Science.gov

Sample records for potassium carbonates

  1. Potassium carbonate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a white powder used to make soap, glass, and other items. This article discusses poisoning from ... Potassium carbonate is found in: Glass Some dishwasher soaps Some ... that is used in fertilizers) Some home permanent-wave solutions ...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 184.1619 Section 184.1619... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Potassium carbonate... of potassium chloride followed by exposing the resultant potassium to carbon dioxide; (2) By...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 184.1619 Section 184.1619... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Potassium carbonate... of potassium chloride followed by exposing the resultant potassium to carbon dioxide; (2) By...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 184.1619 Section 184.1619... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Potassium carbonate... of potassium chloride followed by exposing the resultant potassium to carbon dioxide; (2) By...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium carbonate. 184.1619 Section 184.1619 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Potassium carbonate (K2CO3, CAS... potassium chloride followed by exposing the resultant potassium to carbon dioxide; (2) By treating...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 184.1619 Section 184.1619... GRAS § 184.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Potassium carbonate (K2CO3, CAS Reg. No. 584-08-7) is produced by the following methods of manufacture: (1) By electrolysis of potassium chloride followed...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 582.1619 Section 582.1619 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Product. Potassium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  8. 21 CFR 582.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 582.1619 Section 582.1619 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Product. Potassium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  9. 21 CFR 582.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 582.1619 Section 582.1619 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Product. Potassium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  10. 21 CFR 582.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 582.1619 Section 582.1619 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Product. Potassium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  11. 21 CFR 582.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 582.1619 Section 582.1619 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Product. Potassium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  12. Finned Carbon-Carbon Heat Pipe with Potassium Working Fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    2010-01-01

    This elemental space radiator heat pipe is designed to operate in the 700 to 875 K temperature range. It consists of a C-C (carbon-carbon) shell made from poly-acrylonitride fibers that are woven in an angle interlock pattern and densified with pitch at high process temperature with integrally woven fins. The fins are 2.5 cm long and 1 mm thick, and provide an extended radiating surface at the colder condenser section of the heat pipe. The weave pattern features a continuous fiber bath from the inner tube surface to the outside edges of the fins to maximize the thermal conductance, and to thus minimize the temperature drop at the condenser end. The heat pipe and radiator element together are less than one-third the mass of conventional heat pipes of the same heat rejection surface area. To prevent the molten potassium working fluid from eroding the C C heat pipe wall, the shell is lined with a thin-walled, metallic tube liner (Nb-1 wt.% Zr), which is an integral part of a hermetic metal subassembly which is furnace-brazed to the inner surface of the C-C tube. The hermetic metal liner subassembly includes end caps and fill tubes fabricated from the same Nb-1Zr alloy. A combination of laser and electron beam methods is used to weld the end caps and fill tubes. A tungsten/inert gas weld seals the fill tubes after cleaning and charging the heat pipes with potassium. The external section of this liner, which was formed by a "Uniscan" rolling process, transitions to a larger wall thickness. This section, which protrudes beyond the C-C shell, constitutes the "evaporator" part of the heat pipe, while the section inside the shell constitutes the condenser of the heat pipe (see figure).

  13. Mechanism of methane formation in potassium catalyzed carbon gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Mims, C.A.; Krajewski, J.J.

    1986-11-01

    The authors have performed a kinetics and isotope tracer study of the mechanism of CH/sub 4/ formation from a potassium catalyzed carbon during gasification in atmospheres containing H/sub 2/O, H/sub 2/, CO/sub 2/, and CO Temperatures from 925 to 1025 K and pressures up to 8 atm were studied. The authors found that although potassium salts catalyze the formation of CH/sub 4/, there is not a one-to-one correspondence between CH/sub 4/ and CO formation rates implying different sites for generation of the two products. At low gas phase carbon activity the CH/sub 4/ product is formed by direct hydrogenation of substrate carbon and not by secondary reaction of gas phase CO or CO/sub 2/. At higher gas phase carbon activities some CH/sub 4/ is produced from gas phase carbon oxides as a result of carbon deposition. In some cases the deposited carbon shows higher reactivity than the original carbon substrate so that this can be legitimately viewed as a secondary pathway.

  14. Interaction between adsorbed hydrogen and potassium on a carbon nanocone containing material as studied by photoemission

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Xiaofeng; Raaen, Steinar

    2015-09-14

    Hydrogen adsorption on a potassium doped carbon nanocone containing material was studied by photoelectron spectroscopy and work function measurement. The valence band spectra indicate that there is charge transfer from potassium to carbon. Upon deposition on carbon potassium is in its ionic state for lower doping and shows both ionic and metallic behavior at higher doping. Adsorption of hydrogen facilitates diffusion of potassium on the carbon material as seen by changes in the K{sub 2p} core level spectrum. Variations in the measured sample work function indicate that hydrogen initially adsorb on the K dopants and subsequently adsorb on the carbon cone containing material.

  15. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; A. Frank Seibert; J. Tim Cullinane; Terraun Jones

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. Progress has been made in this reporting period on three subtasks. The rigorous Electrolyte Non-Random Two-Liquid (electrolyte-NRTL) model has been regressed to represent CO{sub 2} solubility in potassium carbonate/bicarbonate solutions. An analytical method for piperazine has been developed using a gas chromatograph. Funding has been obtained and equipment has been donated to provide for modifications of the existing pilot plant system with stainless steel materials.

  16. Potassium-Decorated, Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, A. M.; Richter, E.; Menon, M.; Subbaswamy, K. R.; Eklund, P. C.; Thess, A.; Smalley, R. E.

    1997-03-01

    Crystalline ropes of single-wall carbon nanotubes have been reacted in sealed glass tubes with potassium vapor and Raman scattering has been used to monitor the vibrational modes as a function of reaction time. An overall broadening and downshifting of the Raman bands is observed. For example, huge downshifts (40 cm-1) in the high frequency tangential modes observed near 1593 cm-1 in the pristine tubes are detected. These downshifts are attributed to significant charge transfer of K 4s electrons into antibonding pz states of the nanotube which should expand the tube diameter and soften the lattice. Presumably, the potassium ions are chemisorbed onto the walls of the nanotubes, rather than inside the nanotube, although no structural information to support this model has yet been collected. Theoretical results on electron doped armchair symmetry nanotubes using the Generalized Tight Binding Molecular Dynamics model will also be presented to help explain experimental results. The Kentucky group was supported by the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and NSF Grant No. OSR-94-52895 and DOE Contract No. DE-F22-90PC90029. The work at Rice was supported by the Office of Naval Research Contract N0014-91-J1794.

  17. Band gap-tunable potassium doped graphitic carbon nitride with enhanced mineralization ability.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shaozheng; Li, Fayun; Fan, Zhiping; Wang, Fei; Zhao, Yanfeng; Lv, Zhenbo

    2015-01-21

    Band gap-tunable potassium doped graphitic carbon nitride with enhanced mineralization ability was prepared using dicyandiamide monomer and potassium hydrate as precursors. X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption, UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence (PL) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the prepared catalysts. The CB and VB potentials of graphitic carbon nitride could be tuned from -1.09 and +1.56 eV to -0.31 and +2.21 eV by controlling the K concentration. Besides, the addition of potassium inhibited the crystal growth of graphitic carbon nitride, enhanced the surface area and increased the separation rate for photogenerated electrons and holes. The visible-light-driven Rhodamine B (RhB) photodegradation and mineralization performances were significantly improved after potassium doping. A possible influence mechanism of the potassium concentration on the photocatalytic performance was proposed.

  18. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Andrew Sexton; Jason Davis; Marcus Hilliard; Qing Xu; David Van Wagener; Jorge M. Plaza

    2007-03-31

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. The best K{sup +}/PZ solvent, 4.5 m K{sup +}/4.5 m PZ, requires equivalent work of 31.8 kJ/mole CO{sub 2} when used with a double matrix stripper and an intercooled absorber. The oxidative degradation of piperazine or organic acids is reduced significantly by inhibitor A, but the production of ethylenediamine is unaffected. The oxidative degradation of piperazine in 7 m MEA/2 m PZ is catalyzed by Cu{sup ++}. The thermal degradation of MEA becomes significant at 120 C. The solubility of potassium sulfate in MEA/PZ solvents is increased at greater CO{sub 2} loading. The best solvent and process configuration, matrix with MDEA/PZ, offers 22% and 15% energy savings over the baseline and improved baseline, respectively, with stripping and compression to 10 MPa. The energy requirement for stripping and compression to 10 MPa is about 20% of the power output from a 500 MW power plant with 90% CO{sub 2} removal. The stripper rate model shows that a ''short and fat'' stripper requires 7 to 15% less equivalent work than a ''tall and skinny'' one. The stripper model was validated with data obtained from pilot plant experiments at the University of Texas with 5m K{sup +}/2.5m PZ and 6.4m K{sup +}/1.6m PZ under normal pressure and vacuum conditions using Flexipac AQ Style 20 structured packing. Experiments with oxidative degradation at low gas rates confirm the effects of Cu{sup +2} catalysis; in MEA/PZ solutions more formate and acetate is produced in the presence of Cu{sup +2}. At 150 C, the half life of 30% MEA with 0.4 moles CO{sub 2}/mole amine is about 2 weeks. At 100 C, less than 3% degradation occurred in two weeks. The solubility of potassium sulfate in MEA solution increases significantly with CO{sub 2} loading and decreases with MEA concentration. The base case corrosion

  19. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; Babatunde Oyenekan; Andrew Sexton; Jason Davis; Marus Hiilliard; Qing Xu; David Van Wagener; Jorge M. Plaza

    2006-12-31

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. The best solvent and process configuration, matrix with MDEA/PZ, offers 22% and 15% energy savings over the baseline and improved baseline, respectively, with stripping and compression to 10 MPa. The energy requirement for stripping and compression to 10 MPa is about 20% of the power output from a 500 MW power plant with 90% CO{sub 2} removal. The stripper rate model shows that a ''short and fat'' stripper requires 7 to 15% less equivalent work than a ''tall and skinny'' one. The stripper model was validated with data obtained from pilot plant experiments at the University of Texas with 5m K{sup +}/2.5m PZ and 6.4m K{sup +}/1.6m PZ under normal pressure and vacuum conditions using Flexipac AQ Style 20 structured packing. Experiments with oxidative degradation at low gas rates confirm the effects of Cu{sup +2} catalysis; in MEA/PZ solutions more formate and acetate is produced in the presence of Cu{sup +2}. At 150 C, the half life of 30% MEA with 0.4 moles CO{sub 2}/mole amine is about 2 weeks. At 100 C, less than 3% degradation occurred in two weeks. The solubility of potassium sulfate in MEA solution increases significantly with CO{sub 2} loading and decreases with MEA concentration. The base case corrosion rate in 5 M MEA/1,2M PZ is 22 mpy. With 1 wt% heat stable salt, the corrosion rate increases by 50% to 160% in the order: thiosulfate< oxalatecarbonate is ineffective in the absence of oxygen, but 50 to 250 ppm reduces corrosion to less than 2 mpy in the presence of oxygen.

  20. Equimolar carbon absorption by potassium phthalimide and in situ catalytic conversion under mild conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuai; Li, Yu-Nong; Zhang, Ya-Wei; He, Liang-Nian; Yu, Bing; Song, Qing-Wen; Lang, Xian-Dong

    2014-05-01

    Potassium phthalimide, with weak basicity, is an excellent absorbent for rapid carbon dioxide capture with almost equimolar absorption. This process is assumed to proceed through the potassium carbamate formation pathway, as supported by NMR spectroscopy, an in situ FTIR study, and computational calculations. Both the basicity and nucleophilicity of phthalimide salts have a crucial effect on the capture process. Furthermore, the captured carbon dioxide could more easily be converted in situ into value-added chemicals and fuel-related products through carbon capture and utilization, rather than going through a desorption process.

  1. Solubilities of carbon dioxide in aqueous potassium carbonate solutions mixed with physical solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S.B.; Lee, H.; Lee, K.H.

    1998-09-01

    The removal of acidic gases such as CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, and COS from gas streams is a very important operation for petrochemical, oil refineries, ammonia manufacture, coal gasification, and natural gas purification plants. Here, the solubilities of carbon dioxide in aqueous potassium carbonate (K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) solutions mixed with physical solvents were measured at 298.2 and 323.2 K with a CO{sub 2} partial-pressure range of 5 kPa to 2 MPa. 1,2-propanediol and propylene carbonate were selected as physical solvents. The aqueous solutions treated in this study were 5 mass% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-15 mass% 1,2-propanediol and propylene carbonate were selected as physical solvents. The aqueous solutions treated in this study were 5 mass% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-15 mass% propylene carbonate. The experimental solubility results were presented by the mole ratio of CO{sub 2} and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} contained in the liquid mixture. The addition of 1,2-propanediol to 5 mass% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution lowered the solubility of CO{sub 2} at constant temperature and pressure conditions when CO{sub 2} partial-pressure range of 5 kPa to 2 MPa. In the case of propylene carbonate the addition of propylene carbonate increased the experimental solubilities in the region of low CO{sub 2} partial pressures and decreased as the CO{sub 2} partial pressure was increased above atmospheric. The solubilities of CO{sub 2} decreased with increasing temperature in the range of 298.2 to 323.2 K.

  2. Effectiveness of potassium carbonate sesquihydrate to increase dietary cation-anion difference in early lactation cows.

    PubMed

    Harrison, J; White, R; Kincaid, R; Block, E; Jenkins, T; St-Pierre, N

    2012-07-01

    The effect of additional dietary potassium in early lactation dairy cows was evaluated with the addition of potassium carbonate sesquihydrate, which increased dietary K from 1.3 to 2.1% of dry matter (DM) from wk 3 to 12 of lactation. Cows fed potassium carbonate sesquihydrate in the form of DCAD Plus (Church & Dwight Co. Inc., Princeton, NJ) had increased DM intake, milk fat percentage and yield, energy-corrected milk, and efficiency of milk production per unit of DM intake. Milk fat of cows fed higher dietary K had a lower concentration of trans fatty acids, suggesting a role for potassium carbonate sesquihydrate in the rumen in the biohydrogenation processes converting linoleic to stearic acid. Cows fed the diet with 2.1% K had greater apparent balance of K, and no effects were noted on the concentration of blood Mg or amount of fecal Mg. The data support the feeding of greater amounts of K in the early lactation cow.

  3. Authigenic potassium feldspar in Cambrian carbonates: Evidence of Alleghanian brine migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hearn, P.P.; Sutter, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    The shallow-water limestones and dolostones of the Conococheague Limestone (Upper Cambrian) of western Maryland contain large amounts of authigenic potassium feldspar. The presence of halite daughter crystals in breached fluid inclusions, low whole-rock ratios of chlorine to bromine, and thermochemical data suggest that the potassium feldspar formed at low temperature by the reaction of connate brines with intercalated siliciclastic debris. Analyses of argon age spectra indicate that the authigenic feldspar probably formed during Late Pennsylvanian to Early Permian time. These results may indicate mobilization and migration of connate brines brought about by Alleghanian folding. The widespread occurrence of authigenic potassium feldspar in Cambrian and Ordovician carbonate rocks throughout the Appalachians suggests that this may have occurred throughout the entire basin.

  4. Potassium effects on activated-carbon-supported iron catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Wenping Ma; Edwin L. Kugler; Dady B. Dadyburjor

    2007-08-15

    The effect of potassium on the activity, selectivity, and distribution of products (hydrocarbons and oxygenates) was studied over iron catalysts supported on activated carbon (AC) for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS). This is part of a wider study on the incremental effects of components (including the support) of a multicomponent (Fe-Cu-Mo-K/AC) FTS catalyst. The range of potassium loading used was 0-2 wt%. A fixed-bed reactor was used under the conditions of 260-300{sup o}C, 300 psig, and 3 Nl/g cat/h, using syngas with a H{sub 2}/CO molar feed ratio of 0.9. Both FTS and water-gas shift activities increase after the addition of 0.9 wt % potassium, whereas an opposite trend is observed with the addition of 2 wt % potassium. This is shown to be the result of interaction between the decrease of both the activation energy (E{sub a}) and the pre-exponental factor (k{sub 0}) with the amount of potassium promoter added. Detectable hydrocarbons up to C{sub 34} and oxygenates up to C{sub 5} are formed on the Fe/AC catalysts with or without potassium. The potassium promoter significantly suppresses formation of methane and methanol and shifts selectivities to higher-molecular-weight hydrocarbons (C{sub 5+}) and alcohols (C{sub 2}-C{sub 5}). Meanwhile, the potassium promoter changes paraffin and olefin distributions. At least for carbon numbers of 25 or less, increasing the K level to 0.9 wt % greatly decreases the amount of n-paraffins and internal olefins (i.e., those with the double bond in other than the terminal positions) and dramatically increases branched paraffins and 1-olefins, but a further increase in the K level shows little additional improvement. The addition of potassium changes the effect of temperature on the selectivity to oxygenates. In the absence of K, oxygenate selectivity decreases with temperature. However, when K is present, the selectivity is almost independent of the temperature. 71 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Production of activated carbons from pyrolysis of waste tires impregnated with potassium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Teng, H; Lin, Y C; Hsu, L Y

    2000-11-01

    Activated carbons were produced from waste tires using a chemical activation method. The carbon production process consisted of potassium hydroxide (KOH) impregnation followed by pyrolysis in N2 at 600-900 degrees C for 0-2 hr. The activation method can produce carbons with a surface area (SA) and total pore volume as high as 470 m2/g and 0.57 cm3/g, respectively. The influence of different parameters during chemical activation, such as pyrolysis temperature, holding time, and KOH/tire ratio, on the carbon yield and the surface characteristics was explored, and the optimum preparation conditions were recommended. The pore volume of the resulting carbons generally increases with the extent of carbon gasified by KOH and its derivatives, whereas the SA increases with degree of gasification to reach a maximum value, and then decreases upon further gasification.

  6. Adsorption of pharmaceuticals to microporous activated carbon treated with potassium hydroxide, carbon dioxide, and steam.

    PubMed

    Fu, Heyun; Yang, Liuyan; Wan, Yuqiu; Xu, Zhaoyi; Zhu, Dongqiang

    2011-01-01

    Adsorption of sulfapyridine, tetracycline, and tylosin to a commercial microporous activated carbon (AC) and its potassium hydroxide (KOH)-, CO-, and steam-treated counterparts (prepared by heating at 850°C) was studied to explore efficient adsorbents for the removal of selected pharmaceuticals from water. Phenol and nitrobenzene were included as additional adsorbates, and nonporous graphite was included as a model adsorbent. The activation treatments markedly increased the specific surface area and enlarged the pore sizes of the mesopores of AC (with the strongest effects shown on the KOH-treated AC). Adsorption of large-size tetracycline and tylosin was greatly enhanced, especially for the KOH-treated AC (more than one order of magnitude), probably due to the alleviated size-exclusion effect. However, the treatments had little effect on adsorption of low-size phenol and nitrobenzene due to the predominance of micropore-filling effect in adsorption and the nearly unaffected content of small micropores causative to such effect. These hypothesized mechanisms on pore-size dependent adsorption were further tested by comparing surface area-normalized adsorption data and adsorbent pore size distributions with and without the presence of adsorbed antibiotics. The findings indicate that efficient adsorption of bulky pharmaceuticals to AC can be achieved by enlarging the adsorbent pore size through suitable activation treatments.

  7. Observation of potassium-intercalated carbon nanotubes and their valence-band excitation spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, S.; Tomita, M.

    1996-04-01

    Second-stage potassium-intercalated carbon nanotubes were synthesized in a specially designed ultrahigh vacuum analytical electron microscope and their valence-band excitation spectra in the region of the π+σ plasmon were measured by electron energy loss spectroscopy. The carbon nanostructures consisted of graphene sheets. Potassium was deposited in an ultrahigh vacuum at room temperature. As a result, a second stage of intercalated nanotubes was found to be formed close to the surface. The energy loss spectra of the intercalated nanotubes showed humps at about 16, 19, and 22 eV, in addition to those of unintercalated tubes. This suggests that intercalation modified the band structure of the interlayer bands and/or the σ(σ*) bands.

  8. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; Babatunde Oyenekan; Andrew Sexton; Jason Davis; Marcus Hilliard; Amorvadee Veawab

    2006-07-28

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. The pilot plant data have been reconciled using 17% inlet CO{sub 2}. A rate-based model demonstrates that the stripper is primarily controlled by liquid film mast transfer resistance, with kinetics at vacuum and diffusion of reactants and products at normal pressure. An additional major unknown ion, probably glyoxylate, has been observed in MEA degradation. Precipitation of gypsum may be a feasible approach to removing sulphate from amine solutions and providing for simultaneous removal of CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}. Corrosion of carbon steel in uninhibited MEA solution is increased by increased amine concentration, by addition of piperazine, and by greater CO{sub 2} loading.

  9. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; Babatunde Oyenekan; Andrew Sexton; Jason Davis; Marcus Hilliard; Amornvadee Veawab

    2006-09-30

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. Ethylenediamine was detected in a degraded solution of MEA/PZ solution, suggesting that piperazine is subject to oxidation. Stripper modeling has demonstrated that vacuum strippers will be more energy efficient if constructed short and fat rather than tall and skinny. The matrix stripper has been identified as a configuration that will significantly reduce energy use. Extensive measurements of CO{sub 2} solubility in 7 m MEA at 40 and 60 C have confirmed the work by Jou and Mather. Corrosion of carbon steel without inhibitors increases from 19 to 181 mpy in lean solutions of 6.2 m MEA/PZ as piperazine increases from 0 to 3.1 m.

  10. CO{sub 2} CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; J.Tim Cullinane; Marcus Hilliard; Eric Chen; Babatunde Oyenekan; Ross Dugas

    2005-01-31

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. Thermodynamic modeling predicts that the heat of desorption of CO{sub 2} from 5m K+/2.5 PZ from 85 kJ/mole at 40 C to 30 kJ/mole at 120 C. Mass transfer modeling of this solvent suggests that carbonate and general salt concentration play a major role in catalyzing the rate of reaction of CO{sub 2} with piperazine. Stripper modeling suggests that with the multipressure stripper, the energy consumption with a generic solvent decreases by 15% as the heat of desorption is decreased from 23.8 to 18.5 kcal/gmol. A second pilot plant campaign with 5m K+/2.5 PZ was successfully completed.

  11. Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Ratios of Sodium and Potassium Cyanide as a Forensic Signature

    SciTech Connect

    Kruzer, Helen W; Horita, Juske; Moran, James J; Tomkins, Bruce A; Janszen, Derek B; Carman, April

    2012-01-01

    Sodium and potassium cyanide are highly toxic, produced in large amounts by the chemical industry, and linked to numerous high-profile crimes. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has identified cyanide as one of the most probable agents to be used in a future chemical terrorism event. We investigated whether stable C and N isotopic content of sodium and potassium cyanide could serve as a forensic signature for sample matching, using a collection of 65 cyanide samples. A few of these samples displayed non-homogeneous isotopic content associated with degradation to a carbonate salt and loss of hydrogen cyanide. Most samples had highly reproducible isotope content. Of these, >95% could be properly matched based on C and N isotope ratios, with a false match rate <3%. These results suggest that stable C and N isotope ratios are a useful forensic signature for matching cyanide samples.

  12. Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Ratios of Sodium and Potassium Cyanide as a Forensic Signature

    SciTech Connect

    Kreuzer, Helen W.; Horita, Juske; Moran, James J.; Tomkins, Bruce; Janszen, Derek B.; Carman, April J.

    2012-01-03

    Sodium and potassium cyanide are highly toxic, produced in large amounts by the chemical industry, and linked to numerous high-profile crimes. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has identified cyanide as one of the most probable agents to be used in a future chemical terrorism event. We investigated whether stable C and N isotopic content of sodium and potassium cyanide could serve as a forensic signature for sample matching, using a collection of 65 cyanide samples. A few of these samples displayed non-homogeneous isotopic content associated with degradation to a carbonate salt and loss of hydrogen cyanide. Most samples had highly reproducible isotope content. Of these, >95% could be properly matched based on C and N isotope ratios, with a false match rate <3%. These results suggest that stable C and N isotope ratios are a useful forensic signature for matching cyanide samples.

  13. Potassium nutrition and water availability affect phloem transport of photosynthetic carbon in eucalypt trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epron, Daniel; Cabral, Osvaldo; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Dannoura, Masako; Packer, Ana Paula; Plain, Caroline; Battie-Laclau, Patricia; Moreira, Marcelo; Trivelin, Paulo; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; Gérant, Dominique; Nouvellon, Yann

    2015-04-01

    Potassium fertilisation strongly affects growth and carbon partitioning of eucalypt on tropical soil that are strongly weathered. In addition, potassium fertilization could be of great interest in mitigating the adverse consequences of drought in planted forests, as foliar K concentrations influence osmotic adjustment, stomatal regulation and phloem loading. Phloem is the main pathway for transferring photosynthate from source leaves to sink organs, thus controlling growth partitioning among the different tree compartments. But little is known about the effect of potassium nutrition on phloem transport of photosynthetic carbon and on the interaction between K nutrition and water availability. In situ 13C pulse labelling was conducted on tropical eucalypt trees (Eucalyptus grandis L.) grown in a trial plantation with plots in which 37% of throughfall were excluded (about 500 mm/yr) using home-made transparent gutters (-W) or not (+W) and plots that received 0.45 mol K m-2 applied as KCl three months after planting (+K) or not (-K). Three trees were labelled in each of the four treatments (+K+W, +K-W, -K+W and -K-W). Trees were labelled for one hour by injecting pure 13CO2 in a 27 m3 whole crown chamber. We estimated the velocity of carbon transfer in the trunk by comparing time lags between the uptake of 13CO2 and its recovery in trunk CO2 efflux recorded by off axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (Los Gatos Research) in two chambers per tree, one just under the crown and one at the base of the trunk. We analyzed the dynamics of the label recovered in the foliage and in the phloem sap by analysing carbon isotope composition of bulk leaf organic matter and phloem extracts using an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. The velocity of carbon transfer in the trunk and the initial rate 13C disappearance from the foliage were much higher in +K trees than in -K trees with no significant effect of rainfall. The volumetric flow of phloem, roughly estimated by multiplying

  14. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes suppress potassium channel activities in PC12 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Haifei; Bai, Juan; Meng, Jie; Hao, Wei; Xu, Haiyan; Cao, Ji-Min

    2009-07-01

    The advancement in nanotechnology has produced technological and conceptual breakthroughs but the effects nanomaterials have on organisms at the cellular level are poorly understood. Here we report that carboxyl-terminated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) act as antagonists of three types of potassium channels as assessed by whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology on undifferentiated pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Our results showed that carboxyl-terminated MWCNTs suppress the current densities of Ito, IK and IK1 in a time-dependent and irreversible manner. The suppressions were most distinct 24 h after incubation with MWCNTs. However, MWCNTs did not significantly change the expression levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or intracellular free calcium and also did not alter the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) in PC12 cells. These results suggest that oxidative stress was not involved in the MWCNTs suppression of Ito, IK and IK1 current densities. Nonetheless, the suppression of potassium currents by MWCNTs will impact on electrical signaling of excitable cells such as neurons and muscles.

  15. Effect of variable water intake as mediated by dietary potassium carbonate supplementation on rumen dynamics in lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water is a critical nutrient for dairy cows, with intake varying with environment, production, and diet. However, little work has evaluated the effects of water intake on rumen parameters. Using dietary potassium carbonate (Kcarb) as a K supplement to increase water intake, the objective of this stu...

  16. Adsorption characteristics of SO2 on activated carbon prepared from coconut shell with potassium hydroxide activation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Whan; Park, Jin-Won; Choung, Jae-Hoon; Choi, Dae-Ki

    2002-03-01

    The adsorption characteristics of SO2 were studied with KOH-impregnated granular activated carbon (K-IAC). To confirm selective SO2 adsorptivity of K-IAC using a fixed bed adsorption column, experiments were conducted on the effects of KOH and of linear velocity, temperature, and concentration. In addition, changes in features before and after adsorption were observed by utilizing FTIR, XRD, ToF-SIMS, and AES/SAM, examining the surface chemistry. K-IAC adsorbed 13.2 times more SO2 than did general activated carbon (GAC). The amount of SO2 adsorbed increased as linear velocity and concentration increased and as temperature decreased. At lower temperature, the dominant reaction between KOH and SO2 produces K2-SO3 and H2O. Any H2O remaining on the surface is converted into H2SO4 as SO2 and O2 are introduced. Then, the KOH and SO2 reaction produces K2SO4 and H2O. The surface characterization results proved that adsorption occurred through chemical reaction between KOH and SO2. The SO2 adsorbed K-IAC exists in the form of stable oxide crystal, K2SO3 and K2SO4, due to potassium. The basic feature given to the surface of activated carbon by KOH impregnation was confirmed to be acting as the main factor in enhancing SO2 adsorptivity.

  17. The Effect of Potassium Impurities Deliberately Introduced into Activated Carbon Cathodes on the Performance of Lithium-Oxygen Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Dengyun; Lau, Kah Chun; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Wen, Jianguo; Miller, Dean J; Kang, Feiyu; Li, Baohua; Zavadil, Kevin; Curtiss, Larry A

    2015-12-21

    Rechargeable lithium-air (Li-O2) batteries have drawn much interest owing to their high energy density. We report on the effect of deliberately introducing potassium impurities into the cathode material on the electrochemical performance of a Li-O2 battery. Small amounts of potassium introduced into the activated carbon (AC) cathode material in the synthesis process are found to have a dramatic effect on the performance of the Li-O2 cell. An increased amount of potassium significantly increases capacity, cycle life, and round-trip efficiency. This improved performance is probably due to a larger amount of LiO2 in the discharge product, which is a mixture of LiO2 and Li2O2, resulting from the increase in the amount of potassium present. No substantial correlation with porosity or surface area in an AC cathode is found. Experimental and computational studies indicate that potassium can act as an oxygen reduction catalyst, which can account for the dependence of performance on the amount of potassium.

  18. Acute effects of calcium carbonate, calcium citrate and potassium citrate on markers of calcium and bone metabolism in young women.

    PubMed

    Karp, Heini J; Ketola, Maarit E; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel J E

    2009-11-01

    Both K and Ca supplementation may have beneficial effects on bone through separate mechanisms. K in the form of citrate or bicarbonate affects bone by neutralising the acid load caused by a high protein intake or a low intake of alkalising foods, i.e. fruits and vegetables. Ca is known to decrease serum parathyroid hormone (S-PTH) concentration and bone resorption. We compared the effects of calcium carbonate, calcium citrate and potassium citrate on markers of Ca and bone metabolism in young women. Twelve healthy women aged 22-30 years were randomised into four controlled 24 h study sessions, each subject serving as her own control. At the beginning of each session, subjects received a single dose of calcium carbonate, calcium citrate, potassium citrate or a placebo in randomised order. The diet during each session was identical, containing 300 mg Ca. Both the calcium carbonate and calcium citrate supplement contained 1000 mg Ca; the potassium citrate supplement contained 2250 mg K. Markers of Ca and bone metabolism were followed. Potassium citrate decreased the bone resorption marker (N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen) and increased Ca retention relative to the control session. Both Ca supplements decreased S-PTH concentration. Ca supplements also decreased bone resorption relative to the control session, but this was significant only for calcium carbonate. No differences in bone formation marker (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase) were seen among the study sessions. The results suggest that potassium citrate has a positive effect on the resorption marker despite low Ca intake. Both Ca supplements were absorbed well and decreased S-PTH efficiently.

  19. Interaction of ozone and carbon dioxide with polycrystalline potassium bromide and its atmospheric implication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levanov, Alexander V.; Isaikina, Oksana Ya.; Maksimov, Ivan B.; Lunin, Valerii V.

    2017-03-01

    It has been discovered for the first time that gaseous ozone in the presence of carbon dioxide and water vapor interacts with crystalline potassium bromide giving gaseous Br2 and solid salts KHCO3 and KBrO3. Molecular bromine and hydrocarbonate ion are the products of one and the same reaction described by the stoichiometric equation 2KBr(cr.) + O3(gas) + 2CO2(gas) + H2O(gas) → 2KHCO3(cr.) + Br2(gas) + O2(gas). The dependencies of Br2, KHCO3 and KBrO3 formation rates on the concentrations of O3 and CO2, humidity of initial gas mixture, and temperature have been investigated. A kinetic scheme has been proposed that explains the experimental regularities found in this work on the quantitative level. According to the scheme, the formation of molecular bromine and hydrocarbonate is due to the reaction between hypobromite BrO-, the primary product of bromide oxidation by ozone, with carbon dioxide and water; bromate results from consecutive oxidation of bromide ion by ozone Br- → +O3 , -O2 BrO- → +O3 , -O2 BrO2- → +O3, -O2 BrO3- .

  20. Role of nitrogen in pore development in activated carbon prepared by potassium carbonate activation of lignin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsubouchi, Naoto; Nishio, Megumi; Mochizuki, Yuuki

    2016-05-01

    The present work focuses on the role of nitrogen in the development of pores in activated carbon produced from lignin by K2CO3 activation, employing a fixed bed reactor under a high-purity He stream at temperatures of 500-900 °C. The specific surface area and pore volume obtained by activation of lignin alone are 230 m2/g and 0.13 cm3/g at 800 °C, and 540 m2/g and 0.31 cm3/g at 900 °C, respectively. Activation of a mixture of lignin and urea provides a significant increase in the surface area and volume, respectively reaching 3300-3400 m2/g and 2.0-2.3 cm3/g after holding at 800-900 °C for 1 h. Heating a lignin/urea/K2CO3 mixture leads to a significant decrease in the yield of released N-containing gases compared to the results for urea alone and a lignin/urea mixture, and most of the nitrogen in the urea is retained in the solid phase. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses clearly show that part of the remaining nitrogen is present in heterocyclic structures (for example, pyridinic and pyrrolic nitrogen), and the rest is contained as KOCN at ≤600 °C and as KCN at ≥700 °C, such that the latter two compounds can be almost completely removed by water washing. The fate of nitrogen during heating of lignin/urea/K2CO3 and role of nitrogen in pore development in activated carbon are discussed on the basis of the results mentioned above.

  1. Emissions of carbon species, organic polar compounds, potassium, and mercury from prescribed burning activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Obrist, D.; Zielinska, B.; Gerler, A.

