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Sample records for potassium silicides

  1. Structural diversity and electronic properties in potassium silicides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Chun-Mei; Li, Yunguo; Huang, Hong-Mei; Li, Yan-Ling

    2018-05-01

    Stable potassium silicides in the complete compositional landscape were systematically explored up to 30 GPa using the variable-composition evolutionary structure prediction method. The results show that K4Si, K3Si, K5Si2, K2Si, K3Si2, KSi, KSi2, KSi3, and K8Si46 have their stability fields in the phase diagram. The spatial dimensional diversity of polymerized silicon atoms (0D "isolated" anion, dimer, Si4 group, 1D zigzag chain, 2D layer, and 3D network) under the potassium sublattice was uncovered as silicon content increases. Especially, the 2D layered silicon presents interestingly a variety of shapes, such as the "4 + 6" ring, "4 + 8"ring, and 8-membered ring. K-Si bonding exhibits a mixed covalency and ionicity, while Si-Si bonding is always of covalent character. Semiconductivity or metallicity mainly depends on the form of sublattices and K:Si ratio, which allows us to find more semiconductors in the Si-rich side when closed-shell K cations are encompassed by polymerized Si. The semiconducting silicides present strong absorption in the infrared and visible light range. These findings open up the avenue for experimental synthesis of alkali metal-IVA compounds and potential applications as battery electrode materials or photoelectric materials.

  2. Potassium

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease with vomiting and diarrhea) and drugs, especially diuretics ('water pills'), remove potassium from the body. Potassium ... captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec),and lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril); diuretics ('water pills'); and vitamins. Do not take potassium ...

  3. Potassium

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s MyPlate . Where can I find out more about ... on food sources of potassium: U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for potassium ( ...

  4. Monolithic porous magnesium silicide.

    PubMed

    Hayati-Roodbari, N; Berger, R J F; Bernardi, J; Kinge, S; Hüsing, N; Elsaesser, M S

    2017-07-11

    Macroporous magnesium silicide monoliths were successfully prepared by a two-step synthesis procedure. The reaction of gaseous magnesium vapor with macro-/mesoporous silicon, which was generated from hierarchically organized meso-/macroporous silica by a magnesiothermic reduction reaction, resulted in monolithic magnesium silicide with a cellular, open macroporous structure. By adjusting the reaction conditions, such as experimental set-up, temperature and time, challenges namely loss of porosity or phase purity of Mg 2 Si were addressed and monolithic magnesium silicide with a cellular network builtup was obtained.

  5. Magnetic Binary Silicide Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, Ilan; Cesura, Federico; Dascalu, Matan

    2018-05-02

    In spite of numerous advantageous properties of silicides, magnetic properties are not among them. Here, the magnetic properties of epitaxial binary silicide nanostructures are discussed. The vast majority of binary transition-metal silicides lack ferromagnetic order in their bulk-size crystals. Silicides based on rare-earth metals are usually weak ferromagnets or antiferromagnets, yet both groups tend to exhibit increased magnetic ordering in low-dimensional nanostructures, in particular at low temperatures. The origin of this surprising phenomenon lies in undercoordinated atoms at the nanostructure extremities, such as 2D (surfaces/interfaces), 1D (edges), and 0D (corners) boundaries. Uncompensated superspins of edge atoms increase the nanostructure magnetic shape anisotropy to the extent where it prevails over its magnetocrystalline counterpart, thus providing a plausible route toward the design of a magnetic response from nanostructure arrays in Si-based devices, such as bit-patterned magnetic recording media and spin injectors. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Thermoelectric silicides: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozariasbmarz, Amin; Agarwal, Aditi; Coutant, Zachary A.; Hall, Michael J.; Liu, Jie; Liu, Runze; Malhotra, Abhishek; Norouzzadeh, Payam; Öztürk, Mehmet C.; Ramesh, Viswanath P.; Sargolzaeiaval, Yasaman; Suarez, Francisco; Vashaee, Daryoosh

    2017-05-01

    Traditional research on thermoelectric materials focused on improving the figure-of-merit z T to enhance the energy conversion efficiency. With further growth and commercialization of thermoelectric technology beyond niche applications, other factors such as materials availability, toxicity, cost, recyclability, thermal stability, chemical and mechanical properties, and ease of fabrication become important for making viable technologies. Several silicide alloys were identified that have the potential to fulfill these requirements. These materials are of interest due to their abundancy in earth’s crust (e.g., silicon), non-toxicity, and good physical and chemical properties. In this paper, an overview of the silicide thermoelectrics from traditional alloys to advanced material structures is presented. In addition, some of the most effective approaches as well as fundamental physical concepts for designing and developing efficient thermoelectric materials are presented and future perspectives are discussed.

  7. Surface morphology of erbium silicide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, S. S.; Pai, C. S.; Wu, C. S.; Kuech, T. F.; Liu, B. X.

    1982-01-01

    The surface of rare-earth silicides (Er, Tb, etc.), formed by the reaction of thin-film metal layers with a silicon substrate, is typically dominated by deep penetrating, regularly shaped pits. These pits may have a detrimental effect on the electronic performance of low Schottky barrier height diodes utilizing such silicides on n-type Si. This study suggests that contamination at the metal-Si or silicide-Si interface is the primary cause of surface pitting. Surface pits may be reduced in density or eliminated entirely through either the use of Si substrate surfaces prepared under ultrahigh vacuum conditions prior to metal deposition and silicide formation or by means of ion irradiation techniques. Silicide layers formed by these techniques possess an almost planar morphology.

  8. Silicide surface phases on gold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, A. K.; Bauer, E.

    1981-01-01

    The crystalline silicide layers formed on (111) and (100) surfaces of Au films on various Si single-crystal substrates are studied by LEED and AES in conjunction with sputter-depth profiling as a function of annealing temperature. On the (111) surface, three basic silicide structures are obtained corresponding to layers of various thicknesses as obtained by different preparation conditions. The (100) surface shows only two different structures. None of the structures is compatible with the various bulk silicide structures deduced from X-ray diffraction. Using LEED as a criterion for the presence or absence of silicide on the surface, smaller layer thicknesses are obtained than reported previously on the basis of AES studies.

  9. Improved high-temperature silicide coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klopp, W. D.; Stephens, J. R.; Stetson, A. R.; Wimber, R. T.

    1969-01-01

    Special technique for applying silicide coatings to refractory metal alloys improves their high-temperature protective capability. Refractory metal powders mixed with a baked-out organic binder and sintered in a vacuum produces a porous alloy layer on the surface. Exposing the layer to hot silicon converts it to a silicide.

  10. Manganese silicide nanowires on Si(001).

    PubMed

    Liu, H J; Owen, J H G; Miki, K; Renner, Ch

    2011-05-04

    A method for promoting the growth of manganese silicide nanowires on Si(001) at 450 °C is described. The anisotropic surface stress generated by bismuth nanolines blocks the formation of embedded structures and stabilizes the nucleation of manganese silicide islands which grow in a preferred direction, forming nanowires with a band gap of approximately 0.6 eV, matching the reported band gap of MnSi(1.7). This method may also provide a means to form silicide nanowires of other metals where they do not otherwise form. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd

  11. Ensuring the Consistency of Silicide Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramani, V.; Lampson, F. K.

    1982-01-01

    Diagram specifies optimum fusing time for given thicknesses of refractory metal-silicide coatings on columbium C-103 substrates. Adherence to indicated fusion times ensures consistent coatings and avoids underdiffusion and overdiffusion. Accuracy of diagram has been confirmed by tests.

  12. Impurity effects in transition metal silicides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lien, C.-D.; Nicolet, M.-A.

    1984-01-01

    Impurities can affect the properties of silicides directly by virtue of their presence. Impurities can also influence the processes by which silicides are formed. The effect of impurities on the reaction of transition metal films with a silicon substrate induced by thermal annealing are well documented. The interpretation of these results is discussed. It is shown that impurity redistribution is a major factor in determining how significant the effect of an impurity is. Redistribution observed for dopant impurities is also discussed.

  13. Potassium Counts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gipps, John

    1995-01-01

    Presents an activity to determine whether the radioactivity of a pure potassium salt is directly proportional to the amount of potassium in it and whether this could be used as a method of analysis for potassium in a solid. (MKR)

  14. METHOD OF FORMING TANTALUM SILICIDE ON TANTALUM SURFACES

    DOEpatents

    Bowman, M.G.; Krikorian, N.H.

    1961-10-01

    A method is described for forming a non-corrosive silicide coating on tantalum. The coating is made through the heating of trirhenium silicides in contact with the tantalum object to approximately 1400 deg C at which temperature trirhenium silicide decomposes into rhenium and gaseous silicons. The silicon vapor reacts with the tantalum surface to form a tantalum silicide layer approximately 10 microns thick. (AEC)

  15. Fundamentals of Intrinsic Stress during Silicide Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özçelik, A.; van Bockstael, C.; Detavernier, C.; Vanmeirhaeghe, R.

    2007-04-01

    Silicides are a very useful group of materials which can be used to make electrical contacts to circuits in electronic devices with an extremely high performance. The stress in thin films is an increasingly important technological issue from the standpoint of reliability and performance in IC processing. Manufacturers of micro electronic devices have to control the stress levels in the contact films to avoid device failures. Phase transitions such as silicidation or even a simple rearrangement of atoms like relaxation in the metal film cause a difference in the volume of the film from its starting value. This volume change produces stress inside the film. In this work we analyzed the stress evolution during the silicidation reaction of some metals such as W and Mo by using a home built in situ stress system at the University of Ghent.

  16. Phase transformations in ion-irradiated silicides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewett, C. A.; Lau, S. S.; Suni, I.; Hung, L. S.

    1985-01-01

    The present investigation has three objectives. The first is concerned with the phase transformation of CoSi2 under ion implantation and the subsequent crystallization characteristics during annealing, taking into account epitaxial and nonepitaxial recrystallization behavior. The second objective is related to a study of the general trend of implantation-induced damage and crystallization behavior for a number of commonly used silicides. The last objective involves a comparison of the recrystallization behavior of cosputtered refractory silicides with that of the ion-implanted silicides. It was found that epitaxial regrowth of ion-irradiated CoSi2 occurred for samples with an epitaxial seed left at the Si/CoSi2 interface. A structural investigation of CoSi2 involving transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that after high-dose implantation CoSi2 is amorphous.

  17. Temperature-dependent structure and phase variation of nickel silicide nanowire arrays prepared by in situ silicidation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hailong; She, Guangwei, E-mail: shegw@mail.ipc.ac.cn; Mu, Lixuan

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlight: ► Nickel silicides nanowire arrays prepared by a simple in situ silicidation method. ► Phases of nickel silicides could be varied by tuning the reaction temperature. ► A growth model was proposed for the nickel silicides nanowires. ► Diffusion rates of Ni and Si play a critical role for the phase variation. -- Abstract: In this paper, we report an in situ silicidizing method to prepare nickel silicide nanowire arrays with varied structures and phases. The in situ reaction (silicidation) between Si and NiCl{sub 2} led to conversion of Si nanowires to nickel silicide nanowires.more » Structures and phases of the obtained nickel silicides could be varied by changing the reaction temperature. At a relatively lower temperature of 700 °C, the products are Si/NiSi core/shell nanowires or NiSi nanowires, depending on the concentration of NiCl{sub 2} solution. At a higher temperature (800 °C and 900 °C), other phases of the nickel silicides, including Ni{sub 2}Si, Ni{sub 31}Si{sub 12}, and NiSi{sub 2}, were obtained. It is proposed that the different diffusion rates of Ni and Si atoms at different temperatures played a critical role in the formation of nickel silicide nanowires with different phases.« less

  18. Challenges of nickel silicidation in CMOS technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Breil, Nicolas; Lavoie, Christian; Ozcan, Ahmet

    2015-04-01

    In our paper, we review some of the key challenges associated with the Ni silicidation process in the most recent CMOS technologies. The introduction of new materials (e.g.SiGe), and of non-planar architectures bring some important changes that require fundamental investigation from a material engineering perspective. Following a discussion of the device architecture and silicide evolution through the last CMOS generations, we focus our study on a very peculiar defect, termed NiSi-Fangs. We describe a mechanism for the defect formation, and present a detailed material analysis that supports this mechanism. We highlight some of the possible metal enrichment processes of themore » nickel monosilicide such as oxidation or various RIE (Reactive Ion Etching) plasma process, leading to a metal source available for defect formation. Furthermore, we investigate the NiSi formation and re-formation silicidation differences between Si and SiGe materials, and between (1 0 0) and (1 1 1) orientations. Finally, we show that the thermal budgets post silicidation can lead to the formation of NiSi-Fangs if the structure and the processes are not optimized. Beyond the understanding of the defect and the discussion on the engineering solutions used to prevent its formation, the interest of this investigation also lies in the fundamental learning within the Ni–Pt–Si–Ge system and some additional perspective on Ni-based contacts to advanced microelectronic devices.« less

  19. Chromium silicide formation by ion mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shreter, U.; So, F. C. T.; Nicolet, M.-A.

    1984-01-01

    The formation of CrSi2 by ion mixing was studied as a function of temperature, silicide thickness and irradiated interface. Samples were prepared by annealing evaporated couples of Cr on Si and Si on Cr at 450 C for short times to form Si/CrSi2/Cr sandwiches. Xenon beams with energies up to 300 keV and fluences up to 8 x 10 to the 15th per sq cm were used for mixing at temperatures between 20 and 300 C. Penetrating only the Cr/CrSi2 interface at temperatures above 150 C induces further growth of the silicide as a uniform stoichiometric layer. The growth rate does not depend on the thickness of the initially formed silicide at least up to a thickness of 150 nm. The amount of growth depends linearly on the density of energy deposited at the interface. The growth is temperature dependent with an apparent activation energy of 0.2 eV. Irradiating only through the Si/CrSi2 interface does not induce silicide growth. It is concluded that the formation of CrSi2 by ion beam mixing is an interface-limited process and that the limiting reaction occurs at the Cr/CrSi2 interface.

  20. Synthesis and design of silicide intermetallic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, J.J.; Castro, R.G.; Butt, D.P.

    1997-04-01

    The overall objective of this program is to develop structural silicide-based materials with optimum combinations of elevated temperature strength/creep resistance, low temperature fracture toughness, and high temperature oxidation and corrosion resistance for applications of importance to the U.S. processing industry. A further objective is to develop silicide-based prototype industrial components. The ultimate aim of the program is to work with industry to transfer the structural silicide materials technology to the private sector in order to promote international competitiveness in the area of advanced high temperature materials and important applications in major energy-intensive U.S. processing industries. The program presently has amore » number of developing industrial connections, including a CRADA with Schuller International Inc. targeted at the area of MoSi{sub 2}-based high temperature materials and components for fiberglass melting and processing applications. The authors are also developing an interaction with the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) to develop silicides for high temperature radiant gas burner applications, for the glass and other industries. Current experimental emphasis is on the development and characterization of MoSi{sub 2}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and MoSi{sub 2}-SiC composites, the plasma spraying of MoSi{sub 2}-based materials, and the joining of MoSi{sub 2} materials to metals.« less

  1. Microwave absorption properties of Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The microwave absorption properties of Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules prepared by an arc discharge method have been studied. The composition and the microstructure of the Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules were determined by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscope observations. Silicides, in the forms of SiOx and SiC, mainly exist in the shells of the nanocapsules and result in a large amount of defects at the ‘core/shell’ interfaces as well as in the shells. The complex permittivity and microwave absorption properties of the Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules are improved by the doped silicides. Compared with those of Ni/C nanocapsules, the positions of maximum absorption peaks of the Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules exhibit large red shifts. An electric dipole model is proposed to explain this red shift phenomenon. PMID:22548846

  2. Solution synthesis of metal silicide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    McEnaney, Joshua M; Schaak, Raymond E

    2015-02-02

    Transition-metal silicides are part of an important family of intermetallic compounds, but the high-temperature reactions that are generally required to synthesize them preclude the formation of colloidal nanoparticles. Here, we show that palladium, copper, and nickel nanoparticles react with monophenylsilane in trioctylamine and squalane at 375 °C to form colloidal Pd(2)Si, Cu(3)Si, and Ni(2)Si nanoparticles, respectively. These metal silicide nanoparticles were screened as electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction, and Pd(2)Si and Ni(2)Si were identified as active catalysts that require overpotentials of -192 and -243 mV, respectively, to produce cathodic current densities of -10 mA cm(-2).

  3. Potassium test

    MedlinePlus

    High levels of potassium ( hyperkalemia ) may be due to: Addison disease (rare) Blood transfusion Certain medicines Crushed tissue injury Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis Hypoaldosteronism (very rare) ...

  4. Fusion silicide coatings for tantalum alloys.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warnock, R. V.; Stetson, A. R.

    1972-01-01

    Calculation of the performance of fusion silicide coatings under simulated atmospheric reentry conditions to a maximum temperature of 1810 K (2800 F). Both recently developed and commercially available coatings are included. Data are presented on oxidation rate with and without intentional defecting, the influence of the coatings on the ductile-brittle bend transition temperature, and the mechanical properties. Coatings appear capable of affording protection for at least 100 simulated cycles to 2600 F and 63 cycles to 2800 F.

  5. Room temperature ferromagnetic gadolinium silicide nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Hadimani, Magundappa Ravi L.; Gupta, Shalabh; Harstad, Shane; Pecharsky, Vitalij; Jiles, David C.

    2018-03-06

    A particle usable as T1 and T2 contrast agents is provided. The particle is a gadolinium silicide (Gd5Si4) particle that is ferromagnetic at temperatures up to 290 K and is less than 2 .mu.m in diameter. An MRI contrast agent that includes a plurality of gadolinium silicide (Gd.sub.5Si.sub.4) particles that are less than 1 .mu.m in diameter is also provided. A method for creating gadolinium silicide (Gd5Si4) particles is also provided. The method includes the steps of providing a Gd5Si4 bulk alloy; grinding the Gd5Si4 bulk alloy into a powder; and milling the Gd5Si4 bulk alloy powder for a time of approximately 20 minutes or less.

  6. Raman scattering from rapid thermally annealed tungsten silicide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Dasgupta, Samhita; Jackson, Howard E.; Boyd, Joseph T.

    1987-01-01

    Raman scattering as a technique for studying the formation of tungsten silicide is presented. The tungsten silicide films have been formed by rapid thermal annealing of thin tungsten films sputter deposited on silicon substrates. The Raman data are interpreted by using data from resistivity measurements, Auger and Rutherford backscattering measurements, and scanning electron microscopy.

  7. Formation, structure, and orientation of gold silicide on gold surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, A. K.; Bauer, E.

    1976-01-01

    The formation of gold silicide on Au films evaporated onto Si(111) surfaces is studied by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). Surface condition, film thickness, deposition temperature, annealing temperature, and heating rate during annealing are varied. Several oriented crystalline silicide layers are observed.

  8. Cosine (Cobalt Silicide Growth Through Nitrogen-Induced Epitaxy) Process For Epitaxial Cobalt Silicide Formation For High Performance Sha

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Chong Wee; Shin, Chan Soo; Gall, Daniel

    A method for forming an epitaxial cobalt silicide layer on a MOS device includes sputter depositing cobalt in an ambient to form a first layer of cobalt suicide on a gate and source/drain regions of the MOS device. Subsequently, cobalt is sputter deposited again in an ambient of argon to increase the thickness of the cobalt silicide layer to a second thickness.

  9. Carbon or boron modified titanium silicide

    DOEpatents

    Thom, A.J.; Akinc, M.

    1998-07-14

    A titanium silicide material based on Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} intermetallic compound exhibits substantially improved oxidative stability at elevated temperatures. In particular, carbon is added to a Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} base material in an amount (e.g. about 0.3 to about 3.6 weight % C) effective to impart substantially improved oxidative stability at elevated temperatures, such as about 1000 C. Boron is added to a Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} base material in an amount (e.g. about 0.3 to about 3.3 weight % B) to this same end. 3 figs.

  10. Carbon or boron modified titanium silicide

    DOEpatents

    Thom, A.J.; Akinc, M.

    1997-12-02

    A titanium silicide material based on Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} intermetallic compound exhibits substantially improved oxidative stability at elevated temperatures. In particular, carbon is added to a Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} base material in an amount (e.g. about 0.3 to about 3.6 weight % C) effective to impart substantially improved oxidative stability at elevated temperatures, such as about 1000 C. Boron is added to a Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} base material in an amount (e.g. about 0.3 to about 3.3 weight % B) to this same end. 3 figs.

  11. Carbon or boron modified titanium silicide

    DOEpatents

    Thom, Andrew J.; Akinc, Mufit

    1996-12-03

    A titanium silicide material based on Ti.sub.5 Si.sub.3 intermetallic compound exhibits substantially improved oxidative stability at elevated temperatures. In particular, carbon is added to a Ti.sub.5 Si.sub.3 base material in an amount (e.g. about 0.3 to about 3.6 weight % C) effective to impart substantially improved oxidative stability at elevated temperatures, such as about 1000.degree. C. Boron is added to a Ti.sub.5 Si.sub.3 base material in an amount (e.g. about 0.3 to about 3.3 weight % B) to this same end.

  12. Carbon or boron modified titanium silicide

    DOEpatents

    Thom, Andrew J.; Akinc, Mufit

    1997-12-02

    A titanium silicide material based on Ti.sub.5 Si.sub.3 intermetallic compound exhibits substantially improved oxidative stability at elevated temperatures. In particular, carbon is added to a Ti.sub.5 Si.sub.3 base material in an amount (e.g. about 0.3 to about 3.6 weight % C) effective to impart substantially improved oxidative stability at elevated temperatures, such as about 1000.degree. C. Boron is added to a Ti.sub.5 Si.sub.3 base material in an amount (e.g. about 0.3 to about 3.3 weight % B) to this same end.

  13. Carbon or boron modified titanium silicide

    DOEpatents

    Thom, A.J.; Akinc, M.

    1996-12-03

    A titanium silicide material based on Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} intermetallic compound exhibits substantially improved oxidative stability at elevated temperatures. In particular, carbon is added to a Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} base material in an amount (e.g. about 0.3 to about 3.6 weight % C) effective to impart substantially improved oxidative stability at elevated temperatures, such as about 1000 C. Boron is added to a Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} base material in an amount (e.g. about 0.3 to about 3.3 weight % B) to this same end. 3 figs.

  14. Carbon or boron modified titanium silicide

    DOEpatents

    Thom, Andrew J.; Akinc, Mufit

    1998-07-14

    A titanium silicide material based on Ti.sub.5 Si.sub.3 intermetallic compound exhibits substantially improved oxidative stability at elevated temperatures. In particular, carbon is added to a Ti.sub.5 Si.sub.3 base material in an amount (e.g. about 0.3 to about 3.6 weight % C) effective to impart substantially improved oxidative stability at elevated temperatures, such as about 1000.degree. C. Boron is added to a Ti.sub.5 Si.sub.3 base material in an amount (e.g. about 0.3 to about 3.3 weight % B) to this same end.

  15. Boron modified molybdenum silicide and products

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, M.K.; Akinc, M.

    1999-02-02

    A boron-modified molybdenum silicide material is disclosed having the composition comprising about 80 to about 90 weight % Mo, about 10 to about 20 weight % Si, and about 0.1 to about 2 weight % B and a multiphase microstructure including Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3} phase as at least one microstructural component effective to impart good high temperature creep resistance. The boron-modified molybdenum silicide material is fabricated into such products as electrical components, such as resistors and interconnects, that exhibit oxidation resistance to withstand high temperatures in service in air as a result of electrical power dissipation, electrical resistance heating elements that can withstand high temperatures in service in air and other oxygen-bearing atmospheres and can span greater distances than MoSi{sub 2} heating elements due to improved creep resistance, and high temperature structural members and other fabricated components that can withstand high temperatures in service in air or other oxygen-bearing atmospheres while retaining creep resistance associated with Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3} for structural integrity. 7 figs.

  16. Boron modified molybdenum silicide and products

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, Mitchell K.; Akinc, Mufit

    1999-02-02

    A boron-modified molybdenum silicide material having the composition comprising about 80 to about 90 weight % Mo, about 10 to about 20 weight % Si, and about 0.1 to about 2 weight % B and a multiphase microstructure including Mo.sub.5 Si.sub.3 phase as at least one microstructural component effective to impart good high temperature creep resistance. The boron-modified molybdenum silicide material is fabricated into such products as electrical components, such as resistors and interconnects, that exhibit oxidation resistance to withstand high temperatures in service in air as a result of electrical power dissipation, electrical resistance heating elements that can withstand high temperatures in service in air and other oxygen-bearing atmospheres and can span greater distances than MoSi.sub.2 heating elements due to improved creep resistance, and high temperature structural members and other fabricated components that can withstand high temperatures in service in air or other oxygen-bearing atmospheres while retaining creep resistance associated with Mo.sub.5 Si.sub.3 for structural integrity.

  17. ITEP MEVVA ion beam for rhenium silicide production.

    PubMed

    Kulevoy, T; Gerasimenko, N; Seleznev, D; Kropachev, G; Kozlov, A; Kuibeda, R; Yakushin, P; Petrenko, S; Medetov, N; Zaporozhan, O

    2010-02-01

    The rhenium silicides are very attractive materials for semiconductor industry. In the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP) at the ion source test bench the research program of rhenium silicide production by ion beam implantation are going on. The investigation of silicon wafer after implantation of rhenium ion beam with different energy and with different total dose were carried out by secondary ions mass spectrometry, energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis, and x-ray diffraction analysis. The first promising results of rhenium silicide film production by high intensity ion beam implantation are presented.

  18. Metallic rare-earth silicide nanowires on silicon surfaces.

    PubMed

    Dähne, Mario; Wanke, Martina

    2013-01-09

    The formation, atomic structure, and electronic properties of self-assembled rare-earth silicide nanowires on silicon surfaces were studied by scanning tunneling microscopy and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. Metallic dysprosium and erbium silicide nanowires were observed on both the Si(001) and Si(557) surfaces. It was found that they consist of hexagonal rare-earth disilicides for both surface orientations. On Si(001), the nanowires are characterized by a one-dimensional band structure, while the electronic dispersion is two-dimensional for the nanowires formed on Si(557). This behavior is explained by the different orientations of the hexagonal c axis of the silicide leading to different conditions for the carrier confinement. By considering this carrier confinement it is demonstrated how the one-dimensional band structure of the nanowires on Si(001) can be derived from the two-dimensional one of the silicide monolayer on Si(111).

  19. Potassium Iodide

    MedlinePlus

    ... iodide you should take or give to your child depends on your age or your child's age. If potassium iodide is taken by a ... you should take yourself or give to your child. Ask your doctor, pharmacist, or public official if ...

  20. A promising new thermoelectric material - Ruthenium silicide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vining, Cronin B.; Mccormack, Joseph A.; Zoltan, Andrew; Zoltan, Leslie D.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical efforts directed toward increasing thermoelectric figure of merit values by a factor of 2 or 3 have been encouraging in several respects. An accurate and detailed theoretical model developed for n-type silicon-germanium (SiGe) indicates that ZT values several times higher than currently available are expected under certain conditions. These new, high ZT materials are expected to be significantly different from SiGe, but not unreasonably so. Several promising candidate materials have been identified which may meet the conditions required by theory. One such candidate, ruthenium silicide, currently under development at JPL, has been estimated to have the potential to exhibit figure of merit values 4 times higher than conventional SiGe materials. Recent results are summarized.

  1. Potassium in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... the diet; Hypokalemia - potassium in the diet; Chronic kidney disease - potassium in diet; Kidney failure - potassium in diet ... are also excellent sources of potassium. People with kidney problems, especially those on dialysis, should not eat ...

  2. Low Potassium (Hypokalemia)

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms Low potassium (hypokalemia) By Mayo Clinic Staff Low potassium (hypokalemia) refers to a lower than normal potassium level ... 2 millimoles per liter (mmol/L). A very low potassium level (less than 2.5 mmol/L) ...

  3. Formation of silicides in annealed periodic multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maury, H.; Jonnard, P.; Le Guen, K.; André, J.-M.

    2009-05-01

    Periodic multilayers of nanometric period are widely used as optical components for the X-ray and extreme UV (EUV) ranges, in X-ray space telescopes, X-ray microscopes, EUV photolithography or synchrotron beamlines for example. Their optical performances depend on the quality of the interfaces between the various layers: chemical interdiffusion or mechanical roughness shifts the application wavelength and can drastically decrease the reflectance. Since under high thermal charge interdiffusion is known to get enhanced, the study of the thermal stability of such structures is essential to understand how interfacial compounds develop. We have characterized X-ray and EUV siliconcontaining multilayers (Mo/Si, Sc/Si and Mg/SiC) as a function of the annealing temperature (up to 600°C) using two non-destructive methods. X-ray emission from the silicon atoms, describing the Si valence states, is used to determine the chemical nature of the compounds present in the interphases while X-ray reflectivity in the hard and soft X-ray ranges can be related to the optical properties. In the three cases, interfacial metallic (Mo, Sc, Mg) silicides are evidenced and the thickness of the interphase increases with the annealing temperature. For Mo/Si and Sc/Si multilayers, silicides are even present in the as-prepared multilayers. Characteristic parameters of the stacks are determined: composition of the interphases, thickness and roughness of the layers and interphases if any. Finally, we have evidenced the maximum temperature of application of these multilayers to minimize interdiffusion.

  4. Mapping Potassium

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-16

    During the first year of NASA MESSENGER orbital mission, the spacecraft GRS instrument measured the elemental composition of Mercury surface materials. mong the most important discoveries from the GRS was the observation of higher abundances of the moderately volatile elements potassium, sodium, and chlorine than expected from previous scientific models and theories. Particularly high concentrations of these elements were observed at high northern latitudes, as illustrated in this potassium abundance map, which provides a view of the surface centered at 60° N latitude and 120° E longitude. This map was the first elemental map ever made of Mercury's surface and is to-date the only map to report absolute elemental concentrations, in comparison to element ratios. Prior to MESSENGER's arrival at Mercury, scientists expected that the planet would be depleted in moderately volatile elements, as is the case for our Moon. The unexpectedly high abundances observed with the GRS have forced a reevaluation of our understanding of the formation and evolution of Mercury. In addition, the K map provided the first evidence for distinct geochemical terranes on Mercury, as the high-potassium region was later found to also be distinct in its low Mg/Si, Ca/Si, S/Si, and high Na/Si and Cl/Si abundances. Instrument: Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19414

  5. Silicide Nanowires for Low-Resistance CMOS Transistor Contacts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollner, Stefan

    2007-03-01

    Transition metal (TM) silicide nanowires are used as contacts for modern CMOS transistors. (Our smallest wires are ˜20 nm thick and ˜50 nm wide.) While much research on thick TM silicides was conducted long ago, materials perform differently at the nanoscale. For example, the usual phase transformation sequences (e.g., Ni, Ni2Si, NiSi, NiSi2) for the reaction of thick metal films on Si no longer apply to nanostructures, because the surface and interface energies compete with the bulk energy of a given crystal structure. Therefore, a NiSi film will agglomerate into hemispherical droplets of NiSi by annealing before it reaches the lowest-energy (NiSi2) crystalline structure. These dynamics can be tuned by addition of impurities (such as Pt in Ni). The Si surface preparation is also a more important factor for nanowires than for silicidation of thick TM films. Ni nanowires formed on Si surfaces that were cleaned and amorphized by sputtering with Ar ions have a tendency to form NiSi2 pyramids (``spikes'') even at moderate temperatures (˜400^oC), while similar Ni films formed on atomically clean or hydrogen-terminated Si form uniform NiSi nanowires. Another issue affecting TM silicides is the barrier height between the silicide contact and the silicon transistor. For most TM silicides, the Fermi level of the silicide is aligned with the center of the Si band gap. Therefore, silicide contacts experience Schottky barrier heights of around 0.5 eV for both n-type and p-type Si. The resulting contact resistance becomes a significant term for the overall resistance of modern CMOS transistors. Lowering this contact resistance is an important goal in CMOS research. New materials are under investigation (for example PtSi, which has a barrier height of only 0.3 eV to p-type Si). This talk will describe recent results, with special emphasis on characterization techniques and electrical testing useful for the development of silicide nanowires for CMOS contacts. In collaboration

  6. Metal silicide/poly-Si Schottky diodes for uncooled microbolometers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Nickel silicide Schottky diodes formed on polycrystalline Si 〈P〉 films are proposed as temperature sensors of monolithic uncooled microbolometer infrared focal plane arrays. The structure and composition of nickel silicide/polycrystalline silicon films synthesized in a low-temperature process are examined by means of transmission electron microscopy. The Ni silicide is identified as a multi-phase compound composed of 20% to 40% of Ni3Si, 30% to 60% of Ni2Si, and 10% to 30% of NiSi with probable minor content of NiSi2 at the silicide/poly-Si interface. Rectification ratios of the Schottky diodes vary from about 100 to about 20 for the temperature increasing from 22℃ to 70℃; they exceed 1,000 at 80 K. A barrier of around 0.95 eV is found to control the photovoltage spectra at room temperature. A set of barriers is observed in photo-electromotive force spectra at 80 K and attributed to the Ni silicide/poly-Si interface. Absolute values of temperature coefficients of voltage and current are found to vary from 0.3%℃ to 0.6%/℃ for forward bias and around 2.5%/℃ for reverse bias of the diodes. PMID:23594606

  7. Silicide/Silicon Hetero-Junction Structure for Thermoelectric Applications.

    PubMed

    Jun, Dongsuk; Kim, Soojung; Choi, Wonchul; Kim, Junsoo; Zyung, Taehyoung; Jang, Moongyu

    2015-10-01

    We fabricated silicide/silicon hetero-junction structured thermoelectric device by CMOS process for the reduction of thermal conductivity with the scatterings of phonons at silicide/silicon interfaces. Electrical conductivities, Seebeck coefficients, power factors, and temperature differences are evaluated using the steady state analysis method. Platinum silicide/silicon multilayered structure showed an enhanced Seebeck coefficient and power factor characteristics, which was considered for p-leg element. Also, erbium silicide/silicon structure showed an enhanced Seebeck coefficient, which was considered for an n-leg element. Silicide/silicon multilayered structure is promising for thermoelectric applications by reducing thermal conductivity with an enhanced Seebeck coefficient. However, because of the high thermal conductivity of the silicon packing during thermal gradient is not a problem any temperature difference. Therefore, requires more testing and analysis in order to overcome this problem. Thermoelectric generators are devices that based on the Seebeck effect, convert temperature differences into electrical energy. Although thermoelectric phenomena have been used for heating and cooling applications quite extensively, it is only in recent years that interest has increased in energy generation.

  8. Valence Band Control of Metal Silicide Films via Stoichiometry.

    PubMed

    Streller, Frank; Qi, Yubo; Yang, Jing; Mangolini, Filippo; Rappe, Andrew M; Carpick, Robert W

    2016-07-07

    The unique electronic and mechanical properties of metal silicide films render them interesting for advanced materials in plasmonic devices, batteries, field-emitters, thermoelectric devices, transistors, and nanoelectromechanical switches. However, enabling their use requires precisely controlling their electronic structure. Using platinum silicide (PtxSi) as a model silicide, we demonstrate that the electronic structure of PtxSi thin films (1 ≤ x ≤ 3) can be tuned between metallic and semimetallic by changing the stoichiometry. Increasing the silicon content in PtxSi decreases the carrier density according to valence band X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical density of states (DOS) calculations. Among all PtxSi phases, Pt3Si offers the highest DOS due to the modest shift of the Pt5d manifold away from the Fermi edge by only 0.5 eV compared to Pt, rendering it promising for applications. These results, demonstrating tunability of the electronic structure of thin metal silicide films, suggest that metal silicides can be designed to achieve application-specific electronic properties.

  9. Metal silicide/poly-Si Schottky diodes for uncooled microbolometers.

    PubMed

    Chizh, Kirill V; Chapnin, Valery A; Kalinushkin, Victor P; Resnik, Vladimir Y; Storozhevykh, Mikhail S; Yuryev, Vladimir A

    2013-04-17

    : Nickel silicide Schottky diodes formed on polycrystalline Si 〈P〉 films are proposed as temperature sensors of monolithic uncooled microbolometer infrared focal plane arrays. The structure and composition of nickel silicide/polycrystalline silicon films synthesized in a low-temperature process are examined by means of transmission electron microscopy. The Ni silicide is identified as a multi-phase compound composed of 20% to 40% of Ni3Si, 30% to 60% of Ni2Si, and 10% to 30% of NiSi with probable minor content of NiSi2 at the silicide/poly-Si interface. Rectification ratios of the Schottky diodes vary from about 100 to about 20 for the temperature increasing from 22â"ƒ to 70â"ƒ; they exceed 1,000 at 80 K. A barrier of around 0.95 eV is found to control the photovoltage spectra at room temperature. A set of barriers is observed in photo-electromotive force spectra at 80 K and attributed to the Ni silicide/poly-Si interface. Absolute values of temperature coefficients of voltage and current are found to vary from 0.3%â"ƒ to 0.6%/â"ƒ for forward bias and around 2.5%/â"ƒ for reverse bias of the diodes.

  10. Ferromagnetic properties of manganese doped iron silicide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Reyes, Angel; Fonseca, Luis F.; Sabirianov, Renat

    We report the synthesis of high quality Iron silicide (FeSi) nanowires via Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD). The materials exhibits excellent magnetic response at room temperature, especially when doped with manganese showing values of 2.0 X 10-04 emu for the FexMnySi nanowires. SEM and TEM characterization indicates that the synthesized nanowires have a diameter of approximately 80nm. MFM measurements present a clear description of the magnetic domains when the nanowires are doped with manganese. Electron Diffraction and XRD measurements confirms that the nanowires are single crystal forming a simple cubic structure with space group P213. First-principle calculations were performed on (111) FeSi surface using the Vienna ab initio simulation package (VASP). The exchange correlations were treated under the Ceperley-Alder (CA) local density approximation (LDA). The Brillouin Zone was sampled with 8x8x1 k-point grid. A total magnetic moment of about 10 μB was obtained for three different surface configuration in which the Iron atom nearest to the surface present the higher magnetization. To study the effect of Mn doping, Fe atom was replaced for a Mn. Stronger magnetization is presented when the Mn atom is close to the surface. The exchange coupling constant have been evaluated calculating the energy difference between the ferromagnetic and anti-ferromagnetic configurations.

  11. Nickel silicide formation in silicon implanted nickel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Z.; Williams, J. S.; Pogany, A. P.; Sood, D. K.; Collins, G. A.

    1995-04-01

    Nickel silicide formation during the annealing of very high dose (≥4.5×1017 ions/cm2) Si implanted Ni has been investigated, using ion beam analytical techniques, electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction analysis. An initial amorphous Si-Ni alloy, formed as a result of high dose ion implantation, first crystallized to Ni2Si upon annealing in the temperature region of 200-300 °C. This was followed by the formation of Ni5Si2 in the temperature region of 300-400 °C and then by Ni3Si at 400-600 °C. The Ni3Si layer was found to have an epitaxial relationship with the substrate Ni, which was determined as Ni3Si<100>∥Ni<100> and Ni3Si<110>∥Ni<110> for Ni(100) samples. The minimum channeling yield in the 2 MeV He Rutherford backscattering and channeling spectra of this epitaxial layer improved with higher annealing temperatures up to 600 °C, and reached a best value measured at about 8%. However, the epitaxial Ni3Si dissolved after long time annealing at 600 °C or annealing at higher temperatures to liberate soluble Si into the Ni substrate. The epitaxy is attributed to the excellent lattice match between the Ni3Si and the Ni. The annealing behavior follows the predictions of the Ni-Si phase diagram for this nickel-rich binary system.

  12. Microstructural investigation of nickel silicide thin films and the silicide-silicon interface using transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bhaskaran, M; Sriram, S; Mitchell, D R G; Short, K T; Holland, A S; Mitchell, A

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM)-based investigation of nickel silicide (NiSi) thin films grown on silicon. Nickel silicide is currently used as the CMOS technology standard for local interconnects and in electrical contacts. Films were characterized with a range of TEM-based techniques along with glancing angle X-ray diffraction. The nickel silicide thin films were formed by vacuum annealing thin films of nickel (50 nm) deposited on (100) silicon. The cross-sectional samples indicated a final silicide thickness of about 110 nm. This investigation studied and reports on three aspects of the thermally formed thin films: the uniformity in composition of the film using jump ratio maps; the nature of the interface using high resolution imaging; and the crystalline orientation of the thin films using selected-area electron diffraction (SAED). The analysis highlighted uniform composition in the thin films, which was also substantiated by spectroscopy techniques; an interface exhibiting the desired abrupt transition from silicide to silicon; and desired and preferential crystalline orientation corresponding to stoichiometric NiSi, supported by glancing angle X-ray diffraction results.

  13. Si-Ge Nano-Structured with Tungsten Silicide Inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, Jon; Sehirlioglu, Alp; Dynys, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Traditional silicon germanium high temperature thermoelectrics have potential for improvements in figure of merit via nano-structuring with a silicide phase. A second phase of nano-sized silicides can theoretically reduce the lattice component of thermal conductivity without significantly reducing the electrical conductivity. However, experimentally achieving such improvements in line with the theory is complicated by factors such as control of silicide size during sintering, dopant segregation, matrix homogeneity, and sintering kinetics. Samples are prepared using powder metallurgy techniques; including mechanochemical alloying via ball milling and spark plasma sintering for densification. In addition to microstructural development, thermal stability of thermoelectric transport properties are reported, as well as couple and device level characterization.

  14. Ultra Thin Poly-Si Nanosheet Junctionless Field-Effect Transistor with Nickel Silicide Contact

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yu-Ru; Tsai, Wan-Ting; Wu, Yung-Chun; Lin, Yu-Hsien

    2017-01-01

    This study demonstrated an ultra thin poly-Si junctionless nanosheet field-effect transistor (JL NS-FET) with nickel silicide contact. For the nickel silicide film, two-step annealing and a Ti capping layer were adopted to form an ultra thin uniform nickel silicide film with low sheet resistance (Rs). The JL NS-FET with nickel silicide contact exhibited favorable electrical properties, including a high driving current (>107A), subthreshold slope (186 mV/dec.), and low parasitic resistance. In addition, this study compared the electrical characteristics of JL NS-FETs with and without nickel silicide contact. PMID:29112139

  15. Ultra Thin Poly-Si Nanosheet Junctionless Field-Effect Transistor with Nickel Silicide Contact.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Ru; Tsai, Wan-Ting; Wu, Yung-Chun; Lin, Yu-Hsien

    2017-11-07

    This study demonstrated an ultra thin poly-Si junctionless nanosheet field-effect transistor (JL NS-FET) with nickel silicide contact. For the nickel silicide film, two-step annealing and a Ti capping layer were adopted to form an ultra thin uniform nickel silicide film with low sheet resistance (Rs). The JL NS-FET with nickel silicide contact exhibited favorable electrical properties, including a high driving current (>10⁷A), subthreshold slope (186 mV/dec.), and low parasitic resistance. In addition, this study compared the electrical characteristics of JL NS-FETs with and without nickel silicide contact.

