85, -9.57], P < 0.00001) and MAP (MD and 95% CI, -12.35 [-15.28, -9.42], P < 0.00001) than the control group, and firm conclusions can be made according to the TSA. No significance was observed on extubation time between 2 groups (MD and 95% CI, 0.70 [-0.89, 2.28], P = 0.39).The results from this meta-analysis indicated that perioperative DEX

  13. [Systemic analgesia for postoperative pain management in the adult].

    PubMed

    Binhas, M; Marty, J

    2009-02-01

    Severe postsurgical pain contributes to prolonged hospital stay and is also believed to be a risk factor for the development of chronic pain. Locoregional anesthesia, which results in faster patient recovery with fewer side effects, is favored wherever feasible, but is not applicable to every patient. Systemic analgesics are the most widely used method for providing pain relief in the postoperative period. Improvements in postoperative systemic analgesia for pain management should be applied and predictive factors for severe postoperative pain should be anticipated in order to control pain while minimizing opioid side effects. Predictive factors for severe postoperative pain include severity of preoperative pain, prior use of opiates, female gender, non-laparoscopic surgery, and surgeries involving the knee and shoulder. Pre- and intraoperative use of small doses of ketamine has a preventive effect on postoperative pain. Multimodal or balanced analgesia (the combined use of various analgesic agents) such as NSAID/morphine, NSAID/nefopam, morphine/ketamine improves analgesia with morphine-sparing effects. Nausea and vomiting, the principle side effects of morphine, can be predicted using Apfel's simplified score; patients with a high Apfel score risk should receive preemptive antiemetic agents aimed at different receptor sites, such as preoperative dexamethasone and intraoperative droperidol. Droperidol can be combined with morphine for postoperative patient-controlled anesthesia (PCA). When PCA is used, dosage parameters should be adjusted every day based on pain evaluation. Patients with presurgical opioid requirements will require preoperative administration of their daily opioid maintenance dose before induction of anesthesia: PCA offers useful options for effective postsurgical analgesia using a basal rate equivalent to the patient's hourly oral usage plus bolus doses as required.

  14. Postoperative ileus: mechanisms and future directions for research.

    PubMed

    Vather, Ryash; O'Grady, Greg; Bissett, Ian P; Dinning, Phil G

    2014-05-01

    Postoperative ileus (POI) is an abnormal pattern of gastrointestinal motility characterized by nausea, vomiting, abdominal distension and/or delayed passage of flatus or stool, which may occur following surgery. Postoperative ileus slows recovery, increases the risk of developing postoperative complications and confers a significant financial load on healthcare institutions. The aim of the present review is to provide a succinct overview of the clinical features and pathophysiological mechanisms of POI, with final comment on selected directions for future research.Terminology used when describing POI is inconsistent, with little differentiation made between the obligatory period of gut dysfunction seen after surgery ('normal POI') and the more clinically and pathologically significant entity of a 'prolonged POI'. Both normal and prolonged POI represent a fundamentally similar pathophysiological phenomenon. The aetiology of POI is postulated to be multifactorial, with principal mediators being inflammatory cell activation, autonomic dysfunction (both primarily and as part of the surgical stress response), agonism at gut opioid receptors, modulation of gastrointestinal hormone activity and electrolyte derangements. A final common pathway for these effectors is impaired contractility and motility and gut wall oedema. There are many potential directions for future research. In particular, there remains scope to accurately characterize the gastrointestinal dysfunction that underscores an ileus, development of an accurate risk stratification tool will facilitate early implementation of preventive measures and clinical appraisal of novel therapeutic strategies that target individual pathways in the pathogenesis of ileus warrant further investigation. PMID:24754527

  15. A comparative study of intravenous paracetamol and intravenous tramadol for postoperative analgesia in laparotomies

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, Mohammed; Manjula, B. P.; Sunil, B. V.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pain in the perioperative setting or thereafter plays a significant role in delaying an otherwise successful recovery. Hence, mitigation of such postoperative pain assumes importance. Among the various agents employed for such mitigation, opioids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have for some time taken center stage. However, alas they are not without their share of adverse effects. This study was undertaken with the purpose of elucidating the efficacy of intravenous (IV) paracetamol as compared to IV tramadol in mitigating postoperative pain while observing its effect on hemodynamic stability and the presence of adverse drug reactions, if any. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 randomized cases aged ranges from 20 to 60 years of both sexes divided into two groups (each for paracetamol and tramadol) scheduled for laparotomies were administered IV paracetamol and tramadol for postoperative pain relief and assessed with visual analog scale (VAS) score and variations in vital parameters to ascertain extent of pain relief and post-operative nausea vomiting (PONV). Results: Data so collected was statistically interpreted, and observations extrapolated. Save for a perceptible decline in PONV with paracetamol group compared with tramadol group with a statistically significant P < 0.001, nothing statistically significant was observed in any other parameter, including VAS scores between either group. Conclusion: IV paracetamol is a safer alternative to tramadol with lesser PONV in the postoperative period translates into the lesser duration of hospitalization and hence earlier discharge. PMID:26712966

  16. Transcutaneous Electrical Acupoint Stimulation Improves the Postoperative Quality of Recovery and Analgesia after Gynecological Laparoscopic Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yusheng; Zhao, Qiuyan; Gong, Cansheng; Wu, Yihuan; Chen, Ying; Qiu, Liangcheng; Wu, Xiaodan; Chen, Yanqing

    2015-01-01

    Background. We conducted this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the effects of transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation (TEAS) on the quality of recovery (QoR) and postoperative analgesia after gynecological laparoscopic surgery. Methods. 74 American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status (ASA) I or II patients undergoing gynecological laparoscopic surgery were randomly allocated to TEAS or control groups. The primary outcome was the quality of recovery, which was assessed on the day before surgery and 24 h after surgery using a 40-item questionnaire. Secondary outcomes included postoperative pain scores, the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), duration of postanesthesia care unit (PACU) stay, and patient's satisfaction. Results. The TEAS group had higher QoR scores than control group upon 24 h after surgery (177 versus 165; P < 0.001). Compared with the control group, postoperative pain scores and the cumulative number of opioids administered were lower in the TEAS group patients (P = 0.04). TEAS reduced the incidence of PONV and dizziness, as well as duration of PACU stay. Simultaneously, the patient's satisfaction scores were higher in the TEAS group (P = 0.002). Conclusion. Preoperative TEAS enhances QoR, improves postoperative analgesia and patient's satisfaction, alleviates postoperative side effects, and accelerates discharge after general anesthesia for gynecological laparoscopic surgery. PMID:26170873

  17. Hindbrain GLP-1 receptor mediation of cisplatin-induced anorexia and nausea.

    PubMed

    De Jonghe, Bart C; Holland, Ruby A; Olivos, Diana R; Rupprecht, Laura E; Kanoski, Scott E; Hayes, Matthew R

    2016-01-01

    While chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting are clinically controlled in the acute (<24 h) phase following treatment, the anorexia, nausea, fatigue, and other illness-type behaviors during the delayed phase (>24 h) of chemotherapy are largely uncontrolled. As the hindbrain glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) system contributes to energy balance and mediates aversive and stressful stimuli, here we examine the hypothesis that hindbrain GLP-1 signaling mediates aspects of chemotherapy-induced nausea and reductions in feeding behavior in rats. Specifically, hindbrain GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) blockade, via 4th intracerebroventricular (ICV) exendin-(9-39) injections, attenuates the anorexia, body weight reduction, and pica (nausea-induced ingestion of kaolin clay) elicited by cisplatin chemotherapy during the delayed phase (48 h) of chemotherapy-induced nausea. Additionally, the present data provide evidence that the central GLP-1-producing preproglucagon neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) of the caudal brainstem are activated by cisplatin during the delayed phase of chemotherapy-induced nausea, as cisplatin led to a significant increase in c-Fos immunoreactivity in NTS GLP-1-immunoreactive neurons. These data support a growing body of literature suggesting that the central GLP-1 system may be a potential pharmaceutical target for adjunct anti-emetics used to treat the delayed-phase of nausea and emesis, anorexia, and body weight loss that accompany chemotherapy treatments.

  18. Anticipatory vomiting in women receiving cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-FU (CMF) adjuvant chemotherapy for breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, P M; Fetting, J H; Nettesheim, K M; Abeloff, M D

    1982-08-01

    To determine the incidence of anticipatory vomiting (AV) and postchemotherapy nausea and vomiting (PCNV) in women receiving cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-FU (CMF) adjuvant chemotherapy for breast carcinoma, we studied 52 women randomized to two regimens (standard-dose and low-dose) of CMF. Charts were reviewed for the cycle of onset of AV and PCNV, the severity of PCNV, and relationships of these syndromes to CMF dose and protocol compliance. Among the 52 patients, AV occurred in 17 (33%), while PCNV was experienced by 46 (88%). Severe PCNV (defined as uncontrolled nausea and/or vomiting interfering with performance of daily activities) occurred in 22 of 52 (42%) women. Eighteen of 23 (78%) women receiving standard-dose CMF experienced severe PCNV, and 13 of these had AV. Patients in whom severe PCNV began before cycle 4 were more likely to develop AV than women in whom PCNV began later (P less than 0.01). Ten of 52 (19%) patients discontinued CMF adjuvant chemotherapy because of nausea and vomiting; seven of the ten (70%) were receiving standard-dose CMF and seven had experienced AV. This study demonstrates that both AV an PCNV are significant toxic effects that not only affect the quality of life of a woman receiving CMF chemotherapy for breast cancer but also limit the ability of the clinician to provide maximum therapy to woman at high risk of recurrence of breast carcinoma.

  19. Intractable vomiting from glioblastoma metastatic to the fourth ventricle: three case studies.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Zvi R.; Hassenbusch, Samuel J.; Maor, Moshe H.; Pfeffer, Raphael M.; Ram, Zvi

    2002-01-01

    Dissemination of malignant glioma to the fourth ventricle with metastatic deposits and intractable vomiting is rare. Leptomeningeal extension of malignant glioma is an uncommon condition that has been reported in patients with end-stage disease and is usually unresponsive to any treatment modality. We describe 3 patients with progressing recurrent glioblastoma multiforme in whom leptomeningeal invasion manifested itself as intractable vomiting due to tumor metastases in the floor of the fourth ventricle. All patients received additional radiation therapy focused to the posterior fossa, with complete resolution of vomiting occurring within 10 days after irradiation. The remission of symptoms in these patients persisted until their death 3-4 months after the repeat radiation therapy. These reports indicate that additional focused radiation should be considered because of its significant therapeutic effect in alleviating intractable nausea and vomiting in patients with glioma metastasized to the posterior fossa. PMID:11916505

  20. Comparison of diclofenac and tenoxicam for postoperative analgesia with and without fentanyl in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy or tonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Mendham, J E; Mather, S J

    1996-01-01

    127 children scheduled for elective tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy were studied. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with a volatile agent. At induction the child received either rectal diclofenac 1 mg.kg-1 with or without fentanyl 0.75 microgram.kg-1 i.v., or intravenous tenoxicam 0.4 mg.kg-1 with or without fentanyl 0.75 microgram.kg-1 i.v. Blood loss was measured peroperatively. Nausea and vomiting scores, sedation scores and pain scores were recorded in the recovery room, at one, two, four and eight h postoperatively and at discharge. There were no significant differences in blood loss between the groups or between nausea and vomiting scores. Pain scores in the tenoxicam without fentanyl group were significantly higher in recovery (P < 0.05) than the diclofenac group without fentanyl and both fentanyl groups. This group required supplemental analgesia earlier although this was not significant. The pain scores in the diclofenac with fentanyl group were significantly lower at one h and four h than the group receiving diclofenac alone (P = 0.008 and 0.02 respectively).

  1. Comparison of diclofenac and tenoxicam for postoperative analgesia with and without fentanyl in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy or tonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Mendham, J E; Mather, S J

    1996-01-01

    127 children scheduled for elective tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy were studied. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with a volatile agent. At induction the child received either rectal diclofenac 1 mg.kg-1 with or without fentanyl 0.75 microgram.kg-1 i.v., or intravenous tenoxicam 0.4 mg.kg-1 with or without fentanyl 0.75 microgram.kg-1 i.v. Blood loss was measured peroperatively. Nausea and vomiting scores, sedation scores and pain scores were recorded in the recovery room, at one, two, four and eight h postoperatively and at discharge. There were no significant differences in blood loss between the groups or between nausea and vomiting scores. Pain scores in the tenoxicam without fentanyl group were significantly higher in recovery (P < 0.05) than the diclofenac group without fentanyl and both fentanyl groups. This group required supplemental analgesia earlier although this was not significant. The pain scores in the diclofenac with fentanyl group were significantly lower at one h and four h than the group receiving diclofenac alone (P = 0.008 and 0.02 respectively). PMID:8936545

  2. Comparison between Transdermal Buprenorphine and Transdermal Fentanyl for Postoperative Pain Relief after Major Abdominal Surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Arshad, Zia; Gautam, Shefali; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Opioid is generally regarded as an important part of multimodal, perioperative analgesia, especially for moderate to severe pain. Amongst the various modes of delivery transdermal route has several potential benefits over oral and parentral administration. These include noninvasive dosing, better absorption and lack of first-pass metabolism. A transdermal drug delivery system provides steady and continuous drug delivery resulting in steady plasma concentration. Bolus dosing of systemic analgesic results in supra and sub therapeutic plasma resulting in toxic and sub analgesic plasma drug concentration. It also improves patient compliance. Materials and Methods Sixty patients undergoing major abdominal surgery under GA were randomly divided in two groups (n=30). Group A received buprenorphine 10 mcg/h TDS and group B received 25 mcg/h fentanyl TDS, 6 hours prior to surgery. Patients were followed for three days for postoperative pain relief and adverse effects. Results Baseline and demographic variables are comparable in both groups. The mean level of VAS was significantly lower in group B as compared to group A at Day 1, 2 and 3. The mean level of sedation score was significantly lower in Group B than Group A. Haemodynamic variables in both groups (SBP, DBP and HR), shows comparable values in both groups and no significant difference was observed. Five out of 30 (16.7%) patients in group A required single dose of rescue analgesic while 0 out of 30 patients (0.00%) in group B required rescue analgesic. This difference in rescue analgesic requirement in not quiet statistically significant (p-value 0.0522). Twenty percent patient in fentanyl group and 16.7% patients in buprenorphine group experienced some adverse effects. Nausea and vomiting were main side effects of the drugs. The incidence of nausea and vomiting were 6.7% and 10% in buprenorphine and fentanyl group respectively. Conclusion Fentanyl and buprenorphine TDS were effective and safe in

  3. Comparison Between Intraperitoneal and Intravenous Lidocaine for Postoperative Analgesia After Elective Abdominal Hysterectomy, a Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Samimi, Saghar; Taheri, Arman; Davari Tanha, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of intravenous and intraperitoneal injection of lidocaine and normal saline in relieving postoperative pain after elective abdominal hysterectomy. Materials and methods: For this double-blind randomized controlled study 109 patients undergoing elective abdominal hysterectomy were randomly allocated to three groups :1) IV group (intravenous injection group) received intravenous lidocaine %2 bolus 1.5mg/kg 30 min before incision and then a continuous lidocaine infusion of 2mg/kg and before the wound closure an intraperitoneal injection of N/S , 2) IP group (intraperitoneal group) received intravenous N/S and intraperitoneal lidocaine 3mg/kg , 3) P group (placebo, N/S) received both intravenous and intraperitoneal N/S. The pain scores (VAS) at rest, total morphine consumption , the time to first need for rescue analgesic ,incidence of lidocaine related adverse effects and nausea and vomiting were recorded at 0,2,4,8,12 and 24 hrs postoperatively. Results: The VAS scores were significantly lower in IP and IV groups compared with placebo (p = 0.001). Total consumption of morphine (p = 0.001) and time to firs request of recue analgesic (p = 0.001) were lower too in IP and IV groups.Incidence of vomiting was comparable between groups (p < 0.05) but nausea was higher in control group (p > 0.05).There were not notable lidocaine-related adverse effects. IP and IV groups were not statistically different for all investigated variables. Conclusion: This study showed lidocaine administration both intravenously and intraperitoneally are effective in reducing the postoperative pain and also have opioid sparing effect and can be safely used in elective abdominal hysterectomy without any major adverse effects. PMID:27047566

  4. Gastric Electrical Stimulation Is an Option for Patients with Refractory Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Inderpreet; Kim, Richard; Spree, Danielle C; Lahr, Christopher J; Kedar, Archana; Kothari, Shivangi; Fleisher, David; Abell, Thomas L

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) is a disabling migraine variant manifesting as severe episodes of nausea and vomiting and often refractory to many therapies. Gastric electrical stimulation (GES), which can reduce nausea and vomiting in gastroparesis, may provide symptomatic relief for drug-refractory CVS. This study assessed the utility GES in reducing the symptoms of CVS and improving the quality of life. Methods A one-year, non-randomized, clinical study was conducted. Eleven consecutive patients with drug refractory, cyclic vomiting syndrome based on Rome III criteria and North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (NASPGHAN), underwent treatment with temporary GES (Temp GES) and permanent GES (Perm GES). Post-treatment follow up was done up to one year after permanent gastric electrical stimulation therapy. Results Total symptom score decreased by 68% and 40% after temporary and permanent GES therapies, respectively. Hospital admission events significantly decreased to 1.50 (± 1.00) events from 9.14 (± 7.21) annual admissions prior to treatment with permanent GES. Vomiting episodes fell by 83% post Temp GES and 69% after Perm GES treatments. Mucosal electrogram values also changed after temporary stimulation. Conclusions In a small group of drug-refractory CVS patients, treatments with temporary and permanent GES significantly reduced the severity of gastrointestinal symptoms and frequency of hospital admissions. PMID:27241799

  5. Postoperative pain management after supratentorial craniotomy.

    PubMed

    Verchère, Eric; Grenier, Bruno; Mesli, Abdelghani; Siao, Daniel; Sesay, Mussa; Maurette, Pierre

    2002-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the analgesic efficacy of three different postoperative treatments after supratentorial craniotomy. Sixty-four patients were allocated prospectively and randomly into three groups: paracetamol (the P group, n = 8), paracetamol and tramadol (the PT group, n = 29), and paracetamol and nalbuphine (the PN group, n = 27). General anesthesia was standardized with propofol and remifentanil using atracurium as the muscle relaxant. One hour before the end of surgery, all patients received 30 mg/kg propacetamol intravenously then 30 mg/kg every 6 hours. Patients in the PT group received 1.5 mg/kg tramadol 1 hour before the end of surgery. For patients in the PN group, 0.15 mg/kg nalbuphine was injected after discontinuation of remifentanil, because of its mu-antagonist effect. Postoperative pain was assessed in the fully awake patient after extubation (hour 0) and at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 24 hours using a visual analog scale (VAS). Additional tramadol (1.5 mg/kg) or 0.15 mg/kg nalbuphine was administered when the VAS score was > or = 30 mm. Analgesia was compared using the Mantha and Kaplan-Meier methods. Adverse effects of the drugs were also measured. The three groups were similar with respect to the total dose of remifentanil received (0.27 +/- 0.1 mircog/kg/min). In all patients, extubation was obtained within 6 +/- 3 minutes after remifentanil administration. Postoperative analgesia was ineffective in the P group; therefore, inclusions in this group were stopped after the eighth patient. Postoperative analgesia was effective in the two remaining groups because VAS scores were similar, except at hour 1, when nalbuphine was more effective (P = .001). Nevertheless, acquiring such a result demanded significantly more tramadol than nalbuphine (P < .05). More cases of nausea and vomiting were observed in the PT group but the difference was not significant (P < .06). In conclusion, pain after supratentorial neurosurgery must be taken into account

  6. On Board the Vomit Comet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodring, Kathleen Mills

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a project of constructing a rover that can maintain its upright position with minimal gravitation that is based on National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Jet Propulsion Laboratories rover designs. Tests the project in NASA's "Vomit Comet" under zero-gravity environment. (YDS)

  7. Palonosetron versus older 5-HT3 receptor antagonists for nausea prevention in patients receiving chemotherapy: a multistudy analysis

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Gary R; Schwartzberg, Lee; Barbour, Sally Y; Ballinari, Gianluca; Thorn, Michael D; Cox, David

    2015-01-01

    Background No clinical standard currently exists for the optimal management of nausea induced by emetogenic chemotherapy, particularly delayed nausea. Objective To compare the efficacy and safety of palonosetron with older 5-HT3 receptor antagonists (RAs) in preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea. Methods Data were pooled from 4 similarly designed multicenter, randomized, double-blind, clinical trials that compared single intravenous doses of palonosetron 0.25 mg or 0.75 mg with ondansetron 32 mg, dolasetron 100 mg, or granisetron 40 μg/kg, administered 30 minutes before moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC) or highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC). Pooled data within each chemotherapy category (MEC: n = 1,132; HEC: n = 1,781) were analyzed by a logistic regression model. Nausea endpoints were complete control rates (ie, no more than mild nausea, no vomiting, and no rescue medication), nausea-free rates, nausea severity, and requirement for rescue antiemetic/antinausea medication over 5 days following chemotherapy. Pooled safety data were summarized descriptively. Results Numerically more palonosetron-treated patients were nausea-free on each day, and fewer had moderate-severe nausea. Similarly, usage of rescue medication was less frequent among palonosetron-treated patients. Complete control rates for palonosetron and older 5-HT3 RAs in the acute phase were 66% vs 63%, 52% vs 42% in the delayed phase (24-120 hours), and 46% vs 37% in the overall phase. The incidence of adverse events was similar for palonosetron and older 5-HT3 RAs. Limitations This post hoc analysis summarized data for palonosetron and several other 5-HT3 RAs but was not powered for statistical comparisons between individual agents. Because nausea is inherently subjective, the reliability of assessments of some aspects (eg, severity) may be influenced by interindividual variability. Conclusion Palonosetron may be more effective than older 5-HT3 RAs in preventing nausea, with comparable

  8. Illusory self-motion and motion sickness: a model for brain-gut interactions and nausea.

    PubMed

    Koch, K L

    1999-08-01

    Motion sickness provides a unique setting for the study of nausea. Studies of illusory self-motion have linked nausea and objective measures of gastric dysrhythmias and the stress hormones vasopressin and epinephrine. Electrogastrographic methods utilize Ag-AgCl electrodes placed on the abdominal surface in the epigastric region to record electrogastrograms (EGGs), a noninvasive measure of gastric myoelectrical activity. The EGG frequencies of interest are the normal range (2.4-3.6 cpm), tachygastrias (3.6-9.9 cpm), and bradygastrias (1.0-2.4 cpm), and duodenal respiratory frequencies (10.0-15.0 cpm). Illusory self-motion or vection is produced with a rotating drum. Minutes before vection-induced nausea is reported, the baseline EGG signal shifts into tachygastrias or mixed tachygastrias and bradygastrias. Quantitative analyses show that the percentage of power in the tachygastria range correlates with the intensity of nausea. Plasma vasopressin levels correlate positively with intensity of nausea. Asian subjects have higher intensity nausea and higher vasopressin levels compared with Caucasian subjects, indicating a potential genetic susceptibility to vection-induced motion sickness and nausea. Vection-induced motion sickness represents an experimental model of acute-onset nausea with accompanying symptoms such as headache, drowsiness, cold sweating, and fatigue. Illusory self-motion is a purely central nervous system (visual-vestibular) stimulation that evokes dramatic shifts in gastric electrical activity and significant release of the posterior pituitary hormone vasopressin. Central nervous systems pathways that evoke gastric dysrhythmias and release vasopressin may also have a pathophysiologic role in the cyclic vomiting syndrome.

  9. Prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: focus on fosaprepitant

    PubMed Central

    Olver, Ian N

    2008-01-01

    Fosaprepitant is a prodrug of aprepitant, a neurokinin1 (NK1) receptor antagonist used in prophylactic antiemetic regimens used prior to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Fosaprepitant is being developed to provide a parenterally administered alternative to the orally administered aprepitant. Fosaprepitant is rapidly converted to aprepitant and an intravenous dose of 115 mg is bioequivalent to 125 mg orally, with similar plasma concentrations at 24 hours. In phase I and II trials fosaprepitant shows efficacy, but the large randomized efficacy studies have utilized aprepitant. When it is added to dexamethasone and a 5HT3 receptor antagonist on day 1 prior to chemotherapy aprepitant improves the control of acute post chemotherapy emesis and when continued on days 2 and 3 with dexamethasone it demonstrated even greater improvement in the control of delayed emesis. This has been shown with both cisplatin-containing regimens and those based upon cyclophosphamide and an anthracycline. Fosaprepitant is well tolerated with mild to moderate venous irritation being the only additional toxicity to those seen with oral aprepitant, and that is a function of dose, concentration, and infusion rate. Headaches are the other toxicity most commonly reported. Fosaprepitant can be used as a parenteral alternative to aprepitant in regimens to control chemotherapy-induced emesis. PMID:18728837

  10. Assessment of adherence to the guidelines for the management of nausea and vomiting induced by chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    França, Monique Sedlmaier; Usón, Pedro Luiz Serrano; Antunes, Yuri Philippe Pimentel Vieira; Prado, Bernard Lobato; Donnarumma, Carlos del Cistia; Mutão, Taciana Sousa; Rodrigues, Heloisa Veasey; del Giglio, Auro

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To assess adherence of the prescribing physicians in a private cancer care center to the American Society of Clinical Oncology guideline for antiemetic prophylaxis, in the first cycle of antineoplastic chemotherapy. Methods: A total of 139 chemotherapy regimens, of 105 patients, were evaluated retrospectively from 2011 to 2013. Results: We observed 78% of non-adherence to the guideline rate. The main disagreements with the directive were the prescription of higher doses of dexamethasone and excessive use of 5-HT3 antagonist for low risk emetogenic chemotherapy regimens. On univariate analysis, hematological malignancies (p=0.005), the use of two or more chemotherapy (p=0.05) and high emetogenic risk regimes (p=0.012) were factors statistically associated with greater adherence to guidelines. Treatment based on paclitaxel was the only significant risk factor for non-adherence (p=0.02). By multivariate analysis, the chemotherapy of high emetogenic risk most correlated with adherence to guideline (p=0.05). Conclusion: We concluded that the adherence to guidelines is greater if the chemotherapy regime has high emetogenic risk. Educational efforts should focus more intensely on the management of chemotherapy regimens with low and moderate emetogenic potential. Perhaps the development of a computer generated reminder may improve the adherence to guidelines. PMID:26154543

  11. Ondansetron in Preventing Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Undergoing Stem Cell Transplant

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2010-08-26

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With T(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With T(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With T(8;21)(q22;q22); Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL Negative; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; De Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Disseminated Neuroblastoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Poor Prognosis Metastatic Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Primary Myelofibrosis; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Neuroblastoma; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage I Multiple Myeloma; Stage II Multiple Myeloma; Stage II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Multiple Myeloma; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  12. Effects of Flurbiprofen Axetil on Postoperative Analgesia and Cytokines in Peripheral Blood of Thoracotomy Patients.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mi; Li, Beiping; Kong, Ming

    2015-06-01

    The objective is to study the effects of flurbiprofen axetil (FA) with fentanyl together in postoperative controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) on pain intensity, cytokine levels in peripheral blood and adverse reactions of thoracotomy patients. Fifty thoracotomy patients were divided into a FA and a control group, each with 25 cases. Postoperative analgesia was administered in the two groups using PCIA. The pressing times of analgesia pump, the visual analog scale (VAS) scores during resting and coughing at 2, 6, 24, 48, 72 h after surgery and the incidence of adverse drug reactions were recorded. Levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-2, and TNF-α in peripheral blood were determined before the administration of FA (T0), and at 24 h (T1), 48 h (T2), 72 h (T3) after surgery. The analgesia pump pressing times in the FA group was less than that of the control group. The VAS scores during resting and coughing at 2, 6, 24, 48, 72 h after surgery, were statistically less than those of control group. The incidence rate of nausea and vomiting was insignificantly different between the two groups. Administration of FA together with PCIA in thoracotomy patients can improve postoperative analgesia.

  13. The Effect of Systemic and Regional Use of Magnesium Sulfate on Postoperative Tramadol Consumption in Lumbar Disc Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Demiroglu, Melek; Ün, Canan; Ornek, Dilsen Hatice; Kıcı, Oya; Yıldırım, Ali Erdem; Horasanlı, Eyup; Başkan, Semih; Fikir, Emel; Gamli, Mehmet; Dikmen, Bayazit

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the effect of magnesium administered to the operative region muscle and administered systemically on postoperative analgesia consumption after lumbar disc surgery. Material and Method. The study included a total of 75 ASA I-II patients aged 18–65 years. The patients were randomly allocated into 1 of 3 groups of 25: the Intravenous (IV) Group, the Intramuscular (IM) Group, and the Control (C) Group. At the stage of suturing the surgical incision site, the IV Group received 50 mg/kg MgSO4 intravenously in 150 mL saline within 30 mins. In the IM Group, 50 mg/kg MgSO4 in 30 mL saline was injected intramuscularly into the paraspinal muscles. In Group C, 30 mL saline was injected intramuscularly into the paraspinal muscles. After operation patients in all 3 groups were given 100 mg tramadol and 10 mg metoclopramide and tramadol solution was started intravenously through a patient-controlled analgesia device. Hemodynamic changes, demographic data, duration of anesthesia and surgery, pain scores (NRS), the Ramsay sedation score (RSS), the amount of analgesia consumed, nausea- vomiting, and potential side effects were recorded. Results. No difference was observed between the groups. Nausea and vomiting side effects occurred at a rate of 36% in Group C, which was a significantly higher rate compared to the other groups (p < 0.05). Tramadol consumption in the IM Group was found to be significantly lower than in the other groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion. Magnesium applied to the operative region was found to be more effective on postoperative analgesia than systemically administered magnesium. PMID:27022607

  14. Vomiting Center reanalyzed: An electrical stimulation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, A. D.; Wilson, V. J.

    1982-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of the brainstem of 15 decerebrate cats produced stimulus-bound vomiting in only 4 animals. Vomiting was reproducible in only one cat. Effective stimulating sites were located in the solitary tract and reticular formation. Restricted localization of a vomiting center, stimulation of which evoked readily reproducible results, could not be obtained.

  15. Motion sickness, nausea and thermoregulation: The “toxic” hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Nalivaiko, Eugene; Rudd, John A; So, Richard HY

    2014-01-01

    Principal symptoms of motion sickness in humans include facial pallor, nausea and vomiting, and sweating. It is less known that motion sickness also affects thermoregulation, and the purpose of this review is to present and discuss existing data related to this subject. Hypothermia during seasickness was firstly noted nearly 150 years ago, but detailed studies of this phenomenon were conducted only during the last 2 decades. Motion sickness-induced hypothermia is philogenetically quite broadly expressed as besides humans, it has been reported in rats, musk shrews and mice. Evidence from human and animal experiments indicates that the physiological mechanisms responsible for the motion sickness-induced hypothermia include cutaneous vasodilation and sweating (leading to an increase of heat loss) and reduced thermogenesis. Together, these results suggest that motion sickness triggers highly coordinated physiological response aiming to reduce body temperature. Finally, we describe potential adaptive role of this response, and describe the benefits of using it as an objective measure of motion sickness-induced nausea.

