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Sample records for potassium carbonates

  1. Potassium carbonate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Potassium carbonate is a white powder used to make soap, glass, and other items. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or breathing in potassium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 184.1619 Section 184.1619... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Potassium carbonate... of potassium chloride followed by exposing the resultant potassium to carbon dioxide; (2) By...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 184.1619 Section 184.1619... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Potassium carbonate... of potassium chloride followed by exposing the resultant potassium to carbon dioxide; (2) By...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 184.1619 Section 184.1619... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Potassium carbonate... of potassium chloride followed by exposing the resultant potassium to carbon dioxide; (2) By...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium carbonate. 184.1619 Section 184.1619 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Potassium carbonate (K2CO3, CAS... potassium chloride followed by exposing the resultant potassium to carbon dioxide; (2) By treating...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 184.1619 Section 184.1619... GRAS § 184.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Potassium carbonate (K2CO3, CAS Reg. No. 584-08-7) is produced by the following methods of manufacture: (1) By electrolysis of potassium chloride followed...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 582.1619 Section 582.1619 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Product. Potassium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  8. 21 CFR 582.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 582.1619 Section 582.1619 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Product. Potassium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  9. 21 CFR 582.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 582.1619 Section 582.1619 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Product. Potassium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  10. 21 CFR 582.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 582.1619 Section 582.1619 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Product. Potassium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  11. 21 CFR 582.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 582.1619 Section 582.1619 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Product. Potassium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  12. Finned Carbon-Carbon Heat Pipe with Potassium Working Fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    2010-01-01

    This elemental space radiator heat pipe is designed to operate in the 700 to 875 K temperature range. It consists of a C-C (carbon-carbon) shell made from poly-acrylonitride fibers that are woven in an angle interlock pattern and densified with pitch at high process temperature with integrally woven fins. The fins are 2.5 cm long and 1 mm thick, and provide an extended radiating surface at the colder condenser section of the heat pipe. The weave pattern features a continuous fiber bath from the inner tube surface to the outside edges of the fins to maximize the thermal conductance, and to thus minimize the temperature drop at the condenser end. The heat pipe and radiator element together are less than one-third the mass of conventional heat pipes of the same heat rejection surface area. To prevent the molten potassium working fluid from eroding the C C heat pipe wall, the shell is lined with a thin-walled, metallic tube liner (Nb-1 wt.% Zr), which is an integral part of a hermetic metal subassembly which is furnace-brazed to the inner surface of the C-C tube. The hermetic metal liner subassembly includes end caps and fill tubes fabricated from the same Nb-1Zr alloy. A combination of laser and electron beam methods is used to weld the end caps and fill tubes. A tungsten/inert gas weld seals the fill tubes after cleaning and charging the heat pipes with potassium. The external section of this liner, which was formed by a "Uniscan" rolling process, transitions to a larger wall thickness. This section, which protrudes beyond the C-C shell, constitutes the "evaporator" part of the heat pipe, while the section inside the shell constitutes the condenser of the heat pipe (see figure).

  13. Potassium

    MedlinePlus

    Potassium is essential for the proper functioning of the heart, kidneys, muscles, nerves, and digestive system. Usually the food you eat supplies all of the potassium you need. However, certain diseases (e.g., kidney ...

  14. Potassium

    MedlinePlus

    ... blackberries Root vegetables, such as carrots and potatoes Citrus fruits, such as oranges and grapefruit Your kidneys help to keep the right amount of potassium in your body. If you have chronic kidney disease, your kidneys may not remove extra potassium from ...

  15. Interaction between adsorbed hydrogen and potassium on a carbon nanocone containing material as studied by photoemission

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Xiaofeng; Raaen, Steinar

    2015-09-14

    Hydrogen adsorption on a potassium doped carbon nanocone containing material was studied by photoelectron spectroscopy and work function measurement. The valence band spectra indicate that there is charge transfer from potassium to carbon. Upon deposition on carbon potassium is in its ionic state for lower doping and shows both ionic and metallic behavior at higher doping. Adsorption of hydrogen facilitates diffusion of potassium on the carbon material as seen by changes in the K{sub 2p} core level spectrum. Variations in the measured sample work function indicate that hydrogen initially adsorb on the K dopants and subsequently adsorb on the carbon cone containing material.

  16. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; A. Frank Seibert; J. Tim Cullinane; Terraun Jones

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. Progress has been made in this reporting period on three subtasks. The rigorous Electrolyte Non-Random Two-Liquid (electrolyte-NRTL) model has been regressed to represent CO{sub 2} solubility in potassium carbonate/bicarbonate solutions. An analytical method for piperazine has been developed using a gas chromatograph. Funding has been obtained and equipment has been donated to provide for modifications of the existing pilot plant system with stainless steel materials.

  17. Synthesis of potassium hexatitanate whiskers starting from metatitanic acid and potassium carbonate and sulfate by calcination method

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Chunyan; Yin Hengbo Liu Yumin; Ren Min; Wang Aili; Ge Chen; Yao Hengping; Feng Hui; Chen Jun; Jiang Tingshun

    2009-05-06

    Potassium hexatitanate whiskers were synthesized starting from metatitanic acid (H{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}), potassium carbonate and sulfate by calcination method. The effects of mole ratios of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to metatitanic acid (H{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}), content of potassium sulfate, and calcination temperature on the crystallinity and morphology of the resultant potassium titanate whiskers were investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Well crystallized potassium hexatitanate whiskers with an average length of 7.3 {mu}m and an average diameter of 0.62 {mu}m were synthesized when the molar ratio of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to metatitanic acid was kept at 1:3.5 and the calcination temperature was up to 1150 deg. C. The presence of K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} favored the formation of thin potassium hexatitanate whiskers as compared to the absence of K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The whiteness and brightness of the synthesized potassium hexatitanate whiskers were comparable to that of rutile TiO{sub 2} pigment.

  18. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Andrew Sexton; Jason Davis; Marcus Hilliard; Qing Xu; David Van Wagener; Jorge M. Plaza

    2007-03-31

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. The best K{sup +}/PZ solvent, 4.5 m K{sup +}/4.5 m PZ, requires equivalent work of 31.8 kJ/mole CO{sub 2} when used with a double matrix stripper and an intercooled absorber. The oxidative degradation of piperazine or organic acids is reduced significantly by inhibitor A, but the production of ethylenediamine is unaffected. The oxidative degradation of piperazine in 7 m MEA/2 m PZ is catalyzed by Cu{sup ++}. The thermal degradation of MEA becomes significant at 120 C. The solubility of potassium sulfate in MEA/PZ solvents is increased at greater CO{sub 2} loading. The best solvent and process configuration, matrix with MDEA/PZ, offers 22% and 15% energy savings over the baseline and improved baseline, respectively, with stripping and compression to 10 MPa. The energy requirement for stripping and compression to 10 MPa is about 20% of the power output from a 500 MW power plant with 90% CO{sub 2} removal. The stripper rate model shows that a ''short and fat'' stripper requires 7 to 15% less equivalent work than a ''tall and skinny'' one. The stripper model was validated with data obtained from pilot plant experiments at the University of Texas with 5m K{sup +}/2.5m PZ and 6.4m K{sup +}/1.6m PZ under normal pressure and vacuum conditions using Flexipac AQ Style 20 structured packing. Experiments with oxidative degradation at low gas rates confirm the effects of Cu{sup +2} catalysis; in MEA/PZ solutions more formate and acetate is produced in the presence of Cu{sup +2}. At 150 C, the half life of 30% MEA with 0.4 moles CO{sub 2}/mole amine is about 2 weeks. At 100 C, less than 3% degradation occurred in two weeks. The solubility of potassium sulfate in MEA solution increases significantly with CO{sub 2} loading and decreases with MEA concentration. The base case corrosion

  19. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; Babatunde Oyenekan; Andrew Sexton; Jason Davis; Marus Hiilliard; Qing Xu; David Van Wagener; Jorge M. Plaza

    2006-12-31

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. The best solvent and process configuration, matrix with MDEA/PZ, offers 22% and 15% energy savings over the baseline and improved baseline, respectively, with stripping and compression to 10 MPa. The energy requirement for stripping and compression to 10 MPa is about 20% of the power output from a 500 MW power plant with 90% CO{sub 2} removal. The stripper rate model shows that a ''short and fat'' stripper requires 7 to 15% less equivalent work than a ''tall and skinny'' one. The stripper model was validated with data obtained from pilot plant experiments at the University of Texas with 5m K{sup +}/2.5m PZ and 6.4m K{sup +}/1.6m PZ under normal pressure and vacuum conditions using Flexipac AQ Style 20 structured packing. Experiments with oxidative degradation at low gas rates confirm the effects of Cu{sup +2} catalysis; in MEA/PZ solutions more formate and acetate is produced in the presence of Cu{sup +2}. At 150 C, the half life of 30% MEA with 0.4 moles CO{sub 2}/mole amine is about 2 weeks. At 100 C, less than 3% degradation occurred in two weeks. The solubility of potassium sulfate in MEA solution increases significantly with CO{sub 2} loading and decreases with MEA concentration. The base case corrosion rate in 5 M MEA/1,2M PZ is 22 mpy. With 1 wt% heat stable salt, the corrosion rate increases by 50% to 160% in the order: thiosulfate< oxalatecarbonate is ineffective in the absence of oxygen, but 50 to 250 ppm reduces corrosion to less than 2 mpy in the presence of oxygen.

  20. Advances in potassium catalyzed NOx reduction by carbon materials: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Bueno-Lopez, A.; Garcia-Garcia, A.; Illan-Gomez, M.J.; Linares-Solano, A.; de Lecea, C.S.M.

    2007-06-15

    The research work conducted in our group concerning the study of the potassium-catalyzed NOx reduction by carbon materials is presented. The importance of the different variables affecting the NOx-carbon reactions is discussed, e.g. carbon porosity, coal rank, potassium loading, influence of the binder used, and effect of the gas composition. The catalyst loading is the main feature affecting the selectivity for NOx reduction against O{sub 2} combustion. The NOx reduction without important combustion in O{sub 2} occurs between 350 and 475{sup o}C in the presence of the catalyst. The presence of H{sub 2}O in the gas mixture enhances NOx reduction at low carbon conversions, but as the reaction proceeds, it decreases as the selectivity does. The presence of CO{sub 2} diminishes the activity and selectivity of the catalyst. SO{sub 2} completely inhibits the catalytic activity of potassium due to sulfate formation.

  1. Scattering strength of potassium on a carbon nanotube with known chirality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchikawa, Ryuichi; Heligman, D.; Blue, B. T.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Ahmadi, A.; Mucciolo, E. R.; Hone, J.; Ishigami, M.

    2016-07-01

    We have measured the scattering strength of charged impurities on a semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube with known chirality. The resistivity of the nanotube is measured as a function of the density of adsorbed potassium atoms, enabling the determination of the resistance added by an individual potassium atom. Holes are scattered 37 times more efficiently than electrons by an adsorbed potassium atom. The determined scattering strength is used to reveal the spatial extent and depth of the scattering potential for potassium, a model Coulomb adsorbate. Our result represents an essential experimental input to understand adsorbate-induced scattering and provides a crucial step for paving the way to rational design of nanotube-based sensors.

  2. Effectiveness of potassium carbonate sesquihydrate to increase dietary cation-anion difference in early lactation cows.

    PubMed

    Harrison, J; White, R; Kincaid, R; Block, E; Jenkins, T; St-Pierre, N

    2012-07-01

    The effect of additional dietary potassium in early lactation dairy cows was evaluated with the addition of potassium carbonate sesquihydrate, which increased dietary K from 1.3 to 2.1% of dry matter (DM) from wk 3 to 12 of lactation. Cows fed potassium carbonate sesquihydrate in the form of DCAD Plus (Church & Dwight Co. Inc., Princeton, NJ) had increased DM intake, milk fat percentage and yield, energy-corrected milk, and efficiency of milk production per unit of DM intake. Milk fat of cows fed higher dietary K had a lower concentration of trans fatty acids, suggesting a role for potassium carbonate sesquihydrate in the rumen in the biohydrogenation processes converting linoleic to stearic acid. Cows fed the diet with 2.1% K had greater apparent balance of K, and no effects were noted on the concentration of blood Mg or amount of fecal Mg. The data support the feeding of greater amounts of K in the early lactation cow.

  3. Authigenic potassium feldspar in Cambrian carbonates: Evidence of Alleghanian brine migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hearn, P.P.; Sutter, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    The shallow-water limestones and dolostones of the Conococheague Limestone (Upper Cambrian) of western Maryland contain large amounts of authigenic potassium feldspar. The presence of halite daughter crystals in breached fluid inclusions, low whole-rock ratios of chlorine to bromine, and thermochemical data suggest that the potassium feldspar formed at low temperature by the reaction of connate brines with intercalated siliciclastic debris. Analyses of argon age spectra indicate that the authigenic feldspar probably formed during Late Pennsylvanian to Early Permian time. These results may indicate mobilization and migration of connate brines brought about by Alleghanian folding. The widespread occurrence of authigenic potassium feldspar in Cambrian and Ordovician carbonate rocks throughout the Appalachians suggests that this may have occurred throughout the entire basin.

  4. Production of activated carbons from pyrolysis of waste tires impregnated with potassium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Teng, H; Lin, Y C; Hsu, L Y

    2000-11-01

    Activated carbons were produced from waste tires using a chemical activation method. The carbon production process consisted of potassium hydroxide (KOH) impregnation followed by pyrolysis in N2 at 600-900 degrees C for 0-2 hr. The activation method can produce carbons with a surface area (SA) and total pore volume as high as 470 m2/g and 0.57 cm3/g, respectively. The influence of different parameters during chemical activation, such as pyrolysis temperature, holding time, and KOH/tire ratio, on the carbon yield and the surface characteristics was explored, and the optimum preparation conditions were recommended. The pore volume of the resulting carbons generally increases with the extent of carbon gasified by KOH and its derivatives, whereas the SA increases with degree of gasification to reach a maximum value, and then decreases upon further gasification. PMID:11111338

  5. Adsorption of pharmaceuticals to microporous activated carbon treated with potassium hydroxide, carbon dioxide, and steam.

    PubMed

    Fu, Heyun; Yang, Liuyan; Wan, Yuqiu; Xu, Zhaoyi; Zhu, Dongqiang

    2011-01-01

    Adsorption of sulfapyridine, tetracycline, and tylosin to a commercial microporous activated carbon (AC) and its potassium hydroxide (KOH)-, CO-, and steam-treated counterparts (prepared by heating at 850°C) was studied to explore efficient adsorbents for the removal of selected pharmaceuticals from water. Phenol and nitrobenzene were included as additional adsorbates, and nonporous graphite was included as a model adsorbent. The activation treatments markedly increased the specific surface area and enlarged the pore sizes of the mesopores of AC (with the strongest effects shown on the KOH-treated AC). Adsorption of large-size tetracycline and tylosin was greatly enhanced, especially for the KOH-treated AC (more than one order of magnitude), probably due to the alleviated size-exclusion effect. However, the treatments had little effect on adsorption of low-size phenol and nitrobenzene due to the predominance of micropore-filling effect in adsorption and the nearly unaffected content of small micropores causative to such effect. These hypothesized mechanisms on pore-size dependent adsorption were further tested by comparing surface area-normalized adsorption data and adsorbent pore size distributions with and without the presence of adsorbed antibiotics. The findings indicate that efficient adsorption of bulky pharmaceuticals to AC can be achieved by enlarging the adsorbent pore size through suitable activation treatments.

  6. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; Babatunde Oyenekan; Andrew Sexton; Jason Davis; Marcus Hilliard; Amorvadee Veawab

    2006-07-28

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. The pilot plant data have been reconciled using 17% inlet CO{sub 2}. A rate-based model demonstrates that the stripper is primarily controlled by liquid film mast transfer resistance, with kinetics at vacuum and diffusion of reactants and products at normal pressure. An additional major unknown ion, probably glyoxylate, has been observed in MEA degradation. Precipitation of gypsum may be a feasible approach to removing sulphate from amine solutions and providing for simultaneous removal of CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}. Corrosion of carbon steel in uninhibited MEA solution is increased by increased amine concentration, by addition of piperazine, and by greater CO{sub 2} loading.

  7. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; Babatunde Oyenekan; Andrew Sexton; Jason Davis; Marcus Hilliard; Amornvadee Veawab

    2006-09-30

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. Ethylenediamine was detected in a degraded solution of MEA/PZ solution, suggesting that piperazine is subject to oxidation. Stripper modeling has demonstrated that vacuum strippers will be more energy efficient if constructed short and fat rather than tall and skinny. The matrix stripper has been identified as a configuration that will significantly reduce energy use. Extensive measurements of CO{sub 2} solubility in 7 m MEA at 40 and 60 C have confirmed the work by Jou and Mather. Corrosion of carbon steel without inhibitors increases from 19 to 181 mpy in lean solutions of 6.2 m MEA/PZ as piperazine increases from 0 to 3.1 m.

  8. Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Ratios of Sodium and Potassium Cyanide as a Forensic Signature

    SciTech Connect

    Kruzer, Helen W; Horita, Juske; Moran, James J; Tomkins, Bruce A; Janszen, Derek B; Carman, April

    2012-01-01

    Sodium and potassium cyanide are highly toxic, produced in large amounts by the chemical industry, and linked to numerous high-profile crimes. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has identified cyanide as one of the most probable agents to be used in a future chemical terrorism event. We investigated whether stable C and N isotopic content of sodium and potassium cyanide could serve as a forensic signature for sample matching, using a collection of 65 cyanide samples. A few of these samples displayed non-homogeneous isotopic content associated with degradation to a carbonate salt and loss of hydrogen cyanide. Most samples had highly reproducible isotope content. Of these, >95% could be properly matched based on C and N isotope ratios, with a false match rate <3%. These results suggest that stable C and N isotope ratios are a useful forensic signature for matching cyanide samples.

  9. Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Ratios of Sodium and Potassium Cyanide as a Forensic Signature

    SciTech Connect

    Kreuzer, Helen W.; Horita, Juske; Moran, James J.; Tomkins, Bruce; Janszen, Derek B.; Carman, April J.

    2012-01-03

    Sodium and potassium cyanide are highly toxic, produced in large amounts by the chemical industry, and linked to numerous high-profile crimes. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has identified cyanide as one of the most probable agents to be used in a future chemical terrorism event. We investigated whether stable C and N isotopic content of sodium and potassium cyanide could serve as a forensic signature for sample matching, using a collection of 65 cyanide samples. A few of these samples displayed non-homogeneous isotopic content associated with degradation to a carbonate salt and loss of hydrogen cyanide. Most samples had highly reproducible isotope content. Of these, >95% could be properly matched based on C and N isotope ratios, with a false match rate <3%. These results suggest that stable C and N isotope ratios are a useful forensic signature for matching cyanide samples.

  10. Comparison of two different carbon nanotube-based surfaces with respect to potassium ferricyanide electrochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taurino, Irene; Carrara, Sandro; Giorcelli, Mauro; Tagliaferro, Alberto; De Micheli, Giovanni

    2012-02-01

    This paper describes the electrochemical investigation of two multi-walled carbon nanotube-based electrodes using potassium ferricyanide as a benchmark redox system. Carbon nanotubes were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition on silicon wafer with camphor and ferrocene as precursors. Vertically-aligned as well as islands of horizontally-randomly-oriented carbon nanotubes were obtained by varying the growth parameters. Cyclic voltammetry was the employed method for this electrochemical study. Vertical nanotubes showed a slightly higher kinetic. Regarding the sensing parameters we found a sensitivity for vertical nanotubes almost equal to the sensitivity obtained with horizontally/randomly oriented nanotubes (71.5 ± 0.3 μA/(mM cm2) and 62.8 ± 0.3 μA/(mM cm2), respectively). In addition, values of detection limit are of the same order of magnitude. Although tip contribution to electron emission has been shown to be greatly larger than the lateral contribution on single carbon nanotubes per unit area, the new findings reported in this paper demonstrate that the global effects of nanotube surface on potassium ferricyanide electrochemistry are comparable for these two types of nanostructured surfaces.

  11. Preparation of activated carbons from cherry stones by activation with potassium hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivares-Marín, M.; Fernández-González, C.; Macías-García, A.; Gómez-Serrano, V.

    2006-06-01

    Using cherry stones, the preparation of activated carbon has been undertaken in the present study by chemical activation with potassium hydroxide. A series of KOH-activated products was prepared by varying the carbonisation temperature in the 400 900 °C range. Such products were characterised texturally by gas adsorption (N2, -196 °C), mercury porosimetry, and helium and mercury density measurements. FT-IR spectroscopy was also applied. The carbons prepared as a rule are microporous and macroporous solids. The degree of development of surface area and porosity increases with increasing carbonisation temperature. For the carbon heated at 900 °C the specific surface area (BET) is 1624 m2 g-1, the micropore volume is 0.67 cm3 g-1, the mesopore volume is 0.28 cm3 g-1, and the macropore volume is 1.84 cm3 g-1.

  12. Potassium nutrition and water availability affect phloem transport of photosynthetic carbon in eucalypt trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epron, Daniel; Cabral, Osvaldo; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Dannoura, Masako; Packer, Ana Paula; Plain, Caroline; Battie-Laclau, Patricia; Moreira, Marcelo; Trivelin, Paulo; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; Gérant, Dominique; Nouvellon, Yann

    2015-04-01

    Potassium fertilisation strongly affects growth and carbon partitioning of eucalypt on tropical soil that are strongly weathered. In addition, potassium fertilization could be of great interest in mitigating the adverse consequences of drought in planted forests, as foliar K concentrations influence osmotic adjustment, stomatal regulation and phloem loading. Phloem is the main pathway for transferring photosynthate from source leaves to sink organs, thus controlling growth partitioning among the different tree compartments. But little is known about the effect of potassium nutrition on phloem transport of photosynthetic carbon and on the interaction between K nutrition and water availability. In situ 13C pulse labelling was conducted on tropical eucalypt trees (Eucalyptus grandis L.) grown in a trial plantation with plots in which 37% of throughfall were excluded (about 500 mm/yr) using home-made transparent gutters (-W) or not (+W) and plots that received 0.45 mol K m-2 applied as KCl three months after planting (+K) or not (-K). Three trees were labelled in each of the four treatments (+K+W, +K-W, -K+W and -K-W). Trees were labelled for one hour by injecting pure 13CO2 in a 27 m3 whole crown chamber. We estimated the velocity of carbon transfer in the trunk by comparing time lags between the uptake of 13CO2 and its recovery in trunk CO2 efflux recorded by off axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (Los Gatos Research) in two chambers per tree, one just under the crown and one at the base of the trunk. We analyzed the dynamics of the label recovered in the foliage and in the phloem sap by analysing carbon isotope composition of bulk leaf organic matter and phloem extracts using an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. The velocity of carbon transfer in the trunk and the initial rate 13C disappearance from the foliage were much higher in +K trees than in -K trees with no significant effect of rainfall. The volumetric flow of phloem, roughly estimated by multiplying

  13. Effects of potassium hydroxide post-treatments on the field-emission properties of thermal chemical vapor deposited carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Li-Ying; Lee, Shih-Fong; Chang, Yung-Ping; Hsiao, Wei-Shao

    2011-12-01

    In this study, a simple potassium hydroxide treatment was applied to functionalize the surface and to modify the structure of multi-walled carbon nanotubes grown on silicon substrates by thermal chemical vapor deposition. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometry were employed to investigate the mechanism causing the modified field-emission properties of carbon nanotubes. From our experimental data, the emitted currents of carbon nanotubes after potassium hydroxide treatment are enhanced by more than one order of magnitude compared with those of untreated carbon nanotubes. The emitted current density of carbon nanotubes increases from 0.44 mA/cm2 to 7.92 mA/cm2 after 30 minutes KOH treatment. This technique provides a simple, economical, and effective way to enhance the field-emission properties of carbon nanotubes. PMID:22409082

  14. Carbonation and hydration characteristics of dry potassium-based sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture

    SciTech Connect

    Chuanwen Zhao; Xiaoping Chen; Changsui Zhao; Yakun Liu

    2009-03-15

    Thermogravimetric apparatus (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been used to study the characteristics of potassium-based sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture. The carbonation reactivity of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}.1.5H{sub 2}O and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} dehydrated from K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. 1.5H{sub 2}O was weak. However, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} calcined from KHCO{sub 3} showed excellent carbonation capacity and no deactivation of sorbents during multiple cycles. The XRD results showed that the sample dehydrated from K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}1.5H{sub 2}O was K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} with structure of monoclinic crystal (PCNo.1). The carbonation products of PCNo.1 included K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}.1.5H{sub 2}O and KHCO{sub 3}, and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. 1.5H{sub 2}O was the main product. Correspondingly, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} with structure of hexagonal crystal (PCNo.2) was the product calcined from KHCO{sub 3}, and the main carbonation product of PCNo.2 was KHCO{sub 3}. The byproduct of K{sub 4}H{sub 2}(CO{sub 3})3.1.5H{sub 2}O for PCNo.2 would affect the carbonation processes. Hydration tests confirmed the two hypotheses: the hydration reaction will first occur for K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} with structure of monoclinic crystal, and the carbonation reaction will first occur for K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} with structure of hexagonal crystal. The reaction principles were analyzed by product and the relevant reactions. This investigation can be used as basic data for dry potassium-based sorbents capturing CO{sub 2} from flue gas. 20 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Effect of potassium salts and distillery effluent on carbon mineralization in soil.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Suresh; Joshi, H C; Pathak, H; Jain, M C; Kalra, N

    2002-07-01

    Distillery effluent, a rich source of potassium, is used for irrigation at many places in the world. A laboratory experiment was conducted to study the influence of potassium salts present in post-methanation distillery effluent (PME) along with two other salts, KCl and K2SO4, on mineralization of carbon in soil. PME oxidized with H2O2, raw PME, KCl and K2SO4 solutions containing K equivalent to 10%, 20%, 40% and 100% of K present in PME were added to the soil separately, maintaining four replications for each treatment and control. Addition of salts up to a certain concentration stimulated C mineralization but a decline was noticed at higher concentrations. All the levels of salts caused higher CO2 evolution than the control suggesting that the presence of K salts enhanced the microbial activity resulting in increased CO2 evolution. The influence of K2SO4 was significantly higher than KCl in stimulating C mineralization in soil. Oxidized effluent had a higher stimulating effect than inorganic salts, showing the influence of other salts accompanying K in the PME. Raw PME, which contained excess organic C, increased CO2 evolution even at the highest salt level (100% PME) signifying the effect of added C on alleviating the salt stress on microbial activity. PMID:12094803

  16. High performance of potassium n-doped carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radosavljević, M.; Appenzeller, J.; Avouris, Ph.; Knoch, J.

    2004-05-01

    We describe a robust technique for the fabrication of high performance vertically scaled n-doped field-effect transistors from large band gap carbon nanotubes. These devices have a tunable threshold voltage in the technologically relevant range (-1.3 V⩽Vth⩽0.5 V) and can carry up to 5-6 μA of current in the on-state. We achieve such performance by exposure to potassium (K) vapor and device annealing in high vacuum. The treatment has a twofold effect to: (i) controllably shift Vth toward negative gate biases via bulk doping of the nanotube (up to about 0.6e-/nm), and (ii) increase the on-current by 1-2 orders of magnitude. This current enhancement is achieved by lowering external device resistance due to more intimate contact between K metal and doped nanotube channel in addition to potential reduction of the Schottky barrier height at the contact.

  17. Corrosion of selected alloys in eutectic lithium-sodium-potassium carbonate at 900C

    SciTech Connect

    Coyle, R.T.; Thomas, T.M.; Schissel, P.

    1986-01-01

    There is an ongoing interest at the US Department of Energy in using molten salts as high temperature sensible heat storage media in advanced solar thermal systems. In this report, the compatibility of selected alloys in eutectic lithium-sodium-potassium carbonate, the salt that will be used in the near-term engineering experiments, has been evaluated at 900C. Several combinations of oxidation potential and acidity in the salt were used in the experiments. It was found that the extent of corrosion was dramatically lower for experiments conducted at high oxygen potential compared to experiments at low oxygen potential. For Inconel 600, Hastelloy N, and nickel the results indicated that corrosion rates substantially below 1 mm/year/side might reasonably be expected and that a reevaluation of alloys the showed poor corrosion resistance under low oxygen potential would be advisable.

  18. Effect of variable water intake as mediated by dietary potassium carbonate supplementation on rumen dynamics in lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water is a critical nutrient for dairy cows, with intake varying with environment, production, and diet. However, little work has evaluated the effects of water intake on rumen parameters. Using dietary potassium carbonate (Kcarb) as a K supplement to increase water intake, the objective of this stu...

  19. Structural effects in the reaction between carbon dioxide and coke doped with various potassium bearing catalytic precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, M.; Debroy, T.

    1986-09-01

    The rate of reaction between carbon dioxide and coke with and without the additions of KCN, KOCN, and K2CO3 was studied using thermogravimetry. Since both potassium and carbon are lost during the reaction, the concentration of potassium in the coke samples was determined as a function of the extent of the reaction by atomic absorption spectrometry. The changes in the specific surface area due to the reaction were studied by the nitrogen adsorption technique. The changes in the pore structure of coke were investigated by mercury porosimetry and scanning electron microscopy. The distribution of potassium in the coke structure was examined as a function of the reaction time by the energy dispersion X-ray technique. Furthermore, since sulfur is known to influence the rate of the C-CO2 reaction, the sulfur content of the coke samples with or without the addition of catalytic precursors was monitored as a function of the extent of reaction. The influences of the structural parameters and the concentration of potassium on the rate of the coke-CO2 reaction were determined. The rate data were analyzed on the basis of a structural model to examine the contributions of the chemical reaction and the pore diffusion on the overall rate of the coke-CO2 reaction.

  20. Carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium stoichiometry of plants and litter in boreal peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M.; Moore, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    Ecological stoichiometry, dealing with the balance of multiple elements during ecological processes and interactions, provides an integrative framework linking the biogeochemical patterns at a global scale to physiological constraints that operate at cellular or organismal levels. Unlike the well-explained and constrained carbon:nitrogen:phosphorus (C:N:P) ratios in marine plankton (e.g. Redfield ratio), terrestrial ecosystems have evoked less attention. We examined the leaf-level C:N:P:potassium (K) stoichiometry of the dominant vascular plants (deciduous, evergreen, forb and graminoid) and Sphagnum mosses from four boreal bogs in eastern Canada. A generally convergent C:N:P:K stoichiometric ratio (632:14:1:9, mass ratio) in current year's leaves (or capitula of Sphagnum mosses) was observed in the fast growing season (June to July), indicating N and P co-limitation. With ~50% of N, P and K being resorbed during leaf senescence, the C:nutrients ratios in the matures leaves (C:N:P:K = 826:17:1:6) of two dominant evergreen species (Chamaedaphne calyculata and Rhododendron groenlandicum) were increased in senesced leaves (C:N:P:K = 964:15:1:5) whereas no substantial changes were observed in N:P:K ratios. The dramatic imbalance between litter and soil microbes stoichiometry (C:N:P = 31:3:1) governs the overall nutrient cycling and C sequestration in peatland ecosystems. Overall, N and P seem to co-limit both plant growth and microbial activity in ombrotrophic bogs.

  1. Role of nitrogen in pore development in activated carbon prepared by potassium carbonate activation of lignin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsubouchi, Naoto; Nishio, Megumi; Mochizuki, Yuuki

    2016-05-01

    The present work focuses on the role of nitrogen in the development of pores in activated carbon produced from lignin by K2CO3 activation, employing a fixed bed reactor under a high-purity He stream at temperatures of 500-900 °C. The specific surface area and pore volume obtained by activation of lignin alone are 230 m2/g and 0.13 cm3/g at 800 °C, and 540 m2/g and 0.31 cm3/g at 900 °C, respectively. Activation of a mixture of lignin and urea provides a significant increase in the surface area and volume, respectively reaching 3300-3400 m2/g and 2.0-2.3 cm3/g after holding at 800-900 °C for 1 h. Heating a lignin/urea/K2CO3 mixture leads to a significant decrease in the yield of released N-containing gases compared to the results for urea alone and a lignin/urea mixture, and most of the nitrogen in the urea is retained in the solid phase. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses clearly show that part of the remaining nitrogen is present in heterocyclic structures (for example, pyridinic and pyrrolic nitrogen), and the rest is contained as KOCN at ≤600 °C and as KCN at ≥700 °C, such that the latter two compounds can be almost completely removed by water washing. The fate of nitrogen during heating of lignin/urea/K2CO3 and role of nitrogen in pore development in activated carbon are discussed on the basis of the results mentioned above.

  2. Emissions of carbon species, organic polar compounds, potassium, and mercury from prescribed burning activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Obrist, D.; Zielinska, B.; Gerler, A.

    2012-04-01

    Biomass burning is an important emission source of pollutants to the atmosphere, but few studies have focused on the chemical composition of emissions from prescribed burning activities. Here we present results from a sampling campaign to quantify particulate-phase emissions from various types of prescribed fires including carbon species (Elemental Carbon: EC; Organic Carbon: OC; and Total Carbon: TC); polar organic compounds (12 different compounds and four functional classes); water-soluble potassium (K+); and mercury (Hg). We measured emissions from the following types of prescribed biomass burning in the Lake Tahoe basin located on the California/Nevada border: (i) log piles stacked and dried in the field; (ii) log piles along with green understory vegetation; and (iii) understory green vegetation and surface litter; further emissions were collected from burns conducted in a wood stove: (iv) dried wooden logs; (v) green foliage of understory vegetation collected from the field; and (vi) surface organic litter collected from the field; finally, samples were also taken from (vii) ambient air in residential areas during peak domestic wood combustion season. Results show that OC/EC ratios of prescribed burns in the field ranged from 4 to 10, but lower values (around 1) were observed in controlled stove fires. These results are consistent with an excess of OC emissions over EC found in wildfires. OC/EC ratios, however, showed clear separations between controlled wood stove combustion (higher EC) and prescribed burns in the field (lower EC). We attribute this difference to a higher combustion temperatures and dominance of flaming combustion in wood stove fires. OC positively and linearly correlated to the sum of polar organic compounds across all burn types (r2 of 0.82). The most prevalent group of polar compounds emitted during prescribed fires was resin acids (dehydroabietic, pimaric, and abietic acids), followed by levoglucosan plus mannositol. Negligible

  3. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Potassium... potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide; (2) By treating a solution of potassium carbonate with...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Potassium... potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide; (2) By treating a solution of potassium carbonate with...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Potassium... potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide; (2) By treating a solution of potassium carbonate with...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Potassium... potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide; (2) By treating a solution of potassium carbonate with...

  7. [Study of relationship between consumption of potassium permanganate and total organic carbon on plastic kitchen utensils, food packages and toys].

    PubMed

    Ohno, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Masako; Mutsuga, Motoh; Kawamura, Yoko

    2009-10-01

    Consumption of potassium permanganate and total organic carbon (TOC) were investigated as indices of total organic matter migrated into water from plastic kitchen utensils, food packages and toys for children. The samples were soaked in water at 60 or 95 degrees C for 30 min for kitchen utensils and food packages, and at 40 degrees C for 30 min for toys and the eluates were examined, using the two indices. The quantitation limits were both 0.5 microg/mL. Among 97 kitchen utensils and food packages tested, consumption of potassium permanganate and TOC were 0.5-10.9 microg/mL and ND-18.9 microg/mL for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tea-pot spouts and nylon kitchen utensils, respectively. Among 32 toys tested, the levels were 0.8-45.5 microg/mL and 0.5-8.9 microg/mL from PVC toys and block toys made by ethylene vinyl acetate resin. The levels for other samples were very low. There were large discrepancies between consumption of potassium permanganate and TOC for some PVC products and nylon kitchen utensils. The cause may be a marked difference of the oxidation decomposition rate by potassium permanganate, depending on the kind of organic matter that migrated from the plastics. PMID:19897949

  8. [Study of relationship between consumption of potassium permanganate and total organic carbon on plastic kitchen utensils, food packages and toys].

    PubMed

    Ohno, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Masako; Mutsuga, Motoh; Kawamura, Yoko

    2009-10-01

    Consumption of potassium permanganate and total organic carbon (TOC) were investigated as indices of total organic matter migrated into water from plastic kitchen utensils, food packages and toys for children. The samples were soaked in water at 60 or 95 degrees C for 30 min for kitchen utensils and food packages, and at 40 degrees C for 30 min for toys and the eluates were examined, using the two indices. The quantitation limits were both 0.5 microg/mL. Among 97 kitchen utensils and food packages tested, consumption of potassium permanganate and TOC were 0.5-10.9 microg/mL and ND-18.9 microg/mL for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tea-pot spouts and nylon kitchen utensils, respectively. Among 32 toys tested, the levels were 0.8-45.5 microg/mL and 0.5-8.9 microg/mL from PVC toys and block toys made by ethylene vinyl acetate resin. The levels for other samples were very low. There were large discrepancies between consumption of potassium permanganate and TOC for some PVC products and nylon kitchen utensils. The cause may be a marked difference of the oxidation decomposition rate by potassium permanganate, depending on the kind of organic matter that migrated from the plastics.