  16. Kinetic manipulation of silicide phase formation in Si nanowire templates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Lin, Yung-Chen; Zhong, Xing; Cheng, Hung-Chieh; Duan, Xiangfeng; Huang, Yu

    2013-08-14

    The phase formation sequence of silicides in two-dimensional (2-D) structures has been well-investigated due to their significance in microelectronics. Applying high-quality silicides as contacts in nanoscale silicon (Si) devices has caught considerable attention recently for their potential in improving and introducing new functions in nanodevices. However, nucleation and diffusion mechanisms are found to be very different in one-dimensional (1-D) nanostructures, and thus the phase manipulation of silicides is yet to be achieved there. In this work, we report kinetic phase modulations to selectively enhance or hinder the growth rates of targeted nickel (Ni) silicides in a Si nanowire (NW) and demonstrate that Ni31Si12, δ-Ni2Si, θ-Ni2Si, NiSi, and NiSi2 can emerge as the first contacting phase at the silicide/Si interface through these modulations. First, the growth rates of silicides are selectively tuned through template structure modifications. It is demonstrated that the growth rate of diffusion limited phases can be enhanced in a porous Si NW due to a short diffusion path, which suppresses the formation of interface limited NiSi2. In addition, we show that a confining thick shell can be applied around the Si NW to hinder the growth of the silicides with large volume expansion during silicidation, including Ni31Si12, δ-Ni2Si, and θ-Ni2Si. Second, a platinum (Pt) interlayer between the Ni source and the Si NW is shown to effectively suppress the formation of the phases with low Pt solubility, including the dominating NiSi2. Lastly, we show that with the combined applications of the above-mentioned approaches, the lowest resistive NiSi phase can form as the first phase in a solid NW with a Pt interlayer to suppress NiSi2 and a thick shell to hinder Ni31Si12, δ-Ni2Si, and θ-Ni2Si simultaneously. The resistivity and maximum current density of NiSi agree reasonably to reported values.

  17. Fabrication and Gas-Sensing Properties of Ni-Silicide/Si Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsun-Feng; Chen, Chun-An; Liu, Shang-Wu; Tang, Chun-Kai

    2017-12-01

    Ni-silicide/Si nanowires were fabricated by atomic force microscope nano-oxidation on silicon-on-insulator substrates, selective wet etching, and reactive deposition epitaxy. Ni-silicide nanocrystal-modified Si nanowire and Ni-silicide/Si heterostructure multi-stacked nanowire were formed by low- and high-coverage depositions of Ni, respectively. The Ni-silicide/Si Schottky junction and Ni-silicide region were attributed high- and low-resistance parts of nanowire, respectively, causing the resistance of the Ni-silicide nanocrystal-modified Si nanowire and the Ni-silicide/Si heterostructure multi-stacked nanowire to be a little higher and much lower than that of Si nanowire. An O 2 sensing device was formed from a nanowire that was mounted on Pt electrodes. When the nanowires exposed to O 2 , the increase in current in the Ni-silicide/Si heterostructure multi-stacked nanowire was much larger than that in the other nanowires. The Ni-silicide nanocrystal-modified Si nanowire device had the highest sensitivity. The phenomenon can be explained by the formation of a Schottky junction at the Ni-silicide/Si interface in these two types of Ni-Silicide/Si nanowire and the formation of a hole channel at the silicon nanowire/native oxide interface after exposing the nanowires to O 2 .

  18. Study of nickel silicide formation by physical vapor deposition techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pancharatnam, Shanti

    Metal silicides are used as contacts to the highly n-doped emitter in photovoltaic devices. Thin films of nickel silicide (NiSi) are of particular interest for Si-based solar cells, as they form at lower temperature and consume less silicon. However, interfacial oxide limits the reduction in sheet resistance. Hence, different diffusion barriers were investigated with regard to optimizing the conductivity and thermal stability. The formation of NiSi, and if it can be doped to have good contact with the n-side of a p-n junction were studied. Reduction of the interfacial oxide by the interfacial Ti layer to allow the formation of NiSi was observed. Silicon was treated in dilute hydrofluoric acid for removing the surface oxide layer. Ni and a Ti diffusion barrier were deposited on Si by physical vapor deposition (PVD) methods - electron beam evaporation and sputtering. The annealing temperature and time were varied to observe the stability of the deposited film. The films were then etched to observe the retention of the silicide. Characterization was done using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and Rutherford back scattering (RBS). Sheet resistance was measured using the four-point probe technique. Annealing temperatures from 300°C showed films began to agglomerate indicating some diffusion between Ni and Si in the Ti layer, also supported by the compositional analysis in the Auger spectra. Films obtained by evaporation and sputtering were of high quality in terms of coverage over substrate area and uniformity. Thicknesses of Ni and Ti were optimized to 20 nm and 10 nm respectively. Resistivity was low at these thicknesses, and reduced by about half post annealing at 300°C for 8 hours. Thus a low resistivity contact was obtained at optimized thicknesses of the metal layers. It was also shown that some silicide formation occurs at temperatures starting from 300°C and can thus be used to make good silicide contacts.

  19. Texture in thin film silicides and germanides: A review

    SciTech Connect

    De Schutter, B., E-mail: bob.deschutter@ugent.be; De Keyser, K.; Detavernier, C.

    Silicides and germanides are compounds consisting of a metal and silicon or germanium. In the microelectronics industry, silicides are the material of choice for contacting silicon based devices (over the years, CoSi{sub 2}, C54-TiSi{sub 2}, and NiSi have been adopted), while germanides are considered as a top candidate for contacting future germanium based electronics. Since also strain engineering through the use of Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} in the source/drain/gate regions of MOSFET devices is an important technique for improving device characteristics in modern Si-based microelectronics industry, a profound understanding of the formation of silicide/germanide contacts to silicon and germanium is ofmore » utmost importance. The crystallographic texture of these films, which is defined as the statistical distribution of the orientation of the grains in the film, has been the subject of scientific studies since the 1970s. Different types of texture like epitaxy, axiotaxy, fiber, or combinations thereof have been observed in such films. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that film texture can have a profound influence on the formation and stability of silicide/germanide contacts, as it controls the type and orientation of grain boundaries (affecting diffusion and agglomeration) and the interface energy (affecting nucleation during the solid-state reaction). Furthermore, the texture also has an impact on the electrical characteristics of the contact, as the orientation and size of individual grains influences functional properties such as contact resistance and sheet resistance and will induce local variations in strain and Schottky barrier height. This review aims to give a comprehensive overview of the scientific work that has been published in the field of texture studies on thin film silicide/germanide contacts.« less

  20. Texture in thin film silicides and germanides: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Schutter, B.; De Keyser, K.; Lavoie, C.; Detavernier, C.

    2016-09-01

    Silicides and germanides are compounds consisting of a metal and silicon or germanium. In the microelectronics industry, silicides are the material of choice for contacting silicon based devices (over the years, CoSi2, C54-TiSi2, and NiSi have been adopted), while germanides are considered as a top candidate for contacting future germanium based electronics. Since also strain engineering through the use of Si1-xGex in the source/drain/gate regions of MOSFET devices is an important technique for improving device characteristics in modern Si-based microelectronics industry, a profound understanding of the formation of silicide/germanide contacts to silicon and germanium is of utmost importance. The crystallographic texture of these films, which is defined as the statistical distribution of the orientation of the grains in the film, has been the subject of scientific studies since the 1970s. Different types of texture like epitaxy, axiotaxy, fiber, or combinations thereof have been observed in such films. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that film texture can have a profound influence on the formation and stability of silicide/germanide contacts, as it controls the type and orientation of grain boundaries (affecting diffusion and agglomeration) and the interface energy (affecting nucleation during the solid-state reaction). Furthermore, the texture also has an impact on the electrical characteristics of the contact, as the orientation and size of individual grains influences functional properties such as contact resistance and sheet resistance and will induce local variations in strain and Schottky barrier height. This review aims to give a comprehensive overview of the scientific work that has been published in the field of texture studies on thin film silicide/germanide contacts.

  1. Gas cluster ion beam assisted NiPt germano-silicide formation on SiGe

    SciTech Connect

    Ozcan, Ahmet S., E-mail: asozcan@us.ibm.com; Lavoie, Christian; Jordan-Sweet, Jean

    We report the formation of very uniform and smooth Ni(Pt)Si on epitaxially grown SiGe using Si gas cluster ion beam treatment after metal-rich silicide formation. The gas cluster ion implantation process was optimized to infuse Si into the metal-rich silicide layer and lowered the NiSi nucleation temperature significantly according to in situ X-ray diffraction measurements. This novel method which leads to more uniform films can also be used to control silicide depth in ultra-shallow junctions, especially for high Ge containing devices, where silicidation is problematic as it leads to much rougher interfaces.

  2. Titanium-based silicide quantum dot superlattices for thermoelectrics applications.

    PubMed

    Savelli, Guillaume; Stein, Sergio Silveira; Bernard-Granger, Guillaume; Faucherand, Pascal; Montès, Laurent; Dilhaire, Stefan; Pernot, Gilles

    2015-07-10

    Ti-based silicide quantum dot superlattices (QDSLs) are grown by reduced-pressure chemical vapor deposition. They are made of titanium-based silicide nanodots scattered in an n-doped SiGe matrix. This is the first time that such nanostructured materials have been grown in both monocrystalline and polycrystalline QDSLs. We studied their crystallographic structures and chemical properties, as well as the size and the density of the quantum dots. The thermoelectric properties of the QDSLs are measured and compared to equivalent SiGe thin films to evaluate the influence of the nanodots. Our studies revealed an increase in their thermoelectric properties-specifically, up to a trifold increase in the power factor, with a decrease in the thermal conductivity-making them very good candidates for further thermoelectric applications in cooling or energy-harvesting fields.

  3. New Possible Structure of Silicide Mg2Si under Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luniakov, Yu. V.

    2018-05-01

    As a result of an evolutionary search based on the density functional theory, a new low-symmetry structure of silicide Mg2Si under pressure was discovered. This structure can exist along with the known structures of the symmetry Pnma and P63/mmc and is stable at a pressure of about 20 GPa. The lattice parameters of the discovered structure are in better agreement with the experimental values than the lattice parameters of the known structures.

  4. Characteristics of a promising new thermoelectric material - Ruthenium silicide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohta, Toshitaka; Vining, Cronin B.; Allevato, Camillo E.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary study on arc-melted samples has indicated that ruthenium silicide has the potential to obtain figure-of-merit values four times higher than that of conventional silicon-germanium material. In order to realize the high figure-of-merit values, high-quality crystal from the melt is needed. A Bridgman-like method has been employed and has realized much better crystals than arc-melted ones.

  5. Stacked Metal Silicide/Silicon Far-Infrared Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maserjian, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    Selective doping of silicon in proposed metal silicide/silicon Schottky-barrier infrared photodetector increases maximum detectable wavelength. Stacking layers to form multiple Schottky barriers increases quantum efficiency of detector. Detectors of new type enhance capabilities of far-infrared imaging arrays. Grows by molecular-beam epitaxy on silicon waferscontaining very-large-scale integrated circuits. Imaging arrays of detectors made in monolithic units with image-preprocessing circuitry.

  6. Low potassium level

    MedlinePlus

    ... of low potassium level include: Medicines, such as diuretics (water pills), certain antibiotics Diarrhea or vomiting Using ... potassium through a vein (IV). If you need diuretics, your provider may: Switch you to a form ...

  7. Hyperkalemia (High Potassium)

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms High potassium (hyperkalemia) By Mayo Clinic Staff Hyperkalemia is the medical term that describes a potassium level in your blood that's higher ... medications or dialysis. If you have symptoms of hyperkalemia, particularly if you have kidney disease or are ...

  8. Penicillin V Potassium

    MedlinePlus

    Penicillin V potassium is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia and other ... heart valves and other symptoms) from coming back. Penicillin V potassium is in a class of medications ...

  9. Defect-free erbium silicide formation using an ultrathin Ni interlayer.

    PubMed

    Choi, Juyun; Choi, Seongheum; Kang, Yu-Seon; Na, Sekwon; Lee, Hoo-Jeong; Cho, Mann-Ho; Kim, Hyoungsub

    2014-08-27

    An ultrathin Ni interlayer (∼1 nm) was introduced between a TaN-capped Er film and a Si substrate to prevent the formation of surface defects during thermal Er silicidation. A nickel silicide interfacial layer formed at low temperatures and incurred uniform nucleation and the growth of a subsequently formed erbium silicide film, effectively inhibiting the generation of recessed-type surface defects and improving the surface roughness. As a side effect, the complete transformation of Er to erbium silicide was somewhat delayed, and the electrical contact property at low annealing temperatures was dominated by the nickel silicide phase with a high Schottky barrier height. After high-temperature annealing, the early-formed interfacial layer interacted with the growing erbium silicide, presumably forming an erbium silicide-rich Er-Si-Ni mixture. As a result, the electrical contact property reverted to that of the low-resistive erbium silicide/Si contact case, which warrants a promising source/drain contact application for future high-performance metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors.

  10. Core-shell chromium silicide-silicon nanopillars: a contact material for future nanosystems.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mu-Tung; Chen, Chih-Yen; Chou, Li-Jen; Chen, Lih-Juann

    2009-11-24

    Chromium silicide nanostructures are fabricated inside silicon nanopillars grown by the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism. The remarkable field-emission behavior of these nanostructures results from extensive improvement of carrier transport due to the reduced energy barrier between the metal and semiconductor layers. The results warrant consideration of chromium silicide as a potentially important contact material in future nanosystems.

  11. Columnar and subsurface silicide growth with novel molecular beam epitaxy techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fathauer, R. W.; George, T.; Pike, W. T.

    1992-01-01

    We have found novel growth modes for epitaxial CoSi2 at high temperatures coupled with Si-rich flux ratios or low deposition rates. In the first of these modes, codeposition of metal and Si at 600-800 C with excess Si leads to the formation of epitaxial silicide columns surrounded by single-crystal Si. During the initial stages of the deposition, the excess Si grows homoepitaxially in between the silicide, which forms islands, so that the lateral growth of the islands is confined. Once a template layer is established by this process, columns of silicide form as a result of selective epitaxy of silicide on silicide and Si on Si. This growth process allows nanometer control over silicide particles in three dimensions. In the second of these modes, a columnar silicide seed layer is used as a template to nucleate subsurface growth of CoSi2. With a 100 nm Si layer covering CoSi2 seeds, Co deposited at 800C and 0.01 nm/s diffuses down to grow on the buried seeds rather than nucleating surface silicide islands. For thicker Si caps or higher deposition rates, the surface concentration of Co exceeds the critical concentration for nucleation of islands, preventing this subsurface growth mode from occurring. Using this technique, single-crystal layers of CoSi2 buried under single-crystal Si caps have been grown.

  12. Synthesis of metal silicide at metal/silicon oxide interface by electronic excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.-G., E-mail: jglee36@kims.re.kr; Nagase, T.; Yasuda, H.

    The synthesis of metal silicide at the metal/silicon oxide interface by electronic excitation was investigated using transmission electron microscopy. A platinum silicide, α-Pt{sub 2}Si, was successfully formed at the platinum/silicon oxide interface under 25–200 keV electron irradiation. This is of interest since any platinum silicide was not formed at the platinum/silicon oxide interface by simple thermal annealing under no-electron-irradiation conditions. From the electron energy dependence of the cross section for the initiation of the silicide formation, it is clarified that the silicide formation under electron irradiation was not due to a knock-on atom-displacement process, but a process induced by electronic excitation.more » It is suggested that a mechanism related to the Knotek and Feibelman mechanism may play an important role in silicide formation within the solid. Similar silicide formation was also observed at the palladium/silicon oxide and nickel/silicon oxide interfaces, indicating a wide generality of the silicide formation by electronic excitation.« less

  13. Potassium Secondary Batteries.

    PubMed

    Eftekhari, Ali; Jian, Zelang; Ji, Xiulei

    2017-02-08

    Potassium may exhibit advantages over lithium or sodium as a charge carrier in rechargeable batteries. Analogues of Prussian blue can provide millions of cyclic voltammetric cycles in aqueous electrolyte. Potassium intercalation chemistry has recently been demonstrated compatible with both graphite and nongraphitic carbons. In addition to potassium-ion batteries, potassium-O 2 (or -air) and potassium-sulfur batteries are emerging. Additionally, aqueous potassium-ion batteries also exhibit high reversibility and long cycling life. Because of potentially low cost, availability of basic materials, and intriguing electrochemical behaviors, this new class of secondary batteries is attracting much attention. This mini-review summarizes the current status, opportunities, and future challenges of potassium secondary batteries.

  14. Formation of low resistivity titanium silicide gates in semiconductor integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Ishida, Emi [Sunnyvale, CA

    1999-08-10

    A method of forming a titanium silicide (69) includes the steps of forming a transistor having a source region (58), a drain region (60) and a gate structure (56) and forming a titanium layer (66) over the transistor. A first anneal is performed with a laser anneal at an energy level that causes the titanium layer (66) to react with the gate structure (56) to form a high resistivity titanium silicide phase (68) having substantially small grain sizes. The unreacted portions of the titanium layer (66) are removed and a second anneal is performed, thereby causing the high resistivity titanium silicide phase (68) to convert to a low resistivity titanium silicide phase (69). The small grain sizes obtained by the first anneal allow low resistivity titanium silicide phase (69) to be achieved at device geometries less than about 0.25 micron.

  15. On Nb Silicide Based Alloys: Alloy Design and Selection.

    PubMed

    Tsakiropoulos, Panos

    2018-05-18

    The development of Nb-silicide based alloys is frustrated by the lack of composition-process-microstructure-property data for the new alloys, and by the shortage of and/or disagreement between thermodynamic data for key binary and ternary systems that are essential for designing (selecting) alloys to meet property goals. Recent publications have discussed the importance of the parameters δ (related to atomic size), Δχ (related to electronegativity) and valence electron concentration (VEC) (number of valence electrons per atom filled into the valence band) for the alloying behavior of Nb-silicide based alloys (J Alloys Compd 748 (2018) 569), their solid solutions (J Alloys Compd 708 (2017) 961), the tetragonal Nb₅Si₃ (Materials 11 (2018) 69), and hexagonal C14-NbCr₂ and cubic A15-Nb₃X phases (Materials 11 (2018) 395) and eutectics with Nb ss and Nb₅Si₃ (Materials 11 (2018) 592). The parameter values were calculated using actual compositions for alloys, their phases and eutectics. This paper is about the relationships that exist between the alloy parameters δ, Δχ and VEC, and creep rate and isothermal oxidation (weight gain) and the concentrations of solute elements in the alloys. Different approaches to alloy design (selection) that use property goals and these relationships for Nb-silicide based alloys are discussed and examples of selected alloy compositions and their predicted properties are given. The alloy design methodology, which has been called NICE (Niobium Intermetallic Composite Elaboration), enables one to design (select) new alloys and to predict their creep and oxidation properties and the macrosegregation of Si in cast alloys.

  16. On Nb Silicide Based Alloys: Alloy Design and Selection

    PubMed Central

    Tsakiropoulos, Panos.

    2018-01-01

    The development of Nb-silicide based alloys is frustrated by the lack of composition-process-microstructure-property data for the new alloys, and by the shortage of and/or disagreement between thermodynamic data for key binary and ternary systems that are essential for designing (selecting) alloys to meet property goals. Recent publications have discussed the importance of the parameters δ (related to atomic size), Δχ (related to electronegativity) and valence electron concentration (VEC) (number of valence electrons per atom filled into the valence band) for the alloying behavior of Nb-silicide based alloys (J Alloys Compd 748 (2018) 569), their solid solutions (J Alloys Compd 708 (2017) 961), the tetragonal Nb5Si3 (Materials 11 (2018) 69), and hexagonal C14-NbCr2 and cubic A15-Nb3X phases (Materials 11 (2018) 395) and eutectics with Nbss and Nb5Si3 (Materials 11 (2018) 592). The parameter values were calculated using actual compositions for alloys, their phases and eutectics. This paper is about the relationships that exist between the alloy parameters δ, Δχ and VEC, and creep rate and isothermal oxidation (weight gain) and the concentrations of solute elements in the alloys. Different approaches to alloy design (selection) that use property goals and these relationships for Nb-silicide based alloys are discussed and examples of selected alloy compositions and their predicted properties are given. The alloy design methodology, which has been called NICE (Niobium Intermetallic Composite Elaboration), enables one to design (select) new alloys and to predict their creep and oxidation properties and the macrosegregation of Si in cast alloys. PMID:29783707

  17. Silicide Schottky Barrier For Back-Surface-Illuminated CCD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, Michael H.

    1990-01-01

    Quantum efficiency of back-surface-illuminated charge-coupled device (CCD) increased by coating back surface with thin layer of PtSi or IrSi on thin layer of SiO2. In its interaction with positively-doped bulk Si of CCD, silicide/oxide layer forms Schottky barrier that repels electrons, promoting accumulation of photogenerated charge carriers in front-side CCD potential wells. Physical principle responsible for improvement explained in "Metal Film Increases CCD Output" (NPO-16815).

  18. Progress in doping of ruthenium silicide (Ru2Si3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vining, C. B.; Allevato, C. E.

    1992-01-01

    Ruthenium silicide is currently under development as a promising thermoelectric material suitable for space power applications. Key to realizing the potentially high figure of merit values of this material is the development of appropriate doping techniques. In this study, manganese and iridium have been identified as useful p- and n-type dopants, respectively. Resistivity values have been reduced by more than 3 orders of magnitude. Anomalous Hall effect results, however, complicate interpretation of some of the results and further effort is required to achieve optimum doping levels.

  19. Dynamic observation on the growth behaviors in manganese silicide/silicon nanowire heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yu-Hsun; Chiu, Chung-Hua; Huang, Chun-Wei; Chen, Jui-Yuan; Lin, Wan-Jhen; Wu, Wen-Wei

    2015-02-07

    Metal silicide nanowires (NWs) are very interesting materials with diverse physical properties. Among the silicides, manganese silicide nanostructures have attracted wide attention due to their several potential applications, including in microelectronics, optoelectronics, spintronics and thermoelectric devices. In this work, we exhibited the formation of pure manganese silicide and manganese silicide/silicon nanowire heterostructures through solid state reaction with line contacts between manganese pads and silicon NWs. Dynamical process and phase characterization were investigated by in situ transmission electron microscopy (in situ TEM) and spherical aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (Cs-corrected STEM), respectively. The growth dynamics of the manganese silicide phase under thermal effects were systematically studied. Additionally, Al2O3, serving as the surface oxide, altered the growth behavior of the MnSi nanowire, enhancing the silicide/Si epitaxial growth and effecting the diffusion process in the silicon nanowire as well. In addition to fundamental science, this significant study has great potential in advancing future processing techniques in nanotechnology and related applications.

  20. Microstructure evolution of the Ir-inserted Ni silicides with additional annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Kijeong; Song, Ohsung

    2009-02-01

    Thermally-evaporated 10 nm-Ni/1 nm-Ir/(poly)Si structures were fabricated in order to investigate the thermal stability of Ir-inserted nickel silicide after additional annealing. The silicide samples underwent rapid thermal annealing at 300 ° C to 1200 ° C for 40 s, followed by 30 min annealing at the given RTA temperatures. Silicides suitable for the salicide process were formed on the top of the single crystal and polycrystalline silicon substrates, mimicking actives and gates. The sheet resistance was measured using a four-point probe. High resolution x-ray diffraction and Auger depth profiling were used for phase and chemical composition analysis, respectively. Transmission electron microscope and scanning probe microscope were used to determine the cross-section structure and surface roughness. The silicide, which formed on single crystal silicon substrate with surface agglomeration after additional annealing, could defer the transformation of Ni(Ir)Si to Ni(Ir)Si2 and was stable at temperatures up to 1200 °C. Moreover, the silicide thickness doubled. There were no outstanding changes in the silicide thickness on polycrystalline silicon. However, after additional annealing, the silicon-silicide mixing became serious and showed high resistance at temperatures >700 °C. Auger depth profiling confirmed the increased thickness of the silicide layers after additional annealing without a change in composition. For a single crystal silicon substrate, the sheet resistance increased slightly due to the significant increases in surface roughness caused by surface agglomeration after additional annealing. Otherwise, there were almost no changes in surface roughness on the polycrystalline silicon substrate. The Ir-inserted nickel monosilicide was able to maintain a low resistance in a wide temperature range and is considered suitable for the nano-thick silicide process.

  1. Study of iridium silicide monolayers using density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popis, Minh D.; Popis, Sylvester V.; Oncel, Nuri; Hoffmann, Mark R.; ćakır, Deniz

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we investigated physical and electronic properties of possible two-dimensional structures formed by Si (silicon) and Ir (iridium). To this end, different plausible structures were modeled by using density functional theory and the cohesive energies calculated for the geometry of optimized structures, with the lowest equilibrium lattice constants. Among several candidate structures, we identified three mechanically (via elastic constants and Young's modulus), dynamically (via phonon calculations), and thermodynamically stable iridium silicide monolayer structures. The lowest energy structure has a chemical formula of Ir2Si4 (called r-IrSi2), with a rectangular lattice (Pmmn space group). Its cohesive energy was calculated to be -0.248 eV (per IrSi2 unit) with respect to bulk Ir and bulk Si. The band structure indicates that the Ir2Si4 monolayer exhibits metallic properties. Other stable structures have hexagonal (P-3m1) and tetragonal (P4/nmm) cell structures with 0.12 and 0.20 eV/f.u. higher cohesive energies, respectively. Our calculations showed that Ir-Si monolayers are reactive. Although O2 molecules exothermically dissociate on the surface of the free-standing iridium silicide monolayers with large binding energies, H2O molecules bind to the monolayers with a rather weak interaction.

  2. Iron silicides at pressures of the Earth's inner core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Feiwu; Oganov, Artem R.

    2010-01-01

    The Earth's core is expected to contain around 10 wt % light elements (S, Si, O, possibly C, H, etc.) alloyed with Fe and Ni. Very little is known about these alloys at pressures and temperatures of the core. Here, using the evolutionary crystal structure prediction methodology, we investigate Fe-Si compounds at pressures of up to 400 GPa, i.e. covering the pressure range of the Earth's core. Evolutionary simulations correctly find that at atmospheric pressure the known non-trivial structure with P213 symmetry is stable, while at pressures above 20 GPa the CsCl-type structure is stable. We show that among the possible Fe silicides (Fe3Si, Fe2Si, Fe5Si3, FeSi, FeSi2 and FeSi3) only FeSi with CsCl-type structure is thermodynamically stable at core pressures, while the other silicides are unstable to decomposition into Fe + FeSi or FeSi + Si. This is consistent with previous works and suggests that Si impurities contribute to stabilization of the body-centered cubic phase of Fe in the inner core.

  3. Low-loss silicide/silicon plasmonic ribbon waveguides for mid- and far-infrared applications.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sang-Yeon; Soref, Richard A

    2009-06-15

    We report low-loss silicide/silicon plasmonic ribbon waveguides for mid- and far-IR applications. The composite modes in silicide ribbon waveguides offer a low-loss and highly confined mode profile, giving excellent plasmon waveguiding for long-wavelength applications. The calculated propagation loss of the composite long-range surface-plasmon polariton mode at a wavelength of 100 microm is 2.18 dB/cm with a mode height of less than 30 microm. The results presented provide important design guidelines for silicide/Si plasmon waveguides.

  4. Ni-silicide growth kinetics in Si and Si/SiO2 core/shell nanowires.

    PubMed

    Ogata, K; Sutter, E; Zhu, X; Hofmann, S

    2011-09-07

    A systematic study of the kinetics of axial Ni silicidation of as-grown and oxidized Si nanowires (SiNWs) with different crystallographic orientations and core diameters ranging from ∼ 10 to 100 nm is presented. For temperatures between 300 and 440 °C the length of the total axial silicide intrusion varies with the square root of time, which provides clear evidence that the rate limiting step is diffusion of Ni through the growing silicide phase(s). A retardation of Ni-silicide formation for oxidized SiNWs is found, indicative of a stress induced lowering of the diffusion coefficients. Extrapolated growth constants indicate that the Ni flux through the silicided NW is dominated by surface diffusion, which is consistent with an inverse square root dependence of the silicide length on the NW diameter as observed for (111) orientated SiNWs. In situ TEM silicidation experiments show that NiSi(2) is the first forming phase for as-grown and oxidized SiNWs. The silicide-SiNW interface is thereby atomically abrupt and typically planar. Ni-rich silicide phases subsequently nucleate close to the Ni reservoir, which for as-grown SiNWs can lead to a complete channel break-off for prolonged silicidation due to significant volume expansion and morphological changes.

  5. Ni-Silicide Growth Kinetics in Si and Si/SiO2 Core/Shell Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, S.; Sutter, E.; Ogata, K.

    A systematic study of the kinetics of axial Ni silicidation of as-grown and oxidized Si nanowires (SiNWs) with different crystallographic orientations and core diameters ranging from {approx} 10 to 100 nm is presented. For temperatures between 300 and 440 C the length of the total axial silicide intrusion varies with the square root of time, which provides clear evidence that the rate limiting step is diffusion of Ni through the growing silicide phase(s). A retardation of Ni-silicide formation for oxidized SiNWs is found, indicative of a stress induced lowering of the diffusion coefficients. Extrapolated growth constants indicate that the Nimore » flux through the silicided NW is dominated by surface diffusion, which is consistent with an inverse square root dependence of the silicide length on the NW diameter as observed for <111> orientated SiNWs. In situ TEM silicidation experiments show that NiSi{sub 2} is the first forming phase for as-grown and oxidized SiNWs. The silicide-SiNW interface is thereby atomically abrupt and typically planar. Ni-rich silicide phases subsequently nucleate close to the Ni reservoir, which for as-grown SiNWs can lead to a complete channel break-off for prolonged silicidation due to significant volume expansion and morphological changes.« less

  6. Potassium and Health123

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Connie M.

    2013-01-01

    Potassium was identified as a shortfall nutrient by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 Advisory Committee. The committee concluded that there was a moderate body of evidence of the association between potassium intake and blood pressure reduction in adults, which in turn influences the risk of stroke and coronary heart disease. Evidence is also accumulating of the protective effect of adequate dietary potassium on age-related bone loss and reduction of kidney stones. These benefits depend on organic anions associated with potassium as occurs in foods such as fruits and vegetables, in contrast to similar blood pressure-lowering benefits of potassium chloride. Benefits to blood pressure and bone health may occur at levels below current recommendations for potassium intake, especially from diet, but dose-response trials are needed to confirm this. Nevertheless, intakes considerably above current levels are needed for optimal health, and studies evaluating small increases in fruit and vegetable intake on bone and heart outcomes for short periods have had disappointing results. In modern societies, Western diets have led to a decrease in potassium intake with reduced consumption of fruits and vegetables with a concomitant increase in sodium consumption through increased consumption of processed foods. Consumption of white vegetables is associated with decreased risk of stroke, possibly related to their high potassium content. Potatoes are the highest source of dietary potassium, but the addition of salt should be limited. Low potassium-to-sodium intake ratios are more strongly related to cardiovascular disease risk than either nutrient alone. This relationship deserves further attention for multiple target tissue endpoints. PMID:23674806

  7. NMOS contact resistance reduction with selenium implant into NiPt silicide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, K. V.; Khaja, F. A.; Ni, C. N.; Muthukrishnan, S.; Darlark, A.; Lei, J.; Peidous, I.; Brand, A.; Henry, T.; Variam, N.; Erokhin, Y.

    2012-11-01

    A 25% reduction in NMOS contact resistance (Rc) was achieved by Selenium implantation into NiPt silicide film in VIISta Trident high-current single-wafer implanter. The Trident implanter is designed for shallow high-dose implants with high beam currents to maintain high throughput (for low CoO), with improved micro-uniformity and no energy contamination. The integration of Se implant was realized using a test chip dedicated to investigating silicide/junction related electrical properties and testable after silicidation. The silicide module processes were optimized, including the pre-clean (prior to RF PVD NiPt dep) and pre- and post-implant anneals. A 270°C soak anneal was used for RTP1, whereas a msec laser anneal was employed for RTP2 with sufficient process window (800-850°C), while maintaining excellent junction characteristics without Rs degradation.

  8. Controlled assembly of graphene-capped nickel, cobalt and iron silicides

    PubMed Central

    Vilkov, O.; Fedorov, A.; Usachov, D.; Yashina, L. V.; Generalov, A. V.; Borygina, K.; Verbitskiy, N. I.; Grüneis, A.; Vyalikh, D. V.

    2013-01-01

    The unique properties of graphene have raised high expectations regarding its application in carbon-based nanoscale devices that could complement or replace traditional silicon technology. This gave rise to the vast amount of researches on how to fabricate high-quality graphene and graphene nanocomposites that is currently going on. Here we show that graphene can be successfully integrated with the established metal-silicide technology. Starting from thin monocrystalline films of nickel, cobalt and iron, we were able to form metal silicides of high quality with a variety of stoichiometries under a Chemical Vapor Deposition grown graphene layer. These graphene-capped silicides are reliably protected against oxidation and can cover a wide range of electronic materials/device applications. Most importantly, the coupling between the graphene layer and the silicides is rather weak and the properties of quasi-freestanding graphene are widely preserved. PMID:23835625

  9. Comparison of nickel silicide and aluminium ohmic contact metallizations for low-temperature quantum transport measurements.

    PubMed

    Polley, Craig M; Clarke, Warrick R; Simmons, Michelle Y

    2011-10-03

    We examine nickel silicide as a viable ohmic contact metallization for low-temperature, low-magnetic-field transport measurements of atomic-scale devices in silicon. In particular, we compare a nickel silicide metallization with aluminium, a common ohmic contact for silicon devices. Nickel silicide can be formed at the low temperatures (<400°C) required for maintaining atomic precision placement in donor-based devices, and it avoids the complications found with aluminium contacts which become superconducting at cryogenic measurement temperatures. Importantly, we show that the use of nickel silicide as an ohmic contact at low temperatures does not affect the thermal equilibration of carriers nor contribute to hysteresis in a magnetic field.

  10. Stacked silicide/silicon mid- to long-wavelength infrared detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maserjian, Joseph (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The use of stacked Schottky barriers (16) with epitaxially grown thin silicides (10) combined with selective doping (22) of the barriers provides high quantum efficiency infrared detectors (30) at longer wavelengths that is compatible with existing silicon VLSI technology.

  11. Comparison of nickel silicide and aluminium ohmic contact metallizations for low-temperature quantum transport measurements

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We examine nickel silicide as a viable ohmic contact metallization for low-temperature, low-magnetic-field transport measurements of atomic-scale devices in silicon. In particular, we compare a nickel silicide metallization with aluminium, a common ohmic contact for silicon devices. Nickel silicide can be formed at the low temperatures (<400°C) required for maintaining atomic precision placement in donor-based devices, and it avoids the complications found with aluminium contacts which become superconducting at cryogenic measurement temperatures. Importantly, we show that the use of nickel silicide as an ohmic contact at low temperatures does not affect the thermal equilibration of carriers nor contribute to hysteresis in a magnetic field. PMID:21968083

  12. Stacked silicide/silicon mid- to long-wavelength infrared detector

    DOEpatents

    Maserjian, Joseph

    1990-03-13

    The use of stacked Schottky barriers (16) with epitaxially grown thin silicides (10) combined with selective doping (22) of the barriers provides high quantum efficiency infrared detectors (30) at longer wavelengths that is compatible with existing silicon VLSI technology.

  13. Characterisation of nickel silicide thin films by spectroscopy and microscopy techniques.

    PubMed

    Bhaskaran, M; Sriram, S; Holland, A S; Evans, P J

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the formation and detailed materials characterisation of nickel silicide thin films. Nickel silicide thin films have been formed by thermally reacting electron beam evaporated thin films of nickel with silicon. The nickel silicide thin films have been analysed using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) depth profiles, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS). The AES depth profile shows a uniform NiSi film, with a composition of 49-50% nickel and 51-50% silicon. No oxygen contamination either on the surface or at the silicide-silicon interface was observed. The SIMS depth profile confirms the existence of a uniform film, with no traces of oxygen contamination. RBS results indicate a nickel silicide layer of 114 nm, with the simulated spectra in close agreement with the experimental data. Atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy have been used to study the morphology of the nickel silicide thin films. The average grain size and average surface roughness of these films was found to be 30-50 and 0.67 nm, respectively. The film surface has also been studied using Kikuchi patterns obtained by electron backscatter detection.

  14. Nickel/Platinum Dual Silicide Axial Nanowire Heterostructures with Excellent Photosensor Applications.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yen-Ting; Huang, Chun-Wei; Chiu, Chung-Hua; Chang, Chia-Fu; Chen, Jui-Yuan; Lin, Ting-Yi; Huang, Yu-Ting; Lu, Kuo-Chang; Yeh, Ping-Hung; Wu, Wen-Wei

    2016-02-10

    Transition metal silicide nanowires (NWs) have attracted increasing attention as they possess advantages of both silicon NWs and transition metals. Over the past years, there have been reported with efforts on one silicide in a single silicon NW. However, the research on multicomponent silicides in a single silicon NW is still rare, leading to limited functionalities. In this work, we successfully fabricated β-Pt2Si/Si/θ-Ni2Si, β-Pt2Si/θ-Ni2Si, and Pt, Ni, and Si ternary phase axial NW heterostructures through solid state reactions at 650 °C. Using in situ transmission electron microscope (in situ TEM), the growth mechanism of silicide NW heterostructures and the diffusion behaviors of transition metals were systematically studied. Spherical aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope (Cs-corrected STEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was used to analyze the phase structure and composition of silicide NW heterostructures. Moreover, electrical and photon sensing properties for the silicide nanowire heterostructures demonstrated promising applications in nano-optoeletronic devices. We found that Ni, Pt, and Si ternary phase nanowire heterostructures have an excellent infrared light sensing property which is absent in bulk Ni2Si or Pt2Si. The above results would benefit the further understanding of heterostructured nano materials.

  15. Electronic structure of semiconducting alkali-metal silicides and germanides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegze, M.; Hafner, J.

    1989-11-01

    We present self-consistent linearized-muffin-tin-orbital calculations of the electronic structure of three alkali-metal germanides and silicides (KGe, NaGe, and NaSi). Like the alkali-metal-lead compounds investigated in our earlier work [M. Tegze and J. Hafner, Phys. Rev. B 39, 8263 (1989)] the Ge and Si compounds of the alkali metals form complex structures based on the packing of tetrahedral Ge4 and Si4 clusters. Our calculations show that all three compounds are narrow-gap semiconductors. The width of the energy gap depends on two main factors: the ratio of the intracluster to the intercluster interactions between the group-IV elements (which increases from Pb to Si) and the strength of the interactions between the alkali-metal atoms (which varies with the size ratio).

  16. Work function characterization of solution-processed cobalt silicide

    DOE PAGES

    Ullah, Syed Shihab; Robinson, Matt; Hoey, Justin; ...

    2012-05-08

    Cobalt silicide thin films were prepared by spin-coating Si6H12-based inks onto various substrates followed by a thermal treatment. The work function of the solution processed Co-Si was determined by both capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures as well as by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). The UPS-derived work function was 4.80 eV for a Co-Si film on Si (100) while C-V of MOS structures yielded a work function of 4.36 eV where the metal was solution-processed Co-Si, the oxide was SiO2 and the semiconductor was a B-doped Si wafer.

  17. Status of the atomized uranium silicide fuel development at KAERI

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, C.K.; Kim, K.H.; Park, H.D.

    1997-08-01

    While developing KMRR fuel fabrication technology an atomizing technique has been applied in order to eliminate the difficulties relating to the tough property of U{sub 3}Si and to take advantage of the rapid solidification effect of atomization. The comparison between the conventionally comminuted powder dispersion fuel and the atomized powder dispersion fuel has been made. As the result, the processes, uranium silicide powdering and heat treatment for U{sub 3}Si transformation, become simplified. The workability, the thermal conductivity and the thermal compatibility of fuel meat have been investigated and found to be improved due to the spherical shape of atomized powder.more » In this presentation the overall developments of atomized U{sub 3}Si dispersion fuel and the planned activities for applying the atomizing technique to the real fuel fabrication are described.« less

  18. Capping of rare earth silicide nanowires on Si(001)

    SciTech Connect

    Appelfeller, Stephan; Franz, Martin; Kubicki, Milan

    The capping of Tb and Dy silicide nanowires grown on Si(001) was studied using scanning tunneling microscopy and cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Several nanometers thick amorphous Si films deposited at room temperature allow an even capping, while the nanowires maintain their original structural properties. Subsequent recrystallization by thermal annealing leads to more compact nanowire structures and to troughs in the Si layer above the nanowires, which may even reach down to the nanowires in the case of thin Si films, as well as to V-shaped stacking faults forming along (111) lattice planes. This behavior is related to strain duemore » to the lattice mismatch between the Si overlayer and the nanowires.« less

  19. Europium Silicide – a Prospective Material for Contacts with Silicon

    PubMed Central

    Averyanov, Dmitry V.; Tokmachev, Andrey M.; Karateeva, Christina G.; Karateev, Igor A.; Lobanovich, Eduard F.; Prutskov, Grigory V.; Parfenov, Oleg E.; Taldenkov, Alexander N.; Vasiliev, Alexander L.; Storchak, Vyacheslav G.

    2016-01-01

    Metal-silicon junctions are crucial to the operation of semiconductor devices: aggressive scaling demands low-resistive metallic terminals to replace high-doped silicon in transistors. It suggests an efficient charge injection through a low Schottky barrier between a metal and Si. Tremendous efforts invested into engineering metal-silicon junctions reveal the major role of chemical bonding at the interface: premier contacts entail epitaxial integration of metal silicides with Si. Here we present epitaxially grown EuSi2/Si junction characterized by RHEED, XRD, transmission electron microscopy, magnetization and transport measurements. Structural perfection leads to superb conductivity and a record-low Schottky barrier with n-Si while an antiferromagnetic phase invites spin-related applications. This development opens brand-new opportunities in electronics. PMID:27211700

  20. Europium Silicide - a Prospective Material for Contacts with Silicon.

    PubMed

    Averyanov, Dmitry V; Tokmachev, Andrey M; Karateeva, Christina G; Karateev, Igor A; Lobanovich, Eduard F; Prutskov, Grigory V; Parfenov, Oleg E; Taldenkov, Alexander N; Vasiliev, Alexander L; Storchak, Vyacheslav G

    2016-05-23

    Metal-silicon junctions are crucial to the operation of semiconductor devices: aggressive scaling demands low-resistive metallic terminals to replace high-doped silicon in transistors. It suggests an efficient charge injection through a low Schottky barrier between a metal and Si. Tremendous efforts invested into engineering metal-silicon junctions reveal the major role of chemical bonding at the interface: premier contacts entail epitaxial integration of metal silicides with Si. Here we present epitaxially grown EuSi2/Si junction characterized by RHEED, XRD, transmission electron microscopy, magnetization and transport measurements. Structural perfection leads to superb conductivity and a record-low Schottky barrier with n-Si while an antiferromagnetic phase invites spin-related applications. This development opens brand-new opportunities in electronics.

  1. Development of molecular dynamics potential for uranium silicide fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Jianguo; Zhang, Yongfeng; Hales, Jason D.

    2016-09-01

    Use of uranium–silicide (U-Si) in place of uranium dioxide (UO2) is one of the promising concepts being proposed to increase the accident tolerance of nuclear fuels. This is due to a higher thermal conductivity than UO2 that results in lower centerline temperatures. U-Si also has a higher fissile density, which may enable some new cladding concepts that would otherwise require increased enrichment limits to compensate for their neutronic penalty. However, many critical material properties for U-Si have not been determined experimentally. For example, silicide compounds (U3Si2 and U3Si) are known to become amorphous under irradiation. There was clear independent experimentalmore » evidence to support a crystalline to amorphous transformation in those compounds. However, it is still not well understood how the amorphous transformation will affect on fuel behavior. It is anticipated that modeling and simulation may deliver guidance on the importance of various properties and help prioritize experimental work. In order to develop knowledge-based models for use at the engineering scale with a minimum of empirical parameters and increase the predictive capabilities of the developed model, inputs from atomistic simulations are essential. First-principles based density functional theory (DFT) calculations will provide the most reliable information. However, it is probably not possible to obtain kinetic information such as amorphization under irradiation directly from DFT simulations due to size and time limitations. Thus, a more feasible way may be to employ molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Unfortunately, so far no MD potential is available for U-Si to discover the underlying mechanisms. Here, we will present our recent progress in developing a U-Si potential from ab initio data. This work is supported by the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy.« less

  2. Development of molecular dynamics potential for uranium silicide fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Jianguo; Zhang, Yongfeng; Hales, Jason D.