  16. Opioid-Induced Nausea Involves a Vestibular Problem Preventable by Head-Rest

    PubMed Central

    Sağlam, Murat; Schulz, Christian M.; Wagner, Klaus J.; Taki, Masakatsu; Kochs, Eberhard F.; Jahn, Klaus; Brandt, Thomas; Glasauer, Stefan; Schneider, Erich

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Opioids are indispensable for pain treatment but may cause serious nausea and vomiting. The mechanism leading to these complications is not clear. We investigated whether an opioid effect on the vestibular system resulting in corrupt head motion sensation is causative and, consequently, whether head-rest prevents nausea. Methods Thirty-six healthy men (26.6±4.3 years) received an opioid remifentanil infusion (45 min, 0.15 μg/kg/min). Outcome measures were the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain determined by video-head-impulse-testing, and nausea. The first experiment (n = 10) assessed outcome measures at rest and after a series of five 1-Hz forward and backward head-trunk movements during one-time remifentanil administration. The second experiment (n = 10) determined outcome measures on two days in a controlled crossover design: (1) without movement and (2) with a series of five 1-Hz forward and backward head-trunk bends 30 min after remifentanil start. Nausea was psychophysically quantified (scale from 0 to 10). The third controlled crossover experiment (n = 16) assessed nausea (1) without movement and (2) with head movement; isolated head movements consisting of the three axes of rotation (pitch, roll, yaw) were imposed 20 times at a frequency of 1 Hz in a random, unpredictable order of each of the three axes. All movements were applied manually, passively with amplitudes of about ± 45 degrees. Results The VOR gain decreased during remifentanil administration (p<0.001), averaging 0.92±0.05 (mean±standard deviation) before, 0.60±0.12 with, and 0.91±0.05 after infusion. The average half-life of VOR recovery was 5.3±2.4 min. 32/36 subjects had no nausea at rest (nausea scale 0.00/0.00 median/interquartile range). Head-trunk and isolated head movement triggered nausea in 64% (p<0.01) with no difference between head-trunk and isolated head movements (nausea scale 4.00/7.25 and 1.00/4.5, respectively). Conclusions Remifentanil reversibly

  17. Postoperative Pain Control

    PubMed Central

    Garimella, Veerabhadram; Cellini, Christina

    2013-01-01

    The effective relief of pain is of the utmost importance to anyone treating patients undergoing surgery. Pain relief has significant physiological benefits; hence, monitoring of pain relief is increasingly becoming an important postoperative quality measure. The goal for postoperative pain management is to reduce or eliminate pain and discomfort with a minimum of side effects. Various agents (opioid vs. nonopioid), routes (oral, intravenous, neuraxial, regional) and modes (patient controlled vs. “as needed”) for the treatment of postoperative pain exist. Although traditionally the mainstay of postoperative analgesia is opioid based, increasingly more evidence exists to support a multimodal approach with the intent to reduce opioid side effects (such as nausea and ileus) and improve pain scores. Enhanced recovery protocols to reduce length of stay in colorectal surgery are becoming more prevalent and include multimodal opioid sparing regimens as a critical component. Familiarity with the efficacy of available agents and routes of administration is important to tailor the postoperative regimen to the needs of the individual patient. PMID:24436674

  18. Continuous epidural block versus continuous popliteal nerve block for postoperative pain relief after major podiatric surgery in children: a prospective, comparative randomized study.

    PubMed

    Dadure, Christophe; Bringuier, Sophie; Nicolas, Florence; Bromilow, Luke; Raux, Olivier; Rochette, Alain; Capdevila, Xavier

    2006-03-01

    Foot and ankle surgery in children is very painful postoperatively. Adverse effects from opioids and continuous epidural block (CEB) limit their use in children. Continuous popliteal nerve blocks (CPNB) have not been studied for this indication in children. In this prospective, randomized study we evaluated the effectiveness and adverse events of CPNB or CEB in children after podiatric surgery. Fifty-two children scheduled for foot surgery were separated into four groups by age and analgesia technique. After general anesthesia, 0.5 to 1 mL/kg of an equal-volume mixture of 0.25% bupivacaine and 1% lidocaine with 1:200000 epinephrine was injected via epidural or popliteal catheters. In the postoperative period, 0.1 mL x kg(-1) x h(-1) (group CPNB) or 0.2 mL x kg(-1) x h(-1) (group CEB) of 0.2% ropivacaine was administered for 48 h. Niflumic acid was routinely used. Adverse events were noted in each treatment group. Postoperative pain during motion was evaluated at 1, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 48 h. Requirement for rescue analgesia (first-line propacetamol 30 mg/kg 4 times daily or second-line 0.2 mg/kg IV nalbuphine), and motor blockade were recorded. Parental satisfaction was noted at 48 h. Twenty-seven patients were included in the CEB groups and 25 in CPNB groups. There were 32 children 1 to 6 yr of age (CPNB = 15; CEB = 17) and 20 children 7 to 12 yr of age (CPNB = 10; CEB = 10). The demographic data were comparable among groups. Postoperative analgesia was excellent for the two continuous block techniques and in the two age groups. Motor block intensity was equal between techniques. Adverse events (postoperative nausea or vomiting, urinary retention, and premature discontinuation of local anesthetic infusion in the 1- to 6-yr-old group) were significantly more frequent in the CEB group (P < 0.05). Eighty-six percent of the parents in the CEB groups and 100% in the CPNB groups were satisfied. We conclude that although both CEB and CPNB resulted in excellent

  19. An Internet survey of marijuana and hot shower use in adults with cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS).

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Thangam; Sengupta, Jyotirmoy; Lodhi, Atena; Schroeder, Abigail; Adams, Kathleen; Hogan, Walter J; Wang, Yanzhi; Andrews, Christopher; Storr, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) is a chronic disorder characterized by episodic nausea and vomiting. A large proportion of patients use marijuana to control their symptoms. Several case reports implicate marijuana as a cause of intractable vomiting with compulsive hot water bathing considered pathognomonic of "cannabinoid hyperemesis." We sought to examine the relationship between marijuana use and CVS. Patients >18 years of age diagnosed by a health care provider were invited to participate in an anonymous internet-based survey. A total of 514 patients participated and 437 completed questions about marijuana use. Mean age was 34 ± 12 years with patients being predominantly female (63%), Caucasian (92%) and from the USA (82%). Nineteen percent never used marijuana and 81% did. Fifty-four percent used marijuana for health issues and 43% for recreational purposes. Users stated that it improved nausea, appetite, general well-being, stress levels and vomiting. Users were more likely to be male and have an associated anxiety disorder. Sixty-seven percent of patients reported taking hot showers/baths for symptom relief, and this was associated with marijuana use. (OR 2.54, CI 1.50-4.31, P = 0.0006). Eighty-one percent of patients with CVS who completed an internet survey reported frequent use of marijuana. With marijuana use, patients noted the greatest improvement with stress levels, appetite and nausea. Marijuana users were more likely to be male and have associated anxiety. Hot showers were not pathognomonic of marijuana use though they were more likely to be associated with its use.

  20. An Internet Survey of Marijuana and Hot Shower Use in Adults with Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome (CVS)

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Thangam; Sengupta, Jyotiromy; Lodhi, Atena; Schroeder, Abigail; Adams, Kathleen; Hogan, Walter J.; Wang, Yanzhi; Andrews, Christopher; Storr, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) is a chronic disorder characterized by episodic nausea and vomiting. A Large proportion of patients use marijuana to control their symptoms. Several case reports implicate marijuana as a cause of intractable vomiting with compulsive hot water bathing considered pathognomonic of “cannabinoid hyperemesis.” We sought to examine the relationship between marijuana use and CVS. Patients >18 years of age diagnosed by a health care provider were invited to participate in an anonymous internet-based survey. A total of 514 patients participated and 437 completed questions about marijuana use. Mean age was 34 ± 12 years with patients being predominantly female (63%), Caucasian (92%) and from the USA (82%). Nineteen percent never used marijuana and 81% did. Fifty-four percent used marijuana for health issues and 43% for recreational purposes. Users stated that it improved nausea, appetite, general well-being, stress levels and vomiting. Users were more likely to be male and have an associated anxiety disorder. Sixty-seven percent of patients reported taking hot showers/baths for symptom relief, and this was associated with marijuana use. (OR 2.54, CI 1.50–4.31, P – 0.0006). Eight-one percent of patients with CVS who completed an internet survey reported frequent use of marijuana. With marijuana use, patients note greatest improvement with stress levels, appetite and nausea. Marijuana users were more likely to be male and have associated anxiety. Hot showers were pathognomonic of marijuana use though they were more likely to be associated with its use. PMID:24792504

  1. Electro-acupuncture decreases postoperative pain and improves recovery in patients undergoing a supratentorial craniotomy.

    PubMed

    An, Li-Xin; Chen, Xue; Ren, Xiu-Jun; Wu, Hai-Feng

    2014-01-01

    We performed this study to examine the effect of electro-acupuncture (EA) on postoperative pain, postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and recovery in patients after a supratentorial tumor resection. Eighty-eight patients requiring a supratentorial tumor resection were anesthetized with sevoflurane and randomly allocated to a no treatment group (Group C) or an EA group (Group A). After anesthesia induction, the patients in Group A received EA at LI4 and SJ5, at BL63 and LR3 and at ST36 and GB40 on the same side as the craniotomy. The stimulation was continued until the end of the operation. Patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) was used for the postoperative analgesia. The postoperative pain scores, PONV, the degree of dizziness and appetite were recorded. In the first 6 hours after the operation, the mean total bolus, the effective times of PCIA bolus administrations and the VAS scores were much lower in the EA group (p < 0.05). In the EA group, the incidence of PONV and degree of dizziness and feeling of fullness in the head within the first 24 hours after the operation was much lower than in the control group (p < 0.05). In the EA group, more patients had a better appetite than did the patients in group C (51.2% vs. 27.5%) (p < 0.05). The use of EA in neurosurgery patients improves the quality of postoperative analgesia, promotes appetite recovery and decreases some uncomfortable sensations, such as dizziness and feeling of fullness in the head. PMID:25169910

  2. Current status: Animal models of nausea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    The advantages, and possible benefits of a valid, reliable animal model for nausea are discussed, and difficulties inherent to the development of a model are considered. A principle problem for developing models arises because nausea is a subjective sensation that can be identified only in humans. Several putative measures of nausea in animals are considered, with more detailed consideration directed to variation in cardiac rate, levels of vasopressin, and conditioned taste aversion. Demonstration that putative measures are associated with reported nausea in humans is proposed as a requirement for validating measures to be used in animal models. The necessity for a 'real-time' measure of nausea is proposed as an important factor for future research; and the need for improved understanding of the neuroanatomy underlying the emetic syndrome is discussed.

  3. Assessment of the multiple dimensions of nausea: the Nausea Profile (NP).

    PubMed

    Muth, E R; Stern, R M; Thayer, J F; Koch, K L

    1996-05-01

    Nausea, unlike emesis, is a subjective experience that is difficult to describe to others, be they clinicians or researchers. Previous research has been limited to examining the frequency, severity, and duration of nausea. The goal of this study was to design a questionnaire that would allow for the evaluation of the characteristics of nausea across individuals and situations. This study consisted of 4 stages: descriptors were generated, categorized into 3 dimensions, and reevaluated to verify their reliability; in the final stage, the developed checklist was compared to a visual-analogue-scale (VAS) report of nausea in subjects exposed to a rotating optokinetic drum to stimulate nausea. The overall nausea checklist score and the VAS score were highly correlated (r = 0.71, p < 0.01). The development and use of the nausea checklist are discussed. PMID:8803860

  4. Postoperative epidural analgesia for patients undergoing pectus excavatum corrective surgery: a 10-year retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Asad; Tse, Andrew; Paul, James E; Fitzgerald, Peter; Teh, Bernice

    2016-01-01

    pain scores was found between groups during postoperative days 2–5. Among secondary outcomes, Group C had a significantly lower incidence of nausea/vomiting than Group B (P=0.003). There was also significantly more severe pain in Group A than in Group C (P=0.031). No significant difference was found between the three groups for the incidence of pruritus, critical events, breakthrough pain, or patient satisfaction. Conclusion There is no significant difference in managing postoperative pain overall between the three epidural regimens employed at our center. However, in managing day-1 postoperative pain and minimizing nausea/vomiting, our study suggests that a hydromorphone–ropivacaine epidural regimen appears to have more favorable results than a fentanyl–bupivacaine regimen or a hydromorphone–bupivacaine regimen. PMID:27307763

  5. Vestibular-induced vomiting after vestibulocerebellar lesions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, A. D.; Wilson, V. J.

    1982-01-01

    Vestibular stimulation, by sinusoidal electrical polarization of the labyrinths of decerebrate cats which can produce vomiting and related activity which resembles motion sickness was examined. The symptoms include panting, salivation, swallowing, and retching as well as vomiting. These symptoms can be produced in cats with lesions of the posterior cerebellar vermis. It is suggested that a transcerebellar pathway from the vestibular apparatus through the nodulus and uvula to the vomiting center is not essential for vestibular induced vomiting and the occurrence of many symptoms of motion.

  6. Vestibular-induced vomiting after vestibulocerebellar lesions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, A. D.; Wilson, V. J.

    1983-01-01

    Vestibular stimulation, by sinusoidal electrical polarization of the labyrinths of decerebrate cats which can produce vomiting and related activity which resembles motion sickness was examined. The symptoms include panting, salivation, swallowing, and retching as well as vomiting. These symptoms can be produced in cats with lesions of the posterior cerebellar vermis. It is suggested that a transcerebellar pathway from the vestibular apparatus through the nodulus and uvula to the vomiting center is not essential for vestibular induced vomiting and the occurrence of many symptoms of motion.

  7. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of K1 acupoint acustimulation to prevent cisplatin- or oxaliplatin-induced nausea

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yehua; Liu, Luming; Chiang, Joseph S.; Meng, Zhiqiang; Garcia, M. Kay; Chen, Zhen; Peng, Huiting; Bei, Wenying; Zhao, Qi; Spelman, Amy R.; Cohen, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Background More than 70% of cancer patients experience chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). We examined the effects of electrostimulation of the K1 acupoint located on the sole of the foot, as it is thought to have potential to control CINV. Methods In this trial, 103 patients diagnosed with primary or metastatic liver cancer were recruited before trans-catheter arterial infusion (TAI) of cisplatin (CDDP) or oxaliplatin (OXA) and randomized to group A (N=51; treated with the antiemetic tropisetron and acustimulation at the K1 acupoint for 20 minutes, 1-2 hours before TAI on the first day and then daily for the subsequent 5 days) or group B (N=53; treated with tropisetron and electrostimulation at a placebo point on the heel). The rate, intensity, and duration of nausea and vomiting were collected at baseline and then daily for 5 days after TAI. Quality of life was assessed daily using the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI) and the EuroQoL scale. Results No differences were found between groups A and B in the incidence and degree of nausea or vomiting on day 1 or the consecutive 5 days. Patients in group A had better EuroQoL scores than did patients in group B (A: 72.83 versus B: 65.94, P = 0.04) on day 4 but not on the other days. No group differences were noted at any time point for MDASI scores. Conclusions Electrostimulation of K1 combined with antiemetics did not result in initial prevention of CDDP- or OXA-induced nausea or vomiting. PMID:25204437

  8. Effects of an integrated yoga programme on chemotherapy-induced nausea and emesis in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Raghavendra, R M; Nagarathna, R; Nagendra, H R; Gopinath, K S; Srinath, B S; Ravi, B D; Patil, S; Ramesh, B S; Nalini, R

    2007-11-01

    This study examined the effect of an integrated yoga programme on chemotherapy-related nausea and emesis in early operable breast cancer outpatients. Sixty-two subjects were randomly allocated to receive yoga (n = 28) or supportive therapy intervention (n = 34) during the course of their chemotherapy. Both groups had similar socio-demographic and medical characteristics. Intervention consisted of both supervised and home practice of yoga sessions lasting for 60 min daily, while the control group received supportive therapy and coping preparation during their hospital visits over a complete course of chemotherapy. The primary outcome measure was the Morrow Assessment of Nausea and Emesis (MANE) assessed after the fourth cycle of chemotherapy. Secondary outcomes included measures for anxiety, depression, quality of life, distressful symptoms and treatment-related toxicity assessed before and during the course of chemotherapy. Following yoga, there was a significant decrease in post-chemotherapy-induced nausea frequency (P = 0.01) and nausea intensity (P = 0.01), and intensity of anticipatory nausea (P = 0.01) and anticipatory vomiting (P = 0.05) as compared with the control group. There was a significant positive correlation between MANE scores and anxiety, depression and distressful symptoms. In conclusion, the results suggest a possible use for stress reduction interventions such as yoga in complementing conventional antiemetics to manage chemotherapy-related nausea and emesis.

  9. The effect of anti-emetic doses of dexamethasone on postoperative blood glucose levels in non-diabetic and diabetic patients: a prospective randomised controlled study.

    PubMed

    Tien, M; Gan, T J; Dhakal, I; White, W D; Olufolabi, A J; Fink, R; Mishriky, B M; Lacassie, H J; Habib, A S

    2016-09-01

    There are few data regarding postoperative hyperglycaemia in non-diabetic compared with diabetic patients following postoperative nausea and vomiting prophylaxis with dexamethasone. Eighty-five non-diabetic patients and patients with type-2 diabetes were randomly allocated to receive intravenous dexamethasone (8 mg) or ondansetron (4 mg). Blood glucose levels were measured at baseline and then 2, 4 and 24 h following induction of anaesthesia. In non-diabetic patients, the mean (SD) maximum blood glucose was higher in those who received dexamethasone compared with ondansetron (9.1 (2.2) mmol.l(-1) vs. 7.8 (1.4) mmol.l(-1) , p = 0.04). In diabetic patients, the mean (SD) maximum blood glucose was also higher in those who received dexamethasone compared with ondansetron (14.0 (2.5) mmol.l(-1) vs. 10.7 (2.4) mmol.l(-1) , p < 0.01). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that dexamethasone administration was a significant predictor of maximum postoperative blood glucose increase (p < 0.01) after adjusting for potential confounders. There was no interaction between baseline blood glucose level, or presence or absence of diabetes, and dexamethasone administration. We conclude that dexamethasone increases postoperative blood glucose levels in both non-diabetics and diabetics. PMID:27523051

  10. Vomiting Larry: a simulated vomiting system for assessing environmental contamination from projectile vomiting related to norovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Makison Booth, Catherine

    2014-09-01

    Infectious diseases such as norovirus can induce emesis (vomiting), which can be of a projectile nature. Although studies have been carried out on transmission, prevalence and decontamination of such micro-organisms within various environments, little is known about the extent to which the surrounding environment is contaminated when an individual vomits. This is an important consideration for infection control purposes. The aim of this study was to develop a simulated vomiting system (Vomiting Larry) to be used for assessing the extent to which projected fluid can contaminate the environment. Vomiting Larry was set up within a Controlled Atmosphere Chamber (CAC) facility at the Health and Safety Laboratory (HSL). Simulated vomiting was undertaken using water as a vomitus substitute containing a fluorescent marker enabling small splashes, ordinarily missed, to be visualised using UV lighting. Experiments revealed that splashes and droplets produced during an episode of projectile vomiting can travel great distances (>3 m forward spread and 2.6 m lateral spread). The research highlighted that small droplets can be hard to see and therefore cleaning all contaminated surfaces is difficult to achieve. Evidence from this study suggests that areas of at least 7.8 m(2) should be decontaminated following an episode of projectile vomiting.

  11. Relationship among nausea, anxiety, and orthostatic symptoms in pediatric patients with chronic unexplained nausea.

    PubMed

    Tarbell, Sally E; Shaltout, Hossam A; Wagoner, Ashley L; Diz, Debra I; Fortunato, John E

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the relationship among nausea, anxiety, and orthostatic symptoms in pediatric patients with chronic unexplained nausea. We enrolled 48 patients (36 females) aged 15 ± 2 years. Patients completed the Nausea Profile, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children and underwent 70° head upright tilt testing (HUT) to assess for orthostatic intolerance (OI) and measure heart rate variability (HRV). We found nausea to be significantly associated with trait anxiety, including total nausea score (r = 0.71, p < 0.01) and 3 subscales: somatic (r = 0.64, p < 0.01), gastrointestinal (r = 0.48, p = 0.01), and emotional (r = 0.74, p < 0.01). Nausea was positively associated with state anxiety, total nausea (r = 0.55, p < 0.01), somatic (r = 0.48, p < .01), gastrointestinal (r = .30, p < .05), and emotional (r = .64, p < .01) subscales. Within 10 min of HUT, 27 patients tested normal and 21 demonstrated OI. After 45 min of HUT, only 13 patients (27%) remained normal. Nausea reported on the Nausea Profile before HUT was associated with OI measured at 10 min of tilt (nausea total r = 0.35, p < 0.05; nausea emotional subscale r = 0.40, p < 0.01) and lower HRV at 10 min of HUT (F = 6.39, p = 0.01). We conclude that nausea is associated with both anxiety symptoms and OI. The finding of decreased HRV suggests an underlying problem in autonomic nervous system function in children and adolescents with chronic unexplained nausea.

  12. Bilateral Infraorbital Nerve Block Versus Intravenous Pentazocine: A Comparative Study on Post-operative Pain Relief Following Cleft Lip Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Grewal, Gurpreeti; Grewal, Anju

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Infra orbital nerve block is utilized for postoperative pain control in children undergoing cleft lip repair. This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness, advantages and disadvantages of infra orbital nerve block and opioids for postoperative pain relief following cheiloplasty. Materials and Methods Sixty paediatric patients aged 3 months – 13 years undergoing cheiloplasty were selected by simple random sampling and were divided into two groups. All the children received standardized premedication with midazolam, were operated upon under general anaesthesia and the block was performed at the end of surgery before reversal. Group B patients were administered bilateral infra orbital nerve block with 0.25% Bupivacaine (upto 2 mg/kg). Group O patients received Pentazocine 0.5 mg / kg IV. Postoperatively, the heart rate and respiratory rates were recorded every 15 minutes for the first 60 minutes, half hourly till 4 hours and then at 12 and 24 hours. Behavioural assessment for pain / discomfort was done at intervals of ½, 1, 2, 3, 4, 12 and 24 hours. Need for supplementary analgesics and duration between the administration of block/opioid and the first dose of supplementary analgesics were noted. Side effects such as nausea and vomiting, pruritus, respiratory depression and bradycardia during each of these periods were noted. Results Both the groups were comparable for age, sex, weight and operative time with no statistical difference. The mean duration of analgesia for infra orbital nerve block was 357.5 minutes i.e. 5 hours 58 minutes and that for opioid was 231 minutes i.e. 3 hours 51 minutes which was significantly lower than the hours of analgesia provided by the block. Further, at the 4th hour, 76.6% of the patients in Group O required supplementary analgesics, in contrast to only 16.6% in Group B. The incidence of nausea and vomiting and pruritus was also higher in Group O. Conclusion The results indicate that bilateral

  13. Effects of intravenous analgesia with combined dezocine and butorphanol on postoperative cognitive function in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Ren, B X; Zong, J; Tang, J C; Sun, D P; Hui, X; Li, R Q; Zhang, J L; Ji, Y

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the analgesic effects of the combination of dezocine and butorphanol on postoperative cognitive function in elderly patients. Forty elderly patients undergoing upper abdominal surgeries or thoracotomies with general anesthesia were randomly divided into the dezocine and butorphanol group or the butorphanol group (20 patients per group). A visual analog scale was used to evaluate analgesia and the degree of malignant vomiting. The Ramsay scoring method was used to evaluate sedation. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was used to evaluate cognitive function. Forty-eight hours after the operation, the pain score of the dezocine and butorphanol group (means ± SD, 1.75 ± 0.44) was lower than that of the butorphanol group (2.25 ± 0.79; P < 0.05), and the nausea and vomiting score of the dezocine and butorphanol group (0) was lower than that of the butorphanol group (0.70 ± 1.30; P < 0.05). Six hours after the operation, the sedative score of the butorphanol group (3.75 ± 0.79) was higher than that of the dezocine and butorphanol group (2.15 ± 0.75; P < 0.05). Compared to 1 day before the operation, the MMSE scores of both groups decreased 6 h after the operation, and the MMSE score of the butorphanol group (15.00 ± 2.00) was lower than that of the dezocine and butorphanol group (20.95 ± 1.54; P < 0.05). Dezocine and butorphanol analgesia had transient effects on postoperative cognitive function in elderly patients, and the effect of the combination was superior than butorphanol only. PMID:26125754

  14. The use of nalmefene for intrathecal opioid-associated nausea in postpartum patients.

    PubMed

    Ward, Robyn C; Lawrence, Robert L; Hawkins, Robert J; DiChiara, Steven E; Biegner, Andrew R; Vacchiano, Charles A

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the severity of nausea and incidence of emesis in laboring parturients who received intravenous nalmefene or placebo following an intrathecal opioid (ITO). We randomly assigned 60 ASA class I or II multiparous women to receive nalmefene or placebo. Subjects received fentanyl, 25 micrograms, and morphine, 250 micrograms, intrathecally on request for analgesia. Thirty minutes after vaginal delivery, the experimental group received nalmefene, 20 micrograms, and the placebo group received an equivalent volume of normal saline intravenously. Visual analog scale nausea scores and data about episodes of emesis were obtained during labor and during the first 24 hours postpartum. There were no significant differences in age, weight, duration of labor, volume of intravenous fluids infused, time from last meal to delivery, or time from administration of the ITO to injection of the study drug. There were no significant differences in mean visual analog scale nausea scores or frequency of emesis for any time interval. Nalmefene, 20 micrograms, given intravenously within 30 minutes of vaginal delivery does not significantly reduce the nausea and vomiting associated with the use of ITOs for labor analgesia.

  15. A Phase II/III Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Clinical Trial of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) for Nausea Caused by Chemotherapy for Cancer: A Currently Accruing URCC CCOP Cancer Control Study.

    PubMed

    Hickok, Jane T; Roscoe, Joseph A; Morrow, Gary R; Ryan, Julie L

    2007-09-01

    Despite the widespread use of 5-HT3 receptor antagonist antiemetics such as ondansetron and granistron, up to 70% of patients with cancer receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy agents experience postchemotherapy nausea and vomiting. Delayed postchemotherapy nausea (nausea that occurs >/= 24 hours after chemotherapy administration) and anticipatory nausea (nausea that develops before chemotherapy administration, in anticipation of it) are poorly controlled by currently available antiemetic agents. Scientific studies suggest that ginger (Zingiber officinale) might have beneficial effects on nausea and vomiting associated with motion sickness, surgery, and pregnancy. In 2 small studies of patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy, addition of ginger to standard antiemetic medication further reduced the severity of postchemotherapy nausea. This article describes a phase II/III randomized, dose-finding, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial to assess the efficacy of ginger for nausea associated with chemotherapy for cancer. The study is currently being conducted by private practice oncology groups that are funded by the National Cancer Institute's Community Clinical Oncology Program and affiliated with the University of Rochester Cancer Center Community Clinical Oncology Program Research Base. PMID:18632524

  16. Novel associations between FAAH genetic variants and postoperative central opioid-related adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Sadhasivam, S; Zhang, X; Chidambaran, V; Mavi, J; Pilipenko, V; Mersha, T B; Meller, J; Kaufman, K M; Martin, L J; McAuliffe, J

    2015-10-01

    Opioid effects are potentiated by cannabinoid agonists including anandamide, an endocannabinoid. Inter-individual variability in responses to opioids is a major clinical problem. Multiple deaths and anoxic brain injuries occur every year because of opioid-induced respiratory depression (RD) in surgical patients and drug abusers of opioids and cannabinoids. This study aimed to determine specific associations between genetic variants of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and postoperative central opioid adverse effects in children undergoing tonsillectomy. This is a prospective genotype-blinded observational study in which 259 healthy children between 6 and 15 years of age who received standard perioperative care with a standard anesthetic and an intraoperative dose of morphine were enrolled. Associations between frequent polymorphisms of FAAH and central postoperative opioid adverse effects including, RD, postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and prolonged stay in Post Anesthesia Recovery Room (postoperative anesthesia care unit, PACU) due to RD and PONV were analyzed. Five specific FAAH single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) had significant associations with more than twofold increased risk for refractory PONV (adjusted P<0.0018), and nominal associations (P<0.05) with RD and prolonged PACU stay in white children undergoing tonsillectomy. The FAAH SNP, rs324420, is a missense mutation with altered FAAH function and it is linked with other FAAH SNPs associated with PONV and RD in our cohort; association between PONV and rs324420 was confirmed in our extended cohort with additional 66 white children. Specific FAAH polymorphisms are associated with refractory PONV, opioid-related RD, and prolonged PACU stay due to opioid adverse effects in white children undergoing tonsillectomy. PMID:25558980

  17. Acupuncture for post anaesthetic recovery and postoperative pain: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We report on the design and implementation of a study protocol entitled Acupuncture randomised trial for post anaesthetic recovery and postoperative pain - a pilot study (ACUARP) designed to investigate the effectiveness of acupuncture therapy performed in the perioperative period on post anaesthetic recovery and postoperative pain. Methods/Design The study is designed as a randomised controlled pilot trial with three arms and partial double blinding. We will compare (a) press needle acupuncture, (b) no treatment and (c) press plaster acupressure in a standardised anaesthetic setting. Seventy-five patients scheduled for laparoscopic surgery to the uterus or ovaries will be allocated randomly to one of the three trial arms. The total observation period will begin one day before surgery and end on the second postoperative day. Twelve press needles and press plasters are to be administered preoperatively at seven acupuncture points. The primary outcome measure will be time from extubation to ‘ready for discharge’ from the post anaesthesia care unit (in minutes). The ‘ready for discharge’ end point will be assessed using three different scores: the Aldrete score, the Post Anaesthetic Discharge Scoring System and an In-House score. Secondary outcome measures will comprise pre-, intra- and postoperative variables (which are anxiety, pain, nausea and vomiting, concomitant medication). Discussion The results of this study will provide information on whether acupuncture may improve patient post anaesthetic recovery. Comparing acupuncture with acupressure will provide insight into potential therapeutic differences between invasive and non-invasive acupuncture techniques. Trial registration NCT01816386 (First received: 28 October 2012) PMID:25047046

  18. Cerebral Hypoperfusion Precedes Nausea During Centrifugation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serrador, Jorge M.; Schlegel, Todd T.; Black, F. Owen; Wood, Scott J.

    2004-01-01

    Nausea and motion sickness are important operational concerns for aviators and astronauts. Understanding underlying mechanisms associated with motion sickness may lead to new treatments. The goal of this work was to determine if cerebral blood flow changes precede the development of nausea in motion sick susceptible subjects. Cerebral flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (transcranial Doppler), blood pressure (Finapres) and end-tidal CO2 were measured while subjects were rotated on a centrifuge (250 degrees/sec). Following 5 min of rotation, subjects were translated 0.504 m off-center, creating a +lGx centripetal acceleration in the nasal-occipital plane. Ten subjects completed the protocol without symptoms while 5 developed nausea (4 while 6ff-center and 1 while rotating on-center). Prior to nausea, subjects had significant increases in blood pressure (+13plus or minus 3 mmHg, P less than 0.05) and cerebrovascular resistance (+46 plus or minus 17%, P less than 0.05) and decreases in cerebral flow velocity both in the second (-13 plus or minus 4%) and last minute (-22 plus or minus 5%) before symptoms (P less than 0.05). In comparison, controls demonstrated no change in blood pressure or cerebrovascular resistance in the last minute of off-center rotation and only a 7 plus or minus 2% decrease in cerebral flow velocity. All subjects had significant hypocapnia (-3.8 plus or minus 0.4 mmHg, P less than 0.05), however this hypocapnia could not fully explain the cerebral hypoperfusion associated with the development of nausea. These data indicate that reductions in cerebral blood flow precede the development of nausea. Further work is necessary to determine what role cerebral hypoperfusion plays in motion sickness and whether cerebral hypoperfusion can be used to predict the development of nausea in susceptible individuals.

  19. Medical complications of self-induced vomiting.

    PubMed

    Brown, Carrie A; Mehler, Philip S

    2013-01-01

    Bulimia nervosa, often characterized by self-induced vomiting, is complicated by medical manifestations that affect nearly every organ system in the body. Effects range from superficial skin and dental findings to esophageal pathology, electrolyte abnormalities, cardiac arrhythmias, and in extreme cases, death. Ultimately, cessation of vomiting is necessary to cure most associated medical complications. Improper management of medical complications may lead to significant psychological distress to the patient. Fortunately, efficacious treatments do exist both to ease symptoms and ideally help the patient make a smooth transition to cessation of self-induced vomiting behavior.