  9. Carbon nanotube/Prussian blue thin films as cathodes for flexible, transparent and ITO-free potassium secondary battery.

    PubMed

    Nossol, Edson; Souza, Victor H R; Zarbin, Aldo J G

    2016-09-15

    Thin films of either unpurified single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) or iron-filled multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were deposited through the liquid-liquid interfacial route over plastic substrates, yielding transparent, flexible and ITO-free electrodes. The iron species presented in both electrodes (inside of the MWCNT cavities or outside of the SWCNT bundles, related to the catalyst remaining of the growth process) were employed as reactant to the electrosynthesis of Prussian blue (PB), yielding carbon nanotubes/Prussian blue nanocomposite thin films, which were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements. The nanocomposite films were employed as cathodes for flexible, transparent and ITO-free potassium batteries, showing reversible charge/discharge behavior and specific capacitance of 8.3mAhcm(-3) and 2.7mAhcm(-3) for SWCNT/PB and MWCNT/PB, respectively. PMID:27288576

  10. Carbon nanotube/Prussian blue thin films as cathodes for flexible, transparent and ITO-free potassium secondary battery.

    PubMed

    Nossol, Edson; Souza, Victor H R; Zarbin, Aldo J G

    2016-09-15

    Thin films of either unpurified single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) or iron-filled multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were deposited through the liquid-liquid interfacial route over plastic substrates, yielding transparent, flexible and ITO-free electrodes. The iron species presented in both electrodes (inside of the MWCNT cavities or outside of the SWCNT bundles, related to the catalyst remaining of the growth process) were employed as reactant to the electrosynthesis of Prussian blue (PB), yielding carbon nanotubes/Prussian blue nanocomposite thin films, which were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements. The nanocomposite films were employed as cathodes for flexible, transparent and ITO-free potassium batteries, showing reversible charge/discharge behavior and specific capacitance of 8.3mAhcm(-3) and 2.7mAhcm(-3) for SWCNT/PB and MWCNT/PB, respectively.

  11. Enrichment of Methanosaetaceae on carbon felt and biochar during anaerobic digestion of a potassium-rich molasses stream.

    PubMed

    De Vrieze, Jo; Devooght, Arno; Walraedt, Diego; Boon, Nico

    2016-06-01

    Biorefineries allow the production of value-added chemicals, yet this also causes the formation of considerable amounts of wastewater that require suitable treatment. These biorefinery wastewaters often contain a high salinity, which inhibits methanogenesis. In this research, molasses were used to mimic these waste streams to evaluate their treatability by anaerobic digestion. Two different carrier materials, i.e., carbon felt and biochar, with similar surface properties were evaluated for their potential to stabilize anaerobic digestion of these wastewaters via active enrichment of the methanogenic community. Initial stable methane production values between 620 and 640 mL CH4 L(-1) day(-1) were reported in each treatment. At the end of the experiment, methane production decreased with more than 50 %, while VFA increased to values up to 20 g COD L(-1), indicating severe process failure, due to the high potassium concentration in these wastewaters, irrespective of the presence of carrier material. However, an increased relative abundance of Methanosaetaceae both on the biochar and carbon felt was observed. In conclusion, this research demonstrated that carbon felt and biochar are both suitable carrier materials for selective enrichment of Methanosaetaceae, yet this did not lead to stable anaerobic digestion of a potassium-rich molasses waste stream. The increased relative abundance of Methanosaetaceae on both carrier materials can, nonetheless, be considered valuable in terms of alternative applications and warrants further research. PMID:27063010

  12. A flow-system comparison of the reactivities of calcium superoxide and potassium superoxide with carbon dioxide and water vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, P. C.; Ballou, E. V.; Spitze, L. A.; Wydeven, T.

    1982-01-01

    A single pass flow system was used to test the reactivity of calcium superoxide with respiratory gases and the performance was compared to that of potassium superoxide. The KO2 system is used by coal miners as a self-contained unit in rescue operations. Particular attention was given to the reactivity with carbon dioxide and water vapor at different temperatures and partial pressures of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. The calcium superoxide beds were found to absorb CO2 and H2O vapor, releasing O2. The KO2 bed, however, released O2 at twice the rate of CO2 absorption at 37 C. It is concluded that the calcium superoxide material is not a suitable replacement for the KO2 bed, although Ca(O2)2 may be added to the KO2 bed to enhance the CO2 absorption.

  13. Potassium Counts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gipps, John

    1995-01-01

    Presents an activity to determine whether the radioactivity of a pure potassium salt is directly proportional to the amount of potassium in it and whether this could be used as a method of analysis for potassium in a solid. (MKR)

  14. Use of levoglucosan, potassium, and water-soluble organic carbon to characterize the origins of biomass-burning aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Roberta Cerasi; Lima-Souza, Michele; Caetano-Silva, Letícia; Queiroz, Maria Eugênia C.; Nogueira, Raquel F. P.; Allen, Andrew G.; Cardoso, Arnaldo A.; Held, Gerhard; Campos, Maria Lucia A. M.

    2012-12-01

    Three chemical species related to biomass burning, levoglucosan, potassium and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), were measured in aerosol samples collected in a rural area on the outskirts of the municipality of Ourinhos (São Paulo State, Brazil). This region is representative of the rural interior of the State, where the economy is based on agro-industrial production, and the most important crop is sugar cane. The manual harvesting process requires that the cane be first burned to remove excess foliage, leading to large emissions of particulate materials to the atmosphere. Most of the levoglucosan (68-89%) was present in small particles (<1.5 μm), and its concentration in total aerosol ranged from 25 to 1186 ng m-3. The highest values were found at night, when most of the biomass burning occurs. In contrast, WSOC showed no diurnal pattern, with an average concentration of 5.38 ± 2.97 μg m-3 (n = 27). A significant linear correlation between levoglucosan and WSOC (r = 0.54; n = 26; p < 0.0001) confirmed that biomass burning was in fact an important source of WSOC in the study region. A moderate (but significant) linear correlation between levoglucosan and potassium concentrations (r = 0.62; n = 40; p < 0.0001) was indicative of the influence of other sources of potassium in the study region, such as soil resuspension and fertilizers. When only the fine particles (<1.5 μm; typical of biomass burning) were considered, the linear coefficient increased to 0.91 (n = 9). In this case, the average levoglucosan/K+ ratio was 0.24, which may be typical of biomass burning in the study region. This ratio is about 5 times lower than that previously found for Amazon aerosol collected during the day, when flaming combustion prevails. This suggests that the levoglucosan/K+ ratio may be especially helpful for characterization of the type of vegetation burned (such as crops or forest), when biomass-burning is the dominant source of potassium. The relatively high

  15. Changes of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium content during storage of vermicomposts prepared from different substrates.

    PubMed

    Das, D; Powell, Michael; Bhattacharyya, P; Banik, P

    2014-12-01

    The study was conducted to determine the optimum storage time for vermicompost without significant loss of nutrients; nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), and potassium (K). Cattle manure, paddy straw, municipal solid wastes, and fly ash were used for vermicompost preparations. The dynamics of N, P, and K in the vermicomposts were studied during 180 days of incubation at 28-32 °C. In general, N concentration increased in the first 90-105 days of incubation and then gradually decreased until the 180th day while P and K concentrations steadily decreased over the length of the study, with the rate of loss leveling off after 150 days. The rate of nutrient loss was directly related to the initial level, decreasing the fastest for the nutrients with the highest initial concentrations. Optimum storage times were substrate and N dependent. PMID:25208521

  16. Changes of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium content during storage of vermicomposts prepared from different substrates.

    PubMed

    Das, D; Powell, Michael; Bhattacharyya, P; Banik, P

    2014-12-01

    The study was conducted to determine the optimum storage time for vermicompost without significant loss of nutrients; nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), and potassium (K). Cattle manure, paddy straw, municipal solid wastes, and fly ash were used for vermicompost preparations. The dynamics of N, P, and K in the vermicomposts were studied during 180 days of incubation at 28-32 °C. In general, N concentration increased in the first 90-105 days of incubation and then gradually decreased until the 180th day while P and K concentrations steadily decreased over the length of the study, with the rate of loss leveling off after 150 days. The rate of nutrient loss was directly related to the initial level, decreasing the fastest for the nutrients with the highest initial concentrations. Optimum storage times were substrate and N dependent.

  17. Rare Potassium-Bearing Mica in Allan Hills 84001: Additional Constraints on Carbonate Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brearley, A. J.

    1998-01-01

    There have been presented several intriguing observations suggesting evidence of fossil life in martian orthopyroxenite ALH 84001. These exciting and controversial observations have stimulated extensive debate over the origin and history of ALH 84001, but many issues still remain unresolved. Among the most important is the question of the temperature at which the carbonates, which host the putative microfossils, formed. Oxygen- isotopic data, while showing that the carbonates are generally out of isotopic equilibria with the host rock, cannot constrain their temperature of formation. Both low- and high-temperature scenarios are plausible depending on whether carbonate growth occurred in an open or closed system. Petrographic arguments have generally been used to support a high-temperature origin but these appear to be suspect because they assume equilibrium between carbonate compositions that are not in contact. Some observations appear to be consistent with shock mobilization and growth from immiscible silicate-carbonate melts at high temperatures. Proponents of a low-temperature origin for the carbonates are hampered by the fact that there is currently no evidence of hydrous phases that would indicate low temperatures and the presence of a hydrous fluid during the formation of the carbonates. However, the absence of hydrous phases does not rule out carbonate formation at low temperatures, because the carbonate forming fluids may have been extremely CO2 rich, such that hydrous phases would not have been stabilized. In this study, I have carried out additional Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies of ALH-84001 and have found evidence of very rare phyllosilicates, which appear to be convincingly of pre-terrestrial origin. At present these observations are limited to one occurrence: further studies are in progress to determine if the phyllosilicates are more widespread.

  18. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613... GRAS § 184.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 298-14-6) is made by the following processes: (1) By treating a solution of potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide;...

  19. Authigenic potassium feldspar: a tracer for the timing of palaeofluid flow in carbonate rocks, Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spotl, C.; Kunk, M.J.; Ramseyer, K.; Longstaffe, F.J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper is included in the Special Publication entitled 'Dating and duration of fluid flow and fluid-rock interaction', edited by J. Parnell. Feldspar is a common authigenic constituent in Permian carbonate rocks which occur as tectonically isolated blocks within the evaporitic Haselgebirge melange in the Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA). Coexisting with pyrite, anhydrite, (saddle) dolomite, magnesite, fluorite and calcite, K-feldspar and minor albite record an event of regionally extensive interaction of hot brines with carbonate rocks. Detailed petrographic, crystallographic and geochemical studies reveal a variability in crystal size and shape, Al-Si ordering, elemental and stable isotopic compositions of the K-feldspar, which is only partially consistent with the traditional view of authigenic feldspar as a well-ordered, compositionally pure mineral. 40Ar-39Ar step- heating measurements of authigenic potassium feldspar from several localities yield two age populations, an older one of 145-154 Ma, and a younger one of c.90-97 Ma. Most age spectra reflect cooling through the argon retention temperature interval, which was rapid in some localities (as indicated by plateau ages) and slower in others. Rb-Sr isotope data are more difficult to interpret, because in many K-feldspar samples they are controlled largely by Sr-bearing inclusions. The Jurassic 40Ar-39Ar dates are interpreted as minimum ages of feldspar growth and hence imply that fluid-rock interaction is likely to be simultaneous with or to slightly predate melange formation. Deformation associated with the closure and subduction of the Meliata-Hallstatt ocean south of the NCA during the Upper Jurassic is regarded as the principal geodynamic driving force for both enhanced fluid circulation and melange formation. Some localities were reheated beyond the argon retention temperature for microcline during mid-Cretaceous nappe stacking of the NCA, thus obliterating the older signal.

  20. COMPARISON OF SODIUM AND POTASSIUM CARBONATES AS LITHIUM ZIRCONATE MODIFIERS FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM BIOMASS-DERIVED SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Olstad, J.L.; Phillips, S.D.

    2009-01-01

    The process of gasifi cation converts biomass into synthesis gas (syngas), which can be used to produce biofuels. Solid-phase sorbents were investigated for the removal of CO2 from a N2/CO2 gas stream using a CO2 concentration similar to that found in a biomass gasifi cation process. During the gasifying process, large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) are created along with the syngas. The produced CO2 must be removed before the syngas can be used for fuel synthesis and to avoid the possible formation of unwanted byproducts. A thermogravimetric analyzer was used to test the CO2 absorption rates of sorbents composed of lithium zirconate (Li2ZrO3), as well as mixtures of Li2ZrO3 with potassium carbonate (K2CO3) and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3). The experimental results show that Li2ZrO3 has a low absorption rate, but sorbents containing combinations of Li2ZrO3 and the K2CO3 and Na2CO3 additives have high uptake rates. Using different proportions of K2CO3 and Na2CO3 produces varying uptake rates, so an optimization experiment was performed to obtain an improved sorbent. The CO2 absorption and regeneration stability of the solid-phase sorbents were also examined. A sorbent composed of Li2ZrO3 and 12.1 weight % Na2CO3 was shown to be stable, based on the consistent CO2 uptake rates. Sorbents prepared with Li2ZrO3, 17.6 weight % K2CO3 and 18.1 weight % Na2CO3 showed instability during regeneration cycles in air at 800 °C. Sorbent stability improved during regeneration cycles at 700 °C. Further testing of the Li2ZrO3 sorbent under actual syngas conditions, including higher pressure and composition, should be done. Once the optimum sorbent has been found, a suitable support will be needed to use the sorbent in an actual reactor.

  1. Spatial variability of soil carbon, pH, available phosphorous and potassium in organic farm located in Mediterranean Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogunović, Igor; Pereira, Paulo; Šeput, Miranda

    2016-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC), pH, available phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) are some of the most important factors to soil fertility. These soil parameters are highly variable in space and time, with implications to crop production. The aim of this work is study the spatial variability of SOC, pH, P and K in an organic farm located in river Rasa valley (Croatia). A regular grid (100 x 100 m) was designed and 182 samples were collected on Silty Clay Loam soil. P, K and SOC showed moderate heterogeneity with coefficient of variation (CV) of 21.6%, 32.8% and 51.9%, respectively. Soil pH record low spatial variability with CV of 1.5%. Soil pH, P and SOC did not follow normal distribution. Only after a Box-Cox transformation, data respected the normality requirements. Directional exponential models were the best fitted and used to describe spatial autocorrelation. Soil pH, P and SOC showed strong spatial dependence with nugget to sill ratio with 13.78%, 0.00% and 20.29%, respectively. Only K recorded moderate spatial dependence. Semivariogram ranges indicate that future sampling interval could be 150 - 200 m in order to reduce sampling costs. Fourteen different interpolation models for mapping soil properties were tested. The method with lowest Root Mean Square Error was the most appropriated to map the variable. The results showed that radial basis function models (Spline with Tension and Completely Regularized Spline) for P and K were the best predictors, while Thin Plate Spline and inverse distance weighting models were the least accurate. The best interpolator for pH and SOC was the local polynomial with the power of 1, while the least accurate were Thin Plate Spline. According to soil nutrient maps investigated area record very rich supply with K while P supply was insufficient on largest part of area. Soil pH maps showed mostly neutral reaction while individual parts of alkaline soil indicate the possibility of penetration of seawater and salt accumulation in the

  2. Potassium Iodide

    MedlinePlus

    Potassium iodide is used to protect the thyroid gland from taking in radioactive iodine that may be released during a nuclear radiation emergency. Radioactive iodine can damage the thyroid gland. You should only ...

  3. Potassium test

    MedlinePlus

    ... also be done if your provider suspects metabolic acidosis (for example, caused by uncontrolled diabetes) or alkalosis ( ... Hypoaldosteronism (very rare) Kidney failure Metabolic or respiratory acidosis Red blood cell destruction Too much potassium in ...

  4. Addition of potassium carbonate to continuous cultures of mixed ruminal bacteria shifts volatile fatty acids and daily production of biohydrogenation intermediates.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, T C; Bridges, W C; Harrison, J H; Young, K M

    2014-02-01

    A recent study reported a 0.4 percentage unit increase in milk fat of lactating dairy cattle when dietary K was increased from 1.2 to 2% with potassium carbonate. Because milk fat yield has been associated with ruminal production of certain conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers, 2 studies were conducted to determine if increasing potassium carbonate in the rumen would alter patterns of fermentation and biohydrogenation. In experiment 1, 5 dual-flow continuous fermenters were injected just before each feeding with a 10% (wt/wt) stock potassium carbonate solution to provide the equivalent of 1.1 (K1), 2.2 (K2), and 3.3 (K3) % of diet dry matter (DM) as added K. One of the remaining fermenters received no K (K0) and the last fermenter (NaOH) was injected with adequate NaOH stock solution (10%, wt/wt) to match the pH observed for the K3 treatment. For experiment 2, 6 dual-flow continuous fermenters were used to evaluate 6 treatments arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial to examine 2 levels of soybean oil (0 and 3.64% of diet DM) and added K at 0, 1.6, and 3.3% of diet DM. In both experiments, fermenters were fed 55 to 57 g of DM/d of a typical dairy diet consisting of 1:1 forage (10% alfalfa hay and 90% corn silage) to concentrate mix in 2 equal portions at 0800 and 1630 h, and fed the respective diets for 10-d periods. Potassium carbonate addition increased pH in both experiments. Acetate:propionate ratio and pH in experiment 1 increased linearly for K0 to K3. Acetate:propionate ratio was lower for NaOH compared with K3 but the pH was the same. The trans-11 18:1 and cis-9,trans-11 CLA production rates (mg/d) increased linearly from K0 to K3, but K3 and NaOH did not differ. Production of trans-10 18:1 decreased and that of trans-10,cis-12 tended to decrease from K0 to K3, but production of trans-10,cis-12 CLA remained high for NaOH. Addition of K to the cultures in experiment 2 decreased propionate and increased acetate and acetate:propionate ratio for the 0% fat diet but

  5. Effect of variable water intake as mediated by dietary potassium carbonate supplementation on rumen dynamics in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Fraley, S E; Hall, M B; Nennich, T D

    2015-05-01

    Water is a critical nutrient for dairy cows, with intake varying with environment, production, and diet. However, little work has evaluated the effects of water intake on rumen parameters. Using dietary potassium carbonate (K2CO3) as a K supplement to increase water intake, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of K2CO3 supplementation on water intake and on rumen parameters of lactating dairy cows. Nine ruminally cannulated, late-lactation Holstein cows (207±12d in milk) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design with 18-d periods. Dietary treatments (on a dry matter basis) were no added K2CO3 (baseline dietary K levels of 1.67% dietary K), 0.75% added dietary K, and 1.5% added dietary K. Cows were offered treatment diets for a 14-d adaption period followed by a 4-d collection period. Ruminal total, liquid, and dry matter digesta weights were determined by total rumen evacuations conducted 2h after feeding on d 4 of the collection period. Rumen fluid samples were collected to determine pH, volatile fatty acids, and NH3 concentrations, and Co-EDTA was used to determine fractional liquid passage rate. Milk samples were collected twice daily during the collection period. Milk, milk fat, and protein yields showed quadratic responses with greatest yields for the 0.75% added dietary K treatment. Dry matter intake showed a quadratic response with 21.8kg/d for the 0.75% added dietary K treatment and 20.4 and 20.5kg/d for control and the 1.5% added dietary K treatment, respectively. Water intake increased linearly with increasing K2CO3 supplementation (102.4, 118.4, and 129.3L/d) as did ruminal fractional liquid passage rate in the earlier hours after feeding (0.118, 0.135, and 0.141 per hour). Total and wet weights of rumen contents declined linearly and dry weight tended to decline linearly as dietary K2CO3 increased, suggesting that the increasing water intake and fractional liquid passage rate with increasing

  6. Potassium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for potassium cyanide is included in

  7. Co-pyrolysis of sunflower-oil cake with potassium carbonate and zinc oxide using plasma torch to produce bio-fuels.

    PubMed

    Shie, Je-Lueng; Chang, Chia-Chi; Chang, Ching-Yuan; Tzeng, Chin-Ching; Wu, Chung-Yu; Lin, Kae-Long; Tseng, Jyi-Yeong; Yuan, Min-Hao; Li, Heng-Yi; Kuo, Ching-Hui; Yu, Yuh-Jeng; Chang, Lieh-Chih

    2011-12-01

    This study examined the effects of additives of potassium carbonate (K2CO3) and zinc oxide (ZnO) on the pyrolysis of waste sunflower-oil cake using a 60 kW pilot-scale plasma torch reactor. The major gaseous products were CO and H2. The productions of CO and CH4 increased while that of H2 decreased with the addition of K2CO3. The use of ZnO reduced while enhanced the formation of CO and H2, respectively. In order to match the appeal of resource reutilization, one can use the waste K2CO3 resulted from the sorption of CO2 with KOH in greenhouse gas control and the waste ZnO obtained from the melting process as additives for the co-pyrolysis of sunflower-oil cake, yielding fuels rich in CO and H2, respectively.

  8. Energy and exergy analyses of an integrated gasification combined cycle power plant with CO2 capture using hot potassium carbonate solvent.

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng; Jin, Hongguang; Gao, Lin; Mumford, Kathryn Anne; Smith, Kathryn; Stevens, Geoff

    2014-12-16

    Energy and exergy analyses were studied for an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO2 capture using hot potassium carbonate solvent. The study focused on the combined impact of the CO conversion ratio in the water gas shift (WGS) unit and CO2 recovery rate on component exergy destruction, plant efficiency, and energy penalty for CO2 capture. A theoretical limit for the minimal efficiency penalty for CO2 capture was also provided. It was found that total plant exergy destruction increased almost linearly with CO2 recovery rate and CO conversion ratio at low CO conversion ratios, but the exergy destruction from the WGS unit and the whole plant increased sharply when the CO conversion ratio was higher than 98.5% at the design WGS conditions, leading to a significant decrease in plant efficiency and increase in efficiency penalty for CO2 capture. When carbon capture rate was over around 70%, via a combination of around 100% CO2 recovery rate and lower CO conversion ratios, the efficiency penalty for CO2 capture was reduced. The minimal efficiency penalty for CO2 capture was estimated to be around 5.0 percentage points at design conditions in an IGCC plant with 90% carbon capture. Unlike the traditional aim of 100% CO conversion, it was recommended that extremely high CO conversion ratios should not be considered in order to decrease the energy penalty for CO2 capture and increase plant efficiency.

  9. Seasonal variation of the ¹³⁷Cs level and its relationship with potassium and carbon levels in conifer needles.

    PubMed

    Rantavaara, Aino; Vetikko, Virve; Raitio, Hannu; Aro, Lasse

    2012-12-15

    Seasonal variations in foliar ¹³⁷Cs levels were examined in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in western Finland. Our aim was to test the occurrence of seasonal variation in contents and concentrations of ¹³⁷Cs, potassium and carbon in needles. The study focused on analysing levels of total ¹³⁷Cs in the three youngest needle age classes and comparing them to the levels of potassium and carbon. Spruce and pine needles were collected from 50- and 65-year-old stands on 18 sampling occasions between April 1996 and February 1997. Phases of intensive growth, needle elongation and dormancy were apparent in the time series for the needle contents and activity concentration of ¹³⁷Cs, both of which varied according to needle age class and tree species. The sequence of phases with a temporal fluctuation of needle contents, activity concentrations of ¹³⁷Cs and concentrations of K and carbon varied occasionally, and the efficiency of their translocation revealed some differences in the dynamics of ¹³⁷Cs, K and carbon in spruce and pine. The data clearly showed that the needles' K contents responded strongly to changes in K demand from other parts of the tree due to seasonal changes and that these responses were stronger than the associated retranslocations of ¹³⁷Cs, particularly in Scots pine. During intensive growth, K was less mobile than ¹³⁷Cs in the needles. The uptake of ¹³⁷Cs by current-year needles is simultaneously affected by uptake from the soil via the roots and retranslocation from other internal sources, and both of these processes affect the observed transfer rates during the growth period. Our results provided information on the transfer rates and revealed differentiation of root uptake and retranslocation of ¹³⁷Cs in needles. The study can support dynamic modelling of atmospheric ¹³⁷Cs contamination in forests.

  10. The interaction of carbon monoxide with rhodium on potassium-modified CeO2(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullins, David R.

    2016-10-01

    The adsorption and reactions of CO adsorbed on Rh particles deposited on K-covered CeO2(111) were studied by temperature programmed desorption and photoelectron spectroscopy. K deposited on CeO2(111) forms a KOX over-layer by extracting O from the ceria and partially reducing some of the Ce4 + to Ce3 +. CO does not adsorb on the KOX/ CeO2 - X(111) surface in the absence of Rh particles. CO adsorbed on Rh/K/CeO2(111) adsorbs molecularly on the Rh at 200 K. As the surface is heated the CO spills-over and reacts with the KOX to form carbonate. The carbonate decomposes at elevated temperature to produce CO and CO2. The carbonate stabilizes the KOX so that K desorbs at a higher temperature than it would in the absence of CO. When the Rh and K deposition are reversed so that K is deposited on both the Rh and the CeO2(111), CO adsorbs as CO2- at 200 K. The CO2- decomposes below 350 K to produce gas phase CO and adsorbed CO32 - and CO. The CO is stabilized by the K on the Rh and desorbs above 540 K. The carbonate decomposes into gas phase CO and CO2.

  11. The Interaction of Carbon Monoxide with Rhodium on Potassium-Modified CeO2(111)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mullins, David R.

    2016-02-03

    The adsorption and reactions of CO adsorbed on Rh particles deposited on K-covered CeO2(111) were studied by temperature programmed desorption and photoelectron spectroscopy. K deposited on CeO2(111) forms a KOX over-layer by extracting O from the ceria and partially reducing some of the Ce4+ to Ce3+. CO does not adsorb on the KOX / CeO2-X(111) surface in the absence of Rh particles. CO adsorbed on Rh / K / CeO2(111) adsorbs molecularly on the Rh at 200 K. As the surface is heated the CO spills-over and reacts with the KOX to form carbonate. The carbonate decomposes at elevated temperaturemore » to produce CO and CO2. The carbonate stabilizes the KOX so that K desorbs at a higher temperature than it would in the absence of CO. When the Rh and K deposition are reversed so that K is deposited on both the Rh and the CeO2(111), CO adsorbs as CO2- at 200 K. The CO2- decomposes below 350 K to produce gas phase CO and adsorbed CO32- and CO. The CO is stabilized by the K on the Rh and desorbs above 540 K. The carbonate decomposes into gas phase CO and CO2.« less

  12. Measurement of the resistance induced by a single atomic impurity on a (7,6) semiconducting carbon nanotube: scattering strength of individual potassium atoms as a function of gate voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchikawa, Ryuichi; Ahmadi, Amin; Heligman, Daniel; Zhang, Zhengyi; Mucciolo, Eduardo; Hone, James; Ishigami, Masa

    2015-03-01

    Despite many years of research, no measurements have been performed to determine resistance induced by impurities in carbon nanotubes. Over the last few years, we have developed a capability to measure the resistance induced by a single impurity atom on nanotubes with known chirality. Using this capability, we measured the resistance induced by an individual potassium atom on a (7,6) semiconducting carbon nanotube. The ``atomic'' resistance of potassium is found to be in the kohm range and has a strong dependence on the applied gate voltage. The scattering strength of the p-type (valence band) channel is approximately 20 times greater than that of the n-type (conduction band) channel. We integrate our atomically-controlled experimental result to a numerical recursive Green's function technique, which can precisely model the experiment, to understand the measured ``atomic'' resistance and the asymmetry. This work is based upon research supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0955625 and 1006230.

  13. Ab Initio Thermodynamic Study of the CO2 Capture Properties of Potassium Carbonate Sesquihydrate, K2CO3·1.5H2O

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Yuhua; Luebkes,David R.; Pennline, Henry W; Li, Bingyun Li; Janik, Michael J.; Halley, Woods

    2012-01-01

    By combining density functional theory and lattice phonon dynamics, the thermodynamic properties of CO2 absorption/desorption reactions with dehydrated potassium carbonates through K2CO3·1.5H2O + CO2 = 2KHCO3 + 0.5H2O(g) are analyzed. The energy change and the chemical potential of this reaction have been calculated and used to evaluate its thermodynamic properties and phase transitions. The results indicate that the K2CO3·1.5H2O can only be applied for postcombustion CO2 capture technology at temperatures lower than its phase transition temperature, which depends on the CO2 pressure and the steam pressure with the best range being PH2O ≤ 1.0 bar. Above the phase transition temperature, the sorbent will be regenerated into anhydrous K2CO3. If the steam pressure PH2O is much greater than 1.0 bar, it is possible to use the K2CO3·1.5H2O sorbent for precombustion CO2 capture technology. Compared to anhydrous K2CO3, K2CO3·1.5H2O requires less energy for regeneration.

  14. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of wheat straw: influence of feedwater pH prepared by acetic acid and potassium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Reza, M Toufiq; Rottler, Erwin; Herklotz, Laureen; Wirth, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    In this study, influence of feedwater pH (2-12) was studied for hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of wheat straw at 200 and 260°C. Acetic acid and KOH were used as acidic and basic medium, respectively. Hydrochars were characterized by elemental and fiber analyses, SEM, surface area, pore volume and size, and ATR-FTIR, while HTC process liquids were analyzed by HPLC and GC. Both hydrochar and HTC process liquid qualities vary with feedwater pH. At acidic pH, cellulose and elemental carbon increase in hydrochar, while hemicellulose and pseudo-lignin decrease. Hydrochars produced at pH 2 feedwater has 2.7 times larger surface area than that produced at pH 12. It also has the largest pore volume (1.1 × 10(-1) ml g(-1)) and pore size (20.2 nm). Organic acids were increasing, while sugars were decreasing in case of basic feedwater, however, phenolic compounds were present only at 260°C and their concentrations were increasing in basic feedwater. PMID:25710573

  15. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Boron Removal from Metallurgical Grade Silicon by Addition of High Basic Potassium Carbonate to Calcium Silicate Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jijun; Wang, Fanmao; Ma, Wenhui; Lei, Yun; Yang, Bin

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the thermodynamics and kinetics of boron removal from metallurgical grade silicon (MG-Si) using a calcium silicate slag containing a high basic potassium carbonate. The distribution of boron between slag and silicon was theoretically derived and the distribution coefficients ( L B) of boron with different compositions of CaO, SiO2, and K2CO3 in slag reagents were determined. The maximal value of L B reached 2.08 with a high basicity slag of 40 pctCaO-40 pctSiO2-20 pctK2CO3 (Λ = 0.73). The boron removal rates from MG-Si using CaO-SiO2 and CaO-SiO2-K2CO3 slags at 1823 K (1550 °C) were investigated in an electromagnetic induction furnace. The results showed that the boron concentration in MG-Si can be reduced from 22 to 1.8 ppmw at 1823 K (1550 °C) with 20 pct K2CO3 addition to calcium silicate slag, where the removal efficiency of boron reached 91.8 pct. The mass transfer coefficient ( β S) of boron in binary 50 pctCaO-50 pctSiO2 slag was 3.16 × 10-6 m s-1 at 1823 K (1550 °C) and was 2.43 × 10-5 m s-1 in ternary 40 pctCaO-40 pctSiO2-20 pctK2CO3 slag.

  16. In vitro detection of superoxide anions released from cancer cells based on potassium-doped carbon nanotubes-ionic liquid composite gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Rong; Wang, Bo; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2011-12-01

    A newly developed electrochemical biosensor for the determination of superoxide anions (O2&z.rad;-) released from cancer cells using potassium-doped multi-walled carbon nanotubes (KMWNTs)-1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM]PF6) ionic liquid composite gels is demonstrated. The KMWNTs-[BMIM]PF6 can electrocatalyze oxygen reduction to generate a strong current signal in neutral solution. Compared with KMWNTs without [BMIM]PF6 or MWNTs-[BMIM]PF6 composites, the KMWNTs-[BMIM]PF6 can enhance the oxygen reduction peak current by 6.2-fold and 2.8-fold, which greatly increases the detection sensitivity of oxygen. Then, O2&z.rad;- biosensors are fabricated by mixing superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the KMWNTs-[BMIM]PF6 gels via monitoring oxygen produced by an enzymic reaction between SOD/O2&z.rad;- without the help of electron mediators. The resulting biosensors show a linear range from 0.04 to 38 μM with a high sensitivity of 98.2 μA mM-1, and a lower detection limit of 0.024 μM. The common interferents such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), ascorbic acid (AA), uric acid (UA), and metabolites of neurotransmitters, do not interfere with the detection of O2&z.rad;-. The proposed biosensor is tested to determine O2&z.rad;-in vitro and from liver cancer and leukemia cells and shows good application potential in biological electrochemistry.

  17. Study of the interactions of molten sodium nitrate-potassium nitrate 50 mol % mixture with water vapor and carbon dioxide in air. Final report, June 2, 1980-June 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    White, S.H.; Twardoch, U.M.

    1981-09-01

    The interactions of aerial components such as water, carbon dioxide, and oxygen with the binary 50 mol % mixture of sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate have been studied in the temperature range 300 to 600/sup 0/C using electrochemical methods. In addition, the behavior of nitrite ions in this melt was investigated electrochemically. By judicious choice of techniques, in situ electroanalysis was possible and the necessary relevant data to accomplish this is presented, as well as insight into the corresponding electrochemical mechanisms associated with the electroactive species. The influence of each atmospheric component was examined separately. At temperatures above 300/sup 0/C, nitrite ions are found to accumulate due to thermal decomposition of the nitrate. Water is highly soluble in the salt mixture, but no hydrolytic reactions were observed. Two methods of in situ analysis for water are described. Pure carbon dioxide is found to attack the melt at all temperatures above 250/sup 0/C producing carbonate. (LEW)

  18. In situ 13CO2 pulse labelling of field-grown eucalypt trees revealed the effects of potassium nutrition and throughfall exclusion on phloem transport of photosynthetic carbon.

    PubMed

    Epron, Daniel; Cabral, Osvaldo Machado Rodrigues; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Dannoura, Masako; Packer, Ana Paula; Plain, Caroline; Battie-Laclau, Patricia; Moreira, Marcelo Zacharias; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; Gérant, Dominique; Nouvellon, Yann

    2016-01-01

    Potassium (K) is an important limiting factor of tree growth, but little is known of the effects of K supply on the long-distance transport of photosynthetic carbon (C) in the phloem and of the interaction between K fertilization and drought. We pulse-labelled 2-year-old Eucalyptus grandis L. trees grown in a field trial combining K fertilization (+K and -K) and throughfall exclusion (+W and -W), and we estimated the velocity of C transfer by comparing time lags between the uptake of (13)CO2 and its recovery in trunk CO2 efflux recorded at different heights. We also analysed the dynamics of the labelled photosynthates recovered in the foliage and in the phloem sap (inner bark extract). The mean residence time of labelled C in the foliage was short (21-31 h). The time series of (13)C in excess in the foliage was affected by the level of fertilization, whereas the effect of throughfall exclusion was not significant. The velocity of C transfer in the trunk (0.20-0.82 m h(-1)) was twice as high in +K trees than in -K trees, with no significant effect of throughfall exclusion except for one +K -W tree labelled in the middle of the drought season that was exposed to a more pronounced water stress (midday leaf water potential of -2.2 MPa). Our results suggest that besides reductions in photosynthetic C supply and in C demand by sink organs, the lower velocity under K deficiency is due to a lower cross-sectional area of the sieve tubes, whereas an increase in phloem sap viscosity is more likely limiting phloem transport under drought. In all treatments, 10 times less (13)C was recovered in inner bark extracts at the bottom of the trunk when compared with the base of the crown, suggesting that a large part of the labelled assimilates has been exported out of the phloem and replaced by unlabelled C. This supports the 'leakage-retrieval mechanism' that may play a role in maintaining the pressure gradient between source and sink organs required to sustain high

  19. In situ 13CO2 pulse labelling of field-grown eucalypt trees revealed the effects of potassium nutrition and throughfall exclusion on phloem transport of photosynthetic carbon.

