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Sample records for potato germplasm differentiated

  1. Expression profiling of potato germplasm differentiated in quality traits leads to the identification of candidate flavour and texture genes

    PubMed Central

    Ducreux, Laurence J. M.; Morris, Wayne L.; Prosser, Ian M.; Morris, Jenny A.; Beale, Michael H.; Wright, Frank; Shepherd, Tom; Bryan, Glenn J.; Hedley, Pete E.; Taylor, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    Quality traits such as flavour and texture are assuming a greater importance in crop breeding programmes. This study takes advantage of potato germplasm differentiated in tuber flavour and texture traits. A recently developed 44 000-element potato microarray was used to identify tuber gene expression profiles that correspond to differences in tuber flavour and texture as well as carotenoid content and dormancy characteristics. Gene expression was compared in two Solanum tuberosum group Phureja cultivars and two S. tuberosum group Tuberosum cultivars; 309 genes were significantly and consistently up-regulated in Phureja, whereas 555 genes were down-regulated. Approximately 46% of the genes in these lists can be identified from their annotation and amongst these are candidates that may underpin the Phureja/Tuberosum trait differences. For example, a clear difference in the cooked tuber volatile profile is the higher level of the sesquiterpene α-copaene in Phureja compared with Tuberosum. A sesquiterpene synthase gene was identified as being more highly expressed in Phureja tubers and its corresponding full-length cDNA was demonstrated to encode α-copaene synthase. Other potential ‘flavour genes’, identified from their differential expression profiles, include those encoding branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase and a ribonuclease suggesting a mechanism for 5′-ribonucleotide formation in potato tubers on cooking. Major differences in the expression levels of genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis (and potentially texture) were also identified, including genes encoding pectin acetylesterase, xyloglucan endotransglycosylase and pectin methylesterase. Other gene expression differences that may impact tuber carotenoid content and tuber life-cycle phenotypes are discussed. PMID:18987392

  2. Fine screening for resistance to cold-induced sweetening in potato hybrids containing Solanum raphanifolium germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potato is an indispensable part of human food. Many wild and cultivated potato relatives have been screened to find the best potato germplasm to improve productivity and quality, but only a small sample of the available biodiversity has been exploited. Most wild relatives are self-incompatible diplo...

  3. Population Structure of the Late Blight Pathogen Phytophthora infestans in a Potato Germplasm Nursery in Two Consecutive Years.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuee; Yin, Junliang; Sun, Jieping; Ma, Hongmei; Ma, Yunfang; Quan, Junli; Shan, Weixing

    2015-06-01

    As the causal agent of late blight on potato, Phytophthora infestans is one of the most destructive plant pathogens worldwide and widely known as the Irish potato famine pathogen. Understanding the genetic structure of P. infestans populations is important both for breeding and deployment of resistant varieties and for development of disease control strategies. Here, we investigate the population genetic structure of P. infestans in a potato germplasm nursery in northwestern China. In total, 279 isolates were recovered from 63 potato varieties or lines in 2010 and 2011, and were genotyped by mitochondrial DNA haplotypes and a set of nine simple-sequence repeat markers. Selected isolates were further examined for virulence on a set of differential lines containing each resistance (R) gene (R1 to R11). The overall P. infestans population was characterized as having a low level of genetic diversity and resistance to metalaxyl, and containing a high percentage of individuals that virulent to all 11 R genes. Both A1 and A2 mating types as well as self-fertile P. infestans isolates were present but there was no evidence of sexual reproduction. The low level of genetic differentiation in P. infestans populations is probably due to the action of relatively high levels of migration as supported by analysis of molecular variance (P < 0.01). Migration and asexual reproduction were the predominant mechanisms influencing the P. infestans population structure in the germplasm nursery. Therefore, it is important to ensure the production of pathogen-free potato seed tubers to aid sustainable production of potato in northwestern China.

  4. Screening tomato germplasm for resistance to potato spindle tuber viroid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In recent years, several outbreaks of a potentially devastating viroid disease on tomato in North America have caused serious concerns to tomato growers and vegetable seed industry. Several closely related viroids in the genus Pospiviroid have been identified on tomato. Among them, Potato spindle t...

  5. Establishment and molecular characterization of a sweet potato germplasm bank of the highlands of Paraná State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Camargo, L K P; Mógor, A F; Resende, J T V; Da-Silva, P R

    2013-11-18

    The sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is a crop of great importance in developing countries, as a food staple, for animal feed, and potentially for biofuel. Development of cultivars adapted to specific regions within these countries would be useful. To start a breeding program, the first step is the establishment of a germplasm bank. We initiated a sweet potato germplasm bank with accessions collected from the highlands of Paraná State, Brazil. To establish this germplasm bank, we carried out numerous sweet potato-collecting expeditions in regions with an altitude above 700 meters in this region; 116 genotypes currently comprise this collection. The genetic diversity of this germplasm bank was estimated using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Polymorphic information content (PIC), marker index (MI), and resolving power (RP) were calculated to determine the viability of ISSR markers for use in sweet potato genetic studies. The correlation between PIC and MI (r(2) = 0.81) and between MI and RP (r(2) = 0.97) were positive and significant, indicating that ISSR markers are robust for sweet potato identification. Two ISSR primers, 807 and 808, gave the best results for all attributes, and thus could be used as representative ISSR primers for the genetic analysis of sweet potato. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis indicated high genetic variability (0.51 of similarity among all genotypes); genotypes collected from different counties grouped together.

  6. 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' titers in and infection effects on potato tuber chemistry of promising germplasm exhibiting tolerance to zebra chip disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Long-term sustainable management of zebra chip (ZC) disease of potato requires development of tolerant or resistant germplasm. To this end, 283 potato varieties and breeding clones were infected with the ZC putative causal agent ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso) by potato psyllid vector i...

  7. A novel, sensitive method to evaluate potato germplasm for bacterial wilt resistance using a luminescent Ralstonia solanacearum reporter strain.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Andrea Paola Zuluaga; Ferreira, Virginia; Pianzzola, María Julia; Siri, María Inés; Coll, Núria S; Valls, Marc

    2014-03-01

    Several breeding programs are under way to introduce resistance to bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum in solanaceous crops. The lack of screening methods allowing easy measurement of pathogen colonization and the inability to detect latent (i.e., symptomless) infections are major limitations when evaluating resistance to this disease in plant germplasm. We describe a new method to study the interaction between R. solanacearum and potato germplasm that overcomes these restrictions. The R. solanacearum UY031 was genetically modified to constitutively generate light from a synthetic luxCDABE operon stably inserted in its chromosome. Colonization of this reporter strain on different potato accessions was followed using life imaging. Bacterial detection in planta by this nondisruptive system correlated with the development of wilting symptoms. In addition, we demonstrated that quantitative detection of the recombinant strain using a luminometer can identify latent infections on symptomless potato plants. We have developed a novel, unsophisticated, and accurate method for high-throughput evaluation of pathogen colonization in plant populations. We applied this method to compare the behavior of potato accessions with contrasting resistance to R. solanacearum. This new system will be especially useful to detect latency in symptomless parental lines before their inclusion in long-term breeding programs for disease resistance.

  8. Behavioral responses of adult potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae), to potato germplasm and transmission of Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a major pest of potatoes that can cause yield loss by direct feeding on crop plants and by vectoring a bacterial pathogen, Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous (a.k.a. Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum). In recent years, ...

  9. Reducing the acrylamide content of processed potato products through germplasm improvement: opportunities, challenges and progress

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Processed potato products, including french fries and potato chips, make a substantial contribution to total dietary acrylamide. Health safety concerns raised by acrylamide in food increase financial risks to the potato industry and have encouraged industry to take a proactive response toward acryla...

  10. 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' Titers in and Infection Effects on Potato Tuber Chemistry of Promising Germplasm Exhibiting Tolerance to Zebra Chip Disease.

    PubMed

    Wallis, C M; Munyaneza, J E; Chen, J; Novy, R; Bester, G; Buchman, J L; Nordgaard, J; van Hest, P

    2015-12-01

    Long-term sustainable management of zebra chip (ZC) disease of potato requires development of tolerant or resistant germplasm. To this end, 283 potato varieties and breeding clones were infected with the ZC putative causal agent 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' (Lso) by potato psyllid vector inoculations in 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013. Potato germplasm was then examined for development of fresh and fried ZC symptoms. Over multiple years 29 breeding clones exhibited little to no symptoms in freshly cut tuber slices, and five exhibited little to no symptoms in fried slices. These five presumed tolerant breeding clones were chosen for further screening to determine whether the lack of physiological responses to Lso infection was the cause of observed tolerance. To this end, tuber amino acid, sugar, and phenolic levels were compared between noninfected and Lso-infected plants. The five putative tolerant clones had less dramatic shifts in host physiology following Lso infection than the susceptible Atlantic cultivar. This suggested lack of host responses to Lso infection that result in major changes in tuber biochemistry is a potential mechanism of ZC resistance. However, the susceptible Atlantic cultivar did have consistently greater Lso titers compared with two of the tolerant entries, so for these reductions in Lso pathogen progression also might be a factor. Regardless, lack of host responses could still remain one trait that could be used to aid in selection of ZC-resistant potato varieties, as other tolerant lines had infection levels consistent with susceptible Atlantic cultivar. These results also suggest that germplasm derived from relatives of cultivated potato plants are viable sources of ZC disease resistance.

  11. Whitefly transmission of Sweet potato leaf curl virus in sweetpotato germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., is among an extensive number of plant species attacked by Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). Because this important world food crop is vegetatively propagated, it can conveniently accumulate infections by several viruses. Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) (ssDNA...

  12. Developing germplasm resources to identify the genetic basis of resistance to common scab in potato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Common scab, caused mainly by the soil-borne bacterium Streptomyces scabies, produces lesions on potato tubers, reducing tuber quality and profitability. Methods to manage common scab are often expensive, impractical, and can be ineffective. Therefore, creating cultivars that are resistant to common...

  13. Genome-wide assessment of population structure and genetic diversity and development of a core germplasm set for sweet potato based on specific length amplified fragment (SLAF) sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lianjun; Lei, Jian; Chai, Shasha; Liu, Yi; Yang, Yuanyuan; Yang, Xinsun; Jiao, Chunhai

    2017-01-01

    Sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., is an important food crop that is cultivated worldwide. However, no genome-wide assessment of the genetic diversity of sweet potato has been reported to date. In the present study, the population structure and genetic diversity of 197 sweet potato accessions most of which were from China were assessed using 62,363 SNPs. A model-based structure analysis divided the accessions into three groups: group 1, group 2 and group 3. The genetic relationships among the accessions were evaluated using a phylogenetic tree, which clustered all the accessions into three major groups. A principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the accessions were distributed according to their population structure. The mean genetic distance among accessions ranged from 0.290 for group 1 to 0.311 for group 3, and the mean polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.232 for group 1 to 0.251 for group 3. The mean minor allele frequency (MAF) ranged from 0.207 for group 1 to 0.222 for group 3. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that the maximum diversity was within accessions (89.569%). Using CoreHunter software, a core set of 39 accessions was obtained, which accounted for approximately 19.8% of the total collection. The core germplasm set of sweet potato developed will be a valuable resource for future sweet potato improvement strategies. PMID:28187178

  14. Differential induction of redox sensitive extracellular phenolic amides in potato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study focuses on the differential induction of extracellular phenolic amides that accumulate in potato cell suspensions during the first few hours of the interaction between these plant cells and bacterial pathogens or pathogen-related elicitors. Using suspension cells of Solanum tuberosum we ...

  15. Development of diagnostic markers for use in breeding potatoes resistant to Globodera pallida pathotype Pa2/3 using germplasm derived from Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena CPC 2802.

    PubMed

    Moloney, Claire; Griffin, Denis; Jones, Peter W; Bryan, Glenn J; McLean, Karen; Bradshaw, John E; Milbourne, Dan

    2010-02-01

    Quantitative resistance to Globodera pallida pathotype Pa2/3, originally derived from Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena Commonwealth Potato Collection (CPC) accession 2802, is present in several potato cultivars and advanced breeding lines. One genetic component of this resistance, a large effect quantitative trait locus (QTL) on linkage group IV (which we have renamed GpaIV(adg)(s)) has previously been mapped in the tetraploid breeding line 12601ab1. In this study, we show that GpaIV(adg)(s) is also present in a breeding line called C1992/31 via genetic mapping in an F(1) population produced by crossing C1992/31 with the G. pallida susceptible cultivar Record. C1992/31 is relatively divergent from 12601ab1, confirming that GpaIV(adg)(s) is an ideal target for marker-assisted selection in currently available germplasm. To generate markers exhibiting diagnostic potential for GpaIV(adg)(s), three bacterial artificial chromosome clones were isolated from the QTL region, sequenced, and used to develop 15 primer sets generating single-copy amplicons, which were examined for polymorphisms exhibiting linkage to GpaIV(adg)(s) in C1992/31. Eight such polymorphisms were found. Subsequently, one insertion/deletion polymorphism, three single nucleotide polymorphisms and a specific allele of the microsatellite marker STM3016 were shown to exhibit diagnostic potential for the QTL in a panel of 37 potato genotypes, 12 with and 25 without accession CPC2082 in their pedigrees. STM3016 and one of the SNP polymorphisms, C237(119), were assayed in 178 potato genotypes, arising from crosses between C1992/31 and 16 G. pallida susceptible genotypes, undergoing selection in a commercial breeding programme. The results suggest that the diagnostic markers would most effectively be employed in MAS-based approaches to pyramid different resistance loci to develop cultivars exhibiting strong, durable resistance to G. pallida pathotype Pa2/3.

  16. Genetic stability in potato germplasm for resistance to root galling caused by the powdery scab pathogen spongospora subterranea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spongospora subteranea, the causal agent of potato powdery scab is becoming increasingly important worldwide. Little is known about the genetic basis of resistance to this disease. The present study tested the hypothesis that potato genotypes with stable genetic resistance to "Spongospora root galli...

  17. Acrylamide-forming potential and agronomic properties of elite US potato germplasm from the National Fry Processing Trial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Processed potato products, such as chips and fries, contribute to the dietary intake of acrylamide, a suspected human carcinogen. One of the most promising approaches for reducing acrylamide consumption is to develop and commercialize new potato varieties with low acrylamide-forming potential. To fa...

  18. Characterization of the expression and inheritance of potato leafroll virus (PLRV) and potato virus Y (PVY) resistance in three generations of germplasm derived from Solanum etuberosum.

    PubMed

    Novy, R G; Gillen, A M; Whitworth, J L

    2007-05-01

    Potato virus Y (PVY) and potato leafroll virus (PLRV) are two of the most important viral pathogens of potato. Infection of potato by these viruses results in losses of yield and quality in commercial production and in the rejection of seed in certification programs. Host plant resistance to these two viruses was identified in the backcross progeny of a Solanum etuberosum Lindl. somatic hybrid. Multiple years of field evaluations with high-virus inoculum and aphid populations have shown the PVY and PLRV resistances of S. etuberosum to be stably expressed in two generations of progeny. However, while PLRV resistance was transmitted and expressed in the third generation of backcrossing to cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum L. subsp. tuberosum), PVY resistance was lost. PLRV resistance appears to be monogenic based on the inheritance of resistance in a BC(3) population. Data from a previous evaluation of the BC(2 )progeny used in this study provides evidence that PLRV resistance was partly conferred by reduced PLRV accumulation in foliage. The field and grafting data presented in this study suggests that resistance to the systemic spread of PLRV from infected foliage to tubers also contributes to the observed resistance from S. etuberosum. The PLRV resistance contributed by S. etuberosum is stably transmitted and expressed through sexual generations and therefore would be useful to potato breeders for the development of PLRV resistant potato cultivars.

  19. Differential effects of environment on potato phenylpropanoid and carotenoid expression

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The extent of environmental effects on tuber phytonutrients is unclear, as is whether environment significantly influences potato nutritional quality. Potatoes grown in environmentally diverse locations in North America (Alaska, Texas and Florida) were profiled for over forty tuber phenylpropanoids ...

  20. Extensive Variation in Fried Chip Color and Tuber Composition in Cold-Stored Tubers of Wild Potato (Solanum) Germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cold-induced sweetening and browning in the Maillard reaction have driven extensive research in the areas of plant physiology, biochemistry, and food science in Solanum tuberosum. To date, research in these areas excluded wild relatives of potato. This is the first assessment of cold-stored tuber c...

  1. Utilizing “Omic” Technologies to Identify and Prioritize Novel Sources of Resistance to the Oomycete Pathogen Phytophthora infestans in Potato Germplasm Collections

    PubMed Central

    Van Weymers, Pauline S. M.; Baker, Katie; Chen, Xinwei; Harrower, Brian; Cooke, David E. L.; Gilroy, Eleanor M.; Birch, Paul R. J.; Thilliez, Gaëtan J. A.; Lees, Alison K.; Lynott, James S.; Armstrong, Miles R.; McKenzie, Gaynor; Bryan, Glenn J.; Hein, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    The greatest threat to potato production world-wide is late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans. A screen of 126 wild diploid Solanum accessions from the Commonwealth Potato Collection (CPC) with P. infestans isolates belonging to the genotype 13-A2 identified resistances in the species S. bulbocastanum, S. capsicibaccatum, S. microdontum, S. mochiquense, S. okadae, S. pinnatisectum, S. polyadenium, S. tarijense, and S. verrucosum. Effector-omics, allele mining, and diagnostic RenSeq (dRenSeq) were utilized to investigate the nature of resistances in S. okadae accessions. dRenSeq in resistant S. okadae accessions 7129, 7625, 3762, and a bulk of 20 resistant progeny confirmed the presence of full-length Rpi-vnt1.1 under stringent mapping conditions and corroborated allele mining results in the accessions 7129 and 7625 as well as Avr-vnt1 recognition in transient expression assays. In contrast, susceptible S. okadae accession 3761 and a bulk of 20 susceptible progeny lacked sequence homology in the 5′ end compared to the functional Rpi-vnt1.1 gene. Further evaluation of S. okadae accessions with P. infestans isolates that have a broad spectrum of virulence demonstrated that, although S. okadae accessions 7129, 7625, and 7629 contain functional Rpi-vnt1.1, they also carry a novel resistance gene. We provide evidence that existing germplasm collections are important sources of novel resistances and that “omic” technologies such as dRenSeq-based genomics and effector-omics are efficacious tools to rapidly explore the diversity within these collections. PMID:27303410

  2. Extensive variation in fried chip color and tuber composition in cold-stored tubers of wild potato (solanum) germplasm.

    PubMed

    McCann, Leah C; Bethke, Paul C; Simon, Philipp W

    2010-02-24

    Cold-induced sweetening and browning in the Maillard reaction have driven extensive research in the areas of plant physiology, biochemistry, and food science in Solanum tuberosum because of its importance to the potato-processing industry. Prior research has not characterized wild Solanum relatives of potato for tuber composition and has not determined if relationships between tuber composition and chip color after cold storage in wild species are comparable to those found for cultivated potato. Extensive inter- and intraspecific variation for chip color and tuber composition were found in the wild Solanum species examined. Tuber sugar profiles suggested that invertase activity at low temperatures differed between and within species. Tuber fructose, glucose, and sucrose concentrations partially explained chip color variation in most accessions, but asparagine concentration and percent dry matter did not. Most wild species had reducing sugar concentrations and chip color scores after 2 degrees C storage that were less than those in S. tuberosum cultivar Snowden. Sugar profiles and relationships between specific sugars and chip color in Solanum pinnatisectum were unique among the species examined.

  3. Interspecific Potato Breeding Lines Display Differential Colonization Patterns and Induced Defense Responses after Ralstonia solanacearum Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Virginia; Pianzzola, María J.; Vilaró, Francisco L.; Galván, Guillermo A.; Tondo, María L.; Rodriguez, María V.; Orellano, Elena G.; Valls, Marc; Siri, María I.

    2017-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the main hosts of Ralstonia solanacearum, the causative agent of bacterial wilt. This plant pathogen bacteria produce asymptomatic latent infections that promote its global spread, hindering disease control. A potato breeding program is conducted in Uruguay based on the introgression of resistance from the wild native species S. commersonii Dun. Currently, several backcrosses were generated exploiting the high genetic variability of this wild species resulting in advanced interspecific breeding lines with different levels of bacterial wilt resistance. The overall aim of this work was to characterize the interaction of the improved potato germplasm with R. solanacearum. Potato clones with different responses to R. solanacearum were selected, and colonization, dissemination and multiplication patterns after infection were evaluated. A R. solanacearum strain belonging to the phylotype IIB-sequevar 1, with high aggressiveness on potato was genetically modified to constitutively generate fluorescence and luminescence from either the green fluorescence protein gene or lux operon. These reporter strains were used to allow a direct and precise visualization of fluorescent and luminescent cells in plant tissues by confocal microscopy and luminometry. Based on wilting scoring and detection of latent infections, the selected clones were classified as susceptible or tolerant, while no immune-like resistance response was identified. Typical wilting symptoms in susceptible plants were correlated with high concentrations of bacteria in roots and along the stems. Tolerant clones showed a colonization pattern restricted to roots and a limited number of xylem vessels only in the stem base. Results indicate that resistance in potato is achieved through restriction of bacterial invasion and multiplication inside plant tissues, particularly in stems. Tolerant plants were also characterized by induction of anatomical and biochemical changes after

  4. Interspecific Potato Breeding Lines Display Differential Colonization Patterns and Induced Defense Responses after Ralstonia solanacearum Infection.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Virginia; Pianzzola, María J; Vilaró, Francisco L; Galván, Guillermo A; Tondo, María L; Rodriguez, María V; Orellano, Elena G; Valls, Marc; Siri, María I

    2017-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the main hosts of Ralstonia solanacearum, the causative agent of bacterial wilt. This plant pathogen bacteria produce asymptomatic latent infections that promote its global spread, hindering disease control. A potato breeding program is conducted in Uruguay based on the introgression of resistance from the wild native species S. commersonii Dun. Currently, several backcrosses were generated exploiting the high genetic variability of this wild species resulting in advanced interspecific breeding lines with different levels of bacterial wilt resistance. The overall aim of this work was to characterize the interaction of the improved potato germplasm with R. solanacearum. Potato clones with different responses to R. solanacearum were selected, and colonization, dissemination and multiplication patterns after infection were evaluated. A R. solanacearum strain belonging to the phylotype IIB-sequevar 1, with high aggressiveness on potato was genetically modified to constitutively generate fluorescence and luminescence from either the green fluorescence protein gene or lux operon. These reporter strains were used to allow a direct and precise visualization of fluorescent and luminescent cells in plant tissues by confocal microscopy and luminometry. Based on wilting scoring and detection of latent infections, the selected clones were classified as susceptible or tolerant, while no immune-like resistance response was identified. Typical wilting symptoms in susceptible plants were correlated with high concentrations of bacteria in roots and along the stems. Tolerant clones showed a colonization pattern restricted to roots and a limited number of xylem vessels only in the stem base. Results indicate that resistance in potato is achieved through restriction of bacterial invasion and multiplication inside plant tissues, particularly in stems. Tolerant plants were also characterized by induction of anatomical and biochemical changes after

  5. Taxonomy and genetic differentiation among wild and cultivated germplasm of Solanum sect. Petota

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Due to their adaptation to a diverse set of habitats and stresses, wild species of cultivated crops offer new sources of genetic diversity for germplasm improvement. Using an Infinium array representing a genome-wide set of 8303 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we evaluated phylogenetic relat...

  6. Potato Science for the Poor, International Potato Center

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The cultivated potato of world commerce, Solanum tuberosum, is one of the primary crops worldwide, forming a basic food and source of primary income for many societies. Wild and cultivated potatoes form the germplasm base for international breeding efforts to improve potato in the face of variety o...

  7. Distinct gene networks drive differential response to abrupt or gradual water deficit in potato.

    PubMed

    Ambrosone, Alfredo; Batelli, Giorgia; Bostan, Hamed; D'Agostino, Nunzio; Chiusano, Maria Luisa; Perrotta, Gaetano; Leone, Antonietta; Grillo, Stefania; Costa, Antonello

    2017-01-15

    Water-limiting conditions affect dramatically plant growth and development and, ultimately, yield of potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L.). Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying the response to water deficit is of paramount interest to obtain drought tolerant potato varieties. Herein, potato 10K cDNA array slides were used to profile transcriptomic changes of two potato cell populations under abrupt (shocked cells) or gradual exposure (adapted cells) to polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated water stress. Data analysis identified >1000 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in our experimental conditions. Noteworthy, our microarray study also suggests that distinct gene networks underlie the cellular response to shock or gradual water stress. On the basis of our experimental findings, it is possible to speculate that DEGs identified in shocked cells participate in early protective and sensing mechanisms to environmental insults, while the genes whose expression was modulated in adapted cells are directly involved in the acquisition of a new cellular homeostasis to cope with water stress conditions. To validate microarray data obtained for potato cells, the expression analysis of 21 selected genes of interest was performed by Real-Time Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Intriguingly, the expression levels of these transcripts in 4-week old potato plants exposed to long-term water-deficit. qRT-PCR analysis showed that several genes were regulated similarly in potato cells cultures and tissues exposed to drought, thus confirming the efficacy of our simple experimental system to capture important genes involved in osmotic stress response. Highlighting the differences in gene expression between shock-like and adaptive response, our findings could contribute to the discussion on the biological function of distinct gene networks involved in the response to abrupt and gradual adaptation to water deficit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  8. Differential Response of Potato Toward Inoculation with Taxonomically Diverse Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Naqqash, Tahir; Hameed, Sohail; Imran, Asma; Hanif, Muhammad Kashif; Majeed, Afshan; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Rhizosphere engineering with beneficial plant growth promoting bacteria offers great promise for sustainable crop yield. Potato is an important food commodity that needs large inputs of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers. To overcome high fertilizer demand (especially nitrogen), five bacteria, i.e., Azospirillum sp. TN10, Agrobacterium sp. TN14, Pseudomonas sp. TN36, Enterobacter sp. TN38 and Rhizobium sp. TN42 were isolated from the potato rhizosphere on nitrogen-free malate medium and identified based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences. Three strains, i.e., TN10, TN38, and TN42 showed nitrogen fixation (92.67–134.54 nmol h-1mg-1 protein), while all showed the production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), which was significantly increased by the addition of L-tryptophan. Azospirillum sp. TN10 produced the highest amount of IAA, as measured by spectrophotometry (312.14 μg mL-1) and HPLC (18.3 μg mL-1). Inoculation with these bacteria under axenic conditions resulted in differential growth responses of potato. Azospirillum sp. TN10 incited the highest increase in potato fresh and dry weight over control plants, along with increased N contents of shoot and roots. All strains were able to colonize and maintain their population densities in the potato rhizosphere for up to 60 days, with Azospirillum sp. and Rhizobium sp. showing the highest survival. Plant root colonization potential was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy of root sections inoculated with Azospirillum sp. TN10. Of the five test strains, Azospirillum sp. TN10 has the greatest potential to increase the growth and nitrogen uptake of potato. Hence, it is suggested as a good candidate for the production of potato biofertilizer for integrated nutrient management. PMID:26925072

  9. Identification of differentially expressed genes in potato associated with tuber dormancy release.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bailin; Zhang, Ning; Wen, Yikai; Si, Huaijun; Wang, Di

    2012-12-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber dormancy and sprouting is very important to potato cultivation and processing. In the present experiment, suppression subtractive hybridization was employed to identify differentially expressed genes in potato associated with tuber dormancy release. 576 random clones were selected from subtractive library and successfully sequenced. A total of 304 effective expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were obtained ultimately. The ESTs have been deposited in the EMBL\\GenBank\\DDBJ nucleotide sequence data libraries under accession numbers from JK483901 to JK484204. GO annotation showed that 45, 34 and 3 % ESTs were associated with binding, catalytic activity and signaling respectively, some of which were confirmed to be involved in plant dormancy breaking, however, 14 % of the ESTs did not show significant homology to any database proteins. A real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis of the expression patterns of 14 selectable transcripts showed that 13 selected candidate genes were significantly up-regulated in the development process of tuber from dormancy to sprouting. A full length cDNA of ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) gene was cloned and found it belonged to potato ARF1 gene. Tissue specific expression analysis showed ARF1 expression level was the highest in tuber. RT-qPCR analysis of the expression profile of ARF1 gene from potato tuber dormancy to sprouting revealed that the ARF1 gene expression was significantly increased after tuber dormancy breaking, which suggested that it probably associated with tuber dormancy and sprouting.

  10. Differential effects of environment on potato phenylpropanoid and carotenoid expression

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Plant secondary metabolites, including phenylpropanoids and carotenoids, are stress inducible, have important roles in potato physiology and influence the nutritional value of potatoes. The type and magnitude of environmental effects on tuber phytonutrients is unclear, especially under modern agricultural management that minimizes stress. Understanding factors that influence tuber secondary metabolism could facilitate production of more nutritious crops. Metabolite pools of over forty tuber phenylpropanoids and carotenoids, along with the expression of twenty structural genes, were measured in high-phenylpropanoid purple potatoes grown in environmentally diverse locations in North America (Alaska, Texas and Florida). Results Phenylpropanoids, including chlorogenic acid (CGA), were higher in samples from the northern latitudes, as was the expression of phenylpropanoid genes including phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), which had over a ten-fold difference in relative abundance. Phenylpropanoid gene expression appeared coordinately regulated and was well correlated with metabolite pools, except for hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:quinatehydroxcinnamoyl transferase (HQT; r = -0.24). In silico promoter analysis identified two cis-acting elements in the HQT promoter not found in the other phenylpropanoid genes. Anthocyanins were more abundant in Alaskan samples and correlated with flavonoid genes including DFR (r = 0.91), UFGT (r = 0.94) and F3H (r = 0.77). The most abundant anthocyanin was petunidin-3-coum-rutinoside-5-glu, which ranged from 4.7 mg g-1 in Alaska to 2.3 mg g-1 in Texas. Positive correlations between tuber sucrose and anthocyanins (r = 0.85), suggested a stimulatory effect of sucrose. Smaller variation was observed in total carotenoids, but marked differences occurred in individual carotenoids, which had over a ten-fold range. Violaxanthin, lutein or zeaxanthin were the predominant carotenoids in tubers from Alaska, Texas and Florida respectively. Unlike

  11. Differential recognition of Phytophthora infestans races in potato R4 breeding lines.

    PubMed

    van Poppel, Pieter M J A; Huigen, Dirk Jan; Govers, Francine

    2009-10-01

    Introgression breeding has resulted in several potato lines that are resistant to late blight, a devastating plant disease caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans. The traditional differential set consists of potato lines with 11 late blight resistance specificities, referred to as R1 to R11. With the exception of the R4 locus, all the resistance loci in these lines have been genetically mapped or positioned in resistance (R) gene clusters. In this study, we show that potato lines that are defined to carry R4 do not necessarily recognize the same P. infestans strains. Field isolates appeared to be avirulent on either the R4 differential developed by Mastenbroek or the one developed by Black but not on both. Previously, we identified the avirulence gene PiAvr4, which is a member of the RXLR effector family. In planta expression of PiAvr4 revealed that recognition of PiAvr4 is strictly confined to the Mastenbroek R4 differential. Segregation of the trait in two independent F1 progenies showed that late blight resistance in this differential is determined by a single dominant gene, now referred to as R4Ma.

  12. Differential expression of three purple acid phosphatases from potato.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, P; Regierer, B; Kossmann, J; Frossard, E; Amrhein, N; Bucher, M

    2004-09-01

    Three cDNAs encoding purple acid phosphatase (PAP) were cloned from potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Désirée) and expression of the corresponding genes was characterised. StPAP1 encodes a low-molecular weight PAP clustering with mammalian, cyanobacterial, and other plant PAPs. It was highly expressed in stem and root and its expression did not change in response to phosphorus (P) deprivation. StPAP2 and StPAP3 code for high-molecular weight PAPs typical for plants. Corresponding gene expression was shown to be responsive to the level of P supply, with transcripts of StPAP2 and StPAP3 being most abundant in P-deprived roots or both stem and roots, respectively. Root colonisation by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi had no effect on the expression of any of the three PAP genes. StPAP1 mRNA is easily detectable along the root axis, including root hairs, but is barely detectable in root tips. In contrast, both StPAP2 and StPAP3 transcripts are abundant along the root axis, but absent in root hairs, and are most abundant in the root tip. All three PAPs described contain a predicted N-terminal secretion signal and could play a role in extracellular P scavenging, P mobilisation from the rhizosphere, or cell wall regeneration.

  13. Influence of gamma radiation on potato starch gelatinization studied by differential scanning calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieśla, Krystyna; Eliasson, Ann-Charlotte

    2002-05-01

    The paper presents a study of the influence of the conditions applied during differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements (concentration and heating rate) on the possible detection of the differences between gelatinization occurring in both non-irradiated and irradiated potato starch with a dose of 20 kGy. Differences in gelatinization of irradiated and non-irradiated potato starch during DSC analysis was attributed to the radiation induced destruction of crystalline ordering. This was confirmed by studies of the samples irradiated to very high doses (446 and 600 kGy), and by comparing with the effect of grinding. Changes of starch properties caused by radiodepolymerization—contrary to those caused by grinding—influences gelatinization behaviour much more than the WAXS crystallinity in solid state.

