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Sample records for postulated core melt

  1. Investigations on the Melt Gate Ablation by Ex-Vessel Core Melts in the KAPOOL Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Eppinger, Beatrix; Schmidt-Stiefel, Sike; Tromm, Walter

    2002-07-01

    In future Light Water Reactors (LWR) containment failure should be prevented even for very unlikely core meltdown sequences with reactor pressure vessel (RPV) failure. In the case of such a postulated core meltdown accident in a future LWR the ex-vessel melt shall be retained and cooled in a special compartment inside the containment to exclude significant radioactive release to the environment. In such a case, a gate has to be designed to allow the melt release from the reactor cavity into the compartment. A series of transient experiments has been performed to investigate the melt gate ablation using iron and alumina melts as a simulant for the corium melt. The results of the KAPOOL tests are analyzed with the HEATING5 code in order to evaluate realistic cases of internally heated corium melts and melt gates with the same theoretical tool. (authors)

  2. Core-melt source reduction system

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Beahm, Edward C.; Parker, George W.

    1995-01-01

    A core-melt source reduction system for ending the progression of a molten core during a core-melt accident and resulting in a stable solid cool matrix. The system includes alternating layers of a core debris absorbing material and a barrier material. The core debris absorbing material serves to react with and absorb the molten core such that containment overpressurization and/or failure does not occur. The barrier material slows the progression of the molten core debris through the system such that the molten core has sufficient time to react with the core absorbing material. The system includes a provision for cooling the glass/molten core mass after the reaction such that a stable solid cool matrix results.

  3. Core-melt source reduction system

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

    1995-04-25

    A core-melt source reduction system for ending the progression of a molten core during a core-melt accident and resulting in a stable solid cool matrix. The system includes alternating layers of a core debris absorbing material and a barrier material. The core debris absorbing material serves to react with and absorb the molten core such that containment overpressurization and/or failure does not occur. The barrier material slows the progression of the molten core debris through the system such that the molten core has sufficient time to react with the core absorbing material. The system includes a provision for cooling the glass/molten core mass after the reaction such that a stable solid cool matrix results. 4 figs.

  4. Melting of the Earth's inner core.

    PubMed

    Gubbins, David; Sreenivasan, Binod; Mound, Jon; Rost, Sebastian

    2011-05-19

    The Earth's magnetic field is generated by a dynamo in the liquid iron core, which convects in response to cooling of the overlying rocky mantle. The core freezes from the innermost surface outward, growing the solid inner core and releasing light elements that drive compositional convection. Mantle convection extracts heat from the core at a rate that has enormous lateral variations. Here we use geodynamo simulations to show that these variations are transferred to the inner-core boundary and can be large enough to cause heat to flow into the inner core. If this were to occur in the Earth, it would cause localized melting. Melting releases heavy liquid that could form the variable-composition layer suggested by an anomaly in seismic velocity in the 150 kilometres immediately above the inner-core boundary. This provides a very simple explanation of the existence of this layer, which otherwise requires additional assumptions such as locking of the inner core to the mantle, translation from its geopotential centre or convection with temperature equal to the solidus but with composition varying from the outer to the inner core. The predominantly narrow downwellings associated with freezing and broad upwellings associated with melting mean that the area of melting could be quite large despite the average dominance of freezing necessary to keep the dynamo going. Localized melting and freezing also provides a strong mechanism for creating seismic anomalies in the inner core itself, much stronger than the effects of variations in heat flow so far considered.

  5. The Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) postulated limiting event initial and building source terms

    SciTech Connect

    Restrepo, L F

    1992-08-01

    As part of the update of the Safety analysis Report (SAR) for the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR), operational limiting events under the category of inadvertent withdrawal of an experiment while at power or during a power pulse were determined to be the most limiting event(s) for this reactor. This report provides a summary of the assumptions, modeling, and results in evaluation of: Reactivity and thermal hydraulics analysis to determine the amount of fuel melt or fuel damage ratios; The reactor inventories following the limiting event; A literature review of post NUREG-0772 release fraction experiment results on severe fuel damages; Decontamination factors due to in-pool transport; and In-building transport modeling and building source term analysis.

  6. Continuous melting and ion chromatographic analyses of ice cores.

    PubMed

    Huber, T M; Schwikowski, M; Gäggele, H W

    2001-06-22

    A new method for determining concentrations of organic and inorganic ions in ice cores by continuous melting and contemporaneous ion chromatographic analyses was developed. A subcore is melted on a melting device and the meltwater produced is collected in two parallel sample loops and then analyzed simultaneously by two ion chromatographs, one for anions and one for cations. For most of the analyzed species, lower or equal blank values were achieved with the continuous melting and analysis technique compared to the conventional analysis. Comparison of the continuous melting and ion chromatographic analysis with the conventional analysis of a real ice core segment showed good agreement in concentration profiles and total amounts of ionic species. Thus, the newly developed method is well suited for ice core analysis and has the advantages of lower ice consumption, less time-consuming sample preparation and lower risk of contamination.

  7. Melting of Iron Close to the Inner Core Boundary Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, R. G.; Coppari, F.; Fratanduono, D. E.; Eggert, J.; Collins, G. W.

    2014-12-01

    The melting curve of iron at the pressure of the inner core boundary places a strong constraint on the thermal profile within the Earth, the heat flux to the mantle, and also the power to drive the geodynamo. Recent static diamond anvil cell measurements by Anzellini et al. 2013 have accurately measured the melting curve of iron to 200 GPa, which is a tremendous improvement in the available data but is still only 60% of the pressure at the inner core boundary, and thus requires significant extrapolation. Nguyen and Holmes, 2004, have used the sound velocity technique to measure the melting transition on the principal Hugoniot, up to 270 GPa, but some still believe that sound velocity is not an accurate diagnostic of melting as it detects a loss of strength and also that kinetics can mitigate the utility of dynamic melting techniques. Here we use in-situ x-ray diffraction to unambiguously measure the melting transition on the principal Hugoniot of iron to 270 GPa. We also show that iron melts from the hcp phase at pressures up to 270 GPa, which is significantly closer to the inner core boundary than any previous melting curve measurement capable of phase discrimination. From comparison of our measurements to those of Nguyen and Holmes, we show that sound velocity measurements can accurately constrain the melting curve and that the kinetics of melting iron are faster than both laser shock and gas gun experimental timescales. Thereby, dynamic techniques should be trusted for probing the melting curve of metals and they also offer the greatest opportunity to probe the melting curve of iron at the pressure of the inner core boundary and also the higher pressures achieved within the interiors of super-Earths. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  8. Melting of subducted basalt at the core-mantle boundary.

    PubMed

    Andrault, Denis; Pesce, Giacomo; Bouhifd, Mohamed Ali; Bolfan-Casanova, Nathalie; Hénot, Jean-Marc; Mezouar, Mohamed

    2014-05-23

    The geological materials in Earth's lowermost mantle control the characteristics and interpretation of seismic ultra-low velocity zones at the base of the core-mantle boundary. Partial melting of the bulk lower mantle is often advocated as the cause, but this does not explain the nonubiquitous character of these regional seismic features. We explored the melting properties of mid-oceanic ridge basalt (MORB), which can reach the lowermost mantle after subduction of oceanic crust. At a pressure representative of the core-mantle boundary (135 gigapascals), the onset of melting occurs at ~3800 kelvin, which is ~350 kelvin below the mantle solidus. The SiO2-rich liquid generated either remains trapped in the MORB material or solidifies after reacting with the surrounding MgO-rich mantle, remixing subducted MORB with the lowermost mantle.

  9. Isotope thermometry in melt-affected ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, T.; Marshall, S. J.; Sharp, M. J.

    2011-06-01

    A statistically significant relationship is observed between stable water isotopes (δ18O) and melt amounts in a melt-affected firn core (SSummit) taken from the Prince of Wales Icefield, Ellesmere Island, Canada. By contrast, a low-melt firn core taken from a higher-elevation, higher-latitude location on the same icefield shows no relationship between these variables. We interpret this as evidence for meltwater-induced isotopic enrichment at SSummit. A percent melt-based correction slope is applied to isotopic values from SSummit. Uncorrected and corrected temperature records derived from the raw and corrected δ18O values are compared to bias-corrected temperature data from the NCEP Reanalysis. Improvements are observed in the isotopic reconstruction of SSummit annual precipitation-weighted temperatures when we correct for meltwater enrichment, with a reduction from +0.6°C to 0.0°C in the mean annual error and a decrease in root-mean-square error from 1.8°C to 1.6°C. The correction factor appears to overcorrect isotopic modification during high melt years such as 1999, during which SSummit experienced nearly 70% more melt than the average from 1975 to 2000. Excluding 1999 data from the correction analysis results in a slight reduction in mean absolute error from 1.4°C to 1.3°C. These results suggest that melt-induced isotopic modification cannot be corrected in very high melt years.

  10. Quantifying signal dispersion in a hybrid ice core melting system.

    PubMed

    Breton, Daniel J; Koffman, Bess G; Kurbatov, Andrei V; Kreutz, Karl J; Hamilton, Gordon S

    2012-11-06

    We describe a microcontroller-based ice core melting and data logging system allowing simultaneous depth coregistration of a continuous flow analysis (CFA) system (for microparticle and conductivity measurement) and a discrete sample analysis system (for geochemistry and microparticles), both supplied from the same melted ice core section. This hybrid melting system employs an ice parcel tracking algorithm which calculates real-time sample transport through all portions of the meltwater handling system, enabling accurate (1 mm) depth coregistration of all measurements. Signal dispersion is analyzed using residence time theory, experimental results of tracer injection tests and antiparallel melting of replicate cores to rigorously quantify the signal dispersion in our system. Our dispersion-limited resolution is 1.0 cm in ice and ~2 cm in firn. We experimentally observe the peak lead phenomenon, where signal dispersion causes the measured CFA peak associated with a given event to be depth assigned ~1 cm shallower than the true event depth. Dispersion effects on resolution and signal depth assignment are discussed in detail. Our results have implications for comparisons of chemistry and physical properties data recorded using multiple instruments and for deconvolution methods of enhancing CFA depth resolution.

  11. Termination of light-water reactor core-melt accidents with a chemical core catcher: the core-melt source reduction system (COMSORS)

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.; Parker, G.W.; Rudolph, J.C.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.; Kenton, M.A.

    1996-09-01

    The Core-Melt Source Reduction System (COMSORS) is a new approach to terminate light-water reactor core melt accidents and ensure containment integrity. A special dissolution glass is placed under the reactor vessel. If core debris is released onto the glass, the glass melts and the debris dissolves into the molten glass, thus creating a homogeneous molten glass. The molten glass, with dissolved core debris, spreads into a wide pool, distributing the heat for removal by radiation to the reactor cavity above or by transfer to water on top of the molten glass. Expected equilibrium glass temperatures are approximately 600 degrees C. The creation of a low-temperature, homogeneous molten glass with known geometry permits cooling of the glass without threatening containment integrity. This report describes the technology, initial experiments to measure key glass properties, and modeling of COMSORS operations.

  12. Buoyancy in Earth's core and possible melting of the inner core (Arthur Holmes Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubbins, D.

    2009-04-01

    The geodynamo is driven by cooling controlled by the mantle. This causes freezing from the bottom up, leading to slow growth of the inner core and release of light material near the inner core boundary. This chemical buoyancy is the main driver for convection in the liquid core. Mantle convection produces large lateral variations in heat flow across the core-mantle boundary (CMB) that influence core convection, as can be seen in features of the geomagnetic field that correlate with lower mantle structure. Geodynamo simulations confirm the validity of the mechanism connecting heat flow variations with geomagnetic features but require weakened convection in the uppermost core. Convection could be suppressed there by a steepened adiabatic gradient or, more strongly, by slow dissolution of oxygen from the mantle subsequent to core formation (Hernlund, personal communication). The layer cannot be thicker than about 100 km or it would suppress some secular variation features, including the formation of reverse flux patches in the southern hemisphere that has occurred in the last 150 years. Seismology has revealed another stratified layer, about 150 km thick, at the bottom of the liquid core. Geodynamo simulations also reveal narrow downwelling jets contrasting with broad upwellings. Furthermore, lateral heat flux variations at the CMB create even larger lateral heat flux variations around the inner core boundary, in rough proportion to the difference in surface areas of the two boundaries. Numerical estimates suggest the heat flux variations may be so large as to make the inner core melt in places; in fact narrow downwelling and broad upwelling could mean the inner core is melting over the greater half of its surface while still losing heat overall. Inner core melting has interesting consequences. First, it can explain the stratified layer at the bottom of the core by releasing a heavy component into the liquid that fails to remix beyond the 150-km layer above the ICB

  13. Source-term evaluations from recent core-melt experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, G.W.; Creek, G.E.; Sutton, A.L. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Predicted consequences of hypothetical severe reactor accidents resulting in core meltdown appear to be too conservatively projected because of the simplistic concepts often assumed for the intricate and highly variable phenomena involved. Recent demonstration work on a modest scale (1-kg) has already revealed significant variations in the mode and temperature for clad failure, in the rates of formation of zirconium alloys, in the nature of the UO/sub 2/-ZrO/sub 2/ eutectic mixtures, and in aerosol generation rates. The current series of core-melt demonstration experiments (at the 10-kg scale) seem to confirm that an increase in size of the meltdown mass will lead to an even further reduction in the amount of vaporized components. Source terms that are based on older release evaluations could be up to an order of magnitude too large. 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Ex-Vessel Core Melt Modeling Comparison between MELTSPREAD-CORQUENCH and MELCOR 2.1

    SciTech Connect

    Robb, Kevin R.; Farmer, Mitchell; Francis, Matthew W.

    2014-03-01

    System-level code analyses by both United States and international researchers predict major core melting, bottom head failure, and corium-concrete interaction for Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1 (1F1). Although system codes such as MELCOR and MAAP are capable of capturing a wide range of accident phenomena, they currently do not contain detailed models for evaluating some ex-vessel core melt behavior. However, specialized codes containing more detailed modeling are available for melt spreading such as MELTSPREAD as well as long-term molten corium-concrete interaction (MCCI) and debris coolability such as CORQUENCH. In a preceding study, Enhanced Ex-Vessel Analysis for Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1: Melt Spreading and Core-Concrete Interaction Analyses with MELTSPREAD and CORQUENCH, the MELTSPREAD-CORQUENCH codes predicted the 1F1 core melt readily cooled in contrast to predictions by MELCOR. The user community has taken notice and is in the process of updating their systems codes; specifically MAAP and MELCOR, to improve and reduce conservatism in their ex-vessel core melt models. This report investigates why the MELCOR v2.1 code, compared to the MELTSPREAD and CORQUENCH 3.03 codes, yield differing predictions of ex-vessel melt progression. To accomplish this, the differences in the treatment of the ex-vessel melt with respect to melt spreading and long-term coolability are examined. The differences in modeling approaches are summarized, and a comparison of example code predictions is provided.

  15. Redistribution of Core-forming Melt During Shear Deformation of Partially Molten Peridotite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hustoft, J. W.; Kohlstedt, D. L.

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the role of deformation on the distribution of core-forming melt in a partially molten peridotite, samples of olivine-basalt-iron sulfide were sheared to large strains. Dramatic redistribution of sulfide and silicate melts occur during deformation. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. Partial melting of a Pb-Sn mushy layer due to heating from above, and implications for regional melting of Earth's directionally solidified inner core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, James; Bergman, Michael I.; Huguet, Ludovic; Alboussiere, Thierry

    2015-09-01

    Superimposed on the radial solidification of Earth's inner core may be hemispherical and/or regional patches of melting at the inner-outer core boundary. Little work has been carried out on partial melting of a dendritic mushy layer due to heating from above. Here we study directional solidification, annealing, and partial melting from above of Pb-rich Sn alloy ingots. We find that partial melting from above results in convection in the mushy layer, with dense, melted Pb sinking and resolidifying at a lower height, yielding a different density profile than for those ingots that are just directionally solidified, irrespective of annealing. Partial melting from above causes a greater density deeper down and a corresponding steeper density decrease nearer the top. There is also a change in microstructure. These observations may be in accordance with inferences of east-west and perhaps smaller-scale variations in seismic properties near the top of the inner core.

  17. Melt spreading code assessment, modifications, and application to the EPR core catcher design.

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M. T .; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-03-30

    The Evolutionary Power Reactor (EPR) is under consideration by various utilities in the United States to provide base load electrical production, and as a result the design is undergoing a certification review by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The severe accident design philosophy for this reactor is based upon the fact that the projected power rating results in a narrow margin for in-vessel melt retention by external cooling of the reactor vessel. As a result, the design addresses ex-vessel core melt stabilization using a mitigation strategy that includes: (1) an external core melt retention system to temporarily hold core melt released from the vessel; (2) a layer of 'sacrificial' material that is admixed with the melt while in the core melt retention system; (3) a melt plug in the lower part of the retention system that, when failed, provides a pathway for the mixture to spread to a large core spreading chamber; and finally, (4) cooling and stabilization of the spread melt by controlled top and bottom flooding. The overall concept is illustrated in Figure 1.1. The melt spreading process relies heavily on inertial flow of a low-viscosity admixed melt to a segmented spreading chamber, and assumes that the melt mass will be distributed to a uniform height in the chamber. The spreading phenomenon thus needs to be modeled properly in order to adequately assess the EPR design. The MELTSPREAD code, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, can model segmented, and both uniform and nonuniform spreading. The NRC is thus utilizing MELTSPREAD to evaluate melt spreading in the EPR design. MELTSPREAD was originally developed to support resolution of the Mark I containment shell vulnerability issue. Following closure of this issue, development of MELTSPREAD ceased in the early 1990's, at which time the melt spreading database upon which the code had been validated was rather limited. In particular, the database that was utilized for initial validation consisted

  18. Chemical Convention in the Lunar Core from Melting Experiments on the Ironsulfur System

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.; Liu, J.; Chen, B.; Li, Z.; Wang, Y.

    2012-03-26

    By reanalyzing Apollo lunar seismograms using array-processing methods, a recent study suggests that the Moon has a solid inner core and a fluid outer core, much like the Earth. The volume fraction of the lunar inner core is 38%, compared with 4% for the Earth. The pressure at the Moon's core-mantle boundary is 4.8 GPa, and that at the ICB is 5.2 GPa. The partially molten state of the lunar core provides constraints on the thermal and chemical states of the Moon: The temperature at the inner core boundary (ICB) corresponds to the liquidus of the outer core composition, and the mass fraction of the solid core allows us to infer the bulk composition of the core from an estimated thermal profile. Moreover, knowledge on the extent of core solidification can be used to evaluate the role of chemical convection in the origin of early lunar core dynamo. Sulfur is considered an antifreeze component in the lunar core. Here we investigate the melting behavior of the Fe-S system at the pressure conditions of the lunar core, using the multi-anvil apparatus and synchrotron and laboratory-based analytical methods. Our goal is to understand compositionally driven convection in the lunar core and assess its role in generating an internal magnetic field in the early history of the Moon.

  19. Melting-induced stratification above the Earth's inner core due to convective translation.

    PubMed

    Alboussière, Thierry; Deguen, Renaud; Melzani, Mickaël

    2010-08-05

    In addition to its global North-South anisotropy, there are two other enigmatic seismological observations related to the Earth's inner core: asymmetry between its eastern and western hemispheres and the presence of a layer of reduced seismic velocity at the base of the outer core. This 250-km-thick layer has been interpreted as a stably stratified region of reduced composition in light elements. Here we show that this layer can be generated by simultaneous crystallization and melting at the surface of the inner core, and that a translational mode of thermal convection in the inner core can produce enough melting and crystallization on each hemisphere respectively for the dense layer to develop. The dynamical model we propose introduces a clear asymmetry between a melting and a crystallizing hemisphere which forms a basis for also explaining the East-West asymmetry. The present translation rate is found to be typically 100 million years for the inner core to be entirely renewed, which is one to two orders of magnitude faster than the growth rate of the inner core's radius. The resulting strong asymmetry of buoyancy flux caused by light elements is anticipated to have an impact on the dynamics of the outer core and on the geodynamo.

  20. Effect of Hydrogen and Carbon on the Melting Temperature of the Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Y.; Sakamaki, K.; Takahashi, E.; Fukai, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Funakoshi, K.

    2007-12-01

    The temperature of the Earth's outer core has been discussed based on the melting temperature of Fe- O-S alloys (e.g., Boehler, 1996). Although hydrogen and carbon are the possible candidates of the core component, their effects on the melting temperature of iron at high-pressures are unclear. Using a Kawai-type multi-anvil apparatus at SPring-8 synchrotron, we carried out a series of melting experiments on FeH and Fe3C up to 20 and 28 GPa, respectively. In the experiments on FeH, Fe sponge mixed with MgO was packed into a NaCl container with a hydrogen source, LiAlH4 (e.g., Fukai et al., 1989). During heating under high-pressures, hydrogenation of iron was observed by volume change. The phase boundary between ɛ'-phase (low-temperature phase) and γ-phase (high-temperature phase) of iron-hydride was determined using both cooling and heating experiments. Hydrogen concentrations in the γ-FeHx and ɛ'-FeHx were calculated based on the excess volume data from that of pure iron. It is found that γ-FeHx and ɛ'-FeHx synthesized in our experiments at pressures between 10 and 20 GPa are nearly stoichiometric FeH. Melting temperature of the γ-FeH was determined by the abrupt change in the X-ray diffraction patterns (crystalline to amorphous). The melting temperatures were determined to be 1473, 1473, 1493, 1573 and 1593 K at 10, 11.5, 15, 18 and 20 GPa, respectively. In the experiments using Fe3C, the synthesized Fe3C powder was encapsulated in a MgO container. In the diffraction sequences during heating, the peaks of Fe3C disappeared, and the new peaks identified as those of Fe7C3 were observed with halo caused by liquid. Finally, the Fe7C3 peaks disappeared, and only the halo pattern was observed. Based on these observations, the incongruent melting of Fe3C to Fe7C3 and liquid is estimated to occur at 1823 and 1923 K at 19.7 and 27.0 GPa, respectively. The liquidus temperatures of the Fe3C composition are found to be at 2098 and 2198 K at 19.5 and 26.8 GPa

  1. Silicate melt inclusions and glasses in lunar soil fragments from the Luna 16 core sample

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roedder, E.; Weiblen, P.W.

    1972-01-01

    More than 2000 fragments were studied microscopically, and electron microprobe analyses were made of 39 selected areas, from a few square mm of polished surface, through 75- to 425-??m fragments of lunar soil from two samples of the Luna 16 core. The silicate melt inclusions and glasses differ in important details from those observed earlier in the Apollo samples. Melt inclusions in olivine contain epitaxially oriented daughter crystals, but also show a similar epitaxy around the outside of the crystals not observed in previous lunar samples. Melt inclusions in ilmenite suggest trapping at successive stages in a differentiation sequence. There is abundant evidence for late-stage silicate liquid immiscibility, with melt compositions similar but not identical to those from Apollo 11 and 12. A comparison of the alkali ratio of any given bulk rock analysis with that of its late-stage, high-silica melt shows gross differences for different rocks. This is pertinent to understanding late-stage differentiation processes. Glass fragments and spherules exhibit a wide range of crystallization textures, reflecting their wide range of compositions and cooling histories. No significant differences were found between the two portions of core examined (Zones A and D). ?? 1972.

  2. The influence of melting on the kinematic development of the Himalayan crystalline core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Current hypotheses for the development and emplacement of the Himalayan crystalline core are 1) models with intense upper plate out-of-sequence activity (i.e., tunneling of channel flow, and some modes of critical taper wedge behavior) and 2) models in which the upper plate mainly records basal accretion of horses (i.e., duplexing). The two concepts can be considered end-members. A signal difference between these two models is the role of melting. The intense upper plate deformation envisioned in the first set of models has been hypothesized to be largely a product of partial melting, particularly in channel flow models. Specifically, the persistent presence of melt in the middle crust of the upper plate may dramatically lower the viscosity of these rocks, allowing distributed deformation. The second set of models - duplexing - predicts in-sequence thrusting with only minor out-of-sequence deformation. Stacking of a duplex acts like a deli cheese-slicing machine: slice after slice is cut from the intact block to a stack of slices, but neither the block (~down-going plate) nor the stack (~upper plate) features much internal deformation. In this model, partial melting produces no significant kinematic impact. The dominant preserved structural elements across the Himalayan crystalline core rocks are flattening and L-S fabrics. Structurally high portions of the crystalline core locally display complex outcrop-scale deformation associated with migmatitic rocks, and contain km-scale leucogranite bodies; both features developed in the early to middle Miocene. The flattening and L-S fabrics have been interpreted to record either (A) southwards channel tunneling across the upper plate, or (B) fabric development during metamorphism of the down-going plate, prior to accretion to the upper plate. The deformation of migmatitic rock and emplacement of leucogranite have been interpreted in support of widespread distributed deformation. Alternatively, these features may have

  3. The melting curve of Ni to 125 GPa: implications for Earth's Fe rich core alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lord, O. T.; Wood, I. G.; Dobson, D. P.; Vocadlo, L.; Thomson, A. R.; Wann, E.; Wang, W.; Edgington, A.; Morard, G.; Mezouar, N.; Walter, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    The melting curve of Ni has been determined to 125 GPa using laser-heated diamond anvil cell (LH-DAC) experiments and two melting criteria: the appearance of liquid diffuse scattering (LDS) during in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and simultaneous plateaux in temperature vs. laser power functions [1]. Our melting curve (Fig. 1) is in good agreement with most theoretical studies [e.g. 2] and the available shock wave data (Fig. 2). It is, however, dramatically steeper than the previous off-line LH-DAC studies in which the determination of melting was based on the visual observation of motion aided by the laser speckle method [e.g. 3]. We estimate the melting point of Ni at the inner-core boundary (ICB; 330 GPa) to be 5800±700 K (2σ), ~2500 K higher than the estimate based on the laser speckle method [3] and within error of Fe (6230±500 K) as determined in a similar in situ LH-DAC study [4]. We find that laser speckle based melting curves coincide with the onset of rapid sub-solidus recrystallization, suggesting that visual observations of motion may have misinterpreted dynamic recrystallization as melt convection. Our new melting curve suggests that the reduction in ICB temperature due to the alloying of Ni with Fe is likely to be significantly smaller than would be expected had the earlier experimental Ni melting studies been correct. We have applied our methodology to a range of other transition metals (Mo, Ti, V, Cu). In the case of Mo, Ti and V the melting curves are in good agreement with the shock compression and theoretical melting studies but hotter and steeper than those based on the laser speckle method, as with Ni. Cu is an exception in which all studies agree, including those employing the laser speckle method. These results go a long way toward resolving the the long-standing controversy over the phase diagrams of the transition metals as determined from static LH-DAC studies on the one hand, and theoretical and dynamic compression studies on the other

  4. The modeling of core melting and in-vessel corium relocation in the APRIL code

    SciTech Connect

    Kim. S.W.; Podowski, M.Z.; Lahey, R.T.

    1995-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the modeling of severe accident phenomena in boiling water reactors (BWR). New models of core melting and in-vessel corium debris relocation are presented, developed for implementation in the APRIL computer code. The results of model testing and validations are given, including comparisons against available experimental data and parametric/sensitivity studies. Also, the application of these models, as parts of the APRIL code, is presented to simulate accident progression in a typical BWR reactor.

  5. Random pinning changes the melting scenario of a two-dimensional core-softened potential system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiok, E. N.; Dudalov, D. E.; Fomin, Yu. D.; Ryzhov, V. N.

    2015-09-01

    In experiments two-dimensional systems are realized mainly on solid substrates, which introduce quenched disorder due to some inherent defects. The defects of substrates influence the melting scenario of the systems and have to be taken into account in the interpretation of experimental results. We present the results of molecular dynamics simulations of a two-dimensional system with a core-softened potential in which a small fraction of the particles is pinned, inducing quenched disorder. Ppotentials of this type are widely used for the qualitative description of systems with waterlike anomalies. In our previous publications it was shown that the system demonstrates an anomalous melting scenario: at low densities the system melts through two continuous transitions in accordance with the Kosterlitz-Thouless-Halperin-Nelson-Young (KTHNY) theory with an intermediate hexatic phase, while at high densities the conventional first-order melting transition takes place. We find that the well-known disorder-induced widening of the hexatic phase occurs at low densities, while in the high-density part of the phase diagram random pinning transforms the first-order melting into two transitions: a continuous KTHNY-like solid-hexatic transition and a first-order hexatic-isotropic liquid transition.

  6. Composition-dependent melting behaviour of NaxK55-x core-shell nanoalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asgari, Mehdi; Behnejad, Hassan; Fortunelli, Alessandro

    2014-11-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations at constant temperature are performed to investigate melting-like transition in Na13K42, Na19K36 and Na26K29 nanoalloys using a second-moment-approximation tight-binding analytic potential to calculate the forces on the constituent atoms. A weighted histogram analysis method is employed to remove non-ergodicity issues due to the complex potential energy surface of these nanoalloys. The heat capacity shows three distinctive steps in melting for Na13K42, while Na26K29 and Na19K36 have two-step and one-step melting transition, respectively. The steepest descent method is used to quench the configurations in a given interval during the simulation and also study the isomerisation processes occurring at different temperatures. Analysing the configuration energies of quenched structures for the entire nanoalloy and the core atoms separately gives more details about the melting mechanism. The Lindemann parameter is also calculated at several temperatures during the simulation which shows a gradual increase for Na13K42 and Na26K29 while a sharp change is observed for Na19K36. These findings are in agreement with the multi-step nature of the phase transition in Na13K42 and Na26K29 and one-step melting of the Na19K36 magic composition.

  7. An Interconnected Network of Core-Forming Melts Produced by Shear Deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruhn, D.; Groebner, N.; Kohlstedt, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    The formation mechanism of terrestrial planetary is still poorly understood, and has been the subject of numerous experimental studies. Several mechanisms have been proposed by which metal-mainly iron with some nickel-could have been extracted from a silicate mantle to form the core. Most recent models involve gravitational sinking of molten metal or metal sulphide through a partially or fully molten mantle that is often referred to as a'magma ocean. Alternative models invoke percolation of molten metal along an interconnected network (that is, porous flow) through a solid silicate matrix. But experimental studies performed at high pressures have shown that, under hydrostatic conditions, these melts do not form an interconnected network, leading to the widespread assumption that formation of metallic cores requires a magma ocean. In contrast, here we present experiments which demonstrate that shear deformation to large strains can interconnect a significant fraction of initially isolated pockets of metal and metal sulphide melts in a solid matrix of polycrystalline olivine. Therefore, in a dynamic (nonhydrostatic) environment, percolation remains a viable mechanism for the segregation and migration of core-forming melts in a solid silicate mantle.

  8. The WAIS Melt Monitor: An automated ice core melting system for meltwater sample handling and the collection of high resolution microparticle size distribution data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breton, D. J.; Koffman, B. G.; Kreutz, K. J.; Hamilton, G. S.

    2010-12-01

    Paleoclimate data are often extracted from ice cores by careful geochemical analysis of meltwater samples. The analysis of the microparticles found in ice cores can also yield unique clues about atmospheric dust loading and transport, dust provenance and past environmental conditions. Determination of microparticle concentration, size distribution and chemical makeup as a function of depth is especially difficult because the particle size measurement either consumes or contaminates the meltwater, preventing further geochemical analysis. Here we describe a microcontroller-based ice core melting system which allows the collection of separate microparticle and chemistry samples from the same depth intervals in the ice core, while logging and accurately depth-tagging real-time electrical conductivity and particle size distribution data. This system was designed specifically to support microparticle analysis of the WAIS Divide WDC06A deep ice core, but many of the subsystems are applicable to more general ice core melting operations. Major system components include: a rotary encoder to measure ice core melt displacement with 0.1 millimeter accuracy, a meltwater tracking system to assign core depths to conductivity, particle and sample vial data, an optical debubbler level control system to protect the Abakus laser particle counter from damage due to air bubbles, a Rabbit 3700 microcontroller which communicates with a host PC, collects encoder and optical sensor data and autonomously operates Gilson peristaltic pumps and fraction collectors to provide automatic sample handling, melt monitor control software operating on a standard PC allowing the user to control and view the status of the system, data logging software operating on the same PC to collect data from the melting, electrical conductivity and microparticle measurement systems. Because microparticle samples can easily be contaminated, we use optical air bubble sensors and high resolution ice core density

  9. Sulfur Saturation Limits in Silicate Melts and their Implications for Core Formation Scenarios for Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzheid, Astrid; Grove, Timothy L.

    2002-01-01

    This study explores the controls of temperature, pressure, and silicate melt composition on S solubility in silicate liquids. The solubility of S in FeO-containing silicate melts in equilibrium with metal sulfide increases significantly with increasing temperature but decreases with increasing pressure. The silicate melt structure also exercises a control on S solubility. Increasing the degree of polymerization of the silicate melt structure lowers the S solubility in the silicate liquid. The new set of experimental data is used to expand the model of Mavrogenes and O'Neill(1999) for S solubility in silicate liquids by incorporating the influence of the silicate melt structure. The expected S solubility in the ascending magma is calculated using the expanded model. Because the negative pressure dependence of S solubility is more influential than the positive temperature dependence, decompression and adiabatic ascent of a formerly S-saturated silicate magma will lead to S undersaturation. A primitive magma that is S-saturated in its source region will, therefore, become S-undersaturated as it ascends to shallower depth. In order to precipitate magmatic sulfides, the magma must first cool and undergo fractional crystallization to reach S saturation. The S content in a metallic liquid that is in equilibrium with a magma ocean that contains approx. 200 ppm S (i.e., Earth's bulk mantle S content) ranges from 5.5 to 12 wt% S. This range of S values encompasses the amount of S (9 to 12 wt%) that would be present in the outer core if S is the light element. Thus, the Earth's proto-mantle could be in equilibrium (in terms of the preserved S abundance) with a core-forming metallic phase.

  10. Ice core evidence for extensive melting of the greenland ice sheet in the last interglacial.

    PubMed

    Koerner, R M

    1989-05-26

    Evidence from ice at the bottom of ice cores from the Canadian Arctic Islands and Camp Century and Dye-3 in Greenland suggests that the Greenland ice sheet melted extensively or completely during the last interglacial period more than 100 ka (thousand years ago), in contrast to earlier interpretations. The presence of dirt particles in the basal ice has previously been thought to indicate that the base of the ice sheets had melted and that the evidence for the time of original growth of these ice masses had been destroyed. However, the particles most likely blew onto the ice when the dimensions of the ice caps and ice sheets were much smaller. Ice texture, gas content, and other evidence also suggest that the basal ice at each drill site is superimposed ice, a type of ice typical of the early growth stages of an ice cap or ice sheet. If the present-day ice masses began their growth during the last interglacial, the ice sheet from the earlier (Illinoian) glacial period must have competely or largely melted during the early part of the same interglacial period. If such melting did occur, the 6-meter higher-than-present sea level during the Sangamon cannot be attributed to disintegration of the West Antarctic ice sheet, as has been suggested.

  11. Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1 ex-vessel prediction: Core melt spreading

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M. T.; Robb, K. R.; Francis, M. W.

    2016-10-31

    Lower head failure and corium-concrete interaction were predicted to occur at Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1 (1F1) by several different system-level code analyses, including MELCOR v2.1 and MAAP5. Although these codes capture a wide range of accident phenomena, they do not contain detailed models for ex-vessel core melt behavior. However, specialized codes exist for analysis of ex-vessel melt spreading (e.g., MELTSPREAD) and long-term debris coolability (e.g., CORQUENCH). On this basis, an analysis has been carried out to further evaluate ex-vessel behavior for 1F1 using MELTSPREAD and CORQUENCH. Best-estimate melt pour conditions predicted by MELCOR v2.1 and MAAP5 were used as input. MELTSPREAD was then used to predict the spatially-dependent melt conditions and extent of spreading during relocation from the vessel. Lastly, this information was then used as input for the long-term debris coolability analysis with CORQUENCH that is reported in a companion paper.

  12. Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1 ex-vessel prediction: Core melt spreading

    DOE PAGES

    Farmer, M. T.; Robb, K. R.; Francis, M. W.

    2016-10-31

    Lower head failure and corium-concrete interaction were predicted to occur at Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1 (1F1) by several different system-level code analyses, including MELCOR v2.1 and MAAP5. Although these codes capture a wide range of accident phenomena, they do not contain detailed models for ex-vessel core melt behavior. However, specialized codes exist for analysis of ex-vessel melt spreading (e.g., MELTSPREAD) and long-term debris coolability (e.g., CORQUENCH). On this basis, an analysis has been carried out to further evaluate ex-vessel behavior for 1F1 using MELTSPREAD and CORQUENCH. Best-estimate melt pour conditions predicted by MELCOR v2.1 and MAAP5 were used as input.more » MELTSPREAD was then used to predict the spatially-dependent melt conditions and extent of spreading during relocation from the vessel. Lastly, this information was then used as input for the long-term debris coolability analysis with CORQUENCH that is reported in a companion paper.« less

  13. The Effects of Summertime Melt on Stable Water Isotopes: Implications for Paleotemperature Reconstructions from Firn Core Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, T.; Marshall, S. J.

    2008-12-01

    A firn core was drilled on the Prince of Wales (POW) Icefield, Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, in the spring of 2001. While this firn core was drilled on the high northern plateau of the Icefield, its location is still prone to occasional summertime melt events. Annual δ18O amplitudes of 5.7±2.3‰ persist in the firn core stratigraphy indicating that the degree of melt at the site is insufficient to destroy annual isotopic signals. However the degree of isotopic modification resulting from meltwater and its effects on average annual temperature estimates from the site are not well understood. A series of four early melt-season snow and dye pits were established along an altitudinal gradient extending from 380 m a.s.l. to 1000 m on the Leffert Glacier of the POW Icefield. These snowpit sites are intended to serve as proxies for the degree of isotopic modification occurring at the firn core drill site. Two factors are considered potentially important in determining the degree of isotopic modification experienced at a site, 1) the absolute amount of melt, and 2) the percent melt. The two lowest elevation sites, TM380 and TM600, experience both absolute and percent melt values similar to those observed at the firn core drill site over the past 28 years, as determined from NARR 2-m surface air temperature data and firn core stratigraphies. Since TM380 and TM600 had average δ18O enrichments of 1.1 and 0.5‰ respectively, we infer that the average annual temperatures derived from the firn core drill site are overestimated by 0.5-0.2°C based on the local δ18O-temperature relationship. Results from this analysis suggest average annual temperatures are overestimated when derived from firn core records that experience even occasional melt events.

  14. Density Affects the Nature of the Hexatic-Liquid Transition in Two-Dimensional Melting of Soft-Core Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zu, Mengjie; Liu, Jun; Tong, Hua; Xu, Ning

    2016-08-01

    We find that both continuous and discontinuous hexatic-liquid transitions can happen in the melting of two-dimensional solids of soft-core disks. For three typical model systems, Hertzian, harmonic, and Gaussian-core models, we observe the same scenarios. These systems exhibit reentrant crystallization (melting) with a maximum melting temperature Tm happening at a crossover density ρm. The hexatic-liquid transition at a density smaller than ρm is discontinuous. Liquid and hexatic phases coexist in a density interval, which becomes narrower with increasing temperature and tends to vanish approximately at Tm. Above ρm, the transition is continuous, in agreement with the Kosterlitz-Thouless-Halperin-Nelson-Young theory. For these soft-core systems, the nature of the hexatic-liquid transition depends on density (pressure), with the melting at ρm being a plausible transition point from discontinuous to continuous hexatic-liquid transition.

  15. Bayes' postulate for trinomial trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diniz, M. A.; Polpo, A.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we discuss Bayes' postulate and its interpretation. We extend the binomial trial method proposed by de Finetti [1] to trinomial trials, for which we argue that the consideration of equiprobability a priori for the possible outcomes of the trinomial trials implies that the parameter vector has Dirichlet(1,1) as prior. Based on this result, we agree with Stigler [2] in that the notion in Bayes' postulate stating "absolutely know nothing" is related to the possible outcomes of an experiment and not to "non-information" about the parameter.

  16. Nickel and helium evidence for melt above the core-mantle boundary.

    PubMed

    Herzberg, Claude; Asimow, Paul D; Ionov, Dmitri A; Vidito, Chris; Jackson, Matthew G; Geist, Dennis

    2013-01-17

    High (3)He/(4)He ratios in some basalts have generally been interpreted as originating in an incompletely degassed lower-mantle source. This helium source may have been isolated at the core-mantle boundary region since Earth's accretion. Alternatively, it may have taken part in whole-mantle convection and crust production over the age of the Earth; if so, it is now either a primitive refugium at the core-mantle boundary or is distributed throughout the lower mantle. Here we constrain the problem using lavas from Baffin Island, West Greenland, the Ontong Java Plateau, Isla Gorgona and Fernandina (Galapagos). Olivine phenocryst compositions show that these lavas originated from a peridotite source that was about 20 per cent higher in nickel content than in the modern mid-ocean-ridge basalt source. Where data are available, these lavas also have high (3)He/(4)He. We propose that a less-degassed nickel-rich source formed by core-mantle interaction during the crystallization of a melt-rich layer or basal magma ocean, and that this source continues to be sampled by mantle plumes. The spatial distribution of this source may be constrained by nickel partitioning experiments at the pressures of the core-mantle boundary.

  17. QUANTUM MECHANICS WITHOUT STATISTICAL POSTULATES

    SciTech Connect

    G. GEIGER; ET AL

    2000-11-01

    The Bohmian formulation of quantum mechanics describes the measurement process in an intuitive way without a reduction postulate. Due to the chaotic motion of the hidden classical particle all statistical features of quantum mechanics during a sequence of repeated measurements can be derived in the framework of a deterministic single system theory.

  18. Melting and solid-melt partitioning in iron-light element systems under megabar conditions: Implications for the thermal state of the Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtani, E.; Kamada, S.; Sakai, T.; Terasaki, H.; Hayashi, H.

    2011-12-01

    The experimental study of the core was pioneered by H.K. Mao [1]. After his pioneering works, significant developments have been made in our high pressure science community to clarify the Earth's core. We have extended the pressure range of melting experiments of iron-light element compounds to pressures exceeding 100 GPa. Melting can be detected by using different criteria, i.e., a change of laser heating efficiency, in situ X-ray diffraction, and the textural change of the recovered samples after quenching from melts. These criteria are generally consistent with one another and enabled us to constrain the temperature, thermal state, and the composition of the core. Melting and phase relations of the Fe-Si, Fe-S, Fe-Ni-S and Fe-S-O systems were determined up to the core pressures based on the in situ X-ray diffraction and a change of laser heating efficiency and texture of the recovered samples by the laser heated diamond anvil cell [2,3,4]. The melting curves may provide constraints for temperatures at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) and the inner core boundary (ICB). Melting and phase relations of the Fe-Fe3S and Fe-S-O systems revealed that Fe3S dissolves first at the solidus before melting of the metallic iron alloy at the liquidus at least up to 180 GPa. The (FeNi)3S phase together with hcp-FeNi is stable up to the pressure above 200 GPa. Therefore, these phases are candidates for the constituent of the inner core. Solid-liquid partitioning experiments can be made by the laser heated diamond anvil cell. The partitioning experiment of Pt, Re, and Os between solid hcp-FeNi alloy and Fe-Ni-S liquid metals is an example of such experiments. It has been assumed that Os isotopic signatures showing coupled 186Os/188Os and 187Os/188Os enrichments in some plume magmas is originated from contamination of outer core materials formed by the inner core fractionation at the base of the lower mantle [5]. We conducted partitioning experiments of Pt, Re, and Os up to 100 GPa

  19. Use of ice cores from glaciers with melting for reconstructing mean summer temperature variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakazawa, Fumio; Fujita, Koji

    This study examines a new method for reconstructing mean summer temperature variations by using an ice core from a wet-snow zone on a summer-accumulation-type glacier. In July 2001, a 25.1 m deep ice core was recovered from the accumulation area of Sofiyskiy glacier (49°47‧ N, 87°43‧ E; 3435 m a.s.l.), located in the southern Chuyskiy range of the Russian Altai mountains, and a 4.5 m deep pit was excavated about 50 m northwest of the drill site. The observation site has a positive balance even during summer when melting occurs. The summer balance for each year from 1990 to 2000 was estimated from Pinaceae and Artemisia pollen peaks in these samples. Pinaceae pollen marks spring, whereas Artemisia pollen marks autumn. Moreover, meltwater intrusion did not reach the previous year's accumulation. Thus, the ice between these pollen peaks in the same year was used to estimate a summer balance. The reconstructed summer balance variations were negatively correlated with mean summer temperature variations (r = -0.72, P < 0.05). This study shows that, for summer-accumulation-type glaciers such as Sofiyskiy glacier, the most important climate factor controlling the glacier's surface mass balance is mean summer temperature. Therefore, the summer layer thickness in an ice core can be used as a proxy for reconstructing mean summer temperature variations.

  20. In-situ rock melting applied to lunar base construction and for exploration drilling and coring on the moon

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, J.C.; Neudecker, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    An excavation technology based upon melting of rock and soil has been extensively developed at the prototype hardware and conceptual design levels for terrestrial conditions. Laboratory and field tests of rock-melting penetration have conclusively indicated that this excavation method is insensitive to rock, soil types, and conditions. Especially significant is the ability to form in-place glass linings or casings on the walls of boreholes, tunnels, and shafts. These factors indicate the unique potential for in situ construction of primary lunar base facilities. Drilling and coring equipment for resource exploration on the moon can also be devised that are largely automated and remotely operated. It is also very likely that lunar melt-glasses will have changed mechanical properties when formed in anhydrous and hard vacuum conditions. Rock melting experiments and prototype hardware designs for lunar rock-melting excavation applications are suggested.

  1. Partitioning of Moderately Siderophile Elements Among Olivine, Silicate Melt, and Sulfide Melt: Constraints on Core Formation in the Earth and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaetani, Glenn A.; Grove, Timothy L.

    1997-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of Variations in the fugacities of oxygen and sulfur on the partitioning of first series transition metals (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni. and Cu) and W among coexisting sulfide melt, silicate melt, and olivine. Experiments were performed at 1 atm pressure, 1350 C, with the fugacities of oxygen and sulfur controlled by mixing CO2, CO, and SO2 gases. Starting compositions consisted of a CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-FeO-Na2O analog for a barred olivine chondrule from an ordinary chondrite and a synthetic komatiite. The f(sub O2)/f(sub S2), conditions ranged from log of f(sub O2) = -7.9 to - 10.6, with log of f(sub S2) values ranging from - 1.0 to -2.5. Our experimental results demonstrate that the f(sub O2)/f(sub S2) dependencies of sulfide melt/silicate melt partition coefficients for the first series transition metals arc proportional to their valence states. The f(sub O2)/f(sub S2) dependencies for the partitioning of Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu are weaker than predicted on the basis of their valence states. Variations in conditions have no significant effect on olivine/melt partitioning other than those resulting from f(sub O2)-induced changes in the valence state of a given element. The strong f(sub O2)/f(sub S2) dependence for the olivine/silicate melt partitioning of V is attributable to a change of valence state, from 4+ to 3+, with decreasing f(sub O2). Our experimentally determined partition coefficients are used to develop models for the segregation of sulfide and metal from the silicate portion of the early Earth and the Shergottite parent body (Mars). We find that the influence of S is not sufficient to explain the overabundance of siderophile and chalcophile elements that remained in the mantle of the Earth following core formation. Important constraints on core formation in Mars are provided by our experimental determination of the partitioning of Cu between silicate and sulfide melts. When combined with existing estimates for siderophile

  2. (Installation of a boiling water reactor core melt progression phenomena program)

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, L.J.

    1990-06-07

    The CORA operational staff at Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) requested, under the auspices of the Severe Fuel Damage Partners Program, that Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed models, specific to boiling water reactor (BWR) response under severe accident conditions, be applied in support of future BWR experiments to be performed in the CORA facility. Accordingly, the current Statement of Work for the BWR Core Melt Progression Phenomena Program provides for the development of a CORA-specific BWR experimental model to analyze the results of CORA BWR experiments and the planning of future experiments. The traveler installed version 1.0 of the CORA/BWR experiment-specific code on KfK personal computers and assisted the CORA staff in their preliminary pretest analyses for CORA test 18.

  3. Melting curve of the deep mantle applied to properties of early magma ocean and actual core-mantle boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrault, Denis; Lo Nigro, Giacomo; Bolfan-Casanova, Nathalie; Bouhifd, Mohamed A.; Garbarino, Gaston; Mezouar, Mohamed

    2010-05-01

    Our planet experienced partial melting early in its history as a consequence of energy release due to accretion. Partial mantle melting could still happen today in the lowermost mantle. Occurrence of melting is primordial for the chemical segregation between the different Earth's reservoirs and for the dynamics of the whole planet. Melting of iron-alloys is relatively easy to achieve, but the silicated mantle happens to be more refractory. We investigated experimentally melting properties of two starting material, forsterite and chondritic-mantle, at pressures ranging from 25 to 140 GPa, using laser-heated diamond anvil cell coupled with synchrotron radiation. We show that partial melting in the lowermost mantle, as suggested by seismology on the basis of the ultra-low velocity zones (ULVZ), requires temperatures above 4200 K at the core-mantle boundary. At low pressures, our curve plots significantly lower than previous reports. Compared to recent estimates of mantle geotherm, while this temperature remains possible if the Earth's core is very hot, it is more likely that ULVZs correspond to high concentration of incompatible elements driven down to the D"-layer by subducting slabs or extracted out from the outer core. When our chondritic melting curve is coupled with recent isentropic temperature profiles for a magma ocean, we obtain a correlation between magma ocean depth and the potential temperature (Tp) at its surface; an ocean depth of 1000 km (equivalent to ~40 GPa) corresponds to Tp=2000 K, which happens to be significantly hotter than the estimated surface temperature of a sustained magma ocean. It emphasizes the importance of a lid at the magma ocean surface at an epoch as early as that of core-mantle segregation.

  4. Melting behavior of the iron-sulfur system and chemical convection in iron-rich planetary cores

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.; Chen, B.

    2009-03-26

    We present experimental data on the high-pressure melting behavior of the Fe-S system from a synchrotron x-ray radiography study using the large volume press, with implications for the role of chemical convection in sulfur-bearing planetary cores. At present, Earth, Mercury and Ganymede are the only three solid bodies in the Solar System that possess intrinsic global magnetic fields. Dynamo simulation reveal that chemical buoyancy force associated with the formation of a solid inner core is critical for sustaining the Earth's magnetic field. Fluid motions in Mercury and Ganymede may be partially driven by chemical buoyancy force as well. The style of chemical convection and its influence on the thermal and chemical state and evolution of iron-rich cores are determined in part by the melting behavior of potential core-forming materials. Sulfur is widely accepted as a candidate light element in iron-rich planetary cores. In order to understand the role of chemical convection in sulfur-bearing cores, we studied the high-pressure melting behavior of Fe-S mixtures containing 9 wt% sulfur using the synchrotron x-ray radiographic method in a large volume press.

  5. Stability and melting of Fe3C at high pressure and temperature: Implication for the carbon in the Earth's core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, S.; Ohtani, E.; Sakai, T.; Hirao, N.; Ohishi, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The Earth's core is regarded as an Fe-Ni alloy but its density is lower than that of pure Fe at the core conditions. Therefore, the Earth's core is supposed to contain light elements and carbon is one of the candidates of the light elements to explain the density deficit of the Earth's core. Nakajima et al. (2009) reported the melting temperature of Fe3C up to around 30 GPa based on textual observations, the chemical analysis of the quenched run products and in situ X-ray diffraction experiments using a Kawai-type multi anvil apparatus. Lord et al. (2009) reported melting temperatures of Fe3C up to 70 GPa, which was determined by the temperature plateau during increasing laser power using a laser-heated diamond anvil cell. They also suggested Fe+Fe7C3 is a stable subsolidus phase. There are obvious discrepancies between the melting curve and the stable subsolidus phase reported by Nakajima et al. (2009) and those reported by Lord et al. (2009). In this study, the melting temperatures of Fe3C and a subsolidus phase relation were determined based on in situ X-ray diffraction experiments. This study aims to reveal the stability field of Fe3C and the melting temperature of Fe3C and to discuss the behaviors of carbon in the Earth's core. We have performed experiments using a laser-heated diamond anvil cell combined with in situ X-ray diffraction experiment at BL10XU beamline, SPring-8 synchrotron facility. An NaCl powder and a rhenium or tungsten foil were used for the insulator and gasket, respectively. Melting of the sample was determined by disappearance of the X-ray diffraction peaks. We determined the melting relation of Fe3C up to 145 GPa by in situ X-ray diffraction experiments. Present results are close to Nakajima et al. (2009) up to 30 GPa but become close to that reported by Lord et al. (2009) at higher pressure conditions. The solidus temperature extrapolated to the ICB pressure, 330 GPa, is 5400 K. We also confirmed that Fe3C is stable as a subsolidus phase

  6. High Pressure Melting of Iron with Nonmetals Sulfur, Carbon, Oxygen, and Hydrogen: Implications for Planetary Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buono, Antonio Salvatore

    . Under these circumstances, the sub-system Fe-Ni-C (diamond) -S (sulfide) becomes relevant and Fe-Ni carbide rather than metallic Fe-Ni alloy could become the crystalline phase of interest. Our study implies that if cohenite and Fe-C-S melt are present in the mantle, the mantle budget of Ni, Co, and Pt may be dominated by Fe-C-S liquid. Additionally, in the case of a S-free system, W, Re, and Os will also be slightly enriched in Fe-Ni-C liquid over cohenite. In total this body of work better constrains several key aspects of the compositional and thermal evolution of cores in small planetary bodies and has potential implications for the earth's mantle.

  7. Anionic Pt in Silicate Melts at Low Oxygen Fugacity: Speciation, Partitioning and Implications for Core Formation Processes on Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medard, E.; Martin, A. M.; Righter, K.; Malouta, A.; Lee, C.-T.

    2017-01-01

    Most siderophile element concentrations in planetary mantles can be explained by metal/ silicate equilibration at high temperature and pressure during core formation. Highly siderophile elements (HSE = Au, Re, and the Pt-group elements), however, usually have higher mantle abundances than predicted by partitioning models, suggesting that their concentrations have been set by late accretion of material that did not equilibrate with the core. The partitioning of HSE at the low oxygen fugacities relevant for core formation is however poorly constrained due to the lack of sufficient experimental constraints to describe the variations of partitioning with key variables like temperature, pressure, and oxygen fugacity. To better understand the relative roles of metal/silicate partitioning and late accretion, we performed a self-consistent set of experiments that parameterizes the influence of oxygen fugacity, temperature and melt composition on the partitioning of Pt, one of the HSE, between metal and silicate melts. The major outcome of this project is the fact that Pt dissolves in an anionic form in silicate melts, causing a dependence of partitioning on oxygen fugacity opposite to that reported in previous studies.

  8. Generalized Thermohydraulics Module GENFLO for Combining With the PWR Core Melting Model, BWR Recriticality Neutronics Model and Fuel Performance Model

    SciTech Connect

    Miettinen, Jaakko; Hamalainen, Anitta; Pekkarinen, Esko

    2002-07-01

    Thermal hydraulic simulation capability for accident conditions is needed at present in VTT in several programs. Traditional thermal hydraulic models are too heavy for simulation in the analysis tasks, where the main emphasis is the rapid neutron dynamics or the core melting. The GENFLO thermal hydraulic model has been developed at VTT for special applications in the combined codes. The basic field equations in GENFLO are for the phase mass, the mixture momentum and phase energy conservation equations. The phase separation is solved with the drift flux model. The basic variables to be solved are the pressure, void fraction, mixture velocity, gas enthalpy, liquid enthalpy, and concentration of non-condensable gas fractions. The validation of the thermohydraulic solution alone includes large break LOCA reflooding experiments and in specific for the severe accident conditions QUENCH tests. In the recriticality analysis the core neutronics is simulated with a two-dimensional transient neutronics code TWODIM. The recriticality with one rapid prompt peak is expected during a severe accident scenario, where the control rods have been melted and ECCS reflooding is started after the depressurization. The GENFLO module simulates the BWR thermohydraulics in this application. The core melting module has been developed for the real time operator training by using the APROS engineering simulators. The core heatup, oxidation, metal and fuel pellet relocation and corium pool formation into the lower plenum are calculated. In this application the GENFLO model simulates the PWR vessel thermohydraulics. In the fuel performance analysis the fuel rod transient behavior is simulated with the FRAPTRAN code. GENFLO simulates the subchannel around a single fuel rod and delivers the heat transfer on the cladding surface for the FRAPTRAN. The transient boundary conditions for the subchannel are transmitted from the system code for operational transient, loss of coolant accidents and

  9. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Universal viscosity growth in metallic melts at megabar pressures: the vitreous state of the Earth's inner core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazhkin, Vadim V.; Lyapin, A. G.

    2000-05-01

    Experimental data on and theoretical models for the viscosity of various types of liquids and melts under pressure are reviewed. Experimentally, the least studied melts are those of metals, whose viscosity is considered to be virtually constant along the melting curve. The authors' new approach to the viscosity of melts involves the measurement of the grain size in solidified samples. Measurements on liquid metals at pressures up to 10 GPa using this method show, contrary to the empirical approach, that the melt viscosity grows considerably along the melting curves. Based on the experimental data and on the critical analysis of current theories, a hypothesis of a universal viscosity behavior is introduced for liquids under pressure. Extrapolating the liquid iron results to the pressures and temperatures at the Earth's core reveals that the Earth's outer core is a very viscous melt with viscosity values ranging from 102 Pa s to 1011 Pa s depending on the depth. The Earth's inner core is presumably an ultraviscous (>1011 Pa s) glass-like liquid — in disagreement with the current idea of a crystalline inner core. The notion of the highly viscous interior of celestial bodies sheds light on many mysteries of planetary geophysics and astronomy. From the analysis of the pressure variation of the melting and glass-transition temperatures, an entirely new concept of a stable metallic vitreous state arises, calling for further experimental and theoretical study.

  10. Recovering Paleo-Records from Antarctic Ice-Cores by Coupling a Continuous Melting Device and Fast Ion Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Severi, Mirko; Becagli, Silvia; Traversi, Rita; Udisti, Roberto

    2015-11-17

    Recently, the increasing interest in the understanding of global climatic changes and on natural processes related to climate yielded the development and improvement of new analytical methods for the analysis of environmental samples. The determination of trace chemical species is a useful tool in paleoclimatology, and the techniques for the analysis of ice cores have evolved during the past few years from laborious measurements on discrete samples to continuous techniques allowing higher temporal resolution, higher sensitivity and, above all, higher throughput. Two fast ion chromatographic (FIC) methods are presented. The first method was able to measure Cl(-), NO3(-) and SO4(2-) in a melter-based continuous flow system separating the three analytes in just 1 min. The second method (called Ultra-FIC) was able to perform a single chromatographic analysis in just 30 s and the resulting sampling resolution was 1.0 cm with a typical melting rate of 4.0 cm min(-1). Both methods combine the accuracy, precision, and low detection limits of ion chromatography with the enhanced speed and high depth resolution of continuous melting systems. Both methods have been tested and validated with the analysis of several hundred meters of different ice cores. In particular, the Ultra-FIC method was used to reconstruct the high-resolution SO4(2-) profile of the last 10,000 years for the EDML ice core, allowing the counting of the annual layers, which represents a key point in dating these kind of natural archives.

  11. Rapid, dynamic segregation of core forming melts: Results from in-situ High Pressure- High Temperature X-ray Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, H. C.; Yu, T.; Wang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The timing and mechanisms of core formation in the Earth, as well as in Earth-forming planetesimals is a problem of significant importance in our understanding of the early evolution of terrestrial planets . W-Hf isotopic signatures in meteorites indicate that core formation in small pre-differentiated planetesimals was relatively rapid, and occurred over the span of a few million years. This time scale is difficult to achieve by percolative flow of the metallic phase through a silicate matrix in textural equilibrium. It has been suggested that during this active time in the early solar system, dynamic processes such as impacts may have caused significant deformation in the differentiating planetesimals, which could lead to much higher permeability of the core forming melts. Here, we have measured the change in permeability of core forming melts in a silicate matrix due to deformation. Mixtures of San Carlos olivine and FeS close to the equilibrium percolation threshold (~5 vol%FeS) were pre-synthesized to achieve an equilibrium microstructure, and then loaded into the rotational Drickamer apparatus at GSE-CARS, sector 13-BMD, at the Advanced Photon Source (Argonne National Laboratory). The samples were subsequently pressed to ~2GPa, and heated to 1100°C. Alternating cycles of rotation to collect X-ray tomography images, and twisting to deform the sample were conducted until the sample had been twisted by 1080°. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed on the resulting 3-dimensional x-ray tomographic images to evaluate the effect of shear deformation on permeability and migration velocity. Lattice-Boltzmann simulations were conducted, and show a marked increase in the permeability with increasing deformation, which would allow for much more rapid core formation in planetesimals.

  12. Melting relations in the Fe-S-Si system at high pressure and temperature: Implications for the thermal structure of the planetary cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakairi, T.; Ohtani, E.; Sakai, T.; Kamada, S.; Sakamaki, T.; Hirao, N.

    2014-12-01

    It is widely accepted that the Earth's core is mainly composed of iron and contains light elements to account for its density deficit. Alloying with light elements significantly affects the physical properties of iron and depresses its melting temperature. Therefore, the melting relation of the Fe-light elements system is the key to clarify the thermal structure of the Earth's core. Although there are many candidates for light elements in the core, sulfur and silicon are considered to be the major light elements. Some geochemical models predicted that sulfur and silicon could be present not only in the core of the Earth but also in the core of other terrestrial planets such as Mars and Mercury. To better understand the properties of the planetary cores, we investigated the melting relations of the Fe-S-Si system under high-pressure conditions. Here, we report the melting relations in the Fe-S-Si system up to 60 GPa. Melting experiments were performed in the pressure range of 20-60 GPa and the temperature range of 1300-2500 K using a double-sided laser-heated diamond anvil cell combined with X-ray diffraction technique. In situ X-ray diffraction experiments were conducted at the BL10XU beamline of the SPring-8 facility. The melting detection was based on disappearance of the X-ray diffraction peaks of the sample. On the basis of X-ray diffraction patterns, we confirmed that iron-silicon alloy which hcp and fcc structure and Fe3S are stable phases under subsolidus conditions. Both solidus and liquidus temperatures are significantly lower than the melting temperature of pure Fe and increases with pressure in this study. In order to draw the melting curve as a function of pressure, we fitted the present results using the Simon's equation. Our results could provide important constraints on the thermal structure of the planetary cores.

  13. Stratigraphic analysis of an ice core from the Prince of Wales Icefield, Ellesmere Island, Arctic Canada, using digital image analysis: High-resolution density, past summer warmth reconstruction, and melt effect on ice core solid conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinnard, Christophe; Koerner, Roy M.; Zdanowicz, Christian M.; Fisher, David A.; Zheng, Jiancheng; Sharp, Martin J.; Nicholson, Lindsey; Lauriol, Bernard

    2008-12-01

    High-resolution (1 mm) stratigraphic information was derived from digital image analysis of an ice core from the Prince of Wales (POW) Icefield, Central Ellesmere Island, Canada. Following careful image processing, a profile of ice core transmitted light was derived from the greyscale images and used to reconstruct high-resolution density variations for the unfractured sections of the core. Images were further classified into infiltration and glacier ice using an automatic thresholding procedure, and were converted to a high-resolution melt percentage index. The mean annual melt percentage over the last 580 years was 9%, and melting occurred in 8 years out of 10. Melting obliterated most of the original depositional sequence, and seasonal density cycles were mostly unrecognizable. The ice core solid conductivity was greater and more variable in melt features than in glacier ice, owing to washout of strong acids by meltwater (elution) and chemical enrichment upon refreezing. This hindered the identification of acid volcanic layers and further compromised dating by annual layer counting. Comparison of the melt record with those from other Arctic ice caps shows that the melt-temperature relationship on POW Icefield is site-specific. We speculate that this is due to the peculiar position of the icefield, which rests on the periphery of the Baffin Bay maritime climate zone, and to the proximity of the North Open Water polynya, which controls snow accumulation variability on the icefield and affects the melt percentage index.

  14. Quantification of Dead-ice Melting in Ice-Cored Moraines at the High-Arctic Glacier Holmströmbreen, Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schomacker, A.; Kjaer, K. H.

    2007-12-01

    An extensive dead-ice area has developed at the stagnant snout of the Holmströmbreen glacier on Svalbard following its Little Ice Age maximum. Dead-ice appears mainly as ice-cored moraines, ice-cored eskers and ice- cored kames. The most common dead-ice landform is sediment gravity flows on ice-cored slopes surrounding a large ice-walled, moraine-dammed lake. The lake finally receives the sediment from the resedimentation processes. Dead-ice melting is described and quantified through field studies and analyses of high-resolution, multi-temporal aerial photographs and satellite imagery. Field measurements of backwasting of ice-cored slopes indicate short-term melting rates of c. 9.2 cm/day. Long-term downwasting rates indicate a surface lowering of ice-cored moraines of c. 0.9 m/yr from 1984-2004. Different measures for dead-ice melting are assessed in relation to the temperature record from Svalbard since the termination of the Little Ice Age. The most prominent impact of dead-ice melting is the evolution of the ice-walled lake with an area increasing near-exponentially over the last 40 years. As long as backwasting and mass movement processes prevent build-up of an insulating debris-cover and expose ice-cores to melting, the de-icing continues even though the area is characterized by continuous permafrost.

  15. Nanosized Pd37(CO)28{P(p-Tolyl)3}12 containing geometrically unprecedented central 23-atom interpenetrating tri-icosahedral palladium kernel of double icosahedral units: its postulated metal-core evolution and resulting stereochemical implications.

    PubMed

    Mednikov, Evgueni G; Dahl, Lawrence F

    2008-11-05

    Pd37(CO)28{P(p-Tolyl)3}12 (1) was obtained in approximately 50% yield by the short-time thermolysis of Pd10(CO)12{P(p-Tolyl)3}6 in THF solution followed by crystallization via layering with hexane under N2. The low-temperature (100 K) CCD X-ray diffraction study of 1 revealed an unusual non-spheroidal Pd37-atom polyhedron, which may be readily envisioned to originate via the initial formation of a heretofore non-isolated central Pd23 kernel composed of three interpenetrating trigonal-planar double icosahedra (DI) that are oriented along the three bonding edges of its interior Pd3 triangle. This central Pd23 kernel is augmented by face condensations with two additional phosphorus-free and 12 tri(p-C6H4Me)phosphine-ligated Pd atoms, which lower the pseudo-symmetry of the resulting 37-atom metal core from D(3h) to C2. The 12 P atoms and 28 bridging CO connectivities preserve the pseudo-C2 symmetry. The central Pd23 kernel in 1 provides the only crystallographic example of the 23-atom member of the double icosahedral family of "twinned" interpenetrating icosahedra (II), which includes the 19-atom two II (1 DI), the 23-atom three II (3 DI), the 26-atom four II (6 DI), and the 29-atom five II (9 DI). The n-atoms of these DI models coincide exactly with prominent atom-peak maxima of 19, 23, 26, and 29, respectively, in the mass spectrum of charged argon clusters formed in a low-temperature free-jet expansion. The only previous crystallographically proven 26- and 29-atom DI members are the central pseudo-T(d) tetrahedral Pd26 kernel (4 II, 6 DI) in the PMe3-ligated Pd29Ni3(CO)22(PMe3)13 (2) and the central pseudo-D(3h) trigonal-bipyramidal Pd29 kernel (5 II, 9 DI) in the PMe3-ligated Pd35(CO)23(PMe3)15 (3). Two highly important major stereochemical implications are noted: (1) The formation of geometrically identical idealized architectures for these three II palladium kernels with corresponding DI models constructed for the charged argon clusters provides compelling

  16. Constraints on the Nature of Terrestrial Core-Forming Melts: Ultra-High Pressure Transport Property Measurements and X-Ray Computed Tomography Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J J; Kinney, J H; Ryerson, F J

    2006-01-20

    A key issue in models of planetary core formation is the interconnectness and potential percolation of iron-sulfide melts in contact with silicates at high temperature and pressure. To address this issue an integrated study of the electrical conductivity-texture-permeability relationships of olivine-sulfide partial-melt samples was performed. This work has application to the interpretation of high conductivity zones in the Earth as revealed by electromagnetic studies and to the origin and development of the Earth's core. The project consisted of three main tasks. (1) Synthesis and characterization of olivine-sulfide partial-melts. (2) Electrical conductivity measurements of the partial-melt and the individual melt and crystalline phases. (3) X-ray microtomographic determination of the 3-D structure and interconnectedness of the melt phase. The results are used to determine a model of permeability of a partially molten solid that incorporates the melt distribution, a goal that has never before been achieved. Material synthesis was accomplished in the piston cylinder apparatus and electrical conductivity measurements were performed at one atmosphere. X-ray computed tomography was performed on recovered samples at the ALS. This work makes use of and further enhances LLNL's strengths in high-pressure material properties, x-ray micro- and nanoscale imaging and development of transport theory.