  20. Transdermal fentanyl patch for postoperative analgesia in total knee arthroplasty: a randomized double-blind controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Sathitkarnmanee, Thepakorn; Tribuddharat, Sirirat; Noiphitak, Kanlayarat; Theerapongpakdee, Sunchai; Pongjanyakul, Sasiwimon; Huntula, Yuwadee; Thananun, Maneerat

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess the efficacy of a transdermal fentanyl patch (TFP) (50 μg/hour) applied 10–12 hours before surgery versus placebo for postoperative pain control of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Materials and methods We enrolled 40 patients undergoing elective TKA under spinal anesthesia using isobaric or hyperbaric bupivacaine. Subjects were randomized to receive a TFP (Duragesic® 50 μg/hour) or placebo patch applied with a self-adhesive to the anterior chest wall 10–12 hours before spinal anesthesia. Every patient was given patient-controlled morphine for postoperative pain control. Patients were evaluated every 4 hours until 48 hours. Results Morphine consumption at 24 and 48 hours in the TFP group versus the placebo group was 15.40±12.65 and 24.90±20.11 mg versus 33.60±19.06 and 57.80±12.65 mg (P≤0.001). Numeric rating scale scores at rest and during movement over 48 hours were lower in the TFP group. Ambulation and nausea/vomiting scores were statistically greater, but not clinically significant in the TFP group. Sedation scores were low and not statistically significantly different between groups. There was no severe respiratory depression. Conclusion TFP (50 μg/hour) applied 10–12 hours before surgery can effectively and safely decrease morphine consumption and pain scores during the first 48 hours after TKA surgery. PMID:25120375

  1. Effects of flurbiprofen axetil on postoperative serum IL-2 and IL-6 levels in patients with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Jiang, W W; Wang, Q H; Peng, P; Liao, Y J; Duan, H X; Xu, M; Li, Y; Zhang, P B

    2015-01-01

    We explored the effects of flurbiprofen axetil on interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-6 levels in postoperative patients with colorectal cancer. A total of 120 patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II) scheduled to undergo colorectal cancer surgery were randomly divided into 3 groups (N = 40 in each group): flurbiprofen axetil group (group F), morphine group (group M), and tramadol group (group T). Group M received 0.1 mg/kg morphine, group T received 1.5 mg/kg tramadol, and group F received 1.5 mg/kg flurbiprofen axetil. Patients in the 3 groups were administered treatments through intravenous injection 10 min before surgery. Serum IL-2 and IL-6 levels were detected. Postoperative adverse reactions were recorded, such as nausea, vomiting, and pruritus. The serum IL-6 level of the 3 groups increased 3 h after surgery. Compared with group M, IL-6 level was higher in group T and group F at 1 day after the surgery, and the differences between group M and the other groups were significant (P < 0.05). Moreover, the incidence of adverse reactions was significantly different among 3 groups (P < 0.05). Flurbiprofen axetil promoted the secretion of IL-2 and inhibited IL-6; additionally, flurbiprofen axetil may have a lower incidence of adverse reactions compared to other treatments.

  2. Effects of flurbiprofen axetil on postoperative serum IL-2 and IL-6 levels in patients with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Jiang, W W; Wang, Q H; Peng, P; Liao, Y J; Duan, H X; Xu, M; Li, Y; Zhang, P B

    2015-01-01

    We explored the effects of flurbiprofen axetil on interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-6 levels in postoperative patients with colorectal cancer. A total of 120 patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II) scheduled to undergo colorectal cancer surgery were randomly divided into 3 groups (N = 40 in each group): flurbiprofen axetil group (group F), morphine group (group M), and tramadol group (group T). Group M received 0.1 mg/kg morphine, group T received 1.5 mg/kg tramadol, and group F received 1.5 mg/kg flurbiprofen axetil. Patients in the 3 groups were administered treatments through intravenous injection 10 min before surgery. Serum IL-2 and IL-6 levels were detected. Postoperative adverse reactions were recorded, such as nausea, vomiting, and pruritus. The serum IL-6 level of the 3 groups increased 3 h after surgery. Compared with group M, IL-6 level was higher in group T and group F at 1 day after the surgery, and the differences between group M and the other groups were significant (P < 0.05). Moreover, the incidence of adverse reactions was significantly different among 3 groups (P < 0.05). Flurbiprofen axetil promoted the secretion of IL-2 and inhibited IL-6; additionally, flurbiprofen axetil may have a lower incidence of adverse reactions compared to other treatments. PMID:26662445

  3. The effects of religion and spirituality on postoperative pain, hemodynamic functioning and anxiety after cesarean section.

    PubMed

    Beiranvand, Siavash; Noparast, Morteza; Eslamizade, Nasrin; Saeedikia, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Spiritual elements play an important role in the recovery process from acute postoperative pain. This study was conducted to assess the effect of pray meditation on postoperative pain reduction and physiologic responds among muslim patients who underwent cesarean surgery under spinal anesthesia. This double-blinded randomized clinical trial study was conducted among muslim patients who underwent cesarean surgery under spinal anesthesia during 2011-2013 at tertiary regional and teaching hospital in Lorestan, Iran. The patients were randomly divided into interventional group (n=80) and control group (n=80). For about 20 minutes using a disposable phone mentioned and listened to pray meditation "Ya man esmoho davaa va zekroho shafa, Allahomma salle ala mohammad va ale mohammad" in interventional group and phone off in control group. Before and during pray meditation, 30, 60 minutes, 3 and 6 hours after pray meditation pain intensity, blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate were measured. No statistically significant improvement in pain score was found before and during pray meditation, 30, 60 minutes after pray meditation (P>0.05). Statistically significant improvement in pain score was found at 3 and 6 hours after pray meditation than control group (1.5 ± 0.3 vs. 3 ± 1.3, P=0.030) and (1.3 ± 0.8 vs. 3 ± 1.1, P=0.003). However, there was no significant difference in the physiological responses (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respiration, and heart rate) any time between the groups. Religion and spirituality intervention such as pray meditation could be used as one of non-pharmacological pain management techniques for reducing pain after cesarean surgery. Also, Pray meditation provides less postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and more relaxation. PMID:25530054

  4. Intraperitoneal pre-insufflation of 0.125% bupivaciane with tramadol for postoperative pain relief following laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Jamal, Aslam; Usmani, Hammad; Khan, Mohd Mozaffar; Rizvi, Amjad Ali; Siddiqi, Mohd Masood Hussain; Aslam, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is associated with a fairly high incidence of postoperative discomfort which is more of visceral origin than somatic. Studies have concluded that the instillation of local anesthetic with opioid around gall bladder bed provides more effective analgesia than either local anesthetic or opioid alone. Material and Methods: The study included 90 American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II patients of age 16-65 years scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia. The patients received the study drugs at the initiation of insufflation of CO2 in the intraperitoneal space by the operating surgeon under laparoscopic camera guidance over the gallbladder bed. Patients in Group T received tramadol 2 mg/kg in 30 ml normal saline, in Group B received bupivacaine 30 ml of 0.125% and in Group BT received tramadol 2 mg/kg in 30 ml of 0.125% bupivacaine intraperitoneally. Postoperative pain assessment was done at different time intervals in the first 24 h using Visual Analog Scale of 0-10 (0 = No pain, 10 = Worst pain imagined). Time to first dose of rescue analgesic and total analgesics required in the first 24 h postoperatively were also recorded. The incidence of side effects during the postoperative period was recorded. Results: Reduction in postoperative pain was elicited, at 4 and 8 h postoperatively when Group BT (bupivacaine-tramadol group) was compared with Group T (tramadol group) or Group B (bupivacaine group) (P < 0.01). There was a significantly lower requirement of analgesics during first 24 h postoperatively in Group BT compared to Group B or T but no significant difference in the intake of analgesics was noted between Groups B Group T. Time to first dose of rescue analgesic was also significantly prolonged in Group BT compared to Group B or T. The incidence of nausea and vomiting was comparable in all the study groups. Conclusions: Intraperitoneal application of bupivacaine with tramadol was a more

  5. Nausea: current knowledge of mechanisms, measurement and clinical impact.

    PubMed

    Kenward, Hannah; Pelligand, Ludovic; Savary-Bataille, Karine; Elliott, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Nausea is a subjective sensation, which often acts as a signal that emesis is imminent. It is a widespread problem that occurs as a clinical sign of disease or as an adverse effect of a drug therapy or surgical procedure. The mechanisms of nausea are complex and the neural pathways are currently poorly understood. This review summarises the current knowledge of nausea mechanisms, the available animal models for nausea research and the anti-nausea properties of commercially available anti-emetic drugs. The review also presents subjective assessment and scoring of nausea. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of nausea might reveal potential clinically useful biomarkers for objective measurement of nausea in species of veterinary interest.

  6. Effects of Anesthetic Management on Early Postoperative Recovery, Hemodynamics and Pain After Supratentorial Craniotomy

    PubMed Central

    Ayrian, Eugenia; Kaye, Alan David; Varner, Chelsia L.; Guerra, Carolina; Vadivelu, Nalini; Urman, Richard D.; Zelman, Vladimir; Lumb, Philip D.; Rosa, Giovanni; Bilotta, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Various clinical trials have assessed how intraoperative anesthetics can affect early recovery, hemodynamics and nociception after supratentorial craniotomy. Whether or not the difference in recovery pattern differs in a meaningful way with anesthetic choice is controversial. This review examines and compares different anesthetics with respect to wake-up time, hemodynamics, respiration, cognitive recovery, pain, nausea and vomiting, and shivering. When comparing inhalational anesthetics to intravenous anesthetics, either regimen produces similar recovery results. Newer shorter acting agents accelerate the process of emergence and extubation. A balanced inhalational/intravenous anesthetic could be desirable for patients with normal intracranial pressure, while total intravenous anesthesia could be beneficial for patients with elevated intracranial pressure. Comparison of inhalational anesthetics shows all appropriate for rapid emergence, decreasing time to extubation, and cognitive recovery. Comparison of opioids demonstrates similar awakening and extubation time if the infusion of longer acting opioids was ended at the appropriate time. Administration of local anesthetics into the skin, and addition of corticosteroids, NSAIDs, COX-2 inhibitors, and PCA therapy postoperatively provided superior analgesia. It is also important to emphasize the possibility of long-term effects of anesthetics on cognitive function. More research is warranted to develop best practices strategies for the future that are evidence-based. PMID:26345202

  7. Effects of Anesthetic Management on Early Postoperative Recovery, Hemodynamics and Pain After Supratentorial Craniotomy.

    PubMed

    Ayrian, Eugenia; Kaye, Alan David; Varner, Chelsia L; Guerra, Carolina; Vadivelu, Nalini; Urman, Richard D; Zelman, Vladimir; Lumb, Philip D; Rosa, Giovanni; Bilotta, Federico

    2015-10-01

    Various clinical trials have assessed how intraoperative anesthetics can affect early recovery, hemodynamics and nociception after supratentorial craniotomy. Whether or not the difference in recovery pattern differs in a meaningful way with anesthetic choice is controversial. This review examines and compares different anesthetics with respect to wake-up time, hemodynamics, respiration, cognitive recovery, pain, nausea and vomiting, and shivering. When comparing inhalational anesthetics to intravenous anesthetics, either regimen produces similar recovery results. Newer shorter acting agents accelerate the process of emergence and extubation. A balanced inhalational/intravenous anesthetic could be desirable for patients with normal intracranial pressure, while total intravenous anesthesia could be beneficial for patients with elevated intracranial pressure. Comparison of inhalational anesthetics shows all appropriate for rapid emergence, decreasing time to extubation, and cognitive recovery. Comparison of opioids demonstrates similar awakening and extubation time if the infusion of longer acting opioids was ended at the appropriate time. Administration of local anesthetics into the skin, and addition of corticosteroids, NSAIDs, COX-2 inhibitors, and PCA therapy postoperatively provided superior analgesia. It is also important to emphasize the possibility of long-term effects of anesthetics on cognitive function. More research is warranted to develop best practices strategies for the future that are evidence-based. PMID:26345202

  8. Preclinical evaluation of dual action intranasal formulation intended for postoperative/cancer associated therapies.

    PubMed

    El-Setouhy, Doaa Ahmed; Ahmed, Sami; Badawi, Alia Abd El-Latif; El-Nabarawi, Mohamed Ahmed; Sallam, Nada

    2015-08-30

    Granisetron hydrochloride is a potent antiemetic yet experiencing first pass metabolism. Ketorolac tromethamine is a potent analgesic NSAID that is known to cause gastrointestinal complications. The purpose of this study is to prepare combined in situ nasal copolymer thermal gel combining both drugs for the management of postoperative and cancer associated nausea, vomiting and pain while avoiding the problems associated with their therapy. In situ gelling nasal formulations with/without different mucoadhesive polymers were prepared and evaluated. Viscosity of different formulations was measured and correlated to in-vitro drug release. Selected formulae were evaluated for in-vivo mucociliary transit time. Based on in-vitro release pattern and mucociliary transit time, the selected formula F4 was evaluated for chemical and thermal anti-nociception activity in rats following intranasal or intraperitoneal administration. Only the intra-nasal administration of the selected formulation F4 showed significant analgesia against chemical nociception during both the early and late phases. Also, intranasal administration of the selected formulation F4 showed significant analgesia against thermal nociception. F4 intranasal formulation may offer higher therapeutic value than oral administration as it may not only avoid granisetron first pass metabolism but may also minimize ketorolac gastrointestinal adverse effects as well. PMID:25917526

  9. Postoperative management.

    PubMed

    Schraag, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Most patients undergoing major aortic surgery have multiple comorbidities and are at high risk of postoperative complications that affect multiple organ systems. Different aortic pathologies and surgical repair techniques have specific impact on the postoperative course. Ischemia-reperfusion injury is the common denominator in aortic surgery and influences the integrity of end-organ function. Common postoperative problems include hemodynamic instability due to the immediate inflammatory response, renal impairment, spinal cord ischemia, respiratory failure with prolonged mechanical ventilation, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as ileus or mesenteric ischemia. Focused care bundles to establish homeostasis and a team working toward an early functional recovery determine the success of effective rehabilitation and outcomes after aortic surgery. PMID:27650347

  10. Thank You for Flying the Vomit Comet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Robert; DiLisi, Gregory A.; DiLisi, Lori A.; Santo, Gretchen

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes our flight aboard NASA's C9 "Weightless Wonder," an aircraft that creates multiple periods of microgravity by conducting a series of parabolic maneuvers over the Gulf of Mexico. Because passengers often develop motion sickness during these parabolic maneuvers, the C9 is more affectionately known as the "Vomit Comet." To…

  11. Thank You for Flying the Vomit Comet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Robert; DiLisi, Gregory A.; DiLisi, Lori A.; Santo, Gretchen

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes our flight aboard NASA's C9 Weightless Wonder, more affectionately known as The Vomit Comet. The C9 is NASA's aircraft that creates multiple periods of microgravity by conducting a series of parabolic maneuvers over the Gulf of Mexico.

  12. Postoperative Pain After Abdominal Hysterectomy: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial Comparing the Effects of Tramadol and Gabapentin as Premedication

    PubMed Central

    Farzi, Farnoush; Naderi Nabi, Bahram; Mirmansouri, Ali; Fakoor, Fereshteh; Atrkar Roshan, Zahra; Biazar, Gelareh; Zarei, Tayyebeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Uncontrolled postoperative pain, characteristic to abdominal hysterectomy, results in multiple complications. One of the methods for controlling postoperative pain is preemptive analgesia. Gabapentin and tramadol are both used for this purpose. Objectives: This study aims to compare the effects of tramadol and gabapentin, as premedication, in decreasing the pain after hysterectomy. Patients and Methods: This clinical trial was performed on 120 eligible elective abdominal hysterectomy patients, divided in three groups of 40, receiving tramadol, gabapentin and placebo, respectively. Two hours before the surgery, the first group was given 300 mg gabapentin, the second one was given 100 mg tramadol, while the other group was given placebo, with 50 ml water. After the surgery, in case of visual analog pain scale (VAS) > 3, up to 3 mg of diclofenac suppository would be used. Pain score, nausea, vomiting, sedation, patient’s satisfaction and the number of meperidine administered during 24 hours (1 - 4 - 8 - 12 - 16 - 20 - 24 hours) were recorded. If patients had VAS > 3, despite using diclofenac, intravenous meperidine (0.25 mg/kg) would be prescribed. Data were analyzed using SPSS 21 software, chi-square test, general linear model and repeated measurement. Results: The three groups were similar regarding age and length of surgery (up to 2 hours). The average VAS, in the placebo group, was higher than in the other two groups (P = 0.0001) and the average received doses of meperidine during 24-hour time were considerably higher in placebo group, compared to the other two groups (55.62 mg in placebo, 18.75 mg in gabapentin and 17.5 mg in tramadol groups, P = 0.0001). Nausea, vomiting and sedation, in the tramadol group, were higher than in the other two groups, although they were not significant. Patients’ dissatisfaction, in the placebo group, during initial hours, especially in the fourth hour, was higher (P = 0.0001). In the gabapentin and tramadol groups

  13. Chronic Vomiting in Cats: Etiology and Diagnostic Testing.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Shannon Ryan; Gisselman, Kelly; Cordner, Amy; Nicholson, Angela Gasser

    2016-01-01

    Chronic vomiting in cats is a common presenting problem seen in veterinary practice today. The initial step when presented with a vomiting patient is to differentiate between vomiting and regurgitation or dysphagia. There are numerous causes for chronic vomiting in cats, and therefore a detailed and comprehensive patient history and a systematic diagnostic approach are key steps in determining the cause for vomiting and the most appropriate treatment plan. Common causes for chronic vomiting in cats may include inflammatory bowel disease, food allergy, gastrointestinal motility disorders, neoplasia, and extra-gastrointestinal diseases, such as renal disease, hepatobiliary disease, and hyperthyroidism. PMID:27487349

  14. Nausea, Vomiting, and Weight Loss in a Young Adult Patient With a History of a Gunshot Wound.

    PubMed

    James, Jessica; Fitzgibbon, James; Blackford, Martha

    2016-09-01

    Assessing victims of gunshot wounds with retained bullets/bullet fragments for lead toxicity is not always considered until the patient develops signs and symptoms of toxicity. We discuss the case of a 19-year-old young man who received a diagnosis of chronic lead toxicity (serum lead concentration 51 μg/dL) 5 weeks after a hunting accident. Extensive wound debridement occurred following the accident; however, lead toxicity was not diagnosed until after his fourth emergency department visit. Oral chelation therapy was required for the management of his lead toxicity.

  15. Post-operative intravenous patient-controlled analgesic efficacy of morphine with ketorolac versus nefopam after laparoscopic gynecologic surgery: a randomized non-inferiority trial

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ji-Uk; Cheon, Ji-Hyun; Choi, Yoon-Mi; Ri, Hyun-Su; Baik, Seong-Wan

    2016-01-01

    Background Nefopam is a non-opioid non-steroidal centrally acting analgesic. This study was conducted to assess the analgesic efficacy of intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) using nefopam alone, compared with a combination of morphine and ketorolac, after laparoscopic gynecologic surgery. Methods Sixty patients undergoing laparoscopic gynecologic surgery received IV-PCA. Group A (n = 30) received IV-PCA with a combination of morphine 60 mg and ketorolac 180 mg, while group B (n = 30) received nefopam 200 mg (basal rate 1 ml/h, bolus 1 ml, and lockout time 15 min for both). The primary outcome evaluated was analgesic efficacy using the visual analogue scale (VAS). Other evaluated outcomes included the incidence rate of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), patient satisfaction of pain control, percentage of patients requiring additional opioids, and incidence rate of postoperative adverse effects. Results Group B was not inferior to group A in relation to the VAS in the post-anesthesia care unit, and at 12, 24, and 48 h after surgery (mean difference [95% confidence interval], 0.50 [–0.43 to 1.43], -0.30 [-1.25 to 0.65], -0.05 [-0.65 to 0.55], and 0.10 [-0.55 to 0.75], respectively). The incidence rate of nausea was lower in group B than in group A at 12 and 24 h after surgery (P = 0.004 and P = 0.017, respectively). There were no significant differences in the other outcomes between groups. Conclusions IV-PCA using nefopam alone has a non-inferior analgesic efficacy and produces a lower incidence of PONV in comparison with IV-PCA using a combination of morphine and ketorolac after laparoscopic gynecologic surgery. PMID:27066208

  16. Nausea and abdominal discomfort--possible relation to aerophagia during diving: an epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, C E; Ornhagen, H

    1975-09-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) distension by gas expansion may be more of a problem in diving than is usually recognized. In response to a written questionnaire, 2053 scuba divers gave information about GI discomfort such as pain, nausea, and vomiting in connection with diving. One hundred and eleven reports (5.4% of 2053) were considered possible cases of significant GI distension because the majority of divers had their symptoms during ascent and a significant number of them got relief from belching. Difficult middle ear pressure equilibration was a particular problem among divers with GI symptoms. It may have induced frequent swallowing, causing air ingestion and consequent GI problems. Steep, head-first descents appear to have been employed in some dives, leading to GI discomfort presumably be creating large mouth-to-stomach gas-pressure differences. It was concluded that swallowing or any procedure leading to entry of gas into the stomach should be avoided and that belching during diving should be recommended.

  17. Dexmedetomidine in Postoperative Analgesia in Patients Undergoing Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Chunguang; Chi, Meiying; Zhang, Yanwei; Zhang, Zongwang; Qi, Feng; Liu, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Both dexmedetomidine and sufentanil modulate spinal analgesia by different mechanisms, and yet no human studies are available on their combination for analgesia during the first 72 hours after abdominal hysterectomy. This CONSORT-prospective, randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the combination of dexmedetomidine and sufentanil in intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) for 72 hours after abdominal hysterectomy. Ninety women undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy were divided into 3 equal groups that received sufentanil (Group C; 0.02 μg/kg/h), sufentanil plus dexmedetomidine (Group D1; 0.02 μg/kg/h, each), or sufentanil (0.02 μg/kg/h) plus dexmedetomidine (0.05 μg/kg/h) (Group D2) for 72 hours after surgery in this double-blinded, randomized study. The primary outcome measure was the postoperative sufentanil consumption, whereas the secondary outcome measures were pain intensity (visual analogue scale), requirement of narcotic drugs during the operation, level of sedation, Bruggrmann comfort scale, and concerning adverse effects. The postoperative sufentanil consumption was significantly lower in Groups D1 and D2 than in Group C during the observation period (P < 0.05), but lower in Group D2 than in Group D1 at 24, 48, and 72 hours after surgery (P < 0.05). The heart rate after intubation and incision was lower in Groups D1 and D2 than in Group C (P < 0.05). On arrival at the recovery room, Groups D1 and D2 had lower mean blood pressure than Group C (P < 0.05). The intraoperative requirement of sevoflurane was 30% lesser in Groups D1 and D2 than in Group C. The sedation levels were greater in Groups D1 and D2 during the first hour (P < 0.05). Compared with Groups C and D1, Group D2 showed lower levels of the overall incidence of nausea and vomiting (P < 0.05). Among the tested PCA options, the addition of dexmedetomidine (0.05 μg/kg/h) and sufentanil (0

  18. Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome: A Functional Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, Kanwar K.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) is a functional disorder characterized by stereotypical episodes of intense vomiting separated by weeks to months. Although it can occur at any age, the most common age at presentation is 3-7 years. There is no gender predominance. The precise pathophysiology of CVS is not known but a strong association with migraine headaches, in the patient as well as the mother indicates that it may represent a mitochondriopathy. Studies have also suggested the role of an underlying autonomic neuropathy involving the sympathetic nervous system in its pathogenesis. CVS has known triggers in many individuals and avoiding these triggers can help prevent the onset of the episodes. It typically presents in four phases: a prodrome, vomiting phase, recovery phase and an asymptomatic phase until the next episode. Complications such as dehydration and hematemesis from Mallory Wise tear of the esophageal mucosa may occur in more severe cases. Blood and urine tests and abdominal imaging may be indicated depending upon the severity of symptoms. Brain magnetic resonance imaging and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy may also be indicated in certain circumstances. Management of an episode after it has started ('abortive treatment') includes keeping the patient in a dark and quiet room, intravenous hydration, ondansetron, sumatriptan, clonidine, and benzodiazepines. Prophylactic treatment includes cyproheptadine, propranolol and amitriptyline. No mortality has been reported as a direct result of CVS and many children outgrow it over time. A subset may develop other functional disorders like irritable bowel syndrome and migraine headaches. PMID:26770896

  19. Ginger Helps Reduce Nausea from Chemotherapy | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Ginger helped prevent or reduce chemotherapy-induced nausea when taken with traditional anti-nausea drugs by patients with cancer, researchers have found. The results are from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, the largest study to examine the potential effects of ginger on chemotherapy-related nausea. The study will be presented May 30 at the ASCO annual meeting in Orlando, FL. |

  20. Effect of Preoperative Oral Amantadine on Acute and Chronic Postoperative Pain After Mandibular Fracture Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Yazdani, Javad; Aghamohamadi, Davood; Amani, Masoomeh; Mesgarzadeh, Ali Hossein; Maghbooli Asl, Davood; Pourlak, Tannaz

    2016-01-01

    Background Postoperative pain from open reduction and internal fixation of mandibular fracture is a serious issue. Amantadine is an N-methyl-D-aspartic acid or N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that can be effective against postoperative pain. Objectives The present study examined the efficacy of amantadine in alleviating the postoperative pain of mandibular fracture surgery. Patients and Methods In this double-blind study, 60 patients (ASA physical status I–II) were randomly divided into two groups. The mean ages of the participants were 31.2 ± 13.1 years and 32.3 ± 18.1 years, respectively. The male/female ratios were 24/6 and 26/4, respectively, in the case and control groups. Randomization was based on a single sequence of random assignments using computer-generated random numbers. Group I was given oral amantadine 100 mg 1 hour before surgery, and group II received a placebo at the identical time. Through PCA pumps, patients received a bolus dose of morphine at 0.02 mg/kg body weight, to a maximum of 1.5 mg. PCA pumps were set at 6 minutes lockout intervals and a maximum dose of 0.15 mg/kg/h, to a maximum of 10 mg/h. Pain was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS) at 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 months after surgery. The amounts of analgesic consumed were recorded for the first 24 hours, and for 6 months after surgery. Results There were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to age, gender, nausea and vomiting, sleep quality, blood pressure, and heart rate. No significant differences were observed between the two groups in pain scores (P = 0.39) and analgesic consumption (P = 0.78). Conclusions The results suggest that a single dose of preoperative oral amantadine did not reduce acute or chronic postoperative pain, nor analgesic consumption. PMID:27642581

  1. Dezocine for Preventing Postoperative Pain: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min; Yu, LiNa; Yan, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dezocine is considered to be an alternative medication for managing postoperative pain. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of this drug in this regard. Methods Medline, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Control Trials (CENTRAL) were searched to identify all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compare dezocine with placebo or dezocine with morphine on postoperative pain. The data were extracted and pooled using Mantel-Haenszel random effects model. Heterogeneity was tested using the I2 statistic with values >50% and Chi2 test with P ≤ 0.05 indicating obvious heterogeneity between the studies. Results Seven trials evaluating 665 patients were included. The number of patients with at least 50% pain relief was increased (N = 234; RR 3.04, 95% CI 2.27 to 4.08) and physician (N = 465; RR 2.84, 95% CI 1.66 to 4.84) and patient satisfaction (N = 390; RR 2.81, 95% CI 1.85 to 4.26) were improved following the administration of dezocine compared with the placebo. The effects of dezocine were similar to those of morphine in terms of the number of patients reporting at least 50% pain relief within 2–6 h after surgery (N = 235; RR 1.29, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.46) and physician (N = 234; RR 1.18, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.49) and patient (N = 158; RR 1.33, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.92) satisfaction. While, the number of patients with at least 50% pain relief within 0–1 h after surgery increased following dezocine compared with morphine treatment (N = 79; RR 1.45, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.77). There was no difference in the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) following dezocine treatment compared with the placebo (N = 391; RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.42 to 2.68) or morphine treatment (N = 235; RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.14 to 2.93). Conclusion Dezocine is a promising analgesic for preventing postoperative pain, but further studies are required to evaluate its safety. PMID:26287536

  2. Motion sickness, vascular changes accompanying pseudo-coriolis-induced nausea.

    PubMed

    Johnson, W H; Sunahara, F A; Landolt, J P

    1993-05-01

    We have previously shown that objective measurements of blood flow changes constitute a useful index in assessing susceptibility to nausea produced by cross-coupled angular accelerations (Coriolis stimulation). The findings of this study confirm the value of using the same technique for assessing the degree of nausea produced by pseudo-Coriolis effects.

  3. A Comparison Between Dexamethasone and Methylprednisolone for Vomiting Prophylaxis After Tonsillectomy in Inpatients Children: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Aouad, Marie T; Nasr, Viviane G; Yazbeck-Karam, Vanda G; Bitar, Mohammad A; Khalil, Micheline Bou; Beyrouthy, Ornella; Harfouche, Diala; Terrin, Norma; Siddik- Sayyid, Sahar

    2012-01-01

    Background The frequent incidence of postoperative vomiting in children undergoing tonsillectomy, in addition to the occurrence of severe pain, may delay postoperative oral intake and lead to increased risk of dehydration. Thus, prophylactic therapy is indicated in this high-risk group. Glucocorticoids, such as dexamethasone and methylprednisolone, have antiinflammatory and antiemetic properties with dexamethasone being frequently used. We hypothesized that methylprednisolone should be noninferior to dexamethasone for the prevention of vomiting in children after tonsillectomy. Methods We designed a randomized double-blinded trial to compare the efficacy of a single prophylactic dose of 0.5mg/kg dexamethasone with a dose of 2.5 mg/kg methylprednisolone on the incidence of postoperative vomiting during the first 24 hours (primary outcome) in children undergoing total or partial tonsillectomy with a noninferiority margin set at 9%. One hundred sixty children undergoing total or partial tonsillectomy under general anesthesia were randomly assigned to receive either IV dexamethasone 0.5 mg/kg (n=79) or methylprednisolone 2.5 mg/kg (n=81) after induction of anesthesia. Secondary analysis of all studied outcomes was also performed according to the type of surgery. Results An intention-to-treat analysis showed an overall incidence of vomiting of 30% in the dexamethasone group and of 22% in the methylprednisolone group (difference: 8%, 95% CI: −5 to 21%). A per protocol analysis showed an incidence of vomiting of 32% and 23% respectively (difference: 9%, and 95% CI of the difference: −5 to 23%, Psup=0.28). The time and quality of oral intake, the duration of IV hydration, as well as pain and satisfaction scores and the need for analgesics were similar between the 2 groups. The incidence of vomiting was also similar in patients who had total versus partial tonsillectomy; however, time to first oral intake, duration of IV hydration, and the need for analgesics were less

  4. The effect of music therapy on relaxation, anxiety, pain perception, and nausea in adult solid organ transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Madson, Amy T; Silverman, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    Organ transplant recipients characteristically experience low levels of relaxation and high levels of anxiety, pain, and nausea. Although music therapy has demonstrated effectiveness in ameliorating these types of conditions with patients in other areas of medical hospitals, no studies have evaluated the effects of music therapy on solid organ transplant patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of music therapy on anxiety, relaxation, pain, and nausea levels in recovering patients on the adult transplant unit of the hospital utilizing a pre-posttest design. Participants (N = 58) received an individual 15-35 minute music therapy session consisting of live patient-preferred music and therapeutic social interaction. To remain consistent with the hospital's evaluative instruments during this pilot study, participants' self-reported levels of anxiety, relaxation, pain, and nausea, were based on separate 10-point Likert-type scales. The principal investigator observed affect and verbalizations at pre and posttest. Results indicated there were significant improvements in self-reported levels of relaxation, anxiety (both p < .001), pain (p < .01), and nausea (p < .05). Although there was no reliability measure, there were significant increases in positive verbalizations and positive affect (p < .001). All participants reported that they would desire music therapy again during a future long-term hospital stay. From the results of this exploratory study, it seems that music therapy can be a viable psychosocial intervention for hospitalized postoperative solid transplant patients. Implications for clinical practice and suggestions for future research are provided.