  14. Sequence-modified primers for the differential RT-PCR detection of Andean potato latent and Andean potato mild mosaic viruses in quarantine tests.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Renate; Ziebell, Heiko

    2014-05-01

    To enable the differential PCR detection of Andean potato latent virus (APLV) and Andean potato mild mosaic virus (APMMV) strains, sense primers were designed that correspond to regions directly upstream of the coat protein genes. Their differentiating power was increased by A->C or T->C replacements in their 3'-terminal parts. Together with the broad-specificity antisense primer EM3, primer AL-a-mod3C detected all APLV strains tested, but none of the APMMV strains. Primer AM-a-mod4C yielded PCR products with all APMMV preparations, but also with some APLV preparations. Sequence analysis revealed that this was not due to a lack of primer specificity, but to the sensitive detection of contaminating APMMV in some of our APLV preparations.

  15. Translational genomics for abiotic stress in sorghum: transcriptional profiling and validation of SNP markers between germplasm with differential cold tolerance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One focus of the Sorghum Translational Genomics Lab (part of sorghum CRIS, PSGD, CSRL, USDA-ARS, Lubbock TX) is to utilize nucleotide variation between sorghum germplasm such as those derived from RNA seq for translation and validation of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) into easy access DNA m...

  16. Lanosterol synthase-like is involved with differential accumulation of steroidal glycoalkaloids in potato.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Akhilesh; Fogelman, Edna; Weissberg, Mira; Tanami, Zachariah; Veilleux, Richard E; Ginzberg, Idit

    2017-08-21

    Phytosterol homeostasis may be maintained in leaves through diversion of intermediates into glycoalkaloid biosynthesis, whereas in tuber flesh, excess intermediates are catalyzed by tuber-specific StLAS - like , resulting in low tuber glycoalkaloids. Lanosterol synthase (LAS) and cycloartenol synthase (CAS) are phylogenetically related enzymes. Cycloartenol is the accepted precursor leading to cholesterol and phytosterols, and in potato, to steroidal glycoalkaloid (SGA) biosynthesis. LAS was also shown to synthesize some plant sterols, albeit at trace amounts, questioning its role in sterol homeostasis. Presently, a potato LAS-related gene (StLAS-like) was identified and its activity verified in a yeast complementation assay. A transgenic approach with targeted gene expression and metabolic profiling of sterols and SGAs was used. Analyses of StLAS-like transcript levels and StLAS-like-promoter::GUS reporter assays indicated specific expression in tuber flesh tissue. Overexpression of Arabidopsis AtLAS in leaves where the endogenic StLAS-like is not expressed, resulted with increased SGA level and reduced phytosterol level, while in the tuber flesh SGA level was reduced. StLAS-like expression only in tuber flesh may explain the differential accumulation of SGAs in commercial cultivars-low in tubers, high in leaves. In leaves, to maintain phytosterol homeostasis, an excess of intermediates may be diverted into SGA biosynthesis, whereas in tuber flesh these intermediates are catalyzed by tuber-specific StLAS-like instead, resulting in low levels of SGA.

  17. Potato genetics, genomics, and applications

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Potato has a variety of reproductive uniquenesses besides its clonal propagation by tubers. These traits are controlled by a different kind of genetic control. The reproductive information has been applied to enable interspecific hybridization to enhance valuable traits, such as disease and pest resistances, from the tuber-bearing Solanum gene pool. While progress has been made in potato breeding, many resources have been invested due to the requirements of large populations and long time frame. This is not only due to the general pitfalls in plant breeding, but also due to the complexity of polyploid genetics. Tetraploid genetics is the most prominent aspect associated with potato breeding. Genetic maps and markers have contributed to potato breeding, and genome information further elucidates questions in potato evolution and supports comprehensive potato breeding. Challenges yet remain on recognizing intellectual property rights to breeding and germplasm, and also on regulatory aspects to incorporate modern biotechnology for increasing genetic variation in potato breeding. PMID:25931980

  18. Carbohydrate metabolism and cell protection mechanisms differentiate drought tolerance and sensitivity in advanced potato clones (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Legay, Sylvain; Lefèvre, Isabelle; Lamoureux, Didier; Barreda, Carolina; Luz, Rosalina Tincopa; Gutierrez, Raymundo; Quiroz, Roberto; Hoffmann, Lucien; Hausman, Jean-François; Bonierbale, Merideth; Evers, Danièle; Schafleitner, Roland

    2011-06-01

    In potatoes and many other crops, drought is one of the most important environmental constraints leading to yield loss. Development of drought-tolerant cultivars is therefore required for maintaining yields under climate change conditions and for the extension of agriculture to sub-optimal cropping areas. Drought tolerance mechanisms have been well described for many crop plants including Native Andean potato. However, knowledge on tolerance traits suitable for commercial potato varieties is scarce. In order to describe drought tolerance mechanisms that sustain potato yield under water stress, we have designed a growth-chamber experiment with two Solanum tuberosum L. cultivars, the more drought tolerant accession 397077.16, and the sensitive variety Canchan. After 21 days of drought exposure, gene expression was studied in leaves using cDNA microarrays. The results showed that the tolerant clone presented more differentially expressed genes than the sensitive one, suggesting greater stress response and adaptation. Moreover, it exhibited a large pool of upregulated genes belonging to cell rescue and detoxication such as LEAs, dehydrins, HSPs, and metallothioneins. Transcription factors related to abiotic stresses and genes belonging to raffinose family oligosaccharide synthesis, involved in desiccation tolerance, were upregulated to a greater extent in the tolerant clone. This latter result was corroborated by biochemical analyses performed at 32 and 49 days after drought that showed an increase in galactinol and raffinose especially in clone 397077.16. The results depict key components for the drought tolerance of this advanced potato clone.

  19. Taxonomy of Cultivated Potatoes (Solanum section Petota: Solanaceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Solanum tuberosum, the cultivated potato of world commerce, is a primary food crop worldwide. Wild and cultivated potatoes form the germplasm base for international breeding efforts to improve potato in the face of variety of disease, environmental, and agronomic constraints. A series of national an...

  20. Taxonomy of cultivated potatoes (solanum section petota: solanaceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Solanum tuberosum, the cultivated potato of world commerce, is a primary food crop worldwide. Wild and cultivated potatoes form the germplasm base for international breeding efforts to improve potato in the face of variety of disease, environmental, and agronomic constraints. A series of national an...

  1. Natural variation of potato allene oxide synthase 2 causes differential levels of jasmonates and pathogen resistance in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Pajerowska-Mukhtar, Karolina M.; Mukhtar, M. Shahid; Guex, Nicolas; Halim, Vincentius A.; Rosahl, Sabine; Somssich, Imre E.

    2008-01-01

    Natural variation of plant pathogen resistance is often quantitative. This type of resistance can be genetically dissected in quantitative resistance loci (QRL). To unravel the molecular basis of QRL in potato (Solanum tuberosum), we employed the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana for functional analysis of natural variants of potato allene oxide synthase 2 (StAOS2). StAOS2 is a candidate gene for QRL on potato chromosome XI against the oömycete Phytophthora infestans causing late blight, and the bacterium Erwinia carotovora ssp. atroseptica causing stem black leg and tuber soft rot, both devastating diseases in potato cultivation. StAOS2 encodes a cytochrome P450 enzyme that is essential for biosynthesis of the defense signaling molecule jasmonic acid. Allele non-specific dsRNAi-mediated silencing of StAOS2 in potato drastically reduced jasmonic acid production and compromised quantitative late blight resistance. Five natural StAOS2 alleles were expressed in the null Arabidopsis aos mutant under control of the Arabidopsis AOS promoter and tested for differential complementation phenotypes. The aos mutant phenotypes evaluated were lack of jasmonates, male sterility and susceptibility to Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora. StAOS2 alleles that were associated with increased disease resistance in potato complemented all aos mutant phenotypes better than StAOS2 alleles associated with increased susceptibility. First structure models of ‘quantitative resistant’ versus ‘quantitative susceptible’ StAOS2 alleles suggested potential mechanisms for their differential activity. Our results demonstrate how a candidate gene approach in combination with using the homologous Arabidopsis mutant as functional reporter can help to dissect the molecular basis of complex traits in non model crop plants. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00425-008-0737-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  2. Simultaneous detection and differentiation of four closely related sweet potato potyviruses by a multiplex one-step RT-PCR

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Four closely related potyviruses, Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), Sweet potato virus C (SPVC), Sweet potato virus G (SPVG) and/or Sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2), are involved in Sweet Potato Viral Disease, the most devastating disease of sweet potato worldwide. Identification and detection ...

  3. Wounding, insect chewing and phloem sap feeding differentially alter the leaf proteome of potato, Solanum tuberosum L.

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Various factors shape the response of plants to herbivorous insects, including wounding patterns, specific chemical effectors and feeding habits of the attacking herbivore. Here we performed a comparative proteomic analysis of the plant's response to wounding and herbivory, using as a model potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L.) subjected to mechanical wounding, defoliation by the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, or phloem sap feeding by the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas. Results Out of ~500 leaf proteins monitored by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), 31 were up- or downregulated by at least one stress treatment compared to healthy control plants. Of these proteins, 29 were regulated by beetle chewing, 8 by wounding and 8 by aphid feeding. Some proteins were up- or downregulated by two different treatments, while others showed diverging expression patterns in response to different treatments. A number of modulated proteins identified by mass spectrometry were typical defense proteins, including wound-inducible protease inhibitors and pathogenesis-related proteins. Proteins involved in photosynthesis were also modulated, notably by potato beetle feeding inducing a strong decrease of some photosystem I proteins. Quantitative RT PCR assays were performed with nucleotide primers for photosynthesis-related proteins to assess the impact of wounding and herbivory at the gene level. Whereas different, sometimes divergent, responses were observed at the proteome level in response to wounding and potato beetle feeding, downregulating effects were systematically observed for both treatments at the transcriptional level. Conclusions These observations illustrate the differential impacts of wounding and insect herbivory on defense- and photosynthesis-related components of the potato leaf proteome, likely associated with the perception of distinct physical and chemical cues in planta. PMID:23268880

  4. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes in Chilling-Induced Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.); a Data Analysis Study.

    PubMed

    Koc, I; Vatansever, R; Ozyigit, I I; Filiz, E

    2015-10-01

    Cold stress, as chilling (<20 °C) or freezing (<0 °C), is one of the frequently exposed stresses in cultivated plants like potato. Under cold stress, plants differentially modulate their gene expression to develop a cold tolerance/acclimation. In the present study, we aimed to identify the overall gene expression profile of chilling-stressed (+4 °C) potato at four time points (4, 8, 12, and 48 h), with a particular emphasis on the genes related with transcription factors (TFs), phytohormones, lipid metabolism, signaling pathway, and photosynthesis. A total of 3504 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified at four time points of chilling-induced potato, of which 1397 were found to be up-regulated while 2107 were down-regulated. Heatmap showed that genes were mainly up-regulated at 4-, 8-, and 12-h time points; however, at 48-h time point, they inclined to down-regulate. Seventy five up-regulated TF genes were identified from 37 different families/groups, including mainly from bHLH, WRKY, CCAAT-binding, HAP3, and bZIP families. Protein kinases and calcium were major signaling molecules in cold-induced signaling pathway. A collaborated regulation of phytohormones was observed in chilling-stressed potato. Lipid metabolisms were regulated in a way, highly probably, to change membrane composition to avoid cold damage and render in signaling. A down-regulated gene expression profile was observed in photosynthesis pathway, probably resulting from chilling-induced reduced enzyme activity or light-triggered ROSs damage. The findings of this study will be a valuable theoretical knowledge in terms of understanding the chilling-induced tolerance mechanisms in cultivated potato plants as well as in other Solanum species.

  5. Differential Protein Expression in Response to Abiotic Stress in Two Potato Species: Solanum commersonii Dun and Solanum tuberosum L.

    PubMed

    Folgado, Raquel; Panis, Bart; Sergeant, Kjell; Renaut, Jenny; Swennen, Rony; Hausman, Jean-Francois

    2013-03-01

    Better knowledge on responses to dehydration stress could help to improve the existing cryopreservation protocols for potato, since plant tissues processed for cryopreservation are often submitted to similar in vitro stress conditions. Cryopreservation (the best method of conservation for vegetatively propagated plants) of potato still needs to be standardized to make it available and to conserve the wide diversity of this crop. In the present work, the response to osmotic stress and chilling temperature was investigated in two potato species, Solanum tuberosum and its relative, frost-tolerant S. commersonii. After 14 days of exposure, different growth parameters, such as shoot length and number of leaves, were measured. Furthermore, differentially abundant proteins were identified after performing 2-fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2-DIGE) experiments, and soluble carbohydrates were analyzed by High Performance Anion Exchange Chromatography with Pulsed Amperometric Detection (HPAEC-PAD). The results show different responses in both species depending on the stress treatment. Focusing on the differences in growth parameters during the treatments, Solanum commersonii seems to be more affected than S. tuberosum cv. Désirée. At the molecular level, there are some differences and similarities between the two potato species studied that are dependent on the type of stressor.

  6. Increased sensitivity of RT-PCR for Potato virus Y detection using RNA isolated by a procedure with differential centrifugation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianhua; Nie, Xianzhou; Boquel, Sébastien; Al-Daoud, Fadi; Pelletier, Yvan

    2015-12-01

    The sensitivity of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for virus detection is influenced by many factors such as specificity of primers and quality of templates. These factors become extremely important for successful detection when virus concentration is low. Total RNA isolated from Potato virus Y (PVY)-infected potato plants using the sodium sulfite RNA isolation method or RNeasy plant mini kit contains a high proportion of host RNA and may also contain trace amount of phenolic and polysaccharide residues, which may inhibit RT-PCR. The goal of this study was to enhance the sensitivity of PVY detection by reducing host RNA in the extract by differential centrifugation followed by extraction using an RNeasy mini kit (DCR method). One-step RT-PCR had relatively low amplification efficiency for PVY RNA when a high proportion of plant RNA was present. SYBR Green-based real time RT-PCR showed that the RNA isolated by the DCR method had a higher cycle threshold value (Ct) for the elongation factor 1-α mRNA (Ef1α) of potato than the Ct value of the RNA extracted using the RNeasy plant mini kit, indicating that the DCR method significantly reduced the proportion of potato RNA in the extract. The detectable amount of RNA extracted using the DCR method was <0.001ng when plant sap from 10 PVY-infected and PVY-free potato leaflets in a 1.5:100 fresh weight ratio was extracted, compared with 0.01 and 0.02ng of RNA using the RNeasy plant mini kit and sodium sulfite RNA isolation methods, respectively.

  7. In vitro maintenance and cryopreservation of Plant Variety Protection vouchers germplasm of Solanum tuberosum cultivars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA-ARS, National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation maintains the voucher germplasm of Plant Variety Protection (PVP) potato (S. tuberosum) cultivars registered with the U.S. Plant Variety Protection Office. The potato cultivars are deposited at the Center as tissue culture and are main...

  8. Detection, identification and differentiation of Pectobacterium and Dickeya species causing potato blackleg and tuber soft rot: a review

    PubMed Central

    Czajkowski, R; Pérombelon, MCM; Jafra, S; Lojkowska, E; Potrykus, M; van der Wolf, JM; Sledz, W

    2015-01-01

    The soft rot Enterobacteriaceae (SRE) Pectobacterium and Dickeya species (formerly classified as pectinolytic Erwinia spp.) cause important diseases on potato and other arable and horticultural crops. They may affect the growing potato plant causing blackleg and are responsible for tuber soft rot in storage thereby reducing yield and quality. Efficient and cost-effective detection and identification methods are essential to investigate the ecology and pathogenesis of the SRE as well as in seed certification programmes. The aim of this review was to collect all existing information on methods available for SRE detection. The review reports on the sampling and preparation of plant material for testing and on over thirty methods to detect, identify and differentiate the soft rot and blackleg causing bacteria to species and subspecies level. These include methods based on biochemical characters, serology, molecular techniques which rely on DNA sequence amplification as well as several less-investigated ones. PMID:25684775

  9. Detection, identification and differentiation of Pectobacterium and Dickeya species causing potato blackleg and tuber soft rot: a review.

    PubMed

    Czajkowski, R; Pérombelon, McM; Jafra, S; Lojkowska, E; Potrykus, M; van der Wolf, Jm; Sledz, W

    2015-01-01

    The soft rot Enterobacteriaceae (SRE) Pectobacterium and Dickeya species (formerly classified as pectinolytic Erwinia spp.) cause important diseases on potato and other arable and horticultural crops. They may affect the growing potato plant causing blackleg and are responsible for tuber soft rot in storage thereby reducing yield and quality. Efficient and cost-effective detection and identification methods are essential to investigate the ecology and pathogenesis of the SRE as well as in seed certification programmes. The aim of this review was to collect all existing information on methods available for SRE detection. The review reports on the sampling and preparation of plant material for testing and on over thirty methods to detect, identify and differentiate the soft rot and blackleg causing bacteria to species and subspecies level. These include methods based on biochemical characters, serology, molecular techniques which rely on DNA sequence amplification as well as several less-investigated ones.

  10. Differential expression of invertase genes in internal and external phloem tissues of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Hedley, P E; Maddison, A L; Davidson, D; Machray, G C

    2000-04-01

    The cloning of promoter sequences of two invertase genes from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is described. Histochemical analysis of series of reporter transgenic lines reveals phloem-specific expression from both promoters, with one expressed preferentially in internal phloem and the other in external phloem of stem vascular bundles.

  11. In vitro technology at the US Potato Genebank

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The US Potato Genebank at Sturgeon Bay, WI, is the active national germplasm collection for the world's most important vegetable crop. It contains about 6,000 accessions of 100 species of tuber-bearing relatives of Solanum tuberosum. The potato of commerce is a clonal crop susceptible to many syste...

  12. In vitro technology at the US Potato Genebank

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The US Potato Genebank at Sturgeon Bay, WI, is the active national germplasm collection for the world's most important vegetable crop. It contains 6,000 accessions of 100 species of tuber-bearing relatives of Solanum tuberosum. The potato of commerce is a clonal crop susceptible to many systemic pa...

  13. Differential activation of sporamin expression in response to abiotic mechanical wounding and biotic herbivore attack in the sweet potato

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Plants respond differently to mechanical wounding and herbivore attack, using distinct pathways for defense. The versatile sweet potato sporamin possesses multiple biological functions in response to stress. However, the regulation of sporamin gene expression that is activated upon mechanical damage or herbivore attack has not been well studied. Results Biochemical analysis revealed that different patterns of Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant mechanism exist between mechanical wounding (MW) and herbivore attack (HA) in the sweet potato leaf. Using LC-ESI-MS (Liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis), only the endogenous JA (jasmonic acid) level was found to increase dramatically after MW in a time-dependent manner, whereas both endogenous JA and SA (salicylic acid) increase in parallel after HA. Through yeast one-hybrid screening, two transcription factors IbNAC1 (no apical meristem (NAM), Arabidopsis transcription activation factor (ATAF), and cup-shaped cotyledon (CUC)) and IbWRKY1 were isolated, which interact with the sporamin promoter fragment of SWRE (sporamin wounding-responsive element) regulatory sequences. Exogenous application of MeJA (methyl jasmonate), SA and DIECA (diethyldithiocarbamic acid, JAs biosynthesis inhibitor) on sweet potato leaves was employed, and the results revealed that IbNAC1 mediated the expression of sporamin through a JA-dependent signaling pathway upon MW, whereas both IbNAC1 and IbWRKY1 coordinately regulated sporamin expression through JA- and SA-dependent pathways upon HA. Transcriptome analysis identified MYC2/4 and JAZ2/TIFY10A (jasmonate ZIM/tify-domain), the repressor and activator of JA and SA signaling among others, as the genes that play an intermediate role in the JA and SA pathways, and these results were further validated by qRT-PCR (quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction). Conclusion This work has improved our understanding of the differential

  14. Mint essential oil can induce or inhibit potato sprouting by differential alteration of apical meristem.

    PubMed

    Teper-Bamnolker, Paula; Dudai, Nativ; Fischer, Ravit; Belausov, Eduard; Zemach, Hanita; Shoseyov, Oded; Eshel, Dani

    2010-06-01

    Sprouting of potatoes during storage, due to tuber dormancy release, is associated with weight loss and softening. Sprout-preventing chemicals, such as chlorpropham (CIPC), can negatively impact the environment and human health. Monthly thermal fogging with mint (Mentha spicata L.) essential oil (MEO) inhibited sprouting in eight potato cultivars during large-volume 6-month storage: the tubers remained firm with 38% lower weight loss after 140 days of storage. The sprout-inhibitory action may be nullified: treated tubers washed with water resumed sprouting within days, with reduced apical dominance. MEO application caused local necrosis of the bud meristem, and a few weeks later, axillary bud (AX) growth was induced in the same sprouting eye. MEO components analysis showed that 73% of its content is the monoterpene R-carvone. Tubers treated with synthetic R-carvone in equivalent dose, 4.5 microl l(-1), showed an inhibitory effect similar to that of MEO. Surprisingly, 0.5 microl l(-1) of MEO or synthetic R-carvone catalyzed AX sprouting in the tuber. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an essential oil vapor inducing early sprouting of potato tubers. R-carvone caused visible damage to the meristem membrane at sprout-inhibiting, but not sprout-inducing doses, suggesting different underlying mechanisms. After 5 days' exposure to R-carvone, its derivatives transcarveol and neo-dihydrocarveol were found in buds of tubers treated with the inhibitory dose, suggesting biodegradation. These experiments demonstrate the potential of MEO vapor as an environmentally friendly alternative to CIPC in stored potatoes and as a research tool for the control of sprouting in plants.

  15. Diversity of potato genetic resources

    PubMed Central

    Machida-Hirano, Ryoko

    2015-01-01

    A considerable number of highly diverse species exist in genus Solanum. Because they can adapt to a broad range of habitats, potato wild relatives are promising sources of desirable agricultural traits. Potato taxonomy is quite complex because of introgression, interspecific hybridization, auto- and allopolyploidy, sexual compatibility among many species, a mixture of sexual and asexual reproduction, possible recent species divergence, phenotypic plasticity, and the consequent high morphological similarity among species. Recent researchers using molecular tools have contributed to the identification of genes controlling several types of resistance as well as to the revision of taxonomical relationships among potato species. Historically, primitive forms of cultivated potato and its wild relatives have been used in breeding programs and there is still an enormous and unimaginable potential for discovering desirable characteristics, particularly in wild species Different methods have been developed to incorporate useful alleles from these wild species into the improved cultivars. Potato germplasm comprising of useful alleles for different breeding objectives is preserved in various gene banks worldwide. These materials, with their invaluable information, are accessible for research and breeding purposes. Precise identification of species base on the new taxonomy is essential for effective use of the germplasm collection. PMID:25931978

  16. Polyphenol oxidase in potato. A multigene family that exhibits differential expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Thygesen, P W; Dry, I B; Robinson, S P

    1995-10-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants was high in stolons, tubers, roots, and flowers but low in leaves and stems. PPO activity per tuber continued to increase throughout tuber development but was highest on a fresh weight basis in developing tubers. PPO activity was greatest at the tuber exterior, including the skin and cortex tissue 1 to 2 mm beneath the skin. Flowers had high PPO activity throughout development, particularly in the anthers and ovary. Five distinct cDNA clones encoding PPO were isolated from developing tuber RNA. POT32 was the major form expressed in tubers and was found in all parts of the tuber and at all stages of tuber development. It was also expressed in roots but not in photosynthetic tissues. POT33 was expressed in tubers but mainly in the tissue near the skin. POT72 was detected in roots and at low levels in developing tubers. NOR333 was identical with the P2 PPO clone previously isolated from potato leaves (M.D. Hunt, N.T. Eannetta, Y. Haifeng, S.M. Newman, J.C. Steffens [1993] Plant Mol Biol 21: 59-68) and was detected in young leaves and in tissue near the tuber skin but was highly expressed in flowers. The results indicate that PPO is present as a small multigene family in potato and that each gene has a specific temporal and spatial pattern of expression.

  17. Polyphenol oxidase in potato. A multigene family that exhibits differential expression patterns.

    PubMed Central

    Thygesen, P W; Dry, I B; Robinson, S P

    1995-01-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants was high in stolons, tubers, roots, and flowers but low in leaves and stems. PPO activity per tuber continued to increase throughout tuber development but was highest on a fresh weight basis in developing tubers. PPO activity was greatest at the tuber exterior, including the skin and cortex tissue 1 to 2 mm beneath the skin. Flowers had high PPO activity throughout development, particularly in the anthers and ovary. Five distinct cDNA clones encoding PPO were isolated from developing tuber RNA. POT32 was the major form expressed in tubers and was found in all parts of the tuber and at all stages of tuber development. It was also expressed in roots but not in photosynthetic tissues. POT33 was expressed in tubers but mainly in the tissue near the skin. POT72 was detected in roots and at low levels in developing tubers. NOR333 was identical with the P2 PPO clone previously isolated from potato leaves (M.D. Hunt, N.T. Eannetta, Y. Haifeng, S.M. Newman, J.C. Steffens [1993] Plant Mol Biol 21: 59-68) and was detected in young leaves and in tissue near the tuber skin but was highly expressed in flowers. The results indicate that PPO is present as a small multigene family in potato and that each gene has a specific temporal and spatial pattern of expression. PMID:7480344

  18. [Differentiated conditions for the induction of suberin synthesis or cell proliferation in potato tuber tissue after derepression].

    PubMed

    Lange, H; Rosenstock, G; Kahl, G

    1970-06-01

    Experiments with potato tuber fragments under normal atmospheric conditions (0.03% CO2) suggest that a wound periderm, prominently marked by suberin synthesis, develops regularly, independently of preparation technics. It has been demonstrated that potato parenchym is able to perform differentiated reactions depending on the changing influences on the reacting cells caused by the wound stimulus and partial isolation. Suberin synthesis and the cicatrization effect can be suppressed totally if changes remain insignificant as compared with the cellular state in the intact organ. This requires: 1. separating the tissue without bruising it to avoid deformations of the protoplasmatic structure; 2. removing adjacent fragments of destroyed cells by rinsing the slices; 3. maintaining cell turgidity by keeping the moisture in the reaction atmosphere at 100%. Moreover 10% CO2-concentration is necessary, corresponding to the intercellular air in situ.Whithin 24 hours after depression these conditions induce spontaneous proliferation uniformly in all superficial cell layers of tissue slices, accompanied by multiple mitosis in place of the typical suberized wound periderm. Inhibition of suberin biosynthesis is reversible by subsequent modification of reaction conditions. In contrast a method has been found to induce suberin formation only and to suppress any cell division activity (Kahl et al., 1969 a). This provides the opportunity to analyse causal corresponding physiological reactions in genetically identical cells. The advantage of this method-compared with long term experiments involving hormone-activated growth in sterile tissue culture - is the possibility of controlling quantitative and qualitative changes in biochemical pathways immediately after derepression.

  19. Better Collection and Maintenance Procedures Needed to Help Protect Agriculture’s Germplasm Resources.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-04

    numerous operational problems, primarily because of a lack of depart- mental attention and a low priority given to improving the system. Germplasm has...potato failure, crop failures have occurred. In 1953 and 1954, a wheat disease, wheat stem rust, took 65 and 75 percent, respectively, of the pasta crop...officials within ARS cite lack of funds and staff as the source of their problems. Until recently, germplasm has had a relatively low priority within

  20. Molecular characterization of genetic diversity, structure, and differentiation in the olive (Olea europaea L.) germplasm collection of the united states department of agriculture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fifteen microsatellite loci were used to genotype 108 accessions of cultivated olive, Olea europaea L. ssp. europaea var. europaea, and eight of O. europaea L. ssp. cuspidata (Wall. ex G. Don) Ciferri from the germplasm collection of the United States Department of Agriculture in Davis, California. ...

  1. Transcript profiling of two potato cultivars during glycoalkaloid-inducing treatments shows differential expression of genes in sterol and glycoalkaloid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Nurun; Westerberg, Erik; Arif, Usman; Huchelmann, Alexandre; Olarte Guasca, Alexandra; Beste, Lisa; Dalman, Kerstin; Dutta, Paresh C.; Jonsson, Lisbeth; Sitbon, Folke

    2017-01-01

    Steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGA) are sterol-derived neurotoxic defence substances present in several members of the Solanaceae. In the potato (Solanum tuberosum), high SGA levels may render tubers harmful for consumption. Tuber SGA levels depend on genetic factors, and can increase as a response to certain stresses and environmental conditions. To identify genes underlying the cultivar variation in tuber SGA levels, we investigated two potato cultivars differing in their SGA accumulation during wounding or light exposure; two known SGA-inducing treatments. Using microarray analysis coupled to sterol and SGA quantifications, we identified a small number of differentially expressed genes that were associated with increased SGA levels. Two of these genes, encoding distinct types of sterol Δ24-reductases, were by sense/antisense expression in transgenic potato plants shown to have differing roles in sterol and SGA metabolism. The results show that an increased SGA level in potato tubers during both wounding and light exposure is mediated by coordinated expression of a set of key genes in isoprenoid and steroid metabolism, and suggest that differences in this expression underlie cultivar variations in SGA levels. These results may find use within potato breeding and quality assessment. PMID:28256633

  2. PHENOTYPIC AND MOLECULAR DIFFERENTIATION OF PECTOBACTERIUM AND DICKEYA SPP. CAUSING POTATO TUBER AND STEM ROT IN NORTH-WESTERN PROVINCES OF IRAN.

    PubMed

    Pour, L; Mohammadi, M; Khodakaramian, G; Moghadam, B Soheili

    2015-01-01

    Iran is one of the most important potato-producing countries in Asia and Oceania. Approximately 20 percent of potato cultivation in Iran occurs in the North-western provinces. Pectobacterium and Dickeya species cause important diseases in potato crop. They may incite blackleg and are responsible for tuber soft rot in storage, thereby reducing yield and quality. In order to identify and differentiate the species of soft rot bacteria, potato stems and tubers showing soft rot symptoms were collected from potato fields in North-western Iran. A total of fifty strains belonging to Pectobacterium and Dickeya species were isolated and identified from the infected tissues. Phenotypic characterization revealed a considerable variation among strains thus dividing them into five separate groups. Group 1 strains belonged to Dickeya chrysanthemi that were different from the type strain in malonate utilization. Group 2 strains were similar to Pectobacterium betavascularum but were different from the type strain in utilization of raffinose, citrate and D-sorbitol. Group 3 strains showed more resemblance to P. wasabiae but were different from the type strain with respect to acetoin production. Group 4 strains belonged to P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc) and group 5 strains were identified as intersubspecific of Pcc and P. carotovorum subsp. odoriferum. Polymerase chain reaction using pelY primers identified strains belonging to Pectobacterium species but not P. betavascularum.

  3. A Microsatellite and Morphological Assessment of the Russian National Potato Collection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The germplasm collections of the Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry, Russia (VIR) represents the first germplasm made for potatoes, today numbering 8680 accessions of cultivated species. It has tremendous historical and practical importance and a rich history, having been used to document a polyplo...

  4. Differential responses of the antioxidant defence system and ultrastructure in a salt-adapted potato cell line.

    PubMed

    Queirós, Filipa; Rodrigues, José A; Almeida, José M; Almeida, Domingos P F; Fidalgo, Fernanda

    2011-12-01

    Changes in lipid peroxidation and ion content and the possible involvement of the antioxidant system in salt tolerance at the cellular level was studied in a potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) callus line grown on 150 mM NaCl (salt-adapted) and in a non-adapted line exposed to 150 mM NaCl (salt-stressed). Salinity reduced the growth rate and increased lipid peroxidation in salt-stressed line, which remained unaltered in the adapted line. Na⁺ and Cl⁻ content increased due to salinity in both lines, but the adapted line displayed greater K⁺/Na⁺ ratio than the stressed one. Total superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) activities decreased in both salt-exposed lines; catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) activity did not change in the adapted line, but decreased in the stressed cell line. Salinity caused the suppression of one GR isoform, while the isozyme patterns of SOD, APX, and CAT were not affected. Ascorbate and reduced glutathione increased in both salt-exposed calli lines. α-Tocopherol increased as a result of salt exposure, with higher levels found in adapted calli. Electron microscopy showed that neither the structural integrity of the cells nor membrane structure were affected by salinity, but plastids from adapted cells had higher starch content. The results suggest that the enzymic and non-enzymic components of the antioxidant system are differentially modulated by salt. Different concentrations of antioxidant metabolites are more relevant to the adaptive response to salinity in potato calli than the differences in activity of the antioxidant enzymes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Differential ozone susceptibility of Centennial Russet and White Rose potato as demonstrated by fumigation and antioxidant treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, K.W.; Guerard, J.P.; Oshima, R.J.; Bishop, J.C.; Timm, H.