  17. Silicate glasses and sulfide melts in the ICDP-USGS Eyreville B core, Chesapeake Bay impact structure, Virginia, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belkin, H.E.; Horton, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Optical and electron-beam petrography of melt-rich suevite and melt-rock clasts from selected samples from the Eyreville B core, Chesapeake Bay impact structure, reveal a variety of silicate glasses and coexisting sulfur-rich melts, now quenched to various sulfi de minerals (??iron). The glasses show a wide variety of textures, fl ow banding, compositions, devitrifi cation, and hydration states. Electron-microprobe analyses yield a compositional range of glasses from high SiO2 (>90 wt%) through a range of lower SiO2 (55-75 wt%) with no relationship to depth of sample. Some samples show spherical globules of different composition with sharp menisci, suggesting immiscibility at the time of quenching. Isotropic globules of higher interfacial tension glass (64 wt% SiO2) are in sharp contact with lower-surface-tension, high-silica glass (95 wt% SiO2). Immiscible glass-pair composition relationships show that the immiscibility is not stable and probably represents incomplete mixing. Devitrifi cation varies and some low-silica, high-iron glasses appear to have formed Fe-rich smectite; other glass compositions have formed rapid quench textures of corundum, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, magnetite, K-feldspar, plagioclase, chrome-spinel, and hercynite. Hydration (H2O by difference) varies from ~10 wt% to essentially anhydrous; high-SiO2 glasses tend to contain less H2O. Petrographic relationships show decomposition of pyrite and melting of pyrrhotite through the transformation series; pyrite? pyrrhotite? troilite??? iron. Spheres (~1 to ~50 ??m) of quenched immiscible sulfi de melt in silicate glass show a range of compositions and include phases such as pentlandite, chalcopyrite, Ni-As, monosulfi de solid solution, troilite, and rare Ni-Fe. Other sulfi de spheres contain small blebs of pure iron and exhibit a continuum with increasing iron content to spheres that consist of pure iron with small, remnant blebs of Fe-sulfi de. The Ni-rich sulfi de phases can be explained by

  18. Basal Melt Under the Interior of the Greenland Ice Sheet: Comparison of Models, Deep Ice Cores, and Radar Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezvanbehbahani, S.; Stearns, L. A.; van der Veen, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    basal temperatures in the northeast basin. Our obtained map of basal melting area matches well with the radar detected basal water under the north and northeast drainage basins. However, low basal temperatures estimated at the Camp Century ice core location in the northwest of the ice sheet is in contrast with the radar observations.

  19. Radiological Impact Assessment (RIA) following a postulated accident in PHWRS

    SciTech Connect

    Soni, N.; Kansal, M.; Rammohan, H. P.; Malhotra, P. K.

    2012-07-01

    Radiological Impact Assessment (RIA) following postulated accident i.e Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) with failed Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS), performed as part of the reactor safety analysis of a typical 700 MWe Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor(PHWR). The rationale behind the assessment is that the public needs to be protected in the event that the postulated accident results in radionuclide release outside containment. Radionuclides deliver dose to the human body through various pathways namely, plume submersion, exposure due to ground deposition, inhalation and ingestion. The total exposure dose measured in terms of total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) is the sum of doses to a hypothetical adult human at exclusion zone boundary by all the exposure pathways. The analysis provides the important inputs to decide upon the type of emergency counter measures to be adopted during the postulated accident. The importance of the various pathways in terms of contribution to the total effective dose equivalent(TEDE) is also assessed with respect to time of exposure. Inhalation and plume gamma dose are the major contributors towards TEDE during initial period of accident whereas ingestion and ground shine dose start dominating in TEDE in the extended period of exposure. Moreover, TEDE is initially dominated by I-131, Kr-88, Te-132, I-133 and Sr-89, whereas, as time progresses, Xe-133,I-131 and Te-132 become the main contributors. (authors)

  20. A synthetic ice core approach to estimate ion relocation in an ice field site experiencing periodical melt: a case study on Lomonosovfonna, Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, Carmen P.; Pohjola, Veijo A.; Beaudon, Emilie; Claremar, Björn; van Pelt, Ward J. J.; Pettersson, Rickard; Isaksson, Elisabeth; Martma, Tõnu; Schwikowski, Margit; Bøggild, Carl E.

    2016-05-01

    Physical and chemical properties of four different ice cores (LF-97, LF-08, LF-09 and LF-11) drilled at Lomonosovfonna, Svalbard, were compared to investigate the effects of meltwater percolation on the chemical and physical stratigraphy of these records. A synthetic ice core approach was employed as reference record to estimate the ionic relocation and meltwater percolation length at this site during the period 2007-2010. Using this method, a partial ion elution sequence obtained for Lomonosovfonna was NO3- > SO42-, Mg2+, Cl-, K+, Na+ with nitrate being the most mobile within the snowpack. The relocation length of most of the ions was on the order of 1 m during this period. In addition, by using both a positive degree day (PDD) and a snow-energy model approaches to estimate the percentage of melt at Lomonosovfonna, we have calculated a melt percentage (MP) of the total annual accumulation within the range between 48 and 70 %, for the period between 2007 and 2010, which is above the MP range suggested by the ion relocation evidenced in the LF-syn core (i.e., MP = 30 %). Using a firn-densification model to constrain the melt range, a MP of 30 % was found over the same period, which is consistent with the results of the synthetic ice core approach, and a 45 % of melt for the last 60 years. Considering the ionic relocation lengths and annual melt percentages, we estimate that the atmospheric ionic signal remains preserved in recently drilled Lomonosovfonna ice cores at an annual or bi-annual resolution when weather conditions were similar to those during the 2007-2010 period.

  1. Temperature of Earth's core constrained from melting of Fe and Fe0.9Ni0.1 at high pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Dongzhou; Jackson, Jennifer M.; Zhao, Jiyong; Sturhahn, Wolfgang; Alp, E. Ercan; Hu, Michael Y.; Toellner, Thomas S.; Murphy, Caitlin A.; Prakapenka, Vitali B.

    2016-08-01

    The melting points of fcc- and hcp-structured Fe0.9Ni0.1 and Fe are measured up to 125 GPa using laser heated diamond anvil cells, synchrotron Mossbauer spectroscopy, and a recently developed fast temperature readout spectrometer. The onset of melting is detected by a characteristic drop in the time integrated synchrotron Mfissbauer signal which is sensitive to atomic motion. The thermal pressure experienced by the samples is constrained by X-ray diffraction measurements under high pressures and temperatures. The obtained best-fit melting curves of fcc-structured Fe and Fe0.9Ni0.1 fall within the wide region bounded by previous studies. We are able to derive the gamma-is an element of-1 triple point of Fe and the quasi triple point of Fe0.9Ni0.1 to be 110 ± 5 GPa, 3345 ± 120 K and 116 ± 5 GPa, 3260 ± 120 K, respectively. The measured melting temperatures of Fe at similar pressure are slightly higher than those of Fe0.9Ni0.1 while their one sigma uncertainties overlap. Using previously measured phonon density of states of hcp-Fe, we calculate melting curves of hcp-structured Fe and Fe0.9Ni0.1 using our (quasi) triple points as anchors. The extrapolated Fe0.9Ni0.1 melting curve provides an estimate for the upper bound of Earth's inner core-outer core boundary temperature of 5500 ± 200 K. The temperature within the liquid outer core is then approximated with an adiabatic model, which constrains the upper bound of the temperature at the core side of the core -mantle boundary to be 4000 ± 200 K. We discuss a potential melting point depression caused by light elements and the implications of the presented core -mantle boundary temperature bounds on phase relations in the lowermost part of the mantle.

  2. Temperature of Earth's core constrained from melting of Fe and Fe0.9Ni0.1 at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dongzhou; Jackson, Jennifer M.; Zhao, Jiyong; Sturhahn, Wolfgang; Alp, E. Ercan; Hu, Michael Y.; Toellner, Thomas S.; Murphy, Caitlin A.; Prakapenka, Vitali B.

    2016-08-01

    The melting points of fcc- and hcp-structured Fe0.9Ni0.1 and Fe are measured up to 125 GPa using laser heated diamond anvil cells, synchrotron Mössbauer spectroscopy, and a recently developed fast temperature readout spectrometer. The onset of melting is detected by a characteristic drop in the time-integrated synchrotron Mössbauer signal which is sensitive to atomic motion. The thermal pressure experienced by the samples is constrained by X-ray diffraction measurements under high pressures and temperatures. The obtained best-fit melting curves of fcc-structured Fe and Fe0.9Ni0.1 fall within the wide region bounded by previous studies. We are able to derive the γ-ɛ-l triple point of Fe and the quasi triple point of Fe0.9Ni0.1 to be 110 ± 5GPa, 3345 ± 120K and 116 ± 5GPa, 3260 ± 120K, respectively. The measured melting temperatures of Fe at similar pressure are slightly higher than those of Fe0.9Ni0.1 while their one sigma uncertainties overlap. Using previously measured phonon density of states of hcp-Fe, we calculate melting curves of hcp-structured Fe and Fe0.9Ni0.1 using our (quasi) triple points as anchors. The extrapolated Fe0.9Ni0.1 melting curve provides an estimate for the upper bound of Earth's inner core-outer core boundary temperature of 5500 ± 200K. The temperature within the liquid outer core is then approximated with an adiabatic model, which constrains the upper bound of the temperature at the core side of the core-mantle boundary to be 4000 ± 200K. We discuss a potential melting point depression caused by light elements and the implications of the presented core-mantle boundary temperature bounds on phase relations in the lowermost part of the mantle.

  3. Postulated accident scenarios in weapons disassembly

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, S.S.

    1997-06-01

    A very brief summary of three postulated accident scenarios for weapons disassembly is provided in the paper. The first deals with a tetrahedral configuration of four generic pits; the second, an infinite planar array of generic pits with varying interstitial water density; and the third, a spherical shell with internal mass suspension in water varying the size and mass of the shell. Calculations were performed using the Monte Carlo Neutron Photon transport code MCNP4A. Preliminary calculations pointed to a need for higher resolution of small pit separation regimes and snapshots of hydrodynamic processes of water/plutonium mixtures.

  4. Nonlinear damage analysis: Postulate and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leis, B. N.; Forte, T. P.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this program is to assess the viability of a damage postulate which asserts that the fatigue resistance curve of a metal is history dependent due to inelastic action. The study focusses on OFE copper because this simple model material accentuates the inelastic action central to the damage postulate. Data relevant to damage evolution and crack initiation are developed via a study of surface topography. The effects of surface layer residual stresses are explored via comparative testing as were the effects in initial prestraining. The results of the study very clearly show the deformation history dependence of the fatigue resistance of OFE copper. Furthermore the concept of deformation history dependence is shown to qualitatively explain the fatigue resistance of all histories considered. Likewise quantitative predictions for block cycle histories are found to accurately track the observed results. In this respect the assertion that damage per cycle for a given level of the damage parameter is deformation history dependent appears to be physically justified.

  5. Contrasting Effects of Carbon and Sulfur on Fe-Isotope Fractionation between Metal and Silicate Melt during Planetary Core Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elardo, S. M.; Shahar, A.

    2015-12-01

    There are numerous studies that show well-resolved Fe isotope fractionations in igneous materials from different planetary bodies. Potential explanations for these fractionations include a non-chondritic bulk planetary Fe isotopic composition, and equilibrium fractionation between Fe-alloys or minerals and silicate melts during planetary differentiation, mantle melting, or fractional crystallization. This is further complicated by the fact that these processes are not mutually exclusive, making the interpretation of Fe isotope data a complex task. Here we present new experimental results investigating the effect of C on Fe isotope fractionation between molten peridotite and an Fe-alloy. Experiments were conducted at 1 GPa and 1850° C for 0.5 - 3 hours on a mixture of an 54Fe-spiked peridotite and Fe-metal with and without Ni metal in an end-loaded piston cylinder at the Geophysical Laboratory. Carbon saturation was achieved with a graphite capsule, and resulted in C contents of the Fe-alloy in our experiments ranging from 3.8 - 4.9 wt. %. The metal and silicate phases from half of each experiment were separated manually and dissolved in concentrated acids. Iron was separated from matrix elements by anion exchange chromatagraphy. Iron-isotopic compositions were determined with the Nu Plasma II MC-ICP-MS at GL. The other half of each experiment was used for quantitative microbeam analysis. Equilibrium was assessed with a time series and the three-isotope exchange method. The Ni-free experiments resulted in no resolvable Fe isotope fractionation between the Fe-C-alloy and molten silicate. This is in contrast to the results of Shahar et al. (2015) which showed a fractionation for Δ57Fe of ~0.18 ‰ between a peridotite and an Fe-alloy with a similar S abundance to C in these experiments. The one experiment thus far that contained Ni (~4 wt. % in the alloy) showed a resolvable fractionation between the Fe-Ni-C alloy and silicate of ~0.10 ‰. Shahar et al. found a

  6. Structure, Frictional Melting and Fault Weakening during the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake Slip: Observation from the WFSD Drilling Core Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Wang, H.; Li, C.; Zhang, J.; Sun, Z.; Si, J.; Liu, D.; Chevalier, M. L.; Han, L.; Yun, K.; Zheng, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The 2008 Mw7.9 Wenchuan earthquake produced two co-seismic surface ruptures along Yingxiu-Beichuan fault (~270 km) and the Guanxian-Anxian fault (~80 km) simultaneously in the Longmen Shan thrust belt. Besides, two surface rupture zones were tracked in the southern segment of the Yingxiu-Beichuan rupture zone, one along the Yingxiu fault, the other along the Shenxigou-Longchi fault, which both converged into one rupture zone at the Bajiaomiao village, Hongkou town, where one distinct fault plane with two striation orientations was exposed. The Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling project (WFSD) was carried out right after the earthquake to investigate its faulting mechanisms and rupture process. Six boreholes were drilled along the rupture zones with depths ranging from 600 to 2400 m. WFSD-1 and WFSD-2 are located at the Bajiaomiao area, the southern segment of the Yingxiu-Beichuan rupture zone, while WFSD-4 and WFSD-4S are in the Nanba town area, in the northern part of the rupture zone. Detailed research showed that ~1 mm thick Principal Slip Zone (PSZ) of the Wenchuan earthquake is located at ~589 m-depth in the WFSD-1 cores. Graphite present in the PSZ indicates a low fault strength. Long-term temperature monitoring shows an extremely low fault friction coefficient during the earthquake. Recently, another possible PSZ was found in WFSD-1 cores at ~732 m-depth, with a ~2 mm thick melt layer in the fault gouge, where feldspar was melted but quartz was not, indicating that the frictional melting temperature was 1230°C < T < 1720°C. These two PSZs at depth may correspond to the two co-seismic surface rupture zones. Besides, the Wenchuan earthquake PSZ was also recognized in the WFSD-4S cores, at ~1084 m-depth. About 200-400 μm thick melt layer (fault vein, mainly feldspar), as well as melt injection veins, were observed in the slip zone, where oblique distinct striations were visible on the slip surface. Therefore, there are two PSZs in the shallow

  7. Hot-melt co-extrusion for the production of fixed-dose combination products with a controlled release ethylcellulose matrix core.

    PubMed

    Vynckier, A-K; Dierickx, L; Saerens, L; Voorspoels, J; Gonnissen, Y; De Beer, T; Vervaet, C; Remon, J P

    2014-04-10

    In this study, hot-melt co-extrusion was evaluated as a technique for the production of fixed-dose combination products, using ethylcellulose as a core matrix former to control the release of metoprolol tartrate and a polyethylene oxide-based coat formulation to obtain immediate release of hydrochlorothiazide. By lowering the concentration of the hydrophilic additive polyethylene oxide in the plasticized ethylcellulose matrix or by lowering the drug load, the in vitro metoprolol tartrate release from the core was substantially sustained. The in vitro release of hydrochlorothiazide from the polyethylene oxide/polyethylene glycol coat was completed within 45 min for all formulations. Tensile testing of the core/coat mini-matrices revealed an adequate adhesion between the two layers. Raman mapping showed no migration of active substances. Solid state characterization indicated that the crystalline state of metoprolol tartrate was not affected by thermal processing via hot-melt extrusion, while hydrochlorothiazide was amorphous in the coat. These solid state characteristics were confirmed during the stability study. Considering the bioavailability of metoprolol tartrate after oral administration to dogs, the different co-extruded formulations offered a range of sustained release characteristics. Moreover, high metoprolol tartrate plasma concentrations were reached in dogs allowing the administered dose to be halved.

  8. High-pressure melting experiments on Fe-Si alloys and implications for silicon as a light element in the core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Haruka; Hirose, Kei; Yonemitsu, Kyoko; Ohishi, Yasuo

    2016-12-01

    We carried out melting experiments on Fe-Si alloys to 127 GPa in a laser-heated diamond-anvil cell (DAC). On the basis of textural and chemical characterizations of samples recovered from a DAC, a change in eutectic liquid composition in the Fe-FeSi binary system was examined with increasing pressure. The chemical compositions of coexisting liquid and solid phases were quantitatively determined with field-emission-type electron microprobes. The results demonstrate that silicon content in the eutectic liquid decreases with increasing pressure to less than 1.5 ± 0.1 wt.% Si at 127 GPa. If silicon is a single light element in the core, 4.5 to 12 wt.% Si is required in the outer core in order to account for its density deficit from pure iron. However, such a liquid core, whose composition is on the Si-rich side of the eutectic point, crystallizes less dense solid, CsCl (B2)-type phase at the inner core boundary (ICB). Our data also show that the difference in silicon concentration between coexisting solid and liquid is too small to account for the observed density contrast across the ICB. These indicate that silicon cannot be the sole light element in the core. Previous geochemical and cosmochemical arguments, however, strongly require ∼6 wt.% Si in the core. It is possible that the Earth's core originally included ∼6 wt.% Si but then became depleted in silicon by crystallizing SiO2 or MgSiO3.

  9. The medical effects of postulated accidental release of radioactive material from Heysham Nuclear Power Station.

    PubMed

    Oliver, D W

    1991-01-01

    The effects of a postulated reactor accident at one of the four AGRs at Heysham, NW England, have been studied, assuming a 10% release of the radioactive core. Methods used are a computer program TIRION, analysis of the radiation doses from the Chernobyl release of 1986 and the Windscale fire of 1957. Fatal cases predicted are 200 on-site, 3000 within 30 km and 250,000 in the cloud paths over Northern England. The results would suggest the incidence of fatal cancer would increase from roughly 20% to 27% in the postulated exposed population of 3.6 million.

  10. Final results of the XR2-1 BWR metallic melt relocation experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gauntt, R.O.; Humphries, L.L.

    1997-08-01

    This report documents the final results of the XR2-1 boiling water reactor (BWR) metallic melt relocation experiment, conducted at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the material relocation processes and relocation pathways in a dry BWR core following a severe nuclear reactor accident such as an unrecovered station blackout accident. The imposed test conditions (initial thermal state and the melt generation rates) simulated the conditions for the postulated accident scenario and the prototypic design of the lower core test section (in composition and in geometry) ensured that thermal masses and physical flow barriers were modeled adequately. The experiment has shown that, under dry core conditions, the metallic core materials that melt and drain from the upper core regions can drain from the core region entirely without formation of robust coherent blockages in the lower core. Temporary blockages that suspended pools of molten metal later melted, allowing the metals to continue draining downward. The test facility and instrumentation are described in detail. The test progression and results are presented and compared to MERIS code analyses. 6 refs., 55 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Effect of carbon, sulfur and silicon on iron melting at high pressure: Implications for composition and evolution of the planetary terrestrial cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Liwei; Fei, Yingwei; Liu, Xi; Gong, Zizheng; Shahar, Anat

    2013-08-01

    High-pressure melting experiments in the Fe-S-C ternary and Fe-S-Si-C quaternary systems have been conducted in the range of 3.5-20 GPa and 920-1700 °C in the multi-anvil press. The mutual solubility, melting relations, and crystallization sequences were systematically investigated with changes of pressure, temperature and bulk composition. Five starting materials of Fe(84.69 wt%)-C(4.35 wt%)-S(7.85 wt%), Fe(84.87 wt%)-C(2.08 wt%)-S(11.41 wt%), Fe(86.36 wt%)-C(0.96 wt%)-S(10.31 wt%), Fe(85.71 wt%)-C(0.33 wt%)-S(11.86 wt%) and Fe(82.95 wt%)-C(0.66 wt%)-S(13.7 wt%)-Si(2.89 wt%) were employed. For Fe(84.69 wt%)-C(4.35 wt%)-S(7.85 wt%), the first crystallized phase is Fe3C at 5 GPa and Fe7C3 at 10-20 GPa. For Fe(84.87 wt%)-C(2.08 wt%)-S(11.41 wt%), Fe3C is the stable carbide at subsolidus temperature at 5-15 GPa. For Fe(86.36 wt%)-C(0.96 wt%)-S(10.31 wt%) and Fe(85.71 wt%)-C(0.33 wt%)-S(11.86 wt%), the first crystallized phase is metallic Fe instead of iron carbide at 5-10 GPa. The cotectic curves in Fe-S-C ternary system indicate only a small amount of C is needed to form an iron carbide solid inner core with the presence of S. Experiments on Fe(82.95 wt%)-C(0.66 wt%)-S(13.7 wt%)-Si(2.89 wt%) showed that a small amount of C does not significantly change the closure pressure of miscibility gap compared with that in Fe-S-Si system. It is observed that S preferentially partitions into molten iron while a significant amount of Si enters the solid phase with temperature decrease. Meanwhile, the C concentration in the liquid and solid iron metal changes little with temperature variations. If S, C and Si partitioning behavior between molten iron and solid iron metal with temperature remains the same under Earth's present core pressure conditions, the solid inner core should be iron dominated with dissolved Si. On the other hand, the liquid outer core will be S rich and Si poor. Moderate carbon will be evenly present in both solid and liquid cores. Based on our melting data

  12. A MELCOR Application to Two Light Water Reactor Nuclear Power Plant Core Melt Scenarios with Assumed Cavity Flooding Action

    SciTech Connect

    Martin-Fuertes, Francisco; Martin-Valdepenas, Juan Manuel; Mira, Jose; Sanchez, Maria Jesus

    2003-10-15

    The MELCOR 1.8.4 code Bottom Head package has been applied to simulate two reactor cavity flooding scenarios for when the corium material relocates to the lower-plenum region in postulated severe accidents. The applications were preceded by a review of two main physical models, which highly impacted the results. A model comparison to available bibliography models was done, which allowed some code modifications on selected default assumptions to be undertaken. First, the corium convective heat transfer to the wall when it becomes liquid was modified, and second, the default nucleate boiling regime curve in a submerged hemisphere was replaced by a new curve (and, to a much lesser extent, the critical heat flux curve was slightly varied).The applications were devoted to two prototypical light water reactor nuclear power plants, a 2700-MW(thermal) pressurized water reactor (PWR) and a 1381-MW(thermal) boiling water reactor (BWR). The main conclusions of the cavity flooding simulations were that the PWR lower-head survivability is extended although it is clearly not guaranteed, while in the BWR sequence the corium seems to be successfully arrested in the lower plenum.Three applications of the CFX 4.4 computational fluid dynamics code were carried out in the context of the BWR scenario to support the first modification of the aforementioned two scenarios for MELCOR.Finally, in the same BWR context, a statistic predictor of selected output parameters as a function of input parameters is presented, which provides reasonable results when compared to MELCOR full calculations in much shorter CPU processing times.

  13. Megablocks and melt pockets in the Chesapeake Bay impact structure constrained by magnetic field measurements and properties of the Eyreville and Cape Charles cores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shah, A.K.; Daniels, D.L.; Kontny, A.; Brozena, J.

    2009-01-01

    We use magnetic susceptibility and remanent magnetization measurements of the Eyreville and Cape Charles cores in combination with new and previously collected magnetic field data in order to constrain structural features within the inner basin of the Chesapeake Bay impact structure. The Eyreville core shows the first evidence of several-hundred-meter-thick basement-derived megablocks that have been transported possibly kilometers from their pre-impact location. The magnetic anomaly map of the structure exhibits numerous short-wavelength (<2 km) variations that indicate the presence of magnetic sources within the crater fill. With core magnetic properties and seismic reflection and refraction results as constraints, forward models of the magnetic field show that these sources may represent basementderived megablocks that are a few hundred meters thick or melt bodies that are a few dozen meters thick. Larger-scale magnetic field properties suggest that these bodies overlie deeper, pre-impact basement contacts between materials with different magnetic properties such as gneiss and schist or gneiss and granite. The distribution of the short-wavelength magnetic anomalies in combination with observations of small-scale (1-2 mGal) gravity field variations suggest that basement-derived megablocks are preferentially distributed on the eastern side of the inner crater, not far from the Eyreville core, at depths of around 1-2 km. A scenario where additional basement-derived blocks between 2 and 3 km depth are distributed throughout the inner basin-and are composed of more magnetic materials, such as granite and schist, toward the east over a large-scale magnetic anomaly high and less magnetic materials, such as gneiss, toward the west where the magnetic anomaly is lower-provides a good model fi t to the observed magnetic anomalies in a manner that is consistent with both gravity and seismic-refraction data. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  14. Melt fracture revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, J. M.

    2003-07-16

    In a previous paper the author and Demay advanced a model to explain the melt fracture instability observed when molten linear polymer melts are extruded in a capillary rheometer operating under the controlled condition that the inlet flow rate was held constant. The model postulated that the melts were a slightly compressible viscous fluid and allowed for slipping of the melt at the wall. The novel feature of that model was the use of an empirical switch law which governed the amount of wall slip. The model successfully accounted for the oscillatory behavior of the exit flow rate, typically referred to as the melt fracture instability, but did not simultaneously yield the fine scale spatial oscillations in the melt typically referred to as shark skin. In this note a new model is advanced which simultaneously explains the melt fracture instability and shark skin phenomena. The model postulates that the polymer is a slightly compressible linearly viscous fluid but assumes no slip boundary conditions at the capillary wall. In simple shear the shear stress {tau}and strain rate d are assumed to be related by d = F{tau} where F ranges between F{sub 2} and F{sub 1} > F{sub 2}. A strain rate dependent yield function is introduced and this function governs whether F evolves towards F{sub 2} or F{sub 1}. This model accounts for the empirical observation that at high shears polymers align and slide more easily than at low shears and explains both the melt fracture and shark skin phenomena.

  15. Holland's Theory of Vocational Choice and Postulated Value Dimensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laudeman, Kent A.; Griffeth, Paul

    1978-01-01

    The validity of Holland's vocational personality types and their relationship to value dimensions were examined in light of Holland's theory of vocational choice. The results generally supported Holland's postulated personality typologies and value dimensions. (Author/JKS)

  16. Koch's postulates, microbial dysbiosis and inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Singh, V P; Proctor, S D; Willing, B P

    2016-07-01

    Over the past 20 years, a growing amount of evidence supports the role of microbes and an imbalanced microbiota in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). While many reviews have been written on the microbiota in IBD, few have considered how they fulfil the Koch's postulates. In this review, we consider how the Koch's postulates might be modified so that they can be fulfilled for polymicrobial diseases, and we discuss the progress made to date in fulfilling them.

  17. Pernicious Residues of Foundational Postulates: Their Impact on Women.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    It has long been recognized that many of the original psychoanalytic views of women were derived from misguided theories. Regrettably, residues of the foundational postulates that informed those theories still persist, assuring a pervasive gender bias even in contemporary psychoanalytic investigations. This contribution describes where those postulates reside, while proposing alternates that could prove far more useful for the theory and practice of our profession.

  18. Boundary pressure of inter-connection of Fe-Ni-S melt in olivine based on in-situ X-ray tomography: Implication to core formation in asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terasaki, H.; Urakawa, S.; Uesugi, K.; Nakatsuka, A.; Funakoshi, K.; Ohtani, E.

    2011-12-01

    Interconnectivity of Fe-alloy melt in crystalline silicates is important property for the core formation mechanism in planetary interior. In previous studies, the interconnectivity of Fe-alloy melt has been studied based on textural observation of recovered samples from high pressure and temperature. However, there is no observation under high pressure and temperature. We have developed 80-ton uni-axial press for X-ray computed micro-tomography (X-CT) and performed X-CT measurement under high pressure (Urakawa et al. 2010). Here we report X-CT measurement of Fe-Ni-S melt in crystalline olivine and interconnectivity of the melt up to 3.5 GPa and 1273 K. X-CT measurements were carried out at BL20B2 beamline, SPring-8 synchrotron facility. The sample was powder mixture of Fe-Ni-S and olivine, which was enclosed in graphite capsule. Heating was performed using a cylindrical graphite furnace. Pressure was generated using opposed toroidal-shape WC anvil. The uni-axial press was set on the rotational stage and X-ray radiography image of the sample was collected using CCD camera from 0°to 180°with 0.3° step. 3-D image of the sample was obtained by reconstructing the 2-D radiography image. The 3-D CT image shows that the size of the Fe-Ni-S melt increased significantly compared to that before melting below 2.5 GPa, suggesting that the melt was interconnected in olivine crystals. On the other hand, 3-D texture of the sample at 3.5 GPa did not show difference from that before melting. Therefore, the boundary of inter-connection of Fe-Ni-S melt is likely to locate between 2.5 and 3.5 GPa. This result is important application for the core formation mechanism especially in small bodies, such as differentiated asteroids.

  19. Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1 Uncertainty Analysis-Exploration of Core Melt Progression Uncertain Parameters-Volume II.

    SciTech Connect

    Denman, Matthew R.; Brooks, Dusty Marie

    2015-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has conducted an uncertainty analysi s (UA) on the Fukushima Daiichi unit (1F1) accident progression wit h the MELCOR code. Volume I of the 1F1 UA discusses the physical modeling details and time history results of the UA. Volume II of the 1F1 UA discusses the statistical viewpoint. The model used was developed for a previous accident reconstruction investigation jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The goal of this work was to perform a focused evaluation of uncertainty in core damage progression behavior and its effect on key figures - of - merit (e.g., hydrogen production, fraction of intact fuel, vessel lower head failure) and in doing so assess the applicability of traditional sensitivity analysis techniques .

  20. Model for T-Antigen-Dependent Melting of the Simian Virus 40 Core Origin Based on Studies of the Interaction of the Beta-Hairpin with DNA▿

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anuradha; Meinke, Gretchen; Reese, Danielle K.; Moine, Stephanie; Phelan, Paul J.; Fradet-Turcotte, Amélie; Archambault, Jacques; Bohm, Andrew; Bullock, Peter A.

    2007-01-01

    The interaction of simian virus 40 (SV40) T antigen (T-ag) with the viral origin has served as a model for studies of site-specific recognition of a eukaryotic replication origin and the mechanism of DNA unwinding. These studies have revealed that a motif termed the “beta-hairpin” is necessary for assembly of T-ag on the SV40 origin. Herein it is demonstrated that residues at the tip of the “beta-hairpin” are needed to melt the origin-flanking regions and that the T-ag helicase domain selectively assembles around one of the newly generated single strands in a manner that accounts for its 3′-to-5′ helicase activity. Furthermore, T-ags mutated at the tip of the “beta-hairpin” are defective for oligomerization on duplex DNA; however, they can assemble on hybrid duplex DNA or single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) substrates provided the strand containing the 3′ extension is present. Collectively, these experiments indicate that residues at the tip of the beta-hairpin generate ssDNA in the core origin and that the ssDNA is essential for subsequent oligomerization events. PMID:17287270

  1. Safely Teaching Koch's Postulates on the Causation of Infectious Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Peter R.

    1990-01-01

    Described is an activity in which the interactions between a parasite and its host may be demonstrated using the relationship between yogurt and two species of bacteria. Background information on Koch's postulates is provided. Materials, laboratory procedures, and results are discussed. (CW)

  2. The necessity of the second postulate in special relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drory, Alon

    2015-08-01

    Many authors noted that the principle of relativity together with space-time homogeneity and isotropy restricts the form of the coordinate transformations from one inertial frame to another to being Lorentz-like. The equations contain a free parameter, k (equal to c-2 in special relativity), whose value is claimed to be merely an empirical matter, so that special relativity does not need the postulate of constancy of the speed of light. I analyze this claim and argue that the distinction between the cases k=0 and k ≠ 0 is on the level of a postulate and that until we assume one or the other, we have an incomplete structure that leaves many fundamental questions undecided, including basic prerequisites of experimentation. I examine an analogous case in which isotropy is the postulate dropped and use it to illustrate the problem. Finally I analyze two attempts by Sfarti, and Behera and Mukhopadhyay to derive the constancy of the speed of light from the principle of relativity. I show that these attempts make hidden assumptions that are equivalent to the second postulate.

  3. A Conceptual Derivation of Einstein's Postulates of Special Relativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearden, Thomas E.

    This document presents a discussion and conceptual derivation of Einstein's postulates of special relativity. The perceptron approach appears to be a fundamentally new manner of regarding physical phenomena and it is hoped that physicists will interest themselves in the concept. (Author)

  4. Changing Postulates Can Provide Variety and Meaningful Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahaffy, Donald

    1982-01-01

    An approach is presented that is based on modifying the standard axiomatic system found in high school geometry books. Such changes start with the introduction of a side-angle-side (SAS) postulate for similar triangles. It is shown how the new system can prove existence and uniqueness of parallel lines. (MP)

  5. A parametric model for analysis of melt progression in U-A1 assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Paik, I.K. ); Kim, S.H.; Leonard, M.T.; Amos, C.N. )

    1990-06-15

    A computational model has been developed that calculates the thermal degradation of the reactor core of the production reactors at the Savannah River Site (SRS) under postulated severe accident conditions. This model addresses heatup and degradation of the U-Al fuel and Li-Al or U-metal target assemblies and neighboring structures. Models included are those for assembly heatup due to decay heat generation, material melting and relocation, volume expansion of fuel due to foaming and melt/debris accumulation in assembly bottom end-fittings. Sample results are presented that illustrate the effect of alternative assumptions regarding the temperature at which U-Al alloy melts and relocates and the extent to which fuel foaming thermally couples adjacent fuel and target tubes. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  6. A postulate leading to the Titius-Bode law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louise, R.

    1982-02-01

    A formalism similar to Sommerfeld's (1916) is examined, which accounts for the planetary distribution of the solar system. The analysis is based on the early quantum theory, and emphasizes that no connection exists between the Sommerfeld quantum rule and the assumed equation in the present analysis. The assumed equation seems to reflect a nonclassical property of gravitation, and may be a pure coincidence leading to the T-B law, and thus may have no significance other than that of an exotic postulate.

  7. Fission product transport and behavior during two postulated loss of flow transients in the air

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.P.; Carboneau, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    This document discusses fission product behavior during two postulated loss-of-flow accidents (leading to high- and low-pressure core degradation, respectively) in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). These transients are designated ATR Transient LCPI5 (high-pressure) and LPP9 (low-pressure). Normally, transients of this nature would be easily mitigated using existing safety systems and procedures. In these analyses, failure of these safety systems was assumed so that core degradation and fission product release could be analyzed. A probabilistic risk assessment indicated that the probability of occurrence for these two transients is of the order of 10{sup {minus}5 }and 10{sup {minus}7} per reactor year for LCP15 and LPP9, respectively.

  8. Fission product transport and behavior during two postulated loss of flow transients in the air

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.P.; Carboneau, M.L.

    1991-12-31

    This document discusses fission product behavior during two postulated loss-of-flow accidents (leading to high- and low-pressure core degradation, respectively) in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). These transients are designated ATR Transient LCPI5 (high-pressure) and LPP9 (low-pressure). Normally, transients of this nature would be easily mitigated using existing safety systems and procedures. In these analyses, failure of these safety systems was assumed so that core degradation and fission product release could be analyzed. A probabilistic risk assessment indicated that the probability of occurrence for these two transients is of the order of 10{sup {minus}5 }and 10{sup {minus}7} per reactor year for LCP15 and LPP9, respectively.

  9. W.E. Johnson’s ’Sufficientness’ Postulate.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-22

    then serving to distinguish one element of a sample from another. In the situation envisaged by Johnson, Carnap (sea Section 4 below), and others, a...Johnson’s death, Rudolph Carnap and his students vould, unknowingly, reproduce much of Johnson’s work. In 1945 Carnap introduced the function c* [= P{XT.+l...And Just as Johnson grew uneasy with his combination postulate, so too Carnap would later introduce the family of functions fc: 0 < X < am) (-(ni+k)/N

  10. Radiation and matter: Electrodynamics postulates and Lorenz gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrov, V. B.; Trigger, S. A.; van Heijst, G. J.; Schram, P. P.

    2016-11-01

    In general terms, we have considered matter as the system of charged particles and quantized electromagnetic field. For consistent description of the thermodynamic properties of matter, especially in an extreme state, the problem of quantization of the longitudinal and scalar potentials should be solved. In this connection, we pay attention that the traditional postulates of electrodynamics, which claim that only electric and magnetic fields are observable, is resolved by denial of the statement about validity of the Maxwell equations for microscopic fields. The Maxwell equations, as the generalization of experimental data, are valid only for averaged values. We show that microscopic electrodynamics may be based on postulation of the d'Alembert equations for four-vector of the electromagnetic field potential. The Lorenz gauge is valid for the averages potentials (and provides the implementation of the Maxwell equations for averages). The suggested concept overcomes difficulties under the electromagnetic field quantization procedure being in accordance with the results of quantum electrodynamics. As a result, longitudinal and scalar photons become real rather than virtual and may be observed in principle. The longitudinal and scalar photons provide not only the Coulomb interaction of charged particles, but also allow the electrical Aharonov-Bohm effect.

  11. Structural failure analysis of reactor vessels due to molten core debris

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeiffer, P.A.

    1993-08-01

    Maintaining structural integrity of the reactor vessel during a postulated core melt accident is an important safety consideration in the design of the vessel. This paper addresses the failure predictions of the vessel due to thermal and pressure loadings from the molten core debris depositing on the lower head of the vessel. Different loading combinations were considered based on a wet or dry cavity and pressurization of the vessel based on operating pressure or atmospheric (pipe break). The analyses considered both short term (minutes) and long term (days) failure modes. Short term failure modes include creep at elevated temperatures and plastic instabilities of the structure. Long term failure modes are caused by creep rupture that lead to plastic instability of the structure. The analyses predict the reactor vessel will remain intact after the core melt has deposited on the lower vessel head.

  12. A random spatial network model based on elementary postulates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karlinger, M.R.; Troutman, B.M.

    1989-01-01

    In contrast to the random topology model, this model ascribes a unique spatial specification to generated drainage networks, a distinguishing property of some network growth models. The simplicity of the postulates creates an opportunity for potential analytic investigations of the probabilistic structure of the drainage networks, while the spatial specification enables analyses of spatially dependent network properties. In the random topology model all drainage networks, conditioned on magnitude (number of first-order streams), are equally likely, whereas in this model all spanning trees of a grid, conditioned on area and drainage density, are equally likely. As a result, link lengths in the generated networks are not independent, as usually assumed in the random topology model. -from Authors

  13. Modeling of aircraft unsteady aerodynamic characteristics. Part 1: Postulated models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Vladislav; Noderer, Keith D.

    1994-01-01

    A short theoretical study of aircraft aerodynamic model equations with unsteady effects is presented. The aerodynamic forces and moments are expressed in terms of indicial functions or internal state variables. The first representation leads to aircraft integro-differential equations of motion; the second preserves the state-space form of the model equations. The formulations of unsteady aerodynamics is applied in two examples. The first example deals with a one-degree-of-freedom harmonic motion about one of the aircraft body axes. In the second example, the equations for longitudinal short-period motion are developed. In these examples, only linear aerodynamic terms are considered. The indicial functions are postulated as simple exponentials and the internal state variables are governed by linear, time-invariant, first-order differential equations. It is shown that both approaches to the modeling of unsteady aerodynamics lead to identical models.

  14. Causation and Disease: The Henle-Koch Postulates Revisited 1

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Alfred S.

    1976-01-01

    The Henle-Koch postulates are reviewed in terms of their full validity in Koch's day and in light of subsequent developments. The changing guidelines developed for viral diseases, for viruses in relation to cancer and to chronic central nervous system infection, and for causative agents in chronic diseases are discussed chronologically. A set of guidelines for both acute infectious and chronic diseases is presented. The need for recognizing the role of the host and the spectrum of host responses, for sound biologic sense in evaluating causal roles of agents in disease, and for flexibility in adapting our guidelines to new knowledge are emphasized. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8 PMID:782050

  15. 76 FR 43356 - Evaluations of Explosions Postulated To Occur at Nearby Facilities and on Transportation Routes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... COMMISSION Evaluations of Explosions Postulated To Occur at Nearby Facilities and on Transportation Routes... for public comment draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-1270, ``Evaluations of Explosions Postulated to... assumptions the NRC's staff finds acceptable for evaluating postulated explosions at nearby facilities...

  16. Economic Analysis of a Postulated space Tourism Transportation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Allan S.

    2002-01-01

    Design concepts and associated costs were defined for a family of launch vehicles supporting a space tourism endeavor requiring the weekly transport of space tourists to and from an Earth- orbiting facility. The stated business goal for the Space Tourist Transportation System (STTS) element of the proposed commercial space venture was to transport and return ~50 passengers a week to LEO at a cost of roughly 50 K per seat commencing in 2005. This paper summarizes the economic analyses conducted within a broader Systems Engineering study of the postulated concept. Parametric costs were derived using TransCostSystems' (TCS) Cost Engineering Handbook, version 7. Costs were developed as a function of critical system characteristics and selected business scenarios. Various economic strategies directed toward achieving a cost of ~50 K per seat were identified and examined. The study indicated that with a `nominal' business scenario, the initial cost for developing and producing a fully reusable, 2-stage STTS element for a baseline of 46-passengers was about 15.5 B assuming a plausible `commercialization factor' of 0.333. The associated per-seat ticket cost was ~890 K, more than an order of magnitude higher than desired. If the system is enlarged to 104 passengers for better efficiency, the STTS initial cost for the nominal business scenario is increased to about 19.8 B and the per-seat ticket cost is reduced to ~530 K. It was concluded that achieving the desired ticket cost of 50 K per seat is not feasible unless the size of the STTS, and therefore of the entire system, is substantially increased. However, for the specified operational characteristics, it was shown that a system capacity of thousands of passengers per week is required. This implies an extremely high total system development cost, which is not very realistic as a commercial venture, especially in the proposed time frame. These results suggested that ambitious commercial space ventures may have to rely on

  17. The core paradox.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, G. C.; Higgins, G. H.

    1973-01-01

    Rebuttal of suggestions from various critics attempting to provide an escape from the seeming paradox originated by Higgins and Kennedy's (1971) proposed possibility that the liquid in the outer core was thermally stably stratified and that this stratification might prove a powerful inhibitor to circulation of the outer core fluid of the kind postulated for the generation of the earth's magnetic field. These suggestions are examined and shown to provide no reasonable escape from the core paradox.

  18. A Postulated Mechanism that Leads to Materialization and Dematerialization of Matter and to Antigravity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-10-08

    TITLE fand Subtlll») A POSTULATED MECHANISM THAT LEADS TO MATERIALIZATION AND DEMATERIALIZATION OF MATTER AND TO ANTIGRAVITY S. TYPE OF REPORT...m AD-A020 796 A POSTULATED MECHANISM THAT LEADS TO MATERIALIZATION AND DEMATERIALIZATION OF MATTER AND TO ANTIGRAVITY Thomas E. Bearden Army...Jiife’iPi*^ o CM Öb6140 TECHNICAL REPORT SAM-0 76-1 A POSTULATED MECHANISM THAT LEADS TO MATERIALIZATION AND DEMATERIALIZATION OF MATTER AND TO

  19. Melt Production in Oblique Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierazzo, E.; Melosh, H. J.

    2000-05-01

    Hydrocode modeling is a fundamental tool for the study of melt production in planetary impact events. Until recently, however, numerical modeling of impacts for melt production studies has been limited to vertical impacts. We present the first results of the investigation of melt production in oblique impacts. Simulations were carried out using Sandia's three-dimensional hydrocode CTH, coupled to the SESAME equation of state. While keeping other impact parameters constant, the calculations span impact angles (measured from the surface) from 90° (vertical impact) to 15°. The results show that impact angle affects the strength and distribution of the shock wave generated in the impact. As a result, both the isobaric core and the regions of melting in the target appear asymmetric and concentrated in the downrange, shallower portion of the target. The use of a pressure-decay power law (which describes pressure as function of linear distance from the impact point) to reconstruct the region of melting and vaporization is therefore complicated by the asymmetry of the shock wave. As an analog to the pressure decay versus distance from the impact point, we used a "volumetric pressure decay," where the pressure decay is modeled as a function of volume of target material shocked at or above the given shock pressure. We find that the volumetric pressure decay exponent is almost constant for impact angles from 90° to 30°, dropping by about a factor of two for a 15° impact. In the range of shock pressures at which most materials of geologic interest melt or begin to vaporize, we find that the volume of impact melt decreases by at most 20% for impacts from 90° down to 45°. Below 45°, however, the amount of melt in the target decreases rapidly with impact angle. Compared to the vertical case, the reduction in volume of melt is about 50% for impacts at 30° and more than 90% for a 15° impact. These estimates do not include possible melting due to shear heating, which can

  20. Hidden carbon in Earth's inner core revealed by shear softening in dense Fe7C3.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; Li, Zeyu; Zhang, Dongzhou; Liu, Jiachao; Hu, Michael Y; Zhao, Jiyong; Bi, Wenli; Alp, E Ercan; Xiao, Yuming; Chow, Paul; Li, Jie

    2014-12-16

    Earth's inner core is known to consist of crystalline iron alloyed with a small amount of nickel and lighter elements, but the shear wave (S wave) travels through the inner core at about half the speed expected for most iron-rich alloys under relevant pressures. The anomalously low S-wave velocity (vS) has been attributed to the presence of liquid, hence questioning the solidity of the inner core. Here we report new experimental data up to core pressures on iron carbide Fe7C3, a candidate component of the inner core, showing that its sound velocities dropped significantly near the end of a pressure-induced spin-pairing transition, which took place gradually between 10 GPa and 53 GPa. Following the transition, the sound velocities increased with density at an exceptionally low rate. Extrapolating the data to the inner core pressure and accounting for the temperature effect, we found that low-spin Fe7C3 can reproduce the observed vS of the inner core, thus eliminating the need to invoke partial melting or a postulated large temperature effect. The model of a carbon-rich inner core may be consistent with existing constraints on the Earth's carbon budget and would imply that as much as two thirds of the planet's carbon is hidden in its center sphere.

  1. Skylab M551 metals melting experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poorman, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    The objectives of the M551 Metals Melting Experiment were to: (1) study behavior of molten metal, (2) characterize metals melted and solidified in the low gravity space environment compared to one-gravity of earth, and (3) determine feasibility of joining metals in space. The experiment used the electron beam (EB) and chamber of the M512 apparatus to make a dwell puddle and a melt in a rotating disc of varying thickness. Hence, the EB performed cut-through, full and partial penetration melts, in addition to a resolidified button. The three disc materials were aluminum 2219-T87, 304 stainless steel, and pure tantalum to provide a wide range of density and melting conditions. Observations to date include the proof that EB welding, cutting, and melting can be done successfully in low gravity. Earlier, some welding authorities had postulated that without gravity the EB would force the molten puddle out of contact. However, the experiment proved that surface tension forces predominate. From the viewpoint of cast-solidification, small, equiaxed grains in Skylab specimens compared to large, elongated grains in ground based specimens were observed. The former are thought to be associated with constitutional supercooling and nucleation where the latter are associated with dendritic solidification. In further support of the more equiaxed grain growth in Skylab, symmetric subgrain patterns were frequently observed where there was much less symmetry in ground based specimens.

  2. Melting the Divide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    Presenting Quaternary Environmental Change to students who fall into Widening Participation criteria at the University of Cambridge, gives a unique opportunity to present academic debate in an approachable and entertaining way. Literally by discussing the melting of our ice caps, melts the divide Cambridge has between its reputation and the reality for the brightest, underprivileged, students. There is a balance between presenting cutting edge research with the need to come across as accessible (and importantly valuable to "learning"). Climate change over the Quaternary lends itself well to this aim. By lecturing groups of potential students through the entire Quaternary in an hour, stopping to discuss how our ancestors interacted with past Interglacials and what are the mechanisms driving change (in generalized terms), you are able to introduce cutting edge research (such as the latest NEEM ice core) to the students. This shows the evolution and importance of higher education and academic research. The lecture leads well onto group discussions (termed "supervisions" in Cambridge), to explore their opinions on the concern for present Anthropogenic Climate Change in relation to Past Climate Change after being presented with images that our ancestors "made it". Here discussion thrives off students saying obvious things (or sarcastic comments!) which quickly can lead into a deep technical discussion on their terms. Such discussions give the students a zest for higher education, simply throwing Ruddiman's (2003) "The Anthroprocene Started Several Thousand Years Ago" at them, questions in a second their concept of Anthropogenic Climate Change. Supervisions lend themselves well to bright, articulate, students and by offering these experiences to students of Widening Participation criteria we quickly melt the divide between the reputation of Cambridge ( and higher education as a whole) and the day to day practice. Higher education is not for the privileged, but a free and

  3. Validity of Taylor's Dissipation-Viscosity Independence Postulate in Variable-Viscosity Turbulent Fluid Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kurnchul; Girimaji, Sharath S.; Kerimo, Johannes

    2008-08-01

    G. I. Taylor’s postulate [Proc. R. Soc. APRLAAZ0080-4630 151, 421 (1935)10.1098/rspa.1935.0158] that dissipation is independent of viscosity at high Reynolds numbers is the foundation of many single-fluid turbulence theories and closure models. The validity of this key postulate in an important class of flows, turbulent mixtures, is not yet clearly established. We devise a simple numerical experiment of decaying turbulence in a mixture of two fluids of vastly different viscosities to examine dissipation scaling. Initially, the two fluids are segregated, and dissipation is directly proportional to viscosity. As turbulence evolves and fluids mix, the velocity gradients rapidly adapt to the viscosity field, and within one-half eddy turnover time, dissipation-viscosity independence is established. Viscosity-weighted velocity-gradient skewness is shown to be constant, leading to the validity of Taylor’s postulate in turbulent mixtures.

  4. A Postulated Mechanism That Leads to Materialization and Dematerialization of Matter and to Antigravity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearden, Thomas E.

    This document presents a discussion of the postulated mechanism that leads to the materialization and dematerialization of matter and to antigravity. The mechanism also explains why an orbital electron does not radiate energy, in contradiction to classical electromagnetic theory. One of the paradoxes of special relativity is explained. A new model…

  5. Free Radical Halogenation, Selectivity, and Thermodynamics: The Polanyi Principle and Hammond's Postulate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scala, Alfred A.

    2004-01-01

    The underlying ideas of the Polanyi principle and Hammond's postulate in relation to the simple free halogenation reactions and their selectivity and thermodynamics is presented. The results indicate that the chlorine atom exhibits a slightly less selectivity in the liquid phase as compared to in the gas phase.

  6. Fun Microbiology: Using a Plant Pathogenic Fungus To Demonstrate Koch's Postulates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, James K.; Orsted, Kathy M.; Warnes, Carl E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an experiment using a plant pathogenic fungus in which students learn to follow aseptic techniques, grow and produce spores of a fungus, use a hemacytometer for enumerating spores, prepare serial dilutions, grow and inoculate plants, isolate a pure culture using agar streak plates, and demonstrate the four steps of Koch's postulates.…

  7. An Inexpensive and Safe Experiment to Demonstrate Koch's Postulates Using Citrus Fruit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobi, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Citrus fruit (oranges, tangerines, grapefruit or lemons) purchased in a grocery store can be experimentally infected with readily-available sources of "Penicillium digitatum" to demonstrate the four basic steps of Koch's postulates, also known as proof of pathogenicity. The mould is isolated from naturally-infected citrus fruit into pure culture…

  8. Numerical and Experimental Model Studies on Thermal Hydraulic Behavior of FBR Internal Core Catcher Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Sanjay Kumar Das; Anil Kumar Sharma; Jasmin Sudha, A.; Punitha, G.; Lydia, G.; Somayajulu, P.A.; Murthy, S.S.; Malarvizhi, B.; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Harvey, J.; Kasinathan, N.; Rajan, M.

    2006-07-01

    Core Catcher is provided as an in-vessel core debris retention device to collect, support, cool and maintain in sub-critical configuration, the generated core debris from fuel melting due to certain postulated Beyond Design Basis Events (BDBE) for Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR). This also acts as a barrier to prevent settling of debris on main vessel and keeps its maximum temperature within acceptable creep range. Heat transfer by natural convection in the core catcher assembly has been assessed numerically and through water experiments using geometrically similar configuration. Resistive heating elements are used in experiment as heat source to simulate debris decay heat on core catcher. Series of experiments were carried out for two configurations referred as geometry A and geometry B. The later configuration showed enhanced natural convective heat transfer from the lower plenum of the vessel. Temperatures were monitored at critical positions and compared with numerical evaluation. Numerically evaluated flow fields and isotherms are compared with experimental data for specific steady state temperatures on heat source plate. Numerical results are found to be in good agreement with that obtained from experiments. The combined efforts of numerical and experimental work conclude core catcher assembly with geometry B to be more suitable. (authors)

  9. Effect of boiling regime on melt stream breakup in water

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, B.W.; Gabor, J.D.; Cassulo, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    A study has been performed examining the breakup and mixing behavior of an initially coherent stream of high-density melt as it flows downward through water. This work has application to the quenching of molten core materials as they drain downward during a postulated severe reactor accident. The study has included examination of various models of breakup distances based upon interfacial instabilities dominated either by liquid-liquid contact or by liquid-vapor contact. A series of experiments was performed to provide a data base for assessment of the various modeling approaches. The experiments involved Wood's metal (T/sub m/ = 73/sup 0/C, rho = 9.2 g/cm/sup 3/, d/sub j/ = 20 mm) poured into a deep pool of water. The temperature of the water and wood's metal were varied to span the range from single-phase, liquid-liquid contact to the film boiling regime. Experiment results showed that breakup occurred largely as a result of the spreading and entrainment from the leading edge of the jet. However, for streams of sufficient lengths a breakup length could be discerned at which there was no longer a coherent central core of the jet to feed the leading edge region. The erosion of the vertical trailing column is by Kelvin-Helmoltz instabilities and related disengagement of droplets from the jet into the surrounding fluid. For conditions of liquid-liquid contact, the breakup length has been found to be about 20 jet diameters; when substantial vapor is produced at the interface due to heat transfer from the jet to the water, the breakup distance was found to range to as high as 50 jet diameters. The former values are close to the analytical prediction of Taylor, whereas the latter values are better predicted by the model of Epstein and Fauske.

  10. Shell-resolved melting kinetics of icosahedral cluster.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong H; Jiang, En Y; Bai, Hai L; Wu, Ping; Li, Zhiqing; Sun, Chang Q

    2009-03-01

    Molecular dynamics calculations of the fluctuation of bond vibration revealed the shell-resolved mode of surface melting of the a closed-shell cluster containing 147 atoms with Lennard-Jones type interaction. It is found that the surface melting is imitated by the migrating of the vertex atoms. Although the melting process of the LJ147 cluster could be divided into discrete stages of surface shell-by-shell melting in general, there is still a continuous process of melting from the surface shell to the core interior.

  11. Supplementary documentation for an Environmental Impact Statement regarding the Pantex Plant: dispersion analysis for postulated accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Dewart, J.M.; Bowen, B.M.; Elder, J.C.

    1982-12-01

    This report documents work performed in support of preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) regarding the Department of Energy (DOE) Pantex Plant near Amarillo, Texas. The report covers the calculation of atmospheric dispersion and deposition of plutonium following postulated nonnuclear detonations of nuclear weapons. Downwind total integrated air concentrations and ground deposition values for each postulated accident are presented. The model used to perform these calculations is the DIFOUT model, developed at Sandia National Laboratories in conjunction with Operation Roller Coaster, a field experiment involving sampling and measurements of nuclear material dispersed by four detonations. The DIFOUT model is described along with the detonation cloud sizes, aerosol parameters, and meteorological data used as input data. A verification study of the DIFOUT model has also been performed; the results are presented.

  12. Design basis for protection of light water nuclear power plants against effects of postulated pipe rupture

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This standard addresses the design bases for light water reactor, nuclear power plant structures and components essential for the protection of public health and safety from the potential adverse effects of pipe whip, jet impingement, pressurization of compartments outside containment, environmental conditions and flooding associated with a postulated pipe rupture. The design bases for missile protection and the design bases for containment pressurization are not within this standard.

  13. Higher-order interference and single-system postulates characterizing quantum theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnum, Howard; Müller, Markus P.; Ududec, Cozmin

    2014-12-01

    We present a new characterization of quantum theory in terms of simple physical principles that is different from previous ones in two important respects: first, it only refers to properties of single systems without any assumptions on the composition of many systems; and second, it is closer to experiment by having absence of higher-order interference as a postulate, which is currently the subject of experimental investigation. We give three postulates—no higher-order interference, classical decomposability of states, and strong symmetry—and prove that the only non-classical operational probabilistic theories satisfying them are real, complex, and quaternionic quantum theory, together with three-level octonionic quantum theory and ball state spaces of arbitrary dimension. Then we show that adding observability of energy as a fourth postulate yields complex quantum theory as the unique solution, relating the emergence of the complex numbers to the possibility of Hamiltonian dynamics. We also show that there may be interesting non-quantum theories satisfying only the first two of our postulates, which would allow for higher-order interference in experiments while still respecting the contextuality analogue of the local orthogonality principle.

  14. Efficiency of melt extraction from partially molten regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hier-Majumder, S.; Abbott, M. E.; Drombosky, T.; Wimert, J. T.

    2011-12-01

    We discuss the efficiency of buoyancy-driven melt extraction in relation to the low velocity layer (LVL), atop the transition zone, and the ultralow velocity zones (ULVZ), atop the core mantle boundary. The LVL is characterized by a relatively large thickness, globally varying on the order of 30-90 km. It is inferred that the LVL is characterized by a modest amount of melting, 1% or less. The ULVZ, in contrast, is much thinner, with an average thickness of 10 km. It is also characterized by a density between 8-10% higher than the surrounding mantle, and contains up to 10% by volume melt. Three factors, frictional resistance, capillary tension, and stirring can contribute to long term melt retention in these partially molten regions. Frictional resistance to melt percolation is inversely proportional to the melt fraction squared. Consequently, the drainage efficiency of both buoyant and dense melts are reduced at low melt fractions. Strong tension on grain boundaries reduces the dihedral angle at the melt-grain triple junctions, establishing a well-connected network. Despite the presence of this well connected pathway, a larger force is required to counter the strong capillary tension and segregate melt from the matrix, especially at small melt fractions. Finally, compaction within the ULVZ stirred by convective motions in the overlying mantle can also preclude substantial drainage of melt and retain the melt over geological times.

  15. Mercury's core evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deproost, Marie-Hélène; Rivoldini, Attilio; Van Hoolst, Tim

    2016-10-01

    Remote sensing data of Mercury's surface by MESSENGER indicate that Mercury formed under reducing conditions. As a consequence, silicon is likely the main light element in the core together with a possible small fraction of sulfur. Compared to sulfur, which does almost not partition into solid iron at Mercury's core conditions and strongly decreases the melting temperature, silicon partitions almost equally well between solid and liquid iron and is not very effective at reducing the melting temperature of iron. Silicon as the major light element constituent instead of sulfur therefore implies a significantly higher core liquidus temperature and a decrease in the vigor of compositional convection generated by the release of light elements upon inner core formation.Due to the immiscibility in liquid Fe-Si-S at low pressure (below 15 GPa), the core might also not be homogeneous and consist of an inner S-poor Fe-Si core below a thinner Si-poor Fe-S layer. Here, we study the consequences of a silicon-rich core and the effect of the blanketing Fe-S layer on the thermal evolution of Mercury's core and on the generation of a magnetic field.

  16. Metal-sulfide melt non-interconnectivity in silicates, even at high pressure, high temperature, and high melt fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Minarik, W.G.; Ryerson, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    The authors have investigated the textural microstructure of iron-nickel-sulfur melts in contact with olivine, pyroxene, and the modified-spinel polymorph of olivine. The experiments were conducted at 1,500 C and pressures ranging from 1 to 17 GPa. For compositions more metal-rich than the monosulfide, including the eutectic composition, the metal sulfide melt has a dihedral angle greater than 60{degree} and does not form an interconnected grain-edge fluid. Increasing pressure does not measurably alter the dihedral angles. Textural evolution results in coarsening of the sulfide melt pockets, resulting in large pockets surrounded by many silicate grains and separated from one another by melt-free grain edges. Chemical communication between these large pockets is limited to lattice and grain-boundary diffusion. Due to the large interfacial energy between sulfide melt and silicates, sulfide melts are unable to separate from solid silicate via grain-boundary percolation and remain stranded in isolated melt pockets. Sulfide melt in excess of the critical melt fraction (5--25%) will develop a transient interconnectivity as sulfide collects into larger melt pockets and interconnectivity is pinched off. Efficient separation of core-forming sulfide melts from silicate requires either melting of the silicate matrix or a very large fraction of metal-sulfide melt (perhaps as large as 40%).

  17. Lithologic melt partitioning and transport properties of partially molten harzburgite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, K. J.; Zhu, W.; Montesi, L.; Gaetani, G. A.; Le Roux, V.; Xiao, X.

    2015-12-01

    Quantitative constraints on melt transport in upper mantle are critical to understanding various dynamic processes at ocean ridges. In this study, we propose that thermodynamic gradients, resulting from spatial variations in mineralogy, can unevenly partition melt between olivine and orthopyroxene (opx), the two most abundant minerals in the upper mantle. The lithologic melt partitioning leads to higher melt fraction in olivine-rich regions compared to opx-rich regions, which may have important implications for melt transport. Lithologic partitioning has been experimentally confirmed in analogue systems, such as quartz/fluorite-H2O (Watson, 1999), but has never been observed in olivine/opx-melt samples. We synthesized olivine/opx-melt (harzburgite) samples by isostatically pressing oxide-high alumina basalt mixtures at 1350 °C and 1.5 GPa in a piston-cylinder apparatus. Nominal melt fractions of 0.02 to 0.20 and a constant 3 to 2 (olivine to opx) volume ratio were tested. Experimental charges were quenched, cored, and imaged using synchrotron X-ray microtomography. The resulting 3-D images constitute digital rock samples on which local melt fraction distributions, permeabilities, and electrical conductivities were numerically quantified. Our results are strong evidence for melt partitioning between olivine and opx: local melt fractions are 10 to 50% higher around olivine than opx grains. At the same melt fraction, permeabilities of whole harzburgite samples are lower compared to monomineralic olivine-melt samples (Miller et al., 2014). However, the presence of opx negligibly affects the permeability-porosity relation unless the abundance of opx is more than 40 vol. %. In contrast, electrical conductivities of harzburgites are systematically lower than those of olivine-melt samples. Lithological melt partitioning could be another mechanism responsible for forming high-porosity melt pathways in addition to reaction infiltration instability and deformation melt bands.

  18. Melting of peridotite to 140 gigapascals.

    PubMed

    Fiquet, G; Auzende, A L; Siebert, J; Corgne, A; Bureau, H; Ozawa, H; Garbarino, G

    2010-09-17

    Interrogating physical processes that occur within the lowermost mantle is a key to understanding Earth's evolution and present-day inner composition. Among such processes, partial melting has been proposed to explain mantle regions with ultralow seismic velocities near the core-mantle boundary, but experimental validation at the appropriate temperature and pressure regimes remains challenging. Using laser-heated diamond anvil cells, we constructed the solidus curve of a natural fertile peridotite between 36 and 140 gigapascals. Melting at core-mantle boundary pressures occurs at 4180 ± 150 kelvin, which is a value that matches estimated mantle geotherms. Molten regions may therefore exist at the base of the present-day mantle. Melting phase relations and element partitioning data also show that these liquids could host many incompatible elements at the base of the mantle.

  19. The Light-Velocity Postulate: The Essential Difference between the Theories of Lorentz-Poincare and Einstein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abiko, Seiya

    2005-01-01

    Einstein, who had already developed the light-quantum theory, knew the inadequacy of Maxwell's theory in the microscopic sphere. Therefore, in writing his paper on special relativity, he had to set up the light-velocity postulate independently of the relativity postulate in order to make the electromagnetic foundation of physics compatible with…

  20. Thermal response of a can handling unit (CHU) to a postulated plutonium hydride burn

    SciTech Connect

    Crea, B.A.

    1998-05-21

    A series of analyses were performed to support the design of the Can Handling Unit (CHU). The subject analyses focused on determining the time to repressurize a subatmospheric storage can containing plutonium metal versus the initial hole size and the transient thermal response to a postulated chemical reaction of 150 grams of plutonium hydride. Limiting the amount of gaseous reactants either by inerting the CHU or using a very small hole size for the initial opening appears to be a viable method of controlling the rate of the exothermic chemical reactions and system temperatures.

  1. Analysis of radiation doses from operation of postulated commercial spent fuel transportation systems: Main report

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, K.J.; Hostick, C.J.; Ross, W.A.; Peterson, R.W.; Smith, R.I.; Stiles, D.L.; Daling, P.M.; Weakley, S.A.; Grinde, R.B.; Young, J.R.

    1987-11-01

    This report contains a system study of estimated radiation doses to the public and workers resulting from the transport of spent fuel from commercial nuclear power reactors to a geologic repository. The report contains a detailed breakdown of activities and a description of time/distance/dose-rate estimates for each activity within the system. Collective doses are estimated for each of the major activities at the reactor site, in transit, and at the repository receiving facility. Annual individual doses to the maximally exposed individuals or groups of individuals are also estimated. A total of 17 alternatives and subalternatives to the postulated reference transportation system are identified, conceptualized, and their dose-reduction potentials and costs estimated. Resulting ratios of ..delta..cost/..delta..collective system dose for each alternative relative to the postulated reference transportation system are given. Most of the alternatives evaluated are estimated to provide both cost and dose reductions. Major reductions in transportation system dose and cost are estimated to result from using higher-capacity rail and truck casks, and particularly when replacing legalweight truck casks with ''advanced design'' overweight truck casks. The greatest annual dose reduction to the highest exposed individual workers (i.e., at the repository) is estimated to be achieved by using remote handling equipment for the cask handling operations at the repository. Additional shielding is also effective in reducing doses to both radiation workers at the reactor and repository and to transport workers. 69 refs., 36 figs., 156 tabs.

  2. Melt containment member

    SciTech Connect

    Rieken, Joel R.; Heidloff, Andrew J.

    2014-09-09

    A tubular melt containment member for transient containment of molten metals and alloys, especially reactive metals and alloys, includes a melt-contacting layer or region that comprises an oxygen-deficient rare earth oxide material that is less reactive as compared to the counterpart stoichiometric rare earth oxide. The oxygen-deficient (sub-stoichiometric) rare earth oxide can comprise oxygen-deficient yttria represented by Y.sub.2O.sub.3-x wherein x is from 0.01 to 0.1. Use of the oxygen-deficient rare earth oxide as the melt-contacting layer or region material reduces reaction with the melt for a given melt temperature and melt contact time.

  3. Comparative Study on Two Melting Simulation Methods: Melting Curve of Gold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhong-Li; Sun, Jun-Sheng; Li, Rui; Zhang, Xiu-Lu; Cai, Ling-Cang

    2016-05-01

    Melting simulation methods are of crucial importance to determining melting temperature of materials efficiently. A high-efficiency melting simulation method saves much simulation time and computational resources. To compare the efficiency of our newly developed shock melting (SM) method with that of the well-established two-phase (TP) method, we calculate the high-pressure melting curve of Au using the two methods based on the optimally selected interatomic potentials. Although we only use 640 atoms to determine the melting temperature of Au in the SM method, the resulting melting curve accords very well with the results from the TP method using much more atoms. Thus, this shows that a much smaller system size in SM method can still achieve a fully converged melting curve compared with the TP method, implying the robustness and efficiency of the SM method. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 41574076 and the NSAF of China under Grant No. U1230201/A06, and the Young Core Teacher Scheme of Henan Province under Grant No. 2014GGJS-108

  4. Fritz Zwicky's Postulate of Freedom from Prejudice Considered from the Standpoint of the Theory of Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Markus

    What can we say about unprejudiced thinking as postulated by Ritz Zwicky? Freedom from prejudice in opposition to stamped by theory. How does knowledge come about? Through sense perception and thought. The phenomenon is always mediated by organs, respectively by technical instruments. Which conclusion can we draw from this fact? Is the organ of knowledge by which we know nature a part of nature? Can the dialectic materialism explain the processes of human consciousness? What is the fundamental difference between think and perceive? Has human consciousness only a share in nature or also in the spiritual world? The role of the observer in the Copenhagen interpretation. Is the quantum theory applicable to psychic phenomena?

  5. Estimation of Downstream Cesium Concentrations Following a Postulated PAR Pond Dam Break

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K.F.

    2002-07-08

    Following a postulated PAR Pond dam break, some of the PAR Pond sediment including the cesium could be eroded and be transported downstream to the Savannah River through the Lower Three Runs Creek. Studies showed that most of the eroded sediment including the cesium would deposit in the Lower Three Runs Creek and the remainder would discharge to the Savannah River from the mouth of Lower Three Runs Creek. A WASP5 model was developed to simulate the eroded sediment and cesium transport from the Lower Three Runs Creek mouth to the Atlantic coast. The dissolved cesium concentrations at the Highway 301 bridge and near the City of Savannah Industrial and Domestic Water Supply Plant are 30 and 27 pCi/l, respectively. The concentrations at both locations are less than the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking water standard of 200 pCi/l.