  5. Postoperative analgesia in children: a prospective study in intermittent intramuscular injection versus continuous intravenous infusion of morphine.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, M; Myre, L; Johnson, D G; Matlak, M E; Black, R E; Sullivan, J J

    1990-02-01

    Few advancements in postoperative pain control in children have been made despite longstanding inadequacies in conventional intramuscular analgesic regimens. While overestimating narcotic complication rates, physicians often underestimate efficacious doses, nurses are reluctant to give injections, and many children in pain shy away from shots. This study prospectively focuses on the safety, efficacy, and complication rate of intermittent intramuscular (IM) versus continuous intravenous infusion (IV) of morphine sulfate (MS) in 46 nonventilated children following major chest, abdominal, or orthopedic surgical procedures. Twenty patients assigned to the IM group had a mean age of 6.17 years and a mean weight of 23.0 kg. Twenty-six patients assigned to the IV group had a mean age of 8.74 years and a mean weight of 27.4 kg. The mean IM MS dose was 12.3 micrograms/kg/h while the mean IV dose was 19.8 micrograms/kg/h (P less than .001). Postoperative pain was assessed with a linear analogue scale from 1 to 10 (1, "doesn't hurt"; 10, "worst hurt possible") for 3 days following operation. Using the analysis of covariance (ANACOVA), nurse, parent, and patient mean pain scores in the IV group were significantly lower than those of the IM group when controlled for age, MS dose, and complications (P less than .007). Nurse assessment of pain correlated well with the patient and parent assessments (Pearson correlation coefficients greater than 0.6). Not only did IV infusion give better pain relief than IM injections, but there were no major complications such as respiratory depression. Minor complications in this study (nausea, urinary retention, drowsiness, vomiting, hallucinations, lightheadedness, and prolonged ileus) were not significantly different between IM and IV groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2303987

  6. The Effect of Preoperative Oral Carbohydrate or Oral Rehydration Solution on Postoperative Quality of Recovery: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Asakura, Ayako; Mihara, Takahiro; Goto, Takahisa

    2015-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of preoperative administration of oral carbohydrate (CHO) or oral rehydration solution (ORS). However, the effects of preoperative CHO or ORS on postoperative quality of recovery after anesthesia remain unclear. Consequently, the purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effect of preoperative CHO or ORS on patient recovery, using the Quality of Recovery 40 questionnaire (QoR-40). Methods This prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial included American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status 1 and 2 adult patients, who were scheduled to undergo a surgical procedure of body surface. Subjects were randomized to one of the three groups: 1) preoperative CHO group, 2) preoperative ORS group, and 3) control group. The primary outcome was the global QoR-40 administered 24 h after surgery. Intraoperative use of vasopressor, intraoperative body temperature changes, and postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) were also evaluated. Results We studied 134 subjects. The median [interquartile range (IQR)] global QoR-40 scores 24 h after the surgery were 187 [177–197], 186 [171–200], and 184 [171–198] for the CHO, ORS, and control groups, respectively (p = 0.916). No significant differences existed between the groups regarding intraoperative vasopressor use during the surgery (p = 0.475). Conclusions Results of the current study indicated that the preoperative administration of either CHO or ORS did not improve the quality of recovery in patients undergoing minimally invasive body surface surgery. Trial Registration www.umin.ac.jp UMIN000009388 https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr/ctr.cgi?function=brows&action=brows&type=summary&recptno=R000011029&language=E PMID:26317629

  7. Early post-operative relief of pain and shivering using diclofenac suppository versus intravenous pethidine in spinal anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahim, Ali Janpour; Mozaffar, Rabiee; Nadia, Bani-hashem; Ali, Jabbari

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pain and shivering are two challenging components in the post operative period. Many drugs were used for prevention and treatment of them. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of prophylactic prescription of diclofenac suppository versus intravenous (IV) pethidine in spinal anesthesia. Materials and Methods: We conducted a multi central, prospective, double-blind, randomized clinical trial on a total of 180 patients who were scheduled for surgery under spinal anesthesia including 60 patients in three groups. Patients were randomly allocated to receive 100 mg sodium diclofenac suppository or 30 mg IV pethidine or placebo. Categorical and continuous variables were analyzed by Chi-square test, t-test, Mann-Whitney and ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results: There was no statistical difference with regard to patient characteristics and hemodynamic indices among the three groups. Nine (15%), 10 (16.65%) and 24 (40%) of patients in diclofenac, pethidine and control groups reported pain and 2, 2, 7 patients received treatment due to it, respectively (P = 0.01). Prevalence of shivering in pethidine group and diclofenac group was the same and both of them were different from the control group (P < 0.001). Pruritus was repetitive in the pethidine group and was statistically significant (P = 0.036) but, post-operative nausea and vomiting was not significantly different among groups. Conclusion: A single dose of sodium diclofenac suppository can provide satisfactory analgesia immediately after surgery and decrease shivering without remarkable complications. This investigation highlights the role of pre-operative administration of a single dose of rectal diclofenac as a sole analgesic for early post-operative period. PMID:24803766

  8. Nausea is associated with endotoxemia during a 161-km ultramarathon.

    PubMed

    Stuempfle, Kristin J; Valentino, Taylor; Hew-Butler, Tamara; Hecht, Frederick M; Hoffman, Martin D

    2016-09-01

    This study explored possible contributing factors to gastrointestinal distress, including endotoxemia, hyperthermia, dehydration and nutrition, during a 161-km ultramarathon. Thirty runners participated in the study and 20 finished the race. At three checkpoints and the finish, runners were interviewed to assess the incidence and severity of 12 gastrointestinal symptoms and to determine dietary intake. Core temperature was measured at the same locations. Runners were weighed pre-race, at the three checkpoints and the finish to monitor hydration status. Blood markers for endotoxemia (sCD14) and inflammation (interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein) were measured pre- and post-race. Gastrointestinal symptoms were experienced by most runners (80%), with nausea being the most common complaint (60%). Runners with nausea experienced significantly greater (P = 0.02) endotoxemia than those without nausea (sCD14 mean increase 0.7 versus 0.5 µg · mL(-1)). There was a significant positive correlation (r = 0.652, P = 0.005) between nausea severity and endotoxemia level. Inflammatory response, core temperature, hydration level and race diet were similar between runners with and without nausea. This study links endotoxemia to nausea in ultramarathon runners. Other possible contributing factors to nausea such as hyperthermia, dehydration and nutrition did not appear to play a role in the symptomatic runners in this study. PMID:26707127

  9. An Evaluation of the Effect of Hypnosis on Postoperative Analgesia following Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Joudi, Marjan; Fathi, Mehdi; Izanloo, Azra; Montazeri, Omid; Jangjoo, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hypnosis in improving the results of surgery in Iran. One hundred and twenty patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly divided into either control (standard care) or experimental (hypnosis) groups. Prior to surgery and again after surgery, abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting were assessed. The results suggest that hypnosis could effectively reduce pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy and significantly reduce hospitalization time. PMID:27267679

  10. Cyclic Vomiting Presentations Following Marijuana Liberalization in Colorado

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Howard S.; Anderson, John D.; Saghafi, Omeed; Heard, Kennon J.; Monte, Andrew A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Case reports have described a syndrome of cyclic vomiting associated with chronic marijuana use, termed cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome. The primary objective was to determine the prevalence of patients presenting with cyclic vomiting before and after the liberalization of medical marijuana in Colorado in 2009. The secondary objective was to describe the odds of marijuana use among cyclic vomiting visits in these same time periods. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of cyclic vomiting visits to the emergency department (ED) before and after marijuana liberalization. ED visits with International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision, coding for cyclic vomiting or that met diagnostic criteria for cyclic vomiting by the Rome III criteria were included. Results The authors reviewed 2,574 visits and identified 36 patients diagnosed with cyclic vomiting over 128 visits. The prevalence of cyclic vomiting visits increased from 41 per 113,262 ED visits to 87 per 125,095 ED visits after marijuana liberalization, corresponding to a prevalence ratio of 1.92 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.33 to 2.79). Patients with cyclic vomiting in the postliberalization period were more likely to have marijuana use documented than patients in the preliberalization period (odds ratio = 3.59, 95% CI = 1.44 to 9.00). Conclusions The prevalence of cyclic vomiting presentations nearly doubled after the liberalization of medical marijuana. Patients presenting with cyclic vomiting in the postliberalization period were more likely to endorse marijuana use, although it is unclear whether this was secondary to increased marijuana use, more accurate marijuana reporting, or both. PMID:25903855

  11. Cyclic vomiting syndrome and functional vomiting in adults: association with cannabinoid use in males

    PubMed Central

    Choung, Rok Seon; Locke, G. Richard; Lee, Ru Min; Schleck, Cathy D.; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Talley, Nicholas J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) is characterized by stereotypical episodes of vomiting separated by symptom-free intervals. However, the difficulty encountered in the management of patients with CVS may be a reflection of a deficiency in our understanding of the disorder. We aimed to evaluate whether clinical or gastric emptying (GE) data discriminate patients labeled as having CVS from functional vomiting (FV) or IBS. Methods The medical records of patients diagnosed with any vomiting (including CVS, FV) over a 13-year period (1993–2006) at our institution were carefully reviewed. Disease controls were age and gender matched subjects with IBS. GE was performed by scintigraphy (99mTc-egg meal). The associations of clinical factors and gastric emptying data with patient status (CVS vs. FV or IBS) were analyzed. Key Results A total of 82 patients with CVS and 62 FV patients were identified. Younger age (per 10 years, OR=0.7 [0.5, 0.9]), male gender (OR=0.4 [0.2, 0.9]), and cannabinoid use (OR=2.9 [1.2, 7.2]) were significantly associated with CVS compared to FV. However, there were no significant associations between patient status (CVS vs. FV) and age, BMI, smoking, alcohol use, gastrointestinal symptoms, or GE. The proportion of cannabinoid users was significantly higher in subjects with CVS compared to subjects with IBS, while proportions for headaches and psychiatric disease were higher in subjects with IBS. Conclusions CVS (vs. FV) was not associated with clinical factors, but was associated with younger age, male gender and cannabinoid use. A larger proportion of CVS (vs. IBS) patients had used cannabinoids. PMID:21951771

  12. The influence of various anesthesia techniques on postoperative recovery and discharge criteria among geriatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Ornek, Dilsen; Metin, Seyhan; Deren, Serpil; Un, Canan; Metin, Mustafa; Dikmen, Bayazit; Gogus, Nermin

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aim to compare selective spinal anesthesia and general anesthesia with regard to postoperative recovery and fast‐track eligibility in day surgeries. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Sixty geriatric outpatient cases, with ASA II‐III physical status and requiring short‐duration transurethral intervention, were enrolled in the study. The cases were split into 2 groups: as general anesthesia (Group GA) and selective spinal anesthesia (Group SSA). Group GA (n = 30) received propofol 2 mg kg‐1 (until loss of eyelash reflex), remifentanil induction 0.5‐1 µg kg‐1, and laryngeal mask. Maintenance was achieved by 4‐6% desflurane in 60% N2O and 40% O2 along with remifentanil infusion at 0.05 µg /kg‐1 /min‐1. Drugs were discontinued after the withdrawal of the ureteroscope, and extubation was carried out with 100% O2. Group SSA (n = 30) received 0.5% spinal anesthesia via L4‐5 space by 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 5 mg. Anesthesia preparation time, time to surgical anesthesia level, postoperative fast‐tracking, and time to White‐Song recovery score of 12, were noted. In the operating room, we evaluated hemodynamics, nausea/vomiting, surgeon and patient satisfaction with anesthesia, perioperative midazolam‐fentanyl administration, postoperative pain, and discharge time. RESULTS: Anesthesia preparation time, length of surgery, anesthesia‐related time in the operating room, time to sit, and time to walk were significantly low in Group GA (p<0.05), whereas time to fast‐track eligibility, length of stay in the PACU, discharge time, and other parameters were similar in both of the groups. CONCLUSION: While anesthesia preparation time, length of surgery, start time of surgery, time to sit, and time to walk were shorter in the General Anesthesia group, time to fast‐track eligibility, phase 1 recovery time, and discharge time were similar among patients subjected to selective spinal anesthesia. PMID:21120291

  13. Effects of Intraoperative Dexmedetomidine on Postoperative Pain in Highly Nicotine-Dependent Patients After Thoracic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xingzhi; Zhang, Ping; Lu, Sufen; Zhang, Zongwang; Yu, Ailan; Liu, Donghua; Wu, Shanshan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the effects of intraoperative dexmedetomidine on pain in highly nicotine-dependent patients after thoracic surgery. Highly nicotine-dependent men underwent thoracic surgery and received postoperative patient-controlled intravenous analgesia with sufentanil. In dexmedetomidine group (experimental group, n = 46), dexmedetomidine was given at a loading dose of 1 μg/kg for 10 minutes, followed by continuous infusion at 0.5 μg/kg/h until 30 minutes before the end of surgery. The saline group (control group, n = 48) received the same volume of saline. General anesthesia was administered via a combination of inhalation and intravenous anesthetics. If necessary, patients were administered a loading dose of sufentanil by an anesthesiologist immediately after surgery (0 hours). Patient-controlled analgesia was started when the patient's resting numerical rating scale (NRS) score was less than 4. Resting and coughing NRS scores and sufentanil dosage were recorded 0, 1, 4 hours, and every 4 hours until 48 hours after surgery. Dosages of other rescue analgesics were converted to the sufentanil dosage. Surgical data, adverse effects, and degree of satisfaction were obtained. Cumulative sufentanil dosage, resting NRS, and coughing NRS in the first 24 hours after surgery and heart rate were lower in the experimental compared with the control group (P <0.05). No patient experienced sedation or respiratory depression. Frequency of nausea and vomiting and degree of satisfaction were similar in both groups. Intraoperative dexmedetomidine was associated with reduced resting and coughing NRS scores and a sufentanil-sparing effect during the first 24 hours after thoracic surgery. PMID:27258524

  14. The Effect of Warm Water Intake on Bowel Movements in the Early Postoperative Stage of Patients Having Undergone Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Çalişkan, Nefise; Bulut, Hülya; Konan, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed at determining the effect of oral administration of warm water during the postoperative initial stage on the time of first flatus in patients who had undergone laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In the literature, it is emphasized that warm water has favorable effects on intestinal movements such as "reliving gastrointestinal spasms and helping peristalsis return." This randomized controlled trial and experimental study was conducted in a university hospital between May and December 2011. In the study sample, we included a total of 60 patients; 30 were in the experimental group (drank warm water), while the other 30 composed the control group. Patients were randomized through a simple random sampling method. The experimental group was provided with 200 ml of warm water at 98.6°F (37°C) in the fourth postoperative hour and were made to drink it within 15 minutes. Patients received no oral intake other than warm water until the eighth postoperative hour. The oral feeding of both groups started in the eighth postoperative hour with fluids and soft food. They shifted to the normal diet as tolerated. In the analysis of the data and percentage numbers, chi-square test and Fisher's exact test, Student's t test, Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis variance, and correlation analysis were used. The results of the data were considered reliable and statistically significant when they were in the reliability interval of 95% and p < .05. No significant differences were found between the patients in the experimental and control groups in terms of demographic features, bowel habits, surgery durations, postoperative applications, nausea/vomiting conditions, and initial mobilization times (p > .05). Groups were homogeneously distributed. Flatus expulsion in the experimental group was 11 ± 4.2 hours and was determined to be 18.6 ± 6 hours for patients in the control group (p < .05); in contrast, no significant difference was detected in terms of the times of stool

  15. Nausea in pregnancy: attitudes among pregnant women and general practitioners on treatment and pregnancy care

    PubMed Central

    Heitmann, Kristine; Svendsen, Hans Christian; Sporsheim, Ingvild H.; Holst, Lone

    2016-01-01

    Objective Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP) is very common, and may have great impact on a woman’s life. The aim of this study was to explore thoughts and attitudes among Norwegian pregnant women and GPs on treatment of NVP and pregnancy care. Design Focus-group study. Setting and subjects Separate focus-group discussions were conducted with pregnant women and GPs. Results Two focus-group discussions were conducted with pregnant women and two with GPs. The GPs thought it was important to normalize NVP symptoms. However, the women felt their distress due to NVP was trivialized by the GPs. The women were sceptical towards the use of medicines while pregnant, and avoidance was sought despite being ill. The GPs appeared uncertain with respect to medical treatment of NVP, which was stated to be considered only after progression to quite severe symptoms. Sick leave seemed to be an important part of the treatment regime applied by the GPs. The women had good experiences with graded sick leave. Conclusion This Norwegian study identifies attitudes among GPs and pregnant women that may act as obstacles to appropriate care for women with NVP. The pregnant women and the GPs seemed to talk at cross-purposes; GPs’ normalization of the symptoms made the women feel that their distress due to NVP was trivialized by the GPs. Our results indicate that pregnant women with NVP requiring medical treatment probably need comprehensive and reassuring information about treatment options before considering using any medicines. Key pointsNausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP) is very common, and considered to be of clinical significance for 35% of women. While the GPs agreed on the importance of normalizing the symptoms, the women felt their distress was trivialized, and missed being properly evaluated.Both the GPs and the women showed a reluctant attitude to medical treatment of NVP.The GPs gave the impression of considering medical treatment only after progression of

  16. Long-lasting adverse effects after short-term low-dose treatment with metoclopramide for vomiting.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Eilif; Diskin, Arthur L

    2014-01-01

    Metoclopramide is commonly used to treat vomiting caused by seasickness and acute gastroenteritis on cruise ships and serious adverse effects have not been reported from use at sea. We report severe long-lasting adverse effects in a young female seafarer following short-term, low-dose use of metoclopramide. During rough seas a 25-year-old female musician on a cruise vessel presented with nausea and vomiting. She was given intramuscular metoclopramide 10 mg and diphenhydramine 25 mg. Vomiting stopped after the injections, but she felt tired, confused and dizzy. She then had been taking metoclopramide 5-10 mg a day, but stopped after a total per oral dose of 30 mg as she developed disturbing symptoms that she related to the medication, including dizziness, anxiety, fatigue, depression and involuntary movements (twitches, jerks, ticks, and tremors of the eyelids, tongue, neck, fingers, arms and legs). Neurological examination, blood tests, electrocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain were all normal. Although gradually reduced in strength and frequency, the adverse effects were very disturbing for about 10 months, but at 13 months she was almost fully recovered. For many years numerous vomiting sea travellers have been successfully treated with a single parenteral 10 mg dose of metoclopramide. There are no obvious reasons why our previously healthy patient experienced such serious and long-lasting side effects after low-dose, short-term metoclopramide administration. Until more is known, metoclopramide should be reserved for debilitating cases - and only be given after other remedies have been tried and found ineffective. PMID:24677122

  17. Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome: An Update Illustrated by a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Hermus, Ingeborg P. M.; Willems, Stacey J. B.; Bogman, Aimée C. C. F.; Janssen, Paddy K. C.; Brabers, Leonie; Schieveld, Jan N. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This article presents an update on cyclic vomiting syndrome, a potentially exhausting disorder that can occur in children, adolescents, and adults and and has a huge impact on the quality of life. A structured literature search was conducted to explore the current knowledge about antipsychotics in the treatment of cyclic vomiting syndrome. A case report is presented of a 15-year-old boy with refractory cyclic vomiting syndrome (ICD-10 criteria), who finally responded to a unique combination of risperidone and amitriptyline. Data Sources: A literature search of English articles was performed in November 2015 using PubMed and the Cochrane Library with cyclic vomiting syndrome, cyclic vomiting, risperidone, and antipsychotics as key words. All types of publications were included. The publication period covered a span from 1976 to 2014. Study Selection and Data Extraction: In total, 13 articles were found. After screening the title and abstract, only 2 were selected. Results: In the current literature, only the use of chlorpromazine in the treatment of cyclic vomiting syndrome is mentioned. The possible underlying working mechanism of chlorpromazine is not clarified. Conclusions: Antipsychotics are hardly mentioned in the literature with regard to their antiemetic properties. Antipsychotics like risperidone, and its unique combination with amitriptyline, might be an important alternative to achieve a satisfactory treatment result in refractory cases of cyclic vomiting syndrome. PMID:27733950

  18. Acupressure in the control of migraine-associated nausea.

    PubMed

    Allais, Gianni; Rolando, Sara; Castagnoli Gabellari, Ilaria; Burzio, Chiara; Airola, Gisella; Borgogno, Paola; Schiapparelli, Paola; Allais, Rita; Benedetto, Chiara

    2012-05-01

    Migraine is a disabling neurological disorder, aggravated by accompanying symptomatology, such as nausea. One of the most interesting approaches to nausea adopted by traditional Chinese medicine is the stimulation of the acupoint PC6 Neiguan. Actually there are no studies in medical literature as to the efficacy of treating PC6 acupoint for gastrointestinal symptoms in migraine attacks. Our study aimed at verifying if pressure applied to the acupoint PC6 was effective on nausea during migraine. Forty female patients suffering from migraine without aura were enrolled, if nausea was always present as accompanying symptomatology of their migraine. The patients were treated randomly for a total of six migraine attacks: three with the application of a device, the Sea-Band(®) wristband, which applies continual pressure to the PC6 acupoint (phase SB), and three without it (phase C). The intensities of nausea at the onset, at 30, 60, 120 and 240 min were evaluated on a scale from 0 to 10. The values were always significantly lower in phase SB than in phase C. Also the number of patients who reported at least a 50 % reduction in the nausea score was significantly higher in phase SB than in phase C at 30, 60 and 120 min. Moreover, the consistency of the treatment (response in at least two out of three treated attacks) was reached in 28 % patients at 60 min; in 40 % at 120 min and 59 % at 240 min. Our results encourage the application of PC6 acupressure for the treatment of migraine-associated nausea.

  19. Oral manifestations of a child with chronic vomiting.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Oh; Kwak, Ji-Youn; Choi, Byung-Jai; Lee, Jae-Ho

    2005-01-01

    Perimolysis is a type of intrinsic erosion--an irreversible dental demineralization linked to chronic regurgitation--which causes teeth to be more susceptible to dental caries. The purpose of this case report was to study a 35-month-old chronic vomiting child who visited the Department of Pediatric Dentistry in Yonsei Dental Hospital, Seoul, South Korea, for an evaluation of and treatment for the loss of tooth structure of his primary teeth. To prevent further destruction of the teeth and maintain occlusal height, all the posterior teeth were restored with stainless steel crowns and all the anterior teeth were restored with resin veneer crowns after pulpal treatment under general anesthesia. Therefore, when a child suffering from chronic vomiting visits a pediatric dental clinic, it is prudent to: (1) perform all possible dental treatment to control vomiting's adverse influences on the oral structures; and (2) refer the patient to a pediatrician to determine the cause of vomiting. PMID:16294931

  20. Effects of Adding Midazolam and Sufentanil to Intrathecal Bupivacaine on Analgesia Quality and Postoperative Complications in Elective Cesarean Section

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahpour, Abolfazl; Azadi, Raheleh; Bandari, Razieh; Mirmohammadkhani, Majid

    2015-01-01

    and BS group, except for “time to request opium”, which was longer in the BS group (P < 0.001). The occurrence of nausea (P = 0.02), postoperative shivering (P = 0.01) and hypotension (P < 0.001) were significantly different between the groups, unlike vomiting, where the difference was not significant (P = 0.2). All neonates had an Apgar score of nine. Conclusions: The findings showed that adding sufentanil or midazolam to bupivacaine shortens the onset of spinal anesthesia and increases the time duration of anesthesia; however it does not change the motor block recovery time. Adding sufentanil delays the first request for narcotic analgesics while adding midazolam leads to a decrease in nausea and hypotension. Adding sufentanil or midazolam does not have any deleterious effect on infants’ Apgar scores. However, increases shivering in patients. PMID:26473100

  1. Childhood chronic nausea: is it just a queasy stomach?

    PubMed

    Kovacic, Katja; Li, B U K

    2014-01-01

    Chronic nausea is an increasingly acknowledged complaint in children. It is commonly encountered in association with functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders but can also occur in isolation. As such, there is no pediatric diagnostic classification for chronic idiopathic nausea. The pathophysiology appears complex, from foregut motor and sensory disturbances to autonomic imbalance and CNS influences. Also, there is scarcity of specific treatments that target this highly bothersome symptom. Treatment is mainly empiric or aimed at other functional complaints. Our retrospective data indicate a high prevalence of comorbid conditions in children with chronic nausea. These include migraines, autonomic disturbances, sleep problems, fatigue, and anxiety. Identifying specific features and targeting these therapeutically may be essential for improved treatment outcomes.

  2. A randomized controlled study between fentanyl and Butorphanol with low dose intrathecal bupivacaine to facilitate early postoperative ambulation in urological procedures

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Arvind; Kumar, Ritesh; Verma, Vinod Kumar; Prasad, Chandrakant; Kumar, Rajesh; Kant, Shashi; Kumar, Gunjan; Singh, Neha; Kumari, Rupam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Opioids are widely used in conjunction with local anesthetics as they permit the use of lower dose of local anesthetics while providing adequate anesthesia and analgesia. It both provides adequate anesthesia as well as lower drug toxicity neuraxial administration of opioids in conjunction with local anesthetics improves the quality of intraoperative analgesia and prolongs the duration of postoperative analgesia. Bupivacaine is the most commonly used drug for subarachnoid block due to its lesser side effects. The present study was conducted to decrease the overall dose of local anesthetics with opioid combination for urological procedure with respect to quality of anesthesia and recovery with patient's satisfaction. Materials and Methods: The study population was randomly allocated by computer generated table into two groups; Group A: 5 mg 0.5% bupivacaine + 25 mcg and Group B: 5 mg 0.5% bupivacaine + 25 mg butorphanol. Results: Highest level of sensory block was T9 and T8 with the fentanyl group and butorphanol group, respectively. The onset of sensory block was early in fentanyl group than butorphanol group. Duration of both sensory and motor block was significantly higher in butorphanol group. There was no incidence of itching in both groups. There were two patients in fentanyl group and one in butorphanol with hypotension for which injection mephentermine was given. Two patients in fentanyl group complained of nausea and vomiting, for which injection ondansetron was given. One patient complained of pain in fentanyl group for which injection propofol with injection fentanyl was supplemented. Conclusion: Low-dose bupivacaine with butorphanol group was devoid of any side effects in the present study but low dose bupivacaine in addition with fentanyl is superior in terms of early postoperative recovery resulting in early discharge and better outcome in comparison to bupivacaine and butorphanol group, which is beneficial in elderly patients with

  3. A systematic review and meta-regression analysis of prophylactic gabapentin for postoperative pain.

    PubMed

    Doleman, B; Heinink, T P; Read, D J; Faleiro, R J; Lund, J N; Williams, J P

    2015-10-01

    We searched MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, AMED and CENTRAL databases until December 2014 and included 133 randomised controlled trials of peri-operative gabapentin vs placebo. Gabapentin reduced mean (95% CI) 24-h morphine-equivalent consumption by 8.44 (7.26-9.62) mg, p < 0.001, whereas more specific reductions in morphine equivalents were predicted (R(2)  = 90%, p < 0.001) by the meta-regression equation: 3.73 + (-0.378 × control morphine consumption (mg)) + (-0.0023 × gabapentin dose (mg)) + (-1.917 × anaesthetic type), where 'anaesthetic type' is '1' for general anaesthesia and '0' for spinal anaesthesia. The type of surgery was not independently associated with gabapentin effect. Gabapentin reduced postoperative pain scores on a 10-point scale at 1 h, 2 h, 6 h, 12 h and 24 h by a mean (95% CI) of: 1.68 (1.35-2.01); 1.21 (0.88-1.55); 1.28 (0.98-1.57); 1.12 (0.91-1.33); and 0.71 (0.56-0.87), respectively, p < 0.001 for all. The risk ratios (95% CI) for postoperative nausea, vomiting, pruritus and sedation with gabapentin were: 0.78 (0.69-0.87), 0.67 (0.59-0.76), 0.64 (0.51-0.80) and 1.18 (1.09-1.28), respectively, p < 0.001 for all. Gabapentin reduced pre-operative anxiety and increased patient satisfaction on a 10-point scale by a mean (95% CI) of 1.52 (0.78-2.26) points and 0.89 (0.22-1.57) points, p < 0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively. All the effects of gabapentin may have been overestimated by statistically significant small study effects.

  4. Comparative evaluation of different doses of intrathecal neostigmine as an adjuvant to bupivacaine for postoperative analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Vandana; Mohindra, B. K.; Sodhi, Gurdip Singh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the efficacy and safety of intrathecal neostigmine at dose of 50 μg and 150 μg as an adjuvant to bupivacaine for postoperative analgesia under spinal anesthesia. Materials and Methods: 75 patients of either sex, belonging to American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I and II in the age group of 30-65 years scheduled to undergo lower abdominal and lower limb surgeries were allocated randomly into 3 groups of 25 each. Spinal anesthesia was administered in Group I (control group) with 12.5 mg (2.5 ml) of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine, in Group II (50 μg group) with 12.5 mg (2.5 ml) of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine and 50 μg (0.1 ml) of neostigmine methylsulphate and in Group III (150 μg group) with 12.5 mg (2.5 ml) of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine and 150 μg (0.3 ml) of neostigmine methylsulphate. Hemodynamic parameters, onset and level of sensory block were recorded. Postoperative analgesic assessment was made in terms of total Visual Analogue Scale-Pain (VAS-P) scores in 24 hrs, duration of analgesia (time to requirement of first analgesic) and total number of rescue analgesic (diclofenac sodium 75 mg intramuscularly) consumption in 24 hours. Side effects were recorded. Results: The total VAS-P score in group I was 23.12 ± 3.21, which was higher than the VAS-P score in group II (18.4 ± 2.92) and group III (16.24 ± 1.85). The total duration of analgesia was significantly prolonged in neostigmine groups (224.40 ± 23.28 min in group I, 367.60 ± 42.15 min in group II and 625.60 ± 87.70 min in group III). In group I, the patients required 2.48 ± 0.51 number of analgesics in 24 hours, which was much higher than required in group II (1.92 ± 0.64) and group III (1.32 ± 0.47). The incidence of nausea and vomiting was more with 150 μg neostigmine group compared to 50 μg neostigmine. Conclusions: The administration of intrathecal neostigmine in dose of 50 μg as an adjuvant to bupivacaine produces hemodynamically stable

  5. Unilateral Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block After Nephrectomy; Postoperative Pain and Use of Opioids

    PubMed Central

    Azawi, Nessn H.; Mosholt, Karina Sif Sondergaard; Fode, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    Background Pain has a wide spectrum of effects on the body and inadequately controlled postoperative pain may have harmful physiologic and psychological consequences and increase morbidity. In addition, opioid anesthetic agents in high doses can blunt endocrine and metabolic responses following surgery and are associated with side effects including dizziness, nausea, vomiting, constipation, and respiratory depression. Objectives The current study aimed to investigate if unilateral ultrasound-guided transverse abdominal plane block (TAP-block) could reduce pain and postoperative use of patient requested analgesics following nephrectomy compared to local injection of the same ropivacaine dose in the surgical wound. Patients and Methods Retrospective chart reviews were performed in 42 consecutive patients who received TAP-block in conjunction with nephrectomy from November 2013 to August 2014 (group A). For comparison, data were used from 40 other nephrectomy patients registered as part of a previous study (group B). In this group the patients had received local ropivacaine injection in the surgical wound. On univariate analyses, the groups were compared by t-test and the Fisher exact test. Multivariate analyses were conducted by multiple linear regression. Results Mean surgical time was 162 minutes in group A and 92 minutes in group B (P < 0.0001). The means of visual analogue scale (VAS) were 3.05 and 1.55 in A and B groups, respectively (P = 0.001). The means of morphine consumption were 5.2 mg and 5.9 mg in groups A and B, respectively (P = 0.58); while the means of sufentanil use were 9.8 μg and 6.0 μg in groups A and B, respectively (P = 0.06). When controlling for age, tumor size and American society of anesthesiologists classification (ASA) score on multivariate analysis, TAP-block was associated with a significant increase in VAS (+1.4 [95% CI, 0.6 - 2.3], P = 0.001) and sufentanil use (+6.2 μg [95% CI, 2.3 - 10.2], P = 0.003). There was no difference in

  6. A New Orally Active, Aminothiol Radioprotector-Free of Nausea and Hypotension Side Effects at Its Highest Radioprotective Doses

    SciTech Connect

    Soref, Cheryl M.; Hacker, Timothy A.; Fahl, William E.