    2012-04-01

    Biomass burning is an important emission source of pollutants to the atmosphere, but few studies have focused on the chemical composition of emissions from prescribed burning activities. Here we present results from a sampling campaign to quantify particulate-phase emissions from various types of prescribed fires including carbon species (Elemental Carbon: EC; Organic Carbon: OC; and Total Carbon: TC); polar organic compounds (12 different compounds and four functional classes); water-soluble potassium (K+); and mercury (Hg). We measured emissions from the following types of prescribed biomass burning in the Lake Tahoe basin located on the California/Nevada border: (i) log piles stacked and dried in the field; (ii) log piles along with green understory vegetation; and (iii) understory green vegetation and surface litter; further emissions were collected from burns conducted in a wood stove: (iv) dried wooden logs; (v) green foliage of understory vegetation collected from the field; and (vi) surface organic litter collected from the field; finally, samples were also taken from (vii) ambient air in residential areas during peak domestic wood combustion season. Results show that OC/EC ratios of prescribed burns in the field ranged from 4 to 10, but lower values (around 1) were observed in controlled stove fires. These results are consistent with an excess of OC emissions over EC found in wildfires. OC/EC ratios, however, showed clear separations between controlled wood stove combustion (higher EC) and prescribed burns in the field (lower EC). We attribute this difference to a higher combustion temperatures and dominance of flaming combustion in wood stove fires. OC positively and linearly correlated to the sum of polar organic compounds across all burn types (r2 of 0.82). The most prevalent group of polar compounds emitted during prescribed fires was resin acids (dehydroabietic, pimaric, and abietic acids), followed by levoglucosan plus mannositol. Negligible

  2. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Potassium... potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide; (2) By treating a solution of potassium carbonate with...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Potassium... potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide; (2) By treating a solution of potassium carbonate with...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Potassium... potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide; (2) By treating a solution of potassium carbonate with...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Potassium... potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide; (2) By treating a solution of potassium carbonate with...

  6. [Study of relationship between consumption of potassium permanganate and total organic carbon on plastic kitchen utensils, food packages and toys].

    PubMed

    Ohno, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Masako; Mutsuga, Motoh; Kawamura, Yoko

    2009-10-01

    Consumption of potassium permanganate and total organic carbon (TOC) were investigated as indices of total organic matter migrated into water from plastic kitchen utensils, food packages and toys for children. The samples were soaked in water at 60 or 95 degrees C for 30 min for kitchen utensils and food packages, and at 40 degrees C for 30 min for toys and the eluates were examined, using the two indices. The quantitation limits were both 0.5 microg/mL. Among 97 kitchen utensils and food packages tested, consumption of potassium permanganate and TOC were 0.5-10.9 microg/mL and ND-18.9 microg/mL for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tea-pot spouts and nylon kitchen utensils, respectively. Among 32 toys tested, the levels were 0.8-45.5 microg/mL and 0.5-8.9 microg/mL from PVC toys and block toys made by ethylene vinyl acetate resin. The levels for other samples were very low. There were large discrepancies between consumption of potassium permanganate and TOC for some PVC products and nylon kitchen utensils. The cause may be a marked difference of the oxidation decomposition rate by potassium permanganate, depending on the kind of organic matter that migrated from the plastics.

  7. Potassium Secondary Batteries.

    PubMed

    Eftekhari, Ali; Jian, Zelang; Ji, Xiulei

    2017-02-08

    Potassium may exhibit advantages over lithium or sodium as a charge carrier in rechargeable batteries. Analogues of Prussian blue can provide millions of cyclic voltammetric cycles in aqueous electrolyte. Potassium intercalation chemistry has recently been demonstrated compatible with both graphite and nongraphitic carbons. In addition to potassium-ion batteries, potassium-O2 (or -air) and potassium-sulfur batteries are emerging. Additionally, aqueous potassium-ion batteries also exhibit high reversibility and long cycling life. Because of potentially low cost, availability of basic materials, and intriguing electrochemical behaviors, this new class of secondary batteries is attracting much attention. This mini-review summarizes the current status, opportunities, and future challenges of potassium secondary batteries.

  8. A flow-system comparison of the reactivities of calcium superoxide and potassium superoxide with carbon dioxide and water vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, P. C.; Ballou, E. V.; Spitze, L. A.; Wydeven, T.

    1982-01-01

    A single pass flow system was used to test the reactivity of calcium superoxide with respiratory gases and the performance was compared to that of potassium superoxide. The KO2 system is used by coal miners as a self-contained unit in rescue operations. Particular attention was given to the reactivity with carbon dioxide and water vapor at different temperatures and partial pressures of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. The calcium superoxide beds were found to absorb CO2 and H2O vapor, releasing O2. The KO2 bed, however, released O2 at twice the rate of CO2 absorption at 37 C. It is concluded that the calcium superoxide material is not a suitable replacement for the KO2 bed, although Ca(O2)2 may be added to the KO2 bed to enhance the CO2 absorption.

  9. Potassium Counts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gipps, John

    1995-01-01

    Presents an activity to determine whether the radioactivity of a pure potassium salt is directly proportional to the amount of potassium in it and whether this could be used as a method of analysis for potassium in a solid. (MKR)

  10. Use of levoglucosan, potassium, and water-soluble organic carbon to characterize the origins of biomass-burning aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Roberta Cerasi; Lima-Souza, Michele; Caetano-Silva, Letícia; Queiroz, Maria Eugênia C.; Nogueira, Raquel F. P.; Allen, Andrew G.; Cardoso, Arnaldo A.; Held, Gerhard; Campos, Maria Lucia A. M.

    2012-12-01

    Three chemical species related to biomass burning, levoglucosan, potassium and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), were measured in aerosol samples collected in a rural area on the outskirts of the municipality of Ourinhos (São Paulo State, Brazil). This region is representative of the rural interior of the State, where the economy is based on agro-industrial production, and the most important crop is sugar cane. The manual harvesting process requires that the cane be first burned to remove excess foliage, leading to large emissions of particulate materials to the atmosphere. Most of the levoglucosan (68-89%) was present in small particles (<1.5 μm), and its concentration in total aerosol ranged from 25 to 1186 ng m-3. The highest values were found at night, when most of the biomass burning occurs. In contrast, WSOC showed no diurnal pattern, with an average concentration of 5.38 ± 2.97 μg m-3 (n = 27). A significant linear correlation between levoglucosan and WSOC (r = 0.54; n = 26; p < 0.0001) confirmed that biomass burning was in fact an important source of WSOC in the study region. A moderate (but significant) linear correlation between levoglucosan and potassium concentrations (r = 0.62; n = 40; p < 0.0001) was indicative of the influence of other sources of potassium in the study region, such as soil resuspension and fertilizers. When only the fine particles (<1.5 μm; typical of biomass burning) were considered, the linear coefficient increased to 0.91 (n = 9). In this case, the average levoglucosan/K+ ratio was 0.24, which may be typical of biomass burning in the study region. This ratio is about 5 times lower than that previously found for Amazon aerosol collected during the day, when flaming combustion prevails. This suggests that the levoglucosan/K+ ratio may be especially helpful for characterization of the type of vegetation burned (such as crops or forest), when biomass-burning is the dominant source of potassium. The relatively high

  11. Rare Potassium-Bearing Mica in Allan Hills 84001: Additional Constraints on Carbonate Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brearley, A. J.

    1998-01-01

    There have been presented several intriguing observations suggesting evidence of fossil life in martian orthopyroxenite ALH 84001. These exciting and controversial observations have stimulated extensive debate over the origin and history of ALH 84001, but many issues still remain unresolved. Among the most important is the question of the temperature at which the carbonates, which host the putative microfossils, formed. Oxygen- isotopic data, while showing that the carbonates are generally out of isotopic equilibria with the host rock, cannot constrain their temperature of formation. Both low- and high-temperature scenarios are plausible depending on whether carbonate growth occurred in an open or closed system. Petrographic arguments have generally been used to support a high-temperature origin but these appear to be suspect because they assume equilibrium between carbonate compositions that are not in contact. Some observations appear to be consistent with shock mobilization and growth from immiscible silicate-carbonate melts at high temperatures. Proponents of a low-temperature origin for the carbonates are hampered by the fact that there is currently no evidence of hydrous phases that would indicate low temperatures and the presence of a hydrous fluid during the formation of the carbonates. However, the absence of hydrous phases does not rule out carbonate formation at low temperatures, because the carbonate forming fluids may have been extremely CO2 rich, such that hydrous phases would not have been stabilized. In this study, I have carried out additional Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies of ALH-84001 and have found evidence of very rare phyllosilicates, which appear to be convincingly of pre-terrestrial origin. At present these observations are limited to one occurrence: further studies are in progress to determine if the phyllosilicates are more widespread.

  12. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613... GRAS § 184.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 298-14-6) is made by the following processes: (1) By treating a solution of potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide;...

  13. Potassium targets from KI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sletten, G.

    1982-09-01

    Targets of potassium iodide (KI) on thin carbon backings have been prepared. Potassium isotopes are supplied as chlorides, and the chlorine is, in certain experiments, an unwanted contaminant. Target peeparation involves conversion of KCl to KI and subsequent vacuum evaporation of the iodide. Targets of both 39K and 41K in the thickness range of 60 to 100 μg/cm 2 of potassium have been prepared. These targets contain less than 0.5 μg/cm 2 of chlorine impurity and are stable in α-beams of 25 MeV.

  14. Potassium test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003484.htm Potassium test To use the sharing features on this ... enable JavaScript. This test measures the amount of potassium in the fluid portion (serum) of the blood. ...

  15. Potassium Iodide

    MedlinePlus

    ... gland.Potassium iodide can protect you from the effects of radioactive iodine that may be released during ... increase the risk that you may experience side effects.The dose of potassium iodide you should take ...

  16. Authigenic potassium feldspar: a tracer for the timing of palaeofluid flow in carbonate rocks, Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spotl, C.; Kunk, M.J.; Ramseyer, K.; Longstaffe, F.J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper is included in the Special Publication entitled 'Dating and duration of fluid flow and fluid-rock interaction', edited by J. Parnell. Feldspar is a common authigenic constituent in Permian carbonate rocks which occur as tectonically isolated blocks within the evaporitic Haselgebirge melange in the Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA). Coexisting with pyrite, anhydrite, (saddle) dolomite, magnesite, fluorite and calcite, K-feldspar and minor albite record an event of regionally extensive interaction of hot brines with carbonate rocks. Detailed petrographic, crystallographic and geochemical studies reveal a variability in crystal size and shape, Al-Si ordering, elemental and stable isotopic compositions of the K-feldspar, which is only partially consistent with the traditional view of authigenic feldspar as a well-ordered, compositionally pure mineral. 40Ar-39Ar step- heating measurements of authigenic potassium feldspar from several localities yield two age populations, an older one of 145-154 Ma, and a younger one of c.90-97 Ma. Most age spectra reflect cooling through the argon retention temperature interval, which was rapid in some localities (as indicated by plateau ages) and slower in others. Rb-Sr isotope data are more difficult to interpret, because in many K-feldspar samples they are controlled largely by Sr-bearing inclusions. The Jurassic 40Ar-39Ar dates are interpreted as minimum ages of feldspar growth and hence imply that fluid-rock interaction is likely to be simultaneous with or to slightly predate melange formation. Deformation associated with the closure and subduction of the Meliata-Hallstatt ocean south of the NCA during the Upper Jurassic is regarded as the principal geodynamic driving force for both enhanced fluid circulation and melange formation. Some localities were reheated beyond the argon retention temperature for microcline during mid-Cretaceous nappe stacking of the NCA, thus obliterating the older signal.

  17. Using potassium catalytic gasification to improve the performance of solid oxide direct carbon fuel cells: Experimental characterization and elementary reaction modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiankai; Shi, Yixiang; Wang, Hongjian; Cai, Ningsheng; Li, Chen; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2014-04-01

    The performance of a solid oxide electrolyte direct carbon fuel cell (SO-DCFC) is limited by the slow carbon gasification kinetics at the typical operating temperatures of cell: 650-850 °C. To overcome such limitation, potassium salt is used as a catalyst to speed up the dry carbon gasification reactions, increasing the power density by five-fold at 700-850 °C. The cell performance is shown to be sensitive to the bed temperature, emphasizing the role of gasification rates and that of CO production. Given the finite bed size, the cell performance is time-dependent as the amount of CO available changes. A reduced elementary reaction mechanism for potassium-catalyzed carbon gasification was proposed using kinetic data obtained from the experimental measurements. A comprehensive model including the catalytic gasification reactions and CO electrochemistry is used to examine the impact of the catalytic carbon gasification process on the device performance. The power density is maximum around 50% of the OCV, where carbon utilization is also near maximum. Results show that bed height and porosity impact the power density; a thicker bed maintains the power almost constant for longer times while lower porosity delivers higher power density in the early stages.

  18. Direct chemiluminescence of carbon dots induced by potassium ferricyanide and its analytical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amjadi, Mohammad; Manzoori, Jamshid L.; Hallaj, Tooba; Sorouraddin, Mohammad H.

    2014-03-01

    The chemiluminescence (CL) of water-soluble fluorescent carbon dots (C-dots) induced by direct chemical oxidation was investigated. C-dots were prepared by solvothermal method and characterized by fluorescence spectra and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that K3Fe(CN)6 could directly oxidize C-dots to produce a relatively intense CL emission. The mechanism of CL generation was investigated based on the fluorescence and CL emission spectra and the effect of radical scavengers on the CL intensity. The inhibitive effect of some metal ions and biologically important molecules on the CL intensity of the system was examined and the potential of the system for the determination of these species at trace levels was studied. In order to evaluate the capability of method to real sample analysis, it was applied to the determination of Cr(VI) and adrenaline in water and injection samples, respectively.

  19. Potassium physiology.

    PubMed

    Thier, S O

    1986-04-25

    Potassium is the most abundant exchangeable cation in the body. It exists predominantly in the intracellular fluid at concentrations of 140 to 150 meq/liter and in the extracellular fluid at concentrations of 3.5 to 5 meq/liter. The maintenance of the serum potassium concentration is a complex bodily function and results from the balance between intake, excretion, and distribution between intracellular and extracellular space. Ingested potassium is virtually completely absorbed from and minimally excreted through the intestine under nonpathologic circumstances. Renal excretion of potassium, which is the major chronic protective mechanism against abnormalities in potassium balance, depends on filtration, reabsorption, and a highly regulated distal nephron secretory process. Factors regulating potassium secretion include prior potassium intake, intracellular potassium, delivery of sodium chloride and poorly reabsorbable anions to the distal nephron, the urine flow rate, hormones such as aldosterone and beta-catecholamines, and the integrity of the renal tubular cell. The maintenance of distribution between the inside and outside of cells depends on the integrity of the cell membrane and its pumps, osmolality, pH, and the hormones insulin, aldosterone, beta 2-catecholamines, alpha-catecholamines, and prostaglandins. Both distribution across cell membranes and/or renal excretion of potassium may be altered by pharmacologic agents such as diuretics, alpha- and beta-catechol antagonists and agonists, depolarizing agents, and digitalis. Problems with hypokalemia and hyperkalemia can be analyzed on the basis of potassium physiology and pharmacology; proper treatment depends on an accurate analysis.

  20. COMPARISON OF SODIUM AND POTASSIUM CARBONATES AS LITHIUM ZIRCONATE MODIFIERS FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM BIOMASS-DERIVED SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Olstad, J.L.; Phillips, S.D.

    2009-01-01

    The process of gasifi cation converts biomass into synthesis gas (syngas), which can be used to produce biofuels. Solid-phase sorbents were investigated for the removal of CO2 from a N2/CO2 gas stream using a CO2 concentration similar to that found in a biomass gasifi cation process. During the gasifying process, large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) are created along with the syngas. The produced CO2 must be removed before the syngas can be used for fuel synthesis and to avoid the possible formation of unwanted byproducts. A thermogravimetric analyzer was used to test the CO2 absorption rates of sorbents composed of lithium zirconate (Li2ZrO3), as well as mixtures of Li2ZrO3 with potassium carbonate (K2CO3) and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3). The experimental results show that Li2ZrO3 has a low absorption rate, but sorbents containing combinations of Li2ZrO3 and the K2CO3 and Na2CO3 additives have high uptake rates. Using different proportions of K2CO3 and Na2CO3 produces varying uptake rates, so an optimization experiment was performed to obtain an improved sorbent. The CO2 absorption and regeneration stability of the solid-phase sorbents were also examined. A sorbent composed of Li2ZrO3 and 12.1 weight % Na2CO3 was shown to be stable, based on the consistent CO2 uptake rates. Sorbents prepared with Li2ZrO3, 17.6 weight % K2CO3 and 18.1 weight % Na2CO3 showed instability during regeneration cycles in air at 800 °C. Sorbent stability improved during regeneration cycles at 700 °C. Further testing of the Li2ZrO3 sorbent under actual syngas conditions, including higher pressure and composition, should be done. Once the optimum sorbent has been found, a suitable support will be needed to use the sorbent in an actual reactor.

  1. Spatial variability of soil carbon, pH, available phosphorous and potassium in organic farm located in Mediterranean Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogunović, Igor; Pereira, Paulo; Šeput, Miranda

    2016-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC), pH, available phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) are some of the most important factors to soil fertility. These soil parameters are highly variable in space and time, with implications to crop production. The aim of this work is study the spatial variability of SOC, pH, P and K in an organic farm located in river Rasa valley (Croatia). A regular grid (100 x 100 m) was designed and 182 samples were collected on Silty Clay Loam soil. P, K and SOC showed moderate heterogeneity with coefficient of variation (CV) of 21.6%, 32.8% and 51.9%, respectively. Soil pH record low spatial variability with CV of 1.5%. Soil pH, P and SOC did not follow normal distribution. Only after a Box-Cox transformation, data respected the normality requirements. Directional exponential models were the best fitted and used to describe spatial autocorrelation. Soil pH, P and SOC showed strong spatial dependence with nugget to sill ratio with 13.78%, 0.00% and 20.29%, respectively. Only K recorded moderate spatial dependence. Semivariogram ranges indicate that future sampling interval could be 150 - 200 m in order to reduce sampling costs. Fourteen different interpolation models for mapping soil properties were tested. The method with lowest Root Mean Square Error was the most appropriated to map the variable. The results showed that radial basis function models (Spline with Tension and Completely Regularized Spline) for P and K were the best predictors, while Thin Plate Spline and inverse distance weighting models were the least accurate. The best interpolator for pH and SOC was the local polynomial with the power of 1, while the least accurate were Thin Plate Spline. According to soil nutrient maps investigated area record very rich supply with K while P supply was insufficient on largest part of area. Soil pH maps showed mostly neutral reaction while individual parts of alkaline soil indicate the possibility of penetration of seawater and salt accumulation in the

  2. Addition of potassium carbonate to continuous cultures of mixed ruminal bacteria shifts volatile fatty acids and daily production of biohydrogenation intermediates.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, T C; Bridges, W C; Harrison, J H; Young, K M

    2014-02-01

    A recent study reported a 0.4 percentage unit increase in milk fat of lactating dairy cattle when dietary K was increased from 1.2 to 2% with potassium carbonate. Because milk fat yield has been associated with ruminal production of certain conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers, 2 studies were conducted to determine if increasing potassium carbonate in the rumen would alter patterns of fermentation and biohydrogenation. In experiment 1, 5 dual-flow continuous fermenters were injected just before each feeding with a 10% (wt/wt) stock potassium carbonate solution to provide the equivalent of 1.1 (K1), 2.2 (K2), and 3.3 (K3) % of diet dry matter (DM) as added K. One of the remaining fermenters received no K (K0) and the last fermenter (NaOH) was injected with adequate NaOH stock solution (10%, wt/wt) to match the pH observed for the K3 treatment. For experiment 2, 6 dual-flow continuous fermenters were used to evaluate 6 treatments arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial to examine 2 levels of soybean oil (0 and 3.64% of diet DM) and added K at 0, 1.6, and 3.3% of diet DM. In both experiments, fermenters were fed 55 to 57 g of DM/d of a typical dairy diet consisting of 1:1 forage (10% alfalfa hay and 90% corn silage) to concentrate mix in 2 equal portions at 0800 and 1630 h, and fed the respective diets for 10-d periods. Potassium carbonate addition increased pH in both experiments. Acetate:propionate ratio and pH in experiment 1 increased linearly for K0 to K3. Acetate:propionate ratio was lower for NaOH compared with K3 but the pH was the same. The trans-11 18:1 and cis-9,trans-11 CLA production rates (mg/d) increased linearly from K0 to K3, but K3 and NaOH did not differ. Production of trans-10 18:1 decreased and that of trans-10,cis-12 tended to decrease from K0 to K3, but production of trans-10,cis-12 CLA remained high for NaOH. Addition of K to the cultures in experiment 2 decreased propionate and increased acetate and acetate:propionate ratio for the 0% fat diet but

  3. Effect of variable water intake as mediated by dietary potassium carbonate supplementation on rumen dynamics in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Fraley, S E; Hall, M B; Nennich, T D

    2015-05-01

    Water is a critical nutrient for dairy cows, with intake varying with environment, production, and diet. However, little work has evaluated the effects of water intake on rumen parameters. Using dietary potassium carbonate (K2CO3) as a K supplement to increase water intake, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of K2CO3 supplementation on water intake and on rumen parameters of lactating dairy cows. Nine ruminally cannulated, late-lactation Holstein cows (207±12d in milk) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design with 18-d periods. Dietary treatments (on a dry matter basis) were no added K2CO3 (baseline dietary K levels of 1.67% dietary K), 0.75% added dietary K, and 1.5% added dietary K. Cows were offered treatment diets for a 14-d adaption period followed by a 4-d collection period. Ruminal total, liquid, and dry matter digesta weights were determined by total rumen evacuations conducted 2h after feeding on d 4 of the collection period. Rumen fluid samples were collected to determine pH, volatile fatty acids, and NH3 concentrations, and Co-EDTA was used to determine fractional liquid passage rate. Milk samples were collected twice daily during the collection period. Milk, milk fat, and protein yields showed quadratic responses with greatest yields for the 0.75% added dietary K treatment. Dry matter intake showed a quadratic response with 21.8kg/d for the 0.75% added dietary K treatment and 20.4 and 20.5kg/d for control and the 1.5% added dietary K treatment, respectively. Water intake increased linearly with increasing K2CO3 supplementation (102.4, 118.4, and 129.3L/d) as did ruminal fractional liquid passage rate in the earlier hours after feeding (0.118, 0.135, and 0.141 per hour). Total and wet weights of rumen contents declined linearly and dry weight tended to decline linearly as dietary K2CO3 increased, suggesting that the increasing water intake and fractional liquid passage rate with increasing

  4. Potassium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for potassium cyanide is included in

  5. Potassium in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... the diet; Hypokalemia - potassium in the diet; Chronic kidney disease - potassium in diet; Kidney failure - potassium in diet ... are also excellent sources of potassium. People with kidney problems, especially those on dialysis, should not eat ...

  6. Energy and exergy analyses of an integrated gasification combined cycle power plant with CO2 capture using hot potassium carbonate solvent.

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng; Jin, Hongguang; Gao, Lin; Mumford, Kathryn Anne; Smith, Kathryn; Stevens, Geoff

    2014-12-16

    Energy and exergy analyses were studied for an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO2 capture using hot potassium carbonate solvent. The study focused on the combined impact of the CO conversion ratio in the water gas shift (WGS) unit and CO2 recovery rate on component exergy destruction, plant efficiency, and energy penalty for CO2 capture. A theoretical limit for the minimal efficiency penalty for CO2 capture was also provided. It was found that total plant exergy destruction increased almost linearly with CO2 recovery rate and CO conversion ratio at low CO conversion ratios, but the exergy destruction from the WGS unit and the whole plant increased sharply when the CO conversion ratio was higher than 98.5% at the design WGS conditions, leading to a significant decrease in plant efficiency and increase in efficiency penalty for CO2 capture. When carbon capture rate was over around 70%, via a combination of around 100% CO2 recovery rate and lower CO conversion ratios, the efficiency penalty for CO2 capture was reduced. The minimal efficiency penalty for CO2 capture was estimated to be around 5.0 percentage points at design conditions in an IGCC plant with 90% carbon capture. Unlike the traditional aim of 100% CO conversion, it was recommended that extremely high CO conversion ratios should not be considered in order to decrease the energy penalty for CO2 capture and increase plant efficiency.

  7. The Interaction of Carbon Monoxide with Rhodium on Potassium-Modified CeO2(111)

    DOE PAGES

    Mullins, David R.

    2016-02-03

    The adsorption and reactions of CO adsorbed on Rh particles deposited on K-covered CeO2(111) were studied by temperature programmed desorption and photoelectron spectroscopy. K deposited on CeO2(111) forms a KOX over-layer by extracting O from the ceria and partially reducing some of the Ce4+ to Ce3+. CO does not adsorb on the KOX / CeO2-X(111) surface in the absence of Rh particles. CO adsorbed on Rh / K / CeO2(111) adsorbs molecularly on the Rh at 200 K. As the surface is heated the CO spills-over and reacts with the KOX to form carbonate. The carbonate decomposes at elevated temperaturemore » to produce CO and CO2. The carbonate stabilizes the KOX so that K desorbs at a higher temperature than it would in the absence of CO. When the Rh and K deposition are reversed so that K is deposited on both the Rh and the CeO2(111), CO adsorbs as CO2- at 200 K. The CO2- decomposes below 350 K to produce gas phase CO and adsorbed CO32- and CO. The CO is stabilized by the K on the Rh and desorbs above 540 K. The carbonate decomposes into gas phase CO and CO2.« less

  8. The interaction of carbon monoxide with rhodium on potassium-modified CeO2(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullins, David R.

    2016-10-01

    The adsorption and reactions of CO adsorbed on Rh particles deposited on K-covered CeO2(111) were studied by temperature programmed desorption and photoelectron spectroscopy. K deposited on CeO2(111) forms a KOX over-layer by extracting O from the ceria and partially reducing some of the Ce4 + to Ce3 +. CO does not adsorb on the KOX/ CeO2 - X(111) surface in the absence of Rh particles. CO adsorbed on Rh/K/CeO2(111) adsorbs molecularly on the Rh at 200 K. As the surface is heated the CO spills-over and reacts with the KOX to form carbonate. The carbonate decomposes at elevated temperature to produce CO and CO2. The carbonate stabilizes the KOX so that K desorbs at a higher temperature than it would in the absence of CO. When the Rh and K deposition are reversed so that K is deposited on both the Rh and the CeO2(111), CO adsorbs as CO2- at 200 K. The CO2- decomposes below 350 K to produce gas phase CO and adsorbed CO32 - and CO. The CO is stabilized by the K on the Rh and desorbs above 540 K. The carbonate decomposes into gas phase CO and CO2.

  9. Short communication: Temporal effect of feeding potassium carbonate sesquihydrate on milk fat in lactating dairy cows fed a fat-depressing diet.

    PubMed

    Ma, Guiling; Harrison, J H; Block, E; Jenkins, T C; VanWieringen, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    A lactation study with 10 multiparous dairy cows in early lactation, with an average of 64 days in milk (standard deviation=37), were used to evaluate how quickly milk fat concentration would change when potassium carbonate sesquihydrate was abruptly added to the diet. The experiment had 3 periods. In period 1 (d 0 to 7) all cows were fed the same basal (control) diet with 1.8% soy oil, dry basis; in period 2 (d 8 to 28) 5 cows received the control diet, whereas the other 5 cows received the control diet plus 0.59% of added K with K carbonate sesquihydrate; and in period 3 (d 29 to 42) all 10 cows received the control diet. The control diet was formulated for a dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD), calculated as Na + K - Cl - S, of 37.7mEq/100g of dry matter (DM), 1.74% of DM as K, and 5.7% long-chain fatty acids (DM%), which included 1.8% of DM as soybean oil. Period 1 was used as a covariate. In period 2, d 8 to 28, 5 cows remained on the control diet whereas 5 cows were fed with the control diet plus K carbonate sesquihydrate (DCAD+ diet; DCAD of 54.3mEq/100g DM and 2.33% of DM as K). After feeding the DCAD+ diet, we noted a difference in milk fat concentration from 3.9 to 4.3% within 72h. Over the 21d of period 2, the DCAD+ diet resulted in significantly greater milk fat percentage from 4.0 to 4.3%, lactose from 4.74 to 4.82%, and fat efficiency in the form of fat in milk divided by fat in DMI from 1.27 to 1.49, without affecting dry matter intake (DMI), milk protein concentration, solids-not fat concentration, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, and protein efficiency in the form of protein in milk divided by protein in DMI. In period 3 (d 29-42), all cows were again fed the control diet, resulting in a tendency for greater milk fat concentration, significantly greater lactose concentration, and fat efficiency in the form of fat in milk divided by fat in DMI for the cows having received the DCAD+ diet during period 2. In conclusion, the abrupt addition of K carbonate

  10. The Interaction of Carbon Monoxide with Rhodium on Potassium-Modified CeO2(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, David R.

    2016-02-03

    The adsorption and reactions of CO adsorbed on Rh particles deposited on K-covered CeO2(111) were studied by temperature programmed desorption and photoelectron spectroscopy. K deposited on CeO2(111) forms a KOX over-layer by extracting O from the ceria and partially reducing some of the Ce4+ to Ce3+. CO does not adsorb on the KOX / CeO2-X(111) surface in the absence of Rh particles. CO adsorbed on Rh / K / CeO2(111) adsorbs molecularly on the Rh at 200 K. As the surface is heated the CO spills-over and reacts with the KOX to form carbonate. The carbonate decomposes at elevated temperature to produce CO and CO2. The carbonate stabilizes the KOX so that K desorbs at a higher temperature than it would in the absence of CO. When the Rh and K deposition are reversed so that K is deposited on both the Rh and the CeO2(111), CO adsorbs as CO2- at 200 K. The CO2- decomposes below 350 K to produce gas phase CO and adsorbed CO32- and CO. The CO is stabilized by the K on the Rh and desorbs above 540 K. The carbonate decomposes into gas phase CO and CO2.

  11. Measurement of the resistance induced by a single atomic impurity on a (7,6) semiconducting carbon nanotube: scattering strength of individual potassium atoms as a function of gate voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchikawa, Ryuichi; Ahmadi, Amin; Heligman, Daniel; Zhang, Zhengyi; Mucciolo, Eduardo; Hone, James; Ishigami, Masa

    2015-03-01

    Despite many years of research, no measurements have been performed to determine resistance induced by impurities in carbon nanotubes. Over the last few years, we have developed a capability to measure the resistance induced by a single impurity atom on nanotubes with known chirality. Using this capability, we measured the resistance induced by an individual potassium atom on a (7,6) semiconducting carbon nanotube. The ``atomic'' resistance of potassium is found to be in the kohm range and has a strong dependence on the applied gate voltage. The scattering strength of the p-type (valence band) channel is approximately 20 times greater than that of the n-type (conduction band) channel. We integrate our atomically-controlled experimental result to a numerical recursive Green's function technique, which can precisely model the experiment, to understand the measured ``atomic'' resistance and the asymmetry. This work is based upon research supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0955625 and 1006230.

  12. Ab Initio Thermodynamic Study of the CO2 Capture Properties of Potassium Carbonate Sesquihydrate, K2CO3·1.5H2O

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Yuhua; Luebkes,David R.; Pennline, Henry W; Li, Bingyun Li; Janik, Michael J.; Halley, Woods

    2012-01-01

    By combining density functional theory and lattice phonon dynamics, the thermodynamic properties of CO2 absorption/desorption reactions with dehydrated potassium carbonates through K2CO3·1.5H2O + CO2 = 2KHCO3 + 0.5H2O(g) are analyzed. The energy change and the chemical potential of this reaction have been calculated and used to evaluate its thermodynamic properties and phase transitions. The results indicate that the K2CO3·1.5H2O can only be applied for postcombustion CO2 capture technology at temperatures lower than its phase transition temperature, which depends on the CO2 pressure and the steam pressure with the best range being PH2O ≤ 1.0 bar. Above the phase transition temperature, the sorbent will be regenerated into anhydrous K2CO3. If the steam pressure PH2O is much greater than 1.0 bar, it is possible to use the K2CO3·1.5H2O sorbent for precombustion CO2 capture technology. Compared to anhydrous K2CO3, K2CO3·1.5H2O requires less energy for regeneration.

  13. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of wheat straw: influence of feedwater pH prepared by acetic acid and potassium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Reza, M Toufiq; Rottler, Erwin; Herklotz, Laureen; Wirth, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    In this study, influence of feedwater pH (2-12) was studied for hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of wheat straw at 200 and 260°C. Acetic acid and KOH were used as acidic and basic medium, respectively. Hydrochars were characterized by elemental and fiber analyses, SEM, surface area, pore volume and size, and ATR-FTIR, while HTC process liquids were analyzed by HPLC and GC. Both hydrochar and HTC process liquid qualities vary with feedwater pH. At acidic pH, cellulose and elemental carbon increase in hydrochar, while hemicellulose and pseudo-lignin decrease. Hydrochars produced at pH 2 feedwater has 2.7 times larger surface area than that produced at pH 12. It also has the largest pore volume (1.1 × 10(-1) ml g(-1)) and pore size (20.2 nm). Organic acids were increasing, while sugars were decreasing in case of basic feedwater, however, phenolic compounds were present only at 260°C and their concentrations were increasing in basic feedwater.

  14. Study of the interactions of molten sodium nitrate-potassium nitrate 50 mol % mixture with water vapor and carbon dioxide in air. Final report, June 2, 1980-June 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    White, S.H.; Twardoch, U.M.

    1981-09-01

    The interactions of aerial components such as water, carbon dioxide, and oxygen with the binary 50 mol % mixture of sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate have been studied in the temperature range 300 to 600/sup 0/C using electrochemical methods. In addition, the behavior of nitrite ions in this melt was investigated electrochemically. By judicious choice of techniques, in situ electroanalysis was possible and the necessary relevant data to accomplish this is presented, as well as insight into the corresponding electrochemical mechanisms associated with the electroactive species. The influence of each atmospheric component was examined separately. At temperatures above 300/sup 0/C, nitrite ions are found to accumulate due to thermal decomposition of the nitrate. Water is highly soluble in the salt mixture, but no hydrolytic reactions were observed. Two methods of in situ analysis for water are described. Pure carbon dioxide is found to attack the melt at all temperatures above 250/sup 0/C producing carbonate. (LEW)

  15. In situ 13CO2 pulse labelling of field-grown eucalypt trees revealed the effects of potassium nutrition and throughfall exclusion on phloem transport of photosynthetic carbon.