  6. OVERVIEW OF MODULAR HTGR SAFETY CHARACTERIZATION AND POSTULATED ACCIDENT BEHAVIOR LICENSING STRATEGY

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, Sydney J

    2014-06-01

    This report provides an update on modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) accident analyses and risk assessments. One objective of this report is to improve the characterization of the safety case to better meet current regulatory practice, which is commonly geared to address features of today s light water reactors (LWRs). The approach makes use of surrogates for accident prevention and mitigation to make comparisons with LWRs. The safety related design features of modular HTGRs are described, along with the means for rigorously characterizing accident selection and progression methodologies. Approaches commonly used in the United States and elsewhere are described, along with detailed descriptions and comments on design basis (and beyond) postulated accident sequences.

  7. Existence of an information unit as a postulate of quantum theory

    PubMed Central

    Masanes, Lluís; Müller, Markus P.; Augusiak, Remigiusz; Pérez-García, David

    2013-01-01

    Does information play a significant role in the foundations of physics? Information is the abstraction that allows us to refer to the states of systems when we choose to ignore the systems themselves. This is only possible in very particular frameworks, like in classical or quantum theory, or more generally, whenever there exists an information unit such that the state of any system can be reversibly encoded in a sufficient number of such units. In this work, we show how the abstract formalism of quantum theory can be deduced solely from the existence of an information unit with suitable properties, together with two further natural assumptions: the continuity and reversibility of dynamics, and the possibility of characterizing the state of a composite system by local measurements. This constitutes a set of postulates for quantum theory with a simple and direct physical meaning, like the ones of special relativity or thermodynamics, and it articulates a strong connection between physics and information. PMID:24062431

  8. Existence of an information unit as a postulate of quantum theory.

    PubMed

    Masanes, Lluís; Müller, Markus P; Augusiak, Remigiusz; Pérez-García, David

    2013-10-08

    Does information play a significant role in the foundations of physics? Information is the abstraction that allows us to refer to the states of systems when we choose to ignore the systems themselves. This is only possible in very particular frameworks, like in classical or quantum theory, or more generally, whenever there exists an information unit such that the state of any system can be reversibly encoded in a sufficient number of such units. In this work, we show how the abstract formalism of quantum theory can be deduced solely from the existence of an information unit with suitable properties, together with two further natural assumptions: the continuity and reversibility of dynamics, and the possibility of characterizing the state of a composite system by local measurements. This constitutes a set of postulates for quantum theory with a simple and direct physical meaning, like the ones of special relativity or thermodynamics, and it articulates a strong connection between physics and information.

  9. The Relationship between Lattice Enthalpy and Melting Point in Magnesium and Aluminium Oxides. Science Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Christopher; Yap, Lydia

    2013-01-01

    This "Science Note" presents a study by Christopher Talbot and Lydia Yap, who teach IB Chemistry at Anglo-Chinese School (Independent), Republic of Singapore, to pre-university students. Pre-university students may postulate the correlation between the magnitude of the lattice enthalpy compound and its melting point, since both…

  10. The Gao-Guenie impact melt breccia—Sampling a rapidly cooled impact melt dike on an H chondrite asteroid?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, Martin; Kring, David A.; Swindle, Timothy D.; Bond, Jade C.; Moore, Carleton B.

    2016-06-01

    The Gao-Guenie H5 chondrite that fell on Burkina Faso (March 1960) has portions that were impact-melted on an H chondrite asteroid at ~300 Ma and, through later impact events in space, sent into an Earth-crossing orbit. This article presents a petrographic and electron microprobe analysis of a representative sample of the Gao-Guenie impact melt breccia consisting of a chondritic clast domain, quenched melt in contact with chondritic clasts, and an igneous-textured impact melt domain. Olivine is predominantly Fo80-82. The clast domain contains low-Ca pyroxene. Impact melt-grown pyroxene is commonly zoned from low-Ca pyroxene in cores to pigeonite and augite in rims. Metal-troilite orbs in the impact melt domain measure up to ~2 mm across. The cores of metal orbs in the impact melt domain contain ~7.9 wt% of Ni and are typically surrounded by taenite and Ni-rich troilite. The metallography of metal-troilite droplets suggest a stage I cooling rate of order 10 °C s-1 for the superheated impact melt. The subsolidus stage II cooling rate for the impact melt breccia could not be determined directly, but was presumably fast. An analogy between the Ni rim gradients in metal of the Gao-Guenie impact melt breccia and the impact-melted H6 chondrite Orvinio suggests similar cooling rates, probably on the order of ~5000-40,000 °C yr-1. A simple model of conductive heat transfer shows that the Gao-Guenie impact melt breccia may have formed in a melt injection dike ~0.5-5 m in width, generated during a sizeable impact event on the H chondrite parent asteroid.

  11. Melt inclusions: Chapter 6

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; Lowenstern, J. B.

    2014-01-01

    Melt inclusions are small droplets of silicate melt that are trapped in minerals during their growth in a magma. Once formed, they commonly retain much of their initial composition (with some exceptions) unless they are re-opened at some later stage. Melt inclusions thus offer several key advantages over whole rock samples: (i) they record pristine concentrations of volatiles and metals that are usually lost during magma solidification and degassing, (ii) they are snapshots in time whereas whole rocks are the time-integrated end products, thus allowing a more detailed, time-resolved view into magmatic processes (iii) they are largely unaffected by subsolidus alteration. Due to these characteristics, melt inclusions are an ideal tool to study the evolution of mineralized magma systems. This chapter first discusses general aspects of melt inclusions formation and methods for their investigation, before reviewing studies performed on mineralized magma systems.

  12. Preparation and evaluation of metoprolol tartrate sustained-release pellets using hot melt extrusion combined with hot melt coating.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Shen, Lian; Li, Juan; Shan, Wei-Guang

    2017-02-09

    The objective of this study was to prepare and evaluate metoprolol tartrate sustained-release pellets. Cores were prepared by hot melt extrusion and coated pellets were prepared by hot melt coating. Cores were found to exist in a single-phase state and drug in amorphous form. Plasticizers had a significant effect on torque and drug content, while release modifiers and coating level significantly affected the drug-release behavior. The mechanisms of drug release from cores and coated pellets were Fickian diffusion and diffusion-erosion. The coated pellets exhibited sustained-release properties in vitro and in vivo.

  13. Signatures of nonthermal melting

    PubMed Central

    Zier, Tobias; Zijlstra, Eeuwe S.; Kalitsov, Alan; Theodonis, Ioannis; Garcia, Martin E.

    2015-01-01

    Intense ultrashort laser pulses can melt crystals in less than a picosecond but, in spite of over thirty years of active research, for many materials it is not known to what extent thermal and nonthermal microscopic processes cause this ultrafast phenomenon. Here, we perform ab-initio molecular-dynamics simulations of silicon on a laser-excited potential-energy surface, exclusively revealing nonthermal signatures of laser-induced melting. From our simulated atomic trajectories, we compute the decay of five structure factors and the time-dependent structure function. We demonstrate how these quantities provide criteria to distinguish predominantly nonthermal from thermal melting. PMID:26798822

  14. Transient behavior of a scaled RCCS test facility under postulated fault and accident scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Lisowski, Darius D.; Hu, Rui; Bucknor, Matthew D.; Gerardi, Craig D.; Farmer, Mitch T.

    2016-01-01

    Tests were performed on the Natural convection Shutdown heat removal Test Facility (NSTF) to simulate design basis accident and postulated fault scenarios. Residing at Argonne National Laboratory, the NSTF stands nearly 26-m in total height and reflects a ½ scale reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) for high temperature gas cooled reactors. The following manuscript details three test conditions performed on the experimental test facility. The first simulated the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) boundary condition during depressurized conduction cool down accident with small primary leak, and was repeated during both winter and summer seasons. The second examined a short-circuit break between the inlet and outlet flow paths, and was performed in three incremental stages of nominal flow area break size. The third and final test case studied system behavior with varying amounts of cooling channel blockages, up to and including 50% flow areas. Nominal component temperatures, heat removal performance, and system stability will be presented to characterize the behavior at these conditions.

  15. Fulfilling Koch's postulates confirms the mycotic origin of Lethargic Crab Disease.

    PubMed

    Orélis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Boeger, Walter A; Vicente, Vânia A; Chammas, Marcelo; Ostrensky, Antonio

    2011-03-01

    In the northeast region of the Brazilian coast, a disease has been causing massive mortalities of populations of the mangrove land crab, Ucides cordatus (L.) since 1997. The clinical signs of this disease, which include lethargy and ataxia, led to the disease being termed Lethargic Crab Disease (LCD). Evidence from a variety of sources indicates that there is an association between LCD and a new species of black yeast, Exophiala cancerae de Hoog, Vicente, Najafzadeh, Badali, Seyedmousavi & Boeger. This study tests this putative correlation through in vivo experiments. Disease-free specimens of U. cordatus were experimentally infected with Exophiala cancerae (strain CBS 120420) isolate. During the 30-day experimental period, only a single death was observed within the control crabs. However, at the end of this period, crabs that were inoculated once or three-times with mycelial elements and hyphae of E. cancerae had a 60% and 50% mortality rates, respectively (n = 6 and n = 5). These results support that the fungal agent is pathogenic and is the causative agent of LCD. Species-specific molecular markers confirm the presence of E. cancerae (strain CBS 120420) in recovered colonies and tissue samples from the infected animals. The experimentally infected crabs manifested signs (lethargy, ataxia and tetany) that were consistent to LCD-affected animals in the environment. These results fulfil Koch's postulates and the hypothesis that the tested strain of Exophiala cancerae is a causative agent of LCD is accepted.

  16. Analysis of pressurization of plutonium oxide storage vials during a postulated fire

    SciTech Connect

    Laurinat, J.; Kesterson, M.; Hensel, S.

    2015-02-10

    The documented safety analysis for the Savannah River Site evaluates the consequences of a postulated 1000 °C fire in a glovebox. The radiological dose consequences for a pressurized release of plutonium oxide powder during such a fire depend on the maximum pressure that is attained inside the oxide storage vial. To enable evaluation of the dose consequences, pressure transients and venting flow rates have been calculated for exposure of the storage vial to the fire. A standard B vial with a capacity of approximately 8 cc was selected for analysis. The analysis compares the pressurization rate from heating and evaporation of moisture adsorbed onto the plutonium oxide contents of the vial with the pressure loss due to venting of gas through the threaded connection between the vial cap and body. Tabulated results from the analysis include maximum pressures, maximum venting velocities, and cumulative vial volumes vented during the first 10 minutes of the fire transient. Results are obtained for various amounts of oxide in the vial, various amounts of adsorbed moisture, different vial orientations, and different surface fire exposures.

  17. Molybdenum Valence in Basaltic Silicate Melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielson, L. R.; Righter, K.; Newville, M.; Sutton, S.; Pando, K.

    2010-01-01

    The moderately siderophile element molybdenum has been used as an indicator in planetary differentiation processes, and is particularly relevant to core formation [for example, 1-6]. However, models that apply experimental data to an equilibrium differentiation scenario infer the oxidation state of molybdenum from solubility data or from multivariable coefficients from metal-silicate partitioning data [1,3,7]. Partitioning behavior of molybdenum, a multivalent element with a transition near the J02 of interest for core formation (IW-2) will be sensitive to changes in JO2 of the system and silicate melt structure. In a silicate melt, Mo can occur in either 4+ or 6+ valence state, and Mo6+ can be either octahedrally or tetrahedrally coordinated. Here we present first XANES measurements of Mo valence in basaltic run products at a range of P, T, and JO2 and further quantify the valence transition of Mo.

  18. A statistical mechanical model for inverse melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feeney, Melissa R.; Debenedetti, Pablo G.; Stillinger, Frank H.

    2003-08-01

    Inverse melting is the situation in which a liquid freezes when it is heated isobarically. Both helium isotopes exhibit intervals of inverse melting at low temperature, and published data suggests that isotactic poly (4-methylpentene-1) also displays this unusual phase behavior. Here we propose a statistical mechanical model for inverse melting. It is a decorated modification of the Gaussian core model, in which particles possess a spectrum of thermally activated internal states. Excitation leads to a change in a particle's Gaussian interaction parameters, and this can result in a spatially periodic crystal possessing a higher entropy than the fluid with which it coexists. Numerical solution of the model, using integral equations and the hypernetted chain closure for the fluid phase, and the Einstein model for the solid phases, identifies two types of inverse melting. One mimics the behavior of the helium isotopes, for which the higher-entropy crystal is denser than the liquid. The other corresponds to inverse melting in poly(4-methylpentene-1), where the high-entropy crystal is less dense than the liquid with which it coexists.

  19. Dislocation theory of melting for iron, revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, J.P.; Shankland, T.J.

    1993-11-01

    Melting point T{sub m} of iron at conditions of the Earth`s inner core boundary (ICB) has been calculated from dislocation theory of melting in metals. Monte Carlo calculations were used to estimate uncertainties introduced by uncertainty in the geophysical parameters that are used in the calculations. These calculations take into account the effects of pressure at ICB conditions and of possible freezing point depression resulting from dilution of pure iron in the outer core. With this approach T{sub m} of pure {var_epsilon}-Fe at a pressure of 330 GPa and without freezing point depression is 6160 {plus_minus} 250 K; for a 1000 K freezing point depression it is 6110 K. T{sub m} of pure {gamma}-Fe is 6060 K, a value that is not significantly different. A possible {alpha}{prime} phase would melt at 5600 K. These values agree with calculated shock wave determinations of T{sub m}. Although calculated T{sub m} of the pure phase is little affected by assumptions about the extent of freezing point depression, the estimated temperature of the inner core boundary is lower by the breezing point depression, perhaps 500--1000 K less than T{sub m} of a pure phase.

  20. Dislocation theory of melting for iron, revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, J. ); Shankland, T.J. )

    1994-07-10

    The melting point T[sub m] of iron at conditions of the Earth's inner core boundary (ICB) has been calculated from the dislocation theory of melting in metals. Monte Carlo calculations were used to estimate uncertainties introduced by uncertainty in the geophysical parameters that are used in the calculations. These calculations take into account the effects of pressure at ICB conditions and of possible freezing point depression resulting from dilution of pure iron in the outer core. With this approach T[sub m] of pure [epsilon]-Fe at a pressure of 330 GPa and without freezing point depression is 6160[plus minus]250 K; for a 1000 K freezing point depression it is 6110 K. T[sub m] of pure [gamma]-Fe is 6060 K, a value that is not significantly different. A possible [alpha][prime] phase would melt at 5600 K. These values agree with calculated shock wave determinations of T[sub m]. Although calculated T[sub m] of the pure phase is little affected by assumptions about the extent of freezing point depression, the estimated temperature of the inner core boundary is lower by the freezing point depression, perhaps 500--1000 K less than T[sub m] of a pure phase. [copyright] 1994 American Institute of Physics

  1. Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor passive safety system response to postulated events

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M. C.; Wright, R. F.

    2012-07-01

    The Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor (SMR) is an 800 MWt (>225 MWe) integral pressurized water reactor. This paper is part of a series of four describing the design and safety features of the Westinghouse SMR. This paper focuses in particular upon the passive safety features and the safety system response of the Westinghouse SMR. The Westinghouse SMR design incorporates many features to minimize the effects of, and in some cases eliminates the possibility of postulated accidents. The small size of the reactor and the low power density limits the potential consequences of an accident relative to a large plant. The integral design eliminates large loop piping, which significantly reduces the flow area of postulated loss of coolant accidents (LOCAs). The Westinghouse SMR containment is a high-pressure, compact design that normally operates at a partial vacuum. This facilitates heat removal from the containment during LOCA events. The containment is submerged in water which also aides the heat removal and provides an additional radionuclide filter. The Westinghouse SMR safety system design is passive, is based largely on the passive safety systems used in the AP1000{sup R} reactor, and provides mitigation of all design basis accidents without the need for AC electrical power for a period of seven days. Frequent faults, such as reactivity insertion events and loss of power events, are protected by first shutting down the nuclear reaction by inserting control rods, then providing cold, borated water through a passive, buoyancy-driven flow. Decay heat removal is provided using a layered approach that includes the passive removal of heat by the steam drum and independent passive heat removal system that transfers heat from the primary system to the environment. Less frequent faults such as loss of coolant accidents are mitigated by passive injection of a large quantity of water that is readily available inside containment. An automatic depressurization system is used to

  2. Assessment of potential doses to workers during postulated accident conditions at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, M.D.; Farrell, R.F.; Newton, G.J.

    1995-12-01

    The recent 1995 WIPP Safety Analysis Report (SAR) Update provided detailed analyses of potential radiation doses to members of the public at the site boundary during postulated accident scenarios at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The SAR Update addressed the complete spectrum of potential accidents associated with handling and emplacing transuranic waste at WIPP, including damage to waste drums from fires, punctures, drops, and other disruptions. The report focused on the adequacy of the multiple layers of safety practice ({open_quotes}defense-in-depth{close_quotes}) at WIPP, which are designed to (1) reduce the likelihood of accidents and (2) limit the consequences of those accidents. The safeguards which contribute to defense-in-depth at WIPP include a substantial array of inherent design features, engineered controls, and administrative procedures. The SAR Update confirmed that the defense-in-depth at WIPP is adequate to assure the protection of the public and environment. As a supplement to the 1995 SAR Update, we have conducted additional analyses to confirm that these controls will also provide adequate protection to workers at the WIPP. The approaches and results of the worker dose assessment are summarized here. In conformance with the guidance of DOE Standard 3009-94, we emphasize that use of these evaluation guidelines is not intended to imply that these numbers constitute acceptable limits for worker exposures under accident conditions. However, in conjunction with the extensive safety assessment in the 1995 SAR Update, these results indicate that the Carlsbad Area Office strategy for the assessment of hazards and accidents assures the protection of workers, members of the public, and the environment.

  3. Viscosity of the earth's core.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gans, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    Calculation of the viscosity of the core at the boundary of the inner and outer core. It is assumed that this boundary is a melting transition and the viscosity limits of the Andrade (1934,1952) hypothesis (3.7 to 18.5 cp) are adopted. The corresponding kinematic viscosities are such that the precessional system explored by Malkus (1968) would be unstable. Whether it would be sufficiently unstable to overcome a severely subadiabatic temperature gradient cannot be determined.

  4. Core-Cutoff Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gheen, Darrell

    2007-01-01

    , hence, with the frictional drag acting on the outer sleeve. As the wire cuts toward the center of the core, the inner sleeve rotates farther with respect to the outer sleeve. Once the wire has cut to the center of the core, the tool and the core can be removed from the hole. The proper choice of cutting wire depends on the properties of the core material. For a sufficiently soft core material, a nonmetallic monofilament can be used. For a rubber-like core material, a metal wire can be used. For a harder core material, it is necessary to use an abrasive wire, and the efficiency of the tool can be increased greatly by vacuuming away the particles generated during cutting. For a core material that can readily be melted or otherwise cut by use of heat, it could be preferable to use an electrically heated cutting wire. In such a case, electric current can be supplied to the cutting wire, from an electrically isolated source, via rotating contact rings mounted on the sleeves.

  5. Development of a fuel-rod simulator and small-diameter thermocouples for high-temperature, high-heat-flux tests in the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor Core Flow Test Loop

    SciTech Connect

    McCulloch, R.W.; MacPherson, R.E.

    1983-03-01

    The Core Flow Test Loop was constructed to perform many of the safety, core design, and mechanical interaction tests in support of the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) using electrically heated fuel rod simulators (FRSs). Operation includes many off-normal or postulated accident sequences including transient, high-power, and high-temperature operation. The FRS was developed to survive: (1) hundreds of hours of operation at 200 W/cm/sup 2/, 1000/sup 0/C cladding temperature, and (2) 40 h at 40 W/cm/sup 2/, 1200/sup 0/C cladding temperature. Six 0.5-mm type K sheathed thermocouples were placed inside the FRS cladding to measure steady-state and transient temperatures through clad melting at 1370/sup 0/C.

  6. Abyssal Peridotites and Mantle Melting Beneath Ocean Ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, H. J.; Snow, J. E.; Hellebrand, E.; Shimizu, N.

    2005-12-01

    Studies of abyssal peridotite from ultraslow and slow spreading ridges show significant regional variability; with a strong correlation between the compositions of peridotite averaged by locality and spatially associated MORB reflecting higher degrees of mantle melting near mantle hot spots. Local variability of peridotite compositions, however, is often large, and may equal the regional variability along ocean ridges. The latter is attributed to local melting and melt transport processes such as melt channelization or late-stage melt impregnation in the lithosphere. The observed regional correlation appears only when many samples are averaged to eliminate local and outcrop scale variability. Almost all the peridotites used in these correlations are from transforms, and therefore represent similar thermal and mantle melting histories. Thus, regional differences in mantle composition are preserved. Until recently, little data were available for peridotites away from transforms representing the central mantle environment beneath magmatic segments. This is key, as geophysical and geologic evidence suggest focused melt flow beneath slow spreading ridges. If so, beneath individual magmatic segments there should be a corresponding mantle melting cell in which melt is focused from a broad melting region to a melt transport zone at its mid-point that feeds an overlying crustal magmatic center. High melt fluxes in the transport zone would produce very depleted peridotites stripped of pyroxene by melt-rock reaction during magma ascent. Studies of peridotites far from transforms at ultraslow Gakkel and SW Indian Ridges indicate this is the case: with near-Cpx free intergranular harzburgite and dunite locally abundant in contrast to transform peridotites. Recent mapping of the plutonic foundation of an ancient 35-km long slow spreading ridge segment at the Kane Core Complex also found a narrow 10-km wide zone of focused melt flow through the mantle marked by abundant dunite

  7. Reactive melt migration in mantle rocks: an experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pec, M.; Kohlstedt, D. L.; Zimmerman, M. E.; Holtzman, B. K.

    2013-12-01

    Several physical and chemical driving forces are important during the segregation and focusing of melt from a partially molten mantle toward a mid-oceanic spreading center. We performed a series of experiments to investigate the coupling between stress-driven and reaction-driven melt segregation. A core of melt-rich source material containing olivine, chromite and 20 vol% alkali basalt was placed within a ring of melt-poor sink containing olivine, enstatite, chromite and 4 vol% of alkali basalt. The gradient in silica activity at the source-sink interface provides a chemical driving force for melt migration. These source-sink couples were deformed in torsion in a gas-medium deformation apparatus at 1200°C, 300 MPa confining pressure and shear strain rates of ~10-4 s-1 to different finite shear strains (γ = 0 - 5). Microstructural observations of tangential sections show that at low strains (γ ≤ 2) melt aligns along grain boundaries in the sink at ~45° antithetic to the shear plane (parallel to σ1). At higher strains (γ > 3.5), melt-rich bands develop at 0 to 20° antithetic to the shear direction with a mean spacing between bands of 100 to 250 μm. The melt-rich bands contain 20 - 30% melt in the form of individual melt pockets (dequ ≈ 2.5 μm) aligned 10 - 45° with respect to the applied shear. Typically, a band contains 2 to 10 euhedral to rounded, small, mostly olivine grains (dequ ≈ 3 μm) almost entirely surrounded by melt. Bands terminate at melt-depleted lenses (< 1 vol% melt) in a zone 2 - 4 grains wide containing ~2 vol% melt in small (≤1 μm) pockets. Melt-rich zones do not develop in the sink at the source-sink interface after annealing a sample hydrostatically for >9 h. However, once melt bands are well developed by stress-driven melt segregation (γ ≥ 3.5) dissolution of enstatite reaches ~200 μm into the sink from the source-sink interface. For the pressure-temperature conditions and timescales of our experiments, the observations

  8. Dynamic melting of metals in the diamond cell: Clues for melt viscosity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehler, R.; Karandikar, A.; Yang, L.

    2011-12-01

    From the observed decreasing mobility of liquid iron at high pressure in the laser-heated diamond cell and the gradual decrease in the shear modulus in shock experiments, one may derive high viscosity in the liquid outer core of the Earth. A possible explanation could be the presence of local structures in the liquid as has been observed for several transition metals. In order to bridge the large gap in the timescales between static and dynamic melting experiments, we have developed new experimental techniques to solve the large discrepancies in the melting curves of transition metals (Fe, W, Ta, Mo) measured statically in the laser-heated diamond cell and in shock experiments. The new methods employ "single-shot" laser heating in order to reduce problems associated with mechanical instabilities and chemical reactions of the samples subjected to several thousand degrees at megabar pressures. For melt detection, both synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) on recovered samples are used. A third approach is the measurement of latent heat effects associated with melting or freezing. This method employs simultaneous CW and pulse laser heating and monitoring the temperature-time history with fast photomultipliers. Using the SEM recovery method, we measured first melting temperatures of rhenium, which at high pressure may be one of the most refractory materials. From the melt textures of Re, we did not observe a significant pressure dependence of viscosity.

  9. Melt Segregation in Extrusion and Torsion Experiments on Partially Molten Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohlstedt, D. L.; Qi, C.; Zimmerman, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    Shear deformation of partially molten rocks results in significant segregation of the low-viscosity melt phase, producing both a broad background redistribution of melt and a pronounced localization into melt-enriched bands. Important in the process of melt segregation is the strong dependence of viscosity on melt fraction (Stevenson, 1989) combined with the anisotropic viscosity that results from a stress-induced anisotropic distribution of melt at the grain scale (Takei and Holtzman, 2009). We have investigated both types of melt segregation using narrow-channel extrusion experiments and high-strain torsion experiments. In aggregates of anorthite plus 8% melt extruded several millimeters into a 2-mm diameter tube, melt segregation leads to an increase to12% melt at the sample-tube interface and to a decrease to 6% melt at the tube center. In aggregates of olivine plus MORB deformed in torsion, melt flows from the exterior toward the interior of the sample. For a sample with an average melt content of 10% twisted to a shear strain of 10, the melt content at the outer radius is ~7%, while the melt content at the inner core is ~13%. If a few percent chromite is added to samples of olivine plus MORB to decrease the permeability and thus the compaction length, melt segregates into an anastomosing network of melt-enriched bands that are oriented ~20o to the shear plane and antithetic to the shear direction. A similar melt-enriched band structure dominates the microstructure of aggregates of anorthite plus several percent melt deformed to high strain in torsion. Both the broad-background and the local segregation of melt profoundly influence the viscosity and permeability structure not only of laboratory samples but also of partially molten regions of Earth's interior.

  10. Earth's core iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geophysicist J. Michael Brown of Texas A & M University noted recently at the Spring AGU Meeting in Baltimore that the structure and phase of metallic iron at pressures of the earth's inner core (approximately 3.3 Mbar) could have great significance in defining geometrical aspects of the core itself. Brown worked at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory with R.B. McQueen to redetermine the phase relations of metallic iron in a series of new shock-wave experiments. They found the melting point of iron at conditions equal to those at the boundary of the earth's outer (liquid) and inner (solid) cores to be 6000°±500°C (Geophysical Research Letters, 7, 533-536, 1980).

  11. Iron Diffusivity in Water Saturated Rhyolite Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, A. C.; Bell, A.

    2007-12-01

    We have quantified experimentally the bulk chemical diffusivity of iron and the solubility of magnetite in peraluminous, water-saturated rhyolite melt at 100 MPa and 800°C by performing experiments in which we equilibrated a single crystal of magnetite with water-saturated rhyolite melt. The oxygen fugacity of each run was buffered at nickel-nickel oxide (NNO) and the assemblage was saturated with a 1.8 wt. % NaCl eq. NaCl-KCl- FeCl2-HCl-H2O volatile phase. The experimental charge contained a cylinder of magnetite (activity Fe3O4=1), cored from a single crystal of magnetite and placed at the base of a gold capsule, synthetic rhyolite glass placed above the magnetite cylinder and aqueous vapor which occupied the remaining capsule volume. The concentration profiles of FeO (and Na2O, K2O, Al2O3, SiO2 and Cl) in the quenched melt (i.e., glass) were measured over a distance of 400 microns beginning at the magnetite-rhyolite interface and moving orthogonally away from this interface into the glass until the concentration of iron fell below the limit of detection. Diffusion profiles were fit by inverting the measured concentrations of iron in the melt through the error function and solving for the diffusion coefficient assuming a stationary planar boundary; the near-intersection of the error function regression with the origin justifies this assumption. The calculated bulk chemical diffusivity for iron in H2O- saturated rhyolite is 4 E-10 cm2 sec-1; this measured diffusivity is consistent, albeit one-half to one order of magnitude lower than data for other divalent elements (Ca, Mg, Sn) in rhyolite. The Co value used to fit the diffusion profiles is consistent with published data for the equilibrium concentration of iron in rhyolite melt and, thus, the data yield the solubility of iron in water-saturated rhyolite melt. The aluminum saturation index (ASI) of the melt, hence concentrations of Na2O, K2O and Al2O3, remains essentially constant in the melt across the entire

  12. Low melting mesophase pitches

    SciTech Connect

    Diefendorf, R.J.; Chen, S.H.

    1984-04-17

    A low melting point, low molecular weight, heptane insoluble, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene soluble mesophase pitch useful in carbon fiber spinning as such or as a plasticizer in a carbon fiber spinning composition is obtained by heating chrysene, triphenylene or paraterphenyl as well as mixtures thereof and hydrocarbon fractions containing the same, dissolving the resulting heat treated material with 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, and separating the insolubles, and then contacting the 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene soluble fraction with a sufficient amount of heptane to precipitate the low melting point, low molecular weight mesophase pitch.

  13. Accident progression event tree analysis for postulated severe accidents at N Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Wyss, G.D.; Camp, A.L.; Miller, L.A.; Dingman, S.E.; Kunsman, D.M. ); Medford, G.T. )

    1990-06-01

    A Level II/III probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has been performed for N Reactor, a Department of Energy (DOE) production reactor located on the Hanford reservation in Washington. The accident progression analysis documented in this report determines how core damage accidents identified in the Level I PRA progress from fuel damage to confinement response and potential releases the environment. The objectives of the study are to generate accident progression data for the Level II/III PRA source term model and to identify changes that could improve plant response under accident conditions. The scope of the analysis is comprehensive, excluding only sabotage and operator errors of commission. State-of-the-art methodology is employed based largely on the methods developed by Sandia for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in support of the NUREG-1150 study. The accident progression model allows complex interactions and dependencies between systems to be explicitly considered. Latin Hypecube sampling was used to assess the phenomenological and systemic uncertainties associated with the primary and confinement system responses to the core damage accident. The results of the analysis show that the N Reactor confinement concept provides significant radiological protection for most of the accident progression pathways studied.

  14. Melting Properties of Medium-Sized Silicon Nanoclusters: A Molecular Dynamics Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haipeng; Xu, Runfeng; Bi, Zetong; Shen, Xiaopeng; Han, Kui

    2016-11-01

    The structures and melting properties of the medium-sized silicon nanoclusters have been comparatively studied using the molecular dynamics method. Structural and thermodynamic parameters are used to characterize the melting properties of the clusters. The size dependence of the melting temperature of silicon nanoclusters is determined using the computation results. Different from the homogeneous melting of bulk silicon, melting of silicon nanoparticles proceeds over a finite temperature range due to surface effects, which shows the heterogeneous melting of nanoclusters. We found that the melting starts at the cluster surface and progressively shifts into the core region. This study provides a fundamental perspective on the melting behaviors of semiconductor silicon nanoclusters at the atomistic level.

  15. Viscosity Measurement for Tellurium Melt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Bochuan; Li, Chao; Ban, Heng; Scripa, Rosalia N.; Su, Ching-Hua; Lehoczky, Sandor L.

    2006-01-01

    The viscosity of high temperature Te melt was measured using a new technique in which a rotating magnetic field was applied to the melt sealed in a suspended ampoule, and the torque exerted by rotating melt flow on the ampoule wall was measured. Governing equations for the coupled melt flow and ampoule torsional oscillation were solved, and the viscosity was extracted from the experimental data by numerical fitting. The computational result showed good agreement with experimental data. The melt velocity transient initiated by the rotating magnetic field reached a stable condition quickly, allowing the viscosity and electrical conductivity of the melt to be determined in a short period.

  16. A Postulated Planetary Collision, the Terrestrial Planets, the Moon and Smaller Solar-System Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolfson, M. M.

    2013-11-01

    In a scenario produced by the Capture Theory of planetary formation, a collision between erstwhile solar-system giant planets, of masses 798.75 and 598.37 M ⊕, is simulated using smoothed-particle hydrodynamics. Due to grain-surface chemistry that takes place in star-forming clouds, molecular species containing hydrogen, with a high D/H ratio taken as 0.01, form a layer around each planetary core. Temperatures generated by the collision initiate D-D reactions in these layers that, in their turn, trigger a reaction chain involving heavier elements. The nuclear explosion shatters and disperses both planets, leaving iron-plus-silicate stable residues identified as a proto-Venus and proto-Earth. A satellite of one of the colliding planets, captured or retained by the proto-Earth core, gave the Moon; two massive satellites released into heliocentric orbits became Mercury and Mars. For the Moon and Mars, abrasion of their surfaces exposed to collision debris results in hemispherical asymmetry. Mercury, having lost a large part of its mantle due to massive abrasion, reformed to give the present high-density body. Debris from the collision gave rise to asteroids and comets, much of the latter forming an inner reservoir stretching outwards from the inner Kuiper Belt that replenishes the Oort Cloud when it is depleted by a severe perturbation. Other features resulting from the outcome of the planetary collision are the relationship of Pluto and Triton to Neptune, the presence of dwarf planets and light-atom isotopic anomalies in meteorites.

  17. Effects of water, depth and temperature on partial melting of mantle-wedge fluxed by hydrous sediment-melt in subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallik, Ananya; Dasgupta, Rajdeep; Tsuno, Kyusei; Nelson, Jared

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates the partial melting of variable bulk H2O-bearing parcels of mantle-wedge hybridized by partial melt derived from subducted metapelites, at pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions applicable to the hotter core of the mantle beneath volcanic arcs. Experiments are performed on mixtures of 25% sediment-melt and 75% fertile peridotite, from 1200 to 1300 °C, at 2 and 3 GPa, with bulk H2O concentrations of 4 and 6 wt.%. Combining the results from these experiments with previous experiments containing 2 wt.% bulk H2O (Mallik et al., 2015), it is observed that all melt compositions, except those produced in the lowest bulk H2O experiments at 3 GPa, are saturated with olivine and orthopyroxene. Also, higher bulk H2O concentration increases melt fraction at the same P-T condition, and causes exhaustion of garnet, phlogopite and clinopyroxene at lower temperatures, for a given pressure. The activity coefficient of silica (ϒSiO2) for olivine-orthopyroxene saturated melt compositions (where the activity of silica, aSiO2 , is buffered by the reaction olivine + SiO2 = orthopyroxene) from this study and from mantle melting studies in the literature are calculated. In melt compositions generated at 2 GPa or shallower, with increasing H2O concentration, ϒSiO2 increases from <1 to ∼1, indicating a transition from non-ideal mixing as OH- in the melt (ϒSiO2 <1) to ideal mixing as molecular H2O (ϒSiO2 ∼1). At pressures >2 GPa, ϒSiO2 >1 at higher H2O concentrations in the melt, indicate requirement of excess energy to incorporate molecular H2O in the silicate melt structure, along with a preference for bridging species and polyhedral edge decorations. With vapor saturation in the presence of melt, ϒSiO2 decreases indicating approach towards ideal mixing of H2O in silicate melt. For similar H2O concentrations in the melt, ϒSiO2 for olivine-orthopyroxene saturated melts at 3 GPa is higher than melts at 2 GPa or shallower. This results in melts generated at

  18. Thermoacoustic Streaming and Ultrasonic Processing of Low Melting Melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, E. H.

    1997-01-01

    Ultrasonic levitation allows the processing of low melting materials both in 1 G as well as in microgravity. The free suspension of the melts also facilitates undercooling, permitting the measurements of the physical properties of the metastable liquids.

  19. Varieties of Melt-Rock Interactions in Abyssal Peridotites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, K.; Elthon, D.

    2003-12-01

    Ocean Drilling Program cores of abyssal peridotite from Hess Deep (Leg 147) and near the Kane Fracture Zone (Leg 153) exhibit features suggesting that a variety of melt-rock interaction processes can influence their compositions. Shallow intrusion into peridotite by melt veins can produce small gabbroic intrusives, with local interaction with the host peridotite, leading to local enrichments in peridotite incompatible element budgets and changes in peridotite modes. This process reveals nothing about proposed reactive porous flow or melt-entrapment processes that might be influencing peridotite geochemistry at greater depth. Given the limited extent of our `outcrop' (one core diameter), it is possible that the gabbroic intrusive could be un-sampled, but that the chemical effects could be present in the core and mistaken for some other type of melt-rock reaction. The presence of these gabbroic veins in both suites of drilled peridotites shows that this type of process has demonstrably changed the geochemistry of parts of these cores. Other processes that could influence the geochemistry of these rocks include: 1. Melt-entrapment; the effects this have on the mode of peridotite will depend on the pressure at which the melt is entrapped and crystallizes and on the composition of the melt; if this occurs at shallow levels, then plagioclase will be present and the occurrence of melt-trapping will be obvious, but if it occurs at greater depths, then the melt will crystallize no plagioclase and the process will be cryptic. 2. Reactive porous flow; this process could also be cryptic, because in the absence of a set of samples that clearly represents simple melt-residues, the baseline against which modal and geochemical changes have occurred is lacking. Both suites of peridotites studied show evidence for Na enrichments, but in different styles. The Kane suite is pervasively enriched in Na above the amount that should be present based on fractional melting models, in

  20. American National Standard: design basis for protection of light water nuclear power plants against effects of postulated pipe rupture

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-31

    This standard addresses the design bases for light water reactor, nuclear power plant structures and components essential for the protection of public health and safety from the potential adverse effects of pipe whip, jet impingement, pressurization of compartments outside containment, environmental conditions and flooding associated with a postulated pipe rupture. The design bases for missile protection and the design bases for containment pressurization are not within this standard.

  1. Thermodynamics of Oligonucleotide Duplex Melting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreiber-Gosche, Sherrie; Edwards, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Melting temperatures of oligonucleotides are useful for a number of molecular biology applications, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Although melting temperatures are often calculated with simplistic empirical equations, application of thermodynamics provides more accurate melting temperatures and an opportunity for students to apply…

  2. Ferrocyanide Safety Program: Analysis of postulated energetic reactions and resultant aerosol generation in Hanford Site Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Postma, A.K.; Dickinson, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    This report reviews work done to estimate the possible consequences of postulated energetic reactions in ferrocyanide waste stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The issue of explosive reactions was raised in the 1987 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), where a detonation-like explosion was postulated for the purpose of defining an upper bound on dose consequences for various disposal options. A review of the explosion scenario by the General Accounting Office (GAO) indicated that the aerosol generation and consequent radioactive doses projected for the explosion postulated in the EIS were understated by one to two orders of magnitude. The US DOE has sponsored an extensive study of the hazard posed by uncontrolled exothermic reactions in ferrocyanide waste, and results obtained during the past three years have allowed this hazard to be more realistically assessed. The objective of this report is to summarize the improved knowledge base that now indicates that explosive or vigorous chemical reactions are not credible in the ferrocyanide waste stored in underground tanks. This improved understanding supports the decision not to proceed with further analyses or predictions of the consequences of such an event or with aerosol tests in support of such predictions. 53 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. SAS4A: A computer model for the analysis of hypothetical core disruptive accidents in liquid metal reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Tentner, A.M.; Birgersson, G.; Cahalan, J.E.; Dunn, F.E.; Kalimullah; Miles, K.J.

    1987-01-01

    To ensure that the public health and safety are protected under any accident conditions in a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR), many accidents are analyzed for their potential consequences. The SAS4A code system, described in this paper, provides such an analysis capability, including the ability to analyze low probability events such as the Hypothetical Core Disruptive Accidents (HCDAs). The SAS4A code system has been designed to simulate all the events that occur in a LMFBR core during the initiating phase of a Hypothetical Core Disruptive Accident. During such postulated accident scenarios as the Loss-of-Flow and Transient Overpower events, a large number of interrelated physical phenomena occur during a relatively short time. These phenomena include transient heat transfer and hydrodynamic events, coolant boiling and fuel and cladding melting and relocation. During to the strong neutronic feedback present in a nuclear reactor, these events can significantly influence the reactor power. The SAS4A code system is used in the safety analysis of nuclear reactors, in order to estimate the energetic potential of very low probability accidents. The results of SAS4A simulations are also used by reactor designers in order to build safer reactors and eliminate the possibility of any accident which could endanger the public safety.

  4. The melting curve of Ni to 1 Mbar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lord, Oliver T.; Wood, Ian G.; Dobson, David P.; Vočadlo, Lidunka; Wang, Weiwei; Thomson, Andrew R.; Wann, Elizabeth T. H.; Morard, Guillaume; Mezouar, Mohamed; Walter, Michael J.

    2014-12-01

    The melting curve of Ni has been determined to 125 GPa using laser-heated diamond anvil cell (LH-DAC) experiments in which two melting criteria were used: firstly, the appearance of liquid diffuse scattering (LDS) during in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and secondly, plateaux in temperature vs. laser power functions in both in situ and off-line experiments. Our new melting curve, defined by a Simon-Glatzel fit to the data where TM (K) =[ (PM/18.78±10.20 + 1) ] 1 / 2.42 ± 0.66 × 1726, is in good agreement with the majority of the theoretical studies on Ni melting and matches closely the available shock wave melting data. It is however dramatically steeper than the previous off-line LH-DAC studies in which determination of melting was based on the visual observation of motion aided by the laser speckle method. We estimate the melting point (TM) of Ni at the inner-core boundary (ICB) pressure of 330 GPa to be TM = 5800 ± 700 K (2 σ), within error of the value for Fe of TM = 6230 ± 500 K determined in a recent in situ LH-DAC study by similar methods to those employed here. This similarity suggests that the alloying of 5-10 wt.% Ni with the Fe-rich core alloy is unlikely to have any significant effect on the temperature of the ICB, though this is dependent on the details of the topology of the Fe-Ni binary phase diagram at core pressures. Our melting temperature for Ni at 330 GPa is ∼2500 K higher than that found in previous experimental studies employing the laser speckle method. We find that those earlier melting curves coincide with the onset of rapid sub-solidus recrystallization, suggesting that visual observations of motion may have misinterpreted dynamic recrystallization as convective motion of a melt. This finding has significant implications for our understanding of the high-pressure melting behaviour of a number of other transition metals.

  5. Glacier melt on the Third Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, T.

    2015-12-01

    With an average elevation above 4,000 metres, the Third Pole (TP) is a unique region with many high mountains centered on the Tibetan Plateau stretching over 5 million square kilometers. Major environmental changes are taking place on the TP characterized by complex interactions of atmospheric, cryospheric, hydrological, geological and environmental processes. These processes are critical for the well-being of the three billion people inhabiting the plateau and the surrounding regions. Glacier melt is one of the most significant environmental changes observed on the TP. Over the past decade, most of the glaciers on the TP have undergone considerable melt. The Third Pole Environment (TPE) has focused on the causes of the glacier melt by conducting large-scale ground in-situ observation and monitoring, analyzing satellite images and remote sensing data, and applying numerical modeling to environmental research on the TP. The studies of long-term record of water stable isotopes in precipitation and ice core throughout the TP have revealed different features with regions, thus proposing significant influence of atmospheric circulations on spatial precipitation pattern over the TP. Validation of the result by isotope-equipped general circulation models confirms the spatial distribution of different atmospheric circulation dominances on the TP, with northern part dominated by the westerlies, southern part by the summer monsoon, and central part featuring the influences of both circulation systems. Such unique circulation patterns also bear directly on the status of glaciers and lakes over the TP and its surroundings. The studies therefore found the largest glacier melt in the monsoon-dominated southern part, moderate melt in the central part of transition, and the least melt, or even slight advance in the westerlies-dominated northern TP. It is clear that some mountains on the TP are undergoing rapid melt and the consequence of without ice and snow will be very soon. The

  6. Investigating the translation of Earth's inner core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, E. A.; Cormier, V. F.; Geballe, Z. M.; Lasbleis, M.; Youssof, M.; Yue, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Earth's inner core provides unique insights into processes that are occurring deep within our Earth today, as well as processes that occurred in the past. The seismic structure of the inner core is complex, and is dominated by anisotropic and isotropic differences between the Eastern and Western 'hemispheres' of the inner core. Recent geodynamical models suggest that this hemispherical dichotomy can be explained by a fast translation of the inner core. In these models one side of the inner core is freezing, while the other side is melting, leading to the development of different seismic properties on either side of the inner core. A simple translating model of the inner core, however, does not seem to easily explain all of the seismically observed features, including the innermost inner core; the observed sharp lateral gradient in seismic properties between the two hemispheres; and a complex hemispherical and radial dependence of anisotropy, attenuation, and scattering in the uppermost inner core. We explore the compatibility of geodynamic models of a translating inner core with seismic observations. Using a relatively simple set of translation models we map the age of material in the inner core and apply mineral physics models for the evolution of grain size to estimate likely changes in seismic properties throughout the inner core. We then compare these predictions to the observations of seismic studies that target two regions that are highly sensitive to the translation of the inner core: the boundary between the two hemispheres and the regions of freezing and melting at the inner core boundary. To constrain the sharpness of the boundary between the two hemispheres of the inner core we collate a data set of PKiKP-PKIKP, PKP-PKIKP and P‧P‧bc-P‧P‧df differential travel times consisting of paths that sample the core near to the proposed hemisphere boundaries. This combination of body wave data samples a range of depths (and consequently ages) in the

  7. An integral approach to investigate planetary cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The same core-mantle differentiation process was in operation during the early formation of the terrestrial planets, but it led to unique cores for the Earth, Venus, Mars, and Mercury, with different magnetic fields, reflecting their different dynamic, physical, and chemical states. Assuming all terrestrial planets shared the same materials of the building block, the differences must be resulted from the different conditions of the early accretion and the subsequent planetary evolution unique to each planet. The pressures at the core-mantle boundary of the terrestrial planets range from as low as 7 GPa to 136 GPa. The physical state (liquid or solid) for each planetary core is closely tied to the melting and chemical composition of the cores. In order to determine the minimal temperature of a liquid core or the maximal temperature of a solid core, we have systematically investigated melting relations in the binary systems Fe-FeS, Fe-C, and Fe-FeSi, move toward unravelling the crystallization sequence and element partitioning between solid and liquid metal in the ternary and quaternary systems up to 25 GPa, using multi-anvil apparatus. We have developed new techniques to analyze the quenched samples recovered from laser-heating diamond-anvil cell experiments using combination of focus ion beam (FIB) milling, high-resolution SEM imaging, and quantitative chemical analysis with silicon drift detector EDS. With precision milling of the laser-heating spot, we determined melting using quenching texture criteria imaged with high-resolution SEM and the sulfur partitioning between solid and liquid at submicron spatial resolution. We have also re-constructed 3D image of the laser-heating spot at multi-megabar pressures to better constrain melting point and understanding melting process. The new techniques allow us to extend precise measurements of melting relations to core pressures in the laser-heating diamond-anvil cell. In addition to the static experiments, we also used

  8. Melt Heterogeneity and Degassing at MT Etna from Melt Inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, L. C.; Edmonds, M.; Maclennan, J.; Corsaro, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    The melts feeding Mt Etna, Italy, are rich in volatiles and drive long-lasting powerful eruptions of basaltic magma in both effusive and explosive styles of activity. The volatile systematics of the volcanic system are well understood through melt inclusion and volcanic gas studies. Etna's melts are generated from a complex mantle setting, with subduction-related chemical modifications as well as OIB-type features, and then the melts must travel through thick carbonate-rich crust. The continual influx of mantle-derived volatile-rich magma controls the major compositional and eruptive features of Mount Etna and magma mixing has been recognized as an important process driving large eruptions [Kamenetsky, 2007]. Our study focusses on the 1669 eruption, the largest in historical times. Olivine-hosted melt inclusions were analyzed for volatile, trace and major elements using electron microprobe and ion probe (SIMS). We use volatile systematics and geochemical data to deconvolve mantle-derived heterogeneity from melt mixing and crystal fractionation. Our data are well described by a mixing trend between two distinct melts: a CO2-rich (CO2~1000ppm), incompatible trace element depleted melt (La/Yb~16), and a CO2-poor, enriched melt. The mixing also generates a strong correlation between Sr and CO2 in the melt inclusions dataset, reflecting the presence of a strong Sr anomaly in one of the end-member melts. We investigate the origin of this Sr anomaly by considering plagioclase dissolution and crustal assimilation. We also investigate degassing processes in the crust and plumbing system of the volcano. We compare our results with similar studies of OIB and arc-related basalts elsewhere and assess the implications for linking eruption size and style with the nature of the mantle-derived melts. Kamenetsky et al. (2007) Geology 35, 255-258.

  9. Preliminary analysis of the postulated changes needed to achieve rail cask handling capabilities at selected light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Konzek, G.J.

    1986-02-01

    Reactor-specific railroad and crane information for all LWRs in the US was extracted from current sources of information. Based on this information, reactors were separated into two basic groups consisting of reactors with existing, usable rail cask capabilities and those without these capabilities. The latter group is the main focus of this study. The group of reactors without present rail cask handling capabilities was further separated into two subgroups consisting of reactors considered essentially incapable of handling a large rail cask of about 100 tons and reactors where postulated facility changes could result in rail cask handling capabilities. Based on a selected population of 127 reactors, the results of this assessment indicate that usable rail cask capabilities exist at 83 (65%) of the reactors. Twelve (27%) of the remaining 44 reactors are deemed incapable of handling a large rail cask without major changes, and 32 reactors are considered likely candidates for potentially achieving rail cask handling capabilities. In the latter group, facility changes were postulated that would conceptually enable these reactors to handle large rail casks. The estimated cost per plant of required facility changes varied widely from a high of about $35 million to a low of <$0.3 million. Only 11 of the 32 plants would require crane upgrades. Spur track and right-of-way costs would apparently vary widely among sites. These results are based on preliminary analyses using available generic cost data. They represent lower bound values that are useful for developing an initial assessment of the viability of the postulated changes on a system-wide basis, but are not intended to be absolute values for specific reactors or sites.

  10. Environmental consequences of postulated plutonium releases from Exxon Nuclear MOFP, Richland, Washington, as a result of severe natural phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Jamison, J.D.; Watson, E.C.

    1980-02-01

    Potential environmental consequences in terms of radiation dose to people are presented for postulated plutonium releases caused by severe natural phenomena at the Exxon Nuclear Company Mixed Oxide Fabrication Plant (MOFP), Richland, Washington. The severe natural phenomena considered are earthquakes, tornadoes, high straight-line winds, and floods. Maximum plutonium deposition values are given for significant locations around the site. All important potential exposure pathways are examined. The most likely 50-year committed dose equivalents are given for the maximum-exposed individual and the population within a 50-mile radius of the plant. The maximum plutonium deposition values most likely to occur offsite are also given.

  11. Melting in Martian Snowbanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zent, A. P.; Sutter, B.

    2005-01-01

    Precipitation as snow is an emerging paradigm for understanding water flow on Mars, which gracefully resolves many outstanding uncertainties in climatic and geomorphic interpretation. Snowfall does not require a powerful global greenhouse to effect global precipitation. It has long been assumed that global average temperatures greater than 273K are required to sustain liquid water at the surface via rainfall and runoff. Unfortunately, the best greenhouse models to date predict global mean surface temperatures early in Mars' history that differ little from today's, unless exceptional conditions are invoked. Snowfall however, can occur at temperatures less than 273K; all that is required is saturation of the atmosphere. At global temperatures lower than 273K, H2O would have been injected into the atmosphere by impacts and volcanic eruptions during the Noachian, and by obliquity-driven climate oscillations more recently. Snow cover can accumulate for a considerable period, and be available for melting during local spring and summer, unless sublimation rates are sufficient to remove the entire snowpack. We decided to explore the physics that controls the melting of snow in the high-latitude regions of Mars to understand the frequency and drainage of snowmelt in the high martian latitudes.

  12. Viscosity of Anhydrous and Hydrous Basalt Melts at High Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinker, D.; Lesher, C. E.; Baxter, G. M.; Uchida, T.; Wang, Y.; Zhao, Y.

    2004-12-01

    work will extend these observations to higher pressures in an effort to constrain melt transport properties approaching conditions for the top of the transition zone where [6] have postulated the accumulation of a dense hydrous melt layer as a result of dehydration melting of transition zone material. [1] Fujii, T, Kushiro, I (1977) CIW Yrbk., 76, 419-424; [2] Ando, R, et al. (2003) SPring-8 report No. 11, 45; [3] Lesher et al. (1996) GCA, 60, 405-413; [4] Tinker et al. (2004) Am. Min., in press; [5] Adam, G, Gibbs, JH (1965) J. Chem. Phys., 43, 139-146; [6] Bercovici, D, Karato, S-I (2003) Nature, 425, 39-44

  13. Melting of Ice under Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Schwegler, E; Sharma, M; Gygi, F; Galli, G

    2008-07-31

    The melting of ice under pressure is investigated with a series of first principles molecular dynamics simulations. In particular, a two-phase approach is used to determine the melting temperature of the ice-VII phase in the range of 10 to 50 GPa. Our computed melting temperatures are consistent with existing diamond anvil cell experiments. We find that for pressures between 10 to 40 GPa, ice melts as a molecular solid. For pressures above {approx}45 GPa there is a sharp increase in the slope of the melting curve due to the presence of molecular dissociation and proton diffusion in the solid, prior to melting. The onset of significant proton diffusion in ice-VII as a function of increasing temperature is found to be gradual and bears many similarities to that of a type-II superionic solid.

  14. Melting of ice under pressure.

    PubMed

    Schwegler, Eric; Sharma, Manu; Gygi, François; Galli, Giulia

    2008-09-30

    The melting of ice under pressure is investigated with a series of first-principles molecular dynamics simulations. In particular, a two-phase approach is used to determine the melting temperature of the ice-VII phase in the range of 10-50 GPa. Our computed melting temperatures are consistent with existing diamond anvil cell experiments. We find that for pressures between 10 and 40 GPa, ice melts as a molecular solid. For pressures above approximately 45 Gpa, there is a sharp increase in the slope of the melting curve because of the presence of molecular dissociation and proton diffusion in the solid before melting. The onset of significant proton diffusion in ice-VII as a function of increasing temperature is found to be gradual and bears many similarities to that of a type-II superionic solid.

  15. Investigations on sump cooling after core melt down

    SciTech Connect

    Knebel, J.U.

    1995-09-01

    This article presents the basic physical phenomena and scaling criteria of decay heat removal from a large coolant pool by single-phase and two-phase natural circulation flow. The physical significance of the dimensionless similarity groups derived is evaluated. The above results are applied to the SUCO program that is performed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. The SUCO program is a three-step series of scaled model experiments investigating the possibility of an optional sump cooling concept for the European Pressurized Water Reactor EPR. This concept is entirely based on passive safety features within the containment. The work is supported by the German utilities and the Siemens dimensional SUCOS-2D test facility. The experimental results of the model geometry are transformed to prototypic conditions.

  16. In-vessel coolability and retention of a core melt

    SciTech Connect

    Theofanous, T.G.; Liu, C.; Additon, S.

    1997-02-01

    The efficacy of external flooding of a reactor vessel as a severe accident management strategy is assessed for an AP600-like reactor design. The overall approach is based on the Risk Oriented Accident Analysis Methodology (ROAAM), and the assessment includes consideration of bounding scenarios and sensitivity studies, as well as arbitrary parametric evaluations that allow the delineation of the failure boundaries. The technical treatment in this assessment includes: (a) new data on energy flow from either volumetrically heated pools or non-heated layers on top, boiling and critical heat flux in inverted, curved geometries, emissivity of molten (superheated) samples of steel, and chemical reactivity proof tests, (b) a simple but accurate mathematical formulation that allows prediction of thermal loads by means of convenient hand calculations, (c) a detailed model programmed on the computer to sample input parameters over the uncertainty ranges, and to produce probability distributions of thermal loads and margins for departure from nucleate boiling at each angular position on the lower head, and (d) detailed structural evaluations that demonstrate that departure from nucleate boiling is a necessary and sufficient criterion for failure. Quantification of the input parameters is carried out for an AP600-like design, and the results of the assessment demonstrate that lower head failure is {open_quotes}physically unreasonable.{close_quotes} Use of this conclusion for any specific application is subject to verifying the required reliability of the depressurization and cavity-flooding systems, and to showing the appropriateness (in relation to the database presented here, or by further testing as necessary) of the thermal insulation design and of the external surface properties of the lower head, including any applicable coatings.

  17. Process for Making Optical Fibers from Core and Cladding Glass Rods.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-08-12

    77,577 PATENT APPLICATION Inventor’s Name: Sanghera et al. ORIGINAL 2 3 PROCESS FOR MAKING OPTICAL FIBERS FROM CORE AND CLADDING GLASS 4 RODS S...core and cladding glass rods and to the fibers 10 made by the process. More particularly, the invention relates to 11 separately melting core and...cladding glass rods and combining the 12 melts proximate a fiber drawing orifice so that the core glass is 13 surrounded by the cladding glass and

  18. Melting line of polymeric nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakub, L. N.

    2013-05-01

    We made an attempt to predict location of the melting line of polymeric nitrogen using two equations for Helmholtz free energy: proposed earlier for cubic gauche-structure and developed recently for liquid polymerized nitrogen. The P-T relation, orthobaric densities and latent heat of melting were determined using a standard double tangent construction. The estimated melting temperature decreases with increasing pressure, alike the temperature of molecular-nonmolecular transition in solid. We discuss the possibility of a triple point (solid-molecular fluid-polymeric fluid) at ˜80 GPa and observed maximum of melting temperature of nitrogen.

  19. Drag Moderation by the Melting of an Ice Surface in Contact with Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakarelski, Ivan U.; Chan, Derek Y. C.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.

    2015-07-01

    We report measurements of the effects of a melting ice surface on the hydrodynamic drag of ice-shell-metal-core spheres free falling in water at a Reynolds of number Re ˜2 ×104- 3 ×105 and demonstrate that the melting surface induces the early onset of the drag crisis, thus reducing the hydrodynamic drag by more than 50%. Direct visualization of the flow pattern demonstrates the key role of surface melting. Our observations support the hypothesis that the drag reduction is due to the disturbance of the viscous boundary layer by the mass transfer from the melting ice surface.

  20. Drag Moderation by the Melting of an Ice Surface in Contact with Water.

    PubMed

    Vakarelski, Ivan U; Chan, Derek Y C; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2015-07-24

    We report measurements of the effects of a melting ice surface on the hydrodynamic drag of ice-shell-metal-core spheres free falling in water at a Reynolds of number Re~2×10^{4}-3×10^{5} and demonstrate that the melting surface induces the early onset of the drag crisis, thus reducing the hydrodynamic drag by more than 50%. Direct visualization of the flow pattern demonstrates the key role of surface melting. Our observations support the hypothesis that the drag reduction is due to the disturbance of the viscous boundary layer by the mass transfer from the melting ice surface.

  1. In Brief: Melting glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy; Tretkoff, Ernie

    2010-12-01

    Glaciers in Patagonia and Alaska have been losing their mass, and for longer than glaciers elsewhere in the world, according to a 7 December report compiled by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). “Climate change is causing significant mass loss of glaciers in high mountains worldwide,” notes the report, which calls for accelerated research, monitoring, and modeling of glaciers and snow and their role in water supplies. The report “also highlights the vulnerability and exposure of people dependent upon [glacier-fed] rivers to floods, droughts and eventually shortages as a result of changes in the melting and freezing cycles linked with climate change and other pollution impacts,” according to UNEP executive director Achim Steiner. For more information, visit http://www.grida.no/publications/high­mountain-glaciers/.

  2. Waste glass melting stages

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.D.; Dennis, T.; Elliott, M.L.; Hrma, P.

    1993-04-01

    Three different simulated nuclear waste glass feeds, consisting of dried waste and glass frit, were heat treated for 1 hour in a gradient furnace at temperatures ranging from approximately 600[degrees]C--1000[degrees]C. Simulated melter feeds from the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), and Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) in Germany were used. The samples were thin-sectioned and examined by optical microscopy to investigate the stages of the conversion from feed to glass. Various phenomena were seen, such as frit softening, bubble formation, foaming, bubble motion and removal, convective mixing, and homogenization. Behavior of different feeds was similar, although the degree of gas generation and melt homogenization varied.

  3. Waste glass melting stages

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.D.; Dennis, T.; Elliott, M.L.; Hrma, P.

    1993-04-01

    Three different simulated nuclear waste glass feeds, consisting of dried waste and glass frit, were heat treated for 1 hour in a gradient furnace at temperatures ranging from approximately 600{degrees}C--1000{degrees}C. Simulated melter feeds from the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), and Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) in Germany were used. The samples were thin-sectioned and examined by optical microscopy to investigate the stages of the conversion from feed to glass. Various phenomena were seen, such as frit softening, bubble formation, foaming, bubble motion and removal, convective mixing, and homogenization. Behavior of different feeds was similar, although the degree of gas generation and melt homogenization varied.

  4. Tin in silicate melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paparoni, Guido

    An experimental technique that uses Re metal capsules as containers for tin-bearing systems has been developed and successfully used in the study of the compositional dependence of SnO2 solubility in silicate melts. These experiments have been performed in the absence of an aqueous fluid phase and oxygen fugacity (fO2) has been established by the addition of tin-metal to SnO2. This approach solves three long-standing problems in the study of SnO 2 solubility in silicate melts: (1) Alloying of noble-metal crucibles and corrosion of ceramic crucibles is avoided; (2) fO 2 is established by direct contact of a metal-oxide oxygen buffer; (3) Gaseous SnO is not lost to the furnace atmosphere. The Re-capsule technique, combined with evacuated silica-tube experiments, has been applied to the study of the system SnO-SiO2 at pressures of 1 atm and 10 kbar. SnO2 solubilities of up to 95 wt% SnO are reported. The system SnO-SiO2 is found to be a pseudo-binary of the ternary system Sn°-SnO2-SiO2. A revised phase diagram for the system SnO-SiO2 at a pressure ≈1 atm is provided, and a new phase diagram for the system SnOSiO2 at a pressure = 10 kbar has been constructed. These results are used to suggest the topology of the ternary system Sn°-SnO2SiO2. The Re-capsule technique has also been applied to the study of the subaluminous haplogranite system (SiO2NaAlSi3O8-KAlSi 3O8) at T = 1100°C, P = 10 kbar and fO 2 at Sn°-SnO2. Solubilities span the range of 41 to 80 wt% SnO. In the haplogranite system, the solubility of SnO2 increases with the proportion of normative SiO2, and SnO is found to expand the stability field of SiO2. In the feldspar join, Na-based melts dissolve a larger proportion of SnO than K-based melts. This effect is lost as SiO2 is progressively added to the feldspar join. Small amounts of F (1 wt%) are found to increase the solubility of SnO 2 by an equivalent 15 wt% normative quartz as shown with the Spor Mountain rhyolite. A comparison of SnO2 solubilities

  5. Melting and spheroidization of hexagonal boron nitride in a microwave-powered, atmospheric pressure nitrogen plasma `

    SciTech Connect

    Gleiman, S. S.; Phillips, J.

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a method for producing spherically-shaped, hexagonal phase boron nitride (hBN) particles of controlled diameter in the 10-100 micron size range. Specifically, platelet-shaped hBN particles are passed as an aerosol through a microwave-generated, atmospheric pressure, nitrogen plasma. In the plasma, agglomerates formed by collisions between input hBN particles, melt and forms spheres. We postulate that this unprecedented process takes place in the unique environment of a plasma containing a high N-atom concentration, because in such an environment the decomposition temperature can be raised above the melting temperature. Indeed, given the following relationship [1]: BN{sub (condensed)} {leftrightarrow} B{sub (gas)} + N{sub (gas)}. Standard equilibrium thermodynamics indicate that the decomposition temperature of hBN is increased in the presence of high concentrations of N atoms. We postulate that in our plasma system the N atom concentration is high enough to raise the decomposition temperature above the (undetermined) melting temperature. Keywords Microwave plasma, boron nitride, melting, spherical, thermodynamics, integrated circuit package.

  6. Chicxulub Impact Melts: Geochemical Signatures of Target Lithology Mixing and Post-Impact Hydrothermal Fluid Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kring, David A.; Zurcher, Lukas; Horz, Freidrich; Mertzmann, Stanley A.

    2004-01-01

    Impact melts within complex impact craters are generally homogeneous, unless they differentiated, contain immiscible melt components, or were hydrothermally altered while cooling. The details of these processes, however, and their chemical consequences, are poorly understood. The best opportunity to unravel them may lie with the Chicxulub impact structure, because it is the world s most pristine (albeit buried) large impact crater. The Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Project recovered approx. 100 meters of impactites in a continuous core from the Yaxcopoil-1 (YAX-1) borehole. This dramatically increased the amount of melt available for analyses, which was previously limited to two small samples N17 and N19) recovered from the Yucatan-6 (Y-6) borehole and one sample (N10) recovered from the Chicxulub-1 (C-1) borehole. In this study, we describe the chemical compositions of six melt samples over an approx. 40 m section of the core and compare them to previous melt samples from the Y-6 and C-1 boreholes.

  7. Melting and melt-movement in the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Robert S.

    Researchers came together to discuss melting and melt-movement in the Earth at a 2-day Royal Society Discussion Meeting held in March 1992 at the Royal Society, London.In recent years, many new tools have become available to geologists studying igneous and metamorphic rocks. They can be examined at ever-higher magnifications: the composition within individual crystals can be measured; their isotopic, trace, and rare-earth element concentrations can be determined; and measurements of partition coefficients and melting behavior can be made in the laboratory at pressures and temperatures appropriate to in-situ rocks. Along with these improvements in instrumentation and experimental techniques, advances have been made in understanding the physics of melt generation and separation, and computers have been developed that are sufficiently powerful to model theoretical formulations of the behavior of melt in the Earth.

  8. Lunar highland melt rocks - Chemistry, petrology and silicate mineralogy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaniman, D. T.; Papike, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    A selected suite containing several of the largest samples of lunar highland melt rocks includes impact melt specimens (anorthositic gabbro, low-K Fra Mauro) and volcanic specimens (intermediate-K Fra Mauro). Although previous assumptions of LKFM volcanism have fallen into disfavor, no fatal arguments against this hypothesis have been presented, and the evidence of a possibly 'inherited igneous' olivine-plagioclase cosaturation provides cause for keeping a volcanic LKFM hypothesis viable. Comparisons of silicate mineralogy with melt rock compositions provide information on the specimen's composition and cooling history. Plagioclase-rock compositions can be matched to the experimentally determined equilibria for appropriate samples to identify melt rocks with refractory anorthitic clasts. Olivine-rock compositions indicate that melt rock vitrophyres precipitate anomalously Fe-rich olivine; the cause of this anomaly is not immediately evident. The Al-Ti and Ca-Fe-Mg zonation in pyroxene provide information on relative cooling rates of highland melt rocks, but Cr- and Al-content (where Al-rich low-Ca pyroxene cores are preserved in rapidly cooled samples) can be correlated with composition of the host rock.

  9. Modeling of residual stresses in core shroud structures

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.; Dong, P.; Brust, F.W.; Mayfield, M.; McNeil, M.; Shack, W.J.

    1997-10-01

    A BWR core shroud is a cylindrical shell that surrounds the reactor core. Feedwater for the reactor is introduced into the annulus between the reactor vessel wall and the shroud. The shroud separates the feedwater from the cooling water flowing up through the reactor core. The shroud also supports the top guide which provides lateral support to the fuel assemblies and maintains core geometry during operational transients and postulated accidents to permit control rod insertion and provides the refloodable volume needed to ensure safe shutdown and cooling of the core during postulated accident conditions. Core shrouds were fabricated from welded Type 304 or 304L stainless steel plates and are supported at the top and bottom by forged ring support structures. In 1990, cracking was reported in the core shroud of a non-U.S. BWR. The cracks were located in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of a circumferential core shroud weld. Subsequent inspections in U.S. BWRs have revealed the presence of numerous flaw indications in some BWR core shrouds, primarily in weld HAZs. In several instances, this cracking was quite extensive, with the cracks extending 75% or more around the circumference of some welds. However, because the applied stresses on the shroud are low during operation and postulated accidents and because of the high fracture toughness of stainless steel, adequate structural margins can be preserved even in the presence of extensive cracking. Although assessments by the USNRC staff of the potential significance of this cracking have shown that core shroud cracking does not pose a high degree of risk in the short term, the staff concluded that the cracking was a safety concern for the long term because of the uncertainties associated with the behavior of core shrouds with complete 360{degrees} through-wall cracks under accident conditions and because it could eliminate a layer of defense-in-depth.

  10. Manicouagan and the Moon: Reassessing Impact Melt - Crater Affiliations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spray, J. G.; Thompson, L. M.; O'Connell-Cooper, C.

