Science.gov

Sample records for potato crop growth

  1. iPot: Improved potato monitoring in Belgium using remote sensing and crop growth modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccard, Isabelle; Gobin, Anne; Curnel, Yannick; Goffart, Jean-Pierre; Planchon, Viviane; Wellens, Joost; Tychon, Bernard; Cattoor, Nele; Cools, Romain

    2016-04-01

    Potato processors, traders and packers largely work with potato contracts. The close follow up of contracted parcels is important to improve the quantity and quality of the crop and reduce risks related to storage, packaging or processing. The use of geo-information by the sector is limited, notwithstanding the great benefits that this type of information may offer. At the same time, new sensor-based technologies continue to gain importance and farmers increasingly invest in these. The combination of geo-information and crop modelling might strengthen the competitiveness of the Belgian potato chain in a global market. The iPot project, financed by the Belgian Science Policy Office (Belspo), aims at providing the Belgian potato processing sector, represented by Belgapom, with near real time information on field condition (weather-soil), crop development and yield estimates, derived from a combination of satellite images and crop growth models. During the cropping season regular UAV flights (RGB, 3x3 cm) and high resolution satellite images (DMC/Deimos, 22m pixel size) were combined to elucidate crop phenology and performance at variety trials. UAV images were processed using a K-means clustering algorithm to classify the crop according to its greenness at 5m resolution. Vegetation indices such as %Cover and LAI were calculated with the Cyclopes algorithm (INRA-EMMAH) on the DMC images. Both DMC and UAV-based cover maps showed similar patterns, and helped detect different crop stages during the season. A wide spread field monitoring campaign with crop observations and measurements allowed for further calibration of the satellite image derived vegetation indices. Curve fitting techniques and phenological models were developed and compared with the vegetation indices during the season, both at trials and farmers' fields. Understanding and predicting crop phenology and canopy development is important for timely crop management and ultimately for yield estimates. An

  2. The iPot Project: improved potato monitoring in Belgium using remote sensing and crop growth modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccard, Isabelle; Nackaerts, Kris; Gobin, Anne; Goffart, Jean-Pierre; Planchon, Viviane; Curnel, Yannick; Tychon, Bernard; Wellens, Joost; Cools, Romain; Cattoor, Nele

    2015-04-01

    Belgian potato processors, traders and packers are increasingly working with potato contracts. The close follow up of contracted parcels on the land as well as from above is becoming an important tool to improve the quantity and quality of the potato crop and reduce risks in order to plan the storage, packaging or processing and as such to strengthen the competitiveness of the Belgian potato chain in a global market. At the same time, precision agriculture continues to gain importance and progress. Farmers are obligated to invest in new technologies. Between mid-May and the end of June 2014 potato fields in Gembloux were monitored from emergence till canopy closure. UAV images (RGB) and digital (hemispherical) photographs were taken at ten-daily intervals. Crop emergence maps show the time (date) and degree of crop emergence and crop closure (in terms of % cover). For three UAV flights during the growing season RGB images at 3 cm resolution were processed using a K-means clustering algorithm to classify the crop according to its greenness. Based on the greenness %cover and daily cover growth were derived for 5x5m pixels and 25x25m pixels. The latter resolution allowed for comparison with high resolution satellite imagery. Vegetation indices such as %Cover and LAI were calculated with the Cyclopes algorithm (INRA-EMMAH) from high resolution satellite images (DMC/Deimos, 22m pixel size). DMC based cover maps showed similar patterns as compared with the UAV-based cover maps, and allows for further applications of the data in crop management. Today the use of geo-information by the (private) agricultural sector in Belgium is rather limited, notwithstanding the great benefits this type of information may offer, as recognized by the sector. The iPot project, financed by the Belgian Science Policy Office (BELSPO), aims to provide the Belgian potato sector, represented by Belgapom, with near real time information on field condition (weather-soil) and crop development and

  3. Soil phosphorus changes impacted by potato cropping management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato crops generally require high amounts of phosphorus (P) fertilizer to reach economically acceptable yields as the low root density of potato plants makes mobilization and acquisition of phosphate a key factor in potato plant growth. In this work, we evaluated soil P changes in 10 potato fields...

  4. [Active crop canopy sensor-based nitrogen diagnosis for potato].

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; Li, Fei; Qin, Yong-Lin; Fan, Ming-Shou

    2013-11-01

    In the present study, two potato experiments involving different N rates in 2011 were conducted in Wuchuan County and Linxi County, Inner Mongolia. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was collected by an active GreenSeeker crop canopy sensor to estimate N status of potato. The results show that the NDVI readings were poorly correlated with N nutrient indicators of potato at vegetative Growth stage due to the influence of soil background. With the advance of growth stages, NDVI values were exponentially related to plant N uptake (R2 = 0.665) before tuber bulking stage and were linearly related to plant N concentration (R2 = 0.699) when plant fully covered soil. In conclusion, GreenSeeker active crop sensor is a promising tool to estimate N status for potato plants. The findings from this study may be useful for developing N recommendation method based on active crop canopy sensor.

  5. Growth of potatoes for CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T. W.; Cao, W.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes research on the utilization of white potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) for space life support systems at the University of Wisconsin-Madison over the period of 1984 to 1993. At full maturity the tuber productivity was 37.5 gm(exp -2) d(exp -1), equating to a growing area requirement for one human (2800 kcal d(exp -1)) of 10.1 m(exp -2). A recirculating nutrient system using slanted trays produced best potato growth and tuber yields when a 2-3 cm layer of gravel or arcillite media was utilized. Potato production was close to maximum under lighting levels of 400 micromol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) of photosynthetic photo flux (PPF) for 24 hours or 800 micromol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) for 12 hours, alternating diurnal temperatures of 22 C and 14 C, relative humidity of 85 percent, and a carbon dioxide level of 1000 micromol m(exp -1). The range of effective concentrations of each separate nutrient is reported. The extensive studies with potatoes in this project have demonstrated that this crop has high productivity of nutritous tubers with a high harvest index in controlled environments, and can fulfill a significant portion of the energy and protein requirements for humans in space.

  6. Changing Pattern of Crop Fraction in Late Blight Induced Potato Crops in Potato Bowl of West Bengal by using Multi-temporal Time Series AWiFs Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarty, Abhisek

    2016-07-01

    Crop fraction is the ratio of crop occupying a unit area in ground pixel, is very important for monitoring crop growth. One of the most important variables in crop growth monitoring is the fraction of available solar radiation intercepted by foliage. Late blight of potato (Solanum tuberosum), caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, is considered to be the most destructive crop diseases of potato worldwide. Under favourable climatic conditions, and without intervention (i.e. fungicide sprays), the disease can destroy potato crop within few weeks. Therefore it is important to evaluate the crop fraction for monitoring the healthy and late blight affected potato crops. This study was conducted in potato bowl of West Bengal, which consists of districts of Hooghly, Howrah, Burdwan, Bankuara, and Paschim Medinipur. In this study different crop fraction estimation method like linear spectral un-mixing, Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) based DPM model (Zhang et al. 2013), Ratio vegetation index based DPM model, improved Pixel Dichotomy Model (Li et al. 2014) ware evaluated using multi-temporal IRS AWiFs data in two successive potato growing season of 2012-13 and 2013-14 over the study area and compared with measured crop fraction. The comparative study based on measured healthy and late blight affected potato crop fraction showed that improved Pixel Dichotomy Model maintain the high coefficient of determination (R2= 0.835) with low root mean square error (RMSE=0.21) whereas the correlation values of NDVI based DPM model and RVI based DPM model is 0.763 and 0.694 respectively. The changing pattern of crop fraction profile of late blight affected potato crop was studied in respect of healthy potato crop fraction which was extracted from the 269 GPS points of potato field. It showed that the healthy potato crop fraction profile maintained the normal phenological trend whereas the late blight affected potato crop fraction profile suddenly fallen

  7. 7 CFR 457.143 - Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement... Northern potato crop insurance—quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement...) Both FCIC and reinsured policies: Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement 1....

  8. 7 CFR 457.143 - Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement... Northern potato crop insurance—quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement...) Both FCIC and reinsured policies: Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement 1....

  9. 7 CFR 457.143 - Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement... Northern potato crop insurance—quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement...) Both FCIC and reinsured policies: Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement 1....

  10. 7 CFR 457.143 - Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement... Northern potato crop insurance—quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement...) Both FCIC and reinsured policies: Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement 1....

  11. Prediction of Potato Crop Yield Using Precision Agriculture Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Al-Gaadi, Khalid A.; Hassaballa, Abdalhaleem A.; Tola, ElKamil; Kayad, Ahmed G.; Madugundu, Rangaswamy; Alblewi, Bander; Assiri, Fahad

    2016-01-01

    Crop growth and yield monitoring over agricultural fields is an essential procedure for food security and agricultural economic return prediction. The advances in remote sensing have enhanced the process of monitoring the development of agricultural crops and estimating their yields. Therefore, remote sensing and GIS techniques were employed, in this study, to predict potato tuber crop yield on three 30 ha center pivot irrigated fields in an agricultural scheme located in the Eastern Region of Saudi Arabia. Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 satellite images were acquired during the potato growth stages and two vegetation indices (the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI)) were generated from the images. Vegetation index maps were developed and classified into zones based on vegetation health statements, where the stratified random sampling points were accordingly initiated. Potato yield samples were collected 2–3 days prior to the harvest time and were correlated to the adjacent NDVI and SAVI, where yield prediction algorithms were developed and used to generate prediction yield maps. Results of the study revealed that the difference between predicted yield values and actual ones (prediction error) ranged between 7.9 and 13.5% for Landsat-8 images and between 3.8 and 10.2% for Sentinel-2 images. The relationship between actual and predicted yield values produced R2 values ranging between 0.39 and 0.65 for Landsat-8 images and between 0.47 and 0.65 for Sentinel-2 images. Results of this study revealed a considerable variation in field productivity across the three fields, where high-yield areas produced an average yield of above 40 t ha-1; while, the low-yield areas produced, on the average, less than 21 t ha-1. Identifying such great variation in field productivity will assist farmers and decision makers in managing their practices. PMID:27611577

  12. Prediction of Potato Crop Yield Using Precision Agriculture Techniques.

    PubMed

    Al-Gaadi, Khalid A; Hassaballa, Abdalhaleem A; Tola, ElKamil; Kayad, Ahmed G; Madugundu, Rangaswamy; Alblewi, Bander; Assiri, Fahad

    2016-01-01

    Crop growth and yield monitoring over agricultural fields is an essential procedure for food security and agricultural economic return prediction. The advances in remote sensing have enhanced the process of monitoring the development of agricultural crops and estimating their yields. Therefore, remote sensing and GIS techniques were employed, in this study, to predict potato tuber crop yield on three 30 ha center pivot irrigated fields in an agricultural scheme located in the Eastern Region of Saudi Arabia. Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 satellite images were acquired during the potato growth stages and two vegetation indices (the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI)) were generated from the images. Vegetation index maps were developed and classified into zones based on vegetation health statements, where the stratified random sampling points were accordingly initiated. Potato yield samples were collected 2-3 days prior to the harvest time and were correlated to the adjacent NDVI and SAVI, where yield prediction algorithms were developed and used to generate prediction yield maps. Results of the study revealed that the difference between predicted yield values and actual ones (prediction error) ranged between 7.9 and 13.5% for Landsat-8 images and between 3.8 and 10.2% for Sentinel-2 images. The relationship between actual and predicted yield values produced R2 values ranging between 0.39 and 0.65 for Landsat-8 images and between 0.47 and 0.65 for Sentinel-2 images. Results of this study revealed a considerable variation in field productivity across the three fields, where high-yield areas produced an average yield of above 40 t ha-1; while, the low-yield areas produced, on the average, less than 21 t ha-1. Identifying such great variation in field productivity will assist farmers and decision makers in managing their practices.

  13. 7 CFR 457.144 - Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality...) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.144 Northern potato crop insurance—processing quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop...

  14. 7 CFR 457.143 - Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement... CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.143 Northern potato crop insurance—quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality...

  15. 7 CFR 457.146 - Northern potato crop insurance-storage coverage endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-storage coverage...) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.146 Northern potato crop insurance—storage coverage endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance...

  16. Companion cropping with potato onion enhances the disease resistance of tomato against Verticillium dahliae

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xuepeng; Wu, Xia; Zhou, Xingang; Liu, Shouwei; Shen, Yanhui; Wu, Fengzhi

    2015-01-01

    Intercropping could alleviate soil-borne diseases, however, few studies focused on the immunity of the host plant induced by the interspecific interactions. To test whether or not intercropping could enhance the disease resistance of host plant, we investigated the effect of companion cropping with potato onion on tomato Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae (V. dahliae). To investigate the mechanisms, the root exudates were collected from tomato and potato onion which were grown together or separately, and were used to examine the antifungal activities against V. dahliae in vitro, respectively. Furthermore, RNA-seq was used to examine the expression pattern of genes related to disease resistance in tomato companied with potato onion compared to that in tomato grown alone, under the condition of infection with V. dahliae. The results showed that companion cropping with potato onion could alleviate the incidence and severity of tomato Verticillium wilt. The further studies revealed that the root exudates from tomato companied with potato onion significantly inhibited the mycelia growth and spore germination of V. dahliae. However, there were no significant effects on these two measurements for the root exudates from potato onion grown alone or from potato onion grown with tomato. RNA-seq data analysis showed the disease defense genes associated with pathogenesis-related proteins, biosynthesis of lignin, hormone metabolism and signal transduction were expressed much higher in the tomato companied with potato onion than those in the tomato grown alone, which indicated that these defense genes play important roles in tomato against V. dahliae infection, and meant that the disease resistance of tomato against V. dahliae was enhanced in the companion copping with potato onion. We proposed that companion cropping with potato onion could enhance the disease resistance of tomato against V. dahliae by regulating the expression of genes related to disease

  17. 7 CFR 457.145 - Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement. 457... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.145 Potato crop insurance—certified seed endorsement. The Potato Crop Insurance Certified Seed Endorsement Provisions...

  18. 7 CFR 457.145 - Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement. 457... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.145 Potato crop insurance—certified seed endorsement. The Potato Crop Insurance Certified Seed Endorsement Provisions...

  19. 7 CFR 457.145 - Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement. 457... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.145 Potato crop insurance—certified seed endorsement. The Potato Crop Insurance Certified Seed Endorsement Provisions...

  20. 7 CFR 457.145 - Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement. 457... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.145 Potato crop insurance—certified seed endorsement. The Potato Crop Insurance Certified Seed Endorsement Provisions...

  1. 7 CFR 457.145 - Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement. 457... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.145 Potato crop insurance—certified seed endorsement. The Potato Crop Insurance Certified Seed Endorsement Provisions...

  2. Cumulative and residual effects of potato cropping system management strategies on crop and soil health parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil and crop management practices can greatly affect parameters related to soil health, as well as crop productivity and disease development, and may provide options for more sustainable production. Different 3-yr potato cropping systems focused on specific management goals of soil conservation (SC...

  3. 7 CFR 457.144 - Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality... Northern potato crop insurance—processing quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance.... Definitions Broker. Any business enterprise regularly engaged in the buying and selling of processing...

  4. 7 CFR 457.144 - Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality... Northern potato crop insurance—processing quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance.... Definitions Broker. Any business enterprise regularly engaged in the buying and selling of processing...

  5. 7 CFR 457.144 - Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality... Northern potato crop insurance—processing quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance.... Definitions Broker. Any business enterprise regularly engaged in the buying and selling of processing...

  6. 7 CFR 457.144 - Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality... Northern potato crop insurance—processing quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance.... Definitions Broker. Any business enterprise regularly engaged in the buying and selling of processing...

  7. Economic implications of alternative potato cropping systems in Maine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable cropping systems and management practices are needed to improve agricultural viability and rural economic vitality in Maine and the surrounding region. Research is being conducted to 1) identify the constraints to potato system sustainability and 2) develop practices and management strat...

  8. Reinventing potato as a diploid inbred line-based crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The third most important food crop worldwide, potato, is a tetraploid outcrossing species propagated from tubers. Breeders have long been challenged by polyploidy, heterozygosity, and asexual reproduction. It has been assumed that tetraploidy is essential for high yield, the creation of inbred potat...

  9. The Effect of Marigolds (Tagetes spp.) and Other Cover Crops on Pratylenchus penetrans and on Following Potato Crops

    PubMed Central

    Kimpinski, J.; Arsenault, W. J.; Gallant, C. E.; Sanderson, J. B.

    2000-01-01

    Root-lesion nematodes (primarily Pratylenchus penetrans) were monitored in two marigold cultivars (Tagetes tenuifolia cv. Nemakill and cv. Nemanon), annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum cv. Lemtal), red clover (Trifolium pratense cv. Florex), and soybean (Glycine max cv. Proteus), and in the following potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Superior) crop during three growth sequences. Meadow fescue (Festuca elatior cv. Miner) and bee plant (Phacelia tanacetifolia cv. Gipha) were added to the trial in the second year. Black-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia hirta, unidentified cv.) and two additional marigold cultivars (T. patula ssp. nana, unidentified cv., and T. erecta cv. Crackerjack) were included in the final sequence. Population levels of root-lesion nematodes were consistently lower under marigolds compared to the other cover crops tested. Correspondingly, average potato tuber yields were significantly higher (8-14%) when potato followed marigolds. The highest levels of root-lesion nematodes occurred under red clover and soybean, and the average potato tuber yields were lowest following these crops. PMID:19271006

  10. Optimizing edible fungal growth and biodegradation of inedible crop residues using various cropping methods.

    PubMed

    Nyochembeng, Leopold M; Beyl, Caula A; Pacumbaba, R P

    2008-09-01

    Long-term manned space flights to Mars require the development of an advanced life support (ALS) ecosystem including efficient food crop production, processing and recycling waste products thereof. Using edible white rot fungi (EWRF) to achieve effective biomass transformation in ALS requires optimal and rapid biodegradative activity on lignocellulosic wastes. We investigated the mycelial growth of Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus ostreatus on processed residues of various crops under various cropping patterns. In single cropping, mycelial growth and fruiting in all strains were significantly repressed on sweet potato and basil. However, growth of the strains was improved when sweet potato and basil residues were paired with rice or wheat straw. Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus) strains were better than shiitake (L. edodes) strains under single, paired, and mixed cropping patterns. Mixed cropping further eliminated the inherent inhibitory effect of sweet potato, basil, or lettuce on fungal growth. Co-cropping fungal species had a synergistic effect on rate of fungal growth, substrate colonization, and fruiting. Use of efficient cropping methods may enhance fungal growth, fruiting, biodegradation of crop residues, and efficiency of biomass recycling.

  11. Improving potato cropping systems: longer-term effects on diseases and yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of effective cropping systems can provide the structural basis for enhanced crop production and sustainability through the conservation, maintenance, and replenishment of various soil resources. In 2004, field trials evaluating potato cropping systems focused on different specific cr...

  12. Genome sequence and analysis of the tuber crop potato.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xun; Pan, Shengkai; Cheng, Shifeng; Zhang, Bo; Mu, Desheng; Ni, Peixiang; Zhang, Gengyun; Yang, Shuang; Li, Ruiqiang; Wang, Jun; Orjeda, Gisella; Guzman, Frank; Torres, Michael; Lozano, Roberto; Ponce, Olga; Martinez, Diana; De la Cruz, Germán; Chakrabarti, S K; Patil, Virupaksh U; Skryabin, Konstantin G; Kuznetsov, Boris B; Ravin, Nikolai V; Kolganova, Tatjana V; Beletsky, Alexey V; Mardanov, Andrei V; Di Genova, Alex; Bolser, Daniel M; Martin, David M A; Li, Guangcun; Yang, Yu; Kuang, Hanhui; Hu, Qun; Xiong, Xingyao; Bishop, Gerard J; Sagredo, Boris; Mejía, Nilo; Zagorski, Wlodzimierz; Gromadka, Robert; Gawor, Jan; Szczesny, Pawel; Huang, Sanwen; Zhang, Zhonghua; Liang, Chunbo; He, Jun; Li, Ying; He, Ying; Xu, Jianfei; Zhang, Youjun; Xie, Binyan; Du, Yongchen; Qu, Dongyu; Bonierbale, Merideth; Ghislain, Marc; Herrera, Maria del Rosario; Giuliano, Giovanni; Pietrella, Marco; Perrotta, Gaetano; Facella, Paolo; O'Brien, Kimberly; Feingold, Sergio E; Barreiro, Leandro E; Massa, Gabriela A; Diambra, Luis; Whitty, Brett R; Vaillancourt, Brieanne; Lin, Haining; Massa, Alicia N; Geoffroy, Michael; Lundback, Steven; DellaPenna, Dean; Buell, C Robin; Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar; Marshall, David F; Waugh, Robbie; Bryan, Glenn J; Destefanis, Marialaura; Nagy, Istvan; Milbourne, Dan; Thomson, Susan J; Fiers, Mark; Jacobs, Jeanne M E; Nielsen, Kåre L; Sønderkær, Mads; Iovene, Marina; Torres, Giovana A; Jiang, Jiming; Veilleux, Richard E; Bachem, Christian W B; de Boer, Jan; Borm, Theo; Kloosterman, Bjorn; van Eck, Herman; Datema, Erwin; Hekkert, Bas te Lintel; Goverse, Aska; van Ham, Roeland C H J; Visser, Richard G F

    2011-07-10

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is the world's most important non-grain food crop and is central to global food security. It is clonally propagated, highly heterozygous, autotetraploid, and suffers acute inbreeding depression. Here we use a homozygous doubled-monoploid potato clone to sequence and assemble 86% of the 844-megabase genome. We predict 39,031 protein-coding genes and present evidence for at least two genome duplication events indicative of a palaeopolyploid origin. As the first genome sequence of an asterid, the potato genome reveals 2,642 genes specific to this large angiosperm clade. We also sequenced a heterozygous diploid clone and show that gene presence/absence variants and other potentially deleterious mutations occur frequently and are a likely cause of inbreeding depression. Gene family expansion, tissue-specific expression and recruitment of genes to new pathways contributed to the evolution of tuber development. The potato genome sequence provides a platform for genetic improvement of this vital crop.

  13. Relationships of crop and soil management systems to meteorological variables and potato diseases on a Russet burbank cultivar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop, soil and water management systems may alter microclimatic conditions and affect plant growth and pest dynamics. However, the extent to which meteorological variables of potato canopy may be impacted in a humid temperate region has not been adequately ascertained. Field plots of a Russet Burban...

  14. Effects of potato-cotton cropping systems and nematicides on plant-parasitic nematodes and crop yields.

    PubMed

    Crow, W T; Weingartner, D P; Dickson, D W

    2000-09-01

    Belonolaimus longicaudatus has been reported as damaging both potato (Solanum tuberosum) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). These crops are not normally grown in cropping systems together in areas where the soil is infested with B. longicaudatus. During the 1990s cotton was grown in a potato production region that was a suitable habitat for B. longicaudatus. It was not known how integrating the production of these two crops by rotation or double-cropping would affect the population densities of B. longicaudatus, other plant-parasitic nematodes common in the region, or crop yields. A 3-year field study evaluated the viability of both crops in monocropping, rotation, and double-cropping systems. Viability was evaluated using effects on population densities of plant-parasitic nematodes and yields. Rotation of cotton with potato was found to decrease population densities of B. longicaudatus and Meloidogyne incognita in comparison with continuous potato. Population densities of B. longicaudatus following double-cropping were greater than following continuous cotton. Yields of both potato and cotton in rotation were equivalent to either crop in monocropping. Yields of both crops were lower following double-cropping when nematicides were not used.

  15. Role of nematodes, nematicides, and crop rotation on the productivity and quality of potato, sweet potato, peanut, and grain sorghum.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A W; Dowler, C C; Glaze, N C; Handoo, Z A

    1996-09-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of fenamiphos 15G and short-cycle potato (PO)-sweet potato (SP) grown continuously and in rotation with peanut (PE)-grain sorghum (GS) on yield, crop quality, and mixed nematode population densities of Meloidogyne arenaria, M. hapla, M. incognita, and Mesocriconema ornatum. Greater root-gall indices and damage by M. hapla and M. incognita occurred on potato than other crops. Most crop yields were higher and root-gall indices lower from fenamiphos-treated plots than untreated plots. The total yield of potato in the PO-SP and PO-SP-PE-GS sequences increased from 1983 to 1985 in plots infested with M. hapla or M. arenaria and M. incognita in combination and decreased in 1986 to 1987 when root-knot nematode populations shifted to M. incognita. The total yields of sweet potato in the PO-SP-PE-GS sequence were similar in 1983 and 1985, and declined each year in the PO-SP sequence as a consequence of M. incognita population density increase in the soil. Yield of peanut from soil infested with M. hapla increased 82% in fenamiphos-treated plots compared to untreated plots. Fenamiphos treatment increased yield of grain sorghum from 5% to 45% over untreated controls. The declining yields of potato and sweet potato observed with both the PO-SP and PO-SP-PE-GS sequences indicate that these crop systems should not be used longer than 3 years in soil infested with M. incognita, M. arenaria, or M. hapla. Under these conditions, these two cropping systems promote a population shift in favor of M. incognita, which is more damaging to potato and sweet potato than M. arenaria and M. hapla.

  16. Earthworms lost from pesticides application in potato crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Santos, Glenda; Forrer, Karin; Binder, Claudia R.

    2010-05-01

    Bioturbation from earthworm's activity contributes to soil creep and soil carbon dynamics, and provide enough aeration conditions for agricultural practices all over the world. In developing countries where there is a long term misuse of pesticides for agricultural purposes, lost of these benefits from earthworms activity might already yielded negative effects in the current crop production. Little research has been performed on earthworms avoidance to pesticides in developing countries located in the tropics. Furthermore, the complete avoidance reaction (from attraction to 100% avoidance) from earthworms to most of the pesticides used in potato cultivation in developing countries like Colombia is incomplete as yet. Hence the aim of this study is to assess the lost of earthworm on the soils caused by different concentrations of pesticides and associated agricultural impacts caused by a lost in the soil bioturbation. As a first stage, we have studied earthworm's avoidance to pesticide concentration in a potato agricultural area located in Colombia. Local cultivated Eisenia fetida were exposed to four of the most frequent applied active ingredients in potato crops i.e. carbofuran, mancozeb, methamidophos and chlorpyriphos. Adult earthworm toxicity experiments were carried out in two soils, untreated grasslands under standard (ISO guidelines) and undisturbed conditions, and exposed to six different concentrations of the active ingredients. The results of the avoidance reaction on the standard soils were significant for carbofuran, mancoceb and chlorpyrifos. For each of the three active ingredients, we found i) overuse of pesticide, ii) applied dose of carbofuran, mancoceb and chlorpyrifos by the farmers potentially caused 20%, 11% and 9% of earthworms avoidance on the cultivated soils, respectively.

  17. Modeling potato root growth and water uptake under water stress conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) growth and yield are sensitive to drought starting at mild stress levels. Accurate simulation of root growth is critical for estimating water and nutrient uptake dynamics of major crops and improving agricultural decision support tools for natural resource management. ...

  18. Potato field colonization by low-density populations of Colorado potato beetle as a function of crop rotation distance.

    PubMed

    Boiteau, Gilles; Picka, J D; Watmough, James

    2008-10-01

    Monitoring of 10 and 12 commercial potato, Solanum tuberosum L., fields in 2004 and 2005, respectively, confirmed for a low-density population of Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), that potato fields nearest to the previous year's potato fields are significantly more colonized by this beetle than more distant fields. This pattern is partially explained by the presence of a reservoir of colonizers estimated at 35% of the season-long colonizing population in 2004 and 2005. These beetles, which emerged before potato plants broke the ground, were ready to establish themselves on nearby potato plants. The colonizing Colorado potato beetles dispersed within the maximum range of 1.5 km over a season, and the colonization risk for the new crop decreased with distance from the previous year's crop. There was no evidence that rotation distance delayed colonization. In terms of pest management, although the findings confirm that only long 1.5-km rotations can prevent Colorado potato beetle colonization, they also demonstrate that short rotations of 100 m or more can make substantial contributions to pest management programs for low-density beetle populations.

  19. [Fungal population structure and its biological effect in rhizosphere soil of continuously cropped potato].

    PubMed

    Meng, Pin-Pin; Liu, Xing; Qiu, Hui-Zhen; Zhang, Wen-Ming; Zhang, Chun-Hong; Wang, Di; Zhang, Jun-Lian; Shen, Qi-Rong

    2012-11-01

    Continuous cropping obstacle is one of the main restriction factors in potato industry. In order to explore the mechanisms of potato's continuous cropping obstacle and to reduce the impact on potato's tuber yield, a field experiment combined with PCR-DGGE molecular fingerprinting was conducted to investigate the fungal population structure and its biological effect in rhizosphere soil of continuously cropped potato. With the increasing year of potato' s continuous cropping, the numbers of visible bands in rhizosphere fungal DGGE profiles increased obviously. As compared with that of CK (rotation cropping), the operational taxonomic unit (OTU) in treatments of one to five years continuous cropping was increased by 38.5%, 38.5%, 30.8%, 46.2%, and 76.9% respectively, indicating that potato's continuous cropping caused an obvious increase in the individual numbers of dominant fungal populations in rhizosphere soil. Also with the increasing year of potato's continuous cropping, the similarity of the fungal population structure among the treatments had a gradual decrease. The sequencing of the fungal DGGE bands showed that with the increasing year of continuous cropping, the numbers of the potato's rhizosphere soil-borne pathogens Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani increased obviously, while the number of Chaetomium globosum, as a biocontrol species, had a marked decrease in the fifth year of continuous cropping. It was suggested that potato' s continuous cropping caused the pathogen fungal populations become the dominant microbial populations in rhizosphere soil, and the rhizosphere micro-ecological environment deteriorated, which in turn affected the root system, making the root vigor and its absorption area reduced, and ultimately, the tuber yield decreased markedly.

  20. More crop per drop - Increasing input efficiency in sprinkler irrigated potatoes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostka, Stan; Fang, Lisa; Ren, Haiqin; Glucksman, Robert; Gadd, Nick

    2014-05-01

    Water scarcity, climate change, and population growth are significant global challenges for producing sufficient food, fiber, and fuel in the 21st century. Feeding an increasingly hungry world necessitates innovative strategies and technologies to maximize crop production outputs while simultaneously increasing crop water productivity. In the 20th century, major advances in precision irrigation enabled producers to increase productivity while more efficiently applying water to crops. While pressurized irrigation systems can deliver water effectively to the soil surface, the efficiency of rootzone delivery may be compromised by intrinsic heterogeneities in soil wetting characteristics related to organic matter, biofilms, and hydrophobic coatings on soil particles and aggregates. Efficiently delivering applied irrigation water throughout the soil matrix is critical to increasing crop productivity. We propose that management of soil water access by surfactants is a viable management option to maintain or increase yields under deficit irrigation. Potato yield and tuber quality under sprinkler irrigation were evaluated under standard production practices or with the inclusion of an aqueous nonionic surfactant formulation (10 wt% alkoxylated polyols and 7% glucoethers) applied at 10L ha-1 between emergence and tuberization. Crop responses from multi-year evaluations conducted on irrigated potatoes in Idaho (USA) were compared to multi-year on farm grower evaluations in Australia and China. Surfactant treatment resulted in statistically significant increases in yield (+5%) and US No. 1 grades (+8%) while reducing culls (-10%) in trials conducted in Idaho, USA. Similar responses were observed in commercial grower evaluations conducted in Australia (+8% total yield, +18% mean tuber weight) and in China in 2011 (+8% total yield and +18% premium, -12% culls). Under diverse production conditions, a single application of the surfactant formulation improved crop water

  1. Use of hyperspectral reflectance measurements to predict nitrogen sufficiency of cereal and potato crops using a physical based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botha, Elizabeth Johanna

    Optimizing nitrogen (N) fertilization by in-season measurements of crop N status may improve fertilizer N-use efficiency. This study evaluated the feasibility of using the inverted PROSAIL (PROSPECT+SAIL) reflectance model to predict leaf N status from canopy reflectance hyperspectral data acquired over spring wheat and potatoes. Trials were conducted on two potato cultivars under seven different N fertility treatments (0 - 300 kg N ha-1) in 2001 and 2002 and one wheat variety under six different N fertility rates (0 -- 200 kg N ha-1) in 2002. Leaf reflectance and transmittance, canopy reflectance, leaf chlorophyll content, leaf protein content and leaf area index (LAI) were measured. The inverted PROSPECT model could not predict protein content with any degree of accuracy for either of the crop species. Leaf chlorophyll content was predicted with reasonable accuracy throughout the season for potato, particularly in 2002, but only at Zadoks Growth Stage (ZGS) 35 and later for wheat. Leaf chlorophyll and protein content for both crops correlated well on individual sampling dates. For both crops, the inverted PROSAIL model was able to estimate leaf chlorophyll content with increasing accuracy over time until complete canopy closure occurred. For potatoes, the estimation accuracy declined when the potato vines subsequently collapsed, exposing more soil background. Similar soil background interferences occur at early growth stages for wheat. In all cases, leaf chlorophyll content was systematically over-estimated and LAI was systematically under-estimated, because of an inter-correlation effect within the model between these two parameters. The synthetic canopy chlorophyll content, which is the product of leaf chlorophyll content with LAI, was estimated with better accuracy than each of these variables individually. The good leaf chlorophyll content estimation when the canopy is closed and LAI values are below 4.5, and the good relationships between leaf chlorophyll

  2. Evaluation of the impact of various agricultural practices on nitrate leaching under the root zone of potato and sugar beet using the STICS soil-crop model.

    PubMed

    Jégo, G; Martínez, M; Antigüedad, I; Launay, M; Sanchez-Pérez, J M; Justes, E

    2008-05-15

    The quaternary aquifer of Vitoria-Gasteiz (Basque Country, Northern Spain) is characterised by a shallow water table mainly fed by drainage water, and thus constitutes a vulnerable zone in regards to nitrate pollution. Field studies were performed with a potato crop in 1993 and a sugar beet crop in 2002 to evaluate their impact on nitrate leaching. The overall predictive quality of the STICS soil-crop model was first evaluated using field data and then the model was used to analyze dynamically the impacts of different crop management practices on nitrate leaching. The model was evaluated (i) on soil nitrate concentrations at different depths and (ii) on crop yields. The simulated values proved to be in satisfactory agreement with measured values. Nitrate leaching was more pronounced with the potato crop than with the sugar beet experiment due to i) greater precipitation, ii) lower N uptake of the potato crop due to shallow root depth, and iii) a shorter period of growth. The potato experiment showed that excessive irrigation could significantly increase nitrate leaching by increasing both drainage and nitrate concentrations. The different levels of N-fertilization examined in the sugar beet study had no notable effects on nitrate leaching due to its high N uptake capacity. Complementary virtual experiments were carried out using the STICS model. Our study confirmed that in vulnerable zones agricultural practices must be adjusted, that is to say: 1) N-fertilizer should not be applied in autumn before winter crops; 2) crops with low N uptake capacity (e.g. potatoes) should be avoided or should be preceded and followed by nitrogen catch crops or cover crops; 3) the nitrate concentration of irrigation water should be taken into account in calculation of the N-fertilization rate, and 4) N-fertilization must be precisely adjusted in particular for potato crops.

  3. Effect of crop rotation on populations of Epitrix tuberis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in potato.

    PubMed

    Kabaluk, J T; Vernon, R S

    2000-04-01

    The effect of crop rotation on populations of tuber flea beetle, Epitrix tuberis Gentner, in potatoes was investigated using data supplied by an integrated pest management (IPM) company and Geographic Information System software and conventional statistical methods. Using combined 1995 and 1996 data, beetles of the overwintered and F1 generations in both the interior and edges of potato fields showed a significant linear increase with an increase in the preceding consecutive years (0, 1, and 2 years) that the current years' crop was planted to potatoes. Populations were significantly higher in nonrotated fields compared with rotated fields. Both the percentage of the cropping region requiring insecticidal control of tuber flea beetles and the cost of insecticides per hectare of potatoes grown increased linearly with an increase in the number of previous years planted to potatoes. Not practicing crop rotation resulted in a 4.2-7.3% increase in the cropping region requiring insecticidal control of tuber flea beetles. The cost of controlling beetles in potato fields planted to potatoes for 3 consecutive years was up to $20/ha greater than potatoes rotated from the preceding year. Beetle counts from the interior of rotated potato fields never exceeded threshold levels when field edges also were below threshold. It is concluded that sampling of overwintered beetles in interior sites of rotated fields could be abandoned, and only 1 monitoring scout rather than 2 would be necessary to monitor a field during this time. From these results, we concluded that rotating potato crops would reduce spray costs to the farmer and monitoring costs to IPM companies.

  4. Enhancing Potato System Sustainability: Crop Rotation Impacts on Soil Phosphatase Activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato is a species with a low efficiency of acquiring soil P. Rotation crops may potentially influence P uptake by potato by increasing soil organic acids, phosphatase activity, and microbial biomass. However, this kind of information is very limited. We measured the activities of acid phosphatase,...

  5. Cover crops alter the soil microbial community and increase potato tuber yield and quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An on-going study at a commercial farm operation in the San Luis Valley, CO is examining the effect of various summer cover crops (mustard, canola, sorghum-sudangrass, and a wet fallow control) on potato tuber yield and quality. In four of the five years, potato tuber yield and quality has shown si...

  6. Mapping and monitoring potato cropping systems in Maine: geospatial methods and land use assessments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geospatial frameworks and GIS-based approaches were used to assess current cropping practices in potato production systems in Maine. Results from the geospatial integration of remotely-sensed cropland layers (2008-2011) and soil datasets for Maine revealed a four-year potato systems footprint estima...

  7. 7 CFR 457.146 - Northern potato crop insurance-storage coverage endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... varieties, types, or groups for the crop year. 4. When production from separate insurance units, basic or... approved by us, a potato grader licensed or certified by the applicable State or the United...

  8. 7 CFR 457.146 - Northern potato crop insurance-storage coverage endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... varieties, types, or groups for the crop year. 4. When production from separate insurance units, basic or... approved by us, a potato grader licensed or certified by the applicable State or the United...

  9. 7 CFR 457.146 - Northern potato crop insurance-storage coverage endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... varieties, types, or groups for the crop year. 4. When production from separate insurance units, basic or... approved by us, a potato grader licensed or certified by the applicable State or the United...

  10. 7 CFR 457.146 - Northern potato crop insurance-storage coverage endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... varieties, types, or groups for the crop year. 4. When production from separate insurance units, basic or... approved by us, a potato grader licensed or certified by the applicable State or the United...

  11. The Potato Systems Planner: Integrating Cropping System Impacts on Crop Yield and Quality, Soil Biology, Nutrient Cycling, Diseases, and Economics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Finding and developing profitable cropping systems is a high priority for the potato industry. Consequently, an interdisciplinary team of ARS scientists from the New England Plant, Soil, & Water Laboratory evaluated 14 different rotations for their impacts on crop yield and quality, nutrient availa...

  12. Crop growth and associated life support for a lunar farm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Tyler; Cullingford, Hatice

    1992-01-01

    Supporting human life on a lunar base will require growing many different food crops. This paper investigates the growth dynamics of four crops (wheat, soybeans, potatoes, and lettuce) for general similarities and differences, along with associated material flows of the gases, liquids, and solids in a lunar farm. The human dietary requirements are compared with the protein, carbohydrate, and lipid contents of these hydroponically grown, high-productivity crops to derive a lunar farm diet. A simple and general analytical model is used to calculate the mass fluxes of CO2, H2O, HNO3, and O2 during the life cycle of each of the four crops. The resulting farm crop areas and corresponding biomass production rates are given. One significant conclusion of this study is that there is a 'lipid problem' associated with the incorporation of these four crops into a viable diet.

  13. Airborne and ground-based remote sensing for the estimation of evapotranspiration and yield of bean, potato, and sugar beet crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayanthi, Harikishan

    The focus of this research was two-fold: (1) extend the reflectance-based crop coefficient approach to non-grain (potato and sugar beet), and vegetable crops (bean), and (2) develop vegetation index (VI)-yield statistical models for potato and sugar beet crops using high-resolution aerial multispectral imagery. Extensive crop biophysical sampling (leaf area index and aboveground dry biomass sampling) and canopy reflectance measurements formed the backbone of developing of canopy reflectance-based crop coefficients for bean, potato, and sugar beet crops in this study. Reflectance-based crop coefficient equations were developed for the study crops cultivated in Kimberly, Idaho, and subsequently used in water availability simulations in the plant root zone during 1998 and 1999 seasons. The simulated soil water profiles were compared with independent measurements of actual soil water profiles in the crop root zone in selected fields. It is concluded that the canopy reflectance-based crop coefficient technique can be successfully extended to non-grain crops as well. While the traditional basal crop coefficients generally expect uniform growth in a region the reflectance-based crop coefficients represent the actual crop growth pattern (in less than ideal water availability conditions) in individual fields. Literature on crop canopy interactions with sunlight states that there is a definite correspondence between leaf area index progression in the season and the final yield. In case of crops like potato and sugar beet, the yield is influenced not only on how early and how quickly the crop establishes its canopy but also on how long the plant stands on the ground in a healthy state. The integrated area under the crop growth curve has shown excellent correlations with hand-dug samples of potato and sugar beet crops in this research. Soil adjusted vegetation index-yield models were developed, and validated using multispectral aerial imagery. Estimated yield images were

  14. Management effects of disease-suppressive rotation crops on potato yield and soilborne disease and their economic implications in potato production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soilborne potato diseases are persistent problems in potato production. Use of disease-suppressive rotation crops, such as Brassica spp. (mustards, rapeseed) and sudangrass, has shown potential for management of soilborne diseases and enhanced yield. However, how to best implement these crops into p...

  15. Worldwide Distribution of Potato-Cyst Nematodes and Their Importance in Crop Production

    PubMed Central

    Mai, W. F.

    1977-01-01

    The potato-cyst nematodes Heterodera rostochiensis and H. pallida are important pathogens of potatoes, a basic food crop. When soil populations of either species are high, potato yields are often less than the seed planted. Apparently, these nematodes originated in the Andean mountains of South America, the home of the potato. One or both species have spread from this region to approximately 47 countries. The two species may occur together or separately in potato-growing areas. Although these nematodes can be spread in numerous ways, contaminated soil associated with seed potatoes, farm machinery, and reusable containers is among the most important. An integrated control program used in the U.S.A. is described. PMID:19305567

  16. Assessing potato psyllid haplotypes in potato crops in the Pacific Northwestern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc), is a vector of the bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso) that has been linked to the economically devastating zebra chip disease of potato. To date, four haplotypes of the potato psyllid have been identified and include Central, We...

  17. Growth stage estimation. [crop calendars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, V. S.; Phinney, D. E.; Crea, W. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    Of the three candidate approaches to adjustment of the crop calendar to account for year-to-year weather differences, the Robertson triquadratic unit, a function of a nonlinear function of maximum and minimum temperature and day length, best described the rate of phenological development of wheat. The adjustable crop calendar (ACC) as implemented for LACIE is used to calculate the daily increment of development through six physiological stages of growth. Topics covered include dormancy modeling, the spring restart model, spring wheat starter model, winter starter model, winter wheat starter model, inclusion of the moisture variable, and display of crop stage estimation results. Assessment of the ACC accuracy over the period of LACIE operation indicates that the adjustable crop calendars used provided more accurate information than would have been available using historical norms. The models performed best under the conditions from which they were derived (Canadian spring wheat) and most poorly for the dwarf varieties and Southern Hemisphere applications.

  18. Longer-term potato cropping system effects on soilborne diseases and tuber yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In field trials established in 2004, different 3-yr potato cropping systems focused on specific crop management goals of (SC) soil conservation, (SI) soil improvement, and (DS) disease-suppression were evaluated for their effects on soilborne diseases and tuber yield. These systems were compared to ...

  19. Effects of plastic mulch on potato growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Northern China is a major potato production region, and water-saving measures that can enhance both potato yield and quality play an important role in this region due to general water shortages. Plastic mulch has been used as an effective water-saving measure for potato cultivation in China. This ch...

  20. Growth and development of Colorado potato beetle larvae, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, on potato plants expressing the oryzacystatin II proteinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Cingel, Aleksandar; Savić, Jelena; Vinterhalter, Branka; Vinterhalter, Dragan; Kostić, Miroslav; Jovanović, Darka Šešlija; Smigocki, Ann; Ninković, Slavica

    2015-08-01

    Plant proteinase inhibitors (PIs) are attractive tools for crop improvement and their heterologous expression can enhance insect resistance in transgenic plants. PI oryzacystatin II (OCII), isolated from rice, showed potential in controlling pests that utilize cysteine proteinases for protein digestion. To evaluate the applicability of the OCII gene in enhancing plant defence, OCII-transformed potatoes were bioassayed for resistance to Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say). Feeding on transformed leaves of potato cultivars Desiree and Jelica significantly affected larval growth and development, but did not change mortality rates. During the L2 and L3 developmental stages larvae consumed the OCII-transformed foliage faster as compared to the nontransformed control. Also these larvae reached the prepupal stage (end of L4 stage) 2 days earlier than those fed on control leaves. However, the total amounts of consumed OCII-transformed leaves were up to 23% lower than of control, and the maximal weights of prepupal larvae were reduced by up to 18% as compared to larvae fed on nontransformed leaves. The reduction in insect fitness reported in this study in combination with other control measures, could lead to improved CPB resistance management in potato.

  1. Irrigation management strategies to improve Water Use Efficiency of potatoes crop in Central Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazouani, Hiba; Provenzano, Giuseppe; Rallo, Giovanni; Mguidiche, Amel; Douh, Boutheina; Boujelben, Abdelhamid

    2015-04-01

    In Tunisia, the expansion of irrigated area and the semiarid climate make it compulsory to adopt strategies of water management to increase water use efficiency. Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI), providing the application of high frequency small irrigation volumes below the soil surface have been increasingly used to enhance irrigation efficiency. At the same time, deficit irrigation (DI) has shown successful results with a large number of crop in various countries. However, for some crops like potatoes, DI is difficult to manage due to the rapid effect of water stress on tuber yield. Irrigation frequency is a key factor to schedule subsurface drip irrigation because, even maintaining the total seasonal volume, soil wetting patterns can result different during the growth period, with consequence on crop yield. Despite the need to enhance water use efficiency, only a few studies related to deficit irrigation of horticultural crops have been made in Tunisia. Objective of the paper was to assess the effects of different on-farm irrigation strategies on water use efficiency of potatoes crop irrigated with subsurface drip irrigation in a semiarid area of central Tunisia. After validation, Hydrus-2D model was used to simulate soil water status in the root zone, to evaluate actual crop evapotranspiration and then to estimate indirectly water use efficiency (IWUE), defined as the ratio between crop yield and total amount of water supplied with irrigation. Field experiments, were carried out in Central Tunisia (10° 33' 47.0" E, 35° 58' 8.1° N, 19 m a.s.l) on a potatoes crop planted in a sandy loam soil, during the growing season 2014, from January 15 (plantation of tubers) to May 6 (harvesting). Soil water status was monitored in two plots (T1 and T2) maintained under the same management, but different irrigation volumes, provided by a SDI system. In particular, irrigation was scheduled according to the average water content measured in the root zone, with a total of 8

  2. Copper oxychloride fungicide and its effect on growth and oxidative stress of potato plants.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Leonardo Cesar; Scavroni, Joseane; da Silva, João Renato Vaz; Cataneo, Ana Catarina; Martins, Dagoberto; Boaro, Carmen Sílvia Fernandes

    2014-06-01

    Excess copper in plants causes physiological alterations that lead to crop productivity losses. However, cupric fungicides have been utilized in the control of Alternaria solani and Phytophthora infestans fungi, which cause early blight and late blight in potato, respectively. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effect of different copper oxychloride levels on potato plants through some biochemical and physiological parameters. The fungicide was applied at the recommended level (2.50gL(-1)), at a reduced level (1.25gL(-1)), and at 5.00gL(-1), to simulate spraying in the field twice during the same period with the recommended level. The results revealed that superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) protected plants against oxidative stress at the beginning of the cycle since lipoperoxide levels were low in that period. In addition, increased SOD activity positively correlated with increased usable leaf area for photosynthesis (leaf area ratio, LAR), photosynthetic effectiveness (net assimilation rate, NAR), and growth relative to pre-existing dry matter (relative growth rate, RGR). Concomitantly, there was a negative correlation between lipoperoxide levels and LAR and RGR. Plants randomly sprayed twice in the same period with the level recommended for potato crop protection in the field do not present damage regarding their development. However, additional studies are needed in order to reduce the use of copper fungicides in the control of early and late blight in potato crop production, then decreasing the release of copper in the environment.

  3. The crop growth research chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagenbach, Kimberly

    1993-01-01

    The Crop Growth Research Chamber (CGRC) has been defined by CELSS principle investigators and science advisory panels as a necessary ground-based tool in the development of a regenerative life support system. The focus of CGRC research will be on the biomass production component of the CELSS system. The ground-based Crop Growth Research Chamber is for the study of plant growth and development under stringently controlled environments isolated from the external environment. The chamber has importance in three areas of CELSS activities: (1) crop research; (2) system control and integration, and (3) flight hardware design and experimentation. The laboratory size of the CGRC will be small enough to allow duplication of the unit, the conducting of controlled experiments, and replication of experiments, but large enough to provide information representative of larger plant communities. Experiments will focus on plant growth in a wide variety of environments and the effects of those environments on plant production of food, water, oxygen, toxins, and microbes. To study these effects in a closed system, tight control of the environment is necessary.

  4. Neural network simulation of soil NO3 dynamic under potato crop system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulet-Fortin, Jérôme; Morais, Anne; Anctil, François; Parent, Léon-Étienne; Bolinder, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Nitrate leaching is a major issue in sandy soils intensively cropped to potato. Modelling could test and improve management practices, particularly as regard to the optimal N application rates. Lack of input data is an important barrier for the application of classical process-based models to predict soil NO3 content (SNOC) and NO3 leaching (NOL). Alternatively, data driven models such as neural networks (NN) could better take into account indicators of spatial soil heterogeneity and plant growth pattern such as the leaf area index (LAI), hence reducing the amount of soil information required. The first objective of this study was to evaluate NN and hybrid models to simulate SNOC in the 0-40 cm soil layer considering inter-annual variations, spatial soil heterogeneity and differential N application rates. The second objective was to evaluate the same methodology to simulate seasonal NOL dynamic at 1 m deep. To this aim, multilayer perceptrons with different combinations of driving meteorological variables, functions of the LAI and state variables of external deterministic models have been trained and evaluated. The state variables from external models were: drainage estimated by the CLASS model and the soil temperature estimated by an ICBM subroutine. Results of SNOC simulations were compared to field data collected between 2004 and 2011 at several experimental plots under potato cropping systems in Québec, Eastern Canada. Results of NOL simulation were compared to data obtained in 2012 from 11 suction lysimeters installed in 2 experimental plots under potato cropping systems in the same region. The most performing model for SNOC simulation was obtained using a 4-input hybrid model composed of 1) cumulative LAI, 2) cumulative drainage, 3) soil temperature and 4) day of year. The most performing model for NOL simulation was obtained using a 5-input NN model composed of 1) N fertilization rate at spring, 2) LAI, 3) cumulative rainfall, 4) the day of year and 5) the

  5. Differential Response of Potato Toward Inoculation with Taxonomically Diverse Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Naqqash, Tahir; Hameed, Sohail; Imran, Asma; Hanif, Muhammad Kashif; Majeed, Afshan; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Rhizosphere engineering with beneficial plant growth promoting bacteria offers great promise for sustainable crop yield. Potato is an important food commodity that needs large inputs of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers. To overcome high fertilizer demand (especially nitrogen), five bacteria, i.e., Azospirillum sp. TN10, Agrobacterium sp. TN14, Pseudomonas sp. TN36, Enterobacter sp. TN38 and Rhizobium sp. TN42 were isolated from the potato rhizosphere on nitrogen-free malate medium and identified based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences. Three strains, i.e., TN10, TN38, and TN42 showed nitrogen fixation (92.67–134.54 nmol h-1mg-1 protein), while all showed the production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), which was significantly increased by the addition of L-tryptophan. Azospirillum sp. TN10 produced the highest amount of IAA, as measured by spectrophotometry (312.14 μg mL-1) and HPLC (18.3 μg mL-1). Inoculation with these bacteria under axenic conditions resulted in differential growth responses of potato. Azospirillum sp. TN10 incited the highest increase in potato fresh and dry weight over control plants, along with increased N contents of shoot and roots. All strains were able to colonize and maintain their population densities in the potato rhizosphere for up to 60 days, with Azospirillum sp. and Rhizobium sp. showing the highest survival. Plant root colonization potential was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy of root sections inoculated with Azospirillum sp. TN10. Of the five test strains, Azospirillum sp. TN10 has the greatest potential to increase the growth and nitrogen uptake of potato. Hence, it is suggested as a good candidate for the production of potato biofertilizer for integrated nutrient management. PMID:26925072

  6. The commercial use of satellite data to monitor the potato crop in the Columbia Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waddington, George R., Jr.; Lamb, Frank G.

    1990-01-01

    The imaging of potato crops with satellites is described and evaluated in terms of the commercial application of the remotely sensed data. The identification and analysis of the crops is accomplished with multiple images acquired from the Landsat MSS and TM systems. The data are processed on a PC with image-procesing software which produces images of the seven 1024 x 1024 pixel windows which are subdivided into 21 512 x 512 pixel windows. Maximization of imaged data throughout the year aids in the identification of crop types by IR reflectance. The classification techniques involve the use of six or seven spectral classes for particular image dates. Comparisons with ground-truth data show good agreement; for example, potato fields are identified correctly 90 percent of the time. Acreage estimates and crop-condition assessments can be made from satellite data and used for corrective agricultural action.

  7. Glyphosate carryover in seed potato: effects on mother crop and daughter tubers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies were conducted in 2008 and 2009 in Aberdeen, ID, Ontario, OR, and Paterson, WA to determine the effect of simulated glyphosate drift on ‘Ranger Russet’ potato during the application year and the crop growing the next year from the daughter tubers. Glyphosate was applied at 8.5, 54, 107...

  8. Nitrate-nitrogen concentrations in the perched ground water under seepage-irrigated potato cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Munoz-Arboleda, F; Mylavarapu, R; Hutchinson, C; Portier, K

    2008-01-01

    Excessive nitrogen rates for potato production in northeast Florida have been declared as a potential source of nitrate pollution in the St. Johns River watershed. This 3-yr study examined the effect of N rates (0, 168, and 280 kg ha(-1)) split between planting and 40 d after planting on the NO(3)-N concentration in the perched ground water under potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Atlantic) in rotation with sorghum sudan grass hybrid (Sorghum vulgare x Sorghum vulgare var. sudanese, cv. SX17), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cv. Iron Clay), and greenbean (Phaseolus vulgare cv. Espada). Soil solution from the root zone and water from the perched ground water under potato were sampled periodically using lysimeters and wells, respectively. Fertilization at planting increased the NO(3)-N concentration in the perched ground water, but no effect of the legumes in rotation with potatoes on nitrate leaching was detected. Fertilization of green bean increased NO(3)-N concentration in the perched ground water under potato planted in the following season. The NO(3)-N concentration in the soil solution within the potato root zone followed a similar pattern to that of the perched ground water but with higher initial values. The NO(3)-N concentration in the perched ground water was proportional to the rainfall magnitude after potato planting. A significant increase in NO(3)-N concentration in the perched ground water under cowpea planted in summer after potato was detected for the side-dressing of 168 kg ha(-1) N applied to potato 40 d after planting but not at the 56 kg ha(-1) N side-dress. Elevation in NO(3)-N concentration in the perched ground water under sorghum was not significant, supporting its use as an effective N catch crop.

  9. Genetic diversity of Potato virus Y infecting tobacco crops in China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Y P; Liu, J L; Zhang, C L; Liu, Y Y; Wang, B; Li, X-D; Guo, Z K; Valkonen, J P T

    2011-03-01

    Genetic variability of Potato virus Y (PVY) isolates infecting potato has been characterized but little is known about genetic diversity of PVY isolates infecting tobacco crops. In this study, PVY isolates were collected from major tobacco-growing areas in China and single-lesion isolates were produced by serial inoculation on Chenopodium amaranticolor. Most isolates (88%) caused systemic veinal necrosis symptoms in tobacco. Of these, 16 isolates contained a PVY(O)-like coat protein (CP) and PVY(N)-like helper component proteinase (HC-pro) and, in this respect, were similar to the PVY(N-Wi), PVY(N:O), and PVY-HN2 isolates characterized from potato in Europe, the United States, and China, respectively; two isolates contained a PVY(O)-like HC-pro and a PVY(N)-like CP; another two isolates had recombination junctions in the CP-encoding region. Both the HC-pro and CP of PVY were under negative selection as a whole; however, seven amino acids in HC-pro and six amino acids in CP were under positive selection. Selection pressures differed between the subpopulations of PVY distinguished by phylogenetic analysis of HC-pro and CP sequences. When PVY isolates from potato were included, no host-specific clustering of the PVY isolates was observed in phylogenetic and nucleotide diversity analyses, suggesting frequent spread of PVY isolates between potato and tobacco crops in the field.

  10. Crop yield and light/energy efficiency in a closed ecological system: Laboratory Biosphere experiments with wheat and sweet potato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, M.; Dempster, W. F.; Silverstone, S.; Alling, A.; Allen, J. P.; van Thillo, M.

    Two crop growth experiments in the soil-based closed ecological facility, Laboratory Biosphere, were conducted from 2003 to 2004 with candidate space life support crops. Apogee wheat (Utah State University variety) was grown, planted at two densities, 400 and 800 seeds m -2. The lighting regime for the wheat crop was 16 h of light - 8 h dark at a total light intensity of around 840 μmol m -2 s -1 and 48.4 mol m -2 d -1 over 84 days. Average biomass was 1395 g m -2, 16.0 g m -2 d -1 and average seed production was 689 g m -2 and 7.9 g m -2 d -1. The less densely planted side was more productive than the denser planting, with 1634 g m -2 and 18.8 g m -2 d -1 of biomass vs. 1156 g m -2 and 13.3 g m -2 d -1; and a seed harvest of 812.3 g m -2 and 9.3 g m -2 d -1 vs. 566.5 g m -2 and 6.5 g m -2 d -1. Harvest index was 0.49 for the wheat crop. The experiment with sweet potato used TU-82-155 a compact variety developed at Tuskegee University. Light during the sweet potato experiment, on a 18 h on/6 h dark cycle, totaled 5568 total moles of light per square meter in 126 days for the sweet potatoes, or an average of 44.2 mol m -2 d -1. Temperature regime was 28 ± 3 °C day/22 ± 4 °C night. Sweet potato tuber yield was 39.7 kg wet weight, or an average of 7.4 kg m -2, and 7.7 kg dry weight of tubers since dry weight was about 18.6% wet weight. Average per day production was 58.7 g m -2 d -1 wet weight and 11.3 g m -2 d -1. For the wheat, average light efficiency was 0.34 g biomass per mole, and 0.17 g seed per mole. The best area of wheat had an efficiency of light utilization of 0.51 g biomass per mole and 0.22 g seed per mole. For the sweet potato crop, light efficiency per tuber wet weight was 1.33 g mol -1 and 0.34 g dry weight of tuber per mole of light. The best area of tuber production had 1.77 g mol -1 wet weight and 0.34 g mol -1 of light dry weight. The Laboratory Biosphere experiment's light efficiency was somewhat higher than the USU field results but

  11. Crop yield and light/energy efficiency in a closed ecological system: Laboratory Biosphere experiments with wheat and sweet potato.

    PubMed

    Nelson, M; Dempster, W F; Silverstone, S; Alling, A; Allen, J P; van Thillo, M

    2005-01-01

    Two crop growth experiments in the soil-based closed ecological facility, Laboratory Biosphere, were conducted from 2003 to 2004 with candidate space life support crops. Apogee wheat (Utah State University variety) was grown, planted at two densities, 400 and 800 seeds m-2. The lighting regime for the wheat crop was 16 h of light-8 h dark at a total light intensity of around 840 micromoles m-2 s-1 and 48.4 mol m-2 d-1 over 84 days. Average biomass was 1395 g m-2, 16.0 g m-2 d-1 and average seed production was 689 g m-2 and 7.9 g m-2 d-1. The less densely planted side was more productive than the denser planting, with 1634 g m-2 and 18.8 g m-2 d-1 of biomass vs. 1156 g m-2 and 13.3 g m-2 d-1; and a seed harvest of 812.3 g m-2 and 9.3 g m-2 d-1 vs. 566.5 g m-2 and 6.5 g m-2 d-1. Harvest index was 0.49 for the wheat crop. The experiment with sweet potato used TU-82-155 a compact variety developed at Tuskegee University. Light during the sweet potato experiment, on a 18 h on/6 h dark cycle, totaled 5568 total moles of light per square meter in 126 days for the sweet potatoes, or an average of 44.2 mol m-2 d-1. Temperature regime was 28 +/- 3 degrees C day/22 +/- 4 degrees C night. Sweet potato tuber yield was 39.7 kg wet weight, or an average of 7.4 kg m-2, and 7.7 kg dry weight of tubers since dry weight was about 18.6% wet weight. Average per day production was 58.7 g m-2 d-1 wet weight and 11.3 g m-2 d-1. For the wheat, average light efficiency was 0.34 g biomass per mole, and 0.17 g seed per mole. The best area of wheat had an efficiency of light utilization of 0.51 g biomass per mole and 0.22 g seed per mole. For the sweet potato crop, light efficiency per tuber wet weight was 1.33 g mol-1 and 0.34 g dry weight of tuber per mole of light. The best area of tuber production had 1.77 g mol-1 wet weight and 0.34 g mol-1 of light dry weight. The Laboratory Biosphere experiment's light efficiency was somewhat higher than the USU field results but somewhat below

  12. Atmospheric dynamics in Laboratory Biosphere with wheat and sweet potato crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempster, W. F.; Allen, J. P.; Alling, A.; Nelson, M.; Silvertone, S.; van Thillo, M.

    Laboratory Biosphere is a 40 m3 closed life system equipped with 12000 watts of high pressure sodium lamps over planting beds with 5.37 m2 of soil. Atmospheric composition changes due to photosynthetic fixation of carbon dioxide and corresponding production of oxygen or the reverse, respiration, are observed in short timeframes, eg. hourly. To focus on inherent characteristics of the crop as distinct from its area or the volume of the chamber, we report fixation and respiration rates in millimoles per hour per square meter of planted area. An 85 day crop of USU Apogee wheat under a 16 hour lighted / 8 hour dark regime peaked in fixation rate at about 100 mmol h-1 m-2 approximately 24 days after planting. Light intensity was about 840 mol m-2 s-1. Dark respiration peaked at about 31 mmol h-1 m-2 at the same time. Thereafter, both fixation and respiration declined toward zero as harvest time approached. A residual soil respiration rate of about 1.9 mmol h-1 m-2 was observed in the dark closed chamber for 100 days after the harvest. A 126 day crop of Tuskegee TU-82-155 sweet potato behaved quite differently. Under a 680 mol m-2 s-1, 18 hour lighted / 6 hour dark regime, fixation during lighted hours rose to a plateau ranging from about 27 to 48 mmol h-1 m-2 after 42 days and respiration settled into a range of 12 to 23 mmol h-1 m-2. These rates continued unabated until the harvest at 126 days, suggesting that tuber biomass production might have continued at about the same rate for some time beyond the harvest time that was exercised in this experiment. In both experiments CO2 levels were allowed to range widely from a few hundred ppm to about 3000 ppm, which permitted observation of fixation rates both at varying CO2 concentrations and at each number of days after planting. This enables plotting the fixation rate as a function of both variables. Understanding the atmospheric dynamics of individual crops will be essential for design and atmospheric management of more

  13. Atmospheric dynamics in the “Laboratory Biosphere” with wheat and sweet potato crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempster, William F.; Allen, J. P.; Alling, A.; Silverstone, S.; Van Thillo, M.

    Laboratory Biosphere is a 40-m 3 closed life system equipped with 12,000 W of high pressure sodium lamps over planting beds with 5.37 m 2 of soil. Atmospheric composition changes due to photosynthetic fixation of carbon dioxide and corresponding production of oxygen or the reverse, respiration, are observed in short timeframes, e.g., hourly. To focus on inherent characteristics of the crop as distinct from its area or the volume of the chamber, we report fixation and respiration rates in mmol h -1 m -2 of planted area. An 85-day crop of USU Apogee wheat under a 16-h lighted/8-h dark regime peaked in fixation rate at about 100 mmol h -1 m -2 approximately 24 days after planting. Light intensity was about 840 μmol m -2 s -1. Dark respiration peaked at about 31 mmol h -1 m -2 at the same time. Thereafter, both fixation and respiration declined toward zero as harvest time approached. A residual soil respiration rate of about 1.9 mmol h -1 m -2 was observed in the dark closed chamber for 100 days after the harvest. A 126-day crop of Tuskegee TU-82-155 sweet potato behaved quite differently. Under a 680 μmol m -2 s -1, 18-h lighted/6-h dark regime, fixation during lighted hours rose to a plateau ranging from about 27 to 48 mmol h -1 m -2 after 42 days and dark respiration settled into a range of 12-23 mmol h -1 m -2. These rates continued unabated until the harvest at 126 days, suggesting that tuber biomass production might have continued at about the same rate for some time beyond the harvest time that was exercised in this experiment. In both experiments CO 2 levels were allowed to range widely from a few hundred to about 3000 ppm, which permitted observation of fixation rates both at varying CO 2 concentrations and at each number of days after planting. This enables plotting the fixation rate as a function of both variables. Understanding the atmospheric dynamics of individual crops will be essential for design and atmospheric management of more complex CELSS which

  14. Cumulative and residual effects of different potato cropping system management strategies on soilborne diseases and soil microbial communities over time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four different potato cropping systems (CS), designed to address specific management goals of soil conservation (SC), soil improvement (SI), disease suppression (DS), and a status quo standard rotation control (SQ), were evaluated for their effects on soilborne diseases of potato and soil microbial ...

  15. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part 1. Potatoes and other tuber crops

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, P.

    1984-01-01

    In Part 1 of a planned series of articles on preservation of foods of plant origin by gamma irradiation, the current state of research on the technological, nutritional, and biochemical aspects of sprout inhibition of potatoes and other tuber crops are reviewed. These include varietal responses, dose effects, time of irradiation, pre- and postirradiation storage, and handling requirements; postirradiation changes in carbohydrates, ascorbic acid, amino acids, and other nutrients; respiration; biochemical mechanisms involved in sprout inhibition; wound healing and microbial infection during storage; formation of wound and light-induced glycoalkaloids and identification of irradiated potatoes. The culinary and processing qualities with particular reference to darkening of boiled and processed potatoes are discussed. The prospects of irradiation on an industrial scale as an alternative to chemical sprout inhibitors or mechanical refrigeration are considered.