    1983-01-01

    Because quantitative field estimates of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) yield losses attributable to ozone (O/sub 3/) air pollution damage in California need to be assessed, the antioxidant compound N-(-2-(2-oxo-1-imidazo-lidinyl)ethyl)-N'-phenylurea (EDU or DPX-4891) was evaluated for suitability in estimating these yield losses and in differentiating O/sub 3/-susceptible from O/sub 3/-resistant cultivars. Differential susceptibility of two cultivars, 'Centennial Russet' (O/sub 3/-sensitive) and 'White Rose' (O/sub 3/-resistant), to O/sub 3/ was confirmed in greenhouse experiments. In the absence of O/sub 3/ under greenhouse conditions, EDU had no observable effect on shoot dry weight, tuber number, or tuber yield of either cultivar, suggesting that EDU does not materially affect plant growth in the absence of O/sub 3/ at the treatment levels used and under the conditions herein. In field experiments, EDU applied at the highest rate, 17.8 kg/ha, increased marketable and total tuber yields of Centennial Russet by 208 and 188 q/ha, respectively, and increased specific gravity by 0.013. White Rose was not affected by EDU.

  6. Differential gene expression in intestinal epithelial cells induced by single and mixtures of potato glycoalkaloids.

    PubMed

    Mandimika, Tafadzwa; Baykus, Hakan; Vissers, Yvonne; Jeurink, Prescilla; Poortman, Jenneke; Garza, Cutberto; Kuiper, Harry; Peijnenburg, Ad

    2007-11-28

    Alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine are naturally occurring toxins. They account for 95% of the total glycoalkaloids in potatoes ( Solanum tuberosum L.). At high levels, these glycoalkaloids may be toxic to humans, mainly by disrupting cell membranes of the gastrointestinal tract. Gene-profiling experiments were performed, whereby Caco-2 cells were exposed to equivalent concentrations (10 microM) of pure alpha-chaconine or alpha-solanine or glycoalkaloid mixtures of varying alpha-chaconine/alpha-solanine ratios for 6 h. In addition, lactate dehydrogenase, cell cycle, and apoptosis analyses experiments were also conducted to further elucidate the effects of glycoalkaloids. The main aims of the study were to determine the transcriptional effects of these glycoalkaloid treatments on Caco-2 cells and to investigate DNA microarray utility in conjunction with conventional toxicology in screening for potential toxicities and their severity. Gene expression and pathway analyses identified changes related to cholesterol biosynthesis, growth signaling, lipid and amino acid metabolism, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and NF-kappaB cascades, cell cycle, and cell death/apoptosis. To varying extents, DNA microarrays discriminated the severity of the effect among the different glycoalkaloid treatments.

  7. Maintaining Medicinal Plant Germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    For all plant genetic resources collections, including medicinal plant germplasm, maintaining the genetic integrity of material held ex situ is of major importance. This holds true for all intended end uses of the material whether it is as a source for crop improvement, medical research, as voucher...

  8. Meiotic abnormalities underlying pollen sterility in wild potato hybrids and spontaneous populations.

    PubMed

    Larrosa, F H; Maune, J F; Erazzú, L E; Camadro, E L

    2012-01-01

    Wild potato species are widely distributed in the Americas, where they spontaneously grow in very diverse habitats. These species - with low chromosome differentiation - form polyploid series with 2n = 2x, 3x, 4x and 6x (x =12). They are isolated in nature by external and internal hybridisation barriers that can be incomplete, allowing hybridisation in areas of sympatry. Nevertheless, most accessions in germplasm banks, regardless of genetic background of the sampled spontaneous populations, have been assigned specific categories based on morphological characters. To further investigate the extent of hybridisation in the group and for comparative purposes, pollen viability was estimated in (i) artificial hybrids between a commercial cultivar (Calén INTA) of the common potato (tetraploid Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum) and the tetraploid cytotype of the related wild species S. gourlayi, and (ii) samples of plants (accessions) and inflorescences of natural populations from Argentina, tentatively classified as 'presumed hybrids' (S. infundibuliforme-S. gourlayi) and 'species' (S. infundibuliforme, S. gourlayi and S. chacoense). Regardless of origin, 98 out of 103 plants analysed had zero to 70% pollen viability (zero to 40% in eight of them). Pollen grains were of variable size and morphology and, in mostly male sterile plants, the only viable pollen grains were 2n and/or 4n. Furthermore, male sterile plants shared various abnormalities in meiosis I and II (unpaired chromosomes, unequal chromosome distribution, precocious/lagging chromosomes, parallel, tripolar, fused and multiple spindles, unequal size nuclei, dyads, triads and pentads in addition to normal tetrads, among others). These results provide novel evidence to support field observations of early potato botanists on the extent of spontaneous hybridisation in wild Argentinian potato populations, which is not reflected in the current taxonomy and has significant consequences for germplasm conservation and

  9. The two classes of genes for the major potato tuber protein, patatin, are differentially expressed in tubers and roots.

    PubMed Central

    Pikaard, C S; Brusca, J S; Hannapel, D J; Park, W D

    1987-01-01

    The major potato tuber protein, patatin, is a family of 40kd glycoproteins that constitutes forty per cent of the soluble protein in tubers but is generally undetectable in other tissues. Fused rocket immunoelectro-phoresis was used to detect in roots patatin that is immunologically different from tuber patatin. Western blots of SDS-polyacrylamide gels show root patatin to have a different molecular weight distribution than tuber patatin isoforms, but immunoprecipitation of in vitro translation products shows the patatin precursors to be of similar molecular weight in both tissues. This suggests that post-translational processing may differ in tubers and roots. Northern blots show that tuber and root patatin mRNAs are of similar size, but tuber transcripts are about 100-fold more abundant. 5' S1 nuclease and primer extension mapping suggests the class of patatin transcripts expressed in roots (class II transcripts) to be a subset of patatin transcripts expressed in tubers (classes I and II). Class II patatin mRNAs differ from class I transcripts by the presence of a 22 nucleotide insertion just upstream of the initiation codon. These data demonstrate that expression of the patatin multigene family is differentially regulated in tubers and roots. Images PMID:3031583

  10. New source of bacterial soft rot resistance in wild potato (Solanum chacoense) tubers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacterial soft rot caused by Pectobacterium and Dickeya species can cause major losses to the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) industry, mostly due to tuber rot in storage. There are few germplasm resources for soft rot resistance breeding. Here, we introduce a resistant diploid wild potato relative, M...

  11. Quantitative trait loci for resistance to common scab and cold-induced sweetening in diploid potato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The development of germplasm with resistance to common scab and cold-induced sweetening is a high priority for the potato industry. A mapping population was developed from mating two individuals from a diploid family generated by crossing the susceptible cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) clone U...

  12. The Population Structure of Phytophthora infestans from the Toluca Valley of Central Mexico Suggests Genetic Differentiation Between Populations from Cultivated Potato and Wild Solanum spp.

    PubMed

    Flier, Wilbert G; Grünwald, Niklaus J; Kroon, Laurens P N M; Sturbaum, Anne K; van den Bosch, Trudy B M; Garay-Serrano, Edith; Lozoya-Saldaña, Hector; Fry, William E; Turkensteen, Lod J

    2003-04-01

    ABSTRACT The population structure of Phytophthora infestans in the Toluca Valley of central Mexico was assessed using 170 isolates collected from cultivated potatoes and the native wild Solanum spp., S. demissum and S. xendinense. All isolates were analyzed for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) multi-locus fingerprint genotype. Isolate samples were monomorphic for mtDNA haplotype because all isolates tested were of the Ia haplotype. A total of 158 multilocus AFLP genotypes were identified among the 170 P. infestans isolates included in this study. P. infestans populations sampled in the Toluca Valley in 1997 were highly variable and almost every single isolate represented a unique genotype based on the analysis of 165 AFLP marker loci. Populations of P. infestans collected from the commercial potato-growing region in the valley, the subsistence potato production area along the slopes of the Nevado de Toluca, and the native Solanum spp. on the forested slopes of the volcano showed a high degree of genetic diversity. The number of polymorphic loci varied from 20.0 to 62.4% for isolates collected from the field station and wild Solanum spp. On average, 81.8% (135) of the AFLP loci were polymorphic. Hetero-zygosity varied between 7.7 and 19.4%. Significant differentiation was found at the population level between strains originating from cultivated potatoes and wild Solanum spp. (P = 0.001 to 0.022). Private alleles were observed in individual isolates collected from all three populations, with numbers of unique dominant alleles varying from 9 to 16 for isolates collected from commercial potato crops and native Solanum spp., respectively. Four AFLP markers were exclusively found present in isolates collected from S. demissum. Indirect estimation of gene flow between populations indicated restricted gene flow between both P. infestans populations from cultivated potatoes and wild Solanum hosts. There was no evidence

  13. Application of matrix solid-phase dispersion to the propham and maleic hydrazide determination in potatoes by differential pulse voltammetry and HPLC.

    PubMed

    Arribas, Alberto Sánchez; Bermejo, Esperanza; Chicharro, Manuel; Zapardiel, Antonio

    2007-01-15

    The application of the matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) process as sample treatment in connection with the electrochemical detection is studied for the first time. For this purpose, a novel methodology is introduced for the extraction of propham and maleic hydrazide herbicides from potatoes samples based in the MSPD process prior to their electrochemical detection. Potato samples disruption was done by blending them with C(8) bonded-phase and selective herbicide extraction was achieved by successive treatment of the blended with 50mM phosphate buffer pH 7.4 (for maleic hydrazide) and methanol (for propham). The extraction procedure efficiency was estimated using differential pulse voltammetry in potato samples spiked with the herbicides yielding recovery values of 98% and 68% for propham and maleic hydrazide, respectively. No significant adverse effect of the MSPD process was observed on the herbicides electrochemical signals. For comparison, recovery studies using HPLC with UV detection were carried out and a good correlation in the results obtained by using both techniques was observed.

  14. National Date Palm Germplasm Repository

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The National Clonal Germplasm Repository for Citrus & Dates (NCGRCD), located in Riverside, California USA, is a project of the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). The NCGRCD maintains a collection of germplasm of date palm (Phoneix dactylifera ...

  15. National Date Palm Germplasm Repository

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The National Clonal Germplasm Repository for Citrus & Dates (NCGRCD), located in Riverside, California USA, is a project of the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). The NCGRCD maintains a collection of germplasm of date palm (Phoneix dactylifera ...

  16. Pedigree reconstruction with genome-wide markers in potato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reliable pedigree information facilitates a scientific approach to breeding, but errors can be introduced in many stages of a breeding program. Our objective was to use single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to check the pedigree records of elite North American potato germplasm. A population of 635 ...

  17. Colorado potato beetles show differential digestive compensatory responses to host plants expressing distinct sets of defense proteins.

    PubMed

    Rivard, Daniel; Cloutier, Conrad; Michaud, Dominique

    2004-03-01

    Herbivorous insects fed plants expressing proteinase inhibitors (PIs) compensate for the loss of digestive proteolytic functions by producing novel proteinases. We assessed here whether such compensatory responses represent a general, non-specific adaptation to defense-related proteins in host plant tissues, or if distinct responses occur depending on the stress exerted on the plant. As a model, growth, development, and digestive proteases of the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say) were monitored after feeding larvae with plants pre-treated with either methyl jasmonate or arachidonic acid, two compounds inducing different sets of defense genes in potato. In brief, larvae fed plants treated with jasmonate or arachidonate were negatively affected compared to larvae fed non-treated plants, suggesting the potency of both molecules to induce partial resistance to potato beetles in potato. On the other hand, larvae fed treated plants partially compensated for the presence of defense-related proteins by adapting their digestive proteolytic system, both quantitatively and qualitatively. These compensatory processes varied depending on the treatment, the larvae fed arachidonate-treated plants showing the most dramatic response. Compensation to jasmonate and arachidonate was also influenced by a cysteine PI from rice expressed in the plant, pointing out the possible indirect effects of recombinant defense proteins on naturally-occurring plant-insect interactions. These observations, while showing the potential of jasmonate and arachidonate as inducers of partial resistance to the potato beetle in potato, also suggest that digestive compensation in herbivorous insects is determined, at least in part, by defense-related compounds found in the plant in response to different stress stimuli or as a result of ectopic expression in transgenic plants. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Potato Flavor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The potato is one of the most popular vegetables worldwide and is the most important vegetable crop in the United States, accounting for nearly one-third of per-capita vegetable consumption. Potatoes can be prepared in many ways, including baking, boiling, roasting, frying, and microwaving, allowin...

  19. Identification and cloning of differentially expressed genes involved in the interaction between potato and Phytophthora infestans using a subtractive hybridization and cDNA-AFLP combinational approach.

    PubMed

    Henriquez, Maria Antonia; Daayf, Fouad

    2010-05-01

    Using a subtractive hybridization (SH)/cDNA-AFLP combinational approach, differentially expressed genes involved in the potato-Phytophthora infestans interaction were identified. These included genes potentially controlling pathogenesis or avr genes in P. infestans as well as those potentially involved in potato resistance or susceptibility to this pathogen. Forty-one differentially expressed transcript-derived fragments (TDFs), resulting from the interaction, were cloned and sequenced. Two TDFs, suggested as potential pathogenicity factors, have sequence similarity to N-succinyl diaminopimelate aminotransferase and a transcriptional regulator, TetR family gene, respectively. Two other TDFs, suggested as potential avr genes, have sequence similarity to an EST sequence from Avr4/Cf-4/Avr9/Cf-9 and a P. infestans avirulence-associated gene, respectively. Genes' expression and origin were confirmed using Southern blots, Northern blots and qRT-PCR. I.e., potential resistance gene DL81 was induced at 12 hpi in the moderately resistant cultivar, whereas it was down-regulated as early as 6 hpi in the susceptible cultivar. On the other hand, DL21 was induced at 6 hpi (3.38-fold) in response to the highly aggressive isolate (US8) and strongly up-regulated thereafter (25.13-fold at 120 hpi.), whereas it was only slightly up-regulated in response to the weakly aggressive isolate US11 (3.82-fold at 96 hpi), suggesting its potential involvement as a susceptibility gene.

  20. Induction of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway in differentiated Caco-2 cells by the potato glycoalkaloid alpha-chaconine.

    PubMed

    Mandimika, Tafadzwa; Baykus, Hakan; Poortman, Jenneke; Garza, Cutberto; Kuiper, Harry; Peijnenburg, Ad

    2007-10-01

    Glycoalkaloids are naturally occurring toxins in potatoes, which at high levels may induce toxic effects in humans, mainly on the gastrointestinal tract by cell membrane disruption. In order to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying glycoalkaloid toxicity, we examined the effects of alpha-chaconine on gene expression in the Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cell line using DNA microarrays. Caco-2 cells were exposed for 6h to 10 microM alpha-chaconine in three independent experiments (randomized block design). The most prominent finding from our gene expression and pathway analyses was the upregulation of expression of several genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. This to some extent is in line with the literature-described mechanism of cell membrane disruption by glycoalkaloids. In addition, various growth factor signaling pathways were found to be significantly upregulated. This study is useful in understanding the mechanism(s) of alpha-chaconine toxicity, which may be extended to other potato glycoalkaloids more generally.

  1. Differential induction and suppression of potato 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase genes in response to Phytophthora infestans and to its elicitor arachidonic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Choi, D; Ward, B L; Bostock, R M

    1992-01-01

    Induction of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) is essential for the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenoid phytoalexins and steroid derivatives in Solanaceous plants following stresses imposed by wounding and pathogen infection. To better understand this complex step in stress-responsive isoprenoid synthesis, we isolated three classes of cDNAS encoding HMGR (hmg1, hmg2, and hmg3) from a potato tuber library using a probe derived from an Arabidopsis HMGR cDNA. The potato cDNAs had extensive homology in portions of the protein coding regions but had low homology in the 3' untranslated regions. RNA gel blot analyses using gene-specific probes showed that hmg1 was strongly induced in tuber tissue by wounding, but the wound induction was strongly suppressed by treatment of the tissue with the fungal elicitor arachidonic acid or by inoculation with an incompatible or compatible race of the fungal pathogen Phytophtora infestans. The hmg2 and hmg3 mRNAs also accumulated in response to wounding, but in contrast to hmg1, these mRNAs were strongly enhanced by arachidonic acid or inoculation. Inoculation with a compatible race of P. infestans resulted in similar patterns in HMGR gene expression of hmg2 and hmg3 except that the magnitude and rate of the changes in mRNA levels were reduced relative to the incompatible interaction. The differential regulation of members of the HMGR gene family may explain in part the previously reported changes in HMGR enzyme activities following wounding and elicitor treatment. The suppression of hmg1 and the enhancement of hmg2 and hmg3 transcript levels following elicitor treatment or inoculation with the incompatible race parallel the suppression in steroid and stimulation of sesquiterpenoid accumulations observed in earlier investigations. The results are discussed in relation to the hypothesis that there are discrete organizational channels for sterol and sesquiterpene biosynthesis in potato and other Solanaceous species. PMID

  2. Potato Pair

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-01-14

    Pandora and Prometheus, the shepherding moons of the F ring, orbit inside and outside the thin ring. The elongated, potato-like shapes of the two moons are both visible in this image taken by NASA Cassini spacecraft.

  3. Isolation of diapause-regulated transcripts by differential display from the Colorado potato beetle, and their expression in prediapausing and nondiapausing adults. GenBank. Accessions: FG591137-FG591192

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Using differential display, 56 putatively diapause regulated transcripts were isolated from the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata. The clones insert sizes range from 114 to 795 bp with mean length of 392 ± SD of 191 bp. Fourteen of the transcripts were confirmed by northern blot anal...

  4. Building a comprehensive collection of ash germplasm

    Treesearch

    Mark P. Widrlechner

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) has conserved seed collections of ash (Fraxinus) germplasm at the USDA-ARS North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS) in Ames, IA, since the 1970s.

  5. Non-additive response of blends of rice and potato starch during heating at intermediate water contents: A differential scanning calorimetry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance study.

    PubMed

    Bosmans, Geertrui M; Pareyt, Bram; Delcour, Jan A

    2016-02-01

    The impact of different hydration levels, on gelatinization of potato starch (PS), rice starch (RS) and a 1:1 blend thereof, was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and related to nuclear magnetic resonance proton distributions of hydrated samples, before and after heating. At 20% or 30% hydration, the visual appearance of all samples was that of a wet powder, and limited, if any, gelatinization occurred upon heating. At 30% hydration, changes in proton distributions were observed and related to plasticization of amorphous regions in the granules. At 50% hydration, the PS-RS blend appeared more liquid-like than other hydrated samples and showed more pronounced gelatinization than expected based on additive behavior of pure starches. This was due to an additional mobile water fraction in the unheated PS-RS blend, originating from differences in water distribution due to altered stacking of granules and/or altered hydration of PS due to presence of cations in RS.

  6. Selection and validation of potato candidate genes for maturity corrected resistance to Phytophthora infestans based on differential expression combined with SNP association and linkage mapping

    PubMed Central

    Muktar, Meki S.; Lübeck, Jens; Strahwald, Josef; Gebhardt, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Late blight of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary, is one of the most important bottlenecks of potato production worldwide. Cultivars with high levels of durable, race unspecific, quantitative resistance are part of a solution to this problem. However, breeding for quantitative resistance is hampered by the correlation between resistance and late plant maturity, which is an undesirable agricultural attribute. The objectives of our research are (i) the identification of genes that condition quantitative resistance to P. infestans not compromised by late plant maturity and (ii) the discovery of diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to be used as molecular tools to increase efficiency and precision of resistance breeding. Twenty two novel candidate genes were selected based on comparative transcript profiling by SuperSAGE (serial analysis of gene expression) in groups of plants with contrasting levels of maturity corrected resistance (MCR). Reproducibility of differential expression was tested by quantitative real time PCR and allele specific pyrosequencing in four new sets of genotype pools with contrasting late blight resistance levels, at three infection time points and in three independent infection experiments. Reproducibility of expression patterns ranged from 28 to 97%. Association mapping in a panel of 184 tetraploid cultivars identified SNPs in five candidate genes that were associated with MCR. These SNPs can be used in marker-assisted resistance breeding. Linkage mapping in two half-sib families (n = 111) identified SNPs in three candidate genes that were linked with MCR. The differentially expressed genes that showed association and/or linkage with MCR putatively function in phytosterol synthesis, fatty acid synthesis, asparagine synthesis, chlorophyll synthesis, cell wall modification, and in the response to pathogen elicitors. PMID:26442110

  7. Usefulness of descriptors in phenotyping germplasm collections

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A large number of crop germplasm collections are maintained within the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS). For each of these crop collections, Crop Germplasm committees (CGC), crop curators, and collection staff have established extensive lists of descriptors or phenotypic traits by which t...

  8. Safflower Germplasm: Past, Present, and Future.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Germplasm collections are a critical resource for development and improving safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) cultivars and germplasm. Our objective is to describe the safflower germplasm collection at the Western Regional Plant Introduction Station (WRPIS), Pullman WA, USA, in light of past, pre...

  9. Genetic diversity in European Pisum germplasm collections.

    PubMed

    Jing, R; Ambrose, M A; Knox, M R; Smykal, P; Hybl, M; Ramos, Á; Caminero, C; Burstin, J; Duc, G; van Soest, L J M; Święcicki, W K; Pereira, M G; Vishnyakova, M; Davenport, G F; Flavell, A J; Ellis, T H N

    2012-07-01

    The distinctness of, and overlap between, pea genotypes held in several Pisum germplasm collections has been used to determine their relatedness and to test previous ideas about the genetic diversity of Pisum. Our characterisation of genetic diversity among 4,538 Pisum accessions held in 7 European Genebanks has identified sources of novel genetic variation, and both reinforces and refines previous interpretations of the overall structure of genetic diversity in Pisum. Molecular marker analysis was based upon the presence/absence of polymorphism of retrotransposon insertions scored by a high-throughput microarray and SSAP approaches. We conclude that the diversity of Pisum constitutes a broad continuum, with graded differentiation into sub-populations which display various degrees of distinctness. The most distinct genetic groups correspond to the named taxa while the cultivars and landraces of Pisum sativum can be divided into two broad types, one of which is strongly enriched for modern cultivars. The addition of germplasm sets from six European Genebanks, chosen to represent high diversity, to a single collection previously studied with these markers resulted in modest additions to the overall diversity observed, suggesting that the great majority of the total genetic diversity collected for the Pisum genus has now been described. Two interesting sources of novel genetic variation have been identified. Finally, we have proposed reference sets of core accessions with a range of sample sizes to represent Pisum diversity for the future study and exploitation by researchers and breeders.

  10. Germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our contribution to this annual report is a summary of research accomplishments for 2006 in germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance in barley at the USDA-ARS Wheat, Peanut and Other Field Crops Research Unit, Stillwater, OK. RWA is a serious pest of barley in the intermountain regions of the weste...

  11. Germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our contribution to this annual report is a summary of research accomplishments for 2008 in germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance in barley at the USDA-ARS Wheat, Peanuts and other Field Crops Research Unit, Stillwater, OK. RWA is a serious pest of barley in the intermountain regions of the west...

  12. Germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our contribution to this annual report is a summary of research accomplishments for 2010 in germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance in barley at the USDA-ARS, Wheat, Peanuts and other Field Crops Research Unit, Stillwater, OK. RWA is a serious pest of barley in the intermountain regions of the wes...

  13. Germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our contribution to this annual report is a summary of research accomplishments for 2007 in germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance in barley at the USDA-ARS Wheat, Peanuts and other Field Crops Research Unit, Stillwater, OK. RWA is a serious pest of barley in the intermountain regions of the west...

  14. Notice of release of Fanny Germplasm, Carmel Germplasm, and Bonneville Germplasm Searls' prairie clover: Selected class of natural germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three natural-track selected germplasms of Searls' prairie clover (Dalea searlsiae [A. Gray] Barneby [Fabaceae]) have been released for use in revegetation/restoration of semi-arid rangelands in the western US. Searls' prairie clover is a perennial leguminous forb that is native to Utah, Nevada, Ar...

  15. Germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our contribution to this annual newsletter is a summary of research accomplishments in the past year in germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance in barley at the USDA-ARS, Wheat, Peanut and Other Field Crops Research Unit, Stillwater, OK. RWA is a serious pest of barley in the intermountain regions...

  16. Germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our contribution to this annual newsletter is a summary of research accomplishments in the past year in germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance in barley at the USDA-ARS Wheat, Peanut and Other Field Crops Research Unit, Stillwater, OK. Russian wheat aphid (RWA) is a serious pest of barley in the ...

  17. Germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our contribution to this annual newsletter is a summary of research accomplishments in the past year in germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance in barley at the USDA-ARS Wheat, Peanut and Other Field Crops Research Unit, Stillwater, OK. RWA is a serious pest of barley in the intermountain regions ...

  18. Cryopreservation for preservation of potato genetic resources

    PubMed Central

    Niino, Takao; Arizaga, Miriam Valle

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation is becoming a very important tool for the long-term storage of plant genetic resources and efficient cryopreservation protocols have been developed for a large number of plant species. Practical procedures, developed using in vitro tissue culture, can be a simple and reliable preservation option of potato genetic resources rather than maintaining by vegetative propagation in genebanks due their allogamous nature. Cryopreserved materials insure a long-term backup of field collections against loss of plant germplasm. Occurrence of genetic variation, in tissue culture cells during prolonged subcultures, can be avoided with suitable cryopreservation protocols that provide high regrowth, leading and facilitating a systematic and strategic cryo-banking of plant genetic resources. Cryopreservation protocols for potato reviewed here, can efficiently complement field and in vitro conservation, providing for preservation of genotypes difficult to preserve by other methods, wild types and other species decided as priority collections. PMID:25931979

  19. Differential Accumulation of Proteinase Inhibitor I in Normal and Crown Gall Tissue of Tobacco, Tomato, and Potato 1

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Peter P.; Kuo, Tsungmin; Ryan, Clarence A.; Kado, Clarence I.

    1976-01-01

    A proteinase inhibitor (inhibitor I) is induced in crown gall tumors of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) initiated through infection with the tumorinducing bacterium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, strains B6 or CG-14. Uninfected tissues do not contain immunologically detectable quantities of inhibitor I. Inhibitor I synthesis in tobacco crown gall tumors paralleled tumor growth at the average rate of about 4.5 μg of inhibitor I per 200 mg of fresh tissue per day. Infection of variegated tobacco mutant Dp-I with A. tumefaciens strain CG-14 produced tumors with 25% more inhibitor than tumors induced with strain B6. Unlike tobacco, tumors induced by either bacterial strain on potato (Solanum tuberosum) and on tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) did not accumulate inhibitor I. Consequently, inhibitor I accumulation is modulated by the type of plant host used in spite of familial relatedness (Solanaceae) and the strain of A. tumefaciens used for infection. Immunological and electrophoretic properties of inhibitor I from tobacco crown gall tumor, callus, etiolated, and variegated tissues were compared. Agar immunodiffusion assays showed no apparent differences among precipitin reaction lines between inhibitor I of tumor, callus, variegated, and etiolated tissues. The immunoelectrophoretic mobilities of inhibitor I of tumor, variegated, and etiolated tissues were the same, but differed from that of either normal or crown gall callus tissues. These results suggest that different isoinhibitors of inhibitor I could account for the observed differences in electrophoretic mobilities, or that modification of the inhibitor has occurred sometime during, or after, its synthesis. Images PMID:16659453

  20. Dakota Diamond: An exceptionally high yielding, cold chipping potato cultivar with long-term storage potential

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dakota Diamond (ND5822C-7) is a medium to late maturing cultivar with uniformly sized tubers and very high yield potential. It resulted from the cross of ND4103-2 and “Dakota Pearl”. Dakota Diamond is comprised of approximately 23.3% wild potato species germplasm. It combines the characteristics ...

  1. In silico mapping of Conserved Ortholog Set (COS) markers in the potato genome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Conserved ortholog set (COS) markers are useful for genetic mapping across diverse taxa, including the Solanaceae. We amplified over 300 COS markers from diverse set of Solanum germplasm, sequenced them and aligned into the whole genome sequence of potato. We also mapped a set of COS markers genetic...

  2. Developing single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers from transcriptome sequences for identification of longan (Dimocarpus longan) germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Boyi; Tan, Hua-Wei; Fang, Wanping; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Mischke, Sue; Matsumoto, Tracie; Zhang, Dapeng

    2015-01-01

    Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) is an important tropical fruit tree crop. Accurate varietal identification is essential for germplasm management and breeding. Using longan transcriptome sequences from public databases, we developed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers; validated 60 SNPs in 50 longan germplasm accessions, including cultivated varieties and wild germplasm; and designated 25 SNP markers that unambiguously identified all tested longan varieties with high statistical rigor (P<0.0001). Multiple trees from the same clone were verified and off-type trees were identified. Diversity analysis revealed genetic relationships among analyzed accessions. Cultivated varieties differed significantly from wild populations (Fst=0.300; P<0.001), demonstrating untapped genetic diversity for germplasm conservation and utilization. Within cultivated varieties, apparent differences between varieties from China and those from Thailand and Hawaii indicated geographic patterns of genetic differentiation. These SNP markers provide a powerful tool to manage longan genetic resources and breeding, with accurate and efficient genotype identification. PMID:26504559

  3. Genetic diversity of worldwide Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) germplasm as revealed by RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Wangsomnuk, P P; Khampa, S; Wangsomnuk, P; Jogloy, S; Mornkham, T; Ruttawat, B; Patanothai, A; Fu, Y B

    2011-12-12

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) is a wild relative of the cultivated sunflower (H. annuus); it is an old tuber crop that has recently received renewed interest. We used RAPD markers to characterize 147 Jerusalem artichoke accessions from nine countries. Thirty RAPD primers were screened; 13 of them detected 357 reproducible RAPD bands, of which 337 were polymorphic. Various diversity analyses revealed several different patterns of RAPD variation. More than 93% of the RAPD variation was found within accessions of a country. Weak genetic differentiation was observed between wild and cultivated accessions. Six groups were detected in this germplasm set. Four ancestral groups were found for the Canadian germplasm. The most genetically distinct accessions were identified. These findings provide useful diversity information for understanding the Jerusalem artichoke gene pool, for conserving Jerusalem artichoke germplasm, and for choosing germplasm for genetic improvement.

  4. Mapping the R10 and R11 genes for resistance to late blight (Phytophthora infestans) present in the potato (Solanum tuberosum) R-gene differentials of black.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, John E; Bryan, Glenn J; Lees, Alison K; McLean, Karen; Solomon-Blackburn, Ruth M

    2006-02-01

    The R10 and R11 late blight differentials of Black (tetraploid clones 3681ad1 and 5008ab6) were crossed with the susceptible potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivar Maris Piper and the progeny were assessed for blight resistance in a whole plant glasshouse test using race 1,2,3,4,6,7 of Phytophthora infestans. The disease scores for the R10 population displayed a continuous distribution whereas the progeny in the R11 population could be categorised as resistant or susceptible. A bulk segregant analysis using amplified fragment length polymorphism assays was done on the ten most resistant and ten most susceptible progeny in each population and two closely linked markers were found to be associated with resistance. R11 mapped to 8.5 cM from marker PAG/MAAG_172.3 and R10 mapped as a quantitative trait locus in which marker PAC/MATC_264.1 explained 56.9% of the variation in disease scores. The results were consistent with R10 and R11 being allelic versions of genes at the R3 locus on chromosome 11. The implications are discussed for mapping R-genes which fail to give complete immunity to a pathogen.

  5. The USDA Pearl Millet Germplasm Collection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA National Plant Germplasm System pearl millet collection is maintained at the Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit located in Griffin, Ga. The germplasm collection contains 1297 unique accessions collected from 31 different countries. The majority of the accessions were collected or d...

  6. Global view of cotton germplasm resources

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper reports the status of several large cotton germplasm collections present across the world. Cotton germplasm collections discussed include those from the US, India, France, China, Australia, Uzbekistan, and Brazil. These collections represent a large portion of the curated cotton germpla...

  7. Melon Trait and Germplasm Resources Survey 2011

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Cucurbit Crop Germplasm Committee (CCGC), which operates under the auspices of the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS), is composed of ARS, university and industry scientists, and provides guidance to NPGS on matters relating to cucurbit crop and wild related species. The CCGC is res...

  8. Strategic Sugar Beet Germplasm Resource Development

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Smooth-root varieties (SR) have been recognized as desirable since the 1940’s for their potential to reduce soil tare at harvest and at the factory. Until the 1990’s this germplasm had low sugar and was unacceptable. Since 2000, USDA-ARS SR germplasm releases increased sugar content to acceptable le...

  9. Endophytic Fungi in a Hordeum Germplasm Collection

    Treesearch

    A. Dan Wilson; S.L. Clement; W.J. Kaiser

    1991-01-01

    The incidence of clavicipitaceous anamorphic endophytes in a Hordeum spp. germplasm collection is reported. The potential application of endophytes as biocontrol agents against pests of cereal crops is recognized. Suggestions are proposed to modify existing germplasm maintenance procedures to ensure that both seed viability and endophyte viability...

  10. Resistance in Potato to Pratylenchus penetrans

    PubMed Central

    Brodie, B. B.; Plaisted, R. L.

    1993-01-01

    Potato clones from five different breeding populations were evaluated for their relative resistance and susceptibility to Pratylenchus penetrans. Resistance and susceptibility were distinguished by an index of susceptibility (SI) calculated from the numbers of P. penetrans (including eggs) per g of root of individual clones in relation to that of a susceptible control at 30 or 70 days after inoculation. Evaluations were carried out using 7.5-cm clay pots in a growth chamber at 24 C with 15-hour day length. In the initial evaluation, 70 days after inoculation, the SI of individual clones ranged from 0.01 to 0.75. Clones that supported the least P. penetrans were from a breeding population derived from Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena that was originally selected for its resistance to the potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida. In succeeding tests, these clones had a significantly low SI than did susceptible controls or cultivars that were previously reported to possess resistance to P. penetrans, except cv. Hudson. Resistance to P. penetrans from the Pallida-resistant breeding population was incorporated into potato germplasm better adapted to North American growing conditions. PMID:19279796

  11. Resistance in Potato to Pratylenchus penetrans.

    PubMed

    Brodie, B B; Plaisted, R L

    1993-09-01

    Potato clones from five different breeding populations were evaluated for their relative resistance and susceptibility to Pratylenchus penetrans. Resistance and susceptibility were distinguished by an index of susceptibility (SI) calculated from the numbers of P. penetrans (including eggs) per g of root of individual clones in relation to that of a susceptible control at 30 or 70 days after inoculation. Evaluations were carried out using 7.5-cm clay pots in a growth chamber at 24 C with 15-hour day length. In the initial evaluation, 70 days after inoculation, the SI of individual clones ranged from 0.01 to 0.75. Clones that supported the least P. penetrans were from a breeding population derived from Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena that was originally selected for its resistance to the potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida. In succeeding tests, these clones had a significantly low SI than did susceptible controls or cultivars that were previously reported to possess resistance to P. penetrans, except cv. Hudson. Resistance to P. penetrans from the Pallida-resistant breeding population was incorporated into potato germplasm better adapted to North American growing conditions.

  12. Studies for Somatic Embryogenesis in Sweet Potato

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, J. Rasheed; Prakash, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the somatic embryo (SE) system for plant production of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L(Lam)). Explants isolated from SE-derived sweet potato plants were compared with control (non SE-derived) plants for their competency for SE production. Leaf explants were cultured on Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (0.2 mg/L) and 6-benzylaminopurine (2.5 mg/L) for 2 weeks in darkness and transferred to MS medium with abscisic acid (2.5 mg/L). Explants isolated from those plants developed through somatic embryogenesis produced new somatic embryos rapidly and in higher frequency than those isolated from control plants They also appeared to grow faster in tissue culture than the control plants. Current studies in the laboratory are examining whether plants derived from a cyclical embryogenesis system (five cycles) would have any further positive impact on the rapidity and frequency of somatic embryo development. More detailed studies using electron microscopy are expected to show the point of origin of the embryos and to allow determination of their quality throughout the cyclical process. This study may facilitate improved plant micropropagation, gene transfer and germplasm conservation in sweet potato.

  13. El nombre 'Forastero' no más: A new protocol for meaningful cacao germplasm classification.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The title of this article (The name ‘Forastero’ no more) is to convey an attempt in this paper to try to convince the cacao scientific community not to use the term Forastero to identify cacao germplasm of non-Criollo origin. The term Forastero originated in Latin America to differentiate the intro...

  14. Potato production in Thailand

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potato production has increased dramatically in recent years in Thailand. Consumer demand for fresh and processed potatoes has driven this trend. Most potatoes are produced in northern Thailand in either double cropping highland zones or as a single winter crop following rice in lowland regions. Maj...

  15. Transfer of tuber soft rot and early blight resistances from Solanum brevidens into cultivated potato.

    PubMed

    Tek, Ahmet L; Stevenson, Walter R; Helgeson, John P; Jiang, Jiming

    2004-07-01

    Tuber soft rot and early blight are serious potato diseases. Development of potato varieties resistant to these diseases has been hindered by the scarcity of resistant germplasm. A diploid wild species, Solanum brevidens, shows significant resistance to both diseases. Numerous potato breeding lines have been developed from a potato- S. brevidens somatic hybrid, A206. A BC(3) clone, C75-5+297, derived from this somatic hybrid as well as its BC(1) and BC(2) parental lines showed resistance to both tuber soft rot and early blight. Clone C75-5+297 has consistently out-yielded common varieties under disease stress. Using both molecular and cytogenetic approaches we demonstrated that a single copy of chromosome 8 from S. brevidens replaced a potato chromosome 8 in C75-5+297. Thus, C75-5+297 represents a potato- S. brevidens chromosome substitution line. Our results suggest that the presence of a single chromosome from S. brevidens may significantly impact the resistance to multiple potato diseases. The high yield potential of C75-5+297 makes it an excellent parent for developing potato varieties with resistances to both tuber soft rot and early blight.

  16. Notice of release of Amethyst Germplasm hoaty tansyaster: Selected class of natural germplasm

    Treesearch

    Derek J. Tilley

    2015-01-01

    The US Department of Agriculture (USDA), Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), Aberdeen Plant Materials Center, Aberdeen, Idaho, announces the release of Amethyst Germplasm hoary tansyaster (Machaeronthero canescens (Pursh) A. Gray [Asteraceae]}, a selected class natural track germplasm identified by NRCS accession number 9076670 for conservation plantings in...

  17. Notice of release of Charleston Peak Germplasm: selected class, genetically manipulated track pre-variety germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) announces the release of Charleston Peak Germplasm slender wheatgrass [Elymus trachycaulus (Link) Gould ex Shinners] as a selected class, genetically manipulated track pre-variety germplasm selected directly from collection D-3269. This collection is uni...

  18. Notice of release of Majestic Germplasm and Spectrum Germplasm Western prairie clover

    Treesearch

    Douglas A. Johnson; B. Shaun Bushman; Kishor Bhattarai; Kevin J. Connors

    2011-01-01

    Two natural-track selected germplasms of western prairie clover (Dalea ornata (Douglas ex Hook.) Eaton & J. Wright [Fabaceae]) have been released for use in revegetation of semiarid rangelands in the western US. Western prairie clover is a perennial leguminous forb that occurs naturally in Idaho, Washington, Oregon, California, and Nevada. Majestic Germplasm...

  19. Modification of primary and secondary metabolism of potato plants by nitrogen application differentially affects resistance to Phytophthora infestans and Alternaria solani.

    PubMed

    Mittelstrass, K; Treutter, D; Plessl, M; Heller, W; Elstner, E F; Heiser, I

    2006-09-01

    Potato plants ( SOLANUM TUBEROSUM L. cv. Indira) were grown at two levels of N supply in the greenhouse. Plants supplied with 0.8 g N per plant (high N variant) showed significantly increased biomass as compared to plants without additional N fertilisation (low N variant). C/N ratio was lower and protein content was higher in leaves of the high N variant. The concentration of chlorogenic acids and flavonols was significantly lower in leaves from the high N variant. Whereas resistance to ALTERNARIA SOLANI increased when plants were supplied with additional nitrogen, these plants were more susceptible to PHYTOPHTHORA INFESTANS. After infection with both pathogens, we found a strong induction of p-coumaroylnoradrenaline and p-coumaroyloctopamine, which are identified for the first time in potato leaves and are discussed as resistance factors of other solanaceous plants.

  20. [Numerical analysis of morphological variation of germplasm resources of dioscorea].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Xian; Wang, Feng-Qing; Du, Jia-Fang; Hua, Shu-Mei; Lei, Fu-Gui; Xu, Xu-Ming; Liang, Kang-Jing; Zhang, Zhong-Yi

    2013-02-01

    Botanical characters of germplasm resources of Dioscorea were observed and compared, which could to offer reference for its genetic improvement, germplasm resource identification and classification. Based on field cultivation, twenty-four morphological traits of ninety-four Dioscorea germplasm resources were observed or determined. And the morphological differences among germplasm resources were compared by principal component analysis and cluster analysis. There were ample morphological diversity in the twenty-four traits, in especially in leaf size and tuber characters of the ninety-four Dioscorea germplasm resources. The first seven principal components which accounted for 80. 957% of total variance were extracted from the principal component analysis. The ninety-four germplasm resources could be divided into four clusters, which belonging to Dioscorea opposite, D. persimili, D. fordii and D. alata respectively. There were large morphological variation among germplasm resources on Dioscorea. Identification of germplasm resources of Dioscorea should focus on leaf size and tuber characters.

  1. Composition of sulfited potatoes: comparison with fresh and frozen potatoes.

    PubMed

    Chalom, S; Elrezzi, E; Peña, P; Astiarsarán, I; Bello, J

    1995-02-01

    The content in moisture, fat, protein, carbohydrate, fibre and vitamin C was analyzed in three commercial types of potatoes: sulfited (treated with E223), frozen potatoes (pre-fried) and fresh potatoes (not processed). The composition of sulfited potatoes does not usually appear in food composition tables. Our results showed significant differences in the content of carbohydrates and fibre between sulfited and fresh potatoes. The content of vitamin C in sulfited potatoes, which is similar to that of frozen potatoes, was shown to be approximately half of that found in fresh potatoes.

  2. Why are we still growing Russet Burbank? Part I. The many weaknesses and great strengths of America’s No. 1 potato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Russet Burbank remains the most widely grown potato variety in the United States. Knowing this, one might be tempted to conclude that Russet Burbank is an outstanding variety that is agronomically superior to other germplasm, but nothing could be farther from the truth. In variety trial after variet...

  3. Development of a real-time PCR method for the differential detection and quantification of four solanaceae in GMO analysis: potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), eggplant (Solanum melongena), and pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    PubMed

    Chaouachi, Maher; El Malki, Redouane; Berard, Aurélie; Romaniuk, Marcel; Laval, Valérie; Brunel, Dominique; Bertheau, Yves

    2008-03-26

    The labeling of products containing genetically modified organisms (GMO) is linked to their quantification since a threshold for the presence of fortuitous GMOs in food has been established. This threshold is calculated from a combination of two absolute quantification values: one for the specific GMO target and the second for an endogenous reference gene specific to the taxon. Thus, the development of reliable methods to quantify GMOs using endogenous reference genes in complex matrixes such as food and feed is needed. Plant identification can be difficult in the case of closely related taxa, which moreover are subject to introgression events. Based on the homology of beta-fructosidase sequences obtained from public databases, two couples of consensus primers were designed for the detection, quantification, and differentiation of four Solanaceae: potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), and eggplant (Solanum melongena). Sequence variability was studied first using lines and cultivars (intraspecies sequence variability), then using taxa involved in gene introgressions, and finally, using taxonomically close taxa (interspecies sequence variability). This study allowed us to design four highly specific TaqMan-MGB probes. A duplex real time PCR assay was developed for simultaneous quantification of tomato and potato. For eggplant and pepper, only simplex real time PCR tests were developed. The results demonstrated the high specificity and sensitivity of the assays. We therefore conclude that beta-fructosidase can be used as an endogenous reference gene for GMO analysis.

  4. Broadening the U.S. alfalfa germplasm base

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Over 4000 alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plant introductions (PIs) exist in the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS). NAAIC has discussed/proposed pre-breeding efforts to utilize this germplasm for creating pre-commercial alfalfa germplasm. Funding constraints have been one impediment to th...

  5. Root phenotyping of new oilseed crop lesquerella germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The utility of germplasm collections rely on the availability of associated characterization and evaluation data for researchers and germplasm users. The information enables users to select accessions with characters of interest thereby saving time and resources. Most germplasm collections in the US...

  6. Preserving oak (Quercus sp.) germplasm to promote ex situ conservation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Germplasm banks are increasingly used as an ex situ conservation strategy. Germplasm banks are able to maintain extraordinary levels of diversity for long periods at relatively low cost. Studies using seeds – the preferred propagules in plant germplasm banks – have revealed the underlying reasons wh...

  7. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Chetty, Venkateswari J; Narváez-Vásquez, Javier; Orozco-Cárdenas, Martha L

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is the most common method for the incorporation of foreign genes into the genome of potato as well as many other species in the Solanaceae family. This chapter describes protocols for the genetic transformation of three species of potato: Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum (Desiréé), S. tuberosum subsp. andigenum (Blue potato), and S. tuberosum subsp. andigena using internodal segments as explants.

  8. Germplasm Conservation and Access to Genetic Resources: National Plant Germplasm System and the National Clonal Germplasm Repository

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The US National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) conserves more than 550,000 accessions of genetic resources of crop wild relatives and cultivated, economically important crops. These accessions represent more than 20,000 plant species and are stored at about 25 locations throughout the United States. ...

  9. Transgenic potato plants expressing cry3A gene confer resistance to Colorado potato beetle.

    PubMed

    Mi, Xiaoxiao; Ji, Xiangzhuo; Yang, Jiangwei; Liang, Lina; Si, Huaijun; Wu, Jiahe; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Di

    2015-07-01

    The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, CPB) is a fatal pest, which is a quarantine pest in China. The CPB has now invaded the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and is constantly spreading eastward in China. In this study, we developed transgenic potato plants expressing cry3A gene. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the cry3A gene expressed in leaves, stems and roots of the transgenic plants under the control of CaMV 35S promoter, while they expressed only in leaves and stems under the control of potato leaf and stem-specific promoter ST-LS1. The mortality of the larvae was higher (28% and 36%) on the transgenic plant line 35S1 on the 3rd and 4th days, and on ST3 (48%) on the 5th day after inoculation with instar larvae. Insect biomass accumulation on the foliage of the transgenic plant lines 35S1, 35S2 and ST3 was significantly lower (0.42%, 0.43% and 0.42%). Foliage consumption was lowest on transgenic lines 35S8 and ST2 among all plant foliage (7.47 mg/larvae/day and 12.46 mg/larvae/day). The different transgenic plant foliages had varied inhibition to larval growth. The survivors on the transgenic lines obviously were smaller than their original size and extremely weak. The transgenic potato plants with CPB resistance could be used to develop germplasms or varieties for controlling CPB damage and halting its spread in China. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Regulation of potato tuber sprouting.

    PubMed

    Sonnewald, Sophia; Sonnewald, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Following tuber induction, potato tubers undergo a period of dormancy during which visible bud growth is inhibited. The length of the dormancy period is under environmental, physiological and hormonal control. Sucrose availability is one prerequisite for bud break. In the absence of sucrose, no bud break occurs. Thus, sucrose is likely to serve as nutrient and signal molecule at the same time. The mode of sucrose sensing is only vaguely understood, but most likely involves trehalose-6-phosphate and SnRK1 signalling networks. This conclusion is supported by the observation that ectopically manipulation of trehalose-6-phosphate levels influences the length of the dormancy period. Once physiological competence is achieved, sprouting is controlled by the level of phytohormones. Two phytohormones, ABA and ethylene, are supposed to suppress tuber sprouting; however, the exact role of ethylene remains to be elucidated. Cytokinins and gibberellins are required for bud break and sprout growth, respectively. The fifth classical phytohormone, auxin, seems to play a role in vascular development. During the dormancy period, buds are symplastically isolated, which changes during bud break. In parallel to the establishment of symplastic connectivity, vascular tissue develops below the growing bud most likely to support the outgrowing sprout with assimilates mobilised in parenchyma cells. Sprouting leads to major quality losses of stored potato tubers. Therefore, control of tuber sprouting is a major objective in potato breeding. Although comparative transcriptome analysis revealed a large number of genes differentially expressed in growing versus dormant buds, no master-regulator of potato tuber sprouting has been identified so far.

  11. Potato tuber pectin structure is influenced by pectin methyl esterase activity and impacts on cooked potato texture

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Heather A.; Wright, Kathryn M.; McDougall, Gordon J.; Roberts, Alison G.; Chapman, Sean N.; Morris, Wayne L.; Hancock, Robert D.; Stewart, Derek; Tucker, Gregory A.; James, Euan K.; Taylor, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Although cooked potato tuber texture is an important trait that influences consumer preference, a detailed understanding of tuber textural properties at the molecular level is lacking. Previous work has identified tuber pectin methyl esterase activity (PME) as a potential factor impacting on textural properties. In this study, tuber PME isoform and gene expression profiles have been determined in potato germplasm with differing textural properties as assessed using an amended wedge fracture method and a sloughing assay, revealing major differences between the potato types. Differences in pectin structure between potato types with different textural properties were revealed using monoclonal antibodies specific for different pectic epitopes. Chemical analysis of tuber pectin clearly demonstrated that, in tubers containing a higher level of total PME activity, there was a reduced degree of methylation of cell wall pectin and consistently higher peak force and work done values during the fracture of cooked tuber samples, demonstrating the link between PME activity, the degree of methylation of cell wall pectin, and cooked tuber textural properties. PMID:20855456

  12. Potato tuber pectin structure is influenced by pectin methyl esterase activity and impacts on cooked potato texture.

    PubMed

    Ross, Heather A; Wright, Kathryn M; McDougall, Gordon J; Roberts, Alison G; Chapman, Sean N; Morris, Wayne L; Hancock, Robert D; Stewart, Derek; Tucker, Gregory A; James, Euan K; Taylor, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    Although cooked potato tuber texture is an important trait that influences consumer preference, a detailed understanding of tuber textural properties at the molecular level is lacking. Previous work has identified tuber pectin methyl esterase activity (PME) as a potential factor impacting on textural properties. In this study, tuber PME isoform and gene expression profiles have been determined in potato germplasm with differing textural properties as assessed using an amended wedge fracture method and a sloughing assay, revealing major differences between the potato types. Differences in pectin structure between potato types with different textural properties were revealed using monoclonal antibodies specific for different pectic epitopes. Chemical analysis of tuber pectin clearly demonstrated that, in tubers containing a higher level of total PME activity, there was a reduced degree of methylation of cell wall pectin and consistently higher peak force and work done values during the fracture of cooked tuber samples, demonstrating the link between PME activity, the degree of methylation of cell wall pectin, and cooked tuber textural properties.

  13. Variation for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds and oils are rich sources of phytosterols, which are important compounds for human nutrition. There is limited information on variability for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm. The objective of the present research was to evaluate kernel phytosterol cont...

  14. Clavicipitaceous anamorphic endophytes in Hordeum germplasm

    Treesearch

    A. Dan Wilson

    2007-01-01

    The incidence of clavicipitaceous anamorphic endophytes, non-choke inducing endosymbiotic fungi of the genus Neotyphodium that systemically infect grasses, in eighteen Hordeum species from the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System was examined using light and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Seventeen plant inventory accessions...

  15. Relationships Between Oases and Germplasm Collections

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Traditional date palm oases have served as conservators of date palm genetic resources. There have been only a few studies on the population structure of these oases or evaluations of non-fruit-related characteristics. A system is needed in which regional germplasm repositories for date palm genetic...

  16. Public Germplasm Collections and Revolutions in Biotechnology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Public germplasm collections provided the biological material critical for launching the three most important revolutions in modern biotechnology: (i) An isolate of Penicillium chrysogenum, NRRL 1951, the basis for industrial production of penicillan, originated from the ARS Culture Collection in Pe...

  17. Emerging avenues for utilization of exotic germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Breeders have been successful in increasing crop performance by exploiting genetic diversity over time. However, the reported annual yield increases are not sufficient in view of rapid human population growth and global environmental changes. Exotic germplasm such as landraces and wild relatives pos...

  18. August Weismann's theory of the germ-plasm and the problem of unconceived alternatives.

    PubMed

    Stanford, P Kyle

    2005-01-01

    I have argued elsewhere that scientific realism is most significantly challenged neither by traditional arguments from underdetermination of theories by the evidence, nor by the traditional pessimistic induction, but by a rather different historical pattern: our repeated failure to conceive of alternatives to extant scientific theories, even when those alternatives were both (1) well-confirmed by the evidence available at the time and (2) sufficiently scientifically serious as to be later embraced by actual scientific communities. Here I use August Weismann's defense of his influential germ-plasm theory of inheritance to support my claim that this pattern characterizes the history of theoretical scientific investigation generally. Weismann believed that the germ-plasm must become disintegrated into its constituent elements over the course of development, I argue, only because he failed to conceive of any possible alternative mechanism of ontogenetic differentiation. This and other features of the germ-plasm theory, I suggest, reflect a still more fundamental failure to imagine that the germ-plasm might be a productive rather than expendable resource for the cell. Weismann's case provides impressive support for the problem of unconceived alternatives while rendering its challenge to scientific realism deeper and sharper in a number of important ways.

  19. Properties of starch from potatoes differing in glycemic index.

    PubMed

    Lin Ek, Kai; Wang, Shujun; Brand-Miller, Jennie; Copeland, Les

    2014-10-01

    Potatoes are a popular source of dietary carbohydrate worldwide and are generally considered to be a high glycemic index (GI) food. Potato starch characteristics play a key role in determining their rate of digestion and resulting glycemic response. Starches isolated from seven potato cultivars with different GI values, including a low GI cultivar (Carisma), were examined for relative crystallinity, granule size distribution, amylopectin chain length, and thermal and pasting properties. Starch from the Carisma cultivar was more thermally stable and more resistant to gelatinization, with significantly higher (p < 0.05) pasting temperature and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) gelatinization onset, peak and conclusion temperatures, compared to the other cultivars. Differences between the potatoes in the other properties measured did not align with the GI ranking. Thermal analysis and starch pasting properties may be useful indicators for preliminary identification of potato cultivars that are digested slowly and have a lower GI.

  20. Influence of fertilization on the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, in organic potato production.

    PubMed

    Boiteau, G; Lynch, D H; Martin, R C

    2008-04-01

    The abundance of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), in organically grown potato did not change significantly in response to increasing rates of dehydrated poultry manure. However, peaks of abundance of larvae were shifted forward in time in response to the high rate of organic fertilizer. Tests using excised foliage showed that the shift was not caused by differential larval mortality or longer developmental times. Time allocation to resting, walking, and feeding by adults was similar regardless of fertilizer rate. Adult foliage consumption was unaffected by organic fertilizer rates in no choice tests and significantly affected in few choice tests. A 22% longer larval development time on plants treated with low fertilizer rate than on plants with high rate was the most significant effect. Even though maximum plant height, canopy, biomass, and yield were significantly smaller in the organic than in conventional plots, the suitability of the plants was not affected except for reduced feeding by summer beetles. Summer adults spent less time feeding and consumed two to five times less foliage on organic potato than on inorganically fertilized and conventionally produced plants. The overall influence of fertilizer on Colorado potato beetle populations was limited and therefore can only play a secondary role in management strategies for organic potato. Avoidance of excessive organic fertilizer that promotes short larval development time and extension of the period over which large Colorado potato beetle larvae are present should be recommended.

  1. Field and storage testing Bt potatoes for resistance to potato tuberworm (Lepidoptera: Gelichiidae).

    PubMed

    Douches, D S; Pett, W; Santos, F; Coombs, J; Grafius, E; Li, W; Metry, E A; el-Din, T Nasr; Madkour, M

    2004-08-01

    Potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), is the most serious insect pest of potatoes worldwide. The introduction of the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin gene through genetic engineering offers host plant resistance for the management of potato tuberworm. We report on the field and storage studies to evaluate Bt-cry5 potato lines for resistance to potato tuberworm in Egypt under natural infestations and their agronomic performance in both Egypt and Michigan. From 1997 to 2001, field experiments were conducted at the International Potato Center (CIP) Research Station, Kafr El-Zyat, Egypt, and/or Agricultural Genetic Engineering Institute (AGERI), Giza, Egypt, to evaluate resistance to tuberworm. A total of 27 Bt-transgenic potato lines from six different Bt constructs were evaluated over a 5-yr period. After harvest and evaluation of the agronomic trials, storage evaluation of potato tuberworm damage was done at the CIP Research Station. The 1997 field trial was the first field test of genetically engineered crops in Egypt. Field tests to assess potato tuberworm resistance in Egypt were able to differentiate between the Bt-transgenic lines and the nontransgenic lines/cultivars in 1999, 2000, and 2001. The Bt-cry5-Spunta lines (Spunta-G2, Spunta-G3, and Spunta-6a3) were the most resistant lines in field with 99-100% of tubers free of damage. In the 2001 storage study, these lines were also over 90% free of tuberworm damage after 3 mo. NYL235-4.13, which combines glandular trichomes with the Bt-cry5/gus fusion construct, also had a high percentage of clean tubers in the field studies. In agronomic field trials in Michigan from 1997 to 2001, the Bt-transgenic lines in most instances performed similar to the nontransgenic line in the agronomic trials; however, in Egypt (1998-1999), the yields were less than one-half of those in Michigan. Expression of the Bt-cry5 gene in the potato tuber and foliage will provide the seed producer and grower a tool in which to

  2. Genetic diversity and classification of Oryza sativa with emphasis on Chinese rice germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Wang, C-H; Zheng, X-M; Xu, Q; Yuan, X-P; Huang, L; Zhou, H-F; Wei, X-H; Ge, S

    2014-01-01

    Despite extensive studies on cultivated rice, the genetic structure and subdivision of this crop remain unclear at both global and local scales. Using 84 nuclear simple sequence repeat markers, we genotyped a panel of 153 global rice cultivars covering all previously recognized groups and 826 cultivars representing the diversity of Chinese rice germplasm. On the basis of model-based grouping, neighbour-joining tree and principal coordinate analysis, we confirmed the widely accepted five major groups of rice cultivars (indica, aus, aromatic, temperate japonica and tropical japonica), and demonstrated that rayada rice was unique in genealogy and should be treated as a new (the sixth) major group of rice germplasm. With reference to the global classification of rice cultivars, we identified three major groups (indica, temperate japonica and tropical japonica) in Chinese rice germplasm and showed that Chinese temperate japonica contained higher diversity than that of global samples, whereas Chinese indica and tropical japonica maintained slightly lower diversity than that present in the global samples. Particularly, we observed that all seasonal, drought-tolerant and endosperm types occurred within each of three major groups of Chinese cultivars, which does not support previous claims that seasonal differentiation exists in Indica and drought-tolerant differentiation is present in Japonica. It is most likely that differentiation of cultivar types arose multiple times stemming from artificial selection for adaptation to local environments. PMID:24326293

  3. Genetic diversity of wild germplasm of "yerba mate" (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.) from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Cascales, Jimena; Bracco, Mariana; Poggio, Lidia; Gottlieb, Alexandra Marina

    2014-12-01

    The "yerba mate" tree, Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil., is a crop native to subtropical South America, marketed for the elaboration of the highly popular "mate" beverage. The Uruguayan germplasm occupies the southernmost area of the species distribution range and carries adaptations to environments that considerably differ from the current production area. We characterized the genetic variability of the germplasm from this unexplored area by jointly analyzing individuals from the diversification center (ABP, Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay) with 19 nuclear and 11 plastidic microsatellite markers. For the Uruguayan germplasm, we registered 55 alleles (18 % private), and 80 genotypes (44 % exclusive), whereas 63 alleles (28.6 % private) and 81 genotypes (42 % exclusive) were recorded for individuals from ABP. Only two plastidic haplotypes were detected. Distance-based and multilocus genotype analyses showed that individuals from ABP intermingle and that the Uruguayan germplasm is differentiated in three gene-pools. Significant positive correlations between genetic and geographic distances were detected. Our results concur in that ABP individuals harbor greater genetic variation than those from the tail of the distribution, as to the number of alleles (1.15-fold), He (1.19-fold), Rs (1.39-fold), and the between-group genetic distances (1.16-fold). Also the shape of the genetic landscape interpolation analysis suggests that the genetic variation decays southward towards the Uruguayan territory. We showed that Uruguayan germplasm hosts a combination of nuclear alleles not present in the central region, constituting a valuable breeding resource. Future conservation efforts should concentrate in collecting numerous individuals of "yerba mate" per site to gather the existent variation.

  4. Potato virus Y Transmission Efficiency from Potato Infected with Single or Multiple Virus Strains.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Shaonpius; Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Carroll, Juliet E; Wenninger, Erik J; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A; Whitworth, Jonathan L; Hutchinson, Pamela; Eigenbrode, Sanford; Gray, Stewart M

    2017-04-01

    There has been a recent shift in the prevalence of Potato virus Y (PVY) strains affecting potato with the ordinary strain PVY(O) declining and the recombinant strains PVY(NTN) and PVY(N:O) emerging in the United States. Multiple PVY strains are commonly found in potato fields and even in individual plants. Factors contributing to the emergence of the recombinant strains are not well defined but differential aphid transmission of strains from single and mixed infections may play a role. We found that the transmission efficiencies by Myzus persicae, the green peach aphid, of PVY(NTN), PVY(N:O), and PVY(O) varied depending on the potato cultivar serving as the virus source. Overall transmission efficiency was highest from sources infected with three virus strains, whereas transmission from sources infected with one or two virus strains was not significantly different. Two strains were concomitantly transmitted by individual aphids from many of the mixed-source combinations, especially if PVY(O) was present. Triple-strain infections were not transmitted by any single aphid. PVY(O) was transmitted most efficiently from mixed-strain infection sources. The data do not support the hypothesis that differential transmission of PVY strains by M. persicae is a major contributing factor in the emergence of recombinant PVY strains in the U.S. potato crop.

  5. Genetic structure of Argentinean hexaploid wheat germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Vanzetti, Leonardo S.; Yerkovich, Nadia; Chialvo, Eugenia; Lombardo, Lucio; Vaschetto, Luis; Helguera, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    The identification of genetically homogeneous groups of individuals is an ancient issue in population genetics and in the case of crops like wheat, it can be valuable information for breeding programs, genetic mapping and germplasm resources. In this work we determined the genetic structure of a set of 102 Argentinean bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) elite cultivars using 38 biochemical and molecular markers (functional, closely linked to genes and neutral ones) distributed throughout 18 wheat chromosomes. Genetic relationships among these lines were examined using model-based clustering methods. In the analysis three subpopulations were identified which correspond largely to the origin of the germplasm used by the main breeding programs in Argentina. PMID:24130447

  6. Kochia prostrata germplasm collection expedition to Kazakhstan

    Treesearch

    Blair L. Waldron; R. Deane Harrison; Nicolai I. Dzyubenko; Auskhan Khusainov; Sergey Shuvalov; Sergey Alexanian

    2001-01-01

    The low stature of ‘Immigrant’ forage kochia (Kochia prostrata) limits its use as winter forage and habitat for livestock and wildlife. In October 1999, a germplasm collection trip was undertaken to obtain forage kochia ecotypes that have potential to improve fall and winter forage. The collection area was north of the Aral Sea in the Clay and Sand Desert Steppes of...

  7. In vitro conservation of Dendrobium germplasm.

    PubMed

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Zeng, Songjun; Galdiano, Renato Fernandes; Dobránszki, Judit; Cardoso, Jean Carlos; Vendrame, Wagner A

    2014-09-01

    Dendrobium is a large genus in the family Orchidaceae that exhibits vast diversity in floral characteristics, which is of considerable importance to orchid breeders, biotechnologists and collectors. Native species have high value as a result of their medicinal properties, while their hybrids are important as ornamental commodities, either as cut flowers or potted plants and are thus veritable industrial crops. Thus, preservation of Dendrobium germplasm is valuable for species conservation, breeding programs and the floriculture industry. Cryopreservation represents the only safe, efficient and cost-effective long-term storage option to facilitate the conservation of genetic resources of plant species. This review highlights 16 years of literature related to the preservation of Dendrobium germplasm and comprises the most comprehensive assessment of thorough studies performed to date, which shows reliable and reproducible results. Air-drying, encapsulation-dehydration, encapsulation-vitrification, vitrification and droplet-vitrification are the current cryopreservation methodologies that have been used to cryopreserve Dendrobium germplasm. Mature seeds, pollen, protoplasts, shoot primordia, protocorms and somatic embryos or protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) have been cryopreserved with different levels of success. Encapsulation-vitrification and encapsulation-dehydration are the most used protocol, while PLBs represent the main explant explored.

  8. [Accidents affecting potato harvesters].

    PubMed

    Hansen, J U

    1993-09-27

    During industrialization in agriculture, many farming machines have been introduced. It is well-known that farming is a dangerous workplace and that farm machinery cause many serious accidents every year. Four cases of accidents with potato harvesters are discussed. In three of four cases the farmers were injured while cleaning the machine without stopping it, which probably was the main cause of the accidents. Farmers are in general not careful enough when using farm machinery. Every year, farmers in Denmark are severely invalided in accidents with potato harvesters. A strategy to lower the accidents is proposed: 1. Information of farmers, farmer schools, machine constructors and importers about mechanisms of injury. 2. A better education of farmers in using potato harvesters (and other farming machines). 3. Better fencing of the potato harvesters. 4. If possibly constructional changes in the potato harvesters so things will not get stuck, or so that the machine will stop if things stuck. 5. Installation of switches on potato harvesters, which can be reached from all positions, stopping the machines immediately, or a remote switch control carried by the farmer.

  9. Evaluation of soybean germplasm conserved in NIAS genebank and development of mini core collections

    PubMed Central

    Kaga, Akito; Shimizu, Takehiko; Watanabe, Satoshi; Tsubokura, Yasutaka; Katayose, Yuichi; Harada, Kyuya; Vaughan, Duncan A.; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2012-01-01

    Genetic variation and population structure among 1603 soybean accessions, consisted of 832 Japanese landraces, 109 old and 57 recent Japanese varieties, 341 landrace from 16 Asian countries and 264 wild soybean accessions, were characterized using 191 SNP markers. Although gene diversity of Japanese soybean germplasm was slight lower than that of exotic soybean germplasm, population differentiation and clustering analyses indicated clear genetic differentiation among Japanese cultivated soybeans, exotic cultivated soybeans and wild soybeans. Nine hundred ninety eight Japanese accessions were separated to a certain extent into groups corresponding to their agro-morphologic characteristics such as photosensitivity and seed characteristics rather than their geographical origin. Based on the assessment of the SNP markers and several agro-morphologic traits, accessions that retain gene diversity of the whole collection were selected to develop several soybean sets of different sizes using an heuristic approach; a minimum of 12 accessions can represent the observed gene diversity; a mini-core collection of 96 accession can represent a major proportion of both geographic origin and agro-morphologic trait variation. These selected sets of germplasm will provide an effective platform for enhancing soybean diversity studies and assist in finding novel traits for crop improvement. PMID:23136496

  10. Evaluation of soybean germplasm conserved in NIAS genebank and development of mini core collections.

    PubMed

    Kaga, Akito; Shimizu, Takehiko; Watanabe, Satoshi; Tsubokura, Yasutaka; Katayose, Yuichi; Harada, Kyuya; Vaughan, Duncan A; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2012-01-01

    Genetic variation and population structure among 1603 soybean accessions, consisted of 832 Japanese landraces, 109 old and 57 recent Japanese varieties, 341 landrace from 16 Asian countries and 264 wild soybean accessions, were characterized using 191 SNP markers. Although gene diversity of Japanese soybean germplasm was slight lower than that of exotic soybean germplasm, population differentiation and clustering analyses indicated clear genetic differentiation among Japanese cultivated soybeans, exotic cultivated soybeans and wild soybeans. Nine hundred ninety eight Japanese accessions were separated to a certain extent into groups corresponding to their agro-morphologic characteristics such as photosensitivity and seed characteristics rather than their geographical origin. Based on the assessment of the SNP markers and several agro-morphologic traits, accessions that retain gene diversity of the whole collection were selected to develop several soybean sets of different sizes using an heuristic approach; a minimum of 12 accessions can represent the observed gene diversity; a mini-core collection of 96 accession can represent a major proportion of both geographic origin and agro-morphologic trait variation. These selected sets of germplasm will provide an effective platform for enhancing soybean diversity studies and assist in finding novel traits for crop improvement.

  11. Achieving sustainable cultivation of potatoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Every phase of the production cycle impacts the sustainability of potato. Potato physiology determines how genetically encoded developmental attributes interact with local environmental conditions as modified through agricultural practice to produce a perishable crop. In this chapter we highlight ho...

  12. Musa spp. germplasm management: microsatellite fingerprinting of USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) collection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station (TARS) is responsible for conserving germplasm of a number of important agricultural crop species. A banana (Musa spp.) collection has been established at TARS that is comprised of diploid, triploid and tetraploid accessions of cultivated, ornament...

  13. Notice of release of: 1)Majestic germplasm and 2) Spectrum germplasm western prairie clover

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two natural-track selected germplasms of western prairie clover [Dalea ornata (Douglas ex Hook.) Eaton & J. Wright] [Fabaceae] have been released for use in revegetation of semiarid rangelands in the western USA. Western prairie clover is a perennial leguminous forb that occurs naturally in Idaho, ...

  14. Notice of release for Eagle Germplasm western yarrow (selected germplasm, natural track)

    Treesearch

    Scott M. Lambert; Stephen B. Monsen; Nancy Shaw

    2011-01-01

    The United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station; United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Idaho State Office; Utah State University, Agricultural Experiment Station; and University of Idaho, Agricultural Experiment Station, announce the release of a selected germplasm (natural track) of western...

  15. Notice of release of Mountain Home germplasm Sandberg bluegrass (selected germplasm, natural track)

    Treesearch

    Scott M. Lambert; Stephen B. Monsen; Nancy Shaw

    2011-01-01

    Mountain Home germplasm Sandberg bluegrass is a small, densely tufted short-lived perennial bunchgrass adapted to low elevation, semi-arid sites with long, hot growing seasons. Mountain Home's drought tolerance, competitive nature, and ease of establishment make it an excellent choice for post-fire restoration of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) dominated...

  16. Cryopreserved storage of clonal germplasm in the USDA National Plant Germplasm System

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS), National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) plant collections are a critical source of genetic diversity for breeding and selection of improved crops, including vegetatively propagated plants. Information on these collections is...

  17. The potato psyllid genome project

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli) is a Hemipteran pest of solanaceous plants and limits potato and tomato production by the transmission of Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum. Genomic information on the potato psyllid is limited but is vital in developing appropriate management strategi...

  18. Virus Incidence of Sweet Potato in Korea from 2011 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaedeok; Yang, Jung Wook; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Seo, Jang-Kyun; Chung, Mi-Nam; Lee, Hyeong-Un; Lee, Kyeong-Bo; Nam, Sang Sik; Kim, Chang-Seok; Lee, Gwan-Seok; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Lee, Sukchan; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2017-10-01

    A nationwide survey was performed to investigate the current incidence of viral diseases in Korean sweet potatoes for germplasm and growing fields from 2011 to 2014. A total of 83.8% of the germplasm in Korea was infected with viruses in 2011. Commercial cultivars that were used to supply growing fields were infected at a rate of 62.1% in 2012. Among surveyed viruses, the incidence of five Potyvirus species that infect sweet potato decreased between 2012 and 2013, and then increased again in 2014. Representatively, the incidence of Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) was 87.0% in 2012, 20.7% in 2013 and then increased to 35.3% in 2014. Unlike RNA viruses, DNA viruses were shown to decrease continuously. The incidence of Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) was 5.5% in 2003, 59.5% in 2011, and 47.4% in 2012. It then decreased continuously year by year to 33.2% in 2013, and then 25.6% in 2014. While the infection rate of each virus species showed a tendency to decline, the virus infection status was more variable in 2013 and 2014. Nevertheless, the high rate of single infections and mixed infection combinations were more variable than the survey results from 2012. As shown in the results from 2013, the most prevalent virus infection was a single infection at 27.6%, with the highest rate of infection belonging to sweet potato symptomless virus-1 (SPSMV-1) (12.9%). Compared to 2013, infection combinations were more varied in 2014, with a total of 122 kinds of mixed infection.

  19. Alternatives to Honeybees for Pollinating Clover (Trifolium L.) Germplasm Accessions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our mission is to increase seed of perennial clover (Trifolium L.) species housed in the USDA, ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) germplasm collection. Each season we grow out 100-125 accessions of clover in Prosser, Washington. Historically, honeybees (Apis mellifera L) have been used as po...

  20. Powdery mildew reaction of hop cultivars and USDA germplasm, 2015

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This research was conducted to identify possible sources of resistance to the disease powdery mildew in publicly-available hop germplasm and cultivars. Germplasm with the highest levels of downy mildew resistance in the USDA collection and various cultivars of interest were screened for their reac...

  1. Tapping the US sweet sorghum collection to identify biofuel germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The narrow genetic base in sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] breeding programs is limiting the development of new varieties for biofuel production. Therefore, the identification of genetically diverse sweet sorghum germplasm in the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) collection is...

  2. Notice of release of Turkey Lake germplasm of bottlebrush squirreltail

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Turkey Lake Germplasm of bottlebrush squirreltail (Elymus elymoides ssp. californicus) was released by USDA-Agricultural Research Service in 2015 as a selected class of pre-variety germplasm (natural track). This new plant material originates in Gooding County in southern Idaho's Snake River Plain....

  3. Notice of release of Fowler germplasm green needlegrass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fowler Germplasm is a new pre-variety germplasm release of green needlegrass developed by artificial selection from five local populations collected in southern Alberta. Selection emphasis was placed on seed yield and germinability. This plant material is expected to be used for restoration and wi...

  4. Marker-assisted combination of major genes for pathogen resistance in potato.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, C; Bellin, D; Henselewski, H; Lehmann, W; Schwarzfischer, J; Valkonen, J P T

    2006-05-01

    Closely linked PCR-based markers facilitate the tracing and combining of resistance factors that have been introgressed previously into cultivated potato from different sources. Crosses were performed to combine the Ry ( adg ) gene for extreme resistance to Potato virus Y (PVY) with the Gro1 gene for resistance to the root cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis and the Rx1 gene for extreme resistance to Potato virus X (PVX), or with resistance to potato wart (Synchytrium endobioticum). Marker-assisted selection (MAS) using four PCR-based diagnostic assays was applied to 110 F1 hybrids resulting from four 2x by 4x cross-combinations. Thirty tetraploid plants having the appropriate marker combinations were selected and tested for presence of the corresponding resistance traits. All plants tested showed the expected resistant phenotype. Unexpectedly, the plants segregated for additional resistance to pathotypes 1, 2 and 6 of S. endobioticum, which was subsequently shown to be inherited from the PVY resistant parents of the crosses. The selected plants can be used as sources of multiple resistance traits in pedigree breeding and are available from a potato germplasm bank.

  5. Verticillium dahliae populations from mint and potato are genetically divergent with predominant haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Dung, Jeremiah K S; Peever, Tobin L; Johnson, Dennis A

    2013-05-01

    In total, 286 Verticillium dahliae isolates from mint, potato, and other hosts and substrates were characterized for mating type, vegetative compatibility group (VCG), and multilocus microsatellite haplotype to determine population genetic structure among populations infecting mint and potato. Populations from mint and potato fit a clonal reproductive model, with all isolates a single mating type (MAT1-2) and multiple occurrences of the same haplotypes. Haplotype H02 represented 88% of mint isolates and was primarily VCG2B, while haplotype H04 represented 70% of potato isolates and was primarily VCG4A. Haplotypes H02 and H04 typically caused severe disease on mint and potato, respectively, in greenhouse assays regardless of host origin. Principal coordinate analysis and analysis of molecular variance indicated that mint and potato populations were significantly genetically diverged (P = 0.02), and identification of private alleles and estimation of migration rates suggested restricted gene flow. Migration was detected between infected potato plants and seed tubers, infested tare soil, and field soils. Genetic differentiation of V. dahliae from mint and potato may be due to the occurrence of a single mating type and differences in VCG. Populations of V. dahliae in potato and mint were characterized by the presence of aggressive, clonally reproducing haplotypes which are widely distributed in commercial mint and potato production.

  6. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) analysis for assessment of genetic variability in apricot germplasm.

    PubMed

    Zhebentyayeva, T N; Reighard, G L; Gorina, V M; Abbott, A G

    2003-02-01

    Thirty SSR primer combinations, developed from peach SSR-enriched genomic libraries and BAC libraries of peach [ Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.], were tested for cross amplification with 74 apricot ( Prunus armeniaca L.) germplasm accessions. Twelve primer pairs amplified 14 polymorphic SSR loci useful for discriminating most apricot cultivars, as well as for investigating patterns of variation in apricot germplasm. Levels of polymorphism were higher than the levels described using other codominant marker systems (i.e., isozymes, RFLP markers). Overall, 107 alleles were identified, and all but 11 accessions were unambiguously discriminated. Genetic differentiation of native germplasm into traditional ecogeographical groups was low, with a high level of genetic identity (> 0.75) between the groups. However, neighbor joining cluster analysis of marker distances between cultivars reflected the complex history of apricot domestication, producing groupings not evidently based on the geographical origin of the cultivars. Distant positioning of Chinese cultivars on UPGMA and neighbor joining dendrograms supports the authors' consideration of Chinese apricots as subspecies, Prunus armeniaca var. ansu Maxim., rather than a separate species.

  7. DNA fingerprinting of jute germplasm by RAPD.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammad Belayat; Haque, Samiul; Khan, Haseena

    2002-07-31

    The genotype characteristic of cultivars was investigated, along with varieties of both of the jute species, Corchorus olitorius and Corchorus capsularis, in the germplasm collection at the Bangladesh Jute Research Institute (BJRI). DNA fingerprinting was generated for 9 different varieties and 12 accessions of jute cultivars by using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). A total of 29 arbitrary oligonucleotide primers were screened. Seven primers gave polymorphism within the varieties, and 6 primers detected polymorphism within the accessions that were tested. A dendrogram was engendered from these data, and this gave a distinct clustering of the cultivated species of jute. Therefore, we generated RAPD markers, which are species-specific. These primers can distinguish between C. olitorius and C. capsularis. From the dendrogram that we generated between the various members of these two species, we found the existing genetic classification that agrees with our molecular marking data. A different dendrogram showed that jute accessions could be clustered into three groups. These data will be invaluable in the conservation and utilization of the genetic pool in the germplasm collection.

  8. [Study on quantitative assessment of Siraitia grosvenorii germplasms by general index].

    PubMed

    Bai, Long-Hua; Ma, Xiao-Jun; Mo, Chang-Ming; Shi, Lei; Feng, Shi-Xin; Jiang, Xiang-Jun

    2007-12-01

    To establish a weight-marking method and evaluate Siraitia grosvenorii germplasms. The characters of 21 kinds of S. grosvenorii germplasms in the field and the lab were analyzed, seven important characters were selected to weight the marks. A general evaluation index was made and used to evaluate S. grosvenorii germplasms. The evaluation result of 21 kinds of S. grosvenorii germplasms by the weight-marking method was consistent with production practice. Meanwhile, the new variety Yongqing No. 1 and major cultivars were the superior germplasms. A rational technique system of evaluating S. grosvenorii germplasms was established, and the superior germplasms were selected.

  9. Biological control of potato insect pest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A variety of pest insects attack the potato crop and reduce yields. This book chapter reviews the known insect natural enemies for major potato pests around the world: Coleoptera (beetles) including Colorado potato beetle, 28-spotted lady beetle, and Andean potato weevil complex; potato tuber moths,...

  10. 7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potatoes. 948.5 Section 948.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and includes all varieties of Irish potatoes...

  11. 7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potatoes. 947.5 Section 947.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU... Definitions § 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the aforesaid...

  12. 7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potatoes. 946.5 Section 946.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within...

  13. 7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potatoes. 948.5 Section 948.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and includes all varieties of Irish potatoes...

  14. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified and...

  15. 7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.306 Potatoes. Potatoes means any or all varieties...

  16. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified and...

  17. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified and...

  18. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any potatoes...

  19. 7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 948.5 Section 948.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and includes all varieties of Irish potatoes...

  20. 7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potatoes. 953.5 Section 953.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes...

  1. 7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potatoes. 947.5 Section 947.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU... Definitions § 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the aforesaid...

  2. 7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 946.5 Section 946.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within...

  3. 7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potatoes. 953.5 Section 953.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes...

  4. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any potatoes...

  5. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any potatoes...

  6. 7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potatoes. 953.5 Section 953.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes...

  7. 7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.306 Potatoes. Potatoes means any or all varieties...

  8. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified and...

  9. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified and...

  10. 7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potatoes. 947.5 Section 947.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU... Definitions § 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the aforesaid...

  11. 7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 953.5 Section 953.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes...

  12. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any potatoes...

  13. 7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potatoes. 946.5 Section 946.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within...

  14. 7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potatoes. 953.5 Section 953.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes...

  15. 7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potatoes. 948.5 Section 948.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and includes all varieties of Irish potatoes...

  16. 7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 947.5 Section 947.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU... Definitions § 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the aforesaid...

  17. 7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potatoes. 946.5 Section 946.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within...

  18. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any potatoes...

  19. 7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.306 Potatoes. Potatoes means any or all varieties...

  20. 7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.306 Potatoes. Potatoes means any or all varieties...

  1. 7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potatoes. 946.5 Section 946.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within...

  2. 7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potatoes. 948.5 Section 948.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and includes all varieties of Irish potatoes...

  3. 7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.306 Potatoes. Potatoes means any or all varieties...

  4. 7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potatoes. 947.5 Section 947.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU... Definitions § 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the aforesaid...

  5. Lead in potatoes

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Harry V.

    1975-01-01

    There are specific environments where potatoes contain much larger amounts of lead than is generally realised. Nevertheless, if we accept the hypothesis that human adults are only likely to be harmed if they absorb more than 100 micrograms of lead daily for extended periods10 then only in rare instances are they apt to be adversely affected by eating potatoes. Medical data suggest that where children are involved the acceptable amounts of lead are significantly less. However, where potatoes do show evidence of contamination by virtue of their high lead content, the possibility of more general contamination should be investigated. The intake of lead from potatoes, if supplemented by lead provided from other foodstuffs, from air, and possibly from water, can well reach unacceptable amounts. Patterson's12 claim that most people in industrialised countries are suffering from a chronic lead insult, does seem justified but, because of the remarkable ability of humans to adapt to some conditions, but how much this insult constitutes a menace to heath must be dealt with by medical men. PMID:1177205

  6. Suppression of the Vacuolar Invertase Gene Prevents Cold-Induced Sweetening in Potato12[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskar, Pudota B.; Wu, Lei; Busse, James S.; Whitty, Brett R.; Hamernik, Andy J.; Jansky, Shelley H.; Buell, C. Robin; Bethke, Paul C.; Jiang, Jiming

    2010-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is the third most important food crop in the world. Potato tubers must be stored at cold temperatures to prevent sprouting, minimize disease losses, and supply consumers and the processing industry with high-quality tubers throughout the year. Unfortunately, cold storage triggers an accumulation of reducing sugars in tubers. High-temperature processing of these tubers results in dark-colored, bitter-tasting products. Such products also have elevated amounts of acrylamide, a neurotoxin and potential carcinogen. We demonstrate that silencing the potato vacuolar acid invertase gene VInv prevents reducing sugar accumulation in cold-stored tubers. Potato chips processed from VInv silencing lines showed a 15-fold acrylamide reduction and were light in color even when tubers were stored at 4°C. Comparable, low levels of VInv gene expression were observed in cold-stored tubers from wild potato germplasm stocks that are resistant to cold-induced sweetening. Thus, both processing quality and acrylamide problems in potato can be controlled effectively by suppression of the VInv gene through biotechnology or targeted breeding. PMID:20736383

  7. The FIGS (focused identification of germplasm strategy) approach identifies traits related to drought adaptation in Vicia faba genetic resources.

    PubMed

    Khazaei, Hamid; Street, Kenneth; Bari, Abdallah; Mackay, Michael; Stoddard, Frederick L

    2013-01-01

    Efficient methods to explore plant agro-biodiversity for climate change adaptive traits are urgently required. The focused identification of germplasm strategy (FIGS) is one such approach. FIGS works on the premise that germplasm is likely to reflect the selection pressures of the environment in which it developed. Environmental parameters describing plant germplasm collection sites are used as selection criteria to improve the probability of uncovering useful variation. This study was designed to test the effectiveness of FIGS to search a large faba bean (Vicia faba L.) collection for traits related to drought adaptation. Two sets of faba bean accessions were created, one from moisture-limited environments, and the other from wetter sites. The two sets were grown under well watered conditions and leaf morpho-physiological traits related to plant water use were measured. Machine-learning algorithms split the accessions into two groups based on the evaluation data and the groups created by this process were compared to the original climate-based FIGS sets. The sets defined by trait data were in almost perfect agreement to the FIGS sets, demonstrating that ecotypic differentiation driven by moisture availability has occurred within the faba bean genepool. Leaflet and canopy temperature as well as relative water content contributed more than other traits to the discrimination between sets, indicating that their utility as drought-tolerance selection criteria for faba bean germplasm. This study supports the assertion that FIGS could be an effective tool to enhance the discovery of new genes for abiotic stress adaptation.

  8. [Teratogenic effect of potato glycoalkaloids].

    PubMed

    Wang, X G

    1993-02-01

    Potato glycoalkaloids were extracted from potato sprout and then analyzed to determine their purity by using TLC and HPLC methods and compare with pure alpha-Solanine and alpha-Chaconine of Sigma. The result indicated that the purity of potato glycoalkaloids is 78. 31%, which contains 73.64% alpha-Solanine and 4.67% alpha-Chaconine. The LD50 of mice was 44.721 +/- 5.860 4 mg/kg. In order to determine the toxicity and teratogenicity of potato glycoalkaloids, the effect of potato glycoalkaloids on Kunming pregnant mice were studied. The results showed that: (1) potato glycoalkaloids have teratogenic effects on embryos of mice. It could induce neural tube defects (NTDs), and may be an important teratogen of NTDs. (2) potato glycoalkaloids have embryo toxicity. It could cause the death of embryos and result in absorbed and dead fetuses. (3) potato glycoalkaloids could evidently affect the development of embryos and lead to intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). An interesting phenomena which just like the clinical manifestation of miscarriage in human being was noticed. If potato glycoalkaloids were given to the pregnant mice on the 5th or 6th day of gestation intraabdominally, vaginal bleeding and abortion would occur, and this has not been reported yet. The animal model of NTDs in this experiments supported our hypothesis that sprouted potato could be a teratogen of NTDs.

  9. Molecular characterization of the Gossypium Diversity Reference Set of the US National Cotton Germplasm Collection.

    PubMed

    Hinze, Lori L; Fang, David D; Gore, Michael A; Scheffler, Brian E; Yu, John Z; Frelichowski, James; Percy, Richard G

    2015-02-01

    A core marker set containing markers developed to be informative within a single commercial cotton species can elucidate diversity structure within a multi-species subset of the Gossypium germplasm collection. An understanding of the genetic diversity of cotton (Gossypium spp.) as represented in the US National Cotton Germplasm Collection is essential to develop strategies for collecting, conserving, and utilizing these germplasm resources. The US collection is one of the largest world collections and includes not only accessions with improved yield and fiber quality within cultivated species, but also accessions possessing sources of abiotic and biotic stress resistance often found in wild species. We evaluated the genetic diversity of a subset of 272 diploid and 1,984 tetraploid accessions in the collection (designated the Gossypium Diversity Reference Set) using a core set of 105 microsatellite markers. Utility of the core set of markers in differentiating intra-genome variation was much greater in commercial tetraploid genomes (99.7 % polymorphic bands) than in wild diploid genomes (72.7 % polymorphic bands), and may have been influenced by pre-selection of markers for effectiveness in the commercial species. Principal coordinate analyses revealed that the marker set differentiated interspecific variation among tetraploid species, but was only capable of partially differentiating among species and genomes of the wild diploids. Putative species-specific marker bands in G. hirsutum (73) and G. barbadense (81) were identified that could be used for qualitative identification of misclassifications, redundancies, and introgression within commercial tetraploid species. The results of this broad-scale molecular characterization are essential to the management and conservation of the collection and provide insight and guidance in the use of the collection by the cotton research community in their cotton improvement efforts.

  10. Molecular characterization of patchouli (Pogostemon spp) germplasm.

    PubMed

    Sandes, S S; Zucchi, M I; Pinheiro, J B; Bajay, M M; Batista, C E A; Brito, F A; Arrigoni-Blank, M F; Alvares-Carvalho, S V; Silva-Mann, R; Blank, A F

    2016-02-19

    Patchouli [Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth.] is an aromatic, herbaceous plant belonging to the Lamiaceae family native to Southeast Asia. Its leaves produce an essential oil regularly used by the perfume and cosmetics industries. However, since patchouli from the Philippines and India were described and named Pogostemon patchouli, there has been a divergence in the identity of these species. The objective of the current study was to study the genetic diversity of patchouli accessions in the Active Germplasm Bank of Universidade Federal de Sergipe using microsatellite and inter simple sequence repeat markers. The results of both types of molecular markers showed that there are two well-defined clusters of accessions that harbor exclusive alleles. It was observed that these two clusters are genetically distant, suggesting that they belong to two different species. Based on the results, two accessions were classified as Pogostemon heyneanus and the remaining accessions were classified as P. cablin.

  11. Phenotypic diversity of starch granules in cassava germplasm.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, L M; Brito, A C; Carmo, C D; Oliveira, P H G A; Oliveira, E J

    2017-04-13

    Demand for the development of cassava varieties with different native starches has guided the search for these characteristics in the germplasm of Manihot esculenta Crantz. Therefore, the objective of this study was to estimate the genetic diversity of cassava accessions for root and starch granule characteristics to guide the future industrial application of this species. Starches from 56 accessions were evaluated for the number of granules in 1 g of starch (NTG), area (AG, μm(2)), length (LG, μm), width (WG, μm), starch granule roundness (Round), dry matter content in the roots (DMC, %), pulp color (PulCo), and cyanogenic compounds (HCN). Images captured by light microscopy were used to determine the average phenotypic values, and these were further analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) considering mixed data (quantitative and qualitative). Significant differences between the cassava accessions for all traits measured revealed wide variability in starch granule characteristics. Four diversity groups with better fitness for the classification of cassava accessions based on PulCo were identified, in comparison with HCN. Accessions with differential starch characteristics were identified, and crossings for the generation of segregating populations in order to obtain table and industry varieties have been proposed.

  12. Diversity of genetic backgrounds modulating the durability of a major resistance gene. Analysis of a core collection of pepper landraces resistant to Potato virus Y.

    PubMed

    Quenouille, Julie; Saint-Felix, Ludovic; Moury, Benoit; Palloix, Alain

    2016-02-01

    The evolution of resistance-breaking capacity in pathogen populations has been shown to depend on the plant genetic background surrounding the resistance genes. We evaluated a core collection of pepper (Capsicum annuum) landraces, representing the worldwide genetic diversity, for its ability to modulate the breakdown frequency by Potato virus Y of major resistance alleles at the pvr2 locus encoding the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E). Depending on the pepper landrace, the breakdown frequency of a given resistance allele varied from 0% to 52.5%, attesting to their diversity and the availability of genetic backgrounds favourable to resistance durability in the plant germplasm. The mutations in the virus genome involved in resistance breakdown also differed between plant genotypes, indicating differential selection effects exerted on the virus population by the different genetic backgrounds. The breakdown frequency was positively correlated with the level of virus accumulation, confirming the impact of quantitative resistance loci on resistance durability. Among these loci, pvr6, encoding an isoform of eIF4E, was associated with a major effect on virus accumulation and on the breakdown frequency of the pvr2-mediated resistance. This exploration of plant genetic diversity delivered new resources for the control of pathogen evolution and the increase in resistance durability. © 2015 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  13. Dynamics of Responses in Compatible Potato - Potato virus Y Interaction Are Modulated by Salicylic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Baebler, Špela; Stare, Katja; Kovač, Maja; Blejec, Andrej; Prezelj, Nina; Stare, Tjaša; Kogovšek, Polona; Pompe-Novak, Maruša; Rosahl, Sabine; Ravnikar, Maja; Gruden, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the dynamics of the potatoPotato virus Y (PVY) compatible interaction in relation to salicylic acid - controlled pathways we performed experiments using non-transgenic potato cv. Désirée, transgenic NahG-Désirée, cv. Igor and PVYNTN, the most aggressive strain of PVY. The importance of salicylic acid in viral multiplication and symptom development was confirmed by pronounced symptom development in NahG-Désirée, depleted in salicylic acid, and reversion of the effect after spraying with 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (a salicylic acid - analogue). We have employed quantitative PCR for monitoring virus multiplication, as well as plant responses through expression of selected marker genes of photosynthetic activity, carbohydrate metabolism and the defence response. Viral multiplication was the slowest in inoculated potato of cv. Désirée, the only asymptomatic genotype in the study. The intensity of defence-related gene expression was much stronger in both sensitive genotypes (NahG-Désirée and cv. Igor) at the site of inoculation than in asymptomatic plants (cv. Désirée). Photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism gene expression differed between the symptomatic and asymptomatic phenotypes. The differential gene expression pattern of the two sensitive genotypes indicates that the outcome of the interaction does not rely simply on one regulatory component, but similar phenotypical features can result from distinct responses at the molecular level. PMID:22194976

  14. Notice of release of NBR-1 Germplasm basalt milkvetch

    Treesearch

    Douglas A. Johnson; Thomas A. Jones; Kevin J. Connors; Kishor Bhattarai; B. Shaun Bushman; Kevin B. Jensen

    2008-01-01

    A selected-class pre-variety germplasm of basalt milkvetch (Astragalus filipes Torr. ex A. Gray [Fabaceae]) has been released for reclamation, rehabilitation, and restoration of semiarid rangelands in the northern Great Basin Region of the western US.

  15. The World's Crop Plant Germplasm--An Endangered Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkes, Garrison

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the fact that many food plants derive from domesticated rather than natural strains, and that natural germplasm or genetic strains used in the plant-improvement process must be carefully preserved. (MLH)

  16. Genomic characterization of a core set of the USDA-NPGS Ethiopian sorghum germplasm collection: implications for germplasm conservation, evaluation, and utilization in crop improvement

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) preserves the largest sorghum germplasm collection in the world and includes 7,217 accessions from the center of diversity located in Ethiopia. This exotic germplasm has not been characterized on a genome-wide basis to better inform its conservati...

  17. Discovery of new sources of disease resistance using wild potato germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Microorganisms that cause plant diseases present a substantial burden to agriculture through yield losses due to plant stress, costs associated with disease control, and efforts to detect infections and limit disease epidemics. Plant breeders are interested in the identification and incorporation of...

  18. Methods for acquisition, storage, and evaluation of leguminous tree germplasm

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, P.

    1980-01-01

    Simple methods for establishing, maintaining, and planting of a small scale tree legume (Prosopis) germplasm collection by one or two people are described. Suggestions are included for: developing an understanding of the worldwide distribution of genus; becoming acquainted with basic and applied scientists working on the taxa; devising seed cleaning, fumigation, cataloging, and storage techniques; requesting seed from international seed collections; collecting seed from native populations; and for field designs for planting the germplasm collection.

  19. Optimizing TILLING and Ecotilling techniques for potato (Solanum tuberosum L)

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Rana; Till, Bradley J; Mba, Chikelu; Al-Safadi, Bassam

    2009-01-01

    Background The TILLING and Ecotilling techniques for the discovery of nucleotide polymorphisms were applied to three potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars treated with gamma irradiation. The three mutant cultivars tested were previously shown to exhibit salinity tolerance, an important trait in countries like Syria where increasing soil salinity is affecting agricultural production. Findings Three gene-specific primer pairs were designed from BAC sequence to amplify ~1 to 1.5 kb of gene target. One of the three primer pairs amplified a single gene target. We used this primer pair to optimize enzymatic mismatch cleavage and fluorescence DNA detection for polymorphism discovery. We identified 15 putative nucleotide polymorphisms per kilobase. Nine discovered polymorphisms were unique to one of the three tetraploid cultivars tested. Conclusion This work shows the utility of enzymatic mismatch cleavage for TILLING and Ecotilling in different varieties of potato. The method allows for rapid germplasm characterization without the cost and high informatics load of DNA sequencing. It is also suitable for mutation discovery in high-throughput reverse genetic screens. PMID:19615043

  20. The mysterious potato.

    PubMed

    Spoerke, D

    1994-08-01

    Even though it comes from a potentially toxic family and may contain solanine-type alkaloids, the potato has risen from a wild food stuff of South American Indians to one of the world's most useful plants and important food source. Toxicity of the tuber commonly seen today is low, with the sprouts and green skin most often involved in toxic exposures. New cultivars may bring about more disease resistance, new tastes, and possibly a smaller solanine content.

  1. Determination of catechin content in representative Chinese tea germplasms.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ji-Qiang; Ma, Jian-Qiang; Ma, Chun-Lei; Yao, Ming-Zhe; Chen, Liang

    2014-10-01

    To understand tea germplasms better and to use them effectively for production and breeding, the catechin content of 403 accessions of representative tea germplasms collected from various locations in China were studied using HPLC. The catechin content of these tea germplasms varied from 56.6 to 231.9 mg/g and averaged 154.5 ± 18.1 mg/g. One germplasm with low total catechin (TC) content (<60 mg/g) and three with high TC (>200 mg/g) contents were found. Averages of the TC content of the three varieties of Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze, namely, sinensis, assamica, and pubilimba, were 152.9 ± 16.2 mg/g, 162.8 ± 22.3 mg/g, and 165.1 ± 21.3 mg/g, respectively. The TC content of the sinensis variety was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that of the other two varieties. The assamica variety had the highest levels of (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), and (-)-epicatechin (EC), whereas the pubilimba variety had the highest levels of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (+)-gallocatechin (GC), (+)-catechin (C), and (-)-gallocatechin gallate (GCG). Factor analysis indicated that GC, C, GCG, catechin index, and ECG greatly influenced the classification. The TC content of germplasms collected from the various provinces showed significant differences (P < 0.05). Tea germplasms of the southern provinces had higher degrees of variation in TC.

  2. Development and Identification of SSR Markers Associated with Starch Properties and β-Carotene Content in the Storage Root of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai; Wu, Zhengdan; Tang, Daobin; Lv, Changwen; Luo, Kai; Zhao, Yong; Liu, Xun; Huang, Yuanxin; Wang, Jichun

    2016-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is a nutritious food crop and, based on the high starch content of its storage root, a potential bioethanol feedstock. Enhancing the nutritional value and starch quantity of storage roots are important goals of sweet potato breeding programs aimed at developing improved varieties for direct consumption, processing, and industrial uses. However, developing improved lines of sweet potato is challenging due to the genetic complexity of this plant and the lack of genome information. Short sequence repeat (SSR) markers are powerful molecular tools for tracking important loci in crops and for molecular-based breeding strategies; however, few SSR markers and marker-trait associations have hitherto been identified in sweet potato. In this study, we identified 1824 SSRs by using a de novo assembly of publicly available ESTs and mRNAs in sweet potato, and designed 1476 primer pairs based on SSR-containing sequences. We mapped 214 pairs of primers in a natural population comprised of 239 germplasms, and identified 1278 alleles with an average of 5.972 alleles per locus and a major allele frequency of 0.7702. Population structure analysis revealed two subpopulations in this panel of germplasms, and phenotypic characterization demonstrated that this panel is suitable for association mapping of starch-related traits. We identified 32, 16, and 17 SSR markers associated with starch content, β-carotene content, and starch composition in the storage root, respectively, using association analysis and further evaluation of a subset of sweet potato genotypes with various characteristics. The SSR markers identified here can be used to select varieties with desired traits and to investigate the genetic mechanism underlying starch and carotenoid formation in the starchy roots of sweet potato. PMID:26973669

  3. Development and Identification of SSR Markers Associated with Starch Properties and β-Carotene Content in the Storage Root of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Wu, Zhengdan; Tang, Daobin; Lv, Changwen; Luo, Kai; Zhao, Yong; Liu, Xun; Huang, Yuanxin; Wang, Jichun

    2016-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is a nutritious food crop and, based on the high starch content of its storage root, a potential bioethanol feedstock. Enhancing the nutritional value and starch quantity of storage roots are important goals of sweet potato breeding programs aimed at developing improved varieties for direct consumption, processing, and industrial uses. However, developing improved lines of sweet potato is challenging due to the genetic complexity of this plant and the lack of genome information. Short sequence repeat (SSR) markers are powerful molecular tools for tracking important loci in crops and for molecular-based breeding strategies; however, few SSR markers and marker-trait associations have hitherto been identified in sweet potato. In this study, we identified 1824 SSRs by using a de novo assembly of publicly available ESTs and mRNAs in sweet potato, and designed 1476 primer pairs based on SSR-containing sequences. We mapped 214 pairs of primers in a natural population comprised of 239 germplasms, and identified 1278 alleles with an average of 5.972 alleles per locus and a major allele frequency of 0.7702. Population structure analysis revealed two subpopulations in this panel of germplasms, and phenotypic characterization demonstrated that this panel is suitable for association mapping of starch-related traits. We identified 32, 16, and 17 SSR markers associated with starch content, β-carotene content, and starch composition in the storage root, respectively, using association analysis and further evaluation of a subset of sweet potato genotypes with various characteristics. The SSR markers identified here can be used to select varieties with desired traits and to investigate the genetic mechanism underlying starch and carotenoid formation in the starchy roots of sweet potato.

  4. Reproductive ecology and genetic variability in natural populations of the wild potato, Solanum kurtzianum.

    PubMed

    Marfil, C F; Masuelli, R W

    2014-03-01

    The cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum) has more than 200 related wild species distributed along the Andes, adapted to a wide range of geographical and ecological areas. Since the last century, several collection expeditions were carried out to incorporate genetic variability into the potato germplasm around the world. However, little is known about the reproductive ecology and genetic population structure of natural potato population from field studies. The aim of this work is to study, in the field, the genetic variability and reproductive strategies of populations of one of the most widely distributed potato species in Argentina, Solanum kurtzianum, growing in Mendoza province. AFLP markers showed that the genetic variability is mainly present among plants within populations, indicating that in the sampled populations, sexual reproduction is more relevant than clonal multiplication (by tubers). Additional evidence was obtained evaluating the genetic diversity in populations with a distribution in patches, where several genotypes were always detected. From a field study performed in the Villavicencio Natural Reserve, we found that the average number of plump seeds per fruit was 94.3, identified and calculated the foraging distance of four insect pollinators, and demonstrated the seed dispersal by storm water channels. We argue that the breeding system, the two modes of reproduction and the ecological interaction described here may have a prominent role in determining the genetic structure of S. kurtzianum populations, and discuss the importance of field studies on population genetics, reproductive biology and ecology to design collections and conservation strategies.

  5. The naming of Potato virus Y strains infecting potato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potato virus Y (PVY) strain groups are based on host-response and resistance-gene interactions. The strain groups PVYO, PVYC and PVYN are well-established for the isolates infecting potato in the field. A switch in the emphasis from host response to nucleotide sequence differences in the virus genom...

  6. The contribution of traditional potato breeding to scientific potato improvement

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Conventional potato breeding refers to development of new cultivars from sexual crosses followed by clonal propagation and selection. Nearly all new varieties of potato still emerge from this process free from modern technologies of gene insertion. Conventional breeding remains the most important ...

  7. Hybrid origins of cultivated potatoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wild and cultivated potatoes, Solanum section Petota, is taxonomically difficult, partly because of interspecific hybridization at both the diploid and polyploid levels. The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes is particularly controversial. With DNA sequence data of the GBSSI (waxy) gene we here infer r...

  8. Russet Burbank, no ordinary potato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Russet Burbank potato variety currently occupies first place in acreage planted in North America and is worth in the United States 1.4 billion dollars annually. It is a sport of the Burbank potato which was selected by Luther Burbank in 1873. The ancestry of Burbank stems from a plant introduc...

  9. Acrylamide in processed potato products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Trace amounts of acrylamide are found in many foods cooked at high temperatures. Acrylamide in processed potato products is formed from reducing sugars and asparagine and is a product of the Maillard reaction. Processed potato products including fries and chips are relatively high in acrylamide comp...

  10. Potato Phytonutrient Analysis and Engineering

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potatoes have the highest per capita consumption of any vegetable, a fact which emphasizes their potential to be a key dietary source of health-promoting compounds. Only a fraction of the genetic diversity available in potato wild-species has been incorporated into modern cultivars. LCMS analysis of...

  11. 21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potato chips made from dried potatoes. 102.41... Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it is...

  12. 21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potato chips made from dried potatoes. 102.41... Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it is...

  13. 21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potato chips made from dried potatoes. 102.41... Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it is...

  14. Insight on Genes Affecting Tuber Development in Potato upon Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Runxuan; Bonar, Nicola; Morris, Jenny; Hedley, Pete E.; Bryan, Glenn J.; Kalantidis, Kriton; Hornyik, Csaba

    2016-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L) is a natural host of Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) which can cause characteristic symptoms on developing plants including stunting phenotype and distortion of leaves and tubers. PSTVd is the type species of the family Pospiviroidae, and can replicate in the nucleus and move systemically throughout the plant. It is not well understood how the viroid can affect host genes for successful invasion and which genes show altered expression levels upon infection. Our primary focus in this study is the identification of genes which can affect tuber formation since viroid infection can strongly influence tuber development and especially tuber shape. In this study, we used a large-scale method to identify differentially expressed genes in potato. We have identified defence, stress and sugar metabolism related genes having altered expression levels upon infection. Additionally, hormone pathway related genes showed significant up- or down-regulation. DWARF1/DIMINUTO, Gibberellin 7-oxidase and BEL5 transcripts were identified and validated showing differential expression in viroid infected tissues. Our study suggests that gibberellin and brassinosteroid pathways have a possible role in tuber development upon PSTVd infection. PMID:26937634

  15. Insight on Genes Affecting Tuber Development in Potato upon Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) Infection.

    PubMed

    Katsarou, Konstantina; Wu, Yun; Zhang, Runxuan; Bonar, Nicola; Morris, Jenny; Hedley, Pete E; Bryan, Glenn J; Kalantidis, Kriton; Hornyik, Csaba

    2016-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L) is a natural host of Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) which can cause characteristic symptoms on developing plants including stunting phenotype and distortion of leaves and tubers. PSTVd is the type species of the family Pospiviroidae, and can replicate in the nucleus and move systemically throughout the plant. It is not well understood how the viroid can affect host genes for successful invasion and which genes show altered expression levels upon infection. Our primary focus in this study is the identification of genes which can affect tuber formation since viroid infection can strongly influence tuber development and especially tuber shape. In this study, we used a large-scale method to identify differentially expressed genes in potato. We have identified defence, stress and sugar metabolism related genes having altered expression levels upon infection. Additionally, hormone pathway related genes showed significant up- or down-regulation. DWARF1/DIMINUTO, Gibberellin 7-oxidase and BEL5 transcripts were identified and validated showing differential expression in viroid infected tissues. Our study suggests that gibberellin and brassinosteroid pathways have a possible role in tuber development upon PSTVd infection.

  16. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all...

  17. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all...

  18. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all...

  19. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all...

  20. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all...

  1. Leafhopper and psyllid pests of potato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Leafhoppers and psyllids are important pests of potato worldwide. These insects cause damage to potato by direct feeding or by acting as vectors of potato pathogens. Economically important leafhoppers that attack potato include Empoasca fabae, Macrosteles fascifrons, and Circulifer tenellus. E. faba...

  2. Genetic diversity and relationship of global faba bean (Vicia faba L.) germplasm revealed by ISSR markers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Fei; Zong, Xu-Xiao; Guan, Jian-Ping; Yang, Tao; Sun, Xue-Lian; Ma, Yu; Redden, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Genetic diversity and relationships of 802 faba bean (Vicia faba L.) landraces and varieties from different geographical locations of China and abroad were examined using ISSR markers. A total of 212 repeatable amplified bands were generated with 11 ISSR primers, of which 209 were polymorphic. Accessions from North China showed highest genetic diversity, while accessions from central China showed low level of diversity. Chinese spring faba bean germplasm was clearly separated from Chinese winter faba bean, based on principal component analysis and UPGMA clustering analysis. Winter accessions from Zhejiang (East China), Jiangxi (East China), Sichuan (Southwest China) and Guizhou (Southwest China) were quite distinct to that from other provinces in China. Great differentiation between Chinese accessions and those from rest of the world was shown with a UPGMA dendrogram. AMOVA analyses demonstrated large variation and differentiation within and among groups of accessions from China. As a continental geographic group, accessions from Europe were genetically closer to those from North Africa. Based on ISSR data, grouping results of accessions from Asia, Europe and Africa were obviously associated with their geographical origin. The overall results indicated that the genetic relationship of faba bean germplasm was closely associated with their geographical origin and their ecological habit.

  3. Ex Situ Conservation Priorities for the Wild Relatives of Potato (Solanum L. Section Petota)

    PubMed Central

    Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P.; de Haan, Stef; Juárez, Henry; Khoury, Colin K.; Achicanoy, Harold A.; Sosa, Chrystian C.; Bernau, Vivian; Salas, Alberto; Heider, Bettina; Simon, Reinhard; Maxted, Nigel; Spooner, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives have a long history of use in potato breeding, particularly for pest and disease resistance, and are expected to be increasingly used in the search for tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Their current and future use in crop improvement depends on their availability in ex situ germplasm collections. As these plants are impacted in the wild by habitat destruction and climate change, actions to ensure their conservation ex situ become ever more urgent. We analyzed the state of ex situ conservation of 73 of the closest wild relatives of potato (Solanum section Petota) with the aim of establishing priorities for further collecting to fill important gaps in germplasm collections. A total of 32 species (43.8%), were assigned high priority for further collecting due to severe gaps in their ex situ collections. Such gaps are most pronounced in the geographic center of diversity of the wild relatives in Peru. A total of 20 and 18 species were assessed as medium and low priority for further collecting, respectively, with only three species determined to be sufficiently represented currently. Priorities for further collecting include: (i) species completely lacking representation in germplasm collections; (ii) other high priority taxa, with geographic emphasis on the center of species diversity; (iii) medium priority species. Such collecting efforts combined with further emphasis on improving ex situ conservation technologies and methods, performing genotypic and phenotypic characterization of wild relative diversity, monitoring wild populations in situ, and making conserved wild relatives and their associated data accessible to the global research community, represent key steps in ensuring the long-term availability of the wild genetic resources of this important crop. PMID:25923711

  4. Potatoes in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Astroculture is a suite of technologies used to produce and maintain a closed controlled environment for plant growth. The two most recent missions supported growth of potato, dwarf wheat, and mustard plants and provided scientists with the first opportunity to conduct true plant research in space. Light emitting diodes have particular usefulness for plant growth lighting because they emit a much smaller amount of radiant heat than do conventional lighting sources and because they have potential of directing a higher percentage of the emitted light onto plants surfaces. Furthermore, the high output LED's have emissions in the 600-700 nm waveband, which is of highest efficiency for photosynthesis by plants.

  5. Potatoes in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Astroculture is a suite of technologies used to produce and maintain a closed controlled environment for plant growth. The two most recent missions supported growth of potato, dwarf wheat, and mustard plants and provided scientists with the first opportunity to conduct true plant research in space. Light emitting diodes have particular usefulness for plant growth lighting because they emit a much smaller amount of radiant heat than do conventional lighting sources and because they have potential of directing a higher percentage of the emitted light onto plants surfaces. Furthermore, the high output LED's have emissions in the 600-700 nm waveband, which is of highest efficiency for photosynthesis by plants.

  6. Improved Tolerance to Various Abiotic Stresses in Transgenic Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Expressing Spinach Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Weijuan; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Hongxia; Zhang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    sweet potato not only stabilizes yield production in normal soils in unpredictable climates but also provides a novel germplasm for sweet potato production on marginal lands. PMID:22615986

  7. Registration of WSRC01, WSRC02, and WSRC03 Winter Hardy Safflower Germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Winter hardy safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) germplasm lines WSRC01, WSRC02, and WSRC03 were developed at the USDA-ARS, Western Regional Plant Introduction Station, Pullman WA. All three lines originated from germplasm introduced from China to the USDA-ARS national safflower germplasm collectio...

  8. Expansion of the USDA-ARS Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) database to accommodate molecular data

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) provides both germplasm and data on genetic resources to researchers and breeders world wide. New tables and codes that hold data relating to molecular markers and multi-locus genotypes have been added to the Germplasm Resources Information Networ...

  9. Genomic characterization of a core set of the USDA-NPGS Ethiopian sorghum germplasm collection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA Agriculture Research Service National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) preserves the largest sorghum germplasm collection in the world, which includes 7,217 accessions from the center of diversity in Ethiopia. The characterization of this exotic germplasm at a genome-wide scale will improve co...

  10. Diversity analysis of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) germplasm using the CottonSNP63K Array

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton germplasm resources contain beneficial alleles that can be exploited to develop germplasm adapting to emerging environmental and climate conditions, and this germplasm has commonly been characterized based on phenotypes. However, phenotypic profiles are limited by what can be observed and me...

  11. Variability of Root Traits in Spring Wheat Germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Sruthi; Mohan, Amita; Gill, Kulvinder S.; Prasad, P. V. Vara

    2014-01-01

    Root traits influence the amount of water and nutrient absorption, and are important for maintaining crop yield under drought conditions. The objectives of this research were to characterize variability of root traits among spring wheat genotypes and determine whether root traits are related to shoot traits (plant height, tiller number per plant, shoot dry weight, and coleoptile length), regions of origin, and market classes. Plants were grown in 150-cm columns for 61 days in a greenhouse under optimal growth conditions. Rooting depth, root dry weight, root: shoot ratio, and shoot traits were determined for 297 genotypes of the germplasm, Cultivated Wheat Collection (CWC). The remaining root traits such as total root length and surface area were measured for a subset of 30 genotypes selected based on rooting depth. Significant genetic variability was observed for root traits among spring wheat genotypes in CWC germplasm or its subset. Genotypes Sonora and Currawa were ranked high, and genotype Vandal was ranked low for most root traits. A positive relationship (R2≥0.35) was found between root and shoot dry weights within the CWC germplasm and between total root surface area and tiller number; total root surface area and shoot dry weight; and total root length and coleoptile length within the subset. No correlations were found between plant height and most root traits within the CWC germplasm or its subset. Region of origin had significant impact on rooting depth in the CWC germplasm. Wheat genotypes collected from Australia, Mediterranean, and west Asia had greater rooting depth than those from south Asia, Latin America, Mexico, and Canada. Soft wheat had greater rooting depth than hard wheat in the CWC germplasm. The genetic variability identified in this research for root traits can be exploited to improve drought tolerance and/or resource capture in wheat. PMID:24945438

  12. Managing Potato Biodiversity to Cope with Frost Risk in the High Andes: A Modeling Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Condori, Bruno; Hijmans, Robert J.; Ledent, Jean Francois; Quiroz, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Austral summer frosts in the Andean highlands are ubiquitous throughout the crop cycle, causing yield losses. In spite of the existing warming trend, climate change models forecast high variability, including freezing temperatures. As the potato center of origin, the region has a rich biodiversity which includes a set of frost resistant genotypes. Four contrasting potato genotypes –representing genetic variability- were considered in the present study: two species of frost resistant native potatoes (the bitter Solanum juzepczukii, var. Luki, and the non-bitter Solanum ajanhuiri, var. Ajanhuiri) and two commercial frost susceptible genotypes (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum var. Alpha and Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigenum var. Gendarme). The objective of the study was to conduct a comparative growth analysis of four genotypes and modeling their agronomic response under frost events. It included assessing their performance under Andean contrasting agroecological conditions. Independent subsets of data from four field experiments were used to parameterize, calibrate and validate a potato growth model. The validated model was used to ascertain the importance of biodiversity, represented by the four genotypes tested, as constituents of germplasm mixtures in single plots used by local farmers, a coping strategy in the face of climate variability. Also scenarios with a frost routine incorporated in the model were constructed. Luki and Ajanhuiri were the most frost resistant varieties whereas Alpha was the most susceptible. Luki and Ajanhuiri, as monoculture, outperformed the yield obtained with the mixtures under severe frosts. These results highlight the role played by local frost tolerant varieties, and featured the management importance –e.g. clean seed, strategic watering- to attain the yields reported in our experiments. The mixtures of local and introduced potatoes can thus not only provide the products demanded by the markets but also reduce the impact of

  13. Managing potato biodiversity to cope with frost risk in the high Andes: a modeling perspective.

    PubMed

    Condori, Bruno; Hijmans, Robert J; Ledent, Jean Francois; Quiroz, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Austral summer frosts in the Andean highlands are ubiquitous throughout the crop cycle, causing yield losses. In spite of the existing warming trend, climate change models forecast high variability, including freezing temperatures. As the potato center of origin, the region has a rich biodiversity which includes a set of frost resistant genotypes. Four contrasting potato genotypes--representing genetic variability--were considered in the present study: two species of frost resistant native potatoes (the bitter Solanum juzepczukii, var. Luki, and the non-bitter Solanum ajanhuiri, var. Ajanhuiri) and two commercial frost susceptible genotypes (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum var. Alpha and Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigenum var. Gendarme). The objective of the study was to conduct a comparative growth analysis of four genotypes and modeling their agronomic response under frost events. It included assessing their performance under Andean contrasting agroecological conditions. Independent subsets of data from four field experiments were used to parameterize, calibrate and validate a potato growth model. The validated model was used to ascertain the importance of biodiversity, represented by the four genotypes tested, as constituents of germplasm mixtures in single plots used by local farmers, a coping strategy in the face of climate variability. Also scenarios with a frost routine incorporated in the model were constructed. Luki and Ajanhuiri were the most frost resistant varieties whereas Alpha was the most susceptible. Luki and Ajanhuiri, as monoculture, outperformed the yield obtained with the mixtures under severe frosts. These results highlight the role played by local frost tolerant varieties, and featured the management importance--e.g. clean seed, strategic watering--to attain the yields reported in our experiments. The mixtures of local and introduced potatoes can thus not only provide the products demanded by the markets but also reduce the impact of frosts

  14. Potato Tuber Callus

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Roy; Varns, Jerry L.; Miller, Karon A.; Talley, Eugene A.

    1976-01-01

    Callus was initiated from explants of tubers of the Norchip cultivar of Solanum tuberosum L. and grown on medium with a single carbon source and without addition of coconut milk, protein hydrolysate, or amino acid. Callus samples were harvested at intervals and compared to mature tubers for which there was good biochemical knowledge. The amino acid spectrum, the glycoalkaloid content, and the properties of the isolated invertase and sucrose synthetase were similar in callus and in tuber. Significantly the level of sucrose synthetase varied with the age of the developing callus just as it did with the age of the developing tuber. Of greater significance, levels of reducing sugars and invertase varied with the age of developing callus and also with time and temperature of storage after the callus has ceased growth. Similar changes occur in intact tubers. Callus and tuber biochemistry differed in the amount of deposited starch and in the absence of potato invertase inhibitor. PMID:16659698

  15. Semi-High Throughput Screening for Potential Drought-tolerance in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) Germplasm Collections.

    PubMed

    Knepper, Caleb; Mou, Beiquan

    2015-04-17

    This protocol describes a method by which a large collection of the leafy green vegetable lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) germplasm was screened for likely drought-tolerance traits. Fresh water availability for agricultural use is a growing concern across the United States as well as many regions of the world. Short-term drought events along with regulatory intervention in the regulation of water availability coupled with the looming threat of long-term climate shifts that may lead to reduced precipitation in many important agricultural regions has increased the need to hasten the development of crops adapted for improved water use efficiency in order to maintain or expand production in the coming years. This protocol is not meant as a step-by-step guide to identifying at either the physiological or molecular level drought-tolerance traits in lettuce, but rather is a method developed and refined through the screening of thousands of different lettuce varieties. The nature of this screen is based in part on the streamlined measurements focusing on only three water-stress indicators: leaf relative water content, wilt, and differential plant growth following drought-stress. The purpose of rapidly screening a large germplasm collection is to narrow the candidate pool to a point in which more intensive physiological, molecular, and genetic methods can be applied to identify specific drought-tolerant traits in either the lab or field. Candidates can also be directly incorporated into breeding programs as a source of drought-tolerance traits.

  16. Semi-High Throughput Screening for Potential Drought-tolerance in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) Germplasm Collections

    PubMed Central

    Knepper, Caleb; Mou, Beiquan

    2015-01-01

    This protocol describes a method by which a large collection of the leafy green vegetable lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) germplasm was screened for likely drought-tolerance traits. Fresh water availability for agricultural use is a growing concern across the United States as well as many regions of the world. Short-term drought events along with regulatory intervention in the regulation of water availability coupled with the looming threat of long-term climate shifts that may lead to reduced precipitation in many important agricultural regions has increased the need to hasten the development of crops adapted for improved water use efficiency in order to maintain or expand production in the coming years. This protocol is not meant as a step-by-step guide to identifying at either the physiological or molecular level drought-tolerance traits in lettuce, but rather is a method developed and refined through the screening of thousands of different lettuce varieties. The nature of this screen is based in part on the streamlined measurements focusing on only three water-stress indicators: leaf relative water content, wilt, and differential plant growth following drought-stress. The purpose of rapidly screening a large germplasm collection is to narrow the candidate pool to a point in which more intensive physiological, molecular, and genetic methods can be applied to identify specific drought-tolerant traits in either the lab or field. Candidates can also be directly incorporated into breeding programs as a source of drought-tolerance traits. PMID:25938876

  17. Germplasm dynamics: the role of ecotypic diversity in shaping the patterns of genetic variation in Lolium perenne

    PubMed Central

    Blackmore, T.; Thorogood, D.; Skøt, L.; McMahon, R.; Powell, W.; Hegarty, M.

    2016-01-01

    Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) is the most widely grown temperate grass species globally. Intensive plant breeding in ryegrass compared to many other crops species is a relatively recent exercise (last 100 years) and provides an interesting experimental system to trace the extent, impact and trajectory of undomesticated ecotypic variation represented in modern ryegrass cultivars. To explore germplasm dynamics in Lolium perenne, 2199 SNPs were genotyped in 716 ecotypes sampled from 90 European locations together with 249 cultivars representing 33 forage/amenity accessions. In addition three pseudo-cross mapping populations (450 individual recombinants) were genotyped to create a consensus genetic linkage map. Multivariate analyses revealed strong differentiation between cultivars with a small proportion of the ecotypic variation captured in improved cultivars. Ryegrass cultivars generated as part of a recurrent selection programme (RSP) are strongly associated with a small number of geographically localised Italian ecotypes which were among the founders of the RSP. Changes in haplotype frequency revealed signatures of selection in genes putatively involved in water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) accumulation (a trait selected in the RSP). Retrospective analysis of germplasm in breeding programmes (germplasm dynamics) provides an experimental framework for the identification of candidate genes for novel traits such as WSC accumulation in ryegrass. PMID:26935901

  18. Improvement of Aroma in Transgenic Potato As a Consequence of Impairing Tuber Browning

    PubMed Central

    Llorente, Briardo; Rodríguez, Vanina; Alonso, Guillermo D.; Torres, Héctor N.; Flawiá, Mirtha M.; Bravo-Almonacid, Fernando F.

    2010-01-01

    Sensory analysis studies are critical in the development of quality enhanced crops, and may be an important component in the public acceptance of genetically modified foods. It has recently been established that odor preferences are shared between humans and mice, suggesting that odor exploration behavior in mice may be used to predict the effect of odors in humans. We have previously found that mice fed diets supplemented with engineered nonbrowning potatoes (-PPO) consumed more potato than mice fed diets supplemented with wild-type potatoes (WT). This prompted us to explore a possible role of potato odor in mice preference for nonbrowning potatoes. Taking advantage of two well established neuroscience paradigms, the “open field test” and the “nose-poking preference test”, we performed experiments where mice exploration behavior was monitored in preference assays on the basis of olfaction alone. No obvious preference was observed towards -PPO or WT lines when fresh potato samples were tested. However, when oxidized samples were tested, mice consistently investigated -PPO potatoes more times and for longer periods than WT potatoes. Congruently, humans discriminated WT from -PPO samples with a considerably better performance when oxidized samples were tested than when fresh samples were tested in blind olfactory experiments. Notably, even though participants ranked all samples with an intermediate level of pleasantness, there was a general consensus that the -PPO samples had a more intense odor and also evoked the sense-impression of a familiar vegetable more often than the WT samples. Taken together, these findings suggest that our previous observations might be influenced, at least in part, by differential odors that are accentuated among the lines once oxidative deterioration takes place. Additionally, our results suggest that nonbrowning potatoes, in addition to their extended shelf life, maintain their odor quality for longer periods of time than WT

  19. Andean potato cultivars (Solanum tuberosum L.) as a source of antioxidant and mineral micronutrients.

    PubMed

    Andre, Christelle M; Ghislain, Marc; Bertin, Pierre; Oufir, Mouhssin; Herrera, María del Rosario; Hoffmann, Lucien; Hausman, Jean-François; Larondelle, Yvan; Evers, Danièle

    2007-01-24

    Potato tubers were evaluated as a source of antioxidants and minerals for the human diet. A genetically diverse sample of Solanum tuberosum L. cultivars native to the Andes of South America was obtained from a collection of nearly 1000 genotypes using microsatellite markers. This size-manageable collection of 74 landraces, representing at best the genetic diversity among potato germplasm, was analyzed for iron, zinc, calcium, total phenolic, total carotenoid, and total vitamin C contents. The hydrophilic antioxidant capacity of each genotype was also measured using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. The iron content ranged from 29.87 to 157.96 microg g-1 of dry weight (DW), the zinc content from 12.6 to 28.83 microg g-1 of DW, and the calcium content from 271.09 to 1092.93 microg g-1 of DW. Total phenolic content varied between 1.12 and 12.37 mg of gallic acid equiv g-1 of DW, total carotenoid content between 2.83 and 36.21 microg g-1 of DW, and total vitamin C content between 217.70 and 689.47 microg g-1 of DW. The range of hydrophilic ORAC values was 28.25-250.67 micromol of Trolox equiv g-1 of DW. The hydrophilic antioxidant capacity and the total phenolic content were highly and positively correlated (r = 0.91). A strong relationship between iron and calcium contents was also found (r = 0.67). Principal component analysis on the studied nutritional contents of the core collection revealed that most potato genotypes were balanced in terms of antioxidant and mineral contents, but some of them could be distinguished by their high level in distinct micronutrients. Correlations between the micronutrient contents observed in the sample and the genetic distances assessed by microsatellites were weakly significant. However, this study demonstrated the wide variability of health-promoting micronutrient levels within the native potato germplasm as well as the significant contribution that distinct potato tubers may impart to the intake in dietary

  20. The FIGS (Focused Identification of Germplasm Strategy) Approach Identifies Traits Related to Drought Adaptation in Vicia faba Genetic Resources

    PubMed Central

    Khazaei, Hamid; Street, Kenneth; Bari, Abdallah; Mackay, Michael; Stoddard, Frederick L.

    2013-01-01

    Efficient methods to explore plant agro-biodiversity for climate change adaptive traits are urgently required. The focused identification of germplasm strategy (FIGS) is one such approach. FIGS works on the premise that germplasm is likely to reflect the selection pressures of the environment in which it developed. Environmental parameters describing plant germplasm collection sites are used as selection criteria to improve the probability of uncovering useful variation. This study was designed to test the effectiveness of FIGS to search a large faba bean (Vicia faba L.) collection for traits related to drought adaptation. Two sets of faba bean accessions were created, one from moisture-limited environments, and the other from wetter sites. The two sets were grown under well watered conditions and leaf morpho-physiological traits related to plant water use were measured. Machine-learning algorithms split the accessions into two groups based on the evaluation data and the groups created by this process were compared to the original climate-based FIGS sets. The sets defined by trait data were in almost perfect agreement to the FIGS sets, demonstrating that ecotypic differentiation driven by moisture availability has occurred within the faba bean genepool. Leaflet and canopy temperature as well as relative water content contributed more than other traits to the discrimination between sets, indicating that their utility as drought-tolerance selection criteria for faba bean germplasm. This study supports the assertion that FIGS could be an effective tool to enhance the discovery of new genes for abiotic stress adaptation. PMID:23667581

  1. Composition and structure of tuber cell walls affect in vitro digestibility of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Frost, Jovyn K T; Flanagan, Bernadine M; Brummell, David A; O'Donoghue, Erin M; Mishra, Suman; Gidley, Michael J; Monro, John A

    2016-10-12

    The digestibility of starchy foods, such as potatoes, can be characterized by the proportion of starch that is rapidly digestible by in vitro hydrolysis (rapidly digestible starch, RDS). This study evaluated the RDS content in a potato germplasm collection consisting of 98 genotypes and identified three advanced lines, Crop39, Crop71 and Crop85, where cooked potato RDS content was significantly lower than that of their respective isolated starches (P < 0.05). In Crop39, Crop71 and Crop85, the properties of their isolated starch did not differ significantly from that of five control lines with higher RDS contents. Cell wall analyses revealed that, compared with other lines tested, Crop39, Crop71 and Crop85 had at least four times the amount of rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I) galactan side-chains that were very firmly attached to the wall and requiring 4 M KOH for extraction. Pectin solubilization during cooking was also remarkably low (2-4%) in these three lines compared with other lines tested (7-19%). The findings suggest that possession of higher amounts of RG-I galactan that interact strongly with cellulose may provide a sturdier wall that better resists solubilization during cooking, and effectively impedes access of digestive enzymes for starch hydrolysis in an in vitro model.

  2. Combining chloroplast and nuclear microsatellites to investigate origin and dispersal of New World sweet potato landraces.

    PubMed

    Roullier, C; Rossel, G; Tay, D; McKey, D; Lebot, V

    2011-10-01

    We analysed a representative collection of New World sweet potato landraces (329 accessions from Mexico to Peru) with both chloroplast and nuclear microsatellite markers. Both kinds of markers supported the existence of two geographically restricted genepools, corresponding to accessions from the north-western part of South America and accessions from the Caribbean and Central America region. Our conservative cpSSRs markers revealed that the divergence between the two haplotype groups is associated with numerous mutation events concerning various markers, supporting the idea that this divergence may be ancient, predating domestication. For both kinds of markers, we found no significant difference in diversity between the two genepools and detected region-specific alleles in both groups. Previous studies have favoured the hypothesis of a single domestication of this crop. Our analysis suggests at least two independent domestications, in Central/Caribbean America and in the north-western part of South America. Sweet potato was then dispersed from these centres throughout tropical America. Comparison of nuclear and chloroplast data suggests that exchanges of clones and sexual reproduction were both important processes in landrace diversification in this clonally propagated crop. Our analysis provides useful tools for rationalizing the conservation and use of sweet potato germplasm collections. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Modulation of gene expression in cold-induced sweetening resistant potato species Solanum berthaultii exposed to low temperature.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xia; Song, Botao; Liu, Jun; Yang, Jianwen; He, Tianjiu; Lin, Yuan; Zhang, Huiling; Xie, Conghua

    2012-05-01

    Cold-induced sweetening (CIS) is a crucial factor influencing the processing quality of potato tubers. To better understand the molecular events of potato CIS and different CIS-sensitivity among various potato species, a suppression subtractive hybridization library and cDNA microarray gene filters were developed. A total of 188 genes were found to be differentially expressed (DE) in Solanum berthaultii (ber) upon cold stimulation. These functional genes were mostly related to cell rescue, defense and virulence, metabolism, energy and protein fate, included in various processes of plant defense against abiotic stresses. Four expression patterns of these DE genes were profiled by qRT-PCR using the cold-stored tubers of both CIS-resistant (ber) and CIS-sensitive (E-potato 3, a variety of S. tuberosum) potatoes. The expression pattern and abundance of many DE genes encoding proteins involved in metabolism were different in these two potato tubers, especially genes associated with amylolysis, sucrose decomposition and glycolysis pathways, indicating distinct regulatory mechanisms between ber and E3 in response to cold stress, which may be crucial for potato CIS. Further investigation of these cold-regulated genes will deepen our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of potato CIS and direct approaches for the genetic improvement of potato processing quality.

  4. Registration of CA0469C025C chickpea germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chickpea (Cicer arientinum L.) germplasm CA0469C025C (Reg. No. XXX; PI XXX), was released by the USDA-ARS in 2010. CA0469C025C was released based on its improved yield and reaction to Ascochyta blight relative to the popular commercial cultivars ‘Dwelley’, ‘Sierra’, and ‘Sawyer’. CA0490C025C is deri...

  5. Collecting in Central Asia: National Plant Germplasm System Plant Explorations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System is charged with the preservation of economically important crop plants and their wild relatives. Curators in the System strive to develop collections capturing the genetic diversity of each species. One mechanism for filling gaps in collections is through...

  6. Ashes to ashes: Large Fraxinus germplasm collections and their fates

    Treesearch

    Kim C. Steiner; Paul. Lupo

    2010-01-01

    As the emerald ash borer (EAB) threatens the survival of our ash species, measures should be taken to preserve their genetic variability in the event that we discover a way to restore populations destroyed by the beetle. As it happens, large germplasm collections exist for our most important and widely distributed eastern species of the genus, white ash (...

  7. Development of core SSR markers for Gossypium germplasm characterization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A set of 105 portable DNA markers were carefully developed to provide a common basis for systematic characterization of cotton germplasm collections in the U.S. and throughout the world. The 105 PCR-based SSR markers of different origins were evenly distributed on each of the 26 cotton chromosomes ...

  8. Fingerprinting soybean germplasm and its utility in genomic research

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The annual accessions in the United States Department of Agriculture, Soybean Germplasm Collection including 18,480 domesticated and 1,168 wild soybeans introduced from 84 countries or developed in the U.S. were genotyped with the SoySNP50K BeadChip containing >50K single nucleotide polymorphism (SN...

  9. Registration of EL54 and EL55 sugarbeet germplasms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    EL54 (PI 654357) is a sugarbeet germplasm derived from wild beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima) accession WB879 (PI 540625), released in the interest of broadening the genetic base of sugar beet. The parent accession WB879, collected in 1989 from Port-de-Houet, France. EL54 has shown excellent Aphan...

  10. Capturing Positive Transgressive Variation From Wild And Exotic Germplasm Resources

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Only a small fraction of the naturally occurring genetic diversity available in rice germplasm repositories around the world has been explored to date. This is beginning to change with the advent of affordable, high throughput genotyping approaches coupled with robust statistical analysis methods th...

  11. Notice of Release of NBR-1 Germplasm Basalt Milkvetch

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Basalt milkvetch or threadstalk milkvetch (Astragalus filipes Torr. ex A. Gray) is a perennial legume that is widely distributed on rangelands in western North America and holds promise for rangeland revegetation and restoration programs. No germplasms or cultivars are commercially available for ba...

  12. Optimized scarification protocols improve germination of diverse Rubus germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seed collections of the wild relatives of cultivated blackberry and raspberry (Rubus species) are maintained at the National Clonal Germplasm Repository, Corvallis, OR. Seeds of Rubus species are orthodox and can be stored dry and remain viable for many years; however germination is often poor or er...

  13. National Plant Germplasm System: Critical Role of Customer Service

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) conserves plant genetic resources, not only for use by future generations, but for immediate use by scientists and educators around the world. With a great deal of interaction between genebank curators and users of plant genetic resources, customer service...

  14. Registration of N96076L peanut germplasm line

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    N96076L (Reg. no. GP-125, PI 641950) is a large-seeded Virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. hypogaea var. hypogaea) germplasm line with resistance to multiple diseases including early leafspot (caused by Cercospora arachidicola S. Hori), Cylindrocladium black rot (CBR) {caused by Cylindr...

  15. Morphological characterization of a Daucus L. germplasm collection in Tunisia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genus Daucus includes about 25 recognized species worldwide. Northern Africa represents a major center of diversity of Daucus, with Tunisia containing at least 12 species and six subspecies. We assessed morphological diversity from a Daucus L. germplasm collection of 103 accessions at the Nation...

  16. Cryopreservation of Juglans sp. germplasm using winter dormant buds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA-ARS, National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS), preserves 20 different Juglans species with over 680 different accessions that are maintained as field plantings. Cryopreservation of these genetic resources is an economic alternative to a costly back-up planting in another location. One of the ...

  17. Identification and evaluation of Forsythia germplasm using molecular markers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study identified Forsythia germplasm and evaluated the genetic relationships of F. ×intermedia hybrids, cultivars and their putative parental species. Leaf samples of F. ×intermedia cultivars and species, such as F. koreana and F. suspensa, were collected in the Netherlands, Korea, and USA. T...

  18. Genetic Diversity and Agronomic Improvement of North American Soybean Germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    From 1970 to 2008 there were 2,242 soybean cultivars registered in North America through U.S. PVP, U.S. utility patent, and journal registration. Of these, 80% were developed through proprietary and 20% through public programs. The most frequently used germplasm for cultivar development were the cul...

  19. Notice of release of Rattlesnake germplasm bottlebrush squirreltail

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rattlesnake Germplasm bottlebrush squirreltail (Elymus elymoides [Raf.] Swezey ssp. elymoides) was released 29 Oct. 2007 for use in rangeland seedings. This plant material was developed from T-1175, an accession collected in Elmore County, Idaho. Seeds of eight T-1175 lines selected for dry-matter...

  20. 50 years of sugarcane germplasm enhancement - roadblocks, hurdles, and success

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 1959, a sugarcane germplasm enhancement program was initiated in Houma Louisiana, USA. This program was intended to develop parental material with an expanded genetic base for the commercial breeding program. What has come to be known as the “basic breeding program” is a long-term undertaking ...

  1. Registration of a tufted-naked seed upland cotton germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A tufted-naked cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) mutant, 9023n4t (Reg. No. GP-971, PI 667553) was developed from the cultivar SC 9023 (9023) (PI 590933) through chemical mutagenesis. Germplasm line 9023n4t was developed by the Department of Plant and Soil Science, Texas Tech University, and released in...

  2. Genetic variation and selection within glandless cotton germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is a renewed interest in research and use of glandless (free of gossypol) cotton that can produce edible seeds for human food and animal feed. However, there was a lack of information on yield potential of existing glandless germplasm since intermittent breeding activities for glandless cotton...

  3. Emerging crops in the USDA arid lands germplasm collection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA National Plant Germplasm System maintains collections of several emerging crops for arid lands at the National Arid Land Plant Genetic Resources Unit in Parlier, CA (NALPGRU). The guayule, jojoba, and prickly pear collections are most active in terms of current research and crop development...

  4. Cryopreservation and maintenance of hop material in USDA germplasm collection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR-Corvallis) is responsible for conservation of the hop (Humulus lupulus L.) genetic resources for the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS). The collection includes 675 accessions representing 7 related taxa (species an...

  5. Lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) oviposition on Prunus germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was used as an oviposition surrogate for the congeneric S. exitiosa (Say) to examine possible preference for Prunus germplasm. We assayed limbs of a peach cultivar (Prunus persica), peach rootstocks, plum-peach hybrid rootstocks, the...

  6. Anthracnose disease evaluation of sorghum germplasm from Honduras

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Germplasm collections are important resources for sorghum improvement and 17 accessions from Honduras were inoculated with Colletotrichum sublineolum and evaluated at the Tropical Agriculture Research Station in Isabela, Puerto Rico during the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons to identify sources of ant...

  7. Screening germplasm for resistance to phomopsis seed decay in soybean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phomopsis longicolla is the primarily cause of soybean Phomopsis seed decay (PSD), a major cause of poor seed quality in the United States. To identify new sources of soybean lines resistant to PSD, field screening of 135 selected soybean germplasm lines representing 28 worldwide origins and maturit...

  8. Characterization of saccharum species germplasm for starch content

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The renewed interest in wild Saccharum species germplasm across sugarcane breeding programs has been necessitated by the need to widen the genetic base of breeding populations. Modern sugarcane cultivars were derived from inter-specific hybridization between S. officinarum and S. spontaneum. Very fe...

  9. Notice of release of Columbia Germplasm of bluebunch wheatgrass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Columbia Germplasm of bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata [Pursh] A. Love) was released by USDA-ARS in 2015. It was developed through five cycles of selection, primarily for increased numbers of spikes, from K68, a population collected in 1980 in Adams County in eastern Washington. The c...

  10. Improving in vitro mineral nutrition for diverse germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Complex chemical interactions in growth media and variation in genotype response make it very difficult to optimize mineral nutrition of in vitro plants. Germplasm collections contain diverse species and cultivars that often do not grow well on standard tissue culture media or do not grow at all. Se...

  11. Evaluation of cotton germplasm and breeding populations for salt tolerance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three experiments were conducted in 2005 and 2007 to evaluate a total of 211 cotton germplasm and breeding lines for salt tolerance in the greenhouses. The randomized complete block designs with two or three replications were employed for those experiments. 200 mM salt solutions or tap water were ap...

  12. Current biotechnologies and future possibilities in preservation of animal germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Animal germplasm (semen, eggs, embryos, DNA, tissue) can be preserved from all agricultural species and result in the regeneration of animal lines or breeds. However, there are limitations to successful utilization of the material that are attributed to the type, post-thaw quality, and available as...

  13. Assessing genetic diversity in Valencia peanut germplasm using SSR markers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Valencia peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.ssp. fastigiata var. fastigiata) are well known for their in-shell market value. Assessment of genetic diversity of the available Valencia germplasm is key to the success of developing improved cultivars with desirable agronomic and quality traits. In the pres...

  14. The National Plant Germplasm System and GRIN-Global

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) is a cooperative effort by public and private organizations to preserve plant genetic diversity. Federal and State personnel at 20 sites are responsible for approximately 547,000 unique accessions of a wide array of plant genetic resources (PGR) representi...

  15. Portable DNA markers tailored for systematic characterization of Gossypium germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many small-scale ad-hoc studies on characterization of Gossypium germplasm have been conducted that use different sets of markers. Coordination with the cotton community is needed to reach a consensus on the appropriate initial set of DNA markers. In consultation with the cotton community, a set o...

  16. Anthracnose field evaluation of sorghum germplasm from Botswana

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sorghum anthracnose is a disease of worldwide importance and host-plant resistance is the most practical method of disease management. In this study, 154 sorghum accessions from the Botswana collection maintained by the United States National Plant Germplasm System were inoculated with Colletotrich...

  17. 21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... largest type used in the words “potato chips.” ... Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it...

  18. 21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... largest type used in the words “potato chips.” ... Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it...

  19. Genetic fingerprinting of potato varieties from the Northwest Potato Variety Development Program

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Northwest Potato Variety Development Program using conventional breeding has successfully released more than 40 improved varieties of potato since its inception in 1983. Potato breeders rely primarily on morphological and phenotypic data for selection and breeding of potato cultivars. With the a...

  20. Glycoalkaloid responses of potato to Colorado potato beetle defoliation.

    PubMed

    Pariera Dinkins, Courtney L; Peterson, Robert K D; Gibson, James E; Hu, Qing; Weaver, David K

    2008-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to measure the glycoalkaloid concentrations of potato tubers in response to Colorado potato beetle and manual defoliation. For plants defoliated by Colorado potato beetles, there was a significantly greater production of glycoalkaloids than in control plants and manually defoliated plants for both skin and inner tissue of tubers in experiment 1. In experiment 1, there was a 58.1% and 48.3% increase in glycoalkaloids in skin and inner tissue of tubers, respectively, from plants defoliated at high levels by Colorado potato beetles compared to control plants. In experiment 2, although a significant difference in glycoalkaloid concentration was not observed among the treatments, the skin and inner tissue of tubers from plants defoliated at high levels by Colorado potato beetles increased glycoalkaloid concentration by 23.4% and 14.5%, respectively, compared to tubers from control plants. In experiment 1, the concentration of tuber extract required to reduce Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cellular proliferation by 50% was 10-fold less for the skin versus the inner tissue, indicating that skin tissue was more toxic under the in vitro conditions of this assay.

  1. White potatoes, human health, and dietary guidance.

    PubMed

    King, Janet C; Slavin, Joanne L

    2013-05-01

    The white potato is a concentrated source of carbohydrate, dietary fiber, and resistant starch and continues to be the staple food of choice for many cultures. The white potato is also a concentrated source of vitamin C and potassium. Two of the nutrients in white potatoes, dietary fiber and potassium, have been designated as nutrients of concern in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Potatoes are often maligned in nutrition circles because of their suspected link to obesity, and popular potato foods often contain more fat calories than carbohydrate calories. Some food guides do not include potatoes in the vegetable group because of their association with high-fat diets. However, potatoes should be included in the vegetable group because they contribute critical nutrients. All white vegetables, including white potatoes, provide nutrients needed in the diet and deserve a prominent position in food guides.

  2. Release of EL54 Sugarbeet Germplasm Derived from WB879 Wild Germplasm With Resistance to Aphanomyces and Excellent Stand Establishment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    EL54 (PI 654357) is a sugarbeet germplasm derived from wild beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima) accession WB879 (PI 540625). EL54 is being released in the interest of broadening the genetic base of sugar beet. The parent accession WB879, collected in 1989 from Port-de-Houet, France (3 m elevation), w...

  3. Assessing the breeding potential of day-neutral converted racestock germplasm in the Pee Dee cotton germplasm enhancement program

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The primitive, upland cotton landrace collection represents one of the untapped genetic resources in cotton breeding programs. Efforts to utilize these resources have been slow, but the development of day-neutral converted germplasm lines offers tremendous potential for broadening the genetic base i...

  4. Evaluation of an Automatic Mashed Potato Dispenser

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    serving line operations. The unit conformed to dimensions, power requirements, potato mix and water tank capacities, dispensing rates and range as...originally to operate with French’s* granular dehydrated potatoes and incoming water pressure of 1.4 x 10* to 8.6 x 10* Pascals (20 to 125 psig) to...dispense portion controlled servings of mashed potatoes by manually depressing the small or large button shown in Figure 1. Hot water and potatoes

  5. Reinventing potato at the diploid level

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We are positioned to revolutionize potato by reconstructing it as a diploid inbred-line based crop. Currently, potato is an asexually propagated cross-pollinated tetraploid crop, for which breeding methodologies have not changed substantially in 100 years. Current methods for creating new potato cul...

  6. Effects of plastic mulch on potato growth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Northern China is a major potato production region, and water-saving measures that can enhance both potato yield and quality play an important role in this region due to general water shortages. Plastic mulch has been used as an effective water-saving measure for potato cultivation in China. This ch...

  7. Liberibacter transmission efficiency among potato psyllid haplotypes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a vector of the phloem-limited bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso), the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato. Little is known on the mechanisms by which the potato psyllid transmits Lso t...

  8. Acoustic Measurement of Potato Cannon Velocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Michael; Courtney, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Potato cannon velocity can be measured with a digitized microphone signal. A microphone is attached to the potato cannon muzzle, and a potato is fired at an aluminum target about 10 m away. Flight time can be determined from the acoustic waveform by subtracting the time in the barrel and time for sound to return from the target. The potato…

  9. Sustainable potato production: global case studies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is grown in over 100 countries throughout the world. As a staple food, potato is the fourth most important crop after rice, wheat, and maize, and has historically contributed to food and nutrition security in the world. Global interest in potato increased sharply in 200...

  10. Potato Types: Their Characteristics and Uses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlista, Alexander D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents material for a talk and demonstration about the relationship of potato types to their different uses by consumers and processors. Includes background information for the instructor and discussions to accompany classroom exercises. Discusses the history of the potato, potato types and external characteristics, and internal characteristics…

  11. 7 CFR 945.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potatoes. 945.5 Section 945.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.5 Potatoes...

  12. 7 CFR 945.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potatoes. 945.5 Section 945.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.5 Potatoes...

  13. 7 CFR 945.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 945.5 Section 945.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.5 Potatoes...

  14. 7 CFR 945.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potatoes. 945.5 Section 945.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.5 Potatoes...

  15. 7 CFR 945.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potatoes. 945.5 Section 945.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.5 Potatoes...

  16. Acoustic Measurement of Potato Cannon Velocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Michael; Courtney, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Potato cannon velocity can be measured with a digitized microphone signal. A microphone is attached to the potato cannon muzzle, and a potato is fired at an aluminum target about 10 m away. Flight time can be determined from the acoustic waveform by subtracting the time in the barrel and time for sound to return from the target. The potato…

  17. Potato Types: Their Characteristics and Uses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlista, Alexander D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents material for a talk and demonstration about the relationship of potato types to their different uses by consumers and processors. Includes background information for the instructor and discussions to accompany classroom exercises. Discusses the history of the potato, potato types and external characteristics, and internal characteristics…

  18. Potato production in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potatoes have been a staple in the American diet for almost 250 years. The United States is the world's fifth biggest producer, behind China, India, the Russian Federation, and the Ukraine. Potatoes in the United States are grown in nearly every state. Idaho produces approximately 1/3 of all potatoe...

  19. Field and Greenhouse Performance of Potato Sprouts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of potato sprouts as a seed source is an innovative idea that has gained international recognition in recent years. The potato industry in Alaska currently relies on freshpack for the majority of sales. A low level of disease pressure on potato seed production in Alaska suggests high quality...

  20. Potato psyllid genome and metagenome project

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli) is a Hemipteran pest of solanaceous plants and limits potato and tomato production by the transmission of Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum. Genomic information on the potato psyllid is limited but is vital in developing appropriate management strategi...

  1. Selection of promising sweet potato clones using projective mapping.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Esteban; Ares, Gastón; Rodríguez, Gustavo; Varela, Pablo; Bologna, Franco; Lado, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Increasing demand for sweet potato in regions with temperate climates has triggered interest in the development of new cultivars. Breeding of this crop should consider sensory characteristics in order to meet consumers' expectations. This requires the application of simple and cost-effective methodologies that allow quality evaluation from a sensory perspective. With the objective of identifying the key sensory characteristics of different sweet potato genotypes, two commercial cultivars and seven clones were evaluated during three consecutive years using projective mapping by an untrained consumer panel. This methodology allowed the discrimination of the genotypes, identifying similarities and differences among groups based on sensory terms selected by the assessors. Genotypes were differentiated in terms of texture and flavor characteristics (firmness, moisture, smoothness, creaminess, flavor intensity, sweetness and bitterness). Materials for future crossings were identified. The evaluation of the sensory characteristics of sweet potato clones and cultivars using projective mapping is a quick, cost-effective and reliable tool for the selection of new advanced sweet potato clones with superior sensory characteristics compared to the reference cultivars INIA Arapey and Cuarí. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Millam, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a globally important crop plant producing high yields of nutritionally valuable food in the form of tubers. It has been the focus of substantial study because of its use both as a staple food crop and as a potentially significant source of compounds of interest. This has included the development and application of transgenic technology for introducing novel traits of fundamental and applied interest. This chapter describes a rapid, efficient, and cost-effective system for the routine transformation of this crop plant at rates above 40% efficiency, calculated as the mean number of Southern blot- confirmed independent transgenics per number of internodal explants originally plated. Internodal sections are co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens and subjected to a two-stage callus induction/shoot outgrowth system under kanamycin selection. Shoot regeneration rates are high using the described method, and excised independent shoots rooting from the cut end of the stem after two further subcultures on kanamycin are 95% certain to be transformed. The transgenic status can be confirmed by molecular analysis and the plants grown on for tuber production enabling a wide spectrum of further studies.

  3. Simultaneous Separation of Acidic and Basic Isoperoxidases in Wounded Potato Tissue by Acrylamide Gel Electrophoresis 1

    PubMed Central

    Borchert, Rolf; Decedue, Charles J.

    1978-01-01

    Preparation and use of a newly developed pH 4.3 horizontal thin layer acrylamide gel which permits the simultaneous separation of acidic and basic isoperoxidases in up to 30 samples is described. Use of cytochrome c, horseradish peroxidase, and a purified potato isoperoxidase as internal standards for a range in isoelectric points of peroxidases from pH 3 to 11 is introduced to facilitate comparison of results obtained with different materials and different methods. Distribution of tissue-specific isoperoxidases in different cell layers of wounded potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tissue is shown and their purification described. Evidence for the in vitro degradation of basic potato isoperoxidases resulting in more acidic forms similar to isoperoxidases occurring in wounded potato tissue is presented. The significance of this observation for the postulated differential function of different isoperoxidases is discussed. ImagesFig. 1-3 PMID:16660608

  4. Potato in the age of biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Ewen; Milbourne, Dan; Petti, Carlo; Doyle-Prestwich, Barbara M; Meade, Conor

    2006-05-01

    Biotechnology-based tools are now widely used to enhance and expand the traditional remit of potato in food production. By modifying its functionality, the capacity of the potato to produce, for example, therapeutic or industrial compounds is now a reality, and its ability to resist disease can also be radically improved. Two developments have been crucial to expanding the role of potato: the recent advances in the fields of structural and functional potato genomics and the ability to integrate genes of interest into the potato genome. In this review we discuss how both developments have diversified the remit of this crop.

  5. Association genetics in Solanum tuberosum provides new insights into potato tuber bruising and enzymatic tissue discoloration

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Most agronomic plant traits result from complex molecular networks involving multiple genes and from environmental factors. One such trait is the enzymatic discoloration of fruit and tuber tissues initiated by mechanical impact (bruising). Tuber susceptibility to bruising is a complex trait of the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) that is crucial for crop quality. As phenotypic evaluation of bruising is cumbersome, the application of diagnostic molecular markers would empower the selection of low bruising potato varieties. The genetic factors and molecular networks underlying enzymatic tissue discoloration are sparsely known. Hitherto there is no association study dealing with tuber bruising and diagnostic markers for enzymatic discoloration are rare. Results The natural genetic diversity for bruising susceptibility was evaluated in elite middle European potato germplasm in order to elucidate its molecular basis. Association genetics using a candidate gene approach identified allelic variants in genes that function in tuber bruising and enzymatic browning. Two hundred and five tetraploid potato varieties and breeding clones related by descent were evaluated for two years in six environments for tuber bruising susceptibility, specific gravity, yield, shape and plant maturity. Correlations were found between different traits. In total 362 polymorphic DNA fragments, derived from 33 candidate genes and 29 SSR loci, were scored in the population and tested for association with the traits using a mixed model approach, which takes into account population structure and kinship. Twenty one highly significant (p < 0.001) and robust marker-trait associations were identified. Conclusions The observed trait correlations and associated marker fragments provide new insight in the molecular basis of bruising susceptibility and its natural variation. The markers diagnostic for increased or decreased bruising susceptibility will facilitate the combination of superior

  6. Seed potato production system in Japan, starting from foundation seed of potato

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Tsukasa; Oohori, Hidemiki; Tajima, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Potato is one of the staple crops cultivated in upland farming in Japan and is propagated vegetatively by means of tubers. However once infected with diseases, potato yield decreases significantly. And one seed potato can produce approximately only 10 potato tubers. To improve the production system of seed potatoes in Japan, Japanese government established a three-stage propagation system for the production and distribution of healthy and disease-free seed potatoes. The National Center for Seeds and Seedlings (NCSS) has a role for the production of foundation seed potatoes and strictly manages the production in isolated fields that are treated thoroughly to control pests and diseases. Recently though the distribution of foundation seed potatoes is decreasing, the number of varieties of foundation seed potatoes has increased steadily. And new varieties of potato adapted various requirements, including resistance of the golden potato cyst nematode, have been increasing. Therefore, NCSS is introducing a new method of producing minitubers (MnTs) by using hydroponic cultivation greenhouse to increase the efficiency of propagation and to rapidly disseminate these new potato varieties. In this review, we describe a seed potato production system in Japan and the production of foundation seed potatoes as an important role of NCSS. PMID:25931977

  7. Content evaluation of 4 furanocoumarin monomers in various citrus germplasms.

    PubMed

    Xu, Juan; Ma, Lili; Jiang, Dong; Zhu, Shiping; Yan, Fuhua; Xie, Yunxia; Xie, Zongzhou; Guo, Wenwu; Deng, Xiuxin

    2015-11-15

    Due to the furanocoumarin compounds in the fruit, the production and consumption of grapefruit have been affected in the past decades since the 'grapefruit juice effect' was declared. To provide elite germplasm and obtain knowledge for future citrus breeding programs, the contents of 4 furanocoumarin monomers (FCMs) in the juice sacs from 73 citrus germplasms were evaluated using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. 6',7'-Dihydroxybergamottin and bergamottin were dominant in all the tested grapefruits, while there were some pomelos with dominant epoxybergamottin, and some with dominant 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin and bergamottin. The contents of FCMs were low or below detection in sweet oranges, mandarins, lemons and trifoliate oranges. The results also show that the dominant patterns of FCMs are genotype-related, and crossing and selection are effective approaches to alter FCM profiles in citrus breeding. Furthermore, the contribution of pomelo as a parent to grapefruit regarding their FCM profiles was discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Neutral Genetic Markers and Conservation Genetics: Simulated Germplasm Collections

    PubMed Central

    Bataillon, T. M.; David, J. L.; Schoen, D. J.

    1996-01-01

    This study examines the use of neutral genetic markers to guide sampling from a large germplasm collection with the objective of establishing from it a smaller, but genetically representative sample. We simulated evolutionary change and germplasm sampling in a subdivided population of a diploid hermaphrodite annual plant to create an initially large collection. Several strategies of sampling from this collection were then compared. Our results show that a strategy based on information obtained from marker genes led to retention of the maximum number of neutral and nonneutral alleles in the smaller sample. This occurred when demes were composed of self-fertilizing individuals or when no migration occurred among demes, but not when demes of an outcrossing population were connected by high levels of migration. PMID:8878704

  9. Molecular Characterization of Apricot Germplasm from an Old Stone Collection

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Carolina; Herrero, María; Hormaza, José I.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing germplasm erosion requires the recovery and conservation of traditional cultivars before they disappear. Here we present a particular case in Spain where a thorough prospection of local fruit tree species was performed in the 1950s with detailed data of the origin of each genotype but, unfortunately, the accessions are no longer conserved in ex situ germplasm collections. However, for most of those cultivars, an old stone collection is still preserved. In order to analyze the diversity present at the time when the prospection was made and to which extent variability has been eroded, we developed a protocol in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) to obtain DNA from maternal tissues of the stones of a sufficient quality to be amplified by PCR. The results obtained have been compared with the results from the profiles developed from apricot cultivars currently conserved in ex situ germplasm collections. The results highlight the fact that most of the old accessions are not conserved ex situ but provide a tool to prioritize the recovery of particular cultivars. The approach used in this work can also be applied to other plant species where seeds have been preserved. PMID:21901149

  10. Genetic diversity in a world germplasm collection of tall fescue

    PubMed Central

    Cuyeu, Romina; Rosso, Beatriz; Pagano, Elba; Soto, Gabriela; Fox, Romina; Ayub, Nicolás Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Festuca arundinacea Schreb., commonly known as tall fescue, is a major forage crop in temperate regions. Recently, a molecular analysis of different accessions of a world germplasm collection of tall fescue has demonstrated that it contains different species from the genus Festuca and allowed their rapid classification into the three major morphotypes (Continental, Mediterranean and Rhizomatous). In this study, we explored the genetic diversity of 161 accessions of Festuca species from 29 countries, including 28 accessions of INTA (Argentina), by analyzing 15 polymorphic SSR markers by capillary electrophoresis. These molecular markers allowed us to detect a total of 214 alleles. The number of alleles per locus varied between 5 and 24, and the values of polymorphic information content ranged from 0.627 to 0.840. In addition, the accessions analyzed by flow cytometry showed different ploidy levels (diploid, tetraploid, hexaploid and octaploid), placing in evidence that the world germplasm collection consisted of multiple species, as previously suggested. Interestingly, almost all accessions of INTA germplasm collection were true hexaploid tall fescue, belonging to two eco-geographic races (Continental and Mediterranean). Finally, the data presented revealed an ample genetic diversity of tall fescue showing the importance of preserving the INTA collection for future breeding programs. PMID:23885206

  11. Evaluation of popcorn germplasm for resistance to Sesamia nonagrioides attack.

    PubMed

    Butrón, A; Sandoya, G; Revilla, P; Ordás, A; Malvar, R A

    2005-10-01

    Popcorn adapted to Spanish conditions could be an interesting and profitable alternative to field corn. However, little is known about breeding popcorn germplasm for adaptation to Spain. Sesamia nonagrioides Lefèvbre is the main insect pest affecting popcorn quality and yield under Spanish growing conditions. The objectives of the study were the search for sources of resistance to S. nonagrioides among popcorn germplasm and to study the genetics of the resistance to S. nonagrioides attack. Eight breeding populations along with a five-inbred line diallel and two popcorn commercial checks were evaluated under S. nonagrioides infestation in 2 yr. Significant differences were found among general combining ability (GCA) effects for days to silking, S. nonagrioides tunnel length, general appearance of the ear, kernel moisture, and yield. Specific combining ability (SCA) effects were found to be significant for yield and ear damage. Therefore, heterotic patterns among popcorn materials should be taken into account to generate new popcorn hybrids that are not only more productive but also have higher kernel quality. Breeding popcorn populations BSP4APC0 and PSPW1C1 could be base germplasms in a breeding program for obtaining parental inbreds of healthy kernel popcorn hybrids. New inbred lines could be generated from the cross BP1 x BP2 that would have improved GCA and SCA effects for S. nonagrioides resistance when crossed to South American inbreds.

  12. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified and...

  13. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified and...

  14. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade potatoes...

  15. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified and...

  16. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified and...

  17. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified and...

  18. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade potatoes...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade potatoes...

  20. Mushroom tyrosinase inhibition activity of Aloe vera L. gel from different germplasms.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S Dutta; Masakapalli, S K

    2013-11-01

    In this study, lyophilized and methanolic extracts of aloe gel from different germplasms were evaluated for their potential to inhibit mushroom tyrosinase activity. The results showed potent inhibitory effect of Aloe vera gel extracts on L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) oxidation catalyzed by tyrosinase in a dose-dependent manner. Significant differences in % inhibition of tyrosinase among the extraction methods and the germplasms were observed. The relative performance of the germplasms was evaluated with the help of posthoc multicomparison test. The methanolic extract was more effective than the lyophilized crude gel in all the germplasms. The inhibitory effect of the lyophilized gel and methanolic extract tested from five germplasms followed the order: RM > TN > S24 > OR > RJN. The germplasm RM showed the highest tyrosinase inhibition, and the maximum % inhibition noted was 26.04% and 41.18%, respectively for the lyophilized and methanolic extracts at 6 mg · mL(-1) concentration. Lineweaver-Burk plots of the different concentrations of L-DOPA in the absence and presence of lyophilized gel extract showed competitive inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase in all the germplasms. This study suggests that the germplasm RM could potentially be used for the isolation and identification of the effective tyrosinase inhibitory component, and ascertains the critical role of selecting the best source of germplasm for natural product isolation and characterization. Copyright © 2013 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Potato respirometer experiment SO61

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taudvin, P. C.; Szpakowski, T. A.

    1971-01-01

    The design and manufacture of a respirometer for measuring the oxygen consumption rate of a respiring potato sprout in a Skylab experiment is reported. The device monitors low gravity effects on the biorhythmicity of organisms during space flight. Several experimental runs using bench mounted flight hardware units were inconclusive due to room temperature induced artifacts.

  2. Growth of potatoes for CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T. W.; Cao, W.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes research on the utilization of white potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) for space life support systems at the University of Wisconsin-Madison over the period of 1984 to 1993. At full maturity the tuber productivity was 37.5 gm(exp -2) d(exp -1), equating to a growing area requirement for one human (2800 kcal d(exp -1)) of 10.1 m(exp -2). A recirculating nutrient system using slanted trays produced best potato growth and tuber yields when a 2-3 cm layer of gravel or arcillite media was utilized. Potato production was close to maximum under lighting levels of 400 micromol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) of photosynthetic photo flux (PPF) for 24 hours or 800 micromol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) for 12 hours, alternating diurnal temperatures of 22 C and 14 C, relative humidity of 85 percent, and a carbon dioxide level of 1000 micromol m(exp -1). The range of effective concentrations of each separate nutrient is reported. The extensive studies with potatoes in this project have demonstrated that this crop has high productivity of nutritous tubers with a high harvest index in controlled environments, and can fulfill a significant portion of the energy and protein requirements for humans in space.

  3. The evolution of potato breeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potato cultivars in most regions of the world are tetraploid and clonally propagated. For over a century, the breeding strategy has been phenotypic recurrent selection. However, the polyploid nature of the crop prevents breeders from eliminating deleterious alleles and assembling positive alleles fo...

  4. Indian plant germplasm on the global platter: an analysis.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sherry R; Tyagi, Vandana; Agrawal, Anuradha; Chakrabarty, Shyamal K; Tyagi, Rishi K

    2015-01-01

    Food security is a global concern amongst scientists, researchers and policy makers. No country is self-sufficient to address food security issues independently as almost all countries are inter-dependent for availability of plant genetic resources (PGR) in their national crop improvement programmes. Consultative Group of International Agricultural Research (CGIAR; in short CG) centres play an important role in conserving and distributing PGR through their genebanks. CG genebanks assembled the germplasm through collecting missions and acquisition the same from national genebanks of other countries. Using the Genesys Global Portal on Plant Genetic Resources, the World Information and Early Warning System (WIEWS) on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture and other relevant databases, we analysed the conservation status of Indian-origin PGR accessions (both cultivated and wild forms possessed by India) in CG genebanks and other national genebanks, including the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) genebanks, which can be considered as an indicator of Indian contribution to the global germplasm collection. A total of 28,027,770 accessions are being conserved world-wide by 446 organizations represented in Genesys; of these, 3.78% (100,607) are Indian-origin accessions. Similarly, 62,920 Indian-origin accessions (8.73%) have been conserved in CG genebanks which are accessible to the global research community for utilization in their respective crop improvement programmes. A total of 60 genebanks including 11 CG genebanks have deposited 824,625 accessions of PGR in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault (SGSV) as safety duplicates; the average number of accessions deposited by each genebank is 13,744, and amongst them there are 66,339 Indian-origin accessions. In principle, India has contributed 4.85 times the number of germplasm accessions to SGSV, in comparison to the mean value (13,744) of any individual genebank including CG genebanks. More importantly

  5. Indian Plant Germplasm on the Global Platter: An Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Sherry R.; Tyagi, Vandana; Agrawal, Anuradha; Chakrabarty, Shyamal K.; Tyagi, Rishi K.

    2015-01-01

    Food security is a global concern amongst scientists, researchers and policy makers. No country is self-sufficient to address food security issues independently as almost all countries are inter-dependent for availability of plant genetic resources (PGR) in their national crop improvement programmes. Consultative Group of International Agricultural Research (CGIAR; in short CG) centres play an important role in conserving and distributing PGR through their genebanks. CG genebanks assembled the germplasm through collecting missions and acquisition the same from national genebanks of other countries. Using the Genesys Global Portal on Plant Genetic Resources, the World Information and Early Warning System (WIEWS) on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture and other relevant databases, we analysed the conservation status of Indian-origin PGR accessions (both cultivated and wild forms possessed by India) in CG genebanks and other national genebanks, including the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) genebanks, which can be considered as an indicator of Indian contribution to the global germplasm collection. A total of 28,027,770 accessions are being conserved world-wide by 446 organizations represented in Genesys; of these, 3.78% (100,607) are Indian-origin accessions. Similarly, 62,920 Indian-origin accessions (8.73%) have been conserved in CG genebanks which are accessible to the global research community for utilization in their respective crop improvement programmes. A total of 60 genebanks including 11 CG genebanks have deposited 824,625 accessions of PGR in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault (SGSV) as safety duplicates; the average number of accessions deposited by each genebank is 13,744, and amongst them there are 66,339 Indian-origin accessions. In principle, India has contributed 4.85 times the number of germplasm accessions to SGSV, in comparison to the mean value (13,744) of any individual genebank including CG genebanks. More importantly

  6. CRYOPRESERVATION OF SWEET POTATO SHOOT TIPS USING A DROPLET-VITRIFICATION PROCEDURE.

    PubMed

    Park, S U; Kim, H H

    2015-01-01

    Sweet potato is a staple food worldwide, but a problematic species in terms of long term storage, as it is not suitable for germplasm conservation. This study aimed to develop cryopreservation protocols for sweet potato shoot tips based on a droplet-vitrification procedure. As a standard procedure, sweet potato shoot tips were precultured in a liquid MS medium supplemented with 10% sucrose (S-10%) and 17.5% sucrose (S-17.5%) for 31 and 17 h, respectively. They were then osmoprotected with C4-35% (17.5% glycerol + 17.5% sucrose) for 50 min and cryoprotected with PVS3 (50% glycerol + 50% sucrose) for 60 min. A set of experiments was designed to investigate critical factors, i.e. stepwise sucrose preculture, osmoprotection, cryoprotection with PVS2- and PVS3-based vitrification solutions, and their combinational effect, as well as temperature alteration through placement in a cooling/rewarming container. Sucrose preculture was determined to be necessary for the adaptation of sweet potato shoot tips to cryoprotection with PVS3, and the highest post-thaw (LN) regeneration rate was observed in a preculture with S-10% for 31 h → S-17.5% for 17 h (19.0%). The effect of one-step or two-step osmoprotection was not significant on survival or regeneration of either the cryoprotected-control (LNC) or LN shoot tips. Responses of sweet potato shoot tips to osmoprotection and cryoprotection were linked to the level of sucrose preculture. The use of alumimium foil strips (droplet-vitrification) resulted in significantly higher LN survival (89.8%) and regeneration (19.0%), compared to those using cryovials (vitrification, 67.2% and 0%, respectively). LN regeneration increased by 67.5% when cryopreserved shoot tips were transferred to a new postculture medium. This study demonstrates that the combination of stepwise sucrose preculture with a higher final concentration (up to 17.5%), cryoprotection with PVS3 and cooling with foil strip is crucial to the regeneration of LN sweet

  7. Genetic variation in the physical properties of sweet potato starch.

    PubMed

    Collado, L S; Mabesa, R C; Corke, H

    1999-10-01

    Sweet potato starch, prepared from 44 genotypes adapted to Philippine conditions, showed wide variation and distinctly different pasting profiles in Rapid Visco-Analyzer (RVA) analysis at 11% and 7% starch concentration. At 11% starch concentration, the pasting profiles were type A, characterized by high to moderate peak with a major breakdown and low cold paste viscosity. At 7%, the pasting profile was generally type C, characterized by the absence of a distinct peak with none to very slight breakdown and high cold paste viscosity. However, differentiation among genotypes was better achieved from RVA pasting profiles at 11% starch concentration. Peak viscosity (PV) and hot paste viscosity (HPV) at 11% starch paste concentration had significant negative correlation with amylose content. PV, HPV, and setback ratio were significantly correlated to adhesiveness of the starch gel. Sweet potato starch generally had high swelling volume but low solubilities at 92.5 degrees C.

  8. [Proteome analysis of potato drought resistance variety in Ninglang 182 leaves under drough stress].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Ting; Zhou, De-Qun; Su, Yuan; Yu, Ping; Zhou, Xiao-Gang; Yao, Chun-Xin

    2013-05-01

    It is utmost important to cultivate potato variety with drought resistance to reduce arid loss by research progress on potato drought resistance molecular mechanism. A comparative study with differences in protein group analysis of potato drought resistance variety in Ninglang 182 leaves was carried out by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis during drought and normal processing conditions.There were 12 differentially expressed protein spots identified by Electro-phoresis and MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS analysis. The function classification of these proteins results that the potato varieties to drought tolerance could be improved through the protection of photosynthesis and mitochondria, regulation of the signal transduction induced under environmental stress and regulation of plant tissue N and C transport system, these proteins expression were increased under drought.The results showed that these proteins are the drought resistance associated proteins of potato variety in Ninglang 182.This study provided a theoretical basis of the molecular mechanism of improving drought tolerance in order to expound the potato drought resistance variety through multiple paths and the level regulation.

  9. Development and application of SINE-based markers for genotyping of potato varieties.

    PubMed

    Seibt, Kathrin M; Wenke, Torsten; Wollrab, Cora; Junghans, Holger; Muders, Katja; Dehmer, Klaus J; Diekmann, Kerstin; Schmidt, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Potato variety discrimination based on morphological traits is laborious and influenced by the environment, while currently applied molecular markers are either expensive or time-consuming in development or application. SINEs, short interspersed nuclear elements, are retrotransposons with a high copy number in plant genomes representing a potential source for new markers. We developed a marker system for potato genotyping, designated inter-SINE amplified polymorphism (ISAP). Based on nine potato SINE families recently characterized (Wenke et al. in Plant Cell 23:3117-3128, 2011), we designed species-specific SINE primers. From the resulting 153 primer combinations, highly informative primer sets were selected for potato variety analysis regarding number of bands, quality of the banding pattern, and the degree of polymorphism. Fragments representing ISAPs can be separated by conventional agarose gel electrophoresis; however, automation with a capillary sequencer is feasible. Two selected SINE families, SolS-IIIa and SolS-IV, were shown to be highly but differently amplified in Solanaceae, Solaneae tribe, including wild and cultivated potatoes, tomato, and eggplant. Fluorescent in situ hybridization demonstrated the genome-wide distribution of SolS-IIIa and SolS-IV along potato chromosomes, which is the basis for genotype discrimination and differentiation of somaclonal variants by ISAP markers.

  10. Genetic diversity and population structure of Brassica oleracea germplasm in Ireland using SSR markers.

    PubMed

    El-Esawi, Mohamed A; Germaine, Kieran; Bourke, Paula; Malone, Renee

    2016-01-01

    The most economically important Brassica oleracea species is endangered in Ireland, with no prior reported genetic characterization studies. This study assesses the genetic diversity, population structure and relationships of B. oleracea germplasm in Ireland using microsatellite (SSRs) markers. A total of 118 individuals from 25 accessions of Irish B. oleracea were genotyped. The SSR loci used revealed a total of 47 alleles. The observed heterozygosity (0.699) was higher than the expected one (0.417). Moreover, the average values of fixation indices (F) were negative, indicating excess of heterozygotes in all accessions. Polymorphic information content (PIC) values of SSR loci ranged from 0.27 to 0.66, with an average of 0.571, and classified 10 loci as informative markers (PIC>0.5) to differentiate among the accessions studied. The genetic differentiation among accessions showed that 27.1% of the total genetic variation was found among accessions, and 72.9% of the variation resided within accessions. The averages of total heterozygosity (H(T)) and intra-accession genetic diversity (H(S)) were 0.577 and 0.442, respectively. Cluster analysis of SSR data distinguished among kale and Brussels sprouts cultivars. This study provided a new insight into the exploitation of the genetically diverse spring cabbages accessions, revealing a high genetic variation, as potential resources for future breeding programs. SSR loci were effective for differentiation among the accessions studied.

  11. Major-effect QTLs for stem and foliage resistance to late blight in the wild potato relatives Solanum sparsipilum and S. spegazzinii are mapped to chromosome X.

    PubMed

    Danan, Sarah; Chauvin, Jean-Eric; Caromel, Bernard; Moal, Jean-Denis; Pellé, Roland; Lefebvre, Véronique

    2009-08-01

    To find out new resistance sources to late blight in the wild germplasm for potato breeding, we examined the polygenic resistance of Solanum sparsipilum and S. spegazzinii by a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. We performed stem and foliage tests under controlled conditions in two diploid mapping progenies. Four traits were selected for QTL detection. A total of 30 QTLs were mapped, with a large-effect QTL region on chromosome X detected in both potato relatives. The mapping of literature-derived markers highlighted colinearities with published late blight QTLs or R-genes. Results showed (a) the resistance potential of S. sparsipilum and S. spegazzinii for late blight control, and (b) the efficacy of the stem test as a complement to the foliage test to break down the complex late blight resistance into elementary components. The relationships of late blight resistance QTLs with R-genes and maturity QTLs are discussed.

  12. Characterization of Insect Resistance Loci in the USDA Soybean Germplasm Collection Using Genome-Wide Association Studies

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hao-Xun; Hartman, Glen L.

    2017-01-01

    Management of insects that cause economic damage to yields of soybean mainly rely on insecticide applications. Sources of resistance in soybean plant introductions (PIs) to different insect pests have been reported, and some of these sources, like for the soybean aphid (SBA), have been used to develop resistant soybean cultivars. With the availability of SoySNP50K and the statistical power of genome-wide association studies, we integrated phenotypic data for beet armyworm, Mexican bean beetle (MBB), potato leafhopper (PLH), SBA, soybean looper (SBL), velvetbean caterpillar (VBC), and chewing damage caused by unspecified insects for a comprehensive understanding of insect resistance in the United States Department of Agriculture Soybean Germplasm Collection. We identified significant single nucleotide (SNP) polymorphic markers for MBB, PLH, SBL, and VBC, and we highlighted several leucine-rich repeat-containing genes and myeloblastosis transcription factors within the high linkage disequilibrium region surrounding significant SNP markers. Specifically for soybean resistance to PLH, we found the PLH locus is close but distinct to a locus for soybean pubescence density on chromosome 12. The results provide genetic support that pubescence density may not directly link to PLH resistance. This study offers a novel insight of soybean resistance to four insect pests and reviews resistance mapping studies for major soybean insects. PMID:28555141

  13. The nitrogen responsive transcriptome in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) reveals significant gene regulatory motifs.

    PubMed

    Gálvez, José Héctor; Tai, Helen H; Lagüe, Martin; Zebarth, Bernie J; Strömvik, Martina V

    2016-05-19

    Nitrogen (N) is the most important nutrient for the growth of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Foliar gene expression in potato plants with and without N supplementation at 180 kg N ha(-1) was compared at mid-season. Genes with consistent differences in foliar expression due to N supplementation over three cultivars and two developmental time points were examined. In total, thirty genes were found to be over-expressed and nine genes were found to be under-expressed with supplemented N. Functional relationships between over-expressed genes were found. The main metabolic pathway represented among differentially expressed genes was amino acid metabolism. The 1000 bp upstream flanking regions of the differentially expressed genes were analysed and nine overrepresented motifs were found using three motif discovery algorithms (Seeder, Weeder and MEME). These results point to coordinated gene regulation at the transcriptional level controlling steady state potato responses to N sufficiency.

  14. The nitrogen responsive transcriptome in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) reveals significant gene regulatory motifs

    PubMed Central

    Gálvez, José Héctor; Tai, Helen H.; Lagüe, Martin; Zebarth, Bernie J.; Strömvik, Martina V.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is the most important nutrient for the growth of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Foliar gene expression in potato plants with and without N supplementation at 180 kg N ha−1 was compared at mid-season. Genes with consistent differences in foliar expression due to N supplementation over three cultivars and two developmental time points were examined. In total, thirty genes were found to be over-expressed and nine genes were found to be under-expressed with supplemented N. Functional relationships between over-expressed genes were found. The main metabolic pathway represented among differentially expressed genes was amino acid metabolism. The 1000 bp upstream flanking regions of the differentially expressed genes were analysed and nine overrepresented motifs were found using three motif discovery algorithms (Seeder, Weeder and MEME). These results point to coordinated gene regulation at the transcriptional level controlling steady state potato responses to N sufficiency. PMID:27193058

  15. What is the source of potato psyllids colonizing Washington, Oregon, and Idaho potato fields?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Managing zebra chip disease in the potato growing regions of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho is complicated by confusion about the geographic source of the insect vector (potato psyllid) as it colonizes potato fields in these growing regions. Not knowing the source of the vector makes it difficult fo...

  16. Assessing potato psyllid haplotypes in potato crops in the Pacific Northwestern United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc), is a vector of the bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso) that has been linked to the economically devastating zebra chip disease of potato. To date, four haplotypes of the potato psyllid have been identified and include Central, We...

  17. Zebra chip disease, Candidatus liberibacter, and potato psyllid: a global threat to the potato industry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Zebra chip (ZC), a new and economically important disease of potato in the United States, Mexico, Central America, and New Zealand, is caused by the bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum”, transmitted to potato by the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli. The disease has caused millions ...

  18. Organic potato production – seed potato production and participatory variety trials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potatoes are vegetatively propagated, thus many pathogens can be transmitted in seed potatoes and affect the subsequent crop. Certified seed potatoes, which are inspected to ensure that pathogen levels are below a specified threshold, provide effective control of most tuber-borne diseases. Organic g...

  19. The role of entanglement concentration on the hydrodynamic properties of potato and sweet potato starches.

    PubMed

    Guo, Li; Hu, Jian; Zhang, Juanjuan; Du, Xianfeng

    2016-12-01

    The hydrodynamic properties of potato starch and sweet potato starch in dilute and semi-dilute aqueous solutions were studied using a Ubbelohde viscometer, a transmission electron microscope, and steady shear rheological measurements. The results indicated that the potato starch solutions showed a linear shape of the ηred versus c curves. The sweet potato starch solutions presented a non-linear shape with a downturn in dilute solutions, or the concentrations were lower than entanglement concentration (ce). The ce values of the potato and sweet potato starch solutions were 0.43% and 0.54%, respectively. These findings indicated that the impact of the ce value on the network formation of the potato starch solutions was much more significant compared with the impact on the sweet potato starch solutions. The potato and sweet potato starch solutions showed shear thinning behaviour hardly occurs when the concentrations were less than ce, while shear thinning behaviour approached when the concentrations were equal to or greater than ce. Similarly, the potato and sweet potato starch solutions rarely resembled a pseudoplastic state when the concentrations were lower than or equal to ce, while the pseudoplastic behaviour developed when the concentrations were higher than ce. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Case study: Healthy grown potatoes and sustainability of Wisconsin potato production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Wisconsin Eco-Potato collaboration developed after several meetings between the Wisconsin Potato and Vegetable Growers Association (WPVGA) and World Wildlife Fund (WWF). Representatives met at the National Potato Council meeting and identified a common interest in development of environmentally ...

  1. Emerging diversity in Potato virus Y poses new challenges for the U.S. potato industry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Until recently tobacco and potato tuber necrotic strains of Potato virus Y (PVY) were considered to be absent from the U.S., and seed certification programs were able to limit PVY incidence in seed potatoes. PVY has become more problematic in recent years and beginning in 2002, necrotic strains of P...

  2. Internal Ballistics of a Pneumatic Potato Cannon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-09

    IOP PUBLISHING EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICS Eur. J. Phys. 30 (2009) 453–457 doi:10.1088/0143-0807/30/3/003 Internal ballistics of a pneumatic potato ...an air gun. Such devices are often employed in outdoor physics demonstrations to launch potatoes using compressed gas that is here assumed to expand...undergraduate students who have taken calculus-based introductory physics. Potato cannons are a popular construction project for physics demonstrations

  3. Assessment of genetic diversity and anthracnose disease response among Zimbabwe sorghum germplasm.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System maintains a Zimbabwe sorghum collection of 1,235 accessions from different provinces. This germplasm has not been extensively employed in U.S. breeding programs due to the lack of phenotypic and genetic characterization. Therefore, 68 accessions from th...

  4. Genetic characterization of Asian fine fescue identifies unique germplasm for forage and turf breeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Evaluation of genetic structure and plant morphology are essential to better utilize introduced germplasm in fine-leaved fescue breeding. Recent collections (2006-2010) of fine-leaved Festuca valesiaca and Festuca rubra germplasm have been made by the USDA, ARS in Kyrgyzstan (KGZ) and the People's ...

  5. Germplasm Preservation of Vegetatively-propagated Crops at the National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Out of 476,049 germplasm accessions maintained by the USDA, ARS, National Plant Germplasm System (NPS), ca. 30,000 are vegetatively-propagated and as such require preservation as non seed propagules. Numerous research reports have demonstrated the advantages of long-term storage of plant tissues in ...

  6. Kimberly sugar beet germplasm evaluated for rhizomania and storage rot resistance in Idaho, 2015

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhizomania caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and storage losses are serious sugar beet production problems. To identify sugar beet germplasm lines with resistance to BNYVV and storage rots, 11germplasm lines from the USDA-ARS Kimberly sugar beet program were screened. The lines wer...

  7. Beet curly top resistance in germplasm from the USDA-ARS Ft. Collins program, 2014

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ninety-seven sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) germplasm lines from the USDA-ARS Ft. Collins sugar beet program, a resistant control germplasm (1996A008), and three commercial control cultivars [SV2012RR (susceptible), Monohikari (susceptible) and HM PM90 (resistant)] were screened for response to Beet ...

  8. Ft. Collins sugar beet germplasm evaluated for rhizomania and storage rot resistance in Idaho, 2013

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhizomania caused by the Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) is a worldwide problem that can lead to loss of tonnage and lower percent sucrose in the field. BNYVV can also reduce the storability of roots. To identify germplasm with resistance to these problems, 50 sugar beet germplasm lines de...

  9. Sugar beet germplasm evaluated for resistance to rhizomania and fungal growth in storage in Idaho, 2011

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Resistance to rhizomania is a basic requirement for cultivars’ approval for commercialization. The objectives of this research were to identify germplasm accessions that carry resistance genes to rhizomania and storage root rots. Twenty-one sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) germplasm from the USDA-ARS K...

  10. Cryopreservation of citrus in the USDA-ARS national plant germplasm system collection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diverse Citrus germplasm from the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System, University of California Riverside, and the California citrus industry is at risk of being lost as a result of disease infestations and unexpected weather disasters. At the National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation ...

  11. Genetic analysis of diversity within a Chinese local sugarcane germplasm based on start codon targeted polymorphism

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In-depth information on sugarcane germplasm is the basis for its conservation and utilization. Data on sugarcane molecular markers are limited for the Chinese sugarcane germplasm collections. In the present study, 20 start codon targeted (SCoT) marker primers were designed to assess the genetic dive...

  12. Identification of natural high-oleate mutants from the USDA Peanut Germplasm Collection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Natural genetic variation may exist in plant germplasm collections. Identifying genetic variation may provide useful materials for breeders to develop new cultivars. After screening 8,846 cultivated peanut germplasm accessions by gas chromatography analysis, we identified three natural mutant lines ...

  13. Molecular and genetic diversity of cultivars in the U.S. cotton germplasm collection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although a large range of untapped genetic diversity exists within the U.S. Cotton Germplasm Collection, much of this diversity has not been characterized and its sources identified. Our objective in this study was to characterize a subset of cultivated Gossypium hirsutum germplasm within the colle...

  14. Diverse germplasm to devleop male-sterile lines for hybrid breeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hybrid rice breeding in the US has depended largely upon male-sterile lines originating in China or from other Asian sources. By contrast, the program in Arkansas has developed all of its male-sterile lines at Stuttgart,AR using germplasm accessions available in the USDA Rice Germplasm Collection st...

  15. Ornamental Plants and the US National Plant Germplasm System: Conserving, Evaluating, Seeking, and Sharing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report presents an overview of the US National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) for an audience of plant propagators from the nursery industry, academia, and public gardens. It describes the active sites that conserve germplasm of interest to propagators and how those sites conserve their germpla...

  16. Molecular characterization of the Gossypium diversity reference set of the US National Cotton Germplasm Collection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An understanding of the genetic diversity of cotton (Gossypium spp.) is essential to develop strategies for collection, conservation, and utilization of these germplasm resources. The US National Cotton Germplasm Collection is one of the largest world collections and includes not only accessions wi...

  17. Physiological and molecular characterization of lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) germplasm with improved seedling freezing tolerance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We conducted greenhouse experiments to compare 14 alfalfa germplasms for their survival following freezing. Among these germplasms are collections adapted to the Grand River National Grasslands in South Dakota. Our hypothesis was that these collections developed tolerance to survive the frigid gro...

  18. Field evaluation of maize germplasm lines for both whorl- and ear-feeding insect resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A total of 29 Antigo maize germplasm lines from the Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) Program received from the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station in Lubbock, TX, were examined for whorl-feeding fall armyworm and ear-feeding corn earworm resistance in 2012 and 2013 with four local resistant an...

  19. Field screening of maize germplasm lines for whorl-feeding fall armyworm resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new set of 13 maize germplasm lines from the Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) Program was examined with 5 controls that have different degrees of insect resistance. Significant difference in fall armyworm damage ratings was detected among the GEM inbred lines. In addition, the total number of ...

  20. 509-45-1: A C. annuum Pepper germplasm containing high concentrations of capsinoids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This publication reports the public release of pepper (Capsicum annuum) germplasm ‘509-45-1’. Pepper germplasm 509-45-1 is a small-fruited, non-pungent single plant selection from PI 645509. Fruit of ‘509-45-1’ contain high concentrations of capsinoids [capsiate ((4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl (E)-8...

  1. The canon of potato science. . . 50 topics in potato science that every potato scientist should know: 1) Genetic diversity and gene banks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This is a compilation of invited reviews on 50 key potato science topics to celebrate the 50 anniversary of the journal Potato Research published by the European Potato Association. The article in question reviews potato genetic diversity and gene banks. It presents basic aspects of the mission an...

  2. The tropical germplasm repository program at the USDA-ARS, Tropical Agriculture Research Station, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station is the only research entity within the National Plant Germplasm system in the insular Caribbean region. It houses germplasm collections of cultivated tropical/subtropical germplasm of bananas/plantains, cacao, mamey sapote, sapodilla, Spanish lime,...

  3. Determining redundancy of short-day, onion (Allium cepa L. var. cepa) accessions in a germplasm collection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System is one of the world’s largest national genebank networks focusing on preserving the genetic diversity of plants by acquiring, preserving, evaluating, documenting and distributing crop-related germplasm to researchers worldwide. Maintaining viable germplasm co...

  4. Field screening of maize germplasm lines for fall armyworm resistance using visual damage rating and predator abundance survey

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As part of our long-term research effort on developing new maize germplasm lines conferring multiple insect resistance at different growth stages, 10 newly-developed maize germplasm lines from the Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) Program were evaluated in 2010 and 2011 for whorl-feeding fall arm...

  5. Evaluation of corn germplasm lines for fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) resistance using whorl damage rating and predator survey

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    After evaluating the ear-colonizing insects and diseases, 13 germplasm lines from the Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) Program in Ames, IA, and Raleigh, NC, and 11 lines (derived from GEM germplasm) from the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station in Lubbock, TX, were examined for whorl-feeding fa...

  6. The Solanum commersonii Genome Sequence Provides Insights into Adaptation to Stress Conditions and Genome Evolution of Wild Potato Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Aversano, Riccardo; Contaldi, Felice; Ercolano, Maria Raffaella; Grosso, Valentina; Iorizzo, Massimo; Tatino, Filippo; Xumerle, Luciano; Dal Molin, Alessandra; Avanzato, Carla; Ferrarini, Alberto; Delledonne, Massimo; Sanseverino, Walter; Cigliano, Riccardo Aiese; Capella-Gutierrez, Salvador; Gabaldón, Toni; Frusciante, Luigi; Bradeen, James M.; Carputo, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Solanum commersonii, which consists of ∼830 megabases with an N50 of 44,303 bp anchored to 12 chromosomes, using the potato (Solanum tuberosum) genome sequence as a reference. Compared with potato, S. commersonii shows a striking reduction in heterozygosity (1.5% versus 53 to 59%), and differences in genome sizes were mainly due to variations in intergenic sequence length. Gene annotation by ab initio prediction supported by RNA-seq data produced a catalog of 1703 predicted microRNAs, 18,882 long noncoding RNAs of which 20% are shown to target cold-responsive genes, and 39,290 protein-coding genes with a significant repertoire of nonredundant nucleotide binding site-encoding genes and 126 cold-related genes that are lacking in S. tuberosum. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that domesticated potato and S. commersonii lineages diverged ∼2.3 million years ago. Three duplication periods corresponding to genome enrichment for particular gene families related to response to salt stress, water transport, growth, and defense response were discovered. The draft genome sequence of S. commersonii substantially increases our understanding of the domesticated germplasm, facilitating translation of acquired knowledge into advances in crop stability in light of global climate and environmental changes. PMID:25873387

  7. Development and analysis of a 20K SNP array for potato (Solanum tuberosum): an insight into the breeding history.

    PubMed

    Vos, Peter G; Uitdewilligen, Jan G A M L; Voorrips, Roeland E; Visser, Richard G F; van Eck, Herman J

    2015-12-01

    A 20K SNP array was developed and a comprehensive set of tetraploid cultivar was genotyped. This allowed us to identify footprints of the breeding history in contemporary breeding material such as identification of introgression segments, selection and founder signatures. A non-redundant subset of 15,138 previously identified SNPs and 4454 SNPs originating from the SolCAP project were combined into a 20k Infinium SNP array for genotyping a total of 569 potato genotypes. In this study we describe how this SNP array (encoded SolSTW array) was designed and analysed with fitTetra, software designed for autotetraploids. Genotypes from different countries and market segments, complemented with historic cultivars and important progenitors, were genotyped. This comprehensive set of genotypes combined with the deliberate inclusion of a large proportion of SNPs with a low minor allele frequency allowed us to distinguish genetic variation contributed by introgression breeding. This "new" (post 1945) genetic variation is located on specific chromosomal regions and enables the identification of SNP markers linked to R-genes. In addition, when the genetic composition of modern cultivars was compared with cultivars released before 1945, it appears that 96% of the genetic variants present in those ancestral cultivars remains polymorphic in modern cultivars. Hence, genetic erosion is almost absent in potato. Finally, we studied population genetic processes shaping the genetic composition of the modern European potato including drift, selection and founder effects. This resulted in the identification of major founders contributing to contemporary germplasm.

  8. The Solanum commersonii Genome Sequence Provides Insights into Adaptation to Stress Conditions and Genome Evolution of Wild Potato Relatives.

    PubMed

    Aversano, Riccardo; Contaldi, Felice; Ercolano, Maria Raffaella; Grosso, Valentina; Iorizzo, Massimo; Tatino, Filippo; Xumerle, Luciano; Dal Molin, Alessandra; Avanzato, Carla; Ferrarini, Alberto; Delledonne, Massimo; Sanseverino, Walter; Cigliano, Riccardo Aiese; Capella-Gutierrez, Salvador; Gabaldón, Toni; Frusciante, Luigi; Bradeen, James M; Carputo, Domenico

    2015-04-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Solanum commersonii, which consists of ∼830 megabases with an N50 of 44,303 bp anchored to 12 chromosomes, using the potato (Solanum tuberosum) genome sequence as a reference. Compared with potato, S. commersonii shows a striking reduction in heterozygosity (1.5% versus 53 to 59%), and differences in genome sizes were mainly due to variations in intergenic sequence length. Gene annotation by ab initio prediction supported by RNA-seq data produced a catalog of 1703 predicted microRNAs, 18,882 long noncoding RNAs of which 20% are shown to target cold-responsive genes, and 39,290 protein-coding genes with a significant repertoire of nonredundant nucleotide binding site-encoding genes and 126 cold-related genes that are lacking in S. tuberosum. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that domesticated potato and S. commersonii lineages diverged ∼2.3 million years ago. Three duplication periods corresponding to genome enrichment for particular gene families related to response to salt stress, water transport, growth, and defense response were discovered. The draft genome sequence of S. commersonii substantially increases our understanding of the domesticated germplasm, facilitating translation of acquired knowledge into advances in crop stability in light of global climate and environmental changes. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  9. Insights into organ-specific pathogen defense responses in plants: RNA-seq analysis of potato tuber-Phytophthora infestans interactions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans can attack both potato foliage and tubers. Although interaction transcriptome dynamics between potato foliage and various pathogens have been reported, no transcriptome study has focused specifically upon how potato tubers respond to pathogen infection. When inoculated with P. infestans, tubers of nontransformed ‘Russet Burbank’ (WT) potato develop late blight disease while those of transgenic ‘Russet Burbank’ line SP2211 (+RB), which expresses the potato late blight resistance gene RB (Rpi-blb1), do not. We compared transcriptome responses to P. infestans inoculation in tubers of these two lines. Results We demonstrated the practicality of RNA-seq to study tetraploid potato and present the first RNA-seq study of potato tuber diseases. A total of 483 million paired end Illumina RNA-seq reads were generated, representing the transcription of around 30,000 potato genes. Differentially expressed genes, gene groups and ontology bins that exhibited differences between the WT and +RB lines were identified. P. infestans transcripts, including those of known effectors, were also identified. Conclusion Faster and stronger activation of defense related genes, gene groups and ontology bins correlate with successful tuber resistance against P. infestans. Our results suggest that the hypersensitive response is likely a general form of resistance against the hemibiotrophic P. infestans—even in potato tubers, organs that develop below ground. PMID:23702331

  10. Insights into organ-specific pathogen defense responses in plants: RNA-seq analysis of potato tuber-Phytophthora infestans interactions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Liangliang; Tu, Zheng Jin; Millett, Benjamin P; Bradeen, James M

    2013-05-23

    The late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans can attack both potato foliage and tubers. Although interaction transcriptome dynamics between potato foliage and various pathogens have been reported, no transcriptome study has focused specifically upon how potato tubers respond to pathogen infection. When inoculated with P. infestans, tubers of nontransformed 'Russet Burbank' (WT) potato develop late blight disease while those of transgenic 'Russet Burbank' line SP2211 (+RB), which expresses the potato late blight resistance gene RB (Rpi-blb1), do not. We compared transcriptome responses to P. infestans inoculation in tubers of these two lines. We demonstrated the practicality of RNA-seq to study tetraploid potato and present the first RNA-seq study of potato tuber diseases. A total of 483 million paired end Illumina RNA-seq reads were generated, representing the transcription of around 30,000 potato genes. Differentially expressed genes, gene groups and ontology bins that exhibited differences between the WT and +RB lines were identified. P. infestans transcripts, including those of known effectors, were also identified. Faster and stronger activation of defense related genes, gene groups and ontology bins correlate with successful tuber resistance against P. infestans. Our results suggest that the hypersensitive response is likely a general form of resistance against the hemibiotrophic P. infestans-even in potato tubers, organs that develop below ground.

  11. An unexpected cause of anaphylaxis: potato.

    PubMed

    Eke Gungor, H; Uytun, S; Murat Sahiner, U; Altuner Torun, Y

    2016-07-01

    Immediate reactions against contact to raw potato has been reported in adults with generally being in the form of an oral contact dermatitis or contact urticaria, but it may also manifest as rhinitis symptoms, wheezing or even anaphylaxis. Cooked or raw potato allergy has been rarely reported in children as some is being immediate and others being late reactions, and it usually results from ingestion. Herein, we report two cases with a background of allergic diseases developed anaphylaxis one with cooked potato and the other one with raw potato.

  12. Resistance level to an aphid potato pest varies between genotypes from the same Solanum accession.

    PubMed

    Pompon, Julien; Li, Xiu