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: A new aminothiol, PrC-210, was tested for orally conferred radioprotection (rats, mice; 9.0 Gy whole-body, which was otherwise lethal to 100% of the animals) and presence of the debilitating side effects (nausea/vomiting, hypotension/fainting) that restrict use of the current aminothiol, amifostine (Ethyol, WR-2721). Methods and Materials: PrC-210 in water was administered to rats and mice at times before irradiation, and percent-survival was recorded for 60 days. Subcutaneous (SC) amifostine (positive control) or SC PrC-210 was administered to ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) and retching/emesis responses were recorded. Intraperitoneal amifostine (positive control) or PrC-210 was administered to arterial cannulated rats to score drug-induced hypotension. Results: Oral PrC-210 conferred 100% survival in rat and mouse models against an otherwise 100% lethal whole-body radiation dose (9.0 Gy). Oral PrC-210, administered by gavage 30-90 min before irradiation, conferred a broad window of radioprotection. The comparison of PrC-210 and amifostine side effects was striking because there was no retching or emesis in 10 ferrets treated with PrC-210 and no induced hypotension in arterial cannulated rats treated with PrC-210. The tested PrC-210 doses were the ferret and rat equivalent doses of the 0.5 maximum tolerated dose (MTD) PrC-210 dose in mice. The human equivalent of this mouse 0.5 MTD PrC-210 dose would likely be the highest PrC-210 dose used in humans. By comparison, the mouse 0.5 MTD amifostine dose, 400 {mu}g/g body weight (equivalent to the human amifostine dose of 910 mg/m{sup 2}), when tested at equivalent ferret and rat doses in the above models produced 100% retching/vomiting in ferrets and 100% incidence of significant, progressive hypotension in rats. Conclusions: The PrC-210 aminothiol, with no detectable nausea/vomiting or hypotension side effects in these preclinical models, is a logical candidate for human drug development to use in healthy

  7. Vestibular autonomic regulation (including motion sickness and the mechanism of vomiting)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balaban, C. D.

    1999-01-01

    Autonomic manifestations of vestibular dysfunction and motion sickness are well established in the clinical literature. Recent studies of 'vestibular autonomic regulation' have focused predominantly on autonomic responses to stimulation of the vestibular sense organs in the inner ear. These studies have shown that autonomic responses to vestibular stimulation are regionally selective and have defined a 'vestibulosympathetic reflex' in animal experiments. Outside the realm of experimental preparations, however, the importance of vestibular inputs in autonomic regulation is unclear because controls for secondary factors, such as affective/emotional responses and cardiovascular responses elicited by muscle contraction and regional blood pooling, have been inadequate. Anatomic and physiologic evidence of an extensive convergence of vestibular and autonomic information in the brainstem suggests though that there may be an integrated representation of gravitoinertial acceleration from vestibular, somatic, and visceral receptors for somatic and visceral motor control. In the case of vestibular dysfunction or motion sickness, the unpleasant visceral manifestations (e.g. epigastric discomfort, nausea or vomiting) may contribute to conditioned situational avoidance and the development of agoraphobia.

  8. Investigating the effect of therapeutic touch on the intensity of acute chemotherapy-induced vomiting in breast cancer women under chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Matourypour, Pegah; Vanaki, Zohreh; Zare, Zahra; Mehrzad, Valiolah; Dehghan, Mojtaba; Ranjbaran, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nausea and vomiting are the worst and the most prevalent complications experienced by 70–80% of patients. Complementary treatments including therapeutic touch are cost-effective and low-risk, independent nursing interventions. Present research aims at investigating the effect of therapeutic touch on the intensity of acute chemotherapy-induced vomiting in these patients. Materials and Methods: As a single-blind, randomized clinical trial, the present research was carried out on women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy in Isfahan, Iran. The subjects were divided into three groups of control, placebo, and intervention. The intervention was applied to each patient once for 20 min on the aura (human energy field) focusing on solar chakra. Data gathering instruments included demographic questionnaire and acute vomiting intensity scale. Results: There was a significant difference among the three groups (and also after the intervention) (P < 0.0001). Paired comparisons among the groups using Mann–Whitney test showed that there was a statistically significant difference between the control group and the intervention group and between the control group and the placebo group (P < 0.0001). However, there was no significant difference between the placebo and intervention groups (P = 0.07). Conclusions: Therapeutic touch was effective in reducing vomiting in the intervention group. However, the patients experienced lower-intensity vomiting which may be because of presence of a therapist and probably the reduced anxiety related to an additional intervention. So, further research is recommended considering the placebo group and employing another person in addition to the therapist, who is not skilled for this technique. PMID:27186202

  9. The Wall of Death: Newtons, Nerves, and Nausea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charoenkul, Niran; Wheeler, David; Dejasvanong, Chanwit

    1999-01-01

    Describes an experience as passengers in a car that traveled around the "Wall of Death" during a country fair show. Explains the physics behind riding vehicles around the Wall. Finds that cars don't need to lean, motorcycles must lean, and people should lean to avoid nausea while traveling around the Wall. (WRM)

  10. Comparative study of epidural bupivacaine with butorphanol and bupivacaine with tramadol for postoperative pain relief in abdominal surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Swathi, N.; Ashwini, N.; Shukla, Mukesh I.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: To compare the efficacy of combination of epidural local anesthetic with tramadol and butorphanol in major abdominal surgeries. Aims: To evaluate duration of analgesia, analgesic efficacy, and safety profile of two groups of drugs-epidural butorphanol with bupivacaine and epidural tramadol with bupivacaine. Materials and Methods: A prospective, randomized controlled, double-blinded study was undertaken in 50 patients scheduled for major abdominal surgeries. Group B received epidural butorphanol 2 mg + bupivacaine 0.125% first dose and subsequent doses, butorphanol 1 mg + bupivacaine 0.125% (total volume 10 ml). Group T received epidural tramadol 2 mg/kg + bupivacaine 0.125% first dose and subsequent doses, tramadol 1 mg/kg + bupivacaine 0.125% (total volume 10 ml). Observed parameters were the quality of analgesia, sedation, and hemodynamic parameters in the intra and post-operative period. Time for request of rescue analgesia was noted in all the patients. Continuous data are analyzed by Student's t-test using IBM SPSS software version 20. P ≤0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. P ≤ 0.001 was considered to be statistically highly significant. Results: Visual analog scale better with butorphanol group than tramadol (0.12 ± 0.332 and 0.84 ± 0.746 for Group B and Group T) at 30 min after first dose. Onset of action (8.44 ± 1.158 min in Group B and 12.80 ± 1.354 min in Group T) faster with butorphanol but duration of analgesia longer with tramadol (5.92 ± 0.76 h in Group B vs. 7.68 ± 0.76 h in Group T). Sedation was seen in patients with butorphanol group. Nausea and vomiting more frequent with tramadol group. Conclusions: Epidural tramadol with antiemetic is better than butorphanol for its longer duration in ambulatory surgery, elderly patients, obese patients, and suitable high-risk patients. PMID:27746533

  11. The Preventive Role of Low-Dose Intravenous Ketamine on Postoperative Shivering in Children: A Placebo Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sanie, Mohammad Sadegh; Kalani, Navid; Ghobadifar, Mohamed Amin; Zabetian, Hassan; Hosseini, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background Postoperative shivering is a major problem in children undergoing general anesthesia. Objectives The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of low-dose intravenous ketamine for prevention of shivering after induction of general anesthesia in children who had undergone tonsillectomy. Patients and Methods This was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial including 80 children, of American society of anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I or II, scheduled for tonsillectomy under general anesthesia who were randomly assigned to an intravenous ketamine (0.5 mg/kg, n = 40; group K) group or matched dose placebo (n = 40; group N) group. Surgical and demographic data, unexpected side effects, and the occurrence of shivering for each child were assessed by a blinded observer at the following time points: T0, in the recovery room; T10, at 10 minutes; T20, at 20 minutes; T30, and at 30 minutes. Results With regards to the demographic and surgical data, no significant differences between the two study groups were observed (P ≥ 0.05). Shivering intensity in children who had received ketamine was significantly lower than children who had not received ketamine, at T0, T10, T20, and T30 after arrival (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in hallucination, nausea, vomiting, hemodynamic dysfunction, blurred vision, and seizure in the K group compared with the N group (P ≥ 0.05). Conclusions Administration of intravenous ketamine at a dosage of 0.5 mg/kg immediately after anesthesia induction had a preventive effect on shivering intensity without hemodynamic alterations in children undergoing general anesthesia for tonsillectomy. PMID:27635389

  12. A New Approach to the Prophylaxis of Cyclic Vomiting: Topiramate

    PubMed Central

    Sezer, Oya B; Sezer, Taner

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of topiramate and propranolol in preventing pediatric cyclic vomiting syndrome. Methods A retrospective medical-record review of patients who underwent prophylaxis after receiving a diagnosis of cyclic vomiting syndrome was performed. Patients who completed at least 12 months of treatment were included in the analysis. Responder rate, and adverse-event rates were also calculated from all patients. Response to treatment was assessed as the total number of vomiting attacks per year. Patients in whom the frequency of vomiting attack reduced greater or equal to 50% were defined as responders, and the remaining patients were classified as nonresponders. Results A total of 38 patients who were treated prophylactically with either topiramate (16 patients) or propranolol (22 patients) were identified. Fifty-nine percent of the patients in the propranolol group and 81% of the patients in the topiramate group reported freedom from attacks. A decrease of more than 50% in attacks per year occurred in 23% of patients in the propranolol group and 13% of patients in the topiramate group. The responder rates were 81% for propranolol group and 94% for topiramate group (P = 0.001). Despite minor adverse effects (drowsiness, nervousness, and dizziness) observed in a few patients, the adverse event rates were not significantly different between the 2 groups (P = 0.240). Conclusions The efficacy of topiramate was superior to propranolol for the prophylaxis of pediatric cyclic vomiting syndrome. PMID:27302967

  13. Postoperative pain control.

    PubMed

    Lovich-Sapola, Jessica; Smith, Charles E; Brandt, Christopher P

    2015-04-01

    Prevention and control of postoperative pain are essential. Inadequate treatment of postoperative pain continues to be a major problem after many surgeries and leads to worse outcomes, including chronic postsurgical pain. Optimal management of postoperative pain requires an understanding of the pathophysiology of pain, methods available to reduce pain, invasiveness of the procedure, and patient factors associated with increased pain, such as anxiety, depression, catastrophizing, and neuroticism. Use of a procedure-specific, multimodal perioperative pain management provides a rational basis for enhanced postoperative pain control, optimization of analgesia, decrease in adverse effects, and improved patient satisfaction.

  14. Effect of leuprolide acetate in treatment of abdominal pain and nausea in premenopausal women with functional bowel disease: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study.

    PubMed

    Mathias, J R; Clench, M H; Abell, T L; Koch, K L; Lehman, G; Robinson, M; Rothstein, R; Snape, W J

    1998-06-01

    We have previously reported impressive results in using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog, leuprolide acetate (Lupron), in the treatment of moderate to severe symptoms (especially abdominal pain and nausea) in patients with functional bowel disease (FBD). Pain is the hallmark of patients with FBD, and there is no consistent therapy for the treatment of these patients. The purpose of the present study was to expand the investigation to study similar patients (menstruating females) in a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study using Lupron Depot (which delivers a continuous dose of drug for one month), 3.75 mg (N = 32) or 7.5 mg (N = 33), or placebo (N = 35) given intramuscularly every four weeks for 16 weeks. Symptoms were assessed using daily diary cards to record abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, early satiety, anorexia, bloating, and altered bowel habits. Additional assessment tools were quality of life questionnaires, psychological profile, oral-to-cecal transit using the hydrogen breath test, antroduodenal manometry, reproductive hormone levels, and global evaluations by both patient and investigator. Patients in both Lupron Depot-treated groups showed consistent improvement in symptoms; however, only the Lupron Depot 7.5 mg group showed a significant improvement for abdominal pain and nausea compared to placebo (P < 0.001). Patient quality of life assessments and global evaluations completed by both patient and investigators were highly significant compared to placebo (P < 0.001). All reproductive hormone levels significantly decreased for both Lupron Depot-treated groups by week 4 and were significantly different compared to placebo at week 16 (P < 0.001). This study shows that leuprolide acetate is effective in controlling the debilitating symptoms of abdominal pain and nausea in patients with FBD.

  15. Acupressure in Controlling Nausea in Young Patients Receiving Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    RATIONALE: Acupressure wristbands may prevent or reduce nausea and caused by chemotherapy. It is not yet known whether standard care is more effective with or without acupressure wristbands in controlling acute and delayed nausea. PURPOSE: This randomized phase III trial is studying how well acupressure wristbands work with or without standard care in controlling nausea in young patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy. |

  16. Parkinson’s disease: carbidopa, nausea, and dyskinesia

    PubMed Central

    Hinz, Marty; Stein, Alvin; Cole, Ted

    2014-01-01

    When l-dopa use began in the early 1960s for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, nausea and reversible dyskinesias were experienced as continuing side effects. Carbidopa or benserazide was added to l-dopa in 1975 solely to control nausea. Subsequent to the increasing use of carbidopa has been the recognition of irreversible dyskinesias, which have automatically been attributed to l-dopa. The research into the etiology of these phenomena has identified the causative agent of the irreversible dyskinesias as carbidopa, not l-dopa. The mechanism of action of the carbidopa and benserazide causes irreversible binding and inactivation of vitamin B6 throughout the body. The consequences of this action are enormous, interfering with over 300 enzyme and protein functions. This has the ability to induce previously undocumented profound antihistamine dyskinesias, which have been wrongly attributed to l-dopa and may be perceived as irreversible if proper corrective action is not taken. PMID:25484598

  17. Postoperative Spine Infections.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Abhijit Yuvaraj; Biswas, Samar Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Postoperative spinal wound infection increases the morbidity of the patient and the cost of healthcare. Despite the development of prophylactic antibiotics and advances in surgical technique and postoperative care, wound infection continues to compromise patient outcome after spinal surgery. Spinal instrumentation also has an important role in the development of postoperative infections. This review analyses the risk factors that influence the development of postoperative infection. Classification and diagnosis of postoperative spinal infection is also discussed to facilitate the choice of treatment on the basis of infection severity. Preventive measures to avoid surgical site (SS) infection in spine surgery and methods for reduction of all the changeable risk factors are discussed in brief. Management protocols to manage SS infections in spine surgery are also reviewed. PMID:26949475

  18. Postoperative Spine Infections

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Samar Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative spinal wound infection increases the morbidity of the patient and the cost of healthcare. Despite the development of prophylactic antibiotics and advances in surgical technique and postoperative care, wound infection continues to compromise patient outcome after spinal surgery. Spinal instrumentation also has an important role in the development of postoperative infections. This review analyses the risk factors that influence the development of postoperative infection. Classification and diagnosis of postoperative spinal infection is also discussed to facilitate the choice of treatment on the basis of infection severity. Preventive measures to avoid surgical site (SS) infection in spine surgery and methods for reduction of all the changeable risk factors are discussed in brief. Management protocols to manage SS infections in spine surgery are also reviewed. PMID:26949475

  19. The Central Nervous Connections Involved in the Vomiting Reflex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brizzee, K. R.; Mehler, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    The vomiting reflex may be elicited by a number of different types or classes of stimuli involving many varieties of receptor structures and considerable diversity in afferent pathways and central connections. Central relay or mediating structures thus may vary widely according to the type of initial emetic stimulus. The emetic circuits which have been most completely delineated to date are probably those in which the Chemoreceptor Trigger Zone (CTZ) in the Area Postrema (AP) functions as a key mediating structure. Even in this system, however, there are large gaps in our knowledge of the nerve tracts and central nervous connections involved. Knowledge of most other emetic circuits subserving the emetic reflex resulting from many diverse types of stimuli such, for example, as emotional stress (e.g. psychogenic vomiting, Wruble et al. 1982), pain (e.g. testicular trauma), and chemical or mechanical irritation of the gastrointestinal tract or urinary tract is quite incomplete at this time, thus precluding any very adequate description of their central connections at present. One physiological system, however, which has received considerable attention recently in relation to the vomiting reflex elicited by motion stimuli is the vestibular system. Due to the paucity of data on central nervous connections of several or the non-vestibular types of emetic stimuli cited above, we will devote most of our attention in this brief review to the central connections of the vestibular system which seem likely to be involved in the vomiting response to motion stimuli. However, the latter part of the review will be concerned with the concept of the reticular vomiting centre in relation to the ParviCellular Reticular Formation (PCRF), and will thus probably pertain to all of the many classes of emetic stimuli since it will address the question of the final common emetic pathway.

  20. Ginger as a miracle against chemotherapy-induced vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Yekta, Zohreh Parsa; Ebrahimi, Seyyed Meisam; Hosseini, Mostafa; Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht; Sedighi, Sanambar; Surmaghi, Mohammad-Hosein Salehi; Madani, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Background: Vomiting is one of the most prevalent side effects of chemotherapy in cancer patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ginger plant on chemotherapy-induced vomiting, since the previous studies were somehow imperfect and have provided controversial results. Materials and Methods: This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted on 80 women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy and suffering from vomiting in Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran, between July and December 2009. During a convenience sampling the participants were randomly allocated into treatment and placebo groups after taking a written informed consent. Two groups were matched based on the age and emetic risk of chemotherapy drugs. The treatment group received 250 mg ginger powder capsules (Zintoma) and placebo group 250 mg starch capsules 4 times a day (1 g/day) for 6 days since 3 days before chemotherapy session. A two-part self-made questionnaire was used to assess the effect of ginger. Patients completed the instrument every day. Then by STATA software version 8, the gathered data were analyzed using Fisher’s exact, Kruskal-Wallis, and Chi-square tests. Results: The 2 groups had no significant age differences and were matched (ginger: 41.8±8.4 vs placebo: 45.1±10, P = 0.1). Vomiting cases were significantly lower in ginger group at anticipatory (P = 0.04), acute (P = 0.04), and delayed (P = 0.003) phases. Also, heartburn was the only and venial reported side effect (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Taking ginger capsules (for 6 days since 3 days before chemotherapy) accompanied by the routine antiemetic treatment could relieve chemotherapy-induced vomiting in all phases. PMID:23853643

  1. WITHDRAWN: (438) Efficacy of CL-108 compared to hydrocodone 7.5 mg/acetaminophen 325 mg in preventing vomiting and the use of anti-emetics, Opioid-Induced Nausea and Vomiting (OINV).

    PubMed

    Hersh, Elliot; Schachtel, Bernard; Kozarek, William; Schachtel, Emily; Marino, Mark

    2016-04-01

    The Publisher regrets that this abstract is an accidental duplication of abstract (431), also published in the 2016 American Pain Society Scientific Meeting abstracts supplement: J Pain 17:S82, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2016.01.408. The duplicate abstract (438) has therefore been withdrawn. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy. PMID:27105853

  2. Efficacy and safety profile of combination of tramadol-diclofenac versus tramadol-paracetamol in patients with acute musculoskeletal conditions, postoperative pain, and acute flare of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: a Phase III, 5-day open-label study

    PubMed Central

    Chandanwale, Ajay S; Sundar, Subramanian; Latchoumibady, Kaliaperumal; Biswas, Swati; Gabhane, Mukesh; Naik, Manoj; Patel, Kamlesh

    2014-01-01

    Objective We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a fixed-dose combination (FDC) of tramadol and diclofenac versus a standard approved FDC of tramadol and paracetamol, in patients with acute moderate to severe pain. Methods A total of 204 patients with moderate to severe pain due to acute musculoskeletal conditions (n=52), acute flare of osteoarthritis (n=52), acute flare of rheumatoid arthritis (n=50), or postoperative pain (n=50) were enrolled in the study at baseline. Each disease category was then randomized to receive either of two treatments for 5 days: group A received an FDC of immediate-release tramadol hydrochloride (50 mg) and sustained-release diclofenac sodium (75 mg) (one tablet, twice daily), and group B received an FDC of tramadol hydrochloride (37.5 mg) and paracetamol (325 mg) (two tablets every 4–6 hours, up to a maximum of eight tablets daily). The primary efficacy end points were reductions in pain intensity from baseline at day 3 and day 5 as assessed by a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score. Results Group A showed a significant reduction in the VAS score for overall pain from baseline on day 3 (P=0.001) and day 5 (P<0.0001) as compared with group B. The combination of tramadol-diclofenac resulted in few mild to moderate adverse events (nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain, and gastritis), which required minimal management, without any treatment discontinuation. The number of adverse events in group A was nine (8.82%) compared with 22 (21.78%) in group B, after 5 days of treatment. Conclusion An FDC of tramadol-diclofenac showed a significantly greater reduction in pain intensity and was well tolerated compared with tramadol-paracetamol, resulting in better analgesia in patients suffering from moderate to severe pain due to acute musculoskeletal conditions, postoperative pain following orthopedic surgery, or acute flare of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:25152629

  3. Clinical Experience with Patients Suffering from Hyperemesis Gravidarum (Severe Nausea and Vomiting during Pregnancy): Thoughts about Subtyping of Patients, Treatment and Counseling Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lub-Moss, Marike M. H.; Eurelings-Bontekoe, E. H. M.

    1997-01-01

    Experience treating women with hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) from varied sociocultural backgrounds in a large inner-city general hospital is related to a literature review. Subgroups were identified according to personality pathology, psychiatric symptoms, and psychosocial stress factors. Accurate assessment, needs of individuals, treatment…

  4. Efficacy of dexamethasone on postoperative analgesia in children undergoing hypospadias repair

    PubMed Central

    Shirazi, Mehdi; Mahmoudi, Hilda; Nasihatkon, Behnam; Ghaffaripour, Sina; Eslahi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Management of post operative pain in children undergoing hypospadiasis repair, accounts for optimized surgery outcomes and improved patients’ satisfaction. Thus, various studies have widely investigated the best approaches for the pain management. In this study our aim was to determine the effect of dexamethasone in combination with penile nerve block on the postoperative pain and complications in the children undergoing hypospadias surgery. Methods: In this randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial, after obtaining informed consent from parents or legal guardians, 42 children undergoing surgical treatment of hypospadias were randomized in two groups to receive either IV dexamethasone 0.5 mg/kg (n=23) or placebo (normal saline) (n=19) during the operation. Penile block was performed in both groups using Bupivacaine 0.5% (1mg/kg) at the end of the procedure. By the end of the operation, FLACC (Face, Leg, Activity, Cry, Consolability) pain score was assessed as the primary outcome of the study. Secondary outcomes includes timing and episodes of rescue medication consumption, post operative nausea \\vomiting and bleeding. All the outcomes were assessed in the recovery room and after 2, 6, 12, and 24 hours. Results: The median of FLACC pain scores at the recovery room and 2, 6, 12, and 24 hours post operation was 2, 1, 1, 1, and 2 for the dexamethasone group and 8, 8, 7, 7, and 8 for the placebo group respectively. This were significantly different (P<0.000). The median time of first rescue medication consumption was 8 hours post operation for the dexamethasone group and three hours for the placebo group which was significantly different (z= 4.57, p<0.000). The maximum episode of post operative rescue medication consumption in dexamethasone group was 4 episodes in only one patient and the minimum was one episode in 11 patients. In comparison numbers in placebo group were five episodes in seven patients and three episodes in four

  5. Advantageous Use of Hypnosis in a Case of Psychogenic Vomiting.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekhar, Roopa

    2016-04-01

    This case study describes in detail the role of hypnosis in treatment of a case of psychogenic vomiting. The patient, a 60-yearold woman, had been suffering for 9 months from episodes of vomiting which resulted in weight loss, dehydration, and hypokalemia. She was a conscientious woman with high standards of behavior, which did not allow an expression of the extreme hostility she felt toward her daughter-in-law. Hypnotherapeutic sessions reduced her anxiety, restored her sleep, improved mood, and helped deepen rapport, all of which created the ideal setting for Gestalt's empty chair technique. Integrating hypnosis greatly enhanced the quality of the empty chair dialogue, which by bringing about a shift in the patient's emotions from hostility to sympathy, facilitated recovery. PMID:27003484

  6. [Intractable vomiting, convulsions and megaloblastic anemia: anamnesis, key to diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Schlaeppi, M; Humair, L; de Torrenté, A

    1999-07-01

    In July 1996 a 43-year-old illiterate Hispanic woman presented with uncontrollable vomiting, palpitations and confusion. In 1994, despite several hospitalisations in other medical centres where a cerebral CT-scan, oesogastroduodenoscopy, colonoscopy and abdominal ultrasound were performed, no satisfactory diagnosis could be found. A psychiatric origin was finally considered. On admission, the laboratory findings showed severe metabolic alkalosis with associated hypokalaemia, confirmatory evidence of vomiting. The ECG showed tremendous P waves (5 mV) in the standard derivations, which can be explained by the hypokalaemia, with multiple supraventricular extrasystoles. Echocardiography and pulmonary scintigraphy ruled out pulmonary hypertension and a pulmonary embolus. After additional discussion with her daughter we discovered that the patient had been treating chronic headaches for years with 4-5 Cafergot-PB suppositories per day. This drug contains 2 mg ergotamine tartrate, 100 mg butalbital, 100 mg caffeine and 0.25 mg belladona alkaloids. As is known, vomiting is a classical symptom of ergotamine intoxication. After rehydration we discovered a megaloblastic anaemia with a folate deficiency compatible with chronic barbiturate intoxication. Folate and iron supplementation allowed a rapid normalisation of the haemoglobin values. Five months after having stopped the Cafergot-PB, the patient was well and did not vomit anymore. The headaches were treated with chlorpromazine with a good result. Despite sophisticated technical means, the diagnosis could only be established after a thorough history taking. This message should be heard in times when high tech medicine tends to obscure the place of a good history taking! PMID:10431323

  7. Effectiveness of preoperative analgesics on postoperative dental pain: a study.

    PubMed Central

    Zacharias, M.; Hunter, K. M.; Baker, A. B.

    1996-01-01

    Patients undergoing extractions of third molar teeth under general anesthesia were given a placebo, diclofenac (a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug) 100 mg, or methadone (an opiate) 10 mg 60 to 90 min prior to surgery, and their pain scores and postoperative medication requirements were measured for 3 days. All patients received local anesthetic blocks and analgesic drugs during the perioperative period. There were no significant differences between the three groups in the pain scores and medication requirements during the period of study. It was concluded that preoperative use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opiates may not offer a preemptive analgesic effect in patients who have had adequate analgesia during the surgery. Continued use of analgesic drugs during the postoperative period is perhaps more useful for this purpose. There appears to be a higher incidence of vomiting following opiates (methadone), precluding its clinical use in day-care patients. PMID:10323113

  8. Acute episode of cyclic vomiting syndrome preceded by arterial hypertension – Case presentation and review.

    PubMed

    Keller, K; Desuki, A; Hobohm, L; Münzel, T; Ostad, M A

    2015-10-01

    Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) is a functional disorder with recurrent episodes of vomiting. Between these episodes patients recover to well-being. Lack of awareness often leads to a delay in making the diagnosis. The diagnosis is based on a typical medical history and exclusion of other causes. We present a case report of a middle-aged patient who had recurrent episodes of vomiting for 12 years coinciding with hypertension. After excluding other causes, CVS was diagnosed. The episodes of acute vomiting were stopped by administration of antiemetic and sedative drugs and urapidil reduced the hypertension. Treatment with sedatives stops vomiting caused by the emetic centre of the central nervous system.

  9. [Postoperative pain in craniotomy].

    PubMed

    Peón, Andréa Ungaro; Diccini, Solange

    2005-01-01

    In the postoperative period, 47% to 75% of the patients report some degree of pain. This study aimed to evaluate pain in the pre and postoperative period of patients submitted to craniotomy. This prospective research was carried out at the neurosurgery unit of a large Brazilian hospital. For a quantitative evaluation of pain, the verbal numeric 0-10 rating scale was used. Forty patients with a mean age of 36 years were evaluated. In the preoperative period, 34 (85%) patients indicated headache as the main cause of pain. In the postoperative period, 37 (93%) patients complained of pain while three (7%) reported absence of pain. Pain peaks were observed on the 2nd postoperative day, when 12 (32%) of the patients reported severe pain and 10 (27%) moderate pain. Absence of severe pain occurred after the 8th postoperative day. It was concluded that protocols of analgesia in craniotomy are needed, such as training nurses to better evaluate and handle pain. PMID:16211171

  10. Postoperative Spine Infections

    PubMed Central

    Evangelisti, Gisberto; Andreani, Lorenzo; Girardi, Federico; Darren, Lebl; Sama, Andrew; Lisanti, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative spinal wound infection is a potentially devastating complication after operative spinal procedures. Despite the utilization of perioperative prophylactic antibiotics in recent years and improvements in surgical technique and postoperative care, wound infection continues to compromise patients’ outcome after spinal surgery. In the modern era of pending health care reform with increasing financial constraints, the financial burden of post-operative spinal infections also deserves consideration. The aim of our work is to give to the reader an updated review of the latest achievements in prevention, risk factors, diagnosis, microbiology and treatment of postoperative spinal wound infections. A review of the scientific literature was carried out using electronic medical databases Pubmed, Google Scholar, Web of Science and Scopus for the years 1973-2012 to obtain access to all publications involving the incidence, risk factors, prevention, diagnosis, treatment of postoperative spinal wound infections. We initially identified 119 studies; of these 60 were selected. Despite all the measures intended to reduce the incidence of surgical site infections in spine surgery, these remain a common and potentially dangerous complication. PMID:26605028

  11. The Effect of Gabapentin on Acute Postoperative Pain in Patients Undergoing Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Lifeng; Song, Zhoufeng; Liu, Kang

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of gabapentin versus placebo for pain control after total knee arthroplasty (TKA).In December 2015, a systematic computer-based search was conducted in the Medline, Embase, PubMed, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (CENTRAL), Web of Science, Google, and Chinese Wanfang databases. This systematic review and meta-analysis were performed according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement criteria. The primary endpoint was the visual analogue scale (VAS) score after TKA with rest or mobilization at 24 and 48 hours, representing the efficacy of pain control after TKA. Cumulative morphine consumption via patient controlled anesthesia (PCA) was also assessed to determine the morphine-spare effect. Complications such as dizziness, pruritus, vomiting, nausea, and sedation were also compiled to assess the safety of gabapentin. Stata 12.0 software was used for the meta-analysis. After testing for publication bias and heterogeneity across studies, the data were aggregated for random-effects modeling whenever necessary.Six studies involving 769 patients met the inclusion criteria. Our meta-analysis revealed that gabapentin resulted in superior pain relief compared to the control group in terms of VAS score with rest at 24 hours (mean difference [MD] = -3.47; 95% confidence interval [CI] -6.16 to -0.77; P = 0.012) and at 48 hours postoperatively (MD = -2.25; 95% CI -4.21 to -0.30; P = 0.024). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups with respect to the VAS score at 24 hours postoperatively (MD = 1.05; 95% CI -3.31 to 5.42; P = 0.636) or at 48 hours (MD = 1.71; 95% CI -0.74 to 4.15; P = 0.171). These results indicated that the perioperative administration of gabapentin decreases the cumulative morphine

  12. Cognitive/Attentional Distraction in the Control of Conditioned Nausea in Pediatric Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, William H.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Investigated use of cognitive/attentional distraction (via commercially available video games) to control conditioned nausea in pediatric cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Video game-playing resulted in significantly less nausea. The introduction and withdrawal of the opportunity to play video games produced significant changes (reduction…

  13. Functional Nausea in Children: A Review of the Literature and Need for Diagnostic Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Alexandra C.; Stone, Amanda L.; Walker, Lynn S.