    PubMed

    Epron, Daniel; Cabral, Osvaldo Machado Rodrigues; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Dannoura, Masako; Packer, Ana Paula; Plain, Caroline; Battie-Laclau, Patricia; Moreira, Marcelo Zacharias; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; Gérant, Dominique; Nouvellon, Yann

    2016-01-01

    Potassium (K) is an important limiting factor of tree growth, but little is known of the effects of K supply on the long-distance transport of photosynthetic carbon (C) in the phloem and of the interaction between K fertilization and drought. We pulse-labelled 2-year-old Eucalyptus grandis L. trees grown in a field trial combining K fertilization (+K and -K) and throughfall exclusion (+W and -W), and we estimated the velocity of C transfer by comparing time lags between the uptake of (13)CO2 and its recovery in trunk CO2 efflux recorded at different heights. We also analysed the dynamics of the labelled photosynthates recovered in the foliage and in the phloem sap (inner bark extract). The mean residence time of labelled C in the foliage was short (21-31 h). The time series of (13)C in excess in the foliage was affected by the level of fertilization, whereas the effect of throughfall exclusion was not significant. The velocity of C transfer in the trunk (0.20-0.82 m h(-1)) was twice as high in +K trees than in -K trees, with no significant effect of throughfall exclusion except for one +K -W tree labelled in the middle of the drought season that was exposed to a more pronounced water stress (midday leaf water potential of -2.2 MPa). Our results suggest that besides reductions in photosynthetic C supply and in C demand by sink organs, the lower velocity under K deficiency is due to a lower cross-sectional area of the sieve tubes, whereas an increase in phloem sap viscosity is more likely limiting phloem transport under drought. In all treatments, 10 times less (13)C was recovered in inner bark extracts at the bottom of the trunk when compared with the base of the crown, suggesting that a large part of the labelled assimilates has been exported out of the phloem and replaced by unlabelled C. This supports the 'leakage-retrieval mechanism' that may play a role in maintaining the pressure gradient between source and sink organs required to sustain high

  16. Derangements of potassium.

    PubMed

    Medford-Davis, Laura; Rafique, Zubaid

    2014-05-01

    Changes in potassium elimination, primarily due to the renal and GI systems, and shifting potassium between the intracellular and extracellular spaces cause potassium derangement. Symptoms are vague, but can be cardiac, musculoskeletal, or gastrointestinal. There are no absolute guidelines for when to treat, but it is generally recommended when the patient is symptomatic or has ECG changes. Treatment of hyperkalemia includes cardiac membrane stabilization with IV calcium, insulin and beta-antagonists to push potassium intracellularly, and dialysis. Neither sodium bicarbonate nor kayexelate are recommended. Treatment of symptomatic hypokalemia consists of PO or IV repletion with potassium chloride and magnesium sulfate.

  17. Mixed lithium-sodium (LiNaCO3) and lithium-potassium (LiKCO3) carbonates for low temperature electrochemical applications: Structure, electronic properties and surface reconstruction from ab-initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricca, Chiara; Ringuedé, Armelle; Cassir, Michel; Adamo, Carlo; Labat, Frédéric

    2016-05-01

    The structural, electronic and surface properties of the mixed lithium-sodium (LiNaCO3) and lithium-potassium (LiKCO3) carbonates were studied through periodic calculations performed at the density functional theory (DFT) level, using three different exchange-correlation functionals. The hybrid functional PBE0 was found to be the best one to describe both geometric and electronic features of bulk LiNaCO3 and LiKCO3. Polar (001) and non-polar (110) low index surfaces were taken into account, the first one being found the most stable in both cases, after reconstruction. Both introduction of vacancies (R1) and octopolar terminations (R2) of (001), exposing Li ((001)Li) or Na ((001)Na) were described in detail. The computed stability order for the reconstructed surfaces in gas phase is: (001)R1Na > > (001)R1Li > (001)R2Na ≈ (001)R2Li. The obtained information, in particular regarding the electronic and surface properties, could be used in future to help understanding the role of mixed carbonates as component of oxide-carbonate electrolytes for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LT-SOFCs) applications, especially as reasonable starting points for dynamics calculations of liquid molten carbonates based systems.

  18. Low Potassium (Hypokalemia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... critical to the proper functioning of nerve and muscles cells, particularly heart muscle cells. Normally, your blood potassium level is 3.6 to 5.2 millimoles per liter (mmol/L). A very low potassium level (less than 2.5 ... isolated symptoms such as muscle cramps if you are feeling well in other ...

  19. Potassium food supplement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourland, C. T.; Huber, C. S.; Rambaut, C.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.

    1973-01-01

    Potassium gluconate is considered best supplementary source for potassium. Gluconate consistently received highest taste rating and was indistinguishable from nonsupplemented samples. No unfavorable side effects were found during use, and none are reported in literature. Gluconate is normal intermediary metabolite that is readily adsorbed and produces no evidence of gastrointestinal ulcerations.

  20. Potassium and health.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Connie M

    2013-05-01

    Potassium was identified as a shortfall nutrient by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 Advisory Committee. The committee concluded that there was a moderate body of evidence of the association between potassium intake and blood pressure reduction in adults, which in turn influences the risk of stroke and coronary heart disease. Evidence is also accumulating of the protective effect of adequate dietary potassium on age-related bone loss and reduction of kidney stones. These benefits depend on organic anions associated with potassium as occurs in foods such as fruits and vegetables, in contrast to similar blood pressure-lowering benefits of potassium chloride. Benefits to blood pressure and bone health may occur at levels below current recommendations for potassium intake, especially from diet, but dose-response trials are needed to confirm this. Nevertheless, intakes considerably above current levels are needed for optimal health, and studies evaluating small increases in fruit and vegetable intake on bone and heart outcomes for short periods have had disappointing results. In modern societies, Western diets have led to a decrease in potassium intake with reduced consumption of fruits and vegetables with a concomitant increase in sodium consumption through increased consumption of processed foods. Consumption of white vegetables is associated with decreased risk of stroke, possibly related to their high potassium content. Potatoes are the highest source of dietary potassium, but the addition of salt should be limited. Low potassium-to-sodium intake ratios are more strongly related to cardiovascular disease risk than either nutrient alone. This relationship deserves further attention for multiple target tissue endpoints.

  1. Catalytic effect of potassium in Na(1-x)KxCdPb3(PO4)3 to detect mercury (II) in fish and seawater using a carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Lahrich, S; Manoun, B; El Mhammedi, M A

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we report a synthesis of a new lacunar apatite, KCdPb3(PO4)3, using solid state method, and its application as modifier of carbon paste electrode (KLA-CPE) to determine mercury (II). Sodium replacement with potassium induced a linear variation of the crystallographic parameters a and c according to Vegard's law and led to amplify the electrical signal of the working electrode. The peak currents of mercury (II) increased linearly with their concentration at the range from 2.0×10(-7)molL(-1) to 1.0×10(-4)molL(-1) using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. The detection limit was found to be 1.11×10(-8)molL(-1). The use of this electrochemical sensor has been successfully implemented for the determination of Hg (II) in seawater and fish samples. The obtained results were found to be very satisfactory.

  2. Multimegawatt potassium Rankine power for nuclear electric power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rovang, Richard D.; Mills, Joseph C.; Baumeister, Ernie B.

    1991-01-01

    A cermet fueled potassium rankine power system concept has been developed for various power ranges and operating lifetimes. This concept utilizes a single primary lithium loop to transport thermal energy from the reactor to the boiler. Multiple, independent potassium loops are employed to achieve the required reliability of 99 percent. The potassium loops are two phase systems which expand heated potassium vapor through multistage turboalternators to produce a 10-kV dc electrical output. Condensation occurs by-way-of a shear-flow condenser, producing a 100 percent liquid potassium stream which is pumped back to the boiler. Waste heat is rejected by an advanced carbon-carbon radiator at approximately 1000 K. Overall system efficiencies of 19.3 percent to 20.5 percent were calculated depending on mission life and power level.

  3. Titanium-potassium heat pipe corrosion studies

    SciTech Connect

    Lundberg, L.B.

    1984-07-01

    An experimental study of the susceptibility of wickless titanium/potassium heat pipes to corrosive attack has been conducted in vacuo at 800/sup 0/K for 6511h and at 900/sup 0/K for 4797h without failure or degradation. Some movement of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen was observed in the titanium container tube, but no evidence of attack could be detected in metallographic cross sections of samples taken along the length of the heat pipes. The lack of observable attack of titanium by potassium under these conditions refutes previous reports of Ti-K incompatibility.

  4. High potassium level

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms. Tests that may be ordered include: Electrocardiogram (ECG) Potassium level Your provider will likely check your ... have danger signs, such as changes in an ECG . Emergency treatment may include: Calcium given into your ...

  5. Potassium urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... be due to: Certain medicines, including beta blockers, lithium, trimethoprim, potassium-sparing diuretics, or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory ... Diabetic ketoacidosis Hyperaldosteronism - primary and secondary Medullary cystic kidney disease Review Date 8/29/2015 Updated by: Laura ...

  6. Microporous-mesoporous carbons for energy storage synthesized by activation of carbonaceous material by zinc chloride, potassium hydroxide or mixture of them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Härmas, M.; Thomberg, T.; Kurig, H.; Romann, T.; Jänes, A.; Lust, E.

    2016-09-01

    Various electrochemical methods have been applied to establish the electrochemical characteristics of the electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC) consisting of the 1 M triethylmethylammonium tetrafluoroborate solution in acetonitrile and activated carbon based electrodes. Activated microporous carbon materials used for the preparation of electrodes have been synthesized from the hydrothermal carbonization product (HTC) prepared via hydrothermal carbonization process of D-(+)-glucose solution in H2O, followed by activation with ZnCl2, KOH or their mixture. Highest porosity and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area (SBET = 2150 m2 g-1), micropore surface area (Smicro = 2140 m2 g-1) and total pore volume (Vtot = 1.01 cm3 g-1) have been achieved for HTC activated using KOH with a mass ratio of 1:4 at 700 °C. The correlations between SBET, Smicro, Vtot and electrochemical characteristics have been studied to investigate the reasons for strong dependence of electrochemical characteristics on the synthesis conditions of carbon materials studied. Wide region of ideal polarizability (ΔV ≤ 3.0 V), very short characteristic relaxation time (0.66 s), and high specific series capacitance (134 F g-1) have been calculated for the mentioned activated carbon material, demonstrating that this system can be used for completing the EDLC with high energy- and power densities.

  7. High Temperature Stability of Potassium Beta Alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Kisor, A.; Ryan, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    None. From Objectives section: Evaluate the stability of potassium beta alumina under potassium AMTEC operating conditions. Evaluate the stability regime in which potassium beta alumina can be fabricated.

  8. Recipe for potassium

    SciTech Connect

    Izutani, Natsuko

    2012-11-12

    I investigate favorable conditions for producing potassium (K). Observations show [K/Fe] > 0 at low metallicities, while zero-metal supernova models show low [K/Fe] (< 0). Theoretically, it is natural that the odd-Z element, potassium decreases with lower metallicity, and thus, the observation should imply new and unknown sites for potassium. In this proceedings, I calculate proton-rich nucleosynthesis with three parameters, the initial Y{sub e} (from 0.51 to 0.60), the initial density {rho}{sub max} (10{sup 7}, 10{sup 8}, and 10{sup 9} [g/cm{sup 3}]), and the e-fold time {tau} for the density (0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 [sec]). Among 90 models I have calculated, only 26 models show [K/Fe] > 0, and they all have {rho}{sub max} = 10{sup 9}[g/cm{sup 3}]. I discuss parameter dependence of [K/Fe].

  9. Potassium Beta-Alumina/Molybdenum/Potassium Electrochemical Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R.; Kisor, A.; Ryan, M.; Nakamura, B.; Kikert, S.; O'Connor, D.

    1994-01-01

    potassium alkali metal thermal-to-electric converter (K-AMTEC) cells utilizing potassium beta alumina solid electrolyte (K-BASE) are predicted to have improved properties for thermal to electric conversion at somewhat lower temperatures than sodium AMTEC's.

  10. Errors in potassium balance

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes, G.B.; Lantigua, R.; Amatruda, J.M.; Lockwood, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Six overweight adult subjects given a low calorie diet containing adequate amounts of nitrogen but subnormal amounts of potassium (K) were observed on the Clinical Research Center for periods of 29 to 40 days. Metabolic balance of potassium was measured together with frequent assays of total body K by /sup 40/K counting. Metabolic K balance underestimated body K losses by 11 to 87% (average 43%): the intersubject variability is such as to preclude the use of a single correction value for unmeasured losses in K balance studies.

  11. Penicillin V Potassium Oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... or have ever had kidney or liver disease, allergies, asthma, blood disease, colitis, stomach problems, or hay fever.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while taking penicillin V potassium, call your doctor.if you are ...

  12. Potassium silver cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for potassium silver cyanide is inclu

  13. Detecting potassium on Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, R. M.; Potter, A. E.; Morgan, T. H.

    1991-01-01

    A critical comment on the work of A.L. Sprague et al. (1990) is presented. It is argued that, in attributing an enhanced emission in the potassium D lines on Oct. 14, 1987 in the equatorial region of Mercury to a diffusion source centered on Caloris Basin, Sprague et al. misinterpreted the data. Sprague et al. present a reply, taking issue with the commenters.

  14. [Diet low in potassium].

    PubMed

    Sáez Rodríguez, Loreto; Meizoso Ameneiro, Ana; Pérez Paz, Ma Jesús; Valiño Pazos, Cristina

    2011-11-01

    After confirming the high prevalence rates in our hemodialysis unit of the following nursing diagnoses: nutritional imbalances--both excesses and shortages, willingness to improve nutrition and fear related to the consequences of excessive intake of potassium and manifested by the inhibition in some people towards the enjoyment of food, we decided to plan an educational strategy which later resulted in a nursing intervention for these diagnoses, with the objective of providing adequate resources for the monitoring of balanced diets with a restriction of potassium. Inspired by dietary rations, as well as recognized dietary programs of learning by points, we decided to incorporate these ideas to design an educational tool to facilitate advice to our patients on how to follow diet plans as well as the choice of appropriate foods. The result was a set of cards incorporating nutritional information of various kinds, aimed at our patients covering different aspects of the diet appropriate food rations using household measurements, promoting good food preparation, appropriate dietary advice for different chronic diseases and a scoring system of foods according to their potassium content. Together they form a board game available during the hemodialysis sessions that also takes into consideration other issues of importance related to conditions such as cognitive stimulation, coping with the disease, improving the therapeutic performance or resources to increase patient motivation. Although initially it was only an educational exercise, the result has turned out to be both enjoyable and entertaining.

  15. Potassium Channelopathies and Gastrointestinal Ulceration

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jaeyong; Lee, Seung Hun; Giebisch, Gerhard; Wang, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Potassium channels and transporters maintain potassium homeostasis and play significant roles in several different biological actions via potassium ion regulation. In previous decades, the key revelations that potassium channels and transporters are involved in the production of gastric acid and the regulation of secretion in the stomach have been recognized. Drugs used to treat peptic ulceration are often potassium transporter inhibitors. It has also been reported that potassium channels are involved in ulcerative colitis. Direct toxicity to the intestines from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been associated with altered potassium channel activities. Several reports have indicated that the long-term use of the antianginal drug Nicorandil, an adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel opener, increases the chances of ulceration and perforation from the oral to anal regions throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Several of these drug features provide further insights into the role of potassium channels in the occurrence of ulceration in the GI tract. The purpose of this review is to investigate whether potassium channelopathies are involved in the mechanisms responsible for ulceration that occurs throughout the GI tract. PMID:27784845

  16. The Remarkable Chemistry of Potassium Dioxide(1-): Two Microscale Classroom Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Andrew; Anderson, Michael; Mattson, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Potassium dioxide, KO[subscript 2], (potassium superoxide) is an important compound owing to its ability to react with carbon dioxide to produce oxygen. This unique ability is employed to design rebreathing devices for submarines, space vehicles, and space suits. "Rebreathers" for firefighters and miners have also been designed using potassium…

  17. 21 CFR 184.1610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 184.1610 Section 184.1610 Food... GRAS § 184.1610 Potassium alginate. (a) Potassium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-36-1) is the potassium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae. Potassium alginate...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631... GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide (KOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-58-3) is also... powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from the electrolysis of potassium chloride...

  19. 21 CFR 172.800 - Acesulfame potassium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acesulfame potassium. 172.800 Section 172.800 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.800 Acesulfame potassium. Acesulfame potassium (CAS Reg. No. 55589-62-3), also... not preclude such use, under the following conditions: (a) Acesulfame potassium is the potassium...

  20. 21 CFR 172.800 - Acesulfame potassium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acesulfame potassium. 172.800 Section 172.800 Food... Acesulfame potassium. Acesulfame potassium (CAS Reg. No. 55589-62-3), also known as acesulfame K, may be... following conditions: (a) Acesulfame potassium is the potassium salt of...

  1. 21 CFR 172.800 - Acesulfame potassium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acesulfame potassium. 172.800 Section 172.800 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.800 Acesulfame potassium. Acesulfame potassium (CAS Reg. No. 55589-62-3), also... not preclude such use, under the following conditions: (a) Acesulfame potassium is the potassium...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7778-80-5) occurs.... It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with potassium hydroxide or potassium...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium... reacting hydriodic acid (HI) with potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3). (b) The ingredient meets...

  4. 21 CFR 172.800 - Acesulfame potassium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acesulfame potassium. 172.800 Section 172.800 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.800 Acesulfame potassium. Acesulfame potassium (CAS Reg. No. 55589-62-3), also... not preclude such use, under the following conditions: (a) Acesulfame potassium is the potassium...

  5. Frequently Asked Questions on Potassium Iodide (KI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... needs to take potassium iodide (KI) after a nuclear radiation release? What potassium iodide (KI) products are currently ... needs to take potassium iodide (KI) after a nuclear radiation release? The FDA guidance prioritizes groups based on ...

  6. Total body potassium measurement method

    SciTech Connect

    Tomlinson, F.K.

    1985-09-01

    The body counter facility at Mound was used to measure the total body potassium (TBK) in hypertensive patients. Radioactive /sup 40/K accounts for 0.0118% of natural potassium and can be readily measured in vivo. The normal adult human generally has 80 to 185 g of TBK depending on sex, age, height, etc. 10 refs., 1 tab.

  7. Colloidal photonic glass for electro-optic display stabilized with potassium persulfate (KPS) in polar solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hye-Young; Kim, Young-Seok; Yi, Gi-Ra

    2016-04-01

    We introduced carbon-shell with potassium persulfate structure to modify the repulsive force between particles and minimize scattered light. The reflected structural color varied from blue to red and showed high color purity with high cycle stability.

  8. Evaluating Status Change of Soil Potassium from Path Model

    PubMed Central

    He, Wenming; Chen, Fang

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine critical environmental parameters of soil K availability and to quantify those contributors by using a proposed path model. In this study, plot experiments were designed into different treatments, and soil samples were collected and further analyzed in laboratory to investigate soil properties influence on soil potassium forms (water soluble K, exchangeable K, non-exchangeable K). Furthermore, path analysis based on proposed path model was carried out to evaluate the relationship between potassium forms and soil properties. Research findings were achieved as followings. Firstly, key direct factors were soil S, ratio of sodium-potassium (Na/K), the chemical index of alteration (CIA), Soil Organic Matter in soil solution (SOM), Na and total nitrogen in soil solution (TN), and key indirect factors were Carbonate (CO3), Mg, pH, Na, S, and SOM. Secondly, path model can effectively determine direction and quantities of potassium status changes between Exchangeable potassium (eK), Non-exchangeable potassium (neK) and water-soluble potassium (wsK) under influences of specific environmental parameters. In reversible equilibrium state of , K balance state was inclined to be moved into β and χ directions in treatments of potassium shortage. However in reversible equilibrium of , K balance state was inclined to be moved into θ and λ directions in treatments of water shortage. Results showed that the proposed path model was able to quantitatively disclose moving direction of K status and quantify its equilibrium threshold. It provided a theoretical and practical basis for scientific and effective fertilization in agricultural plants growth. PMID:24204659

  9. Geometric and electronic structures of potassium-adsorbed rubrene complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tsung-Lung; Lu, Wen-Cai

    2015-06-28

    The geometric and electronic structures of potassium-adsorbed rubrene complexes are studied in this article. It is found that the potassium-rubrene (K{sub 1}RUB) complexes inherit the main symmetry characteristics from their pristine counterparts and are thus classified into D{sub 2}- and C{sub 2h}-like complexes according to the relative orientations of the four phenyl side groups. The geometric structures of K{sub 1}RUB are governed by two general effects on the total energy: Deformation of the carbon frame of the pristine rubrene increases the total energy, while proximity of the potassium ion to the phenyl ligands decreases the energy. Under these general rules, the structures of D{sub 2}- and C{sub 2h}-like K{sub 1}RUB, however, exhibit their respective peculiarities. These peculiarities can be illustrated by their energy profiles of equilibrium structures. For the potassium adsorption-sites, the D{sub 2}-like complexes show minimum-energy basins, whereas the C{sub 2h}-like ones have single-point minimum-energies. If the potassium atom ever has the energy to diffuse from the minimum-energy site, the potassium diffusion path on the D{sub 2}-like complexes is most likely along the backbone in contrast to the C{sub 2h}-like ones. Although the electronic structures of the minimum-energy structures of D{sub 2}- and C{sub 2h}-like K{sub 1}RUB are very alike, decompositions of their total spectra reveal insights into the electronic structures. First, the spectral shapes are mainly determined by the facts that, in comparison with the backbone carbons, the phenyl carbons have more uniform chemical environments and far less contributions to the electronic structures around the valence-band edge. Second, the electron dissociated from the potassium atom mainly remains on the backbone and has little effects on the electronic structures of the phenyl groups. Third, the two phenyls on the same side of the backbone as the potassium atom have more similar chemical environments

  10. 21 CFR 184.1610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 184.1610 Section 184.1610 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1610 Potassium alginate. (a) Potassium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-36-1) is the potassium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium salt of hydriodic acid. It occurs naturally in sea water and in...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium alginate. 184.1610 Section 184.1610 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1610 Potassium alginate. (a) Potassium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-36-1) is the potassium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 184.1610 Section 184.1610 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1610 Potassium alginate. (a) Potassium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-36-1) is the potassium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium salt of hydriodic acid. It occurs naturally in sea water and in...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide (KOH, CAS Reg... pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide..., including pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 184.1610 Section 184.1610 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1610 Potassium alginate. (a) Potassium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-36-1) is the potassium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium salt of hydriodic acid. It occurs naturally in sea water and in...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide..., including pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1635 - Potassium iodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium iodate. 184.1635 Section 184.1635 Food... GRAS § 184.1635 Potassium iodate. (a) Potassium iodate (KIO3, CAS Reg. No. 7758-05-6) does not occur naturally but can be prepared by reacting iodine with potassium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient meets...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg. No. 7447-40-7) is a white... manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in infant formula in accordance with section 412(g)...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium salt of hydriodic acid. It occurs naturally in sea water and in...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1635 - Potassium iodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium iodate. 184.1635 Section 184.1635 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1635 Potassium iodate. (a) Potassium iodate (KIO3, CAS Reg. No. 7758-05-6) does not occur naturally but can be prepared by reacting iodine with potassium hydroxide....

  8. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide..., including pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1635 - Potassium iodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium iodate. 184.1635 Section 184.1635 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1635 Potassium iodate. (a) Potassium iodate (KIO3, CAS Reg. No. 7758-05-6) does not occur naturally but can be prepared by reacting iodine with potassium hydroxide....

  10. Potassium Disorders: Hypokalemia and Hyperkalemia.

    PubMed

    Viera, Anthony J; Wouk, Noah

    2015-09-15

    Hypokalemia and hyperkalemia are common electrolyte disorders caused by changes in potassium intake, altered excretion, or transcellular shifts. Diuretic use and gastrointestinal losses are common causes of hypokalemia, whereas kidney disease, hyperglycemia, and medication use are common causes of hyperkalemia. When severe, potassium disorders can lead to life-threatening cardiac conduction disturbances and neuromuscular dysfunction. Therefore, a first priority is determining the need for urgent treatment through a combination of history, physical examination, laboratory, and electrocardiography findings. Indications for urgent treatment include severe or symptomatic hypokalemia or hyperkalemia; abrupt changes in potassium levels; electrocardiography changes; or the presence of certain comorbid conditions. Hypokalemia is treated with oral or intravenous potassium. To prevent cardiac conduction disturbances, intravenous calcium is administered to patients with hyperkalemic electrocardiography changes. Insulin, usually with concomitant glucose, and albuterol are preferred to lower serum potassium levels in the acute setting; sodium polystyrene sulfonate is reserved for subacute treatment. For both disorders, it is important to consider potential causes of transcellular shifts because patients are at increased risk of rebound potassium disturbances.

  11. Does Hemodialysis Dialysate Potassium Composition Matter?.

    PubMed

    Haras, Mary S

    2015-01-01

    Dyskalemia is known to cause cardiac arrhythmias and cardiac arrest. In persons undergoing hemodialysis, potassium dialysate composition has been identified as a contributingfactor in addition to co-morbidities, medications, dietary potassium intake, and stage of kidney disease. Current evidence recommends a thorough evaluation of all factors affecting potassium balance, and lower potassium concentration should be used cautiously in patients who are likely to develop cardiac arrhythmias. Nephrology nurses play a key role inpatient assessment and edu- cation related to potassium balance.

  12. DPPX potassium channel antibody

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, William Oliver; Lennon, Vanda A.; Komorowski, Lars; Probst, Christian; Clardy, Stacey Lynn; Aksamit, Allen J.; Appendino, Juan Pablo; Lucchinetti, Claudia F.; Matsumoto, Joseph Y.; Pittock, Sean J.; Sandroni, Paola; Tippmann-Peikert, Maja; Wirrell, Elaine C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe the detection frequency and clinical associations of immunoglobulin G (IgG) targeting dipeptidyl-peptidase-like protein-6 (DPPX), a regulatory subunit of neuronal Kv4.2 potassium channels. Methods: Specimens from 20 patients evaluated on a service basis by tissue-based immunofluorescence yielded a synaptic immunostaining pattern consistent with DPPX-IgG (serum, 20; CSF, all 7 available). Transfected HEK293 cell-based assay confirmed DPPX specificity in all specimens. Sixty-nine patients with stiff-person syndrome and related disorders were also evaluated by DPPX-IgG cell-based assay. Results: Of 20 seropositive patients, 12 were men; median symptom onset age was 53 years (range, 13–75). Symptom onset was insidious in 15 and subacute in 5. Twelve patients reported prodromal weight loss. Neurologic disorders were multifocal. All had one or more brain or brainstem manifestations: amnesia (16), delirium (8), psychosis (4), depression (4), seizures (2), and brainstem disorders (15; eye movement disturbances [8], ataxia [7], dysphagia [6], dysarthria [4], respiratory failure [3]). Nine patients reported sleep disturbance. Manifestations of central hyperexcitability included myoclonus (8), exaggerated startle (6), diffuse rigidity (6), and hyperreflexia (6). Dysautonomia involved the gastrointestinal tract (9; diarrhea [6], gastroparesis, and constipation [3]), bladder (7), cardiac conduction system (3), and thermoregulation (1). Two patients had B-cell neoplasms: gastrointestinal lymphoma (1), and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (1). Substantial neurologic improvements followed immunotherapy in 7 of 11 patients with available treatment data. DPPX-IgG was not detected in any of the stiff-person syndrome patients. Conclusions: DPPX-IgG is a biomarker for an immunotherapy-responsive multifocal neurologic disorder of the central and autonomic nervous systems. PMID:25320100

  13. Regulation of renal potassium secretion: molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Welling, Paul A

    2013-05-01

    A new understanding of renal potassium balance has emerged as the molecular underpinnings of potassium secretion have become illuminated, highlighting the key roles of apical potassium channels, renal outer medullary potassium channel (ROMK) and Big Potassium (BK), in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron and collecting duct. These channels act as the final-regulated components of the renal potassium secretory machinery. Their activity, number, and driving forces are precisely modulated to ensure potassium excretion matches dietary potassium intake. Recent identification of the underlying regulatory mechanisms at the molecular level provides a new appreciation of the physiology and reveals a molecular insight to explain the paradoxic actions of aldosterone on potassium secretion. Here, we review the current state of knowledge in the field.

  14. Alternatives for sodium-potassium alloy treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, T.J.; Johnson, M.E.

    1993-04-08

    Sodium-potassium alloy (NaK) is currently treated at the Y-12 Plant by open burning. Due to uncertainties with future permits for this process alternative treatment methods were investigated, revealing that two treatment processes are feasible. One process reacts the NaK with water in a highly concentrated molten caustic solution (sodium and potassium hydroxide). The final waste is a caustic that may be used elsewhere in the plant. This process has two safety concerns: Hot corrosive materials used throughout the process present handling difficulties and the process must be carefully controlled (temperature and water content) to avoid explosive NaK reactions. To avoid these problems a second process was developed that dissolves NaK in a mixture of propylene glycol and water at room temperature. While this process is safer, it generates more waste than the caustic process. The waste may possibly be used as a carbon food source in biological waste treatment operations at the Y-12 Plant. Experiments were conducted to demonstrate both processes, and they showed that both processes are feasible alternatives for NaK treatment. Process flow sheets with mass balances were generated for both processes and compared. While the caustic process generates less waste, the propylene glycol process is safer in several ways (temperature, material handling, and reaction control). The authors recommend that the propylene glycol alternative be pursued further as an alternative for NaK treatment. To optimize this process for a larger scale several experiments should be conducted. The amount of NaK dissolved in propylene glycol and subsequent waste generated should be optimized. The offgas processes should be optimized. The viability of using this waste as a carbon food source at one of the Y-12 Plant treatment facilities should be investigated. If the state accepts this process as an alternative, design and construction of a pilot-scale treatment system should begin.

  15. Cold blood--potassium cardioplegia.

    PubMed

    Levinsky, L; Lee, A B; Lee, K C; Tatransky, F; Dockstader, R; Schimert, G

    1980-09-01

    A technique is described for providing myocardial protection utilizing oxygenated blood that is drawn from the pump oxygenator and passed through two disposable cardioplegic cooling coils, which are joined in series and submerged in ice slush. A potassium-containing cardioplegic solution is run into the oxygenated blood at the level of the cooling coils. The amount of blood used in the blood-potassium cardioplegic mixture is controlled using a screw clamp. This method has been used with excellent results in 150 consecutive patients undergoing aortocoronary saphenous vein bypass grafting.

  16. Equatorial potassium currents in lenses.

    PubMed

    Wind, B E; Walsh, S; Patterson, J W

    1988-02-01

    Earlier work with the vibrating probe demonstrated the existence of outward potassium currents at the equator and inward sodium currents at the optical poles of the lens. By adding microelectrodes to the system, it is possible to relate steady currents (J) to the potential difference (PD) measured with a microelectrode. By injecting an outward current (I), it is possible to determine resistances and also the PD at which the steady outward potassium current becomes zero (PDJ = 0). At this PD the concentration gradient for potassium efflux and the electrical gradient for potassium influx are balanced so that there is no net flow of potassium across the membranes associated with the production of J. The PDJ = 0 for 18 rat lenses was 86 mV and that for 12 frogs lenses was -95 mV. This agrees with the potassium equilibrium potential and provides strong evidence to support the view that the outward equatorial current, J, is a potassium current. With the injection of outward current, I, the PD becomes more negative, the outward equatorial current, J, decreases, and the inward current at the optical poles increases. This suggests that there are separate electrical loops for K+ and Na+ that are partially linked by the Na, K-pump. Using Ohm's law, it is possible to calculate the input resistance (R = delta PD/I), the resistance related to the production of J (RJ = delta PD/delta J), and the effect of the combined resistances (delta J/I). The driving force for J can be estimated (PDJ = 0-PD). The relationships among currents, voltages and resistance can be used to determine the characteristics of the membranes that are associated with the outward potassium current observed at the equator. The effects of graded deformation of the lens were determined. The effects were reversible. The sites of inward and outward currents were not altered. Following deformation, the equatorial current, J, increased, and the PD became less negative. The PDJ = 0 remains the same so the ratio of K

  17. Extrarenal potassium adaptation: role of skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Blachley, J.D.; Crider, B.P.; Johnson, J.H.

    1986-08-01

    Following the ingestion of a high-potassium-content diet for only a few days, the plasma potassium of rats rises only modestly in response to a previously lethal dose of potassium salts. This acquired tolerance, termed potassium adaptation, is principally the result of increased capacity to excrete potassium into the urine. However, a substantial portion of the acute potassium dose is not immediately excreted and is apparently translocated into cells. Previous studies have failed to show an increase in the content of potassium of a variety of tissues from such animals. Using /sup 86/Rb as a potassium analogue, we have shown that the skeletal muscle of potassium-adapted rats takes up significantly greater amounts of potassium in vivo in response to an acute challenge than does that of control animals. Furthermore, the same animals exhibit greater efflux of /sup 86/Rb following the termination of the acute infusion. We have also shown that the Na+-K+-ATPase activity and ouabain-binding capacity of skeletal muscle microsomes are increased by the process of potassium adaptation. We conclude that skeletal muscle is an important participant in potassium adaptation and acts to temporarily buffer acute increases in the extracellular concentration of potassium.

  18. Physiology and pathophysiology of potassium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Biff F; Clegg, Deborah J

    2016-12-01

    Total body potassium content and proper distribution of potassium across the cell membrane is of critical importance for normal cellular function. Potassium homeostasis is maintained by several different methods. In the kidney, total body potassium content is achieved by alterations in renal excretion of potassium in response to variations in intake. Insulin and beta-adrenergic tone play critical roles in maintaining the internal distribution of potassium under normal conditions. Despite homeostatic pathways designed to maintain potassium levels within the normal range, disorders of altered potassium homeostasis are common. The clinical approach to designing effective treatments relies on understanding the pathophysiology and regulatory influences which govern the internal distribution and external balance of potassium. Here we provide an overview of the key regulatory aspects of normal potassium physiology. This review is designed to provide an overview of potassium homeostasis as well as provide references of seminal papers to guide the reader into a more in depth discussion of the importance of potassium balance. This review is designed to be a resource for educators and well-informed clinicians who are teaching trainees about the importance of potassium balance.

  19. Fourier transform C-13 NMR analysis of some free and potassium-ion complexed antibiotics.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohnishi, M.; Fedarko, M.-C.; Baldeschwieler, J. D.; Johnson, L. F.

    1972-01-01

    Fourier transforms of the noise-decoupled, natural abundance C-13 NMR free induction decays of the cyclic antibiotic valinomycin and its potassium-ion complex have been obtained at 25.2 MHz. Comparisons are made with C-13 NMR spectra taken at 22.6 MHz of the cyclic antibiotic nonactin and the synthetic polyether dicyclohexyl-18-crown-6 and their potassium complexes. The results obtained suggest that conformational rearrangements of the molecule as a whole can compete with direct interactions between carbons and the potassium ion in determining C-13 chemical shift differences between the free and complexed species.