  16. Exploring Folate Diversity in Wild and Primitive Potatoes for Modern Crop Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Bruce R.; Sathuvalli, Vidyasagar; Bamberg, John; Goyer, Aymeric

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition is one of the world’s largest health concerns. Folate (also known as vitamin B9) is essential in the human diet, and without adequate folate intake, several serious health concerns, such as congenital birth defects and an increased risk of stroke and heart disease, can occur. Most people’s folate intake remains sub-optimal, even in countries that have a folic acid food fortification program in place. Staple crops, such as potatoes, represent an appropriate organism for biofortification through traditional breeding based on their worldwide consumption and the fact that modern cultivars only contain about 6% of the daily recommended intake of folate. To start breeding potatoes with enhanced folate content, high folate potato material must be identified. In this study, 250 individual plants from 77 accessions and 10 Solanum species were screened for their folate content using a tri-enzyme extraction and microbial assay. There was a 10-fold range of folate concentrations among individuals. Certain individuals within the species Solanum tuberosum subsp. andigenum, Solanum vernei and Solanum boliviense have the potential to produce more than double the folate concentrations of commercial cultivars, such as Russet Burbank. Our results show that tapping into the genetic diversity of potato is a promising approach to increase the folate content of this important crop. PMID:26670256

  17. Aerial Imagery and Other Non-invasive Approaches to Detect Nitrogen and Water Stress in a Potato Crop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigon, Tyler John

    Post-emergence nitrogen (N) fertilizer is typically split applied to irrigated potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Minnesota in order to minimize the likelihood of nitrate leaching and to best match N availability to crop demands. Petiole nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) concentration is often used as a diagnostic test to determine the rate and timing of split applications, but using this approach for variable rate applications is difficult. Canopy-level spectral measurements, such as hyperspectral and multispectral imagery, have the potential to be a reliable tool for making in-season N management decisions for precision agriculture applications. The objectives of this two year field study were to evaluate the effects of variety, N treatment, and water stress on growth characteristics and the ability of and canopy-level reflectance to predict N stress in potato. Treatments included two irrigation regimes (unstressed and stressed), five N regimes categorized by three N rates (34 kg N ha-1, 180 kg N ha-1, and 270 kg N ha-1) in which the 270 kg N ha-1 rate had post-emergence N either split applied or applied early in the season, and two potato varieties (Russet Burbank and Alpine Russet). Higher N rates and split applications generally resulted in higher tuber yield for both varieties. Insufficient supplemental water was found to reduce tuber yield and plant N uptake. Of the broadband indices, narrowband indices, and partial least squares regression (PLS) models evaluated, the best predictor of N stress as measured by leaf N concentration was the PLS model using derivative reflectance (r2 of 0.79 for RB and 0.77 for AR). However, the best technique for determining N stress level for variable rate application of N fertilizer was MTCI (MERIS Terrestrial Chlorophyll Index) due to its good relationship with leaf N concentration and high accuracy. As a final aspect of the study, results from the experimental plots were used to predict N stress in a

  18. Potato growth in response to relative humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Tibbitts, T. W.; Fitzpatrick, A. H.

    1989-01-01

    Potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. cvs. Russet Burbank, Norland, and Denali) were grown for 56 days in controlled-environment rooms under continuous light at 20C and 50% or 85% RH. No significant differences in total plant dry weight were measured between the humidity treatments, but plants grown under 85% RH produced higher tuber yields. Leaf areas were greater under 50% RH and leaves tended to be larger and darker green than at 85% RH.

  19. Effect of Sorghum-Sudangrass and Velvetbean Cover Crops on Plant-Parasitic Nematodes Associated with Potato Production in Florida

    PubMed Central

    Crow, W. T.; Weingartner, D. P.; Dickson, D. W.; McSorley, R.

    2001-01-01

    In a 3-year field study, population densities of Belonolaimus longicaudatus and other plant-parasitic nematodes and crop yields were compared between potato (Solanum tuberosum) cropping systems where either sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor × S. arundinaceum) or velvetbean (Mucuna pruriens) was grown as a summer cover crop. Population densities of B. longicaudatus, Paratrichodorus minor, Tylenchorhynchus sp., and Mesocriconema sp. increased on sorghum-sudangrass. Population densities of P. minor and Mesocriconema sp. increased on velvetbean. Sorghum-sudangrass increased population densities of B. longicaudatus and Mesocriconema sp. on a subsequent potato crop compared to velvetbean. Potato yields following velvetbean were not greater than following sorghum-sudangrass despite reductions in population densities of B. longicaudatus. PMID:19265888

  20. Metal-contaminated potato crops and potential human health risk in Bolivian mining highlands.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Alan E; Strosnider, William H J; Wilson, Robin Taylor; Condori, Janette; Nairn, Robert W

    2017-03-23

    This study assessed metals in irrigation water, soil and potato crops impacted by mining discharges, as well as potential human health risk in the high desert near the historic mining center of Potosí, Bolivia. Metal concentrations were compared with international concentration limit guidelines. In addition, an ingested average daily dose and minimum risk level were used to determine the hazard quotient from potato consumption for adults and children. Irrigation water maximum concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn in mining-impacted sites were elevated 20- to 1100-fold above international concentration limit guidelines. Agricultural soils contained total metal concentrations of As, Cd, Pb and Zn that exceeded concentration limits in agricultural soil guidelines by 22-, 9-, 3- and 12-fold, respectively. Potato tubers in mining-impacted sites had maximum concentrations of As, Cd, Pb and Zn that exceeded concentration limits in commercially sold vegetables by 9-, 10-, 16- and fourfold, respectively. Using conservative assumptions, hazard quotients (HQ) for potatoes alone were elevated for As, Cd and Pb among children (range 1.1-71.8), in nearly all of the mining-impacted areas; and for As and Cd among adults (range 1.2-34.2) in nearly all of the mining-impacted areas. Only one mining-impacted area had a Pb adult HQ for potatoes above 1 for adults. Toxic trace elements in a major regional dietary staple may be a greater concern than previously appreciated. Considering the multitude of other metal exposure routes in this region, it is likely that total HQ values for these metals may be substantially higher than our estimates.

  1. Intercropping of two Leucaena spp. with sweet potato: yield, growth rate and biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    Results of trials with Leucaena leucocephala and Leucaena diversifolia at Wau, Papua New Guinea, showed potential benefits of the agroforestry cropping system. The total biomass yield (sweet potato plus firewood and green manure) was considerably greater than the yield per unit area of sweet potato alone. 3 references.

  2. Diploid potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) as a model crop to study transgene expression.

    PubMed

    Nadolska-Orczyk, Anna; Pietrusinska, Aleksandra; Binka-Wyrwa, Agnieszka; Kuc, Dominik; Orczyk, Wacław

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a method of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation for two diploid breeding lines of potato, and gives a detailed analysis of reporter gene expression. In our lab, these lines were also used to obtain tetraploid somatic hybrids. We tested four newly prepared constructs based on the pGreen vector system containing the selection gene nptII or bar under the 35S or nos promoter. All these vectors carried gus under 35S. We also tested the pDM805 vector, with the bar and gus genes respectively under the Ubi1 and Act1 promoters, which are strong for monocots. The selection efficiency (about 17%) was highest in the stem and leaf explants after transformation with pGreen where nptII was under 35S. About half of the selected plants were confirmed via PCR and Southern blot analysis to be transgenic and, depending on the combination, 0 to 100% showed GUS expression. GUS expression was strongest in multi-copy transgenic plants where gus was under Act1. The same potato lines carrying multi-copy bar under Ubi1 were also highly resistant to the herbicide Basta. The suggestion of using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of diploid lines of potato as a model crop is discussed herein.

  3. The Recent Recombinant Evolution of a Major Crop Pathogen, Potato virus Y

    PubMed Central

    Visser, Johan Christiaan; Bellstedt, Dirk Uwe; Pirie, Michael David

    2012-01-01

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is a major agricultural disease that reduces crop yields worldwide. Different strains of PVY are associated with differing degrees of pathogenicity, of which the most common and economically important are known to be recombinant. We need to know the evolutionary origins of pathogens to prevent further escalations of diseases, but putatively reticulate genealogies are challenging to reconstruct with standard phylogenetic approaches. Currently available phylogenetic hypotheses for PVY are either limited to non-recombinant strains, represent only parts of the genome, and/or incorrectly assume a strictly bifurcating phylogenetic tree. Despite attempts to date potyviruses in general, no attempt has been made to date the origins of pathogenic PVY. We test whether diversification of the major strains of PVY and recombination between them occurred within the time frame of the domestication and modern cultivation of potatoes. In so doing, we demonstrate a novel extension of a phylogenetic approach for reconstructing reticulate evolutionary scenarios. We infer a well resolved phylogeny of 44 whole genome sequences of PVY viruses, representative of all known strains, using recombination detection and phylogenetic inference techniques. Using Bayesian molecular dating we show that the parental strains of PVY diverged around the time potatoes were first introduced to Europe, that recombination between them only occurred in the last century, and that the multiple recombination events that led to highly pathogenic PVYNTN occurred within the last 50 years. Disease causing agents are often transported across the globe by humans, with disastrous effects for us, our livestock and crops. Our analytical approach is particularly pertinent for the often small recombinant genomes involved (e.g. HIV/influenza A). In the case of PVY, increased transport of diseased material is likely to blame for uniting the parents of recombinant pathogenic strains: this process needs

  4. Cumulative and residual effects of potato cropping system management strategies on soilborne diseases and soil microbial communities over time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In field trials established in 2004, different 3-yr potato cropping systems focused on specific management goals of soil conservation (SC), soil improvement (SI), and disease-suppression (DS) were evaluated and compared to a 2-yr standard rotation (SQ) and a non-rotation control (PP) for their effec...

  5. Cumulative and residual effects of potato cropping system management strategies on soil physical, chemical, and biological properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In field trials established in 2004, different 3-yr potato cropping systems focused on specific management goals of soil conservation (SC), soil improvement (SI), and disease-suppression (DS) were evaluated and compared to a 2-yr standard rotation (SQ) and a non-rotation control (PP) for their effec...

  6. Quantity and nature of water-extractable organic matter from sandy loam soils with potato cropping managements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) is part of the soil labile organic matter components. In this work, we evaluated the level and nature of soil WEOM from a long-term (6-year) potato crop rotation field experiment. The contents of water-extractable organic C (WEOC) were higher in continuous pot...

  7. Cover crops impact on excess rainfall and soil erosion rates in orchards and potato fields, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egozi, Roey; Gil, Eshel

    2015-04-01

    Bare soil and high drainage densities are common characteristics of intensive agriculture land. The couplings of these characteristics lead to high runoff and eroded soil volumes leaving the field or the orchard via the local drainage system into the fluvial system. This process increase flood risk due to massive deposition of the coarse fraction of the eroded soil and therefore reduces channel capacity to discharge the increase volumes of concentrated runoff. As a result drainage basin authorities are forced to invest large amount of money in maintaining and enlarging the drainage network. However this approach is un-sustainable. On the other hand, implementing cover crops (CC) and modification to current agricultural practices over the contributing area of the watershed seems to have more benefits and provide sustainable solution. A multi-disciplinary approach applied in commercial potatoes fields and orchards that utilize the benefit of CC shows great success as means of soil and water conservation and weed disinfestation without reduction in the yield, its quality or its profitability. The results indicate that it is possible to grow potatoes and citrus trees under CC with no reduction in yield or nutrient uptake, with more than 95% reduction in soil loss and more than 60% in runoff volumes and peak discharges.

  8. Subsurface irrigation of potato crop (Solanum tuberosum ssp. Andigena) in Suka Kollus with different drainage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano-Coronel, Genaro; Chipana-Rivera, René; Fátima Moreno-Pérez, María; Roldán-Cañas, José

    2016-04-01

    Among the most important hydraulic structures of pre-Hispanic ancestral technology developed in the Andean region, we find the suka kollus, aymara word, called also waru waru, en quechua or raised fields, in English. They are raised platforms surrounded by water canals that irrigate subsurface, but also have the function of draining, to deal with floods because they are surrounding Lake Titicaca. They also have the property of generating a thermoregulatory effect to crops, depending on the configuration of the channels and platforms. Such agro-ecosystems are being abandoned, however, if properly addressed crop management and some drainage canals are replaced by underground drains for increased crop area could be very useful in enabling marginal soils affected by salts and / or excess water. For these reasons, the objective of this study was to evaluate the subsurface irrigation in the potato crop in suka kollus under a system of surface drainage, and mixed drainage (surface and subsurface). The study was conducted in marginal soils of Kallutaca area, located 30 km from the city of La Paz, Bolivia, at a height of 3892 m.a.s.l. The cultivation of the potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. Andigena) was used. Four treatments were tested with different widths of the platforms: T1 (Control) with drainage through channels; T2 (replacing a channel by a drain); T3 (replacing two channels by two drains); T4 (replacing three channels by three drains). The flow of water into the soil from the water table was predominantly upward, except during periods of high rainfall. In terms of treatments, the flow in T1 was higher, mainly at weeks 8 to 11 after seedling emergence, coinciding with the phenological phases of flowering and at the beginning of the tuber ripening. It was followed by T3, T2 and T4 treatments, respectively. Tuber yield, if one considers that the channels detract arable land, was higher in the T3 treatment,16.4 Mg / ha, followed by T2 treatment, 15.2 Mg / ha, T1

  9. Controlled environment life support system: Growth studies with potatoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T. W.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    Results of experiments conducted to maximize the productivity of potatoes grown under controlled environmental conditions are discussed. A variety of parameters is examined which affect potato growth, specifically, photoperiod, light intensity, temperature, nitrogen nutrition, carbon dioxide concentration and culture techniques. These experiments were conducted using five different cultivars, Russet Burbank, Norchip, Superior, Kennebec and Norland. To achieve high productivity, three specific objectives were explored: (1) to develop effective cultural procedures, (2) to determine the most effective photoperiod and (3) to develop a mist culture system. It is felt that the productivity obtained in this study is below the maximum that can be obtained. High irradiance levels coupled with tuber-promoting conditions such as cooler temperatures, increased CO2 levels and lowered nitrogen concentrations should allow increases in tuber production. Tuberization appears to be accelerated by short daylengths although final yields are not increased. Mist culture techniques have not yet produced fully developed tubers. The use of supporting media and alteration of the nitrogen content of the mist solution are being explored as a way to allow tubers to develop to maturity.

  10. Growth of Staphylococcus aureus in cooked potato and potato salad – A one-step kinetic analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive spherically-shaped bacterium capable of producing heat-stable enterotoxins that cause acute gastrointestinal diseases. The growth of this pathogen in food is a major threat to public health worldwide. Potato salad is a frequent vehicle for infection and foo...

  11. Physiological response and sulfur metabolism of the V. dahliae-infected tomato plants in tomato/potato onion companion cropping

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xuepeng; Li, Chunxia; Zhou, Xingang; Liu, Shouwei; Wu, Fengzhi

    2016-01-01

    Companion cropping with potato onions (Allium cepa var. agrogatum Don.) can enhance the disease resistance of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) to Verticillium dahliae infection by increasing the expressions of genes related to disease resistance. However, it is not clear how tomato plants physiologically respond to V. dahliae infection and what roles sulfur plays in the disease-resistance. Pot experiments were performed to examine changes in the physiology and sulfur metabolism of tomato roots infected by V. dahliae under the companion cropping (tomato/potato onion). The results showed that the companion cropping increased the content of total phenol, lignin and glutathione and increased the activities of peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase in the roots of tomato plants. RNA-seq analysis showed that the expressions of genes involved in sulfur uptake and assimilation, and the formation of sulfur-containing defense compounds (SDCs) were up-regulated in the V. dahlia-infected tomatoes in the companion cropping. In addition, the interactions among tomato, potato onion and V. dahliae induced the expression of the high- affinity sulfate transporter gene in the tomato roots. These results suggest that sulfur may play important roles in tomato disease resistance against V. dahliae. PMID:27808257

  12. Phasic temperature change patterns affect growth and tuberization in potatoes

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, W.; Tibbitts, T.W. . Dept. of Horticulture)

    1994-07-01

    This study determined the response of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Norland) plants to various patterns of air temperature changes over different growth periods. In each of two experiments under controlled environments, eight treatments of temperature changes were carried out in two growth rooms maintained at 17 and 22 C and a constant vapor pressure deficit of 0.60 kPa and 14-hour photoperiod. Plants were grown for 63 days after transplanting of tissue culture plantlets in 20-liter pots containing peat-vermiculite mix. Temperature changes were imposed on days 21 and 42, which were essentially at the beginning of tuber initiation and tuber enlargement, respectively, for this cultivar. Plants were moved between two temperature rooms to obtain eight temperature change patterns: 17-17-17, 17-17-22, 17-22-17, 22-17-17, 17-22-22, 22-17-22, 22-22-17, and 22-22-22C over three 21-day growth periods. At harvest on day 63, total plant dry weight was higher for the treatments beginning with 22 C than for those beginning with 17C, with highest biomass obtained at 22-22-17 and 22-17-17C. Shoot dry weight increased with temperature increased from 17-17-17 to 22-22-22C during the three growth periods. Tuber dry weight was highest with 22-17-17C, and lowest with 17-17-22 and 17-22-22C. With 22-17-17C, both dry weights of stolons and roots were lowest. Total tuber number and number of small tubers were highest with 17-17-17 and 17-17-22C, and lowest with 17-22-22 and 22-22-22C, whereas number of medium tubers was highest with 22-17-22C, and number of large tubers was highest with 22-17-17C. This study indicates that tuber development of potatoes is optimized with a phasic pattern of high temperature during early growth and low temperature during later growth.

  13. Effect of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Cropping Systems on Soil and Nutrient Losses Through Runoff in a Humic Nitisol, Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyawade, Shadrack; Charles, Gachene; Karanja, Nancy; Elmar, Schulte-Geldermann

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion has been identified as one of the major causes of soil productivity decline in the potato growing areas of East African Highlands. Potato establishes a protective soil cover only at about 45-60 days after planting and does not yield sufficient surface mulch upon harvest which leaves the soil bare at the critical times when rainfall intensities are usually high thus exposes soil to erosion. A field study was carried out using runoff plots during the short and long rainy seasons of 2014/15 respectively at the University of Nairobi Upper Kabete Farm, Kenya. The objectives were to assess the effect of soil surface roughness and potato cropping systems on soil loss and runoff, to determine the effect of erosion on nutrient enrichment ratio and to evaluate the soil organic matter fraction most susceptible to soil erosion. The treatments comprised of Bare Soil (T1); Potato + Garden Pea (Pisum sativa) (T2); Potato + Climbing Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) (T3); Potato + Dolichos (Lablab purpureus) (T4) and Sole Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) (T5). The amount of soil loss and runoff recorded in each event differed significantly between treatments (p<0.05) and were consistently highest in T1 and lowest in T4. Mean cumulative soil loss reduced by 6.4, 13.3 and 24.4 t ha-1from T2, T3 and T4 respectively compared to sole potato plots (T5), while mean cumulative runoff reduced by 8.5, 17.1 and 28.3 mm from T2, T3 and T4 respectively when compared with the sole potato plots (T5) indicating that T4 plots provided the most effective cover in reducing soil loss and runoff. Regression analyses revealed that both runoff and soil loss related significantly with surface roughness and percent cover (R2=0.83 and 0.73 respectively, p<0.05). Statistically significant linear dependence of runoff and soil loss on surface roughness and crop cover was found in T4 (p<0.05) indicating that this system was highly effective in minimizing soil loss and runoff. Enrichment ratio was on average

  14. Crop Growth Modeling in the Wind Erosion Prediction System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On land used for the production of food and fiber, the amount of growing crop and crop residue remaining on the field during no growth periods often determine whether the field is susceptible to the erosion of the soil by wind. The crop growth sub-model component of the Wind Erosion Prediction Syste...

  15. Impacts of crop growth dynamics on soil quality at the regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, Anne

    2014-05-01

    Agricultural land use and in particular crop growth dynamics can greatly affect soil quality. Both the amount of soil lost from erosion by water and soil organic matter are key indicators for soil quality. The aim was to develop a modelling framework for quantifying the impacts of crop growth dynamics on soil quality at the regional scale with test case Flanders. A framework for modelling the impacts of crop growth on soil erosion and soil organic matter was developed by coupling the dynamic crop cover model REGCROP (Gobin, 2010) to the PESERA soil erosion model (Kirkby et al., 2009) and to the RothC carbon model (Coleman and Jenkinson, 1999). All three models are process-based, spatially distributed and intended as a regional diagnostic tool. A geo-database was constructed covering 10 years of crop rotation in Flanders using the IACS parcel registration (Integrated Administration and Control System). Crop allometric models were developed from variety trials to calculate crop residues for common crops in Flanders and subsequently derive stable organic matter fluxes to the soil. Results indicate that crop growth dynamics and crop rotations influence soil quality for a very large percentage. soil erosion mainly occurs in the southern part of Flanders, where silty to loamy soils and a hilly topography are responsible for soil loss rates of up to 40 t/ha. Parcels under maize, sugar beet and potatoes are most vulnerable to soil erosion. Crop residues of grain maize and winter wheat followed by catch crops contribute most to the total carbon sequestered in agricultural soils. For the same rotations carbon sequestration is highest on clay soils and lowest on sandy soils. This implies that agricultural policies that impact on agricultural land management influence soil quality for a large percentage. The coupled REGCROP-PESERA-ROTHC model allows for quantifying the impact of seasonal and year-to-year crop growth dynamics on soil quality. When coupled to a multi-annual crop

  16. Influences of Biodynamic and Conventional Farming Systems on Quality of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Crops: Results from Multivariate Analyses of Two Long-Term Field Trials in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Kjellenberg, Lars; Granstedt, Artur

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to present results from two long term field experiments comparing potato samples from conventional farming systems with samples from biodynamic farming systems. The principal component analyses (PCA), consistently exhibited differences between potato samples from the two farming systems. According to the PCA, potato samples treated with inorganic fertilizers exhibited a variation positively related to amounts of crude protein, yield, cooking or tissue discoloration and extract decomposition. Potato samples treated according to biodynamic principles, with composted cow manure, were more positively related to traits such as Quality- and EAA-indices, dry matter content, taste quality, relative proportion of pure protein and biocrystallization value. Distinctions between years, crop rotation and cultivars used were sometimes more significant than differences between manuring systems. Grown after barley the potato crop exhibited better quality traits compared to when grown after ley in both the conventional and the biodynamic farming system. PMID:28231216

  17. Influences of Biodynamic and Conventional Farming Systems on Quality of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Crops: Results from Multivariate Analyses of Two Long-Term Field Trials in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Kjellenberg, Lars; Granstedt, Artur

    2015-09-15

    The aim of this paper was to present results from two long term field experiments comparing potato samples from conventional farming systems with samples from biodynamic farming systems. The principal component analyses (PCA), consistently exhibited differences between potato samples from the two farming systems. According to the PCA, potato samples treated with inorganic fertilizers exhibited a variation positively related to amounts of crude protein, yield, cooking or tissue discoloration and extract decomposition. Potato samples treated according to biodynamic principles, with composted cow manure, were more positively related to traits such as Quality- and EAA-indices, dry matter content, taste quality, relative proportion of pure protein and biocrystallization value. Distinctions between years, crop rotation and cultivars used were sometimes more significant than differences between manuring systems. Grown after barley the potato crop exhibited better quality traits compared to when grown after ley in both the conventional and the biodynamic farming system.

  18. Development and growth of potato tubers in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, M. E.; Croxdale, J. L.; Tibbitts, T. W.; Goins, G.; Brown, C. S.; Wheeler, R. M.

    A potato explant consisting of a leaf, its axillary bud, and a small segment of stem will develop a tuber in 10-14 days when grown on earth. The tubers develop from the axillary buds and accumulate starch derived from sugars produced through photosynthesis and/or mobilized from leaf tissue. Potato explants were harvested and maintained in the Astroculture^TM unit, a plant growth chamber designed for spaceflight. The unit provides an environment with controlled temperature, humidity, CO_2 level, light intensity, and a nutrient delivery system. The hardware was loaded onto the space shuttle Columbia 24 hours prior to the launch of the STS-73 mission. Explant leaf tissue appeared turgid and green for the first 11 days of flight, but then became chlorotic and eventually necrotic by the end of the mission. The same events occurred to ground control explants with approximately the same timing. At the end of the 16-day mission, tubers were present on each explant. The size and shape of the space-grown tubers were similar to the ground-control tubers. The arrangement of cells in the tuber interior and at the exterior in the periderm was similar in both environments. Starch and protein were present in the tubers grown in space and on the ground. The range in starch grain size was similar in tubers from both environments, but the distribution of grains into size classes differed somewhat, with the space-grown tubers having more small grains than the ground control tubers. Proteinaceous crystals were found in tubers formed in each condition.

  19. [Effects of different film mulch and ridge-furrow cropping patterns on yield formation and water translocation of rainfed potato].

    PubMed

    Qin, Shu-Hao; Zhang, Jun-Lian; Wang, Di; Pu, Yu-Lin; Du, Quan-Zhong

    2011-02-01

    This paper studied the effects of different film mulch and ridge-furrow cropping patterns on the yield formation and water translocation of rainfed potato in the semi-arid area of west Loess Plateau. Comparing with those under traditional harrowed bedding without film mulch (T1), the potato yield under harrowed bedding with film mulching (T2), completely mulched alternating narrow and wide ridges with furrow planting (T3), completely mulched alternating narrow and wide ridges with ridge planting (T4), mulched raised bedding with furrow planting (T5), and mulched raised bedding with bedding planting (T6) was increased by 50.1%, 75.9%, 86.8%, 69.6%, and 60. 6%, and the water use efficiency (WUE) was increased by 47.0%, 82.7%, 84.0%, 75.2%, and 54.3% respectively, with the increments being the highest under T4 and T3. All the film much and ridge-furrow cropping patterns improved the yield component of potato, and T4 and T3 were most beneficial to the increase of mid and big tubers, tuber number per plant, and tuber yield per plant, and to the decrease of the proportions of green and blet tubers. It was concluded that completely mulched alternating narrow and wide ridges with ridge planting (T4) and completely mulched alternating narrow and wide ridges with furrow planting (T3) were the two better cropping patterns in water-saving and high yielding for potato cultivation in semiarid areas.

  20. Impact of host plant connectivity, crop border and patch size on adult Colorado potato beetle retention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tagged Colorado potato beetles (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), were released on potato plants, Solanum tuberosum L., and tracked using a portable harmonic radar system to determine the impact of host plant spatial distribution on the tendency of the pest to remain on the colonized host plant...

  1. Modeling the growth dynamics of four candidate crops for Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Tyler

    1987-01-01

    The production of food for human life support for advanced space missions will require the management of many different crops. The research to design these food production capabilities along with the waste management to recycle human metabolic wastes and inedible plant components are parts of Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS). Since complete operating CELSS were not yet built, a useful adjunct to the research developing the various pieces of a CELSS are system simulation models that can examine what is currently known about the possible assembly of subsystems into a full CELSS. The growth dynamics of four crops (wheat, soybeans, potatoes, and lettuce) are examined for their general similarities and differences within the context of their important effects upon the dynamics of the gases, liquids, and solids in the CELSS. Data for the four crops currently under active research in the CELSS program using high-production hydroponics are presented. Two differential equations are developed and applied to the general characteristics of each crop growth pattern. Model parameters are determined by closely approximating each crop's data.

  2. Potato Flavor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato is one of the most popular vegetables worldwide and is the most important vegetable crop in the United States, accounting for nearly one-third of per-capita vegetable consumption. Potatoes can be prepared in many ways, including baking, boiling, roasting, frying, and microwaving, allowin...

  3. Effect of salt stress on growth, Na+ accumulation and proline metabolism in potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Jaarsma, Rinse; de Vries, Rozemarijn S M; de Boer, Albertus H

    2013-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a major crop world-wide and the productivity of currently used cultivars is strongly reduced at high soil salt levels. We compared the response of six potato cultivars to increased root NaCl concentrations. Cuttings were grown hydroponically and treated with 0 mM, 60 mM and 180 mM NaCl for one week. Growth reduction on salt was strongest for the cultivars Mozart and Mona Lisa with a severe senescence response at 180 mM NaCl and Mozart barely survived the treatment. The cultivars Desiree and Russett Burbank were more tolerant showing no senescence after salt treatment. A clear difference in Na(+) homeostasis was observed between sensitive and tolerant cultivars. The salt sensitive cultivar Mozart combined low Na(+) levels in root and stem with the highest leaf Na(+) concentration of all cultivars, resulting in a high Na(+) shoot distribution index (SDI) for Mozart as compared to Desiree. Overall, a positive correlation between salt tolerance and stem Na(+) accumulation was found and the SDI for Na(+) points to a role of stem Na(+) accumulation in tolerance. In stem tissue, Mozart accumulated more H2O2 and less proline compared to the tolerant cultivars. Analysis of the expression of proline biosynthesis genes in Mozart and Desiree showed a clear reduction in proline dehydrogenase (PDH) expression in both cultivars and an increase in pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase 1 (P5CS1) gene expression in Desiree, but not in Mozart. Taken together, current day commercial cultivars show promising differences in salt tolerance and the results suggest that mechanisms of tolerance reside in the capacity of Na(+) accumulation in stem tissue, resulting in reduced Na(+) transport to the leaves.

  4. Effect of Salt Stress on Growth, Na+ Accumulation and Proline Metabolism in Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Jaarsma, Rinse; de Vries, Rozemarijn S. M.; de Boer, Albertus H.

    2013-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a major crop world-wide and the productivity of currently used cultivars is strongly reduced at high soil salt levels. We compared the response of six potato cultivars to increased root NaCl concentrations. Cuttings were grown hydroponically and treated with 0 mM, 60 mM and 180 mM NaCl for one week. Growth reduction on salt was strongest for the cultivars Mozart and Mona Lisa with a severe senescence response at 180 mM NaCl and Mozart barely survived the treatment. The cultivars Desiree and Russett Burbank were more tolerant showing no senescence after salt treatment. A clear difference in Na+ homeostasis was observed between sensitive and tolerant cultivars. The salt sensitive cultivar Mozart combined low Na+ levels in root and stem with the highest leaf Na+ concentration of all cultivars, resulting in a high Na+ shoot distribution index (SDI) for Mozart as compared to Desiree. Overall, a positive correlation between salt tolerance and stem Na+ accumulation was found and the SDI for Na+ points to a role of stem Na+ accumulation in tolerance. In stem tissue, Mozart accumulated more H2O2 and less proline compared to the tolerant cultivars. Analysis of the expression of proline biosynthesis genes in Mozart and Desiree showed a clear reduction in proline dehydrogenase (PDH) expression in both cultivars and an increase in pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase 1 (P5CS1) gene expression in Desiree, but not in Mozart. Taken together, current day commercial cultivars show promising differences in salt tolerance and the results suggest that mechanisms of tolerance reside in the capacity of Na+ accumulation in stem tissue, resulting in reduced Na+ transport to the leaves. PMID:23533673

  5. Retention of Provitamin A Carotenoids in Staple Crops Targeted for Biofortification in Africa: Cassava, Maize and Sweet Potato

    PubMed Central

    De Moura, Fabiana F.; Miloff, Alexander; Boy, Erick

    2015-01-01

    HarvestPlus, part of the Consultative Group on Internation Agriculture research (CGIAR) Program on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health (A4NH) uses conventional plant breeding techniques to develop staple food crops that are rich in micronutrients, a food-based approach to reduce micronutrient malnutrition known as biofortification. The nutritional breeding targets are established based on the food intake of target populations, nutrient losses during storage and processing and bioavailability. This review collates the evidence on the retention of provitamin A carotenoid (pVAC) after processing, cooking, and storing of the staple crops targeted for pVAC biofortification: cassava, maize, and sweet potato. Sun drying was more detrimental to the pVAC levels (27–56% retention) in cassava than shade (59%) or oven (55–91%) drying, while the pVAC retention levels (66–96%) in sweet potato were not significantly different among the various drying methods. Overall, boiling and steaming had higher pVAC retention (80–98%) compared to baking (30–70%) and frying (18–54%). Gari, the most frequently consumed form of cassava in West Africa had the lowest pVAC retention (10–30%). The pVAC retention of maize grain and cassava and sweet potato flour reached levels as low as 20% after 1–4 months of storage and was highly dependent on genotype. Therefore, we recommend that an evaluation of the pVAC degradation rate among different genotypes be performed before a high pVAC crop is promoted. PMID:24915386

  6. Retention of provitamin a carotenoids in staple crops targeted for biofortification in Africa: cassava, maize and sweet potato.

    PubMed

    De Moura, Fabiana F; Miloff, Alexander; Boy, Erick

    2015-01-01

    HarvestPlus, part of the Consultative Group on Internation Agriculture research (CGIAR) Program on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health (A4NH) uses conventional plant breeding techniques to develop staple food crops that are rich in micronutrients, a food-based approach to reduce micronutrient malnutrition known as biofortification. The nutritional breeding targets are established based on the food intake of target populations, nutrient losses during storage and processing and bioavailability. This review collates the evidence on the retention of provitamin A carotenoid (pVAC) after processing, cooking, and storing of the staple crops targeted for pVAC biofortification: cassava, maize, and sweet potato. Sun drying was more detrimental to the pVAC levels (27-56% retention) in cassava than shade (59%) or oven (55-91%) drying, while the pVAC retention levels (66-96%) in sweet potato were not significantly different among the various drying methods. Overall, boiling and steaming had higher pVAC retention (80-98%) compared to baking (30-70%) and frying (18-54%). Gari, the most frequently consumed form of cassava in West Africa had the lowest pVAC retention (10-30%). The pVAC retention of maize grain and cassava and sweet potato flour reached levels as low as 20% after 1-4 months of storage and was highly dependent on genotype. Therefore, we recommend that an evaluation of the pVAC degradation rate among different genotypes be performed before a high pVAC crop is promoted.

  7. Microbial growth and the effects of mild acidification and preservatives in refrigerated sweet potato puree.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Díaz, Ilenys M; Truong, Van-Den; Webber, Ashlee; McFeeters, Roger F

    2008-03-01

    Refrigerated sweet potato puree is a convenient form of sweet potato that can be used as an ingredient in formulated foods. The microbiology of refrigerated sweet potato puree during storage for up to 5 weeks was evaluated. Because the puree was made by comminuting steam-cooked sweet potatoes before refrigeration, no naturally occurring vegetative bacterial cells were detected during a 4-week period of refrigerated storage at 4 degrees C. However, if postprocessing microbial contamination of the puree were to occur, contaminating microorganisms such as Listeria monocytogenes could grow during refrigerated storage. The effects of acidification or the addition of potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate on a population of L. monocytogenes inoculated into refrigerated (4 degrees C) sweet potato puree were determined. Inoculation of the refrigerated puree with L. monocytogenes at 10(6) CFU/ml resulted in a 3-log increase after 3 weeks storage of nonsupplemented puree. Supplementation of the sweet potato puree with 0.06% (wt/vol) sorbic acid or benzoic acid plus mild acidification of the sweet potato puree with citric acid to pH 4.2 prevented growth of L. monocytogenes during storage at 4 degrees C.

  8. Potato production in Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato production has increased dramatically in recent years in Thailand. Consumer demand for fresh and processed potatoes has driven this trend. Most potatoes are produced in northern Thailand in either double cropping highland zones or as a single winter crop following rice in lowland regions. Maj...

  9. Safety assessment of nonbrowning potatoes: opening the discussion about the relevance of substantial equivalence on next generation biotech crops.

    PubMed

    Llorente, Briardo; Alonso, Guillermo D; Bravo-Almonacid, Fernando; Rodríguez, Vanina; López, Mariana G; Carrari, Fernando; Torres, Héctor N; Flawiá, Mirtha M

    2011-02-01

    It is expected that the next generation of biotech crops displaying enhanced quality traits with benefits to both farmers and consumers will have a better acceptance than first generation biotech crops and will improve public perception of genetic engineering. This will only be true if they are proven to be as safe as traditionally bred crops. In contrast with the first generation of biotech crops where only a single trait is modified, the next generation of biotech crops will add a new level of complexity inherent to the mechanisms underlying their output traits. In this study, a comprehensive evaluation of the comparative safety approach on a quality-improved biotech crop with metabolic modifications is presented. Three genetically engineered potato lines with silenced polyphenol oxidase (Ppo) transcripts and reduced tuber browning were characterized at both physiological and molecular levels and showed to be equivalent to wild-type (WT) plants when yield-associated traits and photosynthesis were evaluated. Analysis of the primary metabolism revealed several unintended metabolic modifications in the engineered tubers, providing evidence for potential compositional inequivalence between transgenic lines and WT controls. The silencing construct sequence was in silico analysed for potential allergenic cross-reactivity, and no similarities to known allergenic proteins were identified. Moreover, in vivo intake safety evaluation showed no adverse effects in physiological parameters. Taken together, these results provide the first evidence supporting that the safety of next generation biotech crops can be properly assessed following the current evaluation criterion, even if the transgenic and WT crops are not substantially equivalent.

  10. The Effect of Nitrogen Rate on Vine Kill, Tuber Skinning Injury, Tuber Yield and Size Distribution, and Tuber Nutrients and Phytonutrients in two Potato Cultivars grown for Early Potato Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early potatoes are typically produced using less nitrogen than a full season potato crop as high rates of nitrogen may delay tuber set and lead to excessive vine growth that is difficult to terminate prior to harvest. Bintje and Ciklamen potato cultivars were grown with preplant soil nitrogen levels...

  11. Exploring the benefits of growing bioenergy crops to activate lead-contaminated agricultural land: a case study on sweet potatoes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shu-Fen; Huang, Chin-Yuan; Chen, Kuo-Lin; Lin, Sheng-Chien; Lin, Yung-Cheng

    2015-03-01

    Phytoremediation is the most environmentally friendly remediation technology for heavy metal contaminated soil. However, the phytoremediation approach requires a long time to yield results, and the plants used must be economically profitable to maintain the sustainability of the process. Because high levels of bioethanol can be produced from sweet potatoes, an experiment was conducted by planting sweet potatoes in a lead-contaminated site to observe their growth and lead-uptake capacity, thereby enabling the evaluation of the phytoremediation efficiency of sweet potatoes. The lead content in the soil was approximately 6000 mg kg(-1), and the phytoavailable Pb content was 1766 mg kg(-1). Three starch-rich sweet potato varieties, Tainung No. 10 (TNG-10), Tainung No. 31 (TNG-31), and Tainung No. 57 (TNG-57), were used in the experiment. The results indicated that TNG-10, TNG-31, and TNG-57 had fresh root tuber yields of 94.5, 133.0, and 47.5 ton ha(-1) year(-1), produced 9450, 13,297, and 4748 L ha(-1) year(-1) of bioethanol, and removed 2.68, 7.73, and 3.22 kg ha(-1) year(-1) of lead, respectively. TNG-31 yielded the highest bioethanol production and the highest lead removal in the lead-contaminated site. Therefore, implementing phytoremediation by planting TNG-31 would decrease lead content and generate income, thereby rendering the sustainable and applicable activation of contaminated soil possible.

  12. Facilitating the recovery of phenotypically normal transgenic lines in clonal crops: a new strategy illustrated in potato.

    PubMed

    Barrell, Philippa J; Conner, Anthony J

    2011-04-01

    Transgenic plants frequently exhibit altered phenotypes, unrelated to transgene expression, which are attributed to tissue culture-induced variation and/or insertional mutagenesis. Distinguishing between these possibilities has been difficult in clonal crops such as potato, due to their highly heterozygous background and the resulting inherent phenotypic variability associated with segregation. This study reports the use of transgene integration as a molecular marker to trace the clonal origin of single cells in tissue culture. Following transformation, multiple shoots have been regenerated from cell colonies of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and Southern analysis used to confirm their derivation from a single transformed cell. Analysis of phenotypic variation in field trials has demonstrated marked differences between these multiple regeneration events, the origin of which must have occurred after T-DNA insertion, and consequently during the tissue culture phase. This result unequivocally demonstrates that somaclonal variation occurs during tissue culture and independent of transgene insertion. Furthermore, the first shoots recovered do not necessarily exhibit less somaclonal variation, since later regeneration events can give rise to plants that are more phenotypically normal. Therefore, when developing transgenic lines for genetic improvement of clonal crops, multiple shoots should be regenerated and evaluated from each transformation event to facilitate the recovery of phenotypically normal transgenic lines.

  13. [Effects of hydroxyapatite on growth and quality of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Cd polluted soil].

    PubMed

    Song, Yong; He, Tan; Liu, Ming-Yue; Zeng, Min; Liao, Bo-Han

    2010-09-01

    A pot experiment was conducted in a glasshouse to study effects of hydroxyapatite amending Cd polluted soil on growth and quality of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). In the experiment, 3 levels of Cd pollution (0, 5, and 10 mg x kg(-1)) and 6 levels of hydroxyapatite application (0, 4, 8, 10, 16, and 30 g x kg(-1)) in soil were prepared to plant 2 potato varieties (Zhongshusanhao and Daxiyang in Chinese system). The results showed that Cd pollution in soil resulted in decrease in yield per plant of potato; for example, in the soils with 5 and 10 mg x kg(-1) of Cd, the yield per plant decreased 24%-31% and 41%-45%, respectively. Applying hydroxyapatite to Cd pollution could greatly increase yield per plant of potato. Compared to the soil without hydroxyapatite, 10 or 30 g x kg(-1) hydroxyapatite added to the soil with 5 or 10 mg x kg(-1) of Cd increased 17%-9% or 45%-58% in yield per plant. Due to hydroxyapatite amending Cd polluted soil, chlorophyll contents in leaves and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in tubers enhanced and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in tubers declined apparently. Meanwhile, quality of potato tubers was obviously improved, such as increase in vitamin C contents, starch contents, and protein contents in potato tubers. With hydroxyapatite applying from 0 to 30 g x kg(-1), Cd contents in potato tubers deceased from 0.87-0.95 mg x kg(-1) to 0.13-0.21 mg x kg(-1) by 78%-85% in the soils with 5 mg x kg(-1) of Cd, and from 1.86-1.93 mg x kg(-1) to 0.52-0.65 mg x kg(-1) by 66%-72% in the soils with 10 mg x kg(-1) of Cd. The experiment indicated that the mechanism of hydroxyapatite alleviating soil Cd toxicity main included rising soil pH values, reducing effective Cd contents in soil, and Ca from hydroxyapatite blocking soil Cd moving to potato. However, ability of hydroxyapatite alleviating soil Cd toxicity was limited, and excessive hydroxyapatite to soil exhibited stress effects on growth and quality of potato. In the Cd polluted soils with

  14. Hierarchical metabolomics demonstrates substantial compositional similarity between genetically modified and conventional potato crops

    PubMed Central

    Catchpole, Gareth S.; Beckmann, Manfred; Enot, David P.; Mondhe, Madhav; Zywicki, Britta; Taylor, Janet; Hardy, Nigel; Smith, Aileen; King, Ross D.; Kell, Douglas B.; Fiehn, Oliver; Draper, John

    2005-01-01

    There is current debate whether genetically modified (GM) plants might contain unexpected, potentially undesirable changes in overall metabolite composition. However, appropriate analytical technology and acceptable metrics of compositional similarity require development. We describe a comprehensive comparison of total metabolites in field-grown GM and conventional potato tubers using a hierarchical approach initiating with rapid metabolome “fingerprinting” to guide more detailed profiling of metabolites where significant differences are suspected. Central to this strategy are data analysis procedures able to generate validated, reproducible metrics of comparison from complex metabolome data. We show that, apart from targeted changes, these GM potatoes in this study appear substantially equivalent to traditional cultivars. PMID:16186495

  15. Hierarchical metabolomics demonstrates substantial compositional similarity between genetically modified and conventional potato crops.

    PubMed

    Catchpole, Gareth S; Beckmann, Manfred; Enot, David P; Mondhe, Madhav; Zywicki, Britta; Taylor, Janet; Hardy, Nigel; Smith, Aileen; King, Ross D; Kell, Douglas B; Fiehn, Oliver; Draper, John

    2005-10-04

    There is current debate whether genetically modified (GM) plants might contain unexpected, potentially undesirable changes in overall metabolite composition. However, appropriate analytical technology and acceptable metrics of compositional similarity require development. We describe a comprehensive comparison of total metabolites in field-grown GM and conventional potato tubers using a hierarchical approach initiating with rapid metabolome "fingerprinting" to guide more detailed profiling of metabolites where significant differences are suspected. Central to this strategy are data analysis procedures able to generate validated, reproducible metrics of comparison from complex metabolome data. We show that, apart from targeted changes, these GM potatoes in this study appear substantially equivalent to traditional cultivars.

  16. Environmental and cultural considerations for growth of potatoes in CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, Theodore W.; Bennett, Susan M.; Morrow, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    The white potato (Solanum tuberosum) was evaluated for use in the Closed Ecology Life Support System (CELSS) because of its high ratio of edible to inedible biomass and highly nutritious tuber that consists of readily digestible carbohydrates and proteins. Results are given for conditions that will produce the highest yields. The results, given in tabluar form, indicate the optimum temperatures, irradiance, carbon dioxide concentration, root environment, plant spacing, root and stolen containment, and harvesting times.

  17. Experiment 9: ASTROCULTURE: Growth and Starch Accumulation of Potato Tuber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, Theodore W.; Brown, Christopher S.; Croxdale, Judith G.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    1998-01-01

    Potato explants (leaf, small stem section, and axillary bud) flown on STS-73 developed tubers of 1.5 cm diameter and 1.7 g mass during the 16-day period of space flight. The experiment was undertaken in the ASTROCULTURE(TM) experiment package under controlled temperature, humidity, lighting, and carbon dioxide concentrations. The tubers that formed in the explant system under microgravity had the same gross morphology, the same anatomical configuration of cells and tissues, and the same sizes, shapes, and surface character of starch granules as tubers formed in a 1 g environment. The total accumulation of starch and other energy containing compounds was similar in space flight and ground control tubers. Enzyme activity of starch synthase, starch phosphorylase, and total hydrolase was similar in space flight and ground controls, but activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase was reduced in the space flight tuber tissue. This experiment documented that potatoes will metabolize and accumulate starch as effectively in space flight as on the ground. Thus, this data provides the potential for effective utilization of potatoes in life support systems of space bases.

  18. Crop growth dynamics modeling using time-series satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yu

    2014-11-01

    In modern agriculture, remote sensing technology plays an essential role in monitoring crop growth and crop yield prediction. To monitor crop growth and predict crop yield, accurate and timely crop growth information is significant, in particularly for large scale farming. As the high cost and low data availability of high-resolution satellite images such as RapidEye, we focus on the time-series low resolution satellite imagery. In this research, NDVI curve, which was retrieved from satellite images of MODIS 8-days 250m surface reflectance, was applied to monitor soybean's yield. Conventional model and vegetation index for yield prediction has problems on describing the growth basic processes affecting yield component formation. In our research, a novel method is developed to well model the Crop Growth Dynamics (CGD) and generate CGD index to describe the soybean's yield component formation. We analyze the standard growth stage of soybean and to model the growth process, we have two key calculate process. The first is normalization of the NDVI-curve coordinate and division of the crop growth based on the standard development stages using EAT (Effective accumulated temperature).The second is modeling the biological growth on each development stage through analyzing the factors of yield component formation. The evaluation was performed through the soybean yield prediction using the CGD Index in the growth stage when the whole dataset for modeling is available and we got precision of 88.5% which is about 10% higher than the conventional method. The validation results showed that prediction accuracy using our CGD modeling is satisfied and can be applied in practice of large scale soybean yield monitoring.

  19. Regulated Expression of a Calmodulin Isoform Alters Growth and Development in Potato

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poovaiah, B. W.; Takezawa, D.; An, G.; Han, T.-J.

    1996-01-01

    A transgene approach was taken to study the consequences of altered expression of a calmodutin iso-form on plant growth and development. Eight genomic clones of potato calmodulin (PCM 1 to 8) have been isolated and characterized. Among the potato calmodulin isoforms studied, PCM 1 differs from the other isoforms because of its unique amino acid substitutions. Transgenic potato plants were produced carrying sense construct of PCM 1 fused to the CAMV 35S promoter. Transgenic plants showing a moderate increase in PCM 1 MRNA exhibited strong apical dominance, produced elongated tubers, and were taller than the controls. Interestingly, the plants expressing the highest level of PCM 1 MRNA did not form underground tubers. Instead, these transgenic plants produced aerial tubers when allowed to grow for longer periods. The expression of different calmodulin isoforms (PCM 1, 5, 6, and 8) was studied in transgenic plants. Among the four potato calmodulin isoforms, only the expression of PCM 1 MRNA was altered in transgenic plants, while the expression of other isoforms was not significantly altered. Western analysis revealed increased PCM 1 protein in transgenic plants, indicating that the expression of both MRNA and protein are altered in transgenic plants. These results suggest that increasing the expression of PCM 1 alters growth and development in potato plants.

  20. Determining growth-and yield-limiting factors in potato from canopy spectral reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Rosen, Carl J.

    2004-01-01

    Irrigated potato production in sandy soils can be impacted by low nitrogen (N) and water retention in the soil. A field study was conducted to use canopy spectral reflectance as a primary means to characterize N fertilizer rates and soil texture variations as growth and yield limiting factors in potato. A hand-held 16-band spectral radiometer was used to obtain reflectance readings of the potato canopies. Reflectance measurements were made in field plots that received four rates of N or in four areas where the soil textures were different. At later stages of plant growth, canopy reflectance in the 760 to 1000 nm spectral range was consistently higher in plots that received higher rates of N or in areas where the soil contained higher clay and silt fractions. Russet Burbank potatoes, with increasing rate of N fertilizer, showed a decreasing trend in total tuber yield and an increasing trend in percent of tubers with weight exceeding 170 g. Canopy reflectance was inversely related to tuber yield or size for Russet Burbank potatoes when soil texture was the only variable.

  1. Noah-MP-Crop: Introducing dynamic crop growth in the Noah-MP land surface model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xing; Chen, Fei; Barlage, Michael; Zhou, Guangsheng; Niyogi, Dev

    2016-12-01

    Croplands are important in land-atmosphere interactions and in the modification of local and regional weather and climate; however, they are poorly represented in the current version of the coupled Weather Research and Forecasting/Noah with multiparameterization (Noah-MP) land surface modeling system. This study introduced dynamic corn (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) growth simulations and field management (e.g., planting date) into Noah-MP and evaluated the enhanced model (Noah-MP-Crop) at field scales using crop biomass data sets, surface heat fluxes, and soil moisture observations. Compared to the generic dynamic vegetation and prescribed-leaf area index (LAI)-driven methods in Noah-MP, the Noah-MP-Crop showed improved performance in simulating leaf area index (LAI) and crop biomass. This model is able to capture the seasonal and annual variability of LAI and to differentiate corn and soybean in peak values of LAI as well as the length of growing seasons. Improved simulations of crop phenology in Noah-MP-Crop led to better surface heat flux simulations, especially in the early period of growing season where current Noah-MP significantly overestimated LAI. The addition of crop yields as model outputs expand the application of Noah-MP-Crop to regional agriculture studies. There are limitations in the use of current growing degree days (GDD) criteria to predict growth stages, and it is necessary to develop a new method that combines GDD with other environmental factors, to more accurately define crop growth stages. The capability introduced in Noah-MP allows further crop-related studies and development.

  2. Light Spectral Quality Effects on the Growth of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Nodal Cutttings in Vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Deborah A.; Weigel, Russell, C.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Sager, John C.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of light spectral quality on the growth of in vitro nodal cutting of potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars Norland, Superior, Kennebec, and Denali were examined. The different light spectra were provided by Vita-Lite fluorescent (VF) (a white light control), blue fluorescent (BF), red fluorescent (RF), low-pressure sodium (LPS), and a combination of low-pressure sodium plus cool-white fluorescent lamp (LPS/CWF). Results suggested that shoot morphologic development of in vitro grown potato plants can be controlled by controlling irradiant spectral quality.

  3. Sweet potato growth parameters, yield components and nutritive value for CELSS applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loretan, P. A.; Bonsi, C. K.; Hill, W. A.; Ogbuehi, C. R.; Mortley, D. G.

    1989-01-01

    Sweet potatoes have been grown hydroponically using the nutrient film technique (NFT) to provide a potential food source for long-term manned space missions. Experiments in both sand and NFT cultivars have produced up to 1790 g/plant of fresh storage root with an edible biomass index ranging from 60-89 percent and edible biomass linear growth rates of 39-66 g/sq m day in 105 to 130 days. Experiments with different cultivars, nutrient solution compositions, application rates, air and root temperatures, photoperiods, and light intensities indicate good potential for sweet potatoes in CELSS.

  4. Reduction of the plastidial phosphorylase in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) reveals impact on storage starch structure during growth at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Orawetz, Tom; Malinova, Irina; Orzechowski, Slawomir; Fettke, Joerg

    2016-03-01

    Tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), one of the most important crops, are a prominent example for an efficient production of storage starch. Nevertheless, the synthesis of this storage starch is not completely understood. The plastidial phosphorylase (Pho1; EC 2.4.1.1) catalyzes the reversible transfer of glucosyl residues from glucose-1-phosphate to the non-reducing end of α-glucans with the release of orthophosphate. Thus, the enzyme is in principle able to act during starch synthesis. However, so far under normal growth conditions no alterations in tuber starch metabolism were observed. Based on analyses of other species and also from in vitro experiments with potato tuber slices it was supposed, that Pho1 has a stronger impact on starch metabolism, when plants grow under low temperature conditions. Therefore, we analyzed the starch content, granule size, as well as the internal structure of starch granules isolated from potato plants grown under low temperatures. Besides wild type, transgenic potato plants with a strong reduction in the Pho1 activity were analyzed. No significant alterations in starch content and granule size were detected. In contrast, when plants were cultivated at low temperatures the chain length distributions of the starch granules were altered. Thus, the granules contained more short glucan chains. That was not observed in the transgenic plants, revealing that Pho1 in wild type is involved in the formation of the short glucan chains, at least at low temperatures.

  5. Satellite Data Inform Forecasts of Crop Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    During a Stennis Space Center-led program called Ag 20/20, an engineering contractor developed models for using NASA satellite data to predict crop yield. The model was eventually sold to Genscape Inc., based in Louisville, Kentucky, which has commercialized it as LandViewer. Sold under a subscription model, LandViewer software provides predictions of corn production to ethanol plants and grain traders.

  6. Activation of Nitrogen-Fixing Endophytes Is Associated with the Tuber Growth of Sweet Potato

    PubMed Central

    Yonebayashi, Koyo; Katsumi, Naoya; Nishi, Tomoe; Okazaki, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    Endophytic nitrogen-fixing organisms have been isolated from the aerial parts of field-grown sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). The 15N dilution method, which is based on the differences in stable nitrogen isotope ratios, is useful for measuring nitrogen fixation in the field. In this study, seedlings of two sweet potato cultivars, ‘Beniazuma’ and ‘Benikomachi,’ were transplanted into an alluvial soil that had been treated with organic improving material in advance. Whole plants were sampled every 2 or 3 weeks. After separating plants into tuberous roots and leaves, the fresh weights of the samples were measured, and the nitrogen content and natural 15N content of leaves were determined with an elemental analyzer and an isotope ratio mass spectrometer linked to an elemental analyzer, respectively. The contribution of nitrogen fixation derived from atmospheric N2 in sweet potato was calculated by assuming that leaves at 2 weeks after transplanting were in a non-nitrogen-fixing state. The contribution ratios of nitrogen fixation by nitrogen-fixing endophytes in leaves of both sweet potato cultivars increased rapidly from 35 to 61 days after transplanting and then increased gradually to 55–57% at 90 days after transplanting. Over the course of the sweet potato growing season, the activity of nitrogen-fixing endophytes in leaves began to increase at about 47 days after transplanting, the weight of leaves increased rapidly, and then growth of tuberous roots began a few weeks later. Our findings indicate that nitrogen-fixing endophytes will be activated under inorganic nitrogen-free sweet potato cultivation, allowing for growth of the tuberous roots. PMID:26819874

  7. [Effect of proteinaceous proteinase inhibitors from potato tubers on the growth and development of phytopathogenic microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Revina, T A; Gerasimova, N G; Kladnitskaia, G V; Chalenko, G I; Valueva, T A

    2008-01-01

    We studied the effect of two proteins, PSPI-21 and PKSI, on the growth and development of phytopathogenic microorganisms (Phytophthora infestans oomycete and Fusarium culmorum fungus). Both proteins were isolated from potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Istrinskii) and served as inhibitors of serine proteinases. These proteins differed in the ability to inhibit growth of Phytophthora infestans oomycete and Fusarium culmorum fungus. PSPI-21 was the most potent in modulating the growth of oomycete mycelium. PKSI primarily affected the growth of the fungal mycelium. The proteins under study induced complete destruction of oomycete zoospores and partial destruction of fungal macroconidia. Our results suggest that these proteins are involved in the protection of potato plants from phytopathogenic microorganisms.

  8. Growth, Yield, and Nutritional Responses of Chamber-Grown Sweet Potato to Elevated Carbon Dioxide Levels Expected Across the Next 200 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czeck, B. C.; Jahren, H.; Deenik, J. L.; Crow, S. E.; Schubert, B.; Stewart, M.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the effects of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations on crops will be critical to assuring that sufficient food is available to the world's growing population. Previous work has shown that slightly elevated CO2 levels (CO2 = 550-700 ppm) increase the economic yield of most crops by ~33%, on average. The majority of these studies have focused on rice, wheat, and soybean; however, climate change is expected to have greatest impact on regions of the world that rely heavily on root crops, such as sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). Sweet potato is cultivated in more than 100 developing countries; it is ranked seventh in world crop statistics and can produce more edible energy per hectare and per day than wheat, rice or cassava. In order to quantify the effect that rising CO2 levels will have on sweet potato, we grew a total of 64 sweet potato plants to maturity in large controlled growth chambers at ambient, 760, 1,140, and 1,520-ppm CO2 levels. At planting, initial measurements (of mass, length, and number of nodes) for each plant were recorded. Throughout the duration of the experiment (90 days) measurements (of stem length, and number of leaves) were recorded every 7 to 14 days. To ensure optimum growing conditions moisture content was monitored using soil tensiometers; temperature, relative humidity and CO2 concentrations were recorded every ten minutes. Half the plants were supplemented with an inorganic fertilizer and the other half with an organic fertilizer to test the effect of nutrient availability on biomass production under elevated CO2 levels. After 3 months of growth, we measured fresh and dry biomass of all above- and below-ground tissues. Results showed a substantial increase in both above- and below-ground biomass at elevated levels of CO2. For the organic treatment, a 43% increase in aboveground dry biomass at the highest CO2 concentration (1520ppm) was found; the inorganic treatment showed a 31% increase. The

  9. Modeling the effects of light, carbon dioxide, and temperature on the growth of potato

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yandell, B. S.; Najar, A.; Wheeler, R.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1988-01-01

    This study examined the effects of light, temperature and carbon dioxide on the growth of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in a controlled environment in order to ascertain the best growing conditions for potato in life support systems in space. 'Norland' and 'Russet Burbank' were grown in 6-L pots of peat-vermiculite for 56 d in growth chambers at the University of Wisconsin Biotron. Environmental factor levels included continuous light (24-h photoperiod) at 250, 400, and 550 micromoles m-2 s-1 PPF; constant temperature at 16, 20, and 24 degrees C; and CO2 at approximately 400, 1000, and 1600 microliters L-1. Separate effects analysis and ridge analysis provided a means to examine the effects of individual environmental factors and to determine combinations of factors that are expected to give the best increases in yields over the central design point. The response surface of Norland indicated that tuber yields were highest with moderately low temperature (18.7 degrees C), low CO2 (400 microliters L-1) and high light (550 micromoles m-2 s-1 PPF). These conditions also favored shorter stem growth. Russet Burbank tuber yields were highest at moderately low temperature (17.5 degrees C), high CO2 (1600 microliters L-1) and medium analyses will be used to project the most efficient conditions for growth of potatoes in closed ecological life support systems (CELSS) in space colonies.

  10. The influence of nitrogen fertiliser rate and crop rotation on soil methane flux in rain-fed potato fields in Wuchuan County, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liwei; Pan, Zhihua; Xu, Hui; Wang, Cheng; Gao, Lin; Zhao, Peiyi; Dong, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jingting; Cui, Guohui; Wang, Sen; Han, Guolin; Zhao, Hui

    2015-12-15

    As one of the important greenhouse gases, the characteristics and principles of methane exchange characteristics in cultivated lands have become hot topics in current climate change research. This study examines the influences of nitrogen fertilisation, temperature and soil water content on methane exchange characteristic and methane exchange functional gene-pmoA gene abundance based on experimental observations of methane exchange fluxes using the static chamber-gas chromatographic method and measurements of methanotroph gene copy numbers in three growing periods by real-time PCR in rain-fed potato fields. The results indicate that the rain-fed potato fields were a CH4 sink with an average annual methane absorption (negative emission) of 940.8±103.2 g CH4-C/ha/year. The cumulative methane absorption first exhibited flat and subsequently increasing trend with the increase of nitrogen fertilisation from 0~135 kg N·ha(-1). Methane cumulative absorption significantly increased with the increase of temperature when temperatures were below 19.6 °C. Methane oxidation capacity (methanotroph pmoA gene copy numbers) showed an increasing and subsequently decreasing trend with the increase of soil moisture. Crop rotation was observed to increase the methane absorption in rain-fed potato fields and nearly one time higher than that under continuous cropping. A mechanism concept model of the methane exchange in rain-fed potato fields was advanced in this paper.

  11. Potato growth and yield using nutrient film technique (NFT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Sager, J. C.; Knott, W. M.; Hinkle, C. R.

    1990-01-01

    Potato plants, cvs Denali and Norland, were grown in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) trays using a continuous flowing nutrient film technique (NFT) to study tuber yield for NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) program. Nutrient solution pH was controlled automatically using 0.39M (2.5% (v/v) nitric acid (HNO3), while water and nutrients were replenished manually each day and twice each week, respectively. Plants were spaced either one or two per tray, allotting 0.2 or 0.4 m2 per plant. All plants were harvested after 112 days. Denali plants yielded 2850 and 2800 g tuber fresh weight from the one- and two-plant trays, respectively, while Norland plants yielded 1800 and 2400 g tuber fresh weight from the one- and two-plant trays. Many tubers of both cultivars showed injury to the periderm tissue, possibly caused by salt accumulation from the nutrient solution on the surface. Total system water usage throughout the study for all the plants equaled 709 liters (L), or approximately 2 L m-2 d-1. Total system acid usage throughout the study (for nutrient solution pH control) equaled 6.60 L, or 18.4 ml m-2 d-1 (7.2 mmol m-2 d-1). The results demonstrate that continuous flowing nutrient film technique can be used for tuber production with acceptable yields for the CELSS program.

  12. Ozone risk assessment for agricultural crops in Europe: Further development of stomatal flux and flux-response relationships for European wheat and potato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleijel, H.; Danielsson, H.; Emberson, L.; Ashmore, M. R.; Mills, G.

    Applications of a parameterised Jarvis-type multiplicative stomatal conductance model with data collated from open-top chamber experiments on field grown wheat and potato were used to derive relationships between relative yield and stomatal ozone uptake. The relationships were based on thirteen experiments from four European countries for wheat and seven experiments from four European countries for potato. The parameterisation of the conductance model was based both on an extensive literature review and primary data. Application of the stomatal conductance models to the open-top chamber experiments resulted in improved linear regressions between relative yield and ozone uptake compared to earlier stomatal conductance models, both for wheat ( r2=0.83) and potato ( r2=0.76). The improvement was largest for potato. The relationships with the highest correlation were obtained using a stomatal ozone flux threshold. For both wheat and potato the best performing exposure index was AF st6 (accumulated stomatal flux of ozone above a flux rate threshold of 6 nmol ozone m -2 projected sunlit leaf area, based on hourly values of ozone flux). The results demonstrate that flux-based models are now sufficiently well calibrated to be used with confidence to predict the effects of ozone on yield loss of major arable crops across Europe. Further studies, using innovations in stomatal conductance modelling and plant exposure experimentation, are needed if these models are to be further improved.

  13. Effects of selenium treatments on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) growth and concentrations of soluble sugars and starch.

    PubMed

    Turakainen, Marja; Hartikainen, Helinä; Seppänen, Mervi M

    2004-08-25

    The effect of selenium (Se) treatments on potato growth and Se, soluble sugar, and starch accumulation was investigated. Potato plants were cultivated in quartz sand without or with sodium selenate (0, 0.075, 0.3 mg Se kg(-1) sand). In young potato plants, Se treatment resulted in higher starch concentrations in upper leaves. The tuber yield of Se-treated potato plants was higher and composed of relatively few but large tubers. At harvest, the starch concentration in tubers did not differ significantly between treatments. The higher Se addition (0.3 mg Se kg(-1)) may have delayed the aging of stolons and roots, which was observed as high concentrations of soluble sugar and starch. Together with the earlier results showing elevated starch concentration in Se-treated lettuce, the findings of this research justify the conclusion that Se has positive effects also on potato carbohydrate accumulation and possibly on yield formation.

  14. Potato crop as a source of emetic Bacillus cereus and cereulide-induced mammalian cell toxicity.

    PubMed

    Hoornstra, Douwe; Andersson, Maria A; Teplova, Vera V; Mikkola, Raimo; Uotila, Liisa M; Andersson, Leif C; Roivainen, Merja; Gahmberg, Carl G; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja S

    2013-06-01

    Bacillus cereus, aseptically isolated from potato tubers, were screened for cereulide production and for toxicity on human and other mammalian cells. The cereulide-producing isolates grew slowly, the colonies remained small (~1 mm), tested negative for starch hydrolysis, and varied in productivity from 1 to 100 ng of cereulide mg (wet weight)(-1) (~0.01 to 1 ng per 10(5) CFU). By DNA-fingerprint analysis, the isolates matched B. cereus F5881/94, connected to human food-borne illness, but were distinct from cereulide-producing endophytes of spruce tree (Picea abies). Exposure to cell extracts (1 to 10 μg of bacterial biomass ml(-1)) and to purified cereulide (0.4 to 7 ng ml(-1)) from the potato isolates caused mitochondrial depolarization (loss of ΔΨm) in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and keratinocytes (HaCaT), porcine spermatozoa and kidney tubular epithelial cells (PK-15), murine fibroblasts (L-929), and pancreatic insulin-producing cells (MIN-6). Cereulide (10 to 20 ng ml(-1)) exposed pancreatic islets (MIN-6) disintegrated into small pyknotic cells, followed by necrotic death. Necrotic death in other test cells was observed only after a 2-log-higher exposure. Exposure to 30 to 60 ng of cereulide ml(-1) induced K(+) translocation in intact, live PBMC, keratinocytes, and sperm cells within seconds of exposure, depleting 2 to 10% of the cellular K(+) stores within 10 min. The ability of cereulide to transfer K(+) ions across biological membranes may benefit the producer bacterium in K(+)-deficient environments such as extracellular spaces inside plant tissue but is a pathogenic trait when in contact with mammalian cells.

  15. Influence of near null magnetic field on in vitro growth of potato and wild Solanum species.

    PubMed

    Rakosy-Tican, Lenuta; Aurori, C M; Morariu, V V

    2005-10-01

    The influence of near null magnetic field on in vitro growth of different cultures of potato and related Solanum species was investigated for various exposure times and dates. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Désirée) in vitro cultures of shoot tips or nodal segments were used. Three different exposure periods revealed either stimulation or inhibition of root, stem, or leaf in vitro growth after 14 or 28 days of exposure. In one experiment the significant stimulation of leaf growth was also demonstrated at biochemical level, the quantity of chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids increasing more than two-fold. For the wild species Solanum chacoense, S. microdontum, and S. verrucosum, standardized in vitro cultures of nodal stem segments were used. Root and stem growth was either stimulated or slightly inhibited after 9 days exposure to near null magnetic field. Callus cultures obtained from potato dihaploid line 120/19 were maintained in near null magnetic field in 2 different months. For these experiments as well as for Solanum verrucosum, callus cultures recorded either slight inhibition or no effect on fresh weight. For all experiments significant growth variation was brought about only when geomagnetic activity (AP index) showed variations at the beginning of in vitro growth and when the explant had at least one meristematic tissue. Moreover longer maintenance in near null magnetic field, 28 days as compared to 14 days or the controls, can also make a difference in plant growth in response to geomagnetic field variations when static component was reduced to zero value. These results of in vitro plant growth stimulation by variable component of geomagnetic field also sustain the so-called seasonal "window" effect.