    PubMed

    Epron, Daniel; Cabral, Osvaldo Machado Rodrigues; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Dannoura, Masako; Packer, Ana Paula; Plain, Caroline; Battie-Laclau, Patricia; Moreira, Marcelo Zacharias; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; Gérant, Dominique; Nouvellon, Yann

    2016-01-01

    Potassium (K) is an important limiting factor of tree growth, but little is known of the effects of K supply on the long-distance transport of photosynthetic carbon (C) in the phloem and of the interaction between K fertilization and drought. We pulse-labelled 2-year-old Eucalyptus grandis L. trees grown in a field trial combining K fertilization (+K and -K) and throughfall exclusion (+W and -W), and we estimated the velocity of C transfer by comparing time lags between the uptake of (13)CO2 and its recovery in trunk CO2 efflux recorded at different heights. We also analysed the dynamics of the labelled photosynthates recovered in the foliage and in the phloem sap (inner bark extract). The mean residence time of labelled C in the foliage was short (21-31 h). The time series of (13)C in excess in the foliage was affected by the level of fertilization, whereas the effect of throughfall exclusion was not significant. The velocity of C transfer in the trunk (0.20-0.82 m h(-1)) was twice as high in +K trees than in -K trees, with no significant effect of throughfall exclusion except for one +K -W tree labelled in the middle of the drought season that was exposed to a more pronounced water stress (midday leaf water potential of -2.2 MPa). Our results suggest that besides reductions in photosynthetic C supply and in C demand by sink organs, the lower velocity under K deficiency is due to a lower cross-sectional area of the sieve tubes, whereas an increase in phloem sap viscosity is more likely limiting phloem transport under drought. In all treatments, 10 times less (13)C was recovered in inner bark extracts at the bottom of the trunk when compared with the base of the crown, suggesting that a large part of the labelled assimilates has been exported out of the phloem and replaced by unlabelled C. This supports the 'leakage-retrieval mechanism' that may play a role in maintaining the pressure gradient between source and sink organs required to sustain high

  20. Regulation of Potassium Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Biff F

    2015-06-01

    Potassium is the most abundant cation in the intracellular fluid, and maintaining the proper distribution of potassium across the cell membrane is critical for normal cell function. Long-term maintenance of potassium homeostasis is achieved by alterations in renal excretion of potassium in response to variations in intake. Understanding the mechanism and regulatory influences governing the internal distribution and renal clearance of potassium under normal circumstances can provide a framework for approaching disorders of potassium commonly encountered in clinical practice. This paper reviews key aspects of the normal regulation of potassium metabolism and is designed to serve as a readily accessible review for the well informed clinician as well as a resource for teaching trainees and medical students.

  1. Potassium kinetics during hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Agar, Baris U; Culleton, Bruce F; Fluck, Richard; Leypoldt, John K

    2015-01-01

    Hyperkalemia in hemodialysis patients is associated with high mortality, but prescription of low dialysate potassium concentrations to decrease serum potassium levels is associated with a high incidence of sudden cardiac arrest or sudden death. Improved clinical outcomes for these patients may be possible if rapid and substantial intradialysis decreases in serum potassium concentration can be avoided while maintaining adequate potassium removal. Data from kinetic modeling sessions during the HEMO Study of the dependence of serum potassium concentration on time during hemodialysis treatments and 30 minutes postdialysis were evaluated using a pseudo one-compartment model. Kinetic estimates of potassium mobilization clearance (K(M)) and predialysis central distribution volume (V(pre)) were determined in 551 hemodialysis patients. The studied patients were 58.8 ± 14.4 years of age with predialysis body weight of 72.1 ± 15.1 kg; 306 (55.4%) of the patients were female and 337 (61.2%) were black. K(M) and V(pre) for all patients were non-normally distributed with values of 158 (111, 235) (median [interquartile range]) mL/min and 15.6 (11.4, 22.8) L, respectively. K(M) was independent of dialysate potassium concentration (P > 0.2), but V(pre) was lower at higher dialysate potassium concentration (R = -0.188, P < 0.001). For patients with dialysate potassium concentration between 1.6 and 2.5 mEq/L (N = 437), multiple linear regression of K(M) and V(pre) demonstrated positive association with predialysis body weight and negative association with predialysis serum potassium concentration. Potassium kinetics during hemodialysis can be described using a pseudo one-compartment model.

  2. Penicillin V Potassium Oral

    MedlinePlus

    Penicillin V potassium is an antibiotic used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia, scarlet fever, and ear, ... Penicillin V potassium comes as a tablet and liquid to take by mouth. It is usually taken every 6 hours (four ...

  3. Potassium food supplement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourland, C. T.; Huber, C. S.; Rambaut, C.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.

    1973-01-01

    Potassium gluconate is considered best supplementary source for potassium. Gluconate consistently received highest taste rating and was indistinguishable from nonsupplemented samples. No unfavorable side effects were found during use, and none are reported in literature. Gluconate is normal intermediary metabolite that is readily adsorbed and produces no evidence of gastrointestinal ulcerations.

  4. Potassium and health.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Connie M

    2013-05-01

    Potassium was identified as a shortfall nutrient by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 Advisory Committee. The committee concluded that there was a moderate body of evidence of the association between potassium intake and blood pressure reduction in adults, which in turn influences the risk of stroke and coronary heart disease. Evidence is also accumulating of the protective effect of adequate dietary potassium on age-related bone loss and reduction of kidney stones. These benefits depend on organic anions associated with potassium as occurs in foods such as fruits and vegetables, in contrast to similar blood pressure-lowering benefits of potassium chloride. Benefits to blood pressure and bone health may occur at levels below current recommendations for potassium intake, especially from diet, but dose-response trials are needed to confirm this. Nevertheless, intakes considerably above current levels are needed for optimal health, and studies evaluating small increases in fruit and vegetable intake on bone and heart outcomes for short periods have had disappointing results. In modern societies, Western diets have led to a decrease in potassium intake with reduced consumption of fruits and vegetables with a concomitant increase in sodium consumption through increased consumption of processed foods. Consumption of white vegetables is associated with decreased risk of stroke, possibly related to their high potassium content. Potatoes are the highest source of dietary potassium, but the addition of salt should be limited. Low potassium-to-sodium intake ratios are more strongly related to cardiovascular disease risk than either nutrient alone. This relationship deserves further attention for multiple target tissue endpoints.

  5. Mixed lithium-sodium (LiNaCO3) and lithium-potassium (LiKCO3) carbonates for low temperature electrochemical applications: Structure, electronic properties and surface reconstruction from ab-initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricca, Chiara; Ringuedé, Armelle; Cassir, Michel; Adamo, Carlo; Labat, Frédéric

    2016-05-01

    The structural, electronic and surface properties of the mixed lithium-sodium (LiNaCO3) and lithium-potassium (LiKCO3) carbonates were studied through periodic calculations performed at the density functional theory (DFT) level, using three different exchange-correlation functionals. The hybrid functional PBE0 was found to be the best one to describe both geometric and electronic features of bulk LiNaCO3 and LiKCO3. Polar (001) and non-polar (110) low index surfaces were taken into account, the first one being found the most stable in both cases, after reconstruction. Both introduction of vacancies (R1) and octopolar terminations (R2) of (001), exposing Li ((001)Li) or Na ((001)Na) were described in detail. The computed stability order for the reconstructed surfaces in gas phase is: (001)R1Na > > (001)R1Li > (001)R2Na ≈ (001)R2Li. The obtained information, in particular regarding the electronic and surface properties, could be used in future to help understanding the role of mixed carbonates as component of oxide-carbonate electrolytes for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LT-SOFCs) applications, especially as reasonable starting points for dynamics calculations of liquid molten carbonates based systems.

  6. Decolorization of dyes and textile wastewater by potassium permanganate.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiang-Rong; Li, Hua-Bin; Wang, Wen-Hua; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2005-05-01

    Decolorization of 10 types of dye solutions by potassium permanganate was studied. Effects of reaction conditions on the decolorization efficiency were examined in batch experiments. The pH value had a significant effect on the decolorization efficiency. When pH value <1.5, the decolorization efficiency was very high. When pH value >4.0, the dye solutions were almost not decolorized. Concentration of potassium permanganate and temperature also showed significant effects on the decolorization efficiency. The decolorization rate of dye solutions by potassium permanganate was rapid, and most of dye solutions can be decolorized effectively. The results of total organic carbon indicated that dye solutions were degraded incompletely by potassium permanganate. The results of treatment of textile wastewater by potassium permanganate indicated that the oxidation with potassium permanganate might be used as a pre-treatment process before biological treatment.

  7. Multimegawatt potassium Rankine power for nuclear electric power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rovang, Richard D.; Mills, Joseph C.; Baumeister, Ernie B.

    1991-01-01

    A cermet fueled potassium rankine power system concept has been developed for various power ranges and operating lifetimes. This concept utilizes a single primary lithium loop to transport thermal energy from the reactor to the boiler. Multiple, independent potassium loops are employed to achieve the required reliability of 99 percent. The potassium loops are two phase systems which expand heated potassium vapor through multistage turboalternators to produce a 10-kV dc electrical output. Condensation occurs by-way-of a shear-flow condenser, producing a 100 percent liquid potassium stream which is pumped back to the boiler. Waste heat is rejected by an advanced carbon-carbon radiator at approximately 1000 K. Overall system efficiencies of 19.3 percent to 20.5 percent were calculated depending on mission life and power level.

  8. High-yield hydrogen production by steam gasification of Hypercoal (ash-free coal extract) with potassium carbonate: comparison with raw coal

    SciTech Connect

    Jie Wang; Kinya Sakanishi; Ikuo Saito

    2005-10-01

    Steam gasification of the HyperCoals (ash-free coal extracts) with the physical addition of 5.8%-6.0% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} was conducted at 1023 K on a thermogravimetric apparatus that was equipped with an on-line quadrupole mass spectrometer. The catalytic gasification of the HyperCoals demonstrated a much higher gasification rate than the catalytic gasification of the raw coals. Interactions of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} with mineral matter in the raw coal formed water-insoluble potassium compounds, such as potassium aluminosilicates, and reduced the catalytic activity, whereas no such negative reactions occurred for the HyperCoals. The steam gasification of the HyperCoals with K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} was also determined to be favorable for the high-yield production of hydrogen. From these experimental results, the catalytic steam gasification of HyperCoal would potentially be a more efficient process for the production of hydrogen in the future. 30 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Titanium-potassium heat pipe corrosion studies

    SciTech Connect

    Lundberg, L.B.

    1984-07-01

    An experimental study of the susceptibility of wickless titanium/potassium heat pipes to corrosive attack has been conducted in vacuo at 800/sup 0/K for 6511h and at 900/sup 0/K for 4797h without failure or degradation. Some movement of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen was observed in the titanium container tube, but no evidence of attack could be detected in metallographic cross sections of samples taken along the length of the heat pipes. The lack of observable attack of titanium by potassium under these conditions refutes previous reports of Ti-K incompatibility.

  10. High potassium level

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms. Tests that may be ordered include: Electrocardiogram (ECG) Potassium level Your provider will likely check your ... have danger signs, such as changes in an ECG . Emergency treatment may include: Calcium given into your ...

  11. Potassium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or touching potassium hydroxide or products that contain this chemical. This article is for information only. Do NOT use it to treat or manage an actual poison exposure. If ...

  12. What is Potassium?

    MedlinePlus

    ... carrots and beans. It's also found in dairy foods, meat, poultry, fish and nuts. Reach your recommended daily intake of potassium by frequently adding these foods to your daily menu: 1 cup cooked spinach: ...

  13. Potassium in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... pressure. You may have hypokalemia if you: Take diuretics (water pills) to treat high blood pressure or ... and angiotensin 2 receptor blockers (ARBs) Potassium-sparing diuretics (water pills) such as spironolactone or amiloride Severe ...

  14. Potassium urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) Potassium supplements Water pills (diuretics) DO NOT stop taking any medicine before talking ... medicines, including beta blockers, lithium, trimethoprim, ... or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) Adrenal glands ...

  15. Low potassium level

    MedlinePlus

    ... laxative, which can cause diarrhea Chronic kidney disease Diuretic medicines (water pills), used to treat heart failure ... potassium through a vein (IV). If you need diuretics, your provider may: Switch you to a form ...

  16. Microporous-mesoporous carbons for energy storage synthesized by activation of carbonaceous material by zinc chloride, potassium hydroxide or mixture of them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Härmas, M.; Thomberg, T.; Kurig, H.; Romann, T.; Jänes, A.; Lust, E.

    2016-09-01

    Various electrochemical methods have been applied to establish the electrochemical characteristics of the electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC) consisting of the 1 M triethylmethylammonium tetrafluoroborate solution in acetonitrile and activated carbon based electrodes. Activated microporous carbon materials used for the preparation of electrodes have been synthesized from the hydrothermal carbonization product (HTC) prepared via hydrothermal carbonization process of D-(+)-glucose solution in H2O, followed by activation with ZnCl2, KOH or their mixture. Highest porosity and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area (SBET = 2150 m2 g-1), micropore surface area (Smicro = 2140 m2 g-1) and total pore volume (Vtot = 1.01 cm3 g-1) have been achieved for HTC activated using KOH with a mass ratio of 1:4 at 700 °C. The correlations between SBET, Smicro, Vtot and electrochemical characteristics have been studied to investigate the reasons for strong dependence of electrochemical characteristics on the synthesis conditions of carbon materials studied. Wide region of ideal polarizability (ΔV ≤ 3.0 V), very short characteristic relaxation time (0.66 s), and high specific series capacitance (134 F g-1) have been calculated for the mentioned activated carbon material, demonstrating that this system can be used for completing the EDLC with high energy- and power densities.

  17. Recipe for potassium

    SciTech Connect

    Izutani, Natsuko

    2012-11-12

    I investigate favorable conditions for producing potassium (K). Observations show [K/Fe] > 0 at low metallicities, while zero-metal supernova models show low [K/Fe] (< 0). Theoretically, it is natural that the odd-Z element, potassium decreases with lower metallicity, and thus, the observation should imply new and unknown sites for potassium. In this proceedings, I calculate proton-rich nucleosynthesis with three parameters, the initial Y{sub e} (from 0.51 to 0.60), the initial density {rho}{sub max} (10{sup 7}, 10{sup 8}, and 10{sup 9} [g/cm{sup 3}]), and the e-fold time {tau} for the density (0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 [sec]). Among 90 models I have calculated, only 26 models show [K/Fe] > 0, and they all have {rho}{sub max} = 10{sup 9}[g/cm{sup 3}]. I discuss parameter dependence of [K/Fe].

  18. High Temperature Stability of Potassium Beta Alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Kisor, A.; Ryan, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    None. From Objectives section: Evaluate the stability of potassium beta alumina under potassium AMTEC operating conditions. Evaluate the stability regime in which potassium beta alumina can be fabricated.

  19. Potassium Beta-Alumina/Molybdenum/Potassium Electrochemical Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R.; Kisor, A.; Ryan, M.; Nakamura, B.; Kikert, S.; O'Connor, D.

    1994-01-01

    potassium alkali metal thermal-to-electric converter (K-AMTEC) cells utilizing potassium beta alumina solid electrolyte (K-BASE) are predicted to have improved properties for thermal to electric conversion at somewhat lower temperatures than sodium AMTEC's.

  20. Errors in potassium balance

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes, G.B.; Lantigua, R.; Amatruda, J.M.; Lockwood, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Six overweight adult subjects given a low calorie diet containing adequate amounts of nitrogen but subnormal amounts of potassium (K) were observed on the Clinical Research Center for periods of 29 to 40 days. Metabolic balance of potassium was measured together with frequent assays of total body K by /sup 40/K counting. Metabolic K balance underestimated body K losses by 11 to 87% (average 43%): the intersubject variability is such as to preclude the use of a single correction value for unmeasured losses in K balance studies.

  1. Potassium and High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... in blood pressure to certain patterns of food consumption. For example, the D.A.S.H. (Dietary Approaches ... are good natural sources of potassium. Potassium-rich foods include: Sweet ... Levels Mean * ...

  2. Potassium silver cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for potassium silver cyanide is inclu

  3. Detecting potassium on Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, R. M.; Potter, A. E.; Morgan, T. H.

    1991-01-01

    A critical comment on the work of A.L. Sprague et al. (1990) is presented. It is argued that, in attributing an enhanced emission in the potassium D lines on Oct. 14, 1987 in the equatorial region of Mercury to a diffusion source centered on Caloris Basin, Sprague et al. misinterpreted the data. Sprague et al. present a reply, taking issue with the commenters.

  4. Potassium Channelopathies and Gastrointestinal Ulceration

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jaeyong; Lee, Seung Hun; Giebisch, Gerhard; Wang, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Potassium channels and transporters maintain potassium homeostasis and play significant roles in several different biological actions via potassium ion regulation. In previous decades, the key revelations that potassium channels and transporters are involved in the production of gastric acid and the regulation of secretion in the stomach have been recognized. Drugs used to treat peptic ulceration are often potassium transporter inhibitors. It has also been reported that potassium channels are involved in ulcerative colitis. Direct toxicity to the intestines from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been associated with altered potassium channel activities. Several reports have indicated that the long-term use of the antianginal drug Nicorandil, an adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel opener, increases the chances of ulceration and perforation from the oral to anal regions throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Several of these drug features provide further insights into the role of potassium channels in the occurrence of ulceration in the GI tract. The purpose of this review is to investigate whether potassium channelopathies are involved in the mechanisms responsible for ulceration that occurs throughout the GI tract. PMID:27784845

  5. Potassium toxicity at low serum potassium levels with refeeding syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vemula, Praveen; Abela, Oliver G; Narisetty, Keerthy; Rhine, David; Abela, George S

    2015-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is a life-threatening condition occurring in severely malnourished patients after initiating feeding. Severe hypophosphatemia with reduced adenosine triphosphate production has been implicated, but little data are available regarding electrolyte abnormalities. In this case, we report electrocardiographic changes consistent with hyperkalemia during potassium replacement after a serum level increase from 1.9 to 2.9 mEq/L. This was reversed by lowering serum potassium back to 2.0 mEq/L. In conclusion, the patient with prolonged malnutrition became adapted to low potassium levels and developed potassium toxicity with replacement.

  6. 1,4-Diketones from Cross-Conjugated Dienones: Potassium Permanganate-Interrupted Nazarov Reaction.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yonghoon; Schatz, Devon J; West, Frederick G

    2015-08-17

    A domino potassium permanganate-interrupted Nazarov reaction to yield syn-2,3-disubstituted 1,4-diketones via a decarbonylative cleavage of the Nazarov oxyallyl intermediate, believed to be without precedent, is presented. This process allows syn substituents to be established stereospecifically on the 2-carbon bridge connecting the ketone carbonyl carbons, and the formation of one carbon-carbon and two carbon-oxygen bonds. Two carbon-carbon bonds are cleaved in this process. PMID:26138361

  7. Targeting potassium channels in cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Potassium channels are pore-forming transmembrane proteins that regulate a multitude of biological processes by controlling potassium flow across cell membranes. Aberrant potassium channel functions contribute to diseases such as epilepsy, cardiac arrhythmia, and neuromuscular symptoms collectively known as channelopathies. Increasing evidence suggests that cancer constitutes another category of channelopathies associated with dysregulated channel expression. Indeed, potassium channel–modulating agents have demonstrated antitumor efficacy. Potassium channels regulate cancer cell behaviors such as proliferation and migration through both canonical ion permeation–dependent and noncanonical ion permeation–independent functions. Given their cell surface localization and well-known pharmacology, pharmacological strategies to target potassium channel could prove to be promising cancer therapeutics. PMID:25049269

  8. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7778-80-5) occurs.... It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with potassium hydroxide or potassium...

  9. 21 CFR 172.800 - Acesulfame potassium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acesulfame potassium. 172.800 Section 172.800 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.800 Acesulfame potassium. Acesulfame potassium (CAS Reg. No. 55589-62-3), also... not preclude such use, under the following conditions: (a) Acesulfame potassium is the potassium...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 184.1610 Section 184.1610 Food... GRAS § 184.1610 Potassium alginate. (a) Potassium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-36-1) is the potassium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae. Potassium alginate...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium... reacting hydriodic acid (HI) with potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3). (b) The ingredient meets...

  12. 21 CFR 172.800 - Acesulfame potassium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acesulfame potassium. 172.800 Section 172.800 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.800 Acesulfame potassium. Acesulfame potassium (CAS Reg. No. 55589-62-3), also... not preclude such use, under the following conditions: (a) Acesulfame potassium is the potassium...

  13. 21 CFR 172.800 - Acesulfame potassium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acesulfame potassium. 172.800 Section 172.800 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.800 Acesulfame potassium. Acesulfame potassium (CAS Reg. No. 55589-62-3), also... not preclude such use, under the following conditions: (a) Acesulfame potassium is the potassium...

  14. The Remarkable Chemistry of Potassium Dioxide(1-): Two Microscale Classroom Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Andrew; Anderson, Michael; Mattson, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Potassium dioxide, KO[subscript 2], (potassium superoxide) is an important compound owing to its ability to react with carbon dioxide to produce oxygen. This unique ability is employed to design rebreathing devices for submarines, space vehicles, and space suits. "Rebreathers" for firefighters and miners have also been designed using potassium…

  15. Frequently Asked Questions on Potassium Iodide (KI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... needs to take potassium iodide (KI) after a nuclear radiation release? What potassium iodide (KI) products are currently ... needs to take potassium iodide (KI) after a nuclear radiation release? The FDA guidance prioritizes groups based on ...

  16. Potassium bromide-associated panniculitis.

    PubMed

    Boynosky, N A; Stokking, L B

    2014-12-01

    Two cases of panniculitis associated with administration of potassium bromide in dogs are reported. Both dogs were treated with potassium bromide for idiopathic epilepsy for over 1 year. Dose increases in both cases were associated with panniculitis, characterised by painful subcutaneous nodules in a generalised distribution over the trunk. Nodule eruption waxed and waned in one dog and was persistent in the other. In both cases, panniculitis was accompanied by lethargy and pyrexia. Panniculitis, lethargy and pyrexia resolved and failed to recur after discontinuation of potassium bromide. No other cause of panniculitis could be determined for either dog. Panniculitis has been reported after administration of potassium bromide in humans and may be a form of drug-induced erythema nodosum. To the authors' knowledge, these are the first reports of potassium bromide-associated panniculitis in dogs.

  17. Evaluating status change of soil potassium from path model.

    PubMed

    He, Wenming; Chen, Fang

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine critical environmental parameters of soil K availability and to quantify those contributors by using a proposed path model. In this study, plot experiments were designed into different treatments, and soil samples were collected and further analyzed in laboratory to investigate soil properties influence on soil potassium forms (water soluble K, exchangeable K, non-exchangeable K). Furthermore, path analysis based on proposed path model was carried out to evaluate the relationship between potassium forms and soil properties. Research findings were achieved as followings. Firstly, key direct factors were soil S, ratio of sodium-potassium (Na/K), the chemical index of alteration (CIA), Soil Organic Matter in soil solution (SOM), Na and total nitrogen in soil solution (TN), and key indirect factors were Carbonate (CO3), Mg, pH, Na, S, and SOM. Secondly, path model can effectively determine direction and quantities of potassium status changes between Exchangeable potassium (eK), Non-exchangeable potassium (neK) and water-soluble potassium (wsK) under influences of specific environmental parameters. In reversible equilibrium state of [Formula: see text], K balance state was inclined to be moved into β and χ directions in treatments of potassium shortage. However in reversible equilibrium of [Formula: see text], K balance state was inclined to be moved into θ and λ directions in treatments of water shortage. Results showed that the proposed path model was able to quantitatively disclose moving direction of K status and quantify its equilibrium threshold. It provided a theoretical and practical basis for scientific and effective fertilization in agricultural plants growth. PMID:24204659

  18. Bound potassium in muscle II.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Z

    1980-01-01

    Experiments were performed to decide between the alternatives a) the ionized K+ is in a dissolved state in the muscle water, or b) a part of the muscle potassium is in a "bound' state. Sartorius muscles of Rana esculenta were put into glicerol for about one hour at 0-2 degrees C. Most of muscle water came out, but most of muscle potassium remained in the muscles. In contrast to this: from muscle in heat rigor more potassium was released due to glicerol treating than from the intact ones. 1. Supposition a) is experimentally refuted. 2. Supposition b) corresponds to the experimental results. PMID:6969511

  19. Geometric and electronic structures of potassium-adsorbed rubrene complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tsung-Lung; Lu, Wen-Cai

    2015-06-28

    The geometric and electronic structures of potassium-adsorbed rubrene complexes are studied in this article. It is found that the potassium-rubrene (K{sub 1}RUB) complexes inherit the main symmetry characteristics from their pristine counterparts and are thus classified into D{sub 2}- and C{sub 2h}-like complexes according to the relative orientations of the four phenyl side groups. The geometric structures of K{sub 1}RUB are governed by two general effects on the total energy: Deformation of the carbon frame of the pristine rubrene increases the total energy, while proximity of the potassium ion to the phenyl ligands decreases the energy. Under these general rules, the structures of D{sub 2}- and C{sub 2h}-like K{sub 1}RUB, however, exhibit their respective peculiarities. These peculiarities can be illustrated by their energy profiles of equilibrium structures. For the potassium adsorption-sites, the D{sub 2}-like complexes show minimum-energy basins, whereas the C{sub 2h}-like ones have single-point minimum-energies. If the potassium atom ever has the energy to diffuse from the minimum-energy site, the potassium diffusion path on the D{sub 2}-like complexes is most likely along the backbone in contrast to the C{sub 2h}-like ones. Although the electronic structures of the minimum-energy structures of D{sub 2}- and C{sub 2h}-like K{sub 1}RUB are very alike, decompositions of their total spectra reveal insights into the electronic structures. First, the spectral shapes are mainly determined by the facts that, in comparison with the backbone carbons, the phenyl carbons have more uniform chemical environments and far less contributions to the electronic structures around the valence-band edge. Second, the electron dissociated from the potassium atom mainly remains on the backbone and has little effects on the electronic structures of the phenyl groups. Third, the two phenyls on the same side of the backbone as the potassium atom have more similar chemical environments

  20. Geometric and electronic structures of potassium-adsorbed rubrene complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tsung-Lung; Lu, Wen-Cai

    2015-06-01

    The geometric and electronic structures of potassium-adsorbed rubrene complexes are studied in this article. It is found that the potassium-rubrene (K1RUB) complexes inherit the main symmetry characteristics from their pristine counterparts and are thus classified into D2- and C2h-like complexes according to the relative orientations of the four phenyl side groups. The geometric structures of K1RUB are governed by two general effects on the total energy: Deformation of the carbon frame of the pristine rubrene increases the total energy, while proximity of the potassium ion to the phenyl ligands decreases the energy. Under these general rules, the structures of D2- and C2h-like K1RUB, however, exhibit their respective peculiarities. These peculiarities can be illustrated by their energy profiles of equilibrium structures. For the potassium adsorption-sites, the D2-like complexes show minimum-energy basins, whereas the C2h-like ones have single-point minimum-energies. If the potassium atom ever has the energy to diffuse from the minimum-energy site, the potassium diffusion path on the D2-like complexes is most likely along the backbone in contrast to the C2h-like ones. Although the electronic structures of the minimum-energy structures of D2- and C2h-like K1RUB are very alike, decompositions of their total spectra reveal insights into the electronic structures. First, the spectral shapes are mainly determined by the facts that, in comparison with the backbone carbons, the phenyl carbons have more uniform chemical environments and far less contributions to the electronic structures around the valence-band edge. Second, the electron dissociated from the potassium atom mainly remains on the backbone and has little effects on the electronic structures of the phenyl groups. Third, the two phenyls on the same side of the backbone as the potassium atom have more similar chemical environments than the other two on the opposite side, which leads to the largely enhanced

  1. Geometric and electronic structures of potassium-adsorbed rubrene complexes.

    PubMed

    Li, Tsung-Lung; Lu, Wen-Cai

    2015-06-28

    The geometric and electronic structures of potassium-adsorbed rubrene complexes are studied in this article. It is found that the potassium-rubrene (K1RUB) complexes inherit the main symmetry characteristics from their pristine counterparts and are thus classified into D2- and C2h-like complexes according to the relative orientations of the four phenyl side groups. The geometric structures of K1RUB are governed by two general effects on the total energy: Deformation of the carbon frame of the pristine rubrene increases the total energy, while proximity of the potassium ion to the phenyl ligands decreases the energy. Under these general rules, the structures of D2- and C2h-like K1RUB, however, exhibit their respective peculiarities. These peculiarities can be illustrated by their energy profiles of equilibrium structures. For the potassium adsorption-sites, the D2-like complexes show minimum-energy basins, whereas the C2h-like ones have single-point minimum-energies. If the potassium atom ever has the energy to diffuse from the minimum-energy site, the potassium diffusion path on the D2-like complexes is most likely along the backbone in contrast to the C2h-like ones. Although the electronic structures of the minimum-energy structures of D2- and C2h-like K1RUB are very alike, decompositions of their total spectra reveal insights into the electronic structures. First, the spectral shapes are mainly determined by the facts that, in comparison with the backbone carbons, the phenyl carbons have more uniform chemical environments and far less contributions to the electronic structures around the valence-band edge. Second, the electron dissociated from the potassium atom mainly remains on the backbone and has little effects on the electronic structures of the phenyl groups. Third, the two phenyls on the same side of the backbone as the potassium atom have more similar chemical environments than the other two on the opposite side, which leads to the largely enhanced

  2. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide..., including pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 184.1610 Section 184.1610 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1610 Potassium alginate. (a) Potassium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-36-1) is the potassium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium salt of hydriodic acid. It occurs naturally in sea water and in...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium salt of hydriodic acid. It occurs naturally in sea water and in...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1635 - Potassium iodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium iodate. 184.1635 Section 184.1635 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1635 Potassium iodate. (a) Potassium iodate (KIO3, CAS Reg. No. 7758-05-6) does not occur naturally but can be prepared by reacting iodine with potassium hydroxide....

  8. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide..., including pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1635 - Potassium iodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium iodate. 184.1635 Section 184.1635 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1635 Potassium iodate. (a) Potassium iodate (KIO3, CAS Reg. No. 7758-05-6) does not occur naturally but can be prepared by reacting iodine with potassium hydroxide....

  10. 21 CFR 184.1610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 184.1610 Section 184.1610 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1610 Potassium alginate. (a) Potassium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-36-1) is the potassium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg. No. 7447-40-7) is a white... manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in infant formula in accordance with section 412(g)...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide..., including pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1635 - Potassium iodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium iodate. 184.1635 Section 184.1635 Food... GRAS § 184.1635 Potassium iodate. (a) Potassium iodate (KIO3, CAS Reg. No. 7758-05-6) does not occur naturally but can be prepared by reacting iodine with potassium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient meets...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium salt of hydriodic acid. It occurs naturally in sea water and in...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 184.1610 Section 184.1610 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1610 Potassium alginate. (a) Potassium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-36-1) is the potassium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1635 - Potassium iodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium iodate. 184.1635 Section 184.1635 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1635 Potassium iodate. (a) Potassium iodate (KIO3, CAS Reg. No. 7758-05-6) does not occur naturally but can be prepared by reacting iodine with potassium hydroxide....

  19. 21 CFR 184.1610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium alginate. 184.1610 Section 184.1610 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1610 Potassium alginate. (a) Potassium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-36-1) is the potassium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1635 - Potassium iodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium iodate. 184.1635 Section 184.1635 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1635 Potassium iodate. (a) Potassium iodate (KIO3, CAS Reg. No. 7758-05-6) does not occur naturally but can be prepared by reacting iodine with potassium hydroxide....

  2. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide (KOH, CAS Reg... pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium salt of hydriodic acid. It occurs naturally in sea water and in...

  4. [Potassium channelopathies and Morvan's syndromes].

    PubMed

    Serratrice, Georges; Pellissier, Jean-François; Serra-Trice, Jacques; Weiller, Pierre-Jean

    2010-02-01

    Interest in Morvan's disease or syndrome has grown, owing to its close links with various potassium channelopathies. Potassium is crucial for gating mechanisms (channel opening and closing), and especially for repolarization. Defective potassium regulation can lead to neuronal hyperexcitability. There are three families of potassium channels: voltage-gated potassium channels or VGKC (Kv1.1-Kv1.8), inward rectifier K+ channels (Kir), and two-pore channels (K2p). VGK channels are the commonest, and especially those belonging to the Shaker group (neuromyotonia and Morvan's syndrome, limbic encephalitis, and type 1 episodic ataxia). Brain and heart K+ channelopathies are a separate group due to KCNQ1 mutation (severe type 2 long QT syndrome). Kv7 channel mutations (in KNQ2 and KCNQ3) are responsible for benign familial neonatal seizures. Mutation of the Ca+ activated K+ channel gene causes epilepsy and paroxysmal dyskinesia. Inward rectifier K+ channels regulate intracellular potassium levels. The DEND syndrome, a treatable channelopathy of the brain and pancreas, is due to KCNJ1 mutation. Andersen's syndrome, due to KCNJ2 mutation, is characterized by periodic paralysis, cardiac arrythmia, and dysmorphia. Voltage-insensitive K2p channelopathies form a final group. PMID:21166127

  5. Does Hemodialysis Dialysate Potassium Composition Matter?.

    PubMed

    Haras, Mary S

    2015-01-01

    Dyskalemia is known to cause cardiac arrhythmias and cardiac arrest. In persons undergoing hemodialysis, potassium dialysate composition has been identified as a contributingfactor in addition to co-morbidities, medications, dietary potassium intake, and stage of kidney disease. Current evidence recommends a thorough evaluation of all factors affecting potassium balance, and lower potassium concentration should be used cautiously in patients who are likely to develop cardiac arrhythmias. Nephrology nurses play a key role inpatient assessment and edu- cation related to potassium balance.

  6. Vascular potassium channels in NVC.

    PubMed

    Yamada, K

    2016-01-01

    It has long been proposed that the external potassium ion ([K(+)]0) works as a potent vasodilator in the dynamic regulation of local cerebral blood flow. Astrocytes may play a central role for producing K(+) outflow possibly through calcium-activated potassium channels on the end feet, responding to a rise in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, which might well reflect local neuronal activity. A mild elevation of [K(+)]0 in the end feet/vascular smooth muscle space could activate Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase concomitant with inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) channels in vascular smooth muscle cells, leading to a hyperpolarization of vascular smooth muscle and relaxation of smooth muscle actin-positive vessels. Also proposed notion is endothelial calcium-activated potassium channels and/or inwardly rectifying potassium channel-mediated hyperpolarization of vascular smooth muscle. A larger elevation of [K(+)]0, which may occur pathophysiologically in such as spreading depression or stroke, can trigger a depolarization of vascular smooth muscle cells and vasoconstriction instead. PMID:27130411

  7. Regulation of renal potassium secretion: molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Welling, Paul A

    2013-05-01

    A new understanding of renal potassium balance has emerged as the molecular underpinnings of potassium secretion have become illuminated, highlighting the key roles of apical potassium channels, renal outer medullary potassium channel (ROMK) and Big Potassium (BK), in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron and collecting duct. These channels act as the final-regulated components of the renal potassium secretory machinery. Their activity, number, and driving forces are precisely modulated to ensure potassium excretion matches dietary potassium intake. Recent identification of the underlying regulatory mechanisms at the molecular level provides a new appreciation of the physiology and reveals a molecular insight to explain the paradoxic actions of aldosterone on potassium secretion. Here, we review the current state of knowledge in the field.

  8. Extrarenal potassium adaptation: role of skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Blachley, J.D.; Crider, B.P.; Johnson, J.H.

    1986-08-01

    Following the ingestion of a high-potassium-content diet for only a few days, the plasma potassium of rats rises only modestly in response to a previously lethal dose of potassium salts. This acquired tolerance, termed potassium adaptation, is principally the result of increased capacity to excrete potassium into the urine. However, a substantial portion of the acute potassium dose is not immediately excreted and is apparently translocated into cells. Previous studies have failed to show an increase in the content of potassium of a variety of tissues from such animals. Using /sup 86/Rb as a potassium analogue, we have shown that the skeletal muscle of potassium-adapted rats takes up significantly greater amounts of potassium in vivo in response to an acute challenge than does that of control animals. Furthermore, the same animals exhibit greater efflux of /sup 86/Rb following the termination of the acute infusion. We have also shown that the Na+-K+-ATPase activity and ouabain-binding capacity of skeletal muscle microsomes are increased by the process of potassium adaptation. We conclude that skeletal muscle is an important participant in potassium adaptation and acts to temporarily buffer acute increases in the extracellular concentration of potassium.

  9. Alternatives for sodium-potassium alloy treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, T.J.; Johnson, M.E.

    1993-04-08

    Sodium-potassium alloy (NaK) is currently treated at the Y-12 Plant by open burning. Due to uncertainties with future permits for this process alternative treatment methods were investigated, revealing that two treatment processes are feasible. One process reacts the NaK with water in a highly concentrated molten caustic solution (sodium and potassium hydroxide). The final waste is a caustic that may be used elsewhere in the plant. This process has two safety concerns: Hot corrosive materials used throughout the process present handling difficulties and the process must be carefully controlled (temperature and water content) to avoid explosive NaK reactions. To avoid these problems a second process was developed that dissolves NaK in a mixture of propylene glycol and water at room temperature. While this process is safer, it generates more waste than the caustic process. The waste may possibly be used as a carbon food source in biological waste treatment operations at the Y-12 Plant. Experiments were conducted to demonstrate both processes, and they showed that both processes are feasible alternatives for NaK treatment. Process flow sheets with mass balances were generated for both processes and compared. While the caustic process generates less waste, the propylene glycol process is safer in several ways (temperature, material handling, and reaction control). The authors recommend that the propylene glycol alternative be pursued further as an alternative for NaK treatment. To optimize this process for a larger scale several experiments should be conducted. The amount of NaK dissolved in propylene glycol and subsequent waste generated should be optimized. The offgas processes should be optimized. The viability of using this waste as a carbon food source at one of the Y-12 Plant treatment facilities should be investigated. If the state accepts this process as an alternative, design and construction of a pilot-scale treatment system should begin.