    2009-05-01

    When Apollo samples were first returned to Earth, comparisons were made with several terrestrial impact melt sheets to aid in the interpretation of the samples. Manicouagan was considered representative of a 60 to 100 km size complex crater with a supposedly undifferentiated, chemically homogeneous, although somewhat texturally heterogeneous, impact-melt sheet. Based on the belief that craters in the size range of Manicouagan produced chemically homogeneous melt sheets, Simonds et al. (1976) identified four distinct compositions of lunar melt in Apollo 16 breccia samples, attributing each to four different impact-melt sheets formed during discrete cratering events. However, recent drilling activities at Manicouagan, combined with surface sampling and geochemical analysis, have revealed that its impact-melt sheet is not of uniform composition as suggested by past field work. This calls into question previously held assumptions regarding the identification and interpretation of lunar impact melts. Drilling has revealed an unexpectedly varied topography to the melt sheet-basement contact in the centre of the structure at Manicouagan. An elongate, impact-melt filled, N-S trough extending at least 8 km from the southern flanks of the uplifted Mont de Babel anorthosite has been identified. The trough varies in depth from 600 m at the northern and southern extremes, to 1430 m in the middle, resulting in substantially thicker melt sections than previously identified by field work, which estimated current impact-melt sheet thickness to be 200 to 300 m. Our geochemical analysis of 88 core and field impact melt samples reveal that the more typical 300 m thick sections and the newly discovered 600 m thick sections intersected within the central trough in drill holes MAN0501 and 0511, exhibit a homogeneous, quartz monzodiorite composition comparable with previous average impact melt compositions. In contrast, the 1100 m clast-free melt sequence encountered in the centre of the

  11. Modeling and analysis framework for core damage propagation during flow-blockage-initiated accidents in the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Navarro-Valenti, S.; Georgevich, V.

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes modeling and analysis to evaluate the extent of core damage during flow blockage events in the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor planned to be built at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Damage propagation is postulated to occur from thermal conduction between damaged and undamaged plates due to direct thermal contact. Such direct thermal contact may occur because of fuel plate swelling during fission product vapor release or plate buckling. Complex phenomena of damage propagation were modeled using a one-dimensional heat transfer model. A scoping study was conducted to learn what parameters are important for core damage propagation, and to obtain initial estimates of core melt mass for addressing recriticality and steam explosion events. The study included investigating the effects of the plate contact area, the convective heat transfer coefficient, thermal conductivity upon fuel swelling, and the initial temperature of the plate being contacted by the damaged plate. Also, the side support plates were modeled to account for their effects on damage propagation. The results provide useful insights into how various uncertain parameters affect damage propagation.

  12. Potential health risks from postulated accidents involving the Pu-238 RTG on the Ulysses solar exploration mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, Marvin; Hoover, Mark D.; Nelson, Robert C.; Templeton, William; Bollinger, Lance; Anspaugh, Lynn

    1991-01-01

    Potential radiation impacts from launch of the Ulysses solar exploration experiment were evaluated using eight postulated accident scenarios. Lifetime individual dose estimates rarely exceeded 1 mrem. Most of the potential health effects would come from inhalation exposures immediately after an accident, rather than from ingestion of contaminated food or water, or from inhalation of resuspended plutonium from contaminated ground. For local Florida accidents (that is, during the first minute after launch), an average source term accident was estimated to cause a total added cancer risk of up to 0.2 deaths. For accidents at later time after launch, a worldwide cancer risk of up to three cases was calculated (with a four in a million probability). Upper bound estimates were calculated to be about 10 times higher.

  13. Comparative Reaction Diagrams for the SN2 Reaction Formulated According to the Leffler Analysis and the Hammond Postulate.

    PubMed

    Haddon, Robert C; Tian, Ziqi; Jiang, De-En

    2016-05-06

    The Hammond Postulate and the Leffler analysis have provided a cornerstone in the understanding of reaction processes in organic chemistry for over 60 years, yet quantitative applications of these methodologies over the range of reactions envisaged in the original works remain elusive. In the present paper, we analyze a series of SN2 reactions in three solvents that lead to endothermic and exothermic reaction processes, and we show that within the hybridization reaction coordinate the SN2 reaction is fully consistent with both treatments. We give new presentations of the reaction energies as a function of reaction progress, which allow the generation of unified reaction coordinate diagrams that show a linear relationship between the hybridization metric of reaction progress and the relative energies of the stationary points on the potential surface as a function of structure and solvent as originally envisaged by Leffler and Hammond.

  14. Potential health risks from postulated accidents involving the Pu-238 RTG (radioisotope thermoelectric generator) on the Ulysses solar exploration mission

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, M. ); Nelson, R.C. ); Bollinger, L. ); Hoover, M.D. . Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst.); Templeton, W. ); Anspaugh, L. (Lawren

    1990-11-02

    Potential radiation impacts from launch of the Ulysses solar exploration experiment were evaluated using eight postulated accident scenarios. Lifetime individual dose estimates rarely exceeded 1 mrem. Most of the potential health effects would come from inhalation exposures immediately after an accident, rather than from ingestion of contaminated food or water, or from inhalation of resuspended plutonium from contaminated ground. For local Florida accidents (that is, during the first minute after launch), an average source term accident was estimated to cause a total added cancer risk of up to 0.2 deaths. For accidents at later times after launch, a worldwide cancer risk of up to three cases was calculated (with a four in a million probability). Upper bound estimates were calculated to be about 10 times higher. 83 refs.

  15. Fault rheology beyond frictional melting

    PubMed Central

    Lavallée, Yan; Hirose, Takehiro; Kendrick, Jackie E.; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2015-01-01

    During earthquakes, comminution and frictional heating both contribute to the dissipation of stored energy. With sufficient dissipative heating, melting processes can ensue, yielding the production of frictional melts or “pseudotachylytes.” It is commonly assumed that the Newtonian viscosities of such melts control subsequent fault slip resistance. Rock melts, however, are viscoelastic bodies, and, at high strain rates, they exhibit evidence of a glass transition. Here, we present the results of high-velocity friction experiments on a well-characterized melt that demonstrate how slip in melt-bearing faults can be governed by brittle fragmentation phenomena encountered at the glass transition. Slip analysis using models that incorporate viscoelastic responses indicates that even in the presence of melt, slip persists in the solid state until sufficient heat is generated to reduce the viscosity and allow remobilization in the liquid state. Where a rock is present next to the melt, we note that wear of the crystalline wall rock by liquid fragmentation and agglutination also contributes to the brittle component of these experimentally generated pseudotachylytes. We conclude that in the case of pseudotachylyte generation during an earthquake, slip even beyond the onset of frictional melting is not controlled merely by viscosity but rather by an interplay of viscoelastic forces around the glass transition, which involves a response in the brittle/solid regime of these rock melts. We warn of the inadequacy of simple Newtonian viscous analyses and call for the application of more realistic rheological interpretation of pseudotachylyte-bearing fault systems in the evaluation and prediction of their slip dynamics. PMID:26124123

  16. Fault rheology beyond frictional melting.

    PubMed

    Lavallée, Yan; Hirose, Takehiro; Kendrick, Jackie E; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald B

    2015-07-28

    During earthquakes, comminution and frictional heating both contribute to the dissipation of stored energy. With sufficient dissipative heating, melting processes can ensue, yielding the production of frictional melts or "pseudotachylytes." It is commonly assumed that the Newtonian viscosities of such melts control subsequent fault slip resistance. Rock melts, however, are viscoelastic bodies, and, at high strain rates, they exhibit evidence of a glass transition. Here, we present the results of high-velocity friction experiments on a well-characterized melt that demonstrate how slip in melt-bearing faults can be governed by brittle fragmentation phenomena encountered at the glass transition. Slip analysis using models that incorporate viscoelastic responses indicates that even in the presence of melt, slip persists in the solid state until sufficient heat is generated to reduce the viscosity and allow remobilization in the liquid state. Where a rock is present next to the melt, we note that wear of the crystalline wall rock by liquid fragmentation and agglutination also contributes to the brittle component of these experimentally generated pseudotachylytes. We conclude that in the case of pseudotachylyte generation during an earthquake, slip even beyond the onset of frictional melting is not controlled merely by viscosity but rather by an interplay of viscoelastic forces around the glass transition, which involves a response in the brittle/solid regime of these rock melts. We warn of the inadequacy of simple Newtonian viscous analyses and call for the application of more realistic rheological interpretation of pseudotachylyte-bearing fault systems in the evaluation and prediction of their slip dynamics.

  17. Melting and crystallization of ice in partially filled nanopores.

    PubMed

    Solveyra, Estefanía González; de la Llave, Ezequiel; Scherlis, Damián A; Molinero, Valeria

    2011-12-08

    We investigate the melting and formation of ice in partially filled hydrophilic and hydrophobic nanopores of 3 nm diameter using molecular dynamics simulations with the mW water model. Above the melting temperature, the partially filled nanopores contain two water phases in coexistence: a condensed liquid plug and a surface-adsorbed phase. It has been long debated in the literature whether the surface-adsorbed phase is involved in the crystallization. We find that only the liquid plug crystallizes on cooling, producing ice I with stacks of hexagonal and cubic layers. The confined ice is wetted by a premelted liquid layer that persists in equilibrium with ice down to temperatures well below its melting point. The liquid-ice transition is first-order-like but rounded. We determine the temperature and enthalpy of melting as a function of the filling fraction of the pore. In agreement with experiments, we find that the melting temperature of the nanoconfined ice is strongly depressed with respect to the bulk T(m), it depends weakly on the filling fraction and is insensitive to the hydrophobicity of the pore wall. The state of water in the crystallized hydrophilic and hydrophobic pores, however, is not the same: the hydrophobic pore has a negligible density of the surface-adsorbed phase and higher fraction of water in the ice phase than the hydrophilic pore. The widths of the ice cores are nevertheless comparable for the hydrophobic and hydrophilic pores, and this may explain their almost identical melting temperatures. The enthalpy of melting ΔH(m), when normalized by the actual amount of ice in the pore, is indistinguishable for the hydrophobic and hydrophilic pores, insensitive to the filling fraction, and within the error bars, the same as the difference in enthalpy between bulk liquid and bulk ice evaluated at the temperature of melting of ice in the nanopores.

  18. The role of von Neumann and Lueders postulates in the Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen considerations: Comparing measurements with degenerate and nondegenerate spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2008-05-15

    We show that the projection postulate plays a crucial role in the discussion on the so-called quantum nonlocality, in particular, in the Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen argument. We stress that the original von Neumann projection postulate was crucially modified by extending it to observables with degenerate spectra (the Lueders postulate) and we show that this modification is highly questionable from a physical point of view and is the real source of quantum nonlocality. The use of the original von Neumann postulate eliminates this problem: instead of an action at a distance nonlocality we obtain a classical measurement nonlocality, which is related to the synchronization of two measurements (on the two parts of a composite system)

  19. 24. A CORE WORKER DISPLAYS THE CORE BOX AND CORES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. A CORE WORKER DISPLAYS THE CORE BOX AND CORES FOR A BRASS GATE VALVE BODY MADE ON A CORE BOX, CA. 1950. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  20. High thermal stability of core-shell structures dominated by negative interface energy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yong-Fu; Zhao, Ning; Jin, Bo; Zhao, Ming; Jiang, Qing

    2017-03-29

    Nanoscale core/shell structures are of interest in catalysis due to their superior catalytic properties. Here we investigated the thermal stability of the coherent core-shell structures in a thermodynamic way by considering the impact from the core with the bulk melting point Tm(∞) lower or higher than the shell. When a low-Tm(∞) core is adopted, core-shell melting induced by the melting depression of the core does not occur upon heating because of the superheating, although the melting depression of the core can be triggered ultimately by the preferential melting of the high-Tm(∞) shell for small cores. The superheating of the core is contributed by the negative solid-solid interface energy, while the depression is originated from the positive solid-liquid interface energy. Owing to the presence of the negative interface energy, moreover, the low-Tm(∞)-core structure possesses a low difference in thermal expansion between the core and the shell, high activation energy of outward atomic diffusion from the core to shell, and low heat capacity. This result is beneficial for the core-shell structure design for its application in catalysis.

  1. Thermodynamics of Oligonucleotide Duplex Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber-Gosche, Sherrie; Edwards, Robert A.

    2009-05-01

    Melting temperatures of oligonucleotides are useful for a number of molecular biology applications, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Although melting temperatures are often calculated with simplistic empirical equations, application of thermodynamics provides more accurate melting temperatures and an opportunity for students to apply rigorous thermodynamic analysis to an important biochemical problem. Because the stacking of base pairs on top of one another is a significant factor in the energetics of oligonucleotide melting, several investigators have applied van't Hoff analysis to melting temperature data using a nearest-neighbor model and have obtained entropies and enthalpies for the stacking of bases. The present article explains how the equilibrium constant for the dissociation of strands from double-stranded oligonucleotides can be expressed in terms of the total strand concentration and thus how the total strand concentration influences the melting temperature. It also presents a simplified analysis based on the entropies and enthalpies of stacking that is manually tractable so that students can work examples to help them understand the thermodynamics of oligonucleotide melting.

  2. The Impact of Partial Melting in the Orogenic Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, P. F.; Teyssier, C.; Whitney, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    Open source, community driven numerical codes available at geodynamics.org allow geologists to model orogenic processes including partial melting and its consequences during orogenic cycles. Here we explore the role of partial melting during continental subduction and its impact on the evolution of orogenic plateaux and that of migmatite-cored metamorphic core complexes. Continental subduction and orogenic plateaux: Numerical experiments show that when continental slabs buried into the mantle meet their solidus, crustal melt is confined to the slab during its ascent and ponds at the Moho (Fig. 1a). The displaced overlying crust is extruded horizontally into the weak lower crust of the continent, resulting in Earth’s surface uplift to form an orogenic plateau, and Moho downward motion to accommodate the influx of material into the lower crust. This model suggests a link between continental subduction, melting and the build up of orogenic plateaux, and show that partial melting may be a significant process in exhumation of ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) rocks. Model results are consistent with the common association of UHP rocks and migmatite. Growth and destruction of orogenic plateaux: The lateral growth of orogenic plateaux is often attributed to the flow of the plateau weak partially melted lower crust into its foreland in some cases over a distance > 1500 km in 15 myr. Using pre-thickening temperatures compatible with Tibet’s uplift history, we show that mass redistribution processes are dynamically coupled, and that CFE velocities are limited to less than 1 cm.yr-1 (~150 km in 15 myr) by cooling and crystallization of the melted channel in the foreland and by any upward deviation into metamorphic domes of the melted channel by extension in the plateau (Fig. 1b). Gravitational collapse and metamorphic core complexes: Localization of extension in the upper crust triggers convergent flow in the partially molten deep crust channel. This convergent flow leads to the

  3. Hot melt adhesive attachment pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, R. L.; Frizzill, A. W.; Little, B. D.; Progar, D. J.; Coultrip, R. H.; Couch, R. H.; Gleason, J. R.; Stein, B. A.; Buckley, J. D.; St.clair, T. L. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A hot melt adhesive attachment pad for releasably securing distinct elements together is described which is particularly useful in the construction industry or a spatial vacuum environment. The attachment pad consists primarily of a cloth selectively impregnated with a charge of hot melt adhesive, a thermo-foil heater, and a thermo-cooler. These components are securely mounted in a mounting assembly. In operation, the operator activates the heating cycle transforming the hot melt adhesive to a substantially liquid state, positions the pad against the attachment surface, and activates the cooling cycle solidifying the adhesive and forming a strong, releasable bond.

  4. Plasma arc melting of zirconium

    SciTech Connect

    Tubesing, P.K.; Korzekwa, D.R.; Dunn, P.S.

    1997-12-31

    Zirconium, like some other refractory metals, has an undesirable sensitivity to interstitials such as oxygen. Traditionally, zirconium is processed by electron beam melting to maintain minimum interstitial contamination. Electron beam melted zirconium, however, does not respond positively to mechanical processing due to its large grain size. The authors undertook a study to determine if plasma arc melting (PAM) technology could be utilized to maintain low interstitial concentrations and improve the response of zirconium to subsequent mechanical processing. The PAM process enabled them to control and maintain low interstitial levels of oxygen and carbon, produce a more favorable grain structure, and with supplementary off-gassing, improve the response to mechanical forming.

  5. Crystallization in Earth's Core after High-Temperature Core Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirose, K.; Morard, G.; Hernlund, J. W.; Helffrich, G. R.; Ozawa, H.

    2015-12-01

    Recent core formation models based on the metal-silicate partitioning of siderophile elements suggest that the Earth's core was formed by metal segregation at high pressure and high temperature in a deep magma ocean. It is also thought that the simultaneous solubility of silicon and oxygen in liquid iron are strongly enhanced at high pressure and high temperature, such that at the end of accretion the core was rich in both silicon and oxygen. Here we performed crystallization experiments on the Fe-Si binary and Fe-Si-O ternary systems up to core pressure in a laser-heated diamond-anvil cell. The starting material for the latter was a homogeneous mixture of fine-grain Fe-Si and SiO2 (<1 µm). We prepared cross sections of samples recovered from the DAC using a focused ion beam (FIB) and subsequently performed textural and chemical characterization with field-emission-type electron microprobe (FE-EPMA). Quenched liquid alloy was found at the hottest part coexisting with a solid phase (liquidus phase) at the periphery. These results combined with literature data on the melting phase relations in the Fe-FeO binary system demonstrate that the liquidus field of SiO2 is very wide at the Fe-rich portion of the Fe-Si-O ternary system at the core pressure range. It indicates that the original Fe-Si-O core liquid should have crystallized a large amount SiO2 until it lost either silicon or oxygen. The recent finding of high thermal conductivity of the core suggests that core thermal convection is difficult to sustain without extreme degrees of secular cooling. However, even for modest degrees of joint Si-O incorporation into the early core, the buoyancy released by crystallization of SiO2 is sufficient to overcome thermal stratification and sustain the geodynamo.

  6. Impact-induced melting during accretion of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, Jellie; Nimmo, Francis; Melosh, H. Jay; Jacobson, Seth A.; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Rubie, David C.

    2016-12-01

    Because of the high energies involved, giant impacts that occur during planetary accretion cause large degrees of melting. The depth of melting in the target body after each collision determines the pressure and temperature conditions of metal-silicate equilibration and thus geochemical fractionation that results from core-mantle differentiation. The accretional collisions involved in forming the terrestrial planets of the inner Solar System have been calculated by previous studies using N-body accretion simulations. Here we use the output from such simulations to determine the volumes of melt produced and thus the pressure and temperature conditions of metal-silicate equilibration, after each impact, as Earth-like planets accrete. For these calculations a parameterised melting model is used that takes impact velocity, impact angle and the respective masses of the impacting bodies into account. The evolution of metal-silicate equilibration pressures (as defined by evolving magma ocean depths) during Earth's accretion depends strongly on the lifetime of impact-generated magma oceans compared to the time interval between large impacts. In addition, such results depend on starting parameters in the N-body simulations, such as the number and initial mass of embryos. Thus, there is the potential for combining the results, such as those presented here, with multistage core formation models to better constrain the accretional history of the Earth.

  7. Melting of Bridgmanite to 135 Gpa: Toward a Coherent Model for the Melting Behavior in the Lower Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrault, D.; Pesce, G.; Mezouar, N.

    2015-12-01

    Our knowledge on the melting behavior in the deep mantle remains based on a limited number of experimental and theoretical works. Today, thanks to (i) availability of very brilliant X-ray synchrotron sources and (ii) improved control of the P-T conditions in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell (LH-DAC), the experimental results should reach some agreement about the melting diagrams. However, it is not the case and major controversies remain. For example, liquidi of peridotitic (1) and chondritic-type (2) mantles are reported with a temperature difference of ~1000 K at a pressure of ~90 GPa (corresponding to ~2000 km depth), which cannot be explained by the relatively small compositional difference between these two materials. To bring new insights about the melting properties of the deep mantle, our strategy has been to study the melting curve of the end-member liquidus phase, the (Mg,Fe)(Al,Si)O3 bridgmanite (Bg), before applying a basic thermodynamical approach to the mineralogical system made of Bg, CaSiO3-perovskite and (Mg,Fe)O ferropericlase. Our approach cannot be as formal as currently done for melting in the shallow mantle, due to lack of major thermodynamical parameters. Still, our analysis yields original information, such as the degree of partial melting as a function of P, T and fraction of Bg in the geological material. The Mg/Si ratio in melts can also be addressed. Concerning the controversy between LH-DAC experiments, it can be solved taking into account migration in the temperature gradient of the pseudo-eutectic melt, when the sample starts to melt. This effect is expected to occur more extensively in absence of an insulating material between the sample and the diamond anvils. It yields an overestimation of the liquidus temperature for a given chemical composition, due to loss of the most fusing elements. References:1. Fiquet et al. (2010) Melting of Peridotite to 140 Gigapascals. Science 329, 1516-1518. 2. Andrault et al. (2011) Melting curve of

  8. Secular evolution of partial melting and melt stagnation during the formation of Godzilla Mullion, Philippine Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, J. E.; Ohara, Y.; Harigane, Y.; Michibayashi, K.; Hellebrand, E.; von der Handt, A.; Loocke, M.; Ishii, T.

    2009-12-01

    Godzilla Mullion is a large-scale low angle detachment fault (or OCC, Oceanic Core Complex) formed during backarc spreading in the Parece Vela Rift behind the Mariana arc system. Detachment spreading occurred during the time interval 15-12 Ma, before the Parece Vela Rift became extinct and the locus of back arc spreading in the system shifted to the East, to the Mariana Trough. During this time, the spreading rate varied from ~70-88 mm/year to zero (at extinction). The decline in the spreading rate, should have had profound effects on the thermal structure of the lithosphere in the rift, including include progressive thickening, decreasing degree of partial melting, and increasing melt stagnation. We have combined our preliminary data on mantle peridotite mineral chemistry to form a preliminary test of this hypothesis based on mantle peridotites from (currently) 10 sampling stations along the mullion from the cruises CSS33, KR03-01, KH07-02 and YK09-05. This test is for now based primarily on abyssal peridotite spinel chemistry (Dick and Bullen, 1982; Dick 1989). We can distinguish three distinct regions within the mullion based on spinel chemistry: (1) The Distal GM region, including sites KR03-01-D6, KH07-02-D17 and KH07-02-D7. These have a moderately depleted character, with minimum Cr-numbers between 30 and 40, and few samples with high TiO2 (an indicator of melt impregnation). (2) The Medial GM region, including stations KH07-02-D6, KR03-01-D7, KH07-02-D21 and YK09-05-6K#1142. These have a more fertile character, with minimum Cr-numbers between 14 and 22, and with the exception of KH07-02-21 (which may belong to the next group) little evidence of melt stagnation. (3) The Proximal GM region, including sites KR0301-D9 and D10 and CSS33-D1. These spinels show abundant evidence for melt reaction, including plagioclase pseudomorphs (See abstract by Loocke et al., this session) and pervasively elevated TiO2 contents and Cr-numbers in the spinels. We can interpret

  9. Influence of Silicate Melt Composition on Metal/Silicate Partitioning of W, Ge, Ga and Ni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singletary, S. J.; Domanik, K.; Drake, M. J.

    2005-01-01

    The depletion of the siderophile elements in the Earth's upper mantle relative to the chondritic meteorites is a geochemical imprint of core segregation. Therefore, metal/silicate partition coefficients (Dm/s) for siderophile elements are essential to investigations of core formation when used in conjunction with the pattern of elemental abundances in the Earth's mantle. The partitioning of siderophile elements is controlled by temperature, pressure, oxygen fugacity, and by the compositions of the metal and silicate phases. Several recent studies have shown the importance of silicate melt composition on the partitioning of siderophile elements between silicate and metallic liquids. It has been demonstrated that many elements display increased solubility in less polymerized (mafic) melts. However, the importance of silicate melt composition was believed to be minor compared to the influence of oxygen fugacity until studies showed that melt composition is an important factor at high pressures and temperatures. It was found that melt composition is also important for partitioning of high valency siderophile elements. Atmospheric experiments were conducted, varying only silicate melt composition, to assess the importance of silicate melt composition for the partitioning of W, Co and Ga and found that the valence of the dissolving species plays an important role in determining the effect of composition on solubility. In this study, we extend the data set to higher pressures and investigate the role of silicate melt composition on the partitioning of the siderophile elements W, Ge, Ga and Ni between metallic and silicate liquid.

  10. Circulation and melting beneath the ross ice shelf.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, S S; Gordon, A L; Ardai, J L

    1979-02-02

    Thermohaline observations in the water column beneath the Ross Ice Shelf and along its terminal face show significant vertical stratification, active horizontal circulation, and net melting at the ice shelf base. Heat is supplied by seawater that moves southward beneath the ice shelf from a central warm core and from a western region of high salinity. The near-freezing Ice Shelf Water produced flows northward into the Ross Sea.

  11. Study of iron nanoparticle melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, A. V.; Shulgin, A. V.; Lavruk, S. A.

    2016-10-01

    In paper melting process of iron nanoparticles was investigated with molecular dynamics method. Melting temperatures was found for particles with radius from 1.5 to 4 nm. Results match with data of other authors. Heat capacity was calculated based on investigation of caloric curves. Dependence between heat capacity and temperature for different size of nanoparticles was approximated. Heat conductivity of iron nanoparticles was calculated.

  12. Laser melting of uranium carbides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utton, C. A.; De Bruycker, F.; Boboridis, K.; Jardin, R.; Noel, H.; Guéneau, C.; Manara, D.

    2009-03-01

    In the context of the material research aimed at supporting the development of nuclear plants of the fourth Generation, renewed interest has recently arisen in carbide fuels. A profound understanding of the behaviour of nuclear materials in extreme conditions is of prime importance for the analysis of the operation limits of nuclear fuels, and prediction of possible nuclear reactor accidents. In this context, the main goal of the present paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of laser induced melting experiments on stoichiometric uranium carbides; UC, UC1.5 and UC2. Measurements were performed, at temperatures around 3000 K, under a few bars of inert gas in order to minimise vaporisation and oxidation effects, which may occur at these temperatures. Moreover, a recently developed investigation method has been employed, based on in situ analysis of the sample surface reflectivity evolution during melting. Current results, 2781 K for the melting point of UC, 2665 K for the solidus and 2681 K for the liquidus of U2C3, 2754 K for the solidus and 2770 K for the liquidus of UC2, are in fair agreement with early publications where the melting behaviour of uranium carbides was investigated by traditional furnace melting methods. Further information has been obtained in the current research about the non-congruent (solidus-liquidus) melting of certain carbides, which suggest that a solidus-liquidus scheme is followed by higher ratio carbides, possibly even for UC2.

  13. Nuclear reactor melt-retention structure to mitigate direct containment heating

    DOEpatents

    Tutu, Narinder K.; Ginsberg, Theodore; Klages, John R.

    1991-01-01

    A light water nuclear reactor melt-retention structure to mitigate the extent of direct containment heating of the reactor containment building. The structure includes a retention chamber for retaining molten core material away from the upper regions of the reactor containment building when a severe accident causes the bottom of the pressure vessel of the reactor to fail and discharge such molten material under high pressure through the reactor cavity into the retention chamber. In combination with the melt-retention chamber there is provided a passageway that includes molten core droplet deflector vanes and has gas vent means in its upper surface, which means are operable to deflect molten core droplets into the retention chamber while allowing high pressure steam and gases to be vented into the upper regions of the containment building. A plurality of platforms are mounted within the passageway and the melt-retention structure to direct the flow of molten core material and help retain it within the melt-retention chamber. In addition, ribs are mounted at spaced positions on the floor of the melt-retention chamber, and grid means are positioned at the entrance side of the retention chamber. The grid means develop gas back pressure that helps separate the molten core droplets from discharged high pressure steam and gases, thereby forcing the steam and gases to vent into the upper regions of the reactor containment building.

  14. A discontinuous melt sheet in the Manson impact structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izett, G. A.; Reynolds, R. L.; Rosenbaum, J. G.; Nishi, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    Petrologic studies of the core recovered from holes drilled in the Manson, Iowa, buried impact structure may unravel the thermal history of the crater-fill debris. We made a cursory examination of about 200 m of core recovered from the M-1 bore hole. The M-1 bore hole was the first of 12 holes drilled as part of a cooperative drilling program between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Iowa Geological Survey Bureau. The M-1 core hole is about 6 km northeast of the center of the impact structure, apparently on the flank of its central peak. We developed a working hypothesis that a 30-m-thick breccia unit within a 53-m-thick unit previously termed the 'crystalline clast breccia with glassy matrix' is part of a discontinuous melt sheet in the crater-fill impact debris. The 30-m-thick breccia unit reached temperatures sufficient to partially melt some small breccia clasts and convert the fine-grained breccia matrix into a silicate melt that cooled to a greenish-black, flinty, microcrystalline rock. The results of the investigation of this unit are presented.

  15. An Ambiguous Statement Called the "tetrad Postulate" and the Correct Field Equations Satisfied by the Tetrad Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Waldyr A.; Souza, Quintino A. G.

    The names tetrad, tetrads, cotetrads have been used with many different meanings in the physics literature, not all of them equivalent from the mathematical point of view. In this paper, we introduce unambiguous definitions for each of those terms, and show how the old miscellanea made many authors introduce in their formalism an ambiguous statement called the "tetrad postulate," which has been the source of much misunderstanding, as we show explicitly by examining examples found in the literature. Since formulating Einstein's field equations intrinsically in terms of cotetrad fields θa, a = 0, 1, 2, 3 is a worthy enterprise, we derive the equation of motion of each θa using modern mathematical tools (the Clifford bundle formalism and the theory of the square of the Dirac operator). Indeed, we identify (giving all details and theorems) from the square of the Dirac operator some noticeable mathematical objects, namely, the Ricci, Einstein, covariant D'Alembertian and the Hodge Laplacian operators, which permit us to show that each θa satisfies a well-defined wave equation. Also, we present for completeness a detailed derivation of the cotetrad wave equations from a variational principle. We compare the cotetrad wave equation satisfied by each θa with some others appearing in the literature, and which are unfortunately in error.

  16. Apparatus for controlling molten core debris

    DOEpatents

    Golden, Martin P. [Trafford, PA; Tilbrook, Roger W. [Monroeville, PA; Heylmun, Neal F. [Pittsburgh, PA

    1977-07-19

    Apparatus for containing, cooling, diluting, dispersing and maintaining subcritical the molten core debris assumed to melt through the bottom of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel in the unlikely event of a core meltdown. The apparatus is basically a sacrificial bed system which includes an inverted conical funnel, a core debris receptacle including a spherical dome, a spherically layered bed of primarily magnesia bricks, a cooling system of zig-zag piping in graphite blocks about and below the bed and a cylindrical liner surrounding the graphite blocks including a steel shell surrounded by firebrick. Tantalum absorber rods are used in the receptacle and bed.

  17. Apparatus for controlling molten core debris. [LMFBR

    DOEpatents

    Golden, M.P.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Heylmun, N.F.

    1977-07-19

    Disclosed is an apparatus for containing, cooling, diluting, dispersing and maintaining subcritical the molten core debris assumed to melt through the bottom of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel in the unlikely event of a core meltdown. The apparatus is basically a sacrificial bed system which includes an inverted conical funnel, a core debris receptacle including a spherical dome, a spherically layered bed of primarily magnesia bricks, a cooling system of zig-zag piping in graphite blocks about and below the bed and a cylindrical liner surrounding the graphite blocks including a steel shell surrounded by firebrick. Tantalum absorber rods are used in the receptacle and bed. 9 claims, 22 figures.

  18. Toward a coherent model for the melting behavior of the deep Earth's mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrault, D.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Bouhifd, M. A.; Boujibar, A.; Garbarino, G.; Manthilake, G.; Mezouar, M.; Monteux, J.; Parisiades, P.; Pesce, G.

    2017-04-01

    , F and DFeBg/melt. In the lower mantle, density inversions (i.e. sinking melts) appear to be restricted to low F values and highest mantle pressures. The coherent melting model has direct geophysical implications: (i) in the early Earth, the magma ocean crystallization could not occur for a core temperature higher than ∼5400 K at the core-mantle boundary (CMB). This temperature corresponds to the melting of pure Bg at 135 GPa. For a mantle composition more realistic than pure Bg, the right CMB temperature for magma ocean crystallization could have been as low as ∼4400 K. (ii) There are converging arguments for the formation of a relatively homogeneous mantle after magma ocean crystallization. In particular, we predict the bulk crystallization of a relatively large mantle fraction, when the temperature becomes lower than the pseudo-eutectic temperature. Some chemical segregation could still be possible as a result of some Bg segregation in the lowermost mantle during the first stage of the magma ocean crystallization, and due to a much later descent of very low F, Fe-enriched, melts toward the CMB. (iii) The descent of such melts could still take place today. There formation should to be related to incipient mantle melting due to the presence of volatile elements. Even though, these melts can only be denser than the mantle (at high mantle depths) if the controversial value of DFeBg/melt is indeed as low as suggested by some experimental studies. This type of melts could contribute to produce ultra-low seismic velocity anomalies in the lowermost mantle.

  19. Biological Ice Core Analysis in Russian Altai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uetake, J.; Nakazawa, F.; Kohshima, S.; Miyake, T.; Narita, H.; Fujita, K.; Takeuchi, N.; Nakawo, M.

    2007-12-01

    In July 2003, a 171m long ice core was excavated from top of Belukha glacier (4,200m a. s. l.) in the Russian Altai Mountains. We examined vertical distributions of microorganisms (unicellular green algae, fungal spore, yeast) and pollens for potential use of ice core dating and reconstruction of past climate. Microorganisms have no seasonal variation in pit samples, however 5 genus of pollen (Fir, Spruce, Pine, Birch tree and Mugwort) have seasonality of each dispersed season. Therefore, this ice core can be identified past seasonal layers by pollen distribution. Pollen dating analysis of ice core estimate upper 48m ice core contain 86 years snow and ice, and this dating method well correspond to the 1963 peak in Tritium. This dating analysis is more accurate than other markers (oxygen isotope, dust, chemical concentration and melt percentage). Oxygen isotope trend from 1917 and temperature record of meteorological station near the glacier slightly increased and melt percentage have some anomalies from 1950s show recent temperature rising in this region. Otherwise, microorganisms and pollen have no trend except yeast. Vertical distribution of yeast peaks are well correspond to peaks of melt percentage show that yeast cell can grow in surface snow only in the warm period when liquid water available. In 1970s and 1980s, Nitrate increased and peaked because of anthropogenic emissions. Nitrate is major nutrient of photosynthetic microorganism, however, no clear relationship nitrate between unicellular green algae.

  20. Core layering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, S. A.; Rubie, D. C.; Hernlund, J. W.; Morbidelli, A.

    2015-12-01

    We have created a planetary accretion and differentiation model that self-consistently builds and evolves Earth's core. From this model, we show that the core grows stably stratified as the result of rising metal-silicate equilibration temperatures and pressures, which increases the concentrations of light element impurities into each newer core addition. This stable stratification would naturally resist convection and frustrate the onset of a geodynamo, however, late giant impacts could mechanically mix the distinct accreted core layers creating large homogenous regions. Within these regions, a geodynamo may operate. From this model, we interpret the difference between the planetary magnetic fields of Earth and Venus as a difference in giant impact histories. Our planetary accretion model is a numerical N-body integration of the Grand Tack scenario [1]—the most successful terrestrial planet formation model to date [2,3]. Then, we take the accretion histories of Earth-like and Venus-like planets from this model and post-process the growth of each terrestrial planet according to a well-tested planetary differentiation model [4,5]. This model fits Earth's mantle by modifying the oxygen content of the pre-cursor planetesimals and embryos as well as the conditions of metal-silicate equilibration. Other non-volatile major, minor and trace elements included in the model are assumed to be in CI chondrite proportions. The results from this model across many simulated terrestrial planet growth histories are robust. If the kinetic energy delivered by larger impacts is neglected, the core of each planet grows with a strong stable stratification that would significantly impede convection. However, if giant impact mixing is very efficient or if the impact history delivers large impacts late, than the stable stratification can be removed. [1] Walsh et al. Nature 475 (2011) [2] O'Brien et al. Icarus 223 (2014) [3] Jacobson & Morbidelli PTRSA 372 (2014) [4] Rubie et al. EPSL 301

  1. Quantifying melting and mobilistaion of interstitial melts in crystal mushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veksler, Ilya; Dobson, Katherine; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Ertel-Ingrisch, Werner; Humphreys, Madeleine

    2015-04-01

    The deformation of crystals mushes and separation of melts and crystals in is critical to understanding the development of physical and chemical heterogeneity in magma chambers and has been invoked as an eruption trigger mechanism. Here we investigate the behaviour of the melt in the well characterised, classic crystal mush system of the Skaergaard intrusion by combining experimental petrology and the non-destructive 3D imaging methods. Starting materials for partial melting experiments were four samples from the upper Middle Zone of the Layered Series. Cylinders, 15 mm in diameter and 20 mm in length, were drilled out of the rock samples, placed in alumina crucibles and held for 5 days in electric furnaces at atmospheric pressure and 1050-1100 °C. Redox conditions set by the CO-CO2 gas mixture were kept close to those of the FMQ buffer. We then use spatially registered 3D x-ray computed tomography images, collected before and after the experiment, to determine the volume and distribution of the crystal framework and interstitial phases, and the volume, distribution and connectivity the interstitial phases that undergo melting and extraction while at elevated temperature. Image analysis has allowed us to quantify these physical changes with high spatial resolution. Our work is a first step towards quantitative understanding of the melt mobilisation and migration processes operating in notionally locked crystal rich magmatic systems.

  2. Frictional melting and stick-slip behavior in volcanic conduits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrick, Jackie Evan; Lavallee, Yan; Hirose, Takehiro; di Toro, Giulio; Hornby, Adrian Jakob; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald Bruce

    2013-04-01

    Dome-building eruptions have catastrophic potential, with dome collapse leading to devastating pyroclastic flows with almost no precursory warning. During dome growth, the driving forces of the buoyant magma may be superseded by controls along conduit margins; where brittle fracture and sliding can lead to formation of lubricating cataclasite and gouge. Under extreme friction, pseudotachylyte may form at the conduit margin. Understanding the conduit margin processes is vital to understanding the continuation of an eruption and we postulate that pseudotachylyte generation could be the underlying cause of stick-slip motion and associated seismic "drumbeats", which are so commonly observed at dome-building volcanoes. This view is supported by field evidence in the form of pseudotachylytes identified in lava dome products at Soufrière Hills (Montserrat) and Mount St. Helens (USA). Both eruptions were characterised by repetitive, periodic seismicity and lava spine extrusion of highly viscous magma. High velocity rotary shear (HVR) experiments demonstrate the propensity for melting of the andesitic and dacitic material (from Soufrière Hills and Mount St. Helens respectively) at upper conduit stress conditions (<10 MPa). Starting from room temperature, frictional melting of the magmas occurs in under 1 s (<< 1 m) at 1.5 m/s (a speed that is achievable during stick-slip motion). At lower velocities melting occurs comparatively later due to dissipation of heat from the slip zone (e.g. 8-15 m at 0.1 m/s). Hence, given the ease with which melting is achieved in volcanic rocks, and considering the high ambient temperatures in volcanic conduits, frictional melting may thus be an inevitable consequence of viscous magma ascent. The shear resistance of the slip zone during the experiment is also monitored. Frictional melting induces a higher resistance to sliding than rock on rock, and viscous processes control the slip zone properties. Variable-rate HVR experiments which mimic

  3. Methods for Melting Temperature Calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Qi-Jun

    Melting temperature calculation has important applications in the theoretical study of phase diagrams and computational materials screenings. In this thesis, we present two new methods, i.e., the improved Widom's particle insertion method and the small-cell coexistence method, which we developed in order to capture melting temperatures both accurately and quickly. We propose a scheme that drastically improves the efficiency of Widom's particle insertion method by efficiently sampling cavities while calculating the integrals providing the chemical potentials of a physical system. This idea enables us to calculate chemical potentials of liquids directly from first-principles without the help of any reference system, which is necessary in the commonly used thermodynamic integration method. As an example, we apply our scheme, combined with the density functional formalism, to the calculation of the chemical potential of liquid copper. The calculated chemical potential is further used to locate the melting temperature. The calculated results closely agree with experiments. We propose the small-cell coexistence method based on the statistical analysis of small-size coexistence MD simulations. It eliminates the risk of a metastable superheated solid in the fast-heating method, while also significantly reducing the computer cost relative to the traditional large-scale coexistence method. Using empirical potentials, we validate the method and systematically study the finite-size effect on the calculated melting points. The method converges to the exact result in the limit of a large system size. An accuracy within 100 K in melting temperature is usually achieved when the simulation contains more than 100 atoms. DFT examples of Tantalum, high-pressure Sodium, and ionic material NaCl are shown to demonstrate the accuracy and flexibility of the method in its practical applications. The method serves as a promising approach for large-scale automated material screening in which

  4. The Effect of Inner Core Translation on Outer Core Flow and the Geomagnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mound, J. E.; Davies, C. J.; Silva, L.

    2015-12-01

    Bulk translation of the inner core has been proposed to explain quasi-hemispheric patterns of seismic heterogeneity. Such a translation would result in differential melting and freezing at the inner core boundary (ICB) and hence a heterogeneous pattern of buoyancy flux that could influence convection in the outer core. This heterogeneous flux at the ICB will tend to promote upwelling on the trailing hemisphere, where enhanced inner core growth results in increased latent heat and light element release, and inhibit upwelling on the leading hemisphere, where melting of the inner core occurs. If this difference in convective driving between the two hemispheres propagated across the thickness of the outer core, then flows near the surface of the core could be linked to the ICB heterogeneity and result in a hemispheric imbalance in the geomagnetic field. We have investigated the influence of such ICB boundary conditions on core flows and magnetic field structure in numerical geodynamo models and analysed the resultant hemispheric imbalance relative to the hemispheric structure in models constructed from observations of Earth's field. Inner core translation at rates consistent with estimates for the Earth produce a strong hemispheric bias in the field, one that should be readily apparent in averages of the field over tens of thousands of years. Current models of the field over the Holocene may be able to rule out the most extreme ICB forcing scenarios, but more information on the dynamic structure of the field over these time scales will be needed to adequately test all cases.

  5. Partial melting of fertile peridotite fluxed by hydrous rhyolitic melt at 2-3 GPa: implications for mantle wedge hybridization by sediment melt and generation of ultrapotassic magmas in convergent margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallik, Ananya; Nelson, Jared; Dasgupta, Rajdeep

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the melting behavior of peridotite fluxed with 25 wt% of H2O-bearing rhyolitic sediment melt (1.8 wt% bulk H2O), by performing experiments from 1100 to 1300 °C at 2 GPa and 1050-1350 °C at 3 GPa. The apparent solidus of our bulk composition lies between 1100 and 1150 °C at both pressures, which is at a higher temperature than the vapor-saturated solidus and close to the pargasite dehydration solidus of peridotite. With increasing temperature, reacted melt fraction increases from 20 to 36 wt% from 1200 to 1300 °C at 2 GPa and 7 to 24 wt% from 1225 to 1350 °C at 3 GPa. Orthopyroxene is present as a residual phase in all the experiments, while olivine is present as a residual phase in all the experiments at 2 GPa only. Amphibole is absent above 1100 °C at both pressures, clinopyroxene disappears above 1200 and 1300 °C at 2 and 3 GPa, respectively, and garnet (only present at 3 GPa) melts out above 1300 °C. Upon reaction with the mantle wedge and subsequent melting of the hybrid rock, subducted sediment-derived rhyolites evolve in composition to a nepheline-normative ultrapotassic leucitite, similar in major element composition to ultrapotassic lavas from active arcs such as Sunda and inactive arcs such as in the Roman Magmatic Province. Fluxing peridotite with H2O versus H2O-bearing sediment melt at similar pressures does not appear to have an effect on isobaric melt productivity, but does have significant effect on melting reactions and resultant melt composition, with influx of sediment melt adding K2O to the system, thereby stabilizing phlogopite, which in turn buffers the reacted melt to ultrapotassic compositions. Previous experimental studies, along with this study, find that phlogopite can be stable near the hotter core of the mantle wedge and, hence, is likely to be subducted to deeper mantle, thereby influencing deeper cycling of volatiles and large ion lithophile elements. Also, because D {Rb/phl/melt} ≫ D {Sr/phl/melt} and D {Nd/phl/melt

  6. The postulations á la D’Alembert and á la Cauchy for higher gradient continuum theories are equivalent: a review of existing results

    PubMed Central

    Seppecher, P.

    2015-01-01

    In order to found continuum mechanics, two different postulations have been used. The first, introduced by Lagrange and Piola, starts by postulating how the work expended by internal interactions in a body depends on the virtual velocity field and its gradients. Then, by using the divergence theorem, a representation theorem is found for the volume and contact interactions which can be exerted at the boundary of the considered body. This method assumes an a priori notion of internal work, regards stress tensors as dual of virtual displacements and their gradients, deduces the concept of contact interactions and produces their representation in terms of stresses using integration by parts. The second method, conceived by Cauchy and based on the celebrated tetrahedron argument, starts by postulating the type of contact interactions which can be exerted on the boundary of every (suitably) regular part of a body. Then it proceeds by proving the existence of stress tensors from a balance-type postulate. In this paper, we review some relevant literature on the subject, discussing how the two postulations can be reconciled in the case of higher gradient theories. Finally, we underline the importance of the concept of contact surface, edge and wedge s-order forces. PMID:26730215

  7. Ex Vivo and In Vivo Mice Models to Study Blastocystis spp. Adhesion, Colonization and Pathology: Closer to Proving Koch's Postulates

    PubMed Central

    Ajjampur, Sitara S. R.; Png, Chin Wen; Chia, Wan Ni; Zhang, Yongliang; Tan, Kevin S. W.

    2016-01-01

    Blastocystis spp. are widely prevalent extra cellular, non-motile anerobic protists that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract. Although Blastocystis spp. have been associated with gastrointestinal symptoms, irritable bowel syndrome and urticaria, their clinical significance has remained controversial. We established an ex vivo mouse explant model to characterize adhesion in the context of tissue architecture and presence of the mucin layer. Using confocal microscopy with tissue whole mounts and two axenic isolates of Blastocystis spp., subtype 7 with notable differences in adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells (IEC), isolate B (ST7-B) and isolate H (more adhesive, ST7-H), we showed that adhesion is both isolate dependent and tissue trophic. The more adhesive isolate, ST7-H was found to bind preferentially to the colon tissue than caecum and terminal ileum. Both isolates were also found to have mucinolytic effects. We then adapted a DSS colitis mouse model as a susceptible model to study colonization and acute infection by intra-caecal inoculation of trophic Blastocystis spp.cells. We found that the more adhesive isolate ST7-H was also a better colonizer with more mice shedding parasites and for a longer duration than ST7-B. Adhesion and colonization was also associated with increased virulence as ST7-H infected mice showed greater tissue damage than ST7-B. Both the ex vivo and in vivo models used in this study showed that Blastocystis spp. remain luminal and predominantly associated with mucin. This was further confirmed using colonic loop experiments. We were also successfully able to re-infect a second batch of mice with ST7-H isolates obtained from fecal cultures and demonstrated similar histopathological findings and tissue damage thereby coming closer to proving Koch’s postulates for this parasite. PMID:27508942

  8. Improved capacitive melting curve measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebedash, Alexander; Tuoriniemi, Juha; Pentti, Elias; Salmela, Anssi

    2009-02-01

    Sensitivity of the capacitive method for determining the melting pressure of helium can be enhanced by loading the empty side of the capacitor with helium at a pressure nearly equal to that desired to be measured and by using a relatively thin and flexible membrane in between. This way one can achieve a nanobar resolution at the level of 30 bar, which is two orders of magnitude better than that of the best gauges with vacuum reference. This extends the applicability of melting curve thermometry to lower temperatures and would allow detecting tiny anomalies in the melting pressure, which must be associated with any phenomena contributing to the entropy of the liquid or solid phases. We demonstrated this principle in measurements of the crystallization pressure of isotopic helium mixtures at millikelvin temperatures by using partly solid pure 4He as the reference substance providing the best possible universal reference pressure. The achieved sensitivity was good enough for melting curve thermometry on mixtures down to 100 μK. Similar system can be used on pure isotopes by virtue of a blocked capillary giving a stable reference condition with liquid slightly below the melting pressure in the reference volume. This was tested with pure 4He at temperatures 0.08-0.3 K. To avoid spurious heating effects, one must carefully choose and arrange any dielectric materials close to the active capacitor. We observed some 100 pW loading at moderate excitation voltages.

  9. Melting of iron determined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy to 100 GPa

    PubMed Central

    Aquilanti, Giuliana; Trapananti, Angela; Karandikar, Amol; Kantor, Innokenty; Marini, Carlo; Mathon, Olivier; Pascarelli, Sakura; Boehler, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Temperature, thermal history, and dynamics of Earth rely critically on the knowledge of the melting temperature of iron at the pressure conditions of the inner core boundary (ICB) where the geotherm crosses the melting curve. The literature on this subject is overwhelming, and no consensus has been reached, with a very large disagreement of the order of 2,000 K for the ICB temperature. Here we report new data on the melting temperature of iron in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell to 103 GPa obtained by X-ray absorption spectroscopy, a technique rarely used at such conditions. The modifications of the onset of the absorption spectra are used as a reliable melting criterion regardless of the solid phase from which the solid to liquid transition takes place. Our results show a melting temperature of iron in agreement with most previous studies up to 100 GPa, namely of 3,090 K at 103 GPa. PMID:26371317

  10. Human mitochondrial transcription factors TFAM and TFB2M work synergistically in promoter melting during transcription initiation

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Aparna; Basu, Urmimala; Sultana, Shemaila; Nandakumar, Divya; Patel, Smita S.

    2017-01-01

    Human mitochondrial DNA is transcribed by POLRMT with the help of two initiation factors, TFAM and TFB2M. The current model postulates that the role of TFAM is to recruit POLRMT and TFB2M to melt the promoter. However, we show that TFAM has ‘post-recruitment’ roles in promoter melting and RNA synthesis, which were revealed by studying the pre-initiation steps of promoter binding, bending and melting, and abortive RNA synthesis. Our 2-aminopurine mapping studies show that the LSP (Light Strand Promoter) is melted from −4 to +1 in the open complex with all three proteins and from −4 to +3 with addition of ATP. Our equilibrium binding studies show that POLRMT forms stable complexes with TFB2M or TFAM on LSP with low-nanomolar Kd values, but these two-component complexes lack the mechanism to efficiently melt the promoter. This indicates that POLRMT needs both TFB2M and TFAM to melt the promoter. Additionally, POLRMT+TFB2M makes 2-mer abortives on LSP, but longer RNAs are observed only with TFAM. These results are explained by TFAM playing a role in promoter melting and/or stabilization of the open complex on LSP. Based on our results, we propose a refined model of transcription initiation by the human mitochondrial transcription machinery. PMID:27903899

  11. Explosive volcanism and the compositions of cores of differentiated asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, Klaus; Wilson, Lionel

    1993-01-01

    Eleven iron meteorite groups show correlations between Ni and siderophile trace elements that are predictable by distribution coefficients between liquid and solid metal in fractionally crystallizing metal magmas. These meteorites are interpreted to be fragments of the fractionally crystallized cores of eleven differentiated asteroids. Many of these groups crystallized from S-depleted magmas which we propose resulted from removal of the first partial melt (the Fe,Ni-FeS cotectic melt) by explosive pyroclastic volcanism of the type envisaged by Wilson and Keil (1991). We show that these dense, negatively buoyant melts can be driven to asteroidal surfaces due to the presence of excess pressure in the melt and the presence of buoyant bubbles of gas which decrease the density of the melt. We also show that, in typical asteroidal materials, veins will form which grow into dikes and serve as pathways for migration of melt and gas to asteroidal surfaces. Since cotectic Fe, Ni-FeS melt consists of about 85 wt pct FeS and 15 wt pct Fe, Ni, removal of small volumes of eutectic melts results in major loss of S but only minor loss of Fe,Ni, thus leaving sufficient Fe,Ni to form sizeable asteroidal cores.

  12. Mercury's thermal evolution and core crystallization regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivoldini, A.; Van Hoolst, T.; Dumberry, M.; Steinle-Neumann, G.

    2015-10-01

    Unlike the Earth, where the liquid core isentrope is shallower than the core liquidus, at the lower pressures inside Mercury's core the isentrope can be steeper than the melting temperature. As a consequence, upon cooling, the isentrope may first enter a solid stability field near the core mantle boundary and produce ironrich snow that sinks under gravity and produces buoyant upwellings of iron depleted fluid. Similar to bottom up crystallization, crystallization initiated near the top might generate sufficient buoyancy flux to drive magnetic field generation by compositional convection.In this study we model Mercury's thermal evolution by taking into account the formation of iron-rich snow to assess when the conditions for an internally magnetic field can be satisfied. We employ a thermodynamic consistent description of the iron high-pressure phase diagram and thermoelastic properties of iron alloys as well as the most recent data about the thermal conductivity of core materials. We use a 1-dimensional parametrized thermal evolution model in the stagnant lid regime for the mantle (e.g. [1]) that is coupled to the core. The model for the mantle takes into account the formation of the crust due to melting at depth. Mantle convection is driven by heat producing radioactive elements, heat loss from secular cooling and from the heat supplied by the core. The heat generated inside the core is mainly provided from secular cooling, from the latent heat released at iron freezing, and from gravitational energy resulting form the release of light elements at the inner core-outer core boundary as well as from the sinking of iron-rich snow and subsequent upwellings of light elements in the snow zone. If the heat flow out of the core is smaller than the heat transported along the core isentrope a thermal boundary will from at the top of the outer core. To determine the extension of the convecting region inside the liquid core we calculate the convective power [2]. Finally, we

  13. Origins of ultralow velocity zones through slab-derived metallic melt

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Jiachao; Li, Jie; Hrubiak, Rostislav; ...

    2016-05-03

    Understanding the ultralow velocity zones (ULVZs) places constraints on the chemical composition and thermal structure of deep Earth and provides critical information on the dynamics of large-scale mantle convection, but their origin has remained enigmatic for decades. Recent studies suggest that metallic iron and carbon are produced in subducted slabs when they sink beyond a depth of 250 km. Here we show that the eutectic melting curve of the iron-carbon system crosses the current geotherm near Earth’s core-mantle boundary, suggesting that dense metallic melt may form in the lowermost mantle. If concentrated into isolated patches, such melt could produce themore » seismically observed density and velocity features of ULVZs. Depending on the wetting behavior of the metallic melt, the resultant ULVZs may be short-lived domains that are replenished or regenerated through subduction, or long-lasting regions containing both metallic and silicate melts. Slab-derived metallic melt may produce another type of ULVZ that escapes core sequestration by reacting with the mantle to form iron-rich post-bridgmanite or ferropericlase. The hypotheses connect peculiar features near Earth’s core-mantle boundary to subduction of the oceanic lithosphere through the deep carbon cycle.« less

  14. Origins of ultralow velocity zones through slab-derived metallic melt.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiachao; Li, Jie; Hrubiak, Rostislav; Smith, Jesse S

    2016-05-17

    Understanding the ultralow velocity zones (ULVZs) places constraints on the chemical composition and thermal structure of deep Earth and provides critical information on the dynamics of large-scale mantle convection, but their origin has remained enigmatic for decades. Recent studies suggest that metallic iron and carbon are produced in subducted slabs when they sink beyond a depth of 250 km. Here we show that the eutectic melting curve of the iron-carbon system crosses the current geotherm near Earth's core-mantle boundary, suggesting that dense metallic melt may form in the lowermost mantle. If concentrated into isolated patches, such melt could produce the seismically observed density and velocity features of ULVZs. Depending on the wetting behavior of the metallic melt, the resultant ULVZs may be short-lived domains that are replenished or regenerated through subduction, or long-lasting regions containing both metallic and silicate melts. Slab-derived metallic melt may produce another type of ULVZ that escapes core sequestration by reacting with the mantle to form iron-rich postbridgmanite or ferropericlase. The hypotheses connect peculiar features near Earth's core-mantle boundary to subduction of the oceanic lithosphere through the deep carbon cycle.

  15. Origins of ultralow velocity zones through slab-derived metallic melt

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jiachao; Li, Jie; Hrubiak, Rostislav; Smith, Jesse S.

    2016-05-03

    Understanding the ultralow velocity zones (ULVZs) places constraints on the chemical composition and thermal structure of deep Earth and provides critical information on the dynamics of large-scale mantle convection, but their origin has remained enigmatic for decades. Recent studies suggest that metallic iron and carbon are produced in subducted slabs when they sink beyond a depth of 250 km. Here we show that the eutectic melting curve of the iron-carbon system crosses the current geotherm near Earth’s core-mantle boundary, suggesting that dense metallic melt may form in the lowermost mantle. If concentrated into isolated patches, such melt could produce the seismically observed density and velocity features of ULVZs. Depending on the wetting behavior of the metallic melt, the resultant ULVZs may be short-lived domains that are replenished or regenerated through subduction, or long-lasting regions containing both metallic and silicate melts. Slab-derived metallic melt may produce another type of ULVZ that escapes core sequestration by reacting with the mantle to form iron-rich post-bridgmanite or ferropericlase. The hypotheses connect peculiar features near Earth’s core-mantle boundary to subduction of the oceanic lithosphere through the deep carbon cycle.

  16. Experimental determination of the solubility of iridium in silicate melts: Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borisov, Alexander; Dingwell, Donald B.; Oneill, Hugh ST.C.; Palme, Herbert

    1992-01-01

    Little is known of the geochemical behavior of iridium. Normally this element is taken to be chalcophile and/or siderophile so that during planetary differentiation processes, e.g., core formation, iridium is extracted from silicate phases into metallic phases. Experimental determination of the metal/silicate partition coefficient of iridium is difficult simply because it is so large. Also there are no data on the solubility behavior of iridium in silicate melts. With information on the solubility of iridium in silicate melts it is possible, in combination with experimental data for Fe-Ir alloys, to calculate the partition coefficient between a metallic phase and a silicate melt.

  17. Partial Melting of the Indarch (EH4) Meteorite : A Textural, Chemical and Phase Relations View of Melting and Melt Migration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCoy, Timothy J.; Dickinson, Tamara L.; Lofgren, Gary E.

    2000-01-01

    To Test whether Aubrites can be formed by melting of enstatite Chondrites and to understand igneous processes at very low oxygen fugacities, we have conducted partial melting experiments on the Indarch (EH4) chondrite at 1000-1500 C. Silicate melting begins at 1000 C. Substantial melt migration occurs at 1300-1400 C and metal migrates out of the silicate change at 1450 C and approx. 50% silicate partial melting. As a group, our experiments contain three immiscible metallic melts 9Si-, and C-rich), two immiscible sulfide melts(Fe-and FeMgMnCa-rich) and Silicate melt. Our partial melting experiments on the Indarch (EH4) enstatite Chondrite suggest that igneous processes at low fO2 exhibit serveral unique features. The complete melting of sulfides at 1000 C suggest that aubritic sulfides are not relicts. Aubritic oldhamite may have crystallized from Ca and S complexed in the silicate melt. Significant metal-sulfide melt migration might occur at relatively low degrees of silicate partial melting. Substantial elemental exchange occurred between different melts (e.g., between sulfide and silicate, Si between silicate and metal), a feature not observed during experiments at higher fO2. This exchange may help explain the formation of aubrites from known enstatite chondrites.

  18. Thermodynamics of freezing and melting.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Ulf R; Costigliola, Lorenzo; Bailey, Nicholas P; Schrøder, Thomas B; Dyre, Jeppe C

    2016-08-17

    Although the freezing of liquids and melting of crystals are fundamental for many areas of the sciences, even simple properties like the temperature-pressure relation along the melting line cannot be predicted today. Here we present a theory in which properties of the coexisting crystal and liquid phases at a single thermodynamic state point provide the basis for calculating the pressure, density and entropy of fusion as functions of temperature along the melting line, as well as the variation along this line of the reduced crystalline vibrational mean-square displacement (the Lindemann ratio), and the liquid's diffusion constant and viscosity. The framework developed, which applies for the sizable class of systems characterized by hidden scale invariance, is validated by computer simulations of the standard 12-6 Lennard-Jones system.

  19. Thermodynamics of freezing and melting

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Ulf R.; Costigliola, Lorenzo; Bailey, Nicholas P.; Schrøder, Thomas B.; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2016-01-01

    Although the freezing of liquids and melting of crystals are fundamental for many areas of the sciences, even simple properties like the temperature–pressure relation along the melting line cannot be predicted today. Here we present a theory in which properties of the coexisting crystal and liquid phases at a single thermodynamic state point provide the basis for calculating the pressure, density and entropy of fusion as functions of temperature along the melting line, as well as the variation along this line of the reduced crystalline vibrational mean-square displacement (the Lindemann ratio), and the liquid's diffusion constant and viscosity. The framework developed, which applies for the sizable class of systems characterized by hidden scale invariance, is validated by computer simulations of the standard 12-6 Lennard-Jones system. PMID:27530064

  20. Climate change and forest fires synergistically drive widespread melt events of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

    PubMed

    Keegan, Kaitlin M; Albert, Mary R; McConnell, Joseph R; Baker, Ian

    2014-06-03

    In July 2012, over 97% of the Greenland Ice Sheet experienced surface melt, the first widespread melt during the era of satellite remote sensing. Analysis of six Greenland shallow firn cores from the dry snow region confirms that the most recent prior widespread melt occurred in 1889. A firn core from the center of the ice sheet demonstrated that exceptionally warm temperatures combined with black carbon sediments from Northern Hemisphere forest fires reduced albedo below a critical threshold in the dry snow region, and caused the melting events in both 1889 and 2012. We use these data to project the frequency of widespread melt into the year 2100. Since Arctic temperatures and the frequency of forest fires are both expected to rise with climate change, our results suggest that widespread melt events on the Greenland Ice Sheet may begin to occur almost annually by the end of century. These events are likely to alter the surface mass balance of the ice sheet, leaving the surface susceptible to further melting.

  1. Geochemistry: how well can Pb isotopes date core formation?

    PubMed

    Kamber, Balz S; Kramers, Jan D

    2006-11-02

    Timescale and the physics of planetary core formation are essential constraints for models of Earth's accretion and early differentiation. Wood and Halliday use the apparent mismatch in core-formation dates determined from tungsten (W) and lead (Pb) chrono-meters to argue for a two-stage core formation, involving an early phase of metal segregation followed by a protracted episode of sulphide melt addition. However, we show here that crust-;mantle Pb isotope systematics do not require diachronous core formation. Our observations indicate that very early (< or = 35 Myr) core formation and planet accretion remain the most plausible scenario.

  2. Fundamentals of Melt-Water Interfacial Transport Phenomena: Improved Understanding for Innovative Safety Technologies in ALWRs

    SciTech Connect

    M. Anderson; M. Corradini; K.Y. Bank; R. Bonazza; D. Cho

    2005-04-26

    The interaction and mixing of high-temperature melt and water is the important technical issue in the safety assessment of water-cooled reactors to achieve ultimate core coolability. For specific advanced light water reactor (ALWR) designs, deliberate mixing of the core-melt and water is being considered as a mitigative measure, to assure ex-vessel core coolability. The goal of this work is to provide the fundamental understanding needed for melt-water interfacial transport phenomena, thus enabling the development of innovative safety technologies for advanced LWRs that will assure ex-vessel core coolability. The work considers the ex-vessel coolability phenomena in two stages. The first stage is the melt quenching process and is being addressed by Argonne National Lab and University of Wisconsin in modified test facilities. Given a quenched melt in the form of solidified debris, the second stage is to characterize the long-term debris cooling process and is being addressed by Korean Maritime University in via test and analyses. We then address the appropriate scaling and design methodologies for reactor applications.

  3. Melting and freezing of water in cylindrical silica nanopores.

    PubMed

    Jähnert, S; Vaca Chávez, F; Schaumann, G E; Schreiber, A; Schönhoff, M; Findenegg, G H

    2008-10-21

    Freezing and melting of H(2)O and D(2)O in the cylindrical pores of well-characterized MCM-41 silica materials (pore diameters from 2.5 to 4.4 nm) was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and (1)H NMR cryoporometry. Well-resolved DSC melting and freezing peaks were obtained for pore diameters down to 3.0 nm, but not in 2.5 nm pores. The pore size dependence of the melting point depression DeltaT(m) can be represented by the Gibbs-Thomson equation when the existence of a layer of nonfreezing water at the pore walls is taken into account. The DSC measurements also show that the hysteresis connected with the phase transition, and the melting enthalpy of water in the pores, both vanish near a pore diameter D* approximately equal to 2.8 nm. It is concluded that D* represents a lower limit for first-order melting/freezing in the pores. The NMR spin echo measurements show that a transition from low to high mobility of water molecules takes place in all MCM-41 materials, including the one with 2.5 nm pores, but the transition revealed by NMR occurs at a higher temperature than indicated by the DSC melting peaks. The disagreement between the NMR and DSC transition temperatures becomes more pronounced as the pore size decreases. This is attributed to the fact that with decreasing pore size an increasing fraction of the water molecules is situated in the first and second molecular layers next to the pore wall, and these molecules have slower dynamics than the molecules in the core of the pore.

  4. The body has a brake: micrin is a postulated new gonadal hormone curbing tissue overgrowth and restricting reproduction.

    PubMed

    Hart, John E

    2014-12-01

    There is evidence for an unrecognised classical hormone secreted by the mammalian gonad. This postulated hormone--'micrin' (pronounced 'my-crin')--represents the body's brake against tissue overgrowth. When oestrogens are administered in high doses to female rats there is a considerable (non-artefactual) increase in the relative size and weight of organs such as the pituitary, adrenals, uterus and liver--suggesting an organotrophic (organ-building) role for endogenous oestrogens. This effect is exaggerated if the animals are first ovariectomized, indicating the removal of a negative ovarian factor, micrin. These organ enlargements can be reduced by pretreating the rats with large doses of antioestrogens such as clomiphene and tamoxifen. This antiestrogenic blockade of exogenous oestrogens is itself blunted by prior removal of the ovaries. It is proposed that antioestrogens (e.g. tamoxifen in breast cancer treatment) antagonize the organotrophic effects of oestrogens by competing for the oestrogen receptor peripherally and centrally and via an increase in the secretion of ovarian micrin. It is deduced that micrin is the testicular 'inhibin' proposed in the 1930s, not the molecule that now bears that name, which acts at the pituitary tier as a downregulator of follicle-stimulating hormone. The hallmark of micrin deficiency in the male rat is a pituitary hypertrophy that follows castration. This is reversible with a steroid-depleted aqueous bovine testicular extract, the micrin within which suppresses the hypothalamus, normalizing the pituitary. Micrin probably acts as a brake on peripheral tissues directly but also indirectly at the meta-level via the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, resetting a hypothalamic 'organostat' controlling organ and tissue masses, part of the 'organotrophic system' of internal size regulation. Besides endocrine (circulating) micrin from the gonads there is probably paracrine (locally acting) micrin produced in the brain. This is involved in a

  5. Composition of Apollo 17 core 76001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, Randy L.; Bishop, Kaylynn M.

    1993-01-01

    Core 76001 is a single drive tube containing a column of regolith taken at the base of the North Massif, station 6, Apollo 17. The core material is believed to have accumulated through slow downslope mass wasting from the massif. As a consequence, the core soil is mature throughout its length. Results of INAA for samples taken every half centimeter along the length of the core indicate that there is only minor systematic compositional variation with depth. Concentrations of elements primarily associated with mare basalt (Sc, Fe) and noritic impact melt breccia (Sm) decrease slightly with depth, particularly between 20 cm and the bottom of the core at 32 cm depth. This is consistent with petrographic studies that indicate a greater proportion of basalt and melt breccia in the top part of the core. However, Sm/Sc and La/Sm ratios are remarkably constant with depth, indicating no variation in the ratio of mare material to Sm-rich highlands material with depth. Other than these subtle changes, there is no compositional evidence for the two stratigraphic units (0-20 cm and 20-32 cm) defined on the basis of modal petrography, although all samples with anomalously high Ni concentrations (Fe-Ni metal nuggets) occur above 20 cm depth.

  6. Experimental constraints on the sulfur content in the Earth's core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Y.; Huang, H.; Leng, C.; Hu, X.; Wang, Q.

    2015-12-01

    Any core formation models would lead to the incorporation of sulfur (S) into the Earth's core, based on the cosmochemical/geochemical constraints, sulfur's chemical affinity for iron (Fe), and low eutectic melting temperature in the Fe-FeS system. Preferential partitioning of S into the melt also provides petrologic constraint on the density difference between the liquid outer and solid inner cores. Therefore, the center issue is to constrain the amount of sulfur in the core. Geochemical constraints usually place 2-4 wt.% S in the core after accounting for its volatility, whereas more S is allowed in models based on mineral physics data. Here we re-examine the constraints on the S content in the core by both petrologic and mineral physics data. We have measured S partitioning between solid and liquid iron in the multi-anvil apparatus and the laser-heated diamond anvil cell, evaluating the effect of pressure on melting temperature and partition coefficient. In addition, we have conducted shockwave experiments on Fe-11.8wt%S using a two-stage light gas gun up to 211 GPa. The new shockwave experiments yield Hugoniot densities and the longitudinal sound velocities. The measurements provide the longitudinal sound velocity before melting and the bulk sound velocity of liquid. The measured sound velocities clearly show melting of the Fe-FeS mix with 11.8wt%S at a pressure between 111 and 129 GPa. The sound velocities at pressures above 129GPa represent the bulk sound velocities of Fe-11.8wt%S liquid. The combined data set including density, sound velocity, melting temperature, and S partitioning places a tight constraint on the required sulfur partition coefficient to produce the density and velocity jumps and the bulk sulfur content in the core.