  20. Synthesis, characterization, thermal and explosive properties of potassium salts of trinitrophloroglucinol.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liqiong; Chen, Hongyan; Zhang, Tonglai; Zhang, Jianguo; Yang, Li

    2007-08-17

    Three different substituted potassium salts of trinitrophloroglucinol (H(3)TNPG) were prepared and characterized. The salts are all hydrates, and thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and elemental analysis confirmed that these salts contain crystal H2O and that the amount crystal H2O in potassium salts of H3TNPG is 1.0 hydrate for mono-substituted potassium salts of H3TNPG [K(H2TNPG)] and di-substituted potassium salt of H3TNPG [K2(HTNPG)], and 2.0 hydrate for tri-substituted potassium salt of H3TNPG [K3(TNPG)]. Their thermal decomposition mechanisms and kinetic parameters from 50 to 500 degrees C were studied under a linear heating rate by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Their thermal decomposition mechanisms undergo dehydration stage and intensive exothermic decomposition stage. FT-IR and TG studies verify that their final residua of decomposition are potassium cyanide or potassium carbonate. According to the onset temperature of the first exothermic decomposition process of dehydrated salts, the order of the thermal stability from low to high is from K(H2TNPG) and K2(HTNPG) to K3(TNPG), which is conform to the results of apparent activation energy calculated by Kissinger's and Ozawa-Doyle's method. Sensitivity test results showed that potassium salts of H3TNPG demonstrated higher sensitivity properties and had greater explosive probabilities.

  1. Can Diuretics Decrease Your Potassium Level?

    MedlinePlus

    ... High blood pressure (hypertension) Can diuretics decrease your potassium level? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Yes, some diuretics — also called water pills — decrease potassium in the blood. Diuretics are commonly used to ...

  2. 21 CFR 172.730 - Potassium bromate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....730 Potassium bromate. The food additive potassium bromate may be safely used in the malting of barley... barley under conditions whereby the amount of the additive present in the malt from the treatment...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O, CAS Reg. No. 006100-0905-096) is the potassium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and...

  5. The Ketogenic Diet and Potassium Channel Function

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0463 TITLE: The Ketogenic Diet and Potassium Channel Function...Diet and Potassium Channel Function 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0463 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Geoffrey Murphy 5d. PROJECT...regulates neuronal excitability by influencing potassium channel activity via the auxiliary potassium channel subunit Kvβ2. To test this hypothesis we

  6. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O, CAS Reg. No. 006100-0905-096) is the potassium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O, CAS Reg. No. 006100-0905-096) is the potassium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and is prepared commercially...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O, CAS Reg. No. 006100-0905-096) is the potassium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric acid with...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O, CAS Reg. No. 006100-0905-096) is the potassium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing...

  14. 75 FR 23298 - Potassium Permanganate From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... COMMISSION Potassium Permanganate From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on potassium permanganate from China... antidumping duty order on potassium permanganate from China would be likely to lead to continuation...

  15. Potassium channels and their evolving gates.

    PubMed

    Jan, L Y; Jan, Y N

    1994-09-08

    Potassium channels allow potassium ions to flow across the membrane and play a key role in maintaining membrane potential. Recent research has begun to reveal how these channels transport potassium in preference to other ions, how their activity is controlled, and how they are related to other channels.

  16. 21 CFR 182.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 182.3640 Section 182.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  18. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with...

  19. 21 CFR 182.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 182.3640 Section 182.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Potassium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  1. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium...

  2. 21 CFR 182.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium bisulfite. 182.3616 Section 182.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or...

  3. 21 CFR 582.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 582.3640 Section 582.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3640 Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  4. 21 CFR 582.7610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 582.7610 Section 582.7610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium alginate. (a) Product. Potassium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  5. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  7. 21 CFR 582.5628 - Potassium glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium glycerophosphate. 582.5628 Section 582.5628 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5628 Potassium glycerophosphate. (a) Product. Potassium glycerophosphate....

  8. 21 CFR 582.7610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 582.7610 Section 582.7610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium alginate. (a) Product. Potassium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  9. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  10. 21 CFR 582.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 582.3616 Section 582.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  11. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 582.5634 Section 582.5634 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent....

  12. 21 CFR 182.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 182.3616 Section 182.3616...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance is...

  13. 21 CFR 182.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 182.3616 Section 182.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  14. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  15. 21 CFR 182.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 182.3616 Section 182.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  17. 21 CFR 182.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 182.3637 Section 182.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  18. 21 CFR 582.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 582.3640 Section 582.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3640 Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  19. 21 CFR 172.730 - Potassium bromate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium bromate. 172.730 Section 172.730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Specific Usage Additives § 172.730 Potassium bromate. The food additive potassium bromate may be...

  20. 21 CFR 582.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 582.3616 Section 582.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  1. 21 CFR 182.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium sorbate. 182.3640 Section 182.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Potassium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  3. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  4. 21 CFR 582.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 582.3637 Section 582.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  5. 21 CFR 582.7610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 582.7610 Section 582.7610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium alginate. (a) Product. Potassium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. 21 CFR 582.7610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 582.7610 Section 582.7610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium alginate. (a) Product. Potassium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. 21 CFR 582.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 582.3637 Section 582.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  9. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  10. 21 CFR 582.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 582.3640 Section 582.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3640 Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  11. 21 CFR 182.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 182.3616 Section 182.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  12. 21 CFR 582.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 582.3637 Section 582.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  14. 21 CFR 182.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 182.3640 Section 182.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  16. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  17. 21 CFR 182.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 182.3637 Section 182.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Potassium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  19. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 582.5634 Section 582.5634 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent....

  20. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  1. 21 CFR 582.5628 - Potassium glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium glycerophosphate. 582.5628 Section 582.5628 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5628 Potassium glycerophosphate. (a) Product. Potassium glycerophosphate....

  2. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  3. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  4. 21 CFR 172.730 - Potassium bromate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium bromate. 172.730 Section 172.730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.730 Potassium bromate. The food additive potassium bromate may...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  6. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with...

  7. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with...

  9. 21 CFR 182.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium metabisulfite. 182.3637 Section 182.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  10. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium...

  11. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  12. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 582.5634 Section 582.5634 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent....

  13. 21 CFR 182.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 182.3637 Section 182.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  15. 21 CFR 582.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 582.3640 Section 582.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3640 Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  16. 21 CFR 582.7610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 582.7610 Section 582.7610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium alginate. (a) Product. Potassium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  17. 21 CFR 582.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 582.3637 Section 582.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  18. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  20. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  1. 21 CFR 582.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 582.3616 Section 582.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  4. 21 CFR 582.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 582.3616 Section 582.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  5. 21 CFR 582.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 582.3637 Section 582.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  6. 21 CFR 182.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 182.3637 Section 182.3637...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance...

  7. 21 CFR 582.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 582.3640 Section 582.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3640 Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  9. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Potassium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  10. 21 CFR 582.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 582.3616 Section 582.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Potassium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  12. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely used as a...

  13. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Food Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely...

  14. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Food Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely...

  15. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Food Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely...

  16. [Effects of fertilization on aquic brown soil potassium budget and crop potassium allocation].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zishao; Yu, Wantai; Zhang, Lu

    2006-12-01

    Through a consecutive 15 years field trial on the aquic brown soil in Shenyang suburb of Northeast China, this paper studied the soil potassium budget and crop potassium allocation under effects of different fertilization systems. The results indicated that applying nitrogen or nitrogen plus phosphorous without potassium application accelerated the deficit of soil potassium. The potassium concentration in soybean grain and stalk was higher under potassium application than with no potassium supply, while that in maize grain had no significant difference in different fertilization treatments. The reutilization of recycled nutrients in farming system could mitigate the deficit of soil potassium budget, and such reutilization assorted with appropriate amount of potassium fertilization could not only produce high crop yield, but also balance soil potassium budget.

  17. Conversion of alkali metal sulfate to the carbonate

    DOEpatents

    Sheth, A.C.

    1979-10-01

    A process is described for converting potassium sulfate to potassium carbonate in which a mixture of potassium sulfate and calcium oxide are reacted at a temperature in the range of between about 700/sup 0/C and about 800/sup 0/C with a gaseous mixture having a minor amount of hydrogen and/or carbon monoxide in a diluent with the calcium oxide being present in an amount not greater than about 20 percent by weight of the potassium sulfate to produce an aqueous mixture of potassium sulfide, potassium bisulfide, potassium hydroxide and calcium sulfide and a gaseous mixture of steam and hydrogen sulfide. The potassium and calcium salts are quenched to produce an aqueous slurry of soluble potassium salts and insoluble calcium salts and a gaseous mixture of steam and hydrogen sulfide. The insoluble calcium salts are then separated from the aqueous solution of soluble potassium salts. The calcium salts are dried to produce calcium sulfide, calcium bisulfide and steam, and then, the calcium sulfide and calcium bisulfide are converted to the oxide and recycled. The soluble potassium salts are carbonated to produce potassium carbonate which is concentrated and the precipitated crystals separated. the sulfur-containing compounds are further treated. This process was developed for desulfurization and reprocessing of spent seed from open-cycle coal-fired MHD generators for reuse.

  18. Conversion of alkali metal sulfate to the carbonate

    DOEpatents

    Sheth, Atul C.

    1982-01-01

    A process for converting potassium sulfate to potassium carbonate in which a mixture of potassium sulfate and calcium oxide are reacted at a temperature in the range of between about 700.degree. C. and about 800.degree. C. with a gaseous mixture having a minor amount of hydrogen and/or carbon monoxide in a diluent with the calcium oxide being present in an amount not greater than about 20 percent by weight of the potassium sulfate to produce an aqueous mixture of potassium sulfide, potassium bisulfide, potassium hydroxide and calcium sulfide and a gaseous mixture of steam and hydrogen sulfide. The potassium and calcium salts are quenched to produce an aqueous slurry of soluble potassium salts and insoluble calcium salts and a gaseous mixture of steam and hydrogen sulfide. The insoluble calcium salts are then separated from the aqueous solution of soluble potassium salts. The calcium salts are dried to produce calcium sulfide, calcium bisulfide and steam, and then, the calcium sulfide and calcium bisulfide are converted to the oxide and recycled. The soluble potassium salts are carbonated to produce potassium carbonate which is concentrated and the precipitated crystals separated. The sulfur-containing compounds are further treated.

  19. Reciprocal Regulation of Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 and Potassium Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Primo, Cecilia; Ferri-Blázquez, Alba; Loewith, Robbie; Yenush, Lynne

    2017-01-13

    The proper maintenance of potassium homeostasis is crucial for cell viability. Among the major determinants of potassium uptake in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae are the Trk1 high affinity potassium transporter and the functionally redundant Hal4 (Sat4) and Hal5 protein kinases. These kinases are required for the plasma membrane accumulation of not only Trk1 but also several nutrient permeases. Here, we show that overexpression of the target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) effector NPR1 improves hal4 hal5 growth defects by stabilizing nutrient permeases at the plasma membrane. We subsequently found that internal potassium levels and TORC1 activity are linked. Specifically, growth under limiting potassium alters the activities of Npr1 and another TORC1 effector kinase, Sch9; hal4 hal5 and trk1 trk2 mutants display hypersensitivity to rapamycin, and reciprocally, TORC1 inhibition reduces potassium accumulation. Our results demonstrate that in addition to carbon and nitrogen, TORC1 also responds to and regulates potassium fluxes.

  20. Serum potassium concentration in hyperglycemia of diabetes mellitus with long-term dialysis.

    PubMed

    Tzamaloukas, A H; Avasthi, P S

    1987-05-01

    Severe hyperkalemia (serum potassium level >6 mmol per liter [mEq per liter]), often with electrocardiographic disturbances, was noted at presentation in 30% of 73 hyperglycemic episodes (serum glucose concentration >25 mmol per liter [455 mg per dl]) observed in 15 in-hospital patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus who were receiving long-term hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. Serum glucose concentration and total carbon dioxide content correlated significantly with the presenting serum potassium concentration. Treatment with parenteral insulin alone resulted in a decrease of the serum glucose value from 41 +/- 14 (standard deviation) to 11 +/- 5 mmol per liter (P <.001) and of serum potassium level from 5.2 +/- 1.2 to 4.0 +/- 0.6 mmol per liter (P <.001). The changes in serum glucose concentration and in carbon dioxide content and the serum potassium concentration at hyperglycemia were found to be independent correlates of the decrease in potassium concentration during treatment. Insulin alone resulted in correction of hyperkalemia in all instances. Posttreatment hypokalemia was noted in only two instances, each associated with both ketoacidosis and low-normal serum potassium concentration at hyperglycemia. Giving insulin is the only treatment usually needed for the hyperkalemia of hyperglycemia in patients on ongoing dialysis.

  1. Development of a prototype regenerable carbon dioxide absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onischak, M.

    1976-01-01

    Design information was obtained for a new, regenerable carbon dioxide control system for extravehicular activity life support systems. Solid potassium carbonate was supported in a thin porous sheet form and fabricated into carbon dioxide absorber units. Carbon dioxide and water in the life support system atmosphere react with the potassium carbonate and form potassium bicarbonate. The bicarbonate easily reverts to the carbonate by heating to 150 deg C. The methods of effectively packing the sorbent material into EVA-sized units and the effects of inlet concentrations, flowrate, and temperature upon performance were investigated. The cycle life of the sorbent upon the repeated thermal regenerations was demonstrated through 90 cycles.

  2. Plasma Potassium Levels in Healthy Prehypertension Subjects and the Role of A High Potassium Drink.

    PubMed

    Farapti, Farapti; Sayogo, Savitri; Siregar, Parlindungan

    2017-02-24

    Most populations around the world consume less than the recommended levels of potassium. Long term low potassium intake could lead to decreased plasma potassium levels and induce hypokalemia. The increasing of plasma potassium levels 0,2-0,4 mmol/L by improving potassium intake decreased significantly blood pressure (BP). Assessing plasma potassium levels in healthy people related to potassium intake have not been studied. In this study, we analysed plasma potassium levels in prehypertension (PHT) subjects and to evaluate the effect of tender coconut water (TCW) as a high potassium drink on plasma potassium levels in PHT adults. Thirthy-two female aged 25-44 years were randomly allocated to 14 days on TCW or water in a parallel randomized clinical trial . The treatment (T) group received TCW 300 ml twice daily and the control (C) group received water 300 ml twice daily too. At baseline, plasma potassium levels was 3.71±0.41 mmol/L, and 22.58% were categorized as hypokalemia. After 14 days treatment, potassium plasma level between T and C groups were not significantly different (p=0,247). The change of plasma potassium levels in both groups showed tendency to increase but not statistically significant (p=0.166). In healthy prehypertension women, the low levels of potassium plasma may be caused by low potassium intake for long time and intervension with TCW 300 ml twice daily for 14 consecutive days has not proven yet to increase plasma potassium levels. It is necessary to give higher dose and longer time to increase potassium plasma in low potassium plasma level subjects.

  3. Potassium Intake, Bioavailability, Hypertension, and Glucose Control

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Michael S.; Martyn, Lisa; Weaver, Connie M.

    2016-01-01

    Potassium is an essential nutrient. It is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid where it plays a key role in maintaining cell function. The gradient of potassium across the cell membrane determines cellular membrane potential, which is maintained in large part by the ubiquitous ion channel the sodium-potassium (Na+-K+) ATPase pump. Approximately 90% of potassium consumed (60–100 mEq) is lost in the urine, with the other 10% excreted in the stool, and a very small amount lost in sweat. Little is known about the bioavailability of potassium, especially from dietary sources. Less is understood on how bioavailability may affect health outcomes. Hypertension (HTN) is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and a major financial burden ($50.6 billion) to the US public health system, and has a significant impact on all-cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. The relationship between increased potassium supplementation and a decrease in HTN is relatively well understood, but the effect of increased potassium intake from dietary sources on blood pressure overall is less clear. In addition, treatment options for hypertensive individuals (e.g., thiazide diuretics) may further compound chronic disease risk via impairments in potassium utilization and glucose control. Understanding potassium bioavailability from various sources may help to reveal how specific compounds and tissues influence potassium movement, and further the understanding of its role in health. PMID:27455317

  4. Potassium Intake, Bioavailability, Hypertension, and Glucose Control.

    PubMed

    Stone, Michael S; Martyn, Lisa; Weaver, Connie M

    2016-07-22

    Potassium is an essential nutrient. It is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid where it plays a key role in maintaining cell function. The gradient of potassium across the cell membrane determines cellular membrane potential, which is maintained in large part by the ubiquitous ion channel the sodium-potassium (Na+-K+) ATPase pump. Approximately 90% of potassium consumed (60-100 mEq) is lost in the urine, with the other 10% excreted in the stool, and a very small amount lost in sweat. Little is known about the bioavailability of potassium, especially from dietary sources. Less is understood on how bioavailability may affect health outcomes. Hypertension (HTN) is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and a major financial burden ($50.6 billion) to the US public health system, and has a significant impact on all-cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. The relationship between increased potassium supplementation and a decrease in HTN is relatively well understood, but the effect of increased potassium intake from dietary sources on blood pressure overall is less clear. In addition, treatment options for hypertensive individuals (e.g., thiazide diuretics) may further compound chronic disease risk via impairments in potassium utilization and glucose control. Understanding potassium bioavailability from various sources may help to reveal how specific compounds and tissues influence potassium movement, and further the understanding of its role in health.

  5. Disposable blood potassium sensors based on screen-printed thick film electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hui; Yang, Xiaoxi; Wang, You; Zheng, Junbao; Luo, Zhiyuan; Li, Guang

    2010-05-01

    A sensor based on the screen-printing technique for the rapid blood potassium test was developed. The sensor consists of a thick film potassium ion-selective electrode and a reference electrode. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) doped with poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS) was screen-printed on carbon electrodes as an internal solid contact layer for both ion-selective and reference electrodes. PVC membranes with and without selective ionphore valinomycin were coated on the PEDOT/PSS layer to form potassium ion-selective and reference electrodes, respectively. The potentiometric response characters were evaluated. The response time of the sensor was 15 s when less than 15 µL of sample was applied. The sensitivity of the potassium sensor was around 60 mV per decade, while the potentiometric log selectivity coefficients were -3.43 and -3.48 for Na+ and Ca2+, respectively.

  6. Potassium Uptake Modulates Staphylococcus aureus Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Gries, Casey M.; Sadykov, Marat R.; Bulock, Logan L.; Chaudhari, Sujata S.; Thomas, Vinai C.; Bose, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT As a leading cause of community-associated and nosocomial infections, Staphylococcus aureus requires sophisticated mechanisms that function to maintain cellular homeostasis in response to its exposure to changing environmental conditions. The adaptation to stress and maintenance of homeostasis depend largely on membrane activity, including supporting electrochemical gradients and synthesis of ATP. This is largely achieved through potassium (K+) transport, which plays an essential role in maintaining chemiosmotic homeostasis, affects antimicrobial resistance, and contributes to fitness in vivo. Here, we report that S. aureus Ktr-mediated K+ uptake is necessary for maintaining cytoplasmic pH and the establishment of a proton motive force. Metabolite analyses revealed that K+ deficiency affects both metabolic and energy states of S. aureus by impairing oxidative phosphorylation and directing carbon flux toward substrate-level phosphorylation. Taken together, these results underline the importance of K+ uptake in maintaining essential components of S. aureus metabolism. IMPORTANCE Previous studies describing mechanisms for K+ uptake in S. aureus revealed that the Ktr-mediated K+ transport system was required for normal growth under alkaline conditions but not under neutral or acidic conditions. This work focuses on the effect of K+ uptake on S. aureus metabolism, including intracellular pH and carbon flux, and is the first to utilize a pH-dependent green fluorescent protein (GFP) to measure S. aureus cytoplasmic pH. These studies highlight the role of K+ uptake in supporting proton efflux under alkaline conditions and uncover a critical role for K+ uptake in establishing efficient carbon utilization. PMID:27340697

  7. Development of a prototype regenerable carbon dioxide absorber for portable life support systems. [for astronaut EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onischak, M.; Baker, B.

    1977-01-01

    The design and development of a prototype carbon dioxide absorber using potassium carbonate (K2CO3) is described. Absorbers are constructed of thin, porous sheets of supported K2CO3 that are spirally wound to form a cylindrical reactor. Axial gas passages are formed between the porous sheets by corrugated screen material. Carbon dioxide and water in an enclosed life support system atmosphere react with potassium carbonate to form potassium bicarbonate. The potassium carbonate is regenerated by heating the potassium bicarbonate to 150 C at ambient pressure. The extravehicular mission design conditions are for one man for 8 h. Results are shown for a subunit test module investigating the effects of heat release, length-to-diameter ratio, and active cooling upon performance. The most important effect upon carbon dioxide removal is the temperature of the potassium carbonate.

  8. [Rare, severe hypersensitivity reaction to potassium iodide].

    PubMed

    Korsholm, Anne Sofie; Ebbehøj, Eva; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2014-07-07

    The literature reports a large variety of adverse reactions to potassium iodide. A severe hypersensitivity reaction to potassium iodide in a 51-year-old woman with Graves' thyrotoxicosis is described. Following administration the patient developed sialadenitis, conjunctivitis, stomatitis and acneiform iododerma that responded dramatically to withdrawal of the potassium iodide and administration with corticosteroids. Awareness of these adverse reactions may prevent prolonged hospitalization and unnecessary tests and treatments.

  9. Potassium

    MedlinePlus

    ... Talk to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in your community. See the FDA's Safe Disposal of Medicines website (http://goo.gl/c4Rm4p) for ...

  10. Potassium

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  11. Genetic Control of Potassium Channels.

    PubMed

    Amin, Ahmad S; Wilde, Arthur A M

    2016-06-01

    Approximately 80 genes in the human genome code for pore-forming subunits of potassium (K(+)) channels. Rare variants (mutations) in K(+) channel-encoding genes may cause heritable arrhythmia syndromes. Not all rare variants in K(+) channel-encoding genes are necessarily disease-causing mutations. Common variants in K(+) channel-encoding genes are increasingly recognized as modifiers of phenotype in heritable arrhythmia syndromes and in the general population. Although difficult, distinguishing pathogenic variants from benign variants is of utmost importance to avoid false designations of genetic variants as disease-causing mutations.

  12. The importance of potassium in managing hypertension.

    PubMed

    Houston, Mark C

    2011-08-01

    Dietary potassium intake has been demonstrated to significantly lower blood pressure (BP) in a dose-responsive manner in both hypertensive and nonhypertensive patients in observational studies, clinical trials, and several meta-analyses. In hypertensive patients, the linear dose-response relationship is a 1.0 mm Hg reduction in systolic BP and a 0.52 mm Hg reduction in diastolic BP per 0.6 g per day increase in dietary potassium intake that is independent of baseline potassium deficiency. The average reduction in BP with 4.7 g (120 mmol) of dietary potassium per day is 8.0/4.1 mm Hg, depending race and on the relative intakes of other minerals such as sodium, magnesium, and calcium. If the dietary sodium chloride intake is high, there is a greater BP reduction with an increased intake of dietary potassium. Blacks have a greater decrease in BP than Caucasians with an equal potassium intake. Potassium-induced reduction in BP significantly lowers the incidence of stroke (cerebrovascular accident, CVA), coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, and other cardiovascular events. However, potassium also reduces the risk of CVA independent of BP reductions. Increasing consumption of potassium to 4.7 g per day predicts lower event rates for future cardiovascular disease, with estimated decreases of 8% to 15% in CVA and 6% to 11% in myocardial infarction.

  13. Dietary potassium modulates active potassium absorption and secretion in rat distal colon

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, E.S.; Sandle, G.I.; Hayslett, J.P.; Binder, H.J.

    1986-11-01

    To determine the effect of variations in body stores of potassium on the rate of active potassium transport in the large intestine, unidirectional 42K fluxes were performed under short-circuit conditions across isolated distal colonic mucosa of control, dietary potassium-depleted and dietary potassium-loaded rats. Potassium depletion stimulated net potassium absorption (JK net) (0.87 +/- 0.19 vs. 0.49 +/- 0.04 mu eq X h-1 X cm-2, P less than 0.025) due to a 40% increase in mucosal-to-serosal potassium transport (JK m----s). In sodium-free Ringer solution JK net in the potassium-depleted group was also significantly greater than in controls (1.93 +/- 0.26 vs. 1.01 +/- 0.11 mu eq X h-1 X cm-2, P less than 0.005). In contrast, in chloride-free Ringer solution JK net was identical in the control and potassium-depleted groups (0.39 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.46 +/- 0.07 mu eq X h-1 X cm-2, P = NS). Potassium loading reversed net potassium absorption to net potassium secretion (-0.76 +/- 0.08 mu eq X h-1 X cm-2, P less than 0.001) as the result of a decrease in JK m----s and an increase in serosal-to-mucosal potassium transport (JK s----m). Net potassium secretion was abolished in the absence of either sodium or chloride from the bathing solution but not by mucosal amiloride. In sodium-free Ringer solution JK net was similar in control and potassium-loaded groups, respectively.

  14. Shifting the Balance of Sodium and Potassium in Your Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources About FAQ Contact Shifting the Balance of Sodium and Potassium in Your Diet Most Americans consume ... doctor before trying a potassium-based salt substitute. Sodium and Potassium Amounts in Fresh and Processed Foods ...

  15. 75 FR 51112 - Potassium Permanganate From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... COMMISSION Potassium Permanganate From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... from China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice of the scheduling of an expedited review... whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on potassium permanganate from China would be likely...

  16. 21 CFR 182.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 182.3640 Section 182.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3640 Potassium sorbate. (a) Product....

  17. Potassium - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Center Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) Potassium Content of Common Foods (High) English 含高量鉀質的食品(每份所含鉀質多過200毫克) - 繁體中文 (Chinese - Traditional) PDF Chinese Community Health Resource Center Potassium Content ...

  18. Process for preparation of potassium-38

    DOEpatents

    Lambrecht, Richard M.; Wolf, Alfred P.

    1981-01-01

    A solution of potassium-38 suitable for use as a radiopharmaceutical and a method for its production. Argon is irradiated with protons having energies above the threshold for the .sup.40 Ar(p,3n).sup.38 K reaction. The resulting potassium-38 is dissolved in a sterile water and any contaminating chlorine-38 is removed.

  19. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely used as a curing agent in the processing of...

  20. Potassium in hypertension and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Castro, Hector; Raij, Leopoldo

    2013-05-01

    The increased prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in industrialized societies undoubtedly is associated with the modern high-sodium/low-potassium diet. Extensive experimental and clinical data strongly link potassium intake to cardiovascular outcome. Most studies suggest that the sodium-to-potassium intake ratio is a better predictor of cardiovascular outcome than either nutrient individually. A high-sodium/low-potassium environment results in significant abnormalities in central hemodynamics, leading to potential target organ damage. Altered renal sodium handling, impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilatation, and increased oxidative stress are important mediators of this effect. It remains of paramount importance to reinforce consumption of a low-sodium/high-potassium diet as a critical strategy for prevention and treatment of hypertension and cardiovascular disease.

  1. Novel Nanocomposite-based Potassium Ion Biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, R.; Gouma, P. I.

    2009-05-01

    Potassium ion (K+) is important in regulating normal cell function in the human body, specifically the heartbeat and the muscle function. Thus, it is important to be able to monitor potassium ion concentrations in human fluids. This paper describes a novel concept for a potassium ion biosensor that accurately, rapidly, and efficiently monitors the presence and records the concentration of potassium ions with high specificity, not only in serum and urine, but also in the sweat or even eye fluid. This specific biosensor design utilizes a nanomanufacturing technique, i.e. electrospinning, to produce advanced nano-bio-composites that specifically trace even minute quantities of potassium ions through the use of selective bio-receptors (ionophores) attached to high surface area nanofibers. Electroactive polymers are then employed as transducers to produce an electronic (rather than ionic) output that changes instantly with the change in K+ concentration. Such biosensors may be manufactured in a skin patch configuration.

  2. Role of Nitrogen Doped Graphene for Improved High Capacity Potassium Ion Battery Anodes.

    PubMed

    Share, Keith; Cohn, Adam P; Carter, Rachel; Rogers, Bridget; Pint, Cary L

    2016-10-09

    Potassium is an earth abundant alternative to lithium for rechargeable batteries, but a critical limitation in potassium ion battery anodes is the low capacity of KC8 graphite intercalation compounds in comparison to conventional LiC6. Here we demonstrate that nitrogen doping of few-layered graphene can increase the storage capacity of potassium from a theoretical maximum of 278 mAh/g in graphite to over 350 mAh/g, competitive with anode capacity in commercial lithium-ion batteries and the highest reported anode capacity so far for potassium ion batteries. Control studies distinguish the importance of nitrogen dopant sites as opposed to sp3 carbon defect sites to achieve the improved performance, which also enables > 6X increase in rate performance of doped versus undoped materials. Finally, in-situ Raman spectroscopy studies elucidate the staging sequence for doped and undoped materials and demonstrate the mechanism of the observed capacity enhancement to be correlated with distributed storage at local nitrogen sites in a staged KC8 compound. This study demonstrates a pathway to overcome the limitations of graphitic carbons for anodes in potassium ion batteries by atomically precise engineering of nanomaterials.

  3. Polymeric potassium triformatocobalt(II)

    PubMed Central

    Wöhlert, Susanne; Wriedt, Mario; Jess, Inke; Näther, Christian

    2011-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, poly[tri-μ-formato-cobalt(II)potassium], [CoK(CHO2)3]n the Co2+ cations are coordinated by six O-bonded formate anions in an octa­hedral coordination mode and the K+ cations are eightfold coordinated by seven O-bonded formate anions within irregular polyhedra. The Co2+ cations are connected by bridging formate anions into a three-dimensional coordination network in which the K+ cations are embedded. The asymmetric unit consits of one Co2+ cation located on a center of inversion, one K+ cation located on a twofold axis and two crystallographically independent formato anions, of which one is located on a twofold axis and the other occupies a general position. PMID:21753951

  4. Pyrolysis of rice straw with ammonium dihydrogen phosphate: Properties and gaseous potassium release characteristics during combustion of the products.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Han, Kuihua; Wang, Qian; Lu, Chunmei

    2015-12-01

    The effect of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (NH4H2PO4) on rice straw (RS) carbonization was evaluated at temperatures of 350-650°C. The carbonized products of RS with NH4H2PO4 show higher solid and energy yields, but lower higher heating values than the carbonized RS at every carbonization temperature. The optimum carbonization operation of RS with NH4H2PO4 which has a higher energy yield at a lower solid volume may be determined between 350 and 450°C, and RS with NH4H2PO4 carbonized at 450°C presents better pore properties than carbonized RS. The carbonized products of RS with NH4H2PO4 all have lower gaseous potassium release ratios than those of RS carbonized at the same temperature at combustion temperatures of 700-1000°C by retaining potassium in non-volatile phosphorus compounds with high melting points. It is an effective method for inhibiting the gaseous potassium release during combustion of the carbonized products.

  5. Potassium in the atmosphere of Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, A. E.; Morgan, T. H.

    1986-01-01

    Spectral data are reported from a search for potassium in the Mercury atmosphere. The data were collected with instrumentation at Kitt Peak (7699 A) and at McDonald Observatory (7698.98 and 7664.86 A). The equivalent mean widths of the potassium emission lines observed are tabulated, along with the estimated abundances, which are compared with sodium abundances as determined by resonance lines. The average column abundance of potassium is projected to be 1 billion atoms/sq cm, about 1 percent the column abundance of sodium.

  6. A review of the fate of potassium in the soil-plant system after land application of wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Arienzo, M; Christen, E W; Quayle, W; Kumar, A

    2009-05-30

    Irrigation with wastewaters from agri-industry processes such as milk factories, piggeries, wineries and abattoirs is commonplace. These wastewaters all have high levels of potassium (K). Potassium concentration in effluents from domestic wastewater sources are relatively low, reported to vary between 10 and 30 mg L(-1). Higher levels of potassium are reported for effluents from olive oil mills, 10,000-20,000 mg KL(-1), wool scouring, 4200-13,000 mg KL(-1), cheese and lactic whey and potato processing, approximately 1800 mg KL(-1), piggery effluent, 500-1000 mg KL(-1) and winery wastewaters, up to 1000 mg KL(-1). Application of wastewaters with these high potassium levels has been found to increase the overall level of soil fertility, with the exception of alkaline effluents which can dissolve soil organic carbon. Long-term application of such wastewater may cause the build-up of soil potassium and decrease the hydraulic conductivity of the receiving soils. These potential impacts are uncertain and have been inadequately researched. Regulatory limits for potassium in drinking water have been set only by the European Union with no toxicological or physiological justification. The literature shows that grasses and legume herbages accumulate high levels of potassium, up to 5% dry weight, and some grasses, such as turfgrass are particularly tolerant to high levels of potassium, even under saline conditions. This adaptation is considered useful for increasing potassium immobilization and sustainable practices of land wastewater disposal. Potassium availability is significantly affected by the cation ratios of the wastewater, the existing soil water solution and of soil exchange sites.

  7. CO{sub 2} absorption using dry potassium-based sorbents with different supports

    SciTech Connect

    Chuanwen Zhao; Xiaoping Chen; Changsui Zhao

    2009-09-15

    The CO{sub 2} capture characteristics of dry potassium-based sorbents were investigated with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and a bubbling fluidized-bed reactor. Potassium-based sorbents were prepared by impregnation with potassium carbonate on supports such as coconut activated charcoal (AC1), coal active carbon (AC2), silica gel (SG), and activated alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Sorbents such as K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/AC1, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/AC2, and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} showed excellent carbonation capacity; The total conversion rates of those sorbents were 97.2, 95.9, and 95.2%, respectively in the TG test, and 89.2, 87.9, and 87.6%, respectively, in the fluidized-bed test. However, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/SG showed poor carbonation capacity, the total conversion rates were only 34.5 and 18.8%, respectively, in TG and fluidized-bed tests. The differences in carbonation capacity of those sorbents were analyzed by studying the microscopic structure and crystal structure of the supports and the sorbents with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and N{sub 2} adsorption tests. 23 refs., 10 figs.

  8. Environmental carbon dioxide control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onischak, M.; Baker, B.; Gidaspow, D.

    1974-01-01

    A study of environmental carbon dioxide control for NASA EVA missions found solid potassium carbonate to be an effective regenerable absorbent in maintaining low carbon dioxide levels. The supported sorbent was capable of repeated regeneration below 150 C without appreciable degradation. Optimum structures in the form of thin pliable sheets of carbonate, inert support and binder were developed. Interpretation of a new solid-gas pore closing model helped predict the optimum sorbent and analysis of individual sorbent sheet performance in a thin rectangular channel sorber can predict packed bed performance.

  9. Activated carbon material

    DOEpatents

    Evans, A. Gary

    1978-01-01

    Activated carbon particles for use as iodine trapping material are impregnated with a mixture of selected iodine and potassium compounds to improve the iodine retention properties of the carbon. The I/K ratio is maintained at less than about 1 and the pH is maintained at above about 8.0. The iodine retention of activated carbon previously treated with or coimpregnated with triethylenediamine can also be improved by this technique. Suitable flame retardants can be added to raise the ignition temperature of the carbon to acceptable standards.

  10. [Potassium physiology, hypokalaemia and hyperkalaemia].