  10. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  11. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  12. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  13. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  14. Fourier transform C-13 NMR analysis of some free and potassium-ion complexed antibiotics.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohnishi, M.; Fedarko, M.-C.; Baldeschwieler, J. D.; Johnson, L. F.

    1972-01-01

    Fourier transforms of the noise-decoupled, natural abundance C-13 NMR free induction decays of the cyclic antibiotic valinomycin and its potassium-ion complex have been obtained at 25.2 MHz. Comparisons are made with C-13 NMR spectra taken at 22.6 MHz of the cyclic antibiotic nonactin and the synthetic polyether dicyclohexyl-18-crown-6 and their potassium complexes. The results obtained suggest that conformational rearrangements of the molecule as a whole can compete with direct interactions between carbons and the potassium ion in determining C-13 chemical shift differences between the free and complexed species.

  15. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and is prepared commercially...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and...

  20. 21 CFR 582.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 582.3616 Section 582.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Potassium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  2. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with...

  3. 21 CFR 182.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 182.3637 Section 182.3637...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance...

  4. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium...

  5. 21 CFR 172.730 - Potassium bromate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium bromate. 172.730 Section 172.730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.730 Potassium bromate. The food additive potassium bromate may...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Potassium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  7. 21 CFR 182.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 182.3616 Section 182.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  8. 21 CFR 172.730 - Potassium bromate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium bromate. 172.730 Section 172.730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....730 Potassium bromate. The food additive potassium bromate may be safely used in the malting of...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  10. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  11. 21 CFR 582.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 582.3640 Section 582.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3640 Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  12. 21 CFR 582.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 582.3640 Section 582.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3640 Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Potassium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  14. 21 CFR 172.730 - Potassium bromate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium bromate. 172.730 Section 172.730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.730 Potassium bromate. The food additive potassium bromate may...

  15. 21 CFR 182.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 182.3616 Section 182.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  16. 21 CFR 182.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 182.3637 Section 182.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  17. 21 CFR 582.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 582.3637 Section 582.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  18. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  19. 21 CFR 582.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 582.3637 Section 582.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  20. 21 CFR 582.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 582.3640 Section 582.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3640 Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Potassium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  2. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  3. 21 CFR 582.5628 - Potassium glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium glycerophosphate. 582.5628 Section 582.5628 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5628 Potassium glycerophosphate. (a) Product. Potassium glycerophosphate....

  4. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  5. 21 CFR 182.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 182.3640 Section 182.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  7. 21 CFR 582.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 582.3616 Section 582.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  8. 21 CFR 582.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 582.3637 Section 582.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  9. 21 CFR 582.7610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 582.7610 Section 582.7610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium alginate. (a) Product. Potassium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5628 - Potassium glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium glycerophosphate. 582.5628 Section 582.5628 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5628 Potassium glycerophosphate. (a) Product. Potassium glycerophosphate....

  11. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  12. 21 CFR 582.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 582.3616 Section 582.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with...

  14. 21 CFR 582.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 582.3640 Section 582.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3640 Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  15. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  16. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  17. 21 CFR 172.730 - Potassium bromate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium bromate. 172.730 Section 172.730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.730 Potassium bromate. The food additive potassium bromate may...

  18. 21 CFR 182.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 182.3640 Section 182.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  20. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 582.5634 Section 582.5634 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent....

  1. 21 CFR 182.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 182.3616 Section 182.3616...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance is...

  2. 21 CFR 582.7610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 582.7610 Section 582.7610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium alginate. (a) Product. Potassium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5628 - Potassium glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium glycerophosphate. 582.5628 Section 582.5628 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5628 Potassium glycerophosphate. (a) Product. Potassium glycerophosphate....

  4. 21 CFR 582.7610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 582.7610 Section 582.7610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium alginate. (a) Product. Potassium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  5. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 582.5634 Section 582.5634 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent....

  7. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  9. 21 CFR 182.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 182.3640 Section 182.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  11. 21 CFR 582.7610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 582.7610 Section 582.7610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium alginate. (a) Product. Potassium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  13. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5628 - Potassium glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium glycerophosphate. 582.5628 Section 582.5628 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5628 Potassium glycerophosphate. (a) Product. Potassium glycerophosphate....

  15. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  16. 21 CFR 182.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 182.3637 Section 182.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  18. 21 CFR 582.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 582.3637 Section 582.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  19. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium...

  20. 21 CFR 582.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 582.3616 Section 582.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  1. 21 CFR 182.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium bisulfite. 182.3616 Section 182.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  3. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Potassium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  4. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  6. 21 CFR 582.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 582.3640 Section 582.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3640 Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  8. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium...

  9. 21 CFR 582.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 582.3637 Section 582.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  10. 21 CFR 182.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium sorbate. 182.3640 Section 182.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  11. 21 CFR 182.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium metabisulfite. 182.3637 Section 182.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  12. 21 CFR 172.730 - Potassium bromate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium bromate. 172.730 Section 172.730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Specific Usage Additives § 172.730 Potassium bromate. The food additive potassium bromate may be...

  13. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  14. 21 CFR 582.7610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 582.7610 Section 582.7610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium alginate. (a) Product. Potassium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5628 - Potassium glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium glycerophosphate. 582.5628 Section 582.5628 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5628 Potassium glycerophosphate. (a) Product. Potassium glycerophosphate....

  16. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely used as a...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 582.5634 Section 582.5634 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent....

  18. 21 CFR 582.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 582.3616 Section 582.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  20. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Food Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely...

  1. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Food Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely...

  2. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Food Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely...

  3. The inhibitory effects of potassium chloride versus potassium silicate application on (137)Cs uptake by rice.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Shigeto; Yoshioka, Kunio; Ota, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Sato, Makoto; Satou, Mutsuto

    2016-03-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant owned by the Tokyo Electric Power Company on 11 March 2011, potassium fertilizer was applied to agricultural fields in the southern Tohoku and northern Kanto regions of Japan to reduce the uptake of radiocesium by crops. In this study, we examined the effects of two types of potassium fertilizers, potassium chloride (a readily available potassium fertilizer) and potassium silicate (a slow-release potassium fertilizer), as well as a split application of potassium, on the accumulation of (137)Cs by rice plants in two pot experiments. The (137)Cs concentrations in the brown rice and in the above-ground plants were significantly lower after potassium chloride application than after potassium silicate application. The potassium ion (K(+)) concentrations in soil solutions sampled 9 and 21 d after transplanting were significantly higher for the potassium chloride application than for the potassium silicate application. The K(+) concentrations in soil solutions observed in the application of potassium silicate were similar to those in the treatment when no potassium was applied. This finding indicates that the application of potassium silicate did not sufficiently increase the available K(+) for rice plants in the soil, which led to a greater uptake of (137)Cs after the potassium silicate application than after the application of potassium chloride. The (137)Cs concentration in brown rice was higher in the split application of potassium fertilizer with the second application at the full heading stage than that without split application and the split application with the second application before heading. PMID:26773513

  4. Potassium Intake, Bioavailability, Hypertension, and Glucose Control

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Michael S.; Martyn, Lisa; Weaver, Connie M.

    2016-01-01

    Potassium is an essential nutrient. It is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid where it plays a key role in maintaining cell function. The gradient of potassium across the cell membrane determines cellular membrane potential, which is maintained in large part by the ubiquitous ion channel the sodium-potassium (Na+-K+) ATPase pump. Approximately 90% of potassium consumed (60–100 mEq) is lost in the urine, with the other 10% excreted in the stool, and a very small amount lost in sweat. Little is known about the bioavailability of potassium, especially from dietary sources. Less is understood on how bioavailability may affect health outcomes. Hypertension (HTN) is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and a major financial burden ($50.6 billion) to the US public health system, and has a significant impact on all-cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. The relationship between increased potassium supplementation and a decrease in HTN is relatively well understood, but the effect of increased potassium intake from dietary sources on blood pressure overall is less clear. In addition, treatment options for hypertensive individuals (e.g., thiazide diuretics) may further compound chronic disease risk via impairments in potassium utilization and glucose control. Understanding potassium bioavailability from various sources may help to reveal how specific compounds and tissues influence potassium movement, and further the understanding of its role in health. PMID:27455317

  5. Potassium Intake, Bioavailability, Hypertension, and Glucose Control.

    PubMed

    Stone, Michael S; Martyn, Lisa; Weaver, Connie M

    2016-01-01

    Potassium is an essential nutrient. It is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid where it plays a key role in maintaining cell function. The gradient of potassium across the cell membrane determines cellular membrane potential, which is maintained in large part by the ubiquitous ion channel the sodium-potassium (Na+-K+) ATPase pump. Approximately 90% of potassium consumed (60-100 mEq) is lost in the urine, with the other 10% excreted in the stool, and a very small amount lost in sweat. Little is known about the bioavailability of potassium, especially from dietary sources. Less is understood on how bioavailability may affect health outcomes. Hypertension (HTN) is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and a major financial burden ($50.6 billion) to the US public health system, and has a significant impact on all-cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. The relationship between increased potassium supplementation and a decrease in HTN is relatively well understood, but the effect of increased potassium intake from dietary sources on blood pressure overall is less clear. In addition, treatment options for hypertensive individuals (e.g., thiazide diuretics) may further compound chronic disease risk via impairments in potassium utilization and glucose control. Understanding potassium bioavailability from various sources may help to reveal how specific compounds and tissues influence potassium movement, and further the understanding of its role in health. PMID:27455317

  6. Evaluation of the potassium adsorption capacity of a potassium adsorption filter during rapid blood transfusion.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, H; Akatsuka, Y; Muramatsu, C; Isogai, S; Sugiura, Y; Arakawa, S; Murayama, M; Kurahashi, M; Takasuga, H; Oshige, T; Yuba, T; Mizuta, S; Emi, N

    2015-05-01

    The concentration of extracellular potassium in red blood cell concentrates (RCCs) increases during storage, leading to risk of hyperkalemia. A potassium adsorption filter (PAF) can eliminate the potassium at normal blood transfusion. This study aimed to investigate the potassium adsorption capacity of a PAF during rapid blood transfusion. We tested several different potassium concentrations under a rapid transfusion condition using a pressure bag. The adsorption rates of the 70-mEq/l model were 76·8%. The PAF showed good potassium adsorption capacity, suggesting that this filter may provide a convenient method to prevent hyperkalemia during rapid blood transfusion.

  7. Conversion of alkali metal sulfate to the carbonate

    DOEpatents

    Sheth, Atul C.

    1982-01-01

    A process for converting potassium sulfate to potassium carbonate in which a mixture of potassium sulfate and calcium oxide are reacted at a temperature in the range of between about 700.degree. C. and about 800.degree. C. with a gaseous mixture having a minor amount of hydrogen and/or carbon monoxide in a diluent with the calcium oxide being present in an amount not greater than about 20 percent by weight of the potassium sulfate to produce an aqueous mixture of potassium sulfide, potassium bisulfide, potassium hydroxide and calcium sulfide and a gaseous mixture of steam and hydrogen sulfide. The potassium and calcium salts are quenched to produce an aqueous slurry of soluble potassium salts and insoluble calcium salts and a gaseous mixture of steam and hydrogen sulfide. The insoluble calcium salts are then separated from the aqueous solution of soluble potassium salts. The calcium salts are dried to produce calcium sulfide, calcium bisulfide and steam, and then, the calcium sulfide and calcium bisulfide are converted to the oxide and recycled. The soluble potassium salts are carbonated to produce potassium carbonate which is concentrated and the precipitated crystals separated. The sulfur-containing compounds are further treated.

  8. Conversion of alkali metal sulfate to the carbonate

    DOEpatents

    Sheth, A.C.

    1979-10-01

    A process is described for converting potassium sulfate to potassium carbonate in which a mixture of potassium sulfate and calcium oxide are reacted at a temperature in the range of between about 700/sup 0/C and about 800/sup 0/C with a gaseous mixture having a minor amount of hydrogen and/or carbon monoxide in a diluent with the calcium oxide being present in an amount not greater than about 20 percent by weight of the potassium sulfate to produce an aqueous mixture of potassium sulfide, potassium bisulfide, potassium hydroxide and calcium sulfide and a gaseous mixture of steam and hydrogen sulfide. The potassium and calcium salts are quenched to produce an aqueous slurry of soluble potassium salts and insoluble calcium salts and a gaseous mixture of steam and hydrogen sulfide. The insoluble calcium salts are then separated from the aqueous solution of soluble potassium salts. The calcium salts are dried to produce calcium sulfide, calcium bisulfide and steam, and then, the calcium sulfide and calcium bisulfide are converted to the oxide and recycled. The soluble potassium salts are carbonated to produce potassium carbonate which is concentrated and the precipitated crystals separated. the sulfur-containing compounds are further treated. This process was developed for desulfurization and reprocessing of spent seed from open-cycle coal-fired MHD generators for reuse.

  9. Potassium Uptake Modulates Staphylococcus aureus Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Gries, Casey M.; Sadykov, Marat R.; Bulock, Logan L.; Chaudhari, Sujata S.; Thomas, Vinai C.; Bose, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT As a leading cause of community-associated and nosocomial infections, Staphylococcus aureus requires sophisticated mechanisms that function to maintain cellular homeostasis in response to its exposure to changing environmental conditions. The adaptation to stress and maintenance of homeostasis depend largely on membrane activity, including supporting electrochemical gradients and synthesis of ATP. This is largely achieved through potassium (K+) transport, which plays an essential role in maintaining chemiosmotic homeostasis, affects antimicrobial resistance, and contributes to fitness in vivo. Here, we report that S. aureus Ktr-mediated K+ uptake is necessary for maintaining cytoplasmic pH and the establishment of a proton motive force. Metabolite analyses revealed that K+ deficiency affects both metabolic and energy states of S. aureus by impairing oxidative phosphorylation and directing carbon flux toward substrate-level phosphorylation. Taken together, these results underline the importance of K+ uptake in maintaining essential components of S. aureus metabolism. IMPORTANCE Previous studies describing mechanisms for K+ uptake in S. aureus revealed that the Ktr-mediated K+ transport system was required for normal growth under alkaline conditions but not under neutral or acidic conditions. This work focuses on the effect of K+ uptake on S. aureus metabolism, including intracellular pH and carbon flux, and is the first to utilize a pH-dependent green fluorescent protein (GFP) to measure S. aureus cytoplasmic pH. These studies highlight the role of K+ uptake in supporting proton efflux under alkaline conditions and uncover a critical role for K+ uptake in establishing efficient carbon utilization. PMID:27340697

  10. Potassium Uptake Modulates Staphylococcus aureus Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gries, Casey M; Sadykov, Marat R; Bulock, Logan L; Chaudhari, Sujata S; Thomas, Vinai C; Bose, Jeffrey L; Bayles, Kenneth W

    2016-01-01

    As a leading cause of community-associated and nosocomial infections, Staphylococcus aureus requires sophisticated mechanisms that function to maintain cellular homeostasis in response to its exposure to changing environmental conditions. The adaptation to stress and maintenance of homeostasis depend largely on membrane activity, including supporting electrochemical gradients and synthesis of ATP. This is largely achieved through potassium (K(+)) transport, which plays an essential role in maintaining chemiosmotic homeostasis, affects antimicrobial resistance, and contributes to fitness in vivo. Here, we report that S. aureus Ktr-mediated K(+) uptake is necessary for maintaining cytoplasmic pH and the establishment of a proton motive force. Metabolite analyses revealed that K(+) deficiency affects both metabolic and energy states of S. aureus by impairing oxidative phosphorylation and directing carbon flux toward substrate-level phosphorylation. Taken together, these results underline the importance of K(+) uptake in maintaining essential components of S. aureus metabolism. IMPORTANCE Previous studies describing mechanisms for K(+) uptake in S. aureus revealed that the Ktr-mediated K(+) transport system was required for normal growth under alkaline conditions but not under neutral or acidic conditions. This work focuses on the effect of K(+) uptake on S. aureus metabolism, including intracellular pH and carbon flux, and is the first to utilize a pH-dependent green fluorescent protein (GFP) to measure S. aureus cytoplasmic pH. These studies highlight the role of K(+) uptake in supporting proton efflux under alkaline conditions and uncover a critical role for K(+) uptake in establishing efficient carbon utilization. PMID:27340697

  11. Potentiometric determination of potassium cations using a nickel(II) hexacyanoferrate-modified electrode.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, R J; Barbeira, P J; Sene, A F; Stradiotto, N R

    1999-06-14

    Electroactive nickel(II) hexacyanoferrate (NiHCF) thin film modified electrodes are effective potentiometric sensors for the determination of potassium ions. The NiHCF films are deposited onto glassy carbon electrodes by repetitive potential cycling in K(3)Fe(CN)(6)/NaNO(3)/Ni(NO(3))(2) solution. The modified electrodes exhibit a linear response to potassium ions in the concentration range 1x10(-3) to 2.0 mol dm(-3), with a near-Nernstian slope (45-49 mV per decade) at 25 degrees C. In the determination of potassium ion in syrups used for treatment of potassium deficiency, the NiHCF-modified electrode gave comparable results to those obtained using flame emission spectrophotometry. PMID:18967597

  12. Potassium and potassium clouds in endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizations.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Gillian; Weston, Arthur H

    2004-06-01

    A small increase in extracellular K(+) acts as a local, physiological regulator of blood flow to certain vascular beds. The K(+) derives from active tissues such as contracting skeletal muscle and brain and increases blood supply to these organs by the activation of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases and/or inwardly-rectifying K(+) channels on the vascular myocytes. K(+) liberated from the vascular endothelium also acts as an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing and relaxing factor within blood vessels. The K(+) effluxes from endothelial cell intermediate- and small-conductance, Ca(2+)-sensitive K(+) channels which open in response to stretch and local hormones. In many vessels, endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) seems identical to the K(+) derived from endothelial cells; it activates Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases (particularly those containing alpha2 and alpha3 subunits) and inward rectifiers (particularly Kir2.1) located on the vascular myocytes. Vasospastic agents generate "potassium clouds" around vascular smooth muscle cells via the efflux of this ion through large conductance, Ca(2+)-sensitive K(+) channels on the myocytes. These potassium clouds can reduce the hyperpolarizing actions of endothelium-derived K(+) by effectively saturating the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases and inward rectifiers on the muscle cells and they may be of clinical significance in vasospastic conditions.

  13. Potassium

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O,...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O,...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O,...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O,...

  18. RADIOACTIVITY AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF POTASSIUM.

    PubMed

    Loeb, R F

    1920-11-20

    1. The non-radioactive cesium ion can replace the potassium ion almost quantitatively in solutions required for the development of the egg of the sea urchin into swimming blastulae. 2. Thorium chloride and uranium acetate cannot replace the potassium chloride in the solutions required for the development of the egg. 3. Thorium chloride and uranium acetate do not antagonize the action of the potassium contained in sea water upon the development of eggs.

  19. The importance of potassium in managing hypertension.

    PubMed

    Houston, Mark C

    2011-08-01

    Dietary potassium intake has been demonstrated to significantly lower blood pressure (BP) in a dose-responsive manner in both hypertensive and nonhypertensive patients in observational studies, clinical trials, and several meta-analyses. In hypertensive patients, the linear dose-response relationship is a 1.0 mm Hg reduction in systolic BP and a 0.52 mm Hg reduction in diastolic BP per 0.6 g per day increase in dietary potassium intake that is independent of baseline potassium deficiency. The average reduction in BP with 4.7 g (120 mmol) of dietary potassium per day is 8.0/4.1 mm Hg, depending race and on the relative intakes of other minerals such as sodium, magnesium, and calcium. If the dietary sodium chloride intake is high, there is a greater BP reduction with an increased intake of dietary potassium. Blacks have a greater decrease in BP than Caucasians with an equal potassium intake. Potassium-induced reduction in BP significantly lowers the incidence of stroke (cerebrovascular accident, CVA), coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, and other cardiovascular events. However, potassium also reduces the risk of CVA independent of BP reductions. Increasing consumption of potassium to 4.7 g per day predicts lower event rates for future cardiovascular disease, with estimated decreases of 8% to 15% in CVA and 6% to 11% in myocardial infarction.

  20. Potassium promotion of iron oxide dehydrogenation catalysts supported on magnesium oxide: 1. Preparation and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Stobbe, D.E.; Buren, F.R. van ); Dillen, A.J. van; Geus, J.W. )

    1992-06-01

    Catalysts of iron oxide supported on magnesium oxide and promoted with potassium were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation of preshaped magnesium oxide support pellets with a solution of an iron complex, either ammonium iron (III) citrate or ammonium iron (III) EDTA and potassium carbonate. Iron and potassium were applied wither simultaneously or consecutively. As determined using X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and magnetic measurements, calcination above 923 K results in the formation of a mixed oxide of iron and potassium, viz., KFeO[sub 2]. After calcination at 973 K the average crystallite size of the KFeO[sub 2] phase is about 300 [angstrom]. The formation of KFeO[sub 2] appeared to have a strong retarding effect on the reduction of the iron oxide phase to metallic iron. It was found that the KFeO[sub 2] phase is unstable in atomspheric air due to reaction with carbon dioxide and moisture to form potassium (hydrogen) carbonate and (hydrated) iron oxide.

  1. 21 CFR 182.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 182.3640 Section 182.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3640 Potassium sorbate. (a) Product....

  2. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent. (c... salt as a source of dietary iodine in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice....

  3. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent. (c... salt as a source of dietary iodine in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice....

  4. Process for preparation of potassium-38

    DOEpatents

    Lambrecht, Richard M.; Wolf, Alfred P.

    1981-01-01

    A solution of potassium-38 suitable for use as a radiopharmaceutical and a method for its production. Argon is irradiated with protons having energies above the threshold for the .sup.40 Ar(p,3n).sup.38 K reaction. The resulting potassium-38 is dissolved in a sterile water and any contaminating chlorine-38 is removed.

  5. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely used as a curing agent in the processing of...

  6. Development of a prototype regenerable carbon dioxide absorber for portable life support systems. [for astronaut EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onischak, M.; Baker, B.

    1977-01-01

    The design and development of a prototype carbon dioxide absorber using potassium carbonate (K2CO3) is described. Absorbers are constructed of thin, porous sheets of supported K2CO3 that are spirally wound to form a cylindrical reactor. Axial gas passages are formed between the porous sheets by corrugated screen material. Carbon dioxide and water in an enclosed life support system atmosphere react with potassium carbonate to form potassium bicarbonate. The potassium carbonate is regenerated by heating the potassium bicarbonate to 150 C at ambient pressure. The extravehicular mission design conditions are for one man for 8 h. Results are shown for a subunit test module investigating the effects of heat release, length-to-diameter ratio, and active cooling upon performance. The most important effect upon carbon dioxide removal is the temperature of the potassium carbonate.

  7. A survey of Io's potassium cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trafton, L.

    1981-01-01

    Io's potassium cloud exhibits spatial and temporal variations similar to those observed for Io's sodium cloud. Spectra from five apparitions show that the potassium cloud is elongated so that it extends forward from Io's leading, inner hemisphere and makes an angle with Io's orbit of 10-30 deg, slightly less than the angle for the sodium cloud. The potassium cloud is a long-lived phenomenon which undergoes periodic fluctuations in response to solar radiation pressure and the ionizing influence of Jupiter's plasma torus. These give rise to east-west and north-south asymmetry variations similar to those observed for the sodium cloud. Evidence for temporary jets of potassium streaming from Io have also been observed. These similarities with the sodium cloud suggest that both sodium and potassium are ejected from nearly the same regions of Io by the same physical mechanism.

  8. Potassium in hypertension and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Castro, Hector; Raij, Leopoldo

    2013-05-01

    The increased prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in industrialized societies undoubtedly is associated with the modern high-sodium/low-potassium diet. Extensive experimental and clinical data strongly link potassium intake to cardiovascular outcome. Most studies suggest that the sodium-to-potassium intake ratio is a better predictor of cardiovascular outcome than either nutrient individually. A high-sodium/low-potassium environment results in significant abnormalities in central hemodynamics, leading to potential target organ damage. Altered renal sodium handling, impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilatation, and increased oxidative stress are important mediators of this effect. It remains of paramount importance to reinforce consumption of a low-sodium/high-potassium diet as a critical strategy for prevention and treatment of hypertension and cardiovascular disease.

  9. 75 FR 24572 - Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Affirmative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ...-1173 (Preliminary) Certain Sodium and Potassium Phosphate Salts From China, 74 FR 61173 (November 23... of Sales at Less Than Fair Value, 75 FR 12508 (March 16, 2010) (``Preliminary Determination''). On... People's Republic of China, 73 FR 31970 (June 5, 2008) (``Carbon Steel Pipe''); Final Determination...

  10. Extracellular potassium inhibits Kv7.1 potassium channels by stabilizing an inactivated state.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Anders Peter; Steffensen, Annette Buur; Grunnet, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2011-08-17

    Kv7.1 (KCNQ1) channels are regulators of several physiological processes including vasodilatation, repolarization of cardiomyocytes, and control of secretory processes. A number of Kv7.1 pore mutants are sensitive to extracellular potassium. We hypothesized that extracellular potassium also modulates wild-type Kv7.1 channels. The Kv7.1 currents were measured in Xenopus laevis oocytes at different concentrations of extracellular potassium (1-50 mM). As extracellular potassium was elevated, Kv7.1 currents were reduced significantly more than expected from theoretical calculations based on the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz flux equation. Potassium inhibited the steady-state current with an IC(50) of 6.0 ± 0.2 mM. Analysis of tail-currents showed that potassium increased the fraction of channels in the inactivated state. Similarly, the recovery from inactivation was slowed by potassium, suggesting that extracellular potassium stabilizes an inactivated state in Kv7.1 channels. The effect of extracellular potassium was absent in noninactivating Kv7.1/KCNE1 and Kv7.1/KCNE3 channels, further supporting a stabilized inactivated state as the underlying mechanism. Interestingly, coexpression of Kv7.1 with KCNE2 did not attenuate the inhibition by potassium. In a number of other Kv channels, including Kv1.5, Kv4.3, and Kv7.2-5 channels, currents were only minimally reduced by an increase in extracellular potassium as expected. These results show that extracellular potassium modulates Kv7.1 channels and suggests that physiological changes in potassium concentrations may directly control the function of Kv7.1 channels. This may represent a novel regulatory mechanism of excitability and of potassium transport in tissues expressing Kv7.1 channels. PMID:21843472

  11. The electrical basis for enhanced potassium secretion in rat distal colon during dietary potassium loading.

    PubMed

    Sandle, G I; Foster, E S; Lewis, S A; Binder, H J; Hayslett, J P

    1985-04-01

    Previous studies in rat distal colon provide evidence for an active absorptive process for potassium under basal conditions, and for active potassium secretion during chronic dietary potassium loading. The present studies were performed with conventional and potassium-selective microelectrodes to determine the electrical basis for the increase in transcellular (active) potassium secretion observed during potassium loading. Compared to control tissues, potassium loading resulted in a 5-fold increase in transepithelial voltage (VT) and a 52% decrease in total resistance (RT) in the distal colon. The rise in VT was due to a decrease in apical membrane resistance and an increase in basolateral membrane voltage from -45 +/- 2 mV (cell interior negative) in control to -56 +/- 2 mV (p less than 0.001) in potassium loaded tissues. This difference in basolateral membrane voltage reflected in increase in intracellular potassium activity from 86 +/- 4 mM to 153 +/- 12 mM (P less than 0.001). In control tissues, the sequential mucosal addition of the sodium channel blocker amiloride (0.1 mM) and the potassium channel blocker tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA: 30 mM) produced no effect on the electrical measurements. However, in potassium loaded tissues, amiloride and TEA produced transepithelial changes consistent with inhibition of apical membrane conductances for sodium and potassium, respectively, reflected by increases in the resistance ratio, alpha (ratio of apical to basolateral membrane resistances). These data indicate that the decrease in apical membrane resistance during potassium loading was caused by an increase in apical membrane conductance for both potassium and sodium.

  12. Potassium and Sodium Transport in Yeast.

    PubMed

    Yenush, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    As the proper maintenance of intracellular potassium and sodium concentrations is vital for cell growth, all living organisms have developed a cohort of strategies to maintain proper monovalent cation homeostasis. In the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, potassium is accumulated to relatively high concentrations and is required for many aspects of cellular function, whereas high intracellular sodium/potassium ratios are detrimental to cell growth and survival. The fact that S. cerevisiae cells can grow in the presence of a broad range of concentrations of external potassium (10 μM-2.5 M) and sodium (up to 1.5 M) indicates the existence of robust mechanisms that have evolved to maintain intracellular concentrations of these cations within appropriate limits. In this review, current knowledge regarding potassium and sodium transporters and their regulation will be summarized. The cellular responses to high sodium and potassium and potassium starvation will also be discussed, as well as applications of this knowledge to diverse fields, including antifungal treatments, bioethanol production and human disease.

  13. Dynamic distribution of potassium in sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Medina, Nilberto H; Branco, Maíra L T; Silveira, Marcilei A Guazzelli da; Santos, Roberto Baginski B

    2013-12-01

    In this work the distribution of potassium in sugarcane has been studied during its growth. The soil was prepared with natural fertilizers prepared with sugarcane bagasse. For the measurement of potassium concentration in each part of the plant, gamma-ray spectrometry was used to measure gamma-rays emitted from the radioisotope (40)K. The concentrations of potassium in roots, stems and leaves were measured every two to three months beginning about five months after planting the sugarcane. The results show a higher concentration of potassium at the beginning of plant development and over time, there is an oscillatory behavior in this concentration in each part of the plant, reaching a lower concentration in the adult plant. To describe the evolution of potassium distribution in sugarcane we proposed a phenomenological model assuming that the potassium incorporation rate is proportional to the difference between the element concentration in the plant and a very long term equilibrium value and it is coupled to a resource-limited growth model. The proposed model succeeded in interpreting the results for the potassium distribution in stems and leaves during the sugarcane growth.

  14. Potassium bromide method of infrared sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milkey, R.G.

    1958-01-01

    In the preparation of potassium bromide pressed windows for use in the infrared analysis of solids, severe grinding of the potassium bromide powder may produce strong absorption bands that could interfere seriously with the spectra of the sample. These absorption bands appear to be due to some crystal alteration of the potassium bromide as a result of the grinding process. They were less apt to occur when the coarser powder, which had received a relatively gentle grinding, was used. Window blanks prepared from the coarser powders showed smaller adsorbed water peaks and generally higher over-all transmittance readings than windows pressed from the very fine powders.

  15. Potassium in the atmosphere of Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, A. E.; Morgan, T. H.

    1986-01-01

    Spectral data are reported from a search for potassium in the Mercury atmosphere. The data were collected with instrumentation at Kitt Peak (7699 A) and at McDonald Observatory (7698.98 and 7664.86 A). The equivalent mean widths of the potassium emission lines observed are tabulated, along with the estimated abundances, which are compared with sodium abundances as determined by resonance lines. The average column abundance of potassium is projected to be 1 billion atoms/sq cm, about 1 percent the column abundance of sodium.

  16. Pyrolysis of rice straw with ammonium dihydrogen phosphate: Properties and gaseous potassium release characteristics during combustion of the products.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Han, Kuihua; Wang, Qian; Lu, Chunmei

    2015-12-01

    The effect of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (NH4H2PO4) on rice straw (RS) carbonization was evaluated at temperatures of 350-650°C. The carbonized products of RS with NH4H2PO4 show higher solid and energy yields, but lower higher heating values than the carbonized RS at every carbonization temperature. The optimum carbonization operation of RS with NH4H2PO4 which has a higher energy yield at a lower solid volume may be determined between 350 and 450°C, and RS with NH4H2PO4 carbonized at 450°C presents better pore properties than carbonized RS. The carbonized products of RS with NH4H2PO4 all have lower gaseous potassium release ratios than those of RS carbonized at the same temperature at combustion temperatures of 700-1000°C by retaining potassium in non-volatile phosphorus compounds with high melting points. It is an effective method for inhibiting the gaseous potassium release during combustion of the carbonized products.

  17. Crystal structure transformation in potassium acrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai Verneker, V. R.; Vasanthakumari, R.

    1983-10-01

    Potassium acrylate undergoes a reversible phase transformation around 335°K with an activation energy of 133 kcal/mole. Differential scanning calorimetry and high temperature X-ray powder diffraction techniques have been used to probe this phenomenon.

  18. Low Potassium Diet (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 120 mL/min) . A registered dietitian or nutritionist can help to create a low-potassium meal ... volumes. You agree to comply with all applicable laws, including all US export laws and regulations, in ...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1600 - Potassium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium test system. 862.1600 Section 862.1600....1600 Potassium test system. (a) Identification. A potassium test system is a device intended to measure potassium in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used to monitor...

  20. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium... fixatives and preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red...

  1. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34... nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite are subject to prior sanctions issued... without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red meat and poultry products....

  2. 21 CFR 862.1600 - Potassium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium test system. 862.1600 Section 862.1600....1600 Potassium test system. (a) Identification. A potassium test system is a device intended to measure potassium in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used to monitor...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1600 - Potassium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium test system. 862.1600 Section 862.1600....1600 Potassium test system. (a) Identification. A potassium test system is a device intended to measure potassium in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used to monitor...

  4. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium... fixatives and preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1600 - Potassium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium test system. 862.1600 Section 862.1600....1600 Potassium test system. (a) Identification. A potassium test system is a device intended to measure potassium in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used to monitor...

  6. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium... fixatives and preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red...

  7. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium... nitrite, with or without sodium or potassium nitrite, in the production of cured red meat products...

  8. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium... fixatives and preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1600 - Potassium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium test system. 862.1600 Section 862.1600....1600 Potassium test system. (a) Identification. A potassium test system is a device intended to measure potassium in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used to monitor...

  10. Potassium loss during galvanotaxis of slime mold.

    PubMed

    ANDERSON, J D

    1962-01-01

    The posterior reticulated regions of the plasmodia of the slime mold, Physarum polycephalum, whose migration has been oriented by direct current (3.0 to 5.0 microa/mm(2) in the agar substrate), contain 30 per cent less potassium than the advancing non-reticulated region. The anterior regions have the same potassium concentration as that of the controls, approximately 32 meq/kg wet weight. Differences in potassium concentration between anterior and posterior regions of control plasmodia, not oriented by electric current, are less than 5 per cent. Sodium, in contrast to potassium, is generally less concentrated in the anterior than in the posterior regions of electrically oriented plasmodia, but sodium concentrations are extremely variable. No significant difference in protein concentration was found between oriented and control plasmodia. Thirty-five per cent of the total potassium, but none of the sodium, is found in acidified ethanol precipitates from plasmodial homogenates. Potassium, but not sodium, appears to be closely associated with processes which differentiate anterior from posterior in an oriented plasmodium.

  11. Estimated Potassium Content in Hanford Workers

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, Timothy P.; Rivard, James; Garcia, Silvia

    2004-10-15

    Potassium content in male and female workers at the Department of Energy Hanford Site was estimated based on measurements made in 2002 of 40K activity in the body. A coaxial germanium detection system was used for the measurements. The activity in female workers ranged from 2.1 to 4.1 kBq with an average of 3.1 ± 0.02 kBq. Total body potassium (TBK) content in female workers averaged 96 ± 0.3 g. The activity in male workers ranged from 2.8 to 6.6 kBq with an average of 4.3 ± 0.01 kBq and the average TBK was 136 ± 0.3 g. The average potassium concentration decreased with age in both males and females. The average potassium content and potassium concentrations for both males and females were less than the corresponding reference values. Potassium concentrations were inversely correlated with body-build index, body-mass index, and body weight for both males and females.

  12. CO{sub 2} absorption using dry potassium-based sorbents with different supports

    SciTech Connect

    Chuanwen Zhao; Xiaoping Chen; Changsui Zhao

    2009-09-15

    The CO{sub 2} capture characteristics of dry potassium-based sorbents were investigated with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and a bubbling fluidized-bed reactor. Potassium-based sorbents were prepared by impregnation with potassium carbonate on supports such as coconut activated charcoal (AC1), coal active carbon (AC2), silica gel (SG), and activated alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Sorbents such as K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/AC1, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/AC2, and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} showed excellent carbonation capacity; The total conversion rates of those sorbents were 97.2, 95.9, and 95.2%, respectively in the TG test, and 89.2, 87.9, and 87.6%, respectively, in the fluidized-bed test. However, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/SG showed poor carbonation capacity, the total conversion rates were only 34.5 and 18.8%, respectively, in TG and fluidized-bed tests. The differences in carbonation capacity of those sorbents were analyzed by studying the microscopic structure and crystal structure of the supports and the sorbents with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and N{sub 2} adsorption tests. 23 refs., 10 figs.