  7. Magnetic Biocomposites for Remote Melting.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mengbo; Liebert, Tim; Müller, Robert; Dellith, Andrea; Gräfe, Christine; Clement, Joachim H; Heinze, Thomas

    2015-08-10

    A new approach toward the fabrication of biocompatible composites suitable for remote melting is presented. It is shown that magnetite nanoparticles (MNP) can be embedded into a matrix of biocompatible thermoplastic dextran esters. For that purpose, fatty acid esters of dextran with adjustable melting points in the range of 30-140 °C were synthesized. Esterification of the polysaccharide by activation of the acid as iminium chlorides guaranteed mild reaction conditions leading to high quality products as confirmed by FTIR- and NMR spectroscopy as well as by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). A method for the preparation of magnetically responsive bionanocomposites was developed consisting of combined dissolution/suspension of the dextran ester and hydrophobized MNPs in an organic solvent followed by homogenization with ultrasonication, casting of the solution, drying and melting of the composite for a defined shaping. This process leads to a uniform distribution of MNPs in nanocomposite as revealed by scanning electron microscope. Samples of different geometries were exposed to high frequency alternating magnetic field. It could be shown that defined remote melting of such biocompatible nanocomposites is possible for the first time. This may lead to a new class of magnetic remote control systems, which are suitable for controlled release applications or self-healing materials.

  8. Transcrystalline melt migration in clinopyroxene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonzogni, Yann; Provost, Ariel; Schiano, Pierre

    2011-03-01

    Glass inclusions in clinopyroxene phenocrysts from La Sommata (Vulcano Island, Aeolian Arc) were reheated and submitted to a sustained thermal gradient. Each remelted inclusion undergoes a transient textural and chemical reequilibration and concomitantly begins to migrate along a crystallographic direction, at a small angle with the thermal gradient. The completion of morphological evolution requires a characteristic time that is governed by chemical diffusion. Chemical reequilibration results in the formation of a colored halo that delineates the former location and shape of the inclusion after it has migrated away. Transcrystalline migration proceeds by dissolution of the host clinopyroxene ahead and precipitation astern. Its rate is not limited by Fick's law, but by the crystal-melt interface kinetics. Clinopyroxene dissolution and growth are slower than for olivine in similar conditions but obey the same analytical law, which can be transposed to equally or more sluggish melting or crystallization events in nature. When a gas bubble is initially present, it responds to elastic forces by quickly shifting toward the cold end of the inclusion, where it soon becomes engulfed as an isolated fluid inclusion in the reprecipitated crystal. This study confirms that transcrystalline melt migration, beside its possible implications for small-scale melt segregation and fluid-inclusion generation in the Earth's mantle, provides an experimental access to interfacial kinetic laws in near-equilibrium conditions.

  9. Some aspects of core formation in Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, S. C.

    1976-01-01

    Some questions dealing with the nature and history of a large metallic core within Mercury are considered. These include the existence of a core, its size, whether it is fluid or solid, the timescale for core formation, the geological consequences of core formation, and whether such consequences are consistent with the surface geology. Several indirect lines of evidence are discussed which suggest the presence of a large iron-rich core. A core-formation model is examined in which core infall is accompanied by an increase of 17 km in planetary radius, an increase of 700 K in mean internal temperature, and substantial melting of the mantle. It is argued that if the core differentiated from an originally homogeneous planet, that event must have predated the oldest geological units comprising most of the planetary surface. A convective dynamo model for the source of Mercury's magnetic field is shown to conflict with cosmochemical models that do not predict a substantial radiogenic heat source in the core.

  10. Differentiation and core formation in accreting planetesimals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, W.; Breuer, D.; Spohn, T.

    2012-07-01

    Aims: The compositions of meteorites and the morphologies of asteroid surfaces provide strong evidence that partial melting and differentiation were widespread among the planetesimals of the early solar system. However, it is not easily understood how planetesimals can be differentiated. To account for significantly smaller radii, masses, gravity and accretion energies early, intense heat sources are required, e.g. the short-lived nuclides 26Al and 60Fe. Here, we investigate the process of differentiation and core formation in accreting planetesimals taking into account the effects of sintering, melt heat transport via porous flow and redistribution of the radiogenic heat sources. Methods: We use a spherically symmetric one-dimensional model of a partially molten planetesimal consisting of iron and silicates, which considers the accretion by radial growth. The common heat conduction equation has been modified to consider also melt segregation. In the initial state, the planetesimals are assumed to be highly porous and consist of a mixture of Fe,Ni-FeS and silicates consistent to an H-chondritic composition. The porosity change due to the so called hot pressing is simulated by solving a corresponding differential equation. Magma segregation of iron and silicate melt is treated according to the flow in porous media theory by using the Darcy flow equation and allowing a maximal melt fraction of 50%. Results: We show that the differentiation in planetesimals depends strongly on the formation time, accretion duration, and accretion law and cannot be assumed as instantaneous. Iron melt segregation starts almost simultaneously with silicate segregation and lasts between 0.4 and 10 Ma. The degree of differentiation varies significantly and the most evolved structure consists of an iron core, a silicate mantle, which are covered by an undifferentiated but sintered layer and an undifferentiated and unsintered regolith - suggesting that chondrites and achondrites can

  11. Osmium Solubility in Silicate Melts: New Efforts and New Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borisov, A.; Walker, R. J.

    1998-01-01

    In a recent paper, Borisov and Palme reported the first experimental results on the partitioning of Os between metal (Ni-rich OsNi alloys) and silicate melt of anorthite-diopside eutectic composition at 1400 C and 1 atm total pressure and and at function of O2 from 10(exp -8) to 10(exp -12) atm. Experiments were done by equilibrating OsNi metal loops with silicate melt. Metal and glass were analyzed separately by INAA. D(sup 0s) ranged from 10(exp 6) to 10(exp 7), which is inconsistent with core/ mantle equilibrium for HSEs and favors the late veneer hypothesis. Unfortunately, there was practically no function of O2 dependence of Os partitioning, and the scatter of experimental results was quite serious, so the formation of Os nuggets was suspected. This new set of experiments was specifically designed to avoid of at least minimize the nugget problem

  12. Modeling and database for melt-water interfacial heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M.T.; Spencer, B.W.; Schneider, J.P.; Bonomo, B.; Theofanous, G.

    1992-04-01

    A mechanistic model is developed to predict the transition superficial gas velocity between bulk cooldown and crust-limited heat transfer regimes in a sparged molten pool with a coolant overlayer. The model has direct applications in the analysis of ex-vessel severe accidents, where molten corium interacts with concrete, thereby producing sparging concrete decomposition gases. The analysis approach embodies thermal, mechanical, and hydrodynamic aspects associated with incipient crust formation at the melt/coolant interface. The model is validated against experiment data obtained with water (melt) and liquid nitrogen (coolant) simulants. Predictions are then made for the critical gas velocity at which crust formation will occur for core material interacting with concrete in the presence of water.

  13. Modeling and database for melt-water interfacial heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M.T.; Spencer, B.W. ); Schneider, J.P. ); Bonomo, B. ); Theofanous, G. )

    1992-01-01

    A mechanistic model is developed to predict the transition superficial gas velocity between bulk cooldown and crust-limited heat transfer regimes in a sparged molten pool with a coolant overlayer. The model has direct applications in the analysis of ex-vessel severe accidents, where molten corium interacts with concrete, thereby producing sparging concrete decomposition gases. The analysis approach embodies thermal, mechanical, and hydrodynamic aspects associated with incipient crust formation at the melt/coolant interface. The model is validated against experiment data obtained with water (melt) and liquid nitrogen (coolant) simulants. Predictions are then made for the critical gas velocity at which crust formation will occur for core material interacting with concrete in the presence of water.

  14. Direct writing by way of melt electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Brown, Toby D; Dalton, Paul D; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2011-12-15

    Melt electrospun fibers of poly(ϵ-caprolactone) are accurately deposited using an automated stage as the collector. Matching the translation speed of the collector to the speed of the melt electrospinning jet establishes control over the location of fiber deposition. In this sense, melt electrospinning writing can be seen to bridge the gap between solution electrospinning and direct writing additive manufacturing processes.

  15. Thermodynamics of glass forming polymeric melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, Prapti B.; Patel, Ashmi T.; Pratap, Arun

    2013-06-01

    The temperature dependence of the Gibbs free energy difference (ΔG) between the under cooled melt and the corresponding equilibrium solid has been analyzed for two samples of glass forming polymeric melts; polyamid-6 (PA-6), polypropylene oxide (PPO) in the entire temperature range: i.e. Tm (melting temperature) to Tg (glass transition temperature).

  16. Water freezing and ice melting

    DOE PAGES

    Malolepsza, Edyta; Keyes, Tom

    2015-10-12

    The generalized replica exchange method (gREM) is designed to sample states with coexisting phases and thereby to describe strong first order phase transitions. The isobaric MD version of the gREM is presented and applied to freezing of liquid water, and melting of hexagonal and cubic ice. It is confirmed that coexisting states are well sampled. The statistical temperature as a function of enthalpy, TS(H), is obtained. Hysteresis between freezing and melting is observed and discussed. The entropic analysis of phase transitions is applied and equilibrium transition temperatures, latent heats, and surface tensions are obtained for hexagonal ice↔liquid and cubic ice↔liquid,more » with excellent agreement with published values. A new method is given to assign water molecules among various symmetry types. As a result, pathways for water freezing, ultimately leading to hexagonal ice, are found to contain intermediate layered structures built from hexagonal and cubic ice.« less

  17. Water freezing and ice melting

    SciTech Connect

    Malolepsza, Edyta; Keyes, Tom

    2015-10-12

    The generalized replica exchange method (gREM) is designed to sample states with coexisting phases and thereby to describe strong first order phase transitions. The isobaric MD version of the gREM is presented and applied to freezing of liquid water, and melting of hexagonal and cubic ice. It is confirmed that coexisting states are well sampled. The statistical temperature as a function of enthalpy, TS(H), is obtained. Hysteresis between freezing and melting is observed and discussed. The entropic analysis of phase transitions is applied and equilibrium transition temperatures, latent heats, and surface tensions are obtained for hexagonal ice↔liquid and cubic ice↔liquid, with excellent agreement with published values. A new method is given to assign water molecules among various symmetry types. As a result, pathways for water freezing, ultimately leading to hexagonal ice, are found to contain intermediate layered structures built from hexagonal and cubic ice.

  18. Viscoelastic properties of Ionomer Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Monojoy; Kumar, Sanat

    2007-03-01

    Viscoelastic prperties of a model telechelic ionomer, i.e., a melt of non-polar polymers with a charge at each chain end along with neutralizing counterions, have been examined using molecular dynamics simulation. Equlibrium calculation of the loss modulus G^''(φ) and storage modulus G^'(φ) shows plateau at lower temperatures when the systems are not relaxed. In this situation the specific heat (Cv) peak corresponds to the self-assembly of the system, at lower temperatures the specific heat begins to plateau. Similarities of the dynamic features found for telechelic melts with those observed in glass-forming liquids and entangled polymers have been shown. Furthremore, using an athermal 'probe', the properties of these materials is being distinctly classified as 'strong' glass or physical gels.

  19. Water Freezing and Ice Melting.

    PubMed

    Małolepsza, Edyta; Keyes, Tom

    2015-12-08

    The generalized replica exchange method (gREM) is designed to sample states with coexisting phases and thereby to describe strong first order phase transitions. The isobaric MD version of the gREM is presented and applied to the freezing of liquid water and the melting of hexagonal and cubic ice. It is confirmed that coexisting states are well-sampled. The statistical temperature as a function of enthalpy, TS(H), is obtained. Hysteresis between freezing and melting is observed and discussed. The entropic analysis of phase transitions is applied and equilibrium transition temperatures, latent heats, and surface tensions are obtained for hexagonal ice ↔ liquid and cubic ice ↔ liquid with excellent agreement with published values. A new method is given to assign water molecules among various symmetry types. Pathways for water freezing, ultimately leading to hexagonal ice, are found to contain intermediate layered structures built from hexagonal and cubic ice.

  20. Climate variability, warming and ice melt on the Antarctic Peninsula over the last millennium (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abram, N.; Mulvaney, R.; Wolff, E. W.; Triest, J.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Trusel, L. D.; Vimeux, F.; Fleet, L.; Arrowsmith, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Antarctic Peninsula has experienced rapid warming over the past 50 years, which has led to extensive summer ice melt, the collapse of ice shelves and the acceleration of glacial outflow. But the short observational records of Antarctic climate don't allow for an understanding of how unusual the recent conditions may be. We present reconstructions of temperature and melt history since 1000 AD from a highly resolved ice core record from James Ross Island on the northeastern Antarctic Peninsula. The spatial pattern of temperature variability across networks of palaeoclimate reconstructions demonstrates that the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) has been an important driver of Antarctic Peninsula climate variability over a range of time scales. Rapid warming of the Antarctic Peninsula since the mid-20th century is consistent with strengthening of the SAM by a combination of greenhouse and later ozone forcing. The rare reconstruction of summer melting, from visible melt layers in the ice core, demonstrates the non-linear response of ice melt to increasing summer temperatures. Melting in the region is now more intense than at any other time over the last 1000 years and suggests that the Antarctic Peninsula is now particularly susceptible to rapid increases in ice loss in response to relatively small increases in mean temperature.

  1. Melting And Purification Of Niobium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moura, Hernane R. Salles; de Moura, Lourenço

    2007-08-01

    The aspects involved in the purification of niobium in Electron Beam Furnaces will be outlined and correlated with practical experience accumulated over 17 years of continuously producing high purity niobium metal and niobium-zirconium ingots at CBMM, meeting the needs for a wide range of uses. This paper also reports some comments regarding raw material requirements, the experience on cold hearth operation melting niobium and the production of large grains niobium ingots by CBMM with some comments of their main characteristics.

  2. Melting And Purification Of Niobium

    SciTech Connect

    Salles Moura, Hernane R.; Moura, Lourenco de

    2007-08-09

    The aspects involved in the purification of niobium in Electron Beam Furnaces will be outlined and correlated with practical experience accumulated over 17 years of continuously producing high purity niobium metal and niobium-zirconium ingots at CBMM, meeting the needs for a wide range of uses. This paper also reports some comments regarding raw material requirements, the experience on cold hearth operation melting niobium and the production of large grains niobium ingots by CBMM with some comments of their main characteristics.

  3. Crystal growing from the melt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, S. H.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanical and electrical properties of crystals produced by a unidirectional process depend strongly on the temperature and flow fields since these control the concentration of solute at the melt-crystal interface. The solute gradient there drives morphological instabilities that lead to cellular or dendritic interfaces. In the presentation several features of flow-solidification interactions will be discussed. These will include the effects of convection driven by density changes and buoyancy and the imposition of forced flow.

  4. Melt Spinning of Crystalline Alloys.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    manufactoring iron-based amorphous alloys for magnetic appli- cations (2). Liebermann and Graham (3) and Kavesh (-)’have discussed the effect of melt spinning...and Mn. The main objectige was to determine whether the conclusions of Liebermann and Graham and Kavesh can be applied over a wide range of materials...length, width and thickness, p is density (2.71.103 Kgm-3 ), and W is the measured weight. Liebermann and Graham (3) applied Bernoulli’s equation

  5. The influence of melting and melt drainage on crustal rheology during orogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diener, Johann F. A.; Fagereng, Åke

    2014-08-01

    Partial melting significantly weakens crustal rocks by introducing a low-viscosity liquid phase. However, near-concomitant melt drainage can remove this weak phase, potentially reversing the rheological effects such that the strength of a specific lithology depends on when the prograde pressure-temperature path intersects a melting reaction, how much melt is produced, and how long this melt is retained before it is lost. Phase equilibria and mixed rheology modeling of typical metapelite and metagreywacke compositions indicate that these rocks undergo continuous but pulsed melt production during prograde metamorphism. Depending on whether melt removal is continuous or episodic, and assuming geological strain rates, the lithologies can retain a very low strength less than 1 MPa or transiently strengthen to ˜5 MPa following melt loss. Lithologies undergoing episodic melt loss can therefore cycle between being relatively weak and relatively strong components within a composite crustal section. Melt production, retention, and weakening in the middle to lower crust as a whole is more sustained during heating and melt production, consistent with geodynamic inferences of weak, melt-bearing lower crust. However, the long-term consequence of melting and melt loss is a 50-400% increase in the strength of residual lithologies. The strengthening is more pronounced in metapelite than metagreywacke and is achieved through a combination of dehydration and the removal of the weak mica framework coupled to increased proportions of strong feldspars and garnet. Despite prolonged weakness, melting and melt loss therefore ultimately result in a dry and elastic lower crust.

  6. Fe-based nanocrystalline powder cores with ultra-low core loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiangyue; Lu, Zhichao; Lu, Caowei; Li, Deren

    2013-12-01

    Melt-spun amorphous Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si15.5B7 alloy strip was crushed to make flake-shaped fine powders. The passivated powders by phosphoric acid were mixed with organic and inorganic binder, followed by cold compaction to form toroid-shaped bonded powder-metallurgical magnets. The powder cores were heat-treated to crystallize the amorphous structure and to control the nano-grain structure. Well-coated phosphate-oxide insulation layer on the powder surface decreased the the core loss with the insulation of each powder. FeCuNbSiB nanocrystalline alloy powder core prepared from the powder having phosphate-oxide layer exhibits a stable permeability up to high frequency range over 2 MHz. Especially, the core loss could be reduced remarkably. At the other hand, the softened inorganic binder in the annealing process could effectively improve the intensity of powder cores.

  7. A universal criterion of melting.

    PubMed

    Lubchenko, Vassiliy

    2006-09-28

    Melting is analyzed dynamically as a problem of localization at a liquid-solid interface. A Lindemann-like criterion of melting is derived in terms of particular vibrational amplitudes, which turn out to equal a universal quotient (about one-tenth) of the molecular spacing, at the interface. The near universality of the Lindemann ratio apparently arises owing to strongly overdamped dynamics near melting, and despite the anharmonic interactions being system-specific. A similar criterion is derived for structural displacements in the bulk of the solid, in particular the premelted layer; the criterion is no longer strictly universal, but still depends only on the harmonic properties of the solid. We further compute the dependence of the magnitude of the elemental molecular translations, in deeply supercooled fluids, on the temperature and the high frequency elastic constants. We show explicitly that the surface tension between distinct liquid states, near the glass transition of a supercooled liquid, is nearly evenly split between entropic and energetic contributions.

  8. Melting Behaviour of Ferronickel Slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagadin, Christoph; Luidold, Stefan; Wagner, Christoph; Wenzl, Christine

    2016-12-01

    The industrial manufacturing of ferronickel in electric furnaces produces large amounts of slag with strong acidic character and high melting points, which seriously stresses the furnace refractory lining. In this study, the melting behavior of synthetically produced ferronickel slags on magnesia as refractory material was determined by means of a hot stage microscope. Therefore, slags comprising the main oxides SiO2 (35-70 wt.%), MgO (15-45 wt.%) and Fe2O3 (5-35 wt.%) were melted in a graphite crucible and afterwards analyzed by a hot stage microscope. The design of experiments, which was created by the statistic software MODDE®, included 20 experiments with varying slag compositions as well as atmospheres. The evaluation of the test results occurred at three different characteristic states of the samples like the softening point according to DIN 51730 and the temperatures at which the area of residual cross-section of the samples amounted to 30% and 40%, respectively, of the original value depending of their SiO2/MgO ratio and iron oxide content. Additionally, the thickness of the zone influenced by the slag was measured and evaluated.

  9. Compositional convection in viscous melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tait, Stephen; Jaupart, Claude

    1989-04-01

    DURING solidification of multi-component melts, gradients in temperature and composition develop on different scales because of the large difference between their respective molecular diffusivities. Two consequences are the development of double-diffusive convection1 and the creation of mushy zones in which solid and liquid intimately coexist with a complex small-scale geometry2,3. Theoretical analysis requires simplifying assumptions that must be verified by laboratory experiments. Hitherto, experiments have been carried out with aqueous solutions which do not accurately represent the dynamics of melts with high Prandtl numbers, such as magmas. Here we describe the characteristics of compositional convection using a new experimental technique which allows the viscosity of the solution to be varied independently of chemical composition and liquidus temperature. A supereutectic melt was cooled from below, causing the growth of a horizontal layer of crystals. Convective instability occurred when the local solutal Rayleigh number of the compositional boundary layer ahead of the advancing crystallization front attained a value of ~3 on average. We observed a novel regime of convection in which the thermal boundary layer above the crystallization front was essentially unmodified by the motion of the plumes. The plumes carried a small heat flux and did not mix the fluid to a uniform temperature.

  10. Calorie restriction lowers body temperature in rhesus monkeys, consistent with a postulated anti-aging mechanism in rodents.

    PubMed Central

    Lane, M A; Baer, D J; Rumpler, W V; Weindruch, R; Ingram, D K; Tilmont, E M; Cutler, R G; Roth, G S

    1996-01-01

    Many studies of caloric restriction (CR) in rodents and lower animals indicate that this nutritional manipulation retards aging processes, as evidenced by increased longevity, reduced pathology, and maintenance of physiological function in a more youthful state. The anti-aging effects of CR are believed to relate, at least in part, to changes in energy metabolism. We are attempting to determine whether similar effects occur in response to CR in nonhuman primates. Core (rectal) body temperature decreased progressively with age from 2 to 30 years in rhesus monkeys fed ad lib (controls) and is reduced by approximately 0.5 degrees C in age-matched monkeys subjected to 6 years of a 30% reduction in caloric intake. A short-term (1 month) 30% restriction of 2.5-year-old monkeys lowered subcutaneous body temperature by 1.0 degrees C. Indirect calorimetry showed that 24-hr energy expenditure was reduced by approximately 24% during short-term CR. The temporal association between reduced body temperature and energy expenditure suggests that reductions in body temperature relate to the induction of an energy conservation mechanism during CR. These reductions in body temperature and energy expenditure are consistent with findings in rodent studies in which aging rate was retarded by CR, now strengthening the possibility that CR may exert beneficial effects in primates analogous to those observed in rodents. PMID:8633033

  11. String melting in a photon bath

    SciTech Connect

    Karouby, Johanna

    2013-10-01

    We compute the decay rate of a metastable cosmic string in contact with a thermal bath by finding the instanton solution. The new feature is that this decay rate is found in the context of non thermal scalar fields in contact with a thermal bath of photons. In general, to make topologically unstable strings stable, one can couple them to such a bath. The resulting plasma effect creates metastable configurations which can decay from the false vacuum to the true vacuum. In our specific set-up, the instanton computation is realized for the case of two out-of-equilibrium complex scalar fields: one is charged and coupled to the photon field, and the other is neutral. New effects coming from the thermal bath of photons make the radius of the nucleated bubble and most of the relevant physical quantities temperature-dependent. However, the temperature appears in a different way than in the purely thermal case, where all scalar fields are in thermal equilibrium. As a result of the tunneling, the core of the initial string melts while bubbles of true vacuum expand at the speed of light.

  12. Martian mantle primary melts - An experimental study of iron-rich garnet lherzolite minimum melt composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertka, Constance M.; Holloway, John R.

    1988-01-01

    The minimum melt composition in equilibrium with an iron-rich garnet lherzolite assemblage is ascertained from a study of the liquidus relations of iron-rich basaltic compositions at 23 kb. The experimentally determined primary melt composition and its calculated sodium content reveal that Martian garnet lherzolite minimum melts are picritic alkali olivine basalts. Martian primary melts are found to be more picritic than terrestrial garnet lherzolite primary melts.

  13. Melting by temperature-modulated calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Wunderlich, B.; Okazaki, Iwao; Ishikiriyama, Kazuhiko; Boller, A. |

    1997-09-01

    Well-crystallized macromolecules melt irreversibly due to the need of molecular nucleation, while small molecules melt reversibly as long as crystal nuclei are present to assist crystallization. Furthermore, imperfect crystals of low-molar-mass polymers may have a sufficiently small region of metastability between crystallization and melting to show a reversing heat-flow component due to melting of poor crystals followed by crystallization of imperfect crystals which have insufficient time to perfect before the modulation switches to heating and melts the imperfect crystals. Many metals, in turn. melt sharply and reversibly as long as nuclei remain after melting for subsequent crystallization during the cooling cycle. Their analysis is complicated, however, due to thermal conductivity limitations of the calorimeters. Polymers of sufficiently high molar mass, finally, show a small amount of reversible. local melting that may be linked to partial melting of individual molecules. Experiments by temperature-modulated calorimetry and model calculations are presented. The samples measured included poly(ethylene terephthalate)s, poly(ethylene oxide)s, and indium. Two unsolved problems that arose from this research involve the origin of a high, seemingly stable, reversible heat capacity of polymers in the melting region, and a smoothing of melting and crystallization into a close-to-elliptical Lissajous figure in a heat-flow versus sample-temperature plot.

  14. Melting Penetration Simulation of Fe-U System at High Temperature Using MPS_LER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustari, A. P. A.; Yamaji, A.; Irwanto, Dwi

    2016-08-01

    Melting penetration information of Fe-U system is necessary for simulating the molten core behavior during severe accident in nuclear power plants. For Fe-U system, the information is mainly obtained from experiment, i.e. TREAT experiment. However, there is no reported data on SS304 at temperature above 1350°C. The MPS_LER has been developed and validated to simulate melting penetration on Fe-U system. The MPS_LER modelled the eutectic phenomenon by solving the diffusion process and by applying the binary phase diagram criteria. This study simulates the melting penetration of the system at higher temperature using MPS_LER. Simulations were conducted on SS304 at 1400, 1450 and 1500°C. The simulation results show rapid increase of melting penetration rate.

  15. Small particle melting of pure metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, G. L.; Bayles, R. A.; Gile, W. W.; Jesser, W. A.

    1986-01-01

    Submicron-sized crystallites of lead, tin, indium and bismuth were melted in situ in the modified specimen chamber of a Siemens transmission e lectron microscope. Melting point and size determinations were made directly from the dark field images of the crystallites. Particles exhibited melting points that decreased with decreasing particle size. A near-linear relationship was observed for the melting point as a function of the reciprocal of the radius. Thermodynamnic expressions based on the significant contributions of the surface energy to the free energy of the system also suggest a linear relation. Other factors, such as shape and surface contamination, were also observed to affect the size-dependent melting of particles. Crystallites of extended platelet shape did not exhibit a significant depression in melting point. Elevated residual gas pressures were found to lessen the melting point depression of spherical particles.

  16. Estimated subsidence in the Chino-Riverside and Bunker Hill-Yucaipa areas in Southern California for a postulated water-level lowering, 1965-2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lofgren, Ben Elder

    1971-01-01

    One of the alternate plans for water utilization being considered by the California Department of Water Resources in the Chino-Riverside and Bunker Hill-Yucaipa areas in southern California involves partial mining of ground water during the period 1965-2015, and consequent substantial lowering of water levels. The Department wants to know whether land subsidence would be a problem as a result of the postulated lowering. To answer this question, to the extent that leveling control permits, the present study has been made at the request of and in cooperation with the State of California.At a few locations in the Chino-Riverside and Bunker Hill-Yucaipa areas, comparable water-level decline and subsidence data are available from which rough estimates can be made of subsidence that would occur as a result of the postulated lowering from 1965 to 2015. Limited leveling control, and apparent discrepancies in the data, preclude accurate determination of amounts of subsidence caused by historic water-level decline.Based on 1965-2015 water-level changes postulated by the California Department of Water Resources and on available subsidence/head decline ratios, as much as 6 feet of subsidence might occur northeast of the San Jacinto fault between Loma Linda and San Bernardino, in an area of more than 350 feet of projected water-level decline. Also, as much as 1.5 feet of subsidence might occur in the vicinity of Ontario.

  17. Lower Mantle melting model and it's geodynamical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomin, I.; Tackley, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Model of solid-liquid equilibrium laws and substances properties in lower mantle conditions is important to understand the early stages of evolution of terrestrial planets, such as core formation and magma ocean crystallization. This model is also necessary to prove theories on some modern seismic features of the Earth (e.g. ultra-low velocity zones) and petrological observations (e.g. lower mantle mineral assemblage inclusions in diamonds). Numerous experimental and numerical studies of the lower mantle phases provide sufficient amount of data to build up a thermodynamic model, which can be used in geophysical fluid dynamics research. Experimental studies are the direct source of soliduses values, but other thermodynamic parameters stay unclear. Molecular Dynamics modeling provides data on thermodynamic properties of solids and liquids (density, heat capacity, latent heat of melting etc.). But absence of minor components (iron, alkali etc.) and some numerical issues (e.g. [Belonoshko, 2001]) make it to overestimate melting temperatures significantly (up to 20-30%). Our approach is to develop a model based on MD data by [de Koker et al., 2013] with evaluation of all important parameters according to classical thermodynamic equations. But melting temperatures (especially at eutectic points) are corrected along Clausius-Clapeyron slopes to agree with modern experimental data ([Andrault et al., 2011], [Andrault et al., 2014], [Fiquet et al., 2010], [Hirose et al., 1999], [Mosenfelder et al., 2007], [Nomura et al., 2014],[Ozawa et al., 2011], [Zerr et al., 1998]). Notable effect on melt and solid densities has iron partitioning, so KD value reported by [Andrault et al., 2012] was used. Proposed model was implemented into StagYY software (e.g. [Tackley, 2008]). It is a finite-volume discretization code for advection of solid and liquid in a planetary scale. CMB temperature was set to be 4000-4400 K. Calculations predict appearing and disappearing batches containing up

  18. Deep mantle melting-solidifying and produced heterogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomin, Ilya; Tackley, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Model for solid-liquid equilibrium and substance properties in lower mantle conditions is important to understand the early stages of evolution of terrestrial planets, such as core formation and magma ocean crystallization. This model is also necessary to prove theories on some modern seismic features of the Earth (e.g. ultra-low velocity zones) and petrological observations (e.g. lower mantle mineral assemblage inclusions in diamonds). Numerous experimental and numerical studies of the lower mantle phases provide sufficient amount of data to build up a thermodynamic model, which can be used in geophysical fluid dynamics research. Molecular Dynamics modeling provides data on thermodynamic properties of solids and liquids (density, heat capacity, thermal expansion, latent heat of melting etc.). Absence of minor components (iron, alkali etc.) makes it to overestimate melting temperatures significantly (up to 20-30%), so experimental data are also very important. Our model is based on MD data by [de Koker et al., 2013] with evaluation of all important parameters according to classical thermodynamic equations. Melting temperatures (especially at eutectic points) are corrected along Clausius-Clapeyron slopes to agree with modern experimental data ([Andrault et al., 2011], [Andrault et al., 2014], [Fiquet et al., 2010], [Hirose et al., 1999], [Mosenfelder et al., 2007], [Nomura et al., 2014], [Ozawa et al., 2011], [Zerr et al., 1998]). KD value for iron reported by [Andrault et al., 2012] was used. Proposed model was implemented into StagYY software (e.g. [Tackley, 2008]). It is a finite-volume discretization code for advection of solid and liquid in a planetary scale. A principal new feature of the used code modification is that we use separated variables for chemical compounds: SiO2, FeO, MgO and other (list can be extended). So it is possible to trace mantle heterogeneities produced by melting and solidifying events. Calculations predict appearing and disappearing

  19. Observations suggest Earth's inner core spins faster than the Earth itself

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    The inner core and the rest of the Earth are perpetually racing one another, and it seems the inner core is winning by a stunning distance. This proposition, once wholly abstract and theoretical, now has firm grounding in quantifiable observation.That the solid inner core of Earth should rotate—and faster than its surroundings—has been suspected, modeled, and postulated for about a decade, but never verified. Now two seismologists from the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Xiaodong Song and Paul Richards, have announced that seismological records provide the evidence geophysicists need to confirm that the inner core is spinning.

  20. A massively parallel adaptive scheme for melt migration in geodynamics computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannberg, Juliane; Heister, Timo; Grove, Ryan

    2016-04-01

    Melt generation and migration are important processes for the evolution of the Earth's interior and impact the global convection of the mantle. While they have been the subject of numerous investigations, the typical time and length-scales of melt transport are vastly different from global mantle convection, which determines where melt is generated. This makes it difficult to study mantle convection and melt migration in a unified framework. In addition, modelling magma dynamics poses the challenge of highly non-linear and spatially variable material properties, in particular the viscosity. We describe our extension of the community mantle convection code ASPECT that adds equations describing the behaviour of silicate melt percolating through and interacting with a viscously deforming host rock. We use the original compressible formulation of the McKenzie equations, augmented by an equation for the conservation of energy. This approach includes both melt migration and melt generation with the accompanying latent heat effects, and it incorporates the individual compressibilities of the solid and the fluid phase. For this, we derive an accurate and stable Finite Element scheme that can be combined with adaptive mesh refinement. This is particularly advantageous for this type of problem, as the resolution can be increased in mesh cells where melt is present and viscosity gradients are high, whereas a lower resolution is sufficient in regions without melt. Together with a high-performance, massively parallel implementation, this allows for high resolution, 3d, compressible, global mantle convection simulations coupled with melt migration. Furthermore, scalable iterative linear solvers are required to solve the large linear systems arising from the discretized system. Finally, we present benchmarks and scaling tests of our solver up to tens of thousands of cores, show the effectiveness of adaptive mesh refinement when applied to melt migration and compare the

  1. A Monazite-bearing clast in Apollo 17 melt breccia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolliff, Bradley L.

    1993-01-01

    A phosphate-rich clast in a pigeonite-plagioclase mineral assemblage occurs in Apollo 17 impact-melt breccia 76503,7025. The clast, measuring 0.9 x 0.4 mm in thin section, contains 3.3 percent (volume) apatite (Ca5P3O12(F,Cl)), 0.8 percent whitlockite (Ca16(Mg,Fe)2REE2P14O56), and trace monazite ((LREE)PO4). Major minerals include 26 percent pigeonite, En53-57FS34-35W08-13, and 69 percent plagioclase, An84-92Ab7-15Oro.6-1.1. Troilite, ilmenite, and other accessory minerals constitute less than 1 percent of the assemblage and Fe-metal occurs along fractures. Also present in the melt breccia as a separate clast is a fragment of felsite. Based on the association of these clasts and their assemblages, a parent lithology of alkali-anorthositic monzogabbro is postulated. Monazite occurs in the phosphate-bearing clast as two less than 10 micron grains intergrown with whitlockite. The concentration of combined REE oxides in monazite is 63.5 percent and the chondrite-normalized REE pattern is strongly enriched in LREE, similar to lunar monazite in 10047,68 and terrestrial monazite. Thorium concentration was not measured in monazite, but based on oxide analyses of approximately 100 percent (including interpolated values for REE not measured), substantial Th concentration is not indicated, similar to monazite in 10047,68. Measured monazite/whitlockite REE ratios are La: 11, Ce: 8, Sm: 3.6, Y: 0.9, and Yb: 0.5. Compositions of monazite and coexisting whitlockite and apatite are given.

  2. Rotation of melting ice disks due to melt fluid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorbolo, S.; Adami, N.; Dubois, C.; Caps, H.; Vandewalle, N.; Darbois-Texier, B.

    2016-03-01

    We report experiments concerning the melting of ice disks (85 mm in diameter and 14 mm in height) at the surface of a thermalized water bath. During the melting, the ice disks undergo translational and rotational motions. In particular, the disks rotate. The rotation speed has been found to increase with the bath temperature. We investigated the flow under the bottom face of the ice disks by a particle image velocimetry technique. We find that the flow goes downwards and also rotates horizontally, so that a vertical vortex is generated under the ice disk. The proposed mechanism is the following. In the vicinity of the bottom face of the disk, the water eventually reaches the temperature of 4°C for which the water density is maximum. The 4°C water sinks and generates a downwards plume. The observed vertical vorticity results from the flow in the plume. Finally, by viscous entrainment, the horizontal rotation of the flow induces the solid rotation of the ice block. This mechanism seems generic: any vertical flow that generates a vortex will induce the rotation of a floating object.

  3. Rotation of melting ice disks due to melt fluid flow.

    PubMed

    Dorbolo, S; Adami, N; Dubois, C; Caps, H; Vandewalle, N; Darbois-Texier, B

    2016-03-01

    We report experiments concerning the melting of ice disks (85 mm in diameter and 14 mm in height) at the surface of a thermalized water bath. During the melting, the ice disks undergo translational and rotational motions. In particular, the disks rotate. The rotation speed has been found to increase with the bath temperature. We investigated the flow under the bottom face of the ice disks by a particle image velocimetry technique. We find that the flow goes downwards and also rotates horizontally, so that a vertical vortex is generated under the ice disk. The proposed mechanism is the following. In the vicinity of the bottom face of the disk, the water eventually reaches the temperature of 4 °C for which the water density is maximum. The 4 °C water sinks and generates a downwards plume. The observed vertical vorticity results from the flow in the plume. Finally, by viscous entrainment, the horizontal rotation of the flow induces the solid rotation of the ice block. This mechanism seems generic: any vertical flow that generates a vortex will induce the rotation of a floating object.

  4. Morphology of melt-rich channels formed during reaction infiltration experiments on partially molten mantle rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pec, Matej; Holtzman, Benjamin; Zimmerman, Mark; Kohlstedt, David

    2016-04-01

    planar and no channels develop. However, if the melt migration velocity exceeds ˜5 μm/s the reaction layer locally protrudes into the partially molten rock forming finger-like melt-rich channels. The morphology and spacing of the channels depends on the initial melt fraction. With 20 vol% melt, multiple and voluminous channels with an elliptical core formed of pure melt develop. At lower melt contents, fewer and thinner channels develop. Our experiments demonstrate that melt-rock reactions can lead to melt channelization in mantle lithologies. The morphology of the channels seems to depend on the initial permeability perturbations present in the starting material. The observed lithological transformations are in broad agreement with natural observations. However, the resulting channels lack the tabular anastomozing shapes which are likely caused by shear deformation in nature. Therefore, both reaction-driven as well as stress-driven melt segregation have to interact in nature to form the observed dunite channels. Szymczak, P., and A. J. C. Ladd (2014), Reactive-infiltration instabilities in rocks. Part 2. Dissolution of a porous matrix, J. Fluid Mech., 738, 591-630. Pec, M., B. K. Holtzman, M. Zimmerman, and D. L. Kohlstedt (2015), Reaction infiltration instabilities in experiments on partially molten mantle rocks, Geology, 43(7), 575-578, doi:10.1130/G36611.1.

  5. Quantum melting of spin ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onoda, Shigeki; Tanaka, Yoichi

    2010-03-01

    A quantum melting of the spin ice is proposed for pyrochlore-lattice magnets Pr2TM2O7 (TM =Ir, Zr, and Sn). The quantum pseudospin-1/2 model is derived from the strong-coupling perturbation of the f-p electron transfer in the basis of atomic non-Kramers magnetic doublets. The ground states are characterized by a cooperative ferroquadrupole and pseudospin chirality in the cubic unit cell, forming a magnetic analog of smectic liquid crystals. Then, pinch points observed in spin correlations for dipolar spin-ice systems are replaced with the minima. The relevance to experiments is discussed.

  6. Late-phase melt progression experiment: MP-2. Results and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gasser, R.D.; Gauntt, R.O.; Bourcier, S.C.

    1997-05-01

    In-pile experiments addressing late-phase processes in Light Water Reactors (LWRs) were performed in the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) at Sandia National Laboratories. Melt Progression (MP) experiments were designed to provide information to develop and verify computer models for analysis of LWR core damage in severe accidents. Experiments examine the formation and motion of ceramic molten pools in disrupted reactor core regions. The MP-2 experiment assembly consisted of: (1) a rubble bed of enriched UO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2} simulating severely disrupted reactor core regions, (2) a ceramic/metallic crust representing blockage formed by early phase melting, relocation, and refreezing of core components, and (3) an intact rod stub region that remained in place below the blockage region. The test assembly was fission heated in the central cavity of the ACRR at an average rate of about 0.2 KA, reaching a peak molten pool temperature around 3400 K. Melting of the debris bed ceramic components was initiated near the center of the bed. The molten material relocated downward, refreezing to form a ceramic crust near the bottom of the rubble bed. As power levels were increased, the crust gradually remelted and reformed at progressively lower positions in the bed until late in the experiment when it penetrated into and attacked the ceramic/metallic blockage. The metallic components of the blockage region melted and relocated to the bottom of the intact rod stub region before the ceramic melt penetrated the blockage region from above. The ceramic pool penetrated halfway into the blockage region by the end of the experiment. Measurements of thermal response and material relocation are compared to the results of the computer simulations. Postexperiment examination of the assembly with the associated material interactions and metallurgy are also discussed in detail with the analyses and interpretation of results. 16 refs., 206 figs., 24 tabs.

  7. Melting curve of SiO2 at multimegabar pressures: implications for gas giants and super-Earths.

    PubMed

    González-Cataldo, Felipe; Davis, Sergio; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo

    2016-05-23

    Ultrahigh-pressure phase boundary between solid and liquid SiO2 is still quite unclear. Here we present predictions of silica melting curve for the multimegabar pressure regime, as obtained from first principles molecular dynamics simulations. We calculate the melting temperatures from three high pressure phases of silica (pyrite-, cotunnite-, and Fe2P-type SiO2) at different pressures using the Z method. The computed melting curve is found to rise abruptly around 330 GPa, an increase not previously reported by any melting simulations. This is in close agreement with recent experiments reporting the α-PbO2-pyrite transition around this pressure. The predicted phase diagram indicates that silica could be one of the dominant components of the rocky cores of gas giants, as it remains solid at the core of our Solar System's gas giants. These results are also relevant to model the interior structure and evolution of massive super-Earths.

  8. Impact melt in small lunar highland craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plescia, J. B.; Cintala, M. J.

    2012-03-01

    Impact melt deposits have been identified in small, simple impact craters within the lunar highlands. Such deposits are rare, but have been observed in craters as small as 170 m diameter. The melt occurs as well-defined pools on the crater floor, as well as veneers on the inner crater wall and stringers of material extending over the rim and away from the crater. Model calculations indicate that the amount of melt formed in craters 100-2000 m diameter would amount to a few to ˜106 m3, representing <1% of the crater volume. Thus, significant, visible impact melt deposits would not be expected in such small craters as most of the melt material that was formed would be ejected. Variations in the properties of the projectile or the target cannot account for the amount of observed melt; the amount of melt produced is largely insensitive to such variations. Rather, we suggest that these small melt-containing craters represent near-vertical impacts in which the axes of melting and melt motion are essentially straight down, toward the base of the transient cavity. For a given event energy under vertical impact conditions, the volume of melt produced would be greater than in an oblique impact and the momentum of the material would be directed vertically downward with minimal lateral momentum such that most of the melt is retained within the crater interior. Since vertical impacts are relatively rare, such small craters with visible, interior melt deposits are rare. While we focus here on the highlands, such craters also occur on the maria.

  9. Melting properties of iron alloys at high pressure determined by in situ X-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morard, G.; Andrault, D.; Guignot, N.; Antonangeli, D.; Siebert, J.; Garbarino, G.

    2010-12-01

    It is well established that the Earth’s liquid outer core is less dense than a pure Fe-Ni liquid alloy. The so-called “core density deficit” is currently estimated around 5-10 wt % 1 and is attributed to the presence of light elements dissolved in an iron-rich liquid alloy. Melting temperature of pure Fe can be largely affected by the addition of light elements. In the case of S, depression for the eutectic point at ambient pressure is almost 30%. On the contrary, Si does not significantly affect pure Fe melting, at least at ambient pressure. As a matter of fact, the melting temperature depression (ΔTm) can be tracked as a function of pressure and related with the light element content. Comparison between melting properties of alloys and temperature profile calculated for the Earth’s interior can thus help discriminating between the different light elements suggested to be present in the Earth’s core. The melting properties of several alloys of high geophysical interest 2 were investigated up to megabar pressures: Fe-5%wtNi-15%wtSi ; Fe-5%wtNi-12%wtS ; Fe-10%wtO ; Fe-2%wtC. Scrupulous attention in the synthesis and characterization of the starting material is fundamental to accurately control the chemical composition in the laser-heated spot. The appearance of a diffuse signal around 30 nm-1 has been used to determine the onset of melting as in previous experiments 3,4. This data set provides new insights on the melting curve of iron and on the effect of each specific element on the melting temperature depression. Accordingly, the temperature of the Inner Outer Core Boundary can be look at as a function of the Outer core composition. References 1 O.L. Anderson and D.G. Isaak, Phys. Earth Plan. Int. 131, 19 (2002). 2 J.P. Poirier, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 85, 319 (1994). 3 G. Morard, C. Sanloup, G. Fiquet et al., Earth Planet. Sc. Lett. 263 (1-2), 128 (2007). 4 G. Morard, D. Andrault, N. Guignot et al., Earth Planet. Sc. Lett. 272 (3-4), 620 (2008).

  10. Simulation studies on architecture dependence of unentangled polymer melts.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaolei; Chen, Jizhong; An, Lijia

    2015-02-21

    The dependences of the properties of linear, ring, star, and H-shaped polymer melts on architecture are investigated by nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. We find that zero-shear viscosities η0 for various architectures follow a universal relation, η0=Cη〈Rg0 (2)〉, where Cη is a constant and 〈Rg0 (2)〉 the equilibrium mean-square radius of gyration, in the unentangled regime. This law is also found valid for asymmetrical polymers but invalid for polymers with a hard core, such as stars with many arms and short arm lengths. In the unentangled regime, from the point of view of polymer size, the relaxation times show weak dependences on architecture, but the architecture dependence of the diffusion coefficient is still apparent. Then, we examine unentangled melts of various architectures having the same size over a wide range of shear rates covering linear and nonlinear viscoelastic regimes and find that the rheological quantities, namely, viscosity, first and second normal stress differences, are independent of architecture. In contrast, the polymer deformation shows an apparent dependence on architecture in the nonlinear regime. These findings shall shed significant light on the nature of rheological behaviors of unentangled melts.

  11. Greenland ice sheet melting during the last interglacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langebroek, Petra M.; Nisancioglu, Kerim H.

    2016-04-01

    During the last interglacial period (LIG) peak temperatures over Greenland were several degrees warmer than today. The Greenland ice sheet (GIS) retreated causing a global sea-level rise in the order of several meters. Large uncertainties still exist in the exact amount of melt and on the source location of this melt. Here we examine the GIS response to LIG temperature and precipitation patterns using the SICOPOLIS ice sheet model. The LIG climate was simulated by forcing the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM) with the appropriate greenhouse gases and orbital settings. The resulting LIG ice volume evolution strongly depends on the chosen value of uncertain model parameters for the ice sheet (e.g. basal sliding parameter, PDD factors, and atmospheric temperature lapse rate). We reduce the uncertainty by evaluating an ensemble of model results against present-day observations of ice sheet size, elevation and stability, together with paleo information from deep ice cores. We find a maximum GIS reduction equivalent to 0.8 to 2.2m of global sea-level rise. In this model set-up most of the melting occurs in southwestern Greenland.

  12. Devon island ice cap: core stratigraphy and paleoclimate.

    PubMed

    Koerner, R M

    1977-04-01

    Valuable paleoclimatic information can be gained by studying the distribution of melt layers in deep ice cores. A profile representing the percentage of ice in melt layers in a core drilled from the Devon Island ice cap plotted against both time and depth shows that the ice cap has experienced a period of very warm summers since 1925, following a period of colder summers between about 1600 and 1925. The earlier period was coldest between 1680 and 1730. There is a high correlation between the melt-layer ice percentage and the mass balance of the ice cap. The relation between them suggests that the ice cap mass balance was zero (accumulation equaled ablation) during the colder period but is negative in the present warmer one. There is no firm evidence of a present cooling trend in the summer conditions on the ice cap. A comparison with the melt-layer ice percentage in cores from the other major Canadian Arctic ice caps shows that the variation of summer conditions found for the Devon Island ice cap is representative for all the large ice caps for about 90 percent of the time. There is also a good correlation between melt-layer percentage and summer sea-ice conditions in the archipelago. This suggests that the search for the northwest passage was influenced by changing climate, with the 19th-century peak of the often tragic exploration coinciding with a period of very cold summers.

  13. Probing depth dependencies of melt emplacement on time dependent quantities in a continental rift scenario with melting and melt extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallner, Herbert; Schmeling, Harro

    2014-05-01

    Since some years seismological observations provide increasing evidence of a discontinuity near the mid of older mantle lithosphere. Explanation may be a melt infiltration front (MIF) as upper margin of an evolving network of veins. These are formed by crystallized melt supplied by episodic melting events in the asthenosphere. To test this concept geodynamically we performed numerical modelling applying melting, extraction of melt and emplacement in a viscous matrix. Thereupon, we were faced to the problem defining an intrusion level for the melt. Findings of prior studies led to the need of movable, process dependent boundaries of the emplacement zone additionally making the process probably more self-consistent. Here we present a preliminary study exploring several empirical attempts to relate time dependent states to an upward moving boundary for intrusion. Modeled physics is based on thermo-mechanics of visco-plastic flow. The equations of conservation of mass, momentum and energy are solved for a multi component (crust-mantle) and two phase (melt-matrix) system. Rheology is temperature-, pressure-, and stress-dependent. In consideration of depletion and enrichment melting and solidification are controlled by a simplified linear binary solid solution model. The Compaction Boussinesq Approximation and the high Prandtl number approximation are used, elasticity is neglected and geometry is restricted to 2D. Approximation is done with the Finite Difference Method with markers in an Eulerian formulation (FDCON). Model guiding scenario is a extending thick lithosphere associated to by updoming asthenosphere probably additionally heated by a plume nearby. As the P-T conditions in the asthenosphere are near the solidus caused changes may increase melting and generate partial melt. Against conventional expectations on permeability at lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) depth a fast melt transport into and sometimes through the lithosphere often is observed. The

  14. Melting a Sample within TEMPUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    One of the final runs of the TEMPUS experiment shows heating of a sample on STS-94, July 15, 1997, MET:14/11:01 (approximate) and the flows on the surface. At the point this image was taken, the sample was in the process of melting. The surface of the sample is begirning to flow, looking like the motion of plate tectonics on the surface of a planet. During this mission, TEMPUS was able to run than 120 melting cycles with zirconium, with a maximum temperature of 2,000 degrees C, and was able to undercool by 340 degrees -- the highest temperature and largest undercooling ever achieved in space. The TEMPUS investigators also have provided the first measurements of viscosity of palladium-silicon alloys in the undercooled liquid alloy which are not possible on Earth. TEMPUS (stands for Tiegelfreies Elektromagnetisches Prozessiere unter Schwerelosigkeit (containerless electromagnetic processing under weightlessness). It was developed by the German Space Agency (DARA) for flight aboard Spacelab. The DARA project scientist was Igon Egry. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). DARA and NASA are exploring the possibility of flying an advanced version of TEMPUS on the International Space Station.(176KB JPEG, 1350 x 1516 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) The MPG from which this composite was made is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300193.html.

  15. Intelligent control of cupola melting

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, E.D.; Clark, D.E.; Moore, K.L.; King, P.E.

    1997-05-01

    The cupola is a furnace used for melting steel scrap, cast iron scrap, and ferroalloys to produce cast iron. Its main energy source is coal coke. It is one of the oldest methods of producing cast iron, and it remains the dominate method because of its simplicity and low fuel cost. Cupolas range in size from 18 inches to 13 feet in diameter, and can produce up to 100 tons per hour of cast iron. Although cupola melting has a long history, automatic control has been elusive because the process has been poorly understood. Most foundries rely on the intuition of experienced operators to make control decisions. The purpose of this work, which has been underway for three years of an anticipated four year program, is to develop a controller for the cupola using intelligent and conventional control methods. The project is a cooperative effort between the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, the Department of Energy Albany Research Center, Idaho State University, and the American Foundrymen`s Society.

  16. Molecular dynamics simulation of Coulomb explosion, melting and shock wave creation in silicon after an ionization pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhongyu; Chen, Di; Wang, Jing; Shao, Lin

    2014-04-01

    Strong electronic stopping power of swift ions in a semiconducting or insulating substrate can lead to localized electron stripping. The subsequent repulsive interactions among charged target atoms can cause Coulomb explosion. Using molecular dynamics simulation, we simulate Coulomb explosion in silicon by introducing an ionization pulse lasting for different periods, and at different substrate temperatures. We find that the longer the pulse period, the larger the melting radius. The observation can be explained by a critical energy density model assuming that melting required thermal energy density is a constant value and the total thermal energy gained from Coulomb explosion is linearly proportional to the ionization period. Our studies also show that melting radius is larger at higher substrate temperatures. The temperature effect is explained due to a longer structural relaxation above the melting temperature at original ionization boundary due to lower heat dissipation rates. Furthermore, simulations show the formation of shock waves, created due to the compression from the melting core.

  17. Probing the melt zone of Kilauea Iki lava lake, Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Hardee, H.C.; Dunn, J.C.; Hills, R.G.; Ward, R.W.

    1981-12-01

    New drilling techniques were recently used to drill and core the melt zone of Kilauea Iki lava lake to a depth of 93 m. A partial melt zone was found to exist at depths between 58 m and 89 m consisting of 40 volume percent melt. Downhole seismic shots detonated in and below the melt zone resulted in the first in situ measurements of seismic velocity directly through well characterized partial melt zone. Periodic seismic sources were used to effectively penetrate the highly fractured hydrothermal zone of the lava lake crust. Low velocity P-wave layers (< or =2.0 km/s) were found at the surface, at 40 m depth, and at 90 m depth. Thermal convective experiments in the melt zone resulted in the first controlled in situ measurements of the interaction of water with a basaltic melt zone. Transient energy rates of 900 kW (980 kW/m/sup 2/) and steady rates of 85 kW (93 kW/m/sup 2/) were observed. The full water recovery (100%), high downhole steam temperatures (670 C), and high energy transfer rates (93 to 980 kW/m/sup 2/) observed in these thermal experiments are consistent with a closed cavity model where the injected water/steam directly contacted basaltic melt or near melt. In addition to understanding lava lakes, these seismic and thermal experiments have applications for the location of magma bodies in the crust and for the efficient extraction of energy from these bodies.

  18. Morphology and Melting Behavior of Polypropylenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alamo, R. G.; Mandelkern, L.

    1997-03-01

    The double melting of isothermally crystallized polypropylenes (metallocenes or Ziegler fractions) of a low defect content, is found to be associated with the presence of dominant (usually thicker) and daughter lamellae. A double population of lamellae thicknesses that adheres to the formulated epitaxial crystallization is seen by TEM even in samples crystallized at temperatures above 160 degC. Mixed and positive spherulites are also observed to grow linearly at these temperatures. During the melting process, positive or mixed spherulites show a well defined change to a negative character at a temperature corresponding to the low temperature endotherm in agreement with the melting of the daughter lamellae at this temperature. It is also found that the melting and stability of the dominant lamellae are influenced by the presence of epitaxial transversal lamellae. The kinetics of the melting process are investigated in relation to the initial morphology. Higher defected polypropylenes with a high concentration of gamma crystals do not show associated melting kinetics.

  19. Electrical Conductivity and Tomographic Imaging of Olivine-FeS Partial-Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, J.; Mei, S.; Ryerson, R.; Kinney, J.

    2005-05-01

    The presence, distribution, and composition of melt affect the physical properties of polycrystalline ultramafic rock and are important to our interpretation of the Earth's lower crust and upper mantle, and to our understanding of planetary core formation via liquid-metal segregation. A key issue in models of planetary core formation is the interconnectness of molten iron-sulfides in contact with silicates at high temperature and pressure. Olivine-FeS partial-melts are also considered to be possible explanations for anomalously high conductivity regions beneath mountain ranges such as the Pyrenees and Andes. The interconnectivity and tortuosity of the melt phase, in combination with the properties of the individual melt and crystal phases, have bearing on the extractability of the melt, and on the rheology, and electrical conductivity of the bulk material. We have begun an integrated study of the electrical conductivity-texture-permeability relationships of olivine-sulfide partial-melt samples. Olivine-sulfide partial-melts containing 0, 1, 3, 6, and 10% by weight non-wetting compositions (Fe64S36) and wetting compositions (Fe34S19Ni47+O2) in a San Carlos olivine matrix (Fo91) have been synthesized in a piston cylinder apparatus at 1250 C and 1 to 2 GPa. Electrical conductivity measurements of the partial-melt and the individual melt and crystalline phases have been performed in a 1-atmosphere gas-mixing furnace up to 1400 C. Additional measurements in solid medium-pressure apparatus (D-DIA, piston cylinder) have begun. Samples are characterized using X-ray microtomographic (XRCT) performed at the Advanced Light Source with spatial resolution approaching 2 microns. Determination of the 3-D structure and interconnectedness of the melt phase, combined with the electrical conductivity measurements have been used to estimate the permeability of the mixtures at various experimental conditions. Results indicate sulfur fugacity is an important parameter controlling the

  20. Surface melting on ice shelves and icebergs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergienko, Olga V.

    Disintegration of Larsen Ice Shelf A and B, in 1995 and 2002, respectively, were preceded by two decades of extended summer melt seasons and by surface melt-water accumulation in ponds, surface crevasses and depressions produced by the elastic flexure of the ice. The extraordinary rapidity of ice-shelf fragmentation into large iceberg plumes following the appearance of surface melt water implies that the mechanical effects of surface melt water accumulation may represent an unforeseen process allowing abrupt, large-scale change of Antarctica's ice mass. The present study of surface melting and subsequent movement of melt water, both vertically (i.e., downward percolation into underlying firn) and horizontally (e.g., into crevasses and surface depressions created by ice-shelf flexure in response to both side boundary conditions and the melt-water load itself), is motivated by the need to further describe the energy, mass and momentum balances associated with ice shelves and their surrogates-large tabular icebergs-in the face of unprecedented changes in surface mass balance. The goal of this dissertation is to examine both the thermodynamic and mechanical aspects of surface melting on ice shelves and icebergs subject to sudden changes in climate conditions (e.g ., global warming). Thermodynamic aspects of the study include the development and application of surface energy balance models capable of describing the process of surface melting and subsequent vertical movement of melt water through a porous firn. Mechanical aspects of this study include the analysis of vertical melt-water flow, and more particularly, the elastic flexure response of the ice shelf or iceberg to the melt-water loads. Work presented here involves three methodologies, numerical modeling, field observation, and mathematical analysis (e.g., development of analytic solutions to simple, idealized ice-shelf flexure problems).

  1. Multiscale Models of Melting Arctic Sea Ice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    represent sea ice more rigorously in climate models. OBJECTIVES Viewed from high above, the melting sea ice surface can be thought of as a two phase ...composite of ice and melt water. The boundaries between the two phases evolve with increasing complexity and a rapid onset of large scale...connectivity, or percolation of the melt phase . We plan to document this phenomenon with photographic imagery and to develop percolation and other models to

  2. Possible Role of Hydrogen in the Earth Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, E.; Imai, T.

    2011-12-01

    Possible role of hydrogen in the Earth core has been discussed by Stevenson (1977) and demonstrated experimentally by Fukai (1984), Okuchi (1997) and others. Planetary theory proposes a possibility of hydrogen incorporation in Earth's magma ocean from ambient solar nebula gas (Ikoma & Genda 2005, Genda & Ikoma 2008). More recently, migration of snow line during planet formation was examined (Min et al., 2010; Oka et al, 2011) and it was proposed that the Earth building material originally contained abundant water as ice and hydrous minerals. Therefore, it is very important to investigate the fate of water in the planet building process and clarify the role of hydrogen in the planetary core. Using SPring-8 synchrotron (NaCl capsule, LiAlH4 as hydrogen source), we determined the melting curve of FeH up to 20 GPa under hydrogen saturated conditions (Sakamaki, Takahashi et al, 2009). Observed melting point is below 1300C and has a very small dT/dP slope. By extrapolating the melting curve using Lindeman's law, we proposed that hydrogen could lower the melting temperature of the Earth core by more than 1500K than current estimate. Here we report our new experiments using SPring-8 synchrotron (single crystal diamond capsule, water as hydrogen source). Hydrogen concentration and melting temperature of FeHx that coexists with hydrous mantle minerals were determined at 15-20GPa and 1000-1600C. We show that 1) hydrogen concentration in FeHx at 1000C, coexisting with hydrous-B and ringwoodite is approximately X=0.6. 2) Upon heating, hydrous-B decomposes and hydrogen strongly partitions into FeHx (X=0.8~1.0) than ringwoodite. 3) FeHx that coexists with ringwoodite melts between ~1300C (solidus) and ~1600C (liquidus). Combined our new experiments with those by Sakamaki et al (2009) and Shibazaki et al (2009), partitioning of hydrogen between proto-core and primitive mantle is discussed. We propose that >90% of water in the source material may have entered the Earth core. Given

  3. The Origin of the Compositional Diversity of Mercury's Surface Constrained From Experimental Melting of Enstatite Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boujibar, A.; Righter, K.; Pando, K.; Danielson, L.

    2015-01-01

    Mercury is known as an endmember planet as it is the most reduced terrestrial planet with the highest core/mantle ratio. MESSENGER spacecraft has shown that its surface is FeO-poor (2-4 wt%) and Srich (up to 6-7 wt%), which confirms the reducing nature of its silicate mantle. Moreover, high resolution images revealed large volcanic plains and abundant pyroclastic deposits, suggesting important melting stages of the Mercurian mantle. This interpretation was confirmed by the high crustal thickness (up to 100 km) derived from Mercury's gravity field. This is also corroborated by a recent experimental result that showed that Mercurian partial melts are expected to be highly buoyant within the Mercurian mantle and could have risen from depths as high as the core-mantle boundary. In addition MESSENGER spacecraft provided relatively precise data on major elemental compositions of Mercury's surface. These results revealed important chemical and mineralogical heterogeneities that suggested several stages of differentiation and re-melting processes. However, the extent and nature of compositional variations produced by partial melting remains poorly constrained for the particular compositions of Mercury (very reducing conditions, low FeO-contents and high sulfur-contents). Therefore, in this study, we investigated the processes that lead to the various compositions of Mercury's surface. Melting experiments with bulk Mercury-analogue compositions were performed and compared to the compositions measured by MESSENGER.

  4. Imaging transient melting of a nanocrystal using an X-ray laser

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Jesse N.; Beitra, Loren; Xiong, Gang; Fritz, David M.; Lemke, Henrik T.; Zhu, Diling; Chollet, Matthieu; Williams, Garth J.; Messerschmidt, Marc M.; Abbey, Brian; Harder, Ross J.; Korsunsky, Alexander M.; Wark, Justin S.; Reis, David A.; Robinson, Ian K.

    2015-06-01

    There is a fundamental interest in studying photoinduced dynam- ics in nanoparticles and nanostructures as it provides insight into their mechanical and thermal properties out of equilibrium and during phase transitions. Nanoparticles can display significantly different properties from the bulk, which is due to the interplay between their size, morphology, crystallinity, defect concentra- tion, and surface properties. Particularly interesting scenarios arise when nanoparticles undergo phase transitions, such as melting induced by an optical laser. Current theoretical evidence suggests that nanoparticles can undergo reversible nonhomogenous melt- ing with the formation of a core-shell structure consisting of a liquid outer layer. To date, studies from ensembles of nanoparticles have tentatively suggested that such mechanisms are present. Here we demonstrate imaging transient melting and softening of the acoustic phonon modes of an individual gold nanocrystal, using an X-ray free electron laser. The results demonstrate that the transient melting is reversible and nonhomogenous, consistent with a core-shell model of melting. The results have implications for understanding transient processes in nanoparticles and determining their elastic properties as they undergo phase transitio

  5. Fragmentation and quench behavior of corium melt streams in water

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, B.W.; Wang, K.; Blomquist, C.A.; McUmber, L.M.; Schneider, J.P.

    1994-02-01

    The interaction of molten core materials with water has been investigated for the pour stream mixing mode. This interaction plays a crucial role during the later stages of in-vessel core melt progression inside a light water reactor such as during the TMI-2 accident. The key issues which arise during the molten core relocation include: (i) the thermal attack and possible damage to the RPV lower head from the impinging molten fuel stream and/or the debris bed, (ii) the molten fuel relocation pathways including the effects of redistribution due to core support structure and the reactor lower internals, (iii) the quench rate of the molten fuel through the water in the lower plenum, (iv) the steam generation and hydrogen generation during the interaction, (v) the transient pressurization of the primary system, and (vi) the possibility of a steam explosion. In order to understand these issues, a series of six experiments (designated CCM-1 through {minus}6) was performed in which molten corium passed through a deep pool of water in a long, slender pour stream mode. Results discussed include the transient temperatures and pressures, the rate and magnitude of steam/hydrogen generation, and the posttest debris characteristics.

  6. Double-diffusive inner core convective translation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deguen, Renaud; Alboussière, Thierry; Labrosse, Stéphane

    2016-04-01

    The hemispherical asymmetry of the inner core has been interpreted as resulting form a high-viscosity mode of inner core convection, consisting in a translation of the inner core. With melting on one hemisphere and crystallization on the other one, inner core translation would impose a strongly asymmetric buoyancy flux at the bottom of the outer core, with likely strong implications for the dynamics of the outer core and the geodynamo. The main requirement for convective instability in the inner core is an adverse radial density gradient. While older estimates of the inner core thermal conductivity favored a superadiabatic temperature gradient and the existence of thermal convection, the much higher values recently proposed makes thermal convection very unlikely. Compositional convection might be a viable alternative to thermal convection: an unstable compositional gradient may arise in the inner core either because the light elements present in the core are predicted to become increasingly incompatible as the inner core grows (Gubbins et al. 2013), or because of a possibly positive feedback of the development of the F-layer on inner core convection. Though the magnitude of the destabilizing effect of the compositional field is predicted to be similar to or smaller than the stabilizing effect of the thermal field, the huge difference between thermal and chemical diffusivities implies that double-diffusive instabilities can still arise even if the net density decreases upward. We propose here a theoretical and numerical study of double diffusive convection in the inner core that demonstrate that a translation mode can indeed exist if the compositional field is destabilizing, even if the temperature profile is subadiabatic, and irrespectively of the relative magnitude of the destabilizing compositional gradient and stabilizing temperature field. The predicted inner core translation rate is similar to the mean inner core growth rate, which is more consistent with

  7. Allanite behaviour during incipient melting in the southern Central Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, C. J.; Rubatto, D.; Hermann, J.; Berger, A.; Engi, M.

    2012-05-01

    The response of allanite to incipient melting was investigated in migmatites from the Tertiary Barrovian-type sequence of the Central Alps (southern Switzerland, northern Italy). Inheritance and new mineral growth were recorded in composite allanite grains sampled from meta-granitoids and leucosomes. Ion microprobe (SHRIMP) dating of high Th/U allanite cores in meta-granitoids yield Permian ages consistent with magmatic crystallisation dating protolith intrusion. In contrast, low Th/U allanite overgrowths and weakly-zoned allanite in meta-granitoids and leucosomes yield Alpine U-Pb intercept ages between 30 ± 4 and 20 ± 5 Ma; these date allanite formation during the Barrovian cycle. Major and accessory mineral REE compositions suggest that Alpine allanite crystallised in the presence of a low-temperature melt. Whereas new zircon growth is rare in the migmatites, allanite readily recorded growth during the Alpine cycle. Allanite U-Th-Pb isotopes may therefore present a complementary approach to zircon for dating low-temperature partial melting, where the preservation of allanite is aided by low LREE solubility in hydrous granitic melt. The Th-Pb age is preferred to date high-Th magmatic allanite, however the U-Pb and Th-Pb ages of allanite overgrowths may differ (by up to 25%), and this demands a comparison of both U-Pb and Th-Pb isotopic systems to obtain a best estimate for the timing of low-Th allanite crystallisation. Protolith allanite preserves a substantial memory of its initial age in spite of upper amphibolite facies re-working during migmatisation (T = 620-700 °C), which places strong constraints on Pb closure temperature. Magmatic allanite contains <30% of initial (non-radiogenic) Pb, allanite in migmatites is characterised by an initial Pb of 20-70%, and subsolidus allanite has >60% of initial Pb. Therefore, the initial Pb may be useful as a sensor for the amount of melt present during allanite formation. The Pb isotope composition of allanite

  8. Melt inclusions in Luna 24 soil fragments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roedder, W.; Weiblen, P. W.

    1978-01-01

    Optical examinations of 28 slides of Luna 24 soil fragments revealed melt inclusions in grains of olivine, plagioclase, spinel, and ilmenite as well as interstitial inclusions. In contrast with Apollo samples, the Luna 24 samples contain sulfide melt inclusions, which indicates that saturation with respect to an iron sulfide melt took place throughout much of the crystallization history, even while olivine was crystallizing. The Luna 24 silicate-melt inclusions have recorded a more extensive differentiation toward higher iron magmas than have the Apollo inclusions, but they have also recorded some inexplicably low aluminum values.