    Use of uranium–silicide (U-Si) in place of uranium dioxide (UO2) is one of the promising concepts being proposed to increase the accident tolerance of nuclear fuels. This is due to a higher thermal conductivity than UO2 that results in lower centerline temperatures. U-Si also has a higher fissile density, which may enable some new cladding concepts that would otherwise require increased enrichment limits to compensate for their neutronic penalty. However, many critical material properties for U-Si have not been determined experimentally. For example, silicide compounds (U3Si2 and U3Si) are known to become amorphous under irradiation. There was clear independent experimentalmore » evidence to support a crystalline to amorphous transformation in those compounds. However, it is still not well understood how the amorphous transformation will affect on fuel behavior. It is anticipated that modeling and simulation may deliver guidance on the importance of various properties and help prioritize experimental work. In order to develop knowledge-based models for use at the engineering scale with a minimum of empirical parameters and increase the predictive capabilities of the developed model, inputs from atomistic simulations are essential. First-principles based density functional theory (DFT) calculations will provide the most reliable information. However, it is probably not possible to obtain kinetic information such as amorphization under irradiation directly from DFT simulations due to size and time limitations. Thus, a more feasible way may be to employ molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Unfortunately, so far no MD potential is available for U-Si to discover the underlying mechanisms. Here, we will present our recent progress in developing a U-Si potential from ab initio data. This work is supported by the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy.« less

  3. Effects of temperature dependent pre-amorphization implantation on NiPt silicide formation and thermal stability on Si(100)

    SciTech Connect

    Ozcan, Ahmet S.; Wall, Donald; Jordan-Sweet, Jean

    Using temperature controlled Si and C ion implantation, we studied the effects of pre-amorphization implantation on NiPt alloy silicide phase formation. In situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction and resistance measurements were used to monitor phase and morphology evolution in silicide films. Results show that substrate amorphization strongly modulate the nucleation of silicide phases, regardless of implant species. However, morphological stability of the thin films is mainly enhanced by C addition, independently of the amorphization depth.

  4. On the size-dependent magnetism and all-optical magnetization switching of transition-metal silicide nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Glushkov, G. I.; Tuchin, A. V.; Popov, S. V.

    Theoretical investigations of the electronic structure, synthesis, and all-optical magnetization switching of transition-metal silicide nanostructures are reported. The magnetic moment of the nanostructures is studied as a function of the silicide cluster size and configuration. The experimentally demonstrated magnetization switching of nanostructured nickel silicide by circularly polarized light makes it possible to create high-speed storage devices with high density data recording.

  5. High potassium level

    MedlinePlus

    ... level is very high, or if you have danger signs, such as changes in an ECG . Emergency ... Seifter JL. Potassium disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  6. Potassium carbonate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... dishwasher soaps Some forms of potash (material from wood ashes that is used in fertilizers) Some home ... several weeks after the potassium carbonate was swallowed. Death from complications may occur up to several months ...

  7. Potassium: friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Rodan, Aylin R

    2017-07-01

    The kidney plays an essential role in maintaining homeostasis of ion concentrations in the blood. Because the concentration gradient of potassium across the cell membrane is a key determinant of the membrane potential of cells, even small deviations in serum potassium level from the normal setpoint can lead to severe muscle dysfunction, resulting in respiratory failure and cardiac arrest. Less severe hypo- and hyperkalemia are also associated with morbidity and mortality across various patient populations. In addition, deficiencies in potassium intake have been associated with hypertension and adverse cardiovascular and renal outcomes, likely due in part to the interrelated handling of sodium and potassium by the kidney. Here, data on the beneficial effects of potassium on blood pressure and cardiovascular and renal outcomes will be reviewed, along with the physiological basis for these effects. In some patient populations, however, potassium excess is deleterious. Risk factors for the development of hyperkalemia will be reviewed, as well as the risks and benefits of existing and emerging therapies for hyperkalemia.

  8. Oxygen chemisorption and oxide formation on Ni silicide surfaces at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valeri, S.; Del Pennino, U.; Lomellini, P.; Sassaroli, P.

    1984-10-01

    Auger spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) have been used in a comparative study of the room temperature oxidation of Ni silicides of increasing silicon content, from Ni3Si to NiSi2. The results were compared with those for the oxidation of pure Si and Ni. All suicide surfaces in the exposure range between 0.2 and 104 L follow two-step oxidation kinetics: the first step is characterized by an oxygen uptake rate higher than in the second one. Attention was focused on the oxygen induced modifications of metal and silicon AES and XPS spectra in silicides, which are indicative of changes in the local electronic structure and in the chemical bonding. In general oxygen bonds with silicon leaving the metal unaffected; however, at high exposures, characteristic feature of the Ni-oxygen bonds appear in the Ni(MVV) Auger line of the Ni-rich silicides. The presence of Ni atoms enhances considerably the Si oxidation process in silicides with respect to pure Si, in terms both of a higher Si oxidation state and a higher oxygen uptake; this enhancement is stronger in Ni-rich silicides than in Si-rich silicides. The oxygen induced contributions in the Si(LVV) Auger line show structures at 76 and 83 eV, and those in the Si 2p photoemission spectra show binding energy shifts between -1 and -3.8 eV; we conclude that the oxidation products are mainly silicon suboxides, like Si2O3 and SiO; only on Ni3 Si at 104 L, a significant contribution of SiO2 was found. The Ni catalytic effect on Si oxidation has been discussed in terms of the suicide heat of formation, of the breaking of the silicon sp3 configuration in silicides and of the metal atom dissociative effect on the O2 molecule.

  9. Potassium dynamics and seizures: Why is potassium ictogenic?

    PubMed

    de Curtis, Marco; Uva, Laura; Gnatkovsky, Vadym; Librizzi, Laura

    2018-07-01

    Potassium channels dysfunction and altered genes encoding for molecules involved in potassium homeostasis have been associated with human epilepsy. These observations are in agreement with a control role of extracellular potassium on neuronal excitability and seizure generation. Epileptiform activity, in turn, regulates potassium homeostasis through mechanisms that are still not well established. We review here how potassium-associated processes are regulated in the brain and examine the mechanisms that support the role of potassium in triggering epileptiform activities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Theory of Interface States at Silicon / Transition - - Silicide Interfaces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hunhwa

    The Si/NiSi(,2)(111) interface is of both fundamental and techno- logical interest: From the fundamental point of view, it is the best characterized of all semiconductor/metal interfaces, with two well-determined geometries (A and B) involving nearly perfect bonding. (This is because Si and NiSi(,2) have nearly the same lattice spacing.) Consequently, a theoretical treatment of this system makes sense--as it would not for messier systems--and one can have some confidence that the theoretical predictions are relevant to experimental observa- tions. From the technological point of view, Si/NiSi(,2) is representative of the class of semiconductor/metal interfaces that are currently of greatest interest in regard to electronic devices--Si/transition -metal-silicide interfaces. The calculations of this dissertation are for the intrinsic interface states of Si/NiSi(,2)-A geometry. These calculations also provide a foundation for later studies of defects at this interface, and for studies of other related systems, such as CoSi(,2). The calculations employ empirical tight-binding Hamiltonians for both Si and NiSi(,2) (with the parameters fitted to prior calculations of the bulk band structures, which appear to be in agreement with the available experimental data on bulk Si and NiSi(,2)). They also employ Green's function techniques--in particular, the subspace Hamiltonian technique. Our principal results are the following: (1) Interface state disper- sion curves are predicted along the symmetry lines (')(GAMMA)(')M, (')M(')K and (')K(')(GAMMA) of the surface Brillouin zone. (2) A prominent band of interface states is found which disperses downward from an energy within the Si band gap to an energy below the Si valence band edge E(,(upsilon)) as the planar wavevector (')k increases from (')(GAMMA) ((')k = 0) to (')M or (')K (symmetry points at boundary of the surface Brillouin zone). This band of inter- face states should be observable. It produces a peak in the surface

  11. Iron Silicide Formation by Precipitation in a Silicon Bicrystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portier, X.; Ihlal, A.; Rizk, R.

    1997-05-01

    Segregation and precipitation of iron in a = 25 silicon bicrystal have been carefully investigated by means of high resolution electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analyses, in combination with capacitance and electron beam induced current measurements. After intentional incorporation of iron in the bicrystal by a simple heating procedure, it was shown that a non-equilibrium segregation of iron has occurred after rapid cooling whereas iron precipitates have been produced upon slow cooling. The silicides are formed mainly at the grain boundary area and they were found to belong to the -FeSi cubic or -FeSi2 tetragonal phases. Each precipitate is simply oriented with respect to one of the two grains without any preference between them. The orientation relationships were found in perfect agreement with those observed for the corresponding iron silicides that are epitaxially grown on oriented silicon substrates. Barrier and recombinative effects on the contaminated (1200 °C) and slowly cooled samples have been detected. These effects have been associated with the formation of iron silicides at the grain boundary. La ségrégation ainsi que la précipitation de siliciures de fer au joint de grains = 25 de silicium ont été etudiées en utilisant la dispersion d'énergie des électrons, la microscopie électronique en transmission haute résolution ainsi que des mesures électriques capacitives et des mesures de courants induits par faisceau d'électrons. A la suite d'une contamination volontaire par diffusion thermique du fer au sein du bicristal, nous avons montré qu'une ségrégation hors-équilibre d'atomes de fer est obtenue après un refroidissement rapide alors qu'un refroidissement lent a pour conséquence la formation de siliciures de fer. Ces petits cristaux de siliciures croissent de préférence au niveau du joint de grains et ils ont pour phase, la phase cubique -FeSi ou la phase quadratique α-FeSi2. Chaque précipité est orienté simplement

  12. High Temperature Stability of Potassium Beta Alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Kisor, A.; Ryan, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    None. From Objectives section: Evaluate the stability of potassium beta alumina under potassium AMTEC operating conditions. Evaluate the stability regime in which potassium beta alumina can be fabricated.

  13. Effect of silicide/silicon hetero-junction structure on thermal conductivity and Seebeck coefficient.

    PubMed

    Choi, Wonchul; Park, Young-Sam; Hyun, Younghoon; Zyung, Taehyoung; Kim, Jaehyeon; Kim, Soojung; Jeon, Hyojin; Shin, Mincheol; Jang, Moongyu

    2013-12-01

    We fabricated a thermoelectric device with a silicide/silicon laminated hetero-structure by using RF sputtering and rapid thermal annealing. The device was observed to have Ohmic characteristics by I-V measurement. The temperature differences and Seebeck coefficients of the proposed silicide/silicon laminated and bulk structure were measured. The laminated thermoelectric device shows suppression of heat flow from the hot to cold side. This is supported by the theory that the atomic mass difference between silicide and silicon creates a scattering center for phonons. The major impact of our work is that phonon transmission is suppressed at the interface between silicide and silicon without degrading electrical conductivity. The estimated thermal conductivity of the 3-layer laminated device is 126.2 +/- 3.7 W/m. K. Thus, by using the 3-layer laminated structure, thermal conductivity is reduced by around 16% compared to bulk silicon. However, the Seebeck coefficient of the thermoelectric device is degraded compared to that of bulk silicon. It is understood that electrical conductivity is improved by using silicide as a scattering center.

  14. Epitaxial insertion of gold silicide nanodisks during the growth of silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Um, Han-Don; Jee, Sang-Won; Park, Kwang-Tae; Jung, Jin-Young; Guo, Zhongyi; Lee, Jung-Ho

    2011-07-01

    Nanodisk-shaped, single-crystal gold silicide heterojunctions were inserted into silicon nanowires during vapor-liquid-solid growth using Au as a catalyst within a specific range of chlorine-to-hydrogen atomic ratio. The mechanism of nanodisk formation has been investigated by changing the source gas ratio of SiCl4 to H2. We report that an over-supply of silicon into the Au-Si liquid alloy leads to highly supersaturated solution and enhances the precipitation of Au in the silicon nanowires due to the formation of unstable phases within the liquid alloy. It is shown that the gold precipitates embedded in the silicon nanowires consisted of a metastable gold silicide. Interestingly, faceting of gold silicide was observed at the Au/Si interfaces, and silicon nanowires were epitaxially grown on the top of the nanodisk by vapor-liquid-solid growth. High resolution transmission electron microscopy confirmed that gold silicide nanodisks are epitaxially connected to the silicon nanowires in the direction of growth direction. These gold silicide nanodisks would be useful as nanosized electrical junctions for future applications in nanowire interconnections.

  15. Potassium Beta-Alumina/Molybdenum/Potassium Electrochemical Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R.; Kisor, A.; Ryan, M.; Nakamura, B.; Kikert, S.; O'Connor, D.

    1994-01-01

    potassium alkali metal thermal-to-electric converter (K-AMTEC) cells utilizing potassium beta alumina solid electrolyte (K-BASE) are predicted to have improved properties for thermal to electric conversion at somewhat lower temperatures than sodium AMTEC's.

  16. Multiple Types of Topological Fermions in Transition Metal Silicides

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Peizhe; Zhou, Quan; Zhang, Shou -Cheng

    Exotic massless fermionic excitations with nonzero Berry flux, other than the Dirac and Weyl fermions, could exist in condensed matter systems under the protection of crystalline symmetries, such as spin-1 excitations with threefold degeneracy and spin-3/2 Rarita-Schwinger-Weyl fermions. Herein, by using the ab initio density functional theory, we show that these unconventional quasiparticles coexist with type-I and type-II Weyl fermions in a family of transition metal silicides, including CoSi, RhSi, RhGe, and CoGe, when spin-orbit coupling is considered. Their nontrivial topology results in a series of extensive Fermi arcs connecting projections of these bulk excitations on the side surface, whichmore » is confirmed by (001) surface electronic spectra of CoSi. Additionally, these stable arc states exist within a wide energy window around the Fermi level, which makes them readily accessible in angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements.« less

  17. Rapid epitaxy-free graphene synthesis on silicidated polycrystalline platinum

    PubMed Central

    Babenko, Vitaliy; Murdock, Adrian T.; Koós, Antal A.; Britton, Jude; Crossley, Alison; Holdway, Philip; Moffat, Jonathan; Huang, Jian; Alexander-Webber, Jack A.; Nicholas, Robin J.; Grobert, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Large-area synthesis of high-quality graphene by chemical vapour deposition on metallic substrates requires polishing or substrate grain enlargement followed by a lengthy growth period. Here we demonstrate a novel substrate processing method for facile synthesis of mm-sized, single-crystal graphene by coating polycrystalline platinum foils with a silicon-containing film. The film reacts with platinum on heating, resulting in the formation of a liquid platinum silicide layer that screens the platinum lattice and fills topographic defects. This reduces the dependence on the surface properties of the catalytic substrate, improving the crystallinity, uniformity and size of graphene domains. At elevated temperatures growth rates of more than an order of magnitude higher (120 μm min−1) than typically reported are achieved, allowing savings in costs for consumable materials, energy and time. This generic technique paves the way for using a whole new range of eutectic substrates for the large-area synthesis of 2D materials. PMID:26175062

  18. Shock Induced Phase Changes in Forsterite and Iron Silicide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, M.; Asimow, P.; Kraus, R. G.; Smith, R.; Coppari, F.; Eggert, J. H.; Wicks, J.; Tracy, S.; Duffy, T.

    2017-06-01

    The equation of state of magnesium silicates and iron alloys at the pressures and temperatures near the melt curve is important for understanding the thermal evolution and interior structure of rocky planets. Here, we present a series of laser driven shock experiments on single crystal Mg2SiO4 and textured polycrystalline iron silicide (Fe-15Si), conducted at LLE. In situ x-ray diffraction measurements were used to probe the melting transition and investigate the potential decomposition of forsterite into solid MgO and silica rich liquid and Fe-15Si in to silicon rich B2 and iron rich hcp structures. This work examines kinetic effects of chemical decomposition due to the short time scale of laser-shock experiments. Preliminary results demonstrate solid-solid and solid-liquid phase transitions on both the forsterite and Fe-15Si Hugoniots. For Fe-15Si, we observe a texture preserving martensitic transformation of D03 Fe-15Si into an hcp structure and melting at 318 GPa. For forsterite, we observe diffraction consistent with B1 MgO and melting at 215 GPa. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  19. Silicide induced ion beam patterning of Si(001).

    PubMed

    Engler, Martin; Frost, Frank; Müller, Sven; Macko, Sven; Will, Moritz; Feder, René; Spemann, Daniel; Hübner, René; Facsko, Stefan; Michely, Thomas

    2014-03-21

    Low energy ion beam pattern formation on Si with simultaneous co-deposition of Ag, Pd, Pb, Ir, Fe or C impurities was investigated by in situ scanning tunneling microscopy as well as ex situ atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The impurities were supplied by sputter deposition. Additional insight into the mechanism of pattern formation was obtained by more controlled supply through e-beam evaporation. For the situations investigated, the ability of the impurity to react with Si, i.e. to form a silicide, appears to be a necessary, but not a sufficient condition for pattern formation. Comparing the effects of impurities with similar mass and nuclear charge, the collision kinetics is shown to be not of primary importance for pattern formation. To understand the observed phenomena, it is necessary to assume a bi-directional coupling of composition and height fluctuations. This coupling gives rise to a sensitive dependence of the final morphology on the conditions of impurity supply. Because of this history dependence, the final morphology cannot be uniquely characterized by a steady state impurity concentration.

  20. Oxidation/vaporization of silicide coated columbium base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, F. J.; Stearns, C. A.

    1971-01-01

    Mass spectrometric and target collection experiments were made at 1600 K to elucidate the mode of oxidative vaporization of two columbium alloys, fused-slurry-coated with a complex silicide former (Si-20Cr-Fe). At oxygen pressures up to 0.0005 torr the major vapor component detected by mass spectrometry for oxidized samples was gaseous silicon monoxide. Analysis of condensates collected at oxygen pressures of 0.1, 1.0 and 10 torr revealed that chromium-, silicon-, iron- and tungsten- containing species were the major products of vaporization. Equilibrium thermochemical diagrams were constructed for the metal-oxygen system corresponding to each constituent metal in both the coating and base alloy. The major vaporizing species are expected to be the gaseous oxides of chromium, silicon, iron and tungsten. Plots of vapor phase composition and maximum vaporization rate versus oxygen pressure were calculated for each coating constituent. The major contribution to weight loss by vaporization at oxygen pressures above 1 torr was shown to be the chromium-containing species.

  1. New Manganese Silicide Mineral Phase in an Interplanetary Dust Particle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Keller, L. P.; Clemett, S. J.; Jones, J. H.; Palma, R. L.; Pepin, R. O.; Kloeck, W.; Zolensky, M. E.; Messenger, S.

    2008-01-01

    Comet 26P/Grigg-Skjellerup was identified as a source of an Earth-crossing dust stream with low Earth-encounter velocities, with peak anticipated fluxes during April in 2003 and 2004 [1]. In response to this prediction, NASA performed dedicated stratospheric dust collections using high altitude aircraft to target potential interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) from this comet stream in April 2003. Several IDPs from this collection have shown unusually low noble gas abundances [2] consistent with the predicted short space exposure ages of Grigg-Skjellerup dust particles [1]. High abundances of large D enrichments [3] and presolar grains [4] in IDPs from this collection are also consistent with an origin from the comet Grigg-Skjellerup. Here we report a new mineral from one of the cluster IDPs of the "Grigg-Skjellerup" collection, L2055. Our report focuses on an unusual manganese-iron-chromium silicide phase that, to our knowledge, has not been observed previously in nature. This unique phase may also shed light on the genesis of the enigmatic low-Fe,Mn-enriched (LIME) olivine that has been previously reported in IDPs and meteorites [5].

  2. Simulated Fission Gas Behavior in Silicide Fuel at LWR Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, Yinbin; Mo, Kun; Yacout, Abdellatif

    As a promising candidate for the accident tolerant fuel (ATF) used in light water reactors (LWRs), the fuel performance of uranium silicide (U 3Si 2) at LWR conditions needs to be well-understood. However, existing experimental post-irradiation examination (PIE) data are limited to the research reactor conditions, which involve lower fuel temperature compared to LWR conditions. This lack of appropriate experimental data significantly affects the development of fuel performance codes that can precisely predict the microstructure evolution and property degradation at LWR conditions, and therefore evaluate the qualification of U 3Si 2 as an AFT for LWRs. Considering the high cost,more » long timescale, and restrictive access of the in-pile irradiation experiments, this study aims to utilize ion irradiation to simulate the inpile behavior of the U 3Si 2 fuel. Both in situ TEM ion irradiation and ex situ high-energy ATLAS ion irradiation experiments were employed to simulate different types of microstructure modifications in U 3Si 2. Multiple PIE techniques were used or will be used to quantitatively analyze the microstructure evolution induced by ion irradiation so as to provide valuable reference for the development of fuel performance code prior to the availability of the in-pile irradiation data.« less

  3. Multiple Types of Topological Fermions in Transition Metal Silicides

    DOE PAGES

    Tang, Peizhe; Zhou, Quan; Zhang, Shou -Cheng

    2017-11-17

    Exotic massless fermionic excitations with nonzero Berry flux, other than the Dirac and Weyl fermions, could exist in condensed matter systems under the protection of crystalline symmetries, such as spin-1 excitations with threefold degeneracy and spin-3/2 Rarita-Schwinger-Weyl fermions. Herein, by using the ab initio density functional theory, we show that these unconventional quasiparticles coexist with type-I and type-II Weyl fermions in a family of transition metal silicides, including CoSi, RhSi, RhGe, and CoGe, when spin-orbit coupling is considered. Their nontrivial topology results in a series of extensive Fermi arcs connecting projections of these bulk excitations on the side surface, whichmore » is confirmed by (001) surface electronic spectra of CoSi. Additionally, these stable arc states exist within a wide energy window around the Fermi level, which makes them readily accessible in angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements.« less

  4. Exploitation of a Self-limiting Process for Reproducible Formation of Ultrathin Ni(1-x)Pt(x) Silicide Films

    SciTech Connect

    Z Zhang; B Yang; Y Zhu

    This letter reports on a process scheme to obtain highly reproducible Ni{sub 1-x}Pt{sub x} silicide films of 3-6 nm thickness formed on a Si(100) substrate. Such ultrathin silicide films are readily attained by sputter deposition of metal films, metal stripping in wet chemicals, and final silicidation by rapid thermal processing. This process sequence warrants an invariant amount of metal intermixed with Si in the substrate surface region independent of the initial metal thickness, thereby leading to a self-limiting formation of ultrathin silicide films. The crystallographic structure, thickness, uniformity, and morphological stability of the final silicide films depend sensitively on themore » initial Pt fraction.« less

  5. Self-organized patterns along sidewalls of iron silicide nanowires on Si(110) and their origin

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Debolina; Mahato, J. C.; Bisi, Bhaskar

    Iron silicide (cubic FeSi{sub 2}) nanowires have been grown on Si(110) by reactive deposition epitaxy and investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy and scanning/transmission electron microscopy. On an otherwise uniform nanowire, a semi-periodic pattern along the edges of FeSi{sub 2} nanowires has been discovered. The origin of such growth patterns has been traced to initial growth of silicide nanodots with a pyramidal Si base at the chevron-like atomic arrangement of a clean reconstructed Si(110) surface. The pyramidal base evolves into a comb-like structure along the edges of the nanowires. This causes the semi-periodic structure of the iron silicide nanowires along theirmore » edges.« less

  6. Silicide formation process of Er films with Ta and TaN capping layers.

    PubMed

    Choi, Juyun; Choi, Seongheum; Kim, Jungwoo; Na, Sekwon; Lee, Hoo-Jeong; Lee, Seok-Hee; Kim, Hyoungsub

    2013-12-11

    The phase development and defect formation during the silicidation reaction of sputter-deposited Er films on Si with ∼20-nm-thick Ta and TaN capping layers were examined. TaN capping effectively prevented the oxygen incorporation from the annealing atmosphere, which resulted in complete conversion to the ErSi2-x phase. However, significant oxygen penetration through the Ta capping layer inhibited the ErSi2-x formation, and incurred the growth of several Er-Si-O phases, even consuming the ErSi2-x layer formed earlier. Both samples produced a number of small recessed defects at an early silicidation stage. However, large rectangular or square-shaped surface defects, which were either pitlike or pyramidal depending on the capping layer identity, were developed as the annealing temperature increased. The origin of different defect generation mechanisms was suggested based on the capping layer-dependent silicidation kinetics.

  7. Controlled Formation of Radial Core-Shell Si/Metal Silicide Crystalline Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Kosloff, Alon; Granot, Eran; Barkay, Zahava; Patolsky, Fernando

    2018-01-10

    The highly controlled formation of "radial" silicon/NiSi  core-shell nanowire heterostructures has been demonstrated for the first time. Here, we investigated the "radial" diffusion of nickel atoms into crystalline nanoscale silicon pillar 11 cores, followed by nickel silicide phase formation and the creation of a well-defined shell structure. The described approach is based on a two-step thermal process, which involves metal diffusion at low temperatures in the range of 200-400 °C, followed by a thermal curing step at a higher temperature of 400 °C. In-depth crystallographic analysis was performed by nanosectioning the resulting silicide-shelled silicon nanopillar heterostructures, giving us the ability to study in detail the newly formed silicide shells. Remarkably, it was observed that the resulting silicide shell thickness has a self-limiting behavior, and can be tightly controlled by the modulation of the initial diffusion-step temperature. In addition, electrical measurements of the core-shell structures revealed that the resulting shells can serve as an embedded conductive layer in future optoelectronic applications. This research provides a broad insight into the Ni silicide "radial" diffusion process at the nanoscale regime, and offers a simple approach to form thickness-controlled metal silicide shells in the range of 5-100 nm around semiconductor nanowire core structures, regardless the diameter of the nanowire cores. These high quality Si/NiSi core-shell nanowire structures will be applied in the near future as building blocks for the creation of utrathin highly conductive optically transparent top electrodes, over vertical nanopillars-based solar cell devices, which may subsequently lead to significant performance improvements of these devices in terms of charge collection and reduced recombination.

  8. An inert marker study for palladium silicide formation - Si moves in polycrystalline Pd2Si

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, K. T.; Lien, C.-D.; Shreter, U.; Nicolet, M.-A.

    1985-01-01

    A novel use of Ti marker is introduced to investigate the moving species during Pd2Si formation on 111 and 100 line-type Si substrates. Silicide formed from amorphous Si is also studied using a W marker. Although these markers are observed to alter the silicide formation in the initial stage, the moving species can be identified once a normal growth rate is resumed. It is found that Si is the dominant moving species for all three types of Si crystallinity. However, Pd will participate in mass transport when Si motion becomes obstructed.

  9. Method for forming metallic silicide films on silicon substrates by ion beam deposition

    DOEpatents

    Zuhr, Raymond A.; Holland, Orin W.

    1990-01-01

    Metallic silicide films are formed on silicon substrates by contacting the substrates with a low-energy ion beam of metal ions while moderately heating the substrate. The heating of the substrate provides for the diffusion of silicon atoms through the film as it is being formed to the surface of the film for interaction with the metal ions as they contact the diffused silicon. The metallic silicide films provided by the present invention are contaminant free, of uniform stoichiometry, large grain size, and exhibit low resistivity values which are of particular usefulness for integrated circuit production.

  10. The influence of alloying on the phase formation sequence of ultra-thin nickel silicide films and on the inheritance of texture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geenen, F. A.; Solano, E.; Jordan-Sweet, J.; Lavoie, C.; Mocuta, C.; Detavernier, C.

    2018-05-01

    The controlled formation of silicide materials is an ongoing challenge to facilitate the electrical contact of Si-based transistors. Due to the ongoing miniaturisation of the transistor, the silicide is trending to ever-thinner thickness's. The corresponding increase in surface-to-volume ratio emphasises the importance of low-energetic interfaces. Intriguingly, the thickness reduction of nickel silicides results in an abrupt change in phase sequence. This paper investigates the sequence of the silicides phases and their preferential orientation with respect to the Si(001) substrate, for both "thin" (i.e., 9 nm) and "ultra-thin" (i.e., 3 nm) Ni films. Furthermore, as the addition of ternary elements is often considered in order to tailor the silicides' properties, additives of Al, Co, and Pt are also included in this study. Our results show that the first silicide formed is epitaxial θ-Ni2Si, regardless of initial thickness or alloyed composition. The transformations towards subsequent silicides are changed through the additive elements, which can be understood through solubility arguments and classical nucleation theory. The crystalline alignment of the formed silicides with the substrate significantly differs through alloying. The observed textures of sequential silicides could be linked through texture inheritance. Our study illustrates the nucleation of a new phase drive to reduce the interfacial energy at the silicide-substrate interface as well as at the interface with the silicide which is being consumed for these sub-10 nm thin films.

  11. Radiation Re-solution Calculation in Uranium-Silicide Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Christopher; Andersson, Anders David Ragnar; Unal, Cetin

    The release of fission gas from nuclear fuels is of primary concern for safe operation of nuclear power plants. Although the production of fission gas atoms can be easily calculated from the fission rate in the fuel and the average yield of fission gas, the actual diffusion, behavior, and ultimate escape of fission gas from nuclear fuel depends on many other variables. As fission gas diffuses through the fuel grain, it tends to collect into intra-granular bubbles, as portrayed in Figure 1.1. These bubbles continue to grow due to absorption of single gas atoms. Simultaneously, passing fission fragments can causemore » collisions in the bubble that result in gas atoms being knocked back into the grain. This so called “re-solution” event results in a transient equilibrium of single gas atoms within the grain. As single gas atoms progress through the grain, they will eventually collect along grain boundaries, creating inter-granular bubbles. As the inter-granular bubbles grow over time, they will interconnect with other grain-face bubbles until a pathway is created to the outside of the fuel surface, at which point the highly pressurized inter-granular bubbles will expel their contents into the fuel plenum. This last process is the primary cause of fission gas release. From the simple description above, it is clear there are several parameters that ultimately affect fission gas release, including the diffusivity of single gas atoms, the absorption and knockout rate of single gas atoms in intra-granular bubbles, and the growth and interlinkage of intergranular bubbles. Of these, the knockout, or re-solution rate has an particularly important role in determining the transient concentration of single gas atoms in the grain. The re-solution rate will be explored in the following sections with regards to uranium-silicide fuels in order to support future models of fission gas bubble behavior.« less

  12. Detecting potassium on Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, R. M.; Potter, A. E.; Morgan, T. H.

    1991-01-01

    A critical comment on the work of A.L. Sprague et al. (1990) is presented. It is argued that, in attributing an enhanced emission in the potassium D lines on Oct. 14, 1987 in the equatorial region of Mercury to a diffusion source centered on Caloris Basin, Sprague et al. misinterpreted the data. Sprague et al. present a reply, taking issue with the commenters.

  13. Plasma potassium and diurnal cyclic potassium excretion in the rat.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitz, L; Berlin, R; Yamauchi, H

    1987-12-01

    The relation of the plasma potassium concentration to the daily cyclic variation in potassium excretion was examined in undisturbed, unanesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats maintained on a liquid diet in a 12-h light-dark environment. Potassium excretion increased from a light-phase minimum of 16 mu eq/h to a peak of 256 mu eq/h 3 h after the beginning of the dark phase. Plasma potassium concentration in arterial blood, sampled in rats at 90-min intervals during these changes in potassium excretion, showed no significant change and was in the range 4.50-4.99 meq/liter. In adrenalectomized rats receiving aldosterone and dexamethasone at constant basal rates by implanted pumps, the daily cycle of potassium excretion was the same as in the intact rats, and plasma potassium was not significantly different when measured at the time of minimum and maximum rates of potassium excretion (4.79 +/- 0.42 vs 5.16 +/- 0.47 meq/liter, mean +/- SD). These results indicate that plasma potassium concentration is not the efferent factor controlling diurnal cyclic changes in potassium excretion in adrenal intact rats and may not be the only significant factor in adrenalectomized-steroid replaced rats.

  14. Theoretical investigation of silicide Schottky barrier detector integrated in horizontal metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal nanoplasmonic slot waveguide.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shiyang; Lo, G Q; Kwong, D L

    2011-08-15

    An ultracompact integrated silicide Schottky barrier detector (SBD) is designed and theoretically investigated to electrically detect the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) propagating along horizontal metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides at the telecommunication wavelength of 1550 nm. An ultrathin silicide layer inserted between the silicon core and the insulator, which can be fabricated precisely using the well-developed self-aligned silicide process, absorbs the SPP power effectively if a suitable silicide is chosen. Moreover, the Schottky barrier height in the silicide-silicon-silicide configuration can be tuned substantially by the external voltage through the Schottky effect owing to the very narrow silicon core. For a TaSi(2) detector with optimized dimensions, numerical simulation predicts responsivity of ~0.07 A/W, speed of ~60 GHz, dark current of ~66 nA at room temperature, and minimum detectable power of ~-29 dBm. The design also suggests that the device's size can be reduced and the overall performances will be further improved if a silicide with smaller permittivity is used. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  15. Recipe for potassium

    SciTech Connect

    Izutani, Natsuko

    2012-11-12

    I investigate favorable conditions for producing potassium (K). Observations show [K/Fe] > 0 at low metallicities, while zero-metal supernova models show low [K/Fe] (< 0). Theoretically, it is natural that the odd-Z element, potassium decreases with lower metallicity, and thus, the observation should imply new and unknown sites for potassium. In this proceedings, I calculate proton-rich nucleosynthesis with three parameters, the initial Y{sub e} (from 0.51 to 0.60), the initial density {rho}{sub max} (10{sup 7}, 10{sup 8}, and 10{sup 9} [g/cm{sup 3}]), and the e-fold time {tau} for the density (0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 [sec]). Among 90 models I havemore » calculated, only 26 models show [K/Fe] > 0, and they all have {rho}{sub max} = 10{sup 9}[g/cm{sup 3}]. I discuss parameter dependence of [K/Fe].« less

  16. Potassium Channels in Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Köhling, Rüdiger; Wolfart, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    This review attempts to give a concise and up-to-date overview on the role of potassium channels in epilepsies. Their role can be defined from a genetic perspective, focusing on variants and de novo mutations identified in genetic studies or animal models with targeted, specific mutations in genes coding for a member of the large potassium channel family. In these genetic studies, a demonstrated functional link to hyperexcitability often remains elusive. However, their role can also be defined from a functional perspective, based on dynamic, aggravating, or adaptive transcriptional and posttranslational alterations. In these cases, it often remains elusive whether the alteration is causal or merely incidental. With ∼80 potassium channel types, of which ∼10% are known to be associated with epilepsies (in humans) or a seizure phenotype (in animals), if genetically mutated, a comprehensive review is a challenging endeavor. This goal may seem all the more ambitious once the data on posttranslational alterations, found both in human tissue from epilepsy patients and in chronic or acute animal models, are included. We therefore summarize the literature, and expand only on key findings, particularly regarding functional alterations found in patient brain tissue and chronic animal models. PMID:27141079

  17. Study of Silicidation Process of Tungsten Catalyzer during Silicon Film Deposition in Catalytic Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Kazuhiro; Ohdaira, Keisuke; Matsumura, Hideki

    2008-05-01

    In catalytic chemical vapor deposition (Cat-CVD), often called hot-wire CVD, source gases are decomposed by catalytic cracking reactions with heated catalyzing metal wires. In the case of silicon (Si) film deposition, such metal wires are often converted to silicide, which shortens the lifetime of catalyzing wires. As a catalyzer, tungsten (W) is widely used. Thus, the process of silicidation of a W catalyzer at temperatures over 1650 °C, which is the temperature used in Cat-CVD for Si film deposition, was studied extensively in various experiments. It is found that two phases of tungsten-silicide, WSi2 and W5Si3, are formed at this temperature, and that the radiation emissivity of WSi2 is 1.2 to 1.7 times higher than that of W5Si3 and pure W. The increase of surface emissivity due to the formation of WSi2 decreases the catalyzer surface temperature which induces further growth of the tungsten-silicide layer. It is also found that the suppression of WSi2 formation by elevating catalyzer temperatures over 1750 °C is a key to extending the lifetime of the W catalyzer in Cat-CVD.

  18. Impact of laser anneal on NiPt silicide texture and chemical composition

    SciTech Connect

    Feautrier, C.; Ozcan, A. S.; Lavoie, C.

    We have combined synchrotron X-ray pole figure measurements and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) nano-beam diffraction to study the impact of millisecond laser anneal on the texture and microstructure of NiPt silicide thin films. The powerful use of nano-beam diffraction in plan-view geometry allows here for both a mapping of grain orientation and intra-grain measurements even if these crystalline grains become very small. With this unique combination of local and large-scale probes, we find that silicide formation on n and p doped substrates using laser annealing results in smaller grains compared with the films processed using standard rapid thermal annealing. Themore » laser annealed samples also result in grains that are more epitaxially oriented with respect to the Si substrate. For n-type substrate, the film is dominated by (020) and (013) oriented fibers with significant levels of intra-grain bending (transrotation) observed in both types of grains. For p-type substrates, mostly epitaxially aligned grains are detected. TEM coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis was also used to study the elemental distribution in the silicide samples. Here, we confirm that laser anneal leads to a larger accumulation of platinum at the silicide-substrate interface and modifies the distribution of dopants throughout the film.« less

  19. Cobalt silicide nanocables grown on Co films: synthesis and physical properties.

    PubMed

    Hsin, Cheng-Lun; Yu, Shih-Ying; Wu, Wen-Wei

    2010-12-03

    Single-crystalline cobalt silicide/SiO(x) nanocables have been grown on Co thin films on an SiO(2) layer by a self-catalysis process via vapor-liquid-solid mechanism. The nanocables consist of a core of CoSi nanowires and a silicon oxide shell with a length of several tens of micrometers. In the confined space in the oxide shell, the CoSi phase is stable and free from agglomeration in samples annealed in air ambient at 900 °C for 1 h. The nanocable structure came to a clear conclusion that the thermal stability of the silicide nanowires can be resolved by the shell encapsulation. Cobalt silicide nanowires were obtained from the nanocable structure. The electrical properties of the CoSi nanowires have been found to be compatible with their thin film counterpart and a high maximum current density of the nanowires has been measured. One way to obtain silicate nanowires has been demonstrated. The silicate compound, which is composed of cobalt, silicon and oxygen, was achieved. The Co silicide/oxide nanocables are potentially useful as a key component of silicate nanowires, interconnects and magnetic units in nanoelectronics.

  20. Silicide Coating Fabricated by HAPC/SAPS Combination to Protect Niobium Alloy from Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jia; Fu, Qian-Gang; Guo, Li-Ping; Wang, Lu

    2016-06-22

    A combined silicide coating, including inner NbSi2 layer and outer MoSi2 layer, was fabricated through a two-step method. The NbSi2 was deposited on niobium alloy by halide activated pack cementation (HAPC) in the first step. Then, supersonic atmospheric plasma spray (SAPS) was applied to obtain the outer MoSi2 layer, forming a combined silicide coating. Results show that the combined coating possessed a compact structure. The phase constitution of the combined coating prepared by HAPC and SAPS was NbSi2 and MoSi2, respectively. The adhesion strength of the combined coating increased nearly two times than that for single sprayed coating, attributing to the rougher surface of the HAPC-bond layer whose roughness increased about three times than that of the grit-blast substrate. After exposure at 1200 °C in air, the mass increasing rate for single HAPC-silicide coating was 3.5 mg/cm(2) because of the pest oxidation of niobium alloy, whereas the combined coating displayed better oxidation resistance with a mass gain of only 1.2 mg/cm(2). Even more, the combined coating could significantly improve the antioxidation ability of niobium based alloy at 1500 °C. The good oxidation resistance of the combined silicide coating was attributed to the integrity of the combined coating and the continuous SiO2 protective scale provided by the oxidation of MoSi2.

  1. Impact of laser anneal on NiPt silicide texture and chemical composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feautrier, C.; Ozcan, A. S.; Lavoie, C.; Valery, A.; Beneyton, R.; Borowiak, C.; Clément, L.; Pofelski, A.; Salem, B.

    2017-06-01

    We have combined synchrotron X-ray pole figure measurements and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) nano-beam diffraction to study the impact of millisecond laser anneal on the texture and microstructure of NiPt silicide thin films. The powerful use of nano-beam diffraction in plan-view geometry allows here for both a mapping of grain orientation and intra-grain measurements even if these crystalline grains become very small. With this unique combination of local and large-scale probes, we find that silicide formation on n and p doped substrates using laser annealing results in smaller grains compared with the films processed using standard rapid thermal annealing. The laser annealed samples also result in grains that are more epitaxially oriented with respect to the Si substrate. For n-type substrate, the film is dominated by (020) and (013) oriented fibers with significant levels of intra-grain bending (transrotation) observed in both types of grains. For p-type substrates, mostly epitaxially aligned grains are detected. TEM coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis was also used to study the elemental distribution in the silicide samples. Here, we confirm that laser anneal leads to a larger accumulation of platinum at the silicide-substrate interface and modifies the distribution of dopants throughout the film.

  2. Surface morphology of molybdenum silicide films upon low-energy ion beam sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gago, R.; Jaafar, M.; Palomares, F. J.