    PubMed

    Dussol, Bertrand

    2010-06-01

    Potassium (K+) is a key component of the resting membrane potential of all cells that influences many important biologic events. The clinical importance of K+ is that surpluses or deficits in K+ in the extracellular fluid may predispose the patient to cardiac arrhythmias. The kidneys adjust overall K+ homeostasis by increasing or decreasing the rate of excretion of K+. Urinary excretion of K+ has 2 components: (i) the concentration of K+ in the tubular fluid that depends on the capacity of the cortical collecting duct to secrete K+. The capacity is determined by the lumen-negative transepithelial potential difference generated by the electrogenic reabsorption of Na+. Aldosterone and to a lesser degree HCO3- and Na+ in the tubular fluid are implicated in the generation of the potential difference. This component is evaluated by the transtubular K+ gradient (TTKG). (ii) The volume of fluid delivered to the cortical collecting duct that depends on the osmolar rate of excretion. These 2 components can be calculated if blood osmolality is higher than urine osmolality. Thus, investigating K+ abnormalities is based on the determination of TTKG and osmolar rate of excretion in the cortical collecting duct, on other clinical (extracellular fluid, blood pressure...) and biological data (24-hour K+ excretion, renin, aldosterone...) easily available. First treatment of K+ abnormality is the treatment of its cause. Insulin and glucose supply and dialysis are the best symptomatic treatments of hyperkalaemia.

  11. Calcium Activation of Mougeotia Potassium Channels 1

    PubMed Central

    Lew, Roger R.; Serlin, Bruce S.; Schauf, Charles L.; Stockton, Marsha E.

    1990-01-01

    Phytochrome mediates chloroplast movement in the alga Mougeotia, possibly via changes in cytosolic calcium. It is known to regulate a calcium-activated potassium channel in the algal plasma membrane. As part of a characterization of the potassium channel, we examined the properties of calcium activation. The calcium ionophore A23187 activates the channel at external [Ca2+] as low as 20 micromolar. However, external [Ca2+] is not required for activation of the channel by photoactivated phytochrome. Furthermore, when an inhibitor of calcium release from internal stores, 8-(diethylamino)-octyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate, hydrochloride (TMB-8), is present, red light no longer stimulates channel activity. We conclude that phytochrome activates the plasma membrane potassium channel by releasing calcium from intracellular calcium vesicles; the elevated cytosolic calcium then stimulates channel activity by an unknown mechanism. In the presence of TMB-8, red light does induce chloroplast rotation; thus, potassium channel activation may not be coupled to chloroplast rotation. PMID:16667356

  12. 21 CFR 862.1600 - Potassium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium test system. 862.1600 Section 862.1600....1600 Potassium test system. (a) Identification. A potassium test system is a device intended to measure potassium in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used to monitor...

  13. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium... fixatives and preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red...

  14. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34... nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite are subject to prior sanctions issued... without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red meat and poultry products....

  15. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium... fixatives and preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1600 - Potassium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium test system. 862.1600 Section 862.1600....1600 Potassium test system. (a) Identification. A potassium test system is a device intended to measure potassium in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used to monitor...

  17. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium... fixatives and preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red...

  18. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium... fixatives and preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1600 - Potassium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium test system. 862.1600 Section 862.1600....1600 Potassium test system. (a) Identification. A potassium test system is a device intended to measure potassium in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used to monitor...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1600 - Potassium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium test system. 862.1600 Section 862.1600....1600 Potassium test system. (a) Identification. A potassium test system is a device intended to measure potassium in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used to monitor...

  1. Circadian variation of intercompartmental potassium fluxes in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore Ede, M. C.; Brennan, M. F.; Ball, M. R.

    1975-01-01

    Circadian rhythms of plasma potassium concentration and urinary potassium excretion persisted in three normal volunteers when diurnal variations in activity, posture, and dietary intake were eliminated for 3-10 days. Measurements of the arteriovenous difference in plasma potassium concentration across the resting forearm and of erythrocyte potassium concentration suggested that there is a net flux of potassium from ICF to ECF in the early morning and a reverse net flux later in the day. The total net ICF-ECF fluxes were estimated from the diurnal variations in extracellular potassium content corrected for dietary intake and urinary potassium loss. The net fluxes between ICF and ECF were found to be counterbalanced by the circadian rhythm in urinary potassium excretion. Desynchronization of these rhythms would result in marked fluctuations in extracellular potassium content. These findings suggest that some revision is required of the concept of basal state in potassium homeostasis.

  2. Renal and extrarenal regulation of potassium.

    PubMed

    Giebisch, G; Krapf, R; Wagner, C

    2007-08-01

    The ISN Forefronts in Nephrology Symposium took place 8-11 September 2005 in Kartause Ittingen, Switzerland. It was dedicated to the memory of Robert W. Berliner, who died at age 86 on 5 February 2002. Dr Berliner contributed in a major way to our understanding of potassium transport in the kidney. Starting in the late 1940s, without knowledge of how potassium was transported across specific nephron segments and depending only on renal clearance methods, he and his able associates provided a still-valid blueprint of the basic transport properties of potassium handling by the kidney. They firmly established that potassium was simultaneously reabsorbed and secreted along the nephron; that variations in secretion in the distal nephron segments play a major role in regulating potassium excretion; and that such secretion is modulated by sodium, acid-base factors, hormones, and diuretics. These conclusions were presented in a memorable Harvey Lecture some forty years ago, and they have remained valid ever since. The concepts have also provided the foundation and stimulation for later work on single nephrons, tubule cells, and transport proteins involved in potassium transport.

  3. Drug-induced abnormalities of potassium metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kokot, Franciszek; Hyla-Klekot, Lidia

    2008-01-01

    Pharmacotherapy has progressed rapidly over the last 20 years with the result that general practioners more and more often use drugs which may influence potassium metabolism at the kidney or gastrointestinal level, or the transmembrane transport of potassium at the cellular level. Potassium abnormalities may result in life-theatening clinical conditions. Hypokalemia is most frequently caused by renal loss of this electrolyte (thiazide, thiazide-like and loop diuretics, glucocorticoids) and the gastrointestinal tract (laxatives, diarrhea, vomiting, external fistula), and may be the result of an increased intracellular potassium influx induced by sympathicomimetics used mostly by patients with asthma, or by insulin overdosage in diabetic subjects. The leading symptoms of hypokalemia are skeletal and smooth muscle weakness and cardiac arrhythmias. Hyperkalemia may be caused by acute or end-stage renal failure, impaired tubular excretion of potassium (blockers of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, cyclosporine, antifungal drugs, potassium sparing diuretics), acidemia, and severe cellular injury (tumor lysis syndrome). Hyperkalemia may be the cause of severe injury of both skeletal and smooth muscle cells. The specific treatment counteracting hyperkalemia is a bolus injection of calcium salts and, when necessary, hemodialysis.

  4. Estimated Potassium Content in Hanford Workers

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, Timothy P.; Rivard, James; Garcia, Silvia

    2004-10-15

    Potassium content in male and female workers at the Department of Energy Hanford Site was estimated based on measurements made in 2002 of 40K activity in the body. A coaxial germanium detection system was used for the measurements. The activity in female workers ranged from 2.1 to 4.1 kBq with an average of 3.1 ± 0.02 kBq. Total body potassium (TBK) content in female workers averaged 96 ± 0.3 g. The activity in male workers ranged from 2.8 to 6.6 kBq with an average of 4.3 ± 0.01 kBq and the average TBK was 136 ± 0.3 g. The average potassium concentration decreased with age in both males and females. The average potassium content and potassium concentrations for both males and females were less than the corresponding reference values. Potassium concentrations were inversely correlated with body-build index, body-mass index, and body weight for both males and females.

  5. 21 CFR 184.1077 - Potassium acid tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium acid tartrate. 184.1077 Section 184.1077... GRAS § 184.1077 Potassium acid tartrate. (a) Potassium acid tartrate (C4H5KO6, CAS Reg. No. 868-14-4) is the potassium acid salt of l−(+)−tartaric acid and is also called potassium bitartrate or cream...

  6. Phonons in Potassium-doped Graphene: The Effects of Electron-phonon Interactions, Dimensionality, and Adatom Ordering

    SciTech Connect

    Dean M. P.; Howard, C.A.; Withers, F.

    2011-12-19

    Graphene phonons are measured as a function of electron doping via the addition of potassium adatoms. In the low doping regime, the in-plane carbon G peak hardens and narrows with increasing doping, analogous to the trend seen in graphene doped via the field effect. At high dopings, beyond those accessible by the field effect, the G peak strongly softens and broadens. This is interpreted as a dynamic, nonadiabatic renormalization of the phonon self-energy. At dopings between the light and heavily doped regimes, we find a robust inhomogeneous phase where the potassium coverage is segregated into regions of high and low density. The phonon energies, linewidths, and tunability are notably very similar for one- to four-layer potassium-doped graphene, but significantly different to bulk potassium-doped graphite.

  7. Effect of Temperature on the Local Structure of Kaolinite Intercalated with Potassium Acetate

    SciTech Connect

    White, Claire E.; Provis, John L.; Gordon, Laura E.; Riley, Daniel P.; Proffen, Thomas; van Deventer, Jannie S.J.

    2011-09-06

    Kaolinite intercalated with potassium acetate is of great interest in the areas of environmental remediation and industrial application; however, its exact atomic structure and the changes which occur when heated have remained largely elusive. Here, neutron pair distribution function analysis is used to investigate the local structural characteristics of this complex material, revealing that hydrated potassium acetate exists as a single layer in the interlamellar spacing of kaolinite. Furthermore, the potassium ions within the intercalated complex are most likely associated with the resonance structure of the acetate molecules, and upon heating (and decomposition of the carbon containing molecules), these ions become strongly associated with the negative charge located on the oxygen atoms in the alumina layers of dehydroxylated kaolinite. Several possible orientations of hydrated potassium acetate within the interlamellar spacing of kaolinite have been proposed and investigated using density functional modeling, revealing the complex nature of this material. Nevertheless, this investigation has shown that the dehydroxylated form of the intercalated compound contains highly strained alumina and available alkali (potassium), making it a viable alternative to traditional aluminosilicates.

  8. Inhibition of azoxymethane-induced rat colon carcinogenesis by potassium hydrogen D-glucarate.

    PubMed

    Yoshimi, N; Walaszek, Z; Mori, H; Hanausek, M; Szemraj, J; Slaga, T J

    2000-01-01

    While calcium D-glucarate was shown to inhibit chemical carcinogenesis in various animal models, the effect of potassium hydrogen D-glucarate has not been extensively investigated. In the present study, potassium hydrogen D-glucarate markedly inhibited azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon carcinogenesis in male F344 rats. Potassium hydrogen D-glucarate (PHG) or potassium hydrogen carbonate (PHC) were administered to rats in a diet (140 mmol/kg). Continual post-initiation treatment with potassium hydrogen D-glucarate reduced both tumor incidence and multiplicity at sacrifice by ca. 60%, while PHC had no effect. amelioration of overexpression of the betaG gene in rat colon carcinomas was observed using RT-PCR and Northern blot analysis. We hypothesize that previously demonstrated conversion of PHG to D-glucaro-1,4-lactone, a potent inhibitor of beta-glucuronidase (betaG), may be responsible for this effect. The mechanism of PHG inhibition of colon carcinogenesis may also involve suppression of cell proliferation and possibly alterations in cholesterol synthesis or cholesterol metabolism to bile acids. In conclusion, PHG possesses excellent potential as a natural, apparently non-toxic inhibitor to prevent colon cancer.

  9. Effect of polacrilin potassium as disintegrant on bioavailability of diclofenac potassium in tablets : a technical note.

    PubMed

    Bele, Mrudula H; Derle, Diliprao V

    2012-09-01

    Polacrilin potassium is an ion exchange resin used in oral pharmaceutical formulations as a tablet disintegrant. It is a weakly acidic cation exchange resin. Chemically, it is a partial potassium salt of a copolymer of methacrylic acid with divinyl benzene. It ionizes to an anionic polymer chain and potassium cations. It was hypothesized that polacrilin potassium may be able to improve the permeability of anionic drugs according to the Donnan membrane phenomenon. The effect of polacrilin potassium on the permeability of diclofenac potassium, used as a model anionic drug, was tested in vitro using diffusion cells and in vivo by monitoring serum levels in rats. The amount of drug permeated across a dialysis membrane in vitro was significantly more in the presence of polacrilin potassium. Significant improvement was found in the extent of drug absorption in vivo. It could be concluded that polacrilin potassium may be used as a high-functionality excipient for improving the bioavailability of anionic drugs having poor gastrointestinal permeability.

  10. Potassium acetate and potassium lactate enhance the microbiological and physical properties of marinated catfish fillets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sodium or potassium salts such as lactate and acetate can be used to inhibit the growth of spoilage bacteria and food-borne pathogens, and thereby prolong the shelf-life of refrigerated seafood. However, minimal information is available regarding the combined effects of potassium salts (acetate and ...

  11. Effects of potassium chloride and potassium bicarbonate on endothelial function, cardiovascular risk factors, and bone turnover in mild hypertensives.

    PubMed

    He, Feng J; Marciniak, Maciej; Carney, Christine; Markandu, Nirmala D; Anand, Vidya; Fraser, William D; Dalton, R Neil; Kaski, Juan C; MacGregor, Graham A

    2010-03-01

    To determine the effects of potassium supplementation on endothelial function, cardiovascular risk factors, and bone turnover and to compare potassium chloride with potassium bicarbonate, we carried out a 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial in 42 individuals with untreated mildly raised blood pressure. Urinary potassium was 77+/-16, 122+/-25, and 125+/-27 mmol/24 hours after 4 weeks on placebo, potassium chloride, and potassium bicarbonate, respectively. There were no significant differences in office blood pressure among the 3 treatment periods, and only 24-hour and daytime systolic blood pressures were slightly lower with potassium chloride. Compared with placebo, both potassium chloride and potassium bicarbonate significantly improved endothelial function as measured by brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation, increased arterial compliance as assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, decreased left ventricular mass, and improved left ventricular diastolic function. There was no significant difference between the 2 potassium salts in these measurements. The study also showed that potassium chloride reduced 24-hour urinary albumin and albumin:creatinine ratio, and potassium bicarbonate decreased 24-hour urinary calcium, calcium:creatinine ratio, and plasma C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type 1 collagen significantly. These results demonstrated that an increase in potassium intake had beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system, and potassium bicarbonate may improve bone health. Importantly, these effects were found in individuals who already had a relatively low-salt and high-potassium intake.

  12. Development of potassium ion conducting hollow glass fibers. [potassium sulfur battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, F. Y.

    1974-01-01

    Potassium ion conducting glasses, chemically resistant to potassium, potassium sulfide and sulfur, were made and their possible utility as the membrane material for a potassium/sulfur battery was evaluated. At least one satisfactory candidate was found. It possesses an electrical resistance which makes it usable as a membrane in the form of a fine hollow fiber. It's chemical and electrochemical resistances are excellent. The other aspects of the possible potassium sulfur battery utilizing such fine hollow fibers, including the header (or tube sheet) and a cathode current collector were studied. Several cathode materials were found to be satisfactory. None of the tube sheet materials studied possessed all the desired properties. Multi-fiber cells had very limited life-time due to physical failure of fibers at the fiber/tube sheet junctions.

  13. Serum Potassium Levels in Sigmoid Volvulus

    PubMed Central

    Atamanalp, S. Selcuk; Keles, M. Sait; Aydinli, Bulent

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to determine the serum potassium concentrations in patients with sigmoid volvulus (SV), which is a rare large bowel obstruction. Materials and Methods: The records of 86 patients with SV were reviewed retrospectively, while the records of 41 patients diagnosed with obstructive rectosigmoid cancer (ORC) were considered as the control group and as such, served as a source for comparison. Results: The analysis revealed a mean serum potassium concentration of 3.9 ± 0.6 mEq/L for the patients with SV, while the mean potassium concentration was 3.9 ± 0.5 mEq/L for the patients diagnosed with ORC (t:0.1, P>0.05). The number of hypokalemic and hyperkalemic patients identified in this study sample were 11 versus 5 patients and 1 versus 0 patients, respectively for the SV and ORC groups (x2 = 0.1 and 0.5, respectively with a P>0.05). Conclusions: No cause-and-effect relationship was observed between the serum potassium concentrations and SV. The serum potassium concentration is not pathognomonic for SV. PMID:25610090

  14. Metal-free Synthesis of Ynones from Acyl Chlorides and Potassium Alkynyltrifluoroborate Salts

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Cassandra L.; Bolshan, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Ynones are a valuable functional group and building block in organic synthesis. Ynones serve as a precursor to many important organic functional groups and scaffolds. Traditional methods for the preparation of ynones are associated with drawbacks including harsh conditions, multiple purification steps, and the presence of unwanted byproducts. An alternative method for the straightforward preparation of ynones from acyl chlorides and potassium alkynyltrifluoroborate salts is described herein. The adoption of organotrifluoroborate salts as an alternative to organometallic reagents for the formation of new carbon-carbon bonds has a number of advantages. Potassium organotrifluoroborate salts are shelf stable, have good functional group tolerance, low toxicity, and a wide variety are straightforward to prepare. The title reaction proceeds rapidly at ambient temperature in the presence of a Lewis acid without the exclusion of air and moisture. Fair to excellent yields may be obtained via reaction of various aryl and alkyl acid chlorides with alkynyltrifluoroborate salts in the presence of boron trichloride. PMID:25742169

  15. Potassium channels in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Boucherat, Olivier; Chabot, Sophie; Antigny, Fabrice; Perros, Frédéric; Provencher, Steeve; Bonnet, Sébastien

    2015-10-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating cardiopulmonary disorder with various origins. All forms of PAH share a common pulmonary arteriopathy characterised by vasoconstriction, remodelling of the pre-capillary pulmonary vessel wall, and in situ thrombosis. Although the pathogenesis of PAH is recognised as a complex and multifactorial process, there is growing evidence that potassium channels dysfunction in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells is a hallmark of PAH. Besides regulating many physiological functions, reduced potassium channels expression and/or activity have significant effects on PAH establishment and progression. This review describes the molecular mechanisms and physiological consequences of potassium channel modulation. Special emphasis is placed on KCNA5 (Kv1.5) and KCNK3 (TASK1), which are considered to play a central role in determining pulmonary vascular tone and may represent attractive therapeutic targets in the treatment of PAH.

  16. Relationship and interaction between sodium and potassium.

    PubMed

    Morris, R Curtis; Schmidlin, Olga; Frassetto, Lynda A; Sebastian, Anthony

    2006-06-01

    Compared with the Stone Age diet, the modern human diet is both excessive in NaCl and deficient in fruits and vegetables which are rich in K+ and HCO3- -yielding organates like citrate. With the modern diet, the K+/Na+ ratio and the HCO3-/Cl- ratio have both become reversed. Yet, the biologic machinery that evolved to process these dietary electrolytes remains largely unchanged, genetically fixed in Paleolithic time. Thus, the electrolytic mix of the modern diet is profoundly mismatched to its processing machinery. Dietary potassium modulates both the pressor and hypercalciuric effects of the modern dietary excess of NaCl. A marginally deficient dietary intake of potassium amplifies both of these effects, and both effects are dose-dependently attenuated and may be abolished either with dietary potassium or supplemental KHCO3. The pathogenic effects of a dietary deficiency of potassium amplify, and are amplified by, those of a dietary excess of NaCl and in some instances a dietary deficiency of bicarbonate precursors. Thus, in those ingesting the modern diet, it may not be possible to discern which of these dietary electrolytic dislocations is most determining of salt-sensitive blood pressure and hypercalciuria, and the hypertension, kidney stones, and osteoporosis they may engender. Obviously abnormal plasma electrolyte concentrations rarely characterize these dietary electrolytic dislocations, and when either dietary potassium or supplemental KHCO3 corrects the pressor and hypercalciuric effects of these dislocations, the plasma concentrations of sodium, potassium, bicarbonate and chloride change little and remain well within the normal range.

  17. A potassium Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yin, B.; Shay, T. M.

    1992-01-01

    The characteristics of a potassium Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter operating on the blue and near infrared transitions are calculated. The results show that the filter can be designed to provide high transmission, very narrow pass bandwidth, and low equivalent noise bandwidth. The Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (FADOF) provides a narrow pass bandwidth (about GHz) optical filter for laser communications, remote sensing, and lidar. The general theoretical model for the FADOF has been established in our previous paper. In this paper, we have identified the optimum operational conditions for a potassium FADOF operating on the blue and infrared transitions. The signal transmission, bandwidth, and equivalent noise bandwidth (ENBW) are also calculated.

  18. Improved Synthesis Of Potassium Beta' '-Alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Roger M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara; Ryan, Margaret A.; O'Connor, Dennis E.; Kisor, Adam; Underwood, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Improved formulations of precursor materials synthesize nearly-phase-pure potassium beta' '-alumina solid electrolyte (K-BASE) powder. Materials are microhomogeneous powders (or, alternatively, gels) containing K(+,) Mg(2+), and Al(3+). K-BASE powder produced used in potassium-working-fluid alkali-metal thermal-to-electric conversion (K-AMTEC), in which heat-input and heat-rejection temperatures lower than sodium-working-fluid AMTEC (Na-AMTEC). Additional potential use lies in purification of pottassium by removal of sodium and calcium.

  19. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Marcus Hilliard; Eric Chen; Babatunde Oyenekan; Ross Dugas; John McLees; Andrew Sexton; Daniel Ellenberger

    2005-10-26

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. Modeling of stripper performance suggests that vacuum stripping may be an attractive configuration for all solvents. Flexipac 1Y structured packing performs in the absorber as expected. It provides twice as much mass transfer area as IMTP No.40 dumped packing. Independent measurements of CO{sub 2} solubility give a CO{sub 2} loading that is 20% lower than that Cullinane's values with 3.6 m PZ at 100-120 C. The effective mass transfer coefficient (K{sub G}) in the absorber with 5 m K/2.5 m PZ appears to be 0 to 30% greater than that of 30 wt% MEA.

  20. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Marcus Hilliard; Eric Chen; Babatunde Oyenekan; Ross Dugas; John McLees; Andrew Sexton; Amorvadee Veawab

    2005-01-26

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. In Campaign 3 of the pilot plant, the overall mass transfer coefficient for the stripper with 7 m MEA decreased from 0.06 to 0.01 mol/(m{sup 3}.s.kPa) as the rich loading increased from 0.45 to 0.6 mol CO{sub 2}/mol MEA. Anion chromatography has demonstrated that nitrate and nitrite are major degradation products of MEA and PZ with pure oxygen. In measurements with the high temperature FTIR in 7 m MEA the MEA vapor pressure varied from 2 to 20 Pa at 35 to 70 C. In 2.5 m PZ the PZ vapor pressure varied from 0.2 to 1 Pa from 37 to 70 C.

  1. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Marcus Hilliard; Eric Chen; Babatunde Oyenekan; Ross Dugas; John McLees

    2005-07-31

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. The baseline campaign with 30% MEA has given heat duties from 40 to 70 kcal/gmol CO{sub 2} as predicted by the stripper model. The Flexipak 1Y structured packing gives significantly better performance than IMTP 40 duped packing in the absorber, but in the stripper the performance of the two packings is indistinguishable. The FTIR analyzer measured MEA volatility in the absorber represented by an activity coefficient of 0.7. In the MEA campaign the material balance closed with an average error of 3.5% and the energy balance had an average error of 5.9.

  2. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; Babatunde Oyenekan; Andrew Sexton; Amorvadee Veawab

    2006-04-28

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. The final campaign of the pilot plant was completed in February 2006 with 5m K{sup +}/2.5m PZ and 6.4m K{sup +}/1.6m PZ using Flexipac AQ Style 20. The new cross-exchanger reduced the approach temperature to less than 9 C. Stripper modeling has demonstrated that a configuration with a ''Flashing Feed'' requires 6% less work that a simple stripper. The oxidative degradation of piperazine proceeds more slowly than that of monoethanolamine and produces ethylenediamine and other products. Uninhibited 5 m KHCO{sub 3}/2.5 m PZ corrodes 5 to 6 times faster that 30% MEA with 0.2 mol CO{sub 2}/mol MEA.

  3. Subduction fluxes of water, carbon dioxide, chlorine, and potassium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrard, Richard D.

    2003-05-01

    The alteration of upper oceanic crust entails growth of hydrous minerals and loss of macroporosity, with associated large-scale fluxes of H2O, CO2, Cl-, and K2O between seawater and crust. This age-dependent alteration can be quantified by combining a conceptual alteration model with observed age-dependent changes in crustal geophysical properties at DSDP/ODP sites, permitting estimation of crustal concentrations of H2O, CO2, Cl-, and K2O, given crustal age. Surprisingly, low-temperature alteration causes no net change in total water; pore water loss is nearly identical to bound water gain. Net change in total crustal K2O is also smaller than expected; the obvious low-temperature enrichment is partly offset by earlier high-temperature depletion, and most crustal K2O is primary rather than secondary. I calculate crustal concentrations of H2O, CO2, Cl-, and K2O for 41 modern subduction zones, thereby determining their modern mass fluxes both for individual subduction zones and globally. This data set is complemented by published flux determinations for subducting sediments at 26 of these subduction zones. Global mass fluxes among oceans, oceanic crust, continental crust, and mantle are calculated for H2O, Cl-, and K2O. Except for the present major imbalance between sedimentation and sediment subduction, most fluxes appear to be at or near steady state. I estimate that half to two thirds of subducted crustal water is later refluxed at the prism toe; most of the remaining water escapes at subarc depths, triggering partial melting. The flux of subducted volatiles, however, does not appear to correlate with either rate of arc magma generation or magnitude of interplate earthquakes.

  4. Subduction Fluxes of Water, Carbon Dioxide, Chlorine, and Potassium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrard, R. D.

    2002-12-01

    The alteration of upper oceanic crust entails growth of hydrous minerals and loss of macroporosity, with associated large-scale fluxes of H2O, CO2, Cl-, and K2O between seawater and crust. This age-dependent alteration can be quantified by combining a conceptual alteration model with observed age-dependent changes in crustal geophysical properties at DSDP/ODP sites, permitting estimation of crustal concentrations of H2O, CO2, Cl-, and K2O, given crustal age. Surprisingly, low-temperature alteration causes no net change in total water; pore water loss is nearly identical to H2O+ gain. The overall alteration effect on total crustal content of K2O is also smaller than expected; the obvious low-temperature enrichment is partly offset by earlier high-temperature depletion, and most crustal K2O is primary rather than secondary. We calculate crustal concentrations of H2O, CO2, Cl-, and K2O for 41 modern subduction zones, thereby determining their modern mass fluxes both for individual subduction zones and globally. This dataset is complemented by published flux determinations for subducting sediments at 26 of these subduction zones. Global mass fluxes among oceans, oceanic crust, continental crust, and mantle are calculated for H2O, Cl-, and K2O. Except for the present major imbalance between sedimentation and sediment subduction, most fluxes appear to be at or near steady-state. We estimate that half to two thirds of subducted crustal water is later refluxed at the prism toe; most of the remaining water escapes at subarc depths, triggering partial melting. The flux of subducted volatiles, however, does not appear to correlate with either rate of arc magma generation or magnitude of interplate earthquakes.

  5. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; J. Tim Cullinane; Marcus Hilliard; Babatunde Oyenekan; Terraun Jones

    2003-07-28

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. A rigorous thermodynamic model has been further developed with a standalone FORTRAN code to represent the CO{sub 2} vapor pressure and speciation of the new solvent. Gas chromatography has been used to measure the oxidative degradation of piperazine. The heat exchangers for the pilot plant have been received. The modifications are on schedule for start-up in November 2003.

  6. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; J. Tim Cullinane; Marcus Hillard; Babatunde Oyenekan

    2003-10-31

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. A rigorous thermodynamic model has been further developed with a standalone FORTRAN code to represent the CO{sub 2} vapor pressure and speciation of the new solvent. The welding work has initiated and will be completed for a revised startup of the pilot plant in February 2004.

  7. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; Jennifer Lu; Babatunde Oyenekan; Ross Dugas

    2004-11-08

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. The stripper model with Aspen Custom Modeler and careful optimization of solvent rate suggests that 7 m MEA and 5 m K+/2.5 m PZ will be practically equivalent in energy requirement and optimum solution capacity. The multipressure stripper reduces energy consumption by 15% with a maximum pressure of 5 atm. The use of vanadium as a corrosion inhibitor will carry little risk of long-term environmental or health effects liability, but the disposal of solvent with vanadium will be subject to regulation, probably as a hazardous waste. Analysis of the pilot plant data from Campaign 1 has given values of the mass transfer coefficient consistent with the rate data from the wetted wall column. With a rich end pinch, 30% MEA should provide a capacity of 1.3-1.4 mole CO{sub 2}/kg solvent.

  8. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; Jennifer Lu; Babatunde Oyenekan; Ross Dugas

    2005-04-29

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. Stripper modeling suggests the energy requirement with a simple stripper will be about the same for 5 m K{sup +}/2.5 m PZ and 7 m MEA. Modeling with a generic solvent shows that the optimum heat of CO{sub 2} desorption to minimize heat duty lies between 15 and 25 kcal/gmol. On-line pH and density measurements are effective indicators of loading and total alkalinity for the K+/PZ solvent. The baseline pilot plant campaign with 30% MEA has been started.

  9. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; J. Tim Cullinane; Marcus Hilliard; Terraun Jones

    2003-04-01

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. A rigorous thermodynamic model has been developed with a stand-alone FORTRAN code to represent the CO{sub 2} vapor pressure and speciation of the new solvent. Parameters have been developed for use of the electrolyte NRTL model in AspenPlus. Analytical methods have been developed using gas chromatography and ion chromatography. The heat exchangers for the pilot plant have been ordered.

  10. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; J.Tim Cullinane; Marcus Hilliard; Jennifer Lu; Babatunde Oyenekan; Ross Dugas

    2004-07-29

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. CO{sub 2} mass transfer rates are second order in piperazine concentration and increase with ionic strength. Modeling of stripper performance suggests that 5 m K{sup +}/2.5 m PZ will require 25 to 46% less heat than 7 m MEA. The first pilot plant campaign was completed on June 24. The CO{sub 2} penetration through the absorber with 20 feet of Flexipac{trademark} 1Y varied from 0.6 to 16% as the inlet CO{sub 2} varied from 3 to 12% CO{sub 2} and the gas rate varied from 0.5 to 3 kg/m{sup 2}-s.

  11. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; A. Frank Seibert

    2002-10-01

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. Progress has been made in this reporting period on three subtasks. A simple thermodynamic model has been developed to represent the CO{sub 2} vapor pressure and speciation of the new solvent. A rate model has been formulated to predict the CO{sub 2} flux with these solutions under absorber conditions. A process and instrumentation diagram and process flow diagram have been prepared for modifications of the existing pilot plant system.

  12. Effect of potassium impurities deliberately introduced into cathode materials on the electrochemical performance of a Li-O2 battery

    SciTech Connect

    Curtiss, Larry A.; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhai, Dengyun; Wen, Jianguo; Miller, Dean J.; Kang, Feiyu; Zavadil, Kevin

    2015-12-21

    Rechargeable lithium-air (Li-O-2) batteries have drawn much interest owing to their high energy density. We report on the effect of deliberately introducing potassium impurities into the cathode material on the electrochemical performance of a Li-O-2 battery. Small amounts of potassium introduced into the activated carbon (AC) cathode material in the synthesis process are found to have a dramatic effect on the performance of the Li-O-2 cell. An increased amount of potassium significantly increases capacity, cycle life, and round-trip efficiency. This improved performance is probably due to a larger amount of LiO2 in the discharge product, which is a mixture of LiO2 and Li2O2, resulting from the increase in the amount of potassium present. No substantial correlation with porosity or surface area in an AC cathode is found. Experimental and computational studies indicate that potassium can act as an oxygen reduction catalyst, which can account for the dependence of performance on the amount of potassium.

  13. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Extended Equilibrium Modeling of Cesium and Potassium Distribution Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, L.H.

    2002-06-13

    An extension of the model developed in FY01 for predicting equilibrium distribution ratios in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process is presented here. Motivation for extending the model arose from the need to predict extraction performance of the recently optimized solvent composition and the desire to include additional waste components. This model involves the extraction of cesium and potassium from different cesium, potassium, and sodium media over a large range of concentrations. Those different media include a large variety of anions such as nitrate, hydroxide, nitrite, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, and carbonate. The model was defined based on several hundreds of experimental data points and predicted satisfactorily the cesium extraction from five different SRS waste simulants. This process model encompassed almost exclusively 1:1:1 metal:anion:ligand species. Fluoride, sulfate, and carbonate species were found to be very little extractable, and their main impact is reflected through their activity effects. This model gave a very good cesium and potassium extraction prediction from sodium salts, which is what is needed when trying to predict the behavior from actual waste. However, the extraction from potassium or cesium salts, and the extraction of sodium could be improved, and some additional effort was devoted to improve the thermodynamic rigor of the model. Toward this end, more detailed anion-specific models were developed based on the cesium, potassium, and sodium distribution ratios obtained with simple systems containing single anions, but it has not yet proven possible to combine those models to obtain better predictions than provided by the process model.

  14. Fabrication and evaluation of an electrodialytic carbonate eluent generator for ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guobin; Lu, Yifei; Chen, Feifei; Zhang, Feifang; Yang, Bingcheng

    2016-10-01

    An electrodialytic potassium carbonate eluent generator and its associated potassium bicarbonate eluent generator have been fabricated for ion chromatography (IC). The device can withstand high backpressure up to ∼32MPa and no observable leakage under such pressure is found during 2h. In the range of 0-13.7mM, potassium carbonate concentration can be generated linearly with the applied current with a slope that is essentially Faradaic. At least 10mM potassium carbonate can be online changed into 10mM potassium bicarbonate via a potassium bicarbonate eluent generator, which offers an easy way to manipulate the separation selectivity. When coupled with IC system, the device demonstrated good reproducibility indicated by less than 0.52% of the relative standard deviation of the retention times.

  15. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5628 - Potassium glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium glycerophosphate. 582.5628 Section 582.5628 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 582.5634 Section 582.5634 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5628 - Potassium glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium glycerophosphate. 582.5628 Section 582.5628 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 582.5634 Section 582.5634 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5628 - Potassium glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium glycerophosphate. 582.5628 Section 582.5628 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients...