  13. Circadian variation of intercompartmental potassium fluxes in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore Ede, M. C.; Brennan, M. F.; Ball, M. R.

    1975-01-01

    Circadian rhythms of plasma potassium concentration and urinary potassium excretion persisted in three normal volunteers when diurnal variations in activity, posture, and dietary intake were eliminated for 3-10 days. Measurements of the arteriovenous difference in plasma potassium concentration across the resting forearm and of erythrocyte potassium concentration suggested that there is a net flux of potassium from ICF to ECF in the early morning and a reverse net flux later in the day. The total net ICF-ECF fluxes were estimated from the diurnal variations in extracellular potassium content corrected for dietary intake and urinary potassium loss. The net fluxes between ICF and ECF were found to be counterbalanced by the circadian rhythm in urinary potassium excretion. Desynchronization of these rhythms would result in marked fluctuations in extracellular potassium content. These findings suggest that some revision is required of the concept of basal state in potassium homeostasis.

  14. Crystal modification of iron oxide scale by potassium addition and its application to lithium-ion battery anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Dong-Won; Han, Sang-Wook; Kong, Byung-Seon; Oh, Eun-Suok

    2013-11-01

    This paper proposes a valuable method to reuse the iron oxide scale (IOS) often produced in the steel industry as an anode active material in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The IOS samples are prepared via quenching of carbon steel and simple oxidation at a high temperature with or without sequential treatment by potassium hydroxide. Morphological and physical characterizations confirm the formation of a lamellar structure of orthorhombic KFeO2 with a high degree of crystallinity in the potassium-added IOSs. Additionally, the potassium addition decreases the particle size of the crystals and increases the d-spacing between crystal layers. Electrochemical performance tests show that the discharge capacities of the IOS samples monotonically increased with increasing number of charge/discharge cycles regardless of the existence of potassium. In addition, the rate of increase is larger in the potassium-added IOS samples containing the lamellar KFeO2 structure. Consequently, after prolonged cycling (more than 500 cycles), the potassium-added IOS sample retains a discharge capacity of 1020 mAh g-1 with good cycling stability, while the IOS quenched sample only exhibits a capacity of 956 mAh g-1. This result is attributed to the unique structure of the KFeO2 crystals formed in the potassium-added IOS particles.

  15. 21 CFR 184.1077 - Potassium acid tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium acid tartrate. 184.1077 Section 184.1077... GRAS § 184.1077 Potassium acid tartrate. (a) Potassium acid tartrate (C4H5KO6, CAS Reg. No. 868-14-4) is the potassium acid salt of l−(+)−tartaric acid and is also called potassium bitartrate or cream...

  16. Effect of Temperature on the Local Structure of Kaolinite Intercalated with Potassium Acetate

    SciTech Connect

    White, Claire E.; Provis, John L.; Gordon, Laura E.; Riley, Daniel P.; Proffen, Thomas; van Deventer, Jannie S.J.

    2011-09-06

    Kaolinite intercalated with potassium acetate is of great interest in the areas of environmental remediation and industrial application; however, its exact atomic structure and the changes which occur when heated have remained largely elusive. Here, neutron pair distribution function analysis is used to investigate the local structural characteristics of this complex material, revealing that hydrated potassium acetate exists as a single layer in the interlamellar spacing of kaolinite. Furthermore, the potassium ions within the intercalated complex are most likely associated with the resonance structure of the acetate molecules, and upon heating (and decomposition of the carbon containing molecules), these ions become strongly associated with the negative charge located on the oxygen atoms in the alumina layers of dehydroxylated kaolinite. Several possible orientations of hydrated potassium acetate within the interlamellar spacing of kaolinite have been proposed and investigated using density functional modeling, revealing the complex nature of this material. Nevertheless, this investigation has shown that the dehydroxylated form of the intercalated compound contains highly strained alumina and available alkali (potassium), making it a viable alternative to traditional aluminosilicates.

  17. Phonons in Potassium-doped Graphene: The Effects of Electron-phonon Interactions, Dimensionality, and Adatom Ordering

    SciTech Connect

    Dean M. P.; Howard, C.A.; Withers, F.

    2011-12-19

    Graphene phonons are measured as a function of electron doping via the addition of potassium adatoms. In the low doping regime, the in-plane carbon G peak hardens and narrows with increasing doping, analogous to the trend seen in graphene doped via the field effect. At high dopings, beyond those accessible by the field effect, the G peak strongly softens and broadens. This is interpreted as a dynamic, nonadiabatic renormalization of the phonon self-energy. At dopings between the light and heavily doped regimes, we find a robust inhomogeneous phase where the potassium coverage is segregated into regions of high and low density. The phonon energies, linewidths, and tunability are notably very similar for one- to four-layer potassium-doped graphene, but significantly different to bulk potassium-doped graphite.

  18. Potassium acetate and potassium lactate enhance the microbiological and physical properties of marinated catfish fillets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sodium or potassium salts such as lactate and acetate can be used to inhibit the growth of spoilage bacteria and food-borne pathogens, and thereby prolong the shelf-life of refrigerated seafood. However, minimal information is available regarding the combined effects of potassium salts (acetate and ...

  19. Effects of potassium chloride and potassium bicarbonate on endothelial function, cardiovascular risk factors, and bone turnover in mild hypertensives.

    PubMed

    He, Feng J; Marciniak, Maciej; Carney, Christine; Markandu, Nirmala D; Anand, Vidya; Fraser, William D; Dalton, R Neil; Kaski, Juan C; MacGregor, Graham A

    2010-03-01

    To determine the effects of potassium supplementation on endothelial function, cardiovascular risk factors, and bone turnover and to compare potassium chloride with potassium bicarbonate, we carried out a 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial in 42 individuals with untreated mildly raised blood pressure. Urinary potassium was 77+/-16, 122+/-25, and 125+/-27 mmol/24 hours after 4 weeks on placebo, potassium chloride, and potassium bicarbonate, respectively. There were no significant differences in office blood pressure among the 3 treatment periods, and only 24-hour and daytime systolic blood pressures were slightly lower with potassium chloride. Compared with placebo, both potassium chloride and potassium bicarbonate significantly improved endothelial function as measured by brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation, increased arterial compliance as assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, decreased left ventricular mass, and improved left ventricular diastolic function. There was no significant difference between the 2 potassium salts in these measurements. The study also showed that potassium chloride reduced 24-hour urinary albumin and albumin:creatinine ratio, and potassium bicarbonate decreased 24-hour urinary calcium, calcium:creatinine ratio, and plasma C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type 1 collagen significantly. These results demonstrated that an increase in potassium intake had beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system, and potassium bicarbonate may improve bone health. Importantly, these effects were found in individuals who already had a relatively low-salt and high-potassium intake.

  20. Development of potassium ion conducting hollow glass fibers. [potassium sulfur battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, F. Y.

    1974-01-01

    Potassium ion conducting glasses, chemically resistant to potassium, potassium sulfide and sulfur, were made and their possible utility as the membrane material for a potassium/sulfur battery was evaluated. At least one satisfactory candidate was found. It possesses an electrical resistance which makes it usable as a membrane in the form of a fine hollow fiber. It's chemical and electrochemical resistances are excellent. The other aspects of the possible potassium sulfur battery utilizing such fine hollow fibers, including the header (or tube sheet) and a cathode current collector were studied. Several cathode materials were found to be satisfactory. None of the tube sheet materials studied possessed all the desired properties. Multi-fiber cells had very limited life-time due to physical failure of fibers at the fiber/tube sheet junctions.

  1. Silver oxide sorbent for carbon dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.

    1974-01-01

    Material can be regenerated at least 20 times by heating at 250 C. Sorbent is compatible with environment of high humidity; up to 20% by weight of carbon dioxide can be absorbed. Material is prepared from silver carbonate, potassium hydroxide or carbonate, and sodium silicate.

  2. Deactivation of steam-reforming model catalysts by coke formation. II. Promotion with potassium and effect of water

    SciTech Connect

    Demicheli, M.C.; Duprez, D.; Barbier, J. ); Ferretti, O.A.; Ponzi, E.N. )

    1994-02-01

    The influence of potassium on the hydrogenolysis of cyclopentane and on the simultaneous carbon formation over a series of alumina-supported Ni catalysts was studied. With increasing potassium loadings at temperatures where either a deactivating two-dimensional carbon or a filamentary carbon was formed, the catalytic activity passed through a maximum and then decreased. With relatively high K-doses there was less coking in the presence of steam; the growth of filamentary carbon was then largely reduced. Characterization of the coked catalysts by temperature-programmed oxidation and SEM disclosed quite different roles of alkali: at lower contents, associated with alumina, potassium facilitates the formation of filamentary carbon and minimizes the generation of coke precursors, whereas at higher contents it acts as a poison for both hydrogenolysis and coking reactions. In all cases, the alkali promoted the catalytic oxidation of the carbon deposits. Because of its localization, the alkali could also modify the nickel-carbon interface in carbon filaments. 32 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Activated carbon material

    DOEpatents

    Evans, A. Gary

    1978-01-01

    Activated carbon particles for use as iodine trapping material are impregnated with a mixture of selected iodine and potassium compounds to improve the iodine retention properties of the carbon. The I/K ratio is maintained at less than about 1 and the pH is maintained at above about 8.0. The iodine retention of activated carbon previously treated with or coimpregnated with triethylenediamine can also be improved by this technique. Suitable flame retardants can be added to raise the ignition temperature of the carbon to acceptable standards.

  4. Environmental carbon dioxide control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onischak, M.; Baker, B.; Gidaspow, D.

    1974-01-01

    A study of environmental carbon dioxide control for NASA EVA missions found solid potassium carbonate to be an effective regenerable absorbent in maintaining low carbon dioxide levels. The supported sorbent was capable of repeated regeneration below 150 C without appreciable degradation. Optimum structures in the form of thin pliable sheets of carbonate, inert support and binder were developed. Interpretation of a new solid-gas pore closing model helped predict the optimum sorbent and analysis of individual sorbent sheet performance in a thin rectangular channel sorber can predict packed bed performance.

  5. Potassium Permanganate Poisoning: A Nonfatal Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Eteiwi, Suzan M.; Al-Eyadah, Abdallah A.; Al-Sarihin, Khaldon K.; Al-Omari, Ahmad A.; Al-Asaad, Rania A.; Haddad, Fares H.

    2015-01-01

    Acute poisoning by potassium permanganate is a rare condition with high morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of the condition relies on a history of exposure or ingestion and a high degree of clinical suspicion. Oxygen desaturation and the presence of methemoglobin are also helpful indicators. Since no specific antidote is available, treatment is mainly supportive. Few cases have been reported in the literature following potassium permanganate ingestion, whether intentional or accidental, and most of the patients in these cases had unfavorable outcomes, which was not the case in our patient. Our patient, a 73-year-old male, purchased potassium permanganate over the counter mistaking it for magnesium salt, which he frequently used as a laxative. Several hours after he ingested it, he was admitted to the endocrine department at King Hussein Medical Center, Jordan, with acute rapidly evolving shortness of breath. During hospitalization, his liver function tests deteriorated. Since he was diagnosed early and managed promptly he had a favorable outcome. PMID:26366264

  6. Potassium channels in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Boucherat, Olivier; Chabot, Sophie; Antigny, Fabrice; Perros, Frédéric; Provencher, Steeve; Bonnet, Sébastien

    2015-10-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating cardiopulmonary disorder with various origins. All forms of PAH share a common pulmonary arteriopathy characterised by vasoconstriction, remodelling of the pre-capillary pulmonary vessel wall, and in situ thrombosis. Although the pathogenesis of PAH is recognised as a complex and multifactorial process, there is growing evidence that potassium channels dysfunction in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells is a hallmark of PAH. Besides regulating many physiological functions, reduced potassium channels expression and/or activity have significant effects on PAH establishment and progression. This review describes the molecular mechanisms and physiological consequences of potassium channel modulation. Special emphasis is placed on KCNA5 (Kv1.5) and KCNK3 (TASK1), which are considered to play a central role in determining pulmonary vascular tone and may represent attractive therapeutic targets in the treatment of PAH. PMID:26341985

  7. Suicidal Ingestion of Potassium Permanganate Crystals: A Rare Encounter

    PubMed Central

    Karthik, Ravikanti; Veerendranath, Hari Prasad Kanakapura; Wali, Siddraj; Mohan, Murali N T; Kumar, Praveen A. C.; Trimurty, Gaganam

    2014-01-01

    Potassium permanganate poisoning is not common. Although Symptoms of potassium permanganate ingestion are gastrointestinal and Complications due to ingestion of potassium permanganate include cardiovascular depression, hepatic and renal damage, upper airway obstruction, bleeding tendency and methemoglobinemia. Gastric damage due to potassium permanganate has rarely been reported previously. We are reporting a 34-year old female patient who presented to our Emergency Department after suicidal ingestion of potassium permanganate crystals. After treatment, the patient was discharged home on the 8th day after admission. So we conclude that Emergency endoscopy has a significant role in diagnosis and management of potassium permanganate ingestion. PMID:25948978

  8. Relationship and interaction between sodium and potassium.

    PubMed

    Morris, R Curtis; Schmidlin, Olga; Frassetto, Lynda A; Sebastian, Anthony

    2006-06-01

    Compared with the Stone Age diet, the modern human diet is both excessive in NaCl and deficient in fruits and vegetables which are rich in K+ and HCO3- -yielding organates like citrate. With the modern diet, the K+/Na+ ratio and the HCO3-/Cl- ratio have both become reversed. Yet, the biologic machinery that evolved to process these dietary electrolytes remains largely unchanged, genetically fixed in Paleolithic time. Thus, the electrolytic mix of the modern diet is profoundly mismatched to its processing machinery. Dietary potassium modulates both the pressor and hypercalciuric effects of the modern dietary excess of NaCl. A marginally deficient dietary intake of potassium amplifies both of these effects, and both effects are dose-dependently attenuated and may be abolished either with dietary potassium or supplemental KHCO3. The pathogenic effects of a dietary deficiency of potassium amplify, and are amplified by, those of a dietary excess of NaCl and in some instances a dietary deficiency of bicarbonate precursors. Thus, in those ingesting the modern diet, it may not be possible to discern which of these dietary electrolytic dislocations is most determining of salt-sensitive blood pressure and hypercalciuria, and the hypertension, kidney stones, and osteoporosis they may engender. Obviously abnormal plasma electrolyte concentrations rarely characterize these dietary electrolytic dislocations, and when either dietary potassium or supplemental KHCO3 corrects the pressor and hypercalciuric effects of these dislocations, the plasma concentrations of sodium, potassium, bicarbonate and chloride change little and remain well within the normal range.

  9. A potassium Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yin, B.; Shay, T. M.

    1992-01-01

    The characteristics of a potassium Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter operating on the blue and near infrared transitions are calculated. The results show that the filter can be designed to provide high transmission, very narrow pass bandwidth, and low equivalent noise bandwidth. The Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (FADOF) provides a narrow pass bandwidth (about GHz) optical filter for laser communications, remote sensing, and lidar. The general theoretical model for the FADOF has been established in our previous paper. In this paper, we have identified the optimum operational conditions for a potassium FADOF operating on the blue and infrared transitions. The signal transmission, bandwidth, and equivalent noise bandwidth (ENBW) are also calculated.

  10. Improved Synthesis Of Potassium Beta' '-Alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Roger M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara; Ryan, Margaret A.; O'Connor, Dennis E.; Kisor, Adam; Underwood, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Improved formulations of precursor materials synthesize nearly-phase-pure potassium beta' '-alumina solid electrolyte (K-BASE) powder. Materials are microhomogeneous powders (or, alternatively, gels) containing K(+,) Mg(2+), and Al(3+). K-BASE powder produced used in potassium-working-fluid alkali-metal thermal-to-electric conversion (K-AMTEC), in which heat-input and heat-rejection temperatures lower than sodium-working-fluid AMTEC (Na-AMTEC). Additional potential use lies in purification of pottassium by removal of sodium and calcium.

  11. Soft Chemical Modification of Blue Potassium Molybdenum Bronze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinomura, Nobukazu; Mizumoto, Katsuya; Kumada, Nobuhiro

    1997-02-01

    Hydrogen insertion compounds of general formula HxK0.28MoO3·zH2O have been obtained from blue potassium molybdenum bronze (K0.28MoO3) by the spillover technique using hydrogen gas in the presence of a Pt catalyst. The hydrogen insertion compounds are formed topotactically and the original blue bronze is regenerated by standing in air for at least >2 weeks. Although the values ofxexceeding approximately 0.42 could not be determined by redox titration, the value ofxwas estimated to be 1.3 immediately after the hydrogen insertion for about 20 h. The hydrated hydrogen insertion compound undergoes intercalation reactions withn-alkylamines. The basal spacing of the intercalation compounds increases linearly with the number of carbon atoms. The electric resistivity of the hydrogen insertion compounds was increased by the order of 104as a result of amine intercalation.

  12. Density and surface tension of molten mixtures of beryllium and potassium fluorides

    SciTech Connect

    Klimenkov, A.A.; Kurbatov, N.N.; Raspopin, S.P.; Chervinksii, Yu.F.

    1986-05-10

    The authors have studied the density and surface tension of binary molten mixtures of beryllium and potassium fluorides. Density and surface tension were measured by the method of maximum bubble pressure. Nickle capillaries and vitreous-carbon crucibles were used in the experiments. The working gas was purified argon. A correction for displacement of the melt by the capillary was applied in the density determinations. The surface tension was calculated from the Cantor-Schroedinger equation.

  13. Hg0 absorption in potassium persulfate solution*

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Qun-feng; Wang, Cheng-yun; Wang, Da-hui; Sun, Guan; Xu, Xin-hua

    2006-01-01

    The aqueous phase oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0) by potassium persulfate (KPS) catalyzed by Ag+ was investigated using a glass bubble column reactor. Concentration of gaseous mercury and potassium persulfate were measured by cold vapor atom absorption (CVAA) and ion chromatograph (IC), respectively. The effects of pH value, concentration of potassium persulfate and silver nitrate (SN), temperature, Hg0 concentration in the reactor inlet and tertiary butanol (TBA), free radical scavenger, on the removal efficiency of Hg0 were studied. The results showed that the removal efficiency of Hg0 increased with increasing concentration of potassium persulfate and silver nitrate, while temperature and TBA were negatively effective. Furthermore, the removal efficiency of Hg0 was much better in neutral solution than in both acidic and alkaline solution. But the influence of pH was almost eliminated by adding AgNO3. High Hg0 concentration has positive effect. The possible reaction mechanism of gaseous mercury was also discussed. PMID:16615172

  14. 75 FR 23298 - Potassium Permanganate From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... potassium permanganate from China (70 FR 35630). The Commission is now conducting a third review to... 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request for... from China (49 FR 3897). Following first five-year reviews by Commerce and the Commission,...

  15. Potassium ferrate treatment of RFETS` contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The potassium ferrate treatment study of Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) groundwater was performed under the Sitewide Treatability Studies Program (STSP). This study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of potassium ferrate in a water treatment system to remove the contaminants of concern (COCS) from groundwater at the RFETS. Potassium ferrate is a simple salt where the iron is in the plus six valence state. It is the iron at the plus six valence state (Fe {sup +6}) that makes it an unique water treatment chemical, especially in waters where the pH is greater than seven. In basic solutions where the solubility of the oxides/hydroxides of many of the COCs is low, solids are formed as the pH is raised. By using ferrate these solids are agglomerated so they can be effectively removed by sedimentation in conventional water treatment equipment. The objective of this study was to determine the quality of water after treatment with potassium ferrate and to determine if the Colorado Water Quality Control Commission (CWQCC) discharge limits for the COCs listed in Table 1.0-1 could be met. Radionuclides in the groundwater were of special concern.

  16. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Extended Equilibrium Modeling of Cesium and Potassium Distribution Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, L.H.

    2002-06-13

    An extension of the model developed in FY01 for predicting equilibrium distribution ratios in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process is presented here. Motivation for extending the model arose from the need to predict extraction performance of the recently optimized solvent composition and the desire to include additional waste components. This model involves the extraction of cesium and potassium from different cesium, potassium, and sodium media over a large range of concentrations. Those different media include a large variety of anions such as nitrate, hydroxide, nitrite, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, and carbonate. The model was defined based on several hundreds of experimental data points and predicted satisfactorily the cesium extraction from five different SRS waste simulants. This process model encompassed almost exclusively 1:1:1 metal:anion:ligand species. Fluoride, sulfate, and carbonate species were found to be very little extractable, and their main impact is reflected through their activity effects. This model gave a very good cesium and potassium extraction prediction from sodium salts, which is what is needed when trying to predict the behavior from actual waste. However, the extraction from potassium or cesium salts, and the extraction of sodium could be improved, and some additional effort was devoted to improve the thermodynamic rigor of the model. Toward this end, more detailed anion-specific models were developed based on the cesium, potassium, and sodium distribution ratios obtained with simple systems containing single anions, but it has not yet proven possible to combine those models to obtain better predictions than provided by the process model.

  17. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Marcus Hilliard; Eric Chen; Babatunde Oyenekan; Ross Dugas; John McLees

    2005-07-31

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. The baseline campaign with 30% MEA has given heat duties from 40 to 70 kcal/gmol CO{sub 2} as predicted by the stripper model. The Flexipak 1Y structured packing gives significantly better performance than IMTP 40 duped packing in the absorber, but in the stripper the performance of the two packings is indistinguishable. The FTIR analyzer measured MEA volatility in the absorber represented by an activity coefficient of 0.7. In the MEA campaign the material balance closed with an average error of 3.5% and the energy balance had an average error of 5.9.

  18. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Marcus Hilliard; Eric Chen; Babatunde Oyenekan; Ross Dugas; John McLees; Andrew Sexton; Amorvadee Veawab

    2005-01-26

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. In Campaign 3 of the pilot plant, the overall mass transfer coefficient for the stripper with 7 m MEA decreased from 0.06 to 0.01 mol/(m{sup 3}.s.kPa) as the rich loading increased from 0.45 to 0.6 mol CO{sub 2}/mol MEA. Anion chromatography has demonstrated that nitrate and nitrite are major degradation products of MEA and PZ with pure oxygen. In measurements with the high temperature FTIR in 7 m MEA the MEA vapor pressure varied from 2 to 20 Pa at 35 to 70 C. In 2.5 m PZ the PZ vapor pressure varied from 0.2 to 1 Pa from 37 to 70 C.

  19. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; Babatunde Oyenekan; Andrew Sexton; Amorvadee Veawab

    2006-04-28

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. The final campaign of the pilot plant was completed in February 2006 with 5m K{sup +}/2.5m PZ and 6.4m K{sup +}/1.6m PZ using Flexipac AQ Style 20. The new cross-exchanger reduced the approach temperature to less than 9 C. Stripper modeling has demonstrated that a configuration with a ''Flashing Feed'' requires 6% less work that a simple stripper. The oxidative degradation of piperazine proceeds more slowly than that of monoethanolamine and produces ethylenediamine and other products. Uninhibited 5 m KHCO{sub 3}/2.5 m PZ corrodes 5 to 6 times faster that 30% MEA with 0.2 mol CO{sub 2}/mol MEA.

  20. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; J. Tim Cullinane; Marcus Hillard; Babatunde Oyenekan

    2003-10-31

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. A rigorous thermodynamic model has been further developed with a standalone FORTRAN code to represent the CO{sub 2} vapor pressure and speciation of the new solvent. The welding work has initiated and will be completed for a revised startup of the pilot plant in February 2004.

  1. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; Jennifer Lu; Babatunde Oyenekan; Ross Dugas

    2005-04-29

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. Stripper modeling suggests the energy requirement with a simple stripper will be about the same for 5 m K{sup +}/2.5 m PZ and 7 m MEA. Modeling with a generic solvent shows that the optimum heat of CO{sub 2} desorption to minimize heat duty lies between 15 and 25 kcal/gmol. On-line pH and density measurements are effective indicators of loading and total alkalinity for the K+/PZ solvent. The baseline pilot plant campaign with 30% MEA has been started.

  2. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; J. Tim Cullinane; Marcus Hilliard; Babatunde Oyenekan; Terraun Jones

    2003-07-28

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. A rigorous thermodynamic model has been further developed with a standalone FORTRAN code to represent the CO{sub 2} vapor pressure and speciation of the new solvent. Gas chromatography has been used to measure the oxidative degradation of piperazine. The heat exchangers for the pilot plant have been received. The modifications are on schedule for start-up in November 2003.

  3. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; Jennifer Lu; Babatunde Oyenekan; Ross Dugas

    2004-11-08

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. The stripper model with Aspen Custom Modeler and careful optimization of solvent rate suggests that 7 m MEA and 5 m K+/2.5 m PZ will be practically equivalent in energy requirement and optimum solution capacity. The multipressure stripper reduces energy consumption by 15% with a maximum pressure of 5 atm. The use of vanadium as a corrosion inhibitor will carry little risk of long-term environmental or health effects liability, but the disposal of solvent with vanadium will be subject to regulation, probably as a hazardous waste. Analysis of the pilot plant data from Campaign 1 has given values of the mass transfer coefficient consistent with the rate data from the wetted wall column. With a rich end pinch, 30% MEA should provide a capacity of 1.3-1.4 mole CO{sub 2}/kg solvent.

  4. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Marcus Hilliard; Eric Chen; Babatunde Oyenekan; Ross Dugas; John McLees; Andrew Sexton; Daniel Ellenberger

    2005-10-26

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. Modeling of stripper performance suggests that vacuum stripping may be an attractive configuration for all solvents. Flexipac 1Y structured packing performs in the absorber as expected. It provides twice as much mass transfer area as IMTP No.40 dumped packing. Independent measurements of CO{sub 2} solubility give a CO{sub 2} loading that is 20% lower than that Cullinane's values with 3.6 m PZ at 100-120 C. The effective mass transfer coefficient (K{sub G}) in the absorber with 5 m K/2.5 m PZ appears to be 0 to 30% greater than that of 30 wt% MEA.

  5. Proton conductivity of potassium doped barium zirconates

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Xiaoxiang; Tao Shanwen; Irvine, John T.S.

    2010-01-15

    Potassium doped barium zirconates have been synthesized by solid state reactions. It was found that the solubility limit of potassium on A-sites is between 5% and 10%. Introducing extra potassium leads to the formation of second phase or YSZ impurities. The water uptake of barium zirconates was increased even with 5% doping of potassium at the A-site. The sintering conditions and conductivity can be improved significantly by adding 1 wt% ZnO during material synthesis. The maximum solubility for yttrium at B-sites is around 15 at% after introducing 1 wt% zinc. The conductivity of Ba{sub 0.95}K{sub 0.05}Zr{sub 0.85}Y{sub 0.11}Zn{sub 0.04}O{sub 3-{delta}} at 600 deg. C is 2.2x10{sup -3} S/cm in wet 5% H{sub 2}. The activation energies for bulk and grain boundary are 0.29(2), 0.79(2) eV in wet 5% H{sub 2} and 0.31(1), 0.74(3) eV in dry 5% H{sub 2}. A power density of 7.7 mW/cm{sup 2} at 718 deg. C was observed when a 1 mm thick Ba{sub 0.95}K{sub 0.05}Zr{sub 0.85}Y{sub 0.11}Zn{sub 0.04}O{sub 3-{delta}} pellet was used as electrolyte and platinum electrodes. - Graphical abstract: Potassium doped barium zirconates have been synthesized by solid state reactions. It was found that the solubility limit of potassium on A-sites is between 5% and 10 %. The sintering conditions and conductivity can be improved significantly by adding 1 wt% ZnO during material synthesis. Five percent doping of potassium at A-site can double the total conductivity.

  6. 21 CFR 184.1804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 184.1804 Section 184... as GRAS § 184.1804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Sodium potassium tartrate (C4H4KNaO6·4H2O, CAS Reg. No. 304-59-6) is the sodium potassium salt of l−(+)−tartaric acid and is also called the...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 184.1804 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Sodium potassium tartrate (C4H4KNaO6·4H2O, CAS Reg. No. 304-59-6) is the sodium potassium salt of l−(+)−tartaric acid and...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 184.1804 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Sodium potassium tartrate (C4H4KNaO6·4H2O, CAS Reg. No. 304-59-6) is the sodium potassium salt of l−(+)−tartaric acid and...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 184.1804 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Sodium potassium tartrate (C4H4KNaO6·4H2O, CAS Reg. No. 304-59-6) is the sodium potassium salt of l−(+)−tartaric acid and...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1077 - Potassium acid tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium acid tartrate. 184.1077 Section 184.1077... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1077 Potassium acid tartrate. (a) Potassium acid tartrate (C4H5KO6, CAS Reg. No. 868-14-4) is the potassium acid salt of l−(+)−tartaric acid and is...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium potassium tartrate. 184.1804 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Sodium potassium tartrate (C4H4KNaO6·4H2O, CAS Reg. No. 304-59-6) is the sodium potassium salt of l−(+)−tartaric acid and...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1077 - Potassium acid tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium acid tartrate. 184.1077 Section 184.1077... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1077 Potassium acid tartrate. (a) Potassium acid tartrate (C4H5KO6, CAS Reg. No. 868-14-4) is the potassium acid salt of l−(+)−tartaric acid and is...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1077 - Potassium acid tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium acid tartrate. 184.1077 Section 184.1077... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1077 Potassium acid tartrate. (a) Potassium acid tartrate (C4H5KO6, CAS Reg. No. 868-14-4) is the potassium acid salt of l−(+)−tartaric acid and is...

  14. Comparative Efficacy of Potassium Levulinate with/without Potassium Diacetate and Potassium Propionate vs Potassium Lactate and Sodium Diacetate for Control of Listeria monocytogenes on commercially prepared uncured t.breast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the efficacy of potassium levulinate, potassium diacetate, and potassium propionate to inhibit Listeria monocytogenes on commercially-prepared, uncured turkey breast during refrigerated storage. Whole muscle, uncured turkey breast chubs (ca. 5 kg each) were formulated with or without po...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 582.1804 Section 582.1804 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium potassium tartrate. (b) Conditions...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 582.1804 Section 582.1804 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium potassium tartrate. (b) Conditions...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10357 - Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iron, citrate phosphate potassium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10357 Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes. (a) Chemical..., citrate phosphate potassium complexes (PMN P-09-382; CAS No. 120579-31-9) is subject to reporting...

  18. 21 CFR 582.6804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 582.6804 Section 582.6804 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium potassium tartrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  19. 21 CFR 582.6804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 582.6804 Section 582.6804 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium potassium tartrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  20. 21 CFR 526.1130 - Hetacillin potassium for intramammary infusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hetacillin potassium for intramammary infusion... § 526.1130 Hetacillin potassium for intramammary infusion. (a) Specifications. Each 10 milliliter syringe contains hetacillin potassium equivalent of 62.5 milligrams of ampicillin. (b) Sponsor. See...

  1. 21 CFR 526.1130 - Hetacillin potassium for intramammary infusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hetacillin potassium for intramammary infusion... § 526.1130 Hetacillin potassium for intramammary infusion. (a) Specifications. Each 10 milliliter syringe contains hetacillin potassium equivalent of 62.5 milligrams of ampicillin. (b) Sponsor. See...

  2. 21 CFR 582.6804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 582.6804 Section 582.6804 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium potassium tartrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  3. 21 CFR 582.1804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 582.1804 Section 582.1804 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium potassium tartrate. (b) Conditions...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10357 - Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iron, citrate phosphate potassium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10357 Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes. (a) Chemical..., citrate phosphate potassium complexes (PMN P-09-382; CAS No. 120579-31-9) is subject to reporting...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1077 - Potassium acid tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium acid tartrate. 582.1077 Section 582.1077 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1077 Potassium acid tartrate. (a) Product. Potassium acid tartrate. (b) Conditions of...

  6. 21 CFR 526.1130 - Hetacillin potassium for intramammary infusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hetacillin potassium for intramammary infusion... § 526.1130 Hetacillin potassium for intramammary infusion. (a) Specifications. Each 10 milliliter syringe contains hetacillin potassium equivalent of 62.5 milligrams of ampicillin. (b) Sponsor. See...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 582.1804 Section 582.1804 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium potassium tartrate. (b) Conditions...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1077 - Potassium acid tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium acid tartrate. 582.1077 Section 582.1077 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1077 Potassium acid tartrate. (a) Product. Potassium acid tartrate. (b) Conditions of...

  9. 21 CFR 582.6804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 582.6804 Section 582.6804 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium potassium tartrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  10. 40 CFR 721.10357 - Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iron, citrate phosphate potassium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10357 Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes. (a) Chemical..., citrate phosphate potassium complexes (PMN P-09-382; CAS No. 120579-31-9) is subject to reporting...

  11. 21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section 182.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate....

  12. 21 CFR 582.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 582.1129 Section 582.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 582.1129 Section 582.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  14. 21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section 182.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate....

  15. 21 CFR 582.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 582.1129 Section 582.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  16. 21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section 182.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate....

  17. 21 CFR 582.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 582.1129 Section 582.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  18. 21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section 182.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate....

  19. 21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section 182...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 582.1129 Section 582.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  1. 21 CFR 520.1696d - Penicillin V potassium tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Penicillin V potassium tablets. 520.1696d Section... Penicillin V potassium tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains penicillin V potassium equivalent to 125 milligrams (200,000 units) or 250 milligrams (400,000 units) of penicillin V. (b) Sponsors....

  2. Extracellular potassium homeostasis: insights from hypokalemic periodic paralysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chih-Jen; Kuo, Elizabeth; Huang, Chou-Long

    2013-05-01

    Extracellular potassium makes up only about 2% of the total body's potassium store. The majority of the body potassium is distributed in the intracellular space, of which about 80% is in skeletal muscle. Movement of potassium in and out of skeletal muscle thus plays a pivotal role in extracellular potassium homeostasis. The exchange of potassium between the extracellular space and skeletal muscle is mediated by specific membrane transporters. These include potassium uptake by Na(+), K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase and release by inward-rectifier K(+) channels. These processes are regulated by circulating hormones, peptides, ions, and by physical activity of muscle as well as dietary potassium intake. Pharmaceutical agents, poisons, and disease conditions also affect the exchange and alter extracellular potassium concentration. Here, we review extracellular potassium homeostasis, focusing on factors and conditions that influence the balance of potassium movement in skeletal muscle. Recent findings that mutations of a skeletal muscle-specific inward-rectifier K(+) channel cause hypokalemic periodic paralysis provide interesting insights into the role of skeletal muscle in extracellular potassium homeostasis. These recent findings are reviewed.

  3. 21 CFR 526.1130 - Hetacillin potassium for intramammary infusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hetacillin potassium for intramammary infusion... Hetacillin potassium for intramammary infusion. (a) Specifications. Each 10 milliliter syringe contains hetacillin potassium equivalent of 62.5 milligrams of ampicillin. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000010 in §...

  4. 21 CFR 582.6804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 582.6804 Section 582.6804 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium potassium tartrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  5. 21 CFR 582.1804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 582.1804 Section 582.1804 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium potassium tartrate. (b) Conditions...

  6. 40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5970 Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is subject to reporting...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1077 - Potassium acid tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium acid tartrate. 582.1077 Section 582.1077 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1077 Potassium acid tartrate. (a) Product. Potassium acid tartrate. (b) Conditions of...

  8. 40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as silyl amine, potassium...

  9. 40 CFR 721.7375 - Potassium salt of polyolefin acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. 721... Substances § 721.7375 Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a potassium salt of...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1077 - Potassium acid tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium acid tartrate. 582.1077 Section 582.1077 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1077 Potassium acid tartrate. (a) Product. Potassium acid tartrate. (b) Conditions of...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1077 - Potassium acid tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium acid tartrate. 582.1077 Section 582.1077 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1077 Potassium acid tartrate. (a) Product. Potassium acid tartrate. (b) Conditions of...

  12. 40 CFR 721.7375 - Potassium salt of polyolefin acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. 721... Substances § 721.7375 Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a potassium salt of...

  13. 40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5970 Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is subject to reporting...

  14. 40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as silyl amine, potassium...

  15. 40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5970 Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is subject to reporting...

  16. 40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as silyl amine, potassium...

  17. 40 CFR 721.7375 - Potassium salt of polyolefin acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. 721... Substances § 721.7375 Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a potassium salt of...

  18. 40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5970 Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is subject to reporting...

  19. 40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5970 Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is subject to reporting...

  20. 40 CFR 721.7375 - Potassium salt of polyolefin acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. 721... Substances § 721.7375 Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a potassium salt of...