    2018-07-01

    The surface morphology of molybdenum silicide (Mo x Si1‑x ) films has been studied after low-energy Ar+ ion beam sputtering (IBS) to explore eventual pattern formation on compound targets and, simultaneously, gather information about the mechanisms behind silicide-assisted nanopatterning of silicon surfaces by IBS. For this purpose, Mo x Si1‑x films with compositions below, equal and above the MoSi2 stoichiometry (x  =  0.33) have been produced by magnetron sputtering, as assessed by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). The surface morphology of silicon and silicide films before and after IBS has been imaged by atomic force microscopy (AFM), comprising conditions where typical nanodot or ripple patterns emerge on the former. In the case of irradiated Mo x Si1‑x surfaces, AFM shows a marked surface smoothing at normal incidence with and without additional Mo incorporation (the former results in nanodot patterns on Si). The morphological analysis also provides no evidence of ion-induced phase separation in irradiated Mo x Si1‑x . Contrary to silicon, Mo x Si1‑x surfaces also do not display ripple formation for (impurity free) oblique irradiations, except at grazing incidence conditions where parallel ripples emerge in a more evident fashion than in the Si counterpart. By means of RBS, irradiated Mo x Si1‑x films with 1 keV Ar+ at normal incidence have also been used to measure experimentally the (absolute) sputtering yield and rate of Si and Mo x Si1‑x materials. The analysis reveals that, under the present working conditions, the erosion rate of silicides is larger than for silicon, supporting simulations from the TRIDYN code. This finding questions the shielding effect from silicide regions as roughening mechanism in metal-assisted nanopatterning of silicon. On the contrary, the results highlight the relevance of in situ silicide formation. Ripple formation on Mo x Si1‑x under grazing incidence is also attributed to the dominance

  3. Surface morphology of molybdenum silicide films upon low-energy ion beam sputtering.

    PubMed

    Gago, R; Jaafar, M; Palomares, F J

    2018-07-04

    The surface morphology of molybdenum silicide (Mo x Si 1-x ) films has been studied after low-energy Ar + ion beam sputtering (IBS) to explore eventual pattern formation on compound targets and, simultaneously, gather information about the mechanisms behind silicide-assisted nanopatterning of silicon surfaces by IBS. For this purpose, Mo x Si 1-x films with compositions below, equal and above the MoSi 2 stoichiometry (x  =  0.33) have been produced by magnetron sputtering, as assessed by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). The surface morphology of silicon and silicide films before and after IBS has been imaged by atomic force microscopy (AFM), comprising conditions where typical nanodot or ripple patterns emerge on the former. In the case of irradiated Mo x Si 1-x surfaces, AFM shows a marked surface smoothing at normal incidence with and without additional Mo incorporation (the former results in nanodot patterns on Si). The morphological analysis also provides no evidence of ion-induced phase separation in irradiated Mo x Si 1-x . Contrary to silicon, Mo x Si 1-x surfaces also do not display ripple formation for (impurity free) oblique irradiations, except at grazing incidence conditions where parallel ripples emerge in a more evident fashion than in the Si counterpart. By means of RBS, irradiated Mo x Si 1-x films with 1 keV Ar + at normal incidence have also been used to measure experimentally the (absolute) sputtering yield and rate of Si and Mo x Si 1-x materials. The analysis reveals that, under the present working conditions, the erosion rate of silicides is larger than for silicon, supporting simulations from the TRIDYN code. This finding questions the shielding effect from silicide regions as roughening mechanism in metal-assisted nanopatterning of silicon. On the contrary, the results highlight the relevance of in situ silicide formation. Ripple formation on Mo x Si 1-x under grazing incidence is also attributed to the dominance of

  4. Potassium toxicity at low serum potassium levels with refeeding syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vemula, Praveen; Abela, Oliver G; Narisetty, Keerthy; Rhine, David; Abela, George S

    2015-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is a life-threatening condition occurring in severely malnourished patients after initiating feeding. Severe hypophosphatemia with reduced adenosine triphosphate production has been implicated, but little data are available regarding electrolyte abnormalities. In this case, we report electrocardiographic changes consistent with hyperkalemia during potassium replacement after a serum level increase from 1.9 to 2.9 mEq/L. This was reversed by lowering serum potassium back to 2.0 mEq/L. In conclusion, the patient with prolonged malnutrition became adapted to low potassium levels and developed potassium toxicity with replacement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Near surface silicide formation after off-normal Fe-implantation of Si(001) surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Khanbabaee, B., E-mail: khanbabaee@physik.uni-siegen.de; Pietsch, U.; Lützenkirchen-Hecht, D.

    We report on formation of non-crystalline Fe-silicides of various stoichiometries below the amorphized surface of crystalline Si(001) after irradiation with 5 keV Fe{sup +} ions under off-normal incidence. We examined samples prepared with ion fluences of 0.1 × 10{sup 17} and 5 × 10{sup 17} ions cm{sup −2} exhibiting a flat and patterned surface morphology, respectively. Whereas the iron silicides are found across the whole surface of the flat sample, they are concentrated at the top of ridges at the rippled surface. A depth resolved analysis of the chemical states of Si and Fe atoms in the near surface region was performed by combining X-raymore » photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) using synchrotron radiation. The chemical shift and the line shape of the Si 2p core levels and valence bands were measured and associated with the formation of silicide bonds of different stoichiometric composition changing from an Fe-rich silicides (Fe{sub 3}Si) close to the surface into a Si-rich silicide (FeSi{sub 2}) towards the inner interface to the Si(001) substrate. This finding is supported by XAS analysis at the Fe K-edge which shows changes of the chemical environment and the near order atomic coordination of the Fe atoms in the region close to surface. Because a similar Fe depth profile has been found for samples co-sputtered with Fe during Kr{sup +} ion irradiation, our results suggest the importance of chemically bonded Fe in the surface region for the process of ripple formation.« less

  6. Fused slurry silicide coatings for columbium alloy reentry heat shields. Volume 2: Experimental and coating process details

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, B.

    1973-01-01

    The experimental and coating process details are presented. The process specifications which were developed for the formulation and application of the R-512E fused slurry silicide coating using either an acrylic or nitrocellulose base slurry system is also discussed.

  7. Investigation of silicide-induced-dopant-activation for steep tunnel junction in tunnel field effect transistor (TFET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sihyun; Kwon, Dae Woong; Park, Euyhwan; Lee, Junil; Lee, Roongbin; Lee, Jong-Ho; Park, Byung-Gook

    2018-02-01

    Numerous researches for making steep tunnel junction within tunnel field-effect transistor (TFET) have been conducted. One of the ways to make an abrupt junction is source/drain silicidation, which uses the phenomenon often called silicide-induced-dopant-segregation. It is revealed that the silicide process not only helps dopants to pile up adjacent to the metal-silicon alloy, also induces the dopant activation, thereby making it possible to avoid additional high temperature process. In this report, the availability of dopant activation induced by metal silicide process was thoroughly investigated by diode measurement and device simulation. Metal-silicon (MS) diodes having p+ and n+ silicon formed on the p- substrate exhibit the characteristics of ohmic and pn diodes respectively, for both the samples with and without high temperature annealing. The device simulation for TFETs with dopant-segregated source was also conducted, which verified enhanced DC performance.

  8. Transmission electron microscopy study of erbium silicide formation from Ti/Er stack for Schottky contact applications.

    PubMed

    Ratajczak, J; Łaszcz, A; Czerwinski, A; Katcki, J; Phillipp, F; Van Aken, P A; Reckinger, N; Dubois, E

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, we present results of transmission electron microscopy studies on erbium silicide structures fabricated under various thermal conditions. A titanium cap has been used as a protective layer against oxidation during rapid thermal annealing of an erbium layer in a temperature range of 300-700 degrees C. Both layers (200 nm Ti and 25 nm Er) were deposited by electron-beam sputtering. The investigations have shown that the transformation of the 25-nm-thick erbium into erbium silicide is completed after annealing at 500 degrees C. At higher temperatures, the formation of a titanium silicide layer above erbium silicide is observed. The lowest Schottky barrier has been measured in the sample annealed at 700 degrees C.

  9. Controlling the growth and field emission properties of silicide nanowire arrays by direct silicification of Ni foil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhihong; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Lei; Yang, Deren

    2008-09-17

    Nickel silicide nanowire arrays have been achieved by the decomposition of SiH(4) on Ni foil at 650 °C. It is indicated that the nickel silicide nanowires consist of roots with diameter of about 100-200 nm and tips with diameter of about 10-50 nm. A Ni diffusion controlled mechanism is proposed to explain the formation of the nickel silicide nanowires. Field emission measurement shows that the turn-on field of the nickel silicide nanowire arrays is low, at about 3.7 V µm(-1), and the field enhancement factor is as high as 4280, so the arrays have promising applications as emitters.

  10. A ditopic fluorescent sensor for potassium fluoride.

    PubMed

    Koskela, Suvi J M; Fyles, Thomas M; James, Tony D

    2005-02-21

    The addition of potassium fluoride 'switches on' the fluorescence of sensors and while potassium chloride and bromide cause no fluorescence change; the fluorescence can be 'switched off' by removing the potassium cation from the benzocrown ether receptors of sensors and through the addition of [2.2.2]-cryptand and restored by the addition of the potassium cation as potassium chloride.

  11. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Potassium... potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide; (2) By treating a solution of potassium carbonate with carbon...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631... GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide (KOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-58-3) is also... powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from the electrolysis of potassium chloride solution...

  13. 21 CFR 172.800 - Acesulfame potassium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acesulfame potassium. 172.800 Section 172.800 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.800 Acesulfame potassium. Acesulfame potassium (CAS Reg. No. 55589-62-3), also... not preclude such use, under the following conditions: (a) Acesulfame potassium is the potassium salt...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 184.1619 Section 184.1619... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Potassium carbonate... of potassium chloride followed by exposing the resultant potassium to carbon dioxide; (2) By treating...

  15. 21 CFR 172.800 - Acesulfame potassium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acesulfame potassium. 172.800 Section 172.800 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.800 Acesulfame potassium. Acesulfame potassium (CAS Reg. No. 55589-62-3), also... not preclude such use, under the following conditions: (a) Acesulfame potassium is the potassium salt...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium carbonate. 184.1619 Section 184.1619 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Potassium carbonate (K2CO3, CAS... potassium chloride followed by exposing the resultant potassium to carbon dioxide; (2) By treating a...

  17. 21 CFR 172.800 - Acesulfame potassium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acesulfame potassium. 172.800 Section 172.800 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.800 Acesulfame potassium. Acesulfame potassium (CAS Reg. No. 55589-62-3), also... not preclude such use, under the following conditions: (a) Acesulfame potassium is the potassium salt...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium... reacting hydriodic acid (HI) with potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3). (b) The ingredient meets the...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 184.1619 Section 184.1619... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Potassium carbonate... of potassium chloride followed by exposing the resultant potassium to carbon dioxide; (2) By treating...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 184.1610 Section 184.1610 Food... GRAS § 184.1610 Potassium alginate. (a) Potassium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-36-1) is the potassium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae. Potassium alginate is...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7778-80-5) occurs.... It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with potassium hydroxide or potassium carbonate...

  2. 21 CFR 172.800 - Acesulfame potassium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acesulfame potassium. 172.800 Section 172.800 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.800 Acesulfame potassium. Acesulfame potassium (CAS Reg. No. 55589-62-3), also... not preclude such use, under the following conditions: (a) Acesulfame potassium is the potassium salt...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Potassium... potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide; (2) By treating a solution of potassium carbonate with carbon...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 184.1619 Section 184.1619... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Potassium carbonate... of potassium chloride followed by exposing the resultant potassium to carbon dioxide; (2) By treating...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Potassium... potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide; (2) By treating a solution of potassium carbonate with carbon...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Potassium... potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide; (2) By treating a solution of potassium carbonate with carbon...

  7. Effect of Chemistry and Particle Size on the Performance of Calcium Disilicide Primers. Part 1 - Synthesis of Calcium Silicide (CaSi2) by Rotary Atomization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    Metallurgist. 45, 267, 2001. 10. Dodero, M. "Electrolytic Preparation of Calcium Silicide ," Compt. Rend.. 198, 1593, 1934. 11. Dodero, M...Allqem. Chem.. 242, 117, 1939. 13. Yamaguchi, Y. and Hayakawa, Y., "The Preparation of Calcium Silicide by Reacting Solid Silicon Carbide and...SYNTHESIS OF CALCIUM SILICIDE (CaSi2) BY ROTARY ATOMIZATION Paul E. Anderson Kin Yee Eugene Homentowski Gartung Cheng Neha Mehta Gary Chen U.S

  8. Genetics Home Reference: potassium-aggravated myotonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Potassium-aggravated myotonia Potassium-aggravated myotonia Printable PDF Open All Close All ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Potassium-aggravated myotonia is a disorder that affects muscles ...

  9. Can Diuretics Decrease Your Potassium Level?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of low potassium? Can diuretics decrease your potassium level? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Yes, ... your urine. This can lead to low potassium levels in your blood (hypokalemia). Signs and symptoms of ...

  10. Electrical characterization of n/p-type nickel silicide/silicon junctions by Sb segregation.

    PubMed

    Jun, Myungsim; Park, Youngsam; Hyun, Younghoon; Choi, Sung-Jin; Zyung, Taehyung; Jang, Moongyu

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, n/p-type nickel-silicided Schottky diodes were fabricated by incorporating antimony atoms near the nickel silicide/Si junction interface and the electrical characteristics were studied through measurements and simulations. The effective Schottky barrier height (SBH) for electron, extracted from the thermionic emission model, drastically decreased from 0.68 to less than 0.1 eV while that for hole slightly increased from 0.43 to 0.53 eV. In order to identify the current conduction mechanisms, the experimental current-temperature-voltage characteristics for the n-type diode were fitted based on various models for transport of charge carrier in Schottky diodes. As the result, the large change in effective SBH for electron is ascribed to trap-assisted tunneling rather than barrier height inhomogeneity.

  11. Effect of Saturation Pressure Difference on Metal–Silicide Nanopowder Formation in Thermal Plasma Fabrication

    PubMed Central

    Shigeta, Masaya; Watanabe, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    A computational investigation using a unique model and a solution algorithm was conducted, changing only the saturation pressure of one material artificially during nanopowder formation in thermal plasma fabrication, to highlight the effects of the saturation pressure difference between a metal and silicon. The model can not only express any profile of particle size–composition distribution for a metal–silicide nanopowder even with widely ranging sizes from sub-nanometers to a few hundred nanometers, but it can also simulate the entire growth process involving binary homogeneous nucleation, binary heterogeneous co-condensation, and coagulation among nanoparticles with different compositions. Greater differences in saturation pressures cause a greater time lag for co-condensation of two material vapors during the collective growth of the metal–silicide nanopowder. The greater time lag for co-condensation results in a wider range of composition of the mature nanopowder. PMID:28344300

  12. Development of fused slurry silicide coatings for tantalum reentry heat shields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warnock, R. V.; Stetson, A. R.

    1972-01-01

    A fused slurry silicide coating was developed to provide atmospheric reentry protection for the 90Ta-lOW alloy. Overlaying the silicide with a highly refractory glass greatly improved total lifetime and reliability of the coating system. Low pressure, slow cycle lifetimes in excess of 100 cycles were consistently recorded for 1700 K - 13 and 1300 N/sq m test conditions. A minimum of 25 cycles was obtained for 1810 K - 1300 N/sq m conditions. About 50 simulated reentry cycles (variable temperature, pressure, and stress) were endured by coated 1-inch miniature heat shield panels when exposed to a maximum of 1700 K and either internal or external pressure conditions.

  13. The formation of magnetic silicide Fe3Si clusters during ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakirev, N.; Zhikharev, V.; Gumarov, G.

    2014-05-01

    A simple two-dimensional model of the formation of magnetic silicide Fe3Si clusters during high-dose Fe ion implantation into silicon has been proposed and the cluster growth process has been computer simulated. The model takes into account the interaction between the cluster magnetization and magnetic moments of Fe atoms random walking in the implanted layer. If the clusters are formed in the presence of the external magnetic field parallel to the implanted layer, the model predicts the elongation of the growing cluster in the field direction. It has been proposed that the cluster elongation results in the uniaxial magnetic anisotropy in the plane of the implanted layer, which is observed in iron silicide films ion-beam synthesized in the external magnetic field.

  14. Study of optical and luminescence properties of silicon — semiconducting silicide — silicon multilayer nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, N. G.; Galkin, K. N.; Dotsenko, , S. A.; Goroshko, D. L.; Shevlyagin, A. V.; Chusovitin, E. A.; Chernev, I. M.

    2017-01-01

    By method of in situ differential spectroscopy it was established that at the formation of monolayer Fe, Cr, Ca, Mg silicide and Mg stannide islands on the atomically clean silicon surface an appearance of loss peaks characteristic for these materials in the energy range of 1.1-2.6 eV is observed. An optimization of growth processes permit to grow monolithic double nanoheterostructures (DNHS) with embedded Fe, Cr and Ca nanocrystals, and also polycrystalline DNHS with NC of Mg silicide and Mg stannide and Ca disilicide. By methods of optical spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy it was shown that embedded NC form intensive peaks in the reflectance spectra at energies up to 2.5 eV and Raman peaks. In DNS with β-FeSi2 NC a photoluminescence and electroluminescence at room temperature were firstly observed.

  15. Enhanced light absorption in waveguide Schottky photodetector integrated with ultrathin metal/silicide stripe.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jingshu; Wu, Zhiwei; Zhao, Yanli

    2017-05-01

    We investigate the light absorption enhancement in waveguide Schottky photodetector integrated with ultrathin metal/silicide stripe, which can provide high internal quantum efficiency. By using aab0-quasi-TE hybrid modes for the first time, a high absorptance of 95.6% is achieved in 5 nm thick Au stripe with area of only 0.14 μm2, without using resonance structure. In theory, the responsivity, dark current, and 3dB bandwidth of the corresponding device are 0.146 A/W, 8.03 nA, and 88 GHz, respectively. For most silicides, the quasi-TM mode should be used in this device, and an optimized PtSi device has a responsivity of 0.71 A/W and a dark current of 35.9 μA.

  16. Development of a fused slurry silicide coating for the protection of tantalum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packer, C. M.; Perkins, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    Results are reported of a research program to develop a reliable high-performance, fused slurry silicide protective coating for a tantalum-10 tungsten alloy for use at 1427 to 1538 C at 0.1 to 10 torr air pressure under cyclic temperature conditions. A review of silicide coating performance under these conditions indicated that the primary wear-out mode is associated with widening of hairline fissures in the coating. Consideration has been given to modifying the oxidation products that form on the coating surface to provide a seal for these fissures and to minimize their widening. On the basis of an analysis of the phase relationships between silica and various other oxides, a coating having the slurry composition 2.5Mn-33Ti-64.5Si was developed that is effective in the pressure range from 1 to 10 torr.

  17. Effect of Saturation Pressure Difference on Metal-Silicide Nanopowder Formation in Thermal Plasma Fabrication.

    PubMed

    Shigeta, Masaya; Watanabe, Takayuki

    2016-03-07

    A computational investigation using a unique model and a solution algorithm was conducted, changing only the saturation pressure of one material artificially during nanopowder formation in thermal plasma fabrication, to highlight the effects of the saturation pressure difference between a metal and silicon. The model can not only express any profile of particle size-composition distribution for a metal-silicide nanopowder even with widely ranging sizes from sub-nanometers to a few hundred nanometers, but it can also simulate the entire growth process involving binary homogeneous nucleation, binary heterogeneous co-condensation, and coagulation among nanoparticles with different compositions. Greater differences in saturation pressures cause a greater time lag for co-condensation of two material vapors during the collective growth of the metal-silicide nanopowder. The greater time lag for co-condensation results in a wider range of composition of the mature nanopowder.

  18. Carbon mediated reduction of silicon dioxide and growth of copper silicide particles in uniform width channels

    SciTech Connect

    Pizzocchero, Filippo; Bøggild, Peter; Booth, Timothy J.

    We show that surface arc-discharge deposited carbon plays a critical intermediary role in the breakdown of thermally grown oxide diffusion barriers of 90 nm on a silicon wafer at 1035 °C in an Ar/H{sub 2} atmosphere, resulting in the formation of epitaxial copper silicide particles in ≈ 10 μm wide channels, which are aligned with the intersections of the (100) surface of the wafer and the (110) planes on an oxidized silicon wafer, as well as endotaxial copper silicide nanoparticles within the wafer bulk. We apply energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, in combination with scanning and transmission electron microscopy of focusedmore » ion beam fabricated lammelas and trenches in the structure to elucidate the process of their formation.« less

  19. Growth of single-crystalline cobalt silicide nanowires and their field emission property.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chi-Ming; Hsu, Han-Fu; Lu, Kuo-Chang

    2013-07-03

    In this work, cobalt silicide nanowires were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition processes on Si (100) substrates with anhydrous cobalt chloride (CoCl2) as precursors. Processing parameters, including the temperature of Si (100) substrates, the gas flow rate, and the pressure of reactions were varied and studied; additionally, the physical properties of the cobalt silicide nanowires were measured. It was found that single-crystal CoSi nanowires were grown at 850°C ~ 880°C and at a lower gas flow rate, while single-crystal Co2Si nanowires were grown at 880°C ~ 900°C. The crystal structure and growth direction were identified, and the growth mechanism was proposed as well. This study with field emission measurements demonstrates that CoSi nanowires are attractive choices for future applications in field emitters.

  20. Synthesis of silicon nanotubes with cobalt silicide ends using anodized aluminum oxide template.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhang; Liu, Lifeng; Shimizu, Tomohiro; Senz, Stephan; Gösele, Ulrich

    2010-02-05

    Silicon nanotubes (SiNTs) are compatible with Si-based semiconductor technology. In particular, the small diameters and controllable structure of such nanotubes are remaining challenges. Here we describe a method to fabricate SiNTs intrinsically connected with cobalt silicide ends based on highly ordered anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. Size and growth direction of the SiNTs can be well controlled via the templates. The growth of SiNTs is catalyzed by the Co nanoparticles reduced on the pore walls of the AAO after annealing, with a controllable thickness at a given growth temperature and time. Simultaneously, cobalt silicide forms on the bottom side of the SiNTs.

  1. Growth of single-crystalline cobalt silicide nanowires and their field emission property

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this work, cobalt silicide nanowires were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition processes on Si (100) substrates with anhydrous cobalt chloride (CoCl2) as precursors. Processing parameters, including the temperature of Si (100) substrates, the gas flow rate, and the pressure of reactions were varied and studied; additionally, the physical properties of the cobalt silicide nanowires were measured. It was found that single-crystal CoSi nanowires were grown at 850°C ~ 880°C and at a lower gas flow rate, while single-crystal Co2Si nanowires were grown at 880°C ~ 900°C. The crystal structure and growth direction were identified, and the growth mechanism was proposed as well. This study with field emission measurements demonstrates that CoSi nanowires are attractive choices for future applications in field emitters. PMID:23819795

  2. A long-term ultrahigh temperature application of layered silicide coated Nb alloy in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jia; Fu, Qian-Gang; Li, Tao; Wang, Chen; Huo, Cai-Xia; Zhou, Hong; Yang, Guan-Jun; Sun, Le

    2018-05-01

    Nb-based alloy possessed limited application service life at ultrahigh temperature (>1400 °C) in air even taking the effective protective coating strategy into consideration for last decades. In this work a long duration of above 128 h at 1500 °C in air was successfully achieved on Nb-based alloy thanked to multi-layered silicide coating. Through optimizing interfaces, the MoSi2/NbSi2 silicide coating with Al2O3-adsorbed-particles layer exhibited three-times higher of oxidation resistance capacity than the one without it. In MoSi2-Al2O3-NbSi2 multilayer coating, the Al2O3-adsorbed-particles layer playing as an element-diffusion barrier role, as well as the formed porous Nb5Si3 layer as a stress transition zone, contributed to the significant improvement.

  3. Neutronic study on conversion of SAFARI-1 to LEU silicide fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, G.; Pond, R.; Hanan, N.

    1995-02-01

    This paper marks the initial study into the technical and economic feasibility of converting the SAFARI-1 reactor in South Africa to LEU silicide fuel. Several MTR assembly geometries and LEU uranium densities have been studied and compared with MEU and HEU fuels. Two factors of primary importance for conversion of SAFARI-1 to LEU fuel are the economy of the fuel cycle and the performance of the incore and excore irradiation positions.

  4. Plasma-Enhanced Deposition and Processing of Transition Metals and Transition Metal Silicides for VLSI.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-20

    molybdenum trifluoride in the deposited material. Titanium silicide films formed from a discharge of titanium tetrachlotide, silane, and hydrogen...displayed resistivities of -150 /4-cm, due to small amounts of oxygen and chlorine incorporated during deposition. Plasma etching studies of tungsten films...material, thereby reducing speed, and aluminum is a low melting material, thereby limiting processing latitude. As a result, mmition metals and

  5. Combined effect of Pt and W alloying elements on Ni-silicide formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, T.; Mangelinck, D.; Descoins, M.; Bertoglio, M.; Mouaici, N.; Hallén, A.; Girardeaux, C.

    2018-03-01

    A combinatorial study of the combined effect of Pt and W on Ni silicide formation is performed. Ni(Pt, W) films with thickness and composition gradients were prepared by a co-deposition composition spread technique using sputtering deposition from Pt, W, and Ni targets. The deposited Ni(Pt,W) films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray reflectivity, Rutherford backscattering, and atom probe tomography. The maximum content of alloying elements is close to 27 at. %. Simulations of the thickness and composition were carried out and compared with experimental results. In situ X-ray diffraction and atom probe tomography were used to study the phase formation. Both additive alloying elements (Pt + W) slow down the Ni consumption and the effect of W is more pronounced than the one of Pt. Regarding the effect of alloying elements on Ni silicides formation, three regions could be distinguished in the Ni(Pt,W)/Si wafer. For the region close to the Ni target, the low contents of alloying elements (Pt + W) have little impact on the phase sequence (δ-Ni2Si is the first silicide and NiSi forms when Ni is entirely consumed) but the kinetics of silicide formation slows down. The region close to the Pt target has high contents of (Pt + W) and is rich in Pt and a simultaneous phase formation of δ-Ni2Si and NiSi is observed. For the high (Pt + W) contents and W-rich region, NiSi forms unexpectedly before δ-Ni2Si and the subsequent growth of δ-Ni2Si is accompanied by the NiSi consumption. When Ni is entirely consumed, NiSi regrows at the expense of δ-Ni2Si.

  6. Practical field repair of fused slurry silicide coating for space shuttle t.p.s.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reznik, B. D.

    1971-01-01

    Study of short-time high-temperature diffusion treatments as part of a program of development of methods of reapplying fused slurry silicide coating in the field. The metallographic structure and oxidation behavior of R512E applied to Cb-752 coated under simulated field repair conditions was determined. Oxidation testing in reduced pressure environment has shown that performance equivalent to furnace-processed specimens can be obtained in a two-minute diffusion at 2700 F.

  7. Potassium channels in articular chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Mobasheri, Ali; Lewis, Rebecca; Ferreira-Mendes, Alexandrina; Rufino, Ana; Dart, Caroline; Barrett-Jolley, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Chondrocytes are the resident cells of cartilage, which synthesize and maintain the extracellular matrix. The range of known potassium channels expressed by these unique cells is continually increasing. Since chondrocytes are non-excitable, and do not need to be repolarized following action potentials, the function of potassium channels in these cells has, until recently, remained completely unknown. However, recent advances in both traditional physiology and “omic” technologies have enhanced our knowledge and understanding of the chondrocyte channelome. A large number of potassium channels have been identified and a number of putative, but credible, functions have been proposed. Members of each of the potassium channel sub-families (calcium activated, inward rectifier, voltage-gated and tandem pore) have all been identified. Mechanotransduction, cell volume regulation, apoptosis and chondrogenesis all appear to involve potassium channels. Since evidence suggests that potassium channel gene transcription is altered in osteoarthritis, future studies are needed that investigate potassium channels as potential cellular biomarkers and therapeutic targets for treatment of degenerative joint conditions. PMID:23064164

  8. Potassium channels in brain mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Bednarczyk, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    Potassium channels are the most widely distributed class of ion channels. These channels are transmembrane proteins known to play important roles in both normal and pathophysiological functions in all cell types. Various potassium channels are recognised as potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, brain/spinal cord ischaemia and sepsis. In addition to their importance as therapeutic targets, certain potassium channels are known for their beneficial roles in anaesthesia, cardioprotection and neuroprotection. Some types of potassium channels present in the plasma membrane of various cells have been found in the inner mitochondrial membrane as well. Potassium channels have been proposed to regulate mitochondrial membrane potential, respiration, matrix volume and Ca(+) ion homeostasis. It has been proposed that mitochondrial potassium channels mediate ischaemic preconditioning in various tissues. However, the specificity of a pharmacological agents and the mechanisms underlying their effects on ischaemic preconditioning remain controversial. The following potassium channels from various tissues have been identified in the inner mitochondrial membrane: ATP-regulated (mitoK(ATP)) channel, large conductance Ca(2+)-regulated (mitoBK(Ca)) channel, intermediate conductance Ca(2+)-regulated (mitoIK(Ca)) channel, voltage-gated (mitoKv1.3 type) channel, and twin-pore domain (mitoTASK-3) channel. It has been shown that increased potassium flux into brain mitochondria induced by either the mitoK(ATP) channel or mitoBK(Ca) channel affects the beneficial effects on neuronal cell survival under pathological conditions. Recently, differential distribution of mitoBK(Ca) channels has been observed in neuronal mitochondria. These findings may suggest a neuroprotective role for the mitoBK(Ca) channel in specific brain structures. This minireview summarises current data on brain mitochondrial potassium channels and the efforts to identify

  9. Pt silicide/poly-Si Schottky diodes as temperature sensors for bolometers

    SciTech Connect

    Yuryev, V. A., E-mail: vyuryev@kapella.gpi.ru; Chizh, K. V.; Chapnin, V. A.

    Platinum silicide Schottky diodes formed on films of polycrystalline Si doped by phosphorus are demonstrated to be efficient and manufacturable CMOS-compatible temperature sensors for microbolometer detectors of radiation. Thin-film platinum silicide/poly-Si diodes have been produced by a CMOS-compatible process on artificial Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}/Si(001) substrates simulating the bolometer cells. Layer structure and phase composition of the original Pt/poly-Si films and the Pt silicide/poly-Si films synthesized by a low-temperature process have been studied by means of the scanning transmission electron microscopy; they have also been explored by means of the two-wavelength X-ray structural phase analysis and the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.more » Temperature coefficient of voltage for the forward current of a single diode is shown to reach the value of about −2%/ °C in the temperature interval from 25 to 50 °C.« less

  10. Large-area Co-silicide nanodot arrays produced by colloidal nanosphere lithography and thermal annealing.

    PubMed

    Cheng, S L; Wong, S L; Lu, S W; Chen, H

    2008-09-01

    We report here the successful fabrication of large-area size-tunable periodic arrays of cobalt and Co-silicide nanodots on silicon substrates by employing the colloidal nanosphere lithography (NSL) technique and heat treatments. The growth of low-resistivity epitaxial CoSi(2) was found to be more favorable for the samples with smaller Co nanodot sizes. The sizes of the epitaxial CoSi(2) nanodots can be tuned from 50 to 100 nm by varying the diameter of the colloidal spheres and annealing temperatures. The epitaxial CoSi(2) nanodots were found to grow with an epitaxial orientation with respect to the (001)Si substrates: [001]CoSi(2)//[001]Si and (200)CoSi(2)//(400)Si. From the results of planview HRTEM, XTEM, and SAED analysis, the epitaxial CoSi(2) nanodots were identified to be inverse pyramids in shape, and the average sizes of the faceted silicide nanodots were measured to decrease with annealing temperature. The observed results present the exciting prospect that with appropriate controls, the colloidal NSL technique promises to facilitate the growth of a variety of well-ordered silicide nanodots with selected shape, size, and periodicity.

  11. Low-Temperature Wet Conformal Nickel Silicide Deposition for Transistor Technology through an Organometallic Approach.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tsung-Han; Margossian, Tigran; De Marchi, Michele; Thammasack, Maxime; Zemlyanov, Dmitry; Kumar, Sudhir; Jagielski, Jakub; Zheng, Li-Qing; Shih, Chih-Jen; Zenobi, Renato; De Micheli, Giovanni; Baudouin, David; Gaillardon, Pierre-Emmanuel; Copéret, Christophe

    2017-02-08

    The race for performance of integrated circuits is nowadays facing a downscale limitation. To overpass this nanoscale limit, modern transistors with complex geometries have flourished, allowing higher performance and energy efficiency. Accompanying this breakthrough, challenges toward high-performance devices have emerged on each significant step, such as the inhomogeneous coverage issue and thermal-induced short circuit issue of metal silicide formation. In this respect, we developed a two-step organometallic approach for nickel silicide formation under near-ambient temperature. Transmission electron and atomic force microscopy show the formation of a homogeneous and conformal layer of NiSi x on pristine silicon surface. Post-treatment decreases the carbon content to a level similar to what is found for the original wafer (∼6%). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy also reveals an increasing ratio of Si content in the layer after annealing, which is shown to be NiSi 2 according to X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigation on a Si nanoparticle model. I-V characteristic fitting reveals that this NiSi 2 layer exhibits a competitive Schottky barrier height of 0.41 eV and series resistance of 8.5 Ω, thus opening an alternative low-temperature route for metal silicide formation on advanced devices.

  12. Palladium silicide formation under the influence of nitrogen and oxygen impurities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, K. T.; Lien, C.-D.; Nicolet, M.-A.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of impurities on the growth of the Pd2Si layer upon thermal annealing of a Pd film on 100 line-type and amorphous Si substrates is investigated. Nitrogen and oxygen impurities are introduced into either Pd or Si which are subsequently annealed to form Pd2Si. The complementary techniques of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, and N-15(p, alpha)C-12 or O-18(p, alpha)N-15 nuclear reaction, are used to investigate the behavior of nitrogen or oxygen and the alterations each creates during silicide formation. Both nitrogen and oxygen retard the silicide growth rate if initially present in Si. When they are initially in Pd, there is no significant retardation; instead, an interesting snow-plowing effect of N or O by the reaction interface of Pd2Si is observed. By using N implanted into Si as a marker, Pd and Si appear to trade roles as the moving species when the silicide front reaches the nitrogen-rich region.

  13. Silicide/Silicon Heterointerfaces, Reaction Kinetics and Ultra-short Channel Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Wei

    Nickel silicide is one of the electrical contact materials widely used on very large scale integration (VLSI) of Si devices in microelectronic industry. This is because the silicide/silicon interface can be formed in a highly controlled manner to ensure reproducibility of optimal structural and electrical properties of the metal-Si contacts. These advantages can be inherited to Si nanowire (NW) field-effect transistors (FET) device. Due to the technological importance of nickel silicides, fundamental materials science of nickel silicides formation (Ni-Si reaction), especially in nanoscale, has raised wide interest and stimulate new insights and understandings. In this dissertation, in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in combination with FET device characterization will be demonstrated as useful tools in nano-device fabrication as well as in gaining insights into the process of nickel silicide formation. The shortest transistor channel length (17 nm) fabricated on a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) grown silicon nanowire (NW) has been demonstrated by controlled reaction with Ni leads on an in-situ transmission electron microscope (TEM) heating stage at a moderate temperature of 400 ºC. NiSi2 is the leading phase, and the silicide-silicon interface is an atomically sharp type-A interface. At such channel lengths, high maximum on-currents of 890 (microA/microm) and a maximum transconductance of 430 (microS/microm) were obtained, which pushes forward the performance of bottom-up Si NW Schottky barrier field-effect transistors (SB-FETs). Through accurate control over the silicidation reaction, we provide a systematic study of channel length dependent carrier transport in a large number of SB-FETs with channel lengths in the range of (17 nm -- 3.6 microm). Our device results corroborate with our transport simulations and reveal a characteristic type of short channel effects in SB-FETs, both in on- and off-state, which is different from that in conventional MOSFETs

  14. Oral potassium supplementation in surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Hainsworth, Alison J; Gatenby, Piers A

    2008-08-01

    Hospital inpatients are frequently hypokalaemic. Low plasma potassium levels may cause life threatening complications, such as cardiac arrhythmias. Potassium supplementation may be administered parenterally or enterally. Oral potassium supplements have been associated with oesophageal ulceration, strictures and gastritis. An alternative to potassium salt tablets or solution is dietary modification with potassium rich food stuffs, which has been proven to be a safe and effective method for potassium supplementation. The potassium content of one medium banana is equivalent to a 12 mmol potassium salt tablet. Potassium supplementation by dietary modification has been shown to be equally efficacious to oral potassium salt supplementation and is preferred by the majority of patients. Subsequently, it is our practice to replace potassium using dietary modification, particularly in surgical patients having undergone oesophagogastrectomy or in those with peptic ulcer disease.

  15. Structural and electrochemical properties of nanostructured nickel silicides by reduction and silicification of high-surface-area nickel oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiao; Zhang, Bingsen; Li, Chuang

    Graphical abstract: Nanostructured nickel silicides have been synthesized by reduction and silification of high-surface-area nickel oxide, and exhibited remarkably like-noble metal property, lower electric resistivity, and ferromagnetism at room temperature. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiSi{sub x} have been prepared by reduction and silification of high-surface-area NiO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structure of nickel silicides changed with increasing reaction temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Si doping into nickel changed the magnetic properties of metallic nickel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiSi{sub x} have remarkably lower electric resistivity and like-noble metal property. -- Abstract: Nanostructured nickel silicides have been prepared by reduction and silicification of high-surface-area nickel oxide (145 m{sup 2} g{sup -1})more » produced via precipitation. The prepared materials were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, magnetic and electrochemical measurements. The nickel silicide formation involves the following sequence: NiO (cubic) {yields} Ni (cubic) {yields} Ni{sub 2}Si (orthorhombic) {yields} NiSi (orthorhombic) {yields} NiSi{sub 2} (cubic), with particles growing from 13.7 to 21.3 nm. The nickel silicides are ferromagnetic at room temperature, and their saturation magnetization values change drastically with the increase of Si content. Nickel silicides have remarkably low electrical resistivity and noble metal-like properties because of a constriction of the Ni d band and an increase of the electronic density of states. The results suggest that such silicides are promising candidates as inexpensive yet functional materials for applications in electrochemistry as well as catalysis.« less

  16. On the Alloying and Properties of Tetragonal Nb₅Si₃ in Nb-Silicide Based Alloys.

    PubMed

    Tsakiropoulos, Panos

    2018-01-04

    The alloying of Nb₅Si₃ modifies its properties. Actual compositions of (Nb,TM)₅X₃ silicides in developmental alloys, where X = Al + B + Ge + Si + Sn and TM is a transition and/or refractory metal, were used to calculate the composition weighted differences in electronegativity (Δχ) and an average valence electron concentration (VEC) and the solubility range of X to study the alloying and properties of the silicide. The calculations gave 4.11 < VEC < 4.45, 0.103 < Δχ < 0.415 and 33.6 < X < 41.6 at.%. In the silicide in Nb-24Ti-18Si-5Al-5Cr alloys with single addition of 5 at.% B, Ge, Hf, Mo, Sn and Ta, the solubility range of X decreased compared with the unalloyed Nb₅Si₃ or exceeded 40.5 at.% when B was with Hf or Mo or Sn and the Δχ decreased with increasing X. The Ge concentration increased with increasing Ti and the Hf concentration increased and decreased with increasing Ti or Nb respectively. The B and Sn concentrations respectively decreased and increased with increasing Ti and also depended on other additions in the silicide. The concentration of Sn was related to VEC and the concentrations of B and Ge were related to Δχ. The alloying of Nb₅Si₃ was demonstrated in Δχ versus VEC maps. Effects of alloying on the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) anisotropy, Young's modulus, hardness and creep data were discussed. Compared with the hardness of binary Nb₅Si₃ (1360 HV), the hardness increased in silicides with Ge and dropped below 1360 HV when Al, B and Sn were present without Ge. The Al effect on hardness depended on other elements substituting Si. Sn reduced the hardness. Ti or Hf reduced the hardness more than Cr in Nb₅Si₃ without Ge. The (Nb,Hf)₅(Si,Al)₃ had the lowest hardness. VEC differentiated the effects of additions on the hardness of Nb₅Si₃ alloyed with Ge. Deterioration of the creep of alloyed Nb₅Si₃ was accompanied by decrease of VEC and increase or decrease of Δχ depending on alloying addition(s).

  17. Thermal transport across metal silicide-silicon interfaces: An experimental comparison between epitaxial and nonepitaxial interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Ning; Feser, Joseph P.; Sadasivam, Sridhar; Fisher, Timothy S.; Wang, Tianshi; Ni, Chaoying; Janotti, Anderson

    2017-02-01

    Silicides are used extensively in nano- and microdevices due to their low electrical resistivity, low contact resistance to silicon, and their process compatibility. In this work, the thermal interface conductance of TiSi2, CoSi2, NiSi, and PtSi are studied using time-domain thermoreflectance. Exploiting the fact that most silicides formed on Si(111) substrates grow epitaxially, while most silicides on Si(100) do not, we study the effect of epitaxy, and show that for a wide variety of interfaces there is no dependence of interface conductance on the detailed structure of the interface. In particular, there is no difference in the thermal interface conductance between epitaxial and nonepitaxial silicide/silicon interfaces, nor between epitaxial interfaces with different interface orientations. While these silicide-based interfaces yield the highest reported interface conductances of any known interface with silicon, none of the interfaces studied are found to operate close to the phonon radiation limit, indicating that phonon transmission coefficients are nonunity in all cases and yet remain insensitive to interfacial structure. In the case of CoSi2, a comparison is made with detailed computational models using (1) full-dispersion diffuse mismatch modeling (DMM) including the effect of near-interfacial strain, and (2) an atomistic Green' function (AGF) approach that integrates near-interface changes in the interatomic force constants obtained through density functional perturbation theory. Above 100 K, the AGF approach significantly underpredicts interface conductance suggesting that energy transport does not occur purely by coherent transmission of phonons, even for epitaxial interfaces. The full-dispersion DMM closely predicts the experimentally observed interface conductances for CoSi2, NiSi, and TiSi2 interfaces, while it remains an open question whether inelastic scattering, cross-interfacial electron-phonon coupling, or other mechanisms could also account for

  18. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in infant...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium salt of hydriodic acid. It occurs naturally in sea water and in salt...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with potassium...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium salt of hydriodic acid. It occurs naturally in sea water and in salt...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 184.1619 Section 184.1619... GRAS § 184.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Potassium carbonate (K2CO3, CAS Reg. No. 584-08-7) is produced by the following methods of manufacture: (1) By electrolysis of potassium chloride followed by...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613... GRAS § 184.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 298-14-6) is made by the following processes: (1) By treating a solution of potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide; (2...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with potassium...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 184.1610 Section 184.1610 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1610 Potassium alginate. (a) Potassium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-36-1) is the potassium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1635 - Potassium iodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium iodate. 184.1635 Section 184.1635 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1635 Potassium iodate. (a) Potassium iodate (KIO3, CAS Reg. No. 7758-05-6) does not occur naturally but can be prepared by reacting iodine with potassium hydroxide. (b...

  7. 21 CFR 172.375 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 172.375 Section 172.375 Food and... Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.375 Potassium iodide. The food additive potassium iodide may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Potassium iodide may be safely...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1635 - Potassium iodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium iodate. 184.1635 Section 184.1635 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1635 Potassium iodate. (a) Potassium iodate (KIO3, CAS Reg. No. 7758-05-6) does not occur naturally but can be prepared by reacting iodine with potassium hydroxide. (b...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with potassium...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide..., including pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from the...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1635 - Potassium iodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium iodate. 184.1635 Section 184.1635 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1635 Potassium iodate. (a) Potassium iodate (KIO3, CAS Reg. No. 7758-05-6) does not occur naturally but can be prepared by reacting iodine with potassium hydroxide. (b...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in infant...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium salt of hydriodic acid. It occurs naturally in sea water and in salt...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide..., including pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from the...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium salt of hydriodic acid. It occurs naturally in sea water and in salt...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 184.1610 Section 184.1610 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1610 Potassium alginate. (a) Potassium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-36-1) is the potassium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with potassium...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1635 - Potassium iodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium iodate. 184.1635 Section 184.1635 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1635 Potassium iodate. (a) Potassium iodate (KIO3, CAS Reg. No. 7758-05-6) does not occur naturally but can be prepared by reacting iodine with potassium hydroxide. (b...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg. No. 7447-40-7) is a white... manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in infant formula in accordance with section 412(g) of...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1635 - Potassium iodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium iodate. 184.1635 Section 184.1635 Food... GRAS § 184.1635 Potassium iodate. (a) Potassium iodate (KIO3, CAS Reg. No. 7758-05-6) does not occur naturally but can be prepared by reacting iodine with potassium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient meets the...

  1. Potassium supplements for oral diarrhoea regimens.

    PubMed

    Clements, M L; Levine, M M; Black, R E; Hughes, T P; Rust, J; Tome, F C

    1980-10-18

    A study is proposed for supplementing potassium loss from diarrhea in rehydration therapies with fresh fruit and other naturally potassium-rich foods. Bananas contain .1 mol of potassium per gm. Freshly squeezed lemon or orange juices were tested for potassium and sodium content and found to have very low potassium concentration. Therefore, the banana was chosen for an upcoming study that will determine if infants and children suffering from diarrhea can ingest the amounts of the fruit necessary to elevate the potassium level sufficiently. Bananas as the potassium source are thought to be well-accepted in developing areas.

  2. The deposition of aluminide and silicide coatings on γ-TiAl using the halide-activated pack cementation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munro, T. C.; Gleeson, B.