  3. Dendritic potassium channels in hippocampal pyramidal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Daniel; Hoffman, Dax A; Magee, Jeffrey C; Poolos, Nicholas P; Watanabe, Shigeo; Colbert, Costa M; Migliore, Michele

    2000-01-01

    Potassium channels located in the dendrites of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons control the shape and amplitude of back-propagating action potentials, the amplitude of excitatory postsynaptic potentials and dendritic excitability. Non-uniform gradients in the distribution of potassium channels in the dendrites make the dendritic electrical properties markedly different from those found in the soma. For example, the influence of a fast, calcium-dependent potassium current on action potential repolarization is progressively reduced in the first 150 μm of the apical dendrites, so that action potentials recorded farther than 200 μm from the soma have no fast after-hyperpolarization and are wider than those in the soma. The peak amplitude of back-propagating action potentials is also progressively reduced in the dendrites because of the increasing density of a transient potassium channel with distance from the soma. The activation of this channel can be reduced by the activity of a number of protein kinases as well as by prior depolarization. The depolarization from excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) can inactivate these A-type K+ channels and thus lead to an increase in the amplitude of dendritic action potentials, provided the EPSP and the action potentials occur within the appropriate time window. This time window could be in the order of 15 ms and may play a role in long-term potentiation induced by pairing EPSPs and back-propagating action potentials. PMID:10811726

  4. Ezogabine: a new angle on potassium gates.

    PubMed

    Faught, Edward

    2011-05-01

    Ezogabine is a new drug for adjunctive therapy of partial-onset seizures with a novel mechanism of action. As a potassium-channel facilitator, it promotes membrane repolarization and thus opposes rapid repetitive discharges. Side effects are typical for antiepileptic drugs and the safety profile is good. Occasional instances of urinary difficulty may require surveillance.

  5. Dialysate and serum potassium in hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Hung, Adriana M; Hakim, Raymond M

    2015-07-01

    Most patients with end-stage renal disease depend on intermittent hemodialysis to maintain levels of serum potassium and other electrolytes within a normal range. However, one of the challenges has been the safety of using a low-potassium dialysate to achieve that goal, given the concern about the effects that rapid and/or large changes in serum potassium concentrations may have on cardiac electrophysiology and arrhythmia. Additionally, in this patient population, there is a high prevalence of structural cardiac changes and ischemic heart disease, making them even more susceptible to acute arrhythmogenic triggers. This concern is highlighted by the knowledge that about two-thirds of all cardiac deaths in dialysis are due to sudden cardiac death and that sudden cardiac death accounts for 25% of the overall death for end-stage renal disease. Developing new approaches and practice standards for potassium removal during dialysis, as well as understanding other modifiable triggers of sudden cardiac death, such as other electrolyte components of the dialysate (magnesium and calcium), rapid ultrafiltration rates, and safety of a number of medications (ie, drugs that prolong the QT interval or use of digoxin), are critical in order to decrease the unacceptably high cardiac mortality experienced by hemodialysis-dependent patients.

  6. Potassium ferrate treatment of RFETS` contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The potassium ferrate treatment study of Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) groundwater was performed under the Sitewide Treatability Studies Program (STSP). This study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of potassium ferrate in a water treatment system to remove the contaminants of concern (COCS) from groundwater at the RFETS. Potassium ferrate is a simple salt where the iron is in the plus six valence state. It is the iron at the plus six valence state (Fe {sup +6}) that makes it an unique water treatment chemical, especially in waters where the pH is greater than seven. In basic solutions where the solubility of the oxides/hydroxides of many of the COCs is low, solids are formed as the pH is raised. By using ferrate these solids are agglomerated so they can be effectively removed by sedimentation in conventional water treatment equipment. The objective of this study was to determine the quality of water after treatment with potassium ferrate and to determine if the Colorado Water Quality Control Commission (CWQCC) discharge limits for the COCs listed in Table 1.0-1 could be met. Radionuclides in the groundwater were of special concern.

  7. The physiology of potassium in crop production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potassium plays a major role in the basic functions of plant growth and development. In addition, K is also involved in numerous physiological functions related to plant health and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress. However, deficiencies occur widely resulting in poor growth, lost yield and red...

  8. Calcium, magnesium, and potassium in food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biochemical and physiological functions and consequences of deficient intakes, which show the nutritional importance of calcium, magnesium and potassium for humans, are reviewed. The dietary recommendations and food sources for these essential mineral elements for humans are presented. Factors t...

  9. [Use of potassium canrenoate in cardiosurgery].

    PubMed

    Tufano, R; Scopa, M; Brando, G; Leone, D

    1981-04-01

    The influence of canrenoate of potassium, a new injectable antialdosteronic, on serum, urinary and intraerythrocyte ionograms has been evaluated as part of a random controlled study on patients submitted to ECC heart surgery. The results show that the drug maintains correct ionic homoestasis and gradualises and potentiates diuresis, in association with furosemide. The possible clinical implications of these results are discussed.

  10. Potentiating potassium nitrate's desensitization with dimethyl isosorbide.

    PubMed

    Hodosh, M

    2001-01-01

    Desensitization of hypersensitive teeth by the combination of dimethyl isosorbide (DMI) and potassium nitrate (KNO3) is more effective than when KNO3 is used alone. KNO3/DMI work together to desensitize hypersensitive teeth at a higher, quicker, and more profound and lasting level.

  11. Hg0 absorption in potassium persulfate solution*

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Qun-feng; Wang, Cheng-yun; Wang, Da-hui; Sun, Guan; Xu, Xin-hua

    2006-01-01

    The aqueous phase oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0) by potassium persulfate (KPS) catalyzed by Ag+ was investigated using a glass bubble column reactor. Concentration of gaseous mercury and potassium persulfate were measured by cold vapor atom absorption (CVAA) and ion chromatograph (IC), respectively. The effects of pH value, concentration of potassium persulfate and silver nitrate (SN), temperature, Hg0 concentration in the reactor inlet and tertiary butanol (TBA), free radical scavenger, on the removal efficiency of Hg0 were studied. The results showed that the removal efficiency of Hg0 increased with increasing concentration of potassium persulfate and silver nitrate, while temperature and TBA were negatively effective. Furthermore, the removal efficiency of Hg0 was much better in neutral solution than in both acidic and alkaline solution. But the influence of pH was almost eliminated by adding AgNO3. High Hg0 concentration has positive effect. The possible reaction mechanism of gaseous mercury was also discussed. PMID:16615172

  12. Dendritic potassium channels in hippocampal pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Johnston, D; Hoffman, D A; Magee, J C; Poolos, N P; Watanabe, S; Colbert, C M; Migliore, M

    2000-05-15

    Potassium channels located in the dendrites of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons control the shape and amplitude of back-propagating action potentials, the amplitude of excitatory postsynaptic potentials and dendritic excitability. Non-uniform gradients in the distribution of potassium channels in the dendrites make the dendritic electrical properties markedly different from those found in the soma. For example, the influence of a fast, calcium-dependent potassium current on action potential repolarization is progressively reduced in the first 150 micrometer of the apical dendrites, so that action potentials recorded farther than 200 micrometer from the soma have no fast after-hyperpolarization and are wider than those in the soma. The peak amplitude of back-propagating action potentials is also progressively reduced in the dendrites because of the increasing density of a transient potassium channel with distance from the soma. The activation of this channel can be reduced by the activity of a number of protein kinases as well as by prior depolarization. The depolarization from excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) can inactivate these A-type K+ channels and thus lead to an increase in the amplitude of dendritic action potentials, provided the EPSP and the action potentials occur within the appropriate time window. This time window could be in the order of 15 ms and may play a role in long-term potentiation induced by pairing EPSPs and back-propagating action potentials.

  13. 21 CFR 184.1804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 184.1804 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Sodium potassium tartrate (C4H4KNaO6·4H2O, CAS Reg. No. 304-59-6) is the sodium potassium salt of l−(+)−tartaric acid and...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 184.1804 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Sodium potassium tartrate (C4H4KNaO6·4H2O, CAS Reg. No. 304-59-6) is the sodium potassium salt of l−(+)−tartaric acid and...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1077 - Potassium acid tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium acid tartrate. 184.1077 Section 184.1077... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1077 Potassium acid tartrate. (a) Potassium acid tartrate (C4H5KO6, CAS Reg. No. 868-14-4) is the potassium acid salt of l−(+)−tartaric acid and is...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium potassium tartrate. 184.1804 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Sodium potassium tartrate (C4H4KNaO6·4H2O, CAS Reg. No. 304-59-6) is the sodium potassium salt of l−(+)−tartaric acid and...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 184.1804 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Sodium potassium tartrate (C4H4KNaO6·4H2O, CAS Reg. No. 304-59-6) is the sodium potassium salt of l−(+)−tartaric acid and...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 184.1804 Section 184... as GRAS § 184.1804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Sodium potassium tartrate (C4H4KNaO6·4H2O, CAS Reg. No. 304-59-6) is the sodium potassium salt of l−(+)−tartaric acid and is also called the...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1077 - Potassium acid tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium acid tartrate. 184.1077 Section 184.1077... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1077 Potassium acid tartrate. (a) Potassium acid tartrate (C4H5KO6, CAS Reg. No. 868-14-4) is the potassium acid salt of l−(+)−tartaric acid and is...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1077 - Potassium acid tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium acid tartrate. 184.1077 Section 184.1077... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1077 Potassium acid tartrate. (a) Potassium acid tartrate (C4H5KO6, CAS Reg. No. 868-14-4) is the potassium acid salt of l−(+)−tartaric acid and is...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1077 - Potassium acid tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium acid tartrate. 184.1077 Section 184.1077... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1077 Potassium acid tartrate. (a) Potassium acid tartrate (C4H5KO6, CAS Reg. No. 868-14-4) is the potassium acid salt of l−(+)−tartaric acid and is...

  2. Proton conductivity of potassium doped barium zirconates

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Xiaoxiang; Tao Shanwen; Irvine, John T.S.

    2010-01-15

    Potassium doped barium zirconates have been synthesized by solid state reactions. It was found that the solubility limit of potassium on A-sites is between 5% and 10%. Introducing extra potassium leads to the formation of second phase or YSZ impurities. The water uptake of barium zirconates was increased even with 5% doping of potassium at the A-site. The sintering conditions and conductivity can be improved significantly by adding 1 wt% ZnO during material synthesis. The maximum solubility for yttrium at B-sites is around 15 at% after introducing 1 wt% zinc. The conductivity of Ba{sub 0.95}K{sub 0.05}Zr{sub 0.85}Y{sub 0.11}Zn{sub 0.04}O{sub 3-{delta}} at 600 deg. C is 2.2x10{sup -3} S/cm in wet 5% H{sub 2}. The activation energies for bulk and grain boundary are 0.29(2), 0.79(2) eV in wet 5% H{sub 2} and 0.31(1), 0.74(3) eV in dry 5% H{sub 2}. A power density of 7.7 mW/cm{sup 2} at 718 deg. C was observed when a 1 mm thick Ba{sub 0.95}K{sub 0.05}Zr{sub 0.85}Y{sub 0.11}Zn{sub 0.04}O{sub 3-{delta}} pellet was used as electrolyte and platinum electrodes. - Graphical abstract: Potassium doped barium zirconates have been synthesized by solid state reactions. It was found that the solubility limit of potassium on A-sites is between 5% and 10 %. The sintering conditions and conductivity can be improved significantly by adding 1 wt% ZnO during material synthesis. Five percent doping of potassium at A-site can double the total conductivity.

  3. 40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as silyl amine, potassium...

  4. 40 CFR 721.7375 - Potassium salt of polyolefin acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. 721... Substances § 721.7375 Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a potassium salt of...

  5. 40 CFR 721.7375 - Potassium salt of polyolefin acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. 721... Substances § 721.7375 Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a potassium salt of...

  6. 40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as silyl amine, potassium...

  7. 75 FR 42783 - Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... COMMISSION Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... of certain potassium phosphate salts, specifically anhydrous dipotassium phosphate (``DKP'') and... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of April 1, 2010 (Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts from...

  8. 40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5970 Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is subject to reporting...

  9. 40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5970 Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is subject to reporting...

  10. 75 FR 63856 - Potassium Permanganate From China Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... COMMISSION Potassium Permanganate From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty order on potassium permanganate from China would be likely to lead to continuation or... Potassium Permanganate from China: Investigation No. 731-TA- 125 (Third Review). Issued: October 1, 2010....

  11. Extracellular potassium homeostasis: insights from hypokalemic periodic paralysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chih-Jen; Kuo, Elizabeth; Huang, Chou-Long

    2013-05-01

    Extracellular potassium makes up only about 2% of the total body's potassium store. The majority of the body potassium is distributed in the intracellular space, of which about 80% is in skeletal muscle. Movement of potassium in and out of skeletal muscle thus plays a pivotal role in extracellular potassium homeostasis. The exchange of potassium between the extracellular space and skeletal muscle is mediated by specific membrane transporters. These include potassium uptake by Na(+), K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase and release by inward-rectifier K(+) channels. These processes are regulated by circulating hormones, peptides, ions, and by physical activity of muscle as well as dietary potassium intake. Pharmaceutical agents, poisons, and disease conditions also affect the exchange and alter extracellular potassium concentration. Here, we review extracellular potassium homeostasis, focusing on factors and conditions that influence the balance of potassium movement in skeletal muscle. Recent findings that mutations of a skeletal muscle-specific inward-rectifier K(+) channel cause hypokalemic periodic paralysis provide interesting insights into the role of skeletal muscle in extracellular potassium homeostasis. These recent findings are reviewed.

  12. 21 CFR 520.1696d - Penicillin V potassium tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penicillin V potassium tablets. 520.1696d Section... Penicillin V potassium tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains penicillin V potassium equivalent to 125 milligrams (200,000 units) or 250 milligrams (400,000 units) of penicillin V. (b) Sponsors....

  13. 21 CFR 520.1696d - Penicillin V potassium tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Penicillin V potassium tablets. 520.1696d Section... Penicillin V potassium tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains penicillin V potassium equivalent to 125 milligrams (200,000 units) or 250 milligrams (400,000 units) of penicillin V. (b) Sponsors....

  14. 21 CFR 520.1696d - Penicillin V potassium tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Penicillin V potassium tablets. 520.1696d Section... Penicillin V potassium tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains penicillin V potassium equivalent to 125 milligrams (200,000 units) or 250 milligrams (400,000 units) of penicillin V. (b) Sponsors....

  15. Comparative Efficacy of Potassium Levulinate with/without Potassium Diacetate and Potassium Propionate vs Potassium Lactate and Sodium Diacetate for Control of Listeria monocytogenes on commercially prepared uncured t.breast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the efficacy of potassium levulinate, potassium diacetate, and potassium propionate to inhibit Listeria monocytogenes on commercially-prepared, uncured turkey breast during refrigerated storage. Whole muscle, uncured turkey breast chubs (ca. 5 kg each) were formulated with or without po...

  16. 21 CFR 582.6804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 582.6804 Section 582.6804 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium potassium tartrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  17. 40 CFR 721.10357 - Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iron, citrate phosphate potassium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10357 Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes. (a) Chemical..., citrate phosphate potassium complexes (PMN P-09-382; CAS No. 120579-31-9) is subject to reporting...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10357 - Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iron, citrate phosphate potassium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10357 Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes. (a) Chemical..., citrate phosphate potassium complexes (PMN P-09-382; CAS No. 120579-31-9) is subject to reporting...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 582.1804 Section 582.1804 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium potassium tartrate. (b) Conditions...

  20. 21 CFR 526.1130 - Hetacillin potassium for intramammary infusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hetacillin potassium for intramammary infusion... Hetacillin potassium for intramammary infusion. (a) Specifications. Each 10 milliliter syringe contains hetacillin potassium equivalent of 62.5 milligrams of ampicillin. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000010 in §...

  1. 21 CFR 582.6804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 582.6804 Section 582.6804 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium potassium tartrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  2. 21 CFR 582.6804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 582.6804 Section 582.6804 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium potassium tartrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  3. 21 CFR 582.1077 - Potassium acid tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium acid tartrate. 582.1077 Section 582.1077 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1077 Potassium acid tartrate. (a) Product. Potassium acid tartrate. (b) Conditions of...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10357 - Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iron, citrate phosphate potassium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10357 Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes. (a) Chemical..., citrate phosphate potassium complexes (PMN P-09-382; CAS No. 120579-31-9) is subject to reporting...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 582.1804 Section 582.1804 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium potassium tartrate. (b) Conditions...

  6. 21 CFR 582.6804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 582.6804 Section 582.6804 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium potassium tartrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  7. 21 CFR 582.1804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 582.1804 Section 582.1804 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium potassium tartrate. (b) Conditions...

  8. 21 CFR 526.1130 - Hetacillin potassium for intramammary infusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hetacillin potassium for intramammary infusion... § 526.1130 Hetacillin potassium for intramammary infusion. (a) Specifications. Each 10 milliliter syringe contains hetacillin potassium equivalent of 62.5 milligrams of ampicillin. (b) Sponsor. See...

  9. 21 CFR 526.1130 - Hetacillin potassium for intramammary infusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hetacillin potassium for intramammary infusion... § 526.1130 Hetacillin potassium for intramammary infusion. (a) Specifications. Each 10 milliliter syringe contains hetacillin potassium equivalent of 62.5 milligrams of ampicillin. (b) Sponsor. See...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 582.1804 Section 582.1804 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium potassium tartrate. (b) Conditions...

  11. 21 CFR 526.1130 - Hetacillin potassium for intramammary infusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hetacillin potassium for intramammary infusion... § 526.1130 Hetacillin potassium for intramammary infusion. (a) Specifications. Each 10 milliliter syringe contains hetacillin potassium equivalent of 62.5 milligrams of ampicillin. (b) Sponsor. See...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 582.1804 Section 582.1804 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium potassium tartrate. (b) Conditions...

  13. 21 CFR 582.6804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 582.6804 Section 582.6804 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium potassium tartrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  14. 40 CFR 721.10031 - Lithium potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lithium potassium titanium oxide. 721... Substances § 721.10031 Lithium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as lithium potassium titanium oxide (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10553 - Potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Potassium titanium oxide. 721.10553... Substances § 721.10553 Potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as potassium titanium oxide (PMN P-06-149; CAS No....

  16. 40 CFR 721.10031 - Lithium potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lithium potassium titanium oxide. 721... Substances § 721.10031 Lithium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as lithium potassium titanium oxide (PMN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10031 - Lithium potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lithium potassium titanium oxide. 721... Substances § 721.10031 Lithium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as lithium potassium titanium oxide (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10031 - Lithium potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lithium potassium titanium oxide. 721... Substances § 721.10031 Lithium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as lithium potassium titanium oxide (PMN...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10031 - Lithium potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lithium potassium titanium oxide. 721... Substances § 721.10031 Lithium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as lithium potassium titanium oxide (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10553 - Potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Potassium titanium oxide. 721.10553... Substances § 721.10553 Potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as potassium titanium oxide (PMN P-06-149; CAS No....

  1. 40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as silyl amine, potassium...

  2. 40 CFR 721.7375 - Potassium salt of polyolefin acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. 721... Substances § 721.7375 Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a potassium salt of...

  3. 40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5970 Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is subject to reporting...

  4. 40 CFR 721.7375 - Potassium salt of polyolefin acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. 721... Substances § 721.7375 Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a potassium salt of...

  5. 40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5970 Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is subject to reporting...

  6. 40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as silyl amine, potassium...

  7. 40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5970 Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is subject to reporting...

  8. 40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as silyl amine, potassium...

  9. 40 CFR 721.7375 - Potassium salt of polyolefin acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. 721... Substances § 721.7375 Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a potassium salt of...

  10. 21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section 182.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate....

  11. 21 CFR 582.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 582.1129 Section 582.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  12. 21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section 182.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate....

  13. 21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section 182.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate....

  14. 21 CFR 582.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 582.1129 Section 582.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 582.1129 Section 582.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 582.1129 Section 582.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 582.1129 Section 582.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  18. 21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section 182...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  19. 21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section 182.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate....

  20. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for use as sources...

  1. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for use as sources...

  2. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33 Section 181.33 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions...

  3. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for use as sources...

  4. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for use as sources...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1077 - Potassium acid tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium acid tartrate. 582.1077 Section 582.1077 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1077 Potassium acid tartrate. (a) Product. Potassium acid tartrate. (b) Conditions of...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1077 - Potassium acid tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium acid tartrate. 582.1077 Section 582.1077 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1077 Potassium acid tartrate. (a) Product. Potassium acid tartrate. (b) Conditions of...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1077 - Potassium acid tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium acid tartrate. 582.1077 Section 582.1077 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1077 Potassium acid tartrate. (a) Product. Potassium acid tartrate. (b) Conditions of...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1077 - Potassium acid tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium acid tartrate. 582.1077 Section 582.1077 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1077 Potassium acid tartrate. (a) Product. Potassium acid tartrate. (b) Conditions of...

  9. Physicochemical action of potassium-magnesium citrate in nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, C. Y.; Koenig, K.; Khan, R.; Haynes, S.; Padalino, P.

    1992-01-01

    Effect of potassium-magnesium citrate on urinary biochemistry and crystallization of stone-forming salts was compared with that of potassium citrate at same dose of potassium in five normal subjects and five patients with calcium nephrolithiasis. Compared to the placebo phase, urinary pH rose significantly from 6.06 +/- 0.27 to 6.48 +/- 0.36 (mean +/- SD, p less than 0.0167) during treatment with potassium citrate (50 mEq/day for 7 days) and to 6.68 +/- 0.31 during therapy with potassium-magnesium citrate (containing 49 mEq K, 24.5 mEq Mg, and 73.5 mEq citrate per day). Urinary pH was significantly higher during potassium-magnesium citrate than during potassium citrate therapy. Thus, the amount of undissociated uric acid declined from 118 +/- 61 mg/day during the placebo phase to 68 +/- 54 mg/day during potassium citrate treatment and, more prominently, to 41 +/- 46 mg/day during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy. Urinary magnesium rose significantly from 102 +/- 25 to 146 +/- 37 mg/day during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy but not during potassium citrate therapy. Urinary citrate rose more prominently during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy (to 1027 +/- 478 mg/day from 638 +/- 252 mg/day) than during potassium citrate treatment (to 932 +/- 297 mg/day). Consequently, urinary saturation (activity product) of calcium oxalate declined significantly (from 1.49 x 10(-8) to 1.03 x 10(-8) M2) during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy and marginally (to 1.14 x 10(-8) M2) during potassium citrate therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  10. Potassium and Its Discontents: New Insight, New Treatments.

    PubMed

    Ellison, David H; Terker, Andrew S; Gamba, Gerardo

    2016-04-01

    Hyperkalemia is common in patients with impaired kidney function or who take drugs that inhibit the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis. During the past decade, substantial advances in understanding how the body controls potassium excretion have been made, which may lead to improved standard of care for these patients. Renal potassium disposition is primarily handled by a short segment of the nephron, comprising part of the distal convoluted tubule and the connecting tubule, and regulation results from the interplay between aldosterone and plasma potassium. When dietary potassium intake and plasma potassium are low, the electroneutral sodium chloride cotransporter is activated, leading to salt retention. This effect limits sodium delivery to potassium secretory segments, limiting potassium losses. In contrast, when dietary potassium intake is high, aldosterone is stimulated. Simultaneously, potassium inhibits the sodium chloride cotransporter. Because more sodium is then delivered to potassium secretory segments, primed by aldosterone, kaliuresis results. When these processes are disrupted, hyperkalemia results. Recently, new agents capable of removing potassium from the body and treating hyperkalemia have been tested in clinical trials. This development suggests that more effective and safer approaches to the prevention and treatment of hyperkalemia may be on the horizon.

  11. Sodium retention by insulin may depend on decreased plasma potassium.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, C E; Koomans, H A; Bijlsma, J A; Rabelink, T J; Dorhout Mees, E J

    1991-02-01

    Evidence is accumulating that insulin is a hypertensive factor in humans. The involved mechanism may be its sodium-retaining effect. We examined whether insulin causes sodium retention through a direct action on the kidney, as is generally assumed, or indirectly through hypokalemia. Insulin was infused (euglycemic clamp technique) with and without potassium infusion to prevent hypokalemia in six healthy subjects. Without potassium infusion, insulin caused a marked decrease in plasma potassium (-0.75 mmol/L), and decreased urinary sodium and potassium excretions by, approximately 38% and 65%, respectively. Simultaneous potassium infusion largely prevented the decrease in plasma potassium, as well as the decrease in urinary sodium and potassium excretions. These data suggest that the acute antinatriuretic effect of insulin may be largely mediated in an indirect way, ie, through hypokalemia.

  12. [Kinetics on ethanethiol oxidation by potassium permanganate in drinking water].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yao; Zhang, Xiao-Jian; Dai, Ji-Sheng; Xu, Huan

    2008-05-01

    Reaction kinetics of ethanethiol oxidation with potassium permanganate in water was studied, and the effect of ethanethiol oxidation in raw water under coagulation condition has been investigated. The results showed that the oxidation reaction of ethanethiol by potassium permanganate was very efficient, the removing effect could be more than 90%. The rate of ethanethiol decomposition by potassium permanganate in aqueous solution followed second-order kinetics. When potassium permanganate was excessive, pseudo-first-order rate and concentration of potassium permanganate followed the equation: k' = 0.025 [KMnO4] - 0.008. And then, the second-order reaction rate constant was k = 0.025 L/(min x mg). The removal of ethanethiol in raw water by potassium permanganate under coagulation condition was poorer than in pure water condition, So predicted concentration of potassium permanganate was lower than real concentration.

  13. Interactions between bicarbonate, potassium, and magnesium, and sulfur-dependent induction of luminescence in Vibrio fischeri.

    PubMed

    Tabei, Yosuke; Era, Mariko; Ogawa, Akane; Morita, Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    In spite of its central importance in research efforts, the relationship between seawater compounds and bacterial luminescence has not previously been investigated in detail. Thus, in this study, we investigated the effect of cations (Na(+) , K(+) , NH(4) (+) , Mg(2+) , and Ca(2+) ) and anions (Cl(-) , HCO(3) (-) , CO(3) (2-) , and NO(3) (-) ) on the induction of both inorganic (sulfate, sulfite, and thiosulfate) and organic (L-cysteine and L-cystine) sulfur-dependent luminescence in Vibrio fischeri. We found that HCO(3) (-) (bicarbonate) and CO(3) (2-) (carbonate), in the form of various compounds, had a stimulatory effect on sulfur-dependent luminescence. The luminescence induced by bicarbonate was further promoted by the addition of magnesium. Potassium also increased sulfur-dependent luminescence when sulfate or thiosulfate was supplied as the sole sulfur source, but not when sulfite, L-cysteine, or L-cystine was supplied. The positive effect of potassium was accelerated by the addition of magnesium and/or calcium. Furthermore, the additional supply of magnesium improved the induction of sulfite- or L-cysteine-dependent luminescence, but not the l-cystine-dependent type. These results suggest that sulfur-dependent luminescence of V. fischeri under nutrient-starved conditions is mainly controlled by bicarbonate, carbonate, and potassium. In addition, our results indicate that an additional supply of magnesium is effective for increasing V. fischeri luminescence.

  14. Sodium and potassium in the lunar atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, A. E.; Morgan, T. H.

    1991-01-01

    The discovery that sodium and potassium vapor can be observed in the lunar atmosphere using ground-based telescopes has opened up a field of investigation that was closed after the last Apollo mission to the Moon. Sodium has been detected at altitudes up to 1500 km above the surface. This implies a high effective temperature for sodium, of the order of 1000 K. However, there is some evidence for two populations of sodium and potassium, one at temperatures corresponding to the surface, and another corresponding to high temperatures. The sources for the lunar atmosphere are not understood. Meteoric bombardment of the surface, solar wind sputtering of the surface, and photo-sputtering of the surface have all been suggested as possible sources for the lunar atmosphere. One of the objectives of the current research is to test different hypotheses by measurements of the atmosphere under different conditions of solar illumination and shielding from the solar wind by the Earth.

  15. [About the history chemistry and potassium iodide].

    PubMed

    Fournier, Josette

    2008-07-01

    Louis Melsen was born at Louvain, he spent four years in Paris, working in Dumas's laboratory. Four letters from Melsens to Chevreul, since 1951 to 1880, are commented on. Two letters relate to Van Helmont and common interest of the two scientists in history of sciences. The others recall Melsens's proposal that potassium iodide can cure and prevent lead and mercury poisoning, and Chevreul's researches about colours seeing.

  16. Historical and technical developments of potassium resources.

    PubMed

    Ciceri, Davide; Manning, David A C; Allanore, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    The mining of soluble potassium salts (potash) is essential for manufacturing fertilizers required to ensure continuous production of crops and hence global food security. As of 2014, potash is mined predominantly in the northern hemisphere, where large deposits occur. Production tonnage and prices do not take into account the needs of the farmers of the poorest countries. Consequently, soils of some regions of the southern hemisphere are currently being depleted of potassium due to the expansion and intensification of agriculture coupled with the lack of affordable potash. Moving away from mined salts towards locally available resources of potassium, such as K-bearing silicates, could be one option to improve this situation. Overall, the global potash production system and its sustainability warrant discussion. In this contribution we examine the history of potash production and discuss the different sources and technologies used throughout the centuries. In particular, we highlight the political and economic conditions that favored the development of one specific technology over another. We identified a pattern of needs driving innovation. We show that as needs evolved throughout history, alternatives to soluble salts have been used to obtain K-fertilizers. Those alternatives may meet the incoming needs of our century, providing the regulatory and advisory practices that prevailed in the 20th century are revised.

  17. Formulation and optimization of potassium iodide tablets

    PubMed Central

    Al-Achi, Antoine; Patel, Binit

    2014-01-01

    The use of potassium iodide (KI) as a protective agent against accidental radioactive exposure is well established. In this study, we aimed to prepare a KI tablet formulation using a direct compression method. We utilized Design of Experiment (DoE)/mixture design to define the best formulation with predetermined physical qualities as to its dissolution, hardness, assay, disintegration, and angle of repose. Based on the results from the DoE, the formulation had the following components (%w/w): Avicel 48.70%, silicon dioxide 0.27%, stearic acid (1.00%), magnesium stearate 2.45%, and dicalcium phosphate 18.69%, in addition to potassium iodide 28.89% (130 mg/tablet). This formulation was scaled-up using two tablet presses, a single-punch press and a rotary mini tablet press. The final scaled-up formulation was subjected to a variety of quality control tests, including photo-stability testing. The results indicate that potassium iodide tablets prepared by a rotary mini tablet press had good pharmaceutical characteristics and a shelf-life of 25 days when stored at room temperature protected from light. PMID:25685048

  18. Potassium iodide capsule treatment of feline sporotrichosis.

    PubMed

    Reis, Erica G; Gremião, Isabella D F; Kitada, Amanda A B; Rocha, Raphael F D B; Castro, Verônica S P; Barros, Mônica B L; Menezes, Rodrigo C; Pereira, Sandro A; Schubach, Tânia M P

    2012-06-01

    Sporotrichosis is a mycosis caused by Sporothrix schenckii. The most affected animal is the cat; it has played an important role in the zoonotic transmission of this disease, especially in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, since 1998. In order to evaluate the treatment of feline sporotrichosis with potassium iodide, an observational cohort was conducted in 48 cats with sporotrichosis at Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas, Fiocruz. All cats received potassium iodide capsules, 2.5 mg/kg to 20 mg/kg q24h. The cure rate was 47.9%, treatment failure was 37.5%, treatment abandonment was 10.4% and death was 4.2%. Clinical adverse effects were observed in 52.1% of the cases. Thirteen cats had a mild increase in hepatic transaminase levels during the treatment, six of them presented clinical signs suggestive of hepatotoxicity. Compared to previous studies with itraconazole and iodide in saturated solution, potassium iodide capsules are an alternative for feline sporotrichosis treatment.

  19. Formulation and optimization of potassium iodide tablets.

    PubMed

    Al-Achi, Antoine; Patel, Binit

    2015-01-01

    The use of potassium iodide (KI) as a protective agent against accidental radioactive exposure is well established. In this study, we aimed to prepare a KI tablet formulation using a direct compression method. We utilized Design of Experiment (DoE)/mixture design to define the best formulation with predetermined physical qualities as to its dissolution, hardness, assay, disintegration, and angle of repose. Based on the results from the DoE, the formulation had the following components (%w/w): Avicel 48.70%, silicon dioxide 0.27%, stearic acid (1.00%), magnesium stearate 2.45%, and dicalcium phosphate 18.69%, in addition to potassium iodide 28.89% (130 mg/tablet). This formulation was scaled-up using two tablet presses, a single-punch press and a rotary mini tablet press. The final scaled-up formulation was subjected to a variety of quality control tests, including photo-stability testing. The results indicate that potassium iodide tablets prepared by a rotary mini tablet press had good pharmaceutical characteristics and a shelf-life of 25 days when stored at room temperature protected from light.

  20. Proapoptotic Role of Potassium Ions in Liver Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Zhenglin; Huang, Xusen; Chen, Kaiyun; Wang, Hanning; Xiao, Jinfeng; He, Ke; Huang, Rui; Duan, Xiaopeng; Liu, Hao; Zhang, Jinqian; Xiang, Guoan

    2016-01-01

    Potassium channels are transmembrane proteins that selectively promote the infiltration of potassium ions. The significance of these channels for tumor biology has become obvious. However, the effects of potassium ions on the tumor or normal cells have seldom been studied. To address this problem, we studied the biological effects of L02 and HepG2 cells with ectogenous potassium ions. Cell proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis rate were analyzed. Our results indicated that potassium ions inhibited proliferation of L02 and HepG2 cells and promoted their apoptosis. Potassium ions induced apoptosis through regulating Bcl-2 family members and depolarized the mitochondrial membrane, especially for HepG2 cell. These biological effects were associated with channel protein HERG. By facilitating expression of channel protein HERG, potassium ions may prevent it from being shunted to procancerous pathways by inducing apoptosis. These results demonstrated that potassium ions may be a key regulator of liver cell function. Thus, our findings suggest that potassium ions could inhibit tumorigenesis through inducing apoptosis of hepatoma cells by upregulating potassium ions transport channel proteins HERG and VDAC1. PMID:27069917

  1. Effects of extracellular potassium diffusion on electrically coupled neuron networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xing-Xing; Shuai, Jianwei

    2015-02-01

    Potassium accumulation and diffusion during neuronal epileptiform activity have been observed experimentally, and potassium lateral diffusion has been suggested to play an important role in nonsynaptic neuron networks. We adopt a hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neuron network in a zero-calcium condition to better understand the influence of extracellular potassium dynamics on the stimulus-induced activity. The potassium concentration in the interstitial space for each neuron is regulated by potassium currents, Na+-K+ pumps, glial buffering, and ion diffusion. In addition to potassium diffusion, nearby neurons are also coupled through gap junctions. Our results reveal that the latency of the first spike responding to stimulus monotonically decreases with increasing gap-junction conductance but is insensitive to potassium diffusive coupling. The duration of network oscillations shows a bell-like shape with increasing potassium diffusive coupling at weak gap-junction coupling. For modest electrical coupling, there is an optimal K+ diffusion strength, at which the flow of potassium ions among the network neurons appropriately modulates interstitial potassium concentrations in a degree that provides the most favorable environment for the generation and continuance of the action potential waves in the network.