  1. 40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as silyl amine, potassium...

  2. 40 CFR 721.7375 - Potassium salt of polyolefin acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. 721... Substances § 721.7375 Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a potassium salt of...

  3. 40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as silyl amine, potassium...

  4. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for use as sources...

  5. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33 Section 181.33 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions...

  6. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for use as sources...

  7. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for use as sources...

  8. Physicochemical action of potassium-magnesium citrate in nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, C. Y.; Koenig, K.; Khan, R.; Haynes, S.; Padalino, P.

    1992-01-01

    Effect of potassium-magnesium citrate on urinary biochemistry and crystallization of stone-forming salts was compared with that of potassium citrate at same dose of potassium in five normal subjects and five patients with calcium nephrolithiasis. Compared to the placebo phase, urinary pH rose significantly from 6.06 +/- 0.27 to 6.48 +/- 0.36 (mean +/- SD, p less than 0.0167) during treatment with potassium citrate (50 mEq/day for 7 days) and to 6.68 +/- 0.31 during therapy with potassium-magnesium citrate (containing 49 mEq K, 24.5 mEq Mg, and 73.5 mEq citrate per day). Urinary pH was significantly higher during potassium-magnesium citrate than during potassium citrate therapy. Thus, the amount of undissociated uric acid declined from 118 +/- 61 mg/day during the placebo phase to 68 +/- 54 mg/day during potassium citrate treatment and, more prominently, to 41 +/- 46 mg/day during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy. Urinary magnesium rose significantly from 102 +/- 25 to 146 +/- 37 mg/day during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy but not during potassium citrate therapy. Urinary citrate rose more prominently during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy (to 1027 +/- 478 mg/day from 638 +/- 252 mg/day) than during potassium citrate treatment (to 932 +/- 297 mg/day). Consequently, urinary saturation (activity product) of calcium oxalate declined significantly (from 1.49 x 10(-8) to 1.03 x 10(-8) M2) during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy and marginally (to 1.14 x 10(-8) M2) during potassium citrate therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  9. Detection thresholds of potassium salts are related to the molar conductivity of the anion.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, S S; Manning, M P; Warwick, Z S; Crumbliss, A L

    1995-01-01

    In a previous study, we found that human taste detection thresholds for Na+ salts were linearly correlated with molar conductivity values at infinite dilution of their anions. In the present study, detection threshold concentrations for potassium salts were also found to be linearly correlated (r = -0.92) with the molar conductivity of the anion of the salt. Detection thresholds were determined here for nine potassium salts with the same anions as the sodium salts previously tested. The mean detection thresholds for these potassium salts were found to be: K Acetate (0.00311 M), K Carbonate (0.00286 M), K Chloride (0.00242 M), K Citrate (0.000300 M), K Phosphate (0.00196 M), K Sulfate (0.00090 M), K Tartrate (0.00164 M), K Glutamate (0.00153 M), and K Ascorbate (0.00375 M). The rank order correlation between the detection threshold values for sodium and potassium salts was 0.88. This finding suggests that detection thresholds for both Na+ and K+ salts are determined by the charge mobility of the anion.

  10. Potassium and Its Discontents: New Insight, New Treatments.

    PubMed

    Ellison, David H; Terker, Andrew S; Gamba, Gerardo

    2016-04-01

    Hyperkalemia is common in patients with impaired kidney function or who take drugs that inhibit the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis. During the past decade, substantial advances in understanding how the body controls potassium excretion have been made, which may lead to improved standard of care for these patients. Renal potassium disposition is primarily handled by a short segment of the nephron, comprising part of the distal convoluted tubule and the connecting tubule, and regulation results from the interplay between aldosterone and plasma potassium. When dietary potassium intake and plasma potassium are low, the electroneutral sodium chloride cotransporter is activated, leading to salt retention. This effect limits sodium delivery to potassium secretory segments, limiting potassium losses. In contrast, when dietary potassium intake is high, aldosterone is stimulated. Simultaneously, potassium inhibits the sodium chloride cotransporter. Because more sodium is then delivered to potassium secretory segments, primed by aldosterone, kaliuresis results. When these processes are disrupted, hyperkalemia results. Recently, new agents capable of removing potassium from the body and treating hyperkalemia have been tested in clinical trials. This development suggests that more effective and safer approaches to the prevention and treatment of hyperkalemia may be on the horizon.

  11. Fabrication and evaluation of an electrodialytic carbonate eluent generator for ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guobin; Lu, Yifei; Chen, Feifei; Zhang, Feifang; Yang, Bingcheng

    2016-10-01

    An electrodialytic potassium carbonate eluent generator and its associated potassium bicarbonate eluent generator have been fabricated for ion chromatography (IC). The device can withstand high backpressure up to ∼32MPa and no observable leakage under such pressure is found during 2h. In the range of 0-13.7mM, potassium carbonate concentration can be generated linearly with the applied current with a slope that is essentially Faradaic. At least 10mM potassium carbonate can be online changed into 10mM potassium bicarbonate via a potassium bicarbonate eluent generator, which offers an easy way to manipulate the separation selectivity. When coupled with IC system, the device demonstrated good reproducibility indicated by less than 0.52% of the relative standard deviation of the retention times. PMID:27474291

  12. Fabrication and evaluation of an electrodialytic carbonate eluent generator for ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guobin; Lu, Yifei; Chen, Feifei; Zhang, Feifang; Yang, Bingcheng

    2016-10-01

    An electrodialytic potassium carbonate eluent generator and its associated potassium bicarbonate eluent generator have been fabricated for ion chromatography (IC). The device can withstand high backpressure up to ∼32MPa and no observable leakage under such pressure is found during 2h. In the range of 0-13.7mM, potassium carbonate concentration can be generated linearly with the applied current with a slope that is essentially Faradaic. At least 10mM potassium carbonate can be online changed into 10mM potassium bicarbonate via a potassium bicarbonate eluent generator, which offers an easy way to manipulate the separation selectivity. When coupled with IC system, the device demonstrated good reproducibility indicated by less than 0.52% of the relative standard deviation of the retention times.

  13. Sodium and potassium in the lunar atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, A. E.; Morgan, T. H.

    1991-01-01

    The discovery that sodium and potassium vapor can be observed in the lunar atmosphere using ground-based telescopes has opened up a field of investigation that was closed after the last Apollo mission to the Moon. Sodium has been detected at altitudes up to 1500 km above the surface. This implies a high effective temperature for sodium, of the order of 1000 K. However, there is some evidence for two populations of sodium and potassium, one at temperatures corresponding to the surface, and another corresponding to high temperatures. The sources for the lunar atmosphere are not understood. Meteoric bombardment of the surface, solar wind sputtering of the surface, and photo-sputtering of the surface have all been suggested as possible sources for the lunar atmosphere. One of the objectives of the current research is to test different hypotheses by measurements of the atmosphere under different conditions of solar illumination and shielding from the solar wind by the Earth.

  14. 21 CFR 172.800 - Acesulfame potassium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... approves this incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may... at NARA, call 202-741-6030 or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/cfr/ibr-locations.html... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acesulfame potassium. 172.800 Section 172.800...

  15. Formulation and optimization of potassium iodide tablets

    PubMed Central

    Al-Achi, Antoine; Patel, Binit

    2014-01-01

    The use of potassium iodide (KI) as a protective agent against accidental radioactive exposure is well established. In this study, we aimed to prepare a KI tablet formulation using a direct compression method. We utilized Design of Experiment (DoE)/mixture design to define the best formulation with predetermined physical qualities as to its dissolution, hardness, assay, disintegration, and angle of repose. Based on the results from the DoE, the formulation had the following components (%w/w): Avicel 48.70%, silicon dioxide 0.27%, stearic acid (1.00%), magnesium stearate 2.45%, and dicalcium phosphate 18.69%, in addition to potassium iodide 28.89% (130 mg/tablet). This formulation was scaled-up using two tablet presses, a single-punch press and a rotary mini tablet press. The final scaled-up formulation was subjected to a variety of quality control tests, including photo-stability testing. The results indicate that potassium iodide tablets prepared by a rotary mini tablet press had good pharmaceutical characteristics and a shelf-life of 25 days when stored at room temperature protected from light. PMID:25685048

  16. [From Morvan's disease to potassium channelopathies].

    PubMed

    Serratrice, Georges; Azulay, Jean-Philippe; Serratrice, Jacques; Attarian, Sharam

    2004-01-01

    The term Morvan's disease, first coined in 1890, is still in use, although the generic term neuromyotonia--which is not exempt from criticism--has largely superseded it. Symptoms and signs are variable, ranging from benign painful fasciculations, pseudomyotonic cases, rigid forms, cases in which central nervous system features are also present (with, in addition to nerve hyperexcitability, agitation, confusion, delirium, insomnia, hyperhidrosis and tachycardia). A distal peripheral motor nerve is the origin of nerve hyperexcitability. There is growing evidence that autoimmunity is involved in the pathogenesis of many cases. Antibodies to voltage-gated potassium channels are detected in the serum of many patients with peripheral nerve hyperexcitability. Other cases are probably genetic. Inherited disorders are related to episodic dominant ataxia type 1, with the same mutation of a gene coding for potassium channel subunit Kv 1-1. Many inappropriate or non specific names are used to refer to peripheral nerve hyperexcitability. Isaacs syndrome, voltage-gated potassium channelopathy, or Morvan's syndrome are suggested. PMID:15506715

  17. Formulation and optimization of potassium iodide tablets.

    PubMed

    Al-Achi, Antoine; Patel, Binit

    2015-01-01

    The use of potassium iodide (KI) as a protective agent against accidental radioactive exposure is well established. In this study, we aimed to prepare a KI tablet formulation using a direct compression method. We utilized Design of Experiment (DoE)/mixture design to define the best formulation with predetermined physical qualities as to its dissolution, hardness, assay, disintegration, and angle of repose. Based on the results from the DoE, the formulation had the following components (%w/w): Avicel 48.70%, silicon dioxide 0.27%, stearic acid (1.00%), magnesium stearate 2.45%, and dicalcium phosphate 18.69%, in addition to potassium iodide 28.89% (130 mg/tablet). This formulation was scaled-up using two tablet presses, a single-punch press and a rotary mini tablet press. The final scaled-up formulation was subjected to a variety of quality control tests, including photo-stability testing. The results indicate that potassium iodide tablets prepared by a rotary mini tablet press had good pharmaceutical characteristics and a shelf-life of 25 days when stored at room temperature protected from light. PMID:25685048

  18. Interactions between bicarbonate, potassium, and magnesium, and sulfur-dependent induction of luminescence in Vibrio fischeri.

    PubMed

    Tabei, Yosuke; Era, Mariko; Ogawa, Akane; Morita, Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    In spite of its central importance in research efforts, the relationship between seawater compounds and bacterial luminescence has not previously been investigated in detail. Thus, in this study, we investigated the effect of cations (Na(+) , K(+) , NH(4) (+) , Mg(2+) , and Ca(2+) ) and anions (Cl(-) , HCO(3) (-) , CO(3) (2-) , and NO(3) (-) ) on the induction of both inorganic (sulfate, sulfite, and thiosulfate) and organic (L-cysteine and L-cystine) sulfur-dependent luminescence in Vibrio fischeri. We found that HCO(3) (-) (bicarbonate) and CO(3) (2-) (carbonate), in the form of various compounds, had a stimulatory effect on sulfur-dependent luminescence. The luminescence induced by bicarbonate was further promoted by the addition of magnesium. Potassium also increased sulfur-dependent luminescence when sulfate or thiosulfate was supplied as the sole sulfur source, but not when sulfite, L-cysteine, or L-cystine was supplied. The positive effect of potassium was accelerated by the addition of magnesium and/or calcium. Furthermore, the additional supply of magnesium improved the induction of sulfite- or L-cysteine-dependent luminescence, but not the l-cystine-dependent type. These results suggest that sulfur-dependent luminescence of V. fischeri under nutrient-starved conditions is mainly controlled by bicarbonate, carbonate, and potassium. In addition, our results indicate that an additional supply of magnesium is effective for increasing V. fischeri luminescence. PMID:21953119

  19. Proapoptotic Role of Potassium Ions in Liver Cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zhenglin; Huang, Xusen; Chen, Kaiyun; Wang, Hanning; Xiao, Jinfeng; He, Ke; Huang, Rui; Duan, Xiaopeng; Liu, Hao; Zhang, Jinqian; Xiang, Guoan

    2016-01-01

    Potassium channels are transmembrane proteins that selectively promote the infiltration of potassium ions. The significance of these channels for tumor biology has become obvious. However, the effects of potassium ions on the tumor or normal cells have seldom been studied. To address this problem, we studied the biological effects of L02 and HepG2 cells with ectogenous potassium ions. Cell proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis rate were analyzed. Our results indicated that potassium ions inhibited proliferation of L02 and HepG2 cells and promoted their apoptosis. Potassium ions induced apoptosis through regulating Bcl-2 family members and depolarized the mitochondrial membrane, especially for HepG2 cell. These biological effects were associated with channel protein HERG. By facilitating expression of channel protein HERG, potassium ions may prevent it from being shunted to procancerous pathways by inducing apoptosis. These results demonstrated that potassium ions may be a key regulator of liver cell function. Thus, our findings suggest that potassium ions could inhibit tumorigenesis through inducing apoptosis of hepatoma cells by upregulating potassium ions transport channel proteins HERG and VDAC1. PMID:27069917

  20. Potassium emission absorption system. Topical report 12

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, L.E.

    1995-04-01

    The Potassium Emission Absorption System is one of the advanced optical diagnostics developed at Mississippi State University to provide support for the demonstration of prototype-scale coal-fired combustion magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electrical power generation. Intended for application in the upstream of an MHD flow, the system directly measures gas temperature and neutral potassium atom number density through spectroscopic emission absorption techniques. From these measurements the electron density can be inferred from a statistical equilibrium calculation and the electron conductivity in the MHD channel found by use of an electron mobility model. The instrument has been utilized for field test measurements on MHD facilities for almost a decade and has been proven to provide useful measurements as designed for MHD nozzle, channel, and diffuser test sections. The theory of the measurements, a system description, its capabilities, and field test measurement results are reported here. During the development and application of the instrument several technical issues arose which when addressed advanced the state of the art in emission absorption measurement. Studies of these issues are also reported here and include: two-wavelength measurements for particle-laden flows, potassium D-line far wing absorption coefficient, bias in emission absorption measurements arising from dirty windows and misalignments, non-coincident multiwavelength emission absorption sampling errors, and lineshape fitting for boundary layer flow profile information. Although developed for NLHD application, the instrument could be applied to any high temperature flow with a resonance line in the 300 to 800 nm range, for instance other types of flames, rocket plumes or low temperature plasmas.

  1. Crystal structure of potassium sodium tartrate trihydrate

    SciTech Connect

    Egorova, A. E. Ivanov, V. A.; Somov, N. V.; Portnov, V. N.; Chuprunov, E. V.

    2011-11-15

    Crystals of potassium sodium tartrate trihydrate (dl-KNaC{sub 4}H{sub 4}O{sub 6} {center_dot} 3H{sub 2}O) were obtained from an aqueous solution. The crystal shape was described. The atomic structure of the compound was determined and compared with the known structures of dl-KNaC{sub 4}H{sub 4}O{sub 6} {center_dot} 4H{sub 2}O and l-KNaC{sub 4}H{sub 4}O{sub 6} {center_dot} 4H{sub 2}O.

  2. What do we not know about mitochondrial potassium channels?

    PubMed

    Laskowski, Michał; Augustynek, Bartłomiej; Kulawiak, Bogusz; Koprowski, Piotr; Bednarczyk, Piotr; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa; Szewczyk, Adam

    2016-08-01

    In this review, we summarize our knowledge about mitochondrial potassium channels, with a special focus on unanswered questions in this field. The following potassium channels have been well described in the inner mitochondrial membrane: ATP-regulated potassium channel, Ca(2+)-activated potassium channel, the voltage-gated Kv1.3 potassium channel, and the two-pore domain TASK-3 potassium channel. The primary functional roles of these channels include regulation of mitochondrial respiration and the alteration of membrane potential. Additionally, they modulate the mitochondrial matrix volume and the synthesis of reactive oxygen species by mitochondria. Mitochondrial potassium channels are believed to contribute to cytoprotection and cell death. In this paper, we discuss fundamental issues concerning mitochondrial potassium channels: their molecular identity, channel pharmacology and functional properties. Attention will be given to the current problems present in our understanding of the nature of mitochondrial potassium channels. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy, July 2-6, 2016', edited by Prof. Paolo Bernardi.

  3. Possible potassium chlorate nephrotoxicity associated with chronic matchstick ingestion*

    PubMed Central

    Thurlow, John S.; Little, Dustin J.; Baker, Thomas P.; Yuan, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of a 48-year-old active duty male soldier with a history of chronic exposure to potassium chlorate, later diagnosed with chronic interstitial nephritis. He reported regular matchstick consumption to prevent chigger (Trombicula autumnalis) bites, amounting to ∼5.8 g of potassium chlorate over 3 years. Potassium chlorate can cause anuric renal failure within days of a toxic dose. Its slow excretion and mechanism of action suggest that renal toxicity may result from lower-dose chronic exposure. This case represents possible sequelae of chronic potassium chlorate ingestion. PMID:26064493

  4. [Studies on potassium transport through glial cell membranes (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Coles, J A; Gardner-Medwin, A R; Tsacopoulos, M

    1980-04-01

    The retina of the honeybee drone is used as a model for the study of ion movements across the membranes of the glial cells caused by changes in the extracellular potassium concentration. The values found for changes in extracellular potential suggest that at least some of the potassium that enters glial cells in an active region of tissue is associated with an efflux of potassium from parts of the glial syncytium not affected by an increase in extracellular potassium concentration. In addition, it appears that ions other than K+ cross the glial membrane.

  5. Intracellular potassium compartments in Nitella axillaris.

    PubMed

    DIAMOND, J M; SOLOMON, A K

    1959-05-20

    Three intracellular compartments for potassium exchange have been observed in intact cells of the giant-celled alga, Nitella axillaris. These compartments have been compared with the exchange properties of isolated subcellular structures. The smallest and fastest compartment (apparent half-time, 23 seconds) appears to involve passive absorption on the cell wall. The next largest (apparent half-time, 5 hours) may represent exchange with the cytoplasmic layer through the plasma membrane, the chloroplasts being in rapid equilibrium with the surrounding cytoplasm. The largest and slowest compartment (apparent half-time, 40 days) has been identified with the central vacuole. The vacuolar membrane and the plasma membrane have similar properties with respect to K permeability. Thus, the experimental data from the whole cell can be accounted for by a structural model of the compartments. Cyanide in concentrations up to 10(-3)M causes no net loss of K. The fastest compartment in Nitella and in higher plants is compared, and the ecological significance of the slow rate of potassium transport in Nitella is discussed.

  6. Cardiac Strong Inward Rectifier Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Anumonwo, Justus MB; Lopatin, Anatoli N

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac IK1 and IKACh are the major potassium currents displaying classical strong inward rectification, a unique property that is critical for their roles in cardiac excitability. In the last fifteen years, research on IK1 and IKACh has been propelled by the cloning of the underlying inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) channels, the discovery of the molecular mechanism of strong rectification and the linking of a number of disorders of cardiac excitability to defects in genes encoding Kir channels. Disease-causing mutations in Kir genes have been shown experimentally to affect one or more of the following channel properties: structure, assembly, trafficking and regulation, with the ultimate effect of a gain-, or a loss-of-function of the channel. It is now established that IK1 and IKACh channels are heterotetramers of Kir2 and Kir3 subunits, respectively. Each homomeric Kir channel has distinct biophysical and regulatory properties, and individual Kir subunits often display different patterns of regional, cellular and membrane distribution. These differences are thought to underlie important variations in the physiological properties of IK1 and IKACh. It has become increasingly clear that the contribution of IK1 and IKACh channels to cardiac electrical activity goes beyond their long recognized role in the stabilization of resting membrane potential and shaping the late phase of action potential repolarization in individual myocytes, but extends to being critical elements determining the overall electrical stability of the heart. PMID:19703462

  7. Clofilium inhibits Slick and Slack potassium channels

    PubMed Central

    de los Angeles Tejada, Maria; Stolpe, Kathleen; Meinild, Anne-Kristine; Klaerke, Dan A

    2012-01-01

    Slick and Slack high-conductance potassium channels have been recently discovered, and are found in the central nervous system and in the heart. Both channels are activated by Na+ and Cl−, and Slick channels are also inhibited by adenosine triphospate (ATP). An important role of setting the resting membrane potential and controlling the basal excitability of neurons has been suggested for these channels. In addition, no specific blockers for these channels are known up to the present. With the purpose of studying the pharmacological characteristics of Slick and Slack channels, the effects of exposure to the antiarrhythmic compound clofilium were evaluated. Clofilium was able to modulate the activity of Slick and Slack channels effectively, with a stronger effect on Slack than Slick channels. In order to evaluate the pharmacological behavior of Slick and Slack channels further, 38 commonly used potassium channel blockers were tested. Screening of these compounds did not reveal any modulators of Slick and Slack channels, except for clofilium. The present study provides a first approach towards elucidating the pharmacological characteristics of Slick and Slack channels and could be the basis for future studies aimed at developing potent and specific blockers and activators for these channels. PMID:23271893

  8. Acid-permanganate oxidation of potassium tetraphenylboron

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.

    1993-02-01

    Scoping experiments have been performed which show that potassium tetraphenylboron (KTPB) is rapidly oxidized by permanganate in acidic solutions at room temperature. The main Products are CO{sub 2}, highly oxidized organic compounds related to tartaric and tartronic acids, boric acid, and potassium phosphate (when phosphoric acid is used as the source of acid). One liter of 0.6M NaMnO{sub 4}/2.5M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} solution will destroy up to 8 grams of KTPB. The residual benzene concentration has been measured to be less than the RCRA limit of 0.5 ppm. Approximately 30% of the organic material is released as CO{sub 2} (trace CO) and 0.16% as benzene vapor. The reaction is well behaved, no foaming or spattering. Tests were performed from .15M to near 1M permanganate. The phosphoric acid concentration was maintained at a concentration at least three times that of the permanganate since an excess of acid was desired and this is the ratio that these two reagents are consumed in the oxidation.

  9. Acid-permanganate oxidation of potassium tetraphenylboron

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.

    1993-02-01

    Scoping experiments have been performed which show that potassium tetraphenylboron (KTPB) is rapidly oxidized by permanganate in acidic solutions at room temperature. The main Products are CO[sub 2], highly oxidized organic compounds related to tartaric and tartronic acids, boric acid, and potassium phosphate (when phosphoric acid is used as the source of acid). One liter of 0.6M NaMnO[sub 4]/2.5M H[sub 3]PO[sub 4] solution will destroy up to 8 grams of KTPB. The residual benzene concentration has been measured to be less than the RCRA limit of 0.5 ppm. Approximately 30% of the organic material is released as CO[sub 2] (trace CO) and 0.16% as benzene vapor. The reaction is well behaved, no foaming or spattering. Tests were performed from .15M to near 1M permanganate. The phosphoric acid concentration was maintained at a concentration at least three times that of the permanganate since an excess of acid was desired and this is the ratio that these two reagents are consumed in the oxidation.

  10. Clinical perspectives on the rationale for potassium supplementation.

    PubMed

    Weir, Matthew R; Espaillat, Ramon

    2015-06-01

    Hypokalemia is a common electrolyte disturbance, observed in > 20% of hospitalized patients. Hypokalemia, although not formally defined, is generally considered to be when serum potassium levels fall below the normal value of 3.6 mmol/L. In contrast to other electrolytes, potassium is primarily an intracellular ion: only 2% of all potassium in the body is present in the extracellular fluid, so a small decrease in serum potassium may represent a significant decrease in intracellular potassium. Individuals with mildly decreased potassium levels (3.0-3.5 mmol/L) may be asymptomatic, but patients with more pronounced decreases may report symptoms including muscle weakness, fatigue, and constipation. Very low serum potassium levels (≤ 2.5 mmol/L) can lead to muscle necrosis, paralysis, cardiac arrhythmias, and impaired respiration, which can be life-threatening. Absent comprehensive and robust treatment guidelines, strategies for the prevention or treatment of hypokalemia, such as how to diagnose hypokalemia, when to treat patients, what dosage regimen of potassium supplementation to use and for how long, are often based on the experience of the physician and empirical evidence. However, proper evaluation and treatment of hypokalemia in patients is essential because of associated morbidities. Because small potassium deficits in serum represent large body losses, potassium repletion requires substantial and prolonged supplementation. For patients with known risk factors for hypokalemia (e.g. hypertension, heart failure, or diabetes), careful monitoring is crucial to avoid the adverse sequelae associated with potassium deficits and to ensure that adequate and timely preventive measures can be taken. In this review, we provide practical insights into the etiology, differential diagnosis, and treatment of hypokalemia, including treatment strategies for patients with known risk factors.

  11. Yeast-based microporous carbon materials for carbon dioxide capture.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wenzhong; He, Yue; Zhang, Shouchun; Li, Junfen; Fan, Weibin

    2012-07-01

    A hierarchical microporous carbon material with a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of 1348 m(2) g(-1) and a pore volume of 0.67 cm(3) g(-1) was prepared from yeast through chemical activation with potassium hydroxide. This type of material contains large numbers of nitrogen-containing groups (nitrogen content >5.3 wt%), and, consequently, basic sites. As a result, this material shows a faster adsorption rate and a higher adsorption capacity of CO(2) than the material obtained by directly carbonizing yeast under the same conditions. The difference is more pronounced in the presence of N(2) or H(2)O, showing that chemical activation of discarded yeast with potassium hydroxide could afford high-performance microporous carbon materials for the capture of CO(2).

  12. Porosity Dependence of Piezoelectric Properties for Porous Potassium Niobate System Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, S.; Mase, Y.; Shimizu, S.; Maeda, K.; Fujii, I.; Nakashima, K.; Pulpan, P.; Miyajima, N.

    2011-10-01

    Porous potassium niobate (KNbO3, KN) system ceramics were prepared by a conventional sintering method using carbon black (CB) nanoparticles. First, KN nanoparticles with a size of 100 nm was mixed with CB nanoparticles and binder using ball milling with ethanol. The mixture was dried, and pressed into pellets using uniaxial pressing. After binder burnout, these ceramics was sintered in air. Their piezoelectric properties were measured and discussed a relationship between porosity and piezoelectric properties. As the results, with increasing porosity, piezoelectric g33 constant increased significantly, which suggested that porous ceramics were effective for stress sensor application.

  13. Carbonylation of nitrobenzene in methanol on the sulfur-containing catalyst potassium ethylxanthate-rubeanic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Bordzilovskii, V.Ya.; Gerega, V.F.; Redoshkin, B.A.; Dergunov, Yu.I.

    1988-05-10

    The kinetics of nitrobenzene carbonylation with carbon monoxide in methanol over the two-component catalyst potassium ethylxanthate-rubeanic acid was studied from 383-423/sup 0/K and pressures of 11-32 MPa. It was established that at low (< 15%) conversion of nitrobenzene the investigated process is second order in sulfur-containing catalyst and first order in nitrobenzene. The apparent activation energy was (113 +/- 6) 10/sup 3/ J/mole. A scheme of carbonylation of nitrobenzene in methanol in the presence of sulfur-containing catalyst was proposed which includes formation of complexes of nitrobenzene and CO with catalyst.

  14. 40 CFR 721.10031 - Lithium potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements may request to do so under 40 CFR 721.30. Persons whose § 721.30 requests to use the NCELs... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lithium potassium titanium oxide. 721... Substances § 721.10031 Lithium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10553 - Potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... alternative to the § 721.63 respirator requirements may request to do so under 40 CFR 721.30. Persons whose... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Potassium titanium oxide. 721.10553... Substances § 721.10553 Potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10553 - Potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... alternative to the § 721.63 respirator requirements may request to do so under 40 CFR 721.30. Persons whose... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Potassium titanium oxide. 721.10553... Substances § 721.10553 Potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10031 - Lithium potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements may request to do so under 40 CFR 721.30. Persons whose § 721.30 requests to use the NCELs... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lithium potassium titanium oxide. 721... Substances § 721.10031 Lithium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10031 - Lithium potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements may request to do so under 40 CFR 721.30. Persons whose § 721.30 requests to use the NCELs... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lithium potassium titanium oxide. 721... Substances § 721.10031 Lithium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10031 - Lithium potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements may request to do so under 40 CFR 721.30. Persons whose § 721.30 requests to use the NCELs... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lithium potassium titanium oxide. 721... Substances § 721.10031 Lithium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new...

  20. STUDIES INTO THE MECHANISMS OF POTASSIUM BROMATE INDUCED THYROID CARCINOGENESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies into the Mechanisms of Potassium Bromate Induced Thyroid Carcinogenesis.

    Potassium bromate (KBrO3) occurs in finished drinking water as a by-product of the ozonation disinfection process and has been found to induce thyroid follicular cell tumors in the rat after ...

  1. Potassium silicate-zinc oxide solution for metal finishes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutt, J. B.

    1970-01-01

    Examples of zinc dust formulations, which are not subject to cracking or crazing, are fire retardant, and have high adhesive qualities, are listed. The potassium silicate in these formulations has mol ratios of dissolved silica potassium oxide in the range 4.8 to 1 - 5.3 to 1.

  2. 40 CFR 721.10021 - Magnesium potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 721.63 respirator requirements may request to do so under 40 CFR 721.30. Persons whose § 721.30... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Magnesium potassium titanium oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10021 Magnesium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10021 - Magnesium potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... § 721.63 respirator requirements may request to do so under 40 CFR 721.30. Persons whose § 721.30... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Magnesium potassium titanium oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10021 Magnesium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10021 - Magnesium potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... § 721.63 respirator requirements may request to do so under 40 CFR 721.30. Persons whose § 721.30... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Magnesium potassium titanium oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10021 Magnesium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10021 - Magnesium potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... § 721.63 respirator requirements may request to do so under 40 CFR 721.30. Persons whose § 721.30... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Magnesium potassium titanium oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10021 Magnesium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10031 - Lithium potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements may request to do so under 40 CFR 721.30. Persons whose § 721.30 requests to use the NCELs... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lithium potassium titanium oxide. 721... Substances § 721.10031 Lithium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new...

  7. Process for preparation of potassium-38. [DOE patent application

    DOEpatents

    Lambrecht, R.M.; Wolf, A.P.

    A solution of potassium-38 suitable for use as a radiopharmaceutical and a method for its production. Argon is irradiated with protons having energies above the threshold for the /sup 40/Ar(p,3n)/sup 38/K reaction. The resulting potassium-38 is dissolved in a sterile water and any contaminating chlorine-38 is removed.

  8. 40 CFR 721.10021 - Magnesium potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 721.63 respirator requirements may request to do so under 40 CFR 721.30. Persons whose § 721.30... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Magnesium potassium titanium oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10021 Magnesium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance...

  9. The role of dietary potassium in hypertension and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ekmekcioglu, Cem; Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Meyer, Alexa L; Moeslinger, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Potassium is an essential mineral which plays major roles for the resting membrane potential and the intracellular osmolarity. In addition, for several years, it has been known that potassium also affects endothelial and vascular smooth muscle functions and it has been repeatedly shown that an increase in potassium intake shifts blood pressure to a more preferable level. Meanwhile, the blood pressure lowering effects of potassium were presented in several intervention trials and summarized in a handful of meta-analyses. Furthermore, accumulating epidemiological evidence from, especially, the last decade relates low dietary potassium intake or serum potassium levels to an increased risk for insulin resistance or diabetes. However, intervention trials are required to confirm this association. So, in addition to reduction of sodium intake, increasing dietary potassium intake may positively affect blood pressure and possibly also glucose metabolism in many populations. This concise review not only summarizes the studies linking potassium to blood pressure and diabetes but also discusses potential mechanisms involved, like vascular smooth muscle relaxation and endothelium-dependent vasodilation or stimulation of insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells, respectively.

  10. An improved automotive brake lining using fibrous potassium titanate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansfield, J. A.; Halberstadt, M. L.; Riccitiello, S. R.; Rhee, S. K.

    1976-01-01

    Simultaneous fade reduction and wear improvement of a commercial automotive brake lining were achieved by adding fibrous potassium titanate. The dependence of friction and wear characteristics on quantitative variations in potassium titanate, asbestos, phenolic binder, and organic and inorganic modifiers was evaluated.

  11. Effects of water quality and dietary potassium on performance and carcass characteristics of yearling steers.

    PubMed

    Sexson, J L; Wagner, J J; Engle, T E; Spears, J W

    2010-01-01

    Four hundred thirty-two crossbred yearling steers (339 kg +/- 4.8) were used to investigate the effects of water quality and dietary potassium concentration and source on feedlot performance and carcass merit. The study was conducted using a 2 x 3 factorial treatment arrangement. Factors evaluated included 2 water sources: 1) a blend of reverse osmosis and well water (RO; 608 +/- 164 mg/L of SO(4)) and 2) 100% well water with SO(4) concentration of 1,933 +/- 53 mg/L and 3 dietary K treatments. Potassium treatments included 0.75% K with supplemental K from potassium chloride (0.75% K-KCl), 0.75% K with supplemental K from potassium carbonate (0.75% K-K(2)CO(3)), and 1.0% K with supplemental K from potassium carbonate (1.0% K-K(2)CO(3)). Interactions between water quality and dietary treatments were not significant. Dry matter intake tended (P = 0.10) to be greater for steers consuming RO water compared with well water and was not affected by dietary treatment. Feed efficiency (P = 0.04) and NE(g) recovery (P = 0.04) were greater for 1.0% K-K(2)CO(3) compared with 0.75% K-KCl but were not affected by water quality. Final BW was heavier (P < 0.001) and ADG was greater (P = 0.04) for RO water compared with well water but were not affected by diet. Carcasses from steers that consumed RO water tended (P = 0.08) to be heavier than carcasses from steers consuming well water. Dietary treatment did not affect HCW (P = 0.52). Yield grade calculated from carcass measurements was not affected by dietary treatment or water quality. Carcasses from steers consuming well water had greater (P = 0.04) marbling scores than RO water. These data demonstrate that steers consuming RO water achieved improved feedlot performance. Steers fed 1.0% K-K(2)CO(3) were more efficient and demonstrated improved energy recovery compared with steers fed 0.75% K-KCl. Improved efficiency and energy recovery may be related to a reduction (P = 0.06) in the liver abscess rate for steers consuming 1.0% K

  12. Potassium in clinopyroxene inclusions from diamonds.

    PubMed

    Harlow, G E; Veblen, D R

    1991-02-01

    Analytical transmission electron microscopy, electron microprobe analyses, and singlecrystal x-ray diffraction data support the conclusion that high potassium contents, up to 1.5 weight percent K(2)O, of some diopside and omphacite inclusions from diamonds represent valid clinopyroxene compositions with K in solid solution. This conclusion contradicts the traditional view of pyroxene crystal chemistry, which holds that K is too large to be incorporated in the pyroxene structure. These diopside and omphacite inclusions have a high degree of crystal perfection and anomalously large unit-cell volumes, and a defect-free structure is observed in K-bearing regions when imaged by transmission electron microscopy. These observations imply that clinopyroxene can be a significant host for K in the mantle and that some clinopyroxene inclusions and their diamond hosts may have grown in a highly K-enriched environment. PMID:17741381

  13. DKDP /potassium dideuterium phosphate/ light valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casasent, D.

    1977-01-01

    The use of potassium dideuterium phosphate (DKDP) light valves for optical data processing is discussed. The operating principles and structure of optically and electron beam addressed DKDPs are compared, and specifications for both devices given. Optically addressed DKDPs are capable of higher resolution and contrast, but both systems represent viable real time spatial light modulators adaptable to optical processing. Examples of real time data processing performed by the DKDPs include: image addition and subtraction; reduction of noise introduced by scattered light in recording media; reconstruction of computer generated and acoustic holograms; reconstruction of synthetic aperture radar data; retrieval of three-dimensional information in X-ray diagnoses; radar signal processing and display; and optical pattern recognition and correlation of images, which has applications for missile guidance systems.