  16. Phosphorous uptake by potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) from biochar amended with anaerobic digested dairy manure effluent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorption of plant nutrients by biochar from dairy storage lagoons and use as a supplemental fertilizer off site is a beneficial strategy to reduce nutrient contamination around dairies and supply nutrients to potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and other crops. This research evaluated potato growth respo...

  17. Kinetics of potassium release in sweet potato cropped soils: a case study in the highlands of Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajashekhar Rao, B. K.

    2015-02-01

    The present study attempts to employ potassium (K) release parameters to identify soil-quality degradation due to changed land use patterns in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) farms of the highlands of Papua New Guinea. Rapid population increase in the region increased pressure on the land to intensify subsistence production mainly by reducing fallow periods. Such continuous cropping practice coupled with lack of K fertilization practices could lead to a rapid loss of soil fertility and soil-resource degradation. The study aims to evaluate the effects of crop intensification on the K-release pattern and identify soil groups vulnerable to K depletion. Soils with widely differing exchangeable and non-exchangeable K contents were sequentially extracted for periods between 1 and 569 h in 0.01 M CaCl2, and K-release data were fitted to four mathematical models: first order, power, parabolic diffusion and Elovich equations. Results showed two distinct parts in the K-release curves, and 58-80% of total K was released to solution phase within 76 h (first five extractions) with 20-42% K released in the later parts (after 76 h). Soils from older farms that were subjected to intensive and prolonged land use showed significantly (P < 0.05) lower cumulative K-release potential than the farms recently brought to cultivation (new farms). Among the four equations, first-order and power equations best described the K-release pattern; the constant b, an index of K-release rates, ranged from 0.005 to 0.008 mg kg-1 h-1 in the first-order model and was between 0.14 and 0.83 mg kg-1 h-1 in the power model for the soils. In the non-volcanic soils, model constant b values were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the volcanic soils, thus indicating the vulnerability of volcanic soils to K deficiency. The volcanic soils cropped for several crop cycles need immediate management interventions either through improved fallow management or through mineral fertilizers plus animal manures

  18. Achieving sustainable cultivation of potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Every phase of the production cycle impacts the sustainability of potato. Potato physiology determines how genetically encoded developmental attributes interact with local environmental conditions as modified through agricultural practice to produce a perishable crop. In this chapter we highlight ho...

  19. Comparison of ethanol production performance in 10 varieties of sweet potato at different growth stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yanling; Fang, Yang; Zhang, Guohua; Zhou, Lingling; Zhao, Hai

    2012-10-01

    The performance in the ethanol production of 10 varieties of sweet potato was evaluated, and the consumption in raw materials, land occupation and fermentation waste residue in producing 1 ton of anhydrous ethanol were investigated. The comparative results between 10 varieties of sweet potato at 3 growth stages indicated that NS 007 and SS 19 were better feedstocks for ethanol production, exhibiting less feedstock consumption (6.19 and 7.59 tons/ton ethanol, respectively), the least land occupation (0.24 and 0.24 ha/ton ethanol, respectively), less fermentation waste residue (0.56 and 0.55 tons/ton ethanol, respectively), the highest level of ethanol output per unit area (4.17 and 4.17 ton/ha, respectively), and a lower viscosity of the fermentation culture (591 and 612 mPa S, respectively). The data above are average data. In most varieties, the ethanol output speed at day 130 was the highest. Therefore, NS 007 and SS 19 could be used for ethanol production and harvested after 130 days of growth from an economic point of view. In addition, the high content of fermentable sugars and low content of fiber in sweet potatoes are criteria for achieving low viscosity in ethanol fermentation cultures.

  20. Carbon dioxide effects on potato growth under different photoperiods and irradiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Tibbitts, Theodore W.; Fitzpatrick, Ann H.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of atmospheric CO2 concentration, photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), and the length of the photoperiod on the tuber yield were investigated for three potato cultivars (Norland, Russet Burbank, and Denali), by growing these cultivars for 90 days in atmospheres containing 350 or 1000 micromol/mol CO2, at photoperiods of 12- or 24-hr, and at PPFs of 400 or 800 micromol/sq m per sec. Air temperatures and relative humidity were kept at 16 C and 70 percent, respectively. It was found that the tuber yield of Denali potatoes showed the greatest increase (21 percent) in response to increased CO2 across all irradiance treatments, while the tuber yields of Russet and Norland were increased 18 and 9 percent, respectively. Greater plant growth from CO2 enrichment was observed under lower PPF and the shorter (12 hr) photoperiod.

  1. A new method for on-line measurement of diurnal change in potato tuber growth under controlled environments.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, T

    2000-05-01

    An on-line laser micrometer system was applied to measurement of diurnal change in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber growth. Diameters of the potato tuber were scanned by moving a laser micrometer along the longitudinal axis of the tuber at constant speed, and tuber volume was evaluated as an aggregate of thin discs. A single potato tuber, without competitive sink tubers in the plant, was grown in controlled air at 20 degrees C and 80% RH, and tuber volume was measured at 30 min intervals. During the growth experiment, the potato tuber increased in size without any inhibitory effect of periodical laser beam irradiation. Greatest expansion generally occurred during the early night, and transient contraction of the tuber occurred at the beginning of the light period.

  2. Recent patterns of crop yield growth and stagnation.

    PubMed

    Ray, Deepak K; Ramankutty, Navin; Mueller, Nathaniel D; West, Paul C; Foley, Jonathan A

    2012-01-01

    In the coming decades, continued population growth, rising meat and dairy consumption and expanding biofuel use will dramatically increase the pressure on global agriculture. Even as we face these future burdens, there have been scattered reports of yield stagnation in the world's major cereal crops, including maize, rice and wheat. Here we study data from ∼2.5 million census observations across the globe extending over the period 1961-2008. We examined the trends in crop yields for four key global crops: maize, rice, wheat and soybeans. Although yields continue to increase in many areas, we find that across 24-39% of maize-, rice-, wheat- and soybean-growing areas, yields either never improve, stagnate or collapse. This result underscores the challenge of meeting increasing global agricultural demands. New investments in underperforming regions, as well as strategies to continue increasing yields in the high-performing areas, are required.

  3. The genome of cultivated sweet potato contains Agrobacterium T-DNAs with expressed genes: An example of a naturally transgenic food crop.

    PubMed

    Kyndt, Tina; Quispe, Dora; Zhai, Hong; Jarret, Robert; Ghislain, Marc; Liu, Qingchang; Gheysen, Godelieve; Kreuze, Jan F

    2015-05-05

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes and Agrobacterium tumefaciens are plant pathogenic bacteria capable of transferring DNA fragments [transfer DNA (T-DNA)] bearing functional genes into the host plant genome. This naturally occurring mechanism has been adapted by plant biotechnologists to develop genetically modified crops that today are grown on more than 10% of the world's arable land, although their use can result in considerable controversy. While assembling small interfering RNAs, or siRNAs, of sweet potato plants for metagenomic analysis, sequences homologous to T-DNA sequences from Agrobacterium spp. were discovered. Simple and quantitative PCR, Southern blotting, genome walking, and bacterial artificial chromosome library screening and sequencing unambiguously demonstrated that two different T-DNA regions (IbT-DNA1 and IbT-DNA2) are present in the cultivated sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam.) genome and that these foreign genes are expressed at detectable levels in different tissues of the sweet potato plant. IbT-DNA1 was found to contain four open reading frames (ORFs) homologous to the tryptophan-2-monooxygenase (iaaM), indole-3-acetamide hydrolase (iaaH), C-protein (C-prot), and agrocinopine synthase (Acs) genes of Agrobacterium spp. IbT-DNA1 was detected in all 291 cultigens examined, but not in close wild relatives. IbT-DNA2 contained at least five ORFs with significant homology to the ORF14, ORF17n, rooting locus (Rol)B/RolC, ORF13, and ORF18/ORF17n genes of A. rhizogenes. IbT-DNA2 was detected in 45 of 217 genotypes that included both cultivated and wild species. Our finding, that sweet potato is naturally transgenic while being a widely and traditionally consumed food crop, could affect the current consumer distrust of the safety of transgenic food crops.

  4. The genome of cultivated sweet potato contains Agrobacterium T-DNAs with expressed genes: An example of a naturally transgenic food crop

    PubMed Central

    Kyndt, Tina; Quispe, Dora; Zhai, Hong; Jarret, Robert; Ghislain, Marc; Liu, Qingchang; Gheysen, Godelieve

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes and Agrobacterium tumefaciens are plant pathogenic bacteria capable of transferring DNA fragments [transfer DNA (T-DNA)] bearing functional genes into the host plant genome. This naturally occurring mechanism has been adapted by plant biotechnologists to develop genetically modified crops that today are grown on more than 10% of the world’s arable land, although their use can result in considerable controversy. While assembling small interfering RNAs, or siRNAs, of sweet potato plants for metagenomic analysis, sequences homologous to T-DNA sequences from Agrobacterium spp. were discovered. Simple and quantitative PCR, Southern blotting, genome walking, and bacterial artificial chromosome library screening and sequencing unambiguously demonstrated that two different T-DNA regions (IbT-DNA1 and IbT-DNA2) are present in the cultivated sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam.) genome and that these foreign genes are expressed at detectable levels in different tissues of the sweet potato plant. IbT-DNA1 was found to contain four open reading frames (ORFs) homologous to the tryptophan-2-monooxygenase (iaaM), indole-3-acetamide hydrolase (iaaH), C-protein (C-prot), and agrocinopine synthase (Acs) genes of Agrobacterium spp. IbT-DNA1 was detected in all 291 cultigens examined, but not in close wild relatives. IbT-DNA2 contained at least five ORFs with significant homology to the ORF14, ORF17n, rooting locus (Rol)B/RolC, ORF13, and ORF18/ORF17n genes of A. rhizogenes. IbT-DNA2 was detected in 45 of 217 genotypes that included both cultivated and wild species. Our finding, that sweet potato is naturally transgenic while being a widely and traditionally consumed food crop, could affect the current consumer distrust of the safety of transgenic food crops. PMID:25902487

  5. Assessing potato tuber diel growth by means of X-ray computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Torres, Eduardo; Kirchgessner, Norbert; Pfeifer, Johannes; Walter, Achim

    2015-11-01

    The formation and development of belowground organs is difficult to study. X-ray computed tomography (CT) provides the possibility to analyse and interpret subtle volumetric changes of belowground organs such as tubers, storage roots and nodules. Here, we report on the establishment of a method based on a voxel dimension of 240 μm and precision (standard deviation) of 30 μL that allows interpreting growth differences among potato tubers happening within 3 h. Plants were not stressed by the application of X-ray radiation, which was shown both by morphological comparison with control plants and by analysis of lipid peroxidation as a measure of oxidative stress. Diel (24 h) tuber growth fluctuations of three potato genotypes were monitored in soil-filled pots of 10 L. In contrast to the results from previous reports, most tubers grew at similar rates during day and night. Tuber growth was not related to the developmental stage of plants and tubers. Pronounced differences were observed between average growth rates in different tubers within a plant. These results are discussed in the context of restrictions of past methods to study tuber growth and in the context of their potential for the characterization of the formation and development of other belowground plant organs.

  6. Growing root, tuber and nut crops hydroponically for CELSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, W. A.; Mortley, D. G.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Loretan, P. A.; Tibbitts, T. W.; Wheeler, R. M.; Bonsi, C. K.; Morris, C. E.

    1992-07-01

    Among the crops selected by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for growth in controlled ecological life support systems are four that have subsurface edible parts - potatoes, sweet potatoes, sugar beets and peanuts. These crops have been produced in open and closed (recirculating), solid media and liquid, hydroponic systems. Fluorescent, fluorescent plus incandescent and high pressure sodium plus metal halide lamps have proven to be effective light sources. Continuous light with 16°C and 28/22°C (day/night) temperatures have produced highest yields for potato and sweet potato, respectively. Dry weight yields of up to 4685, 2541, 1151 and 207 g m-e for potatoes, sweet potatoes, sugar beets and peanuts, respectively, have been produced in controlled environment hydroponic systems.

  7. Growing root, tuber and nut crops hydroponically for CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, W. A.; Mortley, D. G.; Loretan, P. A.; Bonsi, C. K.; Morris, C. E.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Wheeler, R. M.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1992-01-01

    Among the crops selected by NASA for growth in controlled ecological life-support systems are four that have subsurface edible parts: potatoes, sweet potatoes, sugar beets and peanuts. These crops can be produced in open and closed (recirculating), solid media and liquid, hydroponic systems. Fluorescent, fluorescent plus incandescent, and high-pressure sodium-plus-metal-halide lamps have proven to be effective light sources. Continuous light with 16-C and 28/22-C (day/night) temperatures produce highest yields for potato and sweet potato, respectively. Dry weight yields of up to 4685, 2541, 1151 and 207 g/sq m for potatoes, sweet potatoes, sugar beets and peanuts, respectively, are produced in controlled environment hydroponic systems.

  8. Growing root, tuber and nut crops hydroponically for CELSS.

    PubMed

    Hill, W A; Mortley, D G; Mackowiak, C L; Loretan, P A; Tibbitts, T W; Wheeler, R M; Bonsi, C K; Morris, C E

    1992-01-01

    Among the crops selected by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for growth in controlled ecological life support systems are four that have subsurface edible parts -- potatoes, sweet potatoes, sugar beets and peanuts. These crops have been produced in open and closed (recirculating), solid media and liquid, hydroponic systems. Fluorescent , fluorescent plus incandescent and high pressure sodium plus metal halide lamps have proven to be effective light sources. Continuous light with 16 degrees C and 28/22 degrees C (day/night) temperatures have produced highest yields for potato and sweet potato, respectively. Dry weight yields of up to 4685, 2541, 1151 and 207 g m-2 for for potatoes, sweet potatoes, sugar beets and peanuts, respectively, have been produced in controlled environment hydroponic systems.

  9. Selection and hydroponic growth of potato cultivars for bioregenerative life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molders, K.; Quinet, M.; Decat, J.; Secco, B.; Dulière, E.; Pieters, S.; van der Kooij, T.; Lutts, S.; Van Der Straeten, D.

    2012-07-01

    As part of the ESA-funded MELiSSA program, Ghent University and the Université catholique de Louvain investigated the suitability, growth and development of four potato cultivars in hydroponic culture under controlled conditions with the aim to incorporate such cultivation system in an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). Potato plants can fulfill three major functions in an ECLSS in space missions: (a) fixation of CO2 and production of O2, (b) production of tubers for human nutrition and (c) production of clean water after condensation of the water vapor released from the plants by transpiration. Four cultivars (Annabelle, Bintje, Desiree and Innovator) were selected and grown hydroponically in nutrient film technique (NFT) gullies in a growth chamber under controlled conditions. The plant growth parameters, tuber harvest parameters and results of tuber nutritional analysis of the four cultivars were compared. The four potato cultivars grew well and all produced tubers. The growth period lasted 127 days for all cultivars except for Desiree which needed 145 days. Annabelle (1.45 kg/m2) and Bintje (1.355 kg/m2) were the best performing of the four cultivars. They also produced two times more tubers than Desiree and Innovator. Innovator produced the biggest tubers (20.95 g/tuber) and Desiree the smallest (7.67 g/tuber). The size of Annabelle and Bintje potatoes were intermediate. Bintje plants produced the highest total biomass in term of DW. The highest non-edible biomass was produced by Desiree, which showed both the highest shoot and root DW. The manual length and width measurements were also used to predict the total tuber mass. The energy values of the tubers remained in the range of the 2010 USDA and Souci-Fachmann-Kraut food composition databases. The amount of Ca determined was slightly reduced compared to the USDA value, but close to the Souci-Fachmann-Kraut value. The concentration of Cu, Zn and P were high compared to both databases

  10. Reduction of the cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in transgenic potato plants limits photosynthetic sucrose biosynthesis with no impact on plant growth and tuber yield.

    PubMed

    Zrenner, R; Krause, K P; Apel, P; Sonnewald, U

    1996-05-01

    Sucrose produced in source leaves is the predominant carbon source for developing sink tissues in most higher plants. Consequently the rate of sucrose synthesis is likely to be important for sink development and final crop yield. Two sucrose biosynthetic enzymes are believed to possess regulatory properties with respect to the rate of sucrose synthesis: (i) cytosolic FBPase and (ii) sucrose phosphate synthase. To study the impact of reduced photosynthetic sucrose biosynthesis on plant growth and crop yield a cDNA clone encoding cytosolic FBPase was isolated from a potato leaf cDNA library and used for antisense experiments in transgenic potato plants. The cDNA clone cy-F1, containing an open reading frame of 1020 bp highly homologous (85%) to other known sequences of plant cytosolic FBPases, was cloned in reversed orientation between the 35S CaMV promoter and the octopine synthase polyadenylation signal. Out of 75 independent transformants five transgenic lines having 9 to 55% of the wild-type FBPase activity were chosen for further analysis. A 45% reduction of the cytosolic FBPase activity did not cause any measurable change in metabolite concentrations, growth behaviour or photosynthetic parameters of the transgenic plants. Inhibition of cytosolic FBPase activity below 20% of the wild-type activity led to an accumulation of 3-PGA, triose-phosphates and fructose-1,6-biphosphate in source leaves. This resulted in a reduced light-saturated rate of assimilation measured via gas exchange and a decreased photosynthetic rate under conditions of the leaf disc electrode with saturating light and CO2. Measuring photosynthetic carbon fluxes by labelling leaf discs with 14CO2 revealed a 53-65% reduction of sucrose synthesis whereas starch synthesis decreased only by 18-24%. The flux into the anionic and cationic fraction was not altered. Despite these changes steady-state sucrose concentrations were not effected in source leaves from transgenic plants. Starch accumulated by

  11. Growth-stage dependent crop yield response to ozone exposure.

    PubMed

    Younglove, T; McCool, P M; Musselman, R C; Kahl, M E

    1994-01-01

    Data from four crop yield-loss field trials were examined to determine if analysis using an imposed phenological weighting function based on seasonal growth stage would provide a more accurate indication of impact of ozone exposure. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Moapa 69), dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. California Dark Red kidney), fresh market and processing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. 6718 VF and VF-145-B7879, respectively) were grown at 9-11 ambient field plots within southern California comprising an ambient gradient of ozone. The growing season for each crop was artificially divided into 'quarters' composed of equal numbers of whole days and roughly corresponding to specific growth stages. Ozone exposure was calculated for each of these 'quarters' and regressed against final crop yield using 163 different exposure statistics. Weighting functions were developed using reciprocal residual mean square (1/RMS) or percentage of the best 100 exposure statistics of the 163 tested (TOP100) for each of the quarters. The third quarter of the alfalfa season was clearly most responsive to ozone as measured by both of the weighting functions. Third quarter ozone was also weighted highest by both weighting functions for dry bean. Fresh market and processing tomato were each influenced the greatest by second quartero zone as demonstrated by both weighting functions. The occurrence of ozone during physiologically important events (flowering and initial fruit set in second quarter for tomato; pod development in third quarter for dry bean) appeared to influence the yield of these crops the greatest. Growth-stage-dependent phenological weighting of pollutant exposure may result in more effective predictions of levels of ozone exposure resulting in yield reductions.

  12. 16SrXII group phytoplasma strains, including 16SrXII-E (‘Candidatus Phytoplasma fragariae’) and a new 16SrXII subgroup, 16SrXII-H, are associated with diseased potatoes … in the Yunan and Inner Mongolia regions of China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato is an important crop widely cultivated in China. Recently, potato diseases with characteristic symptoms of phytoplasmal infections were found in potato fields. In 2006 and 2007, samples exhibiting symptoms including rosette and upright growth, upward rolling, yellowing and purpling of leave...

  13. Simulating potential production capacity of potatoes in Maine at multiple scales using a geospatial crop model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heavily populated areas, such as the northeast region of the U.S., depend on the production of distantly produced food, particularly for urban populations. Food systems are vulnerable to uncertainties such as energy costs, environmental conditions, urban growth, and climate change. Research into t...

  14. Evaluating county-level potential production capacity of potatoes for Maine using the crop model SPUDSIM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States Eastern Seaboard Region, consisting of the states from Maine to Virginia, depends on centralized and distantly produced food to supply its urban population. Non-local food sources may be vulnerable to uncertainties such as increasing fuel costs, population growth, and climate chang...

  15. Influence of Changes in Daylength and Carbon Dioxide on the Growth of Potato

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond; Tibbitts, Theodore W.

    1997-01-01

    Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) are highly productive in mid- to high-latitude areas where photoperiods change significantly throughout the growing season. To study the effects of changes in photoperiod on growth and tuber development of potato cv. Denali, plants were grown for 112 d with 400 micromol/sq m/s photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) under a 12-h photoperiod (short days, SD), a 24-h photoperiod (long days, LD), and combinations where plants were moved between the two photoperiods 28, 56, or 84 d after planting. Plants given LD throughout growth received the greatest total daily PPF and produced the greatest tuber yields. At similar levels of total PPF, plants given SD followed by LD yielded greater tuber dry mass (DM) than plants given LD followed by SD. Stem DM per plant, leaf DM, and total plant DM all increased with an increasing proportion of LD and increasing daily PPF, regardless of the daylength sequence. When studies were repeated, but at an enriched (1000micromol/mol) CO2 concentration, overall growth trends were similar, with high CO2 resulting in greater stem length, stem DM, leaf DM, and total plant DM; but high CO2 did not increase tuber DM.

  16. Determination of growth-stage specific crop coefficients (Kc) of cotton and wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of crop coefficient (Kc), the ratio of crop evapotranspiration (ETc) to reference evapotranspiration (ETo), can enhance ETc estimates in relation to specific crop phenological development. This research was conducted to determine growth-stage-specific Kc and crop water use for cotton (Go...

  17. Physical effects of soil drying on roots and crop growth.

    PubMed

    Whitmore, Andrew P; Whalley, W Richard

    2009-01-01

    The nature and effect of the stresses on root growth in crops subject to drying is reviewed. Drought is a complex stress, impacting on plant growth in a number of interacting ways. In response, there are a number of ways in which the growing plant is able to adapt to or alleviate these stresses. It is suggested that the most significant opportunity for progress in overcoming drought stress and increasing crop yields is to understand and exploit the conditions in soil by which plant roots are able to maximize their use of resources. This may not be straightforward, with multiple stresses, sometimes competing functions of roots, and conditions which impact upon roots very differently depending upon what soil, what depth or what stage of growth the root is at. Several processes and the interaction between these processes in soil have been neglected. It is our view that drought is not a single, simple stress and that agronomic practice which seeks to adapt to climate change must take account of the multiple facets of both the stress induced by insufficient water as well as other interacting stresses such as heat, disease, soil strength, low nutrient status, and even hypoxia. The potential for adaptation is probably large, however. The possible changes in stress as a result of the climate change expected under UK conditions are assessed and it appears possible that wet warm winters will impact on root growth as much if not more than dry warm summers.

  18. Risk assessment of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' transmission by the psyllids Bactericera trigonica and B. tremblayi from Apiaceae crops to potato.

    PubMed

    Antolinez, C A; Fereres, A; Moreno, A

    2017-04-03

    Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (Lso) is bacterium transmitted by psyllids to Solanaceae and Apiaceae plants. So far, Lso is found in Europe affecting Apiaceae. In the Mediterranean region, Bactericera trigonica is the only known vector of Lso, but the leek-onion psyllid Bactericera tremblayi is another widespread psyllid and potential vector of Lso. Commonly, carrot, leek and potato are cultivated in the same zones and it is uncertain if these psyllid species are able to transmit Lso to potato plants. Here, we assessed the transmission of Lso by B. trigonica and B. tremblayi to potato plants. B. trigonica showed preference to ingest from the phloem, settle and oviposit on carrot and celery but not on potato. This was correlated with high Lso transmission rates to both carrot (80%) and celery (70%) but very low to potato (≤3%). B. tremblayi preferred leek over carrot and potato, the latter being the less preferred host. B. tremblayi readily ingested from the phloem of infected carrots but failed to transmit Lso from carrot to carrot. Our study shows that the risk of Lso transmission from Apiaceae to potato by B. trigonica is very low, and that B. tremblayi is not a likely vector of Lso.

  19. Chlorpropham and 1,4-dimethylnaphthalene Control Sprout Growth in Potato Tubers Through Different Mechanisms and not Through Prolongation of Dormancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of Chlorpropham (CIPC) and 1,4-dimethylnaphthalene (DMN) to potato tubers prevents sprouting. CIPC prevents growth and suppresses sprouting by disruption of microtubules. DMN is a natural product originally isolated from potato skins suppresses sprout growth via an unknown mechanism. Bec...

  20. Potato Science for the Poor, International Potato Center

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cultivated potato of world commerce, Solanum tuberosum, is one of the primary crops worldwide, forming a basic food and source of primary income for many societies. Wild and cultivated potatoes form the germplasm base for international breeding efforts to improve potato in the face of variety o...

  1. Green synthesis of Au nanoparticles using potato extract: stability and growth mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo-López, D. N.; Pal, U.

    2014-08-01

    We report on the synthesis of spherical, well-dispersed colloidal gold nanoparticles of 17.5-23.5 nm average sizes in water using potato extract (PE) both as reducing and stabilizing agent. The effects of PE content and the pH value of the reaction mixture have been studied. Formation and growth dynamics of the Au nanoparticles in the colloids were studied using transmission electron microscopy and UV-Vis optical absorption spectroscopy techniques. While the reductor content and, hence, the nucleation and growth rates of the nanoparticles could be controlled by controlling the PE content in the reaction solution, the stability of the nanoparticles depended strongly on the pH of the reaction mixture. The mechanisms of Au ion reduction and stabilization of Au nanoparticles by potato starch have been discussed. The use of common natural solvent like water and biological reductor like PE in our synthesis process opens up the possibility of synthesizing Au nanoparticles in fully green (environmental friendly) way, and the Au nanoparticles produced in such way should have good biocompatibility.

  2. Light Spectral Quality Effects on the Growth of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Nodal Cuttings in Vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Deborah A.; Weigel, Russell C.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Sager, John C.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of light spectral quality on the growth of in vitro nodal cuttings of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars Norland, Superior, Kennebec, and Denali were examined. The different light spectra were provided by Vita-Lite fluorescent (VF) (a white light control), blue fluorescent (BF), red fluorescent (RF), low-pressure sodium (LPS), and a combination of low-pressure sodium plus cool-white fluorescent lamps (LPS/CWF). For cultivars, stem lengths after 4 wks were longest under LPS, follow by RF, LPS/CWF, VF, and BF (in descending order). Microscopic studies revealed that cells were shortest when cultured in BF or VF environments, and were longest in RF or LPS lamp environments. The highest number axillary branches occurred on plantlets grown with LPS or LPS/CWF, whereas the lowest number occurred with BF. No leaf or stem edema (callus or gall-like growths) occurred iwth LPS or LPS/cwf lighting, and no edema occurred on cv. Norland plantlets, regardless of lighting. Results suggest that shoot morphologic development of in vitro grown potato plants can be controlled by controlling irradiant spectral quality.

  3. Utilization of potatoes in CELSS: Productivity and growing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T. W.

    1986-01-01

    The potato plant (solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the basic food crops that should be studied for use in NASA's closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). It offers high yields per unit area and time, with most of this production in the form of highly digestible carbohydrate. Potatoes, like wheat and rice, are particularly useful in human diets because of their nutritional versatility and ease of processing and preparation. The growth of the potato was studied and it was found to be a useful species for life support systems.

  4. Growth and tuberization of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) under continuous light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1986-01-01

    The growth and tuberization of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) maintained for 6 weeks under four different regimes of continuous irradiance were compared to plants given 12 hours light and 12 hours dark. Treatments included: (a) continuous photosynthetic photon flux of 200 micromoles per square meter per second cool-white fluorescent (CWF); (b) continuous 400 micromoles per square meter per second CWF; (c) 12 hours 400 micromoles per square meter per second CWF plus 12 hours dim CWF at 5 micromoles per square meter per second; (d) 12 hours [400] micromoles per square meter per second CWF plus 12 hours dim incandescent (INC) at 5 micromoles per square meter per second and a control treatment of 12 hours light at 400 micromoles per square meter per second CWF and 12 hours dark. The study included five cultivars ranging from early- to late-season types: 'Norland,' 'Superior,''Norchip,' 'Russet Burbank,' and 'Kennebec,' Tuber development progressed well under continuous irradiation at 400 micromoles per square meter per second and under 12 hours irradiance and 12 hours dark, while tuber development was suppressed in all other light treatments. Continuous irradiation at 200 or 400 micromoles per square meter per second resulted in severe stunting and leaf malformation on 'Superior' and 'Kennebec' plants, but little or no injury and vigorous shoot growth in the other cultivars. No injury or stunting were apparent under 12-dim light or 12-dark treatments. Plants given 12 hours dim INC showed significantly greater stem elongation but less total biomass than plants in other treatments. The continuous light encouraged shoot growth over tuber growth but this trend was overridden by providing a high irradiance level. The variation among cultivars for tolerance to continuous lighting indicates that potato may be a useful species for photoinhibition studies.

  5. Growth and tuberization of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) under continuous light.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, R M; Tibbitts, T W

    1986-01-01

    The growth and tuberization of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) maintained for 6 weeks under four different regimes of continuous irradiance were compared to plants given 12 hours light and 12 hours dark. Treatments included: (a) continuous photosynthetic photon flux of 200 micromoles per square meter per second cool-white fluorescent (CWF); (b) continuous 400 micromoles per square meter per second CWF; (c) 12 hours 400 micromoles per square meter per second CWF plus 12 hours dim CWF at 5 micromoles per square meter per second; (d) 12 hours [400] micromoles per square meter per second CWF plus 12 hours dim incandescent (INC) at 5 micromoles per square meter per second and a control treatment of 12 hours light at 400 micromoles per square meter per second CWF and 12 hours dark. The study included five cultivars ranging from early- to late-season types: 'Norland,' 'Superior,''Norchip,' 'Russet Burbank,' and 'Kennebec,' Tuber development progressed well under continuous irradiation at 400 micromoles per square meter per second and under 12 hours irradiance and 12 hours dark, while tuber development was suppressed in all other light treatments. Continuous irradiation at 200 or 400 micromoles per square meter per second resulted in severe stunting and leaf malformation on 'Superior' and 'Kennebec' plants, but little or no injury and vigorous shoot growth in the other cultivars. No injury or stunting were apparent under 12-dim light or 12-dark treatments. Plants given 12 hours dim INC showed significantly greater stem elongation but less total biomass than plants in other treatments. The continuous light encouraged shoot growth over tuber growth but this trend was overridden by providing a high irradiance level. The variation among cultivars for tolerance to continuous lighting indicates that potato may be a useful species for photoinhibition studies.

  6. Coupling crop growth and hydrologic models to predict crop yield with spatial analysis technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yangwen; Shen, Suhui; Niu, Cunwen; Qiu, Yaqin; Wang, Hao; Liu, Yu

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes climate change impact on crop yield of winter wheat, a main crop in the water-stressed Haihe River Basin in North China. An integrated analysis was carried out by coupling the World Food Studies (WOFOST) crop growth model and the distributed hydrological model describing the water and energy transfer processes in large river basins (WEP-L). Various spatial analysis technologies, including remote sensing and geographical information system, were woven together to support model calibration and validation. The WOFOST model was calibrated and validated using the winter wheat data collected in two successive years. Effort was then extended to calibrate and validate the WEP-L distributed hydrologic model for the whole basin. Such an effort was collectively supported by using the remote sensing evapotranspiration and biomass data, the in situ river flow data, and the wheat yield statistical data. With this integration, the wheat yield from 2010 to 2030 can be predicted under the given climate change impact corresponding to Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A1B, A2, and B1 scenarios. Given the prescribed climate change scenarios, at the basin-scale, the winter wheat yield may increase in terms of the annual average; however, the long-term trend is geared toward a decreasing yield with significant fluctuations. The colder hilly areas with current lower yield may significantly increase due to possible future temperature rise while the warmer plain areas with current higher yield may slightly increase or decrease. Despite the data collected thus far, it is evident that further studies are needed to reduce the uncertainties of these predictions of climate change effect on winter wheat grain yield.

  7. Influence of Growth Temperature on Respiratory Characteristics of Mitochondria from Callus-Forming Potato Tuber Discs

    PubMed Central

    Hemrika-Wagner, Anneke M.; Kreuk, Koos C. M.; van der Plas, Linus H. W.

    1982-01-01

    The uninhibited respiration of mitochondria, isolated from potato tuber discs (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Bintje) incubated on a callus-inducing medium at 28°C, is higher than that of mitochondria from tissue incubated at 8°C. This respiration is composed of a CN-sensitive and a CN-resistant part. The capacity of the CN-resistant alternative oxidase pathway is larger in mitochondria from 28°C tissue than in mitochondria from 8°C tissue (35% and 8% of uninhibited respiration, respectively). The alternative pathway is operative both in mitochondria from 28°C tissue and 8°C tissue. The observed difference in uninhibited respiration, is not only caused by lower values of respiration via the alternative pathway in mitochondria from 8°C tissue, but also by lower values of respiration via the cytochrome pathway. A positive correlation has been demonstrated between the incubation temperature (ranging from 4-37°C) and the relative capacity of respiration via alternative pathway in the mitochondria. Induction of alternative pathway is not directly correlated with growth (in terms of increase in fresh weight) of the potato tuber discs. PMID:16662541

  8. Recycling crop residues for use in recirculating hydroponic crop production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Garland, J. L.; Sager, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    As part of bioregenerative life support feasibility testing by NASA, crop residues are being used to resupply elemental nutrients to recirculating hydroponic crop production systems. Methods for recovering nutrients from crop residues have evolved from water soaking (leaching) to rapid aerobic bioreactor processing. Leaching residues recovered the majority of elements but it also recovered significant amounts of soluble organics. The high organic content of leachates was detrimental to plant growth. Aerobic bioreactor processing reduced the organic content ten-fold, which reduced or eliminated phytotoxic effects. Wheat and potato production studies were successful using effluents from reactors having with 8- to 1-day retention times. Aerobic bioreactor effluents supplied at least half of the crops elemental mass needs in these studies. Descriptions of leachate and effluent mineral content, biomass productivity, microbial activity, and nutrient budgets for potato and wheat are presented.

  9. Reinventing potato at the diploid level

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are positioned to revolutionize potato by reconstructing it as a diploid inbred-line based crop. Currently, potato is an asexually propagated cross-pollinated tetraploid crop, for which breeding methodologies have not changed substantially in 100 years. Current methods for creating new potato cul...

  10. Effect of biweekly shoot tip harvests on the growth and yield of Georgia Jet sweet potato grown hydroponically

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogbuehi, Cyriacus R.; Loretan, Phil A.; Bonsi, C. K.; Hill, Walter A.; Morris, Carlton E.; Biswas, P. K.; Mortley, Desmond G.

    1989-01-01

    Sweet potato shoot tips have been shown to be a nutritious green vegetable. A study was conducted to determine the effect of biweekly shoot tip harvests on the growth and yield of Georgia Jet sweet potato grown in the greenhouse using the nutrient film technique (NFT). The nutrient solution consisted of a modified half Hoagland solution. Biweekly shoot tip harvests, beginning 42 days after planting, provided substantial amounts of vegetable greens and did not affect the fresh and dry foliage weights or the storage root number and fresh and dry storage root weights at final harvest. The rates of anion and cation uptake were not affected by tip harvests.

  11. Simulating unstressed crop development and growth using the Unified Plant Growth Model (UPGM)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since development of the EPIC model in 1989, many versions of the plant growth component have been incorporated into other erosion and crop management models and subsequently modified to meet model objectives (e.g., WEPS, WEPP, SWAT, ALMANAC, GPFARM). This has resulted in different versions of the ...

  12. [Research advances in simulating regional crop growth under water stress by remote sensing].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Shili; Ma, Yuping

    2005-06-01

    It is of practical significance to simulate the regional crop growth under water stress, especially at regional scale. Combined with remote sensing information, crop growth simulation model could provide an effective way to estimate the regional crop growth, development and yield formation under water stress. In this paper, related research methods and results were summarized, and some problems needed to be further studied and resolved were discussed.

  13. Overview: early history of crop growth and photosynthesis modeling.

    PubMed

    El-Sharkawy, Mabrouk A

    2011-02-01

    As in industrial and engineering systems, there is a need to quantitatively study and analyze the many constituents of complex natural biological systems as well as agro-ecosystems via research-based mechanistic modeling. This objective is normally addressed by developing mathematically built descriptions of multilevel biological processes to provide biologists a means to integrate quantitatively experimental research findings that might lead to a better understanding of the whole systems and their interactions with surrounding environments. Aided with the power of computational capacities associated with computer technology then available, pioneering cropping systems simulations took place in the second half of the 20th century by several research groups across continents. This overview summarizes that initial pioneering effort made to simulate plant growth and photosynthesis of crop canopies, focusing on the discovery of gaps that exist in the current scientific knowledge. Examples are given for those gaps where experimental research was needed to improve the validity and application of the constructed models, so that their benefit to mankind was enhanced. Such research necessitates close collaboration among experimentalists and model builders while adopting a multidisciplinary/inter-institutional approach.

  14. [Identification of chemicals in root exudates of potato and their effects on Rhizoctonia solani].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-ming; Qiu, Hui-zhen; Zhang, Chun-hong; Hai, Long

    2015-03-01

    This study was conducted to identify chemicals in root exudates and their effect on Rhizoctonia solani in potato cropping systems. Root exudates were collected from the fields with 5 years of continuous potato cropping in comparison with rotational cropping of potato and other crops, using in-house made root boxes at the seedling and squaring stages. Chemicals in the root exudates were identified using the GC-MS method. The results showed that glucide concentration was the highest in the root exudates, followed by organic acids. Compared with the rotational cropping, the continuous cropping significantly decreased the glucide content and increased the content of organic acids in the root exudates. The contents of almitic acid in root exudates under continuous cropping was 0.94% at seedling stage and 1.4% at squaring stage, the dibutyl phthalate was 0.15%, whereas under rotational cropping, those values were decreased to 0.15%, 0.2%, and being negligible, respectively. The root exudates promoted the growth of R. solani, especially under continuous potato cropping. The simulation test showed that the palmitic acid and dibutyl phthalate in root exudates could promote the growth of R. solani.

  15. Potassium concentration effect on growth, gas exchange and mineral accumulation in potatoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, W.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1991-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the responses of potatoes to six K solution concentrations maintained with a flow-through nutrient film system. Potato plants were grown for 42 days in sloping shallow trays containing a 1 cm layer of quartz gravel with a continuous flow of 4 ml min-1 of nutrient solutions having K concentrations of 0.10, 0.55, 1.59, 3.16, 6.44, 9.77 meq L-1. Plant leaf area, total and tuber dry weights were reduced over 25% at 0.10 meq L-1 of K and over 17% at 9.77 meq L-1 of K compared to concentrations of 0.55, 1.59, 3.16 and 6.44 meq L-1 of K. Gas exchange measurements on leaflets in situ after 39 days of growth demonstrated no significant differences among different K treatments in CO2 assimilation rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, and transpiration. Further measurements made only on plants grown at 0.10, 1.59, 6.44 meq L-1 of K showed similar responses of CO2 assimilation rate to different intercellular CO2 concentrations. This suggested that the photosynthetic systems were not affected by different K nutrition. The leaves of plants accumulated about 60% less K at 0.10 meq L-1 of K than at higher K concentrations. However, Ca and Mg levels in the leaves were higher at 0.10 meq L-1 of K than at higher K concentrations. This indicates that low K nutrition not only reduced plant growth, but also affected nutrient balance between major cations.

  16. Potassium concentration effect on growth, gas exchange and mineral accumulation in potatoes.

    PubMed

    Cao, W; Tibbitts, T W

    1991-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the responses of potatoes to six K solution concentrations maintained with a flow-through nutrient film system. Potato plants were grown for 42 days in sloping shallow trays containing a 1 cm layer of quartz gravel with a continuous flow of 4 ml min-1 of nutrient solutions having K concentrations of 0.10, 0.55, 1.59, 3.16, 6.44, 9.77 meq L-1. Plant leaf area, total and tuber dry weights were reduced over 25% at 0.10 meq L-1 of K and over 17% at 9.77 meq L-1 of K compared to concentrations of 0.55, 1.59, 3.16 and 6.44 meq L-1 of K. Gas exchange measurements on leaflets in situ after 39 days of growth demonstrated no significant differences among different K treatments in CO2 assimilation rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, and transpiration. Further measurements made only on plants grown at 0.10, 1.59, 6.44 meq L-1 of K showed similar responses of CO2 assimilation rate to different intercellular CO2 concentrations. This suggested that the photosynthetic systems were not affected by different K nutrition. The leaves of plants accumulated about 60% less K at 0.10 meq L-1 of K than at higher K concentrations. However, Ca and Mg levels in the leaves were higher at 0.10 meq L-1 of K than at higher K concentrations. This indicates that low K nutrition not only reduced plant growth, but also affected nutrient balance between major cations.

  17. Study of various NH4+/NO3- mixtures for enhancing growth of potatoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, W.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1993-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of various NH4(+)-N/NO3(-)-N percentages on growth and mineral concentrations in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants using a non-recirculating nutrient film system in a controlled environment. The first experiment included six NH4(+)-N/NO3(-)-N percentages at 0/100, 20/80, 40/60, 60/40, 80/20, and 100/0 with the same total N concentration of 4 mM. The second experiment included six NH4(+)-N/NO3(-)-N percentages at 0/100, 4/96, 8/92, 12/88, 16/84, and 20/80 again with the same total N of 4 mM. In each experiment, plants were harvested 35 days after transplanting when tubers had been initiated and started to enlarge. Dry weights of shoots, tubers, and whole plant at the harvest were increased significantly with all mixed nitrogen treatments as compared with single NH4+ or NO3- form. The enhanced growth with mixed nitrogen was greatest at 8% to 20% NH4(+)-N. Also, the concentrations and accumulation of total N in the shoots and roots were greater with mixed nitrogen than with separate NH4+ or NO3- nutrition. With NH4+ present in the solutions, the concentrations of P and Cl in the shoots were increased compared to NO3- alone, whereas the tissue concentrations of Ca and Mg were decreased. It was concluded that nitrogen fertilization provided with combined NH4+ and NO3- forms, even at small proportions of NH4+, can enhance nitrogen uptake and productivity in potato plants.

  18. Growth of tropical legume cover crops as influenced by nitrogen fertilization and Rhizobia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropical legume cover crops are important components in cropping systems due to their role in improving soil quality. Information is limited on the influence of nitrogen (N) fertilization on growth of tropical legume cover crops grown on Oxisols. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the...

  19. Genetic improvement for root growth angle to enhance crop production

    PubMed Central

    Uga, Yusaku; Kitomi, Yuka; Ishikawa, Satoru; Yano, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    The root system is an essential organ for taking up water and nutrients and anchoring shoots to the ground. On the other hand, the root system has rarely been regarded as breeding target, possibly because it is more laborious and time-consuming to evaluate roots (which require excavation) in a large number of plants than aboveground tissues. The root growth angle (RGA), which determines the direction of root elongation in the soil, affects the area in which roots capture water and nutrients. In this review, we describe the significance of RGA as a potential trait to improve crop production, and the physiological and molecular mechanisms that regulate RGA. We discuss the prospects for breeding to improve RGA based on current knowledge of quantitative trait loci for RGA in rice. PMID:26069440

  20. Bacterial Compatibility in Combined Inoculations Enhances the Growth of Potato Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Christine D.; Yagi, Shogo; Ijima, Motoaki; Nashimoto, Tomoya; Sawada, Maki; Ikeda, Seishi; Asano, Kenji; Orikasa, Yoshitake; Ohwada, Takuji

    2017-01-01

    The compatibility of strains is crucial for formulating bioinoculants that promote plant growth. We herein assessed the compatibility of four potential bioinoculants isolated from potato roots and tubers (Sphingomonas sp. T168, Streptomyces sp. R170, Streptomyces sp. R181, and Methylibium sp. R182) that were co-inoculated in order to improve plant growth. We screened these strains using biochemical tests, and the results obtained showed that R170 had the highest potential as a bioinoculant, as indicated by its significant ability to produce plant growth-promoting substances, its higher tolerance against NaCl (2%) and AlCl3 (0.01%), and growth in a wider range of pH values (5.0–10.0) than the other three strains. Therefore, the compatibility of R170 with other strains was tested in combined inoculations, and the results showed that the co-inoculation of R170 with T168 or R182 synergistically increased plant weight over un-inoculated controls, indicating the compatibility of strains based on the increased production of plant growth promoters such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and siderophores as well as co-localization on roots. However, a parallel test using strain R181, which is the same Streptomyces genus as R170, showed incompatibility with T168 and R182, as revealed by weaker plant growth promotion and a lack of co-localization. Collectively, our results suggest that compatibility among bacterial inoculants is important for efficient plant growth promotion, and that R170 has potential as a useful bioinoculant, particularly in combined inoculations that contain compatible bacteria. PMID:28163278

  1. Effects of simulated sulfuric acid rain on yield, growth, and foliar injury of several crops

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.J.; Neely, G.E.; Perrigan, S.C.; Grothaus, L.C.

    1980-10-01

    This study was designed to reveal patterns of response of major United States crops to sulfuric acid rain. Potted plants were grown in field chambers and exposed to simulated sulfuric acid rain (pH 3.0, 3.5 or 4.0) or to a control rain (pH 5.6). At harvest, the weights of the marketable portion, total aboveground portion and roots were determined for 28 crops. Of these, marketable yield production was inhibited for 5 crops (radish, beet, carrot, mustard greens, broccoli), stimulated for 6 crops (tomato, green pepper, strawberry, alfalfa, orchardgrass, timothy), and ambiguously affected for 1 crop (potato). In addition, stem and leaf production of sweet corn was stimulated. Visible injury of tomatoes might have decreased their marketability. No statistically significant effects on yield were observed for the other 15 crops. The results suggest that the likelihood of yield being affected by acid rain depends on the part of the plant utilized, as well as on species. Effects on the aboveground portions of crops and on roots are also presented. Plants were regularly examined for foliar injury associated with acid rain. Of the 35 cultivars examined, the foliage of 31 was injured at pH 3.0, 28 at pH 3.5, and 5 at pH 4.0. Foliar injury was not generally related to effects on yield. However, foilar injury of swiss chard, mustard greens and spinach was severe enough to adversely affect marketability.

  2. Brassinolide Increases Potato Root Growth In Vitro in a Dose-Dependent Way and Alleviates Salinity Stress

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Shitou; Su, Yi; Wang, Huiqun; Luo, Weigui; Su, Shengying

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroidal phytohormones that regulate various physiological processes, such as root development and stress tolerance. In the present study, we showed that brassinolide (BL) affects potato root in vitro growth in a dose-dependent manner. Low BL concentrations (0.1 and 0.01 μg/L) promoted root elongation and lateral root development, whereas high BL concentrations (1–100 μg/L) inhibited root elongation. There was a significant (P < 0.05) positive correlation between root activity and BL concentrations within a range from 0.01 to 100 μg/L, with the peak activity of 8.238 mg TTC·g−1 FW·h−1 at a BL concentration of 100 μg/L. Furthermore, plants treated with 50 μg/L BL showed enhanced salt stress tolerance through in vitro growth. Under this scenario, BL treatment enhanced the proline content and antioxidant enzymes' (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase) activity and reduced malondialdehyde content in potato shoots. Application of BL maintain K+ and Na+ homeostasis by improving tissue K+/Na+ ratio. Therefore, we suggested that the effects of BL on root development from stem fragments explants as well as on primary root development are dose-dependent and that BL application alleviates salt stress on potato by improving root activity, root/shoot ratio, and antioxidative capacity in shoots and maintaining K+/Na+ homeostasis in potato shoots and roots. PMID:27803931

  3. Impaired growth and development of Colorado potato beetle larvae on potato plants overexpressing the oryzacystatin II gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant proteinase inhibitors are attractive tools for crop improvement and their heterologous expression can enhance insect resistance in transgenic plants. Oryzacystatins I and II (OCI and OCII) show potential in controlling pests that utilize cysteine proteinases for protein digestion. To evaluate ...

  4. Response of potato tuber cell division and growth to shade and elevated CO2.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Teh; Setter, Tim L

    2003-02-01

    Plants adjust their sink-organ growth rates, development and distribution of dry matter in response to whole-plant photosynthate status. To advance understanding of these processes, potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants were subjected to CO(2) and light flux treatments, and early tuber growth was assessed. Atmospheric CO(2) (700 or 350 micro mol mol(-1)) and light flux (shade and control illumination) treatments were imposed at two growth stages: tuber initiation (TI) and tuber bulking (TB). Elevated CO(2) increased accumulation of total net biomass when imposed at both stages, and increased tuber growth rate by about 36 %, but did not increase the number of tubers. Elevated CO(2) increased the number of cells in tubers at both TI and TB stages, whereas shade substantially decreased the number of cells at both stages. Generally, treatments did not affect cell volume or the proportion of nuclei endoreduplicating (repeated nuclear DNA replication in the absence of cell division), but the shade treatment led to a decrease in cell volume at TB and a decrease in endoreduplication at TI. Elevated CO(2) increased, and shade decreased, glucose concentration and soluble invertase activity in the cambial zones at both TI and TB, whereas sucrose concentration and activities of glucokinase, fructokinase, cell-wall-bound invertase and thymidine kinase were unaffected. Modulation of tuber cell division was responsible for much of the growth response to whole-plant photosynthate status, and treatments affected cambial-zone glucose and soluble invertase in a pattern suggesting involvement of a glucose signalling pathway.

  5. Potato growth in a porous tube water and nutrient delivery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bula, R. J.; Morrow, R. C.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1996-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. 'Norland', vegetative growth and tuber productivity grown in the porous water and nutrient delivery system (PTNDS) developed by the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics were compared with the vegetative growth and tuber productivity of plants grown in a peat:vermiculite potting mixture (PT/VR). The plants were grown at 12, 16, and 24-h light periods, 18 degrees C constant temperature, 70% relative humidity, and 300 micromol m-2 s-1 photosynthetic photon flux. Canopy height of plants grown in the PT/VR system was taller than that of plants grown in the PTNDS system. Canopy height differences were greatest when the plants were grown under a 24-h photoperiod. Leaf and stem dry masses were similar for plants grown in the two systems under the 12-h photoperiod. Under the 24-h photoperiod, leaf and stem dry masses of plants grown in the PT/VR system were more than 3 times those of plants grown in the PTNDS system. Tuber dry masses were similar for plants grown in the two systems under the 12-h photoperiod. Under the 24 h-photoperiod, tuber dry weights of plants grown in the PT/VR system were more than twice those of plants grown in the PTNDS system. A slightly higher harvest index (ratio of tuber weight to leaf plus stem weight) was noted for the plants grown in the PTNDS than for the plants grown in the PT/VR system. Plants grown in the PTNDS system at the 24-h photoperiod matured earlier than plants grown at this photoperiod in the PT/VR system. Vegetative growth and tuber productivity of plants grown under the 16-h photoperiod generally were intermediate to those noted for plants grown under the 12 and 24-h photoperiods. These results indicate that potato plants grown in a PTNDS system may require less plant growing volume, mature in a shorter time, and likely produce more tubers per unit area compared with plants grown in the PT/VR system. These plant characteristics are a distinct advantage for a plant growing unit of

  6. Potato growth in a porous tube water and nutrient delivery system.

    PubMed

    Bula, R J; Morrow, R C; Tibbitts, T W

    1996-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. 'Norland', vegetative growth and tuber productivity grown in the porous water and nutrient delivery system (PTNDS) developed by the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics were compared with the vegetative growth and tuber productivity of plants grown in a peat:vermiculite potting mixture (PT/VR). The plants were grown at 12, 16, and 24-h light periods, 18 degrees C constant temperature, 70% relative humidity, and 300 micromol m-2 s-1 photosynthetic photon flux. Canopy height of plants grown in the PT/VR system was taller than that of plants grown in the PTNDS system. Canopy height differences were greatest when the plants were grown under a 24-h photoperiod. Leaf and stem dry masses were similar for plants grown in the two systems under the 12-h photoperiod. Under the 24-h photoperiod, leaf and stem dry masses of plants grown in the PT/VR system were more than 3 times those of plants grown in the PTNDS system. Tuber dry masses were similar for plants grown in the two systems under the 12-h photoperiod. Under the 24 h-photoperiod, tuber dry weights of plants grown in the PT/VR system were more than twice those of plants grown in the PTNDS system. A slightly higher harvest index (ratio of tuber weight to leaf plus stem weight) was noted for the plants grown in the PTNDS than for the plants grown in the PT/VR system. Plants grown in the PTNDS system at the 24-h photoperiod matured earlier than plants grown at this photoperiod in the PT/VR system. Vegetative growth and tuber productivity of plants grown under the 16-h photoperiod generally were intermediate to those noted for plants grown under the 12 and 24-h photoperiods. These results indicate that potato plants grown in a PTNDS system may require less plant growing volume, mature in a shorter time, and likely produce more tubers per unit area compared with plants grown in the PT/VR system. These plant characteristics are a distinct advantage for a plant growing unit of

  7. Potato growth in a porous tube water and nutrient delivery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bula, R. J.; Morrow, R. C.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1996-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. `Norland', vegetative growth and tuber productivity grown in the porous water and nutrient delivery system (PTNDS) developed by the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics were compared with the vegetative growth and tuber productivity of plants grown in a peat:vermiculite potting mixture (PT/VR). The plants were grown at 12, 16, and 24-h light periods, 18 degC constant temperature, 70% relative humidity, and 300 mumol.m^-2.s^-1 photosynthetic photon flux. Canopy height of plants grown in the PT/VR system was taller than that of plants grown in the PTNDS system. Canopy height differences were greatest when the plants were grown under a 24-h photoperiod. Leaf and stem dry masses were similar for plants grown in the two systems under the 12-h photoperiod. Under the 24-h photoperiod, leaf and stem dry masses of plants grown in the PT/VR system were more than 3 times those of plants grown in the PTDNS system. Tuber dry masses were similar for plants grown in the two systems under the 12-h photoperiod. Under the 24 h-photoperiod, tuber dry weights of plants grown in the PT/VR system were more than twice those of plants grown in the PTDNS system. A slightly higher harvest index (ratio of tuber weight to leaf plus stem weight) was noted for the plants grown in the PTNDS than for the plants grown in the PT/VR system. Plants grown in the PTNDS system at the 24-h photoperiod matured earlier than plants grown at this photoperiod in the PT/VR system. Vegetative growth and tuber productivity of plants grown under the 16-h photoperiod generally were intermediate to those noted for plants grown under the 12 and 24-h photoperiods. These results indicate that potato plants grown in a PTNDS system may require less plant growing volume, mature in a shorter time, and likely produce more tubers per unit area compared with plants grown in the PT/VR system. These plant characteristics are a distinct advantage for a plant growing unit of a

  8. Identification of mVOCs from Andean rhizobacteria and field evaluation of bacterial and mycorrhizal inoculants on growth of potato in its center of origin.

    PubMed

    Velivelli, Siva L S; Kromann, Peter; Lojan, Paul; Rojas, Mercy; Franco, Javier; Suarez, Juan Pablo; Prestwich, Barbara Doyle

    2015-04-01

    Food security (a pressing issue for all nations) faces a threat due to population growth, land availability for growing crops, a changing climate (leading to increases in both abiotic and biotic stresses), heightened consumer awareness of the risks related to the use of agrichemicals, and also the reliance on depleting fossil fuel reserves for their production. Legislative changes in Europe mean that fewer agrichemicals will be available in the future for the control of crop pests and pathogens. The need for the implementation of a more sustainable agricultural system globally, incorporating an integrated approach to disease management, has never been more urgent. To that end, the Valorizing Andean Microbial Diversity (VALORAM) project (http://valoram.ucc.ie), funded under FP7, examined the role of microbial communities in crop production and protection to improve the sustainability, food security, environmental protection, and productivity for rural Andean farmers. During this work, microbial volatile organic compounds (mVOCs) of 27 rhizobacterial isolates were identified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and their antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani was determined in vitro and compared to the activity of a selection of pure volatile compounds. Five of these isolates, Pseudomonas palleroniana R43631, Bacillus sp. R47065, R47131, Paenibacillus sp. B3a R49541, and Bacillus simplex M3-4 R49538 trialled in the field in their respective countries of origin, i.e., Bolivia, Peru, and Ecuador, showed significant increase in the yield of potato. The strategy followed in the VALORAM project may offer a template for the future isolation and determination of putative biocontrol and plant growth-promoting agents, useful as part of a low-input integrated pest management system.

  9. [Characteristics of seasonal drought and its adaptation in southern China under the background of global climate change. VI. Optimized layout of cropping system for preventing and avoiding drought disaster].

    PubMed

    Sui, Yue; Huang, Wan-Hua; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Li, Mao-Song

    2013-11-01

    Southern China is an important agricultural planting region of China, but the seasonal drought severely impacted the regional agricultural production. Based on the 1981-2007 meteorological data from 13 typical meteorological stations in the seasonal drought areas in southern China and the data of related crops growth period and yield, three precipitation year types (drought year, normal year, and wet year) were classified based on the yearly precipitation, and by using five indices (coupling degree of water requirement and precipitation during crop water critical stages, meteorological crop yield, output value per unit area, and water use efficiency and precipitation during whole growth period), the comprehensive benefit of all possible cropping patterns in each typical region was evaluated, and the optimal cropping patterns in the different regions of southern China in different precipitation years were obtained. In the semi-arid region, the optimal cropping patterns in dry year included potato-maize-sweet potato and winter wheat-rice-sweet potato. In the semi-humid region and during dry year, winter wheat-rice-sweet potato was the best choice, and rape seed-rice-sweet potato was the second one. In the warm and humid region (the typical region where seasonal drought happened), the best cropping pattern in Jiangnan area in different precipitation years was potato-double cropping rice, and the suitable patterns in southwest area were the triple cropping systems with drought-resistant crops, such as winter wheat-rice-sweet potato, winter wheat-maize-sweet potato, and potato-double cropping rice. From the aspect of maximally utilizing water and heat resources, triple cropping would be the best choice, with the rice and upland crop rotation as the main and with the rice arranged in pairs in wet year.

  10. Crop growth and irrigation interact to influence surface fluxes in a regional climate-cropland model (WRF3.3-CLM4crop)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yaqiong; Jin, Jiming; Kueppers, Lara M.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we coupled Version 4.0 of the Community Land Model that includes crop growth and management (CLM4crop) into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model Version 3.3 to better represent interactions between climate and agriculture. We evaluated the performance of the coupled model (WRF3.3-CLM4crop) by comparing simulated crop growth and surface climate to multiple observational datasets across the continental United States. The results showed that although the model with dynamic crop growth overestimated leaf area index (LAI) and growing season length, interannual variability in peak LAI was improved relative to a model with prescribed crop LAI and growth period, which has no environmental sensitivity. Adding irrigation largely improved daily minimum temperature but the RMSE is still higher over irrigated land than non-irrigated land. Improvements in climate variables were limited by an overall model dry bias. However, with addition of an irrigation scheme, soil moisture and surface energy flux partitioning were largely improved at irrigated sites. Irrigation effects were sensitive to crop growth: the case with prescribed crop growth underestimated irrigation water use and effects on temperature and overestimated soil evaporation relative to the case with dynamic crop growth in moderately irrigated regions. We conclude that studies examining irrigation effects on weather and climate using coupled climate-land surface models should include dynamic crop growth and realistic irrigation schemes to better capture land surface effects in agricultural regions.

  11. Simulating crop growth with Expert-N-GECROS under different site conditions in Southwest Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poyda, Arne; Ingwersen, Joachim; Demyan, Scott; Gayler, Sebastian; Streck, Thilo

    2016-04-01

    When feedbacks between the land surface and the atmosphere are investigated by Atmosphere-Land surface-Crop-Models (ALCM) it is fundamental to accurately simulate crop growth dynamics as plants directly influence the energy partitioning at the plant-atmosphere interface. To study both the response and the effect of intensive agricultural crop production systems on regional climate change in Southwest Germany, the crop growth model GECROS (YIN & VAN LAAR, 2005) was calibrated based on multi-year field data from typical crop rotations in the Kraichgau and Swabian Alb regions. Additionally, the SOC (soil organic carbon) model DAISY (MÜLLER et al., 1998) was implemented in the Expert-N model tool (ENGEL & PRIESACK, 1993) and combined with GECROS. The model was calibrated based on a set of plant (BBCH, LAI, plant height, aboveground biomass, N content of biomass) and weather data for the years 2010 - 2013 and validated with the data of 2014. As GECROS adjusts the root-shoot partitioning in response to external conditions (water, nitrogen, CO2), it is suitable to simulate crop growth dynamics under changing climate conditions and potentially more frequent stress situations. As C and N pools and turnover rates in soil as well as preceding crop effects were expected to considerably influence crop growth, the model was run in a multi-year, dynamic way. Crop residues and soil mineral N (nitrate, ammonium) available for the subsequent crop were accounted for. The model simulates growth dynamics of winter wheat, winter rape, silage maize and summer barley at the Kraichgau and Swabian Alb sites well. The Expert-N-GECROS model is currently parameterized for crops with potentially increasing shares in future crop rotations. First results will be shown.

  12. The effect of excess copper on growth and physiology of important food crops: a review.

    PubMed

    Adrees, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Rizwan, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Abbas, Farhat; Farid, Mujahid; Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Irshad, Muhammad Kashif; Bharwana, Saima Aslam

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, copper (Cu) pollution in agricultural soils, due to arbitrary use of pesticides, fungicides, industrial effluent and wastewater irrigation, present a major concern for sustainable agrifood production especially in developing countries. The world's major food requirement is fulfilled through agricultural food crops. The Cu-induced losses in growth and yield of food crops probably exceeds from all other causes of food safety and security threats. Here, we review the adverse effects of Cu excess on growth and yield of essential food crops. Numerous studies reported the Cu-induced growth inhibition, oxidative damage and antioxidant response in agricultural food crops such as wheat, rice, maize, sunflower and cucumber. This article also describes the toxic levels of Cu in crops that decreased plant growth and yield due to alterations in mineral nutrition, photosynthesis, enzyme activities and decrease in chlorophyll biosynthesis. The response of various crops to elevated Cu concentrations varies depending upon nature of crop and cultivars used. This review could be helpful to understand the Cu toxicity and the mechanism of its tolerance in food crops. We recommend that Cu-tolerant crops should be grown on Cu-contaminated soils in order to ameliorate the toxic effects for sustainable farming systems and to meet the food demands of the intensively increasing population.

  13. [Effects of crop tree release on stand growth and stand structure of Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-qiang; Wang, Yi-xiang; Yang, Yi; Zhu, Ting-ting; Zhu, Xu-dan

    2015-02-01

    Crop trees were selected in a 26-year-old even-aged Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation in Lin' an, and compared in plots that were released and unreleased to examine growth and structure responses for 3 years after thinning. Crop tree release significantly increased the mean increments of diameter and volume of individual tree by 1.30 and 1.25 times relative to trees in control stands, respectively. The increments of diameter and volume of crop trees were significantly higher than those of general trees in thinning plots, crop trees and general trees in control plots, which suggested that the responses from different tree types to crop tree release treatment were different. Crop tree release increased the average distances of crop trees to the nearest neighboring trees, reducing competition among crop trees by about 68.2%. 3-year stand volume increment for thinning stands had no significant difference with that of control stands although the number of trees was only 81.5% of the control. Crop trees in thinned plots with diameters over than 14 cm reached 18.0% over 3 years, compared with 12.0% for trees without thinning, suggesting that crop tree release benefited the larger individual trees. The pattern of tree locations in thinning plots tended to be random, complying with the rule that tree distribution pattern changes with growth. Crop tree release in C. lanceolata plantation not only promoted the stand growth, but also optimized the stand structure, benefiting crop trees sustained rapid growth and larger diameter trees production.

  14. Microbial growth and sensory quality of dried potato slices irradiated by electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Song, Hyeon-Jeong; Song, Kyung-Bin

    2011-06-01

    Electron beam irradiation was applied to secure the microbial safety of dried purple sweet potato. After purple sweet potato slices had been dehydrated with 20% (w/w) maltodextrin solution, the samples were irradiated at doses 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 kGy and then stored at 20 °C for 60 days. Microbiological data indicated that the populations of total aerobic bacteria and of yeast and molds significantly decreased with increase in irradiation dosage. Specifically, microbial load was reduced by about three log cycles at 6 kGy compared to those of the control. Based on the color measurement of the potato slices, electron beam irradiation treatment did not affect the color quality. Sensory evaluation results also showed that electron beam irradiation did not affect overall sensory scores during storage. These results suggest that electron beam irradiation could be useful for improving microbial safety without impairing the quality of the potato slices during storage.

  15. Electromagnetic wave scattering from vegetation (Potato) and vegetation covered soil moisture for remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Keshev

    In the country with limited resources, where the nutrition level of the population has to be maintained under inhospitable situation, the potato has a special value as food. Therefore efforts should be made for improvement and spreading the cultivation of this important crop. It demands an effective program that may provide information about potato growing areas and the growth conditions. Remote sensing has been acknowledged to be a valuable source of spatially comprehensive and temporally repeatable information of crop covered soil moisture, crop growth climatic information etc, which is useful and necessary for agriculture purposes. For this purpose, microwave remote sensing has evolved as an important tool. Since microwave are able to penetrate more deeply into vegetation and underneath ground surface. It is also preferred to the optical frequency band because microwave can work in all type of weather and have a wide signal dynamic range compared optical wavelengths. However interpretation of microwave scattering from agricultural crops requires an understanding the interaction among microwave, vegetative material and the soil. In order to develop useful forward and inverse models for retrieving the vegetation characteristic, it is necessary to know in detail the dielectric properties and plant structure of the vegetation over the range of expected growing conditions. In this paper, a theoretical model based on microwave interaction with potato crop along with examination of biomass of potato crop with the varying underlying soil moisture is studied. For this purpose, X-band (9.5GHz) scatterometer is used for studying the interaction of microwave with potato crop biomass and underlying soil moisture at various sensor parameters (i.e. angular variation and polarization, HH- and VV-). Although there may be a lot of crop parameters (i.e. crop height, leaf area index, etc) which also gives their effect on microwave. All this parameters are interlinked in the crop

  16. Effects of different on-farm management on yield and water use efficiency of Potato crop cultivated in semiarid environments under subsurface drip irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazouani, Hiba; Provenzano, Giuseppe; Rallo, Giovanni; Mguidiche, Amel; Douh, Boutheina; Boujelben, Abdelhamid

    2016-04-01

    In Tunisia the amount of water for irrigated agriculture is higher than about 80% of the total resource.The increasing population and the rising food demand, associated to the negative effects of climate change,make it crucial to adopt strategies aiming to improve water use efficiency (WUE). Moreover, the absence of an effective public policy for water management amplifies the imbalance between water supply and its demand. Despite improved irrigation technologies can enhance the efficiency of water distribution systems, to achieve environmental goals it is also necessaryto identify on-farm management strategies accounting for actual crop water requirement. The main objective of the paper was to assess the effects of different on-farm managementstrategies (irrigation scheduling and planting date) on yield and water use efficiency of Potato crop (Solanumtuberosum L.) irrigated with a subsurface drip system, under the semi-arid climate of central Tunisia. Experiments were carried out during three growing seasons (2012, 2014 and 2015) at the High Agronomic Institute of ChottMariem in Sousse, by considering different planting dates and irrigation depths, the latter scheduled according to the climate observed during the season. All the considered treatments received the same pesticide and fertilizer management. Experiments evidenced that the climatic variability characterizing the examined seasons (photoperiod, solar radiation and average temperature) affects considerably the crop phenological stages, and the late sowing shortens the crop cycle.It has also been demonstrated that Leaf Area Index (LAI) and crop yield resulted relatively higher for those treatments receiving larger amounts of seasonal water. Crop yield varied between 16.3 t/ha and 39.1 t/ha, with a trend linearly related to the ratio between the seasonal amount of water supplied (Irrigation, I and Precipitation, P) and the maximum crop evapotranspiration (ETm). The maximum crop yield was in particular

  17. Mathematical modeling and validation of growth of Salmonella Enteritidis and background microorganisms in potato salad – one-step kinetic analysis and model development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to examine the growth of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) in potato salad caused by cross-contamination and temperature abuse, and develop mathematical models to predict its growth. The growth of SE was investigated under constant temperature conditions (8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, a...