    1996-12-01

    The halide-activated pack cementation method (HAPC) was utilized to deposit aluminide and silicide coatings on nominally stoichiometric γ-TiAl. The deposition temperature was 1000°C and deposition times ranged from 2 to 12 hours. The growth rates of the coatings were diffusion controlled, with the rate of aluminide growth being about a factor of 2 greater than that of silicide growth. The aluminide coating was inward growing and consisted of a thick, uniform outer layer of TiAl3 and a thin inner layer of TiAl2, with the rate-controlling step being the diffusion of aluminum from the pack into the substrate. Annealing experiments at 1100 °C showed that the interdiffusion between the aluminide coating and the γ-TiAl substrate was rapid. In contrast to the aluminide coating, the silicide coating was nonuniform and porous, consisting primarily of TiSi2, TiSi, and Ti5Si4, with the rate-controlling step for the coating growth believed to be the diffusion of aluminum into the γ-TiAl ahead of the silicide/γ-TiAl interface. The microstructural evolution of the aluminide and silicide coating structures is discussed qualitatively.

  3. Local solid phase growth of few-layer graphene on silicon carbide from nickel silicide supersaturated with carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Escobedo-Cousin, Enrique; Vassilevski, Konstantin; Hopf, Toby

    Patterned few-layer graphene (FLG) films were obtained by local solid phase growth from nickel silicide supersaturated with carbon, following a fabrication scheme, which allows the formation of self-aligned ohmic contacts on FLG and is compatible with conventional SiC device processing methods. The process was realised by the deposition and patterning of thin Ni films on semi-insulating 6H-SiC wafers followed by annealing and the selective removal of the resulting nickel silicide by wet chemistry. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to confirm both the formation and subsequent removal of nickel silicide. The impact of process parameters such asmore » the thickness of the initial Ni layer, annealing temperature, and cooling rates on the FLG films was assessed by Raman spectroscopy, XPS, and atomic force microscopy. The thickness of the final FLG film estimated from the Raman spectra varied from 1 to 4 monolayers for initial Ni layers between 3 and 20 nm thick. Self-aligned contacts were formed on these patterned films by contact photolithography and wet etching of nickel silicide, which enabled the fabrication of test structures to measure the carrier concentration and mobility in the FLG films. A simple model of diffusion-driven solid phase chemical reaction was used to explain formation of the FLG film at the interface between nickel silicide and silicon carbide.« less

  4. 21 CFR 172.800 - Acesulfame potassium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acesulfame potassium. 172.800 Section 172.800 Food... Acesulfame potassium. Acesulfame potassium (CAS Reg. No. 55589-62-3), also known as acesulfame K, may be... following conditions: (a) Acesulfame potassium is the potassium salt of 6-methyl-1,2,3-oxathiazine-4(3H)-one...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O, CAS Reg. No. 006100-0905-096) is the potassium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric acid with potassium...

  6. Probing Transition-Metal Silicides as PGM-Free Catalysts for Hydrogen Oxidation and Evolution in Acidic Medium

    PubMed Central

    Mittermeier, Thomas; Madkikar, Pankaj; Wang, Xiaodong; Gasteiger, Hubert A.; Piana, Michele

    2017-01-01

    In this experimental study, we investigate various transition-metal silicides as platinum-group-metal-(PGM)-free electrocatalysts for the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR), and for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in acidic environment for the first time. Using cyclic voltammetry in 0.1 M HClO4, we first demonstrate that the tested materials exhibit sufficient stability against dissolution in the relevant potential window. Further, we determine the HOR and HER activities for Mo, W, Ta, Ni and Mo-Ni silicides in rotating disk electrode experiments. In conclusion, for the HOR only Ni2Si shows limited activity, and the HER activity of the investigated silicides is considerably lower compared to other PGM-free HER catalysts reported in the literature. PMID:28773022

  7. Development of Self-Healing Zirconium-Silicide Coatings for Improved Performance Zirconium-Alloy Fuel Cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Sridharan, Kumar; Mariani, Robert; Bai, Xianming

    Zirconium-alloy fuel claddings have been used successfully in Light Water Reactors (LWR) for over four decades. However, under high temperature accident conditions, zirconium-alloys fuel claddings exhibit profuse exothermic oxidation accompanied by release of hydrogen gas due to the reaction with water/steam. Additionally, the ZrO 2 layer can undergo monoclinic to tetragonal to cubic phase transformations at high temperatures which can induce stresses and cracking. These events were unfortunately borne out in the Fukushima-Daiichi accident in in Japan in 2011. In reaction to such accident, protective oxidation-resistant coatings for zirconium-alloy fuel claddings has been extensively investigated to enhance safety margins inmore » accidents as well as fuel performance under normal operation conditions. Such surface modification could also beneficially affect fuel rod heat transfer characteristics. Zirconium-silicide, a candidate coating material, is particularly attractive because zirconium-silicide coating is expected to bond strongly to zirconium-alloy substrate. Intermetallic compound phases of zirconium-silicide have high melting points and oxidation of zirconium silicide produces highly corrosion resistant glassy zircon (ZrSiO 4) and silica (SiO 2) which possessing self-healing qualities. Given the long-term goal of developing such coatings for use with nuclear reactor fuel cladding, this work describes results of oxidation and corrosion behavior of bulk zirconium-silicide and fabrication of zirconium-silicide coatings on zirconium-alloy test flats, tube configurations, and SiC test flats. In addition, boiling heat transfer of these modified surfaces (including ZrSi 2 coating) during clad quenching experiments is discussed in detail.« less

  8. Quantitative EPMA of Nano-Phase Iron-Silicides in Apollo 16 Lunar Regolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopon, P.; Fournelle, J.; Valley, J. W.; Pinard, P. T.; Sobol, P.; Horn, W.; Spicuzza, M.; Llovet, X.; Richter, S.

    2013-12-01

    Until recently, quantitative EPMA of phases under a few microns in size has been extremely difficult. In order to achieve analytical volumes to analyze sub-micron features, accelerating voltages between 5 and 8 keV need to be used. At these voltages the normally used K X-ray transitions (of higher Z elements) are no longer excited, and we must rely of outer shell transitions (L and M). These outer shell transitions are difficult to use for quantitative EPMA because they are strongly affected by different bonding environments, the error associated with their mass attenuation coefficients (MAC), and their proximity to absorption edges. These problems are especially prevalent for the transition metals, because of the unfilled M5 electron shell where the Lα transition originates. Previous studies have tried to overcome these limitations by using standards that almost exactly matched their unknowns. This, however, is cumbersome and requires accurate knowledge of the composition of your sample beforehand, as well as an exorbitant number of well characterized standards. Using a 5 keV electron beam and utilizing non-standard X-ray transitions (Ll) for the transition metals, we are able to conduct accurate quantitative analyses of phases down to ~300nm. The Ll transition in the transition metals behaves more like a core-state transition, and unlike the Lα/β lines, is unaffected by bonding effects and does not lie near an absorption edge. This allows for quantitative analysis using standards do not have to exactly match the unknown. In our case pure metal standards were used for all elements except phosphorus. We present here data on iron-silicides in two Apollo 16 regolith grains. These plagioclase grains (A6-7 and A6-8) were collected between North and South Ray Craters, in the lunar highlands, and thus are associated with one or more large impact events. We report the presence of carbon, nickel, and phosphorus (in order of abundance) in these iron-silicide phases

  9. X-ray photoemission spectromicroscopy of titanium silicide formation in patterned microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.; Solak, H.; Cerrina, F.

    1997-04-01

    Titanium silicide has the lowest resistivity of all the refractory metal silicides and has good thermal stability as well as excellent compatibility with Al metallization. It is used as an intermediate buffer layer between W vias and the Si substrate to provide good electrical contact in ULSI technology, whose submicron patterned features form the basis of the integrated circuits of today and tomorrow, in the self aligned silicide (salicide) formation process. TiSi{sub 2} exists in two phases: a metastable C49 base-centered orthorhombic phase with specific resistivity of 60-90 {mu}{Omega}-cm that is formed at a lower temperature (formation anneal) and themore » stable 12-15 {mu}{Omega}-cm resistivity face-centered orthorhombic C54 phase into which C49 is transformed with a higher temperature (conversion anneal) step. C54 is clearly the target for low resistivity VLSI interconnects. However, it has been observed that when dimensions shrink below 1/mic (or when the Ti thickness drops below several hundred angstroms), the transformation of C49 into C54 is inhibited and agglomeration often occurs in fine lines at high temperatures. This results in a rise in resistivity due to incomplete transformation to C54 and because of discontinuities in the interconnect line resulting from agglomeration. Spectromicroscopy is an appropriate tool to study the evolution of the TiSi2 formation process because of its high resolution chemical imaging ability which can detect bonding changes even in the absence of changes in the relative amounts of species and because of the capability of studying thick {open_quotes}as is{close_quotes} industrial samples.« less

  10. Silicon-germanium and platinum silicide nanostructures for silicon based photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storozhevykh, M. S.; Dubkov, V. P.; Arapkina, L. V.; Chizh, K. V.; Mironov, S. A.; Chapnin, V. A.; Yuryev, V. A.

    2017-05-01

    This paper reports a study of two types of silicon based nanostructures prospective for applications in photonics. The first ones are Ge/Si(001) structures forming at room temperature and reconstructing after annealing at 600°C. Germanium, being deposited from a molecular beam at room temperature on the Si(001) surface, forms a thin granular film composed of Ge particles with sizes of a few nanometers. A characteristic feature of these films is that they demonstrate signs of the 2 x 1 structure in their RHEED patterns. After short-term annealing at 600°C under the closed system conditions, the granular films reconstruct to heterostructures consisting of a Ge wetting layer and oval clusters of Ge. A mixed type c(4x2) + p(2x2) reconstruction typical to the low-temperature MBE (Tgr < 600°C) forms on the wetting layer. Long-term annealing of granular films at the same conditions results in formation of c(4x2)-reconstructed wetting layer typical to high-temperature MBE (Tgr < 600°C) and huge clusters of Ge. The other type of the studied nanostructures is based on Pt silicides. This class of materials is one of the friendliest to silicon technology. But as silicide film thickness reaches a few nanometers, low resistivity becomes of primary importance. Pt3Si has the lowest sheet resistance among the Pt silicides. However, the development of a process of thin Pt3Si films formation is a challenging task. This paper describes formation of a thin Pt3Si/Pt2Si structures at room temperature on poly-Si films. Special attention is paid upon formation of poly-Si and amorphous Si films on Si3N4 substrates at low temperatures.

  11. Formation, optical properties, and electronic structure of thin Yb silicide films on Si(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, N. G.; Maslov, A. M.; Polyarnyi, V. O.

    2005-06-01

    Continuous very thin (2.5-3.0 nm) and thin (16-18 nm) ytterbium suicide films with some pinhole density (3×107- 1×108 cm-2) have been formed on Si(111) by solid phase epitaxy (SPE) and reactive deposition epitaxy (RDE) growth methods on templates. The stoichiometric ytterbium suicide (YbSi2) formation has shown in SPE grown films by AES and EELS data. Very thin Yb suicide films grown by RDE method had the silicon enrichment in YbSi2 suicide composition. The analysis of LEED data and AFM imaging has shown that ytterbium suicide films had non-oriented blocks with the polycrystalline structure. The analysis of scanning region length dependencies of the root mean square roughness deviation (σR(L)) for grown suicide films has shown that the formation of ytterbium suicide in SPE and RDE growth methods is determined by the surface diffusion of Yb atoms during the three-dimensional growth process. Optical functions (n, k, α, ɛ1, ɛ2, Im ɛ1-1, neff, ɛeff) of ytterbium silicide films grown on Si(1 1 1) have been calculated from transmittance and reflectance spectra in the energy range of 0.1-6.2 eV. Two nearly discrete absorption bands have been observed in the electronic structure of Yb silicide films with different composition, which connected with interband transitions on divalent and trivalent Yb states. It was established that the reflection coefficient minimum in R-spectra at energies higher 4.2 eV corresponds to the state density minimum in Yb suicide between divalent and trivalent Yb states. It was shown from optical data that Yb silicide films have the semi-metallic properties with low state densities at energies less 0.4 eV and high state densities at 0.5-2.5 eV.

  12. Ferromagnetic nickel silicide nanowires for isolating primary CD4+ T lymphocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Joo; Seol, Jin-Kyeong; Lee, Mi-Ri; Hyung, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Gil-Sung; Ohgai, Takeshi; Lee, Sang-Kwon

    2012-04-01

    Direct CD4+ T lymphocytes were separated from whole mouse splenocytes using 1-dimensional ferromagnetic nickel silicide nanowires (NiSi NWs). NiSi NWs were prepared by silver-assisted wet chemical etching of silicon and subsequent deposition and annealing of Ni. This method exhibits a separation efficiency of ˜93.5%, which is comparable to that of the state-of-the-art superparamagnetic bead-based cell capture (˜96.8%). Furthermore, this research shows potential for separation of other lymphocytes, B, natural killer and natural killer T cells, and even rare tumor cells simply by changing the biotin-conjugated antibodies.

  13. Optical response at 10.6 microns in tungsten silicide Schottky barrier diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Boyd, Joseph T.; Jackson, Howard E.

    1987-01-01

    Optical response to radiation at a wavelength of 10.6 microns in tungsten silicide-silicon Schottky barrier diodes has been observed. Incident photons excite electrons by means of junction plasmon assisted inelastic electron tunneling. At 78 K, a peak in the second derivative of current versus junction bias voltage was observed at a voltage corresponding to the energy of photons having a wavelength of 10.6 microns. This peak increased with increasing incident laser power, saturating at the highest laser powers investigated.

  14. On the structural and electronic properties of Ir-silicide nanowires on Si(001) surface

    SciTech Connect

    Fatima,; Hossain, Sehtab; Mohottige, Rasika

    Iridium (Ir) modified Silicon (Si) (001) surface is studied with Scanning Tunneling Microscopy/Spectroscopy (STM/STS) and Density Functional Theory (DFT). A model for Ir-silicide nanowires based on STM images and ab-initio calculations is proposed. According to our model, the Ir adatom is on the top of the substrate dimer row and directly binds to the dimer atoms. I-V curves measured at 77 K shows that the nanowires are metallic. DFT calculations confirm strong metallic nature of the nanowires.

  15. Microalloying of transition metal silicides by mechanical activation and field-activated reaction

    DOEpatents

    Munir, Zuhair A [Davis, CA; Woolman, Joseph N [Davis, CA; Petrovic, John J [Los Alamos, NM

    2003-09-02

    Alloys of transition metal suicides that contain one or more alloying elements are fabricated by a two-stage process involving mechanical activation as the first stage and densification and field-activated reaction as the second stage. Mechanical activation, preferably performed by high-energy planetary milling, results in the incorporation of atoms of the alloying element(s) into the crystal lattice of the transition metal, while the densification and field-activated reaction, preferably performed by spark plasma sintering, result in the formation of the alloyed transition metal silicide. Among the many advantages of the process are its ability to accommodate materials that are incompatible in other alloying methods.

  16. Photocatalytic hydrogen evolution over β-iron silicide under infrared-light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Yoshimizu, Masaharu; Kobayashi, Ryoya; Saegusa, Makoto; Takashima, Toshihiro; Funakubo, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Kensuke; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa; Irie, Hiroshi

    2015-02-18

    We investigated the ability of β-iron silicide (β-FeSi2) to serve as a hydrogen (H2)-evolution photocatalyst due to the potential of its conduction band bottom, which may allow thermodynamically favorable H2 evolution in spite of its small band-gap of 0.80 eV. β-FeSi2 had an apparent quantum efficiency for H2 evolution of ∼24% up to 950 nm (near infrared light), in the presence of the dithionic acid ion (S2O6(2-)) as a sacrificial agent. It was also sensitive to infrared light (>1300 nm) for H2 evolution.

  17. Controlling the width of self-assembled dysprosium silicide nanowires on the Si(001) surface.

    PubMed

    Cui, Y; Chung, J; Nogami, J

    2012-02-01

    We present STM data that show that it is possible to use a metal induced 2 × 7 reconstruction of Si(001) to narrow the width distribution of Dy silicide nanowires. This behavior is distinct from the effect of the 7 × 7 reconstruction on the Si(111) surface, where the 7 × 7 serves as a static template and the deposited metal avoids the unit cell boundaries on the substrate. In this case, the 2 × 7 is a dynamic template, and the nanowires nucleate at anti-phase boundaries between 2 × 7 reconstruction domains.

  18. DART model for irradiation-induced swelling of uranium silicide dispersion fuel elements

    SciTech Connect

    Rest, J.; Hofman, G.L.

    1999-04-01

    Models for the interaction of uranium silicide dispersion fuels with an aluminum matrix, for the resultant reaction product swelling, and for the calculation of the stress gradient within the fuel particles are described within the context of DART fission-gas-induced swelling models. The effects of an aluminide shell on fuel particle swelling are evaluated. Validation of the model is demonstrated by comparing DART calculations with irradiation data for the swelling of U{sub 3}SiAl-Al and U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al in variously designed dispersion fuel elements.

  19. Equatorial potassium currents in lenses.

    PubMed

    Wind, B E; Walsh, S; Patterson, J W

    1988-02-01

    Earlier work with the vibrating probe demonstrated the existence of outward potassium currents at the equator and inward sodium currents at the optical poles of the lens. By adding microelectrodes to the system, it is possible to relate steady currents (J) to the potential difference (PD) measured with a microelectrode. By injecting an outward current (I), it is possible to determine resistances and also the PD at which the steady outward potassium current becomes zero (PDJ = 0). At this PD the concentration gradient for potassium efflux and the electrical gradient for potassium influx are balanced so that there is no net flow of potassium across the membranes associated with the production of J. The PDJ = 0 for 18 rat lenses was 86 mV and that for 12 frogs lenses was -95 mV. This agrees with the potassium equilibrium potential and provides strong evidence to support the view that the outward equatorial current, J, is a potassium current. With the injection of outward current, I, the PD becomes more negative, the outward equatorial current, J, decreases, and the inward current at the optical poles increases. This suggests that there are separate electrical loops for K+ and Na+ that are partially linked by the Na, K-pump. Using Ohm's law, it is possible to calculate the input resistance (R = delta PD/I), the resistance related to the production of J (RJ = delta PD/delta J), and the effect of the combined resistances (delta J/I). The driving force for J can be estimated (PDJ = 0-PD). The relationships among currents, voltages and resistance can be used to determine the characteristics of the membranes that are associated with the outward potassium current observed at the equator. The effects of graded deformation of the lens were determined. The effects were reversible. The sites of inward and outward currents were not altered. Following deformation, the equatorial current, J, increased, and the PD became less negative. The PDJ = 0 remains the same so the ratio of K

  20. Physiology and pathophysiology of potassium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Biff F; Clegg, Deborah J

    2016-12-01

    Total body potassium content and proper distribution of potassium across the cell membrane is of critical importance for normal cellular function. Potassium homeostasis is maintained by several different methods. In the kidney, total body potassium content is achieved by alterations in renal excretion of potassium in response to variations in intake. Insulin and beta-adrenergic tone play critical roles in maintaining the internal distribution of potassium under normal conditions. Despite homeostatic pathways designed to maintain potassium levels within the normal range, disorders of altered potassium homeostasis are common. The clinical approach to designing effective treatments relies on understanding the pathophysiology and regulatory influences which govern the internal distribution and external balance of potassium. Here we provide an overview of the key regulatory aspects of normal potassium physiology. This review is designed to provide an overview of potassium homeostasis as well as provide references of seminal papers to guide the reader into a more in depth discussion of the importance of potassium balance. This review is designed to be a resource for educators and well-informed clinicians who are teaching trainees about the importance of potassium balance. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  1. The heart and potassium: a banana republic.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ehsan; Spiers, Christine; Khan, Maria

    2013-03-01

    The importance of potassium in maintaining stable cardiac function is a clinically understood phenomenon. Physiologically the importance of potassium in cardiac function is described by the large number of different kinds of potassium ions channels found in the heart compared to channels and membrane transport mechanisms for other ions such as sodium and calcium. Potassium is important in physiological homeostatic control of cardiac function, but is also of relevance to the diseased state, as potassium-related effects may stabilize or destabilize cardiac function. This article aims to provide a detailed understanding of potassium-mediated cardiac function. This will help the clinical practitioner evaluate how modulation of potassium ion channels by disease and pharmacological manipulation affect the cardiac patient, thus aiding in decision making when faced with clinical problems related to potassium.

  2. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  7. Role of Circadian Rhythms in Potassium Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Gumz, Michelle L.; Rabinowitz, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    It has been known for decades that urinary potassium excretion varies with a circadian pattern. In this review, we consider the historical evidence for this phenomenon and present an overview of recent developments in the field. Extensive evidence from the latter part of the last century clearly demonstrates that circadian potassium excretion does not depend on endogenous aldosterone. Of note is the recent discovery that the expression of several renal potassium transporters varies with a circadian pattern that appears to be consistent with substantial clinical data regarding daily fluctuations in urinary potassium levels. We propose the circadian clock mechanism as a key regulator of renal potassium transporters, and consequently renal potassium excretion. Further investigation into the mechanism of regulation of renal potassium transport by the circadian clock is warranted in order to increase our understanding of the clinical relevance of circadian rhythms to potassium homeostasis. PMID:23953800

  8. Status of potassium permanganate - 2008

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This is a brief overview of the Technical Sections completed and being worked on for the New Animal Drug Application (NADA) for potassium permanganate will be presented. Initial Label Claim (Columnaris on catfish/HSB): 1) Human Food Safety - Complete for all fin fish (June 1999). A hazard charac...

  9. Microstructure of the irradiated U 3Si 2/Al silicide dispersion fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, J.; Keiser, D. D.; Miller, B. D.; Jue, J.-F.; Robinson, A. B.; Madden, J. W.; Medvedev, P. G.; Wachs, D. M.

    2011-12-01

    The silicide dispersion fuel of U 3Si 2/Al is recognized as the best performance fuel for many nuclear research and test reactors with up to 4.8 gU/cm 3 fuel loading. An irradiated U 3Si 2/Al dispersion fuel ( 235U ˜ 75%) from the high-flux side of a fuel plate (U0R040) from the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR)-8 test was characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The fuel was irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) for 105 days. The average irradiation temperature and fission density of the U 3Si 2 fuel particles for the TEM sample are estimated to be approximately 110 °C and 5.4 × 10 27 f/m 3. The characterization was performed using a 200-kV TEM. The U/Si ratio for the fuel particle and (Si + Al)/U for the fuel-matrix-interaction layer are approximately 1.1 and 4-10, respectively. The estimated average diameter, number density and volume fraction for small bubbles (<1 μm) in the fuel particle are ˜94 nm, 1.05 × 10 20 m -3 and ˜11%, respectively. The results and their implication on the performance of the U 3Si 2/Al silicide dispersion fuel are discussed.

  10. Magnesium and Manganese Silicides For Efficient And Low Cost Thermo-Electric Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Trivedi, Sudhir B.; Kutcher, Susan W.; Rosemeier, Cory A.

    2013-12-02

    Thermoelectric Power Generation (TEPG) is the most efficient and commercially deployable power generation technology for harvesting wasted heat from such things as automobile exhausts, industrial furnaces, and incinerators, and converting it into usable electrical power. We investigated the materials magnesium silicide (Mg2Si) and manganese silicide (MnSi) for TEG. MgSi2 and MnSi are environmentally friendly, have constituent elements that are abundant in the earth's crust, non-toxic, lighter and cheaper. In Phase I, we successfully produced Mg2Si and MnSi material with good TE properties. We developed a novel technique to synthesize Mg2Si with good crystalline quality, which is normally very difficult duemore » to high Mg vapor pressure and its corrosive nature. We produced n-type Mg2Si and p-type MnSi nanocomposite pellets using FAST. Measurements of resistivity and voltage under a temperature gradient indicated a Seebeck coefficient of roughly 120 V/K on average per leg, which is quite respectable. Results indicated however, that issues related to bonding resulted in high resistivity contacts. Determining a bonding process and bonding material that can provide ohmic contact from room temperature to the operating temperature is an essential part of successful device fabrication. Work continues in the development of a process for reproducibly obtaining low resistance electrical contacts.« less

  11. Plasma-enhanced deposition and processing of transition metals and transition metal silicides for VLSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, D. W.

    1986-05-01

    Radiofrequency (rf) discharges have been used to deposit films of tungsten, molybdenum and titanium silicide. As-deposited tungsten films, from tungsten hexafluoride and hydrogen source gases, were metastable (beta W), with significant (>1 atomic percent) fluorine incorporation. Film resistivities were 40-55 micro ohm - cm due to the beta W, but dropped to about 8 micro ohm cm after a short heat treatment at 700 C which resulted in a phase transition to alpha W (bcc form). The high resistivity (>10,000 micro ohm) associated with molybdenum films deposited from molybdenum hexafluoride and hydrogen appeared to be a result of the formation of molybdenum trifluoride in the deposited material. Titanium silicide films formed from a discharge of titanium tetrachloride, silane, and hydrogen, displayed resistivities of about 150 micro ohm cm, due to small amounts of oxygen and chlorine incorporated during deposition. Plasma etching studies of tungsten films with fluorine containing gases suggest that the etchant species for tungsten in these discharges are fluorine atoms.

  12. Preliminary investigations on the use of uranium silicide targets for fission Mo-99 production

    SciTech Connect

    Cols, H.; Cristini, P.; Marques, R.

    1997-08-01

    The National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) of Argentine Republic owns and operates an installation for production of molybdenum-99 from fission products since 1985, and, since 1991, covers the whole national demand of this nuclide, carrying out a program of weekly productions, achieving an average activity of 13 terabecquerel per week. At present they are finishing an enlargement of the production plant that will allow an increase in the volume of production to about one hundred of terabecquerel. Irradiation targets are uranium/aluminium alloy with 90% enriched uranium with aluminium cladding. In view of international trends held at present for replacing highmore » enrichment uranium (HEU) for enrichment values lower than 20 % (LEU), since 1990 the authors are in contact with the RERTR program, beginning with tests to adapt their separation process to new irradiation target conditions. Uranium silicide (U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}) was chosen as the testing material, because it has an uranium mass per volume unit, so that it allows to reduce enrichment to a value of 20%. CNEA has the technology for manufacturing miniplates of uranium silicide for their purposes. In this way, equivalent amounts of Molybdenum-99 could be obtained with no substantial changes in target parameters and irradiation conditions established for the current process with Al/U alloy. This paper shows results achieved on the use of this new target.« less

  13. Uranium silicide pellet fabrication by powder metallurgy for accident tolerant fuel evaluation and irradiation

    DOE PAGES

    Harp, Jason Michael; Lessing, Paul Alan; Hoggan, Rita Elaine

    2015-06-21

    In collaboration with industry, Idaho National Laboratory is investigating uranium silicide for use in future light water reactor fuels as a more accident resistant alternative to uranium oxide base fuels. Specifically this project was focused on producing uranium silicide (U 3Si 2) pellets by conventional powder metallurgy with a density greater than 94% of the theoretical density. This work has produced a process to consistently produce pellets with the desired density through careful optimization of the process. Milling of the U 3Si 2 has been optimized and high phase purity U 3Si 2 has been successfully produced. Results are presentedmore » from sintering studies and microstructural examinations that illustrate the need for a finely ground reproducible particle size distribution in the source powder. The optimized process was used to produce pellets for the Accident Tolerant Fuel-1 irradiation experiment. The average density of these pellets was 11.54 ±0.06 g/cm 3. Additional characterization of the pellets by scaning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction has also been performed. As a result, pellets produced in this work have been encapsulated for irradiation, and irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor is expected soon.« less

  14. Electrical characterization of strained and unstrained silicon nanowires with nickel silicide contacts.

    PubMed

    Habicht, S; Zhao, Q T; Feste, S F; Knoll, L; Trellenkamp, S; Ghyselen, B; Mantl, S

    2010-03-12

    We present electrical characterization of nickel monosilicide (NiSi) contacts formed on strained and unstrained silicon nanowires (NWs), which were fabricated by top-down processing of initially As(+) implanted and activated strained and unstrained silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates. The resistivity of doped Si NWs and the contact resistivity of the NiSi to Si NW contacts are studied as functions of the As(+) ion implantation dose and the cross-sectional area of the wires. Strained silicon NWs show lower resistivity for all doping concentrations due to their enhanced electron mobility compared to the unstrained case. An increase in resistivity with decreasing cross section of the NWs was observed for all implantation doses. This is ascribed to the occurrence of dopant deactivation. Comparing the silicidation of uniaxially tensile strained and unstrained Si NWs shows no difference in silicidation speed and in contact resistivity between NiSi/Si NW. Contact resistivities as low as 1.2 x 10(-8) Omega cm(-2) were obtained for NiSi contacts to both strained and unstrained Si NWs. Compared to planar contacts, the NiSi/Si NW contact resistivity is two orders of magnitude lower.

  15. Interfacial structure of two-dimensional epitaxial Er silicide on Si(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuilier, M. H.; Wetzel, P.; Pirri, C.; Bolmont, D.; Gewinner, G.

    1994-07-01

    Auger-electron diffraction (AED) and surface-extended x-ray-absorption fine structure (SEXAFS) have been used to obtain a complete description of the atomic structure of a two-dimensional epitaxial Er silicide layer on Si(111). AED reveals that a monolayer of Er is located underneath a buckled Si double layer. The relevant Er-Si interlayer spacings are determined by means of single scattering cluster simulations and a R-factor analysis to be 1.92+/-0.05 Å to the first and 2.70+/-0.05 Å to the second Si top layer. Er near-neighbor bond lengths and coordination numbers are obtained independently from polarization-dependent SEXAFS. The SEXAFS data, when combined with the Si top-layer geometry inferred from AED, permit the determination of the atomic positions at the silicide/Si(111) interface. The Er is found to reside in relaxed T4 sites of Si(111) with a single Er-Si distance of 3.09+/-0.04 Å to the first- and second-layer Si atoms of the substrate.

  16. Kinetic analysis of the combustion synthesis of molybdenum and titanium silicides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lily L.; Munir, Z. A.

    1995-05-01

    The temperature profiles associated with the passage of self-propagating combustion waves during the synthesis of MoSi2 and Ti5Si3 were determined. From these profiles, kinetic analyses of the combustion synthesis process for these two silicides were made. The synthesis is associated with high heating rates: 1.3 × 104 and 4.9 × 104 K·s-1 for MoSi2 and Ti5Si3, respectively. The width of the combustion zone was determined as 1.3 and 1.8 mm for the silicides of Mo and Ti, respectively. The degree of conversion, η, and its spatial distribution and the conversion rate, ∂η/∂t, were determined. However, because of the inherent characteristics of wave propagation in MoSi2, only in the case of Ti5Si3 could the activation energy be calculated. An average value of 190 kJ µ mol-1 was determined for titanium suicide.

  17. Versatile Titanium Silicide Monolayers with Prominent Ferromagnetic, Catalytic, and Superconducting Properties: Theoretical Prediction.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qisheng; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Hao, Peipei; Ji, Zhongyang; Dong, Shuai; Ling, Chongyi; Chen, Qian; Wang, Jinlan

    2016-10-06

    On the basis of global structure search and density functional theory calculations, we predict a new class of two-dimensional (2D) materials, titanium silicide (Ti 2 Si, TiSi 2 , and TiSi 4 ) monolayers. They are proved to be energetically, dynamically, and thermally stable and own excellent mechanical properties. Among them, Ti 2 Si is a ferromagnetic metal with a magnetic moment of 1.37 μ B /cell, while TiSi 2 is an ideal catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction with a nearly zero free energy of hydrogen adsorption. More importantly, electron-phonon coupling calculations suggest that TiSi 4 is a robust 2D phonon-mediated superconductor with a transition temperature of 5.8 K, and the transition temperature can be enhanced up to 11.7 K under a suitable external strain. The versatility makes titanium silicide monolayers promising candidates for spintronic materials, hydrogen evolution catalysts, and 2D superconductors.

  18. Crystal structure of the ternary silicide Gd2Re3Si5.

    PubMed

    Fedyna, Vitaliia; Kozak, Roksolana; Gladyshevskii, Roman

    2014-12-01

    A single crystal of the title compound, the ternary silicide digadolinium trirhenium penta-silicide, Gd2Re3Si5, was isolated from an alloy of nominal composition Gd20Re30Si50 synthesized by arc melting and investigated by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. Its crystal structure belongs to the U2Mn3Si5 structure type. All atoms in the asymmetric lie on special positions. The Gd site has site symmetry m..; the two Mn atoms have site symmetries m.. and 2.22; the three Si atoms have site symmetries m.., ..2 and 4.. . The coordination polyhedra of the Gd atoms have 21 vertices, while those of the Re atoms are cubo-octa-hedra and 13-vertex polyhedra. The Si atoms are arranged as tricapped trigonal prisms, bicapped square anti-prisms, or 11-vertex polyhedra. The crystal structure of the title compound is also related to the structure types CaBe2Ge2 and W5Si3. It can be represented as a stacking of Gd-centred polyhedra of composition [GdSi9]. The Re atoms form infinite chains with an Re-Re distance of 2.78163 (5) Å and isolated squares with an Re-Re distance of 2.9683 (6) Å.

  19. Ultrashort channel silicon nanowire transistors with nickel silicide source/drain contacts.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wei; Dayeh, Shadi A; Picraux, S Tom; Huang, Jian Yu; Tu, King-Ning

    2012-08-08

    We demonstrate the shortest transistor channel length (17 nm) fabricated on a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) grown silicon nanowire (NW) by a controlled reaction with Ni leads on an in situ transmission electron microscope (TEM) heating stage at a moderate temperature of 400 °C. NiSi(2) is the leading phase, and the silicide-silicon interface is an atomically sharp type-A interface. At such channel lengths, high maximum on-currents of 890 (μA/μm) and a maximum transconductance of 430 (μS/μm) were obtained, which pushes forward the performance of bottom-up Si NW Schottky barrier field-effect transistors (SB-FETs). Through accurate control over the silicidation reaction, we provide a systematic study of channel length dependent carrier transport in a large number of SB-FETs with channel lengths in the range of 17 nm to 3.6 μm. Our device results corroborate with our transport simulations and reveal a characteristic type of short channel effects in SB-FETs, both in on- and off-state, which is different from that in conventional MOSFETs, and that limits transport parameter extraction from SB-FETs using conventional field-effect transconductance measurements.

  20. Uranium silicide pellet fabrication by powder metallurgy for accident tolerant fuel evaluation and irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Harp, Jason Michael; Lessing, Paul Alan; Hoggan, Rita Elaine

    In collaboration with industry, Idaho National Laboratory is investigating uranium silicide for use in future light water reactor fuels as a more accident resistant alternative to uranium oxide base fuels. Specifically this project was focused on producing uranium silicide (U 3Si 2) pellets by conventional powder metallurgy with a density greater than 94% of the theoretical density. This work has produced a process to consistently produce pellets with the desired density through careful optimization of the process. Milling of the U 3Si 2 has been optimized and high phase purity U 3Si 2 has been successfully produced. Results are presentedmore » from sintering studies and microstructural examinations that illustrate the need for a finely ground reproducible particle size distribution in the source powder. The optimized process was used to produce pellets for the Accident Tolerant Fuel-1 irradiation experiment. The average density of these pellets was 11.54 ±0.06 g/cm 3. Additional characterization of the pellets by scaning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction has also been performed. As a result, pellets produced in this work have been encapsulated for irradiation, and irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor is expected soon.« less

  1. Facile Preparation of a Platinum Silicide Nanoparticle-Modified Tip Apex for Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chun-Ting; Chen, Yu-Wei; Su, James; Wu, Chien-Ting; Hsiao, Chien-Nan; Shiao, Ming-Hua; Chang, Mao-Nan

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we propose an ultra-facile approach to prepare a platinum silicide nanoparticle-modified tip apex (PSM tip) used for scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM). We combined a localized fluoride-assisted galvanic replacement reaction (LFAGRR) and atmospheric microwave annealing (AMA) to deposit a single platinum silicide nanoparticle with a diameter of 32 nm on the apex of a bare silicon tip of atomic force microscopy (AFM). The total process was completed in an ambient environment in less than 3 min. The improved potential resolution in the SKPM measurement was verified. Moreover, the resolution of the topography is comparable to that of a bare silicon tip. In addition, the negative charges found on the PSM tips suggest the possibility of exploring the use of current PSM tips to sense electric fields more precisely. The ultra-fast and cost-effective preparation of the PSM tips provides a new direction for the preparation of functional tips for scanning probe microscopy.

  2. Crystal structure of the ternary silicide Gd2Re3Si5

    PubMed Central

    Fedyna, Vitaliia; Kozak, Roksolana; Gladyshevskii, Roman

    2014-01-01

    A single crystal of the title compound, the ternary silicide digadolinium trirhenium penta­silicide, Gd2Re3Si5, was isolated from an alloy of nominal composition Gd20Re30Si50 synthesized by arc melting and investigated by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. Its crystal structure belongs to the U2Mn3Si5 structure type. All atoms in the asymmetric lie on special positions. The Gd site has site symmetry m..; the two Mn atoms have site symmetries m.. and 2.22; the three Si atoms have site symmetries m.., ..2 and 4.. . The coordination polyhedra of the Gd atoms have 21 vertices, while those of the Re atoms are cubo­octa­hedra and 13-vertex polyhedra. The Si atoms are arranged as tricapped trigonal prisms, bicapped square anti­prisms, or 11-vertex polyhedra. The crystal structure of the title compound is also related to the structure types CaBe2Ge2 and W5Si3. It can be represented as a stacking of Gd-centred polyhedra of composition [GdSi9]. The Re atoms form infinite chains with an Re—Re distance of 2.78163 (5) Å and isolated squares with an Re—Re distance of 2.9683 (6) Å. PMID:25552967

  3. Kinetics of silicide formation over a wide range of heating rates spanning six orders of magnitude

    SciTech Connect

    Molina-Ruiz, Manel; Lopeandía, Aitor F.; Gonzalez-Silveira, Marta

    Kinetic processes involving intermediate phase formation are often assumed to follow an Arrhenius temperature dependence. This behavior is usually inferred from limited data over narrow temperature intervals, where the exponential dependence is generally fully satisfied. However, direct evidence over wide temperature intervals is experimentally challenging and data are scarce. Here, we report a study of silicide formation between a 12 nm film of palladium and 15 nm of amorphous silicon in a wide range of heating rates, spanning six orders of magnitude, from 0.1 to 10{sup 5 }K/s, or equivalently more than 300 K of variation in reaction temperature. The calorimetric traces exhibit severalmore » distinct exothermic events related to interdiffusion, nucleation of Pd{sub 2}Si, crystallization of amorphous silicon, and vertical growth of Pd{sub 2}Si. Interestingly, the thickness of the initial nucleation layer depends on the heating rate revealing enhanced mass diffusion at the fastest heating rates during the initial stages of the reaction. In spite of this, the formation of the silicide strictly follows an Arrhenius temperature dependence over the whole temperature interval explored. A kinetic model is used to fit the calorimetric data over the complete heating rate range. Calorimetry is complemented by structural analysis through transmission electron microscopy and both standard and in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction.« less

  4. Nucleation and atomic layer reaction in nickel silicide for defect-engineered Si nanochannels.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wei; Picraux, S Tom; Huang, Jian Yu; Gusak, Andriy M; Tu, King-Ning; Dayeh, Shadi A

    2013-06-12

    At the nanoscale, defects can significantly impact phase transformation processes and change materials properties. The material nickel silicide has been the industry standard electrical contact of silicon microelectronics for decades and is a rich platform for scientific innovation at the conjunction of materials and electronics. Its formation in nanoscale silicon devices that employ high levels of strain, intentional, and unintentional twins or grain boundaries can be dramatically different from the commonly conceived bulk processes. Here, using in situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), we capture single events during heterogeneous nucleation and atomic layer reaction of nickel silicide at various crystalline boundaries in Si nanochannels for the first time. We show through systematic experiments and analytical modeling that unlike other typical face-centered cubic materials such as copper or silicon the twin defects in NiSi2 have high interfacial energies. We observe that these twin defects dramatically change the behavior of new phase nucleation and can have direct implications for ultrascaled devices that are prone to defects or may utilize them to improve device performance.

  5. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O, CAS Reg. No. 006100-0905-096) is the potassium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O, CAS Reg. No. 006100-0905-096) is the potassium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O, CAS Reg. No. 006100-0905-096) is the potassium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O, CAS Reg. No. 006100-0905-096) is the potassium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric...

  9. Silicide phases formation in Co/c-Si and Co/a-Si systems during thermal annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novaković, M.; Popović, M.; Zhang, K.; Lieb, K. P.; Bibić, N.

    2014-03-01

    The effect of the interface in cobalt-silicon bilayers on the silicide phase formation and microstructure has been investigated. Thin cobalt films were deposited by electron beam evaporation to a thickness of 50 nm on crystalline silicon (c-Si) or silicon with pre-amorphized surface (a-Si). After deposition one set of samples was annealed for 2 h at 200, 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700 °C. Another set of samples was irradiated with 400 keV Xe+ ions and then annealed at the same temperatures. Phase transitions were investigated with Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. No silicide formation was observed up to 400 °C, for both non-irradiated and ion-irradiated samples. When increasing the annealing temperature, the non-irradiated and irradiated Co/c-Si samples showed a similar behaviour: at 500 °C, CoSi appeared as the dominant silicide, followed by the formation of CoSi2 at 600 and 700 °C. In the case of non-irradiated Co/a-Si samples, no silicide formation occurred up to 700 °C, while irradiated samples with pre-amorphized substrate (Co/a-Si) showed a phase sequence similar to that in the Co/c-Si system. The observed phase transitions are found to be consistent with predictions of the effective heat of formation model.

  10. Aluminium alloyed iron-silicide/silicon solar cells: A simple approach for low cost environmental-friendly photovoltaic technology.

    PubMed

    Kumar Dalapati, Goutam; Masudy-Panah, Saeid; Kumar, Avishek; Cheh Tan, Cheng; Ru Tan, Hui; Chi, Dongzhi

    2015-12-03

    This work demonstrates the fabrication of silicide/silicon based solar cell towards the development of low cost and environmental friendly photovoltaic technology. A heterostructure solar cells using metallic alpha phase (α-phase) aluminum alloyed iron silicide (FeSi(Al)) on n-type silicon is fabricated with an efficiency of 0.8%. The fabricated device has an open circuit voltage and fill-factor of 240 mV and 60%, respectively. Performance of the device was improved by about 7 fold to 5.1% through the interface engineering. The α-phase FeSi(Al)/silicon solar cell devices have promising photovoltaic characteristic with an open circuit voltage, short-circuit current and a fill factor (FF) of 425 mV, 18.5 mA/cm(2), and 64%, respectively. The significant improvement of α-phase FeSi(Al)/n-Si solar cells is due to the formation p(+-)n homojunction through the formation of re-grown crystalline silicon layer (~5-10 nm) at the silicide/silicon interface. Thickness of the regrown silicon layer is crucial for the silicide/silicon based photovoltaic devices. Performance of the α-FeSi(Al)/n-Si solar cells significantly depends on the thickness of α-FeSi(Al) layer and process temperature during the device fabrication. This study will open up new opportunities for the Si based photovoltaic technology using a simple, sustainable, and los cost method.