    2016-01-01

    Nausea is common amongst children with functional gastrointestinal disorders and is associated with a high burden of somatic and psychosocial comorbidities in both the short and long-term. Current treatments including medications, phytotherapy, stress-reduction techniques, and gastric electrical stimulation for recalcitrant cases, are reviewed. Functional nausea merits its own diagnostic criteria as a pediatric functional gastrointestinal disorder. PMID:27417243

  14. Visually induced nausea causes characteristic changes in cerebral, autonomic and endocrine function in humans

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Adam D; Ban, Vin F; Coen, Steven J; Sanger, Gareth J; Barker, Gareth J; Gresty, Michael A; Giampietro, Vincent P; Williams, Steven C; Webb, Dominic L; Hellström, Per M; Andrews, Paul L R; Aziz, Qasim

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An integrated understanding of the physiological mechanisms involved in the genesis of nausea remains lacking. We aimed to describe the psychophysiological changes accompanying visually induced motion sickness, using a motion video, hypothesizing that differences would be evident between subjects who developed nausea in comparison to those who did not. A motion, or a control, stimulus was presented to 98 healthy subjects in a randomized crossover design. Validated questionnaires and a visual analogue scale (VAS) were used for the assessment of anxiety and nausea. Autonomic and electrogastrographic activity were measured at baseline and continuously thereafter. Plasma vasopressin and ghrelin were measured in response to the motion video. Subjects were stratified into quartiles based on VAS nausea scores, with the upper and lower quartiles considered to be nausea sensitive and resistant, respectively. Twenty-eight subjects were exposed to the motion video during functional neuroimaging. During the motion video, nausea-sensitive subjects had lower normogastria/tachygastria ratio and cardiac vagal tone but higher cardiac sympathetic index in comparison to the control video. Furthermore, nausea-sensitive subjects had decreased plasma ghrelin and demonstrated increased activity of the left anterior cingulate cortex. Nausea VAS scores correlated positively with plasma vasopressin and left inferior frontal and middle occipital gyri activity and correlated negatively with plasma ghrelin and brain activity in the right cerebellar tonsil, declive, culmen, lingual gyrus and cuneus. This study demonstrates that the subjective sensation of nausea is associated with objective changes in autonomic, endocrine and brain networks, and thus identifies potential objective biomarkers and targets for therapeutic interventions. Key points Nausea is a highly individual and variable experience. The reasons for this variability are incompletely understood although

  15. Postoperative pain management.

    PubMed

    Joshi, G P

    1994-01-01

    Inadequately treated pain is a major cause of unanticipated hospital admissions after ambulatory surgery. The ability to provide adequate pain relief by simple methods that are readily available to the day-care patient in his or her home environment is one of the major challenges for providers of ambulatory surgery and anesthesia. The increasing number of extensive and painful surgical procedures (e.g., laparoscopic cholecystectomy, laminectomy, knee construction, hysterectomies) being undertaken on an ambulatory basis presents new challenges with respect to acute postoperative pain. Hence the availability of more sophisticated and effective treatment modalities, such as ambulatory PCA and continuous local and regional anesthetic blocks, with minimal side effects, are necessary to optimize the benefits of ambulatory surgery for both patient and health care provider. However, outcome studies are needed to evaluate the effect of these newer therapeutic approaches with respect to postoperative side effects and other important recovery parameters. Recent studies suggest that factors other than pain per se must be controlled to reduce postoperative morbidity and facilitate the recovery process. Not surprisingly, the anesthetic technique can influence analgesic requirement in the early postoperative period. Although oral analgesic agents will continue to play an important role, the adjunctive use of local anesthetic agents is likely to assume an even greater role in the future. Use of drug combinations (e.g., opiates and local anesthetics, opiates and NSAIDs) may provide improved analgesia with fewer side effects. Finally, safer and simpler analgesic delivery systems are needed to improve our ability to provide cost-effective pain relief after ambulatory surgery. In conclusion, as a result of our enhanced understanding of the mechanisms of acute pain and the physiological basis of nociception, the provision of "stress-free" anesthesia with minimal postoperative

  16. Effectiveness and safety of continuous wound infiltration for postoperative pain management after open gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xing; Feng, Xu; Cai, Xiu-Jun

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To prospectively evaluate the effectiveness and safety of continuous wound infiltration (CWI) for pain management after open gastrectomy. METHODS: Seventy-five adult patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Physical Status Classification System (ASA) grade 1-3 undergoing open gastrectomy were randomized to three groups. Group 1 patients received CWI with 0.3% ropivacaine (group CWI). Group 2 patients received 0.5 mg/mL morphine intravenously by a patient-controlled analgesia pump (PCIA) (group PCIA). Group 3 patients received epidural analgesia (EA) with 0.12% ropivacaine and 20 µg/mL morphine with an infusion at 6-8 mL/h for 48 h (group EA). A standard general anesthetic technique was used for all three groups. Rescue analgesia (2 mg bolus of morphine, intravenous) was given when the visual analogue scale (VAS) score was ≥ 4. The outcomes measured over 48 h after the operation were VAS scores both at rest and during mobilization, total morphine consumption, relative side effects, and basic vital signs. Further results including time to extubation, recovery of bowel function, surgical wound healing, mean length of hospitalization after surgery, and the patient’s satisfaction were also recorded. RESULTS: All three groups had similar VAS scores during the first 48 h after surgery. Group CWI and group EA, compared with group PCIA, had lower morphine consumption (P < 0.001), less postoperative nausea and vomiting (1.20 ± 0.41 vs 1.96 ± 0.67, 1.32 ± 0.56 vs 1.96 ± 0.67, respectively, P < 0.001), earlier extubation (16.56 ± 5.24 min vs 19.76 ± 5.75 min, P < 0.05, 15.48 ± 4.59 min vs 19.76 ± 5.75 min, P < 0.01), and earlier recovery of bowel function (2.96 ± 1.17 d vs 3.60 ± 1.04 d, 2.80 ± 1.38 d vs 3.60 ± 1.04 d, respectively, P < 0.05). The mean length of hospitalization after surgery was reduced in groups CWI (8.20 ± 2.58 d vs 10.08 ± 3.15 d, P < 0.05) and EA (7.96 ± 2.30 d vs 10.08 ± 3.15 d, P < 0.01) compared with group PCIA

  17. Postoperative pain management

    PubMed Central

    Kolettas, Alexandros; Lazaridis, George; Baka, Sofia; Mpoukovinas, Ioannis; Karavasilis, Vasilis; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Lampaki, Sofia; Karavergou, Anastasia; Pataka, Athanasia; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Mpakas, Andreas; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Fassiadis, Nikolaos; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative pain is a very important issue for several patients. Indifferent of the surgery type or method, pain management is very necessary. The relief from suffering leads to early mobilization, less hospital stay, reduced hospital costs, and increased patient satisfaction. An individual approach should be applied for pain control, rather than a fix dose or drugs. Additionally, medical, psychological, and physical condition, age, level of fear or anxiety, surgical procedure, personal preference, and response to agents given should be taken into account. The major goal in the management of postoperative pain is minimizing the dose of medications to lessen side effects while still providing adequate analgesia. Again a multidisciplinary team approach should be pursued planning and formulating a plan for pain relief, particularly in complicated patients, such as those who have medical comorbidities. These patients might appear increase for analgesia-related complications or side effects. PMID:25774311

  18. [Postoperative medical icterus].

    PubMed

    Cerf, M

    1978-06-01

    The onset of jaundice following a surgical operation sometimes raises difficult problems. It is rarely due to hemolysis, infective hepatitis or decomposated cirrhosis of the liver. One should seek as a routine hepatitis due to halotane. However the most frequent cause is "benign postoperative cholestasis". This variety of jaundice presents in the form of an icterus due to conjugated bilirubine with often a large increase in alkaline phosphatase levels. The ocurse is variable. Almost always due to severe surgical or septic trauma, accompanied by shock and/or anoxia, it raises difficult diagnostic problems. The clinical and physiopathological aspects of benign postoperative cholestasis are recalled. One should remember, above all, that this is not an autonomous clinical entity but the sign of local or general complications which should be sought carefully.

  19. Enterogastric reflux and gastric clearance of refluxate in normal subjects and in patients with and without bile vomiting following peptic ulcer surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Mackie, C.; Hulks, G.; Cuschieri, A.

    1986-11-01

    A noninvasive scintigraphic technique was used to estimate enterogastric reflux and subsequent gastric evacuation of refluxate in 35 normal, healthy subjects and 55 patients previously treated by vagotomy or partial gastrectomy. Reflux was provoked by a milk drink and quantitated by counting 99Tcm-EHIDA activity within the gastric area during gamma camera imaging. Seven normal subjects (20%) showed reflux of 5-18% of initial activity (mean: 10%), with peak values occurring at 5-30 minutes (mean: 14 minutes) following the milk. Gastric evacuation of activity in these subjects was monoexponential (r = 0.993, T1/2 = 24.1 minutes). Reflux occurred more frequently than normal in patients with truncal vagotomy and drainage (22/28 patients) and partial gastrectomy (20/21 patients). All of 16 patients with Billroth II anastomoses exhibited reflux, which was excessive compared with refluxing normal subjects (mean: 25%; p less than 0.01) and occurred later into the study (mean: 34 minutes; p less than 0.01). Ten of 11 asymptomatic patients showed reflux of similar amounts of activity (mean: 21%) compared with 16 patients who complained of bile vomiting (mean: 22%). However, asymptomatic patients exhibited gastric evacuation of refluxate at a rate similar to that of refluxing normal subjects, while bile vomiters showed significant gastric retention of refluxate at 25-30 minutes following peak gastric activity (p less than 0.05). This result confirms that post-operative bile vomiting is essentially a problem of gastric emptying.

  20. [Sclerotherapy of postoperative lymphocele].

    PubMed

    Ravid, A; Papo, J; Kaplan, O; Klausner, J

    1994-12-15

    Postoperative lymphocele is a well-documented complication of gynecological operations involving pelvic and retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. It is not uncommon following renal transplantation. We report a 77-year-old woman with a lymphocele which developed 4 months after panhysterectomy. Diagnosis was by CT scan, confirmed by aspiration and cytology. Percutaneous drainage and sclerotherapy with tetracycline was curative. This appears to be the treatment of choice for lymphocele and is superior to repeated aspirations and surgical intervention, the current usual treatment.

  1. Idiopathic myenteric ganglionitis underlying intractable vomiting in a young adult.

    PubMed

    De Giorgio, R; Barbara, G; Stanghellini, V; Cogliandro, R F; Arrigoni, A; Santini, D; Ceccarelli, C; Salvioli, B; Rossini, F P; Corinaldesi, R

    2000-06-01

    Inflammatory infiltration of intestinal myenteric plexuses (i.e. myenteric ganglionitis), along with severe intestinal motor abnormalities, may accompany paraneoplastic syndromes, neurological disorders and gastrointestinal infections, although rare cases can be idiopathic. In this report, we describe the case of a patient who presented with chronic intractable vomiting and weight loss associated with idiopathic myenteric ganglionitis mainly involving the stomach. Tissue analysis showed that the inflammatory infiltrate comprised T lymphocytes (CD4+ and CD8+), and peptide immunolabelling revealed a marked decrease of substance P/tachykinin immunoreactive staining in nerve fibres and myenteric neurones. Following systemic steroid therapy, the patient's symptoms dramatically improved, and after one year of follow-up his general condition remains satisfactory. The possible mechanisms leading to symptom generation and gastric dysmotility in the context of an idiopathic myenteric ganglionitis are discussed.

  2. Face lift postoperative recovery.

    PubMed

    Mottura, A Aldo

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe what I have studied and experienced, mainly regarding the control and prediction of the postoperative edema; how to achieve an agreeable recovery and give positive support to the patient, who in turn will receive pleasant sensations that neutralize the negative consequences of the surgery.After the skin is lifted, the drainage flow to the flaps is reversed abruptly toward the medial part of the face, where the flap bases are located. The thickness and extension of the flap determines the magnitude of the post-op edema, which is also augmented by medial surgeries (blepharo, rhino) whose trauma obstruct their natural drainage, increasing the congestion and edema. To study the lymphatic drainage, the day before an extended face lift (FL) a woman was infiltrated in the cheek skin with lynfofast (solution of tecmesio) and the absorption was observed by gamma camera. Seven days after the FL she underwent the same study; we observed no absorption by the lymphatic, concluding that a week after surgery, the lymphatic network was still damaged. To study the venous return during surgery, a fine catheter was introduced into the external jugular vein up to the mandibular border to measure the peripheral pressure. Following platysma plication the pressure rose, and again after a simple bandage, but with an elastic bandage it increased even further, diminishing considerably when it was released. Hence, platysma plication and the elastic bandage on the neck augment the venous congestion of the face. There are diseases that produce and can prolong the surgical edema: cardiac, hepatic, and renal insufficiencies, hypothyroidism, malnutrition, etc. According to these factors, the post-op edema can be predicted, the surgeon can choose between a wide dissection or a medial surgery, depending on the social or employment compromises the patient has, or the patient must accept a prolonged recovery if a complex surgery is necessary. Operative

  3. Dorsal Penile Nerve Block With Ropivacaine-Reduced Postoperative Catheter-Related Bladder Discomfort in Male Patients After Emergence of General Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing-yi; Yi, Ming-liang; Liao, Ren

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Catheter-related bladder discomfort (CRBD) is a distressing symptom complex after surgery, especially in male patients who have had urinary catheterization under general anesthesia. In this prospective, randomized, controlled trial, we compared dorsal penile nerve block (DPNB) with 0.33% ropivacaine with intravenous tramadol 1.5 mg kg−1 in prevention of CRBD, as well as the incidences of postoperative side effects. Fifty-eight male patients aged 18 to 50 years, undergoing elective liver surgery and limb surgery with urinary catheterization, were enrolled and divided randomly into 2 groups. In the DPNB group, patients were given dorsal penile nerve block with 15 mL of 0.33% ropivacaine, and in the tramadol intravenous administration (TRAM) group, patients were given 1.5 mg kg−1 tramadol after the completion of surgery before extubation. The primary outcome was the incidence of CRBD, and the secondary outcomes included the severity of CRBD, postoperative side effects, postoperative pain, and the acceptance of urinary catheterization. Patients were evaluated upon arrival to postanesthetic care unit (PACU), at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours after patients’ arrival in the PACU for outcomes. The incidence of CRBD was significantly lower in the DPNB group than in the TRAM group, either upon arrival to PACU (10.3% vs 37.9%, P = 0.015), or at 0.5 hours (3.4% vs 34.5%, P = 0.003), 1 hours (3.4% vs 37.9%, P = 0.001), 2 hours (6.9% vs 34.5%, P = 0.010), and 4 hours (6.9% vs 27.6%, P = 0.039) after patients’ arrival in PACU. Compared with the TRAM group, the severity of postoperative CRBD upon arrival to PACU (P = 0.011) and at 0.5 hours (P = 0.005), 1 hours (P = 0.002), 2 hours (P = 0.005), 4 hours (P = 0.017), and 6 hours (P = 0.047) after patients’ arrival in PACU were all significantly reduced in the DPNB group. The incidences of postoperative nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and sedation

  4. Visually induced nausea causes characteristic changes in cerebral, autonomic and endocrine function in humans.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Adam D; Ban, Vin F; Coen, Steven J; Sanger, Gareth J; Barker, Gareth J; Gresty, Michael A; Giampietro, Vincent P; Williams, Steven C; Webb, Dominic L; Hellström, Per M; Andrews, Paul L R; Aziz, Qasim

    2015-03-01

    An integrated understanding of the physiological mechanisms involved in the genesis of nausea remains lacking. We aimed to describe the psychophysiological changes accompanying visually induced motion sickness, using a motion video, hypothesizing that differences would be evident between subjects who developed nausea in comparison to those who did not. A motion, or a control, stimulus was presented to 98 healthy subjects in a randomized crossover design. Validated questionnaires and a visual analogue scale (VAS) were used for the assessment of anxiety and nausea. Autonomic and electrogastrographic activity were measured at baseline and continuously thereafter. Plasma vasopressin and ghrelin were measured in response to the motion video. Subjects were stratified into quartiles based on VAS nausea scores, with the upper and lower quartiles considered to be nausea sensitive and resistant, respectively. Twenty-eight subjects were exposed to the motion video during functional neuroimaging. During the motion video, nausea-sensitive subjects had lower normogastria/tachygastria ratio and cardiac vagal tone but higher cardiac sympathetic index in comparison to the control video. Furthermore, nausea-sensitive subjects had decreased plasma ghrelin and demonstrated increased activity of the left anterior cingulate cortex. Nausea VAS scores correlated positively with plasma vasopressin and left inferior frontal and middle occipital gyri activity and correlated negatively with plasma ghrelin and brain activity in the right cerebellar tonsil, declive, culmen, lingual gyrus and cuneus. This study demonstrates that the subjective sensation of nausea is associated with objective changes in autonomic, endocrine and brain networks, and thus identifies potential objective biomarkers and targets for therapeutic interventions.

  5. Postoperative conversion disorder.

    PubMed

    Afolabi, Kola; Ali, Sameer; Gahtan, Vivian; Gorji, Reza; Li, Fenghua; Nussmeier, Nancy A

    2016-05-01

    Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder in which psychological stress causes neurologic deficits. A 28-year-old female surgical patient had uneventful general anesthesia and emergence but developed conversion disorder 1 hour postoperatively. She reported difficulty speaking, right-hand numbness and weakness, and right-leg paralysis. Neurologic examination and imaging revealed no neuronal damage, herniation, hemorrhage, or stroke. The patient mentioned failing examinations the day before surgery and discontinuing her prescribed antidepressant medication, leading us to diagnose conversion disorder, with eventual confirmation by neuroimaging and follow-up examinations.

  6. Postoperative conversion disorder.

    PubMed

    Afolabi, Kola; Ali, Sameer; Gahtan, Vivian; Gorji, Reza; Li, Fenghua; Nussmeier, Nancy A

    2016-05-01

    Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder in which psychological stress causes neurologic deficits. A 28-year-old female surgical patient had uneventful general anesthesia and emergence but developed conversion disorder 1 hour postoperatively. She reported difficulty speaking, right-hand numbness and weakness, and right-leg paralysis. Neurologic examination and imaging revealed no neuronal damage, herniation, hemorrhage, or stroke. The patient mentioned failing examinations the day before surgery and discontinuing her prescribed antidepressant medication, leading us to diagnose conversion disorder, with eventual confirmation by neuroimaging and follow-up examinations. PMID:27041258

  7. Postoperative extradural hematomas.

    PubMed

    Pichierri, Angelo; Ruggeri, Andrea; Donnarumma, Pasquale; Delfini, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Postoperative extradural hematoma (POEH) is a possible complication after head surgery, often neglected in the literature. In a single surgeon experience we found 13 cases of POEH (0.8%). We distinguished two subtypes: (1) larger hematomas (>40 cc) with typical features and overt clinical picture that always needed evacuation, and (2) smaller hematomas (<40 cc) with insidious clinical onset and different radiological features compared with traumatic and spontaneous extradural hematomas. On the basis of our experience, we propose that clinical picture and radiologic appearance lead the decision between conservative or interventional treatment of type II hematomas.

  8. Differential Postoperative Effects of Volatile Anesthesia and Intraoperative Remifentanil Infusion in 7511 Thyroidectomy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Jun-Young; Choi, Seong-Soo; Yi, Jung Min; Joo, Eun Young; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Se Ung; Sim, Ji-Hoon; Karm, Myong-Hwan; Ku, Seungwoo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although remifentanil is used widely by many clinicians during general anesthesia, there are recent evidences of opioid-induced hyperalgesia as an adverse effect. This study aimed to determine if intraoperative remifentanil infusion caused increased pain during the postoperative period in patients who underwent a thyroidectomy. A total of 7511 patients aged ≥ 20 years, who underwent thyroidectomy between January 2009 and December 2013 at the Asan Medical Center were retrospectively analyzed. Enrolled patients were divided into 2 groups: group N (no intraoperative remifentanil and only volatile maintenance anesthesia) and group R (intraoperative remifentanil infusion including total intravenous anesthesia and balanced anesthesia). Following propensity score matching analysis, 2582 patients were included in each group. Pain scores based on numeric rating scales (NRS) were compared between the 2 groups at the postoperative anesthetic care unit and at the ward until 3 days postoperation. Incidences of postoperative complications, such as nausea, itching, and shivering were also compared. The estimated NRS pain score on the day of surgery was 5.08 (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.97–5.19) in group N patients and 6.73 (95% CI 6.65–6.80) in group R patients (P < 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in NRS scores on postoperative days 1, 2, and 3 between the 2 groups. Postoperative nausea was less frequent in group R (31.4%) than in group N (53.5%) (P < 0.001). However, the incidence of itching was higher in group R (4.3%) than in group N (0.7%) (P < 0.001). Continuous infusion of remifentanil during general anesthesia can cause higher intensity of postoperative pain and more frequent itching than general anesthesia without remifentanil infusion immediately after thyroidectomy. Considering the advantages and disadvantages of continuous remifentanil infusion, volatile anesthesia without opioid may be a good choice for minor

  9. Speed of Eating as a Determinant of Bulimic Desire to Vomit: A Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azrin, Nathan H.; Kellen, Michael J.; Ehle, Christopher T.; Brooks, Jeannie S.

    2006-01-01

    Studies of self-induced vomiting of retarded persons have found that the rate of eating and the amount eaten alter this problem. The present study attempted to determine whether this same relationship was exhibited by the nonretarded bulimic. A nonretarded bulimic woman provided her subjective ratings of her desire to vomit after eating her taboo…

  10. [Intestinal obstruction caused by postoperative adhesion. 79 cases].

    PubMed

    Dia, A; Fall, B; Thognon, P; Ndoye, A K; Sow, M L; Diop, A

    1991-12-01

    The intestinal post-operative bridle represents the third most important etiology of obstructions at the clinic of the University Hospital of Dakar, behind hernia strangulations and the volvulus of the digestive tube. Between 1970 and 1989, a retrospective study has led to a sample of 79 patients with post-operative bridle obstructions. The group was made of 47 women and 32 men between 17 and 84 years of age. Stomach ache was by far the most common functional symptomatology, followed by the stoppage of the transit and vomiting. In most cases palpation revealed the presence of tympanism. For almost all the patients, the abdomen without preparation revealed either a hydroaeric level or a diffuse grey area. The initial intervention concerned mainly gynecological affections or pathologies of appendicular type. The resection of the bridles was carried out in most cases. There were 10 deaths. The intestinal obstructions by post-operative bridles continue to be a surgical emergency still characterized by a high mortality rate. The late consultation of the patients, often received when presenting considerable visceral deficiency, is one of the main causes of the high rate of fatalities.

  11. Integrative review of factors related to the nursing diagnosis nausea during antineoplastic chemotherapy 1

    PubMed Central

    Moysés, Aline Maria Bonini; Durant, Lais Corsino; de Almeida, Ana Maria; Gozzo, Thais de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to identify factors related to the nursing diagnosis nausea among cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Method: integrative review conducted in four electronic databases (PUBMED, EMBASE, CINAHL and LILACS) using the key words: neoplasia, antineoplastic agents and nausea. Results: only 30 out of 1,258 papers identified met the inclusion criteria. The most frequent related factors were: being younger than 50 years old, motion sickness, being a woman, emetogenic potential of the chemotherapy, anxiety, conditioned stimulus, and expecting nausea after treatment. Conclusion: this review's findings, coupled with the incidence of nausea among cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, reveal an important difference between evidence found and that used by NANDA International, Inc. Even though it provides an appropriate definition of related factors, it does not mention chemotherapy, despite the various studies addressing the topic using different designs and presenting various objectives and outcomes. PMID:27737380

  12. Effects of overshadowing on conditioned and unconditioned nausea in a rotation paradigm with humans.

    PubMed

    Stockhorst, Ursula; Hall, Geoffrey; Enck, Paul; Klosterhalfen, Sibylle

    2014-08-01

    We examine whether overshadowing by salient stimuli is effective in reducing the ability of a certain environment (the putative conditioned stimulus) to evoke conditioned nausea in healthy humans that experience nausea-evoking rotation (as the unconditioned stimulus, US) in that environment. Twenty-four rotation-susceptible subjects (12 males, 12 females) were randomly assigned to receive either overshadowing by salient tasting beverages (OS+), or a control treatment (a familiar beverage, water; OS-) prior to rotation on three consecutive days (acquisition). To control for taste experiences, the alternative beverage was consumed 12 h later in the home environment (OS+: water, OS-: salient beverage). At Day 4 (test), all subjects drank the familiar beverage (water) prior to rotation (US). Rotation was standardized as 2 × 1-min rotation/day. Nausea was determined by a 7-item symptom scale measuring symptom number (SN) prior to (anticipatory), immediately after, and 15 and 30 min after rotation and by the Nausea Profile (NP) questionnaire immediately after rotation. Cortisol and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α in saliva were sampled at the same time-points. SN and cortisol were also measured at home. Overshadowing reduced anticipatory (conditioned) SN. Post-rotation nausea (i.e. the unconditioned response) measured by the NP decreased within the OS+ group only. Anticipatory cortisol and TNF-α were not affected by overshadowing. Treatment × gender interactions manifested for post-rotation cortisol and TNF-α. Groups did not differ in SN and cortisol at home. Overshadowing is effective in reducing symptoms of anticipatory nausea and rotation-induced unconditioned nausea; its effect on endocrine and immunological parameters is gender specific. Its application in alleviation of anticipatory nausea in cancer patients is considered.

  13. Enhanced perceptions of control and predictability reduce motion-induced nausea and gastric dysrhythmia.

    PubMed

    Levine, Max E; Stern, Robert M; Koch, Kenneth L

    2014-08-01

    Nausea is a debilitating condition that is typically accompanied by gastric dysrhythmia. The enhancement of perceived control and predictability has generally been found to attenuate the physiological stress response. The aim of the present study was to test the effect of these psychosocial variables in the context of nausea, motion sickness, and gastric dysrhythmia. A 2x2, independent-groups, factorial design was employed in which perceived control and predictability were each provided at high or low levels to 80 participants before exposure to a rotating optokinetic drum. Ratings of nausea were obtained throughout a 6-min baseline period and a 16-min drum rotation period. Noninvasive recordings of the electrical activity of the stomach called electrogastrograms were also obtained throughout the study. Nausea scores were significantly lower among participants with high control than among those with low control, and were significantly lower among participants with high predictability than among those with low predictability. Estimates of gastric dysrhythmia obtained from the EGG during drum rotation were significantly lower among participants with high predictability than among those with low predictability. A significant interaction effect of control and predictability on gastric dysrhythmia was also observed, such that high control was only effective for arresting the development of gastric dysrhythmia when high predictability was also available. Stronger perceptions of control and predictability may temper the development of nausea and gastric dysrhythmia during exposure to provocative motion. Psychosocial interventions in a variety of nausea contexts may represent an alternative means of symptom control. PMID:24748483

  14. Brain Circuitry Supporting Multi-Organ Autonomic Outflow in Response to Nausea.

    PubMed

    Sclocco, Roberta; Kim, Jieun; Garcia, Ronald G; Sheehan, James D; Beissner, Florian; Bianchi, Anna M; Cerutti, Sergio; Kuo, Braden; Barbieri, Riccardo; Napadow, Vitaly

    2016-02-01

    While autonomic outflow is an important co-factor of nausea physiology, central control of this outflow is poorly understood. We evaluated sympathetic (skin conductance level) and cardiovagal (high-frequency heart rate variability) modulation, collected synchronously with functional MRI (fMRI) data during nauseogenic visual stimulation aimed to induce vection in susceptible individuals. Autonomic data guided analysis of neuroimaging data, using a stimulus-based (analysis windows set by visual stimulation protocol) and percept-based (windows set by subjects' ratings) approach. Increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic modulation was associated with robust and anti-correlated brain activity in response to nausea. Specifically, greater autonomic response was associated with reduced fMRI signal in brain regions such as the insula, suggesting an inhibitory relationship with premotor brainstem nuclei. Interestingly, some sympathetic/parasympathetic specificity was noted. Activity in default mode network and visual motion areas was anti-correlated with parasympathetic outflow at peak nausea. In contrast, lateral prefrontal cortical activity was anti-correlated with sympathetic outflow during recovery, soon after cessation of nauseogenic stimulation. These results suggest divergent central autonomic control for sympathetic and parasympathetic response to nausea. Autonomic outflow and the central autonomic network underlying ANS response to nausea may be an important determinant of overall nausea intensity and, ultimately, a potential therapeutic target.

  15. Enhanced perceptions of control and predictability reduce motion-induced nausea and gastric dysrhythmia.

    PubMed

    Levine, Max E; Stern, Robert M; Koch, Kenneth L

    2014-08-01

    Nausea is a debilitating condition that is typically accompanied by gastric dysrhythmia. The enhancement of perceived control and predictability has generally been found to attenuate the physiological stress response. The aim of the present study was to test the effect of these psychosocial variables in the context of nausea, motion sickness, and gastric dysrhythmia. A 2x2, independent-groups, factorial design was employed in which perceived control and predictability were each provided at high or low levels to 80 participants before exposure to a rotating optokinetic drum. Ratings of nausea were obtained throughout a 6-min baseline period and a 16-min drum rotation period. Noninvasive recordings of the electrical activity of the stomach called electrogastrograms were also obtained throughout the study. Nausea scores were significantly lower among participants with high control than among those with low control, and were significantly lower among participants with high predictability than among those with low predictability. Estimates of gastric dysrhythmia obtained from the EGG during drum rotation were significantly lower among participants with high predictability than among those with low predictability. A significant interaction effect of control and predictability on gastric dysrhythmia was also observed, such that high control was only effective for arresting the development of gastric dysrhythmia when high predictability was also available. Stronger perceptions of control and predictability may temper the development of nausea and gastric dysrhythmia during exposure to provocative motion. Psychosocial interventions in a variety of nausea contexts may represent an alternative means of symptom control.

  16. [Low-dose mirtazapine improved nausea and appetite loss during S-1 therapy].

    PubMed

    Shibahara, Hiroaki; Ito, Takanori; Uematsu, Natsuko; Imai, Eri; Nishimura, Daisaku

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a man in his 80's with pancreatic cancer(cStage IV). He suffered from nausea duringS -1 therapy, and therefore, prochlorperazine maleate at a daily dose of 15 mgwas administered. However, refractory nausea was diagnosed because it did not improve, and mirtazapine at a daily dose of 7. 5 mgbefore bedtime was started. Nausea was improved in the next morning, and the patient ate almost all of his breakfast. After that, no nausea appeared, and his food intake was robust. Mirtazapine is a new antidepressant called noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant(NaSSA)and blocks 5-HT3 receptors to improve nausea. Mirtazapine is usually started at a daily dose of 15 mg, but this dose induces somnolence. Therefore, mirtazapine was administered at a low daily dose of 7. 5 mgin the present case. No somnolence or disturbance of daily life was seen, and administration was safely continued. We conclude that low-dose mirtazapine is one effective option for refractory nausea duringS -1 therapy. PMID:22241371

  17. Varenicline for smoking cessation: nausea severity and variation in nicotinic receptor genes.

    PubMed

    Swan, G E; Javitz, H S; Jack, L M; Wessel, J; Michel, M; Hinds, D A; Stokowksi, R P; McClure, J B; Catz, S L; Richards, J; Zbikowski, S M; Deprey, M; McAfee, T; Conti, D V; Bergen, A W

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluated association between common and rare sequence variants in 10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit genes and the severity of nausea 21 days after initiating the standard, Food and Drug Administration-approved varenicline regimen for smoking cessation. A total of 397 participants from a randomized clinical effectiveness trial with complete clinical and DNA resequencing data were included in the analysis (mean age=49.2 years; 68.0% female). Evidence for significant association between common sequence variants in CHRNB2 and nausea severity was obtained after adjusting for age, gender and correlated tests (all P(ACT)<0.05). Individuals with the minor allele of CHRNB2 variants experienced less nausea than did those without the minor allele, consistent with previously reported findings for CHRNB2 and the occurrence of nausea and dizziness as a consequence of first smoking attempt in adolescents, and with the known neurophysiology of nausea. As nausea is the most common reason for discontinuance of varenicline, further pharmacogenetic investigations are warranted.