  18. Effect of Seeding Rate and Planting Arrangement on Rye Cover Crop and Weed Growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed growth in winter cover crops in warm climates may contribute to weed management costs in subsequent crops. A two year experiment was conducted on an organic vegetable farm in Salinas, California, to determine the impact of seeding rate and planting arrangement on rye (Secale cereale L. cv. Merc...

  19. Sustainable potato production: global case studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is grown in over 100 countries throughout the world. As a staple food, potato is the fourth most important crop after rice, wheat, and maize, and has historically contributed to food and nutrition security in the world. Global interest in potato increased sharply in 200...

  20. Bioprospecting in potato fields in the Central Andean Highlands: screening of rhizobacteria for plant growth-promoting properties.

    PubMed

    Ghyselinck, Jonas; Velivelli, Siva L S; Heylen, Kim; O'Herlihy, Eileen; Franco, Javier; Rojas, Mercy; De Vos, Paul; Prestwich, Barbara Doyle

    2013-03-01

    The Central Andean Highlands are the center of origin of the potato plant (Solanum tuberosum). Ages of mutualism between potato plants and soil bacteria in this region support the hypothesis that Andean soils harbor interesting plant growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria. Therefore, the aim of this study was to isolate rhizobacteria from Andean ecosystems, and to identify those with PGP properties. A total of 585 bacterial isolates were obtained from eight potato fields in the Andes and they were screened for suppression of Phytophthora infestans and Rhizoctonia solani. Antagonistic mechanisms were determined and antagonistic isolates were further tested for phosphate solubilization, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity, and production of NH3- and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). PGP was studied in healthy and R. solani diseased plantlets under growth room conditions. Performance was compared to the commercial strain B. subtilis FZB24(®) WG. Isolates were dereplicated with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and identified with 16S rRNA gene sequencing and multi locus sequence analysis (MLSA). A total of 10% of the isolates were effective antagonists, of which many were able to solubilize phosphate, and produce IAA, ACC deaminase, NH3 and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). During growth room experiments, 23 antagonistic isolates were associated with plant growth-promotion and/or disease suppression. Ten isolates had a statistically significant impact on test parameters compared to the uninoculated control. Three isolates significantly promoted plant growth in healthy plantlets compared to the commercial strain, and seven isolates outperformed the commercial strain in in vitro R. solani diseased plantlets.

  1. Time Series Analysis of Remote Sensing Observations for Citrus Crop Growth Stage and Evapotranspiration Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawant, S. A.; Chakraborty, M.; Suradhaniwar, S.; Adinarayana, J.; Durbha, S. S.

    2016-06-01

    Satellite based earth observation (EO) platforms have proved capability to spatio-temporally monitor changes on the earth's surface. Long term satellite missions have provided huge repository of optical remote sensing datasets, and United States Geological Survey (USGS) Landsat program is one of the oldest sources of optical EO datasets. This historical and near real time EO archive is a rich source of information to understand the seasonal changes in the horticultural crops. Citrus (Mandarin / Nagpur Orange) is one of the major horticultural crops cultivated in central India. Erratic behaviour of rainfall and dependency on groundwater for irrigation has wide impact on the citrus crop yield. Also, wide variations are reported in temperature and relative humidity causing early fruit onset and increase in crop water requirement. Therefore, there is need to study the crop growth stages and crop evapotranspiration at spatio-temporal scale for managing the scarce resources. In this study, an attempt has been made to understand the citrus crop growth stages using Normalized Difference Time Series (NDVI) time series data obtained from Landsat archives (http://earthexplorer.usgs.gov/). Total 388 Landsat 4, 5, 7 and 8 scenes (from year 1990 to Aug. 2015) for Worldwide Reference System (WRS) 2, path 145 and row 45 were selected to understand seasonal variations in citrus crop growth. Considering Landsat 30 meter spatial resolution to obtain homogeneous pixels with crop cover orchards larger than 2 hectare area was selected. To consider change in wavelength bandwidth (radiometric resolution) with Landsat sensors (i.e. 4, 5, 7 and 8) NDVI has been selected to obtain continuous sensor independent time series. The obtained crop growth stage information has been used to estimate citrus basal crop coefficient information (Kcb). Satellite based Kcb estimates were used with proximal agrometeorological sensing system

  2. Potato-associated arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in the Peruvian Andes.

    PubMed

    Senés-Guerrero, Carolina; Torres-Cortés, Gloria; Pfeiffer, Stefan; Rojas, Mercy; Schüßler, Arthur

    2014-08-01

    The world's fourth largest food crop, potato, originates in the Andes. Here, the community composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with potato in Andean ecosystems is described for the first time. AMF were studied in potato roots and rhizosphere soil at four different altitudes from 2,658 to 4,075 m above mean sea level (mamsl) and in three plant growth stages (emergence, flowering, and senescence). AMF species were distinguished by sequencing an approx. 1,500 bp nuclear rDNA region. Twenty species of AMF were identified, of which 12 came from potato roots and 15 from rhizosphere soil. Seven species were found in both roots and soil. Interestingly, altitude affected species composition with the highest altitude exhibiting the greatest species diversity. The three most common colonizers of potato roots detected were Funneliformis mosseae, an unknown Claroideoglomus sp., and Rhizophagus irregularis. Notably, the potato-associated AMF diversity observed in this Andean region is much higher than that reported for potato in other ecosystems. Potato plants were colonized by diverse species from 8 of the 11 Glomeromycota families. Identification of the AMF species is important for their potential use in sustainable management practices to improve potato production in the Andean region.

  3. Pressure Control System Design for a Closed Crop Growth Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, K.; Blackwell, C.; Harper, Lynn D. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) is an area of active research at NASA. CELSS is a plant-based bioregenerative life support system for long term manned space flights where resupply is costly or impractical. The plants in a CELSS will function to convert the carbon dioxide (exhaled by the crew) into oxygen, purify non-potable water into potable quality water, and provide food for the crew. Prior to implementing a CELSS life support system, one must have knowledge on growing plants in a closed chamber under low gravity. This information will come from research to be conducted on the CELSS Test Facility that will operate on the Space Station Freedom. Currently a ground-based CELSS Test Facility is being built at NASA Ames Research Center. It is called the EDU (Engineering Development Unit). This system will allow researchers to identify issues that may cause difficulties in the development of the CELSS Test Facility and aid in the development of new needed technologies. The EDU consists of a 1 m2 crop growth chamber that is surrounded by a containment enclosure. The containment enclosure isolates the system so there is very little mass and thermal exchange with the ambient. The leakage rate is on the order of 1 % of the enclosure's volume per day (with 0.2S psi pressure difference). The thermal leakage is less than 0.5% of the electrical power supplied to the system per degree Celsius difference from the surrounding. The pressure in the containment enclosure is regulated at 62.5 Pa below the ambient by an active controller. The goal is to maintain this set point for a variety of conditions, such as a range of operating temperatures, heat load variations that occur when the lights are turned on and off, and fluctuations in ambient pressure. In addition certain transition tracking performance is required. This paper illustrates the application of some advanced systems control methods to the task of synthesizing the EDU's pressure control system.

  4. A Brief History of the Potato in Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Provides historical information on the potato in Ireland focusing on how the potato arrived in Ireland and the advantages and disadvantages of the potato as a food crop. Discusses the Irish potato famine in Ireland, effects of the famine, and the government's laissez-faire response. Includes a list of questions. (CMK)

  5. Systematics, diversity, genetics, and evolution of wild and cultivated potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated potato, Solanum tuberosum L., is the third most important food crop and is grown and consumed worldwide. Indigenous primitive cultivated (landrace) potatoes, and wild potatoes, all classified as Solanum section Petota, are widely used for potato improvement. Members of section Petota are ...

  6. Reactivation of Meristem Activity and Sprout Growth in Potato Tubers Require Both Cytokinin and Gibberellin1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Anja; Senning, Melanie; Hedden, Peter; Sonnewald, Uwe; Sonnewald, Sophia

    2011-01-01

    Reactivation of dormant meristems is of central importance for plant fitness and survival. Due to their large meristem size, potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers serve as a model system to study the underlying molecular processes. The phytohormones cytokinins (CK) and gibberellins (GA) play important roles in releasing potato tuber dormancy and promoting sprouting, but their mode of action in these processes is still obscure. Here, we established an in vitro assay using excised tuber buds to study the dormancy-releasing capacity of GA and CK and show that application of gibberellic acid (GA3) is sufficient to induce sprouting. In contrast, treatment with 6-benzylaminopurine induced bud break but did not support further sprout growth unless GA3 was administered additionally. Transgenic potato plants expressing Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) GA 20-oxidase or GA 2-oxidase to modify endogenous GA levels showed the expected phenotypical changes as well as slight effects on tuber sprouting. The isopentenyltransferase (IPT) from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and the Arabidopsis cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase1 (CKX) were exploited to modify the amounts of CK in transgenic potato plants. IPT expression promoted earlier sprouting in vitro. Strikingly, CKX-expressing tubers exhibited a prolonged dormancy period and did not respond to GA3. This supports an essential role of CK in terminating tuber dormancy and indicates that GA is not sufficient to break dormancy in the absence of CK. GA3-treated wild-type and CKX-expressing tuber buds were subjected to a transcriptome analysis that revealed transcriptional changes in several functional groups, including cell wall metabolism, cell cycle, and auxin and ethylene signaling, denoting events associated with the reactivation of dormant meristems. PMID:21163959

  7. Monitoring winter wheat growth in North China by combining a crop model and remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuping, Ma; Shili, Wang; Li, Zhang; Yingyu, Hou; Liwei, Zhuang; Yanbo, He; Futang, Wang

    2008-12-01

    Both of crop growth simulation models and remote sensing method have a high potential in crop growth monitoring and yield prediction. However, crop models have limitations in regional application and remote sensing in describing the growth process. Therefore, many researchers try to combine those two approaches for estimating the regional crop yields. In this paper, the WOFOST model was adjusted and regionalized for winter wheat in North China and coupled through the LAI to the SAIL-PROSPECT model in order to simulate soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI). Using the optimization software (FSEOPT), the crop model was then re-initialized by minimizing the differences between simulated and synthesized SAVI from remote sensing data to monitor winter wheat growth at the potential production level. Initial conditions, which strongly impact phenological development and growth, and which are hardly known at the regional scale (such as emergence date or biomass at turn-green stage), were chosen to be re-initialized. It was shown that re-initializing emergence date by using remote sensing data brought simulated anthesis and maturity date closer to measured values than without remote sensing data. Also the re-initialization of regional biomass weight at turn-green stage led that the spatial distribution of simulated weight of storage organ was more consistent to official yields. This approach has some potential to aid in scaling local simulation of crop phenological development and growth to the regional scale but requires further validation.

  8. Greenhouse gas fluxes during growth of different bioenergy crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, K.; Don, A.; Flessa, H.

    2012-04-01

    Bioenergy crops are expected to contribute to greenhouse gas mitigation by substituting fossil fuels. However, during production, processing and transport of bioenergy crops greenhouse gas emissions are generated that have to be taken into account when evaluating the role of bioenergy for climate mitigation. Especially nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions during feedstock production determine the greenhouse gas balance of bioenergy due to its strong global warming potential. This fact has often been ignored due to insufficient data and knowledge on greenhouse gas emission from cropland soils under bioenergy production. Therefore, we started to investigate the greenhouse gas emissions of major bioenergy crops maize, oil seed rape, grass (grass-clover, without N-fertilizer) and short rotation coppice (SRC, poplar hybrid) at two sites in Central Germany (near Göttingen and in Thuringia). The nitrous oxide and methane (CH4) fluxes from these sites have been determined by weekly chamber measurements since May 2011. The N2O emissions from all fields were low and without extreme peaks during the first five months of measurement (222 to 687 g N2O-N ha-1 for 5 months). The rape field near Göttingen emitted less N2O than the SRC, probably because SRC was newly established in spring 2011 and the rape has not been fertilized during the measurement period (cumulative emission over 5 months: rape seed 366 ± 188 g N2O-N ha-1, grassland 497 ± 153 g N2O-N ha-1, SRC 687 ± 124 g N2O-N ha-1). The maize field in Thuringia emitted more N2O than the SRC due to emission peaks related to the fertilization of maize (cumulative emission over 5 months: maize 492 ± 140 g N2O-N ha-1, grasslands 253 ± 87 and 361 ± 135 g N2O-N ha-1, new SRC 222 ± 90 g N2O-N ha-1, 4 years old SRC 340 ± 264 g N2O-N ha-1). All sites showed a net uptake of atmospheric methane throughout the summer season (104 to 862 g CH4-C ha-1 for 5 months). However, net-exchange of CH4 is of little importance for the greenhouse

  9. Effects of plant genotype and growth stage on the structure of bacterial communities associated with potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    van Overbeek, Leo; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2008-05-01

    The effects of genotype, plant growth and experimental factors (soil and year) on potato-associated bacterial communities were studied. Cultivars Achirana Inta, Désirée, Merkur and transgenic Désirée line DL12 (containing T4 lysozyme gene) were assessed in two field experiments. Cross-comparisons between both experiments were made using Désirée plants. Culture-dependent and -independent approaches were used to demonstrate effects on total bacterial, actinobacterial and Pseudomonas communities in bulk and rhizosphere soils and endospheres. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprints prepared with group-specific primers were analyzed using multivariate analyses and revealed that bacterial communities in Achirana Inta plants differed most from those of Désirée and Merkur. No significant effects were found between Désirée and DL12 lines. Plant growth stage strongly affected different plant-associated communities in both experiments. To investigate the effect of plant-associated communities on plant health, 800 isolates from rhizospheres and endospheres at the flowering stage were tested for suppression of Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2 and/or Rhizoctonia solani AG3. A group of isolates closely resembling Lysobacter sp. dominated in young plants. Its prevalence was affected by plant growth stage and experiment rather than by plant genotype. It was concluded that plant growth stage overwhelmed any effect of plant genotype on the bacterial communities associated with potato.

  10. Growth, yield and plant water relationships in sweet potatoes in response to carbon dioxide enrichment: Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    In the summer of 1985, under the joint program of US Department of Energy, Carbon Dioxide Division, and Tuskegee University, experiments were conducted to study growth, yield, photosynthesis and plant water relationships in sweet potato plants grown in an enriched CO/sub 2/ environment. The main experiment utilized open top chambers to study the effects of CO/sub 2/ and soil moisture on growth, yield and photosynthesis of field-grown plants. In addition, potted plants in open top chambers were utilized in a study of the effects of different CO/sub 2/ concentrations on growth pattern, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate and biomass increment at different stages of development. The interaction effects of enriched CO/sub 2/ and water stress on biomass production, yield, xylem potential, and stomatal conductance were also investigated. 29 refs., 18 figs., 41 tabs.

  11. Economic assessments of potato production systems in Maine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using an integrated enterprise and whole-farm budget model for a 324-ha medium-sized potato farm, the profitability of potatoes grown in combination with fifteen common potato rotation crops in Maine are evaluated. Enterprise budgets for all sixteen crops are calculated while a whole-farm budget syn...

  12. Plant-mediated gene silencing restricts growth of the potato late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Sultana N; Åsman, Anna K M; Corcoran, Pádraic; Fogelqvist, Johan; Vetukuri, Ramesh R; Dixelius, Christina

    2015-05-01

    Phytophthora infestans is an oomycete that causes severe damage to potato, and is well known for its ability to evolve rapidly in order to overcome resistant potato varieties. An RNA silencing strategy was evaluated here to clarify if small interfering RNA homologous to selected genes in P. infestans could be targeted from the plant host to reduce the magnitude of the infection. As a proof-of-concept, a hairpin RNA (hp-RNA) construct using the GFP marker gene was designed and introduced in potato. At 72 hpi, a 55-fold reduction of the signal intensity of a corresponding GFP expressing P. infestans strain on leaf samples of transgenic plants, compared with wild-type potato, was detected. This suggests that an RNA interference construct in the potato host could be processed and target a transcript of the pathogen. Three genes important in the infection process of P. infestans, PiGPB1, PiCESA2, and PiPEC, together with PiGAPDH taking part in basic cell maintenance were subsequently tested using an analogous transgenic strategy. Out of these gene candidates, the hp-PiGPB1 targeting the G protein β-subunit (PiGPB1) important for pathogenicity resulted in most restricted disease progress. Further, Illumina sequencing of inoculated transgenic potato leaves revealed sRNAs of 24/25 nt size homologous to the PiGPB1 gene in the transgenic plants indicating post-transcriptional silencing of the target gene. The work demonstrates that a host-induced gene-silencing approach is functional against P. infestans but is highly dependent on target gene for a successful outcome. This finding broadens the arsenal of control strategies to this important plant disease.

  13. Predictive spatial modeling of narcotic crop growth patterns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waltz, Frederick A.; Moore, D.G.

    1986-01-01

    Spatial models for predicting the geographic distribution of marijuana crops have been developed and are being evaluated for use in law enforcement programs. The models are based on growing condition preferences and on psychological inferences regarding grower behavior. Experiences of local law officials were used to derive the initial model, which was updated and improved as data from crop finds were archived and statistically analyzed. The predictive models are changed as crop locations are moved in response to the pressures of law enforcement. The models use spatial data in a raster geographic information system. The spatial data are derived from the U.S. Geological Survey's US GeoData, standard 7.5-minute topographic quadrangle maps, interpretations of aerial photographs, and thematic maps. Updating of cultural patterns, canopy closure, and other dynamic features is conducted through interpretation of aerial photographs registered to the 7.5-minute quadrangle base. The model is used to numerically weight various data layers that have been processed using spread functions, edge definition, and categorization. The building of the spatial data base, model development, model application, product generation, and use are collectively referred to as the Area Reduction Program (ARP). The goal of ARP is to provide law enforcement officials with tactical maps that show the most likely locations for narcotic crops.

  14. Using LANDSAT to provide potato production estimates to Columbia Basin farmers and processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The estimation of potato yields in the Columbia basin is described. The fundamental objective is to provide CROPIX with working models of potato production. A two-pronged approach was used to yield estimation: (1) using simulation models, and (2) using purely empirical models. The simulation modeling approach used satellite observations to determine certain key dates in the development of the crop for each field identified as potatoes. In particular, these include planting dates, emergence dates, and harvest dates. These critical dates are fed into simulation models of crop growth and development to derive yield forecasts. Purely empirical models were developed to relate yield to some spectrally derived measure of crop development. Two empirical approaches are presented: one relates tuber yield to estimates of cumulative intercepted solar radiation, the other relates tuber yield to the integral under GVI (Global Vegetation Index) curve.

  15. Field Heterogeneity Patterns as a Crucial Factor for Improving Crop Growth Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadler, A.; Kupisch, M.; Langensiepen, M.; Ewert, F.

    2012-12-01

    Agricultural ecosystems depend on environmental factors, especially the weather and the soil characteristics. Heterogeneous conditions within a field cause spatial variations of biomass, leaf area index and yield. The effects of varying spatial conditions on crop growth are generally examined on different spatial scales, but just few studies address spatial heterogeneity at the field level. Since crop growth models try to represent an image of reality, they should consider variations in field conditions, especially regarding small-scale simulations and precision agriculture. Some studies already described that the tested models are able to represent spatial heterogeneity at regional scale, if parameters of environmental conditions are adapted. Therefore, we hypothesize that taking into account the effects of soil heterogeneity on plant water and nutrient uptake also improves the accuracy of crop growth models at field scale. A crop growth model was applied using information from winter wheat and sugar beet field trials carried out near Jülich, located in the central western part of Germany. These fields are all characterized by strong spatial variability in soil conditions and managed according to standard agronomic practice. The crop growth model was calibrated separately for each winter wheat and sugar beet cultivar grown on these fields by adjusting the respective parameters with the help of crop physiological measurements at point level. The soil model was parameterized for different field sample points with electromagnetic induction measurements to account for the spatial heterogeneity in soil conditions within each field. After that, the crop growth model was tested whether it could reproduce the observed spatial patterns of crop growth in the selected fields (2010 - 2012) by considering the spatial variability in soil properties. The analysis of our measurements on heterogeneous winter wheat fields showed a distribution of soil properties whose patterns are

  16. Simulation of winter wheat yield and its uncertainty band; A comparison of two crop growth models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javad Khordadi Varamini, Mohammad; Nassiri Mahallati, Mehdi; Alizadeh, Amin

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we used the WOFOST and AquaCrop crop growth simulation models to examine crop yield responses to a set of plausible scenarios of climate change in Mashhad region, located in Ghareghom basin, northeast of Iran up to 2040. We selected winter wheat as an indicator crop. Also six AOGCMs including GFCM21, HADCM3, INCM3, IPCM4, MPEH5 and NCCCSM under A2 and B1 emission scenarios are used. LARS-WG statistical method for downscaling is utilized. In the present research, using 7-year observed crop data, the crop models were calibrated and then validated. Evaluation of WOFOST and AquaCrop models confirmed the models are able for simulating the yield of wheat grown in the study area. The results showed that average potential yield of wheat ranged from 3.43 to 8.42 and 2.76 to 6.49 ton.ha-1, in AquaCrop and WOFOST models, respectively. Finally, the uncertainty band due to the six AOGCMs for estimating crop yield is drawn and investigated. These bands show possible changes for the yield in the future period to the past one. It can be concluded the positive effects of climate warming and elevated CO2 concentrations on the production in the studied region.

  17. Effects of Plant Genotype and Growth Stage on the Betaproteobacterial Communities Associated with Different Potato Cultivars in Two Fields▿ †

    PubMed Central

    İnceoğlu, Özgül; Salles, Joana Falcão; van Overbeek, Leo; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial communities in the rhizosphere are dynamic and susceptible to changes in plant conditions. Among the bacteria, the betaproteobacteria play key roles in nutrient cycling and plant growth promotion, and hence the dynamics of their community structures in the rhizosphere should be investigated. Here, the effects of plant cultivar, growth stage, and soil type on the communities associated with potato cultivars Aveka, Aventra, Karnico, Modena, Premiere, and Désirée were assessed for two different fields containing sandy soil with either a high or low organic compound content. Thus, bacterial and betaproteobacterial PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses were performed to analyze the effects of plant cultivar and growth on the rhizosphere community structure. The analyses showed that in both fields all cultivars had a rhizosphere effect on the total bacterial and betaproteobacterial communities. In addition, the plant growth stage strongly affected the betaproteobacterial communities in both fields. Moreover, the community structures were affected by cultivar, and cultivars differed in physiology, as reflected in their growth rates, root development, and estimated tuber starch contents. Analyses of betaproteobacterial clone libraries constructed for two selected cultivars (one cultivar that produced low-starch-content tubers and one cultivar that produced high-starch-content tubers), as well as bulk soil, revealed that the rhizospheres of the two cultivars selected for specific bacteria, including plant-growth-promoting bacteria, such as Variovorax and Achromobacter spp. In addition, quantitative PCR-based quantification of the Variovorax paradoxus-specific functional gene asfA (involved in desulfonation) indicated that there were clear potato rhizosphere effects on the abundance of this gene. Interestingly, both cultivar type and plant growth stage affected the community under some circumstances. PMID:20363788

  18. Effects of plant genotype and growth stage on the betaproteobacterial communities associated with different potato cultivars in two fields.

    PubMed

    Inceoğlu, Ozgül; Salles, Joana Falcão; van Overbeek, Leo; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2010-06-01

    Bacterial communities in the rhizosphere are dynamic and susceptible to changes in plant conditions. Among the bacteria, the betaproteobacteria play key roles in nutrient cycling and plant growth promotion, and hence the dynamics of their community structures in the rhizosphere should be investigated. Here, the effects of plant cultivar, growth stage, and soil type on the communities associated with potato cultivars Aveka, Aventra, Karnico, Modena, Premiere, and Désirée were assessed for two different fields containing sandy soil with either a high or low organic compound content. Thus, bacterial and betaproteobacterial PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses were performed to analyze the effects of plant cultivar and growth on the rhizosphere community structure. The analyses showed that in both fields all cultivars had a rhizosphere effect on the total bacterial and betaproteobacterial communities. In addition, the plant growth stage strongly affected the betaproteobacterial communities in both fields. Moreover, the community structures were affected by cultivar, and cultivars differed in physiology, as reflected in their growth rates, root development, and estimated tuber starch contents. Analyses of betaproteobacterial clone libraries constructed for two selected cultivars (one cultivar that produced low-starch-content tubers and one cultivar that produced high-starch-content tubers), as well as bulk soil, revealed that the rhizospheres of the two cultivars selected for specific bacteria, including plant-growth-promoting bacteria, such as Variovorax and Achromobacter spp. In addition, quantitative PCR-based quantification of the Variovorax paradoxus-specific functional gene asfA (involved in desulfonation) indicated that there were clear potato rhizosphere effects on the abundance of this gene. Interestingly, both cultivar type and plant growth stage affected the community under some circumstances.

  19. Crop growth stress and yield reduction as detected from spectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kancheva, Rumiana

    A significant amount of research is being performed to develop efficient methods for monitoring of vegetation dynamics at different scales and from different data sources. To provide distinguishable markers for agricultural crop assessment is a core task in vegetation remote sensing. This task is relevant to precision farming in order to track crop development and evaluate crop growth conditions in terms of detecting unfavorable or stress situations as well as to make yield predictions. In this paper we present some results from experiments that have been conducted over different species grown under different conditions: nutrient supply (fertilization types and rates), heavy metal pollution, soil properties. The effect of these conditions on crop growth and productivity has been studied and related to plant spectral features in a statistical manner. Crops have been characterized by key bioparameters during plant development (biomass, leaf area index, canopy cover) and by crop yield at the end of the growing season. Multispectral and multitemporal vegetation indices from ground based and airborne data have been used to quantitatively distinguish between crop state and in yield prediction models. The main pillars of the algorithm are: - development of inverse crop radiative models for estimation of crop state variables from radiometric data; - development of yield prediction models based on crop state variables with consideration of plant phenology; - current yield prediction models from crop radiometric data; - yield forecast updates from time series radiometric data; - yield prediction verification from plant biophysical models. This approach is quite suitable for implementation at local scales using airborne multispectral data with a temporal resolution in accordance with the proper for the case time-lag (crop type, ontogenesis, etc.). It has been developed for winter wheat and spring barley through ground-based experiments and has been tested and validated using

  20. Organic potato production – seed potato production and participatory variety trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potatoes are vegetatively propagated, thus many pathogens can be transmitted in seed potatoes and affect the subsequent crop. Certified seed potatoes, which are inspected to ensure that pathogen levels are below a specified threshold, provide effective control of most tuber-borne diseases. Organic g...

  1. Qualitative and quantitative status of the field grown potato crop stressed by acidified rain. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Pell, E.J.

    1986-06-01

    In 1983 and 1984 experiments were conducted to determine the impact of simulated acidic rain on Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Norchip plants grown under standard field practices. Plots, 2.1 m/sup 2/ in area, received 0.5 cm of simulated rain three times per week at pH 2.8, 3.8, 4.6 or 5.6, throughout the growing season. Two 9 x 26m greenhouses mounted on rails covered the plots when simulated rain was being delivered and during ambient rain events. At the end of the growing season, tubers were harvested and it was determined that simulated acid rain did not affect weight, number, total solid, total glycoalkaloid or sugar content of potato tubers. In a second series of experiments the ability of simulated acidic rain to induce ethylene emission was investigated for foliage of Solanum tuberosum L. cv. 'Norland', Raphanus sativus cv. 'Cherry Belle', and Glycine max cv. 'Amsoy'. Greenhouse grown plants were treated with simulated acidic rain solutions of pH 2.8, 3.8, 4.6 or 5.6 for 1-hr/day for a single day or 1-hr/day for three consecutive days. No species exhibited increased ethylene production in response to 1-hr rain treatments. After multiple rain treatments, plants treated with pH 2.8 rain generally exhibited increased ethylene production. However, no direct relationship between ethylene production and treatment acidity was observed. 41 refs., 1 figs., 13 tabs.

  2. Tuning growth cycles of Brassica crops via natural antisense transcripts of BrFLC.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaorong; Zhang, Shaofeng; Bai, Jinjuan; He, Yuke

    2016-03-01

    Several oilseed and vegetable crops of Brassica are biennials that require a prolonged winter cold for flowering, a process called vernalization. FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) is a central repressor of flowering. Here, we report that the overexpression of natural antisense transcripts (NATs) of Brassica rapa FLC (BrFLC) greatly shortens plant growth cycles. In rapid-, medium- and slow-cycling crop types, there are four copies of the BrFLC genes, which show extensive variation in sequences and expression levels. In Bre, a biennial crop type that requires vernalization, five NATs derived from the BrFLC2 locus are rapidly induced under cold conditions, while all four BrFLC genes are gradually down-regulated. The transgenic Bre lines overexpressing a long NAT of BrFLC2 do not require vernalization, resulting in a gradient of shortened growth cycles. Among them, a subset of lines both flower and set seeds as early as Yellow sarson, an annual crop type in which all four BrFLC genes have non-sense mutations and are nonfunctional in flowering repression. Our results demonstrate that the growth cycles of biennial crops of Brassica can be altered by changing the expression levels of BrFLC2 NATs. Thus, BrFLC2 NATs and their transgenic lines are useful for the genetic manipulation of crop growth cycles.

  3. Comparative secretome analysis of Streptomyces scabiei during growth in the presence or absence of potato suberin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Suberin is a recalcitrant plant biopolymer composed of a polyphenolic and a polyaliphatic domain. Although suberin contributes to a significant portion of soil organic matter, the biological process of suberin degradation is poorly characterized. It has been suggested that Streptomyces scabiei, a plant pathogenic bacterium, can produce suberin-degrading enzymes. In this study, a comparative analysis of the S. scabiei secretome from culture media supplemented or not with potato suberin was carried out to identify enzymes that could be involved in suberin degradation. Methods S. scabiei was grown in the presence of casein only or in the presence of both casein and suberin. Extracellular proteins from 1-, 3- and 5-day-old supernatants were analyzed by LC-MS/MS to determine their putative functions. Real-time RT-PCR was performed to monitor the expression level of genes encoding several proteins potentially involved in suberin degradation. Results The effect of suberin on the extracellular protein profile of S. scabiei strain has been analyzed. A total of 246 proteins were found to be common in the data sets from both casein medium (CM) and casein-suberin medium (CSM), whereas 124 and 139 proteins were detected only in CM or CSM, respectively. The identified proteins could be divided into 19 functional groups. Two functional groups of proteins (degradation of aromatic compounds and secondary metabolism) were only associated with the CSM. A high proportion of the proteins found to be either exclusively produced, or overproduced, in presence of suberin were involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Most of the proteins included in the lipid metabolism class have been detected in CSM. Apart from lipid metabolism proteins, other identified proteins, particularly two feruloyl esterases, may also actively participate in the breakdown of suberin architecture. Both feruloyl esterase genes were overexpressed between 30 to 340 times in the presence of suberin. Conclusion

  4. Effects of carbon dioxide and phosphorus supply on potato dry matter allocation and canopy morphology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) generally exhibit a positive growth response to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration (CO2) and require high amounts of phosphorus (P) fertilizer. Despite its prominence as a world-wide staple crop, there is little data that quantifies effects of P, and n...

  5. Crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis) allelochemicals that interfere with crop growth and the soil microbial community.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bin; Kong, Chui-Hua; Li, Yong-Hua; Wang, Peng; Xu, Xiao-Hua

    2013-06-05

    Three chemicals, veratric acid, maltol, and (−)-loliolide, were isolated from crabgrass and their structures were identified by spectroscopic analysis. The chemicals were detected in crabgrass root exudates and rhizosphere soils, and their concentrations ranged from 0.16 to 8.10 μg/g. At an approximate concentration determined in crabgrass root exudates, all chemicals significantly inhibited the growth of wheat, maize, and soybean and reduced soil microbial biomass carbon. Phospholipid fatty acid profiling showed that veratric acid, maltol, and (−)-loliolide affected the signature lipid biomarkers of soil bacteria, actinobacteria, and fungi, resulting in changes in soil microbial community structures. There were significant relationships between crop growth and soil microbes under the chemicals' application. Chemical-specific changes in the soil microbial community generated negative feedback on crop growth. The results suggest that veratric acid, maltol, and (−)-loliolide released from crabgrass may act as allelochemicals interfering with crop growth and the soil microbial community.

  6. Crop monitoring & yield forecasting system based on Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and process-based crop growth model: Development and validation in South and South East Asian Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiyono, T. D.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate and timely information on rice crop growth and yield helps governments and other stakeholders adapting their economic policies and enables relief organizations to better anticipate and coordinate relief efforts in the wake of a natural catastrophe. Such delivery of rice growth and yield information is made possible by regular earth observation using space-born Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technology combined with crop modeling approach to estimate yield. Radar-based remote sensing is capable of observing rice vegetation growth irrespective of cloud coverage, an important feature given that in incidences of flooding the sky is often cloud-covered. The system allows rapid damage assessment over the area of interest. Rice yield monitoring is based on a crop growth simulation and SAR-derived key information, particularly start of season and leaf growth rate. Results from pilot study sites in South and South East Asian countries suggest that incorporation of SAR data into crop model improves yield estimation for actual yields. Remote-sensing data assimilation into crop model effectively capture responses of rice crops to environmental conditions over large spatial coverage, which otherwise is practically impossible to achieve. Such improvement of actual yield estimates offers practical application such as in a crop insurance program. Process-based crop simulation model is used in the system to ensure climate information is adequately captured and to enable mid-season yield forecast.

  7. Efficacy of Bacillus subtilis V26 as a biological control agent against Rhizoctonia solani on potato.

    PubMed

    Ben Khedher, Saoussen; Kilani-Feki, Olfa; Dammak, Mouna; Jabnoun-Khiareddine, Hayfa; Daami-Remadi, Mejda; Tounsi, Slim

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of the strain Bacillus subtilis V26, a local isolate from the Tunisian soil, to control potato black scurf caused by Rhizoctonia solani. The in vitro antifungal activity of V26 significantly inhibited R. solani growth compared to the untreated control. Microscopic observations revealed that V26 caused considerable morphological deformations of the fungal hyphae such as vacuolation, protoplast leakage and mycelia crack. The most effective control was achieved when strain V26 was applied 24h prior to inoculation (protective activity) in potato slices. The antagonistic bacterium V26 induced significant suppression of root canker and black scurf tuber colonization compared to untreated controls with a decrease in incidence disease of 63% and 81%, respectively, and promoted plant growth under greenhouse conditions on potato plants. Therefore, B. subtilis V26 has a great potential to be commercialized as a biocontrol agent against R. solani on potato crops.

  8. Comparison of axillary bud growth and patatin accumulation in potato leaf cuttings as assays for tuber induction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Hannapel, D. J.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1988-01-01

    Single-node leaf cuttings from potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) cvs. Norland, Superior, Norchip, and Kennebec, were used to assess tuber induction in plants grown under 12, 16, and 20 h daily irradiation (400 micromol s-1 m-2 PPF). Leaf cuttings were taken from plants at four, six and 15 weeks after planting and cultured for 14 d in sand trays in humid environments. Tuber induction was determined by visually rating the type of growth at the attached axillary bud, and by measuring the accumulation of the major tuber protein, patatin, in the base of the petioles. Axillary buds from leaf cuttings of plants grown under the 12 h photoperiod consistently formed round, sessile tubers at the axils for all four cultivars at all harvests. Buds from cuttings of plants grown under the 16 and 20 h photoperiods exhibited mixed tuber, stolon, and leafy shoot growth. Patatin accumulation was highest in petioles of cuttings taken from 12 h plants for all cultivars at all harvests, with levels in 16 and 20 h cuttings approx. one-half that of the 12 h cuttings. Trends, both in visual ratings of axillary buds and in petiole patatin accumulation, followed the harvest index (ratio of tuber to total plant dry matter), suggesting that either method is an acceptable assay for tuber induction in the potato.

  9. Microbial Community Dynamics and Response to Plant Growth-Promoting Microorganisms in the Rhizosphere of Four Common Food Crops Cultivated in Hydroponics.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, C; Depuydt, P; De Ro, M; Petit, C; Van Gysegem, E; Delaere, P; Dixon, M; Stasiak, M; Aciksöz, S B; Frossard, E; Paradiso, R; De Pascale, S; Ventorino, V; De Meyer, T; Sas, B; Geelen, D

    2017-02-01

    Plant growth promoting microorganisms (PGPMs) of the plant root zone microbiome have received limited attention in hydroponic cultivation systems. In the framework of a project aimed at the development of a biological life support system for manned missions in space, we investigated the effects of PGPMs on four common food crops (durum and bread wheat, potato and soybean) cultivated in recirculating hydroponic systems for a whole life cycle. Each crop was inoculated with a commercial PGPM mixture and the composition of the microbial communities associated with their root rhizosphere, rhizoplane/endosphere and with the recirculating nutrient solution was characterised through 16S- and ITS-targeted Illumina MiSeq sequencing. PGPM addition was shown to induce changes in the composition of these communities, though these changes varied both between crops and over time. Microbial communities of PGPM-treated plants were shown to be more stable over time. Though additional development is required, this study highlights the potential benefits that PGPMs may confer to plants grown in hydroponic systems, particularly when cultivated in extreme environments such as space.

  10. Life-history parameters of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, on seven commercial cultivars of potato, Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Fathi, Seyed Ali Asghar; Fakhr-Taha, Zoha; Razmjou, Jabraeil

    2013-01-01

    The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is an important pest of potato, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), crops in the Ardabil region of Iran. In this research, the life-history parameters of L. decemlineata were investigated on seven potato cultivars, namely Agria, Aozonia, Diamant, Cosmus, Kondor, Morene, and Savalan, in a greenhouse at 23 ± 1° C and 55 ± 5% RH under a natural photoperiod. The results indicated that the development time of larvae was longest on Savalan (18.3 days) among the tested potato cultivars. The survival rates (egg to adult) on Savalan and Morene were significantly lower than on the other studied cultivars. L. decemlineata reared on Savalan had the lowest fecundity (286.3 eggs/female) among the tested potato cultivars. The oviposition period of females was significantly shorter on Savalan and Diamant than on Kondor, Aozonia, Morene, Agria, and Cosmus. The values of intrinsic rate of natural increase and population growth rate were lowest on Savalan (0.055 and 1.056, respectively). The generation time and doubling time were significantly longest on Savalan (69.5 and 12.7 days, respectively). Based on these results, it can be concluded that Savalan is the least suitable cultivar for L. decemlineata among the ones tested. These results can be useful in integrated management of L. decemlineata in potato fields.

  11. Challenges of breeding potato cultivars to grow in various environments and to meet different demands

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Kazuyuki; Asano, Kenji; Tamiya, Seiji; Nakao, Takashi; Mori, Motoyuki

    2015-01-01

    The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is cultivated all year round in Japan by using four types of cropping: summer and winter croppings, and double cropping in spring and fall. In each cropping season, growth conditions such as temperature, day length, and growing period, differ drastically; thus, different cultivars adapted to each environment are required. Breeding stations are located in both summer cropping areas and double cropping areas, and cultivars suitable for each cropping system are developed. The required cultivars differ according to cropping type and according to use such as table use, food processing, and starch production. The qualities necessary for each purpose differ and are therefore evaluated accordingly. Improvements in pest and disease resistance and in yield abilities are important as common breeding targets for all purposes. To develop potato cultivars that meet different needs, breeders have continued efforts to improve these traits. In this review, we introduce our approaches to developing new potato cultivars. We also discuss problems predicted in the future and introduce our efforts on broadening genetic diversity. PMID:25931976

  12. Biotech potatoes in the 21st century: 20 years since the first biotech potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato is the world's most important vegetable crop, with nearly 400 million tons produced worldwide every year, lending to stability in food supply and socioeconomics. In general, potato is an intensively managed crop, requiring irrigation, fertilization, and frequent pesticide applications in orde...

  13. Tree growth and management in Ugandan agroforestry systems: effects of root pruning on tree growth and crop yield.

    PubMed

    Wajja-Musukwe, Tellie-Nelson; Wilson, Julia; Sprent, Janet I; Ong, Chin K; Deans, J Douglas; Okorio, John

    2008-02-01

    Tree root pruning is a potential tool for managing belowground competition when trees and crops are grown together in agroforestry systems. We investigated the effects of tree root pruning on shoot growth and root distribution of Alnus acuminata (H.B. & K.), Casuarina equisetifolia L., Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. ex R. Br., Maesopsis eminii Engl. and Markhamia lutea (Benth.) K. Schum. and on yield of adjacent crops in sub-humid Uganda. The trees were 3 years old at the commencement of the study, and most species were competing strongly with crops. Tree roots were pruned 41 months after planting by cutting and back-filling a trench to a depth of 0.3 m, at a distance of 0.3 m from the trees, on one side of the tree row. The trench was reopened and roots recut at 50 and 62 months after planting. We assessed the effects on tree growth and root distribution over a 3 year period, and crop yield after the third root pruning at 62 months. Overall, root pruning had only a slight effect on aboveground tree growth: height growth was unaffected and diameter growth was reduced by only 4%. A substantial amount of root regrowth was observed by 11 months after pruning. Tree species varied in the number and distribution of roots, and C. equisetifolia and M. lutea had considerably more roots per unit of trunk volume than the other species, especially in the surface soil layers. Casuarina equisetifolia and M. eminii were the tree species most competitive with crops and G. robusta and M. lutea the least competitive. Crop yield data provided strong evidence of the redistribution of root activity following root pruning, with competition increasing on the unpruned side of tree rows. Thus, one-sided root pruning will be useful in only a few circumstances.

  14. [Effects of limited supplemental irrigation with catchment rainfall on potato growth in rainfed areas of western Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    Qin, Shu-Hao; Zhang, Jun-Lian; Wang, Di; Pu, Yu-Lin

    2009-11-01

    Field experiments were conducted to study the effects of limited supplemental irrigation with catchment rainfall on the growth of potato cultivars Daxiyang and Tongshu 23 in rainfed areas of western Loess Plateau. Supplemental irrigation with catchment rainfall at seedling stage increased the potato yield significantly, and the increment was higher for Daxiyang than for Tongshu No. 23. Supplemental irrigation at tuber expanding stage increased the yield of Tongshu 23, but decreased the yield of Daxiyang. Low amount of supplemental irrigation (45 mm) increased the water use efficiency (WUE) and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) of Tongshu 23. For Daxiyang, its WUE and IWUE were higher when the supplemental irrigation was made at seedling stage than at tuber expanding stage. Supplemental irrigation increased the tuber yield and the percentages of bigger and medium tubers of Tongshu 23, but the percentages of green and blet tubers were also increased. As for Daxiyang, supplemental irrigation increased the percentages of bigger and smaller tubers, as well as the percentage of blet tuber.

  15. Behaviour of inter crop-growth stages scatterograms for NOAA/AVHRR vegetation indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Rajendra Kumar

    NOAA/AVHRR Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) scatterograms between two crop growth stage for 1986-1987 rabi season over Ludhiana district witnessing 94.9% of sown area under wheat were studied. Dispersions of RVI were less than that of NDVI for all crop growth stages except the stages witnessing no significant change in greenness where the magnitudes of dispersion were similar for RVI as well as NDVI. Scatterograms between dates witnessing high vegetative growth had bowl shapes while vertical cut off was witnessed for moderate rate wider variability (larger standard deviation) vegetative growth. Decrease in vegetative growth as well as in standard deviation resulted in horizontal cut-off. Typical cut off was observed in RVI scatterograms (not observed in NDVI) between mid of Milking-Dough and mid of Maturity-Harvesting stage.

  16. Potato in the age of biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Ewen; Milbourne, Dan; Petti, Carlo; Doyle-Prestwich, Barbara M; Meade, Conor

    2006-05-01

    Biotechnology-based tools are now widely used to enhance and expand the traditional remit of potato in food production. By modifying its functionality, the capacity of the potato to produce, for example, therapeutic or industrial compounds is now a reality, and its ability to resist disease can also be radically improved. Two developments have been crucial to expanding the role of potato: the recent advances in the fields of structural and functional potato genomics and the ability to integrate genes of interest into the potato genome. In this review we discuss how both developments have diversified the remit of this crop.

  17. 605 Salad crops: Root, bulb, and tuber Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root and tuber crops (potato, cassava, sweet potato, and yams) comprise 4 of the 10 major food staples of the world and serve as a major source of energy for the poor of developing nations. Minimal strain placed on agro ecosystems by root and tuber crops highlight their welcomed contribution to the ...

  18. Development of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle-Borne Crop-Growth Monitoring System

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Jun; Yao, Lili; Zhang, Jingchao; Cao, Weixing; Zhu, Yan; Tai, Xiuxiang

    2017-01-01

    In view of the demand for a low-cost, high-throughput method for the continuous acquisition of crop growth information, this study describes a crop-growth monitoring system which uses an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) as an operating platform. The system is capable of real-time online acquisition of various major indexes, e.g., the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of the crop canopy, ratio vegetation index (RVI), leaf nitrogen accumulation (LNA), leaf area index (LAI), and leaf dry weight (LDW). By carrying out three-dimensional numerical simulations based on computational fluid dynamics, spatial distributions were obtained for the UAV down-wash flow fields on the surface of the crop canopy. Based on the flow-field characteristics and geometrical dimensions, a UAV-borne crop-growth sensor was designed. Our field experiments show that the monitoring system has good dynamic stability and measurement accuracy over the range of operating altitudes of the sensor. The linear fitting determination coefficients (R2) for the output RVI value with respect to LNA, LAI, and LDW are 0.63, 0.69, and 0.66, respectively, and the Root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) are 1.42, 1.02 and 3.09, respectively. The equivalent figures for the output NDVI value are 0.60, 0.65, and 0.62 (LNA, LAI, and LDW, respectively) and the RMSEs are 1.44, 1.01 and 3.01, respectively. PMID:28273815

  19. Development of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle-Borne Crop-Growth Monitoring System.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jun; Yao, Lili; Zhang, Jingchao; Cao, Weixing; Zhu, Yan; Tai, Xiuxiang

    2017-03-03

    In view of the demand for a low-cost, high-throughput method for the continuous acquisition of crop growth information, this study describes a crop-growth monitoring system which uses an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) as an operating platform. The system is capable of real-time online acquisition of various major indexes, e.g., the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of the crop canopy, ratio vegetation index (RVI), leaf nitrogen accumulation (LNA), leaf area index (LAI), and leaf dry weight (LDW). By carrying out three-dimensional numerical simulations based on computational fluid dynamics, spatial distributions were obtained for the UAV down-wash flow fields on the surface of the crop canopy. Based on the flow-field characteristics and geometrical dimensions, a UAV-borne crop-growth sensor was designed. Our field experiments show that the monitoring system has good dynamic stability and measurement accuracy over the range of operating altitudes of the sensor. The linear fitting determination coefficients (R²) for the output RVI value with respect to LNA, LAI, and LDW are 0.63, 0.69, and 0.66, respectively, and the Root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) are 1.42, 1.02 and 3.09, respectively. The equivalent figures for the output NDVI value are 0.60, 0.65, and 0.62 (LNA, LAI, and LDW, respectively) and the RMSEs are 1.44, 1.01 and 3.01, respectively.

  20. Risk assessment of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ transmission by the psyllids Bactericera trigonica and B. tremblayi from Apiaceae crops to potato

    PubMed Central

    Antolinez, C. A.; Fereres, A.; Moreno, A.

    2017-01-01

    Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (Lso) is bacterium transmitted by psyllids to Solanaceae and Apiaceae plants. So far, Lso is found in Europe affecting Apiaceae. In the Mediterranean region, Bactericera trigonica is the only known vector of Lso, but the leek-onion psyllid Bactericera tremblayi is another widespread psyllid and potential vector of Lso. Commonly, carrot, leek and potato are cultivated in the same zones and it is uncertain if these psyllid species are able to transmit Lso to potato plants. Here, we assessed the transmission of Lso by B. trigonica and B. tremblayi to potato plants. B. trigonica showed preference to ingest from the phloem, settle and oviposit on carrot and celery but not on potato. This was correlated with high Lso transmission rates to both carrot (80%) and celery (70%) but very low to potato (≤3%). B. tremblayi preferred leek over carrot and potato, the latter being the less preferred host. B. tremblayi readily ingested from the phloem of infected carrots but failed to transmit Lso from carrot to carrot. Our study shows that the risk of Lso transmission from Apiaceae to potato by B. trigonica is very low, and that B. tremblayi is not a likely vector of Lso. PMID:28368017

  1. Effects of acid rain, alone and in combination with gaseous pollutants, on growth and yield of crop plants

    SciTech Connect

    Shriner, D.S.; Johnston, J.W. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Greenhouse, growth chamber, and field experiments were conducted to determine the response of crop plants to levels of acidity in simulated rain. The major objectives were: to determine the levels of acidity in rain that alter crop productivity; to evaluate varietal differences in crop response; and to determine the response of crop plants to the combined stress of acid rain and gaseous pollutants, primarily ozone. Results showed additive effects rather than synergistic ones.

  2. Estimated winter wheat yield from crop growth predicted by LANDSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanemasu, E. T.

    1977-01-01

    An evapotranspiration and growth model for winter wheat is reported. The inputs are daily solar radiation, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, precipitation/irrigation and leaf area index. The meteorological data were obtained from National Weather Service while LAI was obtained from LANDSAT multispectral scanner. The output provides daily estimates of potential evapotranspiration, transpiration, evaporation, soil moisture (50 cm depth), percentage depletion, net photosynthesis and dry matter production. Winter wheat yields are correlated with transpiration and dry matter accumulation.

  3. Time interval between cover crop termination and planting influences corn seedling disease, plant growth, and yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were established in controlled and field environment to evaluate the effect of time intervals between cereal rye cover crop termination and corn planting on corn seedling disease, corn growth, and grain yield in 2014 and 2015. Rye termination dates ranged from 25 days before planting (DB...

  4. Assimilation of active and passive microwave observations for improved estimates of soil moisture and crop growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An Ensemble Kalman Filter-based data assimilation framework that links a crop growth model with active and passive (AP) microwave models was developed to improve estimates of soil moisture (SM) and vegetation biomass over a growing season of soybean. Complementarities in AP observations were incorpo...

  5. Feeding a diet containing resistant potato starch influences gastrointestinal tract traits and growth performance of weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Heo, J M; Agyekum, A K; Yin, Y L; Rideout, T C; Nyachoti, C M

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effects of feeding resistant potato starch (RPS) as a natural source of resistant starch to weaned pigs for 28 d immediately after weaning. Sixty piglets (Yorkshire-Landrace × Duroc) weaned at 21 ± 2 d (1:1 male:female) with an initial BW of 7.2 ± 0.78 kg were assigned in a completely randomized design to 1 of 5 dietary treatments to give 6 observations per treatment and 2 pigs per pen. Dietary treatments consisted of a negative control corn-soybean meal-wheat-wheat middlings-based diet (NC; no antimicrobial agents added) or the NC supplemented with RPS either as powder or in capsules and each included at 0.5 or 1.0% as a top-dressing on each day. Diets were formulated to meet 1998 NRC specifications. Pigs were offered the experimental diets on an ad libitum basis for 28 d and water was available at all times. The ADG, ADFI, and G:F were determined weekly. Fecal score was determined daily for 14 d after weaning. At the conclusion of study, 1 pig from each pen was randomly selected and euthanized (n = 6 per treatment) to determine visceral organ weight, digesta pH, VFA, and ammonia N (NH3-N) concentrations. Resistant potato starch supplementation improved (P < 0.001) fecal score, and pigs offered 1.0% RPS had more solid feces (P < 0.05) than those offered 0.5% RPS during the first 14 d after weaning, independent of the form of RPS. Resistant potato starch supplementation decreased (P < 0.05) ileal and cecal digesta pH regardless of the levels of RPS or mode of delivery. The total VFA concentrations in cecal digesta were greater (P < 0.05) but the molar proportion of branched-chain fatty acids were lower (P < 0.05) for pigs fed the RPS-containing diets compared with those fed the NC, irrespective of the RPS levels or the form of RPS. However, there were no differences (P > 0.10) in visceral organ weights, growth performance, and digestibilities of DM, CP, Ca, and P among treatments. The results of this experiment indicate that

  6. Temperature cycling periods affect growth and tuberization in potatoes under continuous irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, W.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1992-01-01

    Plants of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars Denali, Norland, Haig and Kennebec were grown for 42 days under three temperature cycling periods (thermoperiods) with continuous irradiation in two repeated experiments to help determine if temperature cycling might be varied to optimize tuber development of potatoes in controlled environments. Thermoperiods of 6/6 hours, 12/12 hours and 24/24 hours were established with the same temperature change of 22/14C and same controlled vapor pressure deficit of 0.60 kPa. The thermoperiod of 24/24 hours significantly promoted tuber initiation but slowed tuber enlargement in all four cultivars, compared to the thermoperiods of 6/6 hours and 12/12 hours. Denali' produced the highest tuber and total dry weights under the 6/6 hours thermoperiod. Kennebec' produced the highest tuber dry weight under the 12/12 hours thermoperiod. Thermoperiods had no significant effect on shoot and root dry weights of any cultivars. The major effect of thermoperiods was on initiation and enlargement of tubers.

  7. The crop growth research chamber: A ground-based facility for CELSS research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David L.

    1990-01-01

    A ground based facility for the study of plant growth and development under stringently controlled environments is being developed by the Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) program at the Ames Research Center. Several Crop Growth Research Chambers (CGRC) and laboratory support equipment provide the core of this facility. The CGRC is a closed (sealed) system with a separate recirculating atmosphere and nutrient delivery systems. The atmospheric environment, hydroponic environment, systems controls, and data acquisition are discussed.

  8. Effect of irradiance, sucrose, and CO2 concentration on the growth of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yorio, Neil C.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Weigel, Russell C.

    1995-01-01

    Growth measurements were taken of potato plantlets (Solanum tuberosum L.) cvs. Norland (NL), Denali (DN), and Kennebec (KN), grown in vitro. Studies were conducted in a growth chamber, with nodal explants grown for 21 days on Murashige and Skoog salts with either 0, 1, 2, or 3% sucrose and capped with loose-fitted Magenta 2-way caps that allowed approximately 2.25 air exchanges/hour. Plantlets were exposed to either 100 or 300 micro mol/sq m/s photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), and the growth chamber was maintained at either 400 or 4000 micro mol/mol CO2. Regardless of PPF, all cvs. that were grown at 4000 micro mol/mol CO2 showed significant increases in total plantlet dry weight (TDW) and shoot length (SL) when sucrose was omitted from the media, indicating an autotrophic response. At 400 micro mol/mol CO2, all cvs. showed an increase in TDW and SL with increasing sucrose under both PPF levels. Within any sucrose treatment, the highest TDW for all cvs. resulted from 300 micro mol/sq m/s PPF and 4000 micro mol/mol CO2 At 4000 micro mol/mol CO2, TDW showed no further increase with sucrose levels above 1% for cvs. NL and DN at both PPF levels, suggesting that sucrose levels greater than 1% may hinder growth when CO2 enrichment is used.

  9. [Effects of nutrition medium on cucumber growth and soil microenvironment in greenhouse under continuous cropping].

    PubMed

    Wu, Chun-Cheng; Li, Tian-Lai; Cao, Xia; Meng, Si-Da; Zhang, Yong-Yong; Yang, Li-Juan

    2014-05-01

    An experiment of continuous cropping of cucumber in nutrition medium (composted with straw, rural soil and puffed chicken manure) or soil was conducted in greenhouse in order to study the effects of medium type on the cucumber growth and soil microenvironment, respectively. The results showed that the two treatments both displayed different levels of obstacles resulted from continuous cropping. In the same cropping season, the nutrient content, soil invertase and urease activities and B/F (bacteria/fungi) ratio in the nutrition medium were obviously higher but fungi quantity was lower than in the soil medium, suggesting the use of nutrition medium changed the bacterial population structure as to improve the cucumber growth and yield. Under continuous cropping, correlation analysis showed that the bacterial quantity was significantly positively related with plant height and root dry mass, and markedly significantly positive correlation exited between the aboveground dry mass and yield of cucumber. The urease activity was also significantly positively related with the cucumber yield. Compared with the soil medium, the nutrition medium could greatly improve soil microenvironment and alleviate the continuous cropping obstacle.

  10. Can growth-days predict the crop coefficient of cotton under mulched drip irrigation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Pengju; Tian, Fuqiang; Hu, Hongchang; Zhang, Zhi; Dai, Chao

    2015-04-01

    Mulched drip irrigation (MDI) has now become popular in arid and semi-arid areas like Tarim River basin located in northwest of China. It has the advantages of saving water as well as increasing crop yield. As an important cash crop, cotton is widely planted in Tarim basin that usually adopts MDI. Irrigation management requires prediction of evapotranspiration (ET). It is usually calculated by FAO-56 method, in which the crop coefficient (Kc) is a necessary parameter needed to determined a prior. Theoretically the crop characteristics like LAI can serve as a direct indicator to determine Kc. Practically two other indicators of growing-degree-day (GDD) and growth-day (GD) are also used to determine Kc. In this study a 3-year experiment was conducted to quantify the weekly ETc and develop a crop coefficient (Kc) model for mulched drip-irrigated cotton based on eddy covariance observation. Two polynomial models were developed to predict the Kc as a function of growth days (r2=0.95) and growing degree-day (GDD) (r2=0.96) in the growth stage after seeding. A logarithmic function (r2=0.87) was used to describe the Kc variability with LAI increase. The results showed that both the three models fitted well with the Kc and the LAI values could fit the Kc well before the end growth stage. The LAI can better simulate Kc with daily step, but with weekly step the accuracy of LAI is lower than the other two variables. Our results showed that the growth-day is a reliable indicator to predict the cotton Kc under MDI, which provide a basis for transpiration modeling in cotton fields.

  11. Characterization of Bacillus isolates of potato rhizosphere from andean soils of Peru and their potential PGPR characteristics.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Pamela; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Zúñiga, Doris

    2010-10-01

    Bacillus spp. are well known rhizosphere residents of many crops and usually show plant growth promoting (PGP) activities that include biocontrol capacity against some phytopatogenic fungi. Potato crops in the Andean Highlands of Peru face many nutritional and phytophatogenic problems that have a significant impact on production. In this context is important to investigate the natural presence of these microorganisms in the potato rhizosphere and propose a selective screening to find promising PGP strains. In this study, sixty three Bacillus strains isolated from the rhizosphere of native potato varieties growing in the Andean highlands of Peru were screened for in vitro antagonism against Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani. A high prevalence (68%) of antagonists against R. solani was found. Ninety one percent of those strains also inhibited the growth of F. solani. The antagonistic strains were also tested for other plant growth promotion activities. Eighty one percent produced some level of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid, and 58% solubilized tricalcium phosphate. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the majority of the strains belonged to the B. amyloliquefaciens species, while strains Bac17M11, Bac20M1 and Bac20M2 may correspond to a putative new Bacillus species. The results suggested that the rhizosphere of native potatoes growing in their natural habitat in the Andes is a rich source of Bacillus fungal antagonists, which have a potential to be used in the future as PGP inoculants to improve potato crop.

  12. Characterization of Bacillus isolates of potato rhizosphere from andean soils of Peru and their potential PGPR characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Pamela; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Zúñiga, Doris

    2010-01-01

    Bacillus spp. are well known rhizosphere residents of many crops and usually show plant growth promoting (PGP) activities that include biocontrol capacity against some phytopatogenic fungi. Potato crops in the Andean Highlands of Peru face many nutritional and phytophatogenic problems that have a significant impact on production. In this context is important to investigate the natural presence of these microorganisms in the potato rhizosphere and propose a selective screening to find promising PGP strains. In this study, sixty three Bacillus strains isolated from the rhizosphere of native potato varieties growing in the Andean highlands of Peru were screened for in vitro antagonism against Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani. A high prevalence (68%) of antagonists against R. solani was found. Ninety one percent of those strains also inhibited the growth of F. solani. The antagonistic strains were also tested for other plant growth promotion activities. Eighty one percent produced some level of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid, and 58% solubilized tricalcium phosphate. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the majority of the strains belonged to the B. amyloliquefaciens species, while strains Bac17M11, Bac20M1 and Bac20M2 may correspond to a putative new Bacillus species. The results suggested that the rhizosphere of native potatoes growing in their natural habitat in the Andes is a rich source of Bacillus fungal antagonists, which have a potential to be used in the future as PGP inoculants to improve potato crop. PMID:24031569

  13. [Teratogenic effect of potato glycoalkaloids].

    PubMed

    Wang, X G

    1993-02-01

    Potato glycoalkaloids were extracted from potato sprout and then analyzed to determine their purity by using TLC and HPLC methods and compare with pure alpha-Solanine and alpha-Chaconine of Sigma. The result indicated that the purity of potato glycoalkaloids is 78. 31%, which contains 73.64% alpha-Solanine and 4.67% alpha-Chaconine. The LD50 of mice was 44.721 +/- 5.860 4 mg/kg. In order to determine the toxicity and teratogenicity of potato glycoalkaloids, the effect of potato glycoalkaloids on Kunming pregnant mice were studied. The results showed that: (1) potato glycoalkaloids have teratogenic effects on embryos of mice. It could induce neural tube defects (NTDs), and may be an important teratogen of NTDs. (2) potato glycoalkaloids have embryo toxicity. It could cause the death of embryos and result in absorbed and dead fetuses. (3) potato glycoalkaloids could evidently affect the development of embryos and lead to intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). An interesting phenomena which just like the clinical manifestation of miscarriage in human being was noticed. If potato glycoalkaloids were given to the pregnant mice on the 5th or 6th day of gestation intraabdominally, vaginal bleeding and abortion would occur, and this has not been reported yet. The animal model of NTDs in this experiments supported our hypothesis that sprouted potato could be a teratogen of NTDs.

  14. Isolation and characterization of a β-propeller gene containing phosphobacterium Bacillus subtilis strain KPS-11 for growth promotion of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Hanif, Muhammad Kashif; Hameed, Sohail; Imran, Asma; Naqqash, Tahir; Shahid, Muhammad; Van Elsas, Jan D.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate-solubilizing and phytate-mineralizing bacteria collectively termed as phosphobacteria provide a sustainable approach for managing P-deficiency in agricultural soils by supplying inexpensive phosphate to plants. A phosphobacterium Bacillus subtilis strain KPS-11 (Genbank accession no. KP006655) was isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) rhizosphere and characterized for potato plant growth promoting potential. The strain utilized both Ca-phosphate and Na-phytate in vitro and produced 6.48 μg mL-1 indole-3-acetic acid in tryptophan supplemented medium. P-solubilization after 240 h was 66.4 μg mL-1 alongwith the production of 19.3 μg mL-1 gluconic acid and 5.3 μg mL-1 malic acid. The extracellular phytase activity was higher (4.3 × 10-10 kat mg-1 protein) than the cell-associated phytase activity (1.6 × 10-10 kat mg-1 protein). B. subtilis strain KPS-11 utilized 40 carbon sources and showed resistance against 20 chemicals in GENIII micro-plate system demonstrating its metabolic potential. Phytase-encoding gene β-propeller (BPP) showed 92% amino acid similarity to BPP from B. subtilis (accession no.WP_014114128.1) and 83% structural similarity to BPP from B. subtilis (accession no 3AMR_A). Potato inoculation with B. subtilis strain KPS-11 increased the root/shoot length and root/shoot weight of potato as compared to non-inoculated control plants. Moreover, rifampicin-resistant derivative of KPS-11 were able to survive in the rhizosphere and on the roots of potato up to 60 days showing its colonization potential. The study indicates that B. subtilis strain KPS-11 can be a potential candidate for development of potato inoculum in P-deficient soils. PMID:26106383

  15. Host Growth Can Cause Invasive Spread of Crops by Soilborne Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Leclerc, Melen; Doré, Thierry; Gilligan, Christopher A.; Lucas, Philippe; Filipe, João A. N.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive soilborne plant pathogens cause substantial damage to crops and natural populations, but our understanding of how to prevent their epidemics or reduce their damage is limited. A key and experimentally-tested concept in the epidemiology of soilborne plant diseases is that of a threshold spacing between hosts below which epidemics (invasive spread) can occur. We extend this paradigm by examining how plant-root growth may alter the conditions for occurrence of soilborne pathogen epidemics in plant populations. We hypothesise that host-root growth can 1) increase the probability of pathogen transmission between neighbouring plants and, consequently, 2) decrease the threshold spacing for epidemics to occur. We predict that, in systems initially below their threshold conditions, root growth can trigger soilborne pathogen epidemics through a switch from non-invasive to invasive behaviour, while in systems above threshold conditions root growth can enhance epidemic development. As an example pathosystem, we studied the fungus Rhizoctonia solani on sugar beet in field experiments. To address hypothesis 1, we recorded infections within inoculum-donor and host-recipient pairs of plants with differing spacing. We translated these observations into the individual-level concept of pathozone, a host-centred form of dispersal kernel. To test hypothesis 2 and our prediction, we used the pathozone to parameterise a stochastic model of pathogen spread in a host population, contrasting scenarios of spread with and without host growth. Our results support our hypotheses and prediction. We suggest that practitioners of agriculture and arboriculture account for root system expansion in order to reduce the risk of soilborne-disease epidemics. We discuss changes in crop design, including increasing plant spacing and using crop mixtures, for boosting crop resilience to invasion and damage by soilborne pathogens. We speculate that the disease-induced root growth observed in some

  16. Association of potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli; Hemiptera: Triozidae) with Lycium spp. (Solanaceae) in potato growing regions of Washington, Idaho, and Oregon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc), is a vector of the bacterium that causes zebra chip disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). When cultivated crops are not available, potato psyllid may often be found on non-crop hosts within the Solanaceae. This study determined that species of Lyci...

  17. The evaluation of mixtures of yeast and potato extracts in growth media for biomass production of lactic cultures.

    PubMed

    Gaudreau, H; Renard, N; Champagne, C P; Van Horn, D

    2002-07-01

    The effectiveness of yeast extracts (YE) and potato extracts (PE) to promote growth of seven lactic cultures was evaluated by automated spectrophotometry (AS). Two aspects of the growth curve were analysed: (1) maximum biomass obtained (using ODmax) and (2) highest specific growth rate mu(max)) Eleven lots from the same PE-manufacturing process were examined for lot-to-lot variability. The ODmax values of three of the seven strains were significantly affected by lot source, but mu(max) was not significantly affected. The growth of bacteria was systematically lower in base medium containing 100% PE than in base medium containing 100% YE for both ODmax or mu(max) data, which could be related to the lower content in nitrogen-based compounds in PE. In AS assays, highest OD values for Lactobacillus casei EQ28, Lactobacillus rhamnosus R-011, Lactobacillus plantarum EQ12, and Streptococcus thermophilus R-083 were obtained with a mixture of PE and YE. Fermentations (2 L) were also carried out to determine the accuracy of AS to predict biomass levels obtained under fermentation trials. In these fermentations, replacement of 50% YE with PE was shown to enable good growth of S. thermophilus. With L. rhamnosus R-011, a high correlation (R2 = 0.95) was found between ODmax data obtained in the AS assays and that of the 2-L bioreactor when the same growth medium was used for both series of fermentations. However, AS was not as efficient when industrial media were used for the bioreactor assays. The relationship was still good for ODmax between AS data and that of the bioreactor data with L. rhamnosus R-011 in industrial LBS medium (R2 = 0.87), but was very poor with the S. thermophilus R-083 on Rosell #43 industrial medium (R2 = 0.33). Since PE cost 40% less than YE, there are strong economic advantages in considering such a partial replacement of YE by PE.