  11. In situ micro-Raman analysis and X-ray diffraction of nickel silicide thin films on silicon.

    PubMed

    Bhaskaran, M; Sriram, S; Perova, T S; Ermakov, V; Thorogood, G J; Short, K T; Holland, A S

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on the in situ analysis of nickel silicide (NiSi) thin films formed by thermal processing of nickel thin films deposited on silicon substrates. The in situ techniques employed for this study include micro-Raman spectroscopy (microRS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD); in both cases the variations for temperatures up to 350 degrees C has been studied. Nickel silicide thin films formed by vacuum annealing of nickel on silicon were used as a reference for these measurements. In situ analysis was carried out on nickel thin films on silicon, while the samples were heated from room temperature to 350 degrees C. Data was gathered at regular temperature intervals and other specific points of interest (such as 250 degrees C, where the reaction between nickel and silicon to form Ni(2)Si is expected). The transformations from the metallic state, through the intermediate reaction states, until the desired metal-silicon reaction product is attained, are discussed. The evolution of nickel silicide from the nickel film can be observed from both the microRS and XRD in situ studies. Variations in the evolution of silicide from metal for different silicon substrates are discussed, and these include (100) n-type, (100) p-type, and (110) p-type silicon substrates.

  12. Fabrication of Ni-silicide/Si heterostructured nanowire arrays by glancing angle deposition and solid state reaction.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsun-Feng; Huang, Wan-Ru; Chen, Ting-Hsuan; Wu, Hwang-Yuan; Chen, Chun-An

    2013-05-10

    This work develops a method for growing Ni-silicide/Si heterostructured nanowire arrays by glancing angle Ni deposition and solid state reaction on ordered Si nanowire arrays. Samples of ordered Si nanowire arrays were fabricated by nanosphere lithography and metal-induced catalytic etching. Glancing angle Ni deposition deposited Ni only on the top of Si nanowires. When the annealing temperature was 500°C, a Ni3Si2 phase was formed at the apex of the nanowires. The phase of silicide at the Ni-silicide/Si interface depended on the diameter of the Si nanowires, such that epitaxial NiSi2 with a {111} facet was formed at the Ni-silicide/Si interface in Si nanowires with large diameter, and NiSi was formed in Si nanowires with small diameter. A mechanism that is based on flux divergence and a nucleation-limited reaction is proposed to explain this phenomenon of size-dependent phase formation.

  13. Fabrication of Ni-silicide/Si heterostructured nanowire arrays by glancing angle deposition and solid state reaction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This work develops a method for growing Ni-silicide/Si heterostructured nanowire arrays by glancing angle Ni deposition and solid state reaction on ordered Si nanowire arrays. Samples of ordered Si nanowire arrays were fabricated by nanosphere lithography and metal-induced catalytic etching. Glancing angle Ni deposition deposited Ni only on the top of Si nanowires. When the annealing temperature was 500°C, a Ni3Si2 phase was formed at the apex of the nanowires. The phase of silicide at the Ni-silicide/Si interface depended on the diameter of the Si nanowires, such that epitaxial NiSi2 with a {111} facet was formed at the Ni-silicide/Si interface in Si nanowires with large diameter, and NiSi was formed in Si nanowires with small diameter. A mechanism that is based on flux divergence and a nucleation-limited reaction is proposed to explain this phenomenon of size-dependent phase formation. PMID:23663726

  14. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Potassium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. 21 CFR 582.7610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 582.7610 Section 582.7610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium alginate. (a) Product. Potassium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  16. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food... ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely used as a curing agent in the processing of cod...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 582.1619 Section 582.1619 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Product. Potassium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  18. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium content...

  19. 21 CFR 182.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 182.3616 Section 182.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  1. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  2. 21 CFR 582.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 582.3640 Section 582.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3640 Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 582.1619 Section 582.1619 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Product. Potassium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  4. 21 CFR 182.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 182.3640 Section 182.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  5. 21 CFR 582.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 582.3640 Section 582.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3640 Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 582.5634 Section 582.5634 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent. (c...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  9. 21 CFR 182.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 182.3637 Section 182.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations...

  10. 21 CFR 172.730 - Potassium bromate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium bromate. 172.730 Section 172.730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.730 Potassium bromate. The food additive potassium bromate may be...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 582.1619 Section 582.1619 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Product. Potassium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  12. 21 CFR 182.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 182.3637 Section 182.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 582.1619 Section 582.1619 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Product. Potassium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  14. 21 CFR 582.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 582.3637 Section 582.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations...

  15. 21 CFR 182.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 182.3616 Section 182.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations...

  16. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium content...

  17. 21 CFR 582.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 582.3616 Section 582.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  19. 21 CFR 582.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 582.3640 Section 582.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3640 Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  20. 21 CFR 182.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 182.3616 Section 182.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Potassium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  3. 21 CFR 182.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 182.3637 Section 182.3637...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This...

  4. 21 CFR 182.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium metabisulfite. 182.3637 Section 182.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations...

  5. 21 CFR 582.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 582.3637 Section 582.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations...

  6. 21 CFR 582.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 582.3616 Section 582.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Potassium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 21 CFR 582.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 582.3637 Section 582.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations...

  9. 21 CFR 182.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 182.3640 Section 182.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  11. 21 CFR 182.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 182.3640 Section 182.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  12. 21 CFR 582.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 582.3616 Section 582.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations...

  13. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Food Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely used...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Potassium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  16. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely used as a curing...

  17. 21 CFR 582.7610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 582.7610 Section 582.7610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium alginate. (a) Product. Potassium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  18. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium content...

  19. 21 CFR 582.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 582.3637 Section 582.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations...

  20. 21 CFR 182.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium bisulfite. 182.3616 Section 182.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations, restrictions, or...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  3. 21 CFR 182.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium sorbate. 182.3640 Section 182.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  4. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  5. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  7. 21 CFR 582.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 582.3637 Section 582.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  9. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  11. 21 CFR 582.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 582.3640 Section 582.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3640 Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  12. 21 CFR 182.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 182.3640 Section 182.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3640 Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Potassium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  14. 21 CFR 182.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 182.3616 Section 182.3616...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance is...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 582.5634 Section 582.5634 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent. (c...

  16. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Food Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely used...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 582.1619 Section 582.1619 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Product. Potassium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  19. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  20. 21 CFR 582.7610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 582.7610 Section 582.7610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium alginate. (a) Product. Potassium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  1. 21 CFR 582.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 582.3640 Section 582.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3640 Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  2. 21 CFR 182.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 182.3637 Section 182.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  4. 21 CFR 582.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 582.3616 Section 582.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations...

  5. 21 CFR 582.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 582.3616 Section 582.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations...

  6. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Food Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely used...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5628 - Potassium glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium glycerophosphate. 582.5628 Section 582.5628 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5628 Potassium glycerophosphate. (a) Product. Potassium glycerophosphate. (b...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5628 - Potassium glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium glycerophosphate. 582.5628 Section 582.5628 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5628 Potassium glycerophosphate. (a) Product. Potassium glycerophosphate. (b...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5628 - Potassium glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium glycerophosphate. 582.5628 Section 582.5628 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5628 Potassium glycerophosphate. (a) Product. Potassium glycerophosphate. (b...

  11. 21 CFR 582.5628 - Potassium glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium glycerophosphate. 582.5628 Section 582.5628 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5628 Potassium glycerophosphate. (a) Product. Potassium glycerophosphate. (b...

  12. 21 CFR 582.5628 - Potassium glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium glycerophosphate. 582.5628 Section 582.5628 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5628 Potassium glycerophosphate. (a) Product. Potassium glycerophosphate. (b...

  13. Highly efficient phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode with a nanometer-thick Ni silicide/polycrystalline p-Si composite anode.

    PubMed

    Li, Y Z; Wang, Z L; Luo, H; Wang, Y Z; Xu, W J; Ran, G Z; Qin, G G; Zhao, W Q; Liu, H

    2010-07-19

    A phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode (PhOLED) with a nanometer-thick (approximately 10 nm) Ni silicide/ polycrystalline p-Si composite anode is reported. The structure of the PhOLED is Al mirror/ glass substrate / Si isolation layer / Ni silicide / polycrystalline p-Si/ V(2)O(5)/ NPB/ CBP: (ppy)(2)Ir(acac)/ Bphen/ Bphen: Cs(2)CO(3)/ Sm/ Au/ BCP. In the composite anode, the Ni-induced polycrystalline p-Si layer injects holes into the V(2)O(5)/ NPB, and the Ni silicide layer reduces the sheet resistance of the composite anode and thus the series resistance of the PhOLED. By adopting various measures for specially optimizing the thickness of the Ni layer, which induces Si crystallization and forms a Ni silicide layer of appropriate thickness, the highest external quantum efficiency and power conversion efficiency have been raised to 26% and 11%, respectively.

  14. The inhibitory effects of potassium chloride versus potassium silicate application on (137)Cs uptake by rice.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Shigeto; Yoshioka, Kunio; Ota, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Sato, Makoto; Satou, Mutsuto

    2016-03-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant owned by the Tokyo Electric Power Company on 11 March 2011, potassium fertilizer was applied to agricultural fields in the southern Tohoku and northern Kanto regions of Japan to reduce the uptake of radiocesium by crops. In this study, we examined the effects of two types of potassium fertilizers, potassium chloride (a readily available potassium fertilizer) and potassium silicate (a slow-release potassium fertilizer), as well as a split application of potassium, on the accumulation of (137)Cs by rice plants in two pot experiments. The (137)Cs concentrations in the brown rice and in the above-ground plants were significantly lower after potassium chloride application than after potassium silicate application. The potassium ion (K(+)) concentrations in soil solutions sampled 9 and 21 d after transplanting were significantly higher for the potassium chloride application than for the potassium silicate application. The K(+) concentrations in soil solutions observed in the application of potassium silicate were similar to those in the treatment when no potassium was applied. This finding indicates that the application of potassium silicate did not sufficiently increase the available K(+) for rice plants in the soil, which led to a greater uptake of (137)Cs after the potassium silicate application than after the application of potassium chloride. The (137)Cs concentration in brown rice was higher in the split application of potassium fertilizer with the second application at the full heading stage than that without split application and the split application with the second application before heading. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Improvement of heavy dopant doped Ni-silicide using ytterbium interlayer for nano-scale MOSFETS with an ultra shallow junction.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hong-Sik; Oh, Se-Kyung; Kang, Min-Ho; Li, Shi-Guang; Lee, Ga-Won; Lee, Hi-Deok

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, a novel Ni silicide with Yb interlayer (Yb/Ni/TiN) on a boron cluster (B18H22) implanted source/drain junction is proposed for the first time, and its thermal stability characteristics are analyzed in depth. The proposed Ni-silicide exhibits a wider RTP temperature window for uniform sheet resistance, surface roughness and better thermal stability than the conventional structure (Ni/TiN). In addition, the cross-sectional profile of the proposed Ni-silicide showed less agglomeration despite the high temperature post-silicidation annealing, and it can be said that the proposed structure was little dependence on the temperature post-silicidation annealing. The improvement of Ni silicide properties is analyzed and found to be due to the formation of the rare earth metal--NiSi (YbNi2Si2), whose peaks were confirmed by XRD. The junction leakage current of the p + -n junction with Yb/Ni/TiN and B18H22 implantation is smaller than that with Ni/TiN by almost one order of magnitude as well as improving the thermal stability of ultra shallow junction.

  16. Template-directed atomically precise self-organization of perfectly ordered parallel cerium silicide nanowire arrays on Si(110)-16 × 2 surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ie-Hong; Liao, Yung-Cheng; Tsai, Yung-Feng

    2013-11-05

    The perfectly ordered parallel arrays of periodic Ce silicide nanowires can self-organize with atomic precision on single-domain Si(110)-16 × 2 surfaces. The growth evolution of self-ordered parallel Ce silicide nanowire arrays is investigated over a broad range of Ce coverages on single-domain Si(110)-16 × 2 surfaces by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Three different types of well-ordered parallel arrays, consisting of uniformly spaced and atomically identical Ce silicide nanowires, are self-organized through the heteroepitaxial growth of Ce silicides on a long-range grating-like 16 × 2 reconstruction at the deposition of various Ce coverages. Each atomically precise Ce silicide nanowire consists of a bundle of chains and rows with different atomic structures. The atomic-resolution dual-polarity STM images reveal that the interchain coupling leads to the formation of the registry-aligned chain bundles within individual Ce silicide nanowire. The nanowire width and the interchain coupling can be adjusted systematically by varying the Ce coverage on a Si(110) surface. This natural template-directed self-organization of perfectly regular parallel nanowire arrays allows for the precise control of the feature size and positions within ±0.2 nm over a large area. Thus, it is a promising route to produce parallel nanowire arrays in a straightforward, low-cost, high-throughput process.

  17. Template-directed atomically precise self-organization of perfectly ordered parallel cerium silicide nanowire arrays on Si(110)-16 × 2 surfaces

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The perfectly ordered parallel arrays of periodic Ce silicide nanowires can self-organize with atomic precision on single-domain Si(110)-16 × 2 surfaces. The growth evolution of self-ordered parallel Ce silicide nanowire arrays is investigated over a broad range of Ce coverages on single-domain Si(110)-16 × 2 surfaces by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Three different types of well-ordered parallel arrays, consisting of uniformly spaced and atomically identical Ce silicide nanowires, are self-organized through the heteroepitaxial growth of Ce silicides on a long-range grating-like 16 × 2 reconstruction at the deposition of various Ce coverages. Each atomically precise Ce silicide nanowire consists of a bundle of chains and rows with different atomic structures. The atomic-resolution dual-polarity STM images reveal that the interchain coupling leads to the formation of the registry-aligned chain bundles within individual Ce silicide nanowire. The nanowire width and the interchain coupling can be adjusted systematically by varying the Ce coverage on a Si(110) surface. This natural template-directed self-organization of perfectly regular parallel nanowire arrays allows for the precise control of the feature size and positions within ±0.2 nm over a large area. Thus, it is a promising route to produce parallel nanowire arrays in a straightforward, low-cost, high-throughput process. PMID:24188092

  18. Investigating phase transition temperatures of size separated gadolinium silicide magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunagund, Shivakumar G.; Harstad, Shane M.; El-Gendy, Ahmed A.; Gupta, Shalabh; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Hadimani, Ravi L.

    2018-05-01

    Gadolinium silicide (Gd5Si4) nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit different properties compared to their parent bulk materials due to finite size, shape, and surface effects. NPs were prepared by high energy ball-milling of the as-cast Gd5Si4 ingot and size separated into eight fractions using time sensitive sedimentation in an applied dc magnetic field with average particle sizes ranging from 700 nm to 82 nm. The largest Gd5Si4 NPs order ferromagnetically at 316 K. A second anomaly observed at 110 K can be ascribed to a Gd5Si3 impurity. As the particle sizes decrease, the volume fraction of Gd5Si3 phase increases at the expense of the Gd5Si4 phase, and the ferromagnetic transition temperature of Gd5Si4 is reduced from 316 K to 310 K, while the ordering of the minor phase is independent of the particle size, remaining at 110 K.

  19. Modified fused silicide coatings for tantalum (Ta-10W) reentry heat shields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packer, C. M.; Perkins, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Results are presented of a program of research to develop a reliable, high performance, fused slurry silicide coating for the Ta-10W alloy. The effort was directed toward developing new and improved formulations for use at 2600 to 2800 F (1700 to 1811 K) in an atmospheric reentry thermal protection system with a 100-mission capability. Based on a thorough characterization of isothermal and cyclic oxidation behavior, bend transition temperatures, room- and elevated-temperature tensile properties, and creep behavior, a 2.5 Mn-33Ti-64.5Si coating (designated MTS) provides excellent protection for the Ta-10W alloy in simulated reentry environments. An extensive analysis of the oxidation behavior and characteristics of the MTS coating in terms of fundamental mechanisms also is presented.

  20. Friction and wear of radiofrequency-sputtered borides, silicides, and carbides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainard, W. A.; Wheeler, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    The friction and wear properties of several refractory compound coatings were examined. These compounds were applied to 440 C bearing steel surfaces by radiofrequency (RF) sputtering. The refractory compounds were the titanium and molybdenum borides, the titanium and molybdenum silicides, and the titanium, molybdenum, and boron carbides. Friction testing was done with a pin-on-disk wear apparatus at loads from 0.1 to 5.0 newtons. Generally, the best wear properties were obtained when the coatings were bias sputtered onto 440 C disks that had been preoxidized. Adherence was improved because of the better bonding of the coatings to the iron oxide formed during preoxidation. As a class the carbides provided wear protection to the highest loads. Titanium boride coatings provided low friction and good wear properties to moderate loads.

  1. Fused slurry silicide coatings for columbium alloys reentry heat shields. Volume 1: Evaluation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, B.

    1973-01-01

    The R-512E (Si-20Cr-20Fe) fused slurry silicide coating process was optimized to coat full size (20in x 20in) single face rib and corrugation stiffened panels fabricated from FS-85 columbium alloy for 100 mission space shuttle heat shield applications. Structural life under simulated space shuttle lift-off stresses and reentry conditions demonstrated reuse capability well beyond 100 flights for R-512E coated FS-85 columbium heat shield panels. Demonstrated coating damage tolerance showed no immediate structural failure on exposure. The FS-85 columbium alloy was selected from five candidate alloys (Cb-752, C-129Y, WC-3015, B-66 and FS-85) based on the evaluation tests which have designed to determine: (1) change in material properties due to coating and reuse; (2) alloy tolerance to coating damage; (3) coating emittance characteristics under reuse conditions; and (4) new coating chemistries for improved coating life.

  2. Hydrogen generation systems and methods utilizing sodium silicide and sodium silica gel materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, Andrew P.; Melack, John M.; Lefenfeld, Michael

    Systems, devices, and methods combine thermally stable reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen and a non-toxic liquid by-product. The reactant materials can sodium silicide or sodium silica gel. The hydrogen generation devices are used in fuels cells and other industrial applications. One system combines cooling, pumping, water storage, and other devices to sense and control reactions between reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. Springs and other pressurization mechanisms pressurize and deliver an aqueous solution to the reaction. A check valve and other pressure regulation mechanisms regulate the pressure of the aqueous solution delivered to the reactantmore » fuel material in the reactor based upon characteristics of the pressurization mechanisms and can regulate the pressure of the delivered aqueous solution as a steady decay associated with the pressurization force. The pressure regulation mechanism can also prevent hydrogen gas from deflecting the pressure regulation mechanism.« less

  3. Hydrogen generation systems utilizing sodium silicide and sodium silica gel materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, Andrew P.; Melack, John M.; Lefenfeld, Michael

    Systems, devices, and methods combine reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The reactant materials can sodium silicide or sodium silica gel. The hydrogen generation devices are used in fuels cells and other industrial applications. One system combines cooling, pumping, water storage, and other devices to sense and control reactions between reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. Multiple inlets of varied placement geometries deliver aqueous solution to the reaction. The reactant materials and aqueous solution are churned to control the state of the reaction. The aqueous solution can be recycled and returned to the reaction. One systemmore » operates over a range of temperatures and pressures and includes a hydrogen separator, a heat removal mechanism, and state of reaction control devices. The systems, devices, and methods of generating hydrogen provide thermally stable solids, near-instant reaction with the aqueous solutions, and a non-toxic liquid by-product.« less

  4. Comparative study of metallic silicide-germanide orthorhombic MnP systems.

    PubMed

    Connétable, Damien; Thomas, Olivier

    2013-09-04

    We present a comparative study of the structural, energetic, electronic and elastic properties of MX type MnP systems (where X=Si or Ge, and M=Pt, Pd or Ni) using first-principles calculations. The optimized ground state properties of these systems are in excellent agreement with the experimental values. A detailed comparative study of the elastic properties of polycrystalline structures is also presented. We analyze the relationship between the composition and the properties of the systems. Finally, we present the properties of NiSi1-xGex alloys. We show that these properties depend linearly on the Ge content of the alloy. This work has important consequences for semiconductor devices in which silicides, germanides and alloys thereof are used as contact materials.

  5. Hydrogen generation systems and methods utilizing sodium silicide and sodium silica gel materials

    DOEpatents

    Wallace, Andrew P.; Melack, John M.; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2015-08-11

    Systems, devices, and methods combine thermally stable reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen and a non-toxic liquid by-product. The reactant materials can sodium silicide or sodium silica gel. The hydrogen generation devices are used in fuels cells and other industrial applications. One system combines cooling, pumping, water storage, and other devices to sense and control reactions between reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. Springs and other pressurization mechanisms pressurize and deliver an aqueous solution to the reaction. A check valve and other pressure regulation mechanisms regulate the pressure of the aqueous solution delivered to the reactant fuel material in the reactor based upon characteristics of the pressurization mechanisms and can regulate the pressure of the delivered aqueous solution as a steady decay associated with the pressurization force. The pressure regulation mechanism can also prevent hydrogen gas from deflecting the pressure regulation mechanism.

  6. Fabrication and RF characterization of a single nickel silicide nanowire for an interconnect.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dongjin; Kang, Myunggil; Hong, Suheon; Hwang, Donghoon; Heo, Keun; Joo, Won-Jae; Kim, Sangsig; Whang, Dongmok; Hwang, Sung Woo

    2013-09-01

    We fabricated a nickel silicide nanowire (NiSi NW) device with a low thermal budget and characterized it by measuring the S-parameters in the radio-frequency (RF) regime. A single silicon nanowire (Si NW) was assembled on a substrate with a two-port coplanar waveguide structure using the dielectrophoresis method. Then, the Si NW on the device was perfectly transformed into a NiSi NW. The NiSi NW device was characterized by performing measurements in the DC and RF regimes. The transformation into the NiSi NW resulted in reducing about three-order more the resistance than before the transformation. Hence, the transmission of the NiSi NW device was 25 dB higher than that of the Si NW device up to gigahertz. We also discussed extracting the intrinsic properties of the NiSi NW by using de-embedding, circuit modeling, and simulation.

  7. Hydrogen generation systems utilizing sodium silicide and sodium silica gel materials

    DOEpatents

    Wallace, Andrew P.; Melack, John M.; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2015-07-14

    Systems, devices, and methods combine reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The reactant materials can sodium silicide or sodium silica gel. The hydrogen generation devices are used in fuels cells and other industrial applications. One system combines cooling, pumping, water storage, and other devices to sense and control reactions between reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. Multiple inlets of varied placement geometries deliver aqueous solution to the reaction. The reactant materials and aqueous solution are churned to control the state of the reaction. The aqueous solution can be recycled and returned to the reaction. One system operates over a range of temperatures and pressures and includes a hydrogen separator, a heat removal mechanism, and state of reaction control devices. The systems, devices, and methods of generating hydrogen provide thermally stable solids, near-instant reaction with the aqueous solutions, and a non-toxic liquid by-product.

  8. Thermoelectric properties of higher manganese silicide/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites.

    PubMed

    Truong, D Y Nhi; Kleinke, Holger; Gascoin, Franck

    2014-10-28

    Composites made of Higher Manganese Silicide (HMS)-based compound MnSi1.75Ge0.02 and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were prepared by an easy and effective method including mechanical milling under mild conditions and reactive spark plasma sintering. SEM compositional mappings show a homogeneous dispersion of MWCNTs in the HMS matrix. Electronic and thermal transport properties were measured from room temperature to 875 K. While power factors are virtually unchanged by the addition of MWCNTs, the lattice thermal conductivity is significantly reduced by about 30%. As a consequence, the maximum figure of merit for the composites with 1 wt% MWCNTs is improved by about 20% compared to the MWCNT free HMS-based sample.

  9. Potassium Intake, Bioavailability, Hypertension, and Glucose Control

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Michael S.; Martyn, Lisa; Weaver, Connie M.

    2016-01-01

    Potassium is an essential nutrient. It is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid where it plays a key role in maintaining cell function. The gradient of potassium across the cell membrane determines cellular membrane potential, which is maintained in large part by the ubiquitous ion channel the sodium-potassium (Na+-K+) ATPase pump. Approximately 90% of potassium consumed (60–100 mEq) is lost in the urine, with the other 10% excreted in the stool, and a very small amount lost in sweat. Little is known about the bioavailability of potassium, especially from dietary sources. Less is understood on how bioavailability may affect health outcomes. Hypertension (HTN) is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and a major financial burden ($50.6 billion) to the US public health system, and has a significant impact on all-cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. The relationship between increased potassium supplementation and a decrease in HTN is relatively well understood, but the effect of increased potassium intake from dietary sources on blood pressure overall is less clear. In addition, treatment options for hypertensive individuals (e.g., thiazide diuretics) may further compound chronic disease risk via impairments in potassium utilization and glucose control. Understanding potassium bioavailability from various sources may help to reveal how specific compounds and tissues influence potassium movement, and further the understanding of its role in health. PMID:27455317

  10. Potassium Intake, Bioavailability, Hypertension, and Glucose Control.

    PubMed

    Stone, Michael S; Martyn, Lisa; Weaver, Connie M

    2016-07-22

    Potassium is an essential nutrient. It is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid where it plays a key role in maintaining cell function. The gradient of potassium across the cell membrane determines cellular membrane potential, which is maintained in large part by the ubiquitous ion channel the sodium-potassium (Na+-K+) ATPase pump. Approximately 90% of potassium consumed (60-100 mEq) is lost in the urine, with the other 10% excreted in the stool, and a very small amount lost in sweat. Little is known about the bioavailability of potassium, especially from dietary sources. Less is understood on how bioavailability may affect health outcomes. Hypertension (HTN) is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and a major financial burden ($50.6 billion) to the US public health system, and has a significant impact on all-cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. The relationship between increased potassium supplementation and a decrease in HTN is relatively well understood, but the effect of increased potassium intake from dietary sources on blood pressure overall is less clear. In addition, treatment options for hypertensive individuals (e.g., thiazide diuretics) may further compound chronic disease risk via impairments in potassium utilization and glucose control. Understanding potassium bioavailability from various sources may help to reveal how specific compounds and tissues influence potassium movement, and further the understanding of its role in health.

  11. Intermetallic nickel silicide nanocatalyst—A non-noble metal–based general hydrogenation catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Pohl, Marga-Martina; Agapova, Anastasiya

    2018-01-01

    Hydrogenation reactions are essential processes in the chemical industry, giving access to a variety of valuable compounds including fine chemicals, agrochemicals, and pharmachemicals. On an industrial scale, hydrogenations are typically performed with precious metal catalysts or with base metal catalysts, such as Raney nickel, which requires special handling due to its pyrophoric nature. We report a stable and highly active intermetallic nickel silicide catalyst that can be used for hydrogenations of a wide range of unsaturated compounds. The catalyst is prepared via a straightforward procedure using SiO2 as the silicon atom source. The process involves thermal reduction of Si–O bonds in the presence of Ni nanoparticles at temperatures below 1000°C. The presence of silicon as a secondary component in the nickel metal lattice plays the key role in its properties and is of crucial importance for improved catalytic activity. This novel catalyst allows for efficient reduction of nitroarenes, carbonyls, nitriles, N-containing heterocycles, and unsaturated carbon–carbon bonds. Moreover, the reported catalyst can be used for oxidation reactions in the presence of molecular oxygen and is capable of promoting acceptorless dehydrogenation of unsaturated N-containing heterocycles, opening avenues for H2 storage in organic compounds. The generality of the nickel silicide catalyst is demonstrated in the hydrogenation of over a hundred of structurally diverse unsaturated compounds. The wide application scope and high catalytic activity of this novel catalyst make it a nice alternative to known general hydrogenation catalysts, such as Raney nickel and noble metal–based catalysts. PMID:29888329

  12. Intermetallic nickel silicide nanocatalyst-A non-noble metal-based general hydrogenation catalyst.

    PubMed

    Ryabchuk, Pavel; Agostini, Giovanni; Pohl, Marga-Martina; Lund, Henrik; Agapova, Anastasiya; Junge, Henrik; Junge, Kathrin; Beller, Matthias

    2018-06-01

    Hydrogenation reactions are essential processes in the chemical industry, giving access to a variety of valuable compounds including fine chemicals, agrochemicals, and pharmachemicals. On an industrial scale, hydrogenations are typically performed with precious metal catalysts or with base metal catalysts, such as Raney nickel, which requires special handling due to its pyrophoric nature. We report a stable and highly active intermetallic nickel silicide catalyst that can be used for hydrogenations of a wide range of unsaturated compounds. The catalyst is prepared via a straightforward procedure using SiO 2 as the silicon atom source. The process involves thermal reduction of Si-O bonds in the presence of Ni nanoparticles at temperatures below 1000°C. The presence of silicon as a secondary component in the nickel metal lattice plays the key role in its properties and is of crucial importance for improved catalytic activity. This novel catalyst allows for efficient reduction of nitroarenes, carbonyls, nitriles, N-containing heterocycles, and unsaturated carbon-carbon bonds. Moreover, the reported catalyst can be used for oxidation reactions in the presence of molecular oxygen and is capable of promoting acceptorless dehydrogenation of unsaturated N-containing heterocycles, opening avenues for H 2 storage in organic compounds. The generality of the nickel silicide catalyst is demonstrated in the hydrogenation of over a hundred of structurally diverse unsaturated compounds. The wide application scope and high catalytic activity of this novel catalyst make it a nice alternative to known general hydrogenation catalysts, such as Raney nickel and noble metal-based catalysts.

  13. Discovery of Brownleeite: a New Manganese Silicide Mineral in an Interplanetary Dust Particle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Lindsay P.; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko; Clemett, Simon J.; Messenger, Scott; Jones, John H.; Palma, Russell L.; Pepin, Robert O.; Klock, Wolfgang; Zolensky, Michael E.; Tatsuoka, Hirokazu

    2011-01-01

    The Earth accretes approximately 40,000 tons of cosmic dust annually, originating mainly from the disintegration of comets and collisions among asteroids. This cosmic dust, also known as interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), is a subject of intense interest since it is made of the original building blocks of our Solar System. Although the specific parent bodies of IDPs are unknown, the anhydrous chondritic-porous IDPs (CP-IDPs) subset has been potentially linked to a cometary source. The CP-IDPs are extremely primitive materials based on their unequilibrated mineralogy, C-rich chemistry, and anomalous isotopic signatures. In particular, some CP-IDPs escaped the thermal, aqueous and impact shock processing that has modified or destroyed the original mineralogy of meteorites. Thus, the CP-IDPs represent some of the most primitive solar system materials available for laboratory study. Most CP-IDPs are comprised of minerals that are common on Earth. However, in the course of an examination of one of the CP-IDPs, we encountered three sub-micrometer sized grains of manganese silicide (MnSi), a phase that has heretofore not been found in nature. In the seminar, we would like to focus on IDP studies and this manganese silicide phase that has been approved as the first new mineral identified from a comet by the International Mineralogical Association (IMA) in 2008. The mineral is named in honour of Donald E. Brownlee, an American astronomer and a founder of the field of cosmic dust research who is the principal investigator of the NASA Stardust Mission that collected dust samples from Comet 81P/Wild-2 and returned them to Earth. Much of our current view and understanding of the early solar system would not exist without the pioneering work of professor Don Brownlee in the study of IDPs.

  14. Rate Theory Modeling and Simulations of Silicide Fuel at LWR Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, Yinbin; Ye, Bei; Mei, Zhigang

    Uranium silicide (U 3Si 2) fuel has higher thermal conductivity and higher uranium density, making it a promising candidate for the accident-tolerant fuel (ATF) used in light water reactors (LWRs). However, previous studies on the fuel performance of U 3Si 2, including both experimental and computational approaches, have been focusing on the irradiation conditions in research reactors, which usually involve low operation temperatures and high fuel burnups. Thus, it is important to examine the fuel performance of U 3Si 2 at typical LWR conditions so as to evaluate the feasibility of replacing conventional uranium dioxide fuel with this silicide fuelmore » material. As in-reactor irradiation experiments involve significant time and financial cost, it is appropriate to utilize modeling tools to estimate the behavior of U 3Si 2 in LWRs based on all those available research reactor experimental references and state-of-the-art density functional theory (DFT) calculation capabilities at the early development stage. Hence, in this report, a comprehensive investigation of the fission gas swelling behavior of U 3Si 2 at LWR conditions is introduced. The modeling efforts mentioned in this report was based on the rate theory (RT) model of fission gas bubble evolution that has been successfully applied for a variety of fuel materials at devious reactor conditions. Both existing experimental data and DFT-calculated results were used for the optimization of the parameters adopted by the RT model. Meanwhile, the fuel-cladding interaction was captured by the coupling of the RT model with simplified mechanical correlations. Therefore, the swelling behavior of U 3Si 2 fuel and its consequent interaction with cladding in LWRs was predicted by the rate theory modeling, providing valuable information for the development of U 3Si 2 fuel as an accident-tolerant alternative for uranium dioxide.« less

  15. Deliquescence Measurements of Potassium Salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freney, E. J.; Martin, S. T.; Buseck, P. R.

    2007-12-01

    Potassium compounds such as KCl, K2SO4, and KNO3 are salts resulting from biomass burning. With time the number of aerosol particles containing KCl decreases, and the number of particles containing KNO3 and K2SO4 increases. The transformation of KCl to K2SO4 and KNO3 with aging of the smoke could lead to changes in the hygroscopic properties of the smoke particles and thus their cloud-nucleating potential. Similar reaction mechanisms are likely to be involved in the conversion of KCl in smoke particles as occur for NaCl in sea salt. Little experimental work has been published on the hygroscopic properties of potassium salts because of their high DRH values. Instruments that are commonly used to measure hygroscopic properties such as differential mobility analyzers or electrodynamic balances do not operate accurately at RH > 90%. Here we present data describing the hygroscopic properties of several fresh potassium salts, as well as laboratory generated mixed salts, using transmission and scanning electron microscopes (TEM and SEM). Both microscopes have environmental chambers that enable study of the interaction of water with single particles. DRH values for KCl, KNO3 and K2SO4 were found to be 86%, 92%, and 97%, respectively. KNO3 particles formed by atomization appear rounded and undergo continuous hygroscopic growth without a distinct deliquescence point. Similar results have been published for NaNO3. In contrast, when KNO3 powder is ground in a mortar and pestle and placed in the SEM, the grains appear euhedral and have a DRH at 92%, in agreement with literature values. It appears that KNO3 particles formed by atomization will readily take up water at RH values below their DRH. Our results indicate that the hygroscopic properties of KNO3 particles are influenced by their histories. Water associated with aged or mixed particles at RH's less than their DRH will affect how these particles uptake and react with gases.

  16. On the diffraction pattern of bundled rare-earth silicide nanowires on Si(0 0 1).

    PubMed

    Timmer, F; Bahlmann, J; Wollschläger, J

    2017-11-01

    Motivated by the complex diffraction pattern observed for bundled rare-earth silicide nanowires on the Si(0 0 1) surface, we investigate the influence of the width and the spacing distribution of the nanowires on the diffraction pattern. The diffraction pattern of the bundled rare-earth silicide nanowires is analyzed by the binary surface technique applying a kinematic approach to diffraction. Assuming a categorical distribution for the (individual) nanowire size and a Poisson distribution for the size of the spacing between adjacent nanowire-bundles, we are able to determine the parameters of these distributions and derive an expression for the distribution of the nanowire-bundle size. Additionally, the comparison of our simulations to the experimental diffraction pattern reveal that a (1  ×  1)-periodicity on top of the nanowires has to be assumed for a good match.

  17. Copper silicide/silicon nanowire heterostructures: in situ TEM observation of growth behaviors and electron transport properties.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chung-Hua; Huang, Chun-Wei; Chen, Jui-Yuan; Huang, Yu-Ting; Hu, Jung-Chih; Chen, Lien-Tai; Hsin, Cheng-Lun; Wu, Wen-Wei

    2013-06-07

    Copper silicide has been studied in the applications of electronic devices and catalysts. In this study, Cu3Si/Si nanowire heterostructures were fabricated through solid state reaction in an in situ transmission electron microscope (TEM). The dynamic diffusion of the copper atoms in the growth process and the formation mechanism are characterized. We found that two dimensional stacking faults (SF) may retard the growth of Cu3Si. Due to the evidence of the block of edge-nucleation (heterogeneous) by the surface oxide, center-nucleation (homogeneous) is suggested to dominate the silicidation. Furthermore, the electrical transport properties of various silicon channel length with Cu3Si/Si heterostructure interfaces and metallic Cu3Si NWs have been investigated. The observations not only provided an alternative pathway to explore the formation mechanisms and interface properties of Cu3Si/Si, but also suggested the potential application of Cu3Si at nanoscale for future processing in nanotechnology.

  18. Recent advances in distal tubular potassium handling

    PubMed Central

    Rodan, Aylin R.; Cheng, Chih-Jen

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that sodium reabsorption and aldosterone play important roles in potassium secretion by the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron. Sodium- and aldosterone-independent mechanisms also exist. This review focuses on some recent studies that provide novel insights into the sodium- and aldosterone-independent potassium secretion by the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron. In addition, we discuss a study reporting on the regulation of the mammalian potassium kidney channel ROMK by intracellular and extracellular magnesium, which may be important in the pathogenesis of persistent hypokalemia in patients with concomitant potassium and magnesium deficiency. We also discuss outstanding questions and propose working models for future investigation. PMID:21270092

  19. Fine structure of the K X-ray absorption spectra of titanium in some hydrides, borides, and silicides (in Russian)

    SciTech Connect

    Vainshtein, �. E.; Zhurakovskii, E. A.

    1959-08-01

    X-ray spectral analyses confirmed the hypothesis on the metal-like state of hydrogen in tithnium hydrides. Experiments with titunium borides and silicides indicate the special character and degree of the 3d--level participation in the metallic'' bond between the atoms of various complexes. The structure of metalloid elements becomes more complicated with an increase in the specific number of boron and silicon atoms and the bond between the atoms tends to become covalent. (R.V.J.)

  20. Aluminium alloyed iron-silicide/silicon solar cells: A simple approach for low cost environmental-friendly photovoltaic technology

    PubMed Central

    Kumar Dalapati, Goutam; Masudy-Panah, Saeid; Kumar, Avishek; Cheh Tan, Cheng; Ru Tan, Hui; Chi, Dongzhi

    2015-01-01

    This work demonstrates the fabrication of silicide/silicon based solar cell towards the development of low cost and environmental friendly photovoltaic technology. A heterostructure solar cells using metallic alpha phase (α-phase) aluminum alloyed iron silicide (FeSi(Al)) on n-type silicon is fabricated with an efficiency of 0.8%. The fabricated device has an open circuit voltage and fill-factor of 240 mV and 60%, respectively. Performance of the device was improved by about 7 fold to 5.1% through the interface engineering. The α-phase FeSi(Al)/silicon solar cell devices have promising photovoltaic characteristic with an open circuit voltage, short-circuit current and a fill factor (FF) of 425 mV, 18.5 mA/cm2, and 64%, respectively. The significant improvement of α-phase FeSi(Al)/n-Si solar cells is due to the formation p+−n homojunction through the formation of re-grown crystalline silicon layer (~5–10 nm) at the silicide/silicon interface. Thickness of the regrown silicon layer is crucial for the silicide/silicon based photovoltaic devices. Performance of the α-FeSi(Al)/n-Si solar cells significantly depends on the thickness of α-FeSi(Al) layer and process temperature during the device fabrication. This study will open up new opportunities for the Si based photovoltaic technology using a simple, sustainable, and los cost method. PMID:26632759

  1. Large magnetoresistance of nickel-silicide nanowires: non-equilibrium heating of magnetically-coupled dangling bonds.

    PubMed

    Kim, T; Chamberlin, R V; Bird, J P

    2013-03-13

    We demonstrate large (>100%) time-dependent magnetoresistance in nickel-silicide nanowires and develop a thermodynamic model for this behavior. The model describes nonequilibrium heating of localized spins in an increasing magnetic field. We find a strong interaction between spins but no long-range magnetic order. The spins likely come from unpaired dangling bonds in the interfacial layers of the nanowires. The model indicates that although these bonds couple weakly to a thermal bath, they dominate the nanowire resistance.

  2. Detection of Mercury's Potassium Tail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Carl; Leblanc, Francois; Moore, Luke; Bida, Thomas A.

    2017-10-01

    Ground-based observations of Mercury's exosphere bridge the gap between the MESSENGER and BepiColombo missions and provide a broad counterpart to their in situ measurements. Here we report the first detection of Mercury's potassium tail in both emission lines of the D doublet. The sodium to potassium abundance ratio at 5 planetary radii down-tail is approximately 95, near the mid-point of a wide range of values that have been quoted over the planet's disk. This is several times the Na/K present in atmospheres of the Galilean satellites and more than an order of magnitude above Mercury's usual analogue, the Moon. The observations confirm that Mercury's anomalously high Na/K ratios cannot be explained by differences in neutral loss rates. The width and structure of the Na and K tails is comparable and both exhibit a persistent enhancement in their northern lobe. We interpret this as a signature of Mercury's offset magnetosphere; the exosphere's source rates are locally enhanced at the southern surface, and sloshing from radiation pressure and gravity guides this population into the northern region of the tail.

  3. A Study on Characterization of Light-Induced Electroless Plated Ni Seed Layer and Silicide Formation for Solar Cell Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaloo, Ashkan Vakilipour; Joo, Seung Ki; Es, Firat; Turan, Rasit; Lee, Doo Won

    2018-03-01

    Light-induced electroless plating (LIEP) is an easy and inexpensive method that has been widely used for seed layer deposition of Nickel/Copper (Ni/Cu)-based metallization in the solar cell. In this study, material characterization aspects of the Ni seed layer and Ni silicide formation at different bath conditions and annealing temperatures on the n-side of a silicon diode structure have been examined to achieve the optimum cell contacts. The effects of morphology and chemical composition of Ni film on its electrical conductivity were evaluated and described by a quantum mechanical model. It has been found that correlation exists between the theoretical and experimental conductivity of Ni film. Residual stress and phase transformation of Ni silicide as a function of annealing temperature were evaluated using Raman and XRD techniques. Finally, transmission line measurement (TLM) technique was employed to determine the contact resistance of Ni/Si stack after thermal treatment and to understand its correlation with the chemical-structural properties. Results indicated that low electrical resistive mono-silicide (NiSi) phase as low as 5 mΩ.cm2 was obtained.

  4. Electrical and optical properties of sub-10 nm nickel silicide films for silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahmi, Hatem; Ravipati, Srikanth; Yarali, Milad; Shervin, Shahab; Wang, Weijie; Ryou, Jae-Hyun; Mavrokefalos, Anastassios

    2017-01-01

    Highly conductive and transparent films of ultra-thin p-type nickel silicide films have been prepared by RF magnetron sputtering of nickel on silicon substrates followed by rapid thermal annealing in an inert environment in the temperature range 400-600 °C. The films are uniform throughout the wafer with thicknesses in the range of 3-6 nm. The electrical and optical properties are presented for nickel silicide films with varying thickness. The Drude-Lorentz model and Fresnel equations were used to calculate the dielectric properties, sheet resistance, absorption and transmission of the films. These ultrathin nickel silicide films have excellent optoelectronic properties for p-type contacts with optical transparencies up to 80% and sheet resistance as low as ~0.15 µΩ cm. Furthermore, it was shown that the use of a simple anti-reflection (AR) coating can recover most of the reflected light approaching the values of a standard Si solar cell with the same AR coating. Overall, the combination of ultra-low thickness, high transmittance, low sheet resistance and ability to recover the reflected light by utilizing standard AR coating makes them ideal for utilization in silicon based photovoltaic technologies as a p-type transparent conductor.

  5. Controlling the formation and stability of ultra-thin nickel silicides - An alloying strategy for preventing agglomeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geenen, F. A.; van Stiphout, K.; Nanakoudis, A.; Bals, S.; Vantomme, A.; Jordan-Sweet, J.; Lavoie, C.; Detavernier, C.