  9. Low Melt Height Solidification of Superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montakhab, Mehdi; Bacak, Mert; Balikci, Ercan

    2016-06-01

    Effect of a reduced melt height in the directional solidification of a superalloy has been investigated by two methods: vertical Bridgman (VB) and vertical Bridgman with a submerged baffle (VBSB). The latter is a relatively new technique and provides a reduced melt height ahead of the solidifying interface. A low melt height leads to a larger primary dendrite arm spacing but a lower mushy length, melt-back transition length, and porosity. The VBSB technique yields up to 38 pct reduction in the porosity. This may improve a component's mechanical strength especially in a creep-fatigue type dynamic loading.

  10. Disequilibrium melt distributions during static recrystallisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walte, N. P.; Bons, P. D.; Passchier, C. W.; Koehn, D.; Arnold, J.

    2003-04-01

    DISEQUILIBRIUM MELT DISTRIBUTIONS DURING STATIC RECRYSTALLISATION N.P. Walte (1), P.D. Bons (2), C.W. Passchier (1), D. Koehn (1), J. Arnold (1) (1) Institute for Earth Sciences, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Mainz, Germany, (2) Institute for Earth Sciences, Eberhard Karls University, Tübingen, Germany (walte@mail.uni-mainz.de) The geometry of melt-filled pores in a partially molten rock strongly controls the permeability, rheology and initial segregation of melt. Current theory for monomineralic aggregates, using only the wetting angle and melt fraction as parameters, predicts a perfectly regular melt framework or equally shaped melt inclusions on grain boundary junctions. However, published melt-present high-temperature experiments with rock forming minerals such as quartz or olivine show considerable deviations from this predicted regular equilibrium melt geometry. Disequilibrium features, such as fully wetted grain boundaries, melt lenses, and large melt patches have been described, and were attributed to surface energy anisotropy of the minerals. This study used static analogue experiments with norcamphor plus ethanol liquid, that allow continuous in-situ observation of the evolving distribution of melt during static recrystallisation. The liquid-crystal surface energy of norcamphor is effectively isotropic. For the experiments an approximately 0.1 mm thin sample of norcamphor plus ethanole was placed between two glass plates and observed with a miroscope. Ethanol was used as a melt analogue because it allows to run experiments at room temperature, avoiding any temperature gradients. The wetting angle is approximately 15°, which is well below 60° and within the range reported for quartz and olivine plus melt experiments. The experiments show that all described disequilibrium features can form during fluid-enhanced static recrystallisation, especially where surrounding grains consume small, few-sided grains. These features are unstable and transient: a

  11. Postulation of rust resistance genes in Nordic spring wheat genotypes and identification of widely effective sources of resistance against the Australian rust flora.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Mandeep; Bansal, Urmil; Lillemo, Morten; Miah, Hanif; Bariana, Harbans

    2016-11-01

    Wild relatives, landraces and cultivars from different geographical regions have been demonstrated as the sources of genetic variation for resistance to rust diseases. This study involved assessment of diversity for resistance to three rust diseases among a set of Nordic spring wheat cultivars. These cultivars were tested at the seedling stage against several pathotypes of three rust pathogens in the greenhouse. All stage stem rust resistance genes Sr7b, Sr8a, Sr12, Sr15, Sr17, Sr23 and Sr30, and leaf rust resistance genes Lr1, Lr3a, Lr13, Lr14a, Lr16 and Lr20 were postulated either singly or in different combinations among these cultivars. A high proportion of cultivars were identified to carry linked rust resistance genes Sr15 and Lr20. Although 51 cultivars showed variation against Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) pathotypes used in this study, results were not clearly contrasting to enable postulation of stripe rust resistance genes in these genotypes. Stripe rust resistance gene Yr27 was postulated in four cultivars and Yr1 was present in cultivar Zebra. Cultivar Tjalve produced low stripe rust response against all Pst pathotypes indicating the presence either of a widely effective resistance gene or combination of genes with compensating pathogenic specificities. Several cultivars carried moderate to high level of APR to leaf rust and stripe rust. Seedling stem rust susceptible cultivar Aston exhibited moderately resistant to moderately susceptible response, whereas other cultivars belonging to this class were rated moderately susceptible or higher. Molecular markers linked with APR genes Yr48, Lr34/Yr18/Sr57, Lr68 and Sr2 detected the presence of these genes in some genotypes.

  12. Seismogenic frictional melting in the magmatic column as the driving force of stick-slip motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrick, J. E.; Lavallee, Y.; Hirose, T.; Di Toro, G.; Hornby, A.; De Angelis, S.; Henton De Angelis, S.; Ferk, A.; Hess, K.; Leonhardt, R.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2013-12-01

    Lava dome eruptions subjected to high extrusion rates commonly evolve from endogenous to exogenous growth and limits to their structural stability hold catastrophic potential as explosive eruption triggers. In the conduit strain localisation in magma, accompanied by seismogenic failure, marks the onset of brittle magma ascent dynamics. The rock record of exogenous dome structures preserves vestiges of cataclastic processes and of thermal anomalies, key to unravelling subsurface processes. A combined structural, thermal and magnetic investigation of shear bands from Mount St. Helens (MSH) and Soufrière Hills volcano (SHV) reveal evidence of faulting and frictional melting within the magmatic column. High velocity rotary shear (HVR) experiments demonstrate the propensity for melting of andesitic and dacitic material (from SHV and MSH respectively) at upper conduit stress conditions. Such melting events may be linked to the step-wise extrusion of magma accompanied by repetitive long-period (LP) seismicity. Using a source duration calculated from the waveforms at seismic stations around SHV, and slip distance per drumbeat calculated from extrusion rate, frictional melting of SHV andesite in a high velocity rotary shear apparatus can be achieved at small slip distances (<15cm) in 0.15 s from 800°C magma (at 10MPa). The shear resistance of the slip zone during the experiments is also monitored. Frictional melting induces a higher resistance to sliding than rock on rock, and viscous processes control the slip zone properties. Variable-rate HVR experiments which mimic rapid velocity fluctuations in stick-slip behavior demonstrate velocity-weakening behavior of melt, with a tendency for unstable slip. We postulate that pseudotachylyte generation could be the underlying cause of stick-slip motion and associated seismic 'drumbeats', which are so commonly observed at dome-building volcanoes, allowing for a fixed spatial locus and the occurrence of 'families' of similar

  13. Volume reduction of contaminated metal waste. [Sorting, size reduction, drip melting, induction melting

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, G L; Heestand, R L

    1980-01-01

    A conceptual waste treatment plan comprises sorting the metal scrap into alloy types, size reduction of the scrap to fit in the melting equipment, further alloy segregation by sequentially raising the temperature of mixed scrap lots and allowing the low-melting alloys to drip-melt out, induction melting of the high-melting alloys, and casting all alloy type into ingots. Laboratory melts of various metals were made to compare the observed partitioning of uranium to the slag with thermodynamic calculations. An engineering-scale demonstration was also conducted in which typical metal scrap contaminated with UO/sub 2/ was processed by mechanical size reduction, drip melting, and induction melting. Results show decontamination was successful. 5 figures, 2 tables. (DLC)

  14. M551 metals melting experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busch, G.

    1977-01-01

    Electron beam welding studies were conducted in the Skylab M551 metals melting experiment, on three different materials; namely 2219-T87 aluminum alloy, 304L stainless steel, and commercially pure tantalum (0.5 wt % columbium). Welds were made in both one gravity and zero gravity (Skylab) environments. Segments from each of the welds were investigated by microhardness, optical microscopy, scanning microscopy, and electron probe techniques. In the 2219-T87 aluminum alloy samples, macroscopic banding and the presence of an eutectic phase in the grain boundaries of the heat affected zone were observed. The stainless steel samples exhibited a sharp weld interface and macroscopic bands. The primary microstructural features found in the tantalum were the presence of either columnar grains (ground base) or equiaxed grains (Skylab). The factors contributing to these effects are discussed and the role of reduced gravity in welding is considered.

  15. Surface melting of electronic order.

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, S. B.; Liu, X.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Kim, J.-W.; Ryan, P. J.; Mitchell, J. F.; Hill, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    We report temperature-dependent surface x-ray scattering studies of the orbital ordered surface in La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 1.5}MnO{sub 4}. We find that as the bulk ordering temperature is approached from below the thickness of the interface between the electronically ordered and electronically disordered regions at the surface grows, though the bulk correlation length remains unchanged. Close to the transition, the surface is so rough that there is no well-defined electronic surface, despite the presence of bulk electronic order. That is, the electronic ordering at the surface has melted. Above the bulk transition, long-range ordering in the bulk is destroyed but finite-sized isotropic fluctuations persist, with a correlation length roughly equal to that of the low-temperature in-plane surface correlation length.

  16. Structure of a bottlebrush melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paturej, Jaroslaw; Sheiko, Sergei; Panyukov, Sergey; Rubinstein, Michael

    2014-03-01

    A bottlebrush polymer is a branched macromolecule composed of a linear chain (backbone) with side chains densely tethered to it. High grafting density of side chains gives rise to various unique structural properties, such as highly extended conformations of their backbones and tunable character of their stiffness and rheological properties with degree of polymerization of the side chains. We conducted coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations to determine how the number of Kuhn segments in a bottlebrush backbone L and in the side chains N affect size, stiffness, and structure of these molecules. We found that the size (root-mean-squared radius of gyration and end-to-end distance) and persistence length of bottlebrushes in a melt state scales as N 1 / 2.

  17. Transition metals in superheat melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakes, Petr; Wolfbauer, Michael-Patrick

    1993-01-01

    A series of experiments with silicate melts doped with transition element oxides was carried out at atmospheric pressures of inert gas at temperatures exceeding liquidus. As predicted from the shape of fO2 buffer curves in T-fO2 diagrams the reducing conditions for a particular oxide-metal pair can be achieved through the T increase if the released oxygen is continuously removed. Experimental studies suggest that transition metals such as Cr or V behave as siderophile elements at temperatures exceeding liquidus temperatures if the system is not buffered by the presence of other oxide of more siderophile element. For example the presence of FeO prevents the reduction of Cr2O3. The sequence of decreasing siderophility of transition elements at superheat conditions (Mo, Ni, Fe, Cr) matches the decreasing degree of depletion of siderophile elements in mantle rocks as compared to chondrites.

  18. Low-Degree Partial Melting Experiments of CR and H Chondrite Compositions: Implications for Asteroidal Magmatism Recorded in GRA 06128 and GRA 06129 T

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usui, T.; Jones, John H.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.

    2010-01-01

    Studies of differentiated meteorites have revealed a diversity of differentiation processes on their parental asteroids; these differentiation mechanisms range from whole-scale melting to partial melting without the core formation [e.g., 1]. Recently discovered paired achondrites GRA 06128 and GRA 06129 (hereafter referred to as GRA) represent unique asteroidal magmatic processes. These meteorites are characterized by high abundances of sodic plagioclase and alkali-rich whole-rock compositions, implying that they could originate from a low-degree partial melt from a volatile-rich oxidized asteroid [e.g., 2, 3, 4]. These conditions are consistent with the high abundances of highly siderophile elements, suggesting that their parent asteroid did not segregate a metallic core [2]. In this study, we test the hypothesis that low-degree partial melts of chondritic precursors under oxidizing conditions can explain the whole-rock and mineral chemistry of GRA based on melting experiments of synthesized CR- and H-chondrite compositions.

  19. Core-core and core-valence correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of (1s) core correlation on properties and energy separations was analyzed using full configuration-interaction (FCI) calculations. The Be 1 S - 1 P, the C 3 P - 5 S and CH+ 1 Sigma + or - 1 Pi separations, and CH+ spectroscopic constants, dipole moment and 1 Sigma + - 1 Pi transition dipole moment were studied. The results of the FCI calculations are compared to those obtained using approximate methods. In addition, the generation of atomic natural orbital (ANO) basis sets, as a method for contracting a primitive basis set for both valence and core correlation, is discussed. When both core-core and core-valence correlation are included in the calculation, no suitable truncated CI approach consistently reproduces the FCI, and contraction of the basis set is very difficult. If the (nearly constant) core-core correlation is eliminated, and only the core-valence correlation is included, CASSCF/MRCI approached reproduce the FCI results and basis set contraction is significantly easier.

  20. Systematics of melt stagnation in peridotites from the Godzilla Megamullion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loocke, M.; Snow, J. E.; Ohara, Y.

    2010-12-01

    The Godzilla Megamullion (GM) Massif is the largest known example of an Oceanic Core Complex (OCC) or the exhumed footwall of a low angle-large offset oceanic detachment fault. It lies on the extinct Parece Vela Rift spreading center within the Parece Vela Back-arc Basin of the Philippine Sea. This has thus allowed for sampling of a young back-arc mantle section. Sampling of the massif has returned a dominantly ultramafic lithology, divided petrographically into depleted, fertile, and melt-percolated groups (1). Petrographic analysis of the extant peridotite thin section collection found that 44% of all GM peridotites (71 out of 161) exhibit evidence of plagioclase impregnation compared to the worldwide abyssal peridotite average of ~20% (2). The mullion is divided up into three regions, the proximal region ( closest to termination of spreading), the medial region, and the distal region (furthest from the termination of spreading)(3).Observations by region provide that 53% ( 62 out of 116 samples) in the proximal region (15 dredges), 12% ( 2 out of 17 samples) in the medial mullion (3 dredges), and 25% (7 out of 28) in the distal mullion (5 dredges) show of evidence of plagioclase impregnation (4). Major element analyses of spinels were completed using the Cameca SX-50 Electron Microprobe facility at the University of Houston. The Cr# [100 x Cr/(Cr + Al)] ranges from 10 to 65 with TiO2 concentrations ranging from less than 0.01 up to 1.6 wt%. When the Cr#s of the samples are plotted along the massif, a pattern of melt depletion exists that is consistent with the degree of plagioclase impregnation. In the distal region, Cr#s start at around an average of 35 and range up to 65 for melt percolated samples. In the medial region, a drop off in Cr# of about 1 Cr# per kilometer is observed with the trend bottoming out at around a Cr# of 10. In the proximal region, Cr#s closer to the medial region are observed as having more fertile values of around 20 but are found

  1. Water loss from olivine hosted melt inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Provost, A.; Schiano, P.; Cluzel, N.

    2009-12-01

    Water content in melt inclusions has long been used as an important index for the water content of the hosting magma. However, many studies have shown that post-entrapment diffusive re-equilibration can affect the water content of melt inclusions. This process must be considered when using melt inclusions to infer water content of the hosting magma. Theoretical model on the diffusive re-equilibration between melt inclusions and external melts showed that the re-equilibration rate depends on the diffusivity of the re-equilibrating species in the host mineral, the partition coefficient of this species between the host mineral and melt, and the geometry of the melt inclusion and host mineral. The water diffusivity in olivine and water partition coefficient between melt and olivine have been measured by recent studies, therefore the diffusive re-equilibration model can be tested by experiments. In this study, we carried out in-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements on the water content of olivine hosted melt inclusions at high temperatures. Initial water content of the melt inclusions is about 4 wt%. A heating stage system is combined with a microscope FTIR and the absorption spectrum through the olivine and melt inclusion is repeatedly measured. Although the absorption band at around 3540 cm-1 has not be calibrated at high temperatures, it is assumed that the absorbance is linearly related to the total water concentration in the melt inclusion, and the relative water content can be inferred. Cautions have been exercised to maintain a consistent measurement spot such that the thickness of the melt inclusion within the beam path did not change significantly during each experiment. Oxygen fugacity in the heating stage is controlled by Zr purified Ar gas to be about 7 logarithm units below the QFM buffer and about 1 logarithm unit above the QIF buffer at 1473 K. Preliminary results showed that at 1430 and 1581 K, the total water content of the

  2. Do Melt Inclusions Answer Big Questions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, A. W.; Sobolev, A. V.

    2009-12-01

    In a pioneering paper, Sobolev and Shimizu (1993) demonstrated the existence of ultra-depleted melt inclusions in olivine phenocrysts in MORB. They interpreted these as evidence for the preservation of parental melts formed by progressive near-fractional melting. Subsequently many cases have been described where melt inclusions from single basalt samples display enormous chemical and isotopic heterogeneity. The interpretation of these observations hinges critically on whether such melt inclusions can faithfully preserve primary or parental melt composition. If they do, melt inclusion data can truly answer big questions from small-scale observations. If they do not, they answer rather small questions. Favoring the second possibility, Danyushevsky et al. (2004) have suggested that much of the observed variability of highly incompatible trace elements in melt inclusions “may not represent geologically significant melts, but instead reflect localized, grain-scale reaction processes within the magmatic plumbing system.” We disagree and show that this mechanism cannot, for example, explain isotopic heterogeneity measured in several suites of melt inclusions, nor does it not account for the presence of ultra-depleted melts and "ghost" plagioclase signatures in other inclusions. More recently, Spandler et al. (2007) have suggested on the basis of experimental evidence that diffusion rates for REE in olivine are so rapid that parental melt compositions in melt inclusions are rapidly falsified by diffusional exchange with (evolved) host lava. We show that the very fact that extreme chemical and isotopic heterogeneities are routinely preserved in melt inclusions demonstrates that this conclusion is unwarranted, either because residence times of the olivine phenocrysts are much shorter than assumed by Spandler et al. or because the high experimental diffusion rates are caused by an unknown experimental artifact. Although there is no obvious flaw in design and execution of

  3. Tomographic location of potential melt-bearing phenocrysts in lunar glass spherules

    SciTech Connect

    Ebel, D.S.; Fogel, R.A.; Rivers, M.L.

    2005-02-04

    Apollo 17 orange glass spherules contain olivine phenocrysts with melt inclusions from depth. Tomography (<2micron/pxl) of >200 spherules located 1 phenocryst. We will try to find melt inclusions and obtain original magma volatiles and compositions. In 1971, Apollo 17 astronauts collected a 10 cm soil sample (74220) comprised almost entirely of orange glass spherules. Below this, a double drive-tube core sampled a 68 cm thick horizon comprised of orange glass and black beads (crystallized equivalents of orange glass). Primitive lunar glass spherules (e.g.-A17 orange glasses) are thought to represent ejecta from lunar mare fire fountains. The fire-fountains were apparently driven by a combination of C-O gas exsolution from orange glass melt and the oxidation of graphite. Upon eruption, magmas lost their volatiles (e.g., S, CO, CO{sub 2}) to space. Evidence for volatile escape remains as volatile-rich coatings on the exteriors of many spherules. Moreover, it showed that Type I and II Fe-Ni-rich metal particles found within orange glass olivine phenocrysts, or free-floating in the glass itself, are powerful evidence for the volatile driving force for lunar fire fountains. More direct evidence for the volatile mechanism has yet to be uncovered. Issues remaining include: the exact composition of magmatic volatiles; the hypothesized existence of graphite in the magma; the oxygen fugacity of the magma and of the lunar interior. In 1996 reported a single {approx}450 micron, equant olivine phenocryst, containing four glassy melt inclusions (or inclusion cores), the largest {approx}30micron in size, in a thin section of the 74001/2 drill core. The melt is assumed to sample the parent magma of the lunar basalts at depth, evidenced by the S content of the inclusion (600 ppm) which is 400 ppm greater than that of the orange glass host. Such melts potentially contain a full complement of the volatile components of the parent magma, which can be analyzed by infrared spectroscopy

  4. Origins of ultralow velocity zones through slab-derived metallic melt

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiachao; Li, Jie; Smith, Jesse S.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the ultralow velocity zones (ULVZs) places constraints on the chemical composition and thermal structure of deep Earth and provides critical information on the dynamics of large-scale mantle convection, but their origin has remained enigmatic for decades. Recent studies suggest that metallic iron and carbon are produced in subducted slabs when they sink beyond a depth of 250 km. Here we show that the eutectic melting curve of the iron−carbon system crosses the current geotherm near Earth’s core−mantle boundary, suggesting that dense metallic melt may form in the lowermost mantle. If concentrated into isolated patches, such melt could produce the seismically observed density and velocity features of ULVZs. Depending on the wetting behavior of the metallic melt, the resultant ULVZs may be short-lived domains that are replenished or regenerated through subduction, or long-lasting regions containing both metallic and silicate melts. Slab-derived metallic melt may produce another type of ULVZ that escapes core sequestration by reacting with the mantle to form iron-rich postbridgmanite or ferropericlase. The hypotheses connect peculiar features near Earth's core−mantle boundary to subduction of the oceanic lithosphere through the deep carbon cycle. PMID:27143719

  5. NREL Scientists Reveal Origin of Diverse Melting Behaviors of Aluminum Nanoclusters (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Research reveals active role of cluster symmetries on the size-sensitive, diverse melting behaviors of metallic nanoclusters, providing insight to understanding phase changes of nanoparticles for thermal energy storage. Unlike macroscopic bulk materials, intermediate-sized nanoclusters with around 55 atoms inherently exhibit size-sensitive melting changes: adding just a single atom to a nanocluster can cause a dramatic change in melting behavior. Microscopic understanding of thermal behaviors of metal nanoclusters is important for nanoscale catalysis and thermal energy storage applications. However, it is a challenge to obtain a structural interpretation at the atomic level from measured thermodynamic quantities such as heat capacity. Using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) revealed a clear correlation between the diverse melting behaviors of aluminum nanoclusters and cluster core symmetries. These simulations reproduced, for the first time, the size-sensitive heat capacities of aluminum nanoclusters, which exhibit several distinctive shapes associated with the diverse melting behaviors of the clusters. The size-dependent, diverse melting behaviors of the aluminum clusters are attributed to the reduced symmetry (from Td {yields} D2d {yields} Cs) with increasing the cluster sizes and can be used to help design thermal storage materials.

  6. The Earth's Core and the Phase Diagram of Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, O. L.

    1982-08-01

    The phase diagram of iron is presented for P <= 330 GPa. The melting curve is derived from Stevenson's generalized form of Lindemann's law, successfully connecting the low-pressure (5-20 GPa) measurements to the new shock-wave measurements of 250 GPa. The isothermal equation of state of ɛ -iron (h.c.p.) and γ -iron (f.c.c.), indicate that the inner core density is that of pure solid iron. The present experiments cannot distinguish between the ɛ or γ phase for the inner core, but preference is given to γ -iron. From these constructions, it is concluded that the melting temperature of iron at the inner core - outer core boundary pressure, Tmi (i.c.b.), is 5200-6600 K. A likely model of the outer core temperature is presented by taking 5800 K as the probable value of Tmi (i.c.b.), and assuming a temperature drop of 1000 K due to chemically induced melting point depression. This yields 3620 K for the T of the core side of the core-mantle boundary (c.m.b.). This model results in a large Δ T (D' '), (700 K), at the c.m.b., but the shock-wave data also allow other models where Δ T (D' ') is less. A numerical experiment reveals that the value for Δ T (D' ') of 700 K does not lead to distortion of the density profile. The (γ -ɛ -liquid) triple point is beyond the i.c.b. Thus, diluted γ -iron in the liquid phase constitutes the outer core. The experiments support a thermally driven model of the geomagnetic dynamo, and further support a model of a slowly freezing inner core for the energy source.

  7. A benchmark initiative on mantle convection with melting and melt segregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmeling, Harro; Dannberg, Juliane; Dohmen, Janik; Kalousova, Klara; Maurice, Maxim; Noack, Lena; Plesa, Ana; Soucek, Ondrej; Spiegelman, Marc; Thieulot, Cedric; Tosi, Nicola; Wallner, Herbert

    2016-04-01

    In recent years a number of mantle convection models have been developed which include partial melting within the asthenosphere, estimation of melt volumes, as well as melt extraction with and without redistribution at the surface or within the lithosphere. All these approaches use various simplifying modelling assumptions whose effects on the dynamics of convection including the feedback on melting have not been explored in sufficient detail. To better assess the significance of such assumptions and to provide test cases for the modelling community we carry out a benchmark comparison. The reference model is taken from the mantle convection benchmark, cases 1a to 1c (Blankenbach et al., 1989), assuming a square box with free slip boundary conditions, the Boussinesq approximation, constant viscosity and Rayleigh numbers of 104 to 10^6. Melting is modelled using a simplified binary solid solution with linearly depth dependent solidus and liquidus temperatures, as well as a solidus temperature depending linearly on depletion. Starting from a plume free initial temperature condition (to avoid melting at the onset time) five cases are investigated: Case 1 includes melting, but without thermal or dynamic feedback on the convection flow. This case provides a total melt generation rate (qm) in a steady state. Case 2 is identical to case 1 except that latent heat is switched on. Case 3 includes batch melting, melt buoyancy (melt Rayleigh number Rm) and depletion buoyancy, but no melt percolation. Output quantities are the Nusselt number (Nu), root mean square velocity (vrms), the maximum and the total melt volume and qm approaching a statistical steady state. Case 4 includes two-phase flow, i.e. melt percolation, assuming a constant shear and bulk viscosity of the matrix and various melt retention numbers (Rt). These cases are carried out using the Compaction Boussinseq Approximation (Schmeling, 2000) or the full compaction formulation. For cases 1 - 3 very good agreement

  8. Sweepoviruses Cause Disease in Sweet Potato and Related Ipomoea spp.: Fulfilling Koch's Postulates for a Divergent Group in the Genus Begomovirus

    PubMed Central

    Márquez-Martín, Belén; Moriones, Enrique; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and related Ipomoea species are frequently infected by monopartite begomoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae), known as sweepoviruses. Unlike other geminiviruses, the genomes of sweepoviruses have been recalcitrant to rendering infectious clones to date. Thus, Koch's postulates have not been fullfilled for any of the viruses in this group. Three novel species of sweepoviruses have recently been described in Spain: Sweet potato leaf curl Lanzarote virus (SPLCLaV), Sweet potato leaf curl Spain virus (SPLCSV) and Sweet potato leaf curl Canary virus (SPLCCaV). Here we describe the generation of the first infectious clone of an isolate (ES:MAL:BG30:06) of SPLCLaV. The clone consisted of a complete tandem dimeric viral genome in a binary vector. Successful infection by agroinoculation of several species of Ipomoea (including sweet potato) and Nicotiana benthamiana was confirmed by PCR, dot blot and Southern blot hybridization. Symptoms observed in infected plants consisted of leaf curl, yellowing, growth reduction and vein yellowing. Two varieties of sweet potato, ‘Beauregard’ and ‘Promesa’, were infected by agroinoculation, and symptoms of leaf curl and interveinal loss of purple colouration were observed, respectively. The virus present in agroinfected plants was readily transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci to I. setosa plants. The progeny virus population present in agroinfected I. setosa and sweet potato plants was isolated and identity to the original isolate was confirmed by sequencing. Therefore, Koch's postulates were fulfilled for the first time for a sweepovirus. PMID:22073314

  9. Summer Melts Immigrant Students' College Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naranjo, Melissa M.; Pang, Valerie Ooka; Alvarado, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    Many college-intending students find themselves dealing with the undermatch and summer melt phenomena. Undermatch refers to the situation where academically-successful high-school graduates choose not to go to any college or to go to a local community college not commensurate with their academic achievements. Summer melt describes how students may…

  10. Recent Changes in the Arctic Melt Season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroeve, Julienne; Markus, Thorsten; Meier, Walter N.; Miller, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Melt-season duration, melt-onset and freeze-up dates are derived from satellite passive microwave data and analyzed from 1979 to 2005 over Arctic sea ice. Results indicate a shift towards a longer melt season, particularly north of Alaska and Siberia, corresponding to large retreats of sea ice observed in these regions. Although there is large interannual and regional variability in the length of the melt season, the Arctic is experiencing an overall lengthening of the melt season at a rate of about 2 weeks decade(sup -1). In fact, all regions in the Arctic (except for the central Arctic) have statistically significant (at the 99% level or higher) longer melt seasons by greater than 1 week decade(sup -1). The central Arctic shows a statistically significant trend (at the 98% level) of 5.4 days decade(sup -1). In 2005 the Arctic experienced its longest melt season, corresponding with the least amount of sea ice since 1979 and the warmest temperatures since the 1880s. Overall, the length of the melt season is inversely correlated with the lack of sea ice seen in September north of Alaska and Siberia, with a mean correlation of -0.8.

  11. Purification of Niobium by Electron Beam Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankar, M.; Mirji, K. V.; Prasad, V. V. Satya; Baligidad, R. G.; Gokhale, A. A.

    2016-06-01

    Pure niobium metal, produced by alumino-thermic reduction of niobium oxide, contains various impurities which need to be reduced to acceptable levels to obtain aerospace grade purity. In the present work, an attempt has been made to refine niobium metals by electron beam drip melting technique to achieve purity confirming to the ASTM standard. Input power to the electron gun and melt rate were varied to observe their combined effect on extend of refining and loss of niobium. Electron beam (EB) melting is shown to reduce alkali metals, trace elements and interstitial impurities well below the specified limits. The reduction in the impurities during EB melting is attributed to evaporation and degassing due to the combined effect of high vacuum and high melt surface temperature. The % removal of interstitial impurities is essentially a function of melt rate and input power. As the melt rate decreases or input power increases, the impurity levels in the solidified niobium ingot decrease. The EB refining process is also accompanied by considerable amount of niobium loss, which is attributed to evaporation of pure niobium and niobium sub-oxide. Like other impurities, Nb loss increases with decreasing melt rate or increase in input power.

  12. Stabilizing Crystal Oscillators With Melting Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. B.; Miller, C. G.

    1984-01-01

    Heat of fusion provides extended period of constant temperature and frequency. Crystal surrounded by metal in spherical container. As outside temperature rises to melting point of metal, metal starts to liquefy; but temperature stays at melting point until no solid metal remains. Potential terrestrial applications include low-power environmental telemetering transmitters and instrumentation transmitters for industrial processes.

  13. Melt dumping in string stabilized ribbon growth

    DOEpatents

    Sachs, Emanuel M.

    1986-12-09

    A method and apparatus for stabilizing the edge positions of a ribbon drawn from a melt includes the use of wettable strings drawn in parallel up through the melt surface, the ribbon being grown between the strings. A furnace and various features of the crucible used therein permit continuous automatic growth of flat ribbons without close temperature control or the need for visual inspection.

  14. Method and apparatus for melting glass batch

    DOEpatents

    Fassbender, Alexander G.; Walkup, Paul C.; Mudge, Lyle K.

    1988-01-01

    A glass melting system involving preheating, precalcining, and prefluxing of batch materials prior to injection into a glass furnace. The precursors are heated by convection rather than by radiation in present furnaces. Upon injection into the furnace, batch materials are intimately coated with molten flux so as to undergo or at least begin the process of dissolution reaction prior to entering the melt pool.

  15. Natural melting within a spherical shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahrami, Parviz A.

    1990-01-01

    Fundamental heat transfer experiments were performed on the melting of a phase change medium in a spherical shell. Free expansion of the medium into a void space within the sphere was permitted. A step function temperature jump on the outer shell wall was imposed and the timewise evolution of the melting process and the position of the solid-liquid interface was photographically recorded. Numerical integration of the interface position data yielded information about the melted mass and the energy of melting. It was found that the rate of melting and the heat transfer were significantly affected by the movement of the solid medium to the base of the sphere due to gravity. The energy transfer associated with melting was substantially higher than that predicted by the conduction model. Furthermore, the radio of the measured values of sensible energy in the liquid melt to the energy of melting were nearly proportional to the Stefan number. The experimental results are in agreement with a theory set forth in an earlier paper.

  16. Shock-induced melting and rapid solidification

    SciTech Connect

    Nellis, W.J.; Gourdin, W.H.; Maple, M.B.

    1987-08-01

    Model calculations are presented to estimate that approx.50 GPa is required to completely shock melt metal powders with quenching at rates up to 10/sup 8/ K/s. Experiments are discussed for powders of a Cu-Zr alloy compacted in the usual way at 16 GPa and melted by shocking to 60 GPa. 12 refs.

  17. Oceanic slab melting and mantle metasomatism.

    PubMed

    Scaillet, B; Prouteau, G

    2001-01-01

    Modern plate tectonic brings down oceanic crust along subduction zones where it either dehydrates or melts. Those hydrous fluids or melts migrate into the overlying mantle wedge trigerring its melting which produces arc magmas and thus additional continental crust. Nowadays, melting seems to be restricted to cases of young (< 50 Ma) subducted plates. Slab melts are silicic and strongly sodic (trondhjemitic). They are produced at low temperatures (< 1000 degrees C) and under water excess conditions. Their interaction with mantle peridotite produces hydrous metasomatic phases such as amphibole and phlogopite that can be more or less sodium rich. Upon interaction the slab melt becomes less silicic (dacitic to andesitic), and Mg, Ni and Cr richer. Virtually all exposed slab melts display geochemical evidence of ingestion of mantle material. Modern slab melts are thus unlike Archean Trondhjemite-Tonalite-Granodiorite rocks (TTG), which suggests that both types of magmas were generated via different petrogenetic pathways which may imply an Archean tectonic model of crust production different from that of the present-day, subduction-related, one.

  18. Purification of tantalum by plasma arc melting

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, Paul S.; Korzekwa, Deniece R.

    1999-01-01

    Purification of tantalum by plasma arc melting. The level of oxygen and carbon impurities in tantalum was reduced by plasma arc melting the tantalum using a flowing plasma gas generated from a gas mixture of helium and hydrogen. The flowing plasma gases of the present invention were found to be superior to other known flowing plasma gases used for this purpose.

  19. Core formation, evolution, and convection - A geophysical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, L.; Anderson, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    A model for the formation and evolution of the earth's core, which provides an adequate energy source for maintaining the geodynamo, is proposed. A modified inhomogeneous accretion model is proposed which leads to initial iron and refractory enrichment at the center of the planet. The probable heat source for melting of the core is the decay of Al-26. The refractory material is emplaced irregularly in the lowermost mantle with uranium and thorium serving as a long-lived heat source. Fluid motions in the core are driven by the differential heating from above and the resulting cyclonic motions may be the source of the geodynamo.

  20. Core formation, evolution, and convection: A geophysical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, L.; Anderson, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    A model is proposed for the formation and evolution of the Earth's core which provides an adequate energy source for maintaining the geodynamo. A modified inhomogeneous accretion model is proposed which leads to initial iron and refractory enrichment at the center of the planet. The probable heat source for melting of the core is the decay of Al. The refractory material is emplaced irregularly in the lowermost mantle with uranium and thorium serving as a long lived heat source. Fluid motions in the core are driven by the differential heating from above and the resulting cyclonic motions may be the source of the geodynamo.

  1. Partial melting in amphibolites in a deep section of the Sveconorwegian Orogen, SW Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Edward; Johansson, Leif; Andersson, Jenny; LaBarge, Leah; Harlov, Daniel; Möller, Charlotte; Vincent, Stephanie

    2015-11-01

    Garnet amphibolite metataxites at the Steningekusten Nature Reserve in southwestern Sweden contain tonalitic patches and veins. Whole rock chemistry suggests that the protoliths were mafic igneous rocks with alkaline affinities. Orthopyroxene megacrysts are present in leucosome in parts of these garnet amphibolites but absent in others. Orthopyroxene megacrysts were formed by vapor-absent melting initiated by incongruent melting of biotite followed by the breakdown of hornblende. The net reaction was Bt + Hbl + Pl +/- Qtz ↔ Opx + Melt + Cpx + Gt. Melting occurred at pressures of approximately 1 GPa and temperatures which probably exceeded 800 °C. Pyroxenes are surrounded by hornblende-quartz symplectites, and hornblende in these coronas has distinctly lower concentrations of (Na + K) and Ti than that in adjacent mesosome. The hornblende rims formed upon cooling and reaction with crystallizing melt. This created a barrier to further reaction thus preserving the orthopyroxene megacrysts. Garnet amphibolite metatexites lacking pyroxene megacrysts have features characteristic of vapor-present melting including lack of peritectic phases predicted by vapor-absent melting reactions, larger amounts of leucosome (14 versus 7%), and less distinct melanosomes. The variation in these migmatites reflects open system behavior, either on a regional scale with the migration of aqueous fluids into the amphibolites or on a local scale with the migration of melt within the amphibolites. Zircons from all units have CL-dark core domains that are dated at 1415-1390 Ma. The core zones are cut and overgrown by CL-dark and CL-bright rims that are dated at 975-965 Ma. The zircon rims are thin in the mesosome but are thicker in the leucosome suggesting that they formed during migmatization. New growth of zircon associated with migmatization at ca. 970 Ma corresponds to the timing of crustal scale partial melting in the deep regions of the Sveconorwegian orogen, synchronous with east

  2. The contribution of glacier melt to streamflow

    SciTech Connect

    Schaner, Neil; Voisin, Nathalie; Nijssen, Bart; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2012-09-13

    Ongoing and projected future changes in glacier extent and water storage globally have lead to concerns about the implications for water supplies. However, the current magnitude of glacier contributions to river runoff is not well known, nor is the population at risk to future glacier changes. We estimate an upper bound on glacier melt contribution to seasonal streamflow by computing the energy balance of glaciers globally. Melt water quantities are computed as a fraction of total streamflow simulated using a hydrology model and the melt fraction is tracked down the stream network. In general, our estimates of the glacier melt contribution to streamflow are lower than previously published values. Nonetheless, we find that globally an estimated 225 (36) million people live in river basins where maximum seasonal glacier melt contributes at least 10% (25%) of streamflow, mostly in the High Asia region.

  3. Ice-Shelf Melting Around Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rignot, E.; Jacobs, S.; Mouginot, J.; Scheuchl, B.

    2013-07-01

    We compare the volume flux divergence of Antarctic ice shelves in 2007 and 2008 with 1979 to 2010 surface accumulation and 2003 to 2008 thinning to determine their rates of melting and mass balance. Basal melt of 1325 ± 235 gigatons per year (Gt/year) exceeds a calving flux of 1089 ± 139 Gt/year, making ice-shelf melting the largest ablation process in Antarctica. The giant cold-cavity Ross, Filchner, and Ronne ice shelves covering two-thirds of the total ice-shelf area account for only 15% of net melting. Half of the meltwater comes from 10 small, warm-cavity Southeast Pacific ice shelves occupying 8% of the area. A similar high melt/area ratio is found for six East Antarctic ice shelves, implying undocumented strong ocean thermal forcing on their deep grounding lines.

  4. Microwave melting of ion-conducting glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Duval, D.J.; Terjak, M.J.E.; Risbud, S.H.; Phillips, B.L.

    1996-12-31

    Glasses of the system AgI-Ag{sub 2}O-(0.95B{sub 2}O{sub 3}:0.05SiO{sub 2}) have been formed by microwave processing using a domestic multi-mode oven operating at 900 watts and 2.45 GHz. Microwave heating resulted in rapid melting times with homogeneity in the quenched glasses equivalent to or better than conventional melting at 730 C. The glass forming region in this pseudo-ternary system is compared with the conventionally melted glass forming region in the system AgI-Ag{sub 2}O-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}. A reversible color difference has been observed between glasses conventionally melted and those melted by microwave for all glass compositions in the system.

  5. Shape evolution of a melting nonspherical particle.

    PubMed

    Kintea, Daniel M; Hauk, Tobias; Roisman, Ilia V; Tropea, Cameron

    2015-09-01

    In this study melting of irregular ice crystals was observed in an acoustic levitator. The evolution of the particle shape is captured using a high-speed video system. Several typical phenomena have been discovered: change of the particle shape, appearance of a capillary flow of the melted liquid on the particle surface leading to liquid collection at the particle midsection (where the interface curvature is smallest), and appearance of sharp cusps at the particle tips. No such phenomena can be observed during melting of spherical particles. An approximate theoretical model is developed which accounts for the main physical phenomena associated with melting of an irregular particle. The agreement between the theoretical predictions for the melting time, for the evolution of the particle shape, and the corresponding experimental data is rather good.

  6. Nanotexturing of surfaces to reduce melting point.

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Ernest J.; Zubia, David; Mireles, Jose; Marquez, Noel; Quinones, Stella

    2011-11-01

    This investigation examined the use of nano-patterned structures on Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) material to reduce the bulk material melting point (1414 C). It has been found that sharp-tipped and other similar structures have a propensity to move to the lower energy states of spherical structures and as a result exhibit lower melting points than the bulk material. Such a reduction of the melting point would offer a number of interesting opportunities for bonding in microsystems packaging applications. Nano patterning process capabilities were developed to create the required structures for the investigation. One of the technical challenges of the project was understanding and creating the specialized conditions required to observe the melting and reshaping phenomena. Through systematic experimentation and review of the literature these conditions were determined and used to conduct phase change experiments. Melting temperatures as low as 1030 C were observed.

  7. Shape evolution of a melting nonspherical particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kintea, Daniel M.; Hauk, Tobias; Roisman, Ilia V.; Tropea, Cameron

    2015-09-01

    In this study melting of irregular ice crystals was observed in an acoustic levitator. The evolution of the particle shape is captured using a high-speed video system. Several typical phenomena have been discovered: change of the particle shape, appearance of a capillary flow of the melted liquid on the particle surface leading to liquid collection at the particle midsection (where the interface curvature is smallest), and appearance of sharp cusps at the particle tips. No such phenomena can be observed during melting of spherical particles. An approximate theoretical model is developed which accounts for the main physical phenomena associated with melting of an irregular particle. The agreement between the theoretical predictions for the melting time, for the evolution of the particle shape, and the corresponding experimental data is rather good.

  8. Microscopy of Si films during laser melting

    SciTech Connect

    Lemons, R.A.; Boesch, M.A.

    1982-04-15

    By using an optical microscope to directly observe thin Si films as they are melted with a cw argon laser beam, the crystallization process can be better understood. In an environment containing oxygen, stable filaments of solid silicon precipitate from the molten pool at low laser power. The surrounding melt may contain dissolved oxygen which reduces the melting point, allowing the liquid and solid to coexist. As laser power is increased a uniform molten pool is achieved. In emitted light the pool is dark compared to the surrounding solid due to the melt's low emissivity. The spectrum of this emitted thermal radiation accurately fits the Planck law at 1740 /sup 0/K, confirming the temperature of the melt.

  9. Melting and phase relations in the Fe-C-S-O system at high pressure and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Yingwei

    2010-05-01

    The physical state of the core (liquid outer core and solid inner core) could provide tight constraint on the core temperature if melting temperature of core materials is precisely determined at high pressure. On the other hand, the density of the Earth's core is significantly lower than that of pure iron measured experimentally at high pressure and temperature. The density deficit in the core (both liquid outer core and solid inner core) provides inside into the chemistry of the core, suggesting that the core must contain several weight percent of one or more light elements (lighter than iron) in addition to Fe-Ni alloy. Sulfur (S), carbon (C), and oxygen (O) are the prominent candidates among the proposed light elements, because of their high solar abundance and strong chemical affinity for Fe. Determining the effect of pressure on melting relations in the Fe-S, Fe-C, and Fe-O binary systems and multi-component system is crucial for understanding the chemistry, temperature, and evolution of planetary cores. There has been significant progress in determining the melting relations in the system Fe-FeS at high pressure, using multi-anvil apparatus and laser-heating diamond-anvil cell. These studies have revealed new iron-sulfur compounds (Fe3S2, Fe2S, and Fe3S) stable at high pressures, change of melting relations, and pressure effect on eutectic temperature and composition. The behaviors of the Fe-C and Fe-O systems have also been experimentally investigated recently. Experimental data in the Fe-C-S-O system at high pressure have just emerged. In parallel, there are high-quality data on density measurements of solid and liquid phases at high pressure and temperature. In this study, I present recent advances in experimental techniques and melting relations in the Fe-C-S-O system. The emphasis will be on the need to develop thermodynamic models by synthesis of thermochemical, thermophysical, and phase equilibrium data. The systematic approach provides a better

  10. Partitioning coefficients between olivine and silicate melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bédard, J. H.

    2005-08-01

    Variation of Nernst partition coefficients ( D) between olivine and silicate melts cannot be neglected when modeling partial melting and fractional crystallization. Published natural and experimental olivine/liquidD data were examined for covariation with pressure, temperature, olivine forsterite content, and melt SiO 2, H 2O, MgO and MgO/MgO + FeO total. Values of olivine/liquidD generally increase with decreasing temperature and melt MgO content, and with increasing melt SiO 2 content, but generally show poor correlations with other variables. Multi-element olivine/liquidD profiles calculated from regressions of D REE-Sc-Y vs. melt MgO content are compared to results of the Lattice Strain Model to link melt MgO and: D0 (the strain compensated partition coefficient), EM3+ (Young's Modulus), and r0 (the size of the M site). Ln D0 varies linearly with Ln MgO in the melt; EM3+ varies linearly with melt MgO, with a dog-leg at ca. 1.5% MgO; and r0 remains constant at 0.807 Å. These equations are then used to calculate olivine/liquidD for these elements using the Lattice Strain Model. These empirical parameterizations of olivine/liquidD variations yield results comparable to experimental or natural partitioning data, and can easily be integrated into existing trace element modeling algorithms. The olivine/liquidD data suggest that basaltic melts in equilibrium with pure olivine may acquire small negative Ta-Hf-Zr-Ti anomalies, but that negative Nb anomalies are unlikely to develop. Misfits between results of the Lattice Strain Model and most light rare earth and large ion lithophile partitioning data suggest that kinetic effects may limit the lower value of D for extremely incompatible elements in natural situations characterized by high cooling/crystallization rates.

  11. Main results of study on the interaction between the corium melt and steel in the VVER-1000 reactor vessel during a severe accident performed under the MASCA project

    SciTech Connect

    Asmolov, V. G.; Zagryazkin, V. N.; Tsurikov, D. F.; Vishnevsky, V. Yu.; D'yakov, Ye. K.; Kotov, A. Yu.; Repnikov, V. M.

    2010-12-15

    The interactions that take place in the corium melt in the reactor vessel in the case of a severe accident at a nuclear power plant were investigated in accordance with the MASCA international program. Results of the interaction between the oxide melt and iron (steel), partition of the main components [U, Zr, Fe (stainless steel)] between the oxide and the metal phases of the melt, partition of low-volatile simulators of fission products between the phases of the stratified core melt pool, and impact of the oxidizing atmosphere on the melt stratification are presented. The results obtained were used for prediction of thermodynamic properties of the melts belonging to the U-Zr-Fe-O system.

  12. Main results of study on the interaction between the corium melt and steel in the VVER-1000 reactor vessel during a severe accident performed under the MASCA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmolov, V. G.; Zagryazkin, V. N.; Tsurikov, D. F.; Vishnevsky, V. Yu.; D'Yakov, Ye. K.; Kotov, A. Yu.; Repnikov, V. M.

    2010-12-01

    The interactions that take place in the corium melt in the reactor vessel in the case of a severe accident at a nuclear power plant were investigated in accordance with the MASCA international program. Results of the interaction between the oxide melt and iron (steel), partition of the main components [U, Zr, Fe (stainless steel)] between the oxide and the metal phases of the melt, partition of low-volatile simulators of fission products between the phases of the stratified core melt pool, and impact of the oxidizing atmosphere on the melt stratification are presented. The results obtained were used for prediction of thermodynamic properties of the melts belonging to the U-Zr-Fe-O system.

  13. Rheology of Melt-bearing Crustal Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, C. L.; Medvedev, S.; Handy, M. R.

    2006-12-01

    A review and reinterpretation of previous experimental data on the deformation of melt-bearing crustal rocks (Rosenberg and Handy, 2005) revealed that the relationship of aggregate strength to melt fraction is non-linear, even if plotted on a linear ordinate and abscissa. At melt fractions, Φ 0.07, the dependence of aggregate strength on Φ is significantly greater than at Φ > 0.07. This melt fraction (Φ= 0.07) marks the transition from a significant increase in the proportion of melt-bearing grain boundaries up to this point to a minor increase thereafter. Therefore, we suggest that the increase of melt-interconnectivity causes the dramatic strength drop between the solidus and a melt fraction of 0.07. A second strength drop occurs at higher melt fractions and corresponds to the breakdown of the solid (crystal) framework, corresponding to the well-known "rheologically critical melt percentage" (RCMP; Arzi, 1978). Although the strength drop at the RCMP is about 4 orders of magnitude, the absolute value of this drop is small compared to the absolute strength of the unmelted aggregate, rendering the RCMP invisible in a linear aggregate strength vs. melt fraction diagram. Predicting the rheological properties and thresholds of melt-bearing crust on the basis of the results and interpretations above is very difficult, because the rheological data base was obtained from experiments performed at undrained conditions in the brittle field. These conditions are unlikely to represent the flow of partially melted crust. The measured strength of most of the experimentally deformed, partially-melted samples corresponds to their maximum differential stress, before the onset of brittle failure, not to their viscous strength during "ductile" (viscous) flow. To overcome these problems, we extrapolated a theoretically-derived flow law for partially melted granite deforming by diffusion-accommodated grain-boundary sliding (Paterson, 2001) and an experimentally-derived flow law for

  14. Deformation-aided segregation of Fe-S liquid from olivine under deep Earth conditions: Implications for core formation in the early solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Madeleine T. L.; Bromiley, Geoffrey D.; Butler, Ian B.; Frost, Mungo; Bradley, Robert; Carr, James; Le Godec, Yann; Montési, Laurent G. J.; Zhu, Wenlu; Miller, Kevin; Perrillat, Jean-Philippe; Mariani, Elisabetta; Tatham, Daniel; Redfern, Simon A. T.

    2017-02-01

    The planets and larger rocky bodies of the inner solar system are differentiated, and consist of metallic, iron-rich cores surrounded by thick shells of silicate. Core formation in these bodies, i.e. the segregation of metal from silicate, was a key process in the early solar system, and one which left a lasting geochemical signature. It is commonly assumed that extensive silicate melting and formation of deep magma oceans was required to initiate core formation, due to the inability of iron-rich melts to segregate from a solid silicate matrix. Here we assess the role of deformation in aiding segregation of core-forming melts from solid silicate under conditions of planetary deep interiors. Low-strain rate, high-pressure/temperature deformation experiments and high-resolution 2-D and 3-D textural analysis demonstrate that deformation fundamentally alters iron-rich melt geometry, promoting wetting of silicate grain boundaries and formation of extensive micron to sub-micron width Fe-rich melt bands. Deformation-aided Fe-S melt networks noted here contrast those observed in higher finite strain experiments conducted at lower pressure, and may reveal either an alternative mechanism for melt segregation at higher pressures, or an early stage process of melt segregation. Results suggest, however, that core-mantle chemical equilibration cannot be assumed in models of planetary formation, and that instead, the chemistry of rocky planets may record a complex, multi-stage process of core formation.

  15. Academic Rigor: The Core of the Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, Judy

    2013-01-01

    Some educators see the Common Core State Standards as reason for stress, most recognize the positive possibilities associated with them and are willing to make the professional commitment to implementing them so that academic rigor for all students will increase. But business leaders, parents, and the authors of the Common Core are not the only…

  16. Dynamics in entangled polyethylene melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salerno, K. Michael; Agrawal, Anupriya; Peters, Brandon L.; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S.

    2016-10-01

    Polymer dynamics creates distinctive viscoelastic behavior as a result of a coupled interplay of motion at the atomic length scale and motion of the entire macromolecule. Capturing the broad time and length scales of polymeric motion however, remains a challenge. Using linear polyethylene as a model system, we probe the effects of the degree of coarse graining on polymer dynamics. Coarse-grained (CG) potentials are derived using iterative Boltzmann inversion with λ methylene groups per CG bead (denoted CGλ) with λ = 2,3,4 and 6 from a fully-atomistic polyethylene melt simulation. By rescaling time in the CG models by a factor α, the chain mobility for the atomistic and CG models match. We show that independent of the degree of coarse graining, all measured static and dynamic properties are essentially the same once the dynamic scaling factor α and a non-crossing constraint for the CG6 model are included. The speedup of the CG4 model is about 3 times that of the CG3 model and is comparable to that of the CG6 model. Using these CG models we were able to reach times of over 500 μs, allowing us to measure a number of quantities, including the stress relaxation function, plateau modulus and shear viscosity, and compare directly to experiment.

  17. Metamorphism and partial melting of ordinary chondrites: Calculated phase equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, T. E.; Benedix, G. K.; Bland, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Constraining the metamorphic pressures (P) and temperatures (T) recorded by meteorites is key to understanding the size and thermal history of their asteroid parent bodies. New thermodynamic models calibrated to very low P for minerals and melt in terrestrial mantle peridotite permit quantitative investigation of high-T metamorphism in ordinary chondrites using phase equilibria modelling. Isochemical P-T phase diagrams based on the average composition of H, L and LL chondrite falls and contoured for the composition and abundance of olivine, ortho- and clinopyroxene, plagioclase and chromite provide a good match with values measured in so-called equilibrated (petrologic type 4-6) samples. Some compositional variables, in particular Al in orthopyroxene and Na in clinopyroxene, exhibit a strong pressure dependence when considered over a range of several kilobars, providing a means of recognising meteorites derived from the cores of asteroids with radii of several hundred kilometres, if such bodies existed at that time. At the low pressures (<1 kbar) that typify thermal metamorphism, several compositional variables are good thermometers. Although those based on Fe-Mg exchange are likely to have been reset during slow cooling, those based on coupled substitution, in particular Ca and Al in orthopyroxene and Na in clinopyroxene, are less susceptible to retrograde diffusion and are potentially more faithful recorders of peak conditions. The intersection of isopleths of these variables may allow pressures to be quantified, even at low P, permitting constraints on the minimum size of parent asteroid bodies. The phase diagrams predict the onset of partial melting at 1050-1100 °C by incongruent reactions consuming plagioclase, clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene, whose compositions change abruptly as melting proceeds. These predictions match natural observations well and support the view that type 7 chondrites represent a suprasolidus continuation of the established petrologic

  18. Geochemical Comparison of Four Cores from the Manson Impact Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, Randy L.; Rockow, Kaylynn M.; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Haskin, Larry A.; McCarville, Peter; Crossey, Laura J.

    1996-01-01

    Concentrations of 33 elements were determined in relatively unaltered, matrix-rich samples of impact breccia at approximately 3-m-depth intervals in the M-1 core from the Manson impact structure, Iowa. In addition, 46 matrix-rich samples from visibly altered regions of the M-7, M-8, and M-10 cores were studied, along with 42 small clasts from all four cores. Major element compositions were determined for a subset of impact breccias from the M-1 core, including matrix-rich impact-melt breccia. Major- and trace-element compositions were also determined for a suite of likely target rocks. In the M-1 core, different breccia units identified from lithologic examination of cores are compositionally distinct. There is a sharp compositional discontinuity at the boundary between the Keweenawan-shale-clast breccia and the underlying unit of impact-melt breccia (IMB) for most elements, suggesting minimal physical mixing between the two units during emplacement. Samples from the 40-m-thick IMB (M-1) are all similar to each other in composition, although there are slight increases in concentration with depth for those elements that have high concentrations in the underlying fragmental-matrix suevite breccia (SB) (e.g., Na, Ca, Fe, Sc), presumably as a result of greater clast proportions at the bottom margin of the unit of impact-melt breccia. The high degree of compositional similarity we observe in the impact-melt breccias supports the interpretation that the matrix of this unit represents impact melt. That our analyses show such compositional similarity results in part from our technique for sampling these breccias: for each sample we analyzed a few small fragments (total mass: approximately 200 mg) selected to be relatively free of large clasts and visible signs of alteration instead of subsamples of powders prepared from a large mass of breccia. The mean composition of the matrix-rich part of impact-melt breccia from the M-1 core can be modeled as a mixture of approximately

  19. Melting of saturated fatty acid zinc soaps.

    PubMed

    Barman, S; Vasudevan, S

    2006-11-16

    The melting of alkyl chains in the saturated fatty acid zinc soaps of different chain lengths, Zn(C(n)H(2n+1)COO)(2); n = 11, 13, 15, and 17, have been investigated by powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and vibrational spectroscopy. These compounds have a layer structure with the alkyl chains arranged as tilted bilayers and with all methylene chains adopting a planar, all-trans conformation at room temperature. The saturated fatty acid zinc soaps exhibit a single reversible melting transition with the associated enthalpy change varying linearly with alkyl chain length, but surprisingly, the melting temperature remaining constant. Melting is associated with changes in the conformation of the alkyl chains and in the nature of coordination of the fatty acid to zinc. By monitoring features in the infrared spectra that are characteristic of the global conformation of the alkyl chains, a quantitative relation between conformational disorder and melting is established. It is found that, irrespective of the alkyl chain length, melting occurs when 30% of the chains in the soap are disordered. These results highlight the universal nature of the melting of saturated fatty acid zinc soaps and provide a simple explanation for the observed phenomena.

  20. Manufacturing and characterization of encapsulated microfibers with different molecular weight poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) resins using a melt electrospinning technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jason K.; Ko, Junghyuk; Jun, Martin B. G.; Lee, Patrick C.

    2016-02-01

    Encapsulated structures of poly(ε-caprolactone) microfibers were successfully fabricated through two distinct melt electrospinning methods: melt coaxial and melt-blending electrospinning methods. Both methods resulted in encapsulated microfibers, but the resultant microfibers had different morphologies. Melt coaxial electrospinning formed a dual, semi-concentric structure, whereas melt-blending electrospinning resulted in an islands-in-a-sea fiber structure (i.e. a multiple-core structure). The encapsulated microfibers were produced using a custom-designed melt coaxial electrospinning device and the microfibers were characterized using a scanning electron microscope. To analyze the properties of the melt blended encapsulated fibers and coaxial fibers, the microfiber mesh specimens were collected. The mechanical properties of each microfiber mesh were analyzed through a tensile test. The coaxial microfiber meshes were post processed with a femtosecond laser machine to create dog-bone shaped tensile test specimens, while the melt blended microfiber meshes were kept as-fabricated. The tensile experiments undertaken with coaxial microfiber specimens resulted in an increase in tensile strength compared to 10 k and 45 k monolayer specimens. However, melt blended microfiber meshes did not result in an increase in tensile strength. The melt blended microfiber mesh results indicate that by using greater amounts of 45 k PCL resin within the microstructure, the resulting fibers obtain a higher tensile strength.

  1. Facile synthesis of two diastereomeric indolizidines corresponding to the postulated structure of alkaloid 5,9E-259B from a Bufonid toad (Melanophryniscus)

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Angela; Garraffo, H Martin; Spande, Thomas F; Daly, John W; Stevenson, Paul J

    2008-01-01

    A short synthesis of the postulated structure for indolizidine alkaloid 259B with the hydrogens at C5 and C9 entgegen has been achieved with complete control of stereochemistry at C5. Both diastereoisomers at C8 were obtained, but neither proved to be the natural product. The comparison of the mass and FTIR spectral properties of the synthetic compounds to those of the natural material strongly suggest that the gross structure is correct and that the difference may be a branch in the C5 alkyl side-chain. The GC-retention times of the two synthetic compounds were markedly longer than that of the natural 5,9E-259B. PMID:18208586

  2. Physics of deep plume melting: komatiitic melt accumulation and segregation in the transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmeling, Harro; Arndt, Nick; Kohl, Svenja

    2014-05-01

    Komatiites are assumed to be produced in very hot mantle upwellings or plumes. Under such conditions, melting will take place deep within the upper mantle or even within or below the mantle transition zone. Due to its compressibility at such pressures, melt has a higher density than olivine. Whether it would remain buoyant with respect to a peridotitic mantle both above and below the olivine-wadsleyite phase boundary because of the presence of denser garnet remains an open issue, particularly in view of recent X-ray refraction data on molten basalts by Sanloup et al. (2013). We studied the physics of melting and melt segregation within hot upwelling mantle passing through the transition zone, with particular emphasis on the effect of depth-dependent density contrasts between melt and the ambient mantle. Assuming a 1D plume, we solved the two-phase flow equations of the melt-matrix system accounting for matrix compaction and porosity-dependent shear and bulk viscosity. We assumed a constant ascent velocity leading to a constant rate of melt generation. In a first model series, the level of neutral buoyancy zneutral is assumed to lie above the depth of onset of melting, i.e. there exists a region where dense melt may lag behind the solid phases within the rising plume. Depending on two non-dimensional numbers (accumulation number Ac, compaction resistance number Cr) we find four regimes: 1) time-dependent melt accumulation in standing and broadening porosity waves that scale with the compaction length, 2) steady-state weak melt accumulation near zneutral, 3) no melt accumulation due to small density contrast, 4) no melt accumulation due to high matrix viscosity. In regime 4 the high mantle viscosity prevents the opening of pore space and the accumulation of melt. In a second series, the rising mantle crosses the olivine-wadsleyite phase boundary, which imposes a jump in density contrast between melt and ambient mantle. In this case, a sharp melt fraction contrast

  3. Self-Assembled Epitaxial Core-Shell Nanocrystals with Tunable Magnetic Anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Liao, Sheng-Chieh; Chen, Yong-Lun; Kuo, Wei-Cheng; Cheung, Jeffrey; Wang, Wei-Cheng; Cheng, Xuan; Chin, Yi-Ying; Chen, Yu-Ze; Liu, Heng-Jui; Lin, Hong-Ji; Chen, Chien-Te; Juang, Jeng-Yih; Chueh, Yu-Lun; Nagarajan, Valanoor; Chu, Ying-Hao; Lai, Chih-Huang

    2015-09-02

    Epitaxial core-shell CoO-CoFe2 O4 nanocrystals are fabricated by using pulsed laser deposition with the aid of melted material (Bi2 O3 ) addition and suitable lattice mismatch provided by substrates (SrTiO3 ). Well aligned orientations among nanocrystals and reversible core-shell sequence reveal tunable magnetic anisotropy. The interfacial coupling between core and shell further engineers the nanocrystal functionality.

  4. Microwave absorption measurements of melting spherical and nonspherical hydrometeors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansman, R. J., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements were made of the absorption behavior of melting and freezing hydrometeors using resonant cavity perturbation techniques at a wavelength of 2.82 cm. Melting ice spheres with equivalent melted diameters between 1.15 and 2.00 mm exhibit a period of strong absorption during melting as predicted by prior theoretical calculations. However, the measured magnitude of the absorption peak exceeds the predicted value. Absorption measuremets of melting oblate and prolate ice ellipsoids also exhibit enhanced absorption during melting.

  5. Dehydration melting of tonalites. Part II. Composition of melts and solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, J.; Johannes, Wilhelm

    1996-09-01

    Dehydration melting of tonalitic compositions (phlogopite or biotite-plagioclase-quartz assemblages) is investigated within a temperature range of 700 1000°C and pressure range of 2 15 kbar. The solid reaction products in the case of the phlogopite-plagioclase(An45)-quartz starting material are enstatite, clinopyroxene and potassium feldspar, with amphiboles occurring occasionally. At 12 kbar, zoisite is observed below 800°C, and garnet at 900°C. The reaction products of dehydration melting of the biotite (Ann50)-plagioclase (An45)-quartz assemblage are melt, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, amphibole and potassium feldspar. At pressures > 8 kbar and temperatures below 800°C, epidote is also formed. Almandine-rich garnet appears above 10 kbar at temperatures ≥ 750°C. The composition of melts is granitic to granodioritic, hence showing the importance of dehydration melting of tonalites for the formation of granitic melts and granulitic restites at pressure-temperature conditions within the continental crust. The melt compositions plot close to the cotectic line dividing the liquidus surfaces between quartz and potassium feldspar in the haplogranite system at 5 kbar and a H 2O = 1. The composition of the melts changes with the composition of the starting material, temperature and pressure. With increasing temperature, the melt becomes enriched in Al2O3 and FeO+MgO. Potash in the melt is highest just when biotite disappears. The amount of CaO decreases up to 900°C at 5 kbar whereas at higher temperatures it increases as amphibole, clinopyroxene and more An-component dissolve in the melt. The Na2O content of the melt increases slightly with increase in temperature. The composition of the melt at temperatures > 900°C approaches that of the starting assemblage. The melt fraction varies with composition and proportion of hydrous phases in the starting composition as well as temperature and pressure. With increasing modal biotite from 20 to 30 wt%, the melt

  6. OECD MCCI project Melt Eruption Test (MET) design report, Rev. 2. April 15, 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M. T.; Lomperski, S.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Aeschlimann, R. W.; Basu, S.

    2011-05-23

    The Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program at Argonne National Laboratory addressed the issue of the ability of water to cool and thermally stabilize a molten core-concrete interaction when the reactants are flooded from above. These tests provided data regarding the nature of corium interactions with concrete, the heat transfer rates from the melt to the overlying water pool, and the role of noncondensable gases in the mixing processes that contribute to melt quenching. The Melt Coolability and Concrete Interaction (MCCI) program is pursuing separate effect tests to examine the viability of the melt coolability mechanisms identified as part of the MACE program. These mechanisms include bulk cooling, water ingression, volcanic eruptions, and crust breach. At the second PRG meeting held at ANL on 22-23 October 2002, a preliminary design1 for a separate effects test to investigate the melt eruption cooling mechanism was presented for PRG review. At this meeting, NUPEC made several recommendations on the experiment approach aimed at optimizing the chances of achieving a floating crust boundary condition in this test. The principal recommendation was to incorporate a mortar sidewall liner into the test design, since data from the COTELS experiment program indicates that corium does not form a strong mechanical bond with this material. Other recommendations included: (i) reduction of the electrode elevation to well below the melt upper surface elevation (since the crust may bond to these solid surfaces), and (ii) favorably taper the mortar liner to facilitate crust detachment and relocation during the experiment. Finally, as a precursor to implementing these modifications, the PRG recommended the development of a design for a small-scale scoping test intended to verify the ability of the mortar liner to preclude formation of an anchored bridge crust under core-concrete interaction conditions. This revised Melt Eruption Test (MET) plan is intended to

  7. Electrohydrodynamic quenching in polymer melt electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhmayev, Eduard; Cho, Daehwan; Lak Joo, Yong

    2011-07-01

    Infrared thermal measurements on polymer melt jets in electrospinning have revealed rapid quenching by ambient air, an order of magnitude faster than predicted by the classical Kase and Matsuo correlation. This drastic heat transfer enhancement can be linked to electrohydrodynamic (EHD) effects. Analysis of EHD-driven air flow was performed and included into a comprehensive model for polymer melt electrospinning. The analysis was validated by excellent agreement of both predicted jet radius and temperature profiles with experimental results for electrospinning of Nylon-6 (N6), polypropylene (PP), and polylactic acid (PLA) melts. Based on this analysis, several methods that can be used to inhibit or enhance the quenching are described.

  8. Rapidly solidified titanium alloys by melt overflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaspar, Thomas A.; Bruce, Thomas J., Jr.; Hackman, Lloyd E.; Brasmer, Susan E.; Dantzig, Jonathan A.; Baeslack, William A., III

    1989-01-01

    A pilot plant scale furnace was designed and constructed for casting titanium alloy strips. The furnace combines plasma arc skull melting techniques with melt overflow rapid solidification technology. A mathematical model of the melting and casting process was developed. The furnace cast strip of a suitable length and width for use with honeycomb structures. Titanium alloys Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-14Al-21 Nb were successfully cast into strips. The strips were evaluated by optical metallography, microhardness measurements, chemical analysis, and cold rolling.

  9. Characteristics of laser surface melted aluminum alloys.

    PubMed

    Weinman, L S; Kim, C; Tucker, T R; Metzbower, E A

    1978-03-15

    Specimens of Al-Fe 1-4 w/o, 2024 and 6061 Al have been surface melted with a pulsed Nd-glass laser. A TEM and SEM study showed that the dendrite spacings were from 2500 A to 4000 A which corresponds to a cooling rate of over 10(6) degrees C/sec. Melt depths obtained were in the range of 30-100 microm. No significant surface vaporization was observed at energy densities up to 440 J/cm(2). Fracture surfaces of the commerical alloys demonstrated elongated porosity in the melt areas, probably due to internal hydrogen.

  10. Local ice melting by an antifreeze protein.

    PubMed

    Calvaresi, Matteo; Höfinger, Siegfried; Zerbetto, Francesco

    2012-07-09

    Antifreeze proteins, AFP, impede freezing of bodily fluids and damaging of cellular tissues by low temperatures. Adsorption-inhibition mechanisms have been developed to explain their functioning. Using in silico Molecular Dynamics, we show that type I AFP can also induce melting of the local ice surface. Simulations of antifreeze-positive and antifreeze-negative mutants show a clear correlation between melting induction and antifreeze activity. The presence of local melting adds a function to type I AFPs that is unique to these proteins. It may also explain some apparently conflicting experimental results where binding to ice appears both quasipermanent and reversible.

  11. The axial melt lens as a processor of evolved melts at fast-spreading mid-ocean ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loocke, M. P.; Lissenberg, J. C. J.; MacLeod, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    The axial melt lens is a steady-state, generally magma-rich body located at the dyke-gabbro transition at mid-crustal levels beneath intermediate- and fast-spreading ridges. It is widely believed to be the reservoir from which mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) erupts. Using a remotely-operated vehicle, cruise JC21 to the Hess Deep Rift recovered the first comprehensive sample suite of the uppermost plutonics from a fast-spreading ridge. We present the results of a detailed microanalytical investigation of 23 samples (8 dolerites, 14 gabbronorites, and 1 gabbro) recovered by ROV dive 78 from a section traversing the transition from the uppermost gabbros into the sheeted dykes. With the exception of a single olivine-bearing sample (78R-6), dive 78 is dominated by evolved, varitextured (both in hand sample and thin section) oxide gabbronorites. Full thin section quantitative element maps were acquired on serial thin sections from each sample using the analytical scanning electron microscope in the at Cardiff University. The resulting maps were post-processed in MatlabTM to determine the full distribution of plagioclase compositions across entire thin sections (typically 500,000 analyses per sample); an approach we term 'quantitative assessment of compositional distribution' (QACD). By so doing we are able to conduct the first fully rigorous assessment of gabbro compositions, and, by extension, melt compositions present at this level beneath the ridge axis. Critically, we only found 2 grains of high-An plagioclase (An>80) in all of the samples (N = 51). These occur as cores within a sample dominated by lower-An plagioclase. Instead, the vast majority (75%) of plagioclase within the samples have compositions of An65 or lower; compositions too evolved to be in equilibrium with MORB. The most primitive sample, 78R-6, is an olivine-bearing gabbronorite with Fo67 olivine, and plagioclase ranging from An52-77 (median An = 65). These data are difficult to reconcile with models in

  12. Generation of liquid water on Mars through the melting of a dusty snowpack

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clow, G.D.