  18. The influences of purple sweet potato anthocyanin on the growth characteristics of human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Min; Lu, Xiaoling; Hao, Lei; Wu, Tao; Zhao, Huanjiao; Wang, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Background Anthocyanins have been proven to be beneficial to the eyes. However, information is scarce about the effects of purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas, L.) anthocyanin (PSPA), a class of anthocyanins derived from purple sweet potato roots, on visual health. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether PSPA could have influences on the growth characteristics (cellular morphology, survival, and proliferation) of human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, which perform essential functions for the visual process. Methods The RPE cell line D407 was used in the present study. The cytotoxicity of PSPA was assessed by MTT assay. Then, cellular morphology, viability, cell cycle, Ki67expression, and PI3K/MAPK activation of RPE cells treated with PSPA were determined. Results PSPA exhibited dose-dependent promotion of RPE cell proliferation at concentrations ranging from 10 to 1,000 µg/ml. RPE cells treated with PSPA demonstrated a predominantly polygonal morphology in a mosaic arrangement, and colony-like cells displayed numerous short apical microvilli and typical ultrastructure. PSPA treatment also resulted in a better platform growing status, statistically higher viability, an increase in the S-phase, and more Ki67+ cells. However, neither pAkt nor pERK were detected in either group. Conclusions We found that PSPA maintained high cell viability, boosted DNA synthesis, and preserved a high percentage of continuously cycling cells to promote cell survival and division without changing cell morphology. This paper lays the foundation for further research about the damage-protective activities of PSPA on RPE cells or human vision. PMID:26070791

  19. Taxonomy of Cultivated Potatoes (Solanum section Petota: Solanaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum tuberosum, the cultivated potato of world commerce, is a primary food crop worldwide. Wild and cultivated potatoes form the germplasm base for international breeding efforts to improve potato in the face of variety of disease, environmental, and agronomic constraints. A series of national an...

  20. Taxonomy of cultivated potatoes (solanum section petota: solanaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum tuberosum, the cultivated potato of world commerce, is a primary food crop worldwide. Wild and cultivated potatoes form the germplasm base for international breeding efforts to improve potato in the face of variety of disease, environmental, and agronomic constraints. A series of national an...

  1. The changing face of Potato virus Y

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation will help growers, seed certification and regulatory officials, consultants, and other practitioners in the United States understand how and why Potato virus Y (PVY) is affecting the seed potato crop and if left unchecked why it will become a major disease issue for the food sector...

  2. Ensuring the genetic diversity of potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Opportunities for advances in the potato crop through genetics are great, since potato has many needs for improvement, and many related species with the traits required are available. Genebanks provide a centralized and specialized resource for providing the services of acquisition, classification, ...

  3. Growth, carbon dioxide exchange and mineral accumulation in potatoes grown at different magnesium concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, W.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1992-01-01

    Plants of Norland potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) were maintained for 42 days at Mg concentrations of 0.05, 0.125, 0.25, 1, 2, and 4 mM in a nonrecirculating nutrient film system under controlled environment. With the increased Mg supply from 0.05 to 4 mM, Mg concentrations in the leaves of the 42-day old plants increased significantly from 1.1 to 11.2 mg g-1 dry weight. Plant leaf area and plant and tuber dry weights increased with increased Mg concentrations up to 1 mM in solution or 6.7 mg g-1 in leaves, and then decreased with further increases in Mg concentrations. Rates of CO2 assimilation measured on leaflets in situ at ambient and various intercellular CO2 concentrations were consistently lower at 0.05 and 4 mM Mg than at other Mg treatments, which may indicate decreased photosynthetic activity in mesophyll tissues at the lowest and highest Mg concentrations. Dark respiration rates in leaves were highest at 0.05 and 4 mM Mg, lowest at 0.25 and 1 mM Mg, and intermediate at 0.125 and 2 mM Mg. The different Mg treatments also influenced accumulation of other minerals in leaves. Leaf concentrations of Ca and Mn decreased with increased Mg supply except that Ca and Mn were lower at 0.05 mM than at 0.125 mM Mg. Leaf K concentrations were lower at 1, 2 and 4 mM Mg than at other Mg treatments. Foliar concentrations of P, Fe, Zn, and Cu had small but inconsistent variation with different Mg concentrations. Leaf concentrations of N, S, and B were similar at different Mg concentrations. This study demonstrates that various Mg nutrition, along with altered accumulation of other nutrients, could regulate dry matter production in potatoes by affecting not only leaf area but also leaf carbon dioxide assimilation and respiration.

  4. Impact of data quality and quantity and the calibration procedure on crop growth model calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, Sabine J.; Werisch, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Crop growth models are a commonly used tool for impact assessment of climate variability and climate change on crop yields and water use. Process-based crop models rely on algorithms that approximate the main physiological plant processes by a set of equations containing several calibration parameters as well as basic underlying assumptions. It is well recognized that model calibration is essential to improve the accuracy and reliability of model predictions. However, model calibration and validation is often hindered by a limited quantity and quality of available data. Recent studies suggest that crop model parameters can only be derived from field experiments in which plant growth and development processes have been measured. To be able to achieve a reliable prediction of crop growth under irrigation or drought stress, the correct characterization of the whole soil-plant-atmosphere system is essential. In this context is the accurate simulation of crop development, yield and the soil water dynamics plays an important role. In this study we aim to investigate the importance of a site and cultivar-specific model calibration based on experimental data using the SVAT model Daisy. We investigate to which extent different data sets and different parameter estimation procedures affect particularly yield estimates, irrigation water demand and the soil water dynamics. The comprehensive experimental data has been derived from an experiment conducted in Germany where five irrigation regimes were imposed on cabbage. Data collection included continuous measurements of soil tension and soil water content in two plots at three depths, weekly measurements of LAI, plant heights, leaf-N-content, stomatal conductivity, biomass partitioning, rooting depth as well as harvested yields and duration of growing period. Three crop growth calibration strategies were compared: (1) manual calibration based on yield and duration of growing period, (2) manual calibration based on yield

  5. Growth of soybean and potato at high CO2 partial pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Sager, J. C.; Knott, W. M.

    1994-11-01

    Soybean and potato plants were grown in controlled environments at carbon dioxide (CO2) partial pressures ranging from 0.05 to 1.00 kPa. The highest yields of edible biomass occurred at 0.10 kPa for both species, with higher CO2 levels being supraoptimal, but not injurious to the plants. Stomatal conductance rates of upper canopy leaves were lowest at 0.10 kPa CO2, while conductance rates at 0.50 and 1.00 kPa were significantly greater than 0.10 kPa. Total water use by the plants was greatest at the highest CO2 pressures (i.e. 0.50 and 1.00 kPa); consequently, water use efficiencies (biomass produced / water used) were low at the highest CO2 pressures. Based on previous CO2 studies in the literature, the increased conductance and water use at the highest CO2 pressures were surprising and pose interesting challenges for managing plants in a CELSS, where CO2 pressures may exceed optimal levels.

  6. A Study of Estimating Winter Wheat Yields by Using Satellite Data Assimilation with Crop Growth Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwata, K.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate information of crop yield is important for production planning in agriculture. Crop growth model is a effective tool to comprehend crop growth situation. Accordingly, we use the MOSIS data for two types of utilization to provide necessary information for DSSAT. The objective of this study is developing a method of estimating winter wheat yield without adequate information of the field. The first use is estimation of solar radiation, which is required as input data into DSSAT. Since MODIS is observing the earth everyday, solar radiation can be estimated in a region where a climate observation system is not developed. The second use is data assimilation that provides appropriate parameter of cultivation management to DSSAT. MODIS LAI and Dry Matter Production (DMP) estimated from MODIS GPP are assimilated into DSSAT. Before developing data assimilation, we have accomplished sensitivity analysis of DSSAT. As the result of the analysis, we found that planting date and amount of applied fertilizer have correlated strongly with LAI and Dry Matter (DM) for specific growth period. Based on the result, we estimated winter wheat yield by assimilating MODIS LAI and DMP observed during the specific period. In contrast, previous study estimated crop yield by assimilating satellite data observed for the whole growth period. Three different assimilation schemes were tested to verify the accuracy of our method. Our results showed that the estimated winter wheat yield agreed very well with the Japanese agricultural experiment station data. Among different assimilating scenarios, the best result was obtained when MODIS LAI and DMP observed for specific growth period; the Root Square Mean Error (RMSE) was 406.52 kg ha2. The distribution map of full year incident PAR in Asia. Estimated Winter Wheat Yield in Japan In the case 1, detail information gathered by experiment reports.In the case 2, all management parameters are determined by reference to cultivation manuals.In the

  7. Assessment of reclaimed water irrigation on growth, yield, and water-use efficiency of forage crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkhamisi, S. A.; Abdelrahman, H. A.; Ahmed, M.; Goosen, M. F. A.

    2011-09-01

    Field experiments were conducted to determine the effect of water quality (reclaimed and fresh water), water quantity, and their interactions on the growth, yield, and water use efficiency of forage maize during two winter seasons in the Arabian Gulf. The plants irrigated with the reclaimed water had higher plant height than those irrigated with the fresh water. The leaf length and leaf area (cm2) did not show any significant differences among the interaction. Reclaimed water had shorter time for 50% male and female flowering of forage maize plants, indicating earlier maturity. Plants irrigated with reclaimed water had higher chlorophyll content for all levels of water applications. A significant difference in green forage yield was found among the interactions. Reclaimed water gave the highest green forage yield of 72.12 and 59.40 t/ha at 1.4ETo and 1.0ETo, respectively. Plants irrigated with the reclaimed water used water more efficiently [3.65 kg/m3 of DM (dry matter)] than those irrigated with the fresh water [2.91 kg/m3 of DM (dry matter)] for all water quantities. The enhanced growth in wastewater-irrigated crops, compared with fresh water-irrigated crops, was attributed primarily to higher nutrient content (e.g., nitrogen) and lower salinity of the reclaimed water. The study concluded that treated wastewater irrigation increased yields of forage crops and their water use efficiency. Cost-benefit analysis, studies on the use these forage crops as animal feed, and more in depth evaluation of possible crop and soil contamination were recommended.

  8. Non-destructive NIR detection of Zebra Chip disease in whole potatoes (abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potatoes are the 4th biggest food crop worldwide and the leading vegetable crop in the U.S., accounting for 15 percent of vegetable sales. Over 50% of potatoes are consumed as processed products such as French fries and chips. Zebra Chip (ZC) is a disease of potatoes that causes brown discoloration ...

  9. HRE-type genes are regulated by growth-related changes in internal oxygen concentrations during the normal development of potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers.

    PubMed

    Licausi, Francesco; Giorgi, Federico Manuel; Schmälzlin, Elmar; Usadel, Björn; Perata, Pierdomenico; van Dongen, Joost Thomas; Geigenberger, Peter

    2011-11-01

    The occurrence of hypoxic conditions in plants not only represents a stress condition but is also associated with the normal development and growth of many organs, leading to adaptive changes in metabolism and growth to prevent internal anoxia. Internal oxygen concentrations decrease inside growing potato tubers, due to their active metabolism and increased resistance to gas diffusion as tubers grow. In the present work, we identified three hypoxia-responsive ERF (StHRE) genes whose expression is regulated by the gradual decrease in oxygen tensions that occur when potato tubers grow larger. Increasing the external oxygen concentration counteracted the modification of StHRE expression during tuber growth, supporting the idea that the actual oxygen levels inside the organs, rather than development itself, are responsible for the regulation of StHRE genes. We identified several sugar metabolism-related genes co-regulated with StHRE genes during tuber development and possibly involved in starch accumulation. All together, our data suggest a possible role for low oxygen in the regulation of sugar metabolism in the potato tuber, similar to what happens in storage tissues during seed development.

  10. Assimilation of MODIS-derived LAI by radiative transfer modelling to crop growth simulation model for rice crop monitoring and yield estimation in the Mekong delta, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, H.; de Bie, K.; Verhoef, W.

    2014-12-01

    Successful monitoring of rice crops and estimation of its yields in Mekong delta provide vital information to government agencies, rice production stakeholders and insurance companies in making their decisions and plans to establish solutions to protect rice smallholders from the risks involved. Remote sensing-based information promises a cost-effective way to observe rice crop growth in the largest rice producing region of Vietnam. For an extensive rice cultivation region as the Mekong delta, the use of divergence statistic to extract information from long-term or hypertemporal optical remote sensing NDVI profile to map rice cropping patterns has shown a high degree of success. The result map provides accurate information on where rice grew, when it was seeded and harvested, how many time it was cultivated every year. In addition, by using 8-day MODIS TERRA surface reflectance in Soil-Leaf-Canopy (SLC) radiative transfer model, 70 percent variation of seasonal rice LAI values was able to capture, making it useful to be assimilated into a rice crop growth simulation model (ORYZA 2000) to estimate the regional rice production in the season of 2008-2009. Tested results from 56 rice fields located in different rice cropping patterns showed that yields estimated using ORYZA2000 can explain 83 percent variation of field measured yields. However, simulated yields by ORYZA 2000 were used to overestimate by the model since some of model parameters could not be recalibrated due to the lack of field experiment data. This suggest that in the future, in order to gain a better results of rice crop monitoring and yield estimation, apart from improving the estimation of MODIS -derived LAIs by using SLC, calibrating crop growth simulation's parameter have to be taken into account.

  11. In vitro technology at the US Potato Genebank

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US Potato Genebank at Sturgeon Bay, WI, is the active national germplasm collection for the world's most important vegetable crop. It contains about 6,000 accessions of 100 species of tuber-bearing relatives of Solanum tuberosum. The potato of commerce is a clonal crop susceptible to many syste...

  12. In vitro technology at the US Potato Genebank

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US Potato Genebank at Sturgeon Bay, WI, is the active national germplasm collection for the world's most important vegetable crop. It contains 6,000 accessions of 100 species of tuber-bearing relatives of Solanum tuberosum. The potato of commerce is a clonal crop susceptible to many systemic pa...

  13. Understanding and engineering beneficial plant–microbe interactions: plant growth promotion in energy crops

    PubMed Central

    Farrar, Kerrie; Bryant, David; Cope-Selby, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    Plant production systems globally must be optimized to produce stable high yields from limited land under changing and variable climates. Demands for food, animal feed, and feedstocks for bioenergy and biorefining applications, are increasing with population growth, urbanization and affluence. Low-input, sustainable, alternatives to petrochemical-derived fertilizers and pesticides are required to reduce input costs and maintain or increase yields, with potential biological solutions having an important role to play. In contrast to crops that have been bred for food, many bioenergy crops are largely undomesticated, and so there is an opportunity to harness beneficial plant–microbe relationships which may have been inadvertently lost through intensive crop breeding. Plant–microbe interactions span a wide range of relationships in which one or both of the organisms may have a beneficial, neutral or negative effect on the other partner. A relatively small number of beneficial plant–microbe interactions are well understood and already exploited; however, others remain understudied and represent an untapped reservoir for optimizing plant production. There may be near-term applications for bacterial strains as microbial biopesticides and biofertilizers to increase biomass yield from energy crops grown on land unsuitable for food production. Longer term aims involve the design of synthetic genetic circuits within and between the host and microbes to optimize plant production. A highly exciting prospect is that endosymbionts comprise a unique resource of reduced complexity microbial genomes with adaptive traits of great interest for a wide variety of applications. PMID:25431199

  14. Understanding and engineering beneficial plant-microbe interactions: plant growth promotion in energy crops.

    PubMed

    Farrar, Kerrie; Bryant, David; Cope-Selby, Naomi

    2014-12-01

    Plant production systems globally must be optimized to produce stable high yields from limited land under changing and variable climates. Demands for food, animal feed, and feedstocks for bioenergy and biorefining applications, are increasing with population growth, urbanization and affluence. Low-input, sustainable, alternatives to petrochemical-derived fertilizers and pesticides are required to reduce input costs and maintain or increase yields, with potential biological solutions having an important role to play. In contrast to crops that have been bred for food, many bioenergy crops are largely undomesticated, and so there is an opportunity to harness beneficial plant-microbe relationships which may have been inadvertently lost through intensive crop breeding. Plant-microbe interactions span a wide range of relationships in which one or both of the organisms may have a beneficial, neutral or negative effect on the other partner. A relatively small number of beneficial plant-microbe interactions are well understood and already exploited; however, others remain understudied and represent an untapped reservoir for optimizing plant production. There may be near-term applications for bacterial strains as microbial biopesticides and biofertilizers to increase biomass yield from energy crops grown on land unsuitable for food production. Longer term aims involve the design of synthetic genetic circuits within and between the host and microbes to optimize plant production. A highly exciting prospect is that endosymbionts comprise a unique resource of reduced complexity microbial genomes with adaptive traits of great interest for a wide variety of applications.

  15. Quantitative resistance of potato to Pectobacterium atrosepticum and Phytophthora infestans: integrating PAMP-triggered response and pathogen growth.

    PubMed

    Kröner, Alexander; Hamelin, Gaëlle; Andrivon, Didier; Val, Florence

    2011-01-01

    While the mechanisms underlying quantitative resistance of plants to pathogens are still not fully elucidated, the Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs)-triggered response model suggests that such resistance depends on a dynamic interplay between the plant and the pathogen. In this model, the pathogens themselves or elicitors they produce would induce general defense pathways, which in turn limit pathogen growth and host colonisation. It therefore suggests that quantitative resistance is directly linked to a common set of general host defense mechanisms, but experimental evidence is still inconclusive. We tested the PAMP-triggered model using two pathogens (Pectobacterium atrosepticum and Phytophthora infestans) differing by their infectious processes and five potato cultivars spanning a range of resistance levels to each pathogen. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity, used as a defense marker, and accumulation of phenolics were measured in tuber slices challenged with lipopolysaccharides from P. atrosepticum or a concentrated culture filtrate from P. infestans. PAL activity increased following treatment with the filtrate but not with lipopolysaccharides, and varied among cultivars. It was positively related to tuber resistance to P. atrosepticum, but negatively related to tuber resistance to P. infestans. It was also positively related to the accumulation of total phenolics. Chlorogenic acid, the main phenolic accumulated, inhibited growth of both pathogens in vitro, showing that PAL induction caused active defense against each of them. Tuber slices in which PAL activity had been induced before inoculation showed increased resistance to P. atrosepticum, but not to P. infestans. Our results show that inducing a general defense mechanism does not necessarily result in quantitative resistance. As such, they invalidate the hypothesis that the PAMP-triggered model alone can explain quantitative resistance. We thus designed a more complex model

  16. Quantitative Resistance of Potato to Pectobacterium atrosepticum and Phytophthora infestans: Integrating PAMP-Triggered Response and Pathogen Growth

    PubMed Central

    Kröner, Alexander; Hamelin, Gaëlle; Andrivon, Didier; Val, Florence

    2011-01-01

    While the mechanisms underlying quantitative resistance of plants to pathogens are still not fully elucidated, the Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs)-triggered response model suggests that such resistance depends on a dynamic interplay between the plant and the pathogen. In this model, the pathogens themselves or elicitors they produce would induce general defense pathways, which in turn limit pathogen growth and host colonisation. It therefore suggests that quantitative resistance is directly linked to a common set of general host defense mechanisms, but experimental evidence is still inconclusive. We tested the PAMP-triggered model using two pathogens (Pectobacterium atrosepticum and Phytophthora infestans) differing by their infectious processes and five potato cultivars spanning a range of resistance levels to each pathogen. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity, used as a defense marker, and accumulation of phenolics were measured in tuber slices challenged with lipopolysaccharides from P. atrosepticum or a concentrated culture filtrate from P. infestans. PAL activity increased following treatment with the filtrate but not with lipopolysaccharides, and varied among cultivars. It was positively related to tuber resistance to P. atrosepticum, but negatively related to tuber resistance to P. infestans. It was also positively related to the accumulation of total phenolics. Chlorogenic acid, the main phenolic accumulated, inhibited growth of both pathogens in vitro, showing that PAL induction caused active defense against each of them. Tuber slices in which PAL activity had been induced before inoculation showed increased resistance to P. atrosepticum, but not to P. infestans. Our results show that inducing a general defense mechanism does not necessarily result in quantitative resistance. As such, they invalidate the hypothesis that the PAMP-triggered model alone can explain quantitative resistance. We thus designed a more complex model

  17. A comprehensively quantitative method of evaluating the impact of drought on crop yield using daily multi-scale SPEI and crop growth process model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qianfeng; Wu, Jianjun; Li, Xiaohan; Zhou, Hongkui; Yang, Jianhua; Geng, Guangpo; An, Xueli; Liu, Leizhen; Tang, Zhenghong

    2016-11-01

    The quantitative evaluation of the impact of drought on crop yield is one of the most important aspects in agricultural water resource management. To assess the impact of drought on wheat yield, the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) crop growth model and daily Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), which is based on daily meteorological data, are adopted in the Huang Huai Hai Plain. The winter wheat crop yields are estimated at 28 stations, after calibrating the cultivar coefficients based on the experimental site data, and SPEI data was taken 11 times across the growth season from 1981 to 2010. The relationship between estimated yield and multi-scale SPEI were analyzed. The optimum time scale SPEI to monitor drought during the crop growth period was determined. The reference yield was determined by averaging the yields from numerous non-drought years. From this data, we propose a comprehensive quantitative method which can be used to predict the impact of drought on wheat yields by combining the daily multi-scale SPEI and crop growth process model. This method was tested in the Huang Huai Hai Plain. The results suggested that estimation of calibrated EPIC was a good predictor of crop yield in the Huang Huai Hai Plain, with lower RMSE (15.4 %) between estimated yield and observed yield at six agrometeorological stations. The soil moisture at planting time was affected by the precipitation and evapotranspiration during the previous 90 days (about 3 months) in the Huang Huai Hai Plain. SPEIG90 was adopted as the optimum time scale SPEI to identify the drought and non-drought years, and identified a drought year in 2000. The water deficit in the year 2000 was significant, and the rate of crop yield reduction did not completely correspond with the volume of water deficit. Our proposed comprehensive method which quantitatively evaluates the impact of drought on crop yield is reliable. The results of this study further our understanding

  18. A comprehensively quantitative method of evaluating the impact of drought on crop yield using daily multi-scale SPEI and crop growth process model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qianfeng; Wu, Jianjun; Li, Xiaohan; Zhou, Hongkui; Yang, Jianhua; Geng, Guangpo; An, Xueli; Liu, Leizhen; Tang, Zhenghong

    2017-04-01

    The quantitative evaluation of the impact of drought on crop yield is one of the most important aspects in agricultural water resource management. To assess the impact of drought on wheat yield, the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) crop growth model and daily Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), which is based on daily meteorological data, are adopted in the Huang Huai Hai Plain. The winter wheat crop yields are estimated at 28 stations, after calibrating the cultivar coefficients based on the experimental site data, and SPEI data was taken 11 times across the growth season from 1981 to 2010. The relationship between estimated yield and multi-scale SPEI were analyzed. The optimum time scale SPEI to monitor drought during the crop growth period was determined. The reference yield was determined by averaging the yields from numerous non-drought years. From this data, we propose a comprehensive quantitative method which can be used to predict the impact of drought on wheat yields by combining the daily multi-scale SPEI and crop growth process model. This method was tested in the Huang Huai Hai Plain. The results suggested that estimation of calibrated EPIC was a good predictor of crop yield in the Huang Huai Hai Plain, with lower RMSE (15.4 %) between estimated yield and observed yield at six agrometeorological stations. The soil moisture at planting time was affected by the precipitation and evapotranspiration during the previous 90 days (about 3 months) in the Huang Huai Hai Plain. SPEIG90 was adopted as the optimum time scale SPEI to identify the drought and non-drought years, and identified a drought year in 2000. The water deficit in the year 2000 was significant, and the rate of crop yield reduction did not completely correspond with the volume of water deficit. Our proposed comprehensive method which quantitatively evaluates the impact of drought on crop yield is reliable. The results of this study further our

  19. Impact of paper mill effluent on growth and development of certain agricultural crops.

    PubMed

    Medhi, U J; Talukdar, A K; Deka, S

    2011-03-01

    The physico-chemical characteristics of paper mill industry effluent were measured and some were found to be above the permissible limits prescribed by Indian irrigation water standard. A study was conducted in pots to investigate the effects of different concentrations (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 100%) of paper mill effluent on growth and production of rice, mustard and peafor three years. The study reveals that the paper mill effluent has deleterious effect on the growth of crop at higher concentrations. However, at lower concentration (viz. 10 to 40% in rice, 10 to 50% in mustard and 10 to 60% in pea) of effluent, beneficial impact on general welfare of the crops was noticed. Growth and development was increased with increasing the concentration of the effluent up to 30% in rice, 40% in mustard and 50% in pea. Investigation showed that the growth and production of rice, mustard and pea was found maximum at a concentration of 30, 40 and 50% effluent respectively.

  20. Development of a wireless crop growth monitor based on optical principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xihua; Li, Minzan; Cui, Di

    2008-12-01

    In order to detect the plant's nitrogen content in real-time, a wireless crop growth monitor is developed. It is made up of a sensor and a controller. The sensor consists of an optical part and a circuit part. The optical part is made up of 4 optical channels and 4 photo-detectors. 2 channels receive the sunlight and the other 2 receive the reflected light from the crop canopy. The intensity of sunlight and the reflected light is measured at the wavebands of 610 nm and 1220 nm respectively. The circuit part is made up of power supply unit, 4 amplifiers and a wireless module. The controller has functions such as keyboard input, LCD display, data storage, data upload and so on. Both hardware and software are introduced in this report. Calibration tests show that the optical part has a high accuracy and the wireless transmission also has a good performance.

  1. The evolution of potato breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato cultivars in most regions of the world are tetraploid and clonally propagated. For over a century, the breeding strategy has been phenotypic recurrent selection. However, the polyploid nature of the crop prevents breeders from eliminating deleterious alleles and assembling positive alleles fo...

  2. Assessment of water sources to plant growth in rice based cropping systems by stable water isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahindawansha, Amani; Kraft, Philipp; Racela, Heathcliff; Breuer, Lutz

    2016-04-01

    Rice is one of the most water-consuming crops in the world. Understanding water source utilization of rice will help us to improve water use efficiency (WUE) in paddy management. The objectives of our study are to evaluate the isotopic compositions of surface ponded water, soil water, irrigation water, groundwater, rain water and plant water and based on stable water isotope signatures to evaluate the contributions of various water sources to plant growth (wet rice, aerobic rice and maize) together with investigating the contribution of water from different soil horizons for plant growth in different maturity periods during wet and dry seasons. Finally we will compare the water balances and crop yields in both crops during both seasons and calculate the water use efficiencies. This will help to identify the most efficient water management systems in rice based cropping ecosystems using stable water isotopes. Soil samples are collected from 9 different depths at up to 60 cm in vegetative, reproductive and matured periods of plant growth together with stem samples. Soil and plant samples are extracted by cryogenic vacuum extraction. Root samples are collected up to 60 cm depth from 10 cm intercepts leading calculation of root length density and dry weight. Groundwater, surface water, rain water and irrigation water are sampled weekly. All water samples are analyzed for hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios (d18O and dD) using Los Gatos Research DLT100. Rainfall records, ground water level, surface water level fluctuations and the amount of water irrigated in each field will be measured during the sampling period. The direct inference approach which is based on comparing isotopic compositions (dD and d18O) between plant stem water and soil water will be used to determine water sources taken up by plant. Multiple-source mass balance assessment can provide the estimated range of potential contributions of water from each soil depth to root water uptake of a crop. These

  3. Plant growth promotion in cereal and leguminous agricultural important plants: from microorganism capacities to crop production.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Montaño, F; Alías-Villegas, C; Bellogín, R A; del Cerro, P; Espuny, M R; Jiménez-Guerrero, I; López-Baena, F J; Ollero, F J; Cubo, T

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are free-living bacteria which actively colonize plant roots, exerting beneficial effects on plant development. The PGPR may (i) promote the plant growth either by using their own metabolism (solubilizing phosphates, producing hormones or fixing nitrogen) or directly affecting the plant metabolism (increasing the uptake of water and minerals), enhancing root development, increasing the enzymatic activity of the plant or "helping" other beneficial microorganisms to enhance their action on the plants; (ii) or may promote the plant growth by suppressing plant pathogens. These abilities are of great agriculture importance in terms of improving soil fertility and crop yield, thus reducing the negative impact of chemical fertilizers on the environment. The progress in the last decade in using PGPR in a variety of plants (maize, rice, wheat, soybean and bean) along with their mechanism of action are summarized and discussed here.

  4. Isolation, characterization, and identification of biological control agent for potato soft rot in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Ali, M E; Khan, A A; Akanda, A M; Uddin, Md Kamal; Hashim, U; Abd Hamid, S B

    2012-01-01

    A total of 91 isolates of probable antagonistic bacteria of potato soft rot bacterium Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) were extracted from rhizospheres and endophytes of various crop plants, different soil varieties, and atmospheres in the potato farming areas of Bangladesh. Antibacterial activity of the isolated probable antagonistic bacteria was tested in vitro against the previously identified most common and most virulent soft rot causing bacterial strain Ecc P-138. Only two isolates E-45 and E-65 significantly inhibited the in vitro growth of Ecc P-138. Physiological, biochemical, and carbon source utilization tests identified isolate E-65 as a member of the genus Bacillus and the isolate E-45 as Lactobacillus sp. The stronger antagonistic activity against Ecc P-138 was found in E-65 in vitro screening and storage potatoes. E-65 reduced the soft rot infection to 22-week storage potatoes of different varieties by 32.5-62.5% in model experiment, demonstrating its strong potential to be used as an effective biological control agent for the major pectolytic bacteria Ecc. The highest (62.5%) antagonistic effect of E-65 was observed in the Granola and the lowest (32.7%) of that was found in the Cardinal varieties of the Bangladeshi potatoes. The findings suggest that isolate E-65 could be exploited as a biocontrol agent for potato tubers.

  5. Comprehensive analysis of soil nitrogen removal by catch crops based on growth and water use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasutake, D.; Kondo, K.; Yamane, S.; Kitano, M.; Mori, M.; Fujiwara, T.

    2016-07-01

    A new methodology for comprehensive analysis of the characteristics of nitrogen (N) removal from greenhouse soil by catch crop was proposed in relation to its growth and water use. The N removal is expressed as the product of five parameters: net assimilation rate, specific leaf area, shoot dry weight, water use efficiency for N removal, and water requirement for growth. This methodology was applied to the data of a greenhouse experiment where corn was cultivated under three plant densities. We analyzed the effect of plant density and examined the effectiveness of the methodology. Higher plant densities are advantageous not only for total N removal but also for water use efficiency in N removal and growth because of the large specific leaf area, shoot dry weight, and decreased soil evaporation. On the other hand, significant positive or negative linear relationships were found between all five parameters and N removal. This should improve the understanding of the N removal mechanisms and the interactions among its components. We show the effectiveness of our analytical methodology, which can contribute to identifying the optimum plant density according to the field situations (available water amount, soil N quantity to be removed) for practical catch crop cultivation.

  6. Diversity, Biocontrol, and Plant Growth Promoting Abilities of Xylem Residing Bacteria from Solanaceous Crops

    PubMed Central

    Achari, Gauri A.

    2014-01-01

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is one of the solanaceous crops of economic and cultural importance and is widely cultivated in the state of Goa, India. Eggplant cultivation is severely affected by bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum that colonizes the xylem tissue. In this study, 167 bacteria were isolated from the xylem of healthy eggplant, chilli, and Solanum torvum Sw. by vacuum infiltration and maceration. Amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) grouped these xylem residing bacteria (XRB) into 38 haplotypes. Twenty-eight strains inhibited growth of R. solanacearum and produced volatile and diffusible antagonistic compounds and plant growth promoting substances in vitro. Antagonistic strains XB86, XB169, XB177, and XB200 recorded a biocontrol efficacy greater than 85% against BW and exhibited 12%–22 % increase in shoot length in eggplant in the greenhouse screening. 16S rRNA based identification revealed the presence of 23 different bacterial genera. XRB with high biocontrol and plant growth promoting activities were identified as strains of Staphylococcus sp., Bacillus sp., Streptomyces sp., Enterobacter sp., and Agrobacterium sp. This study is the first report on identity of bacteria from the xylem of solanaceous crops having traits useful in cultivation of eggplant. PMID:24963298

  7. A mathematical model for crop spectral-temporal trajectories based on a plant growth model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolford, T. L.

    1983-01-01

    The Kubelka-Munk radiative transfer model is combined with an approximation of Kauth-Thomas greeness and brightness transforms to derive approximate closed form expressions for crop greeness and brightness surrogates in terms of canopy biomass. The greeness relation derived resembles an existing empirical relation between leaf area index and greeness. A simple growth model based on interception and utilization of photosynthetically active radiation is developed and used to describe the time evolution of greeness and brightness. The model developed does not yet yield definitive profile calculations but suggests a conceptual framework which may be found useful for further profile analysis.

  8. Options for transpiration water removal in a crop growth system under zero gravity conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwell, C. C.; Kliss, M.; Yendler, B.; Borchers, B.; Yendler, Boris S.; Nguyen, Thoi K.; Waleh, Ahmad

    1991-01-01

    The operation of a microgravity crop-growth system is a critical feature of NASA's Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) development program. Transpiration-evolved water must be removed from the air that is recirculated in such a system, perhaps supplying potable water in the process. The present consideration of candidate systems for CELSS water removal gives attention to energy considerations and to a mechanical, inertial-operation water-separation system that was chosen due to the depth of current understanding of its operation.

  9. Response of vegetation to carbon dioxide. Growth, yield and plant water relationships in sweet potatoes in response to carbon dioxide enrichment 1986

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    In the summer of 1985, under the joint program of US Department of Energy, Carbon Dioxide Division, and Tuskegee University, experiments were conducted to study growth, yield, photosynthesis and plant water relationships in sweet potato plants growth in an enriched CO{sub 2} environment. The main experiment utilized open top chambers to study the effects of CO{sub 2} and soil moisture on growth, yield and photosynthesis of field-grown plants. In addition, potted plants in open top chambers were utilized in a study of the effects of different CO{sub 2} concentrations on growth pattern, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate and biomass increment at different stages of development. The interaction effects of enriched CO{sub 2} and water stress on biomass production, yield, xylem potential, and stomatal conductance were also investigated. The overall results of the various studies are described.

  10. Crop and Substrate Tests with Single Use Rooting "Pillows" for the VEGGIE Plant Growth Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, Gioia; Newsham, Gerard; Caro, Janicce; Stutte, Gary; Morrow, Robert; Wheeler, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    VEGGIE is a small plant production chamber built by ORBITEC. This chamber can be collapsed for easy stowage and deployed in orbit. It is designed for gravity independent operation, and provides 0.17 square m of crop growth area with three primary subsystems: an LED light panel, extendable transparent Teflon bellows to enclose the plants, and a wicking reservoir. VEGGIE would provide the capability for astronauts to grow fresh foods for dietary supplementation. Initial planting concepts tested with the VEGGIE included direct seeding or plug placement on the reservoir surface. These options had issues of salt accumulation and eventual toxicity if the reservoir was filled with nutrient solution, and hardware reuse was limited due to sanitation. In response a rooting packet or "pillow" concept was developed: single-use bags of media containing time release fertilizer with a wicking surface contacting the VEGGIE reservoir. Pillows being tested are small electrostatic bags with a Nitex nylon mesh side, each holding 100 mL of dry media. Six pillows fit in one VEGGIE unit; however pillow size could vary depending on crop selected. Seeds can be planted directly in pillows and planted pillows can be hydrated in space as desired. Our goals were to define optimal media and crops for an ISS mission scenario. Plant tests in pillows were performed in a controlled environment chamber set to habitat-relevant conditions, and capillary reservoir analogs were utilized. Media tested within pillows included: a commercial peat-based potting mix, arcillite (calcined clay), perlite: vermiculite, and peat-based: arcillite blends. Testing included 15 types of leafy greens, snow pea, radish, and herbs. Media performance was crop dependent, but generally plants showed the greatest growth in the peat-based: arcillite mixes. Crops with the best performance in pillows were identified, and testing is underway with select leafy greens examining plant and microbial load response to repeated harvest

  11. Potato leaf explants as a spaceflight plant test system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    The use of explant tissues or organs may circumvent limitations facing whole-plant experimentation during spaceflight. In the case of potato, a crop currently being studied for application to bioregenerative life support systems, excised leaves and their subtended axillary buds can be used to test a variety of stem growth and development phases ranging from tubers through stolons (horizontal stems) to upright leafy shoots. The leaves can be fit well into small-volume test packages and sustained under relatively low irradiance levels using light-weight growing media. Tubers formed on potato leaf cuttings can yield up from 0.5 to 1.0 g fresh mass 10 days after excision and up to 2.0 g or more, 14 days from excision.

  12. Phytophthora infestans-triggered response of growth- and defense-related genes in potato cultivars with different levels of resistance under the influence of nitrogen availability.

    PubMed

    Ros, Barbara; Mohler, Volker; Wenzel, Gerhard; Thümmler, Fritz

    2008-06-01

    The effects of high and low N concentrations on the Solanum tuberosum-Phytophthora infestans interaction were studied in the potato cultivars Bettina, New York 121, Indira and Arkula, which exhibited different levels of resistance. Aboveground biomass and Chl and N content were significantly higher in all cultivars grown in higher N environments, while C:N ratios were lower, confirming successful application of N. High availability of N significantly increased susceptibility of three of the four potato cultivars, and amounts of pathogen within the infected leaflets determined in a quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction reflected this. Differential gene expression of P. infestans-induced and -repressed genes derived from three subtracted cDNA libraries at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h post-inoculation was studied in parallel. P. infestans attack led to an induction of defense-related and at the same time repression of growth-related potato genes mainly encoding photosynthetic genes. High N supply led to higher transcript abundance of photosynthetic genes such as Chl a/b-binding protein and ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase. N-dependent suppression of defense-related compounds in absence of the pathogen was not observed. Better N nutrition appeared to allow the plants to invest more resources in defense reactions.

  13. Effectiveness of 3 antagonistic bacterial isolates to control Rhizoctonia solani Kühn on lettuce and potato.

    PubMed

    Grosch, Rita; Faltin, Franziska; Lottmann, Jana; Kofoet, A; Berg, Gabriele

    2005-04-01

    Rhizoctonia solani causes yield losses in numerous economically important European crops. To develop a biocontrol strategy, 3 potato-associated ecto- and endophytically living bacterial strains Pseudomonas fluorescens B1, Pseudomonas fluorescens B2, and Serratia plymuthica B4 were evaluated against R. solani in potato and in lettuce. The disease-suppression effect of the 3 biocontrol agents (BCAs) was tested in a growth chamber and in the field. In growth chamber experiments, all 3 BCAs completely or significantly limited the dry mass (DM) losses on lettuce and the disease severity (DS) caused by R. solani on potato sprouts. Strain B1 showed the highest suppression effect (52% on average) on potato. Under field conditions, the DS on both crops, which were bacterized, decreased significantly, and the biomass losses on lettuce decreased significantly as well. The greatest disease-suppression effect on potato was achieved by strain B1 (37%), followed by B2 (33%) and then B4 (31%), whereas the marketable tuber yield increased up to 12% (B1), 6% (B2), and 17% (B4) compared with the pathogen control at higher disease pressure. Furthermore, in all experiments, B1 proved to be the most effective BCA against R. solani. Therefore, this BCA could be a candidate for developing a commercial product against Rhizoctonia diseases. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the high potential of endophytes to be used as a biological control agent against R. solani under field conditions.

  14. Fruit development, growth, and stored reserves in macauba palm (Acrocomia aculeata), an alternative bioenergy crop.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Sebastián Giraldo; Motoike, Sérgio Yoshimitsu; Kuki, Kacilda Naomi; Couto, Adriano Donato

    2016-10-01

    Main conclusion Macauba palm fruiting is supra-annual, and the fruit growth follows a double sigmoidal trend. The prevailing compound in the mesocarp differs as the fruit ages, oil being the major storage compound. Acrocomia aculeata, macauba palm, is a conspicuous species in the tropical Americas. Because the species is highly productive in oil-rich fruits, it is the subject of domestication as an alternative vegetable oil crop, especially as a bioenergy feedstock. This detailed study first presents the macauba fruit growth and development patterns, morphological changes and accumulation of organic compounds. Fruits were monitored weekly in a natural population. The fruiting was supra-annual, and the fruit growth curve followed a double sigmoidal trend with four stages (S): SI-slow growth and negligible differentiation of the fruit inner parts; SII-first growth spurt and visible, but not complete, differentiation of the inner parts; SIII-growth slowed down and all structures attained differentiation; and SIV-second growth spurt and fruit maturation. In SII, the exocarp and endocarp were the main contributors to fruit growth, whereas the mesocarp and endosperm were responsible for most of the weight gain during SIV. In comparison with starch and oil, soluble sugars did not accumulate in the mesocarp. However, starch was transitory and fueled the oil synthesis. The protective layers, the exocarp and endocarp, fulfilling their ecological roles, were the first to reach maturity, followed by the storage tissues, the mesocarp, and endosperm. The amount and nature of organic compounds in the mesocarp varied with the fruit development and growth stages, and oil was the main and final storage material. The description of macauba fruit's transformations and their temporal order may be of importance for future ecological and agronomical references.

  15. Control of sweet potato virus diseases.

    PubMed

    Loebenstein, Gad

    2015-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is ranked seventh in global food crop production and is the third most important root crop after potato and cassava. Sweet potatoes are vegetative propagated from vines, root slips (sprouts), or tubers. Therefore, virus diseases can be a major constrain, reducing yields markedly, often more than 50%. The main viruses worldwide are Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). Effects on yields by SPFMV or SPCSV alone are minor, or but in complex infection by the two or other viruses yield losses of 50%. The orthodox way of controlling viruses in vegetative propagated crops is by supplying the growers with virus-tested planting material. High-yielding plants are tested for freedom of viruses by PCR, serology, and grafting to sweet potato virus indicator plants. After this, meristem tips are taken from those plants that reacted negative. The meristems were grown into plants which were kept under insect-proof conditions and away from other sweet potato material for distribution to farmers after another cycle of reproduction.

  16. Potato Genome Sequencing: A Short Glimpse of the Non-Repetitive.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato is the world’s number one vegetable crop. The potato is a member of the Solanaceae family that contains other crops such tomato pepper and eggplant as well as model species tobacco and petunia. Tomato is both an important crop as well as a model species for genetic and physical genomic info...

  17. Phylogenetically diverse AM fungi from Ecuador strongly improve seedling growth of native potential crop trees.

    PubMed

    Schüßler, Arthur; Krüger, Claudia; Urgiles, Narcisa

    2016-04-01

    In many deforested regions of the tropics, afforestation with native tree species could valorize a growing reservoir of degraded, previously overused and abandoned land. The inoculation of tropical tree seedlings with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM fungi) can improve tree growth and viability, but efficiency may depend on plant and AM fungal genotype. To study such effects, seven phylogenetically diverse AM fungi, native to Ecuador, from seven genera and a non-native AM fungus (Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM197198) were used to inoculate the tropical potential crop tree (PCT) species Handroanthus chrysanthus (synonym Tabebuia chrysantha), Cedrela montana, and Heliocarpus americanus. Twenty-four plant-fungus combinations were studied in five different fertilization and AMF inoculation treatments. Numerous plant growth parameters and mycorrhizal root colonization were assessed. The inoculation with any of the tested AM fungi improved seedling growth significantly and in most cases reduced plant mortality. Plants produced up to threefold higher biomass, when compared to the standard nursery practice. AM fungal inoculation alone or in combination with low fertilization both outperformed full fertilization in terms of plant growth promotion. Interestingly, root colonization levels for individual fungi strongly depended on the host tree species, but surprisingly the colonization strength did not correlate with plant growth promotion. The combination of AM fungal inoculation with a low dosage of slow release fertilizer improved PCT seedling performance strongest, but also AM fungal treatments without any fertilization were highly efficient. The AM fungi tested are promising candidates to improve management practices in tropical tree seedling production.

  18. How do soil physical conditions for crop growth vary over time under established contrasting tillage regimes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallett, Paul; Stobart, Ron; Valentine, Tracy; George, Timothy; Morris, Nathan; Newton, Adrian; McKenzie, Blair

    2014-05-01

    -throughput. Samples are taken over the rooting zone in the topsoil, plough pan and subsoil. The first year's dataset from this comprehensive project will be presented. Early data identified plough pans under shallow non-inversion tillage that will limit root growth at all sites. Aggregate stabilities vary as expected, with plough soils at shallow depth being less stable than non-inversion tillage, but greater stability in plough soils at greater depth due to incorporated organic matter. Very rapidly following cultivation, the seedbeds coalesce, resulting in a more challenging physical environment for crop growth. We are exploring the mechanisms in soil structure temporal dynamics in greater detail, including the resilience of seedbeds to structural degradation through natural weathering and the action of plants. These profound differences in soil conditions will impact the root ideotype of crops for these different conditions. This has implications for the way in which breeding and genotype selection is performed in the future. Ultimately, we aim to identify crop varieties suited to local soil conditions and management, possibly with root traits that boost yields and soil physical quality.

  19. Adaptation of SUBSTOR for controlled-environment potato production with elevated carbon dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleisher, D. H.; Cavazzoni, J.; Giacomelli, G. A.; Ting, K. C.; Janes, H. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    The SUBSTOR crop growth model was adapted for controlled-environment hydroponic production of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Norland) under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. Adaptations included adjustment of input files to account for cultural differences between the field and controlled environments, calibration of genetic coefficients, and adjustment of crop parameters including radiation use efficiency. Source code modifications were also performed to account for the absorption of light reflected from the surface below the crop canopy, an increased leaf senescence rate, a carbon (mass) balance to the model, and to modify the response of crop growth rate to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. Adaptations were primarily based on growth and phenological data obtained from growth chamber experiments at Rutgers University (New Brunswick, N.J.) and from the modeling literature. Modified-SUBSTOR predictions were compared with data from Kennedy Space Center's Biomass Production Chamber for verification. Results show that, with further development, modified-SUBSTOR will be a useful tool for analysis and optimization of potato growth in controlled environments.

  20. Adaptation of SUBSTOR for controlled-environment potato production with elevated carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Fleisher, D H; Cavazzoni, J; Giacomelli, G A; Ting, K C

    2003-01-01

    The SUBSTOR crop growth model was adapted for controlled-environment hydroponic production of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Norland) under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. Adaptations included adjustment of input files to account for cultural differences between the field and controlled environments, calibration of genetic coefficients, and adjustment of crop parameters including radiation use efficiency. Source code modifications were also performed to account for the absorption of light reflected from the surface below the crop canopy, an increased leaf senescence rate, a carbon (mass) balance to the model, and to modify the response of crop growth rate to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. Adaptations were primarily based on growth and phenological data obtained from growth chamber experiments at Rutgers University (New Brunswick, N.J.) and from the modeling literature. Modified-SUBSTOR predictions were compared with data from Kennedy Space Center's Biomass Production Chamber for verification. Results show that, with further development, modified-SUBSTOR will be a useful tool for analysis and optimization of potato growth in controlled environments.

  1. Modeling water scarcity over south Asia: Incorporating crop growth and irrigation models into the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troy, Tara J.; Ines, Amor V. M.; Lall, Upmanu; Robertson, Andrew W.

    2013-04-01

    Large-scale hydrologic models, such as the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, are used for a variety of studies, from drought monitoring to projecting the potential impact of climate change on the hydrologic cycle decades in advance. The majority of these models simulates the natural hydrological cycle and neglects the effects of human activities such as irrigation, which can result in streamflow withdrawals and increased evapotranspiration. In some parts of the world, these activities do not significantly affect the hydrologic cycle, but this is not the case in south Asia where irrigated agriculture has a large water footprint. To address this gap, we incorporate a crop growth model and irrigation model into the VIC model in order to simulate the impacts of irrigated and rainfed agriculture on the hydrologic cycle over south Asia (Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra basin and peninsular India). The crop growth model responds to climate signals, including temperature and water stress, to simulate the growth of maize, wheat, rice, and millet. For the primarily rainfed maize crop, the crop growth model shows good correlation with observed All-India yields (0.7) with lower correlations for the irrigated wheat and rice crops (0.4). The difference in correlation is because irrigation provides a buffer against climate conditions, so that rainfed crop growth is more tied to climate than irrigated crop growth. The irrigation water demands induce hydrologic water stress in significant parts of the region, particularly in the Indus, with the streamflow unable to meet the irrigation demands. Although rainfall can vary significantly in south Asia, we find that water scarcity is largely chronic due to the irrigation demands rather than being intermittent due to climate variability.

  2. Ectopic expression of a hot pepper bZIP-like transcription factor in potato enhances drought tolerance without decreasing tuber yield.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seok-Jun; Han, Se-Youn; Kim, Dool-Yi; Yoon, In Sun; Shin, Dongjin; Byun, Myung-Ok; Kwon, Hawk-Bin; Kim, Beom-Gi

    2015-11-01

    Over-expression of group A bZIP transcription factor genes in plants improves abiotic stress tolerance but usually reduces yields. Thus, there have been several efforts to overcome yield penalty in transgenic plants. In this study, we characterized that expression of the hot pepper (Capsicum annuum) gene CaBZ1, which encodes a group S bZIP transcription factor, was induced by salt and osmotic stress as well as abscisic acid (ABA). Transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants over-expressing CaBZ1 exhibited reduced rates of water loss and faster stomatal closure than non transgenic potato plants under drought and ABA treatment conditions. CaBZ1 over-expression in transgenic potato increased the expression of ABA- and stress-related genes (such as CYP707A1, CBF and NAC-like genes) and improved drought stress tolerance. Interestingly, over-expression of CaBZ1 in potato did not produce undesirable growth phenotypes in major agricultural traits such as plant height, leaf size and tuber formation under normal growth conditions. The transgenic potato plants also had higher tuber yields than non transgenic potato plants under drought stress conditions. Thus, CaBZ1 may be useful for improving drought tolerance in tuber crops. This might be the first report of the production of transgenic potato with improved tuber yields under drought conditions.

  3. Enhancing crop yield with the use of N-based fertilizers co-applied with plant hormones or growth regulators.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Mohammad; Kurepin, Leonid V; Catto, Warwick; Pharis, Richard P

    2015-07-01

    Crop yield, vegetative or reproductive, depends on access to an adequate supply of essential mineral nutrients. At the same time, a crop plant's growth and development, and thus yield, also depend on in situ production of plant hormones. Thus optimizing mineral nutrition and providing supplemental hormones are two mechanisms for gaining appreciable yield increases. Optimizing the mineral nutrient supply is a common and accepted agricultural practice, but the co-application of nitrogen-based fertilizers with plant hormones or plant growth regulators is relatively uncommon. Our review discusses possible uses of plant hormones (gibberellins, auxins, cytokinins, abscisic acid and ethylene) and specific growth regulators (glycine betaine and polyamines) to enhance and optimize crop yield when co-applied with nitrogen-based fertilizers. We conclude that use of growth-active gibberellins, together with a nitrogen-based fertilizer, can result in appreciable and significant additive increases in shoot dry biomass of crops, including forage crops growing under low-temperature conditions. There may also be a potential for use of an auxin or cytokinin, together with a nitrogen-based fertilizer, for obtaining additive increases in dry shoot biomass and/or reproductive yield. Further research, though, is needed to determine the potential of co-application of nitrogen-based fertilizers with abscisic acid, ethylene and other growth regulators.

  4. Emerging New Crop Pests: Ecological Modelling and Analysis of the South American Potato Psyllid Russelliana solanicola (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) and Its Wild Relatives.

    PubMed

    Syfert, Mindy M; Serbina, Liliya; Burckhardt, Daniel; Knapp, Sandra; Percy, Diana M

    2017-01-01

    Food security is threatened by newly emerging pests with increased invasive potential accelerated through globalization. The Neotropical jumping plant louse Russelliana solanicola Tuthill is currently a localized potato pest and probable vector of plant pathogens. It is an unusually polyphagous species and is widely distributed in and along the Andes. To date, introductions have been detected in eastern Argentina, southern Brazil and Uruguay. Species distribution models (SDMs) and trait comparisons based on contemporary and historical collections are used to estimate the potential spread of R. solanicola worldwide. We also extend our analyses to all described species in the genus Russelliana in order to assess the value of looking beyond pest species to predict pest spread. We investigate the extent to which data on geographical range and environmental niche can be effectively extracted from museum collections for comparative analyses of pest and non-pest species in Russelliana. Our results indicate that R. solanicola has potential for invasion in many parts of the world with suitable environmental conditions that currently have or are anticipated to increase potato cultivation. Large geographical ranges are characteristic of a morphological subgeneric taxon group that includes R. solanicola; this same group also has a larger environmental breadth than other groups within the genus. Ecological modelling using museum collections provides a useful tool for identifying emerging pests and developing integrated pest management programs.

  5. Emerging New Crop Pests: Ecological Modelling and Analysis of the South American Potato Psyllid Russelliana solanicola (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) and Its Wild Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Syfert, Mindy M.; Serbina, Liliya; Burckhardt, Daniel; Knapp, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Food security is threatened by newly emerging pests with increased invasive potential accelerated through globalization. The Neotropical jumping plant louse Russelliana solanicola Tuthill is currently a localized potato pest and probable vector of plant pathogens. It is an unusually polyphagous species and is widely distributed in and along the Andes. To date, introductions have been detected in eastern Argentina, southern Brazil and Uruguay. Species distribution models (SDMs) and trait comparisons based on contemporary and historical collections are used to estimate the potential spread of R. solanicola worldwide. We also extend our analyses to all described species in the genus Russelliana in order to assess the value of looking beyond pest species to predict pest spread. We investigate the extent to which data on geographical range and environmental niche can be effectively extracted from museum collections for comparative analyses of pest and non-pest species in Russelliana. Our results indicate that R. solanicola has potential for invasion in many parts of the world with suitable environmental conditions that currently have or are anticipated to increase potato cultivation. Large geographical ranges are characteristic of a morphological subgeneric taxon group that includes R. solanicola; this same group also has a larger environmental breadth than other groups within the genus. Ecological modelling using museum collections provides a useful tool for identifying emerging pests and developing integrated pest management programs. PMID:28052088

  6. Development and growth of fruit bodies and crops of the button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Straatsma, Gerben; Sonnenberg, Anton S M; van Griensven, Leo J L D

    2013-10-01

    We studied the appearance of fruit body primordia, the growth of individual fruit bodies and the development of the consecutive flushes of the crop. Relative growth, measured as cap expansion, was not constant. It started extremely rapidly, and slowed down to an exponential rate with diameter doubling of 1.7 d until fruit bodies showed maturation by veil breaking. Initially many outgrowing primordia were arrested, indicating nutritional competition. After reaching 10 mm diameter, no growth arrest occurred; all growing individuals, whether relatively large or small, showed an exponential increase of both cap diameter and biomass, until veil breaking. Biomass doubled in 0.8 d. Exponential growth indicates the absence of competition. Apparently there exist differential nutritional requirements for early growth and for later, continuing growth. Flushing was studied applying different picking sizes. An ordinary flushing pattern occurred at an immature picking size of 8 mm diameter (picking mushrooms once a day with a diameter above 8 mm). The smallest picking size yielded the highest number of mushrooms picked, confirming the competition and arrested growth of outgrowing primordia: competition seems less if outgrowing primordia are removed early. The flush duration (i.e. between the first and last picking moments) was not affected by picking size. At small picking size, the subsequent flushes were not fully separated in time but overlapped. Within 2 d after picking the first individuals of the first flush, primordia for the second flush started outgrowth. Our work supports the view that the acquisition of nutrients by the mycelium is demand rather than supply driven. For formation and early outgrowth of primordia, indications were found for an alternation of local and global control, at least in the casing layer. All these data combined, we postulate that flushing is the consequence of the depletion of some unknown specific nutrition required by outgrowing

  7. Determination of growth-state specific crop coefficients (Kc) of maize and sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A ratio of crop evapotranspiration (ETC) to reference evapotranspiration (ETO) determines a crop coefficient (Kc) value, which is related to specific crop phenological development to improve transferability of the Kc values. Development of Kc can assist in predicting crop irrigation needs using mete...

  8. Studies on the storage life of irradiated potatoes of different maturities as influenced by different levels of nitrogen during growth and different harvest dates

    SciTech Connect

    Badshah, N.L.

    1989-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the effects of irradiation levels on potato tubers of different maturities grown with 0.0, 182 and 364 kg/ha nitrogen in 16-16-16 NPK fertilizer, harvested on different dates and stored at 10 and 15.5{degree}C. Tubers from the 1986 crop were harvested on September 15, 1986. Tubers from the 1987 crop were harvested when 0-5%, 50%, and 100% of the vines had died. Gamma irradiation was applied to the tubers of the 1986 crop at dosage 0, 5, 10 and 20 krad; and 0 and 7.5 krad for the tubers of 1987 crop. The 1986 study indicated that increasing fertilizer and irradiation levels significantly decreased sprouting, percent weight loss and specific gravity of tubers. The loss of ascorbic acid, histidine, leucine, isoleucine, and the amount of reducing, and non-reducing sugars were significantly decreased by increasing nitrogen levels. The content of leucine, reducing sugars and ascorbic acid levels were decreased by irradiation. Higher storage temperatures caused greater loss of arginine, isoleucine, valine and ascorbic acid. No significant changes were found in protein, lysine and aromatic amino acids. Tubers stored at 15.5{degree}C showed greater metabolic changes as indicated by sprouting, weight loss; changes in permeability, protein, amino acids, sugars and ascorbic acid contents. The 5 krad irradiation treatment resulted in complete sprout inhibition of tubers from 364 kg/ha nitrogen levels at 10{degree}C storage. Twenty krad dosage while inhibiting sprouting at 15.5{degree}C, caused greater loss of ascorbic acid. The results of 1987 studies showed that tubers from higher nitrogen levels irradiated with 7.5 krad significantly decreased weight loss.

  9. Potential impacts of bioprocessing of sweet potato: Review.

    PubMed

    El Sheikha, Aly Farag; Ray, Ramesh C

    2017-02-11

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is among the major food crops in the world and is cultivated in all tropical and subtropical regions particularly in Asia, Africa, and the Pacific. Asia and Africa regions account for 95% of the world's production. Among the root and tuber crops grown in the world, sweet potato ranks second after cassava. In previous decades, sweet potato represented food and feed security, now it offers income generation possibilities, through bioprocessing products. Bioprocessing of sweet potato offers novel opportunities to commercialize this crop by developing a number of functional foods and beverages such as sour starch, lacto-pickle, lacto-juice, soy sauce, acidophilus milk, sweet potato curd and yogurt, and alcoholic drinks through either solid state or submerged fermentation. Sweet potato tops, especially leaves are preserved as hay or silage. Sweet potato flour and bagassae are used as substrates for production of microbial protein, enzymes, organic acids, monosodium glutamate, chitosan, etc. Additionally, sweet potato is a promising candidate for production of bioethanol. This review deals with the development of various products from sweet potato by application of bioprocessing technology. To the best of our knowledge, there is no review paper on the potential impacts of the sweet potato bioprocessing.

  10. Development of biomarkers and a diagnostic tool for investigation of coinfections by and interactions between potato purple top and potato witches’-broom phytoplasmas in tomato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Columbia Basin potato purple top (PPT) phytoplasma and Alaska potato witches’-broom (PWB) phytoplasma are two closely-related but mutually distinct pathogenic bacteria that infect potato and other vegetable crops. Inhabiting phloem sieve elements and being transmitted by phloem-feeding insect vecto...

  11. Performance of growing indigenous goats fed diets based on urban market crop wastes.

    PubMed

    Katongole, C B; Sabiiti, E N; Bareeba, F B; Ledin, I

    2009-03-01

    The effect of feeding diets including market crop wastes (sweet potato vines (Ipomoea batatas) and scarlet eggplant (Solanum aethiopicum)) on growth and digestibility was studied using 32 indigenous intact growing male goats. Adding elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum), maize bran and Leucaena leucocephala leaves, four isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets (Sweet potato vines, Solanum, Mixed and Control) were formulated. After the growth trial, 12 goats were randomly selected for a digestibility trial with the same diets, and 8 goats for a feed preference test comparing the market wastes and elephant grass. Crude protein (CP) intake was highest (P<0.05) for the Control (48 g/day) and lowest for the Sweet potato vines diet (23 g/day). Average daily gain was between 11.0 and 14.2 g/day, and similar between diets. The DM and CP digestibilities of the diets were 0.56 and 0.56 (Control), 0.62 and 0.56 (Mixed), 0.59 and 0.49 (Sweet potato vines), and 0.54 and 0.45 (Solanum), respectively. Faecal and urinary N excretions were highest in goats fed the Sweet potato vines and Solanum diets. Eggplant wastes were the least (P<0.05) preferred. On average the goats spent 5% of their 8-hour time eating eggplant wastes, 34% on sweet potato vines and 36% on elephant grass. Growth performance and N retention were low due to the low intake of feed, especially eggplant wastes.

  12. Functional and Structural Optimality in Plant Growth: A Crop Modelling Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldararu, S.; Purves, D. W.; Smith, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Simple mechanistic models of vegetation processes are essential both to our understanding of plant behaviour and to our ability to predict future changes in vegetation. One concept that can take us closer to such models is that of plant optimality, the hypothesis that plants aim to achieve an optimal state. Conceptually, plant optimality can be either structural or functional optimality. A structural constraint would mean that plants aim to achieve a certain structural characteristic such as an allometric relationship or nutrient content that allows optimal function. A functional condition refers to plants achieving optimal functionality, in most cases by maximising carbon gain. Functional optimality conditions are applied on shorter time scales and lead to higher plasticity, making plants more adaptable to changes in their environment. In contrast, structural constraints are optimal given the specific environmental conditions that plants are adapted to and offer less flexibility. We exemplify these concepts using a simple model of crop growth. The model represents annual cycles of growth from sowing date to harvest, including both vegetative and reproductive growth and phenology. Structural constraints to growth are represented as an optimal C:N ratio in all plant organs, which drives allocation throughout the vegetative growing stage. Reproductive phenology - i.e. the onset of flowering and grain filling - is determined by a functional optimality condition in the form of maximising final seed mass, so that vegetative growth stops when the plant reaches maximum nitrogen or carbon uptake. We investigate the plants' response to variations in environmental conditions within these two optimality constraints and show that final yield is most affected by changes during vegetative growth which affect the structural constraint.

  13. Using Landsat to provide potato production estimates to Columbia Basin farmers and processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A summary of project activities relative to the estimation of potato yields in the Columbia Basin is given. Oregon State University is using a two-pronged approach to yield estimation, one using simulation models and the other using purely empirical models. The simulation modeling approach has used satellite observations to determine key dates in the development of the crop for each field identified as potatoes. In particular, these include planting dates, emergence dates, and harvest dates. These critical dates are fed into simulation models of crop growth and development to derive yield forecasts. Two empirical modeling approaches are illustrated. One relates tuber yield to estimates of cumulative intercepted solar radiation; the other relates tuber yield to the integral under the GVI curve.

  14. Silicon: a duo synergy for regulating crop growth and hormonal signaling under abiotic stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon-Ha; Khan, Abdul Latif; Lee, In-Jung

    2016-12-01

    Abiotic stresses, such as salinity, heavy metals and drought, are some of the most devastating factors hindering sustainable crop production today. Plants use their own defensive strategies to cope with the adverse effects of these stresses, via the regulation of the expression of essential phytohormones, such as gibberellins (GA), salicylic acid (SA), jasmonates (JA), abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene (ET). However, the efficacy of the endogenous defensive arsenals of plants often falls short if the stress persists over an extended period. Various strategies are developed to improve stress tolerance in plants. For example, silicon (Si) is widely considered to possess significant potential as a substance which ameliorate the negative effects of abiotic stresses, and improves plant growth and biomass accumulation. This review aims to explain how Si application influences the signaling of the endogenous hormones GA, SA, ABA, JA and ET during salinity, wounding, drought and metal stresses in crop plants. Phytohormonal cross talk plays an important role in the regulation of induced defences against stress. However, detailed molecular and proteomic research into these interactions is needed in order to identify the underlying mechanisms of stress tolerance that is imparted by Si application and uptake.

  15. Survival of enteric pathogens during butterhead lettuce growth: crop stage, leaf age, and irrigation.

    PubMed

    Van der Linden, Inge; Cottyn, Bart; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Vlaemynck, Geertrui; Heyndrickx, Marc; Maes, Martine

    2013-06-01

    The survival of Salmonella enterica serovar Thompson and Escherichia coli O157 was investigated on growing butterhead lettuce plants in the plant-growth chamber and greenhouse. All inoculation tests were made under conditions that approximate the greenhouse conditions for butterhead lettuce cultivation in Flanders (Belgium). The survival and proliferation of the pathogens on the leaves was determined at days 0, 4, and 8 after inoculation using standard plating techniques on selective medium. In the growth chamber, the extent to which both pathogens were able to multiply on the lettuce leaves was influenced by crop stage and leaf age. On young plants, the older leaves supported pathogen survival better. On nearly mature plants, pathogen population sizes were significantly higher on the old and young leaves compared with middle-aged leaves (p<0.001). In the greenhouse, the environmental regimen with high fluctuations in temperature and relative humidity was less conducive to the survival of E. coli O157, though its survival on nearly mature lettuce was enhanced by overhead irrigation. The moist conditions between the folded inner leaves are likely contributing to the survival of enteric pathogens in the lettuce head. Butterhead lettuce grown in greenhouses with a sprinkle irrigation system may present a potential health hazard when contaminated near harvest. Experimental design (growth chamber versus greenhouse) largely influences enteric pathogen behavior on growing lettuce plants.

  16. Use of Iodine to Biofortify and Promote Growth and Stress Tolerance in Crops.

    PubMed

    Medrano-Macías, Julia; Leija-Martínez, Paola; González-Morales, Susana; Juárez-Maldonado, Antonio; Benavides-Mendoza, Adalberto

    2016-01-01

    Iodine is not considered essential for land plants; however, in some aquatic plants, iodine plays a critical role in antioxidant metabolism. In humans, iodine is essential for the metabolism of the thyroid and for the development of cognitive abilities, and it is associated with lower risks of developing certain types of cancer. Therefore, great efforts are made to ensure the proper intake of iodine to the population, for example, the iodization of table salt. In the same way, as an alternative, the use of different iodine fertilization techniques to biofortify crops is considered an adequate iodine supply method. Hence, biofortification with iodine is an active area of research, with highly relevant results. The agricultural application of iodine to enhance growth, environmental adaptation, and stress tolerance in plants has not been well explored, although it may lead to the increased use of this element in agricultural practice and thus contribute to the biofortification of crops. This review systematically presents the results published on the application of iodine in agriculture, considering different environmental conditions and farming systems in various species and varying concentrations of the element, its chemical forms, and its application method. Some studies report beneficial effects of iodine, including better growth, and changes in the tolerance to stress and antioxidant capacity, while other studies report that the applications of iodine cause no response or even have adverse effects. We suggested different assumptions that attempt to explain these conflicting results, considering the possible interaction of iodine with other trace elements, as well as the different physicochemical and biogeochemical conditions that give rise to the distinct availability and the volatilization of the element.