  18. Advances in data assessment. Application to the etiology of nausea reported during chemotherapy, concerns about significance testing, and opportunities in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Morrow, G R; Black, P M; Dudgeon, D J

    1991-02-01

    Typical inferential statistical procedures, such as the t-test and analysis of variance, compare differences in mean values of variables. This approach can sometimes obscure rather than illuminate research data. Here we present and discuss alternative data analytic techniques. Potential advantages of box plots over conventional t-tests for understanding data are shown by comparing the area under high and low frequencies from spectral curves of autonomic changes following chemotherapy treatment. Typical t-tests provide information regarding statistical significance in terms of the differences in group means; box plots and related exploratory techniques provide information regarding the characteristics of the distributions within the groups as well as examination of potential outliers. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and other multivariate techniques are commonly used to deal with potentially complex data sets with multiple outcome measures. The potential advantages of visual clustering techniques such as star plots, Chernoff faces, and Andrew's Function Plots are demonstrated by examining changes in facial pallor caused by chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Typical MANOVA approaches can identify potential differences in mean values between groups; visual clustering approaches do this by graphically presenting complex interrelationships for individual cases. This approach enhances the visual interpretation of potential interactions that would be obscured by simply focusing on overall mean values. Preliminary data from a meta-analysis on the effect of metoclopramide on chemotherapy-induced vomiting demonstrates the potential uses and advantages of this summary technique over simple tabular summaries. We found significant relationships between the effect size of the drug and variables such as the year of study publication and whether the publication was an article or an abstract. While none of these techniques are meant to replace traditional

  19. Postoperative fiberoptic choledochoscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Birkett, D H; Williams, L F

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-eight patients underwent fiberoptic T-tube tract choledochoscopy for the diagnosis, management, and treatment of filling defects seen on postoperative T-tube cholangiograms. In 22 patients, 59 retained stones were treated by extraction. In six other patients with diagnostic problems arising from cholangiogram defects, the diagnosis was made by direct vision and biopsy specimen examination. There were multiple papillary adenocarcinomas in one patient, and normal mucosal folds in two patients. The procedure was accompanied by a low complication rate, with two patients developing pancreatitis and five patients developing transient fever. The advantages of the procedure are a direct examination of the biliary tree with the facility to remove stones and biopsy lesions under direct vision. PMID:7294933

  20. [Postoperative epidural analgesia].

    PubMed

    Donato, S; Malisano, A M; Dogareschi, T; Chiarandini, P; Spasiano, A; Pasetto, A

    1995-01-01

    Epidural analgesia with local anesthetics and opioids is one of the most effective methods for postoperative pain control. In critical patients it seems to improve outcome as well as pain control. This technique works better when started in the intraoperative time. Epidural analgesia is safe on surgical wards if nursing staff is trained in managing epidural catheters and in early detection and treatment of major and minor side effects. Nursing staff cooperates with the Acute Pain Service doctors and nurses who are on call on a 24 hour basis. Many perspective and retrospective studies showed a very low incidence of major side effects with epidurals. So we can consider it safe and effective even if we consider its invasiveness.

  1. Keratoplasty postoperative treatment update.

    PubMed

    Shimmura-Tomita, Machiko; Shimmura, Shigeto; Satake, Yoshiyuki; Shimazaki-Den, Seika; Omoto, Masahiro; Tsubota, Kazuo; Shimazaki, Jun

    2013-11-01

    Immunosuppressive therapy is the main postoperative treatment for keratoplasty, but there are considerable differences in protocols for the use of steroids and other immunosuppressants. Therefore, we conducted 2 prospective randomized clinical trials and 1 prospective nonrandomized clinical trial on keratoplasty postoperative treatment. One study evaluated the efficacy and safety of long-term topical corticosteroids after a penetrating keratoplasty was performed. Patients who underwent keratoplasty and maintained graft clarity for >1 year were randomly assigned to either a steroid or a no-steroid group. At the 12-month follow-up, the no-steroid group developed significantly more endothelial rejection than did the steroid group. A second study elucidated the effectiveness and safety of systemic cyclosporine in high-risk corneal transplantation. The patients were assigned to a systemic cyclosporine or control group. At a mean follow-up of 42.7 months, no difference was observed in the endothelial rejection rates and graft clarity loss between the 2 groups. A third study elucidated the effectiveness and the safety of systemic tacrolimus in high-risk corneal transplantation. Of 11 consecutive eyes decompensated despite systemic cyclosporine treatment, there was no irreversible rejection in eyes treated with tacrolimus, which was significantly better than in previous penetrating keratoplasty with systemic cyclosporine treatment. Prognosis after keratoplasty in patients with keratoconus is relatively good, but special attention is required for patients with atopic dermatitis. Postkeratoplasty atopic sclerokeratitis (PKAS) is a severe form of sclerokeratitis after keratoplasty in atopic patients. Our retrospective study showed that 35 eyes of 29 patients from a total of 247 keratoconus eyes undergoing keratoplasty were associated with atopic dermatitis, of which 6 eyes of 5 patients developed PKAS. Eyes with PKAS had a significantly higher incidence of atopic blepharitis

  2. Impact of Cardiogenic Vomiting in Patients with STEMI: A Study From China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zongsheng; Yang, Xinchun; Chen, Mulei; Liu, Jiamei; Xu, Li; Zhang, Yuan

    2015-12-05

    BACKGROUND Different patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) have different symptoms. A third of them may have medical emergencies caused by symptoms such as vomiting and syncope. These concomitant symptoms may influence subsequent therapy and final outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine whether cardiogenic vomiting is a predictor of clinical outcomes in patients with STEMI. MATERIAL AND METHODS We classified 152 STEMI patients from different areas into 2 groups on the basis of vomiting: group A and group B. Their demographics and conditions of hospitalization were recorded. After follow-up, major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were regarded as study endpoints for the effect of cardiogenic vomiting in STEMI patients. RESULTS We found no significant difference in demographic and clinical characteristics of the 2 groups (P>0.05). The hospitalized conditions of group A were more serious than in group B. During a follow-up of 6 months, MACE rate was higher in vomiting patients (42; 67.7%) compared with group B (25; 27.8%). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that cardiogenic vomiting was an independent predictor of clinical outcomes. CONCLUSIONS Cardiogenic vomiting is a useful predictor of major adverse cardiac events in STEMI patients for the hospitalization and after discharge.

  3. Postoperative infections: prevention and management.

    PubMed

    Gaston, R Glenn; Kuremsky, Marshall A

    2010-05-01

    Postoperative infections continue to be a challenging problem. The incidence of bacterial antibiotic resistance such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is rising. There are numerous intrinsic patient factors that should be optimized before surgery to minimize the risk of surgical site infections. When postoperative infections develop, treatment must be individualized. This article outlines the principles that can help guide treatment.

  4. Mitochondrial disorder caused Charles Darwin’s cyclic vomiting syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Hayman, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Charles Darwin (CD), “father of modern biology,” suffered from multisystem illness from early adulthood. The most disabling manifestation was cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS). This study aims at finding the possible cause of CVS in CD. Methods A literature search using the PubMed database was carried out, and CD’s complaints, as reported in his personal writings and those of his relatives, friends, colleagues, biographers, were compared with various manifestations of mitochondrial disorders (MIDs), known to cause CVS, described in the literature. Results Organ tissues involved in CD’s disease were brain, nerves, muscles, vestibular apparatus, heart, gut, and skin. Cerebral manifestations included episodic headache, visual disturbance, episodic memory loss, periodic paralysis, hysterical crying, panic attacks, and episodes of depression. Manifestations of polyneuropathy included numbness, paresthesias, increased sweating, temperature sensitivity, and arterial hypotension. Muscular manifestations included periods of exhaustion, easy fatigability, myalgia, and muscle twitching. Cardiac manifestations included episodes of palpitations and chest pain. Gastrointestinal manifestations were CVS, dental problems, abnormal seasickness, eructation, belching, and flatulence. Dermatological manifestations included painful lips, dermatitis, eczema, and facial edema. Treatments with beneficial effects to his complaints were rest, relaxation, heat, and hydrotherapy. Conclusion CVS in CD was most likely due to a multisystem, nonsyndromic MID. This diagnosis is based upon the multisystem nature of his disease, the fact that CVS is most frequently the manifestation of a MID, the family history, the variable phenotypic expression between affected family members, the fact that symptoms were triggered by stress, and that only few symptoms could not be explained by a MID. PMID:24453499

  5. Intravenous patient-controlled analgesia to manage the postoperative pain in patients undergoing craniotomy

    PubMed Central

    Na, Hyo-Seok; An, Sang-Bum; Park, Hee-Pyoung; Lim, Young-Jin; Hwang, Jung-Won; Jeon, Young-Tae

    2011-01-01

    Background This randomized controlled study evaluated the efficacy of intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) with fentanyl and ketorolac for neurosurgical patients, and compared the effectiveness of IV-PCA with intermittent analgesics injection. Methods The patients undergoing craniotomy were randomly assigned to two groups. Patients of group P (n = 53) received fentanyl (0.2 µg/kg/hr) and ketorolac (0.3 mg/kg/hr) via IV-PCA, and those of group N (n = 53) received intermittent fentanyl or ketorolac injection as needed. Pain was evaluated using a 0-10 visual analogue scale (VAS) at postoperative 1, 4, and 24 hr. The amount of infused analgesic drugs, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, systolic arterial pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and the incidence of nausea and miosis were measured at the same time points. Results Although VAS of pain (VASp) was comparable at postoperative 1 hr (P = 0.168) between the two groups, the group P had significantly lower VASp at postoperative 4 hr (P = 0.007) and 24 hr (P = 0.017). In group P, less analgesic drugs were administered at postoperative 1 hr, and more analgesic drugs were administered at postoperative 24 hr. There were no differences between two groups with respect to nausea, GCS, systolic arterial pressure, and heart rate. IV-PCA did not further incur respiratory depression or miosis. Conclusions IV-PCA with fentanyl and ketorolac after craniotomy is more effective analgesic technique, without adverse events, than the intermittent administration of analgesics. PMID:21359078

  6. [Therapeutic approach to postoperative anemia].

    PubMed

    Bisbe Vives, E; Moltó, L

    2015-06-01

    Postoperative anemia is a common finding in patients who undergo major surgery, and it can affect early rehabilitation and the return to daily activities. Allogeneic blood transfusion is still the most widely used method for restoring hemoglobin levels rapidly and effectively. However, the potential risks of transfusions have led to the review of this practice and to a search for alternative measures for treating postoperative anemia. The early administration of intravenous iron appears to improve the evolution of postoperative hemoglobin levels and reduce allogeneic transfusions, especially in patients with significant iron deficiency or anemia. What is not clear is whether this treatment heavily influences rehabilitation and quality of life. There is a lack of well-designed, sufficiently large, randomized prospective studies to determine whether postoperative or perioperative intravenous iron treatment, with or without recombinant erythropoietin, has a role in the recovery from postoperative anemia, in reducing transfusions and morbidity rates and in improving exercise capacity and quality of life.

  7. Efficacy of Pregabalin in Acute Postoperative Pain Under Different Surgical Categories

    PubMed Central

    Lam, David M.H.; Choi, Siu-Wai; Wong, Stanley S.C.; Irwin, Michael G.; Cheung, Chi-Wai

    2015-01-01

    .006). Pregabalin resulted in significant sedation in all surgical categories except ENT, laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and gynecologic procedures. Postoperative nausea and vomiting was only significant after pregabalin in miscellaneous procedures. Analgesic effects and incidence of adverse effects of using pregabalin are not equal in different surgical categories. PMID:26579802

  8. Postoperative Peritoneal Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Graeme B.; Grobéty, Jocelyne; Majno, Guido

    1971-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental model of peritoneal adhesions, in the rat, based on two relatively minor accidents that may occur during abdominal surgery in man: drying of the serosa, and bleeding. Drying alone had little effect; drying plus bleeding consistently produced adhesions to the dried area. Fresh blood alone produced adhesions between the three membranous structures [omentum and pelvic fat bodies (PFBs)]. The formation of persistent adhesions required whole blood. Preformed clots above a critical size induced adhesions even without previous serosal injury; they were usually captured by the omentum and PFBs. If all three membranous structures were excised, the clots caused visceral adhesions. The protective role of the omentum, its structure, and the mechanism of omental adhesions, are discussed. These findings are relevant to the pathogenesis of post-operative adhesions in man. ImagesFig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 12Fig 13Fig 1Fig 2Fig 14Fig 15Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11 PMID:5315369

  9. Expiratory muscle control during vomiting - Role of brain stem expiratory neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, A. D.; Tan, L. K.

    1987-01-01

    The neural mechanisms controlling the muscles involved during vomiting were examined using decerebrated cats. In one experiment, the activity of the ventral respiratory group (VRG) expiratory (E) neurons was recorded during induced 'fictive vomiting' (i.e., a series of bursts of coactivation of abdominal and phrenic nerves that would be expected to produce expulsion in unparalyzed animals) and vomiting. In a second, abdominal muscle electromyographic and nerve activity were compared before and after sectioning the axons of descending VRG E neurons as they cross the midline between C1 and the obex (the procedure that is known to abolish expiratory modulation of internal intercostal muscle activity). The results of the study indicate that the abdominal muscles are controlled differently during respiration and vomiting.

  10. Breaking the cycle: cognitive behavioral therapy and biofeedback training in a case of cyclic vomiting syndrome.

    PubMed

    Slutsker, Barak; Konichezky, Andres; Gothelf, Doron

    2010-12-01

    The present article presents a case of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) along with heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback training for the treatment of a medication unresponsive 13-year-old boy with cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS). CVS is characterized by recurring stereotypic episodes of vomiting, interspersed with asymptomatic periods. Triggers for vomiting include anticipatory anxiety related to school examinations, family conflicts, and birthday parties as well as infectious diseases, and certain foods. Current treatment design addressed two pivotal etiological factors: autonomic dysregulation and anticipatory anxiety. Treatment outcome suggests that vomiting episodes may be successfully prevented by aiding the patient to identify and manage precipitant psychological stressors, to regulate HRV patterns, and gain a renewed sense of bodily control and self-efficacy. Further research is suggested using a controlled study with pre- and post-behavioral and stress measures to evaluate the effectiveness of CBT and biofeedback training compared to pharmacotherapy and placebo. PMID:21154016

  11. Possible role of brain stem respiratory neurons in mediating vomiting during space motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, A. D.; Tan, L. K.

    1987-01-01

    The object of this study was to determine if brain stem expiratory neurons control abdominal muscle activity during vomiting. The activity of 27 ventral respiratory group expiratory neurons, which are known to be of primary importance for control of abdominal muscle activity during respiration, was recorded. It is concluded that abdominal muscle activity during vomiting must be controlled not only by some brain stem expiratory neurons but also by other input(s).

  12. Vomiting as a Symptom and Transmission Risk in Norovirus Illness: Evidence from Human Challenge Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Amy E.; Streby, Ashleigh; Moe, Christine L.

    2016-01-01

    Background In the US, noroviruses are estimated to cause 21 million cases annually with economic losses reaching $2 billion. Outbreak investigations frequently implicate vomiting as a major transmission risk. However, little is known about the characteristics of vomiting as a symptom or the amount of virus present in emesis. Methodology and Principal Findings Emesis samples and symptomology data were obtained from previous norovirus human challenge studies with GI.1 Norwalk virus, GII.2 Snow Mountain virus, and a pilot study with GII.1 Hawaii virus. Viral titers in emesis were determined using strain-specific quantitative RT-PCR. In all four studies, vomiting was common with 40–100% of infected subjects vomiting at least once. However, only 45% of subjects with vomiting also had diarrhea. Most of the emesis samples had detectable virus and the mean viral titers were 8.0 x 105 and 3.9 x 104 genomic equivalent copies (GEC)/ml for GI and GII viruses, respectively (p = 0.02). Sample pH was correlated with GII.2 Snow Mountain virus detection. Conclusions and Significance Half of all subjects with symptomatic infection experienced vomiting and the average subject shed 1.7 x 108 GEC in emesis. Unlike shedding through stool, vomiting is more likely to result in significant environmental contamination, leading to transmission through fomites and airborne droplets. This quantitative data will be critical for risk assessment studies to further understand norovirus transmission and develop effective control measures. The correlation between sample pH and virus detection is consistent with a single site of virus replication in the small intestine and stomach contents becoming contaminated by intestinal reflux. Additionally, the frequency of vomiting without concurrent diarrhea suggests that epidemiology studies that enroll subjects based on the presence of diarrhea may be significantly underestimating the true burden of norovirus disease. PMID:27116105

  13. Imaging of the Postoperative Orbit.

    PubMed

    Learned, Kim O; Nasseri, Farbod; Mohan, Suyash

    2015-08-01

    Imaging evaluation of the postoperative orbit remains challenging even for the expert neuroradiologist. This article provides a simplified framework for understanding the complex postoperative appearances of the orbit, in an attempt to enhance the diagnostic accuracy of postoperative computed tomography and MR imaging of the orbit. Readers are familiarized with the normal appearances of common eye procedures and orbit reconstructions to help avoid interpretative pitfalls. Also reviewed are imaging features of common surgical complications, and evaluation of residual/recurrent neoplasm in the setting of oncologic imaging surveillance.

  14. Armed Rollers: Does Nestling’s Vomit Function as a Defence against Predators?

    PubMed Central

    Parejo, Deseada; Avilés, Jesús M.; Peña, Aránzazu; Sánchez, Lourdes; Ruano, Francisca; Zamora-Muñoz, Carmen; Martín-Vivaldi, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Chemical defences against predators are widespread in the animal kingdom although have been seldom reported in birds. Here, we investigate the possibility that the orange liquid that nestlings of an insectivorous bird, the Eurasian roller (Coracias garrulus), expel when scared at their nests acts as a chemical defence against predators. We studied the diet of nestling rollers and vomit origin, its chemical composition and deterrent effect on a mammal generalist predator. We also hypothesized that nestling rollers, as their main prey (i.e. grasshoppers) do from plants, could sequester chemicals from their prey for their use. Grasshoppers, that also regurgitate when facing to a threat, store the harmful substances used by plants to defend themselves against herbivores. We found that nestling rollers only vomit after being grasped and moved. The production of vomit depended on food consumption and the vomit contained two deterrent chemicals (hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids) stored by grasshoppers and used by plants to diminish herbivory, suggesting that they originate from the rollers’ prey. Finally, we showed for the first time that the oral secretion of a vertebrate had a deterrent effect on a model predator because vomit of nestling rollers made meat distasteful to dogs. These results support the idea that the vomit of nestling rollers is a chemical defence against predators. PMID:23874791

  15. [Ketoprofen in the prevention of postoperative pain in abdominal surgery. A multicenter study].

    PubMed

    Avila, G; Balbo, G; Biasiato, R; Brighenti, F M; Conte, R; Donini, I; Landi, E; Marzocca, G; Mazzi, U; Morino, F

    1991-01-01

    Two-hundred-forty-eight patients undergoing abdominal surgery were admitted to a multicentric clinical trial. The patients were randomly assigned to a single i.v. dose of ketoprofen or acetylsalicylic acid, 15 minutes after the end of operation. Ketoprofen showed a better analgesic activity with a statistically significant difference at 2 and 4 hours after administration. Two patients treated with ketoprofen reported vomiting and skin rash respectively. The results of this study confirm the efficacy of ketoprofen for the prophylaxis of postoperative pain in abdominal surgery. PMID:1751342

  16. Endocannabinoid regulation of nausea is mediated by 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the rat visceral insular cortex.

    PubMed

    Sticht, Martin A; Limebeer, Cheryl L; Rafla, Benjamin R; Abdullah, Rehab A; Poklis, Justin L; Ho, Winnie; Niphakis, Micah J; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Sharkey, Keith A; Lichtman, Aron H; Parker, Linda A

    2016-03-01

    Cannabinoid (CB) agonists suppress nausea in humans and animal models; yet, their underlying neural substrates remain largely unknown. Evidence suggests that the visceral insular cortex (VIC) plays a critical role in nausea. Given the expression of CB1 receptors and the presence of endocannabinoids in this brain region, we hypothesized that the VIC endocannabinoid system regulates nausea. In the present study, we assessed whether inhibiting the primary endocannabinoid hydrolytic enzymes in the VIC reduces acute lithium chloride (LiCl)-induced conditioned gaping, a rat model of nausea. We also quantified endocannabinoid levels during an episode of nausea, and assessed VIC neuronal activation using the marker, c-Fos. Local inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the main hydrolytic enzyme of 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), reduced acute nausea through a CB1 receptor mechanism, whereas inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the primary catabolic enzyme of anandamide (AEA), was without effect. Levels of 2-AG were also selectively elevated in the VIC during an episode of nausea. Inhibition of MAGL robustly increased 2-AG in the VIC, while FAAH inhibition had no effect on AEA. Finally, we demonstrated that inhibition of MAGL reduced VIC Fos immunoreactivity in response to LiCl treatment. Taken together, these findings provide compelling evidence that acute nausea selectively increases 2-AG in the VIC, and suggests that 2-AG signaling within the VIC regulates nausea by reducing neuronal activity in this forebrain region.

  17. Temporary postoperative visual loss associated with intracerebral hemorrhage after laparoscopic appendectomy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyo Jin; Jun, Jong Hun; Cha, Dong Guk; Lee, Young Sun

    2014-09-01

    Postoperative visual loss (POVL) after non-ophthalmic surgery is rare, with a reported incidence ranging from 0.013 to 0.2%. Most perioperative visual loss is associated with spine operations and cardiac bypass procedures. The most common cause of POVL is ischemic optic neuropathy. However, there are no previous reports of postoperative visual loss after laparoscopic appendectomy. A 43-year-old female with no underlying disease underwent laparoscopic appendectomy; the operation was completed in one hour and her blood pressure was stable during the perioperative period. In the post-anesthetic care unit, the patient complained of nausea and headache, but she did not complain of any unusual visual symptoms. Approximately one hour after arriving at the ward, the patient complained of visual disturbance. Neurologic examination revealed left homonymous hemianopsia, and subarachnoid hemorrhage and intracerebral hemorrhage were found in the occipital area on brain MRI. PMID:25302101

  18. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor in the head of the pancreas with anorexia and vomiting in a 69-year-old man: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ding; Bu, Xianmin; Tian, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare condition of unclear etiology that is commonly observed in the lung but rarely in the pancreas. WHO classified IMT as a potentially malignant or aggressive tumor. In the present report, the case of a 69-year-old male patient with an IMT in the head of the pancreas, who experienced anorexia, nausea and vomiting, is presented. The patient's clinical symptoms were nonspecific, and the imaging findings revealed a hypovascularized pancreatic mass with stenosis of the descending duodenum. The electronic endoscopy findings revealed protruding lesions in the duodenal bulb and the descending duodenum. Biopsies of the mass were conducted with an electronic endoscope, but were not diagnostic. Subsequent duodenopancreatectomy aided in determining a pathological diagnosis of IMT, based on the histology and immunohistochemistry results. The patient experienced a recovery without further incident, as observed during a regular follow-up 3 years later. IMT in the head of the pancreas is rare, particularly in adults. In the present study, an extremely rare case of IMT involving the head of the pancreas in an adult patient is presented, and the therapeutic options for this condition are discussed. PMID:27446468

  19. Differential Postoperative Effects of Volatile Anesthesia and Intraoperative Remifentanil Infusion in 7511 Thyroidectomy Patients: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jo, Jun-Young; Choi, Seong-Soo; Yi, Jung Min; Joo, Eun Young; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Se Ung; Sim, Ji-Hoon; Karm, Myong-Hwan; Ku, Seungwoo

    2016-02-01

    Although remifentanil is used widely by many clinicians during general anesthesia, there are recent evidences of opioid-induced hyperalgesia as an adverse effect. This study aimed to determine if intraoperative remifentanil infusion caused increased pain during the postoperative period in patients who underwent a thyroidectomy. A total of 7511 patients aged ≥ 20 years, who underwent thyroidectomy between January 2009 and December 2013 at the Asan Medical Center were retrospectively analyzed. Enrolled patients were divided into 2 groups: group N (no intraoperative remifentanil and only volatile maintenance anesthesia) and group R (intraoperative remifentanil infusion including total intravenous anesthesia and balanced anesthesia). Following propensity score matching analysis, 2582 patients were included in each group. Pain scores based on numeric rating scales (NRS) were compared between the 2 groups at the postoperative anesthetic care unit and at the ward until 3 days postoperation. Incidences of postoperative complications, such as nausea, itching, and shivering were also compared. The estimated NRS pain score on the day of surgery was 5.08 (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.97-5.19) in group N patients and 6.73 (95% CI 6.65-6.80) in group R patients (P < 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in NRS scores on postoperative days 1, 2, and 3 between the 2 groups. Postoperative nausea was less frequent in group R (31.4%) than in group N (53.5%) (P < 0.001). However, the incidence of itching was higher in group R (4.3%) than in group N (0.7%) (P < 0.001). Continuous infusion of remifentanil during general anesthesia can cause higher intensity of postoperative pain and more frequent itching than general anesthesia without remifentanil infusion immediately after thyroidectomy. Considering the advantages and disadvantages of continuous remifentanil infusion, volatile anesthesia without opioid may be a good choice for minor surgeries

  20. Effects of Ginger and Expectations on Symptoms of Nausea in a Balanced Placebo Design

    PubMed Central

    Weimer, Katja; Schulte, Jörg; Maichle, Annamaria; Muth, Eric R.; Scisco, Jenna L.; Horing, Björn; Enck, Paul; Klosterhalfen, Sibylle

    2012-01-01

    Objective Ginger effects on (experimental) nausea have been described, but also strong placebo effects and sex differences when nausea is involved. The “balanced placebo design” has been proposed to allow better separation of drug and placebo effects. Methods Sixty-four healthy participants (32 women) were randomly assigned to receive an antiemetic ginger preparation or placebo, and half of each group was told to have received drug or placebo. They were exposed to 5×2 min body rotations to induce nausea. Subjective symptoms and behavioral (rotation tolerance, head movements) and physiological measures (electrogastrogram, cortisol) were recorded. Groups were balanced for sex of participants and experimenters. Results Ginger and the information given did not affect any outcome measure, and previous sex differences could not be confirmed. Adding the experimenters revealed a significant four-factorial interaction on behavioral but not on subjective or physiological measures Men who received placebo responded to placebo information when provided by the male experimenter, and to ginger information when provided by the female experimenter. This effect was not significant in women. Conclusion The effects of an antiemetic drug and provided information interact with psychosocial variables of participants and experimenters in reports of nausea. PMID:23152846

  1. Altered gastric emptying and prevention of radiation-induced vomiting in dogs. [Cobalt 60 irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, A.; Jacobus, J.P.; Grissom, M.P.; Eng, R.R.; Conklin, J.J.

    1984-03-01

    The relation between radiation-induced vomiting and gastric emptying is unclear and the treatment of this condition is not established. We explored, therefore, (a) the effect of cobalt 60 irradiation on gastric emptying of solids and liquids and (b) the possibility of preventing radiation-induced vomiting with the dopamine antagonist, domperidone. Twenty dogs were studied on two separate days, blindly and in random order, after i.v. injection of either a placebo or 0.06 mg/kg domperidone. On a third day, they received 8 Gy (800 rads) whole body irradiation with cobalt 60 gamma-rays after either placebo (n . 10) or domperidone (n . 10). Before each study, each dog was fed chicken liver tagged in vivo with 99mTc-sulfur colloid (solid marker), and water containing 111In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (liquid marker). Dogs were placed in a Pavlov stand for the subsequent 3 h and radionuclide imaging was performed at 10-min intervals. Irradiation produced vomiting in 9 of 10 dogs given placebo but only in 1 of 10 dogs pretreated with domperidone (p less than 0.01). Gastric emptying of liquids and solids was significantly suppressed by irradiation (p less than 0.01) after both placebo and domperidone. These results demonstrate that radiation-induced vomiting is accompanied by suppression of gastric emptying. Furthermore, domperidone prevents vomiting produced by ionizing radiation but does not alter the accompanying delay of gastric emptying.

  2. Bilious Vomiting Syndrome in Dogs: Retrospective Study of 20 Cases (2002-2012).

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Leah; Wennogle, Sara A; Webb, Craig B

    2016-01-01

    Bilious vomiting syndrome (BVS) is a condition historically associated with early morning vomiting of bile, but it is otherwise poorly characterized. The vomiting is thought to result from a reflux of duodenal fluid into the gastric lumen causing mucosal irritation. Medical records from Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital (CSUVTH) were searched for "canine" and "bilious vomiting syndrome" between 2002 and 2012. Visual inspection confirmed a diagnosis of BVS during the case history. The diagnosis remained BVS for the duration of the dog's contact with the hospital in 17 cases. Therapy involved frequent feedings, late evening meals, gastric acid reducers, prokinetics, and gastroprotectants. Twelve dogs improved with therapy. Five dogs did not improve or were lost to follow-up. The diagnosis of BVS was supplanted in three cases with gastric adenocarcinoma, dietary indiscretion, and hepatopathy. The patient most likely given a diagnosis of BVS would be a young, mixed-breed, castrated male dog with a chronic history of vomiting bile. Response to therapy suggests abnormal gastrointestinal motility, local gastritis, gastric pH, or stimulation of the emetic center may be important factors in BVS. Dogs diagnosed with BVS rarely received a diagnostic evaluation sufficient to qualify it as a diagnosis of exclusion. PMID:27008323

  3. Nausea control by needling at acupuncture point Neiguan (PC6) during an intraoral impression-taking procedure.

    PubMed

    Zotelli, Vera Lucia Rasera; Grillo, Cássia Maria; de Sousa, Maria da Luz Rosário

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture point PC6 (Neiguan) in controlling nausea during intraoral impression taking. This study was conducted in Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil. The sample consisted of 33 adult volunteers with nausea, who were randomly divided into control and study groups, and treated with nonpenetrating sham acupuncture and real acupuncture, respectively, at acupoint PC6. The two groups had two maxillary impressions taken, one prior to acupuncture and the other after acupuncture. The nausea assessment was made using the visual analog scale, Gagging Severity Index (GSI), and Gagging Prevention Index. Volunteers' expectation that nausea would be reduced through acupuncture was also assessed. For statistical analysis, we used the t test and the Spearman correlation (p < 0.05). When assessed by Gagging Severity Index/Gagging Prevention Index, nausea was reduced in the real acupuncture group (p < 0.01). In the visual analog scale assessment, similar reductions of nausea were noted in both groups (p > 0.05). No correlation existed between the expected and the actual reductions in nausea. Our results indicate that acupoint PC6 was effective for controlling nausea during the maxillary impression-taking procedure. Patients' expectation did not influence the results.

  4. Postoperative infections: general principles and considerations.

    PubMed

    Downey, M S; Lamy, C J

    1990-07-01

    Every surgeon should have a thorough knowledge and awareness of the general principles of postoperative infections. The key to postoperative infections is in their prevention. Even with the most prudent and ardent regimens, however, postoperative wound infections will occasionally occur. Thus, the aforementioned knowledge will allow an improved clinical acumen and permit the early diagnosis of postoperative infection. Early and vigorous local wound care combined with systemic antibiotics are necessary to minimize the potentially debilitating sequelae of the postoperative wound infection.

  5. Encephalopathy after persistent vomiting: Three cases of non-alcohol-related Wernicke's encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Antel, K; Singh, N; Chisholm, B; Heckmann, J M

    2015-06-01

    Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is a medical emergency. Although WE is commonly viewed in the context of alcoholism, it can be caused by thiamine deficiency secondary to persistent vomiting. Non-alcohol-related WE may be more catastrophic in onset and less likely to present with the classic features than WE with alcoholism as a cause. We describe three cases of WE due to persistent vomiting without alcoholism in patients with hyperemesis gravidarum, drug-induced hyperlactataemia, and an acute gastrointestinal illness in an already malnourished individual. Our cases highlight the importance of recognising WE when undernutrition, which may be caused by gastrointestinal disease or surgery, or malignancy, is compounded by vomiting. Expert guidelines suggest that WE must be considered in the emergency room in any individual with disturbed consciousness of unknown cause. Treatment is with parenteral thiamine before glucose administration. PMID:26716155

  6. Inappropriate Arginine Vasopressin Levels and Hyponatremia Associated with Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Breinbjerg, Anders; Lange, Aksel; Rittig, Soeren; Kamperis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    We herein describe two children who presented with attacks of severe cyclic vomiting. The primary case was a 2.5-year-old girl with a history of several admissions with vomiting and altered mental status. She was diagnosed with cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS). During her attacks she developed significant hyponatremia on several occasions, which prompted us to measure plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) levels during attacks. We found inappropriately high AVP levels with concomitant hyponatremia. We also measured plasma AVP and plasma sodium in another child with CVS who did not develop manifest hyponatremia but showed inappropriately elevated plasma AVP levels. Since the standard treatment of CVS consists of fluids, high plasma AVP levels may lead to dilutional hyponatremia. We would therefore like to emphasize the importance of close assessment of electrolyte levels in patients with CVS to avoid water intoxication. PMID:25759635

  7. [Surgical controversy. Limiting postoperative scarring].