    1987-01-01

    The possibility that snowmelt could have provided liquid water for valley network formation early in the history of Mars is investigated using an optical-thermal model developed for dusty snowpacks at temperate latitudes. The heating of the postulated snow is assumed to be driven primarily by the absorption of solar radiation during clear sky conditions. Radiative heating rates are predicted as a function of depth and shown to be sensitive to the dust concentration and the size of the ice grains while the thermal conductivity is controlled by temperature, atmospheric pressure, and bulk density. Rates of metamorphism indicate that fresh fine-grained snow on Mars would evolve into moderately coarse snow during a single summer season. Results from global climate models are used to constrain the mean-annual surface temperatures for snow and the atmospheric exchange terms in the surface energy balance. Mean-annual temperatures within Martian snowpacks fail to reach the melting point for all atmospheric pressures below 1000 mbar despite a predicted temperature enhancement beneath the surface of the snowpacks. When seasonal and diurnal variations in the incident solar flux are included in the model, melting occurs at midday during the summer for a wide range of snow types and atmospheric pressures if the dust levels in the snow exceed 100 ppmw (parts per million by weight). The optimum dust concentration appears to be about 1000 ppmw. With this dust load, melting can occur in the upper few centimeters of a dense coarse-grained snow at atmospheric pressures as low as 7 mbar. Snowpack thickness and the thermal conductivity of the underlying substrate determine whether the generated snow-melt can penetrate to the snowpack base, survive basal ice formation, and subsequently become available for runoff. Under favorable conditions, liquid water becomes available for runoff at atmospheric pressures as low as 30 to 100 mbar if the substrate is composed of regolith, as is expected

  13. Cu refertilization of abyssal harzburgites by melt percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciazela, Jakub; Dick, Henry; Koepke, Juergen; Botcharnikov, Roman; Muszynski, Andrzej; Kuhn, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Primitive mantle is depleted in many elements by partial melting processes, but it can be subsequently refertilized by impregnation with percolating melts. It is known that Cu can be enriched in primitive melts, depleting mantle residue, due to the former process (Patten et al. 2013). However, the behavior of Cu in the processes of mantle-melt interaction is poorly understood. The only comprehensive study is based on compositions of orogenic peridotites, representing the subcontinental mantle (Lorand et al. 1993; 2013), where a moderate enrichment of the mantle in Cu (up to ~50 ppm) has been observed. Here, we present the first results obtained for a suite of rocks from an oceanic core complex (OCC), the Kane Megamullion at 22°30'N at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (Dick et al. 2008). OCC's provide large exposures of mantle and lower crustal rocks on the seafloor on detachment fault footwalls at slow and ultraslow spreading ridges. The mantle rocks are composed of spinel and plagioclase harzburgites. The spinel harzburgites represent depleted mantle, whereas the plagioclase harzburgites were formed by subsequent late-stage melt impregnation in the depleted mantle (Dick et al. 2010). We have determined Cu concentrations in 22 residual spinel harzburgites and 4 plagioclase harzburgites using total digestion ICP-MS. The average Cu concentration in spinel harzburgites is 35±11 ppm Cu (2σ). The average Cu concentration obtained for plagioclase harzburgites is 131±33 ppm Cu (2σ). Additionally, we have analyzed one 1.5 cm thick contact zone between an oxide gabbro vein and residual peridotite. The contact zone, which has been heavily impregnated by the melt, contains 284 ppm Cu. In contrast, the neighboring oxide gabbro vein and the hosting peridotite contain 147 and 68 ppm Cu, respectively. Furthermore, we have determined the concentration of Cu in a dunite (118 ppm), formed in a reaction between the mantle and melt ascending through the lithosphere (Dick et al. 2010

  14. Descriptions and preliminary interpretations of cores recovered from the Manson Impact Structure (Iowa)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. R.; Witzke, B. J.; Hartung, J. B.; Shoemaker, E. M.; Roddy, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    A core drilling program initiated by the Iowa Geological Survey Bureau and U.S. Geological Survey in 1991 and 1992 collected 12 cores totalling over 1200 m from the Manson Impact Structure, a probable K-T boundary structure located in north-central Iowa. Cores were recovered from each of the major structural terranes, with 2 cores (M-3 and M-4) from the Terrace Terrane, 4 cores (M-2, M-2A, M-6, and M-9) from the Crater Moat, and 6 cores (M-1, M-5, M-7, M-8, M-10, and M-11) from the Central Peak. These supplemented 2 central peak cores (1-A and 2-A) drilled in 1953. The cores penetrated five major impact lithologies: (1) sedimentary clast breccia; (2) impact ejecta; (3) central peak crystallite rocks; (4) crystalline clast breccia with sandy matrix; and (5) crystallite clast breccia with a melt matrix. Descriptions and preliminary interpretations of these cores are presented.

  15. Experimental alteration of artificial and natural impact melt rock from the Chesapeake Bay impact structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Declercq, J.; Dypvik, H.; Aagaard, P.; Jahren, J.; Ferrell, R.E.; Horton, J. Wright

    2009-01-01

    The alteration or transformation of impact melt rock to clay minerals, particularly smectite, has been recognized in several impact structures (e.g., Ries, Chicxulub, Mj??lnir). We studied the experimental alteration of two natural impact melt rocks from suevite clasts that were recovered from drill cores into the Chesapeake Bay impact structure and two synthetic glasses. These experiments were conducted at hydrothermal temperature (265 ??C) in order to reproduce conditions found in meltbearing deposits in the first thousand years after deposition. The experimental results were compared to geochemical modeling (PHREEQC) of the same alteration and to original mineral assemblages in the natural melt rock samples. In the alteration experiments, clay minerals formed on the surfaces of the melt particles and as fine-grained suspended material. Authigenic expanding clay minerals (saponite and Ca-smectite) and vermiculite/chlorite (clinochlore) were identified in addition to analcime. Ferripyrophyllite was formed in three of four experiments. Comparable minerals were predicted in the PHREEQC modeling. A comparison between the phases formed in our experiments and those in the cores suggests that the natural alteration occurred under hydrothermal conditions similar to those reproduced in the experiment. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  16. A benchmark initiative on mantle convection with melting and melt segregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmeling, Harro; Dohmen, Janik; Wallner, Herbert; Noack, Lena; Tosi, Nicola; Plesa, Ana-Catalina; Maurice, Maxime

    2015-04-01

    In recent years a number of mantle convection models have been developed which include partial melting within the asthenosphere, estimation of melt volumes, as well as melt extraction with and without redistribution at the surface or within the lithosphere. All these approaches use various simplifying modelling assumptions whose effects on the dynamics of convection including the feedback on melting have not been explored in sufficient detail. To better assess the significance of such assumptions and to provide test cases for the modelling community we initiate a benchmark comparison. In the initial phase of this endeavor we focus on the usefulness of the definitions of the test cases keeping the physics as sound as possible. The reference model is taken from the mantle convection benchmark, case 1b (Blanckenbach et al., 1989), assuming a square box with free slip boundary conditions, the Boussinesq approximation, constant viscosity and a Rayleigh number of 1e5. Melting is modelled assuming a simplified binary solid solution with linearly depth dependent solidus and liquidus temperatures, as well as a solidus temperature depending linearly on depletion. Starting from a plume free initial temperature condition (to avoid melting at the onset time) three cases are investigated: Case 1 includes melting, but without thermal or dynamic feedback on the convection flow. This case provides a total melt generation rate (qm) in a steady state. Case 2 includes batch melting, melt buoyancy (melt Rayleigh number Rm), depletion buoyancy and latent heat, but no melt percolation. Output quantities are the Nusselt number (Nu), root mean square velocity (vrms) and qm approaching a statistical steady state. Case 3 includes two-phase flow, i.e. melt percolation, assuming a constant shear and bulk viscosity of the matrix and various melt retention numbers (Rt). These cases should be carried out using the Compaction Boussinseq Approximation (Schmeling, 2000) or the full compaction

  17. Cloud screening and melt water detection over melting sea ice using AATSR/SLSTR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istomina, Larysa; Heygster, Georg

    2014-05-01

    With the onset of melt in the Arctic Ocean, the fraction of melt water on sea ice, the melt pond fraction, increases. The consequences are: the reduced albedo of sea ice, increased transmittance of sea ice and affected heat balance of the system with more heat passing through the ice into the ocean, which facilitates further melting. The onset of melt, duration of melt season and melt pond fraction are good indicators of the climate state of the Arctic and its change. In the absence of reliable sea ice thickness retrievals in summer, melt pond fraction retrieval from satellite is in demand as input for GCM as an indicator of melt state of the sea ice. The retrieval of melt pond fraction with a moderate resolution radiometer as AATSR is, however, a non-trivial task due to a variety of subpixel surface types with very different optical properties, which give non-unique combinations if mixed. In this work this has been solved by employing additional information on the surface and air temperature of the pixel. In the current work, a concept of melt pond detection on sea ice is presented. The basis of the retrieval is the sensitivity of AATSR reflectance channels 550nm and 860nm to the amount of melt water on sea ice. The retrieval features extensive usage of a database of in situ surface albedo spectra. A tree of decisions is employed to select the feasible family of in situ spectra for the retrieval, depending on the melt stage of the surface. Reanalysis air temperature at the surface and brightness temperature measured by the satellite sensor are analyzed in order to evaluate the melting status of the surface. Case studies for FYI and MYI show plausible retrieved melt pond fractions, characteristic for both of the ice types. The developed retrieval can be used to process the historical AATSR (2002-2012) dataset, as well as for the SLSTR sensor onboard the future Sentinel-3 mission (scheduled for launch in 2015), to keep the continuity and obtain longer time sequence

  18. Chemical layering in the upper mantle of Mars: Evidence from olivine-hosted melt inclusions in Tissint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu Sarbadhikari, A.; Babu, E. V. S. S. K.; Vijaya Kumar, T.

    2017-02-01

    Melting of Martian mantle, formation, and evolution of primary magma from the depleted mantle were previously modeled from experimental petrology and geochemical studies of Martian meteorites. Based on in situ major and trace element study of a range of olivine-hosted melt inclusions in various stages of crystallization of Tissint, a depleted olivine-phyric shergottite, we further constrain different stages of depletion and enrichment in the depleted mantle source of the shergottite suite. Two types of melt inclusions were petrographically recognized. Type I melt inclusions occur in the megacrystic olivine core (Fo76-70), while type II melt inclusions are hosted by the outer mantle of the olivine (Fo66-55). REE-plot indicates type I melt inclusions, which are unique because they represent the most depleted trace element data from the parent magmas of all the depleted shergottites, are an order of magnitude depleted compared to the type II melt inclusions. The absolute REE content of type II displays parallel trend but somewhat lower value than the Tissint whole-rock. Model calculations indicate two-stage mantle melting events followed by enrichment through mixing with a hypothetical residual melt from solidifying magma ocean. This resulted in 10 times enrichment of incompatible trace elements from parent magma stage to the remaining melt after 45% crystallization, simulating the whole-rock of Tissint. We rule out any assimilation due to crustal recycling into the upper mantle, as proposed by a recent study. Rather, we propose the presence of Al, Ca, Na, P, and REE-rich layer at the shallower upper mantle above the depleted mantle source region during the geologic evolution of Mars.

  19. Variations in Melt Generation and Migration along the Aleutian Arc (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plank, T. A.; Van Keken, P. E.

    2013-12-01

    The generation and ascent of mantle melt beneath volcanic arcs sets the course for how magmas differentiate to form the continental crust and erupt explosively from volcanoes. Although the basic framework of melting at subduction zones is understood to involve the convective influx of hot mantle (Tp ≥ 1300°C) and advective transport of water-rich fluids from the subducting slab, the P-T paths that melts follow during melt generation and migration are still not well known. The Aleutian Arc provides an opportunity to explore the conditions of mantle melting in the context of volcanoes that span an unusually large range in the depth to the slab, from Seguam island, with among the shallowest depths to the slab worldwide (~65 km, [1]) to Bogoslof island, behind the main volcanic front and twice the depth to the slab (~130 km). Here we combine thermal models tuned to Aleutian subduction parameters [after 2] with petrological estimates of the T and P of mantle-melt equilibration, using a major element geothermometer [3] and estimates of H2O and fO2 from olivine-hosted melt inclusion measurements [4] for basaltic magmas from 6 volcanoes in the central Aleutians (Korovin, Seguam, Bogoslof, Pakushin, Akutan, Shishaldin). We find mantle-melt equilibration conditions to vary systematically as a function of the depth to the slab, from 30 km and 1220°C (for Seguam) to 60 km and 1300°C (for Bogoslof). Such shallow depths, which extend up to the Moho, define a region perched well above the hot core of the mantle wedge predicted from thermal models, even considering the shallow depths of slab-mantle coupling (< 60 km) required to supply hot mantle beneath Seguam. Thus, even though the greatest melt production will occur in the hot core of the wedge (50-100 km depth), melts apparently ascend and re-equilibrate in the shallowest mantle. Volcanoes that overlie the greatest depth to the slab, and lie furthest from the wedge corner, stall at greater depths (~60 km), at the base of

  20. Ni(2+) doped glass ceramic fiber fabricated by melt-in-tube method and successive heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zaijin; Zheng, Shupei; Peng, Wencai; Zhang, Hang; Ma, Zhijun; Dong, Guoping; Zhou, Shifeng; Chen, Danping; Qiu, Jianrong

    2015-11-02

    Glass ceramic fibers containing Ni(2+) doped LiGa(5)O(8) nanocrystals were fabricated by a melt-in-tube method and successive heat treatment. Fiber precursors were prepared by drawing at high temperature where fiber core glass was melted while fiber clad glass was softened. After heat treatment, LiGa(5)O(8) nanocrystals were precipitated in the fiber core. Excited by 980 nm laser, efficient broadband near-infrared emission was observed in the glass ceramic fiber compared to that of precursor fiber. The melt-in-tube method can realize controllable crystallization and is suitable for fabrication of novel glass ceramic fibers. The Ni(2+)-doped glass ceramic fiber is promising for broadband optical amplification.

  1. Scaling laws for melting ice avalanches.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, B

    2011-12-16

    This Letter describes an investigation of interfacial melting in ice-bearing granular flows. It is proposed that energy associated with granular collisions causes melting at an ice particle's surface, which can thus occur at temperatures well below freezing. A laboratory experiment has been designed that allows quantification of this process and its effect on the dynamics of a granular shear flow of ice spheres. This experiment employs a rotating drum, half filled with ice particles, situated in a temperature controlled laboratory. Capillary forces between the wetted melted particle surfaces lead to the clumping of particles and enhanced flow speeds, in turn leading to further melting. Dimensional analysis defines a parameter space for further experimentation.

  2. Melt Crystallization in Microfluidics for Sample Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif-Kashani, Pooria; Pirouz Kavehpour, H.

    2010-11-01

    Melt crystallization in microfluidics is a novel approach to concentrate/purify a diverse range of samples from particles to ions. In this technique, the difference in solubility of solutes in the liquid and solid phase of the solvent drives the transport of the solutes. Consequently, this method has the advantage of being non-invasive and entirely thermally-actuated with no moving parts. A fluid sample is frozen in a microchannel and melting zones are passed repeatedly through the stationary sample to increase the concentration of solute at one end. The device is constructed using a thermoelectric cooler to freeze the sample and thin-film resistive heaters to create melting zones. The heaters are operated independently, allowing them to be switched on or off to create a localized melting zone in the channel. The performance of the system is successfully tested for a variety of samples including aqueous solutions and water containing micro-particles.

  3. Sierra Nevada snow melt from SMS-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breaker, L. C.; Mcmillan, M. C.

    1975-01-01

    A film loop from SMS-2 imagery shows snow melt over the Sierra Nevadas from May 10 to July 8, 1975. The sequence indicates a successful application of geostationary satellite data for monitoring dynamic hydrologic conditions.

  4. Production of Synthetic Nuclear Melt Glass.

    PubMed

    Molgaard, Joshua J; Auxier, John D; Giminaro, Andrew V; Oldham, Colton J; Gill, Jonathan; Hall, Howard L

    2016-01-04

    Realistic surrogate nuclear debris is needed within the nuclear forensics community to test and validate post-detonation analysis techniques. Here we outline a novel process for producing bulk surface debris using a high temperature furnace. The material developed in this study is physically and chemically similar to trinitite (the melt glass produced by the first nuclear test). This synthetic nuclear melt glass is assumed to be similar to the vitrified material produced near the epicenter (ground zero) of any surface nuclear detonation in a desert environment. The process outlined here can be applied to produce other types of nuclear melt glass including that likely to be formed in an urban environment. This can be accomplished by simply modifying the precursor matrix to which this production process is applied. The melt glass produced in this study has been analyzed and compared to trinitite, revealing a comparable crystalline morphology, physical structure, void fraction, and chemical composition.

  5. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Homogeneous Crystallization in Polymer Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Bin

    2015-03-01

    Molecular mechanisms of homogeneous nucleation and crystal growth from the melt of polyethylene-like polymer were investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. The crystallinity was determined by using the site order parameter method (SOP), which described local order degree around an atom. Snapshots of the simulations showed evolution of the nucleation and the crystal growth through SOP images clearly. The isothermal crystallization kinetics was determined at different temperatures. The rate of crystallization, Kc, and the Avrami exponents, n, were determined as a function of temperature. The forming of nucleis was traced to reveal that the nucleis were formed with more ordered cores and less ordered shells. A detailed statistical analysis of the MD snapshots and trajectories suggested conformations of the polymer chains changed smoothly from random coil to chain folded lamella in the crystallization processes.

  6. Coring Sample Acquisition Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, Nicolas E.; Murray, Saben D.; Walkemeyer, Phillip E.; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Kriechbaum, Kristopher L.; Richardson, Megan; Klein, Kerry J.

    2012-01-01

    A sample acquisition tool (SAT) has been developed that can be used autonomously to sample drill and capture rock cores. The tool is designed to accommodate core transfer using a sample tube to the IMSAH (integrated Mars sample acquisition and handling) SHEC (sample handling, encapsulation, and containerization) without ever touching the pristine core sample in the transfer process.

  7. Thermal Modeling of Direct Digital Melt-Deposition Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, K. P.; Lambrakos, S. G.

    2011-02-01

    Additive manufacturing involves creating three-dimensional (3D) objects by depositing materials layer-by-layer. The freeform nature of the method permits the production of components with complex geometry. Deposition processes provide one more capability, which is the addition of multiple materials in a discrete manner to create "heterogeneous" objects with locally controlled composition and microstructure. The result is direct digital manufacturing (DDM) by which dissimilar materials are added voxel-by-voxel (a voxel is volumetric pixel) following a predetermined tool-path. A typical example is functionally gradient material such as a gear with a tough core and a wear-resistant surface. The inherent complexity of DDM processes is such that process modeling based on direct physics-based theory is difficult, especially due to a lack of temperature-dependent thermophysical properties and particularly when dealing with melt-deposition processes. In order to overcome this difficulty, an inverse problem approach is proposed for the development of thermal models that can represent multi-material, direct digital melt deposition. This approach is based on the construction of a numerical-algorithmic framework for modeling anisotropic diffusivity such as that which would occur during energy deposition within a heterogeneous workpiece. This framework consists of path-weighted integral formulations of heat diffusion according to spatial variations in material composition and requires consideration of parameter sensitivity issues.

  8. Grain-boundary-induced melting in quenched polycrystalline monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deutschländer, Sven; Boitard, Charlotte; Maret, Georg; Keim, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Melting in two dimensions can successfully be explained with the Kosterlitz-Thouless-Halperin-Nelson-Young (KTHNY) scenario which describes the formation of the high-symmetry phase with the thermal activation of topological defects within an (ideally) infinite monodomain. With all state variables being well defined, it should hold also as freezing scenario where oppositely charged topological defects annihilate. The Kibble-Zurek mechanism, on the other hand, shows that spontaneous symmetry breaking alongside a continuous phase transition cannot support an infinite monodomain but leads to polycrystallinity. For any nonzero cooling rate, critical fluctuations will be frozen out in the vicinity of the transition temperature. This leads to domains with different director of the broken symmetry, separated by a defect structure, e.g., grain boundaries in crystalline systems. After instantaneously quenching a colloidal monolayer from a polycrystalline to the isotropic fluid state, we show that such grain boundaries increase the probability for the formation of dislocations. In addition, we determine the temporal decay of defect core energies during the first few Brownian times after the quench. Despite the fact that the KTHNY scenario describes a continuous phase transition and phase equilibrium does not exist, melting in polycrystalline samples starts at grain boundaries similar to first-order phase transitions.

  9. Grain-boundary-induced melting in quenched polycrystalline monolayers.

    PubMed

    Deutschländer, Sven; Boitard, Charlotte; Maret, Georg; Keim, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Melting in two dimensions can successfully be explained with the Kosterlitz-Thouless-Halperin-Nelson-Young (KTHNY) scenario which describes the formation of the high-symmetry phase with the thermal activation of topological defects within an (ideally) infinite monodomain. With all state variables being well defined, it should hold also as freezing scenario where oppositely charged topological defects annihilate. The Kibble-Zurek mechanism, on the other hand, shows that spontaneous symmetry breaking alongside a continuous phase transition cannot support an infinite monodomain but leads to polycrystallinity. For any nonzero cooling rate, critical fluctuations will be frozen out in the vicinity of the transition temperature. This leads to domains with different director of the broken symmetry, separated by a defect structure, e.g., grain boundaries in crystalline systems. After instantaneously quenching a colloidal monolayer from a polycrystalline to the isotropic fluid state, we show that such grain boundaries increase the probability for the formation of dislocations. In addition, we determine the temporal decay of defect core energies during the first few Brownian times after the quench. Despite the fact that the KTHNY scenario describes a continuous phase transition and phase equilibrium does not exist, melting in polycrystalline samples starts at grain boundaries similar to first-order phase transitions.

  10. Particles control in selective laser melting in-situ oxide dispersion strengthened method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xin; An, Zhibin; Shen, Zhijian; Liu, Wei; Yao, Chenguang

    2017-01-01

    Stainless steel selective laser melting (SLM) can be considered as a new possible approach for in-situ formation of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels because of the dispersion of amorphous oxide nano-particles due to the trace amounts of laser chamber oxygen and in-situ internal oxidation of reactive elements. In this paper it is demonstrated that the particle sizes and distributions can be adjusted by choosing different chamber oxygen level through controlling the quantity of initial reactive cores and the available reactive solutes of each core.

  11. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Melting Efficiency Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Principal Investigator Kent Peaslee; Co-PI’s: Von Richards, Jeffrey Smith

    2012-07-31

    Steel foundries melt recycled scrap in electric furnaces and typically consume 35-100% excess energy from the theoretical energy requirement required to pour metal castings. This excess melting energy is multiplied by yield losses during casting and finishing operations resulting in the embodied energy in a cast product typically being three to six times the theoretical energy requirement. The purpose of this research project was to study steel foundry melting operations to understand energy use and requirements for casting operations, define variations in energy consumption, determine technologies and practices that are successful in reducing melting energy and develop new melting techniques and tools to improve the energy efficiency of melting in steel foundry operations.

  12. Terrestrial Analogues for Lunar Impact Melt Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neish, C. D.; Hamilton, C. W.; Hughes, S. S.; Nawotniak, S. Kobs; Garry, W. B.; Skok, J. R.; Elphic, R. C.; Schaefer, E.; Carter, L. M.; Bandfield, J. L.; Osinski, G. R.; Lim, D.; Heldmann, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Lunar impact melt deposits have unique physical properties. They have among the highest observed radar returns at S-Band (12.6 cm wavelength), implying that they are rough at the decimeter scale. However, they are also observed in high-resolution optical imagery to be quite smooth at the meter scale. These characteristics distinguish them from well-studied terrestrial analogues, such as Hawaiian pahoehoe and ?a ?a lava flows. The morphology of impact melt deposits can be related to their emplacement conditions, so understanding the origin of these unique surface properties will help to inform us as to the circumstances under which they were formed. In this work, we seek to find a terrestrial analogue for well-preserved lunar impact melt flows by examining fresh lava flows on Earth. We compare the radar return and high-resolution topographic variations of impact melt flows to terrestrial lava flows with a range of surface textures. The lava flows examined in this work range from smooth Hawaiian pahoehoe to transitional basaltic flows at Craters of the Moon (COTM) National Monument and Preserve in Idaho to rubbly and spiny pahoehoe-like flows at the recent eruption at Holuhraun in Iceland. The physical properties of lunar impact melt flows appear to differ from those of all the terrestrial lava flows studied in this work. This may be due to (a) differences in post-emplacement modification processes or (b) fundamental differences in the surface texture of the melt flows due to the melts' unique emplacement and/or cooling environment. Information about the surface properties of lunar impact melt deposits will be critical for future landed missions that wish to sample these materials.

  13. DWPF Macrobatch 2 Melt Rate Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M.E.

    2001-01-03

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister production rate must be increased to meet canister production goals. Although a number of factors exist that could potentially increase melt rate, this study focused on two: (1) changes in frit composition and (2) changes to the feed preparation process to alter the redox of the melter feed. These two factors were investigated for Macrobatch 2 (sludge batch 1B) utilizing crucible studies and a specially designed ''melt rate'' furnace. Other potential factors that could increase melt rate include: mechanical mixing via stirring or the use of bubblers, changing the power skewing to redistribute the power input to the melter, and elimination of heat loss (e.g. air in leakage). The melt rate testing in FY00 demonstrated that melt rate can be improved by adding a different frit or producing a much more reducing glass by the addition of sugar as a reductant. The frit that melted the fastest in the melt rate testing was Frit 165. A paper stud y was performed using the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) to determine the impact on predicted glass viscosity, liquidus, durability, and operating window if the frit was changed from Frit 200 to Frit 165. PCCS indicated that the window was very similar for both frits. In addition, the predicted viscosity of the frit 165 glass was 46 poise versus 84 poise for the Frit 200 glass. As a result, a change from Frit 200 to Frit 165 is expected to increase the melt rate in DWPF without decreasing waste loading.

  14. Superheating, melting, and annealing of copper surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Hakkinen, H.; Landman, U. )

    1993-08-16

    Dynamics of superheating, melting, and annealing processes at Cu(111) and Cu(110) surfaces, induced by laser-pulse irradiation, are investigated using molecular dynamics simulations, incorporating energy transfer from the electronic to the ionic degrees of freedom. Superheating occurs at Cu(111) for conditions that lead to melting of the Cu(110) surface. Highly damaged Cu(111) surfaces structurally anneal under the influence of a superheating pulse.

  15. PURIFICATION OF IRIDIUM BY ELECTRON BEAM MELTING

    SciTech Connect

    Ohriner, Evan Keith

    2008-01-01

    The purification of iridium metal by electron beam melting has been characterized for 48 impurity elements. Chemical analysis was performed by glow discharge mass spectrographic (GDMS) analysis for all elements except carbon, which was analyzed by combustion. The average levels of individual elemental impurities in the starting powder varied from 37 g/g to 0.02 g/g. The impurity elements Li, Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Pd, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Te, Ba, Ce, Tl, Pb, and Bi were not detectable following the purification. No significant change in concentration of the elements Ti, V, Zr, Nb, Mo, and Re was found. The elements B, C, Al, Si, Cr, Fe, Ru, Rh, and Pt were partially removed by vaporization during electron beam melting. Langmuir's equation for ideal vaporization into a vacuum was used to calculate for each impurity element the expected ratio of impurity content after melting to that before melting. Equilibrium vapor pressures were calculated using Henry's law, with activity coefficients obtained from published data for the elements Fe, Ti, and Pt. Activity coefficients were estimated from enthalpy data for Al, Si, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Zr, Nb, Mo, and Hf and an ideal solution model was used for the remaining elements. The melt temperature was determined from measured iridium weight loss. Excellent agreement was found between measured and calculated impurity ratios for all impurity elements. The results are consistent with some localized heating of the melt pool due to rastering of the electron beam, with an average vaporization temperature of 3100 K as compared to a temperature of 2965 K calculated for uniform heating of the melt pool. The results are also consistent with ideal mixing in the melt pool.

  16. Terrestrial analogues for lunar impact melt flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neish, C. D.; Hamilton, C. W.; Hughes, S. S.; Nawotniak, S. Kobs; Garry, W. B.; Skok, J. R.; Elphic, R. C.; Schaefer, E.; Carter, L. M.; Bandfield, J. L.; Osinski, G. R.; Lim, D.; Heldmann, J. L.

    2017-01-01

    Lunar impact melt deposits have unique physical properties. They have among the highest observed radar returns at S-Band (12.6 cm wavelength), implying that they are rough at the decimeter scale. However, they are also observed in high-resolution optical imagery to be quite smooth at the meter scale. These characteristics distinguish them from well-studied terrestrial analogues, such as Hawaiian pāhoehoe and ´a´ā lava flows. The morphology of impact melt deposits can be related to their emplacement conditions, so understanding the origin of these unique surface properties will help to inform us as to the circumstances under which they were formed. In this work, we seek to find a terrestrial analogue for well-preserved lunar impact melt flows by examining fresh lava flows on Earth. We compare the radar return and high-resolution topographic variations of impact melt flows to terrestrial lava flows with a range of surface textures. The lava flows examined in this work range from smooth Hawaiian pāhoehoe to transitional basaltic flows at Craters of the Moon (COTM) National Monument and Preserve in Idaho to rubbly and spiny pāhoehoe-like flows at the recent eruption at Holuhraun in Iceland. The physical properties of lunar impact melt flows appear to differ from those of all the terrestrial lava flows studied in this work. This may be due to (a) differences in post-emplacement modification processes or (b) fundamental differences in the surface texture of the melt flows due to the melts' unique emplacement and/or cooling environment. Information about the surface properties of lunar impact melt deposits will be critical for future landed missions that wish to sample these materials.

  17. Development of a melting model for meteors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Bruno; Bariselli, Federico; Turchi, Alessandro; Frezzotti, Aldo; Chatelain, Philippe; Magin, Thierry

    2016-11-01

    Meteor phenomenon is a frequent event happening on planet Earth. Due to the high entry velocities of these objects, the surface of the material undergoes extreme heat loads. Since the material is mainly composed by several oxides, eventually, the surface temperature will overcome the melting point. In this study we propose a melting model, in order to understand the material behavior, coupled with a flow solver. A detailed study of the flow around the stagnation streamline is also presented.

  18. Translating Furnace For Fast Melting And Freezing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, F.; Suggs, R. J.; Curreri, P. A.; Ethridge, E. C.; Perkinson, D. T.; Tucker, S.; Smith, G. A.

    1988-01-01

    Developmental translating-furnace apparatus used to make ceramic/metal composite materials during parabolic trajectories of KC-135 airplane simulating low gravity. Mathematical modeling shows apparatus able both to melt metal alloys and to solidify resulting composite specimens during 22-to-30-second low-gravity intervals. Furnace assembly moves along crucible in programmed manner to preheat, melt, and solidfy specimen during interval to less than 22 second.

  19. Congruent Melting Kinetics: Constraints on Chondrule Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, James P.; Hess, Paul C.

    1995-01-01

    The processes and mechanisms of melting and their applications to chondrule formation are discussed A model for the kinetics of congruent melting is developed and used to place constraints on the duration and maximum temperature experienced by the interiors of relict-bearing chondrules. Specifically, chondrules containing relict forsteritic olivine or enstatitic pyroxene cannot have been heated in excess of 1901 C or 1577 C, respectively, for more than a few seconds.

  20. Structure of a mushy layer at the inner core boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deguen, R.; Huguet, L.; Bergman, M. I.; Labrosse, S.; Alboussiere, T.

    2015-12-01

    We present experimental results on the solidification of ammonium chloride from an aqueous solution, yielding a mushy zone, under hyper-gravity. A commercial centrifuge has been equipped with a slip-ring so that electric power, temperature and ultrasonic signals could be transmitted between the experimental setup and the laboratory. A Peltier element provides cooling at the bottom of the cell. Probes monitor the temperature along the height of the cell. Ultrasound measurements (2 to 6 MHz) is used to detect the position of the front of the mushy zone and to determine attenuation in the mush. A significant increase of solid fraction (or decrease of mushy layer thickness) and attenuation in the mush is observed as gravity is increased. Kinetic undercooling is significant in our experiments and has been included in a macroscopic mush model. The other ingredients of the model are conservation of energy and chemical species, along with heat/species transfer between the mush and the liquid phase: boundary-layer exchanges at the top of the mush and bulk convection within the mush (formation of chimneys). The outputs of the model compare well with our experiments. We have then run the model in a range of parameters suitable for the Earth's inner core, which has shown the role of bulk mush convection for the inner core and the reason why a solid fraction very close to unity should be expected. We have also run melting experiments: after crystallization of a mush, the liquid has been heated from above until the mush started to melt, while the bottom cold temperature was maintained. These melting experiments were motivated by the possible local melting at the inner core boundary that has been invoked to explain the formation of the anomalously slow F-layer at the bottom of the outer core or inner core hemispherical asymmetry. Oddly, the consequences of melting are an increase in solid fraction and a decrease in attenuation. It is hence possible that surface seismic velocity

  1. Properties of iron under core conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, J. M.

    2003-04-01

    Underlying an understanding of the geodynamo and evolution of the core is knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of iron and iron mixtures under high pressure and temperature conditions. Key properties include the viscosity of the fluid outer core, thermal diffusivity, equations-of-state, elastic properties of solid phases, and phase equilibria for iron and iron-dominated mixtures. As is expected for work that continues to tax technological and intellectual limits, controversy has followed both experimental and theoretical progress in this field. However, estimates for the melting temperature of the inner core show convergence and the equation-of-state for iron as determined in independent experiments and theories are in remarkable accord. Furthermore, although the structure and elastic properties of the solid inner-core phase remains uncertain, theoretical and experimental underpinnings are better understood and substantial progress is likely in the near future. This talk will focus on an identification of properties that are reasonably well known and those that merit further detailed study. In particular, both theoretical and experimental (static and shock wave) determinations of the density of iron under extreme conditions are in agreement at the 1% or better level. The behavior of the Gruneisen parameter (which determines the geothermal gradient and controls much of the outer core heat flux) is constrained by experiment and theory under core conditions for both solid and liquid phases. Recent experiments and theory are suggestive of structure or structures other than the high-pressure hexagonal close-packed (HCP) phase. Various theories and experiments for the elasticity of HCP iron remain in poor accord. Uncontroversial constraints on core chemistry will likely never be possible. However, reasonable bounds are possible on the basis of seismic profiles, geochemical arguments, and determinations of sound velocities and densities at high pressure and

  2. Models and correlations of the DEBRIS Late-Phase Melt Progression Model

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, R.C.; Gasser, R.D.

    1997-09-01

    The DEBRIS Late Phase Melt Progression Model is an assembly of models, embodied in a computer code, which is designed to treat late-phase melt progression in dry rubble (or debris) regions that can form as a consequence of a severe core uncover accident in a commercial light water nuclear reactor. The approach is fully two-dimensional, and incorporates a porous medium modeling framework together with conservation and constitutive relationships to simulate the time-dependent evolution of such regions as various physical processes act upon the materials. The objective of the code is to accurately model these processes so that the late-phase melt progression that would occur in different hypothetical severe nuclear reactor accidents can be better understood and characterized. In this report the models and correlations incorporated and used within the current version of DEBRIS are described. These include the global conservation equations solved, heat transfer and fission heating models, melting and refreezing models (including material interactions), liquid and solid relocation models, gas flow and pressure field models, and the temperature and compositionally dependent material properties employed. The specific models described here have been used in the experiment design analysis of the Phebus FPT-4 debris-bed fission-product release experiment. An earlier DEBRIS code version was used to analyze the MP-1 and MP-2 late-phase melt progression experiments conducted at Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  3. The melting and solidification of nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florio, B. J.; Myers, T. G.

    2016-06-01

    A mathematical model is developed to describe the melting of nanowires. The first section of the paper deals with a standard theoretical situation, where the wire melts due to a fixed boundary temperature. This analysis allows us to compare with existing results for the phase change of nanospheres. The equivalent solidification problem is also examined. This shows that solidification is a faster process than melting; this is because the energy transfer occurs primarily through the solid rather than the liquid which is a poorer conductor of heat. This effect competes with the energy required to create new solid surface which acts to slow down the process, but overall conduction dominates. In the second section, we consider a more physically realistic boundary condition, where the phase change occurs due to a heat flux from surrounding material. This removes the singularity in initial melt velocity predicted in previous models of nanoparticle melting. It is shown that even with the highest possible flux the melting time is significantly slower than with a fixed boundary temperature condition.

  4. Multiscale approach to equilibrating model polymer melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svaneborg, Carsten; Karimi-Varzaneh, Hossein Ali; Hojdis, Nils; Fleck, Frank; Everaers, Ralf

    2016-09-01

    We present an effective and simple multiscale method for equilibrating Kremer Grest model polymer melts of varying stiffness. In our approach, we progressively equilibrate the melt structure above the tube scale, inside the tube and finally at the monomeric scale. We make use of models designed to be computationally effective at each scale. Density fluctuations in the melt structure above the tube scale are minimized through a Monte Carlo simulated annealing of a lattice polymer model. Subsequently the melt structure below the tube scale is equilibrated via the Rouse dynamics of a force-capped Kremer-Grest model that allows chains to partially interpenetrate. Finally the Kremer-Grest force field is introduced to freeze the topological state and enforce correct monomer packing. We generate 15 melts of 500 chains of 10.000 beads for varying chain stiffness as well as a number of melts with 1.000 chains of 15.000 monomers. To validate the equilibration process we study the time evolution of bulk, collective, and single-chain observables at the monomeric, mesoscopic, and macroscopic length scales. Extension of the present method to longer, branched, or polydisperse chains, and/or larger system sizes is straightforward.

  5. Manufacturing laser glass by continuous melting

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J H; Suratwala, T; krenitsky, S; Takeuchi, K

    2000-07-01

    A novel, continuous melting process is being used to manufacture meter-sized plates of laser glass at a rate 20-times faster, 5-times cheaper, and with 2-3 times better optical quality than with previous one-at-a-time, ''discontinuous'' technology processes. This new technology for manufacturing laser glass, which is arguably the most difficult continuously-melted optical material ever produced, comes as a result of a $60 million, six-year joint R&D program between government and industry. The glasses manufactured by the new continuous melting process are Nd-doped phosphate-based glasses and are marketed under the product names LG-770 (Schott Glass Technologies) and LHG-8 (Hoya Corporation USA). With this advance in glass manufacturing technology, it is now possible to construct high-energy, high-peak-power lasers for use in fusion energy development, national defense, and basic physics research that would have been impractical to build using the old melting technology. The development of continuously melted laser glass required technological advances that have lead to improvements in the manufacture of other optical glass products as well. For example, advances in forming, annealing, and conditioning steps of the laser glass continuous melting process are now being used in manufacture of other large-size optical glasses.

  6. Monoclinic tridymite in clast-rich impact melt rock from the Chesapeake Bay impact structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, J.C.; Horton, J.W.; Chou, I.-Ming; Belkin, H.E.

    2011-01-01

    X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy confirm a rare terrestrial occurrence of monoclinic tridymite in clast-rich impact melt rock from the Eyreville B drill core in the Chesapeake Bay impact structure. The monoclinic tridymite occurs with quartz paramorphs after tridymite and K-feldspar in a microcrystalline groundmass of devitrified glass and Fe-rich smectite. Electron-microprobe analyses revealed that the tridymite and quartz paramorphs after tridymite contain different amounts of chemical impurities. Inspection by SEM showed that the tridymite crystal surfaces are smooth, whereas the quartz paramorphs contain irregular tabular voids. These voids may represent microporosity formed by volume decrease in the presence of fluid during transformation from tridymite to quartz, or skeletal growth in the original tridymite. Cristobalite locally rims spherulites within the same drill core interval. The occurrences of tridymite and cristobalite appear to be restricted to the thickest clast-rich impact melt body in the core at 1402.02-1407.49 m depth. Their formation and preservation in an alkali-rich, high-silica melt rock suggest initially high temperatures followed by rapid cooling.

  7. Melting experiments on Fe-Fe3S system to 254 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Yuko; Ozawa, Haruka; Hirose, Kei; Sinmyo, Ryosuke; Tateno, Shigehiko; Morard, Guillaume; Ohishi, Yasuo

    2017-04-01

    Melting experiments were performed on the Fe-Fe3S system at high pressures between 34 and 254 GPa in a laser-heated diamond-anvil cell (DAC), using starting materials of fine-grained homogeneous mixtures of Fe and FeS (<500 nm) prepared by induction melting and rapid quenching techniques. Melting phase relations including the liquid/solid partitioning of sulfur were examined on the basis of textural and chemical characterizations of recovered samples using a focused ion beam (FIB) and electron microprobes. The results demonstrate that the sulfur content in eutectic liquid decreases substantially with increasing pressure. The eutectic liquid Fe with 5.7 (± 0.3) wt.% S coexisted with both solid Fe3S and Fe containing 3.9 (± 0.4) wt.% S at 254 GPa and 3550 K. The eutectic liquid at inner core boundary (ICB) pressure includes less sulfur than is required to account for the density deficit of the outer core (≥10 wt.% S). Furthermore, the difference in sulfur concentration between coexisting liquid and solid is not sufficient to account for the observed density jump across the ICB. These indicate that sulfur cannot be a predominant light element in the core.

  8. Microstructures and petrology of melt inclusions in the anatectic sequence of Jubrique (Betic Cordillera, S Spain): Implications for crustal anatexis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barich, Amel; Acosta-Vigil, Antonio; Garrido, Carlos J.; Cesare, Bernardo; Tajčmanová, Lucie; Bartoli, Omar

    2014-10-01

    We report a new occurrence of melt inclusions in polymetamorphic granulitic gneisses of the Jubrique unit, a complete though strongly thinned crustal section located above the Ronda peridotite slab (Betic Cordillera, S Spain). The gneissic sequence is composed of mylonitic gneisses at the bottom and in contact with the peridotites, and porphyroblastic gneisses on top. Mylonitic gneisses are strongly deformed rocks with abundant garnet and rare biotite. Except for the presence of melt inclusions, microstructures indicating the former presence of melt are rare or absent. Upwards in the sequence, garnet decreases whereas biotite increases in modal proportion. Melt inclusions are present from cores to rims of garnets throughout the entire sequence. Most of the former melt inclusions are now totally crystallized and correspond to nanogranites, whereas some of them are partially made of glass or, more rarely, are totally glassy. They show negative crystal shapes and range in size from ≈ 5 to 200 μm, with a mean size of ≈ 30-40 μm. Daughter phases in nanogranites and partially crystallized melt inclusions include quartz, feldspars, biotite and muscovite; accidental minerals include kyanite, graphite, zircon, monazite, rutile and ilmenite; glass has a granitic composition. Melt inclusions are mostly similar throughout all the gneissic sequence. Some fluid inclusions, of possible primary origin, are spatially associated with melt inclusions, indicating that at some point during the suprasolidus history of these rocks granitic melt and fluid coexisted. Thermodynamic modeling and conventional thermobarometry of mylonitic gneisses provide peak conditions of ≈ 850 °C and 12-14 kbar, corresponding to cores of large garnets with inclusions of kyanite and rutile. Post-peak conditions of ≈ 800-850 °C and 5-6 kbar are represented by rim regions of large garnets with inclusions of sillimanite and ilmenite, cordierite-quartz-biotite coronas replacing garnet rims, and the

  9. Microstructures and Petrology of Melt Inclusions in the Anatectic Sequence of Jubrique (Betic Cordillera, S Spain): Implications for Crustal Anatexis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta-vigil, A.; Barich, A.; Garrido, C. J.; Cesare, B.; Tajčmanová, L.; Bartoli, O.

    2014-12-01

    We report a new occurrence of melt inclusions in polymetamorphic granulitic gneisses of the Jubrique unit, a complete though thinned crustal section located above the Ronda peridotite slab (Betic Cordillera, S Spain). The gneissic sequence is composed of mylonitic gneisses at the bottom and porphyroblastic gneisses on top. Mylonitic gneisses are strongly deformed rocks with abundant garnet and rare biotite. Except for the presence of melt inclusions, microstructures indicating the former presence of melt are rare or absent. Upwards in the sequence garnet decreases whereas biotite increases in proportion. Melt inclusions are present from cores to rims of garnets throughout the entire sequence. Most of the former melt inclusions are now totally crystallized and correspond to nanogranites, whereas some of them are partially made of glass or, more rarely, are totally glassy. They show negative crystal shapes and range in size from ≈5 to 200 micrometers, with a mean size of ≈30-40 micrometers. Daughter phases in nanogranites and partially crystallized melt inclusions include quartz, feldspars, biotite and muscovite; accidental minerals include kyanite, graphite, zircon, monazite, rutile and ilmenite; glass has a granitic composition. Melt inclusions are mostly similar throughout all the gneissic sequence. Some fluid inclusions, of possible primary origin, are spatially associated with melt inclusions, indicating that at some point during the suprasolidus history of these rocks granitic melt and fluid coexisted. Thermodynamic modeling and conventional thermobarometry of mylonitic gneisses provide peak conditions of ≈850 ºC and 12-14 kbar, corresponding to cores of large garnets with inclusions of kyanite and rutile. Post-peak conditions of ≈800-850 ºC and 5-6 kbar are represented by rim regions of large garnets with inclusions of sillimanite and ilmenite, cordierite-quartz-biotite coronas replacing garnet rims, and the matrix with oriented sillimanite. Previous

  10. Banded transformer cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W. T. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A banded transformer core formed by positioning a pair of mated, similar core halves on a supporting pedestal. The core halves are encircled with a strap, selectively applying tension whereby a compressive force is applied to the core edge for reducing the innate air gap. A dc magnetic field is employed in supporting the core halves during initial phases of the banding operation, while an ac magnetic field subsequently is employed for detecting dimension changes occurring in the air gaps as tension is applied to the strap.

  11. Volcanism by melt-driven Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and possible consequences of melting for admittance ratios on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tackley, P. J.; Stevenson, D. J.; Scott, D. R.

    1992-01-01

    A large number of volcanic features exist on Venus, ranging from tens of thousands of small domes to large shields and coronae. It is difficult to reconcile all these with an explanation involving deep mantle plumes, since a number of separate arguments lead to the conclusion that deep mantle plumes reaching the base of the lithosphere must exceed a certain size. In addition, the fraction of basal heating in Venus' mantle may be significantly lower than in Earth's mantle reducing the number of strong plumes from the core-mantle boundary. In three-dimensional convection simulations with mainly internal heating, weak, distributed upwellings are usually observed. We present an alternative mechanism for such volcanism, originally proposed for the Earth and for Venus, involving Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities driven by melt buoyancy, occurring spontaneously in partially or incipiently molten regions.

  12. A model for the release, dispersion and environmental impact of a postulated reactor accident from a submerged commercial nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertch, Timothy Creston

    1998-12-01

    Nuclear power plants are inherently suitable for submerged applications and could provide power to the shore power grid or support future underwater applications. The technology exists today and the construction of a submerged commercial nuclear power plant may become desirable. A submerged reactor is safer to humans because the infinite supply of water for heat removal, particulate retention in the water column, sedimentation to the ocean floor and inherent shielding of the aquatic environment would significantly mitigate the effects of a reactor accident. A better understanding of reactor operation in this new environment is required to quantify the radioecological impact and to determine the suitability of this concept. The impact of release to the environment from a severe reactor accident is a new aspect of the field of marine radioecology. Current efforts have been centered on radioecological impacts of nuclear waste disposal, nuclear weapons testing fallout and shore nuclear plant discharges. This dissertation examines the environmental impact of a severe reactor accident in a submerged commercial nuclear power plant, modeling a postulated site on the Atlantic continental shelf adjacent to the United States. This effort models the effects of geography, decay, particle transport/dispersion, bioaccumulation and elimination with associated dose commitment. The use of a source term equivalent to the release from Chernobyl allows comparison between the impacts of that accident and the postulated submerged commercial reactor plant accident. All input parameters are evaluated using sensitivity analysis. The effect of the release on marine biota is determined. Study of the pathways to humans from gaseous radionuclides, consumption of contaminated marine biota and direct exposure as contaminated water reaches the shoreline is conducted. The model developed by this effort predicts a significant mitigation of the radioecological impact of the reactor accident release

  13. HYDRATE CORE DRILLING TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Cohen; Thomas E. Williams; Ali G. Kadaster; Bill V. Liddell

    2002-11-01

    The ''Methane Hydrate Production from Alaskan Permafrost'' project is a three-year endeavor being conducted by Maurer Technology Inc. (MTI), Noble, and Anadarko Petroleum, in partnership with the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The project's goal is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition. The project team plans to design and implement a program to safely and economically drill, core and produce gas from arctic hydrates. The current work scope includes drilling and coring one well on Anadarko leases in FY 2003 during the winter drilling season. A specially built on-site core analysis laboratory will be used to determine some of the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. Prior to going to the field, the project team designed and conducted a controlled series of coring tests for simulating coring of hydrate formations. A variety of equipment and procedures were tested and modified to develop a practical solution for this special application. This Topical Report summarizes these coring tests. A special facility was designed and installed at MTI's Drilling Research Center (DRC) in Houston and used to conduct coring tests. Equipment and procedures were tested by cutting cores from frozen mixtures of sand and water supported by casing and designed to simulate hydrate formations. Tests were conducted with chilled drilling fluids. Tests showed that frozen core can be washed out and reduced in size by the action of the drilling fluid. Washing of the core by the drilling fluid caused a reduction in core diameter, making core recovery very difficult (if not impossible). One successful solution was to drill the last 6 inches of core dry (without fluid circulation). These tests demonstrated that it will be difficult to capture core when drilling in permafrost or hydrates without implementing certain safeguards. Among the coring tests was a simulated hydrate formation comprised of coarse, large

  14. Earth's core formation aided by flow channelling instabilities induced by iron diapirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golabek, Gregor J.; Schmeling, Harro; Tackley, Paul J.

    2008-07-01

    The core formation mechanism remains poorly known. An unstable gravitational configuration of a dense molten metallic layer overlying a cold chondritic protocore is predicted by most studies, which leads to the formation of a Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability. Recent results [Dahl, T.W., 2005. Turbulent mixing during planet accretion and core formation: Interpretation of the Hf/W chronometer and implications for the age of the Moon. M. Sc. Thesis, University of Copenhagen.] indicate that additionally, iron cores of predifferentiated planetesimals are also able to plunge mostly intact into the cold protocore and create large iron diapirs. For both scenarios we propose the application of the stress-induced melt channelling mechanism [Stevenson, D.J., 1989. Spontaneous small-scale melt segregation in partial melts undergoing deformation. Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 1,067-1,070] in the region surrounding an incipient iron diapir. We therefore perform numerical experiments solving the two-phase, two composition flow equations within a 2D rectangular box with symmetrical boundary conditions. We apply the Compaction Boussinesq Approximation (CBA) and include a depth-dependent gravity. For simplicity we use a constant viscosity for the solid phase and a melt fraction dependent rheology for the partially molten region around the diapir. We investigate the physical conditions under which the melt channels can form and whether they are applicable to the early Earth. As a result, for sufficiently small melt retention numbers iron-rich melt channels develop within a region of approximately twice the diapir's size. This could lead to effective draining of the surrounding region and might initiate cascading daughter diapirs. The region of the protocore drained by this cascading mechanism is expected to significantly increase with depth, and thus indicates an effective mechanism to also extract iron melt from deeper parts of the initially chondritic protocore. This mechanism could

  15. 23. CORE WORKER OPERATING A COREBLOWER THAT PNEUMATICALLY FILLED CORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. CORE WORKER OPERATING A CORE-BLOWER THAT PNEUMATICALLY FILLED CORE BOXES WITH RESIGN IMPREGNATED SAND AND CREATED A CORE THAT THEN REQUIRED BAKING, CA. 1950. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  16. Paleomagnetic study of antarctic deep-sea cores.

    PubMed

    Opdyke, N D; Glass, B; Hays, J D; Foster, J

    1966-10-21

    The magnetic inclinations and inten sities of about 650 samples from seven deepsea cores taken in the Antarctic were measured on a spinner magnetometer. This series of measurements provided a magnetic stratigraphy, based on zones of normally or reversally polar ized specimens for each core, which was then correlated with the magnetic stra tigraphy of Cox et al. (1). One core (V16-134) gave a continuous record of the paleomagnetic field back to about 3.5 million years. When selected samples were subject ed to alternatingfield demagnetization, most were found to have an unstable component that was removed by fields of 150 oersteds; all samples from two cores were partially demagnetized in a field of 150 oersteds. The average inclination in these two cores was then in good agreement with the average inclination of the ambient field for the latitude of the core site. It was also found that the intensities of the samples decreased at the points of reversal; this finding is to be expected if, as has been postulated by the dynamo theory, the intensity of the dipole field decreases to zero and builds again with opposite polarity. We believe that the magnetiza tion of the cores results from the pres ence of detrital magnetite, although other magnetic minerals also may be present. Four faunal zones (, X, , and ) have been recognized in these Antarctic cores on the basis of upward sequential disappearance of Radiolaria. The faunal boundaries and reversals consistently have the same relations to one another, indicating that they are both timedependent phenomena. Using previously determined times of reversal, one may date the following events in the cores: 1) Radiolarian faunal boundaries:-X, 2 million years; X-, 0.7 million years; -, 0.4 to 0.5 million years. These dates are in good agreement with ages previously extrapolated from radio metric dates. 2) Initiation of Antarctic diatom ooze deposition, approximately 2.0 mil-lion years ago. 3) First occurrence of ice- rafted

  17. Core and Geodynamo Evolution and the Influence of Potassium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimmo, F.; Price, G. D.; Brodholt, J.

    2002-12-01

    In his penultimate paragraph, Birch (1952) notes that the growth of the inner core is controlled by its melting curve, which ``. . . has implications for the `hydromagnetic' theories of the Earth's magnetism''. Although the terminology has changed, the relationship between the growth of the inner core and the geodynamo is still an area of active research, and is still limited by our imperfect understanding of core properties. The ability of the Earth's core to sustain a geodynamo depends on the entropy produced by core cooling and/or solidification [1,2]. The rate of cooling depends on the rate at which the mantle extracts heat from the core. In this contribution we model the coupled thermal evolution of the core and mantle [3,4,5] to investigate the circumstances under which the geodynamo can have been sustained for at least 3~Ga. In particular, we use improved estimates of core properties [6], and examine the effect of potassium in the core, as suggested by recent theoretical [7] and experimental [8] studies. Models without potassium in the core and with realistic present-day temperature and viscosity structures can sustain a geodynamo. However, for the nominal core parameters these models produce an inner core which is too large. For reasonable mantle viscosities, the core cools too rapidly; a reduced cooling rate produces a smaller inner core but requires unreasonable viscosities. The robustness of this result depends mainly on uncertainties in the solidus temperature of the core and the mean thermal expansivity of the mantle. Introducing potassium into the core retards the rate of core growth [7] and provides an additional source of entropy [1]. For a core potassium content of 100-400ppm [8], the criteria of mantle and core temperature and viscosity structure, inner core radius and geodynamo generation can all be satisfied. [1] Gubbins, D. et al., GJRAS 59, 57-99, 1979. [2] Buffett, B.A. et al., JGR 101, 7989-8006, 1996. [3] Mollett, S., GJRAS 76, 653

  18. Integral coolant channels supply made by melt-out method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, W. J. D.

    1964-01-01

    Melt-out method of constructing strong, pressure-tight fluid coolant channels for chambers is accomplished by cementing pins to the surface and by depositing a melt-out material on the surface followed by two layers of epoxy-resin impregnated glass fibers. The structure is heated to melt out the low-melting alloy.

  19. Gravitation- And Conduction-Driven Melting In A Sphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahrami, Parviz A.; Wang, Taylor G.

    1989-01-01

    Simplifying assumptions lead to approximate closed-form solution. Theoretical paper discusses melting of solid sphere in spherical container. Develops mathematical model of melting process, based in part on simplifying assumptions like those used in theories of lubrication and film condensation. Resulting equation for melting speed as function of melting distance solved approximately in closed form.

  20. Simple models for disequilibrium fractional melting and batch melting with application to REE fractionation in abyssal peridotites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yan; Liu, Boda

    2016-01-01

    Disequilibrium melting arises when the kinetics of chemical exchange between a residual mineral and partial melt is sluggish compare to the rate of melting. To better understand the role of a finite crystal-melt exchange rate on trace element fractionation during mantle melting, we have developed a disequilibrium melting model for partial melting in an upwelling steady-state column. We use linear kinetics to approximate crystal-melt mass exchange rate and obtain simple analytical solutions for cases of perfect fractional melting and batch melting. A key parameter determining the extent of chemical disequilibrium during partial melting is an element specific dimensionless ratio (ε) defined as the melting rate relative to the solid-melt chemical exchange rate for the trace element of interest. In the case of diffusion in mineral limited chemical exchange, ε is inversely proportional to diffusivity of the element of interest. Disequilibrium melting is important for the trace element when ε is comparable to or greater than the bulk solid-melt partition coefficient for the trace element (k). The disequilibrium fractional melting model is reduced to the equilibrium perfect fractional melting model when ε is much smaller than k. Hence highly incompatible trace elements with smaller mobilities in minerals are more susceptible to disequilibrium melting than moderately incompatible and compatible trace elements. Effect of chemical disequilibrium is to hinder the extent of fractionation between residual solid and partial melt, making the residual solid less depleted and the accumulated melt more depleted in incompatible trace element abundances relative the case of equilibrium melting. Application of the disequilibrium fractional melting model to REE and Y abundances in clinopyroxene in abyssal peridotites from the Central Indian Ridge and the Vema Lithospheric Section, Mid-Atlantic Ridge revealed a positive correlation between the disequilibrium parameter ε and the

  1. Supplementary documentation for an Environmental Impact Statement regarding the Pantex Plant: radiological consequences of immediate inhalation of plutonium dispersed by postulated accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, J.C.; Olsher, R.H.; Graf, J.M.

    1982-12-01

    This report documents work performed in support of preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) regarding the Department of Energy's (DOE) Pantex Plant near Amarillo, Texas. It describes methods used to estimate potential health consequences offsite resulting from inhalation of plutonium dispersed by each of several postulated accidents. The primary topic of this report is the delayed health effects of the plutonium in a nonnuclear detonation debris inhaled directly by members of the population in the cloud path. The expected form and size of the plutonium particles are derived from experimental data obatined in the Roller Coaster test series of 1963. Retention characteristics based on the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) Task Group Lung Model and organ dose calculations based on a modified computer model are described. Health risk estimates based on organ dose are made using appropriate risk factors recommended by international radiation protection organizations. The relative seriousness of each accident at each alternative site is assessed on the basis of the health risk estiamtes.

  2. Health information seeking and scanning among US adults aged 50-75 years: Testing a key postulate of the information overload model.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jakob D; Liu, Miao; Carcioppolo, Nick; John, Kevin K; Krakow, Melinda; Sun, Ye

    2016-02-23

    Past research has found that older US adults (aged 50-75 years) exhibit high levels of cancer information overload and cancer worry; however, no study to date has examined whether these perceptions are related to information seeking/scanning. To explore this relationship, older adults (N = 209, Mage = 55.56, SD = 4.24) were recruited to complete a survey measuring seeking, scanning, cancer information overload, and cancer worry. Most participants were high-scan/seekers (40.2%) followed by low-scan/seekers (21.1%), high-scan/no seekers (19.6%), and low-scan/no seekers (19.1%). Low-scan/no seekers had significantly higher cancer information overload compared to all other groups, consistent with the postulate that overload and seeking/scanning are negatively related. Low-scan/no seekers and high-scan/seekers both exhibited higher cancer worry severity, consistent with past research suggesting that cancer worry explains high levels of activity/inactivity.

  3. Environmental consequences of postulated plutonium releases from General Electric Company Vallecitos Nuclear Center, Vallecitos, California, as a result of severe natural phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Jamison, J.D.; Watson, E.C.

    1980-11-01

    Potential environmental consequences in terms of radiation dose to people are presented for postulated plutonium releases caused by severe natural phenomena at the General Electric Company Vallecitos Nuclear Center, Vallecitos, California. The severe natural phenomena considered are earthquakes, tornadoes, and high straight-line winds. Maximum plutonium deposition values are given for significant locations around the site. All important potential exposure pathways are examined. The most likely 50-year committed dose equivalents are given for the maximum-exposed individual and the population within a 50-mile radius of the plant. The maximum plutonium deposition values likely to occur offsite are also given. The most likely calculated 50-year collective committed dose equivalents are all much lower than the collective dose equivalent expected from 50 years of exposure to natural background radiation and medical x-rays. The most likely maximum residual plutonium contamination estimated to be deposited offsite following the earthquakes, and the 180-mph and 230-mph tornadoes are above the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) proposed guideline for plutonium in the general environment of 0.2 ..mu..Ci/m/sup 2/. The deposition values following the 135-mph tornado are below the EPA proposed guidelines.

  4. Environmental consequences of postulate plutonium releases from Atomics International's Nuclear Materials Development Facility (NMDF), Santa Susana, California, as a result of severe natural phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Jamison, J.D.; Watson, E.C.

    1982-02-01

    Potential environmental consequences in terms of radiation dose to people are presented for postulated plutonium releases caused by severe natural phenomena at the Atomics International's Nuclear Materials Development Facility (NMDF), in the Santa Susana site, California. The severe natural phenomena considered are earthquakes, tornadoes, and high straight-line winds. Plutonium deposition values are given for significant locations around the site. All important potential exposure pathways are examined. The most likely 50-year committed dose equivalents are given for the maximum-exposed individual and the population within a 50-mile radius of the plant. The maximum plutonium deposition values likely to occur offsite are also given. The most likely calculated 50-year collective committed dose equivalents are all much lower than the collective dose equivalent expected from 50 years of exposure to natural background radiation and medical x-rays. The most likely maximum residual plutonium contamination estimated to be deposited offsite following the earthquake, and the 150-mph and 170-mph tornadoes are above the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) proposed guideline for plutonium in the general environment of 0.2 ..mu..Ci/m/sup 2/. The deposition values following the 110-mph and the 130-mph tornadoes are below the EPA proposed guideline.

  5. MORECA: A computer code for simulating modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor core heatup accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, S.J. )

    1991-10-01

    The design features of the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) have the potential to make it essentially invulnerable to damage from postulated core heatup accidents. This report describes the ORNL MORECA code, which was developed for analyzing postulated long-term core heatup scenarios for which active cooling systems used to remove afterheat following the accidents can be assumed to the unavailable. Simulations of long-term loss-of-forced-convection accidents, both with and without depressurization of the primary coolant, have shown that maximum core temperatures stay below the point at which any significant fuel failures and fission product releases are expected. Sensitivity studies also have been done to determine the effects of errors in the predictions due both to uncertainties in the modeling and to the assumptions about operational parameters. MORECA models the US Department of Energy reference design of a standard MHTGR.

  6. Shock melting method to determine melting curve by molecular dynamics: Cu, Pd, and Al

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zhong-Li; Zhang, Xiu-Lu; Cai, Ling-Cang

    2015-09-21

    A melting simulation method, the shock melting (SM) method, is proposed and proved to be able to determine the melting curves of materials accurately and efficiently. The SM method, which is based on the multi-scale shock technique, determines melting curves by preheating and/or prepressurizing materials before shock. This strategy was extensively verified using both classical and ab initio molecular dynamics (MD). First, the SM method yielded the same satisfactory melting curve of Cu with only 360 atoms using classical MD, compared to the results from the Z-method and the two-phase coexistence method. Then, it also produced a satisfactory melting curve of Pd with only 756 atoms. Finally, the SM method combined with ab initio MD cheaply achieved a good melting curve of Al with only 180 atoms, which agrees well with the experimental data and the calculated results from other methods. It turned out that the SM method is an alternative efficient method for calculating the melting curves of materials.

  7. Leaching characteristics of lead from melting furnace fly ash generated by melting of incineration fly ash.

    PubMed

    Okada, Takashi; Tomikawa, Hiroki

    2012-11-15

    This study investigated the effect of the chemical composition of incineration fly ash on the leaching characteristics of Pb from melting furnace fly ash generated by melting incineration fly ash. Melting furnace fly ash from both a real-scale melting process and lab-scale melting experiments was analyzed. In addition, the theoretical behavior of Cl that affects the leaching characteristics of Pb was simulated by a thermodynamic equilibrium calculation. Proportions of water-soluble Pb in the melting furnace fly ash were correlated with equivalent ratios of total Pb in the ash and Cl transferred to gas. The amount of Cl in the gas increased with an increase in the molar ratio of Cl to Na and K in the incineration fly ash. The thermodynamic calculation predicted that HCl generation is promoted by the increase in the molar ratio, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated a possible presence of PbCl(2) in the melting furnace fly ash. These results implied that the formation of water-soluble PbCl(2) with HCl was affected by the relationships among the amounts of Na, K, and Cl in the incineration fly ash. This is highly significant in determining the leaching characteristics of Pb from the melting furnace fly ash.

  8. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Melting Efficiency in Die Casting Operations

    SciTech Connect

    David Schwam

    2012-12-15

    This project addressed multiple aspects of the aluminum melting and handling in die casting operations, with the objective of increasing the energy efficiency while improving the quality of the molten metal. The efficiency of melting has always played an important role in the profitability of aluminum die casting operations. Consequently, die casters need to make careful choices in selecting and operating melting equipment and procedures. The capital cost of new melting equipment with higher efficiency can sometimes be recovered relatively fast when it replaces old melting equipment with lower efficiency. Upgrades designed to improve energy efficiency of existing equipment may be well justified. Energy efficiency is however not the only factor in optimizing melting operations. Melt losses and metal quality are also very important. Selection of melting equipment has to take into consideration the specific conditions at the die casting shop such as availability of floor space, average quantity of metal used as well as the ability to supply more metal during peaks in demand. In all these cases, it is essential to make informed decisions based on the best available data.

  9. Internal stress-induced melting below melting temperature at high-rate laser heating

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Yong Seok; Levitas, Valery I.

    2014-06-30

    In this Letter, continuum thermodynamic and phase field approaches (PFAs) predicted internal stress-induced reduction in melting temperature for laser-irradiated heating of a nanolayer. Internal stresses appear due to thermal strain under constrained conditions and completely relax during melting, producing an additional thermodynamic driving force for melting. Thermodynamic melting temperature for Al reduces from 933.67 K for a stress-free condition down to 898.1 K for uniaxial strain and to 920.8 K for plane strain. Our PFA simulations demonstrated barrierless surface-induced melt nucleation below these temperatures and propagation of two solid-melt interfaces toward each other at the temperatures very close to the corresponding predicted thermodynamic equilibrium temperatures for the heating rate Q≤1.51×10{sup 10}K/s. At higher heating rates, kinetic superheating competes with a reduction in melting temperature and melting under uniaxial strain occurs at 902.1 K for Q = 1.51 × 10{sup 11 }K/s and 936.9 K for Q = 1.46 × 10{sup 12 }K/s.

  10. Investigation of micro-injection molding based on longitudinal ultrasonic vibration core.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhongjun; Yang, Xue; Zheng, Hui; Gao, Shan; Fang, Fengzhou

    2015-10-01

    An ultrasound-assisted micro-injection molding method is proposed to improve the rheological behavior of the polymer melt radically, and a micro-injection molding system based on a longitudinal ultrasonic vibration core is developed and employed in the micro-injection molding process of Fresnel lenses. The verification experiments show that the filling mold area of the polymer melt is increased by 6.08% to 19.12%, and the symmetric deviation of the Fresnel lens is improved 15.62% on average. This method improved the filling performance and replication quality of the polymer melt in the injection molding process effectively.

  11. The lunar highland melt-rock suite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaniman, D. T.; Papike, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Size can be used as a criterion to select 18 large (larger than 1 cm) samples from among 148 melt-rock fragments of all sizes. This selection provides a suite of large samples which represent the important chemical variants among highland melt rocks; each large sample has enough material for a number of sample-destructive studies, as well as for future reference. Cluster analysis of the total data base of 148 highland melt rocks shows six distinct groups: anorthosite, gabbroic anorthosite, anorthositic gabbro ('highland basalt'), low K Fra Mauro, intermediate-K Fra Mauro, and high-K. Large samples are available for four of the melt-rock groups (gabbroic anorthosite, anorthositic gabbro, low-K Fra Mauro, and intermediate-K Fra Mauro). This sample selection reveals two subgroups of anorthositic gabbro (one anorthite-poor with negative Eu anomaly and one anorthite-rich without Eu anomaly). There is a sharp distinction between those Apollo 16 melt rocks and glasses which have both been classified as 'gabbroic anorthosite'.