  17. Use of Iodine to Biofortify and Promote Growth and Stress Tolerance in Crops

    PubMed Central

    Medrano-Macías, Julia; Leija-Martínez, Paola; González-Morales, Susana; Juárez-Maldonado, Antonio; Benavides-Mendoza, Adalberto

    2016-01-01

    Iodine is not considered essential for land plants; however, in some aquatic plants, iodine plays a critical role in antioxidant metabolism. In humans, iodine is essential for the metabolism of the thyroid and for the development of cognitive abilities, and it is associated with lower risks of developing certain types of cancer. Therefore, great efforts are made to ensure the proper intake of iodine to the population, for example, the iodization of table salt. In the same way, as an alternative, the use of different iodine fertilization techniques to biofortify crops is considered an adequate iodine supply method. Hence, biofortification with iodine is an active area of research, with highly relevant results. The agricultural application of iodine to enhance growth, environmental adaptation, and stress tolerance in plants has not been well explored, although it may lead to the increased use of this element in agricultural practice and thus contribute to the biofortification of crops. This review systematically presents the results published on the application of iodine in agriculture, considering different environmental conditions and farming systems in various species and varying concentrations of the element, its chemical forms, and its application method. Some studies report beneficial effects of iodine, including better growth, and changes in the tolerance to stress and antioxidant capacity, while other studies report that the applications of iodine cause no response or even have adverse effects. We suggested different assumptions that attempt to explain these conflicting results, considering the possible interaction of iodine with other trace elements, as well as the different physicochemical and biogeochemical conditions that give rise to the distinct availability and the volatilization of the element. PMID:27602033

  18. Cultural systems for growing potatoes in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T.; Bula, R.; Corey, R.; Morrow, R.

    1988-01-01

    Higher plants are being evaluated for life support to provide needed food, oxygen and water as well as removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The successful utilization of plants in space will require the development of not only highly productive growing systems but also highly efficient bioregenerative systems. It will be necessary to recycle all inedible plant parts and all human wastes so that the entire complement of elemental compounds can be reused. Potatoes have been proposed as one of the desirable crops because they are 1) extremely productive, yielding more than 100 metric tons per hectare from field plantings, 2) the edible tubers are high in digestible starch (70%) and protein (10%) on a dry weight basis, 3) up to 80% of the total plant production is in tubers and thus edible, 4) the plants are easily propagated either from tubers or from tissue culture plantlets, 5) the tubers can be utilized with a minimum of processing, and 6) potatoes can be prepared in a variety of different forms for the human diet (Tibbitts et al., 1982). However potatoes have a growth pattern that complicates the development of growing the plants in controlled systems. Tubers are borne on underground stems that are botanically termed 'rhizomes', but in common usage termed 'stolons'. The stolons must be maintained in a dark, moist area with sufficient provision for enlargement of tubers. Stems rapidly terminate in flowers forcing extensive branching and spreading of plants so that individual plants will cover 0.2 m2 or more area. Thus the growing system must be developed to provide an area that is darkened for tuber and root growth and of sufficient size for plant spread. A system developed for growing potatoes, or any plants, in space will have certain requirements that must be met to make them a useful part of a life support system. The system must 1) be constructed of materials, and involve media, that can be reused for many successive cycles of plant growth, 2

  19. Cultural systems for growing potatoes in space.

    PubMed

    Tibbitts, T; Bula, R; Corey, R; Morrow, R

    1988-01-01

    Higher plants are being evaluated for life support to provide needed food, oxygen and water as well as removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The successful utilization of plants in space will require the development of not only highly productive growing systems but also highly efficient bioregenerative systems. It will be necessary to recycle all inedible plant parts and all human wastes so that the entire complement of elemental compounds can be reused. Potatoes have been proposed as one of the desirable crops because they are 1) extremely productive, yielding more than 100 metric tons per hectare from field plantings, 2) the edible tubers are high in digestible starch (70%) and protein (10%) on a dry weight basis, 3) up to 80% of the total plant production is in tubers and thus edible, 4) the plants are easily propagated either from tubers or from tissue culture plantlets, 5) the tubers can be utilized with a minimum of processing, and 6) potatoes can be prepared in a variety of different forms for the human diet (Tibbitts et al., 1982). However potatoes have a growth pattern that complicates the development of growing the plants in controlled systems. Tubers are borne on underground stems that are botanically termed 'rhizomes', but in common usage termed 'stolons'. The stolons must be maintained in a dark, moist area with sufficient provision for enlargement of tubers. Stems rapidly terminate in flowers forcing extensive branching and spreading of plants so that individual plants will cover 0.2 m2 or more area. Thus the growing system must be developed to provide an area that is darkened for tuber and root growth and of sufficient size for plant spread. A system developed for growing potatoes, or any plants, in space will have certain requirements that must be met to make them a useful part of a life support system. The system must 1) be constructed of materials, and involve media, that can be reused for many successive cycles of plant growth, 2

  20. Potatoes in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Astroculture is a suite of technologies used to produce and maintain a closed controlled environment for plant growth. The two most recent missions supported growth of potato, dwarf wheat, and mustard plants and provided scientists with the first opportunity to conduct true plant research in space. Light emitting diodes have particular usefulness for plant growth lighting because they emit a much smaller amount of radiant heat than do conventional lighting sources and because they have potential of directing a higher percentage of the emitted light onto plants surfaces. Furthermore, the high output LED's have emissions in the 600-700 nm waveband, which is of highest efficiency for photosynthesis by plants.

  1. Growth, yield and quality attributes of a tropical potato variety (Solanum tuberosum L. cv Kufri chandramukhi) under ambient and elevated carbon dioxide and ozone and their interactions.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Sumita; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2014-03-01

    The present study was designed to study the growth and yield responses of a tropical potato variety (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Kufri chandramukhi) to different levels of carbon dioxide (382 and 570ppm) and ozone (50 and 70ppb) in combinations using open top chambers (OTCs). Plants were exposed to three ozone levels in combination with ambient CO2 and two ozone levels at elevated CO2. Significant increments in leaf area and total biomass were observed under elevated CO2 in combination with ambient O3 (ECO2+AO3) and elevated O3 (ECO2+EO3), compared to the plants grown under ambient concentrations (ACO2+AO3). Yield measured as fresh weight of potato also increased significantly under ECO2+AO3 and ECO2+EO3. Yield, however, reduced under ambient (ACO2+AO3) and elevated ozone (ACO2+EO3) compared to ACO2 (filtered chamber). Number, fresh and dry weights of tubers of size 35-50mm and>50mm used for direct consumption and industrial purposes, respectively increased maximally under ECO2+AO3. Ambient as well as elevated levels of O3 negatively affected the growth parameters and yield mainly due to reductions in number and weight of tubers of sizes >35mm. The quality of potato tubers was also modified under different treatments. Starch content increased and K, Zn and Fe concentrations decreased under ECO2+AO3 and ECO2+EO3 compared to ACO2+AO3. Starch content reduced under ACO2+AO3 and ACO2+EO3 treatments compared to ACO2. These results clearly suggest that elevated CO2 has provided complete protection to ambient O3 as the potato yield was higher under ECO2+AO3 compared to ACO2. However, ambient CO2 is not enough to protect the plants under ambient O3 levels. Elevated CO2 also provided protection against elevated O3 by improving the yield. Quality of tubers is modified by both CO2 and O3, which have serious implications on human health at present and in future.

  2. Hormonal regulation of reproductive growth under normal and heat-stress conditions in legume and other model crop species.

    PubMed

    Ozga, Jocelyn A; Kaur, Harleen; Savada, Raghavendra P; Reinecke, Dennis M

    2016-12-23

    Legume crops are grown throughout the world and provide an excellent food source of digestible protein and starch, as well as dietary fibre, vitamins, minerals, and flavonoids. Fruit and seeds from legumes are also an important source of vegetables for a well-balanced diet. A trend in elevated temperature as a result of climate change increases the risk of a heat stress-induced reduction in legume crop yield. High temperatures during the crop reproductive development phase are particularly detrimental to fruit/seed production because the growth and development of the reproductive tissues are sensitive to small changes in temperature. Hormones are signalling molecules that play important roles in a plant's ability to integrate different environmental inputs and modify their developmental processes to optimize growth, survival, and reproduction. This review focuses on the hormonal regulation of reproductive development and heat stress-induced alteration of this regulation during (i) pollination, (ii) early fruit set, and (iii) seed development that affects fruit/seed yield in legume and other model crops. Further understanding of hormone-regulated reproductive growth under non-stress and heat-stress conditions can aid in trait selection and the development of gene modification strategies and cultural practices to improve heat tolerance in legume crops contributing to improved food security.

  3. Growth Properties and Biomass Production in the Hybrid C4 Crop Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Tazoe, Youshi; Sazuka, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Miki; Saito, Chieko; Ikeuchi, Masahiro; Kanno, Keiichi; Kojima, Soichi; Hirano, Ko; Kitano, Hideki; Kasuga, Shigemitsu; Endo, Tsuyoshi; Fukuda, Hiroo; Makino, Amane

    2016-05-01

    Hybrid vigor (heterosis) has been used as a breeding technique for crop improvement to achieve enhanced biomass production, but the physiological mechanisms underlying heterosis remain poorly understood. In this study, to find a clue to the enhancement of biomass production by heterosis, we systemically evaluated the effect of heterosis on the growth rate and photosynthetic efficiency in sorghum hybrid [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench cv. Tentaka] and its parental lines (restorer line and maintainer line). The final biomass of Tentaka was 10-14 times greater than that of the parental lines grown in an experimental field, but the relative growth rate during the vegetative growth stage did not differ. Tentaka exhibited a relatively enlarged leaf area with lower leaf nitrogen content per leaf area (Narea). When the plants were grown hydroponically at different N levels, daily CO2 assimilation per leaf area (A) increased with Narea, and the ratio of A to Narea (N-use efficiency) was higher in the plants grown at low N levels but not different between Tentaka and the parental lines. The relationships between the CO2 assimilation rate, the amounts of photosynthetic enzymes, including ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate phosphate dikinase, Chl and Narea did not differ between Tentaka and the parental lines. Thus, Tentaka tended to exhibit enlargement of leaf area with lower N content, leading to a higher N-use efficiency for CO2 assimilation, but the photosynthetic properties did not differ. The greater biomass in Tentaka was mainly due to the prolonged vegetative growth period.

  4. Molecular diagnostics of potato cyst nematodes (PCN) from the national survey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato cyst nematodes (PCN) Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida are regulated pathogens of potato, a crop worth nearly $3.9 billion in the United States. Since the initial discovery of G. pallida in Idaho in 2006, extensive surveys of the major potato growing acreage have been carried out, to...

  5. Regulation Effects of Water and Nitrogen on the Source-Sink Relationship in Potato during the Tuber Bulking Stage.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenting; Xiong, Binglin; Wang, Shiwen; Deng, Xiping; Yin, Lina; Li, Hongbing

    2016-01-01

    The source-sink relationship determines crop yield, and it is largely regulated by water and nutrients in agricultural production. This has been widely investigated in cereals, but fewer studies have been conducted in root and tuber crops such as potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). The objective of this study was to investigate the source-sink relationship in potato and the regulation of water and nitrogen on the source-sink relationship during the tuber bulking stage. A pot experiment using virus-free plantlets of the Atlantic potato cultivar was conducted, using three water levels (50%, 70% and 90% of field capacity) and three nitrogen levels (0, 0.2, 0.4 g N∙kg-1 soil). The results showed that, under all water and nitrogen levels, plant source capacity were small at the end of the experiment, since photosynthetic activity in leaves were low and non-structural reserves in underground stems were completely remobilized. While at this time, there were very big differences in maximum and minimum tuber number and tuber weight, indicating that the sink tuber still had a large potential capacity to take in assimilates. These results suggest that the source-supplied assimilates were not sufficient enough to meet the demands of sink growth. Thus, we concluded that, unlike cereals, potato yield is more likely to be source-limited than sink-limited during the tuber bulking stage. Water and nitrogen are two key factors in potato production management. Our results showed that water level, nitrogen level and the interaction between water and nitrogen influence potato yield mainly through affecting source capacity via the net photosynthetic rate, total leaf area and leaf life span. Well-watered, sufficient nitrogen and well-watered combined with sufficient nitrogen increased yield mainly by enhancing the source capacity. Therefore, this suggests that increasing source capacity is more crucial to improve potato yield.

  6. Regulation Effects of Water and Nitrogen on the Source-Sink Relationship in Potato during the Tuber Bulking Stage

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenting; Xiong, Binglin; Wang, Shiwen; Deng, Xiping; Yin, Lina; Li, Hongbing

    2016-01-01

    The source-sink relationship determines crop yield, and it is largely regulated by water and nutrients in agricultural production. This has been widely investigated in cereals, but fewer studies have been conducted in root and tuber crops such as potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). The objective of this study was to investigate the source-sink relationship in potato and the regulation of water and nitrogen on the source-sink relationship during the tuber bulking stage. A pot experiment using virus-free plantlets of the Atlantic potato cultivar was conducted, using three water levels (50%, 70% and 90% of field capacity) and three nitrogen levels (0, 0.2, 0.4 g N∙kg−1 soil). The results showed that, under all water and nitrogen levels, plant source capacity were small at the end of the experiment, since photosynthetic activity in leaves were low and non-structural reserves in underground stems were completely remobilized. While at this time, there were very big differences in maximum and minimum tuber number and tuber weight, indicating that the sink tuber still had a large potential capacity to take in assimilates. These results suggest that the source-supplied assimilates were not sufficient enough to meet the demands of sink growth. Thus, we concluded that, unlike cereals, potato yield is more likely to be source-limited than sink-limited during the tuber bulking stage. Water and nitrogen are two key factors in potato production management. Our results showed that water level, nitrogen level and the interaction between water and nitrogen influence potato yield mainly through affecting source capacity via the net photosynthetic rate, total leaf area and leaf life span. Well-watered, sufficient nitrogen and well-watered combined with sufficient nitrogen increased yield mainly by enhancing the source capacity. Therefore, this suggests that increasing source capacity is more crucial to improve potato yield. PMID:26752657

  7. Applications of biotechnology and genomics in potato improvement.

    PubMed

    Barrell, Philippa J; Meiyalaghan, Sathiyamoorthy; Jacobs, Jeanne M E; Conner, Anthony J

    2013-10-01

    Potato is the third most important global food crop and the most widely grown noncereal crop. As a species highly amenable to cell culture, it has a long history of biotechnology applications for crop improvement. This review begins with a historical perspective on potato improvement using biotechnology encompassing pathogen elimination, wide hybridization, ploidy manipulation and applications of cell culture. We describe the past developments and new approaches for gene transfer to potato. Transformation is highly effective for adding single genes to existing elite potato clones with no, or minimal, disturbances to their genetic background and represents the only effective way to produce isogenic lines of specific genotypes/cultivars. This is virtually impossible via traditional breeding as, due to the high heterozygosity in the tetraploid potato genome, the genetic integrity of potato clones is lost upon sexual reproduction as a result of allele segregation. These genetic attributes have also provided challenges for the development of genetic maps and applications of molecular markers and genomics in potato breeding. Various molecular approaches used to characterize loci, (candidate) genes and alleles in potato, and associating phenotype with genotype are also described. The recent determination of the potato genome sequence has presented new opportunities for genomewide assays to provide tools for gene discovery and enabling the development of robustly unique marker haplotypes spanning QTL regions. The latter will be useful in introgression breeding and whole-genome approaches such as genomic selection to improve the efficiency of selecting elite clones and enhancing genetic gain over time.

  8. Investigation of crop growth condition with hyperspectral reflectance based on ground-based remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Minzan; Zhang, Xijie; Zhang, Yane; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Jianping

    2005-01-01

    Cucumber was selected as the experimental crop in greenhouse, and a spectroradiometer (ASD FieldSpec HH, 325-1075 nm measurable range with 1 nm resolution) was used to acquire hyperspectral reflectance of whole plants and leaves in growing status. The seedlings were grown in compound substrate composed of vermiculite and straw charcoal. In order to create nutrient stress to cucumber, five kinds of compound substrates were prepared with mixing vermiculite and straw charcoal in the ratios of 10:0, 8:2, 6:4, 4:6, and 2:8, respectively. Thirteen measurements were conducted in testing period continued from May to July in 2003. The correlation coefficient between hyperspectral reflectance and N-content of leaves and that between hyperspectral reflectance and growth condition of whole plants were analyzed in all wavelength bands. The results show that the hyperspectral reflectance based on ground-based remote sensing is available to predict N-content of leaves and to determine growth condition of whole plants.

  9. THE POTATO SYSTEMS PLANNER: A CASE OF INDUSTRY DRIVEN RESEARCH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developing profitable crop rotations is a top research priority for the potato industry. An interdisciplinary team of ARS scientists from the New England Plant, Soil, & Water Laboratory evaluated 14 rotations for their impacts on potato yield and quality, nutrient availability, plant diseases, soil ...

  10. Developing resources for diploid potato breeding and genetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum Gp. tuberosum) is an asexually propagated cross-pollinated autotetraploid crop, for which breeding methodology has not changed in 100 years. Current methods for breeding potato cultivars are genetically inefficient due to polyploidy, resource intensive due to...

  11. Senescence sweetening of chip and fry processing potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato storage makes the crop available over an extended time period, but increases financial risk to growers and end users. Senescence sweetening limits storage duration for chip and fry processing potatoes because it results in an unacceptable accumulation of reducing sugars that result in dark-co...

  12. Physiological and growth responses to water deficit in the bioenergy crop Miscanthus x giganteus.

    PubMed

    Ings, Jennifer; Mur, Luis A J; Robson, Paul R H; Bosch, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    High yielding perennial biomass crops of the species Miscanthus are widely recognized as one of the most promising lignocellulosic feedstocks for the production of bioenergy and bioproducts. Miscanthus is a C4 grass and thus has relatively high water use efficiency. Cultivated Miscanthus comprises primarily of a single clone, Miscanthus x giganteus, a sterile hybrid between M. sacchariflorus and M. sinensis. M. x giganteus is high yielding and expresses desirable combinations of many traits present in the two parental species types; however, it responds poorly to low water availability. To identify the physiological basis of the response to water stress in M. x giganteus and to identify potential targets for breeding improvements we characterized the physiological responses to water-deficit stress in a pot experiment. The experiment has provided valuable insights into the temporal aspects of drought-induced responses of M. x giganteus. Withholding water resulted in marked changes in plant physiology with growth-associated traits among the first affected, the most rapid response being a decline in the rate of stem elongation. A reduction in photosynthetic performance was among the second set of changes observed; indicated by a decrease in stomatal conductance followed by decreases in chlorophyll fluorescence and chlorophyll content. Measures reflecting the plant water status were among the last affected by the drought treatment. Metabolite analysis indicated that proline was a drought stress marker in M. x giganteus, metabolites in the proline synthesis pathway were more abundant when stomatal conductance decreased and dry weight accumulation ceased. The outcomes of this study in terms of drought-induced physiological changes, accompanied by a proof-of-concept metabolomics investigation, provide a platform for identifying targets for improved drought-tolerance of the Miscanthus bioenergy crop.

  13. Behavioral responses of adult potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae), to potato germplasm and transmission of Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a major pest of potatoes that can cause yield loss by direct feeding on crop plants and by vectoring a bacterial pathogen, Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous (a.k.a. Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum). In recent years, ...

  14. Nitrogen catch crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High costs of nitrogen (N) fertilizer and the potential for N losses to ground and surface water have resulted in increased interest in using catch crops to recover this N. Research on potatoes has shown that the amount of N lost to leaching can be as much as the amount of N removed from the field ...

  15. Different Growth Responses of an Invasive Weed and a Native Crop to Nitrogen Pulse and Competition

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ping; Li, Jingxin; Jin, Chenggong; Jiang, Baiwen; Bai, Yamei

    2016-01-01

    Resource pulses are a common event in agro-ecosystems. A pot experiment was conducted to assess the effects of nitrogen (N) pulses and competition on the growth of an invasive weed, Amaranthus retroflexus, and a native crop, Glycine max. A. retroflexus and G. max were planted in pure culture with two individuals of one species in each pot and in mixed culture with one A. retroflexus and one G. max individual and subjected to three N pulse treatments. The N treatments included a no-peak treatment (NP) with N applied stably across the growing period, a single-peak treatment (SP) with only one N addition on the planting date, and a double-peak treatment (DP) with two N additions, one on the planting date and the other on the flowering date. N pulse significantly impacted biomass and height of the two species across the whole growing season. However, only the relative growth rate (RGR) of A. retroflexus was significantly affected by N pulse. A. retroflexus had the greatest biomass and height in the SP treatment at the first harvest, and in the DP treatment at the last three harvests. Pure culture G. max produced the greatest biomass in the DP treatment. In mixed culture, G. max produced the greatest biomass in the NP treatment. Biomass production of both species was significantly influenced by species combination, with higher biomass in mixed culture than in pure culture at most growth stages. Relative yield total (RYT) values were all greater than 1.0 at the last three harvests across the three N treatments, suggesting partial resource complementarity occurred when A. retroflexus is grown with G. max. These results indicate that A. retroflexus has a strong adaptive capacity to reduce interspecific competition, likely leading to its invasion of G. max cropland in China. PMID:27280410

  16. Different Growth Responses of an Invasive Weed and a Native Crop to Nitrogen Pulse and Competition.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ping; Li, Jingxin; Jin, Chenggong; Jiang, Baiwen; Bai, Yamei

    2016-01-01

    Resource pulses are a common event in agro-ecosystems. A pot experiment was conducted to assess the effects of nitrogen (N) pulses and competition on the growth of an invasive weed, Amaranthus retroflexus, and a native crop, Glycine max. A. retroflexus and G. max were planted in pure culture with two individuals of one species in each pot and in mixed culture with one A. retroflexus and one G. max individual and subjected to three N pulse treatments. The N treatments included a no-peak treatment (NP) with N applied stably across the growing period, a single-peak treatment (SP) with only one N addition on the planting date, and a double-peak treatment (DP) with two N additions, one on the planting date and the other on the flowering date. N pulse significantly impacted biomass and height of the two species across the whole growing season. However, only the relative growth rate (RGR) of A. retroflexus was significantly affected by N pulse. A. retroflexus had the greatest biomass and height in the SP treatment at the first harvest, and in the DP treatment at the last three harvests. Pure culture G. max produced the greatest biomass in the DP treatment. In mixed culture, G. max produced the greatest biomass in the NP treatment. Biomass production of both species was significantly influenced by species combination, with higher biomass in mixed culture than in pure culture at most growth stages. Relative yield total (RYT) values were all greater than 1.0 at the last three harvests across the three N treatments, suggesting partial resource complementarity occurred when A. retroflexus is grown with G. max. These results indicate that A. retroflexus has a strong adaptive capacity to reduce interspecific competition, likely leading to its invasion of G. max cropland in China.

  17. Estimating yield of irrigated potatoes using aerial and satellite remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivarajan, Saravanan

    Multispectral aerial and satellite remote sensing plays a major role in crop yield prediction due to its ability to detect crop growth conditions on spatial and temporal scales in a cost effective manner. Many empirical relationships have been established in the past between spectral vegetation indices and leaf area index, fractional ground cover, and crop growth rates for different crops through ground sampling. Remote sensing-based vegetation index (VI) yield models using airborne and satellite data have been developed only for grain crops like barley, corn, wheat, and sorghum. So it becomes important to validate and extend the VI-based model for tuber crops like potato, taking into account the most significant parameters that affect the final crop yield of these crops. This research involved developing and validating yield models for potato crop in southern Idaho fields using high-resolution airborne and satellite remote sensing. High-resolution multispectral airborne imagery acquired on three dates throughout the growing season in 2004 was used to develop a VI-based statistical yield model by integrating the area under the Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) curve. The model was developed using hand-dug samples collected in two center pivots based on soil variability and crop growth patterns to account for variability in the leaf area duration and yields. The three-date Integrated SAVI (ISAVI) model developed was then validated using 2005 spot yield samples collected from two center pivot fields and also tested for 2004 and 2005 whole field data over dozens of center pivot fields. The three- date model was applied using 2004 and 2005 satellite images and tested. The eight-date ISAVI yield model was also extended to satellite images to estimate the potato yield. The overall yield estimation using the eight-date ISAVI model was better than the three-date model as the image inputs covered the complete growth cycle of the crop from emergence to harvest. Actual

  18. Estimating plant area index for monitoring crop growth dynamics using Landsat-8 and RapidEye images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Jiali; Liu, Jiangui; Huffman, Ted; Qian, Budong; Pattey, Elizabeth; Wang, Jinfei; Zhao, Ting; Geng, Xiaoyuan; Kroetsch, David; Dong, Taifeng; Lantz, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the use of two different optical sensors, the multispectral imager (MSI) onboard the RapidEye satellites and the operational land imager (OLI) onboard the Landsat-8 for mapping within-field variability of crop growth conditions and tracking the seasonal growth dynamics. The study was carried out in southern Ontario, Canada, during the 2013 growing season for three annual crops, corn, soybeans, and winter wheat. Plant area index (PAI) was measured at different growth stages using digital hemispherical photography at two corn fields, two winter wheat fields, and two soybean fields. Comparison between several conventional vegetation indices derived from concurrently acquired image data by the two sensors showed a good agreement. The two-band enhanced vegetation index (EVI2) and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were derived from the surface reflectance of the two sensors. The study showed that EVI2 was more resistant to saturation at high biomass range than NDVI. A linear relationship could be used for crop green effective PAI estimation from EVI2, with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.85 and root-mean-square error of 0.53. The estimated multitemporal product of green PAI was found to be able to capture the seasonal dynamics of the three crops.

  19. Linear spectral unmixing to monitor crop growth in typical organic and inorganic amended arid soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Battay, A.; Mahmoudi, H.

    2016-06-01

    The soils of the GCC countries are dominantly sandy which is typical of arid regions such as the Arabian Peninsula. Such soils are low in nutrients and have a poor water holding capacity associated with a high infiltration rate. Soil amendments may rehabilitate these soils by restoring essential soil properties and hence enable site revegetation and revitalization for crop production, especially in a region where food security is a priority. In this study, two inorganic amendments; AustraHort and Zeoplant pellet, and one organic locally produced compost were tested as soil amendments at the experimental field of the International Center for Biosaline Agriculture in Dubai, UAE. The main objective is to assess the remote sensing ability to monitor crop growth, for instance Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), having these amendments, as background with the soil. Three biomass spectral vegetation indices were used namely; NDVI, TDVI and SAVI. Pure spectral signatures of the soil and the three amendments were collected, using a field spectroradiometer, in addition to the spectral signatures of Okra in two growing stages (vegetative and flowering) in the field with a mixed F.O.V of the plant and amended soil during March and May 2015. The spectral signatures were all collected using the FieldSpec® HandHeld 2 (HH2) in the spectral range 325 nm - 1075 nm over 12 plots. A set of 4 plots were assigned for each of the three amendments as follow: three replicates of a 1.5 by 1.5 meter plot with 3kg/m2 of each amendment and 54 plants, one plot as control and all plots were given irrigation treatments at 100% based on ETc. Spectra collected over the plots were inversed in the range of 400-900 nm via a Linear Mixture Model using pure soil and amendments spectral signatures as reference. Field pictures were used to determine the vegetation fraction (in term of area of the F.O.V). Hence, the Okra spectral signatures were isolated for all plots with the three types of amendments. The

  20. Determination of growth stages and metabolic profiles in Brachypodium distachyon for comparison of developmental context with Triticeae crops

    PubMed Central

    Onda, Yoshihiko; Hashimoto, Kei; Yoshida, Takuhiro; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Sawada, Yuji; Hirai, Masami Yokota; Toyooka, Kiminori; Mochida, Keiichi; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Brachypodium distachyon is an emerging model plant for studying biological phenomena in temperate grasses. Study of the growth scale is essential to analyse spatio-temporal changes in molecular factors throughout the life cycle. For sensitive and robust staging based on morphology in B. distachyon, we demonstrated the utility of the BBCH (Biologische Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt and CHemical industry) scale, which is comparable to the Zadoks scale conventionally used for Triticeae crops. We compared the chronological progression of B. distachyon accessions Bd21 and Bd3-1, in addition to the progression of Chinese Spring wheat. The comparison of growth stages illustrates the morphological similarities and differences in the timing of life cycle events. Furthermore, we compared metabolite accumulation patterns across different growth stages and across different stress conditions using a widely targeted metabolome analysis. Metabolic profiling determined commonalities and specificities in chemical properties that were dependent on organisms, growth stages and/or stress conditions. Most metabolites accumulated equivalently in B. distachyon and wheat. This qualitative similarity indicated the superiority of B. distachyon as a model for Triticeae crops. The growth scale of B. distachyon should provide a conceptual framework for comparative analysis and for knowledge integration between this model grass and crops in the Pooideae subfamily. PMID:26156770

  1. Determination of growth stages and metabolic profiles in Brachypodium distachyon for comparison of developmental context with Triticeae crops.

    PubMed

    Onda, Yoshihiko; Hashimoto, Kei; Yoshida, Takuhiro; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Sawada, Yuji; Hirai, Masami Yokota; Toyooka, Kiminori; Mochida, Keiichi; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2015-07-22

    Brachypodium distachyon is an emerging model plant for studying biological phenomena in temperate grasses. Study of the growth scale is essential to analyse spatio-temporal changes in molecular factors throughout the life cycle. For sensitive and robust staging based on morphology in B. distachyon, we demonstrated the utility of the BBCH (Biologische Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt and CHemical industry) scale, which is comparable to the Zadoks scale conventionally used for Triticeae crops. We compared the chronological progression of B. distachyon accessions Bd21 and Bd3-1, in addition to the progression of Chinese Spring wheat. The comparison of growth stages illustrates the morphological similarities and differences in the timing of life cycle events. Furthermore, we compared metabolite accumulation patterns across different growth stages and across different stress conditions using a widely targeted metabolome analysis. Metabolic profiling determined commonalities and specificities in chemical properties that were dependent on organisms, growth stages and/or stress conditions. Most metabolites accumulated equivalently in B. distachyon and wheat. This qualitative similarity indicated the superiority of B. distachyon as a model for Triticeae crops. The growth scale of B. distachyon should provide a conceptual framework for comparative analysis and for knowledge integration between this model grass and crops in the Pooideae subfamily.

  2. Tree shelter and interplanted n-fixing shrub effects on crop tree growth on a calcareous minesoil

    SciTech Connect

    Kost, D.A.; Larson, M.M.; Vimmerstedt, J.P.

    1996-12-31

    In southeastern Ohio, we installed three studies to test the effects of plastic tube tree shelters and interplanted N-fixing shrubs on crop tree survival and growth. Study 1 on graded gray cast overburden used white ash (Fraxinus Americana L.) and a hybrid willow (Salix matsudana x alba, or Austree) as crop trees. These were tested in factorial combination with 1.2 m tall tree shelters (present or absent) and N-fixing shrubs [none, bristly locust (Robinia fertilis Ashe), or Siberian peashrub (Caragana arborescens Lam. )]. Study 2 evaluated growth of bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa Michx.) as affected by soil surf ace (graded cast overburden or ripped topsoil), presence of tree shelters, and presence of interplanted Siberian peashrub. Study 3 tested Austree growth as affected by soil surf ace and presence of tree shelters. After four or five growing seasons, overall crop tree survivals were white ash (80%), bur oak (52%), and Austree (10% in study 1 and 25% in study 3). All crop tree species tended to survive better with tree shelters but only Austree in study 3 (36% with shelter vs. 14% without shelter) showed a significant difference. Tree shelters increased heights of white ash (102 cm with shelter vs. 21 cm without shelter) and bur oak (84 cm vs. 27 cm). Crop tree survival and growth were not affected significantly by interplanted N-fixing shrubs or by soil surface. In study 1 (cast overburden only), peashrub (64%) survived better than bristly locust (31%) but locust was taller (74 cm vs. 45 cm). In study 2, peashrub survived better on ripped topsoil (53%) than cast overburden (17%), but height was not impressive on either soil (41{+-}11 cm).

  3. Summer cover crops and soil amendments to improve growth and nutrient uptake of okra

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Q.R.; Li, Y.C.; Klassen, W.

    2006-04-15

    A pot experiment with summer cover crops and soil amendments was conducted in two consecutive years to elucidate the effects of these cover crops and soil amendments on 'Clemson Spineless 80' okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) yields and biomass production, and the uptake and distribution of soil nutrients and trace elements. The cover crops were sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana), and sorghum sudan-grass (Sorghum bicolor x S. bicolor var. sudanense) with fallow as the control. The organic soil amendments were biosolids (sediment from wastewater plants), N-Viro Soil (a mixture of biosolids and coal ash), coal ash (a combustion by-product from power plants), co-compost (a mixture of 3 biosolids: 7 yard waste), and yard waste compost (mainly from leaves and branches of trees and shrubs, and grass clippings) with a soil-incorporated cover crop as the control. As a subsequent vegetable crop, okra was grown after the cover crops, alone or together with the organic soil amendments, had been incorporated. All of the cover crops, except sorghum sudangrass in 2002-03, significantly improved okra fruit yields and the total biomass production. Both cover crops and soil amendments can substantially improve nutrient uptake and distribution. The results suggest that cover crops and appropriate amounts of soil amendments can be used to improve soil fertility and okra yield without adverse environmental effects or risk of contamination of the fruit. Further field studies will be required to confirm these findings.

  4. Trichoderma asperellum spore dose depended modulation of plant growth in vegetable crops.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vivek; Upadhyay, Ram Sanmukh; Sarma, Birinchi Kumar; Singh, Harikesh Bahadur

    2016-12-01

    In the present study we bioprimed seeds of six vegetable crops (tomato, brinjal, chilli, okra, ridge gourd and guar) with different spore doses of Trichoderma asperellum BHUT8 ranging from 10(2) to 10(8) spores ml(-1) and the effect of biopriming was seen on seed germination and development. The most effective spore dose for enhancement in seed germination and radicle length was found to be 10(3) spores ml(-1) in tomato and ridge gourd, 10(4) spores ml(-1) in brinjal and okra while 10(6) spores ml(-1) in chilli and guar. At the most effective spore dose, the increase in germination percentage was 5, 146.15, 112.5, 5.4, 28.13 and 0% while increase in radicle length was 73.17, 50.83, 171.6, 107.35, 247.19 and 90.79% in tomato, brinjal, chilli, okra, ridge gourd and guar, respectively, compared to their controls. Higher spore dose i.e. 10(7)-10(8) spores ml(-1) and 10(6)-10(8) spores ml(-1) in tomato and brinjal, respectively, reduced seed germination percentage and radicle growth compared to their controls. Biopriming with T. asperellum BHUT8 also triggered various defense like responses such as high phenylpropanoid activities and lignifications in bioprimed tomato seedlings compared to the non-bioprimed tomato seedlings demonstrating possible use of BHUT8 against phytopathogens.

  5. Rare earth elements (REEs): effects on germination and growth of selected crop and native plant species.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Philippe J; Carpenter, David; Boutin, Céline; Allison, Jane E

    2014-02-01

    The phytotoxicity of rare earth elements (REEs) is still poorly understood. The exposure-response relationships of three native Canadian plant species (common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca L., showy ticktrefoil, Desmodium canadense (L.) DC. and switchgrass, Panicum virgatum L.) and two commonly used crop species (radish, Raphanus sativus L., and tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L.) to the REEs lanthanum (La), yttrium (Y) and cerium (Ce) were tested. In separate experiments, seven to eight doses of each element were added to the soil prior to sowing seeds. Effects of REE dose on germination were established through measures of total percent germination and speed of germination; effects on growth were established through determination of above ground biomass. Ce was also tested at two pH levels and plant tissue analysis was conducted on pooled samples. Effects on germination were mostly observed with Ce at low pH. However, effects on growth were more pronounced, with detectable inhibition concentrations causing 10% and 25% reductions in biomass for the two native forb species (A. syriaca and D. canadense) with all REEs and on all species tested with Ce in both soil pH treatments. Concentration of Ce in aboveground biomass was lower than root Ce content, and followed the dose-response trend. From values measured in natural soils around the world, our results continue to support the notion that REEs are of limited toxicity and not considered extremely hazardous to the environment. However, in areas where REE contamination is likely, the slow accumulation of these elements in the environment could become problematic.

  6. Space Data for Crop Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    CROPIX, Inc., formed in 1984 by Frank Lamb, president of the Eastern Oregon Farming Company, monitors primarily potato crops in a 20,000 square mile area of northern Oregon and central Washington. Potatoes are a high value specialty crop that can be more profitable to the farmer if he has advance knowledge of market conditions, knows when to harvest, and when to take it to market. By processing and collecting data collected by the NASA-developed Landsat Earth Resources survey satellites, Lamb is able to provide accurate information on crop acreage and conditions on a more timely basis than the routine estimates by the USDA. CROPIX uses Landsat data to make acreage estimates of crops, and to calculate a field-by-field vegetative index number. CROPIX then distributes to its customers a booklet containing color-coded maps, an inventory of crops, plus data and graphs on crop conditions and other valuable information.

  7. Detection of sweet potato virus C, sweet potato virus 2 and sweet potato feathery mottle virus in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Varanda, Carla M R; Santos, Susana J; Oliveira, Mônica D M; Clara, Maria Ivone E; Félix, Maria Rosário F

    2015-06-01

    Field sweet potato plants showing virus-like symptoms, as stunting, leaf distortion, mosaic and chlorosis, were collected in southwest Portugal and tested for the presence of four potyviruses, sweet potato virus C (SPVC), sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2), sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), sweet potato virus G (SPVG), and the crinivirus sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). DsRNA fractions were extracted from symptomatic leaves and used as templates in single and multiplex RT-PCR assays using previously described specific primers for each analyzed virus. The amplified reaction products for SPVC, SPV2 and SPFMV were of expected size, and direct sequencing of PCR products revealed that they correspond to the coat protein gene (CP) and showed 98%, 99% and 99% identity, respectively, to those viruses. Comparison of the CP genomic and amino acid sequences of the Portuguese viral isolates recovered here with those of ten other sequences of isolates obtained in different countries retrieved from the GenBank showed very few differences. The application of the RT-PCR assays revealed for the first time the presence of SPVC and SPFMV in the sweet potato crop in Portugal, the absence of SPVG and SPCSV in tested plants, as well as the occurrence of triple virus infections under field conditions.

  8. Crop parameters estimation by fuzzy inference system using X-band scatterometer data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Abhishek; Prasad, R.; Singh, V. P.; Jha, S. K.; Shukla, K. K.

    2013-03-01

    Learning fuzzy rule based systems with microwave remote sensing can lead to very useful applications in solving several problems in the field of agriculture. Fuzzy logic provides a simple way to arrive at a definite conclusion based upon imprecise, ambiguous, vague, noisy or missing input information. In the present paper, a subtractive based fuzzy inference system is introduced to estimate the potato crop parameters like biomass, leaf area index, plant height and soil moisture. Scattering coefficient for HH- and VV-polarizations were used as an input in the Fuzzy network. The plant height, biomass, and leaf area index of potato crop and soil moisture measured at its various growth stages were used as the target variables during the training and validation of the network. The estimated values of crop/soil parameters by this methodology are much closer to the experimental values. The present work confirms the estimation abilities of fuzzy subtractive clustering in potato crop parameters estimation. This technique may be useful for the other crops cultivated over regional or continental level.

  9. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Millam, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a globally important crop plant producing high yields of nutritionally valuable food in the form of tubers. It has been the focus of substantial study because of its use both as a staple food crop and as a potentially significant source of compounds of interest. This has included the development and application of transgenic technology for introducing novel traits of fundamental and applied interest. This chapter describes a rapid, efficient, and cost-effective system for the routine transformation of this crop plant at rates above 40% efficiency, calculated as the mean number of Southern blot- confirmed independent transgenics per number of internodal explants originally plated. Internodal sections are co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens and subjected to a two-stage callus induction/shoot outgrowth system under kanamycin selection. Shoot regeneration rates are high using the described method, and excised independent shoots rooting from the cut end of the stem after two further subcultures on kanamycin are 95% certain to be transformed. The transgenic status can be confirmed by molecular analysis and the plants grown on for tuber production enabling a wide spectrum of further studies.

  10. The impact of fall cover crops on soil nitrate and corn growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incorporating cover crops into current production systems can have many beneficial impacts on the current cropping system including decreasing erosion, improving water infiltration, increasing soil organic matter and biological activity but in water limited areas caution should be utilized. A fiel...

  11. Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE). Evaluation of the LACIE transition year crop calendar model. [Wheat growth in the Great Plains Corridor, North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheffin, R. E.; Woolley, S. K. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The estimates of developmental stage dates from the LACIE adjustable crop calendar (ACC) winter wheat model was somewhat more accurate than the historical crop calendar after jointing. The ACC winter wheat model was not so accurate for the Texas Panhandle as it was for the other areas of the USPG-7 because dry soil conditions delayed fall planting in the Panhandle. Since the LACIE ACC winter wheat model does not contain a moisture term and it was started with historical planting dates, lengthy delays in planting mean that the ACC model will probably be started early and will estimate the developmental growth stages to occur too early in the season. The LACIE ACC spring wheat model was also started early in most areas because of late planting due to fields wet from melting snow and rain. The starter model used to estimate spring planting dates was not accurate under these wet soil conditions and tended to predict the developmental stages to occur earlier than the dates observed in the fields.

  12. Crop production data for bioregenerative life support: Observations from testing at NASA's Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Stutte, G. W.; Yorio, N. C.; Ruffe, L. M.; Sager, J. C.; Knott, W. M.

    NASA s Biomass Production Chamber BPC at Kennedy Space Center was decommissioned ca 1998 but in the preceding decade several crop tests were conducted that have not been reported in the open literature These included monoculture studies with wheat soybean potato and tomato For each of these studies 20 m 2 of crops were grown in an atmospherically closed chamber 113 m 3 vol using a nutrient film hydroponic technique along with elevated CO 2 1000 or 1200 mu mol mol -1 Canopy light PAR levels ranged from 30 to 85 mol m -2 d -1 depending on the crop and selected photoperiod Total biomass DM productivities reached 40 g m -2 d -1 for wheat 16 g m -2 d -1 for soybean 33 g m -2 d -1 for potato and 20 g m -2 d -1 for tomato Edible biomass DM productivities reached 13 g m -2 d -1 for wheat 6 g m -2 d -1 for soybean 20 g m -2 d -1 for potato and 10 g m -2 d -1 for tomato The highest radiation use efficiencies for biomass were 0 60 g DM mol -1 PAR for wheat 0 50 g mol -1 for soybean 0 95 g mol -1 for potato and 0 51 g mol -1 for tomato The highest radiation use efficiencies for edible biomass were 0 22 g DM mol -1 for wheat 0 18 g mol -1 for soybean 0 58 g mol -1 for potato and 0 25 g mol -1 for tomato Use of transplanting cycles or spacing techniques to reduce open gaps between plants early in growth would have improved productivities and radiation use efficiencies for soybeans potatoes and

  13. Response of different crop growth and yield to enhanced UV-B radiation under field conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Youfei; Gao, Wei; Slusser, James R.; Grant, Richard H.; Wang, Chuanhai

    2004-10-01

    Enhanced UV-B radiation due to stratospheric ozone depletion may have impacts on the productivity of agricultural crops. Which crop will be more sensitive to increased UV-B has received little attention. This paper presents a comparative study of the effects of supplemental UV-B on plant height, leaf area, biomass and yield among soybean, cotton, corn and wheat which were cultivated in fields in Nanjing, China. The experimental results showed that the four crops response to enhanced UV-B irradiation was shortened plant height, decreased leaf area and reduced biomass and yield of crops. Using the same criteria, the response of soybean and cotton to elevated UV-B is bigger than that of wheat and corn. RI (response index) is an integrated index which is the accumulation of relative change in plant height, leaf area, biomass and yield, reflecting general impact of increased UV-B on crops. The results suggested that the RI for the four crops was minus, demonstrating a negative impact of enhanced UV-B on the crops. According to the RI, the soybean and cotton belong to the sensitive plants category, wheat is a moderately sensitive plant and corn is a tolerant plant.

  14. The genome of cultivated sweet potato contains Agrobacterium T-DNAs with expressed genes: An example of a naturally transgenic food crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes and A. tumefaciens are plant pathogenic bacteria causing abnormal tissue growth such as hairy root and crown gall diseases respectively, through the transfer of DNA fragments (T-DNA) bearing functional genes into the host plant genome. This naturally occurring mechanism of g...

  15. Studies of Amylose Content in Potato Starch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato starch is typically low in amylose (~20-25%), but high amylose starch has superior nutritional qualities. The ratio between amylose and amylopectin is the most important property influencing the physical properties of starch. There is a strong case to be made for the development of food crops...

  16. Integrating Crop Growth Models with Whole Genome Prediction through Approximate Bayesian Computation

    PubMed Central

    Technow, Frank; Messina, Carlos D.; Totir, L. Radu; Cooper, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Genomic selection, enabled by whole genome prediction (WGP) methods, is revolutionizing plant breeding. Existing WGP methods have been shown to deliver accurate predictions in the most common settings, such as prediction of across environment performance for traits with additive gene effects. However, prediction of traits with non-additive gene effects and prediction of genotype by environment interaction (G×E), continues to be challenging. Previous attempts to increase prediction accuracy for these particularly difficult tasks employed prediction methods that are purely statistical in nature. Augmenting the statistical methods with biological knowledge has been largely overlooked thus far. Crop growth models (CGMs) attempt to represent the impact of functional relationships between plant physiology and the environment in the formation of yield and similar output traits of interest. Thus, they can explain the impact of G×E and certain types of non-additive gene effects on the expressed phenotype. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC), a novel and powerful computational procedure, allows the incorporation of CGMs directly into the estimation of whole genome marker effects in WGP. Here we provide a proof of concept study for this novel approach and demonstrate its use with synthetic data sets. We show that this novel approach can be considerably more accurate than the benchmark WGP method GBLUP in predicting performance in environments represented in the estimation set as well as in previously unobserved environments for traits determined by non-additive gene effects. We conclude that this proof of concept demonstrates that using ABC for incorporating biological knowledge in the form of CGMs into WGP is a very promising and novel approach to improving prediction accuracy for some of the most challenging scenarios in plant breeding and applied genetics. PMID:26121133

  17. Effect of including sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam) meal in finishing pig diets on growth performance, carcass traits and pork quality.

    PubMed

    Pietrosemoli, Silvana; Moron-Fuenmayor, Oneida Elizabeth; Paez, Angel; Villamide, Maria Jesús

    2016-10-01

    The partial replacement of a commercial concentrate at 10-20% and 15-30% (the first percentage of each dietary treatment corresponded to weeks 1-3 and the second to weeks 4-7 of the experiment, respectively) by sweet potato meal (SPM; 70% foliage: 30% roots) was evaluated for growth performance, carcass yield, instrumental and sensory pork quality using 36 commercial crossbred pigs (56.8 ± 1.3 kg initial body weight). Three dietary treatments were compared in a randomized complete block design. Most growth, carcass traits and pork quality variables were not affected by the SPM inclusion. Growth performance averaged 868 g/day and feed efficiency 0.24 kg/kg. However, feed intake increased 2.2% (P = 0.04) in pigs fed the 10-20% SPM diets, in a similar order of magnitude as the decrease in dietary energy. Despite an increase in gastrointestinal tract as a percent of hot carcass weight (+14.7%) (P = 0.03) with SPM inclusion, carcass yield averaged 69.4%. Conversely, decreases in loin yield (-4.2%) (P = 0.05), backfat thickness (-6.0%) (P < 0.01) and pork tenderness (-13%) (P = 0.02) were observed with 15-30% SPM inclusion. Results suggest that up to 20% SPM inclusion is a viable feed strategy for finishing pigs, easily replicable in small farm settings. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. The Effect of Plant Cultivar, Growth Media, Harvest Method and Post Harvest Treatment on the Microbiology of Edible Crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hummerick, Mary P.; Gates, Justin R.; Nguyen, Bao-Thang; Massa, Gioia D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    Systems for the growth of crops in closed environments are being developed and tested for potential use in space applications to provide a source of fresh food. Plant growth conditions, growth media composition and harvest methods can have an effect on the microbial population of the plant, and therefore should be considered along with the optimization of plant growth and harvest yields to ensure a safe and palatable food crop. This work examines the effect of plant cultivar, growth media, and harvest method on plant microbial populations. Twelve varieties of leafy greens and herbs were grown on a mixture of Fafard #2 and Arcillite in the pillow root containment system currently being considered for the VEGGIE plant growth unit developed by Orbitec. In addition, ,Sierra and Outredgeous lettuce varieties were grown in three different mixtures (Fafard #2, Ardllite, and Perlite/Vermiculite). The plants were analyzed for microbial density. Two harvest methods, "cut and come again" (CACA) and terminal harvest were also compared. In one set ofexpe'riments red leaf lettuce and mizuna were grown in pots in a Biomass Production System for education. Plants were harvested every two weeks by either method. Another set of experiments was performed using the rooting pillows to grow 5 varieties of leafy greens and cut harvesting at different intervals. Radishes were harvested and replanted at two-week intervals. Results indicate up to a 3 IOglO difference in microbial counts between some varieties of plants. Rooting medium resulted in an approximately 2 IOglO lower count in the lettuce grown in arscillite then those grown in the other mixtures. Harvest method and frequency had less impact on microbial counts only showing a significant increase in one variety of plant. Post harvest methods to decrease the bacterial counts on edible crops were investigated in these and other experiments. The effectiveness of PRO-SAN and UV-C radiation is compared.

  19. Effects of elevated temperature on growth and reproduction of biofuels crops

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Questions/Methods Cellulosic biofuels crops have considerable potential to reduce our carbon footprint , and to be at least neutral in terms of carbon production. However, their widespread cultivation may result in unintended ecological and health effects. We report...

  20. Two Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases Catalyze Early Hydroxylation Steps in the Potato Steroid Glycoalkaloid Biosynthetic Pathway1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Nakayasu, Masaru; Ohyama, Kiyoshi; Saito, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    α-Solanine and α-chaconine, steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) found in potato (Solanum tuberosum), are among the best-known secondary metabolites in food crops. At low concentrations in potato tubers, SGAs are distasteful; however, at high concentrations, SGAs are harmful to humans and animals. Here, we show that POTATO GLYCOALKALOID BIOSYNTHESIS1 (PGA1) and PGA2, two genes that encode cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP72A208 and CYP72A188), are involved in the SGA biosynthetic pathway, respectively. The knockdown plants of either PGA1 or PGA2 contained very little SGA, yet vegetative growth and tuber production were not affected. Analyzing metabolites that accumulated in the plants and produced by in vitro enzyme assays revealed that PGA1 and PGA2 catalyzed the 26- and 22-hydroxylation steps, respectively, in the SGA biosynthetic pathway. The PGA-knockdown plants had two unique phenotypic characteristics: The plants were sterile and tubers of these knockdown plants did not sprout during storage. Functional analyses of PGA1 and PGA2 have provided clues for controlling both potato glycoalkaloid biosynthesis and tuber sprouting, two traits that can significantly impact potato breeding and the industry. PMID:27307258

  1. Planting date impacts on soil water management, plant growth, and weeds in cover-crop-based no-till corn production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low input and organic farmers are increasingly utilizing cover crop mulches in maize production. Many farmers are delaying planting corn into these high residue environments to allow greater growth of the cover crop to maximize nitrogen fixation and improve mechanical termination with roller crimpe...

  2. Hydroclimatic Impacts of Perennial Biofuel Crop Growth during an Extreme Drought Year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, M.; Wang, M.; Miguez-Macho, G.; Mahalov, A.; Georgescu, M.

    2013-12-01

    Perennial biofuel crops (e.g, miscanthus and switchgrass) offer a potentially viable energy pathway that can increase U.S. domestic energy security and mitigate greenhouse gas induced climate change. Recent work has shown a positive feedback between evapotranspiration and near-surface cooling resulting from annual to perennial biofuel crop conversion. However, whether near-surface cooling is sustainable remains a critical question requiring further examination, as the conversion to perennial biofuel crops may lead to unintended consequences of soil moisture and groundwater depletion. We conduct continuous, high resolution (5km grid spacing) simulations with and without biofuel crop representation during an extreme drought year (2012). We quantify hydroclimatic impacts associated with the deployment of perennial biofuel crops in recently identified abandoned and degraded farmland over the Central U.S. using WRF coupled to a land surface model linked to a dynamic water table and rivers module (LEAF-Hydro). This is an initial step towards exploration of hydroclimatic sustainability associated with the conversion of large swaths of land to perennial biofuel crops during extreme hydrometeorological conditions aimed at highlighting mechanisms and processes associated with this energy pathway.

  3. The dynamics of hydroponic crops for simulation studies of the CELSS initial reference configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Tyler

    1993-01-01

    During the past several years, the NASA Program in Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) has continued apace with crop research and logistic, technological, and scientific strides. These include the CELSS Test Facility planned for the space station and its prototype Engineering Development Unit, soon to be active at Ames Research Center (as well as the advanced crop growth research chamber at Ames); the large environmental growth chambers and the planned human test bed facility at Johnson Space Center; the NSCORT at Purdue with new candidate crops and diverse research into the CELSS components; the gas exchange data for soy, potatoes, and wheat from Kennedy Space Center (KSC); and the high-precision gas exchange data for wheat from Utah State University (USU). All these developments, taken together, speak to the need for crop modeling as a means to connect the findings of the crop physiologists with the engineers designing the system. A need also exists for crop modeling to analyze and predict the gas exchange data from the various locations to maximize the scientific yield from the experiments. One fruitful approach employs what has been called the 'energy cascade'. Useful as a basis for CELSS crop growth experimental design, the energy cascade as a generic modeling approach for CELSS crops is a featured accomplishment in this report. The energy cascade is a major tool for linking CELSS crop experiments to the system design. The energy cascade presented here can help collaborations between modelers and crop experimenters to develop the most fruitful experiments for pushing the limits of crop productivity. Furthermore, crop models using the energy cascade provide a natural means to compare, feature for feature, the crop growth components between different CELSS experiments, for example, at Utah State University and Kennedy Space Center.

  4. RNA interference of effector gene Mc16D10L confers resistance against meloidogyne chitwoodi in arabidopsis and potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) are the most important non-cereal food crop. The Columbia root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne chitwoodi), a quarantine pathogen, is a significant problem in some of the major potato-producing areas worldwide. In spite of great genetic diversity in wild potato species, no com...

  5. 78 FR 70191 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the General Cull and Handling Regulation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... handled under the Colorado potato marketing order, Area No. 2 (order). The order regulates the handling of... expected to facilitate the handling and marketing of the Area No. 2 potato crop; provide producers... Marketing Order No. 948, both as amended (7 CFR part 948), regulating the handling of Irish potatoes...

  6. 78 FR 3 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the Handling Regulation for Area No. 2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... marketing order, Area No. 2 (order). The order regulates the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Colorado.... Commercial. This change is expected to facilitate the handling and marketing of the Area No. 2 potato crop...), regulating the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Colorado, hereinafter referred to as the ``order.''...

  7. Gene expression regulation of sprout inhibition and water retention genes in potatoes by 1,4-dimethylnapthalene (DMN)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato is the fifth largest agricultural crop in the world and a dietary staple in many cultures. When sprouting, the potato produces the toxin solanine and begins to sweeten, a process that makes the potato undesirable for consumer use. Sprout inhibitors such as 1,4-dimethylnapthalene (DMN) ar...

  8. Density and composition of microorganisms during long-term (418 day) growth of potato using biologically reclaimed nutrients from inedible plant biomass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garland, J. L.; Cook, K. L.; Johnson, M.; Sumner, R.; Fields, N.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    A study evaluating alternative methods for long term operation of biomass production systems was recently completed at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The 418-day study evaluated repeated batch versus mixed-aged production of potato grown on either standard 1/2-strength Hoagland's nutrient solution or solutions including nutrients recycled from inedible plant material. The long term effects of closure and recycling on microbial dynamics were evaluated by monitoring the microbial communities associated with various habitats within the plant growth system (i.e., plant roots, nutrient solution, biofilms within the hydroponic systems, atmosphere, and atmospheric condensate). Plate count methods were used to enumerate and characterize microorganisms. Microscopic staining methods were used to estunate total cell densities. The primary finding was that the density and composition of microbial communities associated with controlled environmental plant growth systems are stable during long term operation. Continuous production resulted in slightly greater stability. Nutrient recycling, despite the addition of soluble organic material from the waste processing system, did not significantly increase microbial density in any of the habitats.

  9. Density and composition of microorganisms during long-term (418 day) growth of potato using biologically reclaimed nutrients from inedible plant biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garland, J. L.; Cook, K. L.; Johnson, M.; Sumner, R.; Fields, N.

    1997-01-01

    A study evaluating alternative methods for long term operation of biomass production systems was recently completed at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The 418-day study evaluated repeated batch versus mixed-aged production of potato grown on either standard 1/2-strength Hoagland's nutrient solution or solutions including nutrients recycled from inedible plant material. The long term effects of closure and recycling on microbial dynamics were evaluated by monitoring the microbial communities associated with various habitats within the plant growth system (i.e., plant roots, nutrient solution, biofilms within the hydroponic systems, atmosphere, and atmospheric condensate). Plate count methods were used to enumerate and characterize microorganisms. Microscopic staining methods were used to estimate total cell densities. The primary finding was that the density and composition of microbial communities associated with controlled environmental plant growth systems are stable during long term operation. Continuous production resulted in slightly greater stability. Nutrient recycling, despite the addition of soluble organic material from the waste processing system, did not significantly increase microbial density in any of the habitats.

  10. Density and composition of microorganisms during long-term (418 day) growth of potato using biologically reclaimed nutrients from inedible plant biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-01-01

    A study evaluating alternative methods for long term operation of biomass production systems was recently completed at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The 418-day study evaluated repeated batch versus mixed-aged production of potato grown on either standard 12-strength Hoagland's nutrient solution or solutions including nutrients recycled from inedible plant material. The long term effects of closure and recycling on microbial dynamics were evaluated by monitoring the microbial communities associated with various habitats within the plant growth system (i.e., plant roots, nutrient solution, biofilms within the hydroponic systems, atmosphere, and atmospheric condensate). Plate count methods were used to enumerate and characterize microorganisms. Microscopic staining methods were used to estimate total cell densities. The primary finding was that the density and composition of microbial communities associated with controlled environmental plant growth systems are stable during long term operation. Continuous production resulted in slightly greater stability. Nutrient recycling, despite the addition of soluble organic material from the waste processing system, did not significantly increase microbial density in any of the habitats.

  11. Assessment of genetic diversity of sweet potato in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is the seventh most important food crop due to its distinct advantages, such as adaptability to different environmental conditions and high nutritional value. Assessing the genetic diversity of this important crop is necessary due to the constant increase of demand ...

  12. Two-way Coupling of a Process-Based Crop Growth Model (BioCro) and a Biogeochemistry Model (DayCent) and its Application to an Energy Crop Site in the mid-west USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaiswal, D.; Long, S.; Parton, W. J.; Hartman, M.

    2012-12-01

    A coupled modeling system of crop growth model (BioCro) and biogeochemical model (DayCent) has been developed to assess the two-way interactions between plant growth and biogeochemistry. Crop growth in BioCro is simulated using a detailed mechanistic biochemical and biophysical multi-layer canopy model and partitioning of dry biomass into different plant organs according to phenological stages. Using hourly weather records, the model partitions light between dynamically changing sunlit and shaded portions of the canopy and computes carbon and water exchange with the atmosphere and through the canopy for each hour of the day, each day of the year. The model has been parameterized for the bioenergy crops sugarcane, Miscanthus and switchgrass, and validation has shown it to predict growth cycles and partitioning of biomass to a high degree of accuracy. As such it provides an ideal input for a soil biogeochemical model. DayCent is an established model for predicting long-term changes in soil C & N and soil-atmosphere exchanges of greenhouse gases. At present, DayCent uses a relatively simple productivity model. In this project BioCro has replaced this simple model to provide DayCent with a productivity and growth model equal in detail to its biogeochemistry. Dynamic coupling of these two models to produce CroCent allows for differential C: N ratios of litter fall (based on rates of senescence of different plant organs) and calibration of the model for realistic plant productivity in a mechanistic way. A process-based approach to modeling plant growth is needed for bioenergy crops because research on these crops (especially second generation feedstocks) has started only recently, and detailed agronomic information for growth, yield and management is too limited for effective empirical models. The coupled model provides means to test and improve the model against high resolution data, such as that obtained by eddy covariance and explore yield implications of different

  13. Effect of Weed Management and Seed Rate on Crop Growth under Direct Dry Seeded Rice Systems in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Sharif; Salim, Muhammad; Chauhan, Bhagirath S.

    2014-01-01

    Weeds are a major constraint to the success of dry-seeded rice (DSR). The main means of managing these in a DSR system is through chemical weed control using herbicides. However, the use of herbicides alone may not be sustainable in the long term. Approaches that aim for high crop competitiveness therefore need to be exploited. One such approach is the use of high rice seeding rates. Experiments were conducted in the aman (wet) seasons of 2012 and 2013 in Bangladesh to evaluate the effect of weed infestation level (partially-weedy and weed-free) and rice seeding rate (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 kg ha−1) on weed and crop growth in DSR. Under weed-free conditions, higher crop yields (5.1 and 5.2 t ha−1 in the 2012 and 2013 seasons, respectively) were obtained at the seeding rate of 40 kg ha−1 and thereafter, yield decreased slightly beyond 40 kg seed ha−1. Under partially-weedy conditions, yield increased by 30 to 33% (2.0–2.2 and 2.9–3.2 t ha−1 in the 2012 and 2013 seasons, respectively) with increase in seeding rate from 20 to 100 kg ha−1. In the partially-weedy plots, weed biomass decreased by 41–60% and 54–56% at 35 days after sowing and at crop anthesis, respectively, when seeding rate increased from 20 to 100 kg ha−1. Results from our study suggest that increasing seeding rates in DSR can suppress weed growth and reduce grain yield losses from weed competition. PMID:25000520

  14. Effect of weed management and seed rate on crop growth under direct dry seeded rice systems in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sharif; Salim, Muhammad; Chauhan, Bhagirath S

    2014-01-01

    Weeds are a major constraint to the success of dry-seeded rice (DSR). The main means of managing these in a DSR system is through chemical weed control using herbicides. However, the use of herbicides alone may not be sustainable in the long term. Approaches that aim for high crop competitiveness therefore need to be exploited. One such approach is the use of high rice seeding rates. Experiments were conducted in the aman (wet) seasons of 2012 and 2013 in Bangladesh to evaluate the effect of weed infestation level (partially-weedy and weed-free) and rice seeding rate (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 kg ha(-1)) on weed and crop growth in DSR. Under weed-free conditions, higher crop yields (5.1 and 5.2 t ha(-1) in the 2012 and 2013 seasons, respectively) were obtained at the seeding rate of 40 kg ha(-1) and thereafter, yield decreased slightly beyond 40 kg seed ha(-1). Under partially-weedy conditions, yield increased by 30 to 33% (2.0-2.2 and 2.9-3.2 t ha(-1) in the 2012 and 2013 seasons, respectively) with increase in seeding rate from 20 to 100 kg ha(-1). In the partially-weedy plots, weed biomass decreased by 41-60% and 54-56% at 35 days after sowing and at crop anthesis, respectively, when seeding rate increased from 20 to 100 kg ha(-1). Results from our study suggest that increasing seeding rates in DSR can suppress weed growth and reduce grain yield losses from weed competition.

  15. Managing Potato Biodiversity to Cope with Frost Risk in the High Andes: A Modeling Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Condori, Bruno; Hijmans, Robert J.; Ledent, Jean Francois; Quiroz, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Austral summer frosts in the Andean highlands are ubiquitous throughout the crop cycle, causing yield losses. In spite of the existing warming trend, climate change models forecast high variability, including freezing temperatures. As the potato center of origin, the region has a rich biodiversity which includes a set of frost resistant genotypes. Four contrasting potato genotypes –representing genetic variability- were considered in the present study: two species of frost resistant native potatoes (the bitter Solanum juzepczukii, var. Luki, and the non-bitter Solanum ajanhuiri, var. Ajanhuiri) and two commercial frost susceptible genotypes (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum var. Alpha and Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigenum var. Gendarme). The objective of the study was to conduct a comparative growth analysis of four genotypes and modeling their agronomic response under frost events. It included assessing their performance under Andean contrasting agroecological conditions. Independent subsets of data from four field experiments were used to parameterize, calibrate and validate a potato growth model. The validated model was used to ascertain the importance of biodiversity, represented by the four genotypes tested, as constituents of germplasm mixtures in single plots used by local farmers, a coping strategy in the face of climate variability. Also scenarios with a frost routine incorporated in the model were constructed. Luki and Ajanhuiri were the most frost resistant varieties whereas Alpha was the most susceptible. Luki and Ajanhuiri, as monoculture, outperformed the yield obtained with the mixtures under severe frosts. These results highlight the role played by local frost tolerant varieties, and featured the management importance –e.g. clean seed, strategic watering- to attain the yields reported in our experiments. The mixtures of local and introduced potatoes can thus not only provide the products demanded by the markets but also reduce the impact of

  16. Managing potato biodiversity to cope with frost risk in the high Andes: a modeling perspective.

    PubMed

    Condori, Bruno; Hijmans, Robert J; Ledent, Jean Francois; Quiroz, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Austral summer frosts in the Andean highlands are ubiquitous throughout the crop cycle, causing yield losses. In spite of the existing warming trend, climate change models forecast high variability, including freezing temperatures. As the potato center of origin, the region has a rich biodiversity which includes a set of frost resistant genotypes. Four contrasting potato genotypes--representing genetic variability--were considered in the present study: two species of frost resistant native potatoes (the bitter Solanum juzepczukii, var. Luki, and the non-bitter Solanum ajanhuiri, var. Ajanhuiri) and two commercial frost susceptible genotypes (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum var. Alpha and Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigenum var. Gendarme). The objective of the study was to conduct a comparative growth analysis of four genotypes and modeling their agronomic response under frost events. It included assessing their performance under Andean contrasting agroecological conditions. Independent subsets of data from four field experiments were used to parameterize, calibrate and validate a potato growth model. The validated model was used to ascertain the importance of biodiversity, represented by the four genotypes tested, as constituents of germplasm mixtures in single plots used by local farmers, a coping strategy in the face of climate variability. Also scenarios with a frost routine incorporated in the model were constructed. Luki and Ajanhuiri were the most frost resistant varieties whereas Alpha was the most susceptible. Luki and Ajanhuiri, as monoculture, outperformed the yield obtained with the mixtures under severe frosts. These results highlight the role played by local frost tolerant varieties, and featured the management importance--e.g. clean seed, strategic watering--to attain the yields reported in our experiments. The mixtures of local and introduced potatoes can thus not only provide the products demanded by the markets but also reduce the impact of frosts

  17. miRNAs: Major modulators for crop growth and development under abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Noman, Ali; Fahad, Shah; Aqeel, Muhammad; Ali, Usman; Amanullah; Anwar, Sumera; Baloch, Shahbaz Khan; Zainab, Madiha

    2017-02-25

    Cumulatively, biotic and abiotic stresses of various magnitudes can decrease the production of crops by 70%. miRNAs have emerged as a genetic tool with enormous potential that can be exploited to understand stress tolerance at the molecular level and eventually regulate stress in crops. Plant miRNA targets frequently fit into diverse families of TFs that control the expression of genes related to a certain trait. As key machinery in gene regulatory networks, it is agreed that a broad understanding of miRNAs will greatly increase our understanding of plant responses to environmental stresses. miRNA-led stress regulatory networks are being considered as novel tools for the development of abiotic stress tolerance in crops. At this time, we need to expand our knowledge about the modulatory role of miRNAs during environmental fluctuations. It has become exceedingly clear that with increased understanding of the role of miRNAs during stress, the techniques for using miRNA-mediated gene regulation to enhance plant stress tolerance will become more effective and reliable. In this review we present: (1) miRNAs as a potential avenue for the modulation of abiotic stresses, and (2) summarize the research progress regarding plant responses to stress. Current progress is explained through discussion of the identification and validation of several miRNAs that enhance crop tolerance of salinity, drought, etc., while missing links on different aspects of miRNAs related to abiotic stress tolerance are noted.