    2018-02-01

    The electrical contact of the source and drain regions in state-of-the-art CMOS transistors is nowadays facilitated through NiSi, which is often alloyed with Pt in order to avoid morphological agglomeration of the silicide film. However, the solid-state reaction between as-deposited Ni and the Si substrate exhibits a peculiar change for as-deposited Ni films thinner than a critical thickness of tc = 5 nm. Whereas thicker films form polycrystalline NiSi upon annealing above 450 ° C , thinner films form epitaxial NiSi2 films that exhibit a high resistance toward agglomeration. For industrial applications, it is therefore of utmost importance to assess the critical thickness with high certainty and find novel methodologies to either increase or decrease its value, depending on the aimed silicide formation. This paper investigates Ni films between 0 and 15 nm initial thickness by use of "thickness gradients," which provide semi-continuous information on silicide formation and stability as a function of as-deposited layer thickness. The alloying of these Ni layers with 10% Al, Co, Ge, Pd, or Pt renders a significant change in the phase sequence as a function of thickness and dependent on the alloying element. The addition of these ternary impurities therefore changes the critical thickness tc. The results are discussed in the framework of classical nucleation theory.

  6. Phase formation and morphological stability of ultrathin Ni-Co-Pt silicide films formed on Si(100)

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Peng; Wu, Dongping, E-mail: dongpingwu@fudan.edu.cn; Kubart, Tomas

    Ultrathin Ni, Co, and Pt films, each no more than 4 nm in thickness, as well as their various combinations are employed to investigate the competing growth of epitaxial Co{sub 1-y}Ni{sub y}Si{sub 2} films against polycrystalline Pt{sub 1-z}Ni{sub z}Si. The phase formation critically affects the morphological stability of the resulting silicide films, with the epitaxial films being superior to the polycrystalline ones. Any combination of those metals improves the morphological stability with reference to their parent individual metal silicide films. When Ni, Co, and Pt are all included, the precise initial location of Pt does little to affect the final phasemore » formation in the silicide films and the epitaxial growth of Co{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x}Si{sub 2} films is always perturbed, in accordance to thermodynamics that shows a preferential formation of Pt{sub 1-z}Ni{sub z}Si over that of Co{sub 1-y}Ni{sub y}Si{sub 2}.« less

  7. A high-strength silicide phase in a stainless steel alloy designed for wear-resistant applications.

    PubMed

    Bowden, D; Krysiak, Y; Palatinus, L; Tsivoulas, D; Plana-Ruiz, S; Sarakinou, E; Kolb, U; Stewart, D; Preuss, M

    2018-04-10

    Hardfacing alloys provide strong, wear-resistant and corrosion-resistant coatings for extreme environments such as those within nuclear reactors. Here, we report an ultra-high-strength Fe-Cr-Ni silicide phase, named π-ferrosilicide, within a hardfacing Fe-based alloy. Electron diffraction tomography has allowed the determination of the atomic structure of this phase. Nanohardness testing indicates that the π-ferrosilicide phase is up to 2.5 times harder than the surrounding austenite and ferrite phases. The compressive strength of the π-ferrosilicide phase is exceptionally high and does not yield despite loading in excess of 1.6 GPa. Such a high-strength silicide phase could not only provide a new type of strong, wear-resistant and corrosion-resistant Fe-based coating, replacing more costly and hazardous Co-based alloys for nuclear applications, but also lead to the development of a new class of high-performance silicide-strengthened stainless steels, no longer reliant on carbon for strengthening.

  8. On the interdiffusion in multilayered silicide coatings for the vanadium-based alloy V-4Cr-4Ti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaia, N.; Portebois, L.; Mathieu, S.; David, N.; Vilasi, M.

    2017-02-01

    To provide protection against corrosion at high temperatures, silicide diffusion coatings were developed for the V-4Cr-4Ti alloy, which can be used as the fuel cladding in next-generation sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors. The multilayered coatings were prepared by halide-activated pack cementation using MgF2 as the transport agent and pure silicon (high activity) as the master alloy. Coated pure vanadium and coated V-4Cr-4Ti alloy were studied and compared as substrates. In both cases, the growth of the silicide layers (V3Si, V5Si3, V6Si5 and VSi2) was controlled exclusively by solid-state diffusion, and the growth kinetics followed a parabolic law. Wagner's analysis was adopted to calculate the integrated diffusion coefficients for all silicides. The estimated values of the integrated diffusion coefficients range from approximately 10-9 to 10-13 cm2 s-1. Then, a diffusion-based numerical approach was used to evaluate the growth and consumption of the layers when the coated substrates were exposed at critical temperatures. The estimated lifetimes of the upper VSi2 layer were 400 h and 280 h for pure vanadium and the V-4Cr-4Ti alloy, respectively. The result from the numeric simulation was in good agreement with the layer thicknesses measured after aging the coated samples at 1150 °C under vacuum.

  9. Serum potassium level and dietary potassium intake as risk factors for stroke.

    PubMed

    Green, D M; Ropper, A H; Kronmal, R A; Psaty, B M; Burke, G L

    2002-08-13

    Numerous studies have found that low potassium intake and low serum potassium are associated with increased stroke mortality, but data regarding stroke incidence have been limited. Serum potassium levels, dietary potassium intake, and diuretic use in relation to risk for stroke in a prospectively studied cohort were investigated. The study comprised 5,600 men and women older than 65 years who were free of stroke at enrollment. Baseline data included serum potassium level, dietary potassium intake, and diuretic use. Participants were followed for 4 to 8 years, and the incidence and types of strokes were recorded. Low serum potassium was defined as less than 4.1 mEq/L, and low potassium intake as less than 2.4 g/d. Among diuretic users, there was an increased risk for stroke associated with lower serum potassium (relative risk [RR]: 2.5, p < 0.0001). Among individuals not taking diuretics, there was an increased risk for stroke associated with low dietary potassium intake (RR: 1.5, p < 0.005). The small number of diuretic users with lower serum potassium and atrial fibrillation had a 10-fold greater risk for stroke compared with those with higher serum potassium and normal sinus rhythm. A lower serum potassium level in diuretic users, and low potassium intake in those not taking diuretics were associated with increased stroke incidence among older individuals. Lower serum potassium was associated with a particularly high risk for stroke in the small number of diuretic users with atrial fibrillation. Further study is required to determine if modification of these factors would prevent strokes.

  10. 21 CFR 172.375 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.375 Potassium iodide. The food additive potassium iodide may be..., will not result in daily ingestion of the additive so as to provide a total amount of iodine in excess...

  11. 21 CFR 172.730 - Potassium bromate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.730 Potassium bromate. The food additive potassium bromate may be... intended for use in the malting of barley under conditions whereby the amount of the additive present in...

  12. 21 CFR 172.375 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.375 Potassium iodide. The food additive potassium iodide may be safely used in accordance with the...

  13. 21 CFR 172.375 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.375 Potassium iodide. The food additive potassium iodide may be..., will not result in daily ingestion of the additive so as to provide a total amount of iodine in excess...

  14. 21 CFR 172.730 - Potassium bromate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.730 Potassium bromate. The food additive potassium bromate may be safely used in the malting of barley... barley under conditions whereby the amount of the additive present in the malt from the treatment does...

  15. 21 CFR 172.730 - Potassium bromate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.730 Potassium bromate. The food additive potassium bromate may be... intended for use in the malting of barley under conditions whereby the amount of the additive present in...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent. (c... salt as a source of dietary iodine in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice. ...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent. (c... salt as a source of dietary iodine in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice. ...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent. (c... salt as a source of dietary iodine in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice. ...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and is prepared commercially by the neutralization of lactic acid with potassium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient... current good manufacturing practice. (d) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and is prepared commercially by the neutralization of lactic acid with potassium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient... current good manufacturing practice. (d) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and is prepared commercially by the neutralization of lactic acid with potassium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient... current good manufacturing practice. (d) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and is prepared commercially by the neutralization of lactic acid with potassium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity.... (d) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses established in this section do not...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and is prepared commercially by the neutralization of lactic acid with potassium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient... current good manufacturing practice. (d) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses...

  4. Process for preparation of potassium-38

    DOEpatents

    Lambrecht, Richard M.; Wolf, Alfred P.

    1981-01-01

    A solution of potassium-38 suitable for use as a radiopharmaceutical and a method for its production. Argon is irradiated with protons having energies above the threshold for the .sup.40 Ar(p,3n).sup.38 K reaction. The resulting potassium-38 is dissolved in a sterile water and any contaminating chlorine-38 is removed.

  5. 21 CFR 172.375 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.375 Potassium iodide. The food additive potassium iodide may be...

  6. 75 FR 23298 - Potassium Permanganate From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... Permanganate From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on potassium permanganate from China. SUMMARY: The... on potassium permanganate from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  7. 75 FR 51112 - Potassium Permanganate From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... Permanganate From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of an expedited five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on potassium permanganate from China... of the antidumping duty order on potassium permanganate from China would be likely to lead to...

  8. On the Alloying and Properties of Tetragonal Nb5Si3 in Nb-Silicide Based Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Tsakiropoulos, Panos

    2018-01-01

    The alloying of Nb5Si3 modifies its properties. Actual compositions of (Nb,TM)5X3 silicides in developmental alloys, where X = Al + B + Ge + Si + Sn and TM is a transition and/or refractory metal, were used to calculate the composition weighted differences in electronegativity (Δχ) and an average valence electron concentration (VEC) and the solubility range of X to study the alloying and properties of the silicide. The calculations gave 4.11 < VEC < 4.45, 0.103 < Δχ < 0.415 and 33.6 < X < 41.6 at.%. In the silicide in Nb-24Ti-18Si-5Al-5Cr alloys with single addition of 5 at.% B, Ge, Hf, Mo, Sn and Ta, the solubility range of X decreased compared with the unalloyed Nb5Si3 or exceeded 40.5 at.% when B was with Hf or Mo or Sn and the Δχ decreased with increasing X. The Ge concentration increased with increasing Ti and the Hf concentration increased and decreased with increasing Ti or Nb respectively. The B and Sn concentrations respectively decreased and increased with increasing Ti and also depended on other additions in the silicide. The concentration of Sn was related to VEC and the concentrations of B and Ge were related to Δχ. The alloying of Nb5Si3 was demonstrated in Δχ versus VEC maps. Effects of alloying on the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) anisotropy, Young’s modulus, hardness and creep data were discussed. Compared with the hardness of binary Nb5Si3 (1360 HV), the hardness increased in silicides with Ge and dropped below 1360 HV when Al, B and Sn were present without Ge. The Al effect on hardness depended on other elements substituting Si. Sn reduced the hardness. Ti or Hf reduced the hardness more than Cr in Nb5Si3 without Ge. The (Nb,Hf)5(Si,Al)3 had the lowest hardness. VEC differentiated the effects of additions on the hardness of Nb5Si3 alloyed with Ge. Deterioration of the creep of alloyed Nb5Si3 was accompanied by decrease of VEC and increase or decrease of Δχ depending on alloying addition(s). PMID:29300327

  9. Potassium Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/potassiumbloodtest.html Potassium Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Potassium Blood Test? A potassium blood test measures the amount of ...

  10. Potassium in hypertension and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Castro, Hector; Raij, Leopoldo

    2013-05-01

    The increased prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in industrialized societies undoubtedly is associated with the modern high-sodium/low-potassium diet. Extensive experimental and clinical data strongly link potassium intake to cardiovascular outcome. Most studies suggest that the sodium-to-potassium intake ratio is a better predictor of cardiovascular outcome than either nutrient individually. A high-sodium/low-potassium environment results in significant abnormalities in central hemodynamics, leading to potential target organ damage. Altered renal sodium handling, impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilatation, and increased oxidative stress are important mediators of this effect. It remains of paramount importance to reinforce consumption of a low-sodium/high-potassium diet as a critical strategy for prevention and treatment of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Chronic potassium depletion increases adrenal progesterone production that is necessary for efficient renal retention of potassium.

    PubMed

    Elabida, Boutaïna; Edwards, Aurélie; Salhi, Amel; Azroyan, Anie; Fodstad, Heidi; Meneton, Pierre; Doucet, Alain; Bloch-Faure, May; Crambert, Gilles

    2011-08-01

    Modern dietary habits are characterized by high-sodium and low-potassium intakes, each of which was correlated with a higher risk for hypertension. In this study, we examined whether long-term variations in the intake of sodium and potassium induce lasting changes in the plasma concentration of circulating steroids by developing a mathematical model of steroidogenesis in mice. One finding of this model was that mice increase their plasma progesterone levels specifically in response to potassium depletion. This prediction was confirmed by measurements in both male mice and men. Further investigation showed that progesterone regulates renal potassium handling both in males and females under potassium restriction, independent of its role in reproduction. The increase in progesterone production by male mice was time dependent and correlated with decreased urinary potassium content. The progesterone-dependent ability to efficiently retain potassium was because of an RU486 (a progesterone receptor antagonist)-sensitive stimulation of the colonic hydrogen, potassium-ATPase (known as the non-gastric or hydrogen, potassium-ATPase type 2) in the kidney. Thus, in males, a specific progesterone concentration profile induced by chronic potassium restriction regulates potassium balance.

  12. First-Principles Investigation of Mechanical and Thermodynamic Properties of Nickel Silicides at Finite Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Zhiqin; Zhao, Yuhong; Hou, Hua; Chen, Liwen

    2018-05-01

    First-principles calculations are performed to investigate lattice parameters, elastic constants and 3D directional Young's modulus E of nickel silicides (i.e., β-Ni3Si, δ-Ni2Si, θ-Ni2Si, ɛ-NiSi, and θ-Ni2Si), and thermodynamic properties, such as the Debye temperature, heat capacity, volumetric thermal expansion coefficient, at finite temperature are also explored in combination with the quasi-harmonic Debye model. The calculated results are in a good agreement with available experimental and theoretical values. The five compounds demonstrate elastic anisotropy. The dependence on the direction of stiffness is the greatest for δ-Ni2Si and θ-Ni2Si, when the stress is applied, while that for β-Ni3Si is minimal. The bulk modulus B reduces with increasing temperature, implying that the resistance to volume deformation will weaken with temperature, and the capacity gradually descend for the compound sequence of β-Ni3Si > δ-Ni2Si > θ-Ni2Si > ɛ-NiSi > θ-Ni2Si. The temperature dependence of the Debye temperature ΘD is related to the change of lattice parameters, and ΘD gradually decreases for the compound sequence of ɛ-NiSi > β-Ni3Si > δ-Ni2Si > θ-Ni2Si > θ-Ni2Si. The volumetric thermal expansion coefficient αV, isochoric heat capacity and isobaric heat capacity C p of nickel silicides are proportional to T 3 at low temperature, subsequently, αV and C p show modest linear change at high temperature, whereas C v obeys the Dulong-Petit limit. In addition, β-Ni3Si has the largest capability to store or release heat at high temperature. From the perspective of solid state physics, the thermodynamic properties at finite temperature can be used to guide further experimental works and design of novel nickel-silicon alloys.

  13. Nanopatterning of metal-coated silicon surfaces via ion beam irradiation: Real time x-ray studies reveal the effect of silicide bonding

    SciTech Connect

    El-Atwani, Osman; Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907; Gonderman, Sean

    We investigated the effect of silicide formation on ion-induced nanopatterning of silicon with various ultrathin metal coatings. Silicon substrates coated with 10 nm Ni, Fe, and Cu were irradiated with 200 eV argon ions at normal incidence. Real time grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS) and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) were performed during the irradiation process and real time measurements revealed threshold conditions for nanopatterning of silicon at normal incidence irradiation. Three main stages of the nanopatterning process were identified. The real time GISAXS intensity of the correlated peaks in conjunction with XRF revealed that the nanostructures remain for amore » time period after the removal of the all the metal atoms from the sample depending on the binding energy of the metal silicides formed. Ex-situ XPS confirmed the removal of all metal impurities. In-situ XPS during the irradiation of Ni, Fe, and Cu coated silicon substrates at normal incidence demonstrated phase separation and the formation of different silicide phases that occur upon metal-silicon mixing. Silicide formation leads to nanostructure formation due the preferential erosion of the non-silicide regions and the weakening of the ion induced mass redistribution.« less

  14. Influence of native defects on structural and electronic properties of magnesium silicide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, Naomi; Iida, Tsutomu; Nishio, Keishi; Kogo, Yasuo; Takarabe, Kenji; Hamada, Noriaki

    2017-05-01

    The narrow-gap semiconductor magnesium silicide (Mg2Si) is a promising candidate for mid-temperature (500-800 K) thermoelectric applications. Mg2Si exhibits intrinsic n-type conductivity because of its interstitial Mg defects and is generally doped with n-type dopants; however, the synthesis of p-type Mg2Si has proven difficult. In the present study, we examined several types of defects, such as vacancies and the insertion of constituent atoms (Mg and Si) into crystals, to elucidate their stability in Mg2Si and their influence on its electronic states. A first-principles calculation has revealed that the insertion of Mg into a cell is the most stable and causes n-type conductivity in terms of formation energy. In contrast, the vacancy of Mg produces hole doping although its formation energy per conventional unit cell is approximately 0.07 eV higher than that of the insertion of Mg, at their concentration of 1.04 at. %. Furthermore, the insertion and vacancy of Si atoms generate electrons with higher formation energies compared to the Mg-related defects. As these defects alter the carrier concentration, they can compensate for intentional doping because of the added impurity atoms.

  15. Experimental studies of thermal and chemical interactions between oxide and silicide nuclear fuels with water

    SciTech Connect

    farahani, A.A.; Corradini, M.L.

    Given some transient power/cooling mismatch is a nuclear reactor and its inability to establish the necessary core cooling, energetic fuel-coolant interactions (FCI`s commonly called `vapor explosions`) could occur as a result of the core melting and coolant contact. Although a large number of studies have been done on energetic FCI`s, very few experiments have been performed with the actual fuel materials postulated to be produced in severe accidents. Because of the scarcity of well-characterized FCI data for uranium allows in noncommercial reactors (cermet and silicide fuels), we have conducted a series of experiments to provide a data base for themore » foregoing materials. An existing 1-D shock-tube facility was modified to handle depleted radioactive materials (U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al, and U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al). Our objectives have been to determine the effects of the initial fuel composition and temperature and the driving pressure (triggering) on the explosion work output, dynamic pressures, transient temperatures, and the hydrogen production. Experimental results indicate limited energetics, mainly thermal interactions, for these fuel materials as compared to aluminum where more chemical reactions occur between the molten aluminum and water.« less

  16. Unidirectional endotaxial cobalt di-silicide nanowires on Si(110) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahato, J. C.; Das, Debolina; Banu, Nasrin; Satpati, Biswarup; Dev, B. N.

    2017-10-01

    Self-organized growth of well-ordered endotaxial silicide nanowires (NWs) on clean Si(110) surfaces has been investigated by in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Co deposition on clean Si(110) reconstructed surfaces at ∼600 °C produces unidirectional CoSi2 NWs by reaction of cobalt with the hot silicon substrate. STM investigations reveal four major types of distinct NWs, all growing along the [-110] in-plane direction except one type growing along the in-plane [-113] direction. There are also some nanodots. The cross-sectional TEM measurements show that the unidirectional NWs are of two types—flat-top and ridged. The NWs grow not only on the substrate but also into the substrate. CoSi2 in flat top NWs are in the same crystallographic orientation as the substrate Si and the buried interfaces between CoSi2 and Si are A-type. In the ridged NWs CoSi2 and Si are in different crystallographic orientations and the interfaces are B-type. The ridged NWs are in general wider and grow deeper into the substrate.

  17. Structure and superconductivity in the ternary silicide CaAlSi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Rong; Huang, Gui-Qin; Liu, Mei

    2007-06-01

    Using the linear response-linearized Muffin-tin orbital (LR-LMTO) method, we study the electronic band structure, phonon spectra, electron-phonon coupling and superconductivity for c-axis ferromagnetic-like (F-like) and antiferromagnetic-like (AF-like) structures in ternary silicide CaAlSi. The following conclusions are drawn from our calculations. If Al and Si atoms are assumed to arrange along the c axis in an F-like long-range ordering (-Al-Al-Al-and-Si-Si-Si-), one could obtain the ultrasoft B1g phonon mode and thus very strong electron-phonon coupling in CaAlSi. However, the appearance of imaginary frequency phonon modes indicates the instability of such a structure. For Al and Si atoms arranging along the c axis in an AF-like long-range ordering (-Al-Si-Al-), the calculated electron-phonon coupling constant is equal to 0.8 and the logarithmically averaged frequency is 146.8 K. This calculated result can correctly yield the superconducting transition temperature of CaAlSi by the standard BCS theory in the moderate electron-phonon coupling strength. We propose that an AF-like superlattice model for Al (or Si) atoms along the c direction may mediate the inconsistency estimated from theory and experiment, and explain the anomalous superconductivity in CaAlSi.

  18. Mesoscale Evaluation of Titanium Silicide Monolayer as a Cathode Host Material in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhixiao; Balbuena, Perla B.; Mukherjee, Partha P.

    2017-09-01

    Two-dimensional materials are competitive candidates as cathode materials in lithium-sulfur batteries for immobilizing soluble polysulfides and mitigating the shuttle effect. In this study, a mesoscale modeling approach, which combines first-principles simulation and kinetic Monte Carlo simulation, is employed to evaluate titanium silicide (Ti2Si and TiSi2) monolayers as potential host materials in lithium-sulfur batteries. It is found that the Ti2Si monolayer has much stronger affinities to Li2S x ( x = 1, 2, 4) molecules than does the TiSi2 monolayer. Also, Ti2Si can facilitate the dissociation of long-chain Li2S4 to LiS2. On the other hand, TiSi2 can only provide a weak chemical interaction for trapping soluble Li2S4. Therefore, the Ti2Si monolayer can be considered to be the next-generation cathode material for lithium-sulfur batteries. Nevertheless, the strong interaction between Ti2Si and Li2S also causes fast surface passivation. How to control the Li2S precipitation on Ti2Si should be answered by future studies.

  19. Enhanced power factor of higher manganese silicide via melt spin synthesis method

    DOE PAGES

    Shi, Xiaoya; Shi, Xun; Li, Yulong; ...

    2014-12-30

    We report on the thermoelectric properties of the Higher Manganese Silicide MnSi₁.₇₅ (HMS) synthesized by means of a one-step non-equilibrium method. The ultrahigh cooling rate generated from the melt-spin technique is found to be effective in reducing second phases, which are inevitable during the traditional solid state diffusion processes. Aside from being detrimental to thermoelectric properties, second phases skew the revealing of the intrinsic properties of this class of materials, for example the optimal level of carrier concentration. With this melt-spin sample, we are able to formulate a simple model based on a single parabolic band that can well describemore » the carrier concentration dependence of the Seebeck coefficient and power factor of the data reported in the literature. An optimal carrier concentration around 5x10²⁰ cm⁻³ at 300 K is predicted according to this model. The phase-pure melt-spin sample shows the largest power factor at high temperature, resulting in the highest zT value among the three samples in this paper; the maximum value is superior to those reported in the literatures.« less

  20. Approaching the Minimum Thermal Conductivity in Rhenium-Substituted Higher Manganese Silicides

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xi; Girard, S. N.; Meng, F.

    Higher manganese silicides (HMS) made of earth-abundant and non-toxic elements are regarded as promising p-type thermoelectric materials because their complex crystal structure results in low lattice thermal conductivity. It is shown here that the already low thermal conductivity of HMS can be reduced further to approach the minimum thermal conductivity via partial substitu- tion of Mn with heavier rhenium (Re) to increase point defect scattering. The solubility limit of Re in the obtained RexMn1 xSi1.8 is determined to be about x = 0.18. Elemental inhomogeneity and the formation of ReSi1.75 inclusions with 50 200 nm size are found within themore » HMS matrix. It is found that the power factor does not change markedly at low Re content of x 0.04 before it drops considerably at higher Re contents. Compared to pure HMS, the reduced lattice thermal conductivity in RexMn1 xSi1.8 results in a 25% increase of the peak figure of merit ZT to reach 0.57 0.08 at 800 K for x = 0.04. The suppressed thermal conductivity in the pure RexMn1 xSi1.8 can enable further investigations of the ZT limit of this system by exploring different impurity doping strategies to optimize the carrier concentration and power factor.« less

  1. Band-Like Behavior of Localized States of Metal Silicide Precipitate in Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenko, Anton; Vyvenko, Oleg

    2018-03-01

    Deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) investigations of energy levels of charge-carrier traps associated with precipitates of metal silicide often show that they behave not like localized monoenergetic traps but as a continuous density of allowed states in the bandgap with fast carrier exchange between these states, so-called band-like behavior. This kind of behavior was ascribed to the dislocation loop bounding the platelet, which in addition exhibits an attractive potential caused by long-range elastic strain. In previous works, the presence of the dislocation-related deformation potential in combination with the external electric field of the Schottky diode was included to obtain a reasonable fit of the proposed model to experimental data. Another well-known particular property of extended defects—the presence of their own strong electric field in their vicinity that is manifested in the logarithmic kinetics of electron capture—was not taken into account. We derive herein a theoretical model that takes into account both the external electric field and the intrinsic electric field of dislocation self-charge as well as its deformation potential, which leads to strong temporal variation of the activation energy during charge-carrier emission. We performed numerical simulations of the DLTS spectra based on such a model for a monoenergetic trap, finding excellent agreement with available experimental data.

  2. High-performance silicon nanowire field-effect transistor with silicided contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosaz, G.; Salem, B.; Pauc, N.; Gentile, P.; Potié, A.; Solanki, A.; Baron, T.

    2011-08-01

    Undoped silicon nanowire (Si NW) field-effect transistors (FETs) with a back-gate configuration have been fabricated and characterized. A thick (200 nm) Si3N4 layer was used as a gate insulator and a p++ silicon substrate as a back gate. Si NWs have been grown by the chemical vapour deposition method using the vapour-liquid-solid mechanism and gold as a catalyst. Metallic contacts have been deposited using Ni/Al (80 nm/120 nm) and characterized before and after an optimized annealing step at 400 °C, which resulted in a great decrease in the contact resistance due to the newly formed nickel silicide/Si interface at source and drain. These optimized devices show a good hole mobility of around 200 cm2 V-1 s-1, in the same range as the bulk material, with a good ON current density of about 28 kA cm-2. Finally, hysteretic behaviour of NW channel conductance is discussed to explain the importance of NW surface passivation.

  3. Magnesium silicide nanoparticles as a deoxygenation agent for cancer starvation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chen; Ni, Dalong; Liu, Yanyan; Yao, Heliang; Bu, Wenbo; Shi, Jianlin

    2017-05-01

    A material that rapidly absorbs molecular oxygen (known as an oxygen scavenger or deoxygenation agent (DOA)) has various industrial applications, such as in food preservation, anticorrosion of metal and coal deoxidation. Given that oxygen is vital to cancer growth, to starve tumours through the consumption of intratumoral oxygen is a potentially useful strategy in fighting cancer. Here we show that an injectable polymer-modified magnesium silicide (Mg2Si) nanoparticle can act as a DOA by scavenging oxygen in tumours and form by-products that block tumour capillaries from being reoxygenated. The nanoparticles are prepared by a self-propagating high-temperature synthesis strategy. In the acidic tumour microenvironment, the Mg2Si releases silane, which efficiently reacts with both tissue-dissolved and haemoglobin-bound oxygen to form silicon oxide (SiO2) aggregates. This in situ formation of SiO2 blocks the tumour blood capillaries and prevents tumours from receiving new supplies of oxygen and nutrients.

  4. Investigating phase transition temperatures of size separated gadolinium silicide magnetic nanoparticles

    DOE PAGES

    Hunagund, Shivakumar G.; Harstad, Shane M.; El-Gendy, Ahmed A.; ...

    2018-01-11

    Gadolinium silicide (Gd 5Si 4) nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit different properties compared to their parent bulk materials due to finite size, shape, and surface effects. NPs were prepared by high energy ball-milling of the as-cast Gd 5Si 4 ingot and size separated into eight fractions using time sensitive sedimentation in an applied dc magnetic field with average particle sizes ranging from 700 nm to 82 nm. The largest Gd 5Si 4 NPs order ferromagnetically at 316 K. A second anomaly observed at 110 K can be ascribed to a Gd 5Si 3 impurity. Here as the particle sizes decrease, the volumemore » fraction of Gd 5Si 3 phase increases at the expense of the Gd 5Si 4 phase, and the ferromagnetic transition temperature of Gd 5Si 4 is reduced from 316 K to 310 K, while the ordering of the minor phase is independent of the particle size, remaining at 110 K.« less

  5. A modified Embedded-Atom Method interatomic potential for uranium-silicide

    SciTech Connect

    Beeler, Benjamin; Baskes, Michael; Andersson, David

    Uranium-silicide (U-Si) fuels are being pursued as a possible accident tolerant fuel (ATF). This uranium alloy fuel bene ts from higher thermal conductivity and higher ssile density compared to uranium dioxide (UO 2). In order to perform engineering scale nuclear fuel performance simulations, the material properties of the fuel must be known. Currently, the experimental data available for U-Si fuels is rather limited. Thus, multiscale modeling e orts are underway to address this gap in knowledge. In this study, a semi-empirical modi ed Embedded-Atom Method (MEAM) potential is presented for the description of the U-Si system. The potential is ttedmore » to the formation energy, defect energies and structural properties of U 3Si 2. The primary phase of interest (U 3Si 2) is accurately described over a wide temperature range and displays good behavior under irradiation and with free surfaces. The potential can also describe a variety of U-Si phases across the composition spectrum.« less

  6. Magnetic structure of the ferromagnetic new ternary silicide Nd5CoSi2.

    PubMed

    Mayer, C; Gaudin, E; Gorsse, S; Porcher, F; André, G; Chevalier, B

    2012-04-04

    Nd(5)CoSi(2) was obtained from the elements by arc-melting followed by annealing at 883 K. Its investigation by single-crystal x-ray and neutron powder diffraction shows that this ternary silicide crystallizes as Nd(5)Si(3) in a tetragonal structure deriving from the Cr(5)B(3)-type (I4/mcm space group; a = 7.7472(2) and c = 13.5981(5) Å as unit cell parameters). The structural refinements confirm the mixed occupancy on the 8h site between Si and Co atoms, as already observed for Gd(5)CoSi(2). Magnetization and specific heat measurements reveal a ferromagnetic behavior below T(C) = 55 K for Nd(5)CoSi(2). This magnetic ordering is further evidenced by neutron powder diffraction investigation revealing between 1.8 K and T(C) a canted ferromagnetic structure in the direction of the c-axis described by a propagation vector k = (0 0 0). At 1.8 K, the two Nd(3+) ions carry ordered magnetic moments equal respectively to 1.67(7) and 2.37(7) μ(B) for Nd1 and Nd2; these two moments exhibit a canting angle of θ = 4.3(6)°. This magnetic structure presents some similarities with that reported for Nd(5)Si(3). © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd

  7. Enhanced power factor of higher manganese silicide via melt spin synthesis method

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Xiaoya; Li, Qiang, E-mail: liqiang@bnl.gov; Shi, Xun

    We report on the thermoelectric properties of the higher manganese silicide MnSi{sub 1.75} synthesized by means of a one-step non-equilibrium method. The ultrahigh cooling rate generated from the melt-spin technique is found to be effective in reducing second phases, which are inevitable during the traditional solid state diffusion processes. Aside from being detrimental to thermoelectric properties, second phases skew the revealing of the intrinsic properties of this class of materials, for example, the optimal level of carrier concentration. With this melt-spin sample, we are able to formulate a simple model based on a single parabolic band that can well describemore » the carrier concentration dependence of the Seebeck coefficient and power factor of the data reported in the literature. An optimal carrier concentration around 5 × 10{sup 20 }cm{sup −3} at 300 K is predicted according to this model. The phase-pure melt-spin sample shows the largest power factor at high temperature, resulting in the highest zT value among the three samples in this paper.« less

  8. A Computational Study on the Ground and Excited States of Nickel Silicide.

    PubMed

    Schoendorff, George; Morris, Alexis R; Hu, Emily D; Wilson, Angela K

    2015-09-17

    Nickel silicide has been studied with a range of computational methods to determine the nature of the Ni-Si bond. Additionally, the physical effects that need to be addressed within calculations to predict the equilibrium bond length and bond dissociation energy within experimental error have been determined. The ground state is predicted to be a (1)Σ(+) state with a bond order of 2.41 corresponding to a triple bond with weak π bonds. It is shown that calculation of the ground state equilibrium geometry requires a polarized basis set and treatment of dynamic correlation including up to triple excitations with CR-CCSD(T)L resulting in an equilibrium bond length of only 0.012 Å shorter than the experimental bond length. Previous calculations of the bond dissociation energy resulted in energies that were only 34.8% to 76.5% of the experimental bond dissociation energy. It is shown here that use of polarized basis sets, treatment of triple excitations, correlation of the valence and subvalence electrons, and a Λ coupled cluster approach is required to obtain a bond dissociation energy that deviates as little as 1% from experiment.

  9. Absorption Amelioration of Amorphous Si Film by Introducing Metal Silicide Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hui; Wu, Hsuan-Chung; Chen, Sheng-Chi; Ma Lee, Che-Wei; Wang, Xin

    2017-12-01

    Amorphous Si (a-Si) films with metal silicide are expected to enhance the absorption ability of pure a-Si films. In this present study, NiSi (20 nm)/Si (40 nm) and AlSi (20 nm)/Si (40 nm) bilayer thin films are deposited through radio frequency (RF) sputtering at room temperature. The influence of the film's composition and the annealing temperature on the film's optical absorption is investigated. The results show that all the NiSi/Si films and AlSi/Si films possess higher absorption ability compared to a pure a-Si film (60 nm). After annealing from 400 to 600 °C under vacuum for 1 h, the Si layer remains amorphous in both NiSi/Si films and AlSi/Si films, while the NiSi layer crystallizes into NiSi 2 phase, whereas Al atoms diffuse through the whole film during the annealing process. Consequently, with increasing the annealing temperature, the optical absorption of NiSi/Si films increases, while that of AlSi/Si films obviously degrades.

  10. Aluminum silicide microparticles transformed from aluminum thin films by hypoeutectic interdiffusion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aluminum silicide microparticles with oxidized rough surfaces were formed on Si substrates through a spontaneous granulation process of Al films. This microparticle formation was caused by interdiffusion of Al and Si atoms at hypoeutectic temperatures of Al-Si systems, which was driven by compressive stress stored in Al films. The size, density, and the composition of the microparticles could be controlled by adjusting the annealing temperature, time, and the film thickness. High-density microparticles of a size around 10 μm and with an atomic ratio of Si/Al of approximately 0.8 were obtained when a 90-nm-thick Al film on Si substrate was annealed for 9 h at 550°C. The microparticle formation resulted in a rapid increase of the sheet resistance, which is a consequence of substantial consumption of Al film. This simple route to size- and composition-controllable microparticle formation may lay a foundation stone for the thermoelectric study on Al-Si alloy-based heterogeneous systems. PMID:24994964

  11. Phase diagram and electrical behavior of silicon-rich iridium silicide compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allevato, C. E.; Vining, Cronin B.

    1992-01-01

    The iridium-silicon phase diagram on the silicon-rich side was investigated by means of X-ray powder diffraction, density, differential thermal analysis, metalography, microprobe analysis, and electrical resistivity. Attempts were made to prepare eight previously reported silicon-rich iridium silicide compounds by arc melting and Bridgman-like growth. However, microprobe analysis identified only four distinct compositions: IrSi, Ir3Si4, Ir3Si5 and IrSi sub about 3. The existence of Ir4Si5 could not be confirmed in this study, even though the crystal structure has been previously reported. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) in conjunction with X-ray powder diffraction confirm polymorphism in IrSi sub about 3, determined to have orthorhombic and monoclinic unit cells in the high and low temperature forms. A eutectic composition alloy of 83 +/- 1 atomic percent silicon was observed between IrSi sub about 3 and silicon. Ir3Si4 exhibits distinct metallic behavior while Ir3Si5 is semiconducting. Both and IrSi and IrSi sub about 3 exhibit nearly temperature independent electrical resistivities on the order of 5-10 x 10 exp -6 ohms-m.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of barium silicide (BaSi2) nanowire arrays for potential solar applications.

    PubMed

    Pokhrel, Ankit; Samad, Leith; Meng, Fei; Jin, Song

    2015-11-07

    In order to utilize nanostructured materials for potential solar and other energy-harvesting applications, scalable synthetic techniques for these materials must be developed. Herein we use a vapor phase conversion approach to synthesize nanowire (NW) arrays of semiconducting barium silicide (BaSi2) in high yield for the first time for potential solar applications. Dense arrays of silicon NWs obtained by metal-assisted chemical etching were converted to single-crystalline BaSi2 NW arrays by reacting with Ba vapor at about 930 °C. Structural characterization by X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy confirm that the converted NWs are single-crystalline BaSi2. The optimal conversion reaction conditions allow the phase-pure synthesis of BaSi2 NWs that maintain the original NW morphology, and tuning the reaction parameters led to a controllable synthesis of BaSi2 films on silicon substrates. The optical bandgap and electrochemical measurements of these BaSi2 NWs reveal a bandgap and carrier concentrations comparable to previously reported values for BaSi2 thin films.

  13. Aluminum silicide microparticles transformed from aluminum thin films by hypoeutectic interdiffusion.

    PubMed

    Noh, Jin-Seo

    2014-01-01

    Aluminum silicide microparticles with oxidized rough surfaces were formed on Si substrates through a spontaneous granulation process of Al films. This microparticle formation was caused by interdiffusion of Al and Si atoms at hypoeutectic temperatures of Al-Si systems, which was driven by compressive stress stored in Al films. The size, density, and the composition of the microparticles could be controlled by adjusting the annealing temperature, time, and the film thickness. High-density microparticles of a size around 10 μm and with an atomic ratio of Si/Al of approximately 0.8 were obtained when a 90-nm-thick Al film on Si substrate was annealed for 9 h at 550°C. The microparticle formation resulted in a rapid increase of the sheet resistance, which is a consequence of substantial consumption of Al film. This simple route to size- and composition-controllable microparticle formation may lay a foundation stone for the thermoelectric study on Al-Si alloy-based heterogeneous systems.

  14. Large-format platinum silicide microwave kinetic inductance detectors for optical to near-IR astronomy.

    PubMed

    Szypryt, P; Meeker, S R; Coiffard, G; Fruitwala, N; Bumble, B; Ulbricht, G; Walter, A B; Daal, M; Bockstiegel, C; Collura, G; Zobrist, N; Lipartito, I; Mazin, B A

    2017-10-16

    We have fabricated and characterized 10,000 and 20,440 pixel Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detector (MKID) arrays for the Dark-speckle Near-IR Energy-resolved Superconducting Spectrophotometer (DARKNESS) and the MKID Exoplanet Camera (MEC). These instruments are designed to sit behind adaptive optics systems with the goal of directly imaging exoplanets in a 800-1400 nm band. Previous large optical and near-IR MKID arrays were fabricated using substoichiometric titanium nitride (TiN) on a silicon substrate. These arrays, however, suffered from severe non-uniformities in the TiN critical temperature, causing resonances to shift away from their designed values and lowering usable detector yield. We have begun fabricating DARKNESS and MEC arrays using platinum silicide (PtSi) on sapphire instead of TiN. Not only do these arrays have much higher uniformity than the TiN arrays, resulting in higher pixel yields, they have demonstrated better spectral resolution than TiN MKIDs of similar design. PtSi MKIDs also do not display the hot pixel effects seen when illuminating TiN on silicon MKIDs with photons with wavelengths shorter than 1 µm.

  15. Magnesium silicide nanoparticles as a deoxygenation agent for cancer starvation therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Ni, Dalong; Liu, Yanyan; Yao, Heliang; Bu, Wenbo; Shi, Jianlin

    2017-05-01

    A material that rapidly absorbs molecular oxygen (known as an oxygen scavenger or deoxygenation agent (DOA)) has various industrial applications, such as in food preservation, anticorrosion of metal and coal deoxidation. Given that oxygen is vital to cancer growth, to starve tumours through the consumption of intratumoral oxygen is a potentially useful strategy in fighting cancer. Here we show that an injectable polymer-modified magnesium silicide (Mg 2 Si) nanoparticle can act as a DOA by scavenging oxygen in tumours and form by-products that block tumour capillaries from being reoxygenated. The nanoparticles are prepared by a self-propagating high-temperature synthesis strategy. In the acidic tumour microenvironment, the Mg 2 Si releases silane, which efficiently reacts with both tissue-dissolved and haemoglobin-bound oxygen to form silicon oxide (SiO 2 ) aggregates. This in situ formation of SiO 2 blocks the tumour blood capillaries and prevents tumours from receiving new supplies of oxygen and nutrients.

  16. Unidirectional endotaxial cobalt di-silicide nanowires on Si(110) substrates.

    PubMed

    Mahato, J C; Das, Debolina; Banu, Nasrin; Satpati, Biswarup; Dev, B N

    2017-10-20

    Self-organized growth of well-ordered endotaxial silicide nanowires (NWs) on clean Si(110) surfaces has been investigated by in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Co deposition on clean Si(110) reconstructed surfaces at ∼600 °C produces unidirectional CoSi 2 NWs by reaction of cobalt with the hot silicon substrate. STM investigations reveal four major types of distinct NWs, all growing along the [-110] in-plane direction except one type growing along the in-plane [-113] direction. There are also some nanodots. The cross-sectional TEM measurements show that the unidirectional NWs are of two types-flat-top and ridged. The NWs grow not only on the substrate but also into the substrate. CoSi 2 in flat top NWs are in the same crystallographic orientation as the substrate Si and the buried interfaces between CoSi 2 and Si are A-type. In the ridged NWs CoSi 2 and Si are in different crystallographic orientations and the interfaces are B-type. The ridged NWs are in general wider and grow deeper into the substrate.

  17. Coaxial metal-silicide Ni2Si/C54-TiSi2 nanowires.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Yen; Lin, Yu-Kai; Hsu, Chia-Wei; Wang, Chiu-Yen; Chueh, Yu-Lun; Chen, Lih-Juann; Lo, Shen-Chuan; Chou, Li-Jen

    2012-05-09

    One-dimensional metal silicide nanowires are excellent candidates for interconnect and contact materials in future integrated circuits devices. Novel core-shell Ni(2)Si/C54-TiSi(2) nanowires, 2 μm in length, were grown controllably via a solid-liquid-solid growth mechanism. Their interesting ferromagnetic behaviors and excellent electrical properties have been studied in detail. The coercivities (Hcs) of the core-shell Ni(2)Si/C54-TiSi(2) nanowires was determined to be 200 and 50 Oe at 4 and 300 K, respectively, and the resistivity was measured to be as low as 31 μΩ-cm. The shift of the hysteresis loop with the temperature in zero field cooled (ZFC) and field cooled (FC) studies was found. ZFC and FC curves converge near room temperature at 314 K. The favorable ferromagnetic and electrical properties indicate that the unique core-shell nanowires can be used in penetrative ferromagnetic devices at room temperature simultaneously as a future interconnection in integrated circuits.

  18. Investigating phase transition temperatures of size separated gadolinium silicide magnetic nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Hunagund, Shivakumar G.; Harstad, Shane M.; El-Gendy, Ahmed A.