  12. Melt electrospinning of biodegradable polyurethane scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Karchin, Ari; Simonovsky, Felix I.; Ratner, Buddy D.; Sanders, Joan E.

    2014-01-01

    Electrospinning from the melt, in contrast to from solution, is an attractive tissue engineering scaffold manufacturing process as it allows for the formation of small diameter fibers while eliminating potentially cytotoxic solvents. Despite this, there is a dearth of literature on scaffold formation via melt electrospinning. This is likely due to the technical challenges related to the need for a well-controlled high temperature setup and the difficulty in developing an appropriate polymer. In this paper, a biodegradable and thermally stable polyurethane (PU) is described specifically for use in melt electrospinning. Polymer formulations of aliphatic PUs based on (CH2)4-content diisocyanates, polycaprolactone (PCL), 1,4-butanediamine and 1,4-butanediol (BD) were evaluated for utility in the melt electrospinning process. The final polymer formulation, a catalyst-purified PU based on 1,4-butane diisocyanate, PCL and BD in a 4/1/3 molar ratio with a weight-average molecular weight of about 40 kDa, yielded a nontoxic polymer that could be readily electrospun from the melt. Scaffolds electrospun from this polymer contained point bonds between fibers and mechanical properties analogous to many in vivo soft tissues. PMID:21640853

  13. Basal terraces on melting ice shelves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutrieux, Pierre; Stewart, Craig; Jenkins, Adrian; Nicholls, Keith W.; Corr, Hugh F. J.; Rignot, Eric; Steffen, Konrad

    2014-08-01

    Ocean waters melt the margins of Antarctic and Greenland glaciers, and individual glaciers' responses and the integrity of their ice shelves are expected to depend on the spatial distribution of melt. The bases of the ice shelves associated with Pine Island Glacier (West Antarctica) and Petermann Glacier (Greenland) have similar geometries, including kilometer-wide, hundreds-of-meter high channels oriented along and across the direction of ice flow. The channels are enhanced by, and constrain, oceanic melt. New meter-scale observations of basal topography reveal peculiar glaciated landscapes. Channel flanks are not smooth, but are instead stepped, with hundreds-of-meters-wide flat terraces separated by 5-50 m high walls. Melting is shown to be modulated by the geometry: constant across each terrace, changing from one terrace to the next, and greatly enhanced on the ~45° inclined walls. Melting is therefore fundamentally heterogeneous and likely associated with stratification in the ice-ocean boundary layer, challenging current models of ice shelf-ocean interactions.

  14. Basal Terraces on Melting Ice Shelves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutrieux, P.; Stewart, C.; Jenkins, A.; Nicholls, K. W.; Corr, H. F. J.; Rignot, E. J.; Steffen, K.

    2014-12-01

    Ocean waters melt the margins of Antarctic and Greenland glaciers and individualglaciers' responses and the integrity of their ice shelves are expected to depend on thespatial distribution of melt. The bases of the ice shelves associated with Pine IslandGlacier (West Antarctica) and Petermann Glacier (Greenland) have similar geometries,including kilometers-wide, hundreds-of-meter-high channels oriented along and acrossthe direction of ice flow. The channels are enhanced by, and constrain, oceanic melt.New, meter-scale observations of basal topography reveal peculiar glaciated landscapes.Channel flanks are not smooth, but are instead stepped, with hundreds-of-meters-wideflat terraces separated by 5-50 m-high walls. Melting is shown to be modulated by thegeometry: constant across each terrace, changing from one terrace to the next, and greatlyenhanced on the ~45°-inclined walls. Melting is therefore fundamentally heterogeneousand likely associated with stratification in the ice-ocean boundary layer, challengingcurrent models of ice shelf-ocean interactions.

  15. Topological Constraints in Directed Polymer Melts.

    PubMed

    Serna, Pablo; Bunin, Guy; Nahum, Adam

    2015-11-27

    Polymers in a melt may be subject to topological constraints, as in the example of unlinked polymer rings. How to do statistical mechanics in the presence of such constraints remains a fundamental open problem. We study the effect of topological constraints on a melt of directed polymers, using simulations of a simple quasi-2D model. We find that fixing the global topology of the melt to be trivial changes the polymer conformations drastically. Polymers of length L wander in the transverse direction only by a distance of order (lnL)^{ζ} with ζ≃1.5. This is strongly suppressed in comparison with the Brownian L^{1/2} scaling which holds in the absence of the topological constraint. It is also much smaller than the predictions of standard heuristic approaches-in particular the L^{1/4} of a mean-field-like "array of obstacles" model-so our results present a sharp challenge to theory. Dynamics are also strongly affected by the constraints, and a tagged monomer in an infinite system performs logarithmically slow subdiffusion in the transverse direction. To cast light on the suppression of the strands' wandering, we analyze the topological complexity of subregions of the melt: the complexity is also logarithmically small, and is related to the wandering by a power law. We comment on insights the results give for 3D melts, directed and nondirected.

  16. Seismogenic frictional melting in the magmatic column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrick, J. E.; Lavallée, Y.; Hess, K.-U.; De Angelis, S.; Ferk, A.; Gaunt, H. E.; Meredith, P. G.; Dingwell, D. B.; Leonhardt, R.

    2014-04-01

    Lava dome eruptions subjected to high extrusion rates commonly evolve from endogenous to exogenous growth and limits to their structural stability hold catastrophic potential as explosive eruption triggers. In the conduit, strain localisation in magma, accompanied by seismogenic failure, marks the onset of brittle magma ascent dynamics. The rock record of exogenous dome structures preserves vestiges of cataclastic processes and thermal anomalies, key to unravelling subsurface processes. Here, a combined structural, thermal and magnetic investigation of a shear band crosscutting a large block erupted in 2010 at Soufrière Hills volcano (SHV) reveals evidence of faulting and frictional melting within the magmatic column. The mineralogy of this pseudotachylyte vein offers confirmation of complete recrystallisation, altering the structure, porosity and permeability of the material, and the magnetic signature typifies local electric currents in faults. Such melting events may be linked to the step-wise extrusion of magma accompanied by repetitive long-period (LP) drumbeat seismicity at SHV. Frictional melting of Soufrière Hills andesite in a high velocity rotary shear apparatus highlights the small slip distances (< 15 cm) thought to be required to bring 800 °C magma to melting point at upper conduit stress conditions (10 MPa). We conclude that frictional melting is a common consequence of seismogenic magma fracture during dome building eruptions and that it may govern the ascent of magma in the upper conduit.

  17. Seismogenic frictional melting in the magmatic column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrick, J. E.; Lavallée, Y.; Hess, K.-U.; De Angelis, S.; Ferk, A.; Gaunt, H. E.; Dingwell, D. B.; Leonhardt, R.

    2013-10-01

    Lava dome eruptions subjected to high extrusion rates commonly evolve from endogenous to exogenous growth and limits to their structural stability hold catastrophic potential as explosive eruption triggers. In the conduit, strain localisation in magma, accompanied by seismogenic failure, marks the onset of brittle magma ascent dynamics. The rock record of exogenous dome structures preserves vestiges of cataclastic processes (Cashman et al., 2008; Kennedy and Russell, 2011) and of thermal anomalies (Kendrick et al., 2012), key to unravelling subsurface processes. Here, a combined structural, thermal and magnetic investigation of a shear band crosscutting a large block erupted in 2010 at Soufrière Hills volcano (SHV) reveals evidence of faulting and frictional melting within the magmatic column. The mineralogy of this pseudotachylyte vein offers confirmation of complete recrystallisation with an isothermal remanent magnetisation signature that typifies local electric currents in faults. The pseudotachylyte presents an impermeable barrier, which is thought to have influenced the degassing pathway. Such melting events may be linked to the step-wise extrusion of magma accompanied by repetitive long-period (LP) drumbeat seismicity at SHV (Neuberg et al., 2006). Frictional melting of SHV andesite in a high velocity rotary shear apparatus highlights the small slip distances (< 15 cm) required to bring 800 °C magma to melting point at upper conduit stress conditions (10 MPa). We conclude that frictional melting is an inevitable consequence of seismogenic, conduit-dwelling magma fracture during dome building eruptions and that it may have an important influence on magma ascent dynamics.

  18. Kinetics of anorthite dissolution in basaltic melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yi; Zhang, Youxue; Chen, Yang; Xu, Zhengjiu

    2016-04-01

    We report convection-free anorthite dissolution experiments in a basaltic melt at 1280-1500 °C and 0.5 GPa on two different crystallographic surfaces, (1 2 1 bar) and (3 bar 0 2) to investigate dissolution kinetics. The anisotropy of the anorthite dissolution rate along these two surfaces is negligible. Time series experiments at ∼1280 °C show that anorthite dissolution is mainly controlled by diffusion in the melt within experimental uncertainty. Analytical solutions were used to model the dissolution and diffusion processes, and to obtain the diffusivities and the saturation concentrations of the equilibrium-determining component (Al2O3) for anorthite dissolution into the basaltic melt. For the first time, we are able to show the physical and chemical characteristics of quench growth effect on the near-interface melt using high spatial resolution (0.3 μm) EDS analyses. For anorthite (An# ⩾ 90) saturation in a melt with 39-53 wt% SiO2 and ⩽0.4 wt% H2O, the concentration of Al2O3 in wt% depends on temperature as follows:

  19. Explosive volcanism and the compositions of the cores of differentiated asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, Klaus; Wilson, Lionel

    1993-01-01

    Eleven iron meteorite groups showing correlations between Ni and siderophile trace elements that are predictable by distribution coefficients between liquid and solid metal of fractionally crystallizing metal magmas, are interpreted to be fragments of the fractionally crystallized cores of 11 differentiated asteroids. Many of these groups crystallized from S-depleted magmas which we propose resulted from removal of the first partial melt (a Fe,Ni-FeS cotectic) by explosive pyroclastic volcanism. It is shown that these dense, negatively buoyant melts can be driven to asteroidal surfaces by the combination of an excess pressure in the melt and the presence of buoyant bubbles of gas which decrease the bulk density of the melt. It is also shown that in typical asteroidal materials, veins will form which grow into dikes and serve as pathways for migration of melt and gas to asteroidal surfaces. Since cotectic Fe,Ni-FeS melt consists of about 85 wt. percent FeS and 15 wt. percent Fe,Ni, removal of small volumes of eutectic melts results in major loss of S but only minor loss of Fe,Ni, thus leaving sufficient Fe,Ni to form sizeable asteroidal cores.

  20. A TEM analysis of nanoparticulates in a Polar ice core

    SciTech Connect

    Esquivel, E.V.; Murr, L.E

    2004-03-15

    This paper explores the prospect for analyzing nanoparticulates in age-dated ice cores representing times in antiquity to establish a historical reference for atmospheric particulate regimes. Analytical transmission electron microscope (TEM) techniques were utilized to observe representative ice-melt water drops dried down on carbon/formvar or similar coated grids. A 10,000-year-old Greenland ice core was melted, and representative water drops were transferred to coated grids in a clean room environment. Essentially, all particulates observed were aggregates and either crystalline or complex mixtures of nanocrystals. Especially notable was the observation of carbon nanotubes and related fullerene-like nanocrystal forms. These observations are similar with some aspects of contemporary airborne particulates including carbon nanotubes and complex nanocrystal aggregates.

  1. Core sample extractor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akins, James; Cobb, Billy; Hart, Steve; Leaptrotte, Jeff; Milhollin, James; Pernik, Mark

    1989-01-01

    The problem of retrieving and storing core samples from a hole drilled on the lunar surface is addressed. The total depth of the hole in question is 50 meters with a maximum diameter of 100 millimeters. The core sample itself has a diameter of 60 millimeters and will be two meters in length. It is therefore necessary to retrieve and store 25 core samples per hole. The design utilizes a control system that will stop the mechanism at a certain depth, a cam-linkage system that will fracture the core, and a storage system that will save and catalogue the cores to be extracted. The Rod Changer and Storage Design Group will provide the necessary tooling to get into the hole as well as to the core. The mechanical design for the cam-linkage system as well as the conceptual design of the storage device are described.

  2. Constraints on the Petrogenesis of Historical Mount Etna Basalts from MELTS Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, M. N.; Bohrson, W. A.

    2008-12-01

    Mount Etna, Sicily has been erupting since approximately 500 ka and it remains one of the most active volcanoes on Earth. Prehistoric eruptive products are tholeiitic, transitional, and alkalic, and the historical eruptive products continue on an alkaline trend. Historical products, defined as those that correspond with an anthropological record, are trachy-basalts and trachy-andesites with a phenocryst assemblage of olivine ± plagioclase ± clinopyroxene. The typical texture is seriate. In this study, whole rock chemistry of samples erupted between AD 1329 and 1991 have been modeled using MELTS (Ghiorso and Sack, 1995). Approximately 100 fractional and equilibrium crystallization MELTS models were run varying starting composition, pressure, oxygen fugacity, and water content. Best-fit preliminary results indicate that crystallization took place in the crust between 1 and 5 kbars and initial melt water contents were between 2 and 3 wt. %. These results are consistent with published water content (Triglia et al., 1990) and barometric data (Giacobbe, 1993; Trigilia et al., 1990). Mineral textural and chemical data will then be collected because such data provide insight into the magmatic processes controlling melt chemistry; core to rim changes in texture and chemistry record a chronology of magmatic events. Together these provide the context to interpret nuances associated with different magmatic processes and thus elucidate the controls on volcanism. Nomarski Differential Interference Contrast and Electron Backscatter imaging will be used to document the range of textures that exist in olivine, plagioclase, and clinopyroxene. Electron microprobe traverses will document compositional variations in the context of the textural analysis. Mineral data, which will augment the existing database (e.g. Russo, 2000), will also be used to refine the best-fit MELTS models by comparing simulated mineral compositions to the core to rim data produced in this study.

  3. Melt retention and segregation beneath mid-ocean ridges.

    PubMed

    Faul, U H

    2001-04-19

    Geochemical models of melting at mid-ocean ridges-particularly those based on trace elements and uranium-decay-series isotopes-predict that melt segregates from the matrix at very low porosities, of order 0.1%. Some of these models also require that the melt ascends rapidly. But these predictions appear to conflict with seismic data obtained by the mantle electromagnetic and tomography (MELT) experiment. These data reveal, beneath the East Pacific Rise (at 17 degrees S), a region of low velocities several hundred kilometres wide, which is best explained by the presence of 1-2% melt, distributed on a grain scale in disk-shaped geometries. Here I show that these apparently contradictory constraints can be reconciled by taking into account the geometry and resulting permeability of the intergranular network of melt, together with the changing character of the melt as it ascends. A deep, volatile-rich melt with low viscosity and density is mobile at 0.1% porosity, but basaltic melt only becomes mobile at a porosity above 1%. While the volumetric contribution of the volatile-rich melt to the erupted basalts is small, the isotopic disequilibria (except for radium) generated by porous flow of this melt are preserved if melt transport is rapid at the onset of high-productivity melting. Also, because of incomplete extraction, some melt is retained in a broad zone, consistent with the MELT observations.

  4. Mantle melts, metasomatism and diamond formation: Insights from melt inclusions in xenoliths from Diavik, Slave Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, D. P.; Griffin, W. L.; O'Reilly, S. Y.

    2009-11-01

    Abundant carbonatitic to ultramafic melt inclusions 0.2-2.5mm in diameter occur in the Cr-diopside of megacrystalline lherzolite xenoliths from the A154 kimberlite of the Diavik mine, Lac de Gras area. The melts range from carbonatitic (50-97% carbonate) to Ca-Mg-silicic (10-50% carbonate) to Mg-silicic (< 10% dispersed calcite) compositions, and are connected by veinlets of similar material, or by fractures bordered by spongy Cr-diopside. Phenocrysts and quench crystals of calcite, olivine and mica are set in carbonatitic to Mg-silicic matrices, and irregular volumes of carbonatite and Mg-silicate melt appear to have unmixed from one another within single inclusions. Calculated bulk compositions of the more silicic melts are similar in major- and trace elements to kimberlites from the Slave province. The Cr-diopside adjacent to melt inclusions is enriched in LREE, Ba, alkali elements, HFSE, Th and U. Calculated compositions of the metasomatising fluids are strongly enriched in these elements relative to the trapped melts, and are similar to fluids trapped in the opaque coats found on many Diavik diamonds. The microstructures, the metasomatic effects and the genetic relationship to diamond formation suggest that the melt inclusions formed when kimberlite-like melts penetrated the lherzolites along fractures deep in the lithospheric mantle. The melts began to differentiate into carbonatitic and ultramafic end-members, were trapped as globular inclusions during recrystallisation and necking-down prior to entrainment of the xenoliths in the kimberlite, and were quenched during ascent. The evolution of saline, water- and carbonate-rich fluids from melts such as these may play an important role in diamond genesis.

  5. Core Research Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hicks, Joshua; Adrian, Betty

    2009-01-01

    The Core Research Center (CRC) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), located at the Denver Federal Center in Lakewood, Colo., currently houses rock core from more than 8,500 boreholes representing about 1.7 million feet of rock core from 35 States and cuttings from 54,000 boreholes representing 238 million feet of drilling in 28 States. Although most of the boreholes are located in the Rocky Mountain region, the geologic and geographic diversity of samples have helped the CRC become one of the largest and most heavily used public core repositories in the United States. Many of the boreholes represented in the collection were drilled for energy and mineral exploration, and many of the cores and cuttings were donated to the CRC by private companies in these industries. Some cores and cuttings were collected by the USGS along with other government agencies. Approximately one-half of the cores are slabbed and photographed. More than 18,000 thin sections and a large volume of analytical data from the cores and cuttings are also accessible. A growing collection of digital images of the cores are also becoming available on the CRC Web site Internet http://geology.cr.usgs.gov/crc/.

  6. Continuous analysis of phosphate in a Greenland shallow ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjær, Helle Astrid; Svensson, Anders; Bigler, Matthias; Vallelonga, Paul; Kettner, Ernesto; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe

    2010-05-01

    Phosphate is an important and sometimes limiting nutrient for primary production in the oceans. Because of deforestation and the use of phosphate as a fertilizer changes in the phosphate cycle have occurred over the last centuries. On longer time scales, sea level changes are thought to have also caused changes in the phosphate cycle. Analyzing phosphate concentrations in ice cores may help to gain important knowledge about those processes. In the present study, we attach a phosphate detection line to an existing continuous flow analysis (CFA) setup for ice core analysis at the University of Copenhagen. The CFA system is optimized for high-resolution measurements of insoluble dust particles, electrolytic melt water conductivity, and the concentrations of ammonium and sodium. For the phosphate analysis we apply a continuous and highly sensitive absorption method that has been successfully applied to determine phosphate concentrations of sea water (Zhang and Chi, 2002). A line of melt water from the CFA melt head (1.01 ml per minute) is combined with a molybdate blue reagent and an ascorbic acid buffer. An uncompleted reaction takes place in five meters of heated mixing coils before the absorption measurement at a wavelength of 710 nanometer takes place in a 2 m long liquid waveguide cell (LWCC) with an inner volume of 0.5 ml. The method has a detection limit of around 0.1 ppb and we are currently investigating a possible interference from molybdate reacting with silicates that are present in low amounts in the ice. Preliminary analysis of early Holocene samples from the NGRIP ice core show phosphate concentration values of a few ppb. In this study, we will attempt to determine past levels of phosphate in a shallow Northern Greenland firn core with an annual layer thickness of about 20 cm ice equivalent. With a melt speed of 2.5 cm ice per minute our method should allow the resolution of any seasonal variability in phosphate concentrations.

  7. Scrap uranium recycling via electron beam melting

    SciTech Connect

    McKoon, R.

    1993-11-01

    A program is underway at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to recycle scrap uranium metal. Currently, much of the material from forging and machining processes is considered radioactive waste and is disposed of by oxidation and encapsulation at significant cost. In the recycling process, uranium and uranium alloys in various forms will be processed by electron beam melting and continuously cast into ingots meeting applicable specifications for virgin material. Existing vacuum processing facilities at LLNL are in compliance with all current federal and state environmental, safety and health regulations for the electron beam melting and vaporization of uranium metal. One of these facilities has been retrofitted with an auxiliary electron beam gun system, water-cooled hearth, crucible and ingot puller to create an electron beam melt furnace. In this furnace, basic process R&D on uranium recycling will be performed with the goal of eventual transfer of this technology to a production facility.

  8. Segregation effects during solidification in weightless melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, C.

    1973-01-01

    Two types of melt segregation effects were studied: (1) evaporative segregation, or segregation due to surface evaporation; and (2) freezing segregation, or segregation due to liquid-solid phase transformation. These segregation effects are closely related. In fact, evaporative segregation always precedes freezing segregation to some degree and must often be studied prior to performing meaningful solidification experiments. This is particularly true since evaporation may cause the melt composition, at least at the critical surface regions or layers to be affected manyfold within seconds so that the surface region or layer melting point and other thermophysical properties, nucleation characteristics, base for undercooling, and critical velocity to avoid constitutional supercooling, may be completely unexpected. An important objective was, therefore, to develop the necessary normal evaporation equations for predicting the compositional changes within specified times at temperature and to correlate these equations with actual experimental data collected from the literature.

  9. APPARATUS FOR MELTING AND POURING METAL

    DOEpatents

    Harris, F.A.

    1958-02-25

    This patent relates to a crucible for melting and pouring a metal under controlled atmospheric conditions. The crucible has a frangible plug in the bottom and a retaining device to prevent the entrance of the broken portions of the plug into the mold without interfering with the flow of the melt. After the charge has been melted, a knockout rod is lowered through the charge and forced against the frangible plug sufficiently to break off the closure disk along a previously scored line. The disk drops onto a retaining grid large enough to permit the flow of metal around the disk and into the mold below. Thts arrangement elimnates the entry of broken portions of the plug into the mold, thereby elimnating a common cause of imperfect castings.

  10. Model for melting of confined DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, E.; Reiter-Schad, M.; Ambjörnsson, T.; Mehlig, B.

    2015-06-01

    When DNA molecules are heated they denature. This occurs locally so that loops of molten single DNA strands form, connected by intact double-stranded DNA pieces. The properties of this "melting" transition have been intensively investigated. Recently there has been a surge of interest in this question, in part caused by experiments determining the properties of partially bound DNA confined to nanochannels. But how does such confinement affect the melting transition? To answer this question we introduce and solve a model predicting how confinement affects the melting transition for a simple model system by first disregarding the effect of self-avoidance. We find that the transition is smoother for narrower channels. By means of Monte Carlo simulations we then show that a model incorporating self-avoidance shows qualitatively the same behavior and that the effect of confinement is stronger than in the ideal case.

  11. Modeling Pulsed Laser Melting of Embedded Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, Carolyn Anne

    A model of pulsed laser melting of embedded nanoparticles is introduced. Pulsed laser melting (PLM) is commonly used to achieve a fast quench rate in nanoparticles; this model enables a better understanding of the influence of PLM on the size distribution of nanoparticles, which is crucial for studying or using their size-dependent properties. The model includes laser absorption according to the Mie theory, a full heat transport model, and rate equations for nucleation, growth, coarsening, and melting and freezing of nanoparticles embedded in a transparent matrix. The effects of varying the laser parameters and sample properties are studied, as well as combining PLM and rapid thermal annealing (RTA) processing steps on the same sample. A general theory for achieving narrow size distributions of nanoparticles is presented, and widths as narrow as 12% are achieved using PLM and RTA.

  12. Analysis of Picosecond Pulsed Laser Melted Graphite

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Steinbeck, J.; Braunstein, G.; Speck, J.; Dresselhaus, M. S.; Huang, C. Y.; Malvezzi, A. M.; Bloembergen, N.

    1986-12-01

    A Raman microprobe and high resolution TEM have been used to analyze the resolidified region of liquid carbon generated by picosecond pulse laser radiation. From the relative intensities of the zone center Raman-allowed mode for graphite at 1582 cm{sup -1} and the disorder-induced mode at 1360 cm{sup -1}, the average graphite crystallite size in the resolidified region is determined as a function of position. By comparison with Rutherford backscattering spectra and Raman spectra from nanosecond pulsed laser melting experiments, the disorder depth for picosecond pulsed laser melted graphite is determined as a function of irradiating energy density. Comparisons of TEM micrographs for nanosecond and picosecond pulsed laser melting experiments show that the structure of the laser disordered regions in graphite are similar and exhibit similar behavior with increasing laser pulse fluence.

  13. The evolution of immiscible silicate and fluoride melts: Implications for REE ore-genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasyukova, O.; Williams-Jones, A. E.

    2016-01-01

    The Mid-Proterozoic peralkaline Strange Lake pluton (Québec-Labrador, Canada) exhibits extreme enrichment in high field strength elements (HFSE), including the rare earth elements (REE), particularly in pegmatites. On the basis of a study of melt inclusions, we proposed recently that fluoride-silicate melt immiscibility played an important and perhaps dominant role in concentrating the REE within the pluton. Here we present further evidence for silicate-fluoride immiscibility at Strange Lake from a sample of the hypersolvus granite, which contains an inclusion composed largely of REE and HFSE minerals. The inclusion (∼5 cm in diameter) comprises a narrow rim containing chevkinite-(Ce) and zircon in a fluorite matrix, a core of fluorbritholite-(Ce) and bastnäsite-(Ce) and a transition zone between the rim and the core consisting of a fine-grained intergrowth of bastnäsite-(Ce), gagarinite-(Y) and fluorite. We propose that the inclusion formed as a result of silicate-fluoride immiscibility, which occurred early in the emplacement history of the Strange Lake pluton, and that it represents the fluoride melt. After separation of the two melts, the boundary between them acted as a locus of crystallisation, where crystals formed repeatedly due to heterogeneous (surface catalysed) nucleation. Zircon crystallised shortly after melt phase separation, and was followed by the growth of perthite together with arfvedsonite and quartz. As a result, the silicate melt surrounding the fluoride inclusion became enriched in volatiles that facilitated crystallisation of progressively larger crystals in the inclusion; large crystals of arfvedsonite and perthite were succeeded by even larger crystals of quartz. Massive crystallisation of chevkinite-(Ce) followed, forming the rim of the inclusion. The fluoride melt, which constituted the matrix to the silicate minerals and chevkinite-(Ce), crystallised after chevkinite-(Ce), forming fluorbritholite-(Ce) and fluorite. Aqueous fluid

  14. Tracking Melt-Rock Reaction Using Os Isotopes: Maqsad Diapir (Oman Ophiolite)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godard, M.; Alard, O.; Lorand, J.; Burton, K. W.

    2001-12-01

    The exceptional exposure of the Oman ophiolite allows to study in detail the mantle processes occurring beneath a spreading centre. We have carried out a Re-Os pilot study focussed on the Maqsad diapir in the western part of the Sumail massif. The Maqsad diapir is roughly constituted of 3 petrographic units: 1, the main harzburgitic domain (MHD); 2, the diapir harzburgite (DH) showing plunging lineation; 3, a thick dunitic, mantle-crust transition zone (MTZ) topping the DH section. The MHD samples are characterised by Os content about 4 ppb and 187Os/188Os down to 0.1210. These features are in agreement with a >15% melt extraction. These unradiogenic Os compositions yield a model Re-depletion age ca. 1 Ga, similar to other Re-Os model age obtained for other oceanic related mantle samples worldwide. Samples from the DH domain despite similar range in Al2O3 content show more radiogenic Os composition (0.1240<187Os/188Os <0.1298). The MTZ dunites show even more radiogenic Os composition (0.1352<187Os/188Os <0.1399). The MTZ dunite are further characterised by low Os content (<1.5 ppb) not in agreement with the well know high compatible nature of Os. These observations are inconsistent with a residual origin after melting for these dunites. In contrast, Os systematic indicate than the MTZ dunites as well as the diapir harzburgites are not a mere product of melt depletion but rather result from extensive melt-rock reaction as previously demonstrated (e.g., Kelemen et al., 1995; Godard et al., 2000). Those authors have postulated that dunites are the product of melt-rock reaction leading to the crystallisation of olivine and Fe-enrichment (leading to low Mg-number) similar but less extensive process has been envisaged for the diapir harzburgite. 187Os/188Os is inversely correlated with the Mg-number of the MTZ and DH samples. Suggesting that indeed the petrographic and geochemical characteristics of both domains are due to the same process occurring at various extend

  15. Interpretation of the results of the CORA-33 dry core BWR test

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, L.J.; Hagen, S.

    1993-11-01

    All BWR degraded core experiments performed prior to CORA-33 were conducted under ``wet`` core degradation conditions for which water remains within the core and continuous steaming feeds metal/steam oxidation reactions on the in-core metallic surfaces. However, one dominant set of accident scenarios would occur with reduced metal oxidation under ``dry`` core degradation conditions and, prior to CORA-33, this set had been neglected experimentally. The CORA-33 experiment was designed specifically to address this dominant set of BWR ``dry`` core severe accident scenarios and to partially resolve phenomenological uncertainties concerning the behavior of relocating metallic melts draining into the lower regions of a ``dry`` BWR core. CORA-33 was conducted on October 1, 1992, in the CORA tests facility at KfK. Review of the CORA-33 data indicates that the test objectives were achieved; that is, core degradation occurred at a core heatup rate and a test section axial temperature profile that are prototypic of full-core nuclear power plant (NPP) simulations at ``dry`` core conditions. Simulations of the CORA-33 test at ORNL have required modification of existing control blade/canister materials interaction models to include the eutectic melting of the stainless steel/Zircaloy interaction products and the heat of mixing of stainless steel and Zircaloy. The timing and location of canister failure and melt intrusion into the fuel assembly appear to be adequately simulated by the ORNL models. This paper will present the results of the posttest analyses carried out at ORNL based upon the experimental data and the posttest examination of the test bundle at KfK. The implications of these results with respect to degraded core modeling and the associated safety issues are also discussed.

  16. Can Psychiatric Rehabilitation Be Core to CORE?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olney, Marjorie F.; Gill, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, we seek to determine whether psychiatric rehabilitation principles and practices have been more fully incorporated into the Council on Rehabilitation Education (CORE) standards, the extent to which they are covered in four rehabilitation counseling "foundations" textbooks, and how they are reflected in the…

  17. How to identify garnet lherzolite melts and distinguish them from pyroxenite melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, T. L.; Holbig, E.; Barr, J. A.; Till, C.; Krawczynski, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Liquids form in equilibrium with garnet lherzolite sources when the Earth's mantle melts at depths of greater than ~ 60 km. We present a phase equilibrium investigation of Tibetan plateau olivine leucitites from 2.2 to 2.8 GPa and 1380 to 1480 °C. The resulting liquids were multiply saturated with spinel and garnet lherzolite assemblages (olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene and spinel +/-garnet) under nominally anhydrous conditions. These SiO2-undersaturated liquids and published experimental data have been used to develop a new model that parameterizes the major element compositions of garnet lherzolite partial melts, allowing the prediction of melt compositions from depleted to metasomatically enriched peridotite. The model is calibrated over the pressure range of 1.9 to 6 GPa. The model also predicts the suprasolidus pressure and temperature of the spinel to garnet lherzolite phase transition for natural peridotite compositions. Combined with the recent parameterization of melting in the plagioclase- and spinel- lherzolite facies (Till et al., 2012, JGR, 117, B06206), the new model distinguishes between melts of garnet vs. spinel vs. plagioclase lherzolites, but can also be used to distinguish between melts of lherzolitic vs. pyroxenitic source regions, allowing source lithology to be uniquely identified. Pyroxenite melts fall into two compositionally distinct groups; an olivine-normative, SiO2-undersaturated group and quartz-normative, SiO2-oversaturated group. Melts of plagioclase, spinel, and garnet lherzolite plot between these two types of pyroxenitic melts in mineral normative composition space. When our model is applied to high-K lavas erupted in the Tibetan plateau, we find that these magmas are derived from both pyroxenite and lherzolite source regions. Distinctive enrichments in compatible trace elements (Ni, Cr) are observed in the lherzolite-derived magmas. Applied to Hawaiian basalts, our model suggests the transitional and weakly alkaline pre

  18. Are ULVZ from Earth's Mantle or Core?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernlund, J. W.; Hirose, K.

    2013-12-01

    Ultralow-velocity zones (ULVZ) are ~10 km thick regions at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) exhibiting geometries and seismic properties consistent with ~10% density increase relative to the surrounding mantle, and may additionally be partially molten. Mantle origin hypotheses for ULVZ range from subducted banded iron formations to the residue of a Hadean basal magma ocean, while core origin hypotheses range from core-mantle reaction products to sediments crystallized from the outer core itself. Amidst mounting evidence for high CMB heat flow corresponding to a large degree of secular cooling of the core, and an improved understanding of metal-silicate equilibrium in addition to the limits of impurity solubility at CMB condtions, we are now in a better position to assess the potential contributions of these various origin hypotheses. Oxygen is metallic at CMB conditions, thus the definition of the CMB itself is blurry, and new experimental evidence indicates that other nominal major lithophile elements such as magnesium might have been significantly more siderophile in the hot early Earth. Mass balance models anchored by experimental data can be used to understand the limits to which the volume and composition of material produced by these processes are compatible with observational constraints, and their influence on early core and mantle dynamics. Models in which ULVZ are entirely produced by super-saturation of Mg in the core might be plausible, and they might also provide a mechanism for stripping oxygen from the core, thus reducing the density anomaly associated with impurities. However, such models require very high temperatures in the early Earth, in addition to mechanisms for high and low temperature sourced material to become mixed. On the mantle side, fusible materials of any origin in the mantle could have melted to become part of a primordial basal magma ocean, including early crust. Thus the basal magma ocean hypothesis is quite compatible with other

  19. Cooling vests with phase change materials: the effects of melting temperature on heat strain alleviation in an extremely hot environment.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chuansi; Kuklane, Kalev; Holmér, Ingvar

    2011-06-01

    A previous study by the authors using a heated thermal manikin showed that the cooling rates of phase change material (PCM) are dependent on temperature gradient, mass, and covering area. The objective of this study was to investigate if the cooling effects of the temperature gradient observed on a thermal manikin could be validated on human subjects in extreme heat. The subjects wore cooling vests with PCMs at two melting temperatures (24 and 28°C) and fire-fighting clothing and equipment, thus forming three test groups (vest24, vest28 and control group without the vest). They walked on a treadmill at a speed of 5 km/h in a climatic chamber (air temperature = 55°C, relative humidity = 30%, vapour pressure = 4,725 Pa, and air velocity = 0.4 m/s). The results showed that the PCM vest with a lower melting temperature (24°C) has a stronger cooling effect on the torso and mean skin temperatures than that with a higher melting temperature (28°C). Both PCM vests mitigate peak core temperature increase during the resting recovery period. The two PCM vests tested, however, had no significant effect on the alleviation of core temperature increase during exercise in the heat. To study the possibility of effective cooling of core temperature, cooling garments with PCMs at even lower melting temperatures (e.g. 15°C) and a larger covering area should be investigated.

  20. Method and apparatus for melting metals

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Alan F.; Schechter, Donald E.; Morrow, Marvin Stanley

    2006-03-14

    A method and apparatus for melting metals uses microwave energy as the primary source of heat. The metal or mixture of metals are placed in a ceramic crucible which couples, at least partially, with the microwaves to be used. The crucible is encased in a ceramic casket for insulation and placed within a microwave chamber. The chamber may be evacuated and refilled to exclude oxygen. After melting, the crucible may be removed for pouring or poured within the chamber by dripping or running into a heated mold within the chamber. Apparent coupling of the microwaves with softened or molten metal produces high temperatures with great energy savings.

  1. Rock melting tool with annealer section

    DOEpatents

    Bussod, Gilles Y.; Dick, Aaron J.; Cort, George E.

    1998-01-01

    A rock melting penetrator is provided with an afterbody that rapidly cools a molten geological structure formed around the melting tip of the penetrator to the glass transition temperature for the surrounding molten glass-like material. An annealing afterbody then cools the glass slowly from the glass transition temperature through the annealing temperature range to form a solid self-supporting glass casing. This allows thermally induced strains to relax by viscous deformations as the molten glass cools and prevents fracturing of the resulting glass liner. The quality of the glass lining is improved, along with its ability to provide a rigid impermeable casing in unstable rock formations.

  2. Element Partitioning Constraints on Formation and Composition of the Earth's Core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, J.; Agee, C. B.; Fei, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Element partitioning study provides a number of constraints on the formation and composition of the core. First, partitioning of siderophile elements between the core and mantle should explain the "excess" siderophile elements in the mantle. Second, partitioning of light element(s) between the core and mantle should supply the core with the right amount of light element(s) to account for the density deficit in the core. Third, partitioning of light element(s) between the inner and outer core should be consistent with the observed difference in density deficits (relative to pure Fe) between these two reservoirs. In this study, high-pressure and high-temperature experiments have been conducted to investigate the pressure, temperature, and composition effects on partitioning of siderophile elements Ni and Co between core-forming Fe alloy and mantle silicate melt and minerals, partitioning of light elements S, O, and Si between core-forming Fe alloy and mantle silicate melt and minerals, and partitioning of light elements S and C between solid and liquid Fe. The implications of these results for mechanism of core formation and the composition of the core are discussed.

  3. Diffusion-controlled melting and re-solidification of metal micro layers on a reactive substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hui; Sekulic, Dusan P.

    2006-04-01

    The paper offers a theoretical approach to a prediction of residue formation inherent to melting and subsequent solidification of micro layers of molten aluminum alloys. The residue formation follows a reactive flow of a portion of the melt that is removed by a surface tension action. The residue portion solidifies in situ. The phenomenon studied is associated with materials’ processing during controlled atmosphere brazing of aluminum. The model assumes that diffusion of Silicon, present in an Al+Si clad of a brazing sheet, has a twofold role. First, a solid state Si diffusion prior to melting and across the clad-core interface of a composite brazing sheet takes place and modifies alloys’ composition on both sides of the interface. Subsequently, Si diffusion within clad controls the melting process. Both processes are essential for clad residue formation. The approach advocated in this paper leads to a prediction of the residue formation through a modeling of the non-equilibrium diffusion-controlled melting. A heuristic interpretation of physical mechanisms was discussed and a related mathematical model devised. The model was solved numerically in terms of Si concentration distributions for a moving boundary problem and corroborated with empirical data. Empirical data were gathered using an experimental controlled atmosphere brazing facility. The results of the modeling and their corroboration with the experimental data indicate a strong dependence of residue formations on the pre-melting state of the clad, in particular on the grain size within Al-clad matrix. A good agreement between numerically predicted residue mass and experimental findings is documented in detail.

  4. The behavior of ANGRA 2 nuclear power plant core for a small break LOCA simulated with RELAP5 code

    SciTech Connect

    Sabundjian, Gaiane; Andrade, Delvonei A.; Belchior, Antonio Jr.; Silva Rocha, Marcelo da; Conti, Thadeu N.; Torres, Walmir M.; Macedo, Luiz A.; Umbehaun, Pedro E.; Mesquita, Roberto N.; Masotti, Paulo H. F.; Souza Lima, Ana Cecilia de

    2013-05-06

    This work discusses the behavior of Angra 2 nuclear power plant core, for a postulate Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in the primary circuit for Small Break Loss Of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA). A pipe break of the hot leg Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) was simulated with RELAP 5 code. The considered rupture area is 380 cm{sup 2}, which represents 100% of the ECCS pipe flow area. Results showed that the cooling is enough to guarantee the integrity of the reactor core.

  5. The ancient tropical rainforest tree Symphonia globulifera L. f. (Clusiaceae) was not restricted to postulated Pleistocene refugia in Atlantic Equatorial Africa

    PubMed Central

    Budde, K B; González-Martínez, S C; Hardy, O J; Heuertz, M

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the history of forests and their species' demographic responses to past disturbances is important for predicting impacts of future environmental changes. Tropical rainforests of the Guineo-Congolian region in Central Africa are believed to have survived the Pleistocene glacial periods in a few major refugia, essentially centred on mountainous regions close to the Atlantic Ocean. We tested this hypothesis by investigating the phylogeographic structure of a widespread, ancient rainforest tree species, Symphonia globulifera L. f. (Clusiaceae), using plastid DNA sequences (chloroplast DNA [cpDNA], psbA-trnH intergenic spacer) and nuclear microsatellites (simple sequence repeats, SSRs). SSRs identified four gene pools located in Benin, West Cameroon, South Cameroon and Gabon, and São Tomé. This structure was also apparent at cpDNA. Approximate Bayesian Computation detected recent bottlenecks approximately dated to the last glacial maximum in Benin, West Cameroon and São Tomé, and an older bottleneck in South Cameroon and Gabon, suggesting a genetic effect of Pleistocene cycles of forest contraction. CpDNA haplotype distribution indicated wide-ranging long-term persistence of S. globulifera both inside and outside of postulated forest refugia. Pollen flow was four times greater than that of seed in South Cameroon and Gabon, which probably enabled rapid population recovery after bottlenecks. Furthermore, our study suggested ecotypic differentiation—coastal or swamp vs terra firme—in S. globulifera. Comparison with other tree phylogeographic studies in Central Africa highlighted the relevance of species-specific responses to environmental change in forest trees. PMID:23572126

  6. The ancient tropical rainforest tree Symphonia globulifera L. f. (Clusiaceae) was not restricted to postulated Pleistocene refugia in Atlantic Equatorial Africa.

    PubMed

    Budde, K B; González-Martínez, S C; Hardy, O J; Heuertz, M

    2013-07-01

    Understanding the history of forests and their species' demographic responses to past disturbances is important for predicting impacts of future environmental changes. Tropical rainforests of the Guineo-Congolian region in Central Africa are believed to have survived the Pleistocene glacial periods in a few major refugia, essentially centred on mountainous regions close to the Atlantic Ocean. We tested this hypothesis by investigating the phylogeographic structure of a widespread, ancient rainforest tree species, Symphonia globulifera L. f. (Clusiaceae), using plastid DNA sequences (chloroplast DNA [cpDNA], psbA-trnH intergenic spacer) and nuclear microsatellites (simple sequence repeats, SSRs). SSRs identified four gene pools located in Benin, West Cameroon, South Cameroon and Gabon, and São Tomé. This structure was also apparent at cpDNA. Approximate Bayesian Computation detected recent bottlenecks approximately dated to the last glacial maximum in Benin, West Cameroon and São Tomé, and an older bottleneck in South Cameroon and Gabon, suggesting a genetic effect of Pleistocene cycles of forest contraction. CpDNA haplotype distribution indicated wide-ranging long-term persistence of S. globulifera both inside and outside of postulated forest refugia. Pollen flow was four times greater than that of seed in South Cameroon and Gabon, which probably enabled rapid population recovery after bottlenecks. Furthermore, our study suggested ecotypic differentiation-coastal or swamp vs terra firme-in S. globulifera. Comparison with other tree phylogeographic studies in Central Africa highlighted the relevance of species-specific responses to environmental change in forest trees.

  7. Evolution of melt-vapor surface tension in silicic volcanic systems: Experiments with hydrous melts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mangan, M.; Sisson, T.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluate the melt-vapor surface tension (??) of natural, water-saturated dacite melt at 200 MPa, 950-1055??C, and 4.8-5.7 wt % H2O. We experimentally determine the critical supersaturation pressure for bubble nucleation as a function of dissolved water and then solve for ?? at those conditions using classical nucleation theory. The solutions obtained give dacite melt-vapor surface tensions that vary inversely with dissolved water from 0.042 (??0.003) J m-2 at 5.7 wt% H2O to 0.060 (??0.007) J m-2 at 5.2 wt% H2O to 0.073 (??0.003) J m-2 at 4.8 wt% H2O. Combining our dacite results with data from published hydrous haplogranite and high-silica rhyolite experiments reveals that melt-vapor surface tension also varies inversely with the concentration of mafic melt components (e.g., CaO, FeOtotal, MgO). We develop a thermodynamic context for these observations in which melt-vapor surface tension is represented by a balance of work terms controlled by melt structure. Overall, our results suggest that cooling, crystallization, and vapor exsolution cause systematic changes in ?? that should be considered in dynamic modeling of magmatic processes.

  8. Melt segregation from partially molten source regions - The importance of melt density and source region size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolper, E.; Hager, B. H.; Walker, D.; Hays, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation is conducted regarding the changes expected in the density contrast between basic melts and peridotites with increasing pressure using the limited data available on the compressibilities of silicate melts and data on the densities of mantle minerals. It is concluded that since compressibilities of silicate melts are about an order of magnitude greater than those of mantle minerals, the density contrast between basic melts and mantle minerals must diminish significantly with increasing pressure. An earlier analysis regarding the migration of liquid in partially molten source regions conducted by Walker et al. (1978) is extended, giving particular attention to the influence of the diminished density contrast between melt and residual crystals with increasing source region depth and to the influence of source region size. This analysis leads to several generalizations concerning the factors influencing the depths at which magmas will segregate from their source regions and the degrees of partial melting that can be achieved in these source regions before melt segregation occurs.

  9. Organic contaminant release from melting snow. 2. Influence of snow pack and melt characteristics.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Torsten; Lei, Ying Duan; Muradi, Ibrahim; Wania, Frank

    2009-02-01

    Large reservoirs of organic contaminants in seasonal snowpack can be released in short pulses during spring snowmelt, potentially impacting the receiving ecosystems. Laboratory experiments using artificial snow spiked with organic target substances were conducted to investigate the behavior of six organic contaminants with widely variable distribution properties in melting snow. Whereas the influence of a chemical's equilibrium phase partitioning on the elution behavior is explored in a companion paper, we discuss here the impact of snow properties and melt features, including the snowpack depth, the temperature at the interface between soil and snow, the meltwater content the internal ice surface area, and the existence of distinct snow layers. Water-soluble organic substances are released in high concentrations at the beginning of a melt period when a deep and aged snowpack undergoes intense melting. Warm ground can cause notable melting at the snow bottom leading to a delayed and dampened concentration peak. Hydraulic barriers in layered snow packs cause preferential meltwater flow which also mitigates the early contaminant flush. Hydrophobic organic pollutants that are associated with particles accumulate near the snow surface and are released at the end of melting. Dirt cones at the surface of a dense snowpack enhance this enrichment. The findings of this laboratory study will aid in the understanding of the behavior of organic pollutants during the melting of more complex, natural snow covers.

  10. Making an Ice Core.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopaska-Merkel, David C.

    1995-01-01

    Explains an activity in which students construct a simulated ice core. Materials required include only a freezer, food coloring, a bottle, and water. This hands-on exercise demonstrates how a glacier is formed, how ice cores are studied, and the nature of precision and accuracy in measurement. Suitable for grades three through eight. (Author/PVD)

  11. Core Concepts of Kinesiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Jackie L.

    1995-01-01

    Core concepts of kinesiology are the basis of communication about movement that facilitate progression of skill levels. The article defines and exemplifies each of 10 core concepts: range of motion, speed of motion, number of segments, nature of segments, balance, coordination, compactness, extension at release/contact, path of projection, and…

  12. CORE - Performance Feedback System

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-02

    CORE is an architecture to bridge the gaps between disparate data integration and delivery of disparate information visualization. The CORE Technology Program includes a suite of tools and user-centered staff that can facilitate rapid delivery of a deployable integrated information to users.

  13. Iowa Core Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    One central component of a great school system is a clear set of expectations, or standards, that educators help all students reach. In Iowa, that effort is known as the Iowa Core. The Iowa Core represents the statewide academic standards, which describe what students should know and be able to do in math, science, English language arts, and…

  14. Ice Core Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krim, Jessica; Brody, Michael

    2008-01-01

    What can glaciers tell us about volcanoes and atmospheric conditions? How does this information relate to our understanding of climate change? Ice Core Investigations is an original and innovative activity that explores these types of questions. It brings together popular science issues such as research, climate change, ice core drilling, and air…

  15. Modular core holder

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, J.; Cole, C.W.; Hamid, S.; Lucas, J.K.

    1991-03-05

    This patent describes a modular core holder. It comprises: a sleeve, forming an internal cavity for receiving a core. The sleeve including segments; support means, overlying the sleeve, for supporting the sleeve; and access means, positioned between at least two of the segments of the sleeve, for allowing measurement of conditions within the internal cavity.

  16. More on the Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Monnica

    2013-01-01

    From a higher education perspective, new "Common Core" standards could improve student college-readiness levels, reduce institutional remediation rates, and close education gaps in and between states. As a national initiative to create common educational standards for students across multiple states, the Common Core State Standards…

  17. NFE Core Bibliographies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Inst. for International Studies in Education.

    This collection of core bibliographies, which expands on an initial bibliography published in 1979 of the core resources housed in the Non-Formal Education Information Center at Michigan State University, comprises a basic stock of materials on nonformal education and women in development that have been contributed by development planners,…

  18. Melting relations in the Fe-rich portion of the system FeFeS at 30 kb pressure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brett, R.; Bell, P.M.

    1969-01-01

    The melting relations of FeFeS mixtures covering the composition range from Fe to Fe67S33 have been determined at 30 kb pressure. The phase relations are similar to those at low pressure. The eutectic has a composition of Fe72.9S27.1 and a temperature of 990??C. Solubility of S in Fe at elevated temperatures at 30 kb is of the same order of magnitude as at low pressure. Sulfur may have significantly lowered the melting point of iron in the upper mantle during the period of coalescence of metal prior to core formation in the primitive earth. ?? 1969.

  19. Recent Changes in Arctic Sea Ice Melt Onset, Freeze-Up, and Melt Season Length

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markus, Thorsten; Stroeve, Julienne C.; Miller, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    In order to explore changes and trends in the timing of Arctic sea ice melt onset and freeze-up and therefore melt season length, we developed a method that obtains this information directly from satellite passive microwave data, creating a consistent data set from 1979 through present. We furthermore distinguish between early melt (the first day of the year when melt is detected) and the first day of continuous melt. A similar distinction is made for the freeze-up. Using this method we analyze trends in melt onset and freeze-up for 10 different Arctic regions. In all regions except for the Sea of Okhotsk, which shows a very slight and statistically insignificant positive trend (O.4 days/decade), trends in melt onset are negative, i.e. towards earlier melt. The trends range from -1.0day/decade for the Bering Sea to -7.3 days/decade for the East Greenland Sea. Except for the Sea of Okhotsk all areas also show a trend towards later autumn freeze onset. The Chukchi/Beaufort Seas and Laptev/East Siberian Seas observe the strongest trends with 7 days/decade. For the entire Arctic, the melt season length has increased by about 20 days over the last 30 years. Largest trends of over 1O days/decade are seen for Hudson Bay, the East Greenland Sea the Laptev/East Siberian Seas, and the Chukchi/Beaufort Seas. Those trends are statistically significant a1 the 99% level.

  20. Carbon solution and partitioning between metallic and silicate melts in a shallow magma ocean: Implications for the origin and distribution of terrestrial carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Rajdeep; Chi, Han; Shimizu, Nobumichi; Buono, Antonio S.; Walker, David

    2013-02-01

    The origin of bulk silicate Earth carbon inventory is unknown and the fate of carbon during the early Earth differentiation and core formation is a missing link in the evolution of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Here we present high pressure (P)-temperature (T) experiments that offer new constraints upon the partitioning of carbon between metallic and silicate melt in a shallow magma ocean. Experiments were performed at 1-5 GPa, 1600-2100 °C on mixtures of synthetic or natural silicates (tholeiitic basalt/alkali basalt/komatiite/fertile peridotite) and Fe-Ni-C ± Co ± S contained in graphite or MgO capsules. All the experiments produced immiscible Fe-rich metallic and silicate melts at oxygen fugacity (fO2) between ˜IW-1.5 and IW-1.9. Carbon and hydrogen concentrations of basaltic glasses and non-glassy quenched silicate melts were determined using secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS) and speciation of dissolved C-O-H volatiles in silicate glasses was studied using Raman spectroscopy. Carbon contents of metallic melts were determined using both electron microprobe and SIMS. Our experiments indicate that at core-forming, reduced conditions, carbon in deep mafic-ultramafic magmas may dissolve primarily as various hydrogenated species but the total carbon storage capacity, although is significantly higher than solubility of CO2 under similar conditions, remains low (<500 ppm). The total carbon content in our reduced melts at graphite saturation increases with increasing melt depolymerization (NBO/T), consistent with recent spectroscopic studies, and modestly with increasing hydration. Carbon behaves as a metal-loving element during core-mantle separation and our experimental DCmetal/silicate varies between ˜4750 and ⩾150 and increases with increasing pressure and decreases with increasing temperature and melt NBO/T. Our data suggest that if only a trace amount of carbon (˜730 ppm C) was available during early Earth differentiation, most of it was

  1. Internal core tightener

    DOEpatents

    Brynsvold, Glen V.; Snyder, Jr., Harold J.

    1976-06-22

    An internal core tightener which is a linear actuated (vertical actuation motion) expanding device utilizing a minimum of moving parts to perform the lateral tightening function. The key features are: (1) large contact areas to transmit loads during reactor operation; (2) actuation cam surfaces loaded only during clamping and unclamping operation; (3) separation of the parts and internal operation involved in the holding function from those involved in the actuation function; and (4) preloaded pads with compliant travel at each face of the hexagonal assembly at the two clamping planes to accommodate thermal expansion and irradiation induced swelling. The latter feature enables use of a "fixed" outer core boundary, and thus eliminates the uncertainty in gross core dimensions, and potential for rapid core reactivity changes as a result of core dimensional change.

  2. Lunar Core and Tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. G.; Boggs, D. H.; Ratcliff, J. T.

    2004-01-01

    Variations in rotation and orientation of the Moon are sensitive to solid-body tidal dissipation, dissipation due to relative motion at the fluid-core/solid-mantle boundary, and tidal Love number k2 [1,2]. There is weaker sensitivity to flattening of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) [2,3,4] and fluid core moment of inertia [1]. Accurate Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) measurements of the distance from observatories on the Earth to four retroreflector arrays on the Moon are sensitive to lunar rotation and orientation variations and tidal displacements. Past solutions using the LLR data have given results for dissipation due to solid-body tides and fluid core [1] plus Love number [1-5]. Detection of CMB flattening, which in the past has been marginal but improving [3,4,5], now seems significant. Direct detection of the core moment has not yet been achieved.

  3. Melting of CaO and CaSiO3 at Deep Mantle Condition Using First Principles Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajgain, S. K.; Ghosh, D. B.; Karki, B. B.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate prediction of melting temperatures of major mantle minerals at high pressures is important to understand the Hadean Earth as well as to explain the observed seismic anomalies at ultra-low velocity zone (ULVZ). To further investigate the geophysical implications of our recent first principles study of molten CaO and CaSiO­3, we calculated the melting temperatures of the corresponding solid phases by integrating the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. The melting behavior of their high-pressure phases can constrain the lower mantle solidus. Our calculations show melting temperature of 5700 ± 500 kelvins for CaSiO3 and 7800 ± 600 kelvins for CaO at the base of the lower mantle (136 GPa). The bulk sound velocities of CaO and CaSiO3 liquids at the core-mantle boundary are found to be 40 % lower than P-wave seismic velocity and 22 % lower than that of MgSiO3 liquid. With substantial decrease of melting temperature by freezing point depression and iron partitioning, the partial melting of multi-component silicate and its gravitational buoyancy at ULVZ cannot be ruled out.

  4. Siderophile elements in IVA irons and the compaction of their parent asteroidal core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albarède, Francis; Bouchet, Romain A.; Blichert-Toft, Janne

    2013-01-01

    The highly siderophile element concentrations of IVA irons constitute an excellent benchmark for asteroidal core processes and, so far, the paradigm, based on the negative correlation between Ni contents and crystallographic cooling rates, has been that they represent a suite of cumulates crystallizing inwards from a molten asteroidal core. It has, however, been recognized that fractional crystallization does not account for all of the siderophile concentration patterns. Here we use the experimental parameterization of siderophile element fractionation with respect to the sulfur content of molten iron (Chabot and Jones, 2003), least-squares techniques, and Monte Carlo error propagation to assess whether incremental changes in the series of IVA irons can be accounted for by fractional crystallization or rather by partial melting. We show that the apparent order of incompatibility during solid-melt segregation deduced from binary plots of siderophile elements is misleading as a result of the strong dependency of partition coefficients on the sulfur content of the melt. All models of fractional crystallization of an Fe-S melt corrected for this effect result in negative sulfur contents. The effect of interstitial melt on fractionation hence is negligible because the high sulfur content of the melts makes all the elements compatible. In contrast, residues left by the compaction of a molten asteroidal core that crystallized with traces of sulfides and silicates according to the incremental form of batch melting provide a successful representation of the IVA suite for a large number of elements. Misfit for some elements may be due to the presence of carbon or reflects memory of variations acquired during the crystallization of the core. It is likely that melting was triggered by 26Al and that melt extraction was enhanced by the high strain-rate of impacts. The calculated S content of the liquid reproduces the experimental value of the Fe-S eutectic (45% S). Inward

  5. Melting-induced fluid flow during exhumation of gneisses of the Sulu ultrahigh-pressure terrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Keqing; Liu, Yongsheng; Hu, Zhaochu; Kusky, Timothy; Wang, Dongbin; Gao, Changgui; Gao, Shan; Wang, Jianqi

    2010-12-01

    Hydrothermally altered rocks are products of fluid-rock interactions, and typically preserve numerous quartz veins that formed as chemical precipitates from fluids that fill up cracks. Thus, quartz veins are the record of the fluid system that involved fracture flow in the direction of changing temperature or pressure. In order to decipher the fluid activity in the Sulu ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) terrane in eastern China, quartz veins together with an adjacent eclogite lens and the host gneiss were studied. In one location a deformed quartz vein is located at the boundary between the host gneiss and the eclogite lens. The amphibolite-facies overprinting of the eclogite lens decreases from the rim to the core of the lens, with fresh eclogite preserved in the core. The foliated biotite gneiss contains felsic veins and residual phengites. Zircon rims from the gneiss are characterized by melt-related signatures with steep HREE patterns, high Hf contents and negative Eu anomalies, and a pool of weighted average 206Pb/ 238U analyses reveal an age of 219 ± 3 Ma (2σ), which is younger than the UHP metamorphic age (236 ± 2 Ma, 2σ) recorded by zircons from the eclogite lens. This suggests that the gneiss in the Sulu UHP terrane could have suffered from partial melting due to phengite dehydration during the "hot" exhumation stage. The formation age of the quartz vein (219 ± 2 Ma, 2σ) defined by zircon rims agrees well with the partial melting time (219 ± 3 Ma, 2σ) of the host gneiss. The initial 176Hf/ 177Hf ratios of zircon rims from the quartz vein are obviously lower than zircons from the eclogite lens, but overlap with the coeval zircon domains from the nearby granite dikes produced by partial melting of orthogneiss. These observations suggest that the quartz vein and corresponding fluid flow could be associated with partial melting of the host gneiss. On the other hand, amphibole-bearing and HREE-rich zircon rims from the amphibolite pool an amphibolite

  6. Partial melting on iron(II) oxide-rich asteroids: Insights to the first stage of planetary differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner-Vandy, Kathryn Gail

    2012-05-01

    The melting of planetesimals was a widespread geologic phenomenon taking place in the early inner solar system. Petrologic and geochemical evidence shows that this melting frequently resulted in full differentiation of planetary bodies into a core, mantle, and crust. The extent of this early planetary melting is evidenced in the breadth of achondrite meteorites. In the achondrite meteorite group, there exist meteorites that experienced low degrees of melting, such that the parent body underwent partial melting and did not fully differentiate. These meteorites, called the primitive achondrites, are a window to the first stage of melting in the early solar system. The primitive achondrites with FeO-poor silicate compositions have been well-studied, but little is known about the formation conditions and history of the FeO-rich primitive achondrites, which includes the brachinites and several ungrouped meteorites. The brachinites are olivine-dominated meteorites with a recrystallized texture that show evidence of partial melting and melt removal on their parent body. The ungrouped primitive achondrites are also olivine-dominated meteorites with a recrystallized texture, but they exhibit a larger range in mineralogy with most being essentially chondritic and containing relict chondrules. In this dissertation, I present a study of the petrology, geochemistry and formation conditions of the FeO-rich primitive achondrites. I analyze the petrology and bulk composition of the meteorites, and I conduct thermodynamic modelling of the mineral assemblages to determine oxidation conditions during their formation. Finally, I attempt to simulate the formation of the brachinite meteorites through 1-atmosphere, gas-mixing partial melting experiments of an FeO-rich chondritic meteorite. These meteorites represent a continuum of partial melting, akin to that seen in the acapulcoite-lodranite clan of primitive achondrites. Mineral compositions and oxygen fugacity formation conditions

  7. The Role of CO2 on Silica Undersaturated Melt Structure: Implication for Melt Physical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaillet, B.; Morizet, Y.; Paris, M.; Gaillard, F.

    2012-12-01

    Silica undersaturated melts such as nephelinite and melilitite are very peculiar magmatic materials. Their occurrence on the Earth surface is often associated with carbonatites melts. These low-silica melts can dissolve a large quantity of CO2 issued from mantle fluid metasomatism. However, the melt structure, the way CO2 dissolves into these melts and the effect of different alkalis element are poorly constrained. We present preliminary experimental results on the melt structure of synthetic nephelinite (NBO/T = 1.25) and Ca-melilitite (NBO/T = 2.50) synthesized in the NKCMAS system and equilibrated at high-pressure (200-300 MPa), high-temperature (1250°C) with an excess C-O-H fluid phase. The nephelinite glasses were synthesized with varying K2O / K2O+Na2O (0-10 mol.% K2O) ratio so as to investigate the differential effect of those two cations. All experiments were conducted under oxidizing conditions (ΔNNO+5) resulting in binary fluid phase composition with CO2 and H2O species. The silicate melt structure, CO2 solubility and speciation were investigated using Micro-Raman and Solid State NMR spectroscopies for 13C, 1H, 29Si, 27Al and 23Na nuclei. The replacement of Na by K does not change the nephelinite melt structure for volatile-free sample suggesting that the basicity of these glasses is not dramatically affected by the presence of mixed alkali. Within 5 mol.% K2O, the CO2 solubility (measured in relative to Raman signature of the melt structure) is only slightly affected with an increasing CO2 solubility with increasing K2O content. As a function of pressure, we observe an increase in CO2 solubility consistent with previous studies. The 13C NMR investigation of the CO2 speciation show three different carbonates environments for CO2 in nephelinite melts attributed to non-network carbonates: 1) 170 ppm shift assigned to NBO-carb. Na or K; 2) 169 ppm assigned to NBO-carb. Ca; and 3) 165 ppm assigned to isolated Na+..CO32- carbonates. As K2O is increased into

  8. Investigating evaporation of melting ice particles within a bin melting layer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Andrea J.

    Single column models have been used to help develop algorithms for remote sensing retrievals. Assumptions in the single-column models may affect the assumptions of the remote sensing retrievals. Studies of the melting layer that use single column models often assume environments that are near or at water saturation. This study investigates the effects of evaporation upon melting particles to determine whether the assumption of negligible mass loss still holds within subsaturated melting layers. A single column, melting layer model is modified to include the effects of sublimation and evaporation upon the particles. Other changes to the model include switching the order in which the model loops over particle sizes and model layers; including a particle sedimentation scheme; adding aggregation, accretion, and collision and coalescence processes; allowing environmental variables such as the water vapor diffusivity and the Schmidt number to vary with the changes in the environment; adding explicitly calculated particle temperature, changing the particle terminal velocity parameterization; and using a newly-derived effective density-dimensional relationship for use in particle mass calculations. Simulations of idealized melting layer environments show that significant mass loss due to evaporation during melting is possible within subsaturated environments. Short melting distances, accelerating particle fall speeds, and short melting times help constrain the amount of mass lost due to evaporation while melting is occurring, even in subsaturated profiles. Sublimation prior to melting can also be a significant source of mass loss. The trends shown on the particle scale also appear in the bulk distribution parameters such as rainfall rate and ice water content. Simulations incorporating observed melting layer environments show that significant mass loss due to evaporation during the melting process is possible under certain environmental conditions. A profile such as the

  9. Using Melting Ice to Teach Radiometric Dating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Donald Underkofler

    1990-01-01

    Presented is an activity in which a mystery setting is used to motivate students to construct their own decay curves of melting ice used as an analogy to radioactive decay. Procedures, materials, apparatus, discussion topics, presentation, and thermodynamics are discussed. (CW)

  10. Can Text Messages Mitigate Summer Melt?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castleman, Benjamin L.; Page, Lindsay C.

    2013-01-01

    Higher education officials have long been familiar with the concept of "summer melt," where students who have paid a deposit to attend one college or university instead matriculate at a different institution, usually presumed to be of comparable quality. In previous research, drawing on longitudinal data from various urban school…

  11. Formation of melt channels on ice shelves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergienko, Olga

    2013-04-01

    Melt channels have been observed on ice shelves experiencing strong melting in both Greenland (Petermann Glacier) and Antarctica (Pine Island Glacier). Using a fully-couple ice-shelf/sub-ice-shelf-ocean flow model, it is demonstrated that these channels can form spontaneously in laterally confined ice shelves. These channels have transverse extent of a few kilometers and a vertical relief of about a few hundred meters. Meltrates and sea-water transport in the channels are significantly higher than in between the channels on the smooth flat ice bottom. In circumstances where an ice shelf has no-slip conditions at its lateral boundaries, the ice-shelf/sub-ice-shelf-cavity system exhibits equilibrium periodic states, where the same configurations repetitively appear with a periodicity of about 30-35 years. This peculiar dynamics of the system has strong implications on the interpretation of the remote and in-situ observations and inferences of the system parameters (e.g., melt rates) based on these observations. For instance, the persistent temporal changes in the ice-shelf thickness are caused by internal dynamics of the melt channels, and, in contrast to traditional interpretation, can be independent of the oceanic forcings.

  12. Method for the melting of metals

    DOEpatents

    White, Jack C.; Traut, Davis E.

    1992-01-01

    A method of quantitatively determining the molten pool configuration in melting of metals. The method includes the steps of introducing hafnium metal seeds into a molten metal pool at intervals to form ingots, neutron activating the ingots and determining the hafnium location by radiometric means. Hafnium possesses exactly the proper metallurgical and radiochemical properties for this use.

  13. Structure of carbonate melts at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudspeth, J.; Sanloup, C.; Cochain, B.; Konopkova, Z.; Afonina, V.; Morgenroth, W.

    2015-12-01

    Carbonate melts are rare magmas with only a single active volcano (Oldoinyo Lengai,Tanzania [1]). They are of fundamental interest for their role in the Earth's deep carbon cycle and are of immense economic importance due to their affinity for REE strategic metals (niobium, uranium, tantalum, etc). They have remarkable physical properties such as very low viscosity [2] and magmatic temperatures for alkaline carbonate lavas [3] and it has been predicted that their compressibility could be significantly higher than that of silicate melts [4,5]. Despite the atomic structure of carbonate melts being fundamental for controlling their physical and chemical behavior in natural systems, very few structural studies have been reported and these have been largely computational. Here we present initial structural investigations of carbonate melts at mantle pressures using in situ x-ray diffraction in diamond anvil cells. The structure factor S(Q) is transformed to obtain the real space pair distribution function G(R) which describes the local and intermediate range atomic ordering allowing bond length and coordination number changes with pressure to be determined. [1] Krafft and Keller, Science 245:168-170, 1989 [2] Yono et al., Nat. Commun. 5:5091, 2014 [3] Dobson et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 143:207-215, 1996 [4] Genge et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 131:225-238, 1995 [5] Jones et al., Rev. Mineral. Geochem. 75:289-322, 2013

  14. New melting transition in Quantum Hall systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simion, George; Lin, Tsuging; Watson, John D.; Manfra, Michael J.; Csathy, Gabor; Rokhinson, Leonid; Lyanda-Geller, Yuli

    2014-03-01

    We discover a new melting transition caused by topological excitations of two dimensional electrons in the quantum Hall regime. Experimentally, strain dependence of resistivity changes sign upon crossing filling-factor-specified boundaries of reentrant integer quantum Hall effect (RIQHE) states. This observation violates the symmetry of electron bubble crystal, whose melting was thought to be responsible for insulator to metal transition in the range of RIQHE filling factors. We demonstrate theoretically that electron bubbles become elongated in the vicinity of charge defects and form textures of finite size. Textures lower the energy of excitations. In the two-electron bubble crystal these textures form hedgehogs (vortices) around defects having (lacking) one extra electron. At low density these textures form an insulating Abrikosov lattice. At densities sufficient to cause the textures to overlap, their interactions are described by the XY-model and the defect lattice melts. This explains the sharp metal-insulator transition observed in finite temperature conductivity measurements. In this regime, melting is a function of several variables and forms a continuous phase boundary in the field-temperature (B - T) plane. Research was partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under Awards DE-SC0010544 (Y.L-G), DE-SC0008630 (L.P.R.), DE-SC0006671 (G.S. and M.M.).

  15. Kinetics of bulk crystallisation of supercooled melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernov, A. A.; Pil'nik, A. A.

    2016-10-01

    The exact solution that fully describes the kinetics of the growth of a spherical crystal in supercooled melt is found. The kinetic model of nucleation-mediated crystallization is presented. It correctly takes into account the change in supercooling of the initial phase in the process of formation and evolution of a new phase.

  16. Optical Melting Measurements of Nucleic Acid Thermodynamics

    PubMed Central