  18. Response of Crops to Limited Water: Understanding and Modeling Water Stress Effects on Plant Growth Processes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The semi-arid regions of western U.S., India, China, and other parts of the world produce a major portion of the world’s food and fiber needs—from staple food grains of wheat, rice, and corn, to vegetables, fruits, nuts, wine, cotton, and forage crops for cattle and poultry. Most of this production ...

  19. Developing robust crop plants for sustaining growth and yield under adverse climatic changes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural production and quality are expected to suffer from adverse changes in climatic conditions, including global warming, and this will affect worldwide human and animal food security. Global warming has been shown to negatively impact crop yield and therefore will affect sustainability of a...

  20. Crop growth and production responses to commercial humic products in U.S. Midwestern rainfed conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Humic products (humic and/or fulvic acids) have been in use for over 100 years, yet published research is scant on crop responses to humics under differing soil and weather conditions. We initiated field research experiments on corn (Zea mays L.) in Iowa in 2009 and have since expanded to multiple U...

  1. Constraints to obtaining consistent annual yields in perennial tree crops. I: Heavy fruit load dominates over vegetative growth.

    PubMed

    Smith, Harley M; Samach, Alon

    2013-06-01

    Farmers lack effective methods to achieve and maintain stable production from year to year in many commercial fruit crops. Annual fruit yield within a region often alternates between high and low fruit load and is termed alternate bearing. The underlying cause of alternate bearing is the negative impact of high fruit load on vegetative growth and next year's flowering. In this review, we emphasize common responses of diverse perennials to heavy crop load. We present botanical, ecological and horticultural perspectives on irregular bearing. The later part of this review focuses on understanding how high fruit load dominates over vegetative growth. We discuss sink strengths and putative mobile signals (hormones), perhaps seed-derived. We highlight gaps in current understanding of alternate bearing, and discuss new approaches to better understand fruit load dominance. Assuming the effect of high fruit load may be related to other mechanisms of sink partitioning, other forms of dominance are presented such as apical, first fruit and king fruit dominance. Dominance seems to be enforced, in independent cases through the establishment of a polar auxin transport system from the stronger sink. Once established this somehow perturbs the transport of auxin out of weaker sinks. Possibly, fruit derived auxin may alter the polar auxin transport system of the shoot to inhibit shoot growth.

  2. Responses of tree-ring growth and crop yield to drought indices in the Shanxi province, North China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Junyan; Liu, Yu

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we analyze the relationships among the tree-ring chronology, meteorological drought (precipitation), agricultural drought (Palmer Drought Severity Index PDSI), hydrological drought (runoff), and agricultural data in the Shanxi province of North China. Correlation analyses indicate that the tree-ring chronology is significantly correlated with all of the drought indices during the main growing season from March to July. Sign test analyses further indicate that the tree-ring chronology shows variation similar to that of the drought indices in both high and low frequencies. Comparisons of the years with narrow tree rings to the severe droughts reflected in all three indices from 1957 to 2008 reveal that the radial growth of the trees in the study region can accurately record the severe drought for which all three indices were in agreement (1972, 1999, 2000, and 2001). Comparisons with the dryness/wetness index indicate that tree-ring growth can properly record the severe droughts in the history. Correlation analyses among agricultural data, tree-ring chronology, and drought indices indicate that the per-unit yield of summer crops is relatively well correlated with the agricultural drought, as indicated by the PDSI. The PDSI is the climatic factor that significantly influences both tree growth and per-unit yield of summer crops in the study region. These results indicate that the PDSI and tree-ring chronology have the potential to be used to monitor and predict the yield of summer crops. Tree-ring chronology is an important tool for drought research and for wider applications in agricultural and hydrological research.

  3. Naturally occurring allele diversity allows potato cultivation in northern latitudes.

    PubMed

    Kloosterman, Bjorn; Abelenda, José A; Gomez, María del Mar Carretero; Oortwijn, Marian; de Boer, Jan M; Kowitwanich, Krissana; Horvath, Beatrix M; van Eck, Herman J; Smaczniak, Cezary; Prat, Salomé; Visser, Richard G F; Bachem, Christian W B

    2013-03-14

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) originates from the Andes and evolved short-day-dependent tuber formation as a vegetative propagation strategy. Here we describe the identification of a central regulator underlying a major-effect quantitative trait locus for plant maturity and initiation of tuber development. We show that this gene belongs to the family of DOF (DNA-binding with one finger) transcription factors and regulates tuberization and plant life cycle length, by acting as a mediator between the circadian clock and the StSP6A mobile tuberization signal. We also show that natural allelic variants evade post-translational light regulation, allowing cultivation outside the geographical centre of origin of potato. Potato is a member of the Solanaceae family and is one of the world's most important food crops. This annual plant originates from the Andean regions of South America. Potato develops tubers from underground stems called stolons. Its equatorial origin makes potato essentially short-day dependent for tuberization and potato will not make tubers in the long-day conditions of spring and summer in the northern latitudes. When introduced in temperate zones, wild material will form tubers in the course of the autumnal shortening of day-length. Thus, one of the first selected traits in potato leading to a European potato type is likely to have been long-day acclimation for tuberization. Potato breeders can exploit the naturally occurring variation in tuberization onset and life cycle length, allowing varietal breeding for different latitudes, harvest times and markets.

  4. The current incidence of viral disease in korean sweet potatoes and development of multiplex rt-PCR assays for simultaneous detection of eight sweet potato viruses.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Shin, Jun-Chul; Lee, Ye-Ji; Seo, Jang-Kyun; Lee, Hyeong-Un; Jung, Mi-Nam; Kim, Sun-Hyung; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2014-12-01

    Sweet potato is grown extensively from tropical to temperate regions and is an important food crop worldwide. In this study, we established detection methods for 17 major sweet potato viruses using single and multiplex RT-PCR assays. To investigate the current incidence of viral diseases, we collected 154 samples of various sweet potato cultivars showing virus-like symptoms from 40 fields in 10 Korean regions, and analyzed them by RT-PCR using specific primers for each of the 17 viruses. Of the 17 possible viruses, we detected eight in our samples. Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and sweet potato virus C (SPVC) were most commonly detected, infecting approximately 87% and 85% of samples, respectively. Furthermore, Sweet potato symptomless virus 1 (SPSMV-1), Sweet potato virus G (SPVG), Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV), Sweet potato virus 2 ( SPV2), Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV), and Sweet potato latent virus (SPLV) were detected in 67%, 58%, 47%, 41%, 31%, and 20% of samples, respectively. This study presents the first documented occurrence of four viruses (SPVC, SPV2, SPCFV, and SPSMV-1) in Korea. Based on the results of our survey, we developed multiplex RT-PCR assays for simple and simultaneous detection of the eight sweet potato viruses we recorded.

  5. A Functional Characterisation of a Wide Range of Cover Crop Species: Growth and Nitrogen Acquisition Rates, Leaf Traits and Ecological Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Tribouillois, Hélène; Fort, Florian; Cruz, Pablo; Charles, Raphaël; Flores, Olivier; Garnier, Eric; Justes, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Cover crops can produce ecosystem services during the fallow period, as reducing nitrate leaching and producing green manure. Crop growth rate (CGR) and crop nitrogen acquisition rate (CNR) can be used as two indicators of the ability of cover crops to produce these services in agrosystems. We used leaf functional traits to characterise the growth strategies of 36 cover crops as an approach to assess their ability to grow and acquire N rapidly. We measured specific leaf area (SLA), leaf dry matter content (LDMC), leaf nitrogen content (LNC) and leaf area (LA) and we evaluated their relevance to characterise CGR and CNR. Cover crop species were positioned along the Leaf Economics Spectrum (LES), the SLA-LDMC plane, and the CSR triangle of plant strategies. LA was positively correlated with CGR and CNR, while LDMC was negatively correlated with CNR. All cover crops could be classified as resource-acquisitive species from their relative position on the LES and the SLA-LDMC plane. Most cover crops were located along the Competition/Ruderality axis in the CSR triangle. In particular, Brassicaceae species were classified as very competitive, which was consistent with their high CGR and CNR. Leaf functional traits, especially LA and LDMC, allowed to differentiate some cover crops strategies related to their ability to grow and acquire N. LDMC was lower and LNC was higher in cover crop than in wild species, pointing to an efficient acquisitive syndrome in the former, corresponding to the high resource availability found in agrosystems. Combining several leaf traits explained approximately half of the CGR and CNR variances, which might be considered insufficient to precisely characterise and rank cover crop species for agronomic purposes. We hypothesised that may be the consequence of domestication process, which has reduced the range of plant strategies and modified the leaf trait syndrome in cultivated species. PMID:25789485

  6. A functional characterisation of a wide range of cover crop species: growth and nitrogen acquisition rates, leaf traits and ecological strategies.

    PubMed

    Tribouillois, Hélène; Fort, Florian; Cruz, Pablo; Charles, Raphaël; Flores, Olivier; Garnier, Eric; Justes, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Cover crops can produce ecosystem services during the fallow period, as reducing nitrate leaching and producing green manure. Crop growth rate (CGR) and crop nitrogen acquisition rate (CNR) can be used as two indicators of the ability of cover crops to produce these services in agrosystems. We used leaf functional traits to characterise the growth strategies of 36 cover crops as an approach to assess their ability to grow and acquire N rapidly. We measured specific leaf area (SLA), leaf dry matter content (LDMC), leaf nitrogen content (LNC) and leaf area (LA) and we evaluated their relevance to characterise CGR and CNR. Cover crop species were positioned along the Leaf Economics Spectrum (LES), the SLA-LDMC plane, and the CSR triangle of plant strategies. LA was positively correlated with CGR and CNR, while LDMC was negatively correlated with CNR. All cover crops could be classified as resource-acquisitive species from their relative position on the LES and the SLA-LDMC plane. Most cover crops were located along the Competition/Ruderality axis in the CSR triangle. In particular, Brassicaceae species were classified as very competitive, which was consistent with their high CGR and CNR. Leaf functional traits, especially LA and LDMC, allowed to differentiate some cover crops strategies related to their ability to grow and acquire N. LDMC was lower and LNC was higher in cover crop than in wild species, pointing to an efficient acquisitive syndrome in the former, corresponding to the high resource availability found in agrosystems. Combining several leaf traits explained approximately half of the CGR and CNR variances, which might be considered insufficient to precisely characterise and rank cover crop species for agronomic purposes. We hypothesised that may be the consequence of domestication process, which has reduced the range of plant strategies and modified the leaf trait syndrome in cultivated species.

  7. Intake, growth and carcass yield of indigenous goats fed market wastes of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) vines and scarlet eggplant (Solanum aethiopicum).

    PubMed

    Katongole, C B; Bareeba, F B; Sabiiti, E N; Ledin, I

    2009-12-01

    Intake, growth and carcass yield of indigenous goats fed basal diets of market wastes of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) vines (SPV) and scarlet eggplant (Solanum aethiopicum) (SEP) were examined in two experiments. In experiment I, the effect of presentation method (chopping, hanging or adding molasses) on the intake of SEP and SPV was evaluated. Presentation method did not influence the intake of SPV while hanging resulted in the highest (P < 0.05) intake of SEP. In experiment II, 24 male growing goats were supplemented with a concentrate (25% cottonseed cake +75% maize bran) in four dietary groups: SEPD, SPVD, SEP+SPV and Control where elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) was offered as the roughage. SEP were offered by hanging, while SPV were chopped. The goats were slaughtered after 12 weeks of feeding. Goats in the SEPD group constantly lost weight, hence were not followed to the end. Average daily gain and hot carcass weight were highest (P < 0.05) in the SPVD group (44 g/d and 8.4 kg, respectively), but similar between the SEP+SPV (19 and 6.8) and Control (21 and 6.9) groups. In conclusion, SPV can support goat meat production where standard feed resources are scarce when fed with an energy-protein concentrate. SEP are poorly consumed by goats, hence cannot be used as their sole basal feed.

  8. Assessing the Use of Remote Sensing and a Crop Growth Model to Improve Modeled Streamflow in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richey, A. S.; Richey, J. E.; Tan, A.; Liu, M.; Adam, J. C.; Sokolov, V.

    2015-12-01

    Central Asia presents a perfect case study to understand the dynamic, and often conflicting, linkages between food, energy, and water in natural systems. The destruction of the Aral Sea is a well-known environmental disaster, largely driven by increased irrigation demand on the rivers that feed the endorheic sea. Continued reliance on these rivers, the Amu Darya and Syr Darya, often place available water resources at odds between hydropower demands upstream and irrigation requirements downstream. A combination of tools is required to understand these linkages and how they may change in the future as a function of climate change and population growth. In addition, the region is geopolitically complex as the former Soviet basin states develop management strategies to sustainably manage shared resources. This complexity increases the importance of relying upon publically available information sources and tools. Preliminary work has shown potential for the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model to recreate the natural water balance in the Amu Darya and Syr Darya basins by comparing results to total terrestrial water storage changes observed from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission. Modeled streamflow is well correlated to observed streamflow at upstream gauges prior to the large-scale expansion of irrigation and hydropower. However, current modeled results are unable to capture the human influence of water use on downstream flow. This study examines the utility of a crop simulation model, CropSyst, to represent irrigation demand and GRACE to improve modeled streamflow estimates in the Amu Darya and Syr Darya basins. Specifically we determine crop water demand with CropSyst utilizing available data on irrigation schemes and cropping patterns. We determine how this demand can be met either by surface water, modeled by VIC with a reservoir operation scheme, and/or by groundwater derived from GRACE. Finally, we assess how the

  9. Growth and physiological changes in continuously cropped eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) upon relay intercropping with garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mengyi; Wu, Cuinan; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen

    2015-01-01

    Relay intercropping represents an alternative for sustainable production of vegetables, but the changes of internally antioxidant defense combined with the growth and yield are not clear. Field experiment was carried out to investigate the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and activity levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and plant height, stem diameter, maximal leaf area, and yield of eggplant grown under successive cropping in the year 2011 and 2012 to see if relay intercropping with garlic (Allium sativum L.) could benefit to eggplant growth and yield. Three experimental treatments with three repeats in each were carried out (completely randomized block design): eggplant monoculture (CK), eggplant relay intercropping with normal garlic (NG), and eggplant relay intercropping with green garlic (GG). In both years, the MDA content was significantly lower and SOD and POD activities were generally lower in NG and GG compared with CK in most sampling dates. PPO activity trends were generally opposite to those of POD. The general trend of PAL activity was similar to MDA. The plant height and stem of eggplant was lower, but the maximal leaf area was larger in NG and GG in 2011; in 2012 the plant growth was stronger in relay intercropping treatments. For eggplant yield in 2011, NG was 2.85% higher than CK; after the time for the green garlic pulled out was moved forward in 2012, the yield was increased by 6.26 and 7.80%, respectively, in NG and GG. The lower MDA content and enzyme activities in relay intercropping treatments showed that the eggplant suffered less damage from environment and continuous cropping obstacles, which promoted healthier plant. Thus from both the growth and physiological perspective, it was concluded that eggplant/garlic relay intercropping is a beneficial cultivation practice maintaining stronger plant growth and higher yield. PMID

  10. Growth and physiological changes in continuously cropped eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) upon relay intercropping with garlic (Allium sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengyi; Wu, Cuinan; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen

    2015-01-01

    Relay intercropping represents an alternative for sustainable production of vegetables, but the changes of internally antioxidant defense combined with the growth and yield are not clear. Field experiment was carried out to investigate the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and activity levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and plant height, stem diameter, maximal leaf area, and yield of eggplant grown under successive cropping in the year 2011 and 2012 to see if relay intercropping with garlic (Allium sativum L.) could benefit to eggplant growth and yield. Three experimental treatments with three repeats in each were carried out (completely randomized block design): eggplant monoculture (CK), eggplant relay intercropping with normal garlic (NG), and eggplant relay intercropping with green garlic (GG). In both years, the MDA content was significantly lower and SOD and POD activities were generally lower in NG and GG compared with CK in most sampling dates. PPO activity trends were generally opposite to those of POD. The general trend of PAL activity was similar to MDA. The plant height and stem of eggplant was lower, but the maximal leaf area was larger in NG and GG in 2011; in 2012 the plant growth was stronger in relay intercropping treatments. For eggplant yield in 2011, NG was 2.85% higher than CK; after the time for the green garlic pulled out was moved forward in 2012, the yield was increased by 6.26 and 7.80%, respectively, in NG and GG. The lower MDA content and enzyme activities in relay intercropping treatments showed that the eggplant suffered less damage from environment and continuous cropping obstacles, which promoted healthier plant. Thus from both the growth and physiological perspective, it was concluded that eggplant/garlic relay intercropping is a beneficial cultivation practice maintaining stronger plant growth and higher yield.

  11. Meteorological risks and impacts on crop production systems in Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, Anne

    2013-04-01

    Extreme weather events such as droughts, heat stress, rain storms and floods can have devastating effects on cropping systems. The perspective of rising risk-exposure is exacerbated further by projected increases of extreme events with climate change. More limits to aid received for agricultural damage and an overall reduction of direct income support to farmers further impacts farmers' resilience. Based on insurance claims, potatoes and rapeseed are the most vulnerable crops, followed by cereals and sugar beets. Damages due to adverse meteorological events are strongly dependent on crop type, crop stage and soil type. Current knowledge gaps exist in the response of arable crops to the occurrence of extreme events. The degree of temporal overlap between extreme weather events and the sensitive periods of the farming calendar requires a modelling approach to capture the mixture of non-linear interactions between the crop and its environment. The regional crop model REGCROP (Gobin, 2010) enabled to examine the likely frequency and magnitude of drought, heat stress and waterlogging in relation to the cropping season and crop sensitive stages of six arable crops: winter wheat, winter barley, winter rapeseed, potato, sugar beet and maize. Since crop development is driven by thermal time, crops matured earlier during the warmer 1988-2008 period than during the 1947-1987 period. Drought and heat stress, in particular during the sensitive crop stages, occur at different times in the cropping season and significantly differ between two climatic periods, 1947-1987 and 1988-2008. Soil moisture deficit increases towards harvesting, such that earlier maturing winter crops may avoid drought stress that occurs in late spring and summer. This is reflected in a decrease both in magnitude and frequency of soil moisture deficit around the sensitive stages during the 1988-2008 period when atmospheric drought may be compensated for with soil moisture. The risk of drought spells during

  12. Suppression of Pratylenchus penetrans Populations in Potato and Tomato using African Marigolds

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Samuel A.; Waldenmaier, Christine M.

    2002-01-01

    Current strategies for management of Pratylenchus penetrans in both white potato and tomato consist of the use of fumigant or non-fumigant nematicides or crop rotation. The objective of this study was to determine if double-cropping African marigolds (Tagetes erecta) with potatoes or tomatoes could reduce P. penetrans populations. Plots were 10 m × 3 m arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Treatments included marigolds, potatoes or tomatoes, and natural weedy fallow followed by either potatoes or tomatoes. Nematode populations were sampled before spring planting, between crops in August and after harvest in November. During the 3 years of the study, P. penetrans soil population density declined by an average of 93% from the pre-plant level when marigold was grown in rotation with potato and by 98% when marigold was grown.in rotation with tomato. Weedy fallow preceding potato resulted in an average decline in P. penetrans soil population density of 38%, and a similar decrease (37%) was seen when fallow preceded tomato. There was a significant reduction in the number of P. penetrans found in both potato and tomato roots when the crops followed marigolds. These results suggest that P. penetrans population density may be significantly reduced when marigolds are double-cropped with potatoes or tomatoes. PMID:19265920

  13. Plastid transformation in potato: Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Valkov, Vladimir T; Gargano, Daniela; Scotti, Nunzia; Cardi, Teodoro

    2014-01-01

    Although plastid transformation has attractive advantages and potential applications in plant biotechnology, for long time it has been highly efficient only in tobacco. The lack of efficient selection and regeneration protocols and, for some species, the inefficient recombination using heterologous flanking regions in transformation vectors prevented the extension of the technology to major crops. However, the availability of this technology for species other than tobacco could offer new possibilities in plant breeding, such as resistance management or improvement of nutritional value, with no or limited environmental concerns. Herein we describe an efficient plastid transformation protocol for potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum). By optimizing the tissue culture system and using transformation vectors carrying homologous potato flanking sequences, we obtained up to one transplastomic shoot per bombardment. Such efficiency is comparable to that usually achieved in tobacco. The method described in this chapter can be used to regenerate potato transplastomic plants expressing recombinant proteins in chloroplasts as well as in amyloplasts.

  14. Field and storage testing Bt potatoes for resistance to potato tuberworm (Lepidoptera: Gelichiidae).

    PubMed

    Douches, D S; Pett, W; Santos, F; Coombs, J; Grafius, E; Li, W; Metry, E A; el-Din, T Nasr; Madkour, M

    2004-08-01

    Potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), is the most serious insect pest of potatoes worldwide. The introduction of the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin gene through genetic engineering offers host plant resistance for the management of potato tuberworm. We report on the field and storage studies to evaluate Bt-cry5 potato lines for resistance to potato tuberworm in Egypt under natural infestations and their agronomic performance in both Egypt and Michigan. From 1997 to 2001, field experiments were conducted at the International Potato Center (CIP) Research Station, Kafr El-Zyat, Egypt, and/or Agricultural Genetic Engineering Institute (AGERI), Giza, Egypt, to evaluate resistance to tuberworm. A total of 27 Bt-transgenic potato lines from six different Bt constructs were evaluated over a 5-yr period. After harvest and evaluation of the agronomic trials, storage evaluation of potato tuberworm damage was done at the CIP Research Station. The 1997 field trial was the first field test of genetically engineered crops in Egypt. Field tests to assess potato tuberworm resistance in Egypt were able to differentiate between the Bt-transgenic lines and the nontransgenic lines/cultivars in 1999, 2000, and 2001. The Bt-cry5-Spunta lines (Spunta-G2, Spunta-G3, and Spunta-6a3) were the most resistant lines in field with 99-100% of tubers free of damage. In the 2001 storage study, these lines were also over 90% free of tuberworm damage after 3 mo. NYL235-4.13, which combines glandular trichomes with the Bt-cry5/gus fusion construct, also had a high percentage of clean tubers in the field studies. In agronomic field trials in Michigan from 1997 to 2001, the Bt-transgenic lines in most instances performed similar to the nontransgenic line in the agronomic trials; however, in Egypt (1998-1999), the yields were less than one-half of those in Michigan. Expression of the Bt-cry5 gene in the potato tuber and foliage will provide the seed producer and grower a tool in which to

  15. Fuel production potential of several agricultural crops

    SciTech Connect

    Mays, D.A.; Buchanan, W.; Bradford, B.N.

    1984-11-01

    Data collected on starch and sugar crops indicate that sweet potato and sweet sorghum have the best potential for alcohol production in the TVA area. Of the oil crops evaluated in this series of experiments only sunflower and okara appear to offer potential in the Tennessee Valley for oil production for fuel or other uses. 21 tabs.

  16. Development of Marker-Free Transgenic Potato Tubers Enriched in Caffeoylquinic Acids and Flavonols.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Tang, Wenzhao; Chen, Jing; Jia, Ru; Ma, Lianjie; Wang, Shaoli; Wang, Jiao; Shen, Xiangling; Chu, Zhaohui; Zhu, Changxiang; Ding, Xinhua

    2016-04-13

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a major crop worldwide that meets human economic and nutritional requirements. Potato has several advantages over other crops: easy to cultivate and store, cheap to consume, and rich in a variety of secondary metabolites. In this study, we generated three marker-free transgenic potato lines that expressed the Arabidopsis thaliana flavonol-specific transcriptional activator AtMYB12 driven by the tuber-specific promoter Patatin. Marker-free potato tubers displayed increased amounts of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) (3.35-fold increases on average) and flavonols (4.50-fold increase on average). Concentrations of these metabolites were associated with the enhanced expression of genes in the CQA and flavonol biosynthesis pathways. Accumulation of CQAs and flavonols resulted in 2-fold higher antioxidant capacity compared to wild-type potatoes. Tubers from these marker-free transgenic potatoes have therefore improved antioxidant properties.

  17. A land surface model combined with a crop growth model for paddy rice (MATCRO-Rice v. 1) - Part 1: Model description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masutomi, Yuji; Ono, Keisuke; Mano, Masayoshi; Maruyama, Atsushi; Miyata, Akira

    2016-11-01

    Crop growth and agricultural management can affect climate at various spatial and temporal scales through the exchange of heat, water, and gases between land and atmosphere. Therefore, simulation of fluxes for heat, water, and gases from agricultural land is important for climate simulations. A land surface model (LSM) combined with a crop growth model (CGM), called an LSM-CGM combined model, is a useful tool for simulating these fluxes from agricultural land. Therefore, we developed a new LSM-CGM combined model for paddy rice fields, the MATCRO-Rice model. The main objective of this paper is to present the full description of MATCRO-Rice. The most important feature of MATCRO-Rice is that it can consistently simulate latent and sensible heat fluxes, net carbon uptake by crop, and crop yield by exchanging variables between the LSM and CGM. This feature enables us to apply the model to a wide range of integrated issues.

  18. Ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plantlets to gradient saline stress

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hui-Juan; Yang, Hong-Yu; Bai, Jiang-Ping; Liang, Xin-Yue; Lou, Yan; Zhang, Jun-Lian; Wang, Di; Zhang, Jin-Lin; Niu, Shu-Qi; Chen, Ying-Long

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that impacts plant growth and reduces the productivity of field crops. Compared to field plants, test tube plantlets offer a direct and fast approach to investigate the mechanism of salt tolerance. Here we examined the ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. c.v. “Longshu No. 3”) plantlets to gradient saline stress (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mM NaCl) with two consequent observations (2 and 6 weeks, respectively). The results showed that, with the increase of external NaCl concentration and the duration of treatments, (1) the number of chloroplasts and cell intercellular spaces markedly decreased, (2) cell walls were thickened and even ruptured, (3) mesophyll cells and chloroplasts were gradually damaged to a complete disorganization containing more starch, (4) leaf Na and Cl contents increased while leaf K content decreased, (5) leaf proline content and the activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased significantly, and (6) leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased significantly and stomatal area and chlorophyll content decline were also detected. Severe salt stress (200 mM NaCl) inhibited plantlet growth. These results indicated that potato plantlets adapt to salt stress to some extent through accumulating osmoprotectants, such as proline, increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as CAT and SOD. The outcomes of this study provide ultrastructural and physiological insights into characterizing potential damages induced by salt stress for selecting salt-tolerant potato cultivars. PMID:25628634

  19. Ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plantlets to gradient saline stress.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hui-Juan; Yang, Hong-Yu; Bai, Jiang-Ping; Liang, Xin-Yue; Lou, Yan; Zhang, Jun-Lian; Wang, Di; Zhang, Jin-Lin; Niu, Shu-Qi; Chen, Ying-Long

    2014-01-01

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that impacts plant growth and reduces the productivity of field crops. Compared to field plants, test tube plantlets offer a direct and fast approach to investigate the mechanism of salt tolerance. Here we examined the ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. c.v. "Longshu No. 3") plantlets to gradient saline stress (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mM NaCl) with two consequent observations (2 and 6 weeks, respectively). The results showed that, with the increase of external NaCl concentration and the duration of treatments, (1) the number of chloroplasts and cell intercellular spaces markedly decreased, (2) cell walls were thickened and even ruptured, (3) mesophyll cells and chloroplasts were gradually damaged to a complete disorganization containing more starch, (4) leaf Na and Cl contents increased while leaf K content decreased, (5) leaf proline content and the activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased significantly, and (6) leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased significantly and stomatal area and chlorophyll content decline were also detected. Severe salt stress (200 mM NaCl) inhibited plantlet growth. These results indicated that potato plantlets adapt to salt stress to some extent through accumulating osmoprotectants, such as proline, increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as CAT and SOD. The outcomes of this study provide ultrastructural and physiological insights into characterizing potential damages induced by salt stress for selecting salt-tolerant potato cultivars.

  20. Climate risks on potato yield in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xun; Lall, Upmanu

    2016-04-01

    The yield of potatoes is affected by water and temperature during the growing season. We study the impact of a suite of climate variables on potato yield at country level. More than ten climate variables related to the growth of potato are considered, including the seasonal rainfall and temperature, but also extreme conditions at different averaging periods from daily to monthly. A Bayesian hierarchical model is developed to jointly consider the risk of heat stress, cold stress, wet and drought. Future climate risks are investigated through the projection of future climate data. This study contributes to assess the risks of present and future climate risks on potatoes yield, especially the risks of extreme events, which could be used to guide better sourcing strategy and ensure food security in the future.

  1. Potato Tuber Callus

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Roy; Varns, Jerry L.; Miller, Karon A.; Talley, Eugene A.

    1976-01-01

    Callus was initiated from explants of tubers of the Norchip cultivar of Solanum tuberosum L. and grown on medium with a single carbon source and without addition of coconut milk, protein hydrolysate, or amino acid. Callus samples were harvested at intervals and compared to mature tubers for which there was good biochemical knowledge. The amino acid spectrum, the glycoalkaloid content, and the properties of the isolated invertase and sucrose synthetase were similar in callus and in tuber. Significantly the level of sucrose synthetase varied with the age of the developing callus just as it did with the age of the developing tuber. Of greater significance, levels of reducing sugars and invertase varied with the age of developing callus and also with time and temperature of storage after the callus has ceased growth. Similar changes occur in intact tubers. Callus and tuber biochemistry differed in the amount of deposited starch and in the absence of potato invertase inhibitor. PMID:16659698

  2. Pesticide uptake in potatoes: model and field experiments.

    PubMed

    Juraske, Ronnie; Vivas, Carmen S Mosquera; Velásquez, Alexander Erazo; Santos, Glenda García; Moreno, Mónica B Berdugo; Gomez, Jaime Diaz; Binder, Claudia R; Hellweg, Stefanie; Dallos, Jairo A Guerrero

    2011-01-15

    A dynamic model for uptake of pesticides in potatoes is presented and evaluated with measurements performed within a field trial in the region of Boyacá, Colombia. The model takes into account the time between pesticide applications and harvest, the time between harvest and consumption, the amount of spray deposition on soil surface, mobility and degradation of pesticide in soil, diffusive uptake and persistence due to crop growth and metabolism in plant material, and loss due to food processing. Food processing steps included were cleaning, washing, storing, and cooking. Pesticide concentrations were measured periodically in soil and potato samples from the beginning of tuber formation until harvest. The model was able to predict the magnitude and temporal profile of the experimentally derived pesticide concentrations well, with all measurements falling within the 90% confidence interval. The fraction of chlorpyrifos applied on the field during plant cultivation that eventually is ingested by the consumer is on average 10(-4)-10(-7), depending on the time between pesticide application and ingestion and the processing step considered.

  3. Characterization of Proteins in Filtrate from Biodegradation of Crop Residue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, Wileatha; Trotman, A. A.

    1997-01-01

    Biodegradation of plant biomass is a feasible path for transformation of crop residue and recycling of nutrients for crop growth. The need to model the effects of factors associated with recycling of plant biomass resulting from hydroponic sweet potato production has led to investigation of natural soil isolates with the capacity for starch hydrolysis. This study sought to use nondenaturing gel electrophoresis to characterize the proteins present in filtered effluent from bioreactors seeded with starch hydrolyzing bacterial culture used in the biodegradation of senesced sweet potato biomass. The study determined the relative molecular weight of proteins in sampled effluent and the protein banding pattern was characterized. The protein profiles of effluent were similar for samples taken from independent runs under similar conditions of starch hydrolysis. The method can be used as a quality control tool for confirmation of starch hydrolysis of crop biomass. In addition, this method will allow monitoring for presence of contaminants within the system-protein profiles indicative of new enzymes in the bioreactors.

  4. Host Selection, Growth, and Survival of Melonworm (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on Four Cucurbit Crops Under Laboratory Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Panthi, B. R.; Seal, D. R.; Capinera, J. L.; Nuessly, G. S.; Martin, C. G.

    2016-01-01

    The melonworm, Diaphania hyalinata L. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is one of the most serious insect problems affecting cucurbit production. We evaluated the relative preference and suitability of yellow squash, zucchini, cucumber, and watermelon to melonworm by measuring its oviposition, larval feeding preference, survivorship, and developmental responses in the laboratory. Whole plants were used for oviposition study, whereas host leaf discs were used for all the other studies. Watermelon feeding resulted in the longest larval development period (14.3 d), greatest prepupal weights and survivals rates (92%; first instar to adult) among the four crops. However, for watermelon, adult oviposition preference (199.5 eggs/♀), egg survival (70%), and larval feeding (4.1% defoliation) were numerically or statistically lowest, and larval head capsule widths and whole-body lengths were smallest. When differences occurred among these variables, yellow squash, zucchini, and cucumber were each typically higher (or quicker to develop) than watermelon. So why do melonworm adults not prefer watermelon, or at least select it as frequently as squash and cucumber when ovipositing? The answer likely is that there might be some variation in the important chemical components among these cucurbits. We suggest that comparison of kairomones and allomones from watermelon and related cucurbits would be very useful for determining the combination resulting in the lowest risk of damage to the more susceptible cucurbits (assuming the levels can be modified without seriously affecting the crops). PMID:27400704

  5. Morphological responses of crop and weed species of different growth forms to ultraviolet-B radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P.W.; Flint, S.D.; Caldwell, M.M. )

    1990-10-01

    Recent evidence of a general, global decline of stratospheric ozone has heightened concern about possible ecological consequences of increases in solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280-320 nm) radiation resulting from ozone depletion. The influence of UV-B radiation (280-320 nanometers) on the morphology of 12 common dicot and monocot crop or weed species was examined to determine whether any common responses could be found that might, in turn, be useful in predicting possible changes in competitive balance under solar UV-B enhancement. Under glasshouse conditions, UV-B exposure (simulating a 20% reduction in stratospheric ozone at Logan, Utah) was found to reduce leaf blade and internode lengths and increase leaf and axillary shoot production in several species. Overall, the directions of these trends were similar in the majority of species that exhibited a significant response. These morphological changes occurred without any significant reduction in total shoot dry matter production. There was no clear distinction in the response of crops and weeds, though monocots were found to be generally more responsive than dicots. Previous work in dense canopies has shown that the photomorphogenetic effects of UV-B alter leaf placement and thereby influence competition for light. Our results suggest that, under these conditions, changes in competitive balance resulting from increased UV-B might be expected more frequently when monocots are involved in mixtures, rather than mixtures of only dicots.

  6. Near-Real-Time Monitoring and Reporting of Crop Growth Condition and Harvest Status Using an Integrated Optical and Radar Approach at the National-Scale in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, J.

    2015-12-01

    There has been an increasing need to have accurate and spatially detailed information on crop growth condition and harvest status over Canada's agricultural land so that the impacts of environmental conditions, market supply and demand, and transportation network limitations on crop production can be understood fully and acted upon in a timely manner. Presently, Canada doesn't have a national dataset that can provide near-real-time geospatial information on crop growth stage and harvest systematically so that reporting on risk events can be linked directly to the grain supply chain and crop production fluctuations. The intent of this study is to develop an integrated approach using Earth observation (EO) technology to provide a consistent, comprehensive picture of crop growth cycles (growth conditions and stages) and agricultural management activities (field preparation for seeding, harvest, and residue management). Integration of the optical and microwave satellite remote sensing technologies is imperative for robust methodology development and eventually for operational implementation. Particularly, the current synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system Radarsat-2 and to be launched Radarsat Constellation Mission (RCM) are unique EO resources to Canada. Incorporating these Canadian SAR resources with international SAR missions such as the Cosmesky-Med and TerraSAR, could be of great potential for developing change detection technologies particularly useful for monitoring harvest as well as other types of agricultural management events. The study revealed that radar and multi-scale (30m and 250m) optical satellite data can directly detect or infer 1) seeding date, 2) crop growth stages and gross primary productivity (GPP), and 3) harvest progress. Operational prototypes for providing growing-season information at the crop-specific level will be developed across the Canadian agricultural land base.

  7. The influence of headspace and dissolved oxygen level on growth and haemolytic BL enterotoxin production of a psychrotolerant Bacillus weihenstephanensis isolate on potato based ready-to-eat food products.

    PubMed

    Samapundo, S; Everaert, H; Wandutu, J N; Rajkovic, A; Uyttendaele, M; Devlieghere, F

    2011-04-01

    The major objective of this study was to determine the influence of the initial headspace and dissolved O(2) level and vacuum packaging on growth and diarrhoeal enterotoxin production by Bacillus weihenstephanensis on potato based ready-to-eat food products. In general, the lower the initial headspace or dissolved O(2) level the slower the maximum growth rate (μ(max), log(10) CFU g(-1) d(-1)), the longer the lag phase duration (λ, d) and the smaller the maximum population density (N(max), log(10) CFU g(-1)) became. The slowest μ(max), the longest λ and the smallest N(max) were generally found for growth under vacuum packaging. This implies shorter shelf-lives will occur at higher initial headspace or dissolved O(2) levels as the growth of B. weihenstephanensis to the infective dose of 10(5) CFU g(-1) in such atmospheres takes a shorter time. Significant consumption of dissolved O(2) only occurred when growth shifted from the lag to the exponential phase and growth generally transitioned from the exponential to the stationary phase when the dissolved O(2) levels fell below ca. 75 ppb. Diarrhoeal enterotoxin production (determined via detection of the L2 component of haemolytic BL) was similar for growth under initial headspace O(2) levels of 1-20.9%, and was only reduced when growth took place under vacuum packaging. The reduction in L2 production when growth took place under vacuum was most probably related to the low final cell densities observed under this condition. Both growth and L2 production were inhibited over a 32-day incubation period at 7 °C by 40% CO(2) irrespective of the headspace or dissolved O(2) levels. The results illustrate the importance of residual O(2) and CO(2) on the shelf-stability and safety of modified atmosphere packaged potato based ready-to-eat food products with regards to B. weihenstephanensis.

  8. Balancing photosynthetic light-harvesting and light-utilization capacities in potato leaf tissue during acclimation to different growth temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, K. L.; Wheeler, R. M.; Arora, R.; Palta, J. P.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the effect of temperature during growth and development on the relationship between light-harvesting capacity, indicated by chlorophyll concentration, and light-utilization potential, indicated by light- and bicarbonate-saturated photosynthetic oxygen evolution, in Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Norland. Clonal plantlets were transplanted and grown at 20 degrees C for 2 weeks before transfer to 12, 16, 20, 24 and 28 degrees C for 6 weeks. After 4 weeks of the temperature treatments, leaf tissue fresh weights per area were one-third higher in plants grown at 12 degrees C vs those grown at 28 degrees C. Conversely, chlorophyll content per area in tissue grown at 12 degrees C was less than one-half of that of tissue grown at 28 degrees C at 4 weeks. Photosynthetic capacity measured at a common temperature of 20 degrees C and expressed on a chlorophyll basis was inversely proportional to growth temperature. Leaf tissue from plants grown at 12 degrees C for 4 weeks had photosynthetic rates that were 3-fold higher on a chlorophyll basis than comparable tissue from plants grown at 28 degrees C. These results suggest that the relationship between light-harvesting capacity and light-utilization potential varies 3-fold in response to the growth temperatures examined. The role of this response in avoidance of photoinhibition is discussed.

  9. Potato Production, Usage, and Nutrition--A Review.

    PubMed

    Zaheer, Khalid; Akhtar, M Humayoun

    2016-01-01

    Potato is an economically important staple crop prevailing all across the world with successful large-scale production, consumption, and affordability with easy availability in the open market. Potatoes provide basic nutrients such as-carbohydrates, dietary fiber (skin), several vitamins, and minerals (e.g., potassium, magnesium, iron). On occasion exposures to raw and cooked potatoes impart allergic reactions. Dietary intake of potatoes, especially colored potatoes, play an important role in the production of antioxidant defense system by providing essential nutrient antioxidants, such as vitamins, β-carotene, polyphenols, and minerals. This may help lower the incidence of wide range of chronic and acute disease processes (like hypertension, heart diseases, cancer, neurodegenerative, and other diseases). However, retention of nutrients in potatoes is affected by various cooking and processing methods. Cooking at elevated temperature also produces acrylamide-a suspected carcinogen. Independent and/or collaborative studies have been conducted and reported on the various pathways leading to the formation of acrylamide in heat processed foods. This article reviews the latest research on potato production, consumption, nature of phytochemicals and their health benefits, and allergic reactions to children. Also included is the discovery of acrylamide in processed starch-rich foods including potatoes, mechanism of formation, detection methodologies, and mitigation steps to reduce acrylamide content in food.

  10. Towards a Quantitative Use of Satellite Remote Sensing in Crop Growth Models for Large Scale Agricultural Production Estimate (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defourny, P.

    2013-12-01

    such the Green Area Index (GAI), fAPAR and fcover usually retrieved from MODIS, MERIS, SPOT-Vegetation described the quality of the green vegetation development. The GLOBAM (Belgium) and EU FP-7 MOCCCASIN projects (Russia) improved the standard products and were demonstrated over large scale. The GAI retrieved from MODIS time series using a purity index criterion depicted successfully the inter-annual variability. Furthermore, the quantitative assimilation of these GAI time series into a crop growth model improved the yield estimate over years. These results showed that the GAI assimilation works best at the district or provincial level. In the context of the GEO Ag., the Joint Experiment of Crop Assessment and Monitoring (JECAM) was designed to enable the global agricultural monitoring community to compare such methods and results over a variety of regional cropping systems. For a network of test sites around the world, satellite and field measurements are currently collected and will be made available for collaborative effort. This experiment should facilitate international standards for data products and reporting, eventually supporting the development of a global system of systems for agricultural crop assessment and monitoring.

  11. Drinking From the Same Straw: Crop Growth and Evidence of Water Transfer from Native Shrubs to Millet in a Sahelian Agro-Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogie, N. A.; Bayala, R.; Fogel, M. L.; Diedhiou, I.; Dick, R.; Ghezzehei, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    A changing climate along with human and animal population pressure can have a devastating effect on crop yields and food security in the Sudano-Sahel. Agricultural solutions to address soil degradation and crop water stress are needed to combat this increasingly difficult situation. Significant differences in crop success have been observed in peanut and millet grown in association with two native evergreen shrubs Piliostigma reticulatum, and Guiera senegalensis at the sites of Nioro du Rip and Keur Matar, respectively. We investigate how farmers can increase crop productivity by capitalizing on the evolutionary adaptation of native shrubs to the harsh Sudano-Sahelian environment as well as the physical mechanisms at work in the system that can lead to more robust yields. Soil moisture, transpiration rate, crop growth and soil and leaf water potential data were collected during a dry season millet irrigation experiment where stress was imposed in the intercropped system. Despite lower soil moisture content, crops grown in association with shrubs have increased biomass production and a faster development cycle. An isotopic tracer study investigating hydraulic redistribution was carried out by injecting deuterated water into the roots of three shrubs at one meter depth and sampling shrubs and nearby crops for isotopic analysis of plant water. Deuterium Enriched water was found in the shrubs of two out of three plots. Deuterium enriched water was found in the crops and shrubs in all three plots. These findings build on work that was completed in 2004 at the site, but point to larger differences in crop growth and strong evidence for the sharing of hydraulically redistributed water. Using even the limited resources that farmers possess, this agroforestry technique can be expanded over wide swaths of the Sahel.

  12. A study of the control problem of the shoot side environment delivery system of a closed crop growth research chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwell, C. C.; Blackwell, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    The details of our initial study of the control problem of the crop shoot environment of a hypothetical closed crop growth research chamber (CGRC) are presented in this report. The configuration of the CGRC is hypothetical because neither a physical subject nor a design existed at the time the study began, a circumstance which is typical of large scale systems control studies. The basis of the control study is a mathematical model which was judged to adequately mimic the relevant dynamics of the system components considered necessary to provide acceptable realism in the representation. Control of pressure, temperature, and flow rate of the crop shoot environment, along with its oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water concentration is addressed. To account for mass exchange, the group of plants is represented in the model by a source of oxygen, a source of water vapor, and a sink for carbon dioxide. In terms of the thermal energy exchange, the group of plants is represented by a surface with an appropriate temperature. Most of the primitive equations about an experimental operating condition and a state variable representation which was extracted from the linearized equations are presented. Next, we present the results of a real Jordan decomposition and the repositioning of an undesirable eigenvalue via full state feedback. The state variable representation of the modeling system is of the nineteenth order and reflects the eleven control variables and eight system disturbances. Five real eigenvalues are very near zero, with one at zero, three having small magnitude positive values, and one having a small magnitude negative value. A Singular Value Decomposition analysis indicates that these non-zero eigenvalues are not results of numerical error.

  13. Effect of irrigation system uniformity and method on potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato growth, yield, and quality under improved irrigation methods and water uniformity is important to enhance water management in arid regions. A field experiment was conducted in 2014 spring and fall growing seasons using potato (Solanum tuberosum) grown in northern Egypt at Shibin El Kom, Menof...

  14. Potato stem density effects on canopy development and production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlled environment studies with potato frequently assume responses from single-stem potato plants can be extrapolated to the field where multiple-stem plants are common. Two controlled environment studies were conducted in order to characterize differences in canopy growth, development, and dry...

  15. Field studies of sweet potatoes and cowpeas in response to elevated carbon dioxide. Progress report. [Ipomoea batatas; Vigna unguiculata

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, P.K.

    1985-01-01

    The physiological and biochemical effects of enriched CO/sub 2/ on sweet potatoes and cowpeas were studied in open top chambers. The main task was to assemble equipment to generate test atmospheres of CO/sub 2/ in the field, using open top chambers as the basic exposure unit for studying the response of sweet potatoes and cowpeas to enriched CO/sub 2/. Plant responses to CO/sub 2/ in open top chambers have been demonstrated by several investigators in a variety of crops. This study focused on growth and development of both sweet potatoes and cowpeas at levels of CO/sub 2/ ranging from the ambient level of 354 ppM to 659 ppM. The effects of CO/sub 2/ on leaf and stem weights, stem length, leaf area, and stomatal number and conductance were studied on both species. Additional studies on sweet potatoes included the effects of CO/sub 2/ on the weight, chemical content and quality of tubers. Additional studies on cowpeas included the effects of CO/sub 2/ on the weight of seeds and rate of nitrogen fixation. 27 figs., 35 tabs. (ACR)

  16. Potato, viruses, and seed certification in the USA to provide healthy propagated tubers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In general, potato is an intensively managed crop, requiring irrigation, fertilization, and frequent pesticide applications in order to obtain the highest yields possible. In the past, breeding programs focused primarily on improving yield and ignored the many diseases that can afflict potatoes, esp...

  17. Are we getting better at using wild potato species in light of new tools?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato, mankind’s third most consumed food crop, originated as an interspecific hybrid in the Andean highlands. Potato stocks across Europe and North America were devastated by late blight epidemics in the mid-19th century and most varieties were destroyed. Fortunately, late blight resistance was fo...

  18. The Potato Systems Planner: A Successful Decision Support Tool for Growers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An interdisciplinary team evaluated 14 cropping systems for their impacts on potato yield and quality, nutrient availability, plant diseases, soil microorganisms, potential profitability, economic risk, and other factors. Results were integrated into the “Potato Systems Planner” decision support to...

  19. Genetic mapping with an inbred line-derived F2 population in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is an important global food crop, for which tetrasomic inheritance and self-incompatibility have limited both genetic discovery and breeding gains. We report here on the creation of the first diploid inbred line-derived F2 population in potato, and demonstrate its utili...

  20. Processing and cooking effects on the quality of purple-fleshed sweet potato fries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet potato is a major crop produced in Hawaii, however 85% of the food consumed in Hawaii is imported from the U.S. mainland and other sources. Development of value-added food products from Hawaii-grown sweet potatoes is one way to reduce dependence on food imports and improve agriculture by provi...

  1. Making a case for breeding frost tolerant potatoes adapted to Andean Highlands especially the Altiplano

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although cultivated potatoes are sensitive to mild frost (severely damaged at air temperatures below -2 or -3 C) limited progress has been made in developing frost hardy cultivars. This may be due to the fact that most potato crop grown in North America and Europe has minimal risk to be subjected to...

  2. [Identification of plant viruses infecting transgenic potatoes resistant to the Colorado beetle].

    PubMed

    Mel'nychuk, M D; Spyrydonov, V G

    2001-01-01

    Virus tolerance of the three varieties of Bt-potato New Leaf--Atlantic, Russet Burbank and Superior from "Monsanto company" has been studied. Using serology, biochemistry methods and biotest the mixed virus infecting of experimental plants has been shown. Virus transmission by infected potato root crops under reproduction and accelerated degradation processes during storage have been registered.

  3. Incidence of Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary on potato and tomato in Maine, 2006-2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, is a devastating disease globally. In Maine, we recorded late blight on potato and tomato during the 2006-2010 cropping seasons. From 2006 to 2008, over 90% of diseased samples were collected in potato fields from northern and central Aroostook County i...

  4. Potato root-associated bacteria: site/cultivar differences and associations with tuber yield and quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potatoes are the fourth most important food crop in the world with consumption increasing worldwide, especially in developing nations. Breeding programs focus on potato quality for disease resistance and culinary quality; in addition, some programs are beginning to focus on anti-cancer activity of ...

  5. Potential of Multitemporal Tandem-X Derived Crop Surface Models for Maize Growth Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hütt, C.; Tilly, N.; Schiedung, H.; Bareth, G.

    2016-06-01

    In this study, first results of retrieving plant heights of maize fields from multitemporal TanDEM-X images are shown. Three TanDEM-X dual polarization spotlight acquisitions were taken over a rural area in Germany in the growing season 2014. By interferometric processing, digital terrain models (DTM) were derived for each date with 5m resolution. From the data of the first acquisition (June 1st) taken before planting, a DTM of the bare ground is generated. The data of the following acquisition dates (July 15th, July 26th) are used to establish crop surface models (CSM). A CSM represents the crop surface of a whole field in a high resolution. By subtracting the DTM of the ground from each CSM, the actual plant height is calculated. Within these data sets 30 maize fields in the area of interest could be detected and verified by external land use data. Besides the spaceborne measurements, one of the maize fields was intensively investigated using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), which was carried out at the same dates as the predicted TanDEM-X acquisitions. Visual inspection of the derived plant heights, and accordance of the individually processed polarisations over the maize fields, demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method. Unfortunately, the infield variability of the intensively monitored field could not be successfully captured in the TanDEM-X derived plant heights and merely the general trend is visible. Nevertheless, the study shows the potential of the TanDEM-X constellation for maize height monitoring on field level.

  6. Application of PCR-denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method to examine microbial community structure in asparagus fields with growth inhibition due to continuous cropping.

    PubMed

    Urashima, Yasufumi; Sonoda, Takahiro; Fujita, Yuko; Uragami, Atsuko

    2012-01-01

    Growth inhibition due to continuous cropping of asparagus is a major problem; the yield of asparagus in replanted fields is low compared to that in new fields, and missing plants occur among young seedlings. Although soil-borne disease and allelochemicals are considered to be involved in this effect, this is still controversial. We aimed to develop a technique for the biological field diagnosis of growth inhibition due to continuous cropping. Therefore, in this study, fungal community structure and Fusarium community structure in continuously cropped fields of asparagus were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction/denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Soil samples were collected from the Aizu region of Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. Soil samples were taken from both continuously cropped fields of asparagus with growth inhibition and healthy neighboring fields of asparagus. The soil samples were collected from the fields of 5 sets in 2008 and 4 sets in 2009. We were able to distinguish between pathogenic and non-pathogenic Fusarium by using Alfie1 and Alfie2GC as the second PCR primers and PCR-DGGE. Fungal community structure was not greatly involved in the growth inhibition of asparagus due to continuous cropping. By contrast, the band ratios of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. asparagi in growth-inhibited fields were higher than those in neighboring healthy fields. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the band ratios of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. asparagi and the ratios of missing asparagus plants. We showed the potential of biological field diagnosis of growth inhibition due to continuous cropping of asparagus using PCR-DGGE.

  7. Importance of pfkA for rapid growth of Enterobacter cloacae during colonization of crop seeds.

    PubMed

    Roberts, D P; Dery, P D; Yucel, I; Buyer, J S

    2000-01-01

    Enterobacter cloacae A-11 is a prototrophic, glycolytic mutant of strain 501R3 with a single transposon insertion in pfkA. The populations of strain A-11 on cucumber and radish seeds were smaller than the populations of strain 501R3 in natural soil, but the populations of these two strains on pea, soybean, sunflower, and sweet corn seeds were similar (D. P. Roberts, P. D. Dery, I. Yucel, J. Buyer, M. A. Holtman, and D. Y. Kobayashi, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:2513-2519, 1999). The net effect of the mutation in pfkA in vitro was a shift from rapid growth on certain carbohydrates detected in seed exudates to much slower growth on other carbohydrates, amino acids, and organic acids. The impact of the mutation in pfkA was greatest on the growth rate of E. cloacae on the seeds that released the smallest quantities of fructose, other carbohydrates, and amino acids. Corn, pea, soybean, and sunflower seeds released total amounts of carbohydrates and amino acids at rates that were approximately 10- to 100-fold greater than the rates observed with cucumber and radish seeds for the first 24 h after inhibition began. The growth rate of strain A-11 was significantly less (50% less) than the growth rate of strain 501R3 on radish seeds, and the growth rate of strain A-11 was too low to estimate on cucumber seeds in sterile sand for the first 24 h after inhibition began. The growth rate of strain A-11 was also significantly lower on soybean seeds, but it was only 17% lower than the growth rate of strain 501R3. The growth rates of strains 501R3 and A-11 were similar on pea, sunflower, and corn seeds in sterile sand for the first 30 h after imbibition began. Large reductions in the growth rates of strain A-11 on seeds were correlated with subsequent decreased levels of colonization of seeds compared to the levels of colonization of strain 501R3. The strain A-11 populations were significantly smaller than the strain 501R3 populations only on radish and cucumber seeds. The mutation

  8. Growth in Turface® clay permits root hair phenotyping along the entire crown root in cereal crops and demonstrates that root hair growth can extend well beyond the root hair zone.

    PubMed

    Goron, Travis L; Watts, Sophia; Shearer, Charles; Raizada, Manish N

    2015-04-12

    In cereal crops, root hairs are reported to function within the root hair zone to carry out important roles in nutrient and water absorption. Nevertheless, these single cells remain understudied due to the practical challenges of phenotyping these delicate structures in large cereal crops growing on soil or other growth systems. Here we present an alternative growth system for examining the root hairs of cereal crops: the use of coarse Turface® clay alongside fertigation. This system allowed for root hairs to be easily visualized along the entire lengths of crown roots in three different cereal crops (maize, wheat, and finger millet). Surprisingly, we observed that the root hairs in these crops continued to grow beyond the canonical root hair zone, with the most root hair growth occurring on older crown root segments. We suggest that the Turface® fertigation system may permit a better understanding of the changing dynamics of root hairs as they age in large plants, and may facilitate new avenues for crop improvement below ground. However, the relevance of this system to field conditions must be further evaluated in other crops.

  9. Comparison of the impacts of climate change on potential productivity of different staple crops in the agro-pastoral ecotone of North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jianzhao; Wang, Jing; He, Di; Huang, Mingxia; Pan, Zhihua; Pan, Xuebiao

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the impacts of climate change on the potential productivity and potential productivity gaps of sunflower ( Helianthus annuus), potato (Solanum tuberosum), and spring wheat ( Triticumaestivum Linn) in the agro-pastoral ecotone (APE) of North China. A crop growth dynamics statistical method was used to calculate the potential productivity affected by light, temperature, precipitation, and soil fertility. The growing season average temperature increased by 0.47, 0.48, and 0.52°C per decade ( p < 0.05) for sunflower, potato, and spring wheat, respectively, from 1981 to 2010. Meanwhile, the growing season solar radiation showed a decreasing trend ( p < 0.05) and the growing season precipitation changed non-significantly across APE. The light-temperature potential productivity increased by 4.48% per decade for sunflower but decreased by 1.58% and 0.59% per decade for potato and spring wheat. The climate-soil potential productivity reached only 31.20%, 27.79%, and 20.62% of the light-temperature potential productivity for sunflower, potato, and spring wheat, respectively. The gaps between the light-temperature and climate-soil potential productivity increased by 6.41%, 0.97%, and 1.29% per decade for sunflower, potato, and spring wheat, respectively. The increasing suitability of the climate for sunflower suggested that the sown area of sunflower should be increased compared with potato and spring wheat in APE under future climate warming.

  10. QTL mapping of potato chip color and tuber traits within an autotetraploid family

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a highly heterozygous autotetraploid crop species, and this presents challenges for traditional line development and molecular breeding. Recent availability of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array with 8303 features and software packages for linkag...

  11. The Or gene enhances carotenoid accumulation and stability during post-harvest storage of potato tubers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Provitamin A carotenoids in staple crops are not very stable during storage and their loss compromises nutritional quality. To elucidate the fundamental mechanisms underlying carotenoid accumulation and stability, we investigated transgenic potato tubers that express the cauliflower Orange (Or) gene...

  12. Illustration of year-to-year variation in wheat spectral profile crop growth curves. [Kansas, Oklahoma, North Dakota and South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, P.; Jones, C. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Data previously compiled on the year to year variability of spectral profile crop growth parameters for spring and winter wheat in Kansas, Oklahoma, and the Dakotas were used with a profile model to develop graphs illustrating spectral profile crop growth curves for a number of years and a number of spring and winter wheat segments. These curves show the apparent variability in spectral profiles for wheat from one year to another within the same segment and from one segment to another within the same year.

  13. Impacts of recent climate change on dry-land crop water consumption in the northern agro-pastoral transitional zone of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lingyu; Liu, Yaling; Pan, Zhihua; An, Pingli; Pan, Xuebiao; Zhao, Peiyi

    2013-08-01

    Climate change has substantially impacted crop growth and development in the northern agro-pastoral transitional zone. Examination of the response of crop water consumption to climate change may provide a guide for adapting local agricultural production and ecological construction to new realities. The water consumption of three local crops (wheat, naked oats, and potatoes) is examined for Wuchuan County in the northern agro-pastoral transitional zone of China using meteorological data from 1960 to 2007 and soil moisture data from 1983 to 2007. The relationships between climate change and the crop water consumption are discussed. The results show that Wuchuan experienced both a warming trend and a reduction of precipitation between 1960 and 2007. The annual mean surface air temperature increased at a rate of 0.04°C yr-1 and the annual precipitation decreased at a rate of 0.7 mm yr-1. Both trends are particularly pronounced between 1983 and 2007, with an increase in annual mean temperature of 0.09°C yr-1 and a decrease in annual mean precipitation of 2.1 mm yr-1. Crop water consumption decreased between 1983 and 2007 for wheat (1.65 mm yr-1), naked oats (2.04 mm yr-1), and potatoes (3.85 mm yr-1). Potatoes and naked oats consume more water than wheat. Climate change has significantly impacted crop water consumption. Water consumption and rainfall during the growing season are positively correlated, while water consumption and active accumulated temperature are negatively correlated. Compared to precipitation, accumulated temperature has little impact on crop water consumption. Recent climate change has been detrimental for crop production in Wuchuan County. Adaptation to climate change should include efforts to breed drought-resistant crops and to develop drought-resistant cultivation techniques.

  14. Use of cryotherapy to eradicate pathogens from horticultural crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryotherapy is a method by which pathogens are eliminated from infected plant materials through the process of exposing the shoot tips to cryogenic temperatures and then recovering them. It has been successfully implemented in potato, sweet potato, grapevine, raspberry, Prunus, and other fruit crops...

  15. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Chetty, Venkateswari J; Narváez-Vásquez, Javier; Orozco-Cárdenas, Martha L

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is the most common method for the incorporation of foreign genes into the genome of potato as well as many other species in the Solanaceae family. This chapter describes protocols for the genetic transformation of three species of potato: Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum (Desiréé), S. tuberosum subsp. andigenum (Blue potato), and S. tuberosum subsp. andigena using internodal segments as explants.

  16. Coupling a land surface model with a crop growth model to improve ET flux estimations in the Upper Ganges basin, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsarouchi, G. M.; Buytaert, W.; Mijic, A.

    2014-06-01

    Land surface models are tools that represent energy and water flux exchanges between land and the atmosphere. Although much progress has been made in adding detailed physical processes into these models, there is much room left for improved estimates of evapotranspiration fluxes, by including a more reasonable and accurate representation of crop dynamics. Recent studies suggest a strong land surface-atmosphere coupling over India and since this is one of the most intensively cultivated areas in the world, the strong impact of crops on the evaporative flux cannot be neglected. In this study we dynamically couple the land surface model JULES with the crop growth model InfoCrop. JULES in its current version does not simulate crop growth. Instead, it treats crops as natural grass, while using prescribed vegetation parameters. Such simplification might lead to modelling errors. Therefore we developed a coupled modelling scheme that simulates dynamically crop development and parameterised it for the two main crops of the study area, wheat and rice. This setup is used to examine the impact of inter-seasonal land cover changes in evapotranspiration fluxes of the Upper Ganges river basin (India). The sensitivity of JULES with regard to the dynamics of the vegetation cover is evaluated. Our results show that the model is sensitive to the changes introduced after coupling it with the crop model. Evapotranspiration fluxes, which are significantly different between the original and the coupled model, are giving an approximation of the magnitude of error to be expected in LSMs that do not include dynamic crop growth. For the wet season, in the original model, the monthly Mean Error ranges from 7.5 to 24.4 mm m-1, depending on different precipitation forcing. For the same season, in the coupled model, the monthly Mean Error's range is reduced to 7-14 mm m-1. For the dry season, in the original model, the monthly Mean Error ranges from 10 to 17 mm m-1, depending on different

  17. Coupling a land-surface model with a crop growth model to improve ET flux estimations in the Upper Ganges basin, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsarouchi, G. M.; Buytaert, W.; Mijic, A.

    2014-10-01

    Land-Surface Models (LSMs) are tools that represent energy and water flux exchanges between land and the atmosphere. Although much progress has been made in adding detailed physical processes into these models, there is much room left for improved estimates of evapotranspiration fluxes, by including a more reasonable and accurate representation of crop dynamics. Recent studies suggest a strong land-surface-atmosphere coupling over India and since this is one of the most intensively cultivated areas in the world, the strong impact of crops on the evaporative flux cannot be neglected. In this study we dynamically couple the LSM JULES with the crop growth model InfoCrop. JULES in its current version (v3.4) does not simulate crop growth. Instead, it treats crops as natural grass, while using prescribed vegetation parameters. Such simplification might lead to modelling errors. Therefore we developed a coupled modelling scheme that simulates dynamically crop development and parametrized it for the two main crops of the study area, wheat and rice. This setup is used to examine the impact of inter-seasonal land cover changes in evapotranspiration fluxes of the Upper Ganges River basin (India). The sensitivity of JULES with regard to the dynamics of the vegetation cover is evaluated. Our results show that the model is sensitive to the changes introduced after coupling it with the crop model. Evapotranspiration fluxes, which are significantly different between the original and the coupled model, are giving an approximation of the magnitude of error to be expected in LSMs that do not include dynamic crop growth. For the wet season, in the original model, the monthly Mean Error ranges from 7.5 to 24.4 mm month-1, depending on different precipitation forcing. For the same season, in the coupled model, the monthly Mean Error's range is reduced to 5.4-11.6 mm month-1. For the dry season, in the original model, the monthly Mean Error ranges from 10 to 17 mm month-1, depending on

  18. Possible utilization of flue-gas desulfurization gypsum and fly ash for citrus production: Evaluation of crop growth response

    SciTech Connect

    Alva, A.K. . Citrus Research and Education Center)

    1994-01-01

    The application of industrial by-products to agricultural land has been a topic of considerable interest during recent years. For the industries, this is an attractive avenue to utilize the by-products rather than land filling. Agriculturists/horticulturists are faced with a new challenge to evaluate the potential advantages of this practice in terms of crop growth, production, and quality as well as effects of such practices on environmental quality. Fly ash and flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum are by-products produced from coal-fired electric power generation plants. There is a growing interest in evaluation of potential benefits of land application of coal combustion by products mixed with organic by-products. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of application of FGD gypsum, fly ash or chicken manure,, or application of the former two in combination with the latter, on soil properties as well as on growth and mineral nutrition of Cleopatra mandarin and Swingle citrumelo rootstock seedlings grown on a Myakka sand. The growth of seedlings of either rootstock improved significantly in soils amended with either FGD gypsum, fly ash, or chicken manure, individually or in combination of either by-product with chicken manure. However, the ranking of various amendments in relation to growth response differed between the two rootstocks. The combined application of all three amendments decreased the growth of both rootstock seedlings significantly as compared to that of seedlings in unamended soil. The application of either FGD gypsum, fly ash, or chicken manure each at 2 g/kg soil increased the concentration of Ca, Ca and K, and Ca and P in the leaves of seedlings, respectively.

  19. The growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant defense responses of five vegetable crops to phenanthrene stress.

    PubMed

    Ahammed, Golam Jalal; Wang, Meng-Meng; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Xia, Xiao-Jian; Mao, Wei-Hua; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jing-Quan

    2012-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are global environmental problem. To better understand the growth and physiological responses to atmospheric PAHs, we investigated biomass, photosynthetic machinery and antioxidant system in pakchoi, cucumber, flowering chinese cabbage, tomato and lettuce under various levels of phenanthrene (PHE) stress. Foliar exposure to PHE for 14d resulted in a dose dependent decrease in growth, photosynthesis and chlorophyll contents. With few exceptions, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, guaicol peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase) were upregulated following exposure to PHE. Dose dependent increase in malondialdehyde contents together with H(2)O(2) accumulation suggested an occurrence of oxidative stress following PHE exposure. However, to some extent, growth and antioxidant defense responses differ from species to species. Difference in defense capacity might result in different tolerance and phytotoxicity among the studied vegetables. Taken together, phytotoxicity of PHE to five vegetables could be sequenced in the following order: pakchoi>cucumber>lettuce>tomato>flowering chinese cabbage.

  20. A photorespiratory bypass increases plant growth and seed yield in biofuel crop Camelina sativa

    DOE PAGES

    Dalal, Jyoti; Lopez, Harry; Vasani, Naresh B.; ...

    2015-10-29

    Camelina sativa is an oilseed crop with great potential for biofuel production on marginal land. The seed oil from camelina has been converted to jet fuel and improved fuel efficiency in commercial and military test flights. Hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel from camelina is environmentally superior to that from canola due to lower agricultural inputs, and the seed meal is FDA approved for animal consumption. However, relatively low yield makes its farming less profitable. Our study is aimed at increasing camelina seed yield by reducing carbon loss from photorespiration via a photorespiratory bypass. Genes encoding three enzymes of the Escherichia coli glycolatemore » catabolic pathway were introduced: glycolate dehydrogenase (GDH), glyoxylate carboxyligase (GCL) and tartronic semialdehyde reductase (TSR). These enzymes compete for the photorespiratory substrate, glycolate, convert it to glycerate within the chloroplasts, and reduce photorespiration. As a by-product of the reaction, CO2 is released in the chloroplast, which increases photosynthesis. Camelina plants were transformed with either partial bypass (GDH), or full bypass (GDH, GCL and TSR) genes. Furthermore, transgenic plants were evaluated for physiological and metabolic traits.« less

  1. Growth and yield responses of crops and macronutrient balance influenced by commercial organic manure used as a partial substitute for chemical fertilizers in an intensive vegetable cropping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, H. J.; Ye, Z. Q.; Zhang, X. L.; Lin, X. Y.; Ni, W. Z.