    PubMed

    Lachkar, Y

    2005-06-01

    Postoperative follow-up of glaucoma surgery must be rigorous and carried out over the long term. Data acquired on the make-up of the filtering bleb justifies using postoperative anti-inflammatory drugs, even if the eye is clinically quiet. When using antimetabolites, the risk factors for failure must be well known and either 5-fluorouracile or mitomycin should be chosen depending on the level of risk of scarring. Their use in needle revision must be adapted case by case. anti-TGF-beta-2 antibody, currently being investigated, may prove advantageous in the very near future. PMID:16208245

  8. Why Can’t Rodents Vomit? A Comparative Behavioral, Anatomical, and Physiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Charles C.; Kimball, Bruce A.; Wang, Hong; Kaus, James; Dienel, Samuel; Nagy, Allysa; Gathright, Gordon R.; Yates, Bill J.; Andrews, Paul L. R.

    2013-01-01

    The vomiting (emetic) reflex is documented in numerous mammalian species, including primates and carnivores, yet laboratory rats and mice appear to lack this response. It is unclear whether these rodents do not vomit because of anatomical constraints (e.g., a relatively long abdominal esophagus) or lack of key neural circuits. Moreover, it is unknown whether laboratory rodents are representative of Rodentia with regards to this reflex. Here we conducted behavioral testing of members of all three major groups of Rodentia; mouse-related (rat, mouse, vole, beaver), Ctenohystrica (guinea pig, nutria), and squirrel-related (mountain beaver) species. Prototypical emetic agents, apomorphine (sc), veratrine (sc), and copper sulfate (ig), failed to produce either retching or vomiting in these species (although other behavioral effects, e.g., locomotion, were noted). These rodents also had anatomical constraints, which could limit the efficiency of vomiting should it be attempted, including reduced muscularity of the diaphragm and stomach geometry that is not well structured for moving contents towards the esophagus compared to species that can vomit (cat, ferret, and musk shrew). Lastly, an in situ brainstem preparation was used to make sensitive measures of mouth, esophagus, and shoulder muscular movements, and phrenic nerve activity–key features of emetic episodes. Laboratory mice and rats failed to display any of the common coordinated actions of these indices after typical emetic stimulation (resiniferatoxin and vagal afferent stimulation) compared to musk shrews. Overall the results suggest that the inability to vomit is a general property of Rodentia and that an absent brainstem neurological component is the most likely cause. The implications of these findings for the utility of rodents as models in the area of emesis research are discussed. PMID:23593236

  9. Why can't rodents vomit? A comparative behavioral, anatomical, and physiological study.

    PubMed

    Horn, Charles C; Kimball, Bruce A; Wang, Hong; Kaus, James; Dienel, Samuel; Nagy, Allysa; Gathright, Gordon R; Yates, Bill J; Andrews, Paul L R

    2013-01-01

    The vomiting (emetic) reflex is documented in numerous mammalian species, including primates and carnivores, yet laboratory rats and mice appear to lack this response. It is unclear whether these rodents do not vomit because of anatomical constraints (e.g., a relatively long abdominal esophagus) or lack of key neural circuits. Moreover, it is unknown whether laboratory rodents are representative of Rodentia with regards to this reflex. Here we conducted behavioral testing of members of all three major groups of Rodentia; mouse-related (rat, mouse, vole, beaver), Ctenohystrica (guinea pig, nutria), and squirrel-related (mountain beaver) species. Prototypical emetic agents, apomorphine (sc), veratrine (sc), and copper sulfate (ig), failed to produce either retching or vomiting in these species (although other behavioral effects, e.g., locomotion, were noted). These rodents also had anatomical constraints, which could limit the efficiency of vomiting should it be attempted, including reduced muscularity of the diaphragm and stomach geometry that is not well structured for moving contents towards the esophagus compared to species that can vomit (cat, ferret, and musk shrew). Lastly, an in situ brainstem preparation was used to make sensitive measures of mouth, esophagus, and shoulder muscular movements, and phrenic nerve activity-key features of emetic episodes. Laboratory mice and rats failed to display any of the common coordinated actions of these indices after typical emetic stimulation (resiniferatoxin and vagal afferent stimulation) compared to musk shrews. Overall the results suggest that the inability to vomit is a general property of Rodentia and that an absent brainstem neurological component is the most likely cause. The implications of these findings for the utility of rodents as models in the area of emesis research are discussed. PMID:23593236

  10. Innervation of periesophageal region of cat's diaphragm - Implication for studies of control of vomiting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, L. K.; Miller, A. D.

    1986-01-01

    The extent of the region of the diaphragm around the esophagus that displays greatly reduced activity during the expulsive phase of vomiting was determined from electromyographic studies in cats to be about 0.75-1.0 cm from the esophagus. Horseradish peroxidase injected into this region retrogradely labeled motoneurons throughout most of the rostral-caudal extent of the phrenic nucleus, with the exception of caudal C6 and rostral C7. This widespread intermingling of motoneurons that innervate the region of reduced activity with other phrenic motoneurons creates a difficulty for needed follow-up studies of diaphragmatic control during vomiting.

  11. Spontaneous Bleeding from a Short Gastric Artery after Vomiting Successfully Treated without Surgery.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seong Woo; Chang, Yeo Goo; Lee, Byungmo; Lee, Woo Yong

    2016-09-25

    Spontaneous bleeding from a short gastric artery in the absence of pre-disposing trauma is reported very rarely. To the best of our knowledge, the published literature includes only 14 cases. Young men comprise almost all of the patients, and were induced by vomiting or gagging. The patients usually required emergent surgery. Our patient, a 32-year-old man, was diagnosed with spontaneous hemoperitoneum due to short gastric artery tearing after a few instances of vomiting. We managed him conservatively including fluid, vitamin K and antifibrinolytic agent without surgery. PMID:27646585

  12. Postoperative posterior spinal wound infections.

    PubMed

    Massie, J B; Heller, J G; Abitbol, J J; McPherson, D; Garfin, S R

    1992-11-01

    The incidence of postoperative spinal infections increases with the complexity of the procedure. Diskectomy is associated with less than a 1% risk of infection; spinal fusion without instrumentation is associated with a 1%-5% risk; and fusion with instrumentation may be associated with a risk of 6% or more. Twenty-two postoperative posterior spinal infections that occurred during a three-year period were reviewed for this report. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent organism cultured (more than 50% of the cases). Other recurring organisms were Staphylococcus epidermis, Peptococcus, Enterobacter cloacae, and Bacteroides. Many patients had multiple organisms. Risk factors appeared to include advanced age, prolonged hospital bed rest, obesity, diabetes, immunosuppression, and infection at remote sites. Operative factors included prolonged surgery (greater than five hours), high volume of personnel moving through the operating room, and instrumentation. Postoperative contamination may occur and may be related to prolonged postoperative bed rest, skin maceration (thoracolumbosacral orthoses), and drainage tubes exiting distally from lumbar wounds (toward the rectum). Effective treatment includes early diagnosis, surgical debridement and irrigation, and parenteral antibiotics. Superficial infections were treated successfully with wound closure over outflow tubes, and deep infections with inflow-outflow systems. Maintaining the instrumentation in place was possible in most cases. Parenteral antibiotics were maintained for six weeks in every case. PMID:1395319

  13. Postoperative make-up techniques.

    PubMed

    Marvaldi, D A

    1978-01-01

    Guiding the postoperative patient to a happy self-acceptance is the common endeavor of the make-up artist and the cosmetic surgeon. It is my hope that this article will somehow help the patient bridge the gap which so many are unable to cross unassisted.

  14. Comparison between IV Paracetamol and Tramadol for Postoperative Analgesia in Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Efforts to use safer drug with minimal side effects for postoperative analgesia are growing day by day for surgeries of shorter duration or which may require day care only, search for ideal agent has been a never ending process. Aim The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of intravenous Paracetamol and Tramadol for postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Materials and Methods This study was done at Department of Anaesthesiology, Era’s Medical College, Lucknow, India. Sixty ASA-I or II patients between 18-55 years of age, scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly allocated to two groups of 30 each. Group A received IV infusion of paracetamol 1g in 100 ml solution, while Group B received IV infusion of Tramadol 100 mg in 100 ml NS at 0 (first complain of pain postoperatively), 6, 12 and 18 hours respectively. Pain intensity was measured by a 10 point Visual Analogue Scale (0→no pain and 10→worst imaginable pain) VAS at T(0)→just before analgesic administration, at 0.5, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours thereafter, in addition to HR, SBP, DBP. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test, Student t-test and p-values <0.05 was considered significant. Results During postoperative follow-up intervals, paracetamol showed significantly lower VAS scores as compared to tramadol at 1.5 hour, 3 hour, 6 hour, 12 hour and 24 hour follow up intervals. One patient in tramadol group had nausea postoperatively (p>0.05). No adverse effect attributable to paracetamol was noticed. Conclusion Intravenous Paracetamol can be advocated as an effective and safe analgesic agent for postoperative pain relief. PMID:27656532

  15. Naltrexone/Bupropion extended release-induced weight loss is independent of nausea in subjects without diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hong, K; Herrmann, K; Dybala, C; Halseth, A E; Lam, H; Foreyt, J P

    2016-10-01

    Naltrexone/bupropion extended release (NB) is indicated as an adjunct to a reduced-calorie diet and increased physical activity for chronic weight management in adults with an initial body mass index of ≥30 or ≥27 kg m(-2) and ≥1 weight-related comorbidity (e.g. hypertension, type 2 diabetes and dyslipidaemia). In phase 3 clinical studies, nausea occurred in significantly higher proportions of subjects randomized to NB vs. placebo (PBO). In this pooled analysis of three phase 3, 56-week, PBO-controlled studies, we characterized nausea and weight loss in NB- and PBO-treated subjects without diabetes. Subjects receiving NB (n = 1778) lost significantly more weight than those receiving PBO (n = 1160). Weight change was not significantly different between subjects reporting and not reporting nausea in either treatment arm. Severity of nausea was mild to moderate in ≥95% of all cases. In the NB arm, the highest incidence of nausea onset (9%) was reported during week 1. The median duration of mild, moderate and severe nausea in subjects receiving NB was 14, 9 and 13 days, respectively. Our results demonstrate that nausea associated with NB is rarely severe, primarily occurs early in treatment and is not a contributor to weight loss. PMID:27477337

  16. Binge-Eating and Vomiting: A Survey of a High School Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Jo A.; Duncan, Pamela A.

    1984-01-01

    Surveyed 421 high school females to determine the prevalence of bulimia. Teenage vomiters were found to have higher levels of somatic symptoms, anxiety, social dysfunction, depression, and disturbed attitudes toward food, eating, and dieting. The findings provided information useful to school personnel who work with adolescents. (JAC)

  17. Darkened skin, vomiting, and salt cravings in a teenager · Dx?

    PubMed

    Lee, Tsan; Kapadia, Chirag

    2016-06-01

    Acute adrenal insufficiency crisis usually occurs after a prolonged period of nonspecific complaints due to a loss of both glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids; by the time overt symptoms occur, 90% of the adrenal gland may be destroyed. Patients (such as ours) may present with symptoms such as abdominal pain, weakness, vomiting, fever, and decreased responsiveness. PMID:27474827

  18. Behavioral Interventions for Rumination and Operant Vomiting in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Russell; Mulloy, Austin; Giesbers, Sanne; Pfeiffer, Brooke; Delaune, Elizabeth; Didden, Robert; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; O'Reilly, Mark

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a systematic analysis of studies that involved the treatment of rumination and operant vomiting in individuals with developmental disabilities. A total of 21 studies involving a combined 32 participants were identified and analyzed in terms of (a) participant characteristics, (b) dependent variables, (c) intervention procedures, (d)…

  19. Hyperemesis gravidarum

    MedlinePlus

    Nausea - persistent - in pregnancy; Vomiting - persistent - in pregnancy ... Most women have some nausea or vomiting ( morning sickness ), particularly during the first 3 months of pregnancy. The cause of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy ...

  20. Aerosolization of a Human Norovirus Surrogate, Bacteriophage MS2, during Simulated Vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Tung-Thompson, Grace; Libera, Dominic A.; Koch, Kenneth L.; de los Reyes, Francis L.; Jaykus, Lee-Ann

    2015-01-01

    Human noroviruses (NoV) are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Epidemiological studies of outbreaks have suggested that vomiting facilitates transmission of human NoV, but there have been no laboratory-based studies characterizing the degree of NoV release during a vomiting event. The purpose of this work was to demonstrate that virus aerosolization occurs in a simulated vomiting event, and to estimate the amount of virus that is released in those aerosols. A simulated vomiting device was constructed at one-quarter scale of the human body following similitude principles. Simulated vomitus matrices at low (6.24 mPa*s) and high (177.5 mPa*s) viscosities were inoculated with low (108 PFU/mL) and high (1010 PFU/mL) concentrations of bacteriophage MS2 and placed in the artificial “stomach” of the device, which was then subjected to scaled physiologically relevant pressures associated with vomiting. Bio aerosols were captured using an SKC Biosampler. In low viscosity artificial vomitus, there were notable differences between recovered aerosolized MS2 as a function of pressure (i.e., greater aerosolization with increased pressure), although this was not always statistically significant. This relationship disappeared when using high viscosity simulated vomitus. The amount of MS2 aerosolized as a percent of total virus “vomited” ranged from 7.2 x 10-5 to 2.67 x 10-2 (which corresponded to a range of 36 to 13,350 PFU total). To our knowledge, this is the first study to document and measure aerosolization of a NoV surrogate in a similitude-based physical model. This has implications for better understanding the transmission dynamics of human NoV and for risk modeling purposes, both of which can help in designing effective infection control measures. PMID:26287612

  1. Computed tomography of the postoperative abdominal aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Hilton, S.; Megibow, A.J.; Naidich, D.P.; Bosniak, M.A.

    1982-11-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen was performed on 46 patients who had undergone graft replacement of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Twelve post-operative complications were found in nine patients. They included hemorrhage, infection, anastomotic pseudoaneurysms, major vessel occlusion, postoperative pancreatitis, and others. The varied apperance of the normal postoperative graft is also presented. It is concluded that CT is a rapid, sensitive, and noninvasive method for detecting or excluding postoperative complications of abdominal aortic surgery.

  2. Postoperative radiosurgery of pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Valentino, V

    1991-01-01

    From 1984-1990, 52 patients with pituitary adenomas had postoperative radiosurgery for incomplete surgical removal or regrowth of the tumor. The atraumatic Greitz-Bergström fixation head device was adopted for the stereotactic procedure and irradiation was performed with a linear accelerator. Because of the variability of the tumor response, a 10-20 Gy single dose was directed at 1-2 targets and radiosurgery repeated if the result was unsatisfactory. The median radiation dose was 30 Gy. No adverse effects occurred. Regression of pretreatment symptoms caused by tumor mass was observed in 67% of patients. GH and PRL activity decreased in 20 patients, was stable in 11 and increased in 2 prolactinomas. CT studies showed disappearance of the tumor in 4 patients and shrinkage in 36. Postoperative radiosurgery is a valuable method of treatment whenever pituitary surgery has been incomplete.

  3. Postoperative Care of the Facial Laceration

    PubMed Central

    Medel, Nicholas; Panchal, Neeraj; Ellis, Edward

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to examine factors involved in the postoperative care of traumatic lacerations. An evidence-based comprehensive literature review was conducted. There are a limited number of scientifically proven studies that guide surgeons and emergency room physicians on postoperative care. Randomized controlled trials must be conducted to further standardize the postoperative protocol for simple facial lacerations. PMID:22132257

  4. [Modification of postoperative wound healing by showering].

    PubMed

    Neues, C; Haas, E

    2000-02-01

    Usually postoperative wounds are kept dry until the stitches are removed. In a prospective randomized study early water contact was allowed in order to test postoperative wound healing in 817 patients operated on for varicose veins. Regardless of whether the wounds were kept dry or had water contact with or without shower foam from the second postoperative day, no infection was registered.

  5. Risk factors for postoperative ileus

    PubMed Central

    Kutun, Suat; Ulucanlar, Haluk; Tarcan, Oguz; Demir, Abdullah; Cetin, Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to examine extended postoperative ileus and its risk factors in patients who have undergone abdominal surgery, and discuss the techniques of prevention and management thereof the light of related risk factors connected with our study. Methods This prospective study involved 103 patients who had undergone abdominal surgery. The effects of age, gender, diagnosis, surgical operation conducted, excessive small intestine manipulation, opioid analgesic usage time, and systemic inflammation on the time required for the restoration of intestinal motility were investigated. The parameters were investigated prospectively. Results Regarding the factors that affected the restoration of gastrointestinal motility, resection operation type, longer operation period, longer opioid analgesics use period, longer nasogastric catheter use period, and the presence of systemic inflammation were shown to retard bowel motility for 3 days or more. Conclusion Our study confirmed that unnecessary analgesics use in patients with pain tolerance with non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, excessive small bowel manipulation, prolonged nasogastric catheter use have a direct negative effect on gastrointestinal motility. Considering that an exact treatment for postoperative ileus has not yet been established, and in light of the risk factors mentioned above, we regard that prevention of postoperative ileus is the most effective way of coping with intestinal dysmotility. PMID:22111079

  6. A new biomarker of hedonic eating? A preliminary investigation of cortisol and nausea responses to acute opioid blockade.

    PubMed

    Daubenmier, Jennifer; Lustig, Robert H; Hecht, Frederick M; Kristeller, Jean; Woolley, Josh; Adam, Tanja; Dallman, Mary; Epel, Elissa

    2014-03-01

    Overweight and obese individuals differ in their degree of hedonic eating. This may reflect adaptations in reward-related neural circuits, regulated in part by opioidergic activity. We examined an indirect, functional measure of central opioidergic activity by assessing cortisol and nausea responses to acute opioid blockade using the opioid antagonist naltrexone in overweight/obese women (mean BMI=31.1±4.8) prior to the start of a mindfulness-based intervention to reduce stress eating. In addition, we assessed indices of hedonic-related eating, including eating behaviors (binge eating, emotional eating, external eating, restraint) and intake of sweets/desserts and carbohydrates (Block Food Frequency); interoceptive awareness (which is associated with dysregulated eating behavior); and level of adiposity at baseline. Naltrexone-induced increases in cortisol were associated with greater emotional and restrained eating and lower interoceptive awareness. Naltrexone-induced nausea was associated with binge eating and higher adiposity. Furthermore, in a small exploratory analysis, naltrexone-induced nausea predicted treatment response to the mindfulness intervention, as participants with more severe nausea at baseline maintained weight whereas those with little or no nausea responses tended to gain weight. These preliminary data suggest that naltrexone-induced cortisol release and nausea may help identify individuals who have greater underlying food reward dependence, which leads to an excessive drive to eat. Future research is needed to confirm this finding and to test if these markers of opioidergic tone might help predict success in certain types of weight management programs.

  7. External Nursing Applications in the Supportive Management of Prolonged Postoperative Ileus: Description of Interventions and Case Report.

    PubMed

    Deckers, Bernhard; von Schoen-Angerer, Tido; Voggenreiter, Bernd; Vagedes, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged postoperative ileus is a common but clinically challenging problem that leads to patient discomfort and prolonged hospitalization; the condition is managed through a multimodular program of supportive measures. In anthroposophic nursing, the management of prolonged postoperative ileus involves additional tools, including external abdominal compresses and massages with plant or silver-containing oils and ointments. We describe 3 typical techniques: Oxalis tincture compresses, Thuja/Argentum ointment compresses, and massage with "Wala Melissenöl" (containing Melissa officinalis, Carvum cari, Foeniculum amari, and Origanum majorana). A 61-year-old man with chronic pain from adhesions after multiple abdominal surgical procedures developed a prolonged postoperative ileus after an elective ileostomy reversal. Following slow recovery during the first postoperative days, he began vomiting. A nasogastric tube was inserted, and daily Oxalis tincture compresses and massage with "Wala Melissenöl" and Thuja/Argentum ointment compresses were applied on the abdomen. The patient's symptoms gradually improved over the next 10 days. No prokinetic medications were needed to manage this episode. External abdominal nursing applications with plant substances and silver can be an additional tool in the management of prolonged postoperative ileus. PMID:27309410

  8. Electroacupuncture Reduces Postoperative Pain and Analgesic Consumption in Patients Undergoing Thoracic Surgery: A Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tongyu; Xu, Jianjun; Ma, Wen; Zhou, Jia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on postoperative pain management in patients undergoing thoracic surgery. A randomized study was conducted. Ninety-two thoracic surgical patients were randomly divided into an EA group and a sham group. Postoperative intravenous analgesia was applied with a half dose of the conventional drug concentration in both groups. In the EA group, EA treatment was administered for three consecutive days after the surgery with 6 sessions of 30 min each. Compared with the sham group, patients in the EA group had a lower visual analogue scale (VAS) score at 2, 24, 48, and 72 hours and consumed less analgesic after surgery. The incidence of opioid-related adverse effects of nausea was lower in the EA group. The time to first flatus and defecation was also shorter in the EA group. Furthermore, the plasma β-endorphin (β-EP) level was higher by radioimmunoassay and the plasma 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) level was lower in the EA group by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay during the first 72 hr after thoracic surgery. Therefore, EA is suitable as an adjunct treatment for postoperative pain management after thoracic surgery. PMID:27073400

  9. 8-OH-DPAT suppresses vomiting in the cat elicited by motion, cisplatin or xylazine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucot, James B.; Crampton, George H.

    1989-01-01

    Vomiting was suppressed in cats pretreated with 8-OH-DPAT and then challenged with an emetic stimulus; motion, xylazine or cisplatin. The antiemetic effect is likely due to stimulation of postsynaptic serotonin-1A receptors. The most parsimonious explanation is that it acts at a convergent structure, presumably at or near the vomiting center. If so, 8-OH-DPAT may block emesis elicited by virtually any other stimulus. A supplementary experiment revealed that lorazepam suppressed motion sickness at a dose that produced ataxia, but did not suppress xylazine-induced emesis. These results do not support the possibility that the antiemetic effects of 8-OH-DPAT were the result of anxiolytic activity.

  10. Recurrent vomiting in a woman due to miscarriage: think out of the box.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Salleha; Aris, Muhammad Shamsir Mohd

    2016-01-01

    A 25-year-old gravida 2 para 1 with 12-week amenorrhoea presented a second time for recurrent vomiting in pregnancy. She was diagnosed to have a missed miscarriage following absent fetal heart seen in an early scan. She opted for conservative management. However, on the third presentation, her vomiting continued. Repeated transvaginal ultrasound scan showed a fetus with a crown rump length of 19 mm, which is equivalent to 8 weeks and 4 days, with absence of fetal heart pulsation. Thyroid function tests and β human chorionic gonadotropin were then requested. Results showed that the patient's serum β human chorionic gonadotropin level was markedly raised to 147,000. A molar pregnancy was suspected. Her thyroid function tests came back normal. Suction curettage was performed and histopathology confirmed a partial molar pregnancy. On follow-up, the β human chorionic gonadotropin level was normal by 7 weeks after the curettage.

  11. Identical twin Hispanic male infants with nonbilious nonbloody vomiting and diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Prematta, Tracy R; Fausnight, Tracy B

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of twin Hispanic male infants fed with cow's milk formula who presented at 3 weeks of life with nonbilious, nonbloody vomiting and diarrhea. Laboratory evaluation revealed leukocytosis, acidosis, and methemoglobinemia. Sepsis evaluation was negative. Although they recovered quickly with i.v. fluids, symptoms recurred again with ingestion of soy formula. An underlying diagnosis was sought that could explain their symptoms. PMID:20977833

  12. Speed of Eating as a Determinant of the Bulimic Desire to Vomit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azrin, Nathan H.; Brooks, Jeannie; Kellen, Michael J.; Ehle, Chris; Vinas, Veronica

    2008-01-01

    A single-case controlled study found that a bulimic's desire to vomit was virtually eliminated by slowed eating, but not by rapid eating. The present study attempted to determine whether this same relation was exhibited by a larger number (N = 6) of bulimics who were instructed to eat at a fast or a slow rate in a between-subjects reversal design.…

  13. Outbreak of small round structured virus gastroenteritis arose after kitchen assistant vomited.

    PubMed

    Patterson, W; Haswell, P; Fryers, P T; Green, J

    1997-06-27

    A wedding reception at a North Yorkshire hotel was followed by an explosive outbreak of gastroenteritis. The attack rate among the 111 guests was 50% and vomiting was a predominant feature. The results of laboratory and epidemiological investigations were consistent with a common source outbreak of small round structured virus (SRSV) infection genotype II. The source of the outbreak was traced to a kitchen assistant who suddenly became ill on the eve of the reception and vomited into a sink used for preparing vegetables. The sink was cleaned with a chlorine based disinfectant and used the next morning to prepare a potato salad, subsequently identified as the vehicle of infection in a cohort study of guests (odds ratio 3.21; CI 1.78-5.78, p = 0.0001). No other food was associated with illness. The outbreak provides further supporting evidence of the importance of vomiting in the transmission of SRSV infection, highlights the virulence of this group of viruses, and indicates their relative resistance to environmental disinfection and decontamination. It also highlights the need for the adequate training of catering staff and the implementation and enforcement of food hygiene regulations.

  14. Recovery of the vomiting reflex following area postrema ablation in squirrel monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elfar, S.; Brizzee, Kenneth R.; Fox, Robert A.; Corcoran, Meryl Lee; Daunton, Nancy G.; Coleman, J.

    1991-01-01

    The role of the area postrema (AP) in motion-induced emesis was re-assessed recently in several different species. In a few of these studies, the role of the AP in motion-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) was also addressed. The purpose was to extend this comparative study to the squirrel monkey, to evaluate further the role of AP in vomiting, and to investigate the dynamics of the recovery process. The AP was ablated bilaterally in 7 motion-susceptible squirrel monkeys which previously had been characterized in terms of their responses to various motion sickness-inducing stimuli. After recovery from surgery all animals were tested at 30-day intervals for a period of 11 months to determine the effects of AP ablations on susceptibility to the same sickness-inducing conditions. In addition, the effectiveness of motion in preducing CTA was evaluated. All pre-ablation motion tests involved stimulation for 30 min., while post-lesion tests were 60 min., in duration. All animals showed significant increases in latencies to vomiting after AP ablations. However, the latencies tended to decrease with time after ablation. All but one animal vomited on at least one of the 10 motion tests occurring after ablation of AP. In addition, CTA was produced by motion used in the conditioning sessions. These results suggest that structures other than AP, and processes other that those mediated through AP, may play an important role in motion-induced emesis.

  15. Postoperative analgesia in children when using clonidine in addition to fentanyl with bupivacaine given caudally

    PubMed Central

    Jarraya, Anouar; Elleuch, Sahar; Zouari, Jawhar; Smaoui, Mohamed; Laabidi, Sofiene; Kolsi, Kamel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of clonidine in association with fentanyl as an additive to bupivacaine 0.25% given via single shot caudal epidural in pediatric patients for postoperative pain relief. In the present prospective randomized double blind study, 40 children of ASA-I-II aged 1-5 years scheduled for infraumblical surgical procedures were randomly allocated to two groups to receive either bupivacaine 0.25% (1 ml/kg) with fentanyl 1 μg/kg and clonidine 1μg/kg (group I) or bupivacaine 0.25% (1 ml/kg) with fentanyl 1 μg/kg (group II). Caudal block was performed after the induction of general anesthesia. Postoperatively patients were observed for analgesia, sedation, hemodynamic parameters, and side effects or complications. Both the groups were similar with respect to patient and various block characteristics. Heart rate and blood pressure were not different in 2 groups. Significantly prolonged duration of post-operative analgesia was observed in group I (P<0.05). Side effects such as respiratory depression, vomiting and bradycardia were similar in both groups. The adjunction of clonidine to fentanyl as additives to bupivacaine in single shot caudal epidural in children may provide better and longer analgesia after infraumblical surgical procedures.

  16. Infant Vomiting

    MedlinePlus

    ... this, call your pediatrician as soon as possible. GERD Occasionally the spitting up in the first few ... to back up. This condition is known as gastroesophageal reflux disease, or GERD. This condition usually can be ...

  17. Treating Vomiting

    MedlinePlus

    ... those descibed below. Estimated Oral Fluid and Electrolyte Requirements by Body Weight Body Weight (in pounds) Minimum Daily Fluid Requirements (in ounces)* Electrolyte Solution Requirements for Mild Diarrhea ( ...

  18. Vomiting blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... first part of the small intestine, or esophagus Blood clotting disorders Defects in the blood vessels of the ... as a complete blood count (CBC), blood chemistries, blood clotting tests, and liver function tests Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) (placing ...

  19. Postoperative endophthalmitis by Flavimonas oryzihabitans.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chien-Kuang; Liu, Chi-Chang; Kuo, Hsi-Kung

    2004-11-01

    A 55-year-old man suffered from blurred vision of the left eye (visual acuity was counting fingers/5-10 cm) 8 days after undergoing cataract surgery. After thorough ophthalmologic examinations with gram-negative bacillus justified on smear of vitreous specimen, postoperative endophthalmitis (os) was impressed. Intravitreous injection of 1.0 mg of vancomycin, 0.4 mg of amikacin, and 0.4 mg of dexamethasone was given twice and vitreous fluid culture was also performed. However, the inflammatory condition was not well controlled. Because the results of vitreous fluid culture revealed Flavimonas oryzihabitans infection which is sensitive to piperacillin, we performed the 3rd intravitreous injection of 1.0 mg of piperacillin and 0.4 mg of dexamethasone. The inflammatory condition was under control and the visual acuity of left eye improved. For patients with ocular diseases, postoperative endophthalmitis by Flavimonas oryzihabitans is a rare condition. According to the results of this case, intravitreous injection of piperacillin was effective against the pathogen.

  20. Laparoscopic surgery complications: Postoperative peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Drăghici, L; Drăghici, I; Ungureanu, A; Copăescu, C; Popescu, M; Dragomirescu, C

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Complications within laparoscopic surgery, similar to classic surgery are inevitable and require immediate actions both to diminish intraoperative risks and to choose the appropriate therapeutic attitude. Peritonitis and hemorrhagic incidents are both part of the complications aspect of laparoscopic surgery. Fortunately, the incidence is limited, thus excluding the rejection of celioscopic methods. Patient’s risks and benefits are to be analyzed carefully prior recommending laparoscopic surgery. Materials and methods: This study presents a statistical analysis of peritonitis consecutive to laparoscopic surgery, experience of „Sf. Ioan” Emergency Hospital, Bucharest, and Department of Surgery (2000-2010). Results:There were 180 (0,96%) complicated situations requiring reinterventions, from a total of 18676 laparoscopic procedures. 106 cases (0,56%) represented different grades of postoperative peritonitis. Most frequently, there were consecutive laparoscopic appendicectomia and colecistectomia. During the last decade, few severe cases of peritonitis followed laparoscopic bariatric surgical procedures. Conclusions: This study reflects the possibility of unfavorable evolution of postoperative peritonitis comparing with hemorrhagic incidents within laparoscopic surgery. PMID:23049630

  1. Postoperative endophthalmitis by Flavimonas oryzihabitans.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chien-Kuang; Liu, Chi-Chang; Kuo, Hsi-Kung

    2004-11-01

    A 55-year-old man suffered from blurred vision of the left eye (visual acuity was counting fingers/5-10 cm) 8 days after undergoing cataract surgery. After thorough ophthalmologic examinations with gram-negative bacillus justified on smear of vitreous specimen, postoperative endophthalmitis (os) was impressed. Intravitreous injection of 1.0 mg of vancomycin, 0.4 mg of amikacin, and 0.4 mg of dexamethasone was given twice and vitreous fluid culture was also performed. However, the inflammatory condition was not well controlled. Because the results of vitreous fluid culture revealed Flavimonas oryzihabitans infection which is sensitive to piperacillin, we performed the 3rd intravitreous injection of 1.0 mg of piperacillin and 0.4 mg of dexamethasone. The inflammatory condition was under control and the visual acuity of left eye improved. For patients with ocular diseases, postoperative endophthalmitis by Flavimonas oryzihabitans is a rare condition. According to the results of this case, intravitreous injection of piperacillin was effective against the pathogen. PMID:15796259

  2. Control of abdominal and expiratory intercostal muscle activity during vomiting - Role of ventral respiratory group expiratory neurons