  14. Sodium and Potassium Interactions with Nucleic Acids.

    PubMed

    Auffinger, Pascal; D'Ascenzo, Luigi; Ennifar, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Metal ions are essential cofactors for the structure and functions of nucleic acids. Yet, the early discovery in the 70s of the crucial role of Mg(2+) in stabilizing tRNA structures has occulted for a long time the importance of monovalent cations. Renewed interest in these ions was brought in the late 90s by the discovery of specific potassium metal ions in the core of a group I intron. Their importance in nucleic acid folding and catalytic activity is now well established. However, detection of K(+) and Na(+) ions is notoriously problematic and the question about their specificity is recurrent. Here we review the different methods that can be used to detect K(+) and Na(+) ions in nucleic acid structures such as X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance or molecular dynamics simulations. We also discuss specific versus non-specific binding to different structures through various examples. PMID:26860302

  15. Researches toward potassium channels on tumor progressions.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zheng; Yang, Qian; You, Qidong

    2009-01-01

    As trans-membrane proteins located in cytoplasm and organelle membrane, potassium (K(+)) channels are generally divided into four super-families: voltage-gated K(+) channels (K(v)), Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (K(Ca)), inwardly rectifying K(+) channels (K(ir)) and two-pore domain K(+) channels (K(2P)). Since dysfunctions of K(+) channels would induce many diseases, various studies toward their functions in physiologic and pathologic process have been extensively launched. This review focuses on the recent advances of K(+) channels in tumor progression, including the brief introduction of K(+) channels, the role of K(+) channels in tumor cells, the possible mechanism of action at cellular level, and the possible application of K(+) channel modulators in cancer chemotherapy.

  16. The potassium channel: Structure, selectivity and diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, T. W.; Bliznyuk, A.; Rendell, A. P.; Kuyucak, S.; Chung, S.-H.

    2000-05-01

    We employ the entire experimentally determined protein structure for the KcsA potassium channel from Streptomyces lividans in molecular dynamics calculations to observe hydrated channel protein structure, ion solvation, selectivity, multiple ion configurations, and diffusion. Free energy perturbation calculations display a significant ion discrimination of ˜9 kT in favor of the larger K+ ion. The protein forming the channel is very flexible yet is unable to fully solvate the Na+ ion because of its smaller size and large solvation energy. There is evidence that acidic and basic sidechains may dissociate in the presence of multiple K+ ions to explain experimental ion density maps. K+ diffusion is found to vary from approximately 10%-90% of bulk, supporting the high channel currents observed experimentally.

  17. Electrocaloric properties of potassium tantalate niobate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiwa, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    The electrocaloric properties of potassium tantalate niobate (KTN) crystals were investigated by indirect estimation and direct measurement of temperature-electric field (T-E) hysteresis loops. The measured T-E loops showed a similar shape to strain-electric field (s-E) loops. The adiabatic temperature change ΔT due to the electrocaloric effect was estimated from the polarization change of this sample to be 0.49 K under a field of 20 kV/cm. The measured temperature change ΔT in these samples upon the release of the electric field from 20 kV/cm to zero was 0.42 K. The temperature dependences of the electromechanical and electrocaloric properties were measured. The maximum performance appeared at approximately the phase transition temperature of KTN crystal and the properties were relatively moderate-temperature-dependent.

  18. High pressure studies of potassium perchlorate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravica, Michael; Wang, Yonggang; Sneed, Daniel; Reiser, Sharissa; White, Melanie

    2016-09-01

    Two experiments are reported on KClO4 at extreme conditions. A static high pressure Raman study was first conducted to 18.9 GPa. Evidence for at least two new phases was observed: one between 2.4 and 7.7 GPa (possibly sluggish), and the second near 11.7 GPa. Then, the X-ray induced decomposition rate of potassium perchlorate (KClO4 → hν KCl + 2O2) was studied up to 15.2 GPa. The time-dependent growth of KCl and O2 was monitored. The decomposition rate slowed at higher pressures. We present the first direct evidence for O2 crystallization at higher pressures, demonstrating that O2 molecules aggregate at high pressure.

  19. Bioinspired Artificial Sodium and Potassium Ion Channels.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Vázquez, Nuria; Fuertes, Alberto; Amorín, Manuel; Granja, Juan R

    2016-01-01

    In Nature, all biological systems present a high level of compartmentalization in order to carry out a wide variety of functions in a very specific way. Hence, they need ways to be connected with the environment for communication, homeostasis equilibrium, nutrition, waste elimination, etc. The biological membranes carry out these functions; they consist of physical insulating barriers constituted mainly by phospholipids. These amphipathic molecules spontaneously aggregate in water to form bilayers in which the polar groups are exposed to the aqueous media while the non-polar chains self-organize by aggregating to each other to stay away from the aqueous media. The insulating properties of membranes are due to the formation of a hydrophobic bilayer covered at both sides by the hydrophilic phosphate groups. Thus, lipophilic molecules can permeate the membrane freely, while the small charged or very hydrophilic molecules require the assistance of other membrane components in order to overcome the energetic cost implied in crossing the non-polar region of the bilayer. Most of the large polar species (such as oligosaccharides, polypeptides or nucleic acids) cross into and out of the cell via endocytosis and exocytosis, respectively. Nature has created a series of systems (carriers and pores) in order to control the balance of small hydrophilic molecules and ions. The most important structures to achieve these goals are the ionophoric proteins that include the channel proteins, such as the sodium and potassium channels, and ionic transporters, including the sodium/potassium pumps or calcium/sodium exchangers among others. Inspired by these, scientists have created non-natural synthetic transporting structures to mimic the natural systems. The progress in the last years has been remarkable regarding the efficient transport of Na(+) and K(+) ions, despite the fact that the selectivity and the ON/OFF state of the non-natural systems remain a present and future challenge

  20. Bioinspired Artificial Sodium and Potassium Ion Channels.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Vázquez, Nuria; Fuertes, Alberto; Amorín, Manuel; Granja, Juan R

    2016-01-01

    In Nature, all biological systems present a high level of compartmentalization in order to carry out a wide variety of functions in a very specific way. Hence, they need ways to be connected with the environment for communication, homeostasis equilibrium, nutrition, waste elimination, etc. The biological membranes carry out these functions; they consist of physical insulating barriers constituted mainly by phospholipids. These amphipathic molecules spontaneously aggregate in water to form bilayers in which the polar groups are exposed to the aqueous media while the non-polar chains self-organize by aggregating to each other to stay away from the aqueous media. The insulating properties of membranes are due to the formation of a hydrophobic bilayer covered at both sides by the hydrophilic phosphate groups. Thus, lipophilic molecules can permeate the membrane freely, while the small charged or very hydrophilic molecules require the assistance of other membrane components in order to overcome the energetic cost implied in crossing the non-polar region of the bilayer. Most of the large polar species (such as oligosaccharides, polypeptides or nucleic acids) cross into and out of the cell via endocytosis and exocytosis, respectively. Nature has created a series of systems (carriers and pores) in order to control the balance of small hydrophilic molecules and ions. The most important structures to achieve these goals are the ionophoric proteins that include the channel proteins, such as the sodium and potassium channels, and ionic transporters, including the sodium/potassium pumps or calcium/sodium exchangers among others. Inspired by these, scientists have created non-natural synthetic transporting structures to mimic the natural systems. The progress in the last years has been remarkable regarding the efficient transport of Na(+) and K(+) ions, despite the fact that the selectivity and the ON/OFF state of the non-natural systems remain a present and future challenge.

  1. Root cortical aerenchyma enhances the growth of maize on soils with suboptimal availability of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.

    PubMed

    Postma, Johannes Auke; Lynch, Jonathan Paul

    2011-07-01

    Root cortical aerenchyma (RCA) is induced by hypoxia, drought, and several nutrient deficiencies. Previous research showed that RCA formation reduces the respiration and nutrient content of root tissue. We used SimRoot, a functional-structural model, to provide quantitative support for the hypothesis that RCA formation is a useful adaptation to suboptimal availability of phosphorus, nitrogen, and potassium by reducing the metabolic costs of soil exploration in maize (Zea mays). RCA increased the growth of simulated 40-d-old maize plants up to 55%, 54%, or 72% on low nitrogen, phosphorus, or potassium soil, respectively, and reduced critical fertility levels by 13%, 12%, or 7%, respectively. The greater utility of RCA on low-potassium soils is associated with the fact that root growth in potassium-deficient plants was more carbon limited than in phosphorus- and nitrogen-deficient plants. In contrast to potassium-deficient plants, phosphorus- and nitrogen-deficient plants allocate more carbon to the root system as the deficiency develops. The utility of RCA also depended on other root phenes and environmental factors. On low-phosphorus soils (7.5 μM), the utility of RCA was 2.9 times greater in plants with increased lateral branching density than in plants with normal branching. On low-nitrate soils, the utility of RCA formation was 56% greater in coarser soils with high nitrate leaching. Large genetic variation in RCA formation and the utility of RCA for a range of stresses position RCA as an interesting crop-breeding target for enhanced soil resource acquisition.

  2. Generating potassium abundance variations in the Solar Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    An intriguing aspect of chondritic meteorites is that they are complementary: while their separate components have wildly varying abundances, bulk chondrites have nearly solar composition. This implies that the nearly solar reservoirs in which chondrites were born were in turn assembled from sub-reservoirs of differing compositions that birthed the different components. We focus on explaining the potassium abundance variations between chondrules even within a single chondrite, while maintaining the observed CI 41K to 39K ratios. This requires physically separating potassium and chondrules while the temperature is high enough for K to be in the gas phase. We examine several mechanisms which could drive the dust through gas and show that to do so locally would have required long (sub-orbital to many orbits) time scales; with shortest potassium depletion time-scales occurring in a scenario where chondrules formed high above the mid-plane and settled out of the evaporated potassium. While orbital time-scales are at odds with laboratory chondrule cooling rate estimates, any other model for the origin for the potassium abundance variation has to wrestle with the severe logistical difficulty of generating a plethora of correlated reservoirs which varied strongly in their potassium abundances, but not in their potassium isotope ratios.

  3. An interlaboratory study of potassium determination in rocks and minerals.

    PubMed

    Rice, T D

    1976-05-01

    Seven laboratories took part in this interlaboratory study which was part of an investigation of the flame-speetrometric determination of potassium in rocks and minerals suitable for potassium-argon age-measurement. Three of these laboratories determined potassium in the following five international reference rocks: tonalite T-1, basalt BCR-1, andesite AGV-1, granite G-2, and granodiorite GSP-1. The other five samples (with the number of laboratories analysing them in parentheses) were: a chlorite rock (7), an altered basic igneous rock (5), an altered basaltic andesite (5), a biotite (6) and a potassium feldspar (7). Details of sample preparation and methods of analysis are given; no laboratory used exactly the same method as any of the other six laboratories. Results have been examined by analysis of variance; larger relative between- and within-laboratory variations occurred for the two samples containing less than 0.1% potassium than for seven of the eight other (higher potassium) samples; between-laboratory variations for the basalt BCR-1 and, to a lesser extent, the andesite AGV-1, were high and of similar magnitude to those for the samples containing less than 0.1% potassium. The causes of any poor interlaboratory agreement in the present study are considered.

  4. An interlaboratory study of potassium determination in rocks and minerals.

    PubMed

    Rice, T D

    1976-05-01

    Seven laboratories took part in this interlaboratory study which was part of an investigation of the flame-speetrometric determination of potassium in rocks and minerals suitable for potassium-argon age-measurement. Three of these laboratories determined potassium in the following five international reference rocks: tonalite T-1, basalt BCR-1, andesite AGV-1, granite G-2, and granodiorite GSP-1. The other five samples (with the number of laboratories analysing them in parentheses) were: a chlorite rock (7), an altered basic igneous rock (5), an altered basaltic andesite (5), a biotite (6) and a potassium feldspar (7). Details of sample preparation and methods of analysis are given; no laboratory used exactly the same method as any of the other six laboratories. Results have been examined by analysis of variance; larger relative between- and within-laboratory variations occurred for the two samples containing less than 0.1% potassium than for seven of the eight other (higher potassium) samples; between-laboratory variations for the basalt BCR-1 and, to a lesser extent, the andesite AGV-1, were high and of similar magnitude to those for the samples containing less than 0.1% potassium. The causes of any poor interlaboratory agreement in the present study are considered. PMID:18961875

  5. Measurement of whole body cellular and collagen nitrogen, potassium, and other elements by neutron activation and whole body counting

    SciTech Connect

    James, H.M.; Fabricius, P.J.; Dykes, P.W.

    1987-09-01

    Whole body nitrogen can be measured by neutron activation analysis with an acceptable radiation dose; it is an index of body protein which, in normal subjects, is 65% cellular protein and 35% extracellular connective collagen. Whole body potassium can be measured by whole body counting without irradiating the subject; it is an index of body cell mass. We measured whole body nitrogen, potassium, extracellular water, intracellular water, and fat-folds. The differences between 37 malnourished patients and five normal subjects suggested that the patients had 9 kg less cell mass than normal, but no difference in extracellular mass. Measurements were made on eight patients before and after 14 days of total parenteral nutrition; balance of nitrogen intake and excretion also was measured. The changes were consistent with mean increases of 3 kg of cellular mass and 3 kg of fat with no change of extracellular mass. The accuracy and sensitivity of the whole body measurements need further confirmation for use in patients with changing body composition. Where tissue wasting is largely from the cellular compartment, potassium could be a more sensitive index of wasting than nitrogen. Multielement analysis of nitrogen, potassium, chlorine, and carbon will probably be valuable in elucidating body composition in malnutrition.

  6. The application of potassium ferrate for sewage treatment.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jia-Qian; Panagoulopoulos, Alex; Bauer, Mike; Pearce, Pete

    2006-04-01

    The comparative performance of potassium ferrate(VI), ferric sulphate and aluminium sulphate for the removal of turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), colour (as Vis400-abs) and bacteria in sewage treatment was evaluated. For coagulation and disinfection of sewage, potassium ferrate(VI) can remove more organic contaminants, COD and bacteria in comparison with the other two coagulants for the same doses used. Also, potassium ferrate(VI) produces less sludge volume and removes more contaminants, which should make subsequent sludge treatment easier.

  7. Onset of superconductivity in sodium and potassium intercalated molybdenum disulphide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somoano, R. B.; Rembaum, A.

    1971-01-01

    Molybdenum disulfide in the form of natural crystals or powder has been intercalated at -65 to -70 C with sodium and potassium using the liquid ammonia technique. All intercalated samples were found to show a superconducting transition. A plot of the percent of diamagnetic throw versus temperature indicates the possible existence of two phases in the potassium intercalated molybdenum disulfide. The onset of superconductivity in potassium and sodium intercalated molybdenite powder was found to be approximately 6.2 and approximately 4.5 K, respectively. The observed superconductivity is believed to be due to an increase in electron density as a result of intercalation.

  8. Intractable hyperkalemia due to nicorandil induced potassium channel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chowdhry, Vivek; Mohanty, B B

    2015-01-01

    Nicorandil is a commonly used antianginal agent, which has both nitrate-like and ATP-sensitive potassium (K ATP ) channel activator properties. Activation of potassium channels by nicorandil causes expulsion of potassium ions into the extracellular space leading to membrane hyperpolarization, closure of voltage-gated calcium channels and finally vasodilatation. However, on the other hand, being an activator of K ATP channel, it can expel K + ions out of the cells and can cause hyperkalemia. Here, we report a case of nicorandil induced hyperkalemia unresponsive to medical treatment in a patient with diabetic nephropathy.

  9. The abundance of potassium in the Earth's core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, K.; Ohtani, E.; Kamada, S.; Miyahara, M.

    2013-12-01

    Potassium (K) has a radioactive isotope (40K), and it has been proposed that potassium might exist in the Earth's core (e.g., Wasserburg et al., 1964). If a large amount of potassium is in the core, it has a large impact on total heat budget and thermal history of the Earth. To reveal the amount of potassium in the core, many previous studies have been reported on potassium partitioning between metallic melts and silicate melts (e.g., Gessmann and Wood, 2002; Murthy et al., 2003; Hirao et al., 2006; Bouhifd et al., 2007; Corgne et al., 2007). Since there are considerable contradictions on temperature, pressure, and metal compositional dependencies, the potassium abundance in the core is not yet constrained well. In order to reveal the abundance accurately, we studied partitioning of potassium between aluminosilicate (adularia, KAlSi3O8) and metal (pure iron, iron-oxygen alloy, and iron-silicon alloy) up to 50 GPa and 3500 K using a double sided laser-heated diamond anvil cell. Our results revealed following pressure, temperature, and compositional dependencies on the partitioning coefficient of potassium DK (= the potassium contents in metal [wt%] / the potassium contents in silicate [wt%]); the pressure effect is a very weak but positive when the results by Hirao et al. (2006) are included, and the temperature effect is a positive but weaker than those reported previously. Oxygen fugacity has a positive effect, and oxygen in the metallic phase increases the K contents in the metallic phase, whereas silicon in the metallic phase has a negative effect. Based on these results, we estimated that the amount of the potassium in the core was less than 10 ppm and that the amount of 40K was about 1.0 ppb resulting generation of about 0.01 TW heat in the core. This amount of heat is relatively small compared to the heat flux at the core-mantle boundary (5 ~ 15 TW, Lay et al., 2008), therefore the radiogenic energy of potassium is not the major heat source of Earth's core.

  10. Sea Anemone Toxins Affecting Potassium Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diochot, Sylvie; Lazdunski, Michel

    The great diversity of K+ channels and their wide distribution in many tissues are associated with important functions in cardiac and neuronal excitability that are now better understood thanks to the discovery of animal toxins. During the past few decades, sea anemones have provided a variety of toxins acting on voltage-sensitive sodium and, more recently, potassium channels. Currently there are three major structural groups of sea anemone K+ channel (SAK) toxins that have been characterized. Radioligand binding and electrophysiological experiments revealed that each group contains peptides displaying selective activities for different subfamilies of K+ channels. Short (35-37 amino acids) peptides in the group I display pore blocking effects on Kv1 channels. Molecular interactions of SAK-I toxins, important for activity and binding on Kv1 channels, implicate a spot of three conserved amino acid residues (Ser, Lys, Tyr) surrounded by other less conserved residues. Long (58-59 amino acids) SAK-II peptides display both enzymatic and K+ channel inhibitory activities. Medium size (42-43 amino acid) SAK-III peptides are gating modifiers which interact either with cardiac HERG or Kv3 channels by altering their voltage-dependent properties. SAK-III toxins bind to the S3C region in the outer vestibule of Kv channels. Sea anemones have proven to be a rich source of pharmacological tools, and some of the SAK toxins are now useful drugs for the diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune diseases.

  11. Modulation of Potassium Channels Inhibits Bunyavirus Infection*

    PubMed Central

    Hover, Samantha; King, Barnabas; Hall, Bradley; Loundras, Eleni-Anna; Taqi, Hussah; Daly, Janet; Dallas, Mark; Peers, Chris; Schnettler, Esther; McKimmie, Clive; Kohl, Alain; Barr, John N.; Mankouri, Jamel

    2016-01-01

    Bunyaviruses are considered to be emerging pathogens facilitated by the segmented nature of their genome that allows reassortment between different species to generate novel viruses with altered pathogenicity. Bunyaviruses are transmitted via a diverse range of arthropod vectors, as well as rodents, and have established a global disease range with massive importance in healthcare, animal welfare, and economics. There are no vaccines or anti-viral therapies available to treat human bunyavirus infections and so development of new anti-viral strategies is urgently required. Bunyamwera virus (BUNV; genus Orthobunyavirus) is the model bunyavirus, sharing aspects of its molecular and cellular biology with all Bunyaviridae family members. Here, we show for the first time that BUNV activates and requires cellular potassium (K+) channels to infect cells. Time of addition assays using K+ channel modulating agents demonstrated that K+ channel function is critical to events shortly after virus entry but prior to viral RNA synthesis/replication. A similar K+ channel dependence was identified for other bunyaviruses namely Schmallenberg virus (Orthobunyavirus) as well as the more distantly related Hazara virus (Nairovirus). Using a rational pharmacological screening regimen, two-pore domain K+ channels (K2P) were identified as the K+ channel family mediating BUNV K+ channel dependence. As several K2P channel modulators are currently in clinical use, our work suggests they may represent a new and safe drug class for the treatment of potentially lethal bunyavirus disease. PMID:26677217

  12. Modulation of Potassium Channels Inhibits Bunyavirus Infection.

    PubMed

    Hover, Samantha; King, Barnabas; Hall, Bradley; Loundras, Eleni-Anna; Taqi, Hussah; Daly, Janet; Dallas, Mark; Peers, Chris; Schnettler, Esther; McKimmie, Clive; Kohl, Alain; Barr, John N; Mankouri, Jamel

    2016-02-12

    Bunyaviruses are considered to be emerging pathogens facilitated by the segmented nature of their genome that allows reassortment between different species to generate novel viruses with altered pathogenicity. Bunyaviruses are transmitted via a diverse range of arthropod vectors, as well as rodents, and have established a global disease range with massive importance in healthcare, animal welfare, and economics. There are no vaccines or anti-viral therapies available to treat human bunyavirus infections and so development of new anti-viral strategies is urgently required. Bunyamwera virus (BUNV; genus Orthobunyavirus) is the model bunyavirus, sharing aspects of its molecular and cellular biology with all Bunyaviridae family members. Here, we show for the first time that BUNV activates and requires cellular potassium (K(+)) channels to infect cells. Time of addition assays using K(+) channel modulating agents demonstrated that K(+) channel function is critical to events shortly after virus entry but prior to viral RNA synthesis/replication. A similar K(+) channel dependence was identified for other bunyaviruses namely Schmallenberg virus (Orthobunyavirus) as well as the more distantly related Hazara virus (Nairovirus). Using a rational pharmacological screening regimen, two-pore domain K(+) channels (K2P) were identified as the K(+) channel family mediating BUNV K(+) channel dependence. As several K2P channel modulators are currently in clinical use, our work suggests they may represent a new and safe drug class for the treatment of potentially lethal bunyavirus disease.

  13. A man with a worrying potassium deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Tabasum, A; Shute, C; Datta, D; George, L

    2014-01-01

    Summary Hypokalaemia may present as muscle cramps and Cardiac arrhythmias. This is a condition commonly encountered by endocrinologists and general physicians alike. Herein, we report the case of a 43-year-old gentleman admitted with hypokalaemia, who following subsequent investigations was found to have Gitelman's syndrome (GS). This rare, inherited, autosomal recessive renal tubular disorder is associated with genetic mutations in the thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride co-transporter and magnesium channels in the distal convoluted tubule. Patients with GS typically presents at an older age, and a spectrum of clinical presentations exists, from being asymptomatic to predominant muscular symptoms. Clinical suspicion should be raised in those with hypokalaemic metabolic alkalosis associated with hypomagnesaemia. Treatment of GS consists of long-term potassium and magnesium salt replacement. In general, the long-term prognosis in terms of preserved renal function and life expectancy is excellent. Herein, we discuss the biochemical imbalance in the aetiology of GS, and the case report highlights the need for further investigations in patients with recurrent hypokalaemic episodes. Learning points Recurrent hypokalaemia with no obvious cause warrants investigation for hereditary renal tubulopathies.GS is the most common inherited renal tubulopathy with a prevalence of 25 per million people.GS typically presents at an older age and clinical suspicion should be raised in those with hypokalaemic metabolic alkalosis associated with hypomagnesaemia.Confirmation of diagnosis is by molecular analysis for mutation in the SLC12A3 gene. PMID:24683481

  14. Incommensurate lattice modulations in Potassium Vanadate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakoumakos, Bryan; Banerjee, Arnab; Mark, Lumsden; Cao, Huibo; Kim, Jong-Woo; Hoffman, Christina; Wang, Xiaoping

    Potassium Vanadate (K2V3O8) is an S = 1/2 2D square lattice antiferromagnet that shows spin reorientation indicating a strong coupling between the magnetism and its dielectric properties with a promise of rich physics that promises multiferroicity. These tangible physical properties are strongly tied through a spin-lattice coupling to the underlying lattice and superlattice behavior. It has a superlattice (SL) onsetting below Tc = 115 K with an approximate [3 x 3 x 2] modulation. Here we present our recent experiments at TOPAZ beamline at SNS which for the first time proves conclusively that the lattice modulations are incommensurate, with an in-plane Q of 0.315. We will also show our attempts to refine the data using JANA which requires a redefinition of the lattice, as well as the temperature and Q dependence of the superlattice modulation measured using neutrons at HFIR and synchrotron x-rays at APS. Our results are not only relevant for the ongoing search of multifunctional behavior in K2V3O8 but also generally for the superlattice modulations observed in a large family of fresnoites. Work performed at ORNL and ANL is supported by U.S. Dept. of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences and Office of User Facilities Division.

  15. Potassium permanganate for mercury vapor environmental control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuivinen, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) was evaluated for application in removing mercury vapor from exhaust air systems. The KMnO4 may be used in water solution with a liquid spray scrubber system or as a solid adsorber bed material when impregnated onto a zeolite. Air samples contaminated with as much as 112 mg/cu m of mercury were scrubbed to 0.06mg/cum with the KMnO4-impregnated zeolite (molecular sieve material). The water spray solution of permanganate was also found to be as effective as the impregnated zeolite. The KMnO4-impregnated zeolite was applied as a solid adsorber material to (1) a hardware decontamination system, (2) a model incinerator, and (3) a high vacuum chamber for ion engine testing with mercury as the propellant. A liquid scrubber system was also applied in an incinerator system. Based on the results of these experiments, it is concluded that the use of KMnO4 can be an effective method for controlling noxious mercury vapor.

  16. Potassium Isotopic Compositions of NIST Potassium Standards and 40Ar/39Ar Mineral Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Leah; Tappa, Mike; Ellam, Rob; Mark, Darren; Higgins, John; Simon, Justin I.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the isotopic ratios of standards, spikes, and reference materials is fundamental to the accuracy of many geochronological methods. For example, the 238U/235U ratio relevant to U-Pb geochronology was recently re-determined [1] and shown to differ significantly from the previously accepted value employed during age determinations. These underlying values are fundamental to accurate age calculations in many isotopic systems, and uncertainty in these values can represent a significant (and often unrecognized) portion of the uncertainty budget for determined ages. The potassium isotopic composition of mineral standards, or neutron flux monitors, is a critical, but often overlooked component in the calculation of K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar ages. It is currently assumed that all terrestrial materials have abundances indistinguishable from that of NIST SRM 985 [2]; this is apparently a reasonable assumption at the 0.25per mille level (1s) [3]. The 40Ar/39Ar method further relies on the assumption that standards and samples (including primary and secondary standards) have indistinguishable 40K/39K values. We will present data establishing the potassium isotopic compositions of NIST isotopic K SRM 985, elemental K SRM 999b, and 40Ar/39Ar biotite mineral standard GA1550 (sample MD-2). Stable isotopic compositions (41K/39K) were measured by the peak shoulder method with high resolution MC-ICP-MS (Thermo Scientific NEPTUNE Plus), using the accepted value of NIST isotopic SRM 985 [2] for fractionation [4] corrections [5]. 40K abundances were measured by TIMS (Thermo Scientific TRITON), using 41K/39K values from ICP-MS measurements (or, for SRM 985, values from [2]) for internal fractionation corrections. Collectively these data represent an important step towards a metrologically traceable calibration of 40K concentrations in primary 40Ar/39Ar mineral standards and improve uncertainties by ca. an order of magnitude in the potassium isotopic compositions of standards.

  17. [Different proportion of potassium chloride and potassium sulphate application on cultivation of Panax notoginseng].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Dong-Mei; Ou, Xiao-Hong; Mi, Yan-Hua; Jing, Hang; Yang, Ye; Liu, Da-Hui

    2014-02-01

    In order to make sure whether Panax notoginseng is sensitive to chloridion and guide fertilization in planting of P. notoginseng, the effects of the different proportion of potassium chloride (KCl) and potassium sulfate (K2SO4) on the yield, quality of P. notoginseng were studied. The results showed that K fertilizer significantly improved the growth of P. notoginseng and increased the biomass per plant or per pot and the content of N, P, K and the content of saponin. In cases of conditions such as potassium, and the effects of K2SO4 on increasing the petiole length, leaf size, rhizome length, root length, and content and accumulation of Ginsenoside Rg1 were better than those of KCl. While compared with K2SO4, KCl was more conducive to augmenting height, root width, the biomass of shoot, rhizome, root and the content of Ginsenoside Rb1 and Rd. There was not remarkable difference in agronomic characters, biomass and the content of N, P, K among KCl, K2SO4 and the combination of KCl and K2SO4. However, the content of saponin of the treatment with combination of KCl and K2SO4 was significant higher than that of single KCl or K2SO4 treatments. K fertilizer significantly increased yield and the content of saponins. And P. notoginseng was not sensitive to chloridion. KCl increased the yield and the content of saponins of P. notoginseng as well as K2SO4, and the combination treatment was superior to single treatment. It is recommended that the KCl should be adopted in production, to reduce the cost of potash fertilizer.

  18. Study and modification of the reactivity of carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, P. L., Jr.; Ismail, I. M.; Mahajan, O. P.; Eapen, T. A.

    1980-01-01

    The reactivity to air of polyactylonitrile-based carbon fiber cloth was enhanced by the addition of metals to the cloth. The cloth was oxidized in 54 wt% nitric acid in order to increase the surface area of the cloth and to add carbonyl groups to the surface. Metal addition was then achieved by soaking the cloth in metal acetate solution to effect exchange between the metal carbon and hydrogen on the carbonyl groups. The addition of potassium, sodium, calcium and barium enhanced fiber cloth reactivity to air at 573 K. Extended studies using potassium addition showed that success in enhancing fiber cloth reactivity to air depends on: extent of cloth oxidation in nitric acid, time of exchange in potassium acetate solution and the thoroughness of removing metal acetate from the fiber pore structure following exchange. Cloth reactivity increases essentially linearly with increase in potassium addition via exchange.

  19. Equilibrium among potassium polytellurides in N,N-dimethylformamide solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAfee, Jason L.; Andreatta, Jeremy R.; Sevcik, Richard S.; Schultz, Linda D.

    2012-08-01

    Reactions between elemental potassium and tellurium in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) are monitored using UV-visible spectroscopy and compared with those in liquid ammonia solution. In liquid ammonia, the elements react together, via a step-wise sequence, to form polytellurides, each of which is characterized by a distinctive color, the highest being potassium tritelluride. However, when the elements are combined in DMF, these distinctive color changes are not observed - the solution develops an initial plum color, which gradually darkens to purple as the reaction progresses. UV-visible and Raman spectroscopic studies indicate that equilibrium exists among the mono-, di-, and tritelluride in DMF. This equilibrium is not seen in liquid ammonia solution due to the insolubility of potassium monotelluride in that solvent. Spectral data also indicate that potassium tetratelluride is formed in DMF solution.

  20. The use of chromic potassium sulphate in bone electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Liem, R S; Jansen, H W

    1984-10-01

    The ultrastructure of endochondral bone was studied using an aqueous solution of chromic potassium sulphate as the decalcifying agent. 0.5 mm thick sections of rat tibiae were fixed in buffered glutaraldehyde, immersed in an aqueous solution of 1% chromic potassium sulphate pH 3.4, dehydrated and embedded in Poly Bed 812 without exposure to osmium tetroxide. In unstained sections we observed clusters of crystal like structures throughout the osteoid and calcifying cartilage matrix as well as solitary needle shaped structures in association with collagen fibrils. Stained sections revealed nuclei, endoplasmic reticulum, membrane limited dense granules, mitochondrial particles and other cell components typical of bone cells. It appeared that the chromic potassium sulphate method preserves the relationship between hard and soft tissues well, gives fine cytological detail and produces images of intracellular and extracellular deposits identical to untreated crystallites. It is concluded that the chromic potassium sulphate method is indicated for ultrastructural studies of bone.

  1. Intracellular mediators of potassium-induced aldosterone secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Ganguly, A.; Chiou, S.; Davis, J.S. )

    1990-01-01

    We have investigated the intracellular messengers of potassium in eliciting aldosterone secretion in calf adrenal glomerulosa cells since there were unresolved issues relating to the role of phosphoinositides, cAMP and protein kinases. We observed no evidence of hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP{sub 2}) in {sup 3}H-inositol labeled alf adrenal cells or increase of cAMP in response to potassium. Addition of calcium channel blocker, nitrendipine after stimulating adrenal glomerulosa cells with potassium, markedly inhibited aldosterone secretion. A calmodulin inhibitor (W-7) produced greater reduction of aldosterone secretion than an inhibitor of protein kinase C (H-7). These results suggest that a rise in cytosolic free calcium concentration through voltage-dependent calcium channel and calmodulin are the critical determinants of aldosterone secretion stimulated by potassium.

  2. 75 FR 76016 - Determination That AUGMENTIN `125' (Amoxicillin; Clavulanate Potassium) Chewable Tablet and Six...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... Potassium) Chewable Tablet and Six Other AUGMENTIN (Amoxicillin; Clavulanate Potassium) Drug Products Were... (amoxicillin; clavulanate potassium) drug products listed in this notice were not withdrawn from sale for...; clavulanate potassium) Powder for Oral Suspension, 200 mg/5 mL; EQ 28.5 mg base/5 mL; AUGMENTIN...

  3. 21 CFR 201.306 - Potassium salt preparations intended for oral ingestion by man.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium salt preparations intended for oral... Drug Products § 201.306 Potassium salt preparations intended for oral ingestion by man. (a) The Food... coated tablets containing potassium chloride or other potassium salts which supply 100 milligrams or...

  4. 21 CFR 201.306 - Potassium salt preparations intended for oral ingestion by man.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium salt preparations intended for oral... Drug Products § 201.306 Potassium salt preparations intended for oral ingestion by man. (a) The Food... coated tablets containing potassium chloride or other potassium salts which supply 100 milligrams or...

  5. Growth and Characterization of Glycine Potassium Nitrate NLO crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, S.; Bubbly, S. G.; Gudennavar, S. B.

    2011-07-01

    Single crystals of glycine potassium nitrate were grown using slow evaporation technique. The solutions were prepared mixing glycine with potassium nitrate in different ratios stirring continuously for an hour to get a saturated solution. It was then kept at room temperature for controlled evaporation. Optically clear and well shaped crystals were obtained and these were characterized by (FTIR) studies, EDAX and X-ray powder diffraction.

  6. Renal outcomes and dietary potassium: the overshadowed electrolyte?

    PubMed

    Jablonski, Kristen L; Kendrick, Jessica B

    2014-12-01

    Smyth et al. examined the association between urinary sodium and potassium excretion and adverse renal outcomes in adults at high cardiovascular risk. They found no association between urinary sodium excretion and adverse renal outcomes, but a reduced odds of adverse renal outcomes with higher urinary potassium excretion. It will be important to ascertain whether this finding holds true in individuals free from vascular disease and diabetes, as well as in patients with chronic kidney disease.

  7. Performance of MHD insulating materials in a potassium environment

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Park, J.H.; Rink, D.L.; Thomas, C.A.

    1991-12-01

    The objectives of this study are to evaluate the compatibility of the MHD insulating materials boron nitride and silicon nitride in a potassium environment at temperatures of 1000 and 1400{degrees}F (538 and 760{degrees}C, respectively) and to measure the electrical conductivities of the specimens before and after exposure to potassium. Based on the test results, an assessment is to be made of the suitability of these materials for application as insulator materials in an MHD channel.

  8. Potassium channel conductance as a control mechanism in hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Buhl, A E; Conrad, S J; Waldon, D J; Brunden, M N

    1993-07-01

    The opening of intracellular potassium channels is a common mechanism of action for a set of anti-hypertensive drugs that includes the hair-growth-inducing agent minoxidil. Recent work suggests potassium channel openers (PCOs) also influence hair growth. Correlative studies demonstrate that a series of PCOs including minoxidil, pinacidil, P-1075, an active pinacidil analog, RP-49,356, cromakalim, and nicorandil maintain hair growth in cultured vibrissa follicles. Studies using balding stumptail macaques verify that minoxidil, P-1075, and cromakalim but not RP-49,356 stimulate hair growth. The definition of potassium channels and documentation of drug effects on these channels is classically done using electrophysiologic techniques. Such studies require the identification and isolation of target cells. Both these are among the unsolved problems in the area of hair biology. Estimating K+ flux using 86Rb+ as a K+ tracer is an accepted method of assessing potassium channel conductance in other organ systems. Both pinacidil and RP-49,356 induce measurable Rb+ flux in isolated vibrissa follicles and a hair epithelial cell line whereas neither minoxidil nor minoxidil sulfate had measurable effects. Potassium channels have been studied successfully in other organ systems using specific pharmacologic blockers for the various channel subtypes. Blockers including glyburide, tetraethylammonium, and procaine failed to inhibit minoxidil stimulation of cultured follicles. The current explosion of knowledge on potassium channel biology, cloning of channels, and continued progress in hair biology promise to clarify the role of K+ ions in the control of hair follicles.

  9. The impact of sodium and potassium on hypertension risk.

    PubMed

    Adrogué, Horacio J; Madias, Nicolaos E

    2014-05-01

    The pathogenic role of sodium surfeit in primary hypertension is widely recognized but that of potassium deficiency usually has been ignored or at best assigned subsidiary status. Weighing the available evidence, we recently proposed that the chief environmental factor in the pathogenesis of primary hypertension and the associated cardiovascular risk is the interaction of the sodium surfeit and potassium deficiency in the body. Here, we present the major evidence highlighting the relationship between high-sodium intake and hypertension. We then examine the blood pressure-lowering effects of potassium in conjunction with the pernicious impact of potassium deficiency on hypertension and cardiovascular risk. We conclude with summarizing recent human trials that have probed the joint effects of sodium and potassium intake on hypertension and its cardiovascular sequelae. The latter studies lend considerable fresh support to the thesis that the interaction of the sodium surfeit and potassium deficiency in the body, rather than either disturbance by itself, is the critical environmental factor in the pathogenesis of hypertension.