    A long-term field experiment was conducted with an annual rotation of tomato-radish-pakchoi to assess the effects of a commercial organic manure (COM) used as a partial substitute for chemical fertilizers on crop yield and nutrient balance in an intensive vegetable cropping system. Four treatments as chemical fertilizers (T1), chemical fertilizers + lower rate of COM (T2), chemical fertilizers + medium rate of COM (T3), and chemical fertilizers + high rate of COM (T4) were designed in the present experiment. The supplied doses of N, P, and K were equal for all treatments. Results showed that there were no significant differences in shoot biomass and market yields of tomato, radish and pakchoi among treatments ( P > 0.05). It was found that positive P and K balance existed in the tomato-radish-pakchoi cropping system of all treatments. Compared with no manure treatment (T1), application of medium rate of COM (T3) decreased N, P runoff losses, increased N, P, K contents in crop tissues except N, P in pakchoi shoot, and lessened P, K accumulation in soils, accordingly, improved the efficiency of macronutrient. It was concluded that appropriate COM used as a partial substitute for chemical fertilizers could not only meet the crops’ nutrient requirement, but also improved the efficiency of macronutrient and remained positive balance of P and K in the intensive tomato-radish-pakchoi cropping system, which can be regarded as an effective measure for a contribution towards sustainable agriculture and a control pathway for reducing the potential risk of castoff to water environment.

  2. Assessment of crop growth and soil water modules in SWAT2000 using extensive field experiment data in an irrigation district of the Yellow River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luo, Y.; He, C.; Sophocleous, M.; Yin, Z.; Hongrui, R.; Ouyang, Z.

    2008-01-01

    SWAT, a physically-based, hydrological model simulates crop growth, soil water and groundwater movement, and transport of sediment and nutrients at both the process and watershed scales. While the different versions of SWAT have been widely used throughout the world for agricultural and water resources applications, little has been done to test the performance, variability, and transferability of the parameters in the crop growth, soil water, and groundwater modules in an integrated way with multiple sets of field experimental data at the process scale. Using an multiple years of field experimental data of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the irrigation district of the Yellow River Basin, this paper assesses the performance of the plant-soil-groundwater modules and the variability and transferability of SWAT2000. Comparison of the simulated results by SWAT to the observations showed that SWAT performed quite unsatisfactorily in LAI predictions during the senescence stage, in yield predictions, and in soil-water estimation under dry soil-profile conditions. The unsatisfactory performance in LAI prediction might be attributed to over-simplified senescence modeling; in yield prediction to the improper computation of the harvest index; and in soil water under dry conditions to the exclusion of groundwater evaporation from the soil water balance in SWAT. In this paper, improvements in crop growth, soil water, and groundwater modules in SWAT were implemented. The saturated soil profile was coupled to the oscillating groundwater table. A variable evaporation coefficient taking into account soil water deficit index, groundwater depth, and crop root depth was used to replace the fixed coefficient in computing groundwater evaporation. The soil water balance included the groundwater evaporation. The modifications improved simulations of crop evapotranspiration and biomass as well as soil water dynamics under dry soil-profile conditions. The evaluation shows that the

  3. Effect of crop development on biogenic emissions from plant populations grown in closed plant growth chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batten, J. H.; Stutte, G. W.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1995-01-01

    The Biomass Production Chamber at John F. Kennedy Space Center is a closed plant growth chamber facility that can be used to monitor the level of biogenic emissions from large populations of plants throughout their entire growth cycle. The head space atmosphere of a 26-day-old lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. Waldmann's Green) stand was repeatedly sampled and emissions identified and quantified using GC-mass spectrometry. Concentrations of dimethyl sulphide, carbon disulphide, alpha-pinene, furan and 2-methylfuran were not significantly different throughout the day; whereas, isoprene showed significant differences in concentration between samples collected in light and dark periods. Volatile organic compounds from the atmosphere of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Yecora Rojo) were analysed and quantified from planting to maturity. Volatile plant-derived compounds included 1-butanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, nonanal, benzaldehyde, tetramethylurea, tetramethylthiourea, 2-methylfuran and 3-methylfuran. Concentrations of volatiles were determined during seedling establishment, vegetative growth, anthesis, grain fill and senescence and found to vary depending on the developmental stage. Atmospheric concentrations of benzaldehyde and nonanal were highest during anthesis, 2-methylfuran and 3-methylfuran concentrations were greatest during grain fill, and the concentration of the tetramethylurea peaked during senescence.

  4. Effects of modified atmosphere on crop productivity and mineral content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagvardieff, P.; Dimon, B.; Souleimanov, A.; Massimino, D.; Le Bras, S.; Péan, M.; Louche-Teissandier, D.

    1997-01-01

    Wheat, potato, pea and tomato crops were cultivated from seeding to harvest in a controlled and confined growth chamber at elevated CO_2 concentration (3700 muL.L^-1) to examine the effects on biomass production and edible part yields. Different responses to high CO_2 were recorded, ranging from a decline in productivity for wheat, to slight stimulation for potatoes, moderate increase for tomatoes, and very large enhancement for pea. Mineral content in wheat and pea seeds was not greatly modified by the elevated CO_2. Short-term experiments (17 d) were conducted on potato at high (3700 muL.L^-1) and very high (20,000 muL.L^-1) CO_2 concentration and/or low O_2 partial pressure (~ 20,600 muL.L^-1 or 2 kPa). Low O_2 was more effective than high CO_2 in total biomass accumulation, but development was affected: Low O_2 inhibited tuberization, while high CO_2 significantly increased production of tubers.

  5. Very high resolution crop surface models (CSMs) from UAV-based stereo images for rice growth monitoring In Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendig, J.; Willkomm, M.; Tilly, N.; Gnyp, M. L.; Bennertz, S.; Qiang, C.; Miao, Y.; Lenz-Wiedemann, V. I. S.; Bareth, G.

    2013-08-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) became popular platforms for the collection of remotely sensed geodata in the last years (Hardin & Jensen 2011). Various applications in numerous fields of research like archaeology (Hendrickx et al., 2011), forestry or geomorphology evolved (Martinsanz, 2012). This contribution deals with the generation of multi-temporal crop surface models (CSMs) with very high resolution by means of low-cost equipment. The concept of the generation of multi-temporal CSMs using Terrestrial Laserscanning (TLS) has already been introduced by Hoffmeister et al. (2010). For this study, data acquisition was performed with a low-cost and low-weight Mini-UAV (< 5 kg). UAVs in general and especially smaller ones, like the system presented here, close a gap in small scale remote sensing (Berni et al., 2009; Watts et al., 2012). In precision agriculture frequent remote sensing on such scales during the vegetation period provides important spatial information on the crop status. Crop growth variability can be detected by comparison of the CSMs in different phenological stages. Here, the focus is on the detection of this variability and its dependency on cultivar and plant treatment. The method has been tested for data acquired on a barley experiment field in Germany. In this contribution, it is applied to a different crop in a different environment. The study area is an experiment field for rice in Northeast China (Sanjiang Plain). Three replications of the cultivars Kongyu131 and Longjing21 were planted in plots that were treated with different amounts of N-fertilizer. In July 2012 three UAV-campaigns were carried out. Establishment of ground control points (GCPs) allowed for ground truth. Additionally, further destructive and non-destructive field data were collected. The UAV-system is an MK-Okto by Hisystems (http://www.mikrokopter.de) which was equipped with the high resolution Panasonic Lumix GF3 12

  6. Effect of length of interval between cereal rye cover crop termination and corn planting on seedling root disease and corn growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cereal rye cover crops terminated immediately before corn planting can sometimes reduce corn population, early growth, and yield. We hypothesized that cereal rye may act as a green bridge for corn pathogens and may increase corn seedling root disease. A field experiment was conducted over two years ...

  7. Neonicotinoids as seed potato treatments to control wireworms.

    PubMed

    Huiting, H F; Ester, A

    2009-01-01

    A series of field trials were carried out from 2000 to 2003. Neonicotinoid insecticides applied as seed potato treatments at planting were tested to control wireworms in potato crops. Compounds were applied as drench or spray. Neonicotinoids tested were imidacloprid at rates of 35, 70, 88, and 175 g a.i.; thiamethoxam at 17.5, 35, 50, 70, and 140 g a.i.; and thiacloprid at 72 and 144 g a.i. per metric ton seed potatoes. Treatment with imidacloprid at 70 g/ton seed and thiamethoxam at 50 g/ton seed showed significant control of wireworms at harvest but thiacloprid showed insufficient protection. No phytotoxicity was recorded at harvest. Prospects and benefits of seed potato treatments with neonicotinoids are discussed, including lowering of the amount of insecticide needed for adequate protection.

  8. Using remote sensing satellite data and artificial neural network for prediction of potato yield in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhand, Kawsar; Nizamuddin, Mohammad; Roytman, Leonid; Kogan, Felix

    2016-09-01

    Potato is one of the staple foods and cash crops in Bangladesh. It is widely cultivated in all of the districts and ranks second after rice in production. Bangladesh is the fourth largest potato producer in Asia and is among the world's top 15 potato producing countries. The weather condition for potato cultivation is favorable during the sowing, growing and harvesting period. It is a winter crop and is cultivated during the period of November to March. Bangladesh is mainly an agricultural based country with respect to agriculture's contribution to GDP, employment and consumption. Potato is a prominent crop in consideration of production, its internal demand and economic value. Bangladesh has a big economic activities related to potato cultivation and marketing, especially the economic relations among farmers, traders, stockers and cold storage owners. Potato yield prediction before harvest is an important issue for the Government and the stakeholders in managing and controlling the potato market. Advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) based satellite data product vegetation health indices VCI (vegetation condition index) and TCI (temperature condition index) are used as predictors for early prediction. Artificial neural network (ANN) is used to develop a prediction model. The simulated result from this model is encouraging and the error of prediction is less than 10%.

  9. Hybrid origins of cultivated potatoes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Flor; Ghislain, Marc; Clausen, Andrea M; Jansky, Shelley H; Spooner, David M

    2010-10-01

    Solanum section Petota is taxonomically difficult, partly because of interspecific hybridization at both the diploid and polyploid levels. The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes is particularly controversial. Using DNA sequence data of the waxy gene, we here infer relationships among the four species of cultivated potatoes accepted in the latest taxonomic treatment (S. ajanhuiri, S. curtilobum, S. juzepczukii and S. tuberosum, the latter divided into the Andigenum and Chilotanum Cultivar Groups). The data support prior ideas of hybrid origins of S. ajanhuiri from the S. tuberosum Andigenum Group (2x = S. stenotomum) × S. megistacrolobum; S. juzepczukii from the S. tuberosum Andigenum Group (2x = S. stenotomum) × S. acaule; and S. curtilobum from the S. tuberosum Andigenum Group (4x = S. tuberosum subsp. andigenum) × S. juzepczukii. For the tetraploid cultivar-groups of S. tuberosum, hybrid origins are suggested entirely within much more closely related species, except for two of three examined accessions of the S. tuberosum Chilotanum Group that appear to have hybridized with the wild species S. maglia. Hybrid origins of the crop/weed species S. sucrense are more difficult to support and S. vernei is not supported as a wild species progenitor of the S. tuberosum Andigenum Group.

  10. Impacts of crop rotation and irrigation on soilborne diseases and soil microbial communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop rotation provides numerous benefits to crop production, and is essential to reduce the build-up of soilborne plant pathogens and diseases that can devastate potato crops grown in multiple consecutive years. Crop rotations can reduce soilborne diseases through a variety of mechanisms, including ...

  11. Drilling fluid effects on crop growth and iron and zinc availability

    SciTech Connect

    Bauder, T.A.; Barbarick, K.A.; Ayers, P.D.; Chapman, P.L.; Shanahan, J.F.

    1999-05-01

    Waste drilling fluids are often land-farmed following completion of an oil or gas well in Colorado. This material usually contains production water, bentonitic clays, formation cuttings, barite, Na compounds, and synthetic organic polymers. The authors investigated the effects of 5 to 60 dry g drilling fluid kg{sup {minus}1} soil on the growth and trace metal concentration of sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench DeKalb ST-6-S sudanense) in the greenhouse. A nonlinear regression exponential-rise model fit the increased plant total dry matter yield response to increasing drilling fluid rates. Increased plant tissue Fe concentration and uptake indicated that increased plant-available Fe was primarily responsible for the yield response, but increased Zn availability was also suspected. Results from a second greenhouse study confirmed that drilling fluid can also correct Zn deficiency in corn (Zea mays L.). Soil SAR (sodium adsorption ratio) was higher with increasing drilling fluid, but was still < 1. Other trace-element concentrations in sudangrass tissue and soil pH and EC{sub sat} were not significantly increased due to application of drilling fluid. This study showed that application of controlled rates of water-based drilling fluid from operations in Weld County, Colorado, was beneficial to the growth of sorghum-sudangrass and provided evidence that land application is an acceptable method of disposal.

  12. Enhancement of drought stress tolerance in crops by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.

    PubMed

    Vurukonda, Sai Shiva Krishna Prasad; Vardharajula, Sandhya; Shrivastava, Manjari; SkZ, Ali

    2016-03-01

    Drought is one of the major constraints on agricultural productivity worldwide and is likely to further increase. Several adaptations and mitigation strategies are required to cope with drought stress. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) could play a significant role in alleviation of drought stress in plants. These beneficial microorganisms colonize the rhizosphere/endo-rhizosphere of plants and impart drought tolerance by producing exopolysaccharides (EPS), phytohormones, 1-aminocyclopropane- 1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, volatile compounds, inducing accumulation of osmolytes, antioxidants, upregulation or down regulation of stress responsive genes and alteration in root morphology in acquisition of drought tolerance. The term Induced Systemic Tolerance (IST) was coined for physical and chemical changes induced by microorganisms in plants which results in enhanced tolerance to drought stresses. In the present review we elaborate on the role of PGPR in helping plants to cope with drought stress.

  13. Genetic variation for potato tuber micronutrient content and implications for biofortification of potatoes to reduce micronutrient malnutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Micronutrients are crucial to healthy growth and development, yet a large proportion of the world’s population suffers from micronutrient deficiencies. Biofortification of staple foods has tremendous potential to alleviate these deficiencies. Potato production in developing countries is increasing...

  14. Examining the impact of climate change and variability on sweet potatoes in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ddumba, S. D.; Andresen, J.; Moore, N. J.; Olson, J.; Snapp, S.; Winkler, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is one of the biggest challenges to food security for the rapidly increasing population of East Africa. Rainfall is becoming more variable and temperatures are rising, consequently leading to increased occurrence of droughts and floods, and, changes in the timing and length of growing seasons. These changes have serious implications on crop production with the greatest impact likely to be on C4 crops such as cereals compared to C3 crops such as root tubers. Sweet potatoes is one the four most important food crops in East Africa owing to its high nutrition and calorie content, and, high tolerance to heat and drought, but little is known about how the crop will be affected by climate change. This study identifies the major climatic constraints to sweet potato production and examines the impact of projected future climates on sweet potato production in East Africa during the next 10 to 30 years. A process-based Sweet POTato COMputer Simulation (SPOTCOMS) model is used to assess four sweet potato cultivars; Naspot 1, Naspot 10, Naspot 11 and SPK 004-Ejumula. This is work in progress but preliminary results from the crop modeling experiments and the strength and weakness of the crop model will be presented.

  15. Evaluation of an anaerobic digestion system for processing CELSS crop residues for resource recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, R. F.; Finger, B. W.; Alazraki, M. P.

    1997-01-01

    Three bioreactors, connected in series, were used to process CELSS potato residues for recovery of resources. The first stage was an anaerobic digestor (8 L working volume; cow rumen contents inoculum; fed-batch; 8 day retention time; feed rate 25 gdw day^-1) that converted 33% of feed (dry weight loss) to CO_2 and ``volatile fatty acids'' (vfa, 83:8:8 mmolar ratio acetic:propionic:butyric). High nitrate-N in the potato residue feed was absent in the anaerobic effluent, with a high portion converted to NH_4^+-N and the remainder unaccounted and probably lost to denitrification and NH_4^+ volatilization. Liquid anaerobic effluent was fed to an aerobic, yeast biomass production vessel (2 L volume; Candida ingens inoculum; batch [pellicle] growth; 2 day retention time) where the VFAs and some NH_4^+-N were converted into yeast biomass. Yeast yields accounted for up to 8% of potato residue fed into the anaerobic bioreactor. The third bioreactor (0.5 L liquid working volume; commercial nitrifier inoculum; packed-bed biofilm; continuous yeast effluent feed; recirculating; constant volume; 2 day hydraulic retention time) was used to convert successfully the remaining NH_4^+-N into nitrate-N (preferred form of N for CELSS crop production) and to remove the remaining degradable soluble organic carbon. Effluents from the last two stages were used for partial replenishment of minerals for hydroponic potato production.

  16. Evaluation of an Anaerobic Digestion System for Processing CELSS Crop Residues for Resource Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strayer, R. F.; Finger, B. W.; Alazraki, M. P.

    1997-01-01

    Three bioreactors, connected in series, were used to process CELSS potato residues for recovery of resources. The first stage was an anaerobic digestor (8 L working volume; cow rumen contents inoculum; fed-batch; 8 day retention time; feed rate 25 gdw/day) that converted 33% of feed (dry weight loss) to CO2 and "volatile fatty acids" (vfa, 83:8:8 mmolar ratio acetic:propionic:butyric). High nitrate-N in the potato residue feed was absent in the anaerobic effluent, with a high portion converted to NH4(+)-N and the remainder unaccounted and probably lost to denitrification and NH4(+) volatilization. Liquid anaerobic effluent was fed to an aerobic, yeast biomass production vessel (2 L volume; Candida ingens inoculum; batch [pellicle] growth; 2 day retention time) where the VFAs and some NH4(+)-N were converted into yeast biomass. Yeast yields accounted for up to 8% of potato residue fed into the anaerobic bioreactor. The third bioreactor (0.5 L liquid working volume; commercial nitrifier inoculum; packed-bed biofilm; continuous yeast effluent feed; recirculating; constant volume; 2 day hydraulic retention time) was used to convert successfully the remaining NH4(+)-N into nitrate-N (preferred form of N for CELSS crop production) and to remove the remaining degradable soluble organic carbon. Effluents from the last two stages were used for partial replenishment of minerals for hydroponic potato production.

  17. Characterization of the water soluble component of inedible residue from candidate CELSS crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garland, Jay

    1992-01-01

    Recycling of inorganic nutrients required for plant growth will be a necessary component of a fully closed, bioregenerative life support system. This research characterized the recovery of plant nutrients from the inedible fraction of three crop types (wheat, potato, and soybean) by soaking, or leaching, in water. A considerable portion of the dry weight of the inedible biomass was readily soluble (29 percent for soybean, 43 percent for wheat, and 52 percent for potato). Greater weight loss from potato was a result of higher tissue concentrations of potassium, nitrate, and phosphate. Approximately 25 percent of the organic content of the biomass was water soluble, while the majority of most inorganic nutrients, except for calcium and iron, were recovered in the leachate. Direct use of the leachates in hydroponic media could provide between 40-90 percent of plant nutrient demands for wheat, and 20-50 percent of demand for soybean and potato. Further evaluation of leaching as a component of resource recovery scheme in a bioregenerative system requires study of (1) utilization of plant leachates in hydroponic plant culture; and (2) conversion of organic material (both soluble and insoluble) into edible, or other useful, products.

  18. Genetic and cultural management solutions to improve potato storage quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato storage quality is most easily described in terms of tuber attributes that maintain the value of the harvested crop. Among these attributes are attractive appearance, low shrink, low incidence of bruising and, for chip and fry processing varieties, specific gravity and reducing sugars appropr...

  19. Potato model uncertainty across common datasets and varying climate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A potato crop multi-model assessment was conducted to quantify variation among models and evaluate responses to climate change. Nine modeling groups simulated agronomic and climatic responses at low- (Chinoli, Bolivia and Gisozi, Burundi) and high- (Jyndevad, Denmark and Washington, United States) ...

  20. Transmission of Sweet Potato Leaf Curl Virus by Bemisia tabaci

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. (Solanales: Convolvulaceae), is an important world food crop, and Asia is the focal production region. Because it is vegetatively propagated, sweetpotato is especially prone to accumulate infections by several viruses. Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) (ss...

  1. The method for detecting biological parameter of rice growth and early planting of paddy crop by using multi temporal remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domiri, D. D.

    2017-01-01

    Rice crop is the most important food crop for the Asian population, especially in Indonesia. During the growth of rice plants have four main phases, namely the early planting or inundation phase, the vegetative phase, the generative phase, and bare land phase. Monitoring the condition of the rice plant needs to be conducted in order to know whether the rice plants have problems or not in its growth. Application of remote sensing technology, which uses satellite data such as Landsat 8 and others which has a spatial and temporal resolution is high enough for monitoring the condition of crops such as paddy crop in a large area. In this study has been made an algorithm for monitoring rapidly of rice growth condition using Maximum of Vegetation Index (EVI Max). The results showed that the time of early planting can be estimated if known when EVI Max occurred. The value of EVI Max and when it occured can be known by trough spatial analysis of multitemporal EVI Landsat 8 or other medium spatial resolution satellites.

  2. [Establishment of The Crop Growth and Nitrogen Nutrition State Model Using Spectral Parameters Canopy Cover].

    PubMed

    Tao, Zhi-Qiang; Bagum, Shamim Ara; Ma, Wei; Zhou, Bao-yuan; Fu, Jin-dong; Cui, Ri-xian; Sun, Xue-fang; Zhao, Ming

    2016-01-01

    In order to explore a non-destructive monitoring technique, the use of digital photo pixels canopy cover (CC) diagnosis and prediction on maize growth and its nitrogen nutrition status. This study through maize canopy digital photo images on relationship between color index in the photo and the leaf area index (LAI), shoot dry matter weight (DM), leaf nitrogen content percentage (N%). The test conducted in the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science from 2012 to 2013, based on Maize canopy Visual Image Analysis System developed by Visual Basic Version 6.0, analyzed the correlation of CC, color indices, LAI, DM, N% on maize varieties (Zhongdan909, ZD 909) under three nitrogen levels treatments, furthermore the indicators significantly correlated were fitted with modeling, The results showed that CC had a highly significant correlation with LAI (r = 0.93, p < 0.01), DM (r = 0. 94, p < 0.01), N% (r = 0.82, p < 0.01). Estimating the model of LAI, DM and N% by CC were all power function, and the equation respectively were y = 3.281 2x(0.763 9), y = 283.658 1x(0.553 6) and y = 3.064 5x(0.932 9); using independent data from modeling for model validation indicated that R2, RMSE and RE based on 1 : 1 line relationship between measured values and simulated values in the model of CC estimating LAI were 0.996, 0.035 and 1.46%; R2, RMSE and RE in the model of CC estimating DM were 0.978, 5.408 g and 2.43%; R2, RMSE and RE in the model of CC estimating N% were 0.990, 0.054 and 2.62%. In summary, the model can comparatively accurately estimate the LAI, DM and N% by CC under different nitrogen levels at maize grain filling stage, indicating that it is feasible to apply digital camera on real-time undamaged rapid monitoring and prediction for maize growth conditions and its nitrogen nutrition status. This research finding is to be verified in the field experiment, and further analyze the applicability throughout the growing period in other maize varieties and different planting

  3. Dissecting the Phenotypic Components of Crop Plant Growth and Drought Responses Based on High-Throughput Image Analysis[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dijun; Neumann, Kerstin; Friedel, Swetlana; Kilian, Benjamin; Chen, Ming; Altmann, Thomas; Klukas, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Significantly improved crop varieties are urgently needed to feed the rapidly growing human population under changing climates. While genome sequence information and excellent genomic tools are in place for major crop species, the systematic quantification of phenotypic traits or components thereof in a high-throughput fashion remains an enormous challenge. In order to help bridge the genotype to phenotype gap, we developed a comprehensive framework for high-throughput phenotype data analysis in plants, which enables the extraction of an extensive list of phenotypic traits from nondestructive plant imaging over time. As a proof of concept, we investigated the phenotypic components of the drought responses of 18 different barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivars during vegetative growth. We analyzed dynamic properties of trait expression over growth time based on 54 representative phenotypic features. The data are highly valuable to understand plant development and to further quantify growth and crop performance features. We tested various growth models to predict plant biomass accumulation and identified several relevant parameters that support biological interpretation of plant growth and stress tolerance. These image-based traits and model-derived parameters are promising for subsequent genetic mapping to uncover the genetic basis of complex agronomic traits. Taken together, we anticipate that the analytical framework and analysis results presented here will be useful to advance our views of phenotypic trait components underlying plant development and their responses to environmental cues. PMID:25501589

  4. Plants for space plantations. [crops for closed life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikishanova, T. I.

    1978-01-01

    Criteria for selection of candidate crops for closed life support systems are presented and discussed, and desired characteristics of candidate higher plant crops are given. Carbohydrate crops, which are most suitable, grown worldwide are listed and discussed. The sweet potato, ipomoea batatas Poir., is shown to meet the criteria to the greatest degree, and the criteria are recommended as suitable for initial evaluation of candidate higher plant crops for such systems.

  5. Effects of Potassium Mineral Fertilization on Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield on a Chernozem Soil in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    and has a particularly high requirement for potassium. Tubers remove 1.5 times more potassium than nitrogen and 4 or 5 times the amount of phosphate. The quantity of nutrients taken up by a crop is not necessarily an indication of responsiveness to fertilizers but potato, because its root system is relativly poorly developed in relation to yield is extremly responsive to all nutrients (Márton 1984). As potato is such a demanding crop, it is particularly important that the potassium fertilizers used should be correctly balanced (Burton 1966). Applying the adequate quantity of balanced K- fertilizer is the first requirement for achieving optimum yield and doing so will result in potatoes of acceptable quality (Márton 2000). It is not the objective of present publication to give recommendations K- fertilizers which vary greatly according to local conditions. We intend to discuss various aspects of potassium effects on the basis of our research results. The importance of potatoes In terms of area planted, potato is the twelfth most important crop in all the world (18.48 million hectares) by FAO in 1995. In terms of total production it occupies the 5th position with 280 million t, between maize (515 mio) and sugar beet (266 mio). It is a high yielding crop. The world average being 15.1 t/ha, the third highest yielding crop on the bases of fresh matter following sugar cane (62.6 t/ha) and sugar beet (33.9 t/ha). Area planted, production and yield (1981 and 1995) Between 1981 and 1995 the total world area planted declined by 18%. While the importance of the crop declined more or less markedly in Europe, and in N. and C. America, there has been an increase in S. America (Márton 1999). The area planted in Asia has more than doubled and in Africa tripled. Despite of the reduction in area, world production has actually increased by 13% in the same period. This increase in production is due to a general 37% growth in yield from 11 to 15.1 t/ha. The potential yields of

  6. Physiological, biochemical and molecular responses of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plant to moderately elevated temperature.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Robert D; Morris, Wayne L; Ducreux, Laurence J M; Morris, Jenny A; Usman, Muhammad; Verrall, Susan R; Fuller, John; Simpson, Craig G; Zhang, Runxuan; Hedley, Pete E; Taylor, Mark A

    2014-02-01

    Although significant work has been undertaken regarding the response of model and crop plants to heat shock during the acclimatory phase, few studies have examined the steady-state response to the mild heat stress encountered in temperate agriculture. In the present work, we therefore exposed tuberizing potato plants to mildly elevated temperatures (30/20 °C, day/night) for up to 5 weeks and compared tuber yield, physiological and biochemical responses, and leaf and tuber metabolomes and transcriptomes with plants grown under optimal conditions (22/16 °C). Growth at elevated temperature reduced tuber yield despite an increase in net foliar photosynthesis. This was associated with major shifts in leaf and tuber metabolite profiles, a significant decrease in leaf glutathione redox state and decreased starch synthesis in tubers. Furthermore, growth at elevated temperature had a profound impact on leaf and tuber transcript expression with large numbers of transcripts displaying a rhythmic oscillation at the higher growth temperature. RT-PCR revealed perturbation in the expression of circadian clock transcripts including StSP6A, previously identified as a tuberization signal. Our data indicate that potato plants grown at moderately elevated temperatures do not exhibit classic symptoms of abiotic stress but that tuber development responds via a diversity of biochemical and molecular signals.

  7. Improving root-zone soil moisture estimations using dynamic root growth and crop phenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemian, Minoo; Ryu, Dongryeol; Crow, Wade T.; Kustas, William P.

    2015-12-01

    Water Energy Balance (WEB) Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer (SVAT) modelling can be used to estimate soil moisture by forcing the model with observed data such as precipitation and solar radiation. Recently, an innovative approach that assimilates remotely sensed thermal infrared (TIR) observations into WEB-SVAT to improve the results has been proposed. However, the efficacy of the model-observation integration relies on the model's realistic representation of soil water processes. Here, we explore methods to improve the soil water processes of a simple WEB-SVAT model by adopting and incorporating an exponential root water uptake model with water stress compensation and establishing a more appropriate soil-biophysical linkage between root-zone moisture content, above-ground states and biophysical indices. The existing WEB-SVAT model is extended to a new Multi-layer WEB-SVAT with Dynamic Root distribution (MWSDR) that has five soil layers. Impacts of plant root depth variations, growth stages and phenological cycle of the vegetation on transpiration are considered in developing stages. Hydrometeorological and biogeophysical measurements collected from two experimental sites, one in Dookie, Victoria, Australia and the other in Ponca, Oklahoma, USA, are used to validate the new model. Results demonstrate that MWSDR provides improved soil moisture, transpiration and evaporation predictions which, in turn, can provide an improved physical basis for assimilating remotely sensed data into the model. Results also show the importance of having an adequate representation of vegetation-related transpiration process for an appropriate simulation of water transfer in a complicated system of soil, plants and atmosphere.

  8. Nondestructive and rapid detection of potato black heart based on machine vision technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Fang; Peng, Yankun; Wei, Wensong

    2016-05-01

    Potatoes are one of the major food crops in the world. Potato black heart is a kind of defect that the surface is intact while the tissues in skin become black. This kind of potato has lost the edibleness, but it's difficult to be detected with conventional methods. A nondestructive detection system based on the machine vision technology was proposed in this study to distinguish the normal and black heart of potatoes according to the different transmittance of them. The detection system was equipped with a monochrome CCD camera, LED light sources for transmitted illumination and a computer. Firstly, the transmission images of normal and black heart potatoes were taken by the detection system. Then the images were processed by algorithm written with VC++. As the transmitted light intensity was influenced by the radial dimension of the potato samples, the relationship between the grayscale value and the potato radial dimension was acquired by analyzing the grayscale value changing rule of the transmission image. Then proper judging condition was confirmed to distinguish the normal and black heart of potatoes after image preprocessing. The results showed that the nondestructive system built coupled with the processing methods was accessible for the detection of potato black heart at a considerable accuracy rate. The transmission detection technique based on machine vision is nondestructive and feasible to realize the detection of potato black heart.

  9. Metabolic Biosynthesis of Potato (Solanum tuberosum l.) Antioxidants and Implications for Human Health.

    PubMed

    Lovat, Christie; Nassar, Atef M K; Kubow, Stan; Li, Xiu-Qing; Donnelly, Danielle J

    2016-10-25

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is common, affordable, readily stored, easily prepared for consumption, and nutritious. For these reasons, potato has become one of the top five crops consumed worldwide. Consequently, it is important to understand its contribution to both our daily and long-term health. Potato is one of the most important sources of antioxidants in the human diet. As such, it supports the antioxidant defense network in our bodies that reduces cellular and tissue toxicities that result from free radical-induced protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and DNA damage. In this way, potato antioxidants may reduce the risk for cancers, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and even radiation damage. A better understanding of these components of potato is needed by the food industry, health professionals, and consumers. This review provides referenced summaries of all of the antioxidant groups present in potato tubers and updated schematics including genetic regulation for the major antioxidant biosynthesis pathways. This review complements current knowledge on the role of potato in human health. We hope it will provide impetus toward breeding efforts to develop cultivars with increased antioxidant capacity as 'functional foods' and encourage potato consumers and processors to work toward preservation of antioxidant capacity in cooked potato and potato products.

  10. A land surface model combined with a crop growth model for paddy rice (MATCRO-Rice v. 1) - Part 2: Model validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masutomi, Yuji; Ono, Keisuke; Takimoto, Takahiro; Mano, Masayoshi; Maruyama, Atsushi; Miyata, Akira

    2016-11-01

    We conducted two types of validation for the simulations by MATCRO-Rice developed by Masutomi et al. (2016). In the first validation, we compared simulations with observations for latent heat flux (LHF), sensible heat flux (SHF), net carbon uptake by crop, and paddy rice yield from 2003 to 2006 at the site where model parameters are parameterized. In the second validation, we compared the observed and simulated paddy rice yields over Japan from 1991 to 2010 between observations and simulations. The 4-year average root mean square errors (RMSEs) of the first validation for LHF and SHF were 18.20 and 15.47 W m-2, respectively. These values for errors are comparable to those reported in earlier studies. The comparison of biomass growth during growing periods from 2003 to 2006 at the parameterization site shows that the simulations were in agreement with the observations, indicating that the model can reproduce the net carbon uptake by crops well. The 4-year average RMSE of the first validation for crop yield in the same period was 410.6 kg ha-1, which accounted for 8.1 % of the mean observed yields. The error of the second validation for crop yield was 16.7 % and the correlation of crop yields between observations and simulations from 1991 to 2010 was significant at 0.663 (P < 0.01). These results indicate that MATCRO-Rice has high ability to accurately and consistently simulate LHF, SHF, net carbon uptake by crop, and crop yield.

  11. Improved growth and nutrient status of an oat cover crop in sod-based versus conventional peanut-cotton rotations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) leaching from agricultural soils is a major concern in the southeastern USA. A winter cover crop following the summer crop rotation is essential for controlling N leaching and soil run-off, thereby improving sustainable development. Rotation of peanut (Arachis hypogea L.) and cotton (Go...

  12. Loci involved in domestication and improvement of cultivated potato as revealed through genotyping of two diversity panels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato is the world’s most important non-cereal food crop and is gaining importance in developing countries as a food source due to its high yield potential and adaptability. Cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a heterozygous autopolyploid (2n=4x=48) that was domesticated in the Andes from wild...

  13. Assessing the likelihood of transmission of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ to carrot by potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso) is a phloem-limited bacterium that severely affects important Solanaceae and Apiaceae crops, including potato, tomato, pepper, tobacco, carrot and celery. This bacterium is transmitted to solanaceous species by potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli, and ...

  14. Haplotypes of the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli, on the wild host plant, Solanum dulcamara, in the Pacific Northwestern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso) is a bacterium that infects solanaceous crops and causes plant decline and yield losses, especially in potato and tomato. Lso is transmitted to these hosts by the potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli Sulc.) vector. B. cockerelli host plants are not li...

  15. Utilization of potatoes for life support systems in space. III - Productivity at successive harvest dates under 12-h and 24-h photoperiods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Tibbitts, Theodore W.

    1987-01-01

    Efficient crop production for controlled ecological life support systems requires near-optimal growing conditions with harvests taken when production per unit area per unit time is maximum. This maximum for potato was determined using data on Norland plants which were grown in walk-in growth rooms under 12-h and 24-h photoperiods at 16 C. Results show that high tuber production can be obtained from potatoes grown under a continuous light regime. The dry weights (dwt) of tuber and of the entire plants were found to increase under both photoperiods until the final harvest date (148 days), reaching 5732 g tuber dwt and 704 g total dwt under 12-h, and 791 g tuber dwt and 972 g total dwt under 24-h.

  16. Crops Models for Varying Environmental Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry; Cavazzoni, James; Keas, Paul

    2001-01-01

    New variable environment Modified Energy Cascade (MEC) crop models were developed for all the Advanced Life Support (ALS) candidate crops and implemented in SIMULINK. The MEC models are based on the Volk, Bugbee, and Wheeler Energy Cascade (EC) model and are derived from more recent Top-Level Energy Cascade (TLEC) models. The MEC models simulate crop plant responses to day-to-day changes in photosynthetic photon flux, photoperiod, carbon dioxide level, temperature, and relative humidity. The original EC model allows changes in light energy but uses a less accurate linear approximation. The simulation outputs of the new MEC models for constant nominal environmental conditions are very similar to those of earlier EC models that use parameters produced by the TLEC models. There are a few differences. The new MEC models allow setting the time for seed emergence, have realistic exponential canopy growth, and have corrected harvest dates for potato and tomato. The new MEC models indicate that the maximum edible biomass per meter squared per day is produced at the maximum allowed carbon dioxide level, the nominal temperatures, and the maximum light input. Reducing the carbon dioxide level from the maximum to the minimum allowed in the model reduces crop production significantly. Increasing temperature decreases production more than it decreases the time to harvest, so productivity in edible biomass per meter squared per day is greater at nominal than maximum temperatures, The productivity in edible biomass per meter squared per day is greatest at the maximum light energy input allowed in the model, but the edible biomass produced per light energy input unit is lower than at nominal light levels. Reducing light levels increases light and power use efficiency. The MEC models suggest we can adjust the light energy day-to- day to accommodate power shortages or Lise excess power while monitoring and controlling edible biomass production.

  17. [Accidents affecting potato harvesters].

    PubMed

    Hansen, J U

    1993-09-27

    During industrialization in agriculture, many farming machines have been introduced. It is well-known that farming is a dangerous workplace and that farm machinery cause many serious accidents every year. Four cases of accidents with potato harvesters are discussed. In three of four cases the farmers were injured while cleaning the machine without stopping it, which probably was the main cause of the accidents. Farmers are in general not careful enough when using farm machinery. Every year, farmers in Denmark are severely invalided in accidents with potato harvesters. A strategy to lower the accidents is proposed: 1. Information of farmers, farmer schools, machine constructors and importers about mechanisms of injury. 2. A better education of farmers in using potato harvesters (and other farming machines). 3. Better fencing of the potato harvesters. 4. If possibly constructional changes in the potato harvesters so things will not get stuck, or so that the machine will stop if things stuck. 5. Installation of switches on potato harvesters, which can be reached from all positions, stopping the machines immediately, or a remote switch control carried by the farmer.

  18. Improving potato drought simulations: Assessing water stress factors using a coupled model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective water management is important for drought sensitive crops like potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Crop simulation models are well suited for evaluating water limited responses in order to provide management and phenotypic-trait recommendations for more efficient production practice. There is...

  19. Next-generation protein-rich potato expressing the seed protein gene AmA1 is a result of proteome rebalancing in transgenic tuber.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Agrawal, Lalit; Ghosh, Sudip; Narula, Kanika; Shekhar, Shubhendu; Naik, Prakash S; Pande, P C; Chakrborti, Swarup Kumar; Datta, Asis

    2010-10-12

    Protein deficiency is the most crucial factor that affects physical growth and development and that increases morbidity and mortality especially in developing countries. Efforts have been made to improve protein quality and quantity in crop plants but with limited success. Here, we report the development of transgenic potatoes with enhanced nutritive value by tuber-specific expression of a seed protein, AmA1 (Amaranth Albumin 1), in seven genotypic backgrounds suitable for cultivation in different agro-climatic regions. Analyses of the transgenic tubers revealed up to 60% increase in total protein content. In addition, the concentrations of several essential amino acids were increased significantly in transgenic tubers, which are otherwise limited in potato. Moreover, the transgenics also exhibited enhanced photosynthetic activity with a concomitant increase in total biomass. These results are striking because this genetic manipulation also resulted in a moderate increase in tuber yield. The comparative protein profiling suggests that the proteome rebalancing might cause increased protein content in transgenic tubers. Furthermore, the data on field performance and safety evaluation indicate that the transgenic potatoes are suitable for commercial cultivation. In vitro and in vivo studies on experimental animals demonstrate that the transgenic tubers are also safe for human consumption. Altogether, these results emphasize that the expression of AmA1 is a potential strategy for the nutritional improvement of food crops.

  20. Effects of stem density on potato at different CO2 concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato stem density influences growth, canopy formation and tuber yield. However, canopy development in response to different planting densities has not been completely characterized. In addition, many potato studies conducted in controlled environments restrict growth of planted seed tubers to a ...

  1. Two-stage biohumus production from inedible potato biomass.

    PubMed

    Manukovsky, N S; Kovalev, V S; Gribovskaya, I V

    2001-07-01

    The feasibility of a two-stage bioconversion of inedible potato biomass into biohumus by oyster mushroom followed by worms was tested. As a raw material for biohumus production the inedible potato biomass in certain properties ranked below wheat straw. The most feasible method to convert the potato wastes into biohumus was to mix them with wheat straw at the mass ratio of 1:3 and then treat with mushrooms followed by worms. This gave a good yield of mushrooms. The biohumus produced from the mixture was suitable for use as a plant growth medium.

  2. Adaptation to flooding during emergence and seedling growth in rice and weeds, and implications for crop establishment

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Abdelbagi M.; Johnson, David E.; Ella, Evangelina S.; Vergara, Georgina V.; Baltazar, Aurora M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Direct seeding of rice is being adopted in rainfed and irrigated lowland ecosystems because it reduces labour costs in addition to other benefits. However, early flooding due to uneven fields or rainfall slows down seed germination and hinders crop establishment. Conversely, early flooding helps suppress weeds and reduces the costs of manual weeding and/or dependence on herbicides; however, numerous weed species are adapted to lowlands and present challenges for the use of flooding to control weeds. Advancing knowledge on the mechanisms of tolerance of flooding during germination and early growth in rice and weeds could facilitate the development of improved rice varieties and effective weed management practices for direct-seeded rice. Principal results Rice genotypes with a greater ability to germinate and establish in flooded soils were identified, providing opportunities to develop varieties suitable for direct seeding in flooded soils. Tolerance of flooding in these genotypes was mostly attributed to traits associated with better ability to mobilize stored carbohydrates and anaerobic metabolism. Limited studies were undertaken in weeds associated with lowland rice systems. Remaining studies compared rice and weeds and related weed species such as Echinochloa crus-galli and E. colona or compared ecotypes of the same species of Cyperus rotundus adapted to either aerobic or flooded soils. Conclusions Tolerant weeds and rice genotypes mostly developed similar adaptive traits that allow them to establish in flooded fields, including the ability to germinate and elongate faster under hypoxia, mobilize stored starch reserves and generate energy through fermentation pathways. Remarkably, some weeds developed additional traits such as larger storage tubers that enlarge further in deeper flooded soils (C. rotundus). Unravelling the mechanisms involved in adaptation to flooding will help design management options that will allow tolerant rice genotypes

  3. Simple weighing lysimeters for measuring reference and crop evapotranspiration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of cotton crop evapotranspiration is important in scheduling irrigations, optimizing crop production, and modeling evapotranspiration and crop growth. The ability to measure, estimate, and predict evapotranspiration and cotton crop water requirements can result in better satisfying the cr...

  4. Physiological Disorders in Closed Environment-Grown Crops for Space Life Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Raymond; Morrow, Robert

    Crop production for life support systems in space will require controlled environments where temperature, humidity, CO2, and light might differ from natural environments where plants evolved. Physiological disorders, i.e., abnormal plant growth and development, can occur under these controlled environments. Among the most common of these disorders are Ca deficiency injuries such as leaf tipburn (e.g., lettuce), blossom-end-rot in fruits (e.g., tomato and pepper), and internal tissue necrosis in fruits or tubers (e.g., cucumber and potato). Increased Ca nutrition to the plants typically has little effect on these disorders, but slowing overall growth or providing better air circulation to increase transpiration can be effective. A second common disorder is oedema or intumescence, which appears as callus-like growth or galls on leaves (e.g., sweetpotato, potato, pepper, and tomato). This disorder can be reduced by increasing the near UV radiation ( 300-400 nm) to the plants. Leaf injury and necrosis can occur under long photoperiods (e.g., tomato, potato, and pepper) and at super-elevated (i.e., ¿ than 4000 mol mol-1) CO2 concentrations (e.g., soybean, potato, and radish), and these can be managed by reducing the photoperiod and CO2 concentration, respectively. Lack of blue light in the spectrum (e.g., under red LEDs or LPS lamps) can result in leggy growth and/or leaves lacking in chlorophyll (e.g., wheat, bean, and radish). Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), most commonly ethylene, can accumulate in tightly closed systems and result in a variety of negative responses. Most of these disorders can be mitigated by altering the environmental set-points or by using more resistant cultivars.

  5. Insect Pests of Field Crops. MP-28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhardt, Chris C.

    This document addresses the principles of field crop insect control through biological, mechanical, and chemical processes. Identification, life history, damage, pesticides, pesticide use and environmental considerations are presented for the major pests of corn, alfalfa, beans, small grains, sugar beets, and potatoes. Each section is accompanied…

  6. Construction of reference chromosome-scale pseudomolecules for potato: integrating the potato genome with genetic and physical maps.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar; Bolser, Daniel; de Boer, Jan; Sønderkær, Mads; Amoros, Walter; Carboni, Martin Federico; D'Ambrosio, Juan Martín; de la Cruz, German; Di Genova, Alex; Douches, David S; Eguiluz, Maria; Guo, Xiao; Guzman, Frank; Hackett, Christine A; Hamilton, John P; Li, Guangcun; Li, Ying; Lozano, Roberto; Maass, Alejandro; Marshall, David; Martinez, Diana; McLean, Karen; Mejía, Nilo; Milne, Linda; Munive, Susan; Nagy, Istvan; Ponce, Olga; Ramirez, Manuel; Simon, Reinhard; Thomson, Susan J; Torres, Yerisf; Waugh, Robbie; Zhang, Zhonghua; Huang, Sanwen; Visser, Richard G F; Bachem, Christian W B; Sagredo, Boris; Feingold, Sergio E; Orjeda, Gisella; Veilleux, Richard E; Bonierbale, Merideth; Jacobs, Jeanne M E; Milbourne, Dan; Martin, David Michael Alan; Bryan, Glenn J

    2013-11-06

    The genome of potato, a major global food crop, was recently sequenced. The work presented here details the integration of the potato reference genome (DM) with a new sequence-tagged site marker-based linkage map and other physical and genetic maps of potato and the closely related species tomato. Primary anchoring of the DM genome assembly was accomplished by the use of a diploid segregating population, which was genotyped with several types of molecular genetic markers to construct a new ~936 cM linkage map comprising 2469 marker loci. In silico anchoring approaches used genetic and physical maps from the diploid potato genotype RH89-039-16 (RH) and tomato. This combined approach has allowed 951 superscaffolds to be ordered into pseudomolecules corresponding to the 12 potato chromosomes. These pseudomolecules represent 674 Mb (~93%) of the 723 Mb genome assembly and 37,482 (~96%) of the 39,031 predicted genes. The superscaffold order and orientation within the pseudomolecules are closely collinear with independently constructed high density linkage maps. Comparisons between marker distribution and physical location reveal regions of greater and lesser recombination, as well as regions exhibiting significant segregation distortion. The work presented here has led to a greatly improved ordering of the potato reference genome superscaffolds into chromosomal "pseudomolecules".

  7. The Solanum commersonii Genome Sequence Provides Insights into Adaptation to Stress Conditions and Genome Evolution of Wild Potato Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Aversano, Riccardo; Contaldi, Felice; Ercolano, Maria Raffaella; Grosso, Valentina; Iorizzo, Massimo; Tatino, Filippo; Xumerle, Luciano; Dal Molin, Alessandra; Avanzato, Carla; Ferrarini, Alberto; Delledonne, Massimo; Sanseverino, Walter; Cigliano, Riccardo Aiese; Capella-Gutierrez, Salvador; Gabaldón, Toni; Frusciante, Luigi; Bradeen, James M.; Carputo, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Solanum commersonii, which consists of ∼830 megabases with an N50 of 44,303 bp anchored to 12 chromosomes, using the potato (Solanum tuberosum) genome sequence as a reference. Compared with potato, S. commersonii shows a striking reduction in heterozygosity (1.5% versus 53 to 59%), and differences in genome sizes were mainly due to variations in intergenic sequence length. Gene annotation by ab initio prediction supported by RNA-seq data produced a catalog of 1703 predicted microRNAs, 18,882 long noncoding RNAs of which 20% are shown to target cold-responsive genes, and 39,290 protein-coding genes with a significant repertoire of nonredundant nucleotide binding site-encoding genes and 126 cold-related genes that are lacking in S. tuberosum. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that domesticated potato and S. commersonii lineages diverged ∼2.3 million years ago. Three duplication periods corresponding to genome enrichment for particular gene families related to response to salt stress, water transport, growth, and defense response were discovered. The draft genome sequence of S. commersonii substantially increases our understanding of the domesticated germplasm, facilitating translation of acquired knowledge into advances in crop stability in light of global climate and environmental changes. PMID:25873387

  8. Analysis of Production-Water-Salinity of Index Crops in

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifan, H.; Ghahreman, B.

    2009-04-01

    One method to investigate the advantages of irrigation in cultivation is to evaluate the amount of increase in productions as a result of irrigation. Such relations which usually characterized by mathematics formulas or curves are called production to water function. In the agricultural analysis like pattern optimization and culture accumulation, we need some function like agricultural crops production, water and salinity. The amount of water used and salinity has influence on crops function, so that by increase in both components in various stages of plant growth, crop function decreases. Many researches have been performed on production-water and production-salinity function, therefore less researches on production-water-salinity components. The equation provided by Letey and Dinar (1986) is a sample of these researches. Their model is a quadratics equation from independent variables of water salinity in irrigation (ECi) and dimensionless proportion of the amount of water used to evaporation in class A (AW/EP) in plant growth stage. Therefore, by using this model and parameters like evaporation, rainfall and also quantity and quality water potential in Golestan farmlands, we obtained production-water-salinity components for each product in three different areas across Golestan province (moisture to dry areas). These products include sunflower, cotton, wheat, barely, potato, tomato, corn, sorgom, water melon, soybean and rice. Finally, these equations were compared by results of previous experiments, some results correspond and others were different. Key Word: production-water, production-salinity and production-water-salinity function, Letey and Dinar, Golestan.

  9. Dose- and tissue-specific interaction of monoterpenes with the gibberellin-mediated release of potato tuber bud dormancy, sprout growth and induction of α-amylases and β-amylases.

    PubMed

    Rentzsch, Sonja; Podzimska, Dagmara; Voegele, Antje; Imbeck, Madeleine; Müller, Kerstin; Linkies, Ada; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Gibberellins (GA) are involved in bud dormancy release in several species. We show here that GA-treatment released bud dormancy, initiated bud sprouting and promoted sprout growth of excised potato tuber bud discs ('eyes'). Monoterpenes from peppermint oil (PMO) and S-(+)-carvone (CAR) interact with the GA-mediated bud dormancy release in a hormesis-type response: low monoterpene concentrations enhance dormancy release and the initiation of bud sprouting, whereas high concentrations inhibit it. PMO and CAR did, however, not affect sprout growth rate after its onset. We further show that GA-induced dormancy release is associated with tissue-specific regulation of α- and β-amylases. Molecular phylogenetic analysis shows that potato α-amylases cluster into two distinct groups: α-AMY1 and α-AMY2. GA-treatment induced transcript accumulation of members of both α-amylase groups, as well as α- and β-amylase enzyme activity in sprout and 'sub-eye' tissues. In sprouts, CAR interacts with the GA-mediated accumulation of α-amylase transcripts in an α-AMY2-specific and dose-dependent manner. Low CAR concentrations enhance the accumulation of α-AMY2-type α-amylase transcripts, but do not affect the α-AMY1-type transcripts. Low CAR concentrations also enhance the accumulation of α- and β-amylase enzyme activity in sprouts, but not in 'sub-eye' tissues. In contrast, high CAR concentrations have no appreciable effect in sprouts on the enzyme activities and the α-amylase transcript abundances of either group. The dose-dependent effects on the enzyme activities and the α-AMY2-type α-amylase transcripts in sprouts are specific for CAR but not for PMO. Different monoterpenes therefore may have specific targets for their interaction with hormone signalling pathways.

  10. Crop yield and light / energy efficiency in a closed ecological system: two laboratory biosphere experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, M.; Dempster, W. F.; Silverstone, S.; Alling, A.; Allen, J. P.; van Thillo, M.

    Two crop growth experiments in the soil-based closed ecological facity, Laboratory Biosphere, were conducted from 2003-2004 with candidate space life support crops. Apogee wheat (Utah State University variety) was grown, planted in 2 densities, 400 and 800 seeds m-2. The lighting regime for the wheat crop was 16 hours of light -- 8 hours dark at a total light intensity of around 840 mol m2 sec-1 and 48.4 mol m-2 d-1 over 84 days Average biomass was 1395 g m-2, 16.0 g m-2 day-1 and average seed production was 689 g m-2 and 7.9 g m2 day-1. The less densely planted side was more productive than the denser planting, with 1634 g m-2 and 18.8g m-2 day-1 of biomass vs. 1156 g m-2 and 13.3 g m-2 day-1; and a seed harvest of 812.3 g m-2 and 9.3 g m-2 day-1 vs. 566.5 g m-2 and 6.5 g m-2 day-1 Harvest index was 0.49 for the wheat crop. The experiment with sweet potato used TU-82-155, a compact variety developed at Tuskegee University. Light during the sweet potato experiment, on a 16 hour on/8 hours dark cycle, totalled 5568 total moles of light in 126 days for the sweet potatoes, or an average of 44.2 moles m-2 day-1. Temperature regime was 28 deg +/- 3 deg C day /22 deg +/- 4 deg C night. Sweet potato tuber yield was 39.7 kg wet weight, or an average of 7.4 kg m-2 and 7.7 kg dry weight of tubers since dry weight was about 18.6% wet weight.^Average per day production was 58.7 g m-2 day-1 wet weight and 11.3 g m-2 day-1. For the wheat, average light efficiency was 0.34 grams biomass per mole, and 0.17 grams seed per mole. The best area of wheat had an efficiency of light utilization of 0.51 g biomass per mole and 0.22 g seed per mole. For the sweet potato crop, light efficiency per tuber wet weight was 7.13 g/mole and 1.38 g dry weight of tuber per mole of light. The best area of tuber production had 9.49 g/mole wet weight and 1.85 g/mole of light dry weight. Production from the wheat was The Laboratory Biosphere experiment's light efficiency was somewhat higher than the USU

  11. Reducing environmental risk of excessively fertilized soils and improving cucumber growth by Caragana microphylla-straw compost application in long-term continuous cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yongqiang; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Weihua; Gao, Lihong

    2016-02-15

    Continuous cropping is a common agricultural practice in the word. In China, farmers often apply excessive fertilizers to fields in an attempt to maintain yields in continuous cropping systems. However, this practice often results in high nutrient concentrations in soils, nutrient pollution in leaching water and more crop disease. Here, we investigated 8 different soils from continuously cropped cucumbers in Northern China that grouped into those with extremely high nutrient levels (EHNL) and those with lower nutrient levels (LNL). All soils were treated with Caragana microphylla-straw (CMS) compost addition, and then were used to measure soil physiochemical and microbial properties, leaching water quality, plant root growth and cucumber fruit yield. In general, the EHNL-soil showed higher nitrate, phosphorus and potassium concentrations in the leaching water compared to the LNL-soil. However, the CMS compost application increased soil nutrient and water holding capacities, total microbial biomass (bacteria and fungi), root length, plant biomass and fruit yields, but decreased nutrient concentrations in the leaching water from the EHNL-soil. In addition, the CMS compost decreased the number of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum in soils with very high concentration of mineral nitrogen. Our results infer that CMS compost application was an effective method for reducing environmental risk of excessively fertilized soils.

  12. The potato psyllid genome project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli) is a Hemipteran pest of solanaceous plants and limits potato and tomato production by the transmission of Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum. Genomic information on the potato psyllid is limited but is vital in developing appropriate management strategi...

  13. Efficiency of clinorotation usage on virus-infected seed potatoes for its improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, Ivan; Nechitailo, Galina S.; Dunich, Alina; Mishchenko, Anatoliy; Boiko, Anatolii

    Potato crop as a food staple takes a fourth place in the world by impotence after wheat, maize, and rice. Under present-day conditions, the role of this crop will invariably grow up, as fighting hunger is a number one problem in the 21st century. Planting material quality is very important for profitable potato production, and this quality is determined by the absence of disease-including organisms in tubers. Viral diseases cause much damage to crop production. Planting material tubers infected with viruses are an important source of the primary inoculum and infection is transferred in a mechanical way. Without effective methods of viral disease control, the losses of yield are considerable, as well as potato quality determination, so the obtaining of virus free planting material is a primary task for the planting material producers. During the last decades, the progress in potato viral disease control is connected with tissue culture research activities, as a result of which it became possible to obtain virus -free tabers from the varieties formerly completely infected. The use of meristem-tip culture for the obtaining of virus free plants has been based on the assumption that viruses were not able to penetrate the meristem tissues of the buds. Later on, it was found out that viruses penetrated into the meristems but the remediation of plants occurs in the process of tissue culture in vitro. Up to date hypotheses of remediation from the viruses occurring in the process of in vitro culture show that an interrelation in the system “virus - host plant” is affected by many factors, but some intensive redox processes take place in the meristems, creating an environment in which viral replication becomes suppressed. An important part in phytoviral pathogenesis is played by abiotic environmental factors. Gravity is a necessary condition for the growth and spatial orientation of plants, whereas the disturbances of g-vector change the structure of plant organism, its

  14. Impact of Multi-year Cropping Regimes on Solanum tuberosum Tuber Yields in the Presence of Pratylenchus penetrans and Verticillium dahliae.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Bird, G W; Mather, R L

    1995-12-01

    Five cropping regimes involving combinations of 2 legumes, alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and yellow sweet dover (Melilotus officinalis), 2 monocots, corn (Zea mays) and sudax (Sorghum halupeuse x Sorghum sudanese), and potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Superior) were tested for their impact on potato yields in a field infested with Pratylenchus penetrans and Verticillium dahliae. No differences in 1990 tuber yields were observed among the five cropping regimes (P < 0.05). In 1991, yields following 1 year of corn, sudax, sweet clover, or alfalfa and 2 years of potato were not different from that of 3 years of continuous potato (P < 0.05). Two years of sweet clover or alfalfa followed by potato resulted in significantly increased potato tuber yields compared with 3 years of potato (P < 0.05). The 2-year legume and 2-year grain rotations resulted in lower P. penetrans population densities at the end of the 3-year rotation compared with 3 years of continuous potato (P < 0.01). The highest preplant V. dahliae population density (34 cfu/g soil), together with a P. penetrans density of 12/100 cm(3) of soil was in the sudax-sudax-potato cropping regime and resulted in the lowest potato tuber yield. The highest preplant P. penetrans population density (54/100 cm(3) soil), together with a V. dahliae population density of 19.5 cfu/g soil was observed in the corn-corn-potato cropping regime and resulted in the second lowest potato tuber yield in 1991. After 3 years, potato tuber yields were negatively related to preplant densities of V. dahliae (r(2) = 0.237), P. penetrans (r(2) = 0.175), and both pathogens (r(2) = 0.380). A comprehensive regression model was developed to isolate pathogen effects on potato yields from cropping regime effects encompassing all 10 cropping regimes (r(2) = 0.915).

  15. Impact of Multi-year Cropping Regimes on Solanum tuberosum Tuber Yields in the Presence of Pratylenchus penetrans and Verticillium dahliae

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J.; Bird, G. W.; Mather, R. L.

    1995-01-01

    Five cropping regimes involving combinations of 2 legumes, alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and yellow sweet dover (Melilotus officinalis), 2 monocots, corn (Zea mays) and sudax (Sorghum halupeuse × Sorghum sudanese), and potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Superior) were tested for their impact on potato yields in a field infested with Pratylenchus penetrans and Verticillium dahliae. No differences in 1990 tuber yields were observed among the five cropping regimes (P < 0.05). In 1991, yields following 1 year of corn, sudax, sweet clover, or alfalfa and 2 years of potato were not different from that of 3 years of continuous potato (P < 0.05). Two years of sweet clover or alfalfa followed by potato resulted in significantly increased potato tuber yields compared with 3 years of potato (P < 0.05). The 2-year legume and 2-year grain rotations resulted in lower P. penetrans population densities at the end of the 3-year rotation compared with 3 years of continuous potato (P < 0.01). The highest preplant V. dahliae population density (34 cfu/g soil), together with a P. penetrans density of 12/100 cm³ of soil was in the sudax-sudax-potato cropping regime and resulted in the lowest potato tuber yield. The highest preplant P. penetrans population density (54/100 cm³ soil), together with a V. dahliae population density of 19.5 cfu/g soil was observed in the corn-corn-potato cropping regime and resulted in the second lowest potato tuber yield in 1991. After 3 years, potato tuber yields were negatively related to preplant densities of V. dahliae (r² = 0.237), P. penetrans (r² = 0.175), and both pathogens (r² = 0.380). A comprehensive regression model was developed to isolate pathogen effects on potato yields from cropping regime effects encompassing all 10 cropping regimes (r² = 0.915). PMID:19277337

  16. Health benefits of the potato affected by domestic cooking: A review.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jinhu; Chen, Jianchu; Ye, Xingqian; Chen, Shiguo

    2016-07-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L) is an important food crop worldwide and a good source of vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber as well as phytochemicals, which benefits human body as nutrients supplementary and antioxidants. However, cooked potato is also considered as a high-glycemic-index food because of its high content of rapidly digestible starch, long-term consumption of which will increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes. Domestic cooking (boiling, frying, steaming, etc.) are usually adopted before potato consumption. The chemical, physical and enzyme modifications that occur during cooking will alter the potato's antioxidant capacity and digestibility, which subsequently affected on the bioavailability of phytochemicals and the postprandial glycemic response of the human body. We reviewed the recent publications on the effects of domestic cooking on the nutrition, phytochemicals and the glycemic index changes of the cooked potato. Furthermore, the possible mechanisms underlying these changes were discussed, and additional implications and future research goals were suggested.

  17. NOAH-GECROS: A coupled land surface - crop growth model for simulating water and energy exchange between croplands and atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingwersen, J.; Streck, T.

    2011-12-01

    The current NOAH land surface model (LSM) describes the vegetation dynamics of croplands in a prescribed and generalized way leading under some conditions to a biased energy partitioning of net radiation and disabling the feedback of atmospheric conditions on land surface properties (LS) in coupled weather and climate simulations. The aim of the present study was to couple the NOAH LSM with the generic crop growth model (CGM) GECROS for improving the description of vegetation dynamics over croplands. We tested two different coupling approaches. In the first approach ("data hand-over"- coupling), the two self-contained models simply exchange data between each time step. GECROS hands over data on plant phenology. NOAH delivers the amount of plant available water in the rooting zone and computes the surface exchange fluxes. In the second approach ("cut and merge"- coupling) we cut from the NOAH code the empirical Jarvis scheme for computing canopy transpiration and merged the remaining code with the GECROS CGM. In this way, we introduced a Penman-Monteith approach, in which the stomatal resistance is a function of photosynthesis, for computing canopy transpiration. The coupled model runs were benchmarked against an uncoupled NOAH simulation based on a field-specific parameterization. All simulations were compared with "sensible heat flux"- corrected eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements, which were collected over a winter wheat stand in Southwest Germany during the vegetation period in 2009. The "cut and merge"- coupling significantly outperformed the field-specific uncoupled NOAH simulation. While, for example, the root mean square error (RMSE) of the latent heat (LE) fluxes of the uncoupled NOAH simulation was on average 73.0 W m-2, the RMSE of the coupled LS-CGM was 16.2 W m-2. The simulation of the sensible heat flux was improved in a similar magnitude. The "data hand-over" approach also slightly improved the simulation (RMSE of LE fluxes = 54.3 W m-2) but showed

  18. Biotech/GM crops in horticulture: plum cv. HoneySweet resistant to plum pox virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercialization of Biotech crops started in 1995. By 2011, genetically modified (GM) crops were grown world-wide on 160 million ha. Only 114.507 ha of GM crops were grown in Europe, of that, 114.490 ha were Bt maize and 17 ha were potato for industrial starch production. Currently, developing c...

  19. Effects of feeding sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) vines as a supplement on feed intake, growth performance, digestibility and carcass characteristics of Sidama goats fed a basal diet of natural grass hay.

    PubMed

    Megersa, Tadesse; Urge, Mengistu; Nurfeta, Ajebu

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of substituting sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L) Lam] vines for concentrate on growth performance, digestibility, and carcass characteristics. Thirty yearling bucks (15.3 ± 1.64 kg) were assigned into six treatments in a randomized complete block design: natural grass hay alone (T1) or supplemented with 100 % sweet potato vines (SPV) (T2), 65 % SPV + 35 % concentrate (T3), 35 % SPV + 65 % concentrate (T4), and 100 % concentrate (T5) on dry matter (DM) basis. Supplemented goats (T2, T3, T4, and T5) consumed higher (p < 0.001) total DM (553, 567, 505, and 515 g/day), respectively, when compared to the nonsupplemented (T1) goats (349 g/day). The crude protein (CP) intake (32.0, 48.6, 54.7, and 69.2 g/day) increased with increasing levels of the concentrate in the diet for T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively. The DM digestibility in T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively, was higher (P < 0.01) (0.69, 0.72, 0.72, and 0.74) than in T1 (0.56). Apparent digestibility of CP was observed to be higher (P < 0.001) in T3, T4, T5 (0.78, 0.83, and 0.88) when compared to the bucks in T2 (0.60). Higher (P < 0.001) daily weight gain (31.2, 46.4, 48.6, and 47.6 g/day) were recorded for T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively, whereas the nonsupplemented goats lost weight (-19.5 g/day). Slaughter weight, empty body weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, rib-eye muscle area, and total edible offals were higher (P < 0.05) in supplemented goats compared with nonsupplemented ones. Therefore, it could be concluded that sweet potato vine can replace the conventional concentrate and could be fed with poor quality hay to prevent body weight loss of animal in the absence of other feed supplements.

  20. Composition and structure of tuber cell walls affect in vitro digestibility of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Frost, Jovyn K T; Flanagan, Bernadine M; Brummell, David A; O'Donoghue, Erin M; Mishra, Suman; Gidley, Michael J; Monro, John A

    2016-10-12

    The digestibility of starchy foods, such as potatoes, can be characterized by the proportion of starch that is rapidly digestible by in vitro hydrolysis (rapidly digestible starch, RDS). This study evaluated the RDS content in a potato germplasm collection consisting of 98 genotypes and identified three advanced lines, Crop39, Crop71 and Crop85, where cooked potato RDS content was significantly lower than that of their respective isolated starches (P < 0.05). In Crop39, Crop71 and Crop85, the properties of their isolated starch did not differ significantly from that of five control lines with higher RDS contents. Cell wall analyses revealed that, compared with other lines tested, Crop39, Crop71 and Crop85 had at least four times the amount of rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I) galactan side-chains that were very firmly attached to the wall and requiring 4 M KOH for extraction. Pectin solubilization during cooking was also remarkably low (2-4%) in these three lines compared with other lines tested (7-19%). The findings suggest that possession of higher amounts of RG-I galactan that interact strongly with cellulose may provide a sturdier wall that better resists solubilization during cooking, and effectively impedes access of digestive enzymes for starch hydrolysis in an in vitro model.