  2. The relationship between uric acid and potassium in normal subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, A C; Boddy, K; King, P C; Brennan, J; Anderson, J A; Buchanan, W W

    1978-01-01

    The serum uric acid concentration in normal healthy subjects has been studied in relation to sex, height, weight, lean body mass measured from total body potassium and predicted from the Hume-Weyers formula (1971), total body potassium, plasma potassium and urea, and packed cell volume. The strongest correlation was found with sex, but height, weight, total body potassium, lean body mass (measured and predicted) also correlated significantly with serum uric acid concentration. However, when the sex variable was removed, the other factors lost their significant correlation. Finally, total red blood cell and plasma volumes were predicted (Hume and Goldberg, 1964) and from these an estimate of total plasma uric acid, total plasma potassium, and total red blood cell potassium obtained. Measured total body potassium was found to correlate well with total plasma potassium and total red blood cell potassium independent of sex. Total plasma uric acid correlated well with measured total body potassium when both sexes were considered and when separated into male and female groups the males retained a significant correlation as did the female group. PMID:686865

  3. Liner protected carbon-carbon heat pipe concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovang, Richard D.; Hunt, Maribeth E.

    1992-01-01

    A lightweight, high performance radiator concept using carbon-carbon heat pipes is being developed to support space nuclear power applications, specifically the SP-100 system. Carbon-carbon has been selected as an outer structural tube member because of its high temperature and strength characteristics; however, this material must be protected from the potassium heat pipe working fluid. A metallic liner approach is being taken to provide this fluid barrier. Feasibility issues associated with this approach include materials compatibility, fabricastion of the thin-walled liner, bonding the liner to the carbon-carbon tube, mismatch of coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), carbon diffusion, and end cap closures. To resolve these issues, a series of test coupons have been fabricated and tested, assessing various liner materials, braze alloys, and substrate precursors. These tests will lead to a final heat pipe architecture, material selection, and component assembly.

  4. Yeast-based microporous carbon materials for carbon dioxide capture.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wenzhong; He, Yue; Zhang, Shouchun; Li, Junfen; Fan, Weibin

    2012-07-01

    A hierarchical microporous carbon material with a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of 1348 m(2) g(-1) and a pore volume of 0.67 cm(3) g(-1) was prepared from yeast through chemical activation with potassium hydroxide. This type of material contains large numbers of nitrogen-containing groups (nitrogen content >5.3 wt%), and, consequently, basic sites. As a result, this material shows a faster adsorption rate and a higher adsorption capacity of CO(2) than the material obtained by directly carbonizing yeast under the same conditions. The difference is more pronounced in the presence of N(2) or H(2)O, showing that chemical activation of discarded yeast with potassium hydroxide could afford high-performance microporous carbon materials for the capture of CO(2).

  5. Active dendrites, potassium channels and synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Daniel; Christie, Brian R; Frick, Andreas; Gray, Richard; Hoffman, Dax A; Schexnayder, Lalania K; Watanabe, Shigeo; Yuan, Li-Lian

    2003-01-01

    The dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus express numerous types of voltage-gated ion channel, but the distributions or densities of many of these channels are very non-uniform. Sodium channels in the dendrites are responsible for action potential (AP) propagation from the axon into the dendrites (back-propagation); calcium channels are responsible for local changes in dendritic calcium concentrations following back-propagating APs and synaptic potentials; and potassium channels help regulate overall dendritic excitability. Several lines of evidence are presented here to suggest that back-propagating APs, when coincident with excitatory synaptic input, can lead to the induction of either long-term depression (LTD) or long-term potentiation (LTP). The induction of LTD or LTP is correlated with the magnitude of the rise in intracellular calcium. When brief bursts of synaptic potentials are paired with postsynaptic APs in a theta-burst pairing paradigm, the induction of LTP is dependent on the invasion of the AP into the dendritic tree. The amplitude of the AP in the dendrites is dependent, in part, on the activity of a transient, A-type potassium channel that is expressed at high density in the dendrites and correlates with the induction of the LTP. Furthermore, during the expression phase of the LTP, there are local changes in dendritic excitability that may result from modulation of the functioning of this transient potassium channel. The results support the view that the active properties of dendrites play important roles in synaptic integration and synaptic plasticity of these neurons. PMID:12740112

  6. Potassium emission absorption system. Topical report 12

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, L.E.

    1995-04-01

    The Potassium Emission Absorption System is one of the advanced optical diagnostics developed at Mississippi State University to provide support for the demonstration of prototype-scale coal-fired combustion magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electrical power generation. Intended for application in the upstream of an MHD flow, the system directly measures gas temperature and neutral potassium atom number density through spectroscopic emission absorption techniques. From these measurements the electron density can be inferred from a statistical equilibrium calculation and the electron conductivity in the MHD channel found by use of an electron mobility model. The instrument has been utilized for field test measurements on MHD facilities for almost a decade and has been proven to provide useful measurements as designed for MHD nozzle, channel, and diffuser test sections. The theory of the measurements, a system description, its capabilities, and field test measurement results are reported here. During the development and application of the instrument several technical issues arose which when addressed advanced the state of the art in emission absorption measurement. Studies of these issues are also reported here and include: two-wavelength measurements for particle-laden flows, potassium D-line far wing absorption coefficient, bias in emission absorption measurements arising from dirty windows and misalignments, non-coincident multiwavelength emission absorption sampling errors, and lineshape fitting for boundary layer flow profile information. Although developed for NLHD application, the instrument could be applied to any high temperature flow with a resonance line in the 300 to 800 nm range, for instance other types of flames, rocket plumes or low temperature plasmas.

  7. Nuclear magnetic resonance study of potassium dihydrophosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uskova, N. I.; Podorozhkin, D. Yu.; Charnaya, E. V.; Nefedov, D. Yu.; Baryshnikov, S. V.; Bugaev, A. S.; Lee, M. K.; Chang, L. J.

    2016-04-01

    A powder sample of potassium dihydrophosphate KH2PO4 has been studied by the 31P NMR method in a wide temperature range covering the ferroelectric phase transition. Changes in the position and shape of the resonance line at the transition to the ferroelectric phase have been revealed. The parameters of the chemical shift tensor of 31P (isotropic shift, anisotropy, and asymmetry) in the ferroelectric phase have been calculated from the experimental data. A sharp increase in the anisotropy of the tensor at the phase transition has been demonstrated. Dielectric measurements have also been carried out to verify the transition temperature.

  8. Potassium Chloride Versus Voltage Clamp Contractures in Ventricular Muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morad, M.; Reeck, S.; Rao, M.

    1981-01-01

    In frog ventricle, developed tension was markedly larger in response to depolarization caused by a voltage clamp step than to depolarization induced by high concentrations of potassium chloride. Measurement of extracellular potassium activity at the surface and at the depth of muscle during the development of contractures showed that the diffusion of potassium is much slower than the spread of depolarization through the cross section of muscle. These two observations suggest that competition between the depolarizing and the negative inotropic effects of an increase in the extracellular potassium ion concentration may determine the time course and magnitude of contractile tension in heart muscle.

  9. Simultaneous recovery of phosphorus and potassium as magnesium potassium phosphate from synthetic sewage sludge effluent.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Satoshi; Nishio, Takayuki; Kanjo, Yoshinori

    2016-12-11

    Bench-scale experiments were performed to investigate simultaneous recovery of phosphorus and potassium from synthetic sewage sludge effluent as crystals of magnesium potassium phosphate (MPP or struvite-(K), MgKPO4·6H2O). The optimal pH of MPP formation was 11.5. A phosphorus level of at least 3 mM and K:P molar ratio over 3 were necessary to form MPP, which showed higher content rate of phosphorus and potassium in precipitate. MPP crystallization was confirmed by analysing the precipitates using a scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) apparatus and an X-ray Diffractometer (XRD). Inhibition of MPP crystallization by iron and aluminium was confirmed by precipitation experiments and SEM-EDX analysis. Potassium ratio against magnesium in precipitate decreased for iron concentrations greater than over 0.2 mM and aluminium concentrations over 0.05 mM.

  10. Effects of ATP-sensitive potassium channel opener on potassium transport and alveolar fluid clearance in the resected human lung.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, T; Takahashi, K; Ohya, N; Nakada, T; Matthay, M A

    1998-07-01

    Since the effect of an ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP channel) opener on the function of alveolar epithelial cells is unknown, the effect of YM934, a newly synthesized KATP channel opener, on potassium influx into the alveolar spaces and alveolar fluid clearance was determined in the resected human lung. An isosmolar albumin solution with a low potassium concentration was instilled into the distal airspaces of resected human lungs. Alveolar fluid clearance was measured by the progressive increase in alveolar protein concentration. Net potassium transport was measured by the change in potassium concentration and alveolar fluid volume. YM934 (10(-4) M) increased net influx of potassium by 140% into the alveolar spaces and also increased alveolar fluid clearance by 60% in the experiments with a potassium concentration of 0.3 mEq/1. Glibenclamide (10(-4) M), a KATP channel blocker, inhibited the YM934-increased influx of potassium transport and the increase in alveolar fluid clearance. Also amiloride (10(-5) M), an inhibitors of apical sodium uptake, blocked the YM934 stimulated increase in net alveolar fluid clearance. These results indicate that a KATP channel opener can effect potassium transport and net vectorial fluid movement across the human alveolar epithelium.

  11. Source of potassium in shocked ordinary chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weirich, J. R.; Swindle, T. D.; Isachsen, C. E.; Sharp, T. G.; Li, C.; Downs, R. T.

    2012-12-01

    Argon-argon dating (a variation of potassium-argon dating) of ordinary chondrites is being used to reconstruct the collisional impact history of their parent bodies. However, due to the fine-grained, multi-mineral, highly shocked nature of chondrites, the sources of potassium (K) in these meteorites have not been fully identified. By locating and isolating the different sources prior to analysis, better ages can be obtained. To distinguish between possible sources, we have analyzed Chico and Northwest Africa 091 (both L6 chondrites) via K mass balance, Raman spectroscopy, and argon (Ar) diffusion studies. In accordance with previous studies on other ordinary chondrites, the Ar in these two chondrites is nearly equally split between two releases, and the lower temperature release is identified as sodium-rich feldspar. Various scenarios for the higher temperature release are investigated, but no scenario meets all the required criteria. The Ar activation energy of the higher temperature release is the same as pyroxene, but the pyroxene has no detectable K. The K mass balance shows feldspar can account for all the K in the chondrite; hence feldspar must be the ultimate source of the higher temperature release. Raman spectroscopy rules out a high-pressure phase of feldspar. Neither melt veins, nor feldspar inclusions in pyroxene, are abundant enough to account for the higher temperature release in these meteorites.

  12. Acid-permanganate oxidation of potassium tetraphenylboron

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.

    1993-02-01

    Scoping experiments have been performed which show that potassium tetraphenylboron (KTPB) is rapidly oxidized by permanganate in acidic solutions at room temperature. The main Products are CO[sub 2], highly oxidized organic compounds related to tartaric and tartronic acids, boric acid, and potassium phosphate (when phosphoric acid is used as the source of acid). One liter of 0.6M NaMnO[sub 4]/2.5M H[sub 3]PO[sub 4] solution will destroy up to 8 grams of KTPB. The residual benzene concentration has been measured to be less than the RCRA limit of 0.5 ppm. Approximately 30% of the organic material is released as CO[sub 2] (trace CO) and 0.16% as benzene vapor. The reaction is well behaved, no foaming or spattering. Tests were performed from .15M to near 1M permanganate. The phosphoric acid concentration was maintained at a concentration at least three times that of the permanganate since an excess of acid was desired and this is the ratio that these two reagents are consumed in the oxidation.

  13. Acid-permanganate oxidation of potassium tetraphenylboron

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.

    1993-02-01

    Scoping experiments have been performed which show that potassium tetraphenylboron (KTPB) is rapidly oxidized by permanganate in acidic solutions at room temperature. The main Products are CO{sub 2}, highly oxidized organic compounds related to tartaric and tartronic acids, boric acid, and potassium phosphate (when phosphoric acid is used as the source of acid). One liter of 0.6M NaMnO{sub 4}/2.5M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} solution will destroy up to 8 grams of KTPB. The residual benzene concentration has been measured to be less than the RCRA limit of 0.5 ppm. Approximately 30% of the organic material is released as CO{sub 2} (trace CO) and 0.16% as benzene vapor. The reaction is well behaved, no foaming or spattering. Tests were performed from .15M to near 1M permanganate. The phosphoric acid concentration was maintained at a concentration at least three times that of the permanganate since an excess of acid was desired and this is the ratio that these two reagents are consumed in the oxidation.

  14. Porosity Dependence of Piezoelectric Properties for Porous Potassium Niobate System Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, S.; Mase, Y.; Shimizu, S.; Maeda, K.; Fujii, I.; Nakashima, K.; Pulpan, P.; Miyajima, N.

    2011-10-01

    Porous potassium niobate (KNbO3, KN) system ceramics were prepared by a conventional sintering method using carbon black (CB) nanoparticles. First, KN nanoparticles with a size of 100 nm was mixed with CB nanoparticles and binder using ball milling with ethanol. The mixture was dried, and pressed into pellets using uniaxial pressing. After binder burnout, these ceramics was sintered in air. Their piezoelectric properties were measured and discussed a relationship between porosity and piezoelectric properties. As the results, with increasing porosity, piezoelectric g33 constant increased significantly, which suggested that porous ceramics were effective for stress sensor application.

  15. Effects of water quality and dietary potassium on performance and carcass characteristics of yearling steers.

    PubMed

    Sexson, J L; Wagner, J J; Engle, T E; Spears, J W

    2010-01-01

    Four hundred thirty-two crossbred yearling steers (339 kg +/- 4.8) were used to investigate the effects of water quality and dietary potassium concentration and source on feedlot performance and carcass merit. The study was conducted using a 2 x 3 factorial treatment arrangement. Factors evaluated included 2 water sources: 1) a blend of reverse osmosis and well water (RO; 608 +/- 164 mg/L of SO(4)) and 2) 100% well water with SO(4) concentration of 1,933 +/- 53 mg/L and 3 dietary K treatments. Potassium treatments included 0.75% K with supplemental K from potassium chloride (0.75% K-KCl), 0.75% K with supplemental K from potassium carbonate (0.75% K-K(2)CO(3)), and 1.0% K with supplemental K from potassium carbonate (1.0% K-K(2)CO(3)). Interactions between water quality and dietary treatments were not significant. Dry matter intake tended (P = 0.10) to be greater for steers consuming RO water compared with well water and was not affected by dietary treatment. Feed efficiency (P = 0.04) and NE(g) recovery (P = 0.04) were greater for 1.0% K-K(2)CO(3) compared with 0.75% K-KCl but were not affected by water quality. Final BW was heavier (P < 0.001) and ADG was greater (P = 0.04) for RO water compared with well water but were not affected by diet. Carcasses from steers that consumed RO water tended (P = 0.08) to be heavier than carcasses from steers consuming well water. Dietary treatment did not affect HCW (P = 0.52). Yield grade calculated from carcass measurements was not affected by dietary treatment or water quality. Carcasses from steers consuming well water had greater (P = 0.04) marbling scores than RO water. These data demonstrate that steers consuming RO water achieved improved feedlot performance. Steers fed 1.0% K-K(2)CO(3) were more efficient and demonstrated improved energy recovery compared with steers fed 0.75% K-KCl. Improved efficiency and energy recovery may be related to a reduction (P = 0.06) in the liver abscess rate for steers consuming 1.0% K

  16. 75 FR 24572 - Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Affirmative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts from the People's Republic of China... investigation of certain potassium phosphate salts (``salts'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). See Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...

  17. 75 FR 16509 - Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... phosphate salts, provided for in subheadings 2835.24.00 and 2835.39.10 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of... ``phosphate salts''). Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts from the People's Republic of China:...

  18. The role of dietary potassium in hypertension and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ekmekcioglu, Cem; Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Meyer, Alexa L; Moeslinger, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Potassium is an essential mineral which plays major roles for the resting membrane potential and the intracellular osmolarity. In addition, for several years, it has been known that potassium also affects endothelial and vascular smooth muscle functions and it has been repeatedly shown that an increase in potassium intake shifts blood pressure to a more preferable level. Meanwhile, the blood pressure lowering effects of potassium were presented in several intervention trials and summarized in a handful of meta-analyses. Furthermore, accumulating epidemiological evidence from, especially, the last decade relates low dietary potassium intake or serum potassium levels to an increased risk for insulin resistance or diabetes. However, intervention trials are required to confirm this association. So, in addition to reduction of sodium intake, increasing dietary potassium intake may positively affect blood pressure and possibly also glucose metabolism in many populations. This concise review not only summarizes the studies linking potassium to blood pressure and diabetes but also discusses potential mechanisms involved, like vascular smooth muscle relaxation and endothelium-dependent vasodilation or stimulation of insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells, respectively.

  19. STUDIES INTO THE MECHANISMS OF POTASSIUM BROMATE INDUCED THYROID CARCINOGENESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies into the Mechanisms of Potassium Bromate Induced Thyroid Carcinogenesis.

    Potassium bromate (KBrO3) occurs in finished drinking water as a by-product of the ozonation disinfection process and has been found to induce thyroid follicular cell tumors in the rat after ...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10021 - Magnesium potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Magnesium potassium titanium oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10021 Magnesium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and... titanium oxide (PMN P-01-764; CAS No. 39290-90-9) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10021 - Magnesium potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Magnesium potassium titanium oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10021 Magnesium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and... titanium oxide (PMN P-01-764; CAS No. 39290-90-9) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10021 - Magnesium potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Magnesium potassium titanium oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10021 Magnesium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and... titanium oxide (PMN P-01-764; CAS No. 39290-90-9) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10021 - Magnesium potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Magnesium potassium titanium oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10021 Magnesium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and... titanium oxide (PMN P-01-764; CAS No. 39290-90-9) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10021 - Magnesium potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Magnesium potassium titanium oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10021 Magnesium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and... titanium oxide (PMN P-01-764; CAS No. 39290-90-9) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  5. Process for preparation of potassium-38. [DOE patent application

    DOEpatents

    Lambrecht, R.M.; Wolf, A.P.

    A solution of potassium-38 suitable for use as a radiopharmaceutical and a method for its production. Argon is irradiated with protons having energies above the threshold for the /sup 40/Ar(p,3n)/sup 38/K reaction. The resulting potassium-38 is dissolved in a sterile water and any contaminating chlorine-38 is removed.

  6. Nutrient effects on the calcium economy: emphasizing the potassium controversy.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, Karen; Heaney, Robert P

    2008-01-01

    The calcium economy is a dynamic state influenced by fluxes in dietary calcium intake, intestinal calcium absorption, and renal calcium conservation. The relationship of selected bone-related nutrients to these calcium fluxes exhibits both constructive and destructive interactions that affect the overall state of calcium balance. The basis of the calcium requirement and the impact of vitamin D, protein, phosphorus, sodium, and caffeine on the calcium economy are reviewed. Against this background, emerging data on potassium are presented. Data from balance studies of healthy white women at midlife were reviewed to assess the effect of diet potassium on the calcium economy under steady-state conditions. Potassium was inversely associated with both urinary calcium excretion and intestinal calcium absorption, yielding no significant net change in calcium balance. In the population reported on here, dairy, meat, and cereal grains together contributed 56%, and fruits and vegetables 44%, of total dietary potassium. To the extent that fruit and vegetable potassium is a surrogate for high bicarbonate, this cohort did not have a dietary intake pattern allowing for measurement or interpretation of the potential effect of a high-bicarbonate-containing diet on long-term steady-state calcium balance. Potassium itself is uniformly well absorbed regardless of the dietary source. Mean 24-h urinary potassium averaged 92% of dietary intake. According to nationwide food consumption surveys, milk is the number 1 single food source of potassium in all age groups in the United States.

  7. An improved automotive brake lining using fibrous potassium titanate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansfield, J. A.; Halberstadt, M. L.; Riccitiello, S. R.; Rhee, S. K.

    1976-01-01

    Simultaneous fade reduction and wear improvement of a commercial automotive brake lining were achieved by adding fibrous potassium titanate. The dependence of friction and wear characteristics on quantitative variations in potassium titanate, asbestos, phenolic binder, and organic and inorganic modifiers was evaluated.

  8. The stability of potassium iodate in crude table salt.

    PubMed

    ARROYAVE, G; PINEDA, O; SCRIMSHAW, N S

    1956-01-01

    An experiment carried out by the authors confirms that the addition, under commercial conditions, of potassium iodate to crude sea salt is a reliable method for the iodization of salt, a fact of particular significance to countries in which iodization by potassium iodide is unsatisfactory owing to adverse environmental conditions.

  9. Root cortical aerenchyma enhances the growth of maize on soils with suboptimal availability of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.

    PubMed

    Postma, Johannes Auke; Lynch, Jonathan Paul

    2011-07-01

    Root cortical aerenchyma (RCA) is induced by hypoxia, drought, and several nutrient deficiencies. Previous research showed that RCA formation reduces the respiration and nutrient content of root tissue. We used SimRoot, a functional-structural model, to provide quantitative support for the hypothesis that RCA formation is a useful adaptation to suboptimal availability of phosphorus, nitrogen, and potassium by reducing the metabolic costs of soil exploration in maize (Zea mays). RCA increased the growth of simulated 40-d-old maize plants up to 55%, 54%, or 72% on low nitrogen, phosphorus, or potassium soil, respectively, and reduced critical fertility levels by 13%, 12%, or 7%, respectively. The greater utility of RCA on low-potassium soils is associated with the fact that root growth in potassium-deficient plants was more carbon limited than in phosphorus- and nitrogen-deficient plants. In contrast to potassium-deficient plants, phosphorus- and nitrogen-deficient plants allocate more carbon to the root system as the deficiency develops. The utility of RCA also depended on other root phenes and environmental factors. On low-phosphorus soils (7.5 μM), the utility of RCA was 2.9 times greater in plants with increased lateral branching density than in plants with normal branching. On low-nitrate soils, the utility of RCA formation was 56% greater in coarser soils with high nitrate leaching. Large genetic variation in RCA formation and the utility of RCA for a range of stresses position RCA as an interesting crop-breeding target for enhanced soil resource acquisition.

  10. Enhanced Photovoltaic Properties of Potassium-Adsorbed Titania Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, C.; Jaye, C; Fischer, D; Lewis, L; Willey, R; Menon, L

    2009-01-01

    It is demonstrated that vertically-aligned titania nanotube planar arrays fabricated by electrochemical anodization using standard potassium-containing electrolytes invariably contain a significant amount of surface-adsorbed potassium ions, hitherto undetected, that affect the titania photoelectrochemical or PEC performance. Synchrotron-based near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy reveals the strong ionic nature of surface potassium-titania bonds that alters the PEC performance over that of pure titania nanotubes through reduction of the external electrical bias needed to produce hydrogen at maximum efficiency. This result implies that the external electrical energy input required per liter of solar hydrogen produced with potassium-adsorbed titania nanotubes may be reduced. Tailoring the potassium content may thus be an alternative means to fine-tune the photoelectrochemical response of TiO2 nanotube-based PEC electrodes.

  11. High surface area carbon and process for its production

    DOEpatents

    Romanos, Jimmy; Burress, Jacob; Pfeifer, Peter; Rash, Tyler; Shah, Parag; Suppes, Galen

    2016-12-13

    Activated carbon materials and methods of producing and using activated carbon materials are provided. In particular, biomass-derived activated carbon materials and processes of producing the activated carbon materials with prespecified surface areas and pore size distributions are provided. Activated carbon materials with preselected high specific surface areas, porosities, sub-nm (<1 nm) pore volumes, and supra-nm (1-5 nm) pore volumes may be achieved by controlling the degree of carbon consumption and metallic potassium intercalation into the carbon lattice during the activation process.

  12. High pressure studies of potassium perchlorate

    SciTech Connect

    Pravica, Michael; Wang, Yonggang; Sneed, Daniel; Reiser, Sharissa; White, Melanie

    2016-07-29

    Two experiments are reported on KClO4 at extreme conditions. A static high pressure Raman study was first conducted to 18.9 GPa. Evidence for at least two new phases was observed: one between 2.4 and 7.7 GPa (possibly sluggish), and the second near 11.7 GPa. Then, the X-ray induced decomposition rate of potassium perchlorate (KClO4 hv→ KCl + 2O2) was studied up to 15.2 GPa. The time-dependent growth of KCl and O2 was monitored. The decomposition rate slowed at higher pressures. As a result, we present the first direct evidence for O2 crystallization at higher pressures, demonstrating that O2 molecules aggregate at high pressure.

  13. Sir Charles Locock and potassium bromide.

    PubMed

    Eadie, M J

    2012-01-01

    On 12 May 1857, Edward Sieveking read a paper on epilepsy to the Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society in London. During the discussion that followed Sir Charles Locock, obstetrician to Queen Victoria, was reported to have commented that during the past 14 months he had used potassium bromide to successfully stop epileptic seizures in all but one of 14 or 15 women with 'hysterical' or catamenial epilepsy. This report of Locock's comment has generally given him credit for introducing the first reasonably effective antiepileptic drug into medical practice. However examination of the original reports raises questions as to how soundly based the accounts of Locock's comments were. Subsequently, others using the drug to treat epilepsy failed to obtain the degree of benefit that the reports of Locock's comments would have led them to expect. The drug might not have come into more widespread use as a result, had not Samuel Wilks provided good, independent evidence for the drug's antiepileptic efficacy in 1861.

  14. DKDP /potassium dideuterium phosphate/ light valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casasent, D.

    1977-01-01

    The use of potassium dideuterium phosphate (DKDP) light valves for optical data processing is discussed. The operating principles and structure of optically and electron beam addressed DKDPs are compared, and specifications for both devices given. Optically addressed DKDPs are capable of higher resolution and contrast, but both systems represent viable real time spatial light modulators adaptable to optical processing. Examples of real time data processing performed by the DKDPs include: image addition and subtraction; reduction of noise introduced by scattered light in recording media; reconstruction of computer generated and acoustic holograms; reconstruction of synthetic aperture radar data; retrieval of three-dimensional information in X-ray diagnoses; radar signal processing and display; and optical pattern recognition and correlation of images, which has applications for missile guidance systems.

  15. Proteinase inhibitor homologues as potassium channel blockers.

    PubMed

    Lancelin, J M; Foray, M F; Poncin, M; Hollecker, M; Marion, D

    1994-04-01

    We report here the NMR structure of dendrotoxin I, a powerful potassium channel blocker from the venom of the African Elapidae snake Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis (black mamba), calculated from an experimentally-derived set of 719 geometric restraints. The backbone of the toxin superimposes on bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) with a root-mean-square deviation of < 1.7 A. The surface electrostatic potential calculated for dendrotoxin I and BPTI, reveal an important difference which might account for the differences in function of the two proteins. These proteins may provide examples of adaptation for specific and diverse biological functions while at the same time maintaining the overall three-dimensional structure of a common ancestor.

  16. Electrocaloric properties of potassium tantalate niobate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiwa, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    The electrocaloric properties of potassium tantalate niobate (KTN) crystals were investigated by indirect estimation and direct measurement of temperature-electric field (T-E) hysteresis loops. The measured T-E loops showed a similar shape to strain-electric field (s-E) loops. The adiabatic temperature change ΔT due to the electrocaloric effect was estimated from the polarization change of this sample to be 0.49 K under a field of 20 kV/cm. The measured temperature change ΔT in these samples upon the release of the electric field from 20 kV/cm to zero was 0.42 K. The temperature dependences of the electromechanical and electrocaloric properties were measured. The maximum performance appeared at approximately the phase transition temperature of KTN crystal and the properties were relatively moderate-temperature-dependent.

  17. Sodium and Potassium Interactions with Nucleic Acids.

    PubMed

    Auffinger, Pascal; D'Ascenzo, Luigi; Ennifar, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Metal ions are essential cofactors for the structure and functions of nucleic acids. Yet, the early discovery in the 70s of the crucial role of Mg(2+) in stabilizing tRNA structures has occulted for a long time the importance of monovalent cations. Renewed interest in these ions was brought in the late 90s by the discovery of specific potassium metal ions in the core of a group I intron. Their importance in nucleic acid folding and catalytic activity is now well established. However, detection of K(+) and Na(+) ions is notoriously problematic and the question about their specificity is recurrent. Here we review the different methods that can be used to detect K(+) and Na(+) ions in nucleic acid structures such as X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance or molecular dynamics simulations. We also discuss specific versus non-specific binding to different structures through various examples.

  18. High pressure studies of potassium perchlorate

    DOE PAGES

    Pravica, Michael; Wang, Yonggang; Sneed, Daniel; ...

    2016-07-29

    Two experiments are reported on KClO4 at extreme conditions. A static high pressure Raman study was first conducted to 18.9 GPa. Evidence for at least two new phases was observed: one between 2.4 and 7.7 GPa (possibly sluggish), and the second near 11.7 GPa. Then, the X-ray induced decomposition rate of potassium perchlorate (KClO4 hv→ KCl + 2O2) was studied up to 15.2 GPa. The time-dependent growth of KCl and O2 was monitored. The decomposition rate slowed at higher pressures. As a result, we present the first direct evidence for O2 crystallization at higher pressures, demonstrating that O2 molecules aggregatemore » at high pressure.« less

  19. Amiodarone Inhibits Apamin-Sensitive Potassium Currents

    PubMed Central

    Turker, Isik; Yu, Chih-Chieh; Chang, Po-Cheng; Chen, Zhenhui; Sohma, Yoshiro; Lin, Shien-Fong; Chen, Peng-Sheng; Ai, Tomohiko

    2013-01-01

    Background Apamin sensitive potassium current (IKAS), carried by the type 2 small conductance Ca2+-activated potassium (SK2) channels, plays an important role in post-shock action potential duration (APD) shortening and recurrent spontaneous ventricular fibrillation (VF) in failing ventricles. Objective To test the hypothesis that amiodarone inhibits IKAS in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK-293) cells. Methods We used the patch-clamp technique to study IKAS in HEK-293 cells transiently expressing human SK2 before and after amiodarone administration. Results Amiodarone inhibited IKAS in a dose-dependent manner (IC50, 2.67±0.25 µM with 1 µM intrapipette Ca2+). Maximal inhibition was observed with 50 µM amiodarone which inhibited 85.6±3.1% of IKAS induced with 1 µM intrapipette Ca2+ (n = 3). IKAS inhibition by amiodarone was not voltage-dependent, but was Ca2+-dependent: 30 µM amiodarone inhibited 81.5±1.9% of IKAS induced with 1 µM Ca2+ (n = 4), and 16.4±4.9% with 250 nM Ca2+ (n = 5). Desethylamiodarone, a major metabolite of amiodarone, also exerts voltage-independent but Ca2+ dependent inhibition of IKAS. Conclusion Both amiodarone and desethylamiodarone inhibit IKAS at therapeutic concentrations. The inhibition is independent of time and voltage, but is dependent on the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. SK2 current inhibition may in part underlie amiodarone's effects in preventing electrical storm in failing ventricles. PMID:23922993

  20. Study and modification of the reactivity of carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, P. L., Jr.; Ismail, I. M.; Mahajan, O. P.; Eapen, T. A.

    1980-01-01

    The reactivity to air of polyactylonitrile-based carbon fiber cloth was enhanced by the addition of metals to the cloth. The cloth was oxidized in 54 wt% nitric acid in order to increase the surface area of the cloth and to add carbonyl groups to the surface. Metal addition was then achieved by soaking the cloth in metal acetate solution to effect exchange between the metal carbon and hydrogen on the carbonyl groups. The addition of potassium, sodium, calcium and barium enhanced fiber cloth reactivity to air at 573 K. Extended studies using potassium addition showed that success in enhancing fiber cloth reactivity to air depends on: extent of cloth oxidation in nitric acid, time of exchange in potassium acetate solution and the thoroughness of removing metal acetate from the fiber pore structure following exchange. Cloth reactivity increases essentially linearly with increase in potassium addition via exchange.

  1. Mechanism for alkali metal-catalyzed CO/sub 2/ gasification of carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Saber, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Alkali metal-catalyzed gasification of carbon by CO/sub 2/ was studied using Temperature-programmed reaction and isotopic tracers. Between 500 and 1000 K, oxide groups on the carbon surface interact with potassium carbonate to form carbonate/oxygen/carbon complexes. The complexes exchange carbon and oxygen isotopes readily with gas-phase carbon dioxide. Sodium carbonate, however, does not appear to complex with the surface oxide groups under these conditions. The surface oxide groups also stabilize potassium on the carbon surface, thus, less potassium volatilizes from higher-oxygen-content carbons than from lower oxygen content carbons. Above 1000 K, both potassium and sodium carbonate decompose coincident with catalyzed CO/sub 2/ gasification to form a metal oxide with a metal:oxygen ratio of 2. The oxide can be oxidized to give a metal:0 ratio of 1. The carbonate does not appear to be the catalytically active species. Reactions describing Na-catalyzed gasification via oxygen. Transfer mechanisms are proposed.

  2. Measurement of whole body cellular and collagen nitrogen, potassium, and other elements by neutron activation and whole body counting

    SciTech Connect

    James, H.M.; Fabricius, P.J.; Dykes, P.W.

    1987-09-01

    Whole body nitrogen can be measured by neutron activation analysis with an acceptable radiation dose; it is an index of body protein which, in normal subjects, is 65% cellular protein and 35% extracellular connective collagen. Whole body potassium can be measured by whole body counting without irradiating the subject; it is an index of body cell mass. We measured whole body nitrogen, potassium, extracellular water, intracellular water, and fat-folds. The differences between 37 malnourished patients and five normal subjects suggested that the patients had 9 kg less cell mass than normal, but no difference in extracellular mass. Measurements were made on eight patients before and after 14 days of total parenteral nutrition; balance of nitrogen intake and excretion also was measured. The changes were consistent with mean increases of 3 kg of cellular mass and 3 kg of fat with no change of extracellular mass. The accuracy and sensitivity of the whole body measurements need further confirmation for use in patients with changing body composition. Where tissue wasting is largely from the cellular compartment, potassium could be a more sensitive index of wasting than nitrogen. Multielement analysis of nitrogen, potassium, chlorine, and carbon will probably be valuable in elucidating body composition in malnutrition.

  3. Generating potassium abundance variations in the Solar Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    An intriguing aspect of chondritic meteorites is that they are complementary: while their separate components have wildly varying abundances, bulk chondrites have nearly solar composition. This implies that the nearly solar reservoirs in which chondrites were born were in turn assembled from sub-reservoirs of differing compositions that birthed the different components. We focus on explaining the potassium abundance variations between chondrules even within a single chondrite, while maintaining the observed CI 41K to 39K ratios. This requires physically separating potassium and chondrules while the temperature is high enough for K to be in the gas phase. We examine several mechanisms which could drive the dust through gas and show that to do so locally would have required long (sub-orbital to many orbits) time scales; with shortest potassium depletion time-scales occurring in a scenario where chondrules formed high above the mid-plane and settled out of the evaporated potassium. While orbital time-scales are at odds with laboratory chondrule cooling rate estimates, any other model for the origin for the potassium abundance variation has to wrestle with the severe logistical difficulty of generating a plethora of correlated reservoirs which varied strongly in their potassium abundances, but not in their potassium isotope ratios.