    Gadolinium silicide (Gd 5Si 4) nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit different properties compared to their parent bulk materials due to finite size, shape, and surface effects. NPs were prepared by high energy ball-milling of the as-cast Gd 5Si 4 ingot and size separated into eight fractions using time sensitive sedimentation in an applied dc magnetic field with average particle sizes ranging from 700 nm to 82 nm. The largest Gd 5Si 4 NPs order ferromagnetically at 316 K. A second anomaly observed at 110 K can be ascribed to a Gd 5Si 3 impurity. Here as the particle sizes decrease, the volumemore » fraction of Gd 5Si 3 phase increases at the expense of the Gd 5Si 4 phase, and the ferromagnetic transition temperature of Gd 5Si 4 is reduced from 316 K to 310 K, while the ordering of the minor phase is independent of the particle size, remaining at 110 K.« less

  19. Rate Theory Modeling and Simulation of Silicide Fuel at LWR Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, Yinbin; Ye, Bei; Hofman, Gerard

    As a promising candidate for the accident tolerant fuel (ATF) used in light water reactors (LWRs), the fuel performance of uranium silicide (U 3Si 2) at LWR conditions needs to be well understood. In this report, rate theory model was developed based on existing experimental data and density functional theory (DFT) calculations so as to predict the fission gas behavior in U 3Si 2 at LWR conditions. The fission gas behavior of U 3Si 2 can be divided into three temperature regimes. During steady-state operation, the majority of the fission gas stays in intragranular bubbles, whereas the dominance of intergranularmore » bubbles and fission gas release only occurs beyond 1000 K. The steady-state rate theory model was also used as reference to establish a gaseous swelling correlation of U 3Si 2 for the BISON code. Meanwhile, the overpressurized bubble model was also developed so that the fission gas behavior at LOCA can be simulated. LOCA simulation showed that intragranular bubbles are still dominant after a 70 second LOCA, resulting in a controllable gaseous swelling. The fission gas behavior of U 3Si 2 at LWR conditions is benign according to the rate theory prediction at both steady-state and LOCA conditions, which provides important references to the qualification of U 3Si 2 as a LWR fuel material with excellent fuel performance and enhanced accident tolerance.« less

  20. Enhanced power factor of higher manganese silicide via melt spin synthesis method

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Xiaoya; Shi, Xun; Li, Yulong

    We report on the thermoelectric properties of the Higher Manganese Silicide MnSi₁.₇₅ (HMS) synthesized by means of a one-step non-equilibrium method. The ultrahigh cooling rate generated from the melt-spin technique is found to be effective in reducing second phases, which are inevitable during the traditional solid state diffusion processes. Aside from being detrimental to thermoelectric properties, second phases skew the revealing of the intrinsic properties of this class of materials, for example the optimal level of carrier concentration. With this melt-spin sample, we are able to formulate a simple model based on a single parabolic band that can well describemore » the carrier concentration dependence of the Seebeck coefficient and power factor of the data reported in the literature. An optimal carrier concentration around 5x10²⁰ cm⁻³ at 300 K is predicted according to this model. The phase-pure melt-spin sample shows the largest power factor at high temperature, resulting in the highest zT value among the three samples in this paper; the maximum value is superior to those reported in the literatures.« less

  1. Lithium silicide nanocrystals: synthesis, chemical stability, thermal stability, and carbon encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Cloud, Jacqueline E; Wang, Yonglong; Li, Xuemin; Yoder, Tara S; Yang, Yuan; Yang, Yongan

    2014-10-20

    Lithium silicide (LixSi) is the lithiated form of silicon, one of the most promising anode materials for the next generation of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In contrast to silicon, LixSi has not been well studied. Herein we report a facile high-energy ball-milling-based synthesis of four phase-pure LixSi (x = 4.4, 3.75, 3.25, and 2.33), using hexane as the lubricant. Surprisingly, the obtained Li3.75Si phase shows significant downward shifts in all X-ray diffraction peak positions, compared with the standard. Our interpretation is that the high-energy ball-mill-synthesized Li3.75Si presents smaller internal pressures and larger lattice constants. The chemical-stability study reveals that only surface reactions occur after Li4.4Si and Li3.75Si are immersed in several battery-assembly-related chemicals. The thermal-stability study shows that Li4.4Si is stable up to 350 °C and Li3.75Si is stable up to 200 °C. This remarkable thermal stability of Li3.75Si is in stark contrast to the long-observed metastability for electrochemically synthesized Li3.75Si. The carbon encapsulation of Li4.4Si has also been studied for its potential applications in LIBs.

  2. A modified Embedded-Atom Method interatomic potential for uranium-silicide

    DOE PAGES

    Beeler, Benjamin; Baskes, Michael; Andersson, David; ...

    2017-08-18

    Uranium-silicide (U-Si) fuels are being pursued as a possible accident tolerant fuel (ATF). This uranium alloy fuel bene ts from higher thermal conductivity and higher ssile density compared to uranium dioxide (UO 2). In order to perform engineering scale nuclear fuel performance simulations, the material properties of the fuel must be known. Currently, the experimental data available for U-Si fuels is rather limited. Thus, multiscale modeling e orts are underway to address this gap in knowledge. In this study, a semi-empirical modi ed Embedded-Atom Method (MEAM) potential is presented for the description of the U-Si system. The potential is ttedmore » to the formation energy, defect energies and structural properties of U 3Si 2. The primary phase of interest (U 3Si 2) is accurately described over a wide temperature range and displays good behavior under irradiation and with free surfaces. The potential can also describe a variety of U-Si phases across the composition spectrum.« less

  3. Narrow bandgap semiconducting silicides: Intrinsic infrared detectors on a silicon chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahan, John E.

    1989-01-01

    Polycrystalline thin films of CrSi2, LaSi2, and ReSi2 were grown on silicon substrates. Normal incidence optical transmittance and reflectance measurements were made as a function of wavelength. It was demonstrated that LaSi2 is a metallic conductor, but that CrSi2 and ReSi2 are, in fact, narrow bandgap semiconductors. For CrSi2, the complex index of refraction was determined by computer analysis of the optical data. From the imaginary part, the optical absorption coefficient was determined as a function of photon energy. It was shown that CrSi2 possesses an indirect forbidden energy gap of slightly less than 0.31 eV, and yet it is a very strong absorber of light above the absorption edge. On the other hand, the ReSi2 films exhibit an absorption edge in the vicinity of 0.2 eV. Measurements of the thermal activation energy of resistivity for ReSi2 indicate a bandgap of 0.18 eV. It is concluded that the semiconducting silicides merit further investigation for development as new silicon-compatible infrared detector materials.

  4. A modified Embedded-Atom Method interatomic potential for uranium-silicide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beeler, Benjamin; Baskes, Michael; Andersson, David; Cooper, Michael W. D.; Zhang, Yongfeng

    2017-11-01

    Uranium-silicide (U-Si) fuels are being pursued as a possible accident tolerant fuel (ATF). This uranium alloy fuel benefits from higher thermal conductivity and higher fissile density compared to uranium dioxide (UO2). In order to perform engineering scale nuclear fuel performance simulations, the material properties of the fuel must be known. Currently, the experimental data available for U-Si fuels is rather limited. Thus, multiscale modeling efforts are underway to address this gap in knowledge. In this study, a semi-empirical modified Embedded-Atom Method (MEAM) potential is presented for the description of the U-Si system. The potential is fitted to the formation energy, defect energies and structural properties of U3Si2. The primary phase of interest (U3Si2) is accurately described over a wide temperature range and displays good behavior under irradiation and with free surfaces. The potential can also describe a variety of U-Si phases across the composition spectrum.

  5. Hydrogen Sorption Properties of Potassium Alanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matysina, Z. A.; Zaginaichenko, S. Yu.; Schur, D. V.; Zolotarenko, Al. D.; Zolotarenko, An. D.; Gabdulin, M. T.

    2018-06-01

    Molecular kinetic representations were used to develop the statistical theory of phase transformations of thermal decomposition of KAlH4 potassium alanate with formation of a more complex K3AlH6 alanate and KH potassium hydride and subsequent dehydrogenation of the latter accompanied with free hydrogen, pure potassium and aluminum yield. Temperature dependence of the emitted free hydrogen was established. Isotherms and isopleths were built. The possibility of hysteresis effect manifestation was established. The results of calculations were compared to the experimental data.

  6. Potassium in the atmosphere of Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, A. E.; Morgan, T. H.

    1986-01-01

    Spectral data are reported from a search for potassium in the Mercury atmosphere. The data were collected with instrumentation at Kitt Peak (7699 A) and at McDonald Observatory (7698.98 and 7664.86 A). The equivalent mean widths of the potassium emission lines observed are tabulated, along with the estimated abundances, which are compared with sodium abundances as determined by resonance lines. The average column abundance of potassium is projected to be 1 billion atoms/sq cm, about 1 percent the column abundance of sodium.

  7. Superconductivity of ternary silicide with the AlB(2)-type structure Sr(Ga(0.37),Si(0.63))(2).

    PubMed

    Imai, M; Abe, E; Ye, J; Nishida, K; Kimura, T; Honma, K; Abe, H; Kitazawa, H

    2001-08-13

    A ternary silicide Sr(Ga(0.37),Si(0.63))(2) was synthesized by a floating zone method. Electron diffraction and powder x-ray diffraction measurements indicate that the silicide has the AlB(2)-type structure with the lattice constants of a = 4.1427(6) A and c = 4.7998(9) A, where Si and Ga atoms are arranged in a chemically disordered honeycomb lattice and Sr atoms are inercalated between them. The silicide is isostructural with the high-temperature superconductor MgB(2) reported recently. Electrical resistivity and dc magnetization measurements revealed that it is a type-II superconductor with onset temperature of 3.5 K.

  8. Crystal structure transformation in potassium acrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai Verneker, V. R.; Vasanthakumari, R.

    1983-10-01

    Potassium acrylate undergoes a reversible phase transformation around 335°K with an activation energy of 133 kcal/mole. Differential scanning calorimetry and high temperature X-ray powder diffraction techniques have been used to probe this phenomenon.

  9. Redistribution of phosphorus during Ni0.9Pt0.1-based silicide formation on phosphorus implanted Si substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemang, M.; Rodriguez, Ph.; Nemouchi, F.; Juhel, M.; Grégoire, M.; Mangelinck, D.

    2018-02-01

    Phosphorus diffusion and its distribution during the solid-state reactions between Ni0.9Pt0.1 and implanted Si substrates are studied. Silicidation is achieved through a first rapid thermal annealing followed by a selective etching and a direct surface annealing. The redistribution of phosphorus in silicide layers is investigated after the first annealing for different temperatures and after the second annealing. Phosphorus concentration profiles obtained thanks to time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and atom probe tomography characterizations for partial and total reactions of the deposited 7 nm thick Ni0.9Pt0.1 film are presented. Phosphorus segregation is observed at the Ni0.9Pt0.1 surface and at Ni2Si interfaces during Ni2Si formation and at the NiSi surface and the NiSi/Si interface after NiSi formation. The phosphorus is evidenced in low concentrations in the Ni2Si and NiSi layers. Once NiSi is formed, a bump in the phosphorus concentration is highlighted in the NiSi layer before the NiSi/Si interface. Based on these profiles, a model for the phosphorus redistribution is proposed to match this bump to the former Ni2Si/Si interface. It also aims to bind the phosphorus segregation and its low concentration in different silicides to a low solubility of phosphorus in Ni2Si and in NiSi and a fast diffusion of phosphorus at their grain boundaries. This model is also substantiated by a simulation using a finite difference method in one dimension.

  10. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33... nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions issued... potassium nitrite, in the production of cured red meat products and cured poultry products. [48 FR 1705, Jan...

  11. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium... nitrite, with or without sodium or potassium nitrite, in the production of cured red meat products and...

  12. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium... fixatives and preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red meat...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1600 - Potassium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium test system. 862.1600 Section 862.1600....1600 Potassium test system. (a) Identification. A potassium test system is a device intended to measure potassium in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used to monitor electrolyte...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1600 - Potassium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium test system. 862.1600 Section 862.1600....1600 Potassium test system. (a) Identification. A potassium test system is a device intended to measure potassium in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used to monitor electrolyte...

  15. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium... nitrite, with or without sodium or potassium nitrite, in the production of cured red meat products and...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1600 - Potassium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium test system. 862.1600 Section 862.1600....1600 Potassium test system. (a) Identification. A potassium test system is a device intended to measure potassium in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used to monitor electrolyte...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1600 - Potassium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium test system. 862.1600 Section 862.1600....1600 Potassium test system. (a) Identification. A potassium test system is a device intended to measure potassium in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used to monitor electrolyte...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1600 - Potassium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium test system. 862.1600 Section 862.1600....1600 Potassium test system. (a) Identification. A potassium test system is a device intended to measure potassium in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used to monitor electrolyte...

  19. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium... fixatives and preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red meat...

  20. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34... nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite are subject to prior sanctions issued... without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red meat and poultry products. [48 FR 1705, Jan. 14...

  1. The Ketogenic Diet and Potassium Channel Function

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0463 TITLE: The Ketogenic Diet and Potassium Channel Function PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Geoffrey Murphy...NUMBER The Ketogenic Diet and Potassium Channel Function 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0463 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Geoffrey Murphy...The overall objective of this Discovery Award was to explore the hypothesis the ketogenic diet (KD) regulates neuronal excitability by influencing

  2. Polarization-independent dual-band terahertz metamaterial absorbers based on gold/parylene-C/silicide structure.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yongzheng; Ma, Wei; Bailey, Joe; Matmon, Guy; Yu, Xiaomei; Aeppli, Gabriel

    2013-07-01

    We design, fabricate, and characterize dual-band terahertz (THz) metamaterial absorbers with high absorption based on structures consisting of a cobalt silicide (Co-Si) ground plane, a parylene-C dielectric spacer, and a metal top layer. By combining two periodic metal resonators that couple separately within a single unit cell, a polarization-independent absorber with two distinct absorption peaks was obtained. By varying the thickness of the dielectric layer, we obtain absorptivity of 0.76 at 0.76 THz and 0.97 at 2.30 THz, which indicates the Co-Si ground plane absorbers present good performance.

  3. Infrared photodetectors with tailorable response due to resonant plasmon absorption in epitaxial silicide particles embedded in silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fathauer, R. W.; Dejewski, S. M.; George, T.; Jones, E. W.; Krabach, T. N.; Ksendzov, A.

    1993-01-01

    Tailorable infrared photoresponse in the 1-2 micron range are demonstrated in a device incorporating electrically floating metal silicide particles. Photons absorbed by excitation of the metallic-particle surface plasmon are shown to contribute to the photoresponse. Quantum efficiencies of roughly 0.2 percent are measured at 77 K, with dark currents of less than 2 nA/sq cm at a reverse bias of 1 V and detectivities of 4 x 10 exp 9 - 8 x 10 exp 9 cm sq rt Hz/W are obtained.

  4. Potassium Loss during Galvanotaxis of Slime Mold

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, John D.

    1962-01-01

    The posterior reticulated regions of the plasmodia of the slime mold, Physarum polycephalum, whose migration has been oriented by direct current (3.0 to 5.0 µa/mm2 in the agar substrate), contain 30 per cent less potassium than the advancing non-reticulated region. The anterior regions have the same potassium concentration as that of the controls, approximately 32 meq/kg wet weight. Differences in potassium concentration between anterior and posterior regions of control plasmodia, not oriented by electric current, are less than 5 per cent. Sodium, in contrast to potassium, is generally less concentrated in the anterior than in the posterior regions of electrically oriented plasmodia, but sodium concentrations are extremely variable. No significant difference in protein concentration was found between oriented and control plasmodia. Thirty-five per cent of the total potassium, but none of the sodium, is found in acidified ethanol precipitates from plasmodial homogenates. Potassium, but not sodium, appears to be closely associated with processes which differentiate anterior from posterior in an oriented plasmodium. PMID:13861244

  5. Drug-induced abnormalities of potassium metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kokot, Franciszek; Hyla-Klekot, Lidia

    2008-01-01

    Pharmacotherapy has progressed rapidly over the last 20 years with the result that general practioners more and more often use drugs which may influence potassium metabolism at the kidney or gastrointestinal level, or the transmembrane transport of potassium at the cellular level. Potassium abnormalities may result in life-theatening clinical conditions. Hypokalemia is most frequently caused by renal loss of this electrolyte (thiazide, thiazide-like and loop diuretics, glucocorticoids) and the gastrointestinal tract (laxatives, diarrhea, vomiting, external fistula), and may be the result of an increased intracellular potassium influx induced by sympathicomimetics used mostly by patients with asthma, or by insulin overdosage in diabetic subjects. The leading symptoms of hypokalemia are skeletal and smooth muscle weakness and cardiac arrhythmias. Hyperkalemia may be caused by acute or end-stage renal failure, impaired tubular excretion of potassium (blockers of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, cyclosporine, antifungal drugs, potassium sparing diuretics), acidemia, and severe cellular injury (tumor lysis syndrome). Hyperkalemia may be the cause of severe injury of both skeletal and smooth muscle cells. The specific treatment counteracting hyperkalemia is a bolus injection of calcium salts and, when necessary, hemodialysis.

  6. Significant enhancement in thermoelectric performance of nanostructured higher manganese silicides synthesized employing a melt spinning technique.

    PubMed

    Muthiah, Saravanan; Singh, R C; Pathak, B D; Avasthi, Piyush Kumar; Kumar, Rishikesh; Kumar, Anil; Srivastava, A K; Dhar, Ajay

    2018-01-25

    The limited thermoelectric performance of p-type Higher Manganese Silicides (HMS) in terms of their low figure-of-merit (ZT), which is far below unity, is the main bottle-neck for realising an efficient HMS based thermoelectric generator, which has been recognized as the most promising material for harnessing waste-heat in the mid-temperature range, owing to its thermal stability, earth-abundant and environmentally friendly nature of its constituent elements. We report a significant enhancement in the thermoelectric performance of nanostructured HMS synthesized using rapid solidification by optimizing the cooling rates during melt-spinning followed by spark plasma sintering of the resulting melt-spun ribbons. By employing this experimental strategy, an unprecedented ZT ∼ 0.82 at 800 K was realized in spark plasma sintered 5 at% Al-doped MnSi 1.73 HMS, melt spun at an optimized high cooling rate of ∼2 × 10 7 K s -1 . This enhancement in ZT represents a ∼25% increase over the best reported values thus far for HMS and primarily originates from a nano-crystalline microstructure consisting of a HMS matrix (20-40 nm) with excess Si (3-9 nm) uniformly distributed in it. This nanostructure, resulting from the high cooling rates employed during the melt-spinning of HMS, introduces a high density of nano-crystallite boundaries in a wide spectrum of nano-scale dimensions, which scatter the low-to-mid-wavelength heat-carrying phonons. This abundant phonon scattering results in a significantly reduced thermal conductivity of ∼1.5 W m -1 K -1 at 800 K, which primarily contributes to the enhancement in ZT.

  7. Evaluation of steam corrosion and water quenching behavior of zirconium-silicide coated LWR fuel claddings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, Hwasung; Lockhart, Cody; Mariani, Robert; Xu, Peng; Corradini, Michael; Sridharan, Kumar

    2018-02-01

    This study investigates steam corrosion of bulk ZrSi2, pure Si, and zirconium-silicide coatings as well as water quenching behavior of ZrSi2 coatings to evaluate its feasibility as a potential accident-tolerant fuel cladding coating material in light water nuclear reactor. The ZrSi2 coating and Zr2Si-ZrSi2 coating were deposited on Zircaloy-4 flats, SiC flats, and cylindrical Zircaloy-4 rodlets using magnetron sputter deposition. Bulk ZrSi2 and pure Si samples showed weight loss after the corrosion test in pure steam at 400 °C and 10.3 MPa for 72 h. Silicon depletion on the ZrSi2 surface during the steam test was related to the surface recession observed in the silicon samples. ZrSi2 coating (∼3.9 μm) pre-oxidized in 700 °C air prevented substrate oxidation but thin porous ZrO2 formed on the coating. The only condition which achieved complete silicon immobilization in the oxide scale in aqueous environments was the formation of ZrSiO4 via ZrSi2 coating oxidation in 1400 °C air. In addition, ZrSi2 coatings were beneficial in enhancing quenching heat transfer - the minimum film boiling temperature increased by 6-8% in the three different environmental conditions tested. During repeated thermal cycles (water quenching from 700 °C to 85 °C for 20 s) performed as a part of quench tests, no spallation and cracking was observed and the coating prevented oxidation of the underlying Zircaloy-4 substrate.

  8. Study of Lithium Silicide Nanoparticles as Anode Materials for Advanced Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuemin; Kersey-Bronec, Faith E; Ke, John; Cloud, Jacqueline E; Wang, Yonglong; Ngo, Chilan; Pylypenko, Svitlana; Yang, Yongan

    2017-05-17

    The development of high-performance silicon anodes for the next generation of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) evokes increasing interest in studying its lithiated counterpart-lithium silicide (Li x Si). In this paper we report a systematic study of three thermodynamically stable phases of Li x Si (x = 4.4, 3.75, and 2.33) plus nitride-protected Li 4.4 Si, which are synthesized via the high-energy ball-milling technique. All three Li x Si phases show improved performance over that of unmodified Si, where Li 4.4 Si demonstrates optimum performance with a discharging capacity of 3306 (mA h)/g initially and maintains above 2100 (mA h)/g for over 30 cycles and above 1200 (mA h)/g for over 60 cycles at the current density of 358 mA/g of Si. A fundamental question studied is whether different electrochemical paradigms, that is, delithiation first or lithiation first, influence the electrode performance. No significant difference in electrode performance is observed. When a nitride layer (Li x N y Si z ) is created on the surface of Li 4.4 Si, the cyclability is improved to retain the capacity above 1200 (mA h)/g for more than 80 cycles. By increasing the nitridation extent, the capacity retention is improved significantly from the average decrease of 1.06% per cycle to 0.15% per cycle, while the initial discharge capacity decreases due to the inactivity of Si in the Li x N y Si z layer. Moreover, the Coulombic efficiencies of all Li x Si-based electrodes in the first cycle are significantly higher than that of a Si electrode (∼90% vs 40-70%).

  9. 21 CFR 184.1077 - Potassium acid tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium acid tartrate. 184.1077 Section 184.1077... GRAS § 184.1077 Potassium acid tartrate. (a) Potassium acid tartrate (C4H5KO6, CAS Reg. No. 868-14-4) is the potassium acid salt of l−(+)−tartaric acid and is also called potassium bitartrate or cream of...

  10. Effect of polacrilin potassium as disintegrant on bioavailability of diclofenac potassium in tablets : a technical note.

    PubMed

    Bele, Mrudula H; Derle, Diliprao V

    2012-09-01

    Polacrilin potassium is an ion exchange resin used in oral pharmaceutical formulations as a tablet disintegrant. It is a weakly acidic cation exchange resin. Chemically, it is a partial potassium salt of a copolymer of methacrylic acid with divinyl benzene. It ionizes to an anionic polymer chain and potassium cations. It was hypothesized that polacrilin potassium may be able to improve the permeability of anionic drugs according to the Donnan membrane phenomenon. The effect of polacrilin potassium on the permeability of diclofenac potassium, used as a model anionic drug, was tested in vitro using diffusion cells and in vivo by monitoring serum levels in rats. The amount of drug permeated across a dialysis membrane in vitro was significantly more in the presence of polacrilin potassium. Significant improvement was found in the extent of drug absorption in vivo. It could be concluded that polacrilin potassium may be used as a high-functionality excipient for improving the bioavailability of anionic drugs having poor gastrointestinal permeability.

  11. Potassium acetate and potassium lactate enhance the microbiological and physical properties of marinated catfish fillets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sodium or potassium salts such as lactate and acetate can be used to inhibit the growth of spoilage bacteria and food-borne pathogens, and thereby prolong the shelf-life of refrigerated seafood. However, minimal information is available regarding the combined effects of potassium salts (acetate and ...

  12. Bioavailability of potassium from potatoes and potassium gluconate: a randomized dose response trial.

    PubMed

    Macdonald-Clarke, Claire J; Martin, Berdine R; McCabe, Linda D; McCabe, George P; Lachcik, Pamela J; Wastney, Meryl; Weaver, Connie M

    2016-08-01

    The bioavailability of potassium should be considered in setting requirements, but to our knowledge, the bioavailability from individual foods has not been determined. Potatoes provide 19-20% of potassium in the American diet. We compared the bioavailability and dose response of potassium from nonfried white potatoes with skin [targeted at 20, 40, and 60 milliequivalents (mEq) K] and French fries (40 mEq K) with potassium gluconate at the same doses when added to a basal diet that contained ∼60 mEq K. Thirty-five healthy, normotensive men and women with a mean ± SD age of 29.7 ± 11.2 y and body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 24.3 ± 4.4 were enrolled in a single-blind, crossover, randomized controlled trial. Participants were partially randomly assigned to the order of testing for nine 5-d interventions of additional potassium as follows: 0 (control; repeated at phases 1 and 5), 20, 40, and 60 mEq K/d consumed as a potassium gluconate supplement or as unfried potato or 40 mEq K from French fries completed at phase 9. The bioavailability of potassium was determined from the area under the curve (AUC) of serial blood draws and cumulative urinary excretion during a 24-h period and from a kinetic analysis. The effects of the potassium source and dose on the change in blood pressure and augmentation index (AIx) were determined. The serum potassium AUC increased with the dose (P < 0.0001) and did not differ because of the source (P = 0.53). Cumulative 24-h urinary potassium also increased with the dose (P < 0.0001) and was greater with the potato than with the supplement (P < 0.0001). The kinetic analysis showed the absorption efficiency was high across all interventions (>94% ± 12%). There were no significant differences in the change in blood pressure or AIx with the treatment source or dose. The bioavailability of potassium is as high from potatoes as from potassium gluconate supplements. Future studies that measure the effect of dietary potassium on blood pressure

  13. Wear Resistance Enhancement of Ti-6Al-4 V Alloy by Applying Zr-Modified Silicide Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuan; Hu, Guangzhong; Tian, Jin; Tian, Wei; Xie, Wenling; Li, Xiulan

    2018-03-01

    Zr-modified silicide coatings were prepared on Ti-6Al-4 V alloy by pack cementation process to enhance its wear resistance. The microstructure and wear properties of the substrate and the coatings were comparatively investigated using GCr15 and Al2O3 as the counterparts under different sliding loads. The obtained Zr-modified silicide coating had a multilayer structure, consisting of a thick (Ti, X)Si2 (X represents Al, Zr and V elements) outer layer, a TiSi middle layer and a Ti5Si4 + Ti5Si3 inner layer. The micro-hardness of the coating was much higher than the substrate and displayed a decrease tendency from the coating surface to the interior. Sliding against either GCr15 or Al2O3 balls, the coatings showed superior anti-friction property to the Ti-6Al-4 V alloy, as confirmed by its much lower wear rate under each employed sliding condition.

  14. Magnetic and magnetothermal studies of pure and doped gadolinium silicide nanoparticles for self-controlled hyperthermia applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alnasir, M. Hisham; Awan, M. S.; Manzoor, Sadia

    2018-03-01

    We report on magnetic and magnetothermal properties of undoped and doped gadolinium silicide (Gd5Si4) nanoparticles with the objective of simultaneously attaining high specific absorption rate (SAR) and low Curie temperature (TC) suitable for self-controlled hyperthermia applications for which TC ∼ 315-320 K. Pellets of doped gadolinium silicide Gd5(Si1-xGex)4 and (Gd1-xRx)5Si4 with R = Ho, Nd and Er and 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.35 were made by arc melting and reduced to nanoparticulate form by surfactant assisted ball milling. Structural and morphological studies were done using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy respectively. All samples show soft magnetic properties. At low fields there is a ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition that reduces remanance and coercivity to zero making these materials very attractive for biomedical applications. Zero-field-cooled thermal demagnetization measurements showed that TC of these nanoparticles can be lowered to lie within the limits required for self-controlled hyperthermia by varying the dopant concentration. Specific absorption rates (SAR's) were obtained from magnetothermia measurements made in an ac magnetic field of amplitude 10 Oe and frequency 300 kHz. We have identified samples that have SAR values larger or comparable to those of magnetite and several ferrite nanoparticles, while having Curie temperatures that are low enough for self controlled hyperthermia applications.

  15. Oxide mediated liquid-solid growth of high aspect ratio aligned gold silicide nanowires on Si(110) substrates.

    PubMed

    Bhatta, Umananda M; Rath, Ashutosh; Dash, Jatis K; Ghatak, Jay; Yi-Feng, Lai; Liu, Chuan-Pu; Satyam, P V

    2009-11-18

    Silicon nanowires grown using the vapor-liquid-solid method are promising candidates for nanoelectronics applications. The nanowires grow from an Au-Si catalyst during silicon chemical vapor deposition. In this paper, the effect of temperature, oxide at the interface and substrate orientation on the nucleation and growth kinetics during formation of nanogold silicide structures is explained using an oxide mediated liquid-solid growth mechanism. Using real time in situ high temperature transmission electron microscopy (with 40 ms time resolution), we show the formation of high aspect ratio ( approximately 15.0) aligned gold silicide nanorods in the presence of native oxide at the interface during in situ annealing of gold thin films on Si(110) substrates. Steps observed in the growth rate and real time electron diffraction show the existence of liquid Au-Si nano-alloy structures on the surface besides the un-reacted gold nanostructures. These results might enable us to engineer the growth of nanowires and similar structures with an Au-Si alloy as a catalyst.

  16. Development of potassium ion conducting hollow glass fibers. [potassium sulfur battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, F. Y.

    1974-01-01

    Potassium ion conducting glasses, chemically resistant to potassium, potassium sulfide and sulfur, were made and their possible utility as the membrane material for a potassium/sulfur battery was evaluated. At least one satisfactory candidate was found. It possesses an electrical resistance which makes it usable as a membrane in the form of a fine hollow fiber. It's chemical and electrochemical resistances are excellent. The other aspects of the possible potassium sulfur battery utilizing such fine hollow fibers, including the header (or tube sheet) and a cathode current collector were studied. Several cathode materials were found to be satisfactory. None of the tube sheet materials studied possessed all the desired properties. Multi-fiber cells had very limited life-time due to physical failure of fibers at the fiber/tube sheet junctions.

  17. Transmission electron microscopy characterization of the erbium silicide formation process using a Pt/Er stack on a silicon-on-insulator substrate.

    PubMed

    Łaszcz, A; Katcki, J; Ratajczak, J; Tang, Xiaohui; Dubois, E

    2006-10-01

    Very thin erbium silicide layers have been used as source and drain contacts to n-type Si in low Schottky barrier MOSFETs on silicon-on-insulator substrates. Erbium silicide is formed by a solid-state reaction between the metal and silicon during annealing. The influence of annealing temperature (450 degrees C, 525 degrees C and 600 degrees C) on the formation of an erbium silicide layer in the Pt/Er/Si/SiO(2)/Si structure was analysed by means of cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. The Si grains/interlayer formed at the interface and the presence of Si grains within the Er-related layer constitute proof that Si reacts with Er in the presence of a Pt top layer in the temperature range 450-600 degrees C. The process of silicide formation in the Pt/Er/Si structure differs from that in the Er/Si structure. At 600 degrees C, the Pt top layer vanishes and a (Pt-Er)Si(x) system is formed.

  18. Two-dimensional self-organization of an ordered Au silicide nanowire network on a Si(110)-16 x 2 surface.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ie-Hong; Yen, Shang-Chieh; Lin, Fu-Shiang

    2009-08-17

    A well-ordered two-dimensional (2D) network consisting of two crossed Au silicide nanowire (NW) arrays is self-organized on a Si(110)-16 x 2 surface by the direct-current heating of approximately 1.5 monolayers of Au on the surface at 1100 K. Such a highly regular crossbar nanomesh exhibits both a perfect long-range spatial order and a high integration density over a mesoscopic area, and these two self-ordering crossed arrays of parallel-aligned NWs have distinctly different sizes and conductivities. NWs are fabricated with widths and pitches as small as approximately 2 and approximately 5 nm, respectively. The difference in the conductivities of two crossed-NW arrays opens up the possibility for their utilization in nanodevices of crossbar architecture. Scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy studies show that the 2D self-organization of this perfect Au silicide nanomesh can be achieved through two different directional electromigrations of Au silicide NWs along different orientations of two nonorthogonal 16 x 2 domains, which are driven by the electrical field of direct-current heating. Prospects for this Au silicide nanomesh are also discussed.

  19. Suicidal ingestion of potassium permanganate crystals: a rare encounter.

    PubMed

    Karthik, Ravikanti; Veerendranath, Hari Prasad Kanakapura; Wali, Siddraj; Mohan, Murali N T; Kumar, Praveen A C; Trimurty, Gaganam

    2014-01-01

    Potassium permanganate poisoning is not common. Although Symptoms of potassium permanganate ingestion are gastrointestinal and Complications due to ingestion of potassium permanganate include cardiovascular depression, hepatic and renal damage, upper airway obstruction, bleeding tendency and methemoglobinemia. Gastric damage due to potassium permanganate has rarely been reported previously. We are reporting a 34-year old female patient who presented to our Emergency Department after suicidal ingestion of potassium permanganate crystals. After treatment, the patient was discharged home on the 8(th) day after admission. So we conclude that Emergency endoscopy has a significant role in diagnosis and management of potassium permanganate ingestion.

  20. Suicidal Ingestion of Potassium Permanganate Crystals: A Rare Encounter

    PubMed Central

    Karthik, Ravikanti; Veerendranath, Hari Prasad Kanakapura; Wali, Siddraj; Mohan, Murali N T; Kumar, Praveen A. C.; Trimurty, Gaganam

    2014-01-01

    Potassium permanganate poisoning is not common. Although Symptoms of potassium permanganate ingestion are gastrointestinal and Complications due to ingestion of potassium permanganate include cardiovascular depression, hepatic and renal damage, upper airway obstruction, bleeding tendency and methemoglobinemia. Gastric damage due to potassium permanganate has rarely been reported previously. We are reporting a 34-year old female patient who presented to our Emergency Department after suicidal ingestion of potassium permanganate crystals. After treatment, the patient was discharged home on the 8th day after admission. So we conclude that Emergency endoscopy has a significant role in diagnosis and management of potassium permanganate ingestion. PMID:25948978

  1. Narrow bandgap semiconducting silicides: Intrinsic infrared detectors on a silicon chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahan, John E.

    1990-01-01

    Work done during the final report period is presented. The main technical objective was to achieve epitaxial growth on silicon of two semiconducting silicides, ReSi2 and CrSi2. ReSi2 thin films were grown on (001) silicon wafers by vacuum evaporation of rhenium onto hot substrates in ultrahigh vacuum. The preferred epitaxial relationship was found to be ReSi2(100)/Si(001) with ReSi2(010) parallel to Si(110). The lattice matching consists of a common unit mesh of 120 A(sup 2) area, and a mismatch of 1.8 percent. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the existence of rotation twins corresponding to two distinct but equivalent azimuthal orientations of the common unit mesh. MeV He(+) backscattering spectrometry revealed a minimum channeling yield of 2 percent for an approximately 1,500 A thick film grown at 650 C. Although the lateral dimension of the twins is on the order of 100 A, there is a very high degree of alignment between the ReSi2(100) and the Si(001) planes. Highly oriented films of CrSi2 were grown on (111) silicon substrates, with the matching crystallographic faces being CrSi2(001)/Si(111). The reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) patterns of the films consist of sharp streaks, symmetrically arranged. The predominant azimuthal orientation of the films was determined to be CrSi2(210) parallel to Si(110). This highly desirable heteroepitaxial relationship has been obtained previously by others; it may be described with a common unit mesh of 51 A(sup 2) and mismatch of 0.3 percent. RHEED also revealed the presence of limited film regions of a competing azimuthal orientation, CrSi2(110) parallel to Si(110). A channeling effect for MeV He(+) ions was not found for this material. Potential commercial applications of this research may be found in silicon-integrated infrared detector arrays. Optical characterizations showed that semiconducting ReSi2 is a strong absorber of infrared radiation, with the adsorption constant increasing above 2 x

  2. Studies of potassium-promoted nickel catalysts for methane steam reforming: Effect of surface potassium location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borowiecki, Tadeusz; Denis, Andrzej; Rawski, Michał; Gołębiowski, Andrzej; Stołecki, Kazimierz; Dmytrzyk, Jaromir; Kotarba, Andrzej

    2014-05-01

    The effect of potassium addition to the Ni/Al2O3 steam reforming catalyst has been investigated on several model systems, including K/Al2O3 with various amounts of alkali promoters (1-4 wt% of K2O), a model catalyst 90%NiO-10%Al2O3 promoted with potassium and a commercial catalyst. The potassium surface state and stability were investigated by means of the Species Resolved Thermal Alkali Desorption method (SR-TAD). The activity of the catalysts in the steam reforming of methane and their coking-resistance were also evaluated. The results reveal that the beneficial effect of potassium addition is strongly related to its location in the catalysts. The catalyst surface should be promoted with potassium in order to obtain high coking-resistant catalysts. Moreover, the catalyst preparation procedure should ensure a direct interaction of potassium with the Al2O3 support surface. Due to the low stability of potassium on θ-Al2O3 this phase is undesirable during the preparation of a stable steam reforming catalyst.

  3. Improved Synthesis Of Potassium Beta' '-Alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Roger M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara; Ryan, Margaret A.; O'Connor, Dennis E.; Kisor, Adam; Underwood, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Improved formulations of precursor materials synthesize nearly-phase-pure potassium beta' '-alumina solid electrolyte (K-BASE) powder. Materials are microhomogeneous powders (or, alternatively, gels) containing K(+,) Mg(2+), and Al(3+). K-BASE powder produced used in potassium-working-fluid alkali-metal thermal-to-electric conversion (K-AMTEC), in which heat-input and heat-rejection temperatures lower than sodium-working-fluid AMTEC (Na-AMTEC). Additional potential use lies in purification of pottassium by removal of sodium and calcium.

  4. A potassium Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yin, B.; Shay, T. M.

    1992-01-01

    The characteristics of a potassium Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter operating on the blue and near infrared transitions are calculated. The results show that the filter can be designed to provide high transmission, very narrow pass bandwidth, and low equivalent noise bandwidth. The Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (FADOF) provides a narrow pass bandwidth (about GHz) optical filter for laser communications, remote sensing, and lidar. The general theoretical model for the FADOF has been established in our previous paper. In this paper, we have identified the optimum operational conditions for a potassium FADOF operating on the blue and infrared transitions. The signal transmission, bandwidth, and equivalent noise bandwidth (ENBW) are also calculated.

  5. Alloying and Hardness of Eutectics with Nbss and Nb5Si3 in Nb-silicide Based Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Tsakiropoulos, Panos

    2018-01-01

    In Nb-silicide based alloys, eutectics can form that contain the Nbss and Nb5Si3 phases. The Nb5Si3 can be rich or poor in Ti, the Nb can be substituted with other transition and refractory metals, and the Si can be substituted with simple metal and metalloid elements. For the production of directionally solidified in situ composites of multi-element Nb-silicide based alloys, data about eutectics with Nbss and Nb5Si3 is essential. In this paper, the alloying behaviour of eutectics observed in Nb-silicide based alloys was studied using the parameters ΔHmix, ΔSmix, VEC (valence electron concentration), δ (related to atomic size), Δχ (related to electronegativity), and Ω (= Tm ΔSmix/|ΔHmix|). The values of these parameters were in the ranges −41.9 < ΔHmix <−25.5 kJ/mol, 4.7 < ΔSmix < 15 J/molK, 4.33 < VEC < 4.89, 6.23 < δ < 9.44, 0.38 < Ω < 1.35, and 0.118 < Δχ < 0.248, with a gap in Δχ values between 0.164 and 0.181. Correlations between ΔSmix, Ω, ΔSmix, and VEC were found for all of the eutectics. The correlation between ΔHmix and δ for the eutectics was the same as that of the Nbss, with more negative ΔHmix for the former. The δ versus Δχ map separated the Ti-rich eutectics from the Ti-poor eutectics, with a gap in Δχ values between 0.164 and 0.181, which is within the Δχ gap of the Nbss. Eutectics were separated according to alloying additions in the Δχ versus VEC, Δχ versus , δ versus , and VEC versus maps, where = Al + Ge + Si + Sn. Convergence of data in maps occurred at δ ≈ 9.25, VEC ≈ 4.35, Δχ in the range ≈ 0.155 to 0.162, and in the range ≈ 21.6 at.% to ≈ 24.3 at.%. The convergence of data also indicated that the minimum concentration of Ti and maximum concentrations of Al and Si in the eutectic were about 8.7 at.% Ti, 6.3 at.% Al, and 21.6 at.% Si, respectively, and that the minimum concentration of Si in the eutectic was in the range 8 < Si < 10 at.%. PMID:29641503

  6. 21 CFR 582.1077 - Potassium acid tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1077 Potassium acid tartrate. (a) Product. Potassium acid tartrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or...

  8. 21 CFR 172.730 - Potassium bromate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium bromate. 172.730 Section 172.730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium alginate. 184.1610 Section 184.1610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of...

  10. Potassium channels: the importance of transport signals.

    PubMed

    Griffith, L C

    2001-03-20

    The number, type and distribution of ion channels on a neuron's surface determine its electrical response to stimulation. One way that a cell determines how many molecules of each channel type are sent to the surface has been eludicated in a recent study of intrinsic protein transport signals within potassium channels.

  11. Magneto-optical trapping of potassium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Robert Sylvester, III

    1997-12-01

    We have demonstrated a magneto-optical trap (scMOT) suitable for capturing radioactive potassium produced on- line with the UW-Madison 12MeV tandem electrostatic accelerator. To do this, we made and characterized the first scMOT for potassium, measured the potassium ultracold collision rate, and developed a numerical trap- loading rate model that makes useful quantitative predictions. We have created a cold beam of collimated potassium atoms using a pyramidal magneto-optical funnel and used it to load a long-lifetime scMOT operating at ultrahigh vacuum. We have also built a target that produces a beam of radioactive 37K and 38K and coupled it to the magneto-optical funnel and trap. Once a trap of radioactive 38K has been demonstrated, the primary goal of this project is to measure the beta-asymmetry parameter in the decay of 38K, performing a sensitive test of the Standard Model of weak interactions.

  12. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... stabilizer or thickener as defined in § 170.3(o)(28) of this chapter. (2) The ingredient is used in food at... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 184.1610 Section 184.1610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... thickener as defined in § 170.3(o)(28) of this chapter. (2) The ingredient is used in food at levels not to... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... stabilizer or thickener as defined in § 170.3(o)(28) of this chapter. (2) The ingredient is used in food at... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... thickener as defined in § 170.3(o)(28) of this chapter. (2) The ingredient is used in food at levels not to... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  17. 21 CFR 582.7610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 582.7610 Section 582.7610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7610...

  18. 21 CFR 582.7610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 582.7610 Section 582.7610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7610...

  19. Potassium ferrate treatment of RFETS` contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    The potassium ferrate treatment study of Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) groundwater was performed under the Sitewide Treatability Studies Program (STSP). This study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of potassium ferrate in a water treatment system to remove the contaminants of concern (COCS) from groundwater at the RFETS. Potassium ferrate is a simple salt where the iron is in the plus six valence state. It is the iron at the plus six valence state (Fe {sup +6}) that makes it an unique water treatment chemical, especially in waters where the pH is greater than seven. In basic solutionsmore » where the solubility of the oxides/hydroxides of many of the COCs is low, solids are formed as the pH is raised. By using ferrate these solids are agglomerated so they can be effectively removed by sedimentation in conventional water treatment equipment. The objective of this study was to determine the quality of water after treatment with potassium ferrate and to determine if the Colorado Water Quality Control Commission (CWQCC) discharge limits for the COCs listed in Table 1.0-1 could be met. Radionuclides in the groundwater were of special concern.« less

  20. 21 CFR 184.1804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 184.1804 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Sodium potassium tartrate (C4H4KNaO6·4H2O, CAS Reg. No. 304-59-6) is the sodium potassium salt of l−(+)−tartaric acid and is...