  10. Parathyroid hormone impairs extrarenal potassium tolerance in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Sugarman, A.; Kahn, T. City Univ. of New York, NY )

    1988-03-01

    The effect of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on the extrarenal disposition of an acute potassium load was examined in acutely nephrectomized rats infused with KCl alone or in combination with PTH, with serial monitoring of plasma potassium every 10 min. The rise in plasma potassium concentration ({Delta}PK) in the PTH group was higher than control. PTH was then administered along with KCl to two groups of nephrectomized and acutely thyroparathyroidectomized (TPTX) rats in doses of 1 and 0.25 U {center dot} kg{sup {minus}1} {center dot} min{sup {minus}1} for 90 min. {Delta}PK with PTH in both groups was higher than TPTX control. The two higher doses of PTH resulted in a decrease in mean arterial pressure from their respective controls. A similar reduction in arterial pressure in three groups of nephrectomized rats by administration of hydralazine or nitroprusside or by acute blood loss did not change {Delta}PK subsequent to potassium infusion from that in control rats. Furthermore, the lowest dose of PTH did not lower arterial pressure from its respective control. Therefore, hypotension is not a cause for the PTH-induced potassium intolerance. Serum levels of insulin, aldosterone, catecholamines, calcium, plasma HCO{sub 3} concentration, and pH were not different in PTH-infused vs. respective control rats. These data suggest that PTH impairs extrarenal potassium disposal in the rat. The effect of PTH may relate to enhanced calcium entry into cells.

  11. Potassium Iodide ("KI"): Instructions to Make Potassium Iodide Solution for Use During a Nuclear Emergency (Liquid Form)

    MedlinePlus

    ... make Potassium Iodide Solution for Use During a Nuclear Emergency (Liquid Form) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Preparation and Dosing Instructions for Use During a Nuclear Emergency To Make KI Solution (Liquid Form), using ...

  12. Impact of potassium bromate and potassium iodate in a pound cake system.

    PubMed

    Wilderjans, Edith; Lagrain, Bert; Brijs, Kristof; Delcour, Jan A

    2010-05-26

    This study investigates the impact of the oxidants potassium bromate and potassium iodate (8, 16, 32, 64, and 128 micromol/g dry matter of egg white protein) on pound cake making. The impact of the oxidants on egg white characteristics was studied in a model system. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that the oxidants caused egg white to denature later. During heating in a rapid visco analyzer, the oxidants caused the free sulfhydryl (SH) group levels to decrease more intensively and over a smaller temperature range. The oxidants made the proteins more resistant to decreases in protein extractability in sodium dodecyl sulfate containing buffer during cake recipe mixing and less resistant to such decreases during cake baking. We assume that, during baking, the degree to which SH/disulfide exchange and SH oxidation can occur depends on the properties of the protein at the onset of the process. In our view, the prevention of extractability loss during mixing increased the availability of SH groups and caused more such loss during baking. During cooling, all cakes baked with added oxidants showed less collapse. On the basis of the presented data, we put forward that only those protein reactions that occur during baking contribute to the formation of a network that supports final cake structure and prevents collapse.

  13. Effects of allocryptopine on outward potassium current and slow delayed rectifier potassium current in rabbit myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yi-Cheng; Zhang, Yu; Tian, Liu-Yang; Li, Nan; Chen, Xi; Cai, Zhong-Qi; Zhu, Chao; Li, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Objective Allocryptopine (ALL) is an effective alkaloid of Corydalis decumbens (Thunb.) Pers. Papaveraceae and has proved to be anti-arrhythmic. The purpose of our study is to investigate the effects of ALL on transmural repolarizing ionic ingredients of outward potassium current (Ito) and slow delayed rectifier potassium current (IKs). Methods The monophasic action potential (MAP) technique was used to record the MAP duration of the epicardium (Epi), myocardium (M) and endocardium (Endo) of the rabbit heart and the whole cell patch clamp was used to record Ito and IKs in cardiomyocytes of Epi, M and Endo layers that were isolated from rabbit ventricles. Results The effects of ALL on MAP of Epi, M and Endo layers were disequilibrium. ALL could effectively reduce the transmural dispersion of repolarization (TDR) in rabbit transmural ventricular wall. ALL decreased the current densities of Ito and IKs in a voltage and concentration dependent way and narrowed the repolarizing differences among three layers. The analysis of gating kinetics showed ALL accelerated the channel activation of Ito in M layers and partly inhibit the channel openings of Ito in Epi, M and Endo cells. On the other hand, ALL mainly slowed channel deactivation of IKs channel in Epi and Endo layers without affecting its activation. Conclusions Our study gives partially explanation about the mechanisms of transmural inhibition of Ito and IKs channels by ALL in rabbit myocardium. These findings provide novel perspective regarding the anti-arrhythmogenesis application of ALL in clinical settings. PMID:27403141

  14. Gastrointestinal potassium binding-more than just lowering serum [K(+)]: patiromer, potassium balance, and the renin angiotensin aldosterone axis.

    PubMed

    Emmett, Michael; Mehta, Ankit

    2016-09-01

    Hyperkalemia limits the use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis (RAAS) blockers in patients with renal insufficiency. This can be managed by efforts to increase kaliuresis and by gastrointestinal potassium binding with sodium polystyrene sulfonate, a relatively ineffective agent. Now with the availability of patiromer, RAAS blockers can be used more liberally. In addition, potassium reduction decreases aldosterone, which may be beneficial. Adverse nonepithelial aldosterone effects such as endothelial dysfunction and cardiac fibrosis may be ameliorated. PMID:27521112

  15. Potassium in agriculture--status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Zörb, Christian; Senbayram, Mehmet; Peiter, Edgar

    2014-05-15

    In this review we summarize factors determining the plant availability of soil potassium (K), the role of K in crop yield formation and product quality, and the dependence of crop stress resistance on K nutrition. Average soil reserves of K are generally large, but most of it is not plant-available. Therefore, crops need to be supplied with soluble K fertilizers, the demand of which is expected to increase significantly, particularly in developing regions of the world. Recent investigations have shown that organic exudates of some bacteria and plant roots play a key role in releasing otherwise unavailable K from K-bearing minerals. Thus, breeding for genotypes that have improved mechanisms to gain access to this fixed K will contribute toward more sustainable agriculture, particularly in cropping systems that do not have access to fertilizer K. In K-deficient crops, the supply of sink organs with photosynthates is impaired, and sugars accumulate in source leaves. This not only affects yield formation, but also quality parameters, for example in wheat, potato and grape. As K has beneficial effects on human health, its concentration in the harvest product is a quality parameter in itself. Owing to its fundamental roles in turgor generation, primary metabolism, and long-distance transport, K plays a prominent role in crop resistance to drought, salinity, high light, or cold as well as resistance to pests and pathogens. Despite the abundance of vital roles of K in crop production, an improvement of K uptake and use efficiency has not been a major focus of conventional or transgenic breeding in the past. In addition, current soil analysis methods for K are insufficient for some common soils, posing the risk of imbalanced fertilization. A stronger prioritization of these areas of research is needed to counter declines in soil fertility and to improve food security. PMID:24140002

  16. Formation and dehydration enthalpy of potassium hexaniobate

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sahu, Sulata K.; Boatner, Lynn A.; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2016-09-15

    The formation energetics of hydrous and dehydrated potassium hexaniobates are investigated using high-temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry. The enthalpies of formation of K4Nb6O17 and K4Nb6O17•3H2O from oxides are (–864.42 ± 10.63) and (–899.32 ± 11.48) kJ/mol, respectively. The formation enthalpy of K4Nb6O17 from elements is (–7289.64 ± 12.50) kJ/mol, and of K4Nb6O17•3H2O is (–8181.94 ± 13.24) kJ/mol. The enthalpy of dehydration (ΔHdehy) for the reaction K4Nb6O173H2O (xl, 25 °C) = K4Nb6O17 (xl, 25 °C) + 3H2O (l, 25 °C) is endothermic and is 34.60 ± 7.56 kJ/mol. The ΔHdehy per mole of water, 11.53 ± 2.52 kJ/mol, indicates the watermore » molecules in K4Nb6O17•3H2O are not just physically adsorbed, but loosely bonded in the K4Nb6O17 phase, presumably in specific interlayer sites. As a result, the loss of this water near 100 °C on heating is consistent with the weak bonding of water.« less

  17. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials on the effects of potassium supplements on serum potassium and creatinine

    PubMed Central

    Cappuccio, Francesco P; Buchanan, Laura A; Ji, Chen; Siani, Alfonso; Miller, Michelle A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives High potassium intake could prevent stroke, but supplementation is considered hazardous. We assessed the effect of oral potassium supplementation on serum or plasma potassium levels and renal function. Setting We updated a systematic review of the effects of potassium supplementation in randomised clinical trials carried out worldwide, published in 2013, extending it to July 2015. We followed the PRISMA guidelines. Participants Any individual taking part in a potassium supplementation randomised clinical trial. Studies included met the following criteria: randomised clinical trials, potassium supplement given and circulating potassium levels reported. Intervention Oral potassium supplementation. Primary outcome measures Serum or plasma potassium and serum or plasma creatinine. Results A total of 20 trials (21 independent groups) were included (1216 participants from 12 different countries). All but 2 were controlled (placebo n=16, control n=2). Of these trials, 15 were crossover, 4 had a parallel group and 1 was sequential. The duration of supplementation varied from 2 to 24 weeks and the amount of potassium given from 22 to 140 mmol/day. In the pooled analysis, potassium supplementation caused a small but significant increase in circulating potassium levels (weighted mean difference (WMD) 0.14 mmol/L, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.19, p<1×10−5), not associated with dose or duration of treatment. The average increase in urinary potassium excretion was 45.75 mmol/24 hours, 95% CI 38.81 to 53.69, p<1×10−5. Potassium supplementation did not cause any change in circulating creatinine levels (WMD 0.30 µmol/L, 95% CI −1.19 to 1.78, p=0.70). Conclusions In short-term studies of relatively healthy persons, a moderate oral potassium supplement resulted in a small increase in circulating potassium levels and no change in renal function. PMID:27566636

  18. 40 CFR 721.8100 - Potassium N,N-bis (hydroxy-ethyl) cocoamine oxide phosphate, and potassium N,N-bis (hy-droxy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Potassium N,N-bis (hydroxy-ethyl) cocoamine oxide phosphate, and potassium N,N-bis (hy-droxy-ethyl) tal-lo-wa-mine oxide phos-phate. 721.8100... Substances § 721.8100 Potassium N,N-bis (hydroxy-ethyl) cocoamine oxide phosphate, and potassium N,N-bis...

  19. 40 CFR 721.8100 - Potassium N,N-bis (hydroxy-ethyl) cocoamine oxide phosphate, and potassium N,N-bis (hy-droxy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Potassium N,N-bis (hydroxy-ethyl) cocoamine oxide phosphate, and potassium N,N-bis (hy-droxy-ethyl) tal-lo-wa-mine oxide phos-phate. 721.8100... Substances § 721.8100 Potassium N,N-bis (hydroxy-ethyl) cocoamine oxide phosphate, and potassium N,N-bis...

  20. 40 CFR 721.8100 - Potassium N,N-bis (hydroxy-ethyl) cocoamine oxide phosphate, and potassium N,N-bis (hy-droxy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Potassium N,N-bis (hydroxy-ethyl) cocoamine oxide phosphate, and potassium N,N-bis (hy-droxy-ethyl) tal-lo-wa-mine oxide phos-phate. 721.8100... Substances § 721.8100 Potassium N,N-bis (hydroxy-ethyl) cocoamine oxide phosphate, and potassium N,N-bis...

  1. 40 CFR 721.8100 - Potassium N,N-bis (hydroxy-ethyl) cocoamine oxide phosphate, and potassium N,N-bis (hy-droxy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Potassium N,N-bis (hydroxy-ethyl) cocoamine oxide phosphate, and potassium N,N-bis (hy-droxy-ethyl) tal-lo-wa-mine oxide phos-phate. 721.8100... Substances § 721.8100 Potassium N,N-bis (hydroxy-ethyl) cocoamine oxide phosphate, and potassium N,N-bis...

  2. 40 CFR 721.8100 - Potassium N,N-bis (hydroxy-ethyl) cocoamine oxide phosphate, and potassium N,N-bis (hy-droxy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Potassium N,N-bis (hydroxy-ethyl) cocoamine oxide phosphate, and potassium N,N-bis (hy-droxy-ethyl) tal-lo-wa-mine oxide phos-phate. 721.8100... Substances § 721.8100 Potassium N,N-bis (hydroxy-ethyl) cocoamine oxide phosphate, and potassium N,N-bis...

  3. Flows of elements, ions and abscisic acid in Ricinus communis and site of nitrate reduction under potassium limitation.

    PubMed

    Peuke, Andreas D; Jeschke, W Dieter; Hartung, Wolfram

    2002-02-01

    In a pot experiment Ricinus communis plants were cultivated in quartz sand and supplied daily with a nutrient solution which contained 4 mol m(-3) nitrate as the nitrogen source and either full strength potassium (1.3 mol m(-3), control) or 8% potassium (0.1 mol m(-3), K(+)-limitation). Although the final fresh weight of the whole plant was not affected by K(+)-limitation, the root-shoot ratio was increased due to a relatively increased root growth and inhibited development of younger shoot parts. Owing to K(+)-limitation, photosynthesis was slightly decreased, while dark respiration of the shoot markedly decreased and root respiration was nearly doubled. The transport of carbon in the phloem, and to some extent in the xylem, was greater and the root was favoured in the partitioning of carbon. This was also true for nitrogen and potassium which were both taken up at lower rates, particularly potassium. In these two cases a high remobilization and recycling from the old part of the shoot was observed. By contrast, uptake of sodium was 2.4-fold higher under K(+)-limitation and this resulted in increased flows in the plants, which was discussed generally as a means for charge balance (in combination with a slight increase in uptake of magnesium and calcium). Nitrate reduction took place in the same portion in the root and shoot. This was a shift to the root compared to the control and points to an inhibition of xylem transport caused by limitation of K(+) as an easily permeating countercation. Low K(+) supply also resulted in an increased biosynthesis of ABA in the roots (265%). This caused a slightly increased deposition of ABA in the roots (193%) and a 4.6-fold higher root-to-shoot and a doubled shoot-to-root ABA signal in the xylem or phloem, respectively. The high degradation of ABA in the shoots prevented ABA accumulation there. PMID:11807128

  4. Permeation of protons, potassium ions, and small polar molecules through phospholipid bilayers as a function of membrane thickness.

    PubMed Central

    Paula, S; Volkov, A G; Van Hoek, A N; Haines, T H; Deamer, D W

    1996-01-01

    Two mechanisms have been proposed to account for solute permeation of lipid bilayers. Partitioning into the hydrophobic phase of the bilayer, followed by diffusion, is accepted by many for the permeation of water and other small neutral solutes, but transient pores have also been proposed to account for both water and ionic solute permeation. These two mechanisms make distinctively different predictions about the permeability coefficient as a function of bilayer thickness. Whereas the solubility-diffusion mechanism predicts only a modest variation related to bilayer thickness, the pore model predicts an exponential relationship. To test these models, we measured the permeability of phospholipid bilayers to protons, potassium ions, water, urea, and glycerol. Bilayers were prepared as liposomes, and thickness was varied systematically by using unsaturated lipids with chain lengths ranging from 14 to 24 carbon atoms. The permeability coefficient of water and neutral polar solutes displayed a modest dependence on bilayer thickness, with an approximately linear fivefold decrease as the carbon number varied from 14 to 24 atoms. In contrast, the permeability to protons and potassium ions decreased sharply by two orders of magnitude between 14 and 18 carbon atoms, and leveled off, when the chain length was further extended to 24 carbon atoms. The results for water and the neutral permeating solutes are best explained by the solubility-diffusion mechanism. The results for protons and potassium ions in shorter-chain lipids are consistent with the transient pore model, but better fit the theoretical line predicted by the solubility-diffusion model at longer chain lengths. PMID:8770210

  5. Permeation of protons, potassium ions, and small polar molecules through phospholipid bilayers as a function of membrane thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paula, S.; Volkov, A. G.; Van Hoek, A. N.; Haines, T. H.; Deamer, D. W.

    1996-01-01

    Two mechanisms have been proposed to account for solute permeation of lipid bilayers. Partitioning into the hydrophobic phase of the bilayer, followed by diffusion, is accepted by many for the permeation of water and other small neutral solutes, but transient pores have also been proposed to account for both water and ionic solute permeation. These two mechanisms make distinctively different predictions about the permeability coefficient as a function of bilayer thickness. Whereas the solubility-diffusion mechanism predicts only a modest variation related to bilayer thickness, the pore model predicts an exponential relationship. To test these models, we measured the permeability of phospholipid bilayers to protons, potassium ions, water, urea, and glycerol. Bilayers were prepared as liposomes, and thickness was varied systematically by using unsaturated lipids with chain lengths ranging from 14 to 24 carbon atoms. The permeability coefficient of water and neutral polar solutes displayed a modest dependence on bilayer thickness, with an approximately linear fivefold decrease as the carbon number varied from 14 to 24 atoms. In contrast, the permeability to protons and potassium ions decreased sharply by two orders of magnitude between 14 and 18 carbon atoms, and leveled off, when the chain length was further extended to 24 carbon atoms. The results for water and the neutral permeating solutes are best explained by the solubility-diffusion mechanism. The results for protons and potassium ions in shorter-chain lipids are consistent with the transient pore model, but better fit the theoretical line predicted by the solubility-diffusion model at longer chain lengths.

  6. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and CKD Progression.

    PubMed

    He, Jiang; Mills, Katherine T; Appel, Lawrence J; Yang, Wei; Chen, Jing; Lee, Belinda T; Rosas, Sylvia E; Porter, Anna; Makos, Gail; Weir, Matthew R; Hamm, L Lee; Kusek, John W

    2016-04-01

    CKD is a major risk factor for ESRD, cardiovascular disease, and premature death. Whether dietary sodium and potassium intake affect CKD progression remains unclear. We prospectively studied the association of urinary sodium and potassium excretion with CKD progression and all-cause mortality among 3939 patients with CKD in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study. Urinary sodium and potassium excretion were measured using three 24-hour urine specimens, and CKD progression was defined as incident ESRD or halving of eGFR. During follow-up, 939 CKD progression events and 540 deaths occurred. Compared with the lowest quartile of urinary sodium excretion (<116.8 mmol/24 h), hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the highest quartile of urinary sodium excretion (≥194.6 mmol/24 h) were 1.54 (1.23 to 1.92) for CKD progression, 1.45 (1.08 to 1.95) for all-cause mortality, and 1.43 (1.18 to 1.73) for the composite outcome of CKD progression and all-cause mortality after adjusting for multiple covariates, including baseline eGFR. Additionally, compared with the lowest quartile of urinary potassium excretion (<39.4 mmol/24 h), hazard ratios for the highest quartile of urinary potassium excretion (≥67.1 mmol/24 h) were 1.59 (1.25 to 2.03) for CKD progression, 0.98 (0.71 to 1.35) for all-cause mortality, and 1.42 (1.15 to 1.74) for the composite outcome. These data indicate that high urinary sodium and potassium excretion are associated with increased risk of CKD progression. Clinical trials are warranted to test the effect of sodium and potassium reduction on CKD progression.

  7. Potassium isotopic compositions of NIST potassium standards and 40Ar/39Ar mineral standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, L. E.; Tappa, M.; Ellam, R. M.; Mark, D. F.; Lloyd, N. S.; Higgins, J. A.; Simon, J. I.

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge of the isotopic ratios of standards, spikes, and reference materials is fundamental to the accuracy of many geochronological methods. For example, the 238U/235U ratio relevant to U-Pb geochronology was recently re-determined [1] and shown to differ significantly from the previously accepted value employed during age determinations. These underlying values are fundamental to accurate age calculations in many isotopic systems, and uncertainty in these values can represent a significant (and often unrecognized) portion of the uncertainty budget for determined ages. The potassium isotopic composition of mineral standards, or neutron flux monitors, is a critical, but often overlooked component in the calculation of K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar ages. It is currently assumed that all terrestrial materials have abundances indistinguishable from that of NIST SRM 985 [2]; this is apparently a reasonable assumption at the 0.25‰ level (1σ) [3]. The 40Ar/39Ar method further relies on the assumption that standards and samples (including primary and secondary standards) have indistinguishable 40K/39K values. We will present data establishing the potassium isotopic compositions of NIST isotopic K SRM 985, elemental K SRM 999b, and 40Ar/39Ar biotite mineral standard GA1550 (sample MD-2). Stable isotopic compositions (41K/39K) were measured by the peak shoulder method with high resolution MC-ICP-MS (Thermo Scientific NEPTUNE Plus), using the accepted value of NIST isotopic SRM 985 [2] for fractionation [4] corrections [5]. 40K abundances were measured by TIMS (Thermo Scientific TRITON), using 41K/39K values from ICP-MS measurements (or, for SRM 985, values from [2]) for internal fractionation corrections. Collectively these data represent an important step towards a metrologically traceable calibration of 40K concentrations in primary 40Ar/39Ar mineral standards and improve uncertainties by ca. an order of magnitude in the potassium isotopic compositions of standards. [1] Hiess

  8. Investigation of Potassium Feldspar Reactivity in Wet Supercritical CO2 by In Situ Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, C.; Widener, C.; Schaef, T.; Loring, J.; McGrail, B. P.

    2014-12-01

    Capture and subsequent storage of CO2 in deep geologic reservoirs is progressively being considered as a viable approach to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. In the long term, injected CO2 may become permanently entrapped as silicate minerals react with CO2 enriched fluids to form stable carbonate minerals. Potassium feldspars are highly abundant in the earth's crust and are present in the caprocks and storage formations of many target reservoirs. While the dissolution kinetics and carbonation reactions of feldspars have been well studied in the aqueous phase, comparatively little work has focused on K-feldspar reactivity in the CO2-rich fluid. In this study, we used in situ infrared spectroscopy to investigate the carbonation reactions of natural microcline samples. Experiments were carried out at 50 °C and 91 bar by circulating dry or wet supercritical CO2 (scCO2) past a thin film of powdered sample. Water concentrations ranged from 0% to 125% relative to saturation, and transmission-mode absorbance spectra were recorded as a function of time for 48 hours. No discernible reaction was detected when the samples were exposed to anhydrous scCO2. However, in fully water-saturated scCO2, a thin film of liquid-like water was observed on the samples' surfaces, and up to 0.6% of the microcline was converted to a carbonate phase. Potassium carbonate is the most likely reaction product, but minor amounts of sodium carbonate and siderite may also have formed from minor sample impurities. The extent of reaction appears to be related to the thickness of the water film and is likely a consequence of the film's ability to solvate and transport ions in the vicinity of the mineral surface. Other features observed in the spectra correspond to microcline dissolution and precipitation of amorphous silica. Implications about the role of water in these reactions and the relative effectiveness of alkali feldspars for mineral trapping of CO2 will be discussed.

  9. Permeation in potassium channels: implications for channel structure.

    PubMed

    Yellen, G

    1987-01-01

    The SR K+ channel is a single-ion channel with a tunnel that is not very selective, while the DR and CaK channels are both more selective, multi-ion channels. The permeation mechanisms of the three channels are probably most systematically distinguished by the length of their tunnels; the SR has the shortest and the DR the longest. Although different in their mechanisms of activation, the DR and CaK channels have very similar permeation characteristics, down to the details of selectivity and blockade. The longer tunnel and reduced conductance (perhaps a result of the extra tunnel length) of the DR K+ channel are the main differences. The selectivity of the rate-limiting barriers and the binding sites within the channels, however, are strikingly similar. A successful potassium channel must satisfy two criteria: It must let potassium ions through and not much else, and it must let many potassium ions through. To be selective the channel must have a narrow selectivity filter, so that an ion must shed some of its waters of hydration to pass through. Sodium ions are excluded because they are more reluctant to lose their water, and they are not adequately compensated for this loss by interaction with the selectivity filter. To carry a large current the narrow region must be short, with wide antechambers to reduce the diffusional access resistance (48). Energetically, the channel must strike a balance. There must be enough binding energy to compensate the ions for their lost hydration energy, so that the energy barrier to permeation is small. If the channel binds the ion too tightly, however, the ion will not be able to exit, and the current will be small. Some of the shared properties of different potassium channels are probably consequences of these requirements; others may be incidental to function, suggesting a common origin. Barium ions have almost exactly the same radius as potassium ions but twice the charge, so it is perhaps not surprising that barium can block

  10. Potassium acceptor doping of ZnO crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Parmar, Narendra S. Lynn, K. G.; Corolewski, Caleb D.; McCluskey, Matthew D.

    2015-05-15

    ZnO bulk single crystals were doped with potassium by diffusion at 950°C. Positron annihilation spectroscopy confirms the filling of zinc vacancies and a different trapping center for positrons. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements show the diffusion of potassium up to 10 μm with concentration ∼1 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3}. IR measurements show a local vibrational mode (LVM) at 3226 cm{sup −1}, at a temperature of 9 K, in a potassium doped sample that was subsequently hydrogenated. The LVM is attributed to an O–H bond-stretching mode adjacent to a potassium acceptor. When deuterium substitutes for hydrogen, a peak is observed at 2378 cm{sup −1}. The O-H peak is much broader than the O-D peak, perhaps due to an unusually low vibrational lifetime. The isotopic frequency ratio is similar to values found in other hydrogen complexes. Potassium doping increases the resistivity up to 3 orders of magnitude at room temperature. The doped sample has a donor level at 0.30 eV.

  11. Solid contact potassium selective electrodes for biomedical applications - a review.

    PubMed

    van de Velde, L; d'Angremont, E; Olthuis, W

    2016-11-01

    Ion-selective electrodes (ISE) are used in several biomedical applications, including laboratory sensing of potassium concentration in blood and urine samples. For on-site determination of potassium concentration and usage in other applications such as determination of extracellular potassium concentration, miniaturization of the sensors is required. To that extent, solid contacts have proven to be an adequate substitute of liquid contacts as inner layer for ion-to-electron transduction, allowing industrial production of miniaturized ISEs. This review paper covers relevant developments of solid-state ISEs in the past decade, critically compares current potassium ISEs and discusses future prospects for biomedical applications. Performances of three main types of solid contact materials in potassium sensing are compared, namely polypyrrole, polythiophenes and conducting nanomaterials. With these new materials, numerous improvements in stability, selectivity and time response of solid-state ISEs have been made. Current developments are new operational methods of sensing, flexible miniaturized sensors and multi-electrode designs able to measure electrolyte concentrations in one-drop blood samples or transmembrane ionic flows. PMID:27591587

  12. A novel potassium channel in skeletal muscle mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Skalska, Jolanta; Piwońska, Marta; Wyroba, Elzbieta; Surmacz, Liliana; Wieczorek, Rafal; Koszela-Piotrowska, Izabela; Zielińska, Joanna; Bednarczyk, Piotr; Dołowy, Krzysztof; Wilczynski, Grzegorz M; Szewczyk, Adam; Kunz, Wolfram S

    2008-01-01

    In this work we provide evidence for the potential presence of a potassium channel in skeletal muscle mitochondria. In isolated rat skeletal muscle mitochondria, Ca(2+) was able to depolarize the mitochondrial inner membrane and stimulate respiration in a strictly potassium-dependent manner. These potassium-specific effects of Ca(2+) were completely abolished by 200 nM charybdotoxin or 50 nM iberiotoxin, which are well-known inhibitors of large conductance, calcium-activated potassium channels (BK(Ca) channel). Furthermore, NS1619, a BK(Ca)-channel opener, mimicked the potassium-specific effects of calcium on respiration and mitochondrial membrane potential. In agreement with these functional data, light and electron microscopy, planar lipid bilayer reconstruction and immunological studies identified the BK(Ca) channel to be preferentially located in the inner mitochondrial membrane of rat skeletal muscle fibers. We propose that activation of mitochondrial K(+) transport by opening of the BK(Ca) channel may be important for myoprotection since the channel opener NS1619 protected the myoblast cell line C2C12 against oxidative injury.

  13. Sodium and Potassium Fluxes in Isolated Barnacle Muscle Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Brinley, F. J.

    1968-01-01

    Sodium and potassium influxes and outfluxes have been studied in single isolated muscle fibers from the giant barnacle both by microinjection and by external loading. The sodium influxes and outfluxes were 49 and 39 pmoles /cm2-sec (temperature = 15–16°C) respectively. The potassium influxes and outfluxes were 28 and 60 pmoles/cm2-sec (temperature = 13–16°C) respectively. Replacement of external sodium by lithium reduced sodium outflux by 67% but had no effect on potassium outflux. Removal of external potassum reduced the sodium outflux by 51% but had no effect on potassium outflux. External strophanthidin (10–30 µM) reduced sodium outflux by 80–90% and increased potassium outflux by 40% in normal fibers. The time constant for sodium exchange increased linearly with internal sodium concentration, as did the fraction of sodium outflux insensitive to a maximally inhibitory concentration of external strophanthidin in the range of 10 tO 80 mM internal sodium. The strophanthidin-sensitive component of sodium outflux could be related to the internal sodium concentration by the following empirical formula: See PDF for Equation PMID:5651768

  14. Degradation of ascorbic acid and potassium sorbate by different Lactobacillus species isolated from packed green olives.

    PubMed

    Montaño, Alfredo; Sánchez, Antonio Higinio; Casado, Francisco Javier; Beato, Víctor Manuel; de Castro, Antonio

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this research was to ascertain the lactic acid bacteria responsible for the degradation of ascorbic acid and/or potassium sorbate, isolated from packed green olives where these additives had diminished. A total of 14 isolates were recovered from samples of different green olive containers. According to partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA coding gene, Lactobacillus parafarraginis, Lactobacillus rapi, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus paracollinoides, and Pediococcus ethanolidurans were identified. With the exception of L. pentosus and L. paracollinoides, the other species had not been mentioned in table olives before this study. Only three of the 14 isolates metabolized ascorbic acid in MRS broth, and the products from ascorbic acid in modified MRS broth without carbon sources were acetic and lactic acids. Except for the two L. rapi and the two P. ethanolidurans strains, the remaining 10 isolates depleted potassium sorbate added into MRS broth to some extent. The product generated by three of these strains was confirmed to be trans-4-hexenoic acid. The degradation of ascorbate or sorbate by lactic acid bacteria should be taken into account when these additives are used in food products where this group of bacteria may be present. PMID:23498172

  15. Degradation and Pathway of Tetracycline Hydrochloride in Aqueous Solution by Potassium Ferrate

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yan; Gao, Naiyun; Li, Cong

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In the context of water treatment, the ferrate ([FeO4]2−) ion has long been known for its strong oxidizing power and for producing a coagulant from its reduced form [i.e., Fe(III)]. However, it has not been widely applied in water treatment, because of preparation difficulties and high cost. This article describes a low-cost procedure for producing solid potassium ferrate. In this synthetic procedure, NaClO was used in place of chlorine generation; and 10 M KOH was used in place of saturated KOH in the previous procedures. In addition, this study investigated the reactions of potassium ferrate with tetracycline hydrochloride (TC) at different pH and molar ratios. Results showed that the optimal pH range for TC degradation was pH 9–10, and TC could be mostly removed by Fe(VI) in 60 s. However, results showed >70% of TC degraded and <15% of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) reduction at molar ratio of 1:20. The main degradation pathway of TC is proposed based on the experimental data. PMID:22566741

  16. Partial genetic deficiency in tissue kallikrein impairs adaptation to high potassium intake in humans.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Joana S; Blanchard, Anne; Curis, Emmanuel; Chambrey, Régine; Jeunemaitre, Xavier; Azizi, Michel

    2013-12-01

    Inactivation of the tissue kallikrein gene in mice impairs renal handling of potassium due to enhanced H, K-ATPase activity, and induces hyperkalemia. We investigated whether the R53H loss-of-function polymorphism of the human tissue kallikrein gene affects renal potassium handling. In a crossover study, 30 R53R homozygous and 10 R53H heterozygous healthy males were randomly assigned to a low-sodium/high-potassium or a high-sodium/low-potassium diet to modulate tissue kallikrein synthesis. On the seventh day of each diet, participants were studied before and during a 2-h infusion of furosemide to stimulate distal potassium secretion. Urinary kallikrein activity was significantly lower in R53H than in R53R subjects on the low-sodium/high-potassium diet and was similarly reduced in both genotypes on high-sodium/low-potassium. Plasma potassium and renal potassium reabsorption were similar in both genotypes on an ad libitum sodium/potassium diet or after 7 days of a high-sodium/low-potassium diet. However, the median plasma potassium was significantly higher after 7 days of low-sodium/high-potassium diet in R53H than in R53R individuals. Urine potassium excretion and plasma aldosterone concentrations were similar. On the low-sodium/high-potassium diet, furosemide-induced decrease in plasma potassium was significantly larger in R53H than in R53R subjects. Thus, impaired tissue kallikrein stimulation by a low-sodium/high-potassium diet in R53H subjects with partial tissue kallikrein deficiency highlights an inappropriate renal adaptation to potassium load, consistent with experimental data in mice.

  17. PRE-ORE POTASSIUM METASOMATISM, CREEDE MINING DISTRICT, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bethke, P.M.; Rye, R.O.; Barton, P.B.

    1985-01-01

    Rhyolitic welded-tuff wallrocks of the epithermal base and precious metal veins of the Creede district were pervasively altered by the addition of more than two billion metric tons of potassium some 1. 5-2 million years before mineralization. Sodium, calcium and magnesium were strongly depleted, yielding a nearly binary quartz plus potassium feldspar assemblage containing as much as 13 weight percent K//2O. This large-scale metasomatism, originally noted by Steven and Rattle (1965), took place progressively by initial alteration of plagioclase phenocrysts to orthoclase or microcline followed by alteration of the groundmass feldspar to orthoclase and gradual change of the sanidine phenocrysts to more Or-rich compositions. Oxygen isotope and chemical studies show that the metasomatism resulted from the interaction of the tuffs with deeply circulating heated ground water and suggest that the potassium metasomatism of rhyolitic rocks is the facies equivalent of propylitization of volcanic rocks of more basic composition.

  18. Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in Potassium Vapors: Features and Restrictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargsyan, A.; Petrov, P. A.; Vartanyan, T. A.; Sarkisyan, D.

    2016-03-01

    Features of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in potassium vapors at the D1 line of the 39K isotope are studied. EIT resonances with a subnatural width of 3.5 MHz have been recorded upon excitation by two independent narrow-band diode lasers in a 1-cm-long cell filled with a natural mixture of potassium isotopes and buffer gas. The splitting of EIT resonances in potassium vapors in longitudinal and transverse magnetic fields has been studied for the first time. The splitted components also have a subnatural width. The smallness of the coupling factor of the hyperfine structure in 39K atoms leads to a transition to the Paschen—Back regime at relatively weaker magnetic fields than in the case of Cs, Rb, and Na atoms. Practical applications of the phenomena under study are noted. The theoretical model well explains the experiment.

  19. Tapered fiber optic sensor for potassium detection in distilled water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasin, M.; Pujiyanto, .; Apsari, R.; Tanjung, M.

    2015-01-01

    A simple sensor is proposed and demonstrated using a silica tapered fiber for sensing different concentration of potassium in de-ionized water. The tapered fiber is fabricated using a flame brushing technique to achieve a waist diameter and length of 10 μm and 80 mm, respectively. For a concentration change from 0 to 50 %, the ouput signal of the sensor decreases exponentially from -10.04 dBm to -11.11 dBm with linearity of more than 92%. The increment of potassium concentration increases the refractive index of the solution, which in turn reduces the index difference between core and cladding of the tapered fiber and thus allows more light to be leaked out from the fiber. This new potassium monitoring system provides numerous advantages such as simplicity of design and low cost of production.

  20. Potassium channels of pig articular chondrocytes are blocked by propofol.

    PubMed

    Mozrzymas, J W; Visintin, M; Vittur, F; Ruzzier, F

    1994-07-15

    The effect of propofol on the voltage-activated potassium channels in pig articular chondrocytes was investigated. Propofol was found to reversibly block the potassium channels in a dose-dependent manner. The blocking effect was voltage-independent and the Hill coefficient was 1.85 +/- 0.18. No changes either in the slope conductance or in the single channel kinetics were observed. The half-blocking concentration (Ec50) was 6.0 +/- 0.49 microM which is much lower than the concentrations used to observe the scavenging effect of the drug in an artificial synovial fluid. Interestingly, Ec50 found in our experiments is also smaller than the blood concentration of propofol used in anaesthesia. These results show that propofol may strongly affect the potassium channels in some non-excitable cells.