  4. An interlaboratory study of potassium determination in rocks and minerals.

    PubMed

    Rice, T D

    1976-05-01

    Seven laboratories took part in this interlaboratory study which was part of an investigation of the flame-speetrometric determination of potassium in rocks and minerals suitable for potassium-argon age-measurement. Three of these laboratories determined potassium in the following five international reference rocks: tonalite T-1, basalt BCR-1, andesite AGV-1, granite G-2, and granodiorite GSP-1. The other five samples (with the number of laboratories analysing them in parentheses) were: a chlorite rock (7), an altered basic igneous rock (5), an altered basaltic andesite (5), a biotite (6) and a potassium feldspar (7). Details of sample preparation and methods of analysis are given; no laboratory used exactly the same method as any of the other six laboratories. Results have been examined by analysis of variance; larger relative between- and within-laboratory variations occurred for the two samples containing less than 0.1% potassium than for seven of the eight other (higher potassium) samples; between-laboratory variations for the basalt BCR-1 and, to a lesser extent, the andesite AGV-1, were high and of similar magnitude to those for the samples containing less than 0.1% potassium. The causes of any poor interlaboratory agreement in the present study are considered.

  5. Biphasic effects of losartan potassium on immobility in mice.

    PubMed

    Vijayapandi, Pandi; Nagappa, Anantha Naik

    2005-08-01

    The effects of losartan potassium, an angiotensin AT(1) receptor blocker on immobility in forced swim test have been studied. Effect of losartan potassium, nortriptyline HCl, fluoxetine HCl and reserpine per se and in combination on forced swimming-induced immobility in mice have also been studied. In mice, losartan potassium elicits biphasic responses i.e. positive responses at lower doses (0.1, 1.0 and 5 mg/kg, i.p.) in the forced swim test, a test of potential antidepressant activity and vice versa at higher dose (20 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.). In chronic studies, enhancement in immobility was observed for losartan potassium (3 and 30 mg/kg, p.o., 21 days). In acute combination studies, losartan potassium (1 and 5 mg/kg) significantly reversed the reserpine-induced immobility, but vice versa at 100 mg/kg. Losartan potassium (0.1 and 5 mg/kg) potentiate antidepressant activity of nortriptyline (30 mg/kg, i.p.) in mice, but vice versa at 100 mg/kg. Likewise, Losartan potassium (100 mg/kg), significantly reversed antidepressant activity of fluoxetine HCl, but at 0.1 and 5 mg/kg, failed to modify fluoxetine HCl induced immobility. The obtained biphasic effect of losartan potassium on immobility in mice might be due to inhibitory effect on AT(1) receptor at lower dose and pronounced effect on AT(2) receptor at higher dose (large concentrations of losartan potassium can displace Angiotensin II (Ang II) from its AT(1) receptor to AT(2) receptor.

  6. The abundance of potassium in the Earth's core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, K.; Ohtani, E.; Kamada, S.; Miyahara, M.

    2013-12-01

    Potassium (K) has a radioactive isotope (40K), and it has been proposed that potassium might exist in the Earth's core (e.g., Wasserburg et al., 1964). If a large amount of potassium is in the core, it has a large impact on total heat budget and thermal history of the Earth. To reveal the amount of potassium in the core, many previous studies have been reported on potassium partitioning between metallic melts and silicate melts (e.g., Gessmann and Wood, 2002; Murthy et al., 2003; Hirao et al., 2006; Bouhifd et al., 2007; Corgne et al., 2007). Since there are considerable contradictions on temperature, pressure, and metal compositional dependencies, the potassium abundance in the core is not yet constrained well. In order to reveal the abundance accurately, we studied partitioning of potassium between aluminosilicate (adularia, KAlSi3O8) and metal (pure iron, iron-oxygen alloy, and iron-silicon alloy) up to 50 GPa and 3500 K using a double sided laser-heated diamond anvil cell. Our results revealed following pressure, temperature, and compositional dependencies on the partitioning coefficient of potassium DK (= the potassium contents in metal [wt%] / the potassium contents in silicate [wt%]); the pressure effect is a very weak but positive when the results by Hirao et al. (2006) are included, and the temperature effect is a positive but weaker than those reported previously. Oxygen fugacity has a positive effect, and oxygen in the metallic phase increases the K contents in the metallic phase, whereas silicon in the metallic phase has a negative effect. Based on these results, we estimated that the amount of the potassium in the core was less than 10 ppm and that the amount of 40K was about 1.0 ppb resulting generation of about 0.01 TW heat in the core. This amount of heat is relatively small compared to the heat flux at the core-mantle boundary (5 ~ 15 TW, Lay et al., 2008), therefore the radiogenic energy of potassium is not the major heat source of Earth's core.

  7. Onset of superconductivity in sodium and potassium intercalated molybdenum disulphide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somoano, R. B.; Rembaum, A.

    1971-01-01

    Molybdenum disulfide in the form of natural crystals or powder has been intercalated at -65 to -70 C with sodium and potassium using the liquid ammonia technique. All intercalated samples were found to show a superconducting transition. A plot of the percent of diamagnetic throw versus temperature indicates the possible existence of two phases in the potassium intercalated molybdenum disulfide. The onset of superconductivity in potassium and sodium intercalated molybdenite powder was found to be approximately 6.2 and approximately 4.5 K, respectively. The observed superconductivity is believed to be due to an increase in electron density as a result of intercalation.

  8. Regulation of serum potassium during insulin-induced hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Petersen, K G; Schlüter, K J; Kerp, L

    1982-07-01

    Counterregulatory secretion of epinephrine occurs during severe insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Under these conditions (minimal plasma glucose 27.4 +/- 1 mg/dl) the decrease of serum potassium concentration (0.9 mVal/L) is mediated by two mechanisms: insulin-induced (0.48 mVal/L) and epinephrine-induced (0.42 mVal/L) cellular uptake of potassium. Epinephrine-induced serum potassium uptake appears to be more sensitive to beta-adrenoceptor blockade than glucose production. The intensification of insulin-induced hypokalemia by epinephrine is of clinical significance.

  9. Simultaneous determination of potassium and rubidium content in yeast.

    PubMed

    Mulet, Jose M; Serrano, Ramón

    2002-11-01

    Rubidium is widely used as a potassium analogue in transport studies in yeast and other organisms. As rubidium (potassium) uptake is modulated by the internal potassium concentration, it is often necessary to determine both Rb(+) and K(+) concentrations in the same cell extract. Current methods based on atomic absorption/emission spectroscopy require separate analysis for each cation. Alternatively, unsafe radioactive isotopes can be used. Here we report a convenient, non-radioactive, HPLC/conductivity-based method that allows a complete analysis of both cations with a single injection from a cell extract. The increase in Rb(+) uptake during K(+) starvation in yeast is easily demonstrated with this method.

  10. The application of potassium ferrate for sewage treatment.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jia-Qian; Panagoulopoulos, Alex; Bauer, Mike; Pearce, Pete

    2006-04-01

    The comparative performance of potassium ferrate(VI), ferric sulphate and aluminium sulphate for the removal of turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), colour (as Vis400-abs) and bacteria in sewage treatment was evaluated. For coagulation and disinfection of sewage, potassium ferrate(VI) can remove more organic contaminants, COD and bacteria in comparison with the other two coagulants for the same doses used. Also, potassium ferrate(VI) produces less sludge volume and removes more contaminants, which should make subsequent sludge treatment easier.

  11. Toxicological evaluation of potassium sorbate added to cigarette tobacco.

    PubMed

    Gaworski, C L; Lemus-Olalde, R; Carmines, E L

    2008-01-01

    Potassium sorbate (PS) may be incorporated in blended cigarette tobacco either as a mold growth inhibitor in processed tobacco sheet material, or as a preservative in flavor systems or paper adhesives. To evaluate the effect of PS addition, neat material pyrolysis studies, smoke chemistry and biological activity studies (bacterial mutagenicity, cytotoxicity, in vivo micronucleus, and 90-day nose-only rat inhalation) with mainstream smoke, or mainstream smoke preparations from cigarettes containing various measured levels of PS (0%, 0.15%, 1.6%, and 3.7%) were performed. At simulated tobacco burning temperatures up to 1000 degrees C, neat PS completely pyrolyzed to form aromatic ring materials including benzene, toluene, substituted benzenes, naphthalene, and substituted naphthalenes. Under machine smoking conditions (FTC/ISO), high levels of PS may alter the burning characteristics of the cigarette leading to decreased puff count, total particulate matter, carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, 2-nitropropane, and tobacco specific nitrosamines yields in the smoke, while increasing the yield of nicotine, 1,3-butadiene, isoprene, and some PAHs. Biological studies indicated no relevant differences in the genotoxic or cytotoxic potential of either mainstream smoke from cigarettes with or without added PS. Rats exposed to mainstream cigarette smoke developed respiratory tract changes consistent with those seen in previous smoke inhalation studies, with no relevant histopathological differences between the control and the PS test cigarette groups. These studies demonstrated that high levels of PS could alter the burning rate of the tobacco leading to alteration in the smoke chemistry profile. Yet, based on the panel of biological endpoints monitored here, it appeared that added PS produced little relevant change in the overall toxicity profile of smoke.

  12. Potassium Isotopic Compositions of NIST Potassium Standards and 40Ar/39Ar Mineral Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Leah; Tappa, Mike; Ellam, Rob; Mark, Darren; Higgins, John; Simon, Justin I.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the isotopic ratios of standards, spikes, and reference materials is fundamental to the accuracy of many geochronological methods. For example, the 238U/235U ratio relevant to U-Pb geochronology was recently re-determined [1] and shown to differ significantly from the previously accepted value employed during age determinations. These underlying values are fundamental to accurate age calculations in many isotopic systems, and uncertainty in these values can represent a significant (and often unrecognized) portion of the uncertainty budget for determined ages. The potassium isotopic composition of mineral standards, or neutron flux monitors, is a critical, but often overlooked component in the calculation of K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar ages. It is currently assumed that all terrestrial materials have abundances indistinguishable from that of NIST SRM 985 [2]; this is apparently a reasonable assumption at the 0.25per mille level (1s) [3]. The 40Ar/39Ar method further relies on the assumption that standards and samples (including primary and secondary standards) have indistinguishable 40K/39K values. We will present data establishing the potassium isotopic compositions of NIST isotopic K SRM 985, elemental K SRM 999b, and 40Ar/39Ar biotite mineral standard GA1550 (sample MD-2). Stable isotopic compositions (41K/39K) were measured by the peak shoulder method with high resolution MC-ICP-MS (Thermo Scientific NEPTUNE Plus), using the accepted value of NIST isotopic SRM 985 [2] for fractionation [4] corrections [5]. 40K abundances were measured by TIMS (Thermo Scientific TRITON), using 41K/39K values from ICP-MS measurements (or, for SRM 985, values from [2]) for internal fractionation corrections. Collectively these data represent an important step towards a metrologically traceable calibration of 40K concentrations in primary 40Ar/39Ar mineral standards and improve uncertainties by ca. an order of magnitude in the potassium isotopic compositions of standards.

  13. Djerfisherite: nebular source of refractory potassium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebel, Denton S.; Sack, Richard O.

    2013-09-01

    Djerfisherite is an important carrier of potassium in highly reduced enstatite chondrites, where it occurs in sub-round metal-sulfide nodules. These nodules were once free-floating objects in the protoplanetary nebula. Here, we analyze existing and new data to derive an equation of state (EOS) for djerfisherites of structural formula. We use this EOS to calculate the thermal stability of djerfisherite coexisting in equilibrium with a cooling vapor of solar composition enriched in a dust analogous to anhydrous, chondritic interplanetary dust (C-IDP). We find that condensed mineral assemblages closely match those found in enstatite chondrites, with djerfisherite condensing above 1,000 K in C-IDP dust-enriched systems. Results may have implications for the volatile budgets of terrestrial planets and the incorporation of K into early formed, highly reduced, planetary cores. Previous work links enstatite chondrites to the planet Mercury, where the surface has a terrestrial K/Th ratio, high S/Si ratio, and very low FeO content. Mercury's accretion history may yield insights into Earth's.

  14. Gating of two pore domain potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Mathie, Alistair; Al-Moubarak, Ehab; Veale, Emma L

    2010-09-01

    Two-pore-domain potassium (K2P) channels are responsible for background leak currents which regulate the membrane potential and excitability of many cell types. Their activity is modulated by a variety of chemical and physical stimuli which act to increase or decrease the open probability of individual K2P channels. Crystallographic data and homology modelling suggest that all K(+) channels possess a highly conserved structure for ion selectivity and gating mechanisms. Like other K(+) channels, K2P channels are thought to have two primary conserved gating mechanisms: an inactivation (or C-type) gate at the selectivity filter close to the extracellular side of the channel and an activation gate at the intracellular entrance to the channel involving key, identified, hinge glycine residues. Zinc and hydrogen ions regulate Drosophila KCNK0 and mammalian TASK channels, respectively, by interacting with the inactivation gate of these channels. In contrast, the voltage dependence of TASK3 channels is mediated through its activation gate. For KCNK0 it has been shown that the gates display positive cooperativity. It is of much interest to determine whether other K2P regulatory compounds interact with either the activation gate or the inactivation gate to alter channel activity or, indeed, whether additional regulatory gating pathways exist.

  15. Voltage sensor inactivation in potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Bähring, Robert; Barghaan, Jan; Westermeier, Regina; Wollberg, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    In voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels membrane depolarization causes movement of a voltage sensor domain. This conformational change of the protein is transmitted to the pore domain and eventually leads to pore opening. However, the voltage sensor domain may interact with two distinct gates in the pore domain: the activation gate (A-gate), involving the cytoplasmic S6 bundle crossing, and the pore gate (P-gate), located externally in the selectivity filter. How the voltage sensor moves and how tightly it interacts with these two gates on its way to adopt a relaxed conformation when the membrane is depolarized may critically determine the mode of Kv channel inactivation. In certain Kv channels, voltage sensor movement leads to a tight interaction with the P-gate, which may cause conformational changes that render the selectivity filter non-conductive ("P/C-type inactivation"). Other Kv channels may preferably undergo inactivation from pre-open closed-states during voltage sensor movement, because the voltage sensor temporarily uncouples from the A-gate. For this behavior, known as "preferential" closed-state inactivation, we introduce the term "A/C-type inactivation". Mechanistically, P/C- and A/C-type inactivation represent two forms of "voltage sensor inactivation."

  16. Potassium selectivity of frog gastric luminal membrane.

    PubMed

    Kasbekar, D K

    1986-06-01

    Transmural potential difference (PD) and resistance (R) changes after luminal or serosal instillation of K+ were determined under various conditions in chambered preparations of frog gastric mucosae. Potassium selectivity of the luminal membrane is indicated by the rapid reversal of the inverted PD of mucosae bathed in NaCl-free, choline sulfate (Ch2SO4)-Ringer on the serosal side and unbuffered hypertonic Ch2SO4 solution on the luminal side on luminal K+ instillation. The delta PD responses are significantly attenuated, however, in histamine-stimulated mucosae bathed in hypotonic or in burimamide-inhibited mucosae bathed in hyper- and hypotonic luminal media, which suggests that the K+ selectivity of the luminal membrane resides largely in the tubular cell apical membrane. Imposing a serosal-to-luminal transmucosal K+ gradient in both histamine-stimulated and omeprazole-inhibited mucosae also reversed the normal orientation of PD but not in those inhibited with burimamide. In the latter, the PD inversion was attenuated but maintained its normal orientation. These data suggest that burimamide, but not omeprazole, acts by blocking luminal membrane K+ conductance. The inverted PD in mucosae bathed in Cl-free media may thus be due partially or fully to K+ diffusion driven by the cell-to-lumen K+ gradient via the luminal K+ conductance pathway. These findings have implications for the controversy surrounding the postulated electrogenicity of the gastric proton pump.

  17. Potassium transport in the maturing kidney.

    PubMed

    Gurkan, Sevgi; Estilo, Genevieve K; Wei, Yuan; Satlin, Lisa M

    2007-07-01

    The distal nephron and colon are the primary sites of regulation of potassium (K(+)) homeostasis, responsible for maintaining a zero balance in adults and net positive balance in growing infants and children. Distal nephron segments can either secrete or reabsorb K(+) depending on the metabolic needs of the organism. In the healthy adult kidney, K(+) secretion predominates over K(+) absorption. Baseline K(+) secretion occurs via the apical low-conductance secretory K(+) (SK) channel, whereas the maxi-K channel mediates flow-stimulated net urinary K(+) secretion. The K(+) retention characteristic of the neonatal kidney appears to be due not only to the absence of apical secretory K(+) channels in the distal nephron but also to a predominance of apical H-K-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), which presumably mediates K(+) absorption. Both luminal and peritubular factors regulate the balance between K(+) secretion and absorption. Perturbation in any of these factors can lead to K(+) imbalance. In turn, these factors may serve as effective targets for the treatment of both hyper-and hypokalemia. The purpose of this review is to present an overview of recent advances in our understanding of mechanisms of K(+) transport in the maturing kidney.

  18. Gating of two pore domain potassium channels

    PubMed Central

    Mathie, Alistair; Al-Moubarak, Ehab; Veale, Emma L

    2010-01-01

    Two-pore-domain potassium (K2P) channels are responsible for background leak currents which regulate the membrane potential and excitability of many cell types. Their activity is modulated by a variety of chemical and physical stimuli which act to increase or decrease the open probability of individual K2P channels. Crystallographic data and homology modelling suggest that all K+ channels possess a highly conserved structure for ion selectivity and gating mechanisms. Like other K+ channels, K2P channels are thought to have two primary conserved gating mechanisms: an inactivation (or C-type) gate at the selectivity filter close to the extracellular side of the channel and an activation gate at the intracellular entrance to the channel involving key, identified, hinge glycine residues. Zinc and hydrogen ions regulate Drosophila KCNK0 and mammalian TASK channels, respectively, by interacting with the inactivation gate of these channels. In contrast, the voltage dependence of TASK3 channels is mediated through its activation gate. For KCNK0 it has been shown that the gates display positive cooperativity. It is of much interest to determine whether other K2P regulatory compounds interact with either the activation gate or the inactivation gate to alter channel activity or, indeed, whether additional regulatory gating pathways exist. PMID:20566661

  19. Sea Anemone Toxins Affecting Potassium Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diochot, Sylvie; Lazdunski, Michel

    The great diversity of K+ channels and their wide distribution in many tissues are associated with important functions in cardiac and neuronal excitability that are now better understood thanks to the discovery of animal toxins. During the past few decades, sea anemones have provided a variety of toxins acting on voltage-sensitive sodium and, more recently, potassium channels. Currently there are three major structural groups of sea anemone K+ channel (SAK) toxins that have been characterized. Radioligand binding and electrophysiological experiments revealed that each group contains peptides displaying selective activities for different subfamilies of K+ channels. Short (35-37 amino acids) peptides in the group I display pore blocking effects on Kv1 channels. Molecular interactions of SAK-I toxins, important for activity and binding on Kv1 channels, implicate a spot of three conserved amino acid residues (Ser, Lys, Tyr) surrounded by other less conserved residues. Long (58-59 amino acids) SAK-II peptides display both enzymatic and K+ channel inhibitory activities. Medium size (42-43 amino acid) SAK-III peptides are gating modifiers which interact either with cardiac HERG or Kv3 channels by altering their voltage-dependent properties. SAK-III toxins bind to the S3C region in the outer vestibule of Kv channels. Sea anemones have proven to be a rich source of pharmacological tools, and some of the SAK toxins are now useful drugs for the diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune diseases.

  20. Modulation of Potassium Channels Inhibits Bunyavirus Infection*

    PubMed Central

    Hover, Samantha; King, Barnabas; Hall, Bradley; Loundras, Eleni-Anna; Taqi, Hussah; Daly, Janet; Dallas, Mark; Peers, Chris; Schnettler, Esther; McKimmie, Clive; Kohl, Alain; Barr, John N.; Mankouri, Jamel

    2016-01-01

    Bunyaviruses are considered to be emerging pathogens facilitated by the segmented nature of their genome that allows reassortment between different species to generate novel viruses with altered pathogenicity. Bunyaviruses are transmitted via a diverse range of arthropod vectors, as well as rodents, and have established a global disease range with massive importance in healthcare, animal welfare, and economics. There are no vaccines or anti-viral therapies available to treat human bunyavirus infections and so development of new anti-viral strategies is urgently required. Bunyamwera virus (BUNV; genus Orthobunyavirus) is the model bunyavirus, sharing aspects of its molecular and cellular biology with all Bunyaviridae family members. Here, we show for the first time that BUNV activates and requires cellular potassium (K+) channels to infect cells. Time of addition assays using K+ channel modulating agents demonstrated that K+ channel function is critical to events shortly after virus entry but prior to viral RNA synthesis/replication. A similar K+ channel dependence was identified for other bunyaviruses namely Schmallenberg virus (Orthobunyavirus) as well as the more distantly related Hazara virus (Nairovirus). Using a rational pharmacological screening regimen, two-pore domain K+ channels (K2P) were identified as the K+ channel family mediating BUNV K+ channel dependence. As several K2P channel modulators are currently in clinical use, our work suggests they may represent a new and safe drug class for the treatment of potentially lethal bunyavirus disease. PMID:26677217

  1. Submersion of potassium clusters in helium nanodroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An der Lan, Lukas; Bartl, Peter; Leidlmair, Christian; Schöbel, Harald; Denifl, Stephan; Märk, Tilmann D.; Ellis, Andrew M.; Scheier, Paul

    2012-03-01

    Small alkali clusters do not submerge in liquid helium nanodroplets but instead survive predominantly in high spin states that reside on the surface of the nanodroplet. However, a recent theoretical prediction by Stark and Kresin [Phys. Rev. BPLRBAQ1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.81.085401 81, 085401 (2010)], based on a classical description of the energetics of bubble formation for a fully submerged alkali cluster, suggests that the alkali clusters can submerge on energetic grounds when they exceed a critical size. Following recent work on sodium clusters, where ion yield data from electron impact mass spectrometry was used to obtain the first experimental evidence for alkali cluster submersion, we report here on similar experiments for potassium clusters. Evidence is presented for full cluster submersion at n>80 for Kn clusters, which is in good agreement with the recent theoretical prediction. In an additional observation, we report “magic number” sizes for both Kn+ and Kn2+ ions derived from helium droplets, which are found to be consistent with the jellium model.

  2. Incommensurate lattice modulations in Potassium Vanadate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakoumakos, Bryan; Banerjee, Arnab; Mark, Lumsden; Cao, Huibo; Kim, Jong-Woo; Hoffman, Christina; Wang, Xiaoping

    Potassium Vanadate (K2V3O8) is an S = 1/2 2D square lattice antiferromagnet that shows spin reorientation indicating a strong coupling between the magnetism and its dielectric properties with a promise of rich physics that promises multiferroicity. These tangible physical properties are strongly tied through a spin-lattice coupling to the underlying lattice and superlattice behavior. It has a superlattice (SL) onsetting below Tc = 115 K with an approximate [3 x 3 x 2] modulation. Here we present our recent experiments at TOPAZ beamline at SNS which for the first time proves conclusively that the lattice modulations are incommensurate, with an in-plane Q of 0.315. We will also show our attempts to refine the data using JANA which requires a redefinition of the lattice, as well as the temperature and Q dependence of the superlattice modulation measured using neutrons at HFIR and synchrotron x-rays at APS. Our results are not only relevant for the ongoing search of multifunctional behavior in K2V3O8 but also generally for the superlattice modulations observed in a large family of fresnoites. Work performed at ORNL and ANL is supported by U.S. Dept. of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences and Office of User Facilities Division.

  3. Potassium permanganate for mercury vapor environmental control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuivinen, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) was evaluated for application in removing mercury vapor from exhaust air systems. The KMnO4 may be used in water solution with a liquid spray scrubber system or as a solid adsorber bed material when impregnated onto a zeolite. Air samples contaminated with as much as 112 mg/cu m of mercury were scrubbed to 0.06mg/cum with the KMnO4-impregnated zeolite (molecular sieve material). The water spray solution of permanganate was also found to be as effective as the impregnated zeolite. The KMnO4-impregnated zeolite was applied as a solid adsorber material to (1) a hardware decontamination system, (2) a model incinerator, and (3) a high vacuum chamber for ion engine testing with mercury as the propellant. A liquid scrubber system was also applied in an incinerator system. Based on the results of these experiments, it is concluded that the use of KMnO4 can be an effective method for controlling noxious mercury vapor.

  4. Intracellular mediators of potassium-induced aldosterone secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Ganguly, A.; Chiou, S.; Davis, J.S. )

    1990-01-01

    We have investigated the intracellular messengers of potassium in eliciting aldosterone secretion in calf adrenal glomerulosa cells since there were unresolved issues relating to the role of phosphoinositides, cAMP and protein kinases. We observed no evidence of hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP{sub 2}) in {sup 3}H-inositol labeled alf adrenal cells or increase of cAMP in response to potassium. Addition of calcium channel blocker, nitrendipine after stimulating adrenal glomerulosa cells with potassium, markedly inhibited aldosterone secretion. A calmodulin inhibitor (W-7) produced greater reduction of aldosterone secretion than an inhibitor of protein kinase C (H-7). These results suggest that a rise in cytosolic free calcium concentration through voltage-dependent calcium channel and calmodulin are the critical determinants of aldosterone secretion stimulated by potassium.

  5. Equilibrium among potassium polytellurides in N,N-dimethylformamide solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAfee, Jason L.; Andreatta, Jeremy R.; Sevcik, Richard S.; Schultz, Linda D.

    2012-08-01

    Reactions between elemental potassium and tellurium in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) are monitored using UV-visible spectroscopy and compared with those in liquid ammonia solution. In liquid ammonia, the elements react together, via a step-wise sequence, to form polytellurides, each of which is characterized by a distinctive color, the highest being potassium tritelluride. However, when the elements are combined in DMF, these distinctive color changes are not observed - the solution develops an initial plum color, which gradually darkens to purple as the reaction progresses. UV-visible and Raman spectroscopic studies indicate that equilibrium exists among the mono-, di-, and tritelluride in DMF. This equilibrium is not seen in liquid ammonia solution due to the insolubility of potassium monotelluride in that solvent. Spectral data also indicate that potassium tetratelluride is formed in DMF solution.

  6. How Potassium Can Help Control High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... More How Potassium Can Help Control High Blood Pressure Updated:Dec 13,2016 Understanding the heart-healthy ... content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1600 - Potassium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... potassium in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used to monitor electrolyte balance in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases conditions characterized by low or high blood...

  8. 21 CFR 201.306 - Potassium salt preparations intended for oral ingestion by man.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium salt preparations intended for oral... Drug Products § 201.306 Potassium salt preparations intended for oral ingestion by man. (a) The Food... coated tablets containing potassium chloride or other potassium salts which supply 100 milligrams or...

  9. 21 CFR 201.306 - Potassium salt preparations intended for oral ingestion by man.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium salt preparations intended for oral... Drug Products § 201.306 Potassium salt preparations intended for oral ingestion by man. (a) The Food... coated tablets containing potassium chloride or other potassium salts which supply 100 milligrams or...

  10. 21 CFR 201.306 - Potassium salt preparations intended for oral ingestion by man.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium salt preparations intended for oral... Drug Products § 201.306 Potassium salt preparations intended for oral ingestion by man. (a) The Food... coated tablets containing potassium chloride or other potassium salts which supply 100 milligrams or...

  11. 21 CFR 201.306 - Potassium salt preparations intended for oral ingestion by man.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium salt preparations intended for oral... Drug Products § 201.306 Potassium salt preparations intended for oral ingestion by man. (a) The Food... coated tablets containing potassium chloride or other potassium salts which supply 100 milligrams or...

  12. 21 CFR 201.306 - Potassium salt preparations intended for oral ingestion by man.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium salt preparations intended for oral... Drug Products § 201.306 Potassium salt preparations intended for oral ingestion by man. (a) The Food... coated tablets containing potassium chloride or other potassium salts which supply 100 milligrams or...

  13. Potassium application to table grape clusters after veraison increases soluble solids by enhancing berry water loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potassium salt solutions were applied twice to clusters of several table grapes cultivars, after the onset of veraison and three weeks later. Potassium bicarbonate, potassium sorbate, and glycine-complexed potassium, a commercial fertilizer product, increased soluble solids content consistently, whi...

  14. Renal outcomes and dietary potassium: the overshadowed electrolyte?

    PubMed

    Jablonski, Kristen L; Kendrick, Jessica B

    2014-12-01

    Smyth et al. examined the association between urinary sodium and potassium excretion and adverse renal outcomes in adults at high cardiovascular risk. They found no association between urinary sodium excretion and adverse renal outcomes, but a reduced odds of adverse renal outcomes with higher urinary potassium excretion. It will be important to ascertain whether this finding holds true in individuals free from vascular disease and diabetes, as well as in patients with chronic kidney disease.

  15. A Micropuncture Study of Potassium Excretion by the Remnant Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Bank, Norman; Aynedjian, Hagop S.

    1973-01-01

    In order to study the mechanism of enhanced potassium excretion by the remaining nephrons of the remnant kidney, micropuncture and clearance experiments were carried out in rats after surgical ablation of 3/4 of the total renal mass. The potassium intake in all animals was approximately 5 meq/day. Animals were studied 24 h and 10-14 days after 3/4 nephrectomy. Balance measurements in the chronic animals before micropuncture study indicated that 24 h K+ excretion by the remnant kidney was equal to that of the two kidneys before ablation of renal mass. Measurements of distal tubular inulin and potassium concentrations revealed progressive reabsorption of potassium in this segment of the nephron in both the 24-h and chronic 3/4-nephrectomized rats, as well as in normal control rats. A large increase in tubular fluid potassium content occurred between the end of the distal tubule and the final urine in the 3/4-nephrectomized rats, but not in the normal controls. These observations suggest that the segment of the nephron responsible for enhanced potassium excretion by remaining nephrons was the collecting duct. In additional experiments, potassium was completely eliminated from the diet of chronic 3/4-nephrectomized rats before micropuncture study. In these animals, no addition of K+ occurred beyond the distal tubules. Normal rats infused with 0.15 M KCl to acutely elevate serum K+ concentration, demonstrated reabsorption of K+ in the distal tubule and a large addition of K+ to the urine beyond the distal tubule. We conclude that the collecting duct is the major site of regulation of urinary potassium excretion in normal rats and is responsible for the adaptation to nephron loss by the remnant kidney. PMID:4703232

  16. Losartan Potassium: Evaluating the Treated Aviator for Medical Waiver

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADPO 11055 TITLE: Losartan Potassium: Evaluating the Treated Aviator for...thru ADP011058 UNCLASSIFIED 145 Losartan Potassium: Evaluating the Treated Aviator for Medical Waiver Jeb S. Pickard, M.D. USAFSAM/FECI 2507 Kennedy... losartan has Furthermore, there is some data suggesting a shown it to be a potential candidate for use in diastolic antihypertensive effect lingering

  17. The impact of sodium and potassium on hypertension risk.

    PubMed

    Adrogué, Horacio J; Madias, Nicolaos E

    2014-05-01

    The pathogenic role of sodium surfeit in primary hypertension is widely recognized but that of potassium deficiency usually has been ignored or at best assigned subsidiary status. Weighing the available evidence, we recently proposed that the chief environmental factor in the pathogenesis of primary hypertension and the associated cardiovascular risk is the interaction of the sodium surfeit and potassium deficiency in the body. Here, we present the major evidence highlighting the relationship between high-sodium intake and hypertension. We then examine the blood pressure-lowering effects of potassium in conjunction with the pernicious impact of potassium deficiency on hypertension and cardiovascular risk. We conclude with summarizing recent human trials that have probed the joint effects of sodium and potassium intake on hypertension and its cardiovascular sequelae. The latter studies lend considerable fresh support to the thesis that the interaction of the sodium surfeit and potassium deficiency in the body, rather than either disturbance by itself, is the critical environmental factor in the pathogenesis of hypertension.

  18. A clinical approach to common electrolyte problems: 2. Potassium imbalances.

    PubMed Central

    Bear, R. A.; Neil, G. A.

    1983-01-01

    A clinical approach to potassium imbalances is presented. Hypokalemia is rarely due solely to a reduced intake of potassium; instead, it usually results from a potassium flux into the cells or increased loss of the element, at times combined with a decreased intake. The clinician must seek the cause of the intracellular flux or the source of the gastrointestinal or renal loss. The causes of gastrointestinal losses are generally self evident. Renal potassium wasting, though, generally results from increased mineralocorticoid activity, an increased rate of urinary flow or of sodium delivery to the distal nephron, or both, hypomagnesemia or a combination of these factors. Hyperkalemia may be factitious, but usually it is caused by a flux of potassium from the cells or a decrease in the renal loss of potassium, the latter being mediated by a reduction in renal function, mineralocorticoid activity, or the rate of urinary flow or sodium delivery, or both. In both hypokalemia and hyperkalemia, treatment must be guided by the specific clinical circumstances. PMID:6344969

  19. Potassium Iodide ("KI"): Instructions to Make Potassium Iodide Solution for Use During a Nuclear Emergency (Liquid Form)

    MedlinePlus

    ... make Potassium Iodide Solution for Use During a Nuclear Emergency (Liquid Form) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Preparation and Dosing Instructions for Use During a Nuclear Emergency To Make KI Solution (Liquid Form), using ...

  20. Permeation of protons, potassium ions, and small polar molecules through phospholipid bilayers as a function of membrane thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paula, S.; Volkov, A. G.; Van Hoek, A. N.; Haines, T. H.; Deamer, D. W.

    1996-01-01

    Two mechanisms have been proposed to account for solute permeation of lipid bilayers. Partitioning into the hydrophobic phase of the bilayer, followed by diffusion, is accepted by many for the permeation of water and other small neutral solutes, but transient pores have also been proposed to account for both water and ionic solute permeation. These two mechanisms make distinctively different predictions about the permeability coefficient as a function of bilayer thickness. Whereas the solubility-diffusion mechanism predicts only a modest variation related to bilayer thickness, the pore model predicts an exponential relationship. To test these models, we measured the permeability of phospholipid bilayers to protons, potassium ions, water, urea, and glycerol. Bilayers were prepared as liposomes, and thickness was varied systematically by using unsaturated lipids with chain lengths ranging from 14 to 24 carbon atoms. The permeability coefficient of water and neutral polar solutes displayed a modest dependence on bilayer thickness, with an approximately linear fivefold decrease as the carbon number varied from 14 to 24 atoms. In contrast, the permeability to protons and potassium ions decreased sharply by two orders of magnitude between 14 and 18 carbon atoms, and leveled off, when the chain length was further extended to 24 carbon atoms. The results for water and the neutral permeating solutes are best explained by the solubility-diffusion mechanism. The results for protons and potassium ions in shorter-chain lipids are consistent with the transient pore model, but better fit the theoretical line predicted by the solubility-diffusion model at longer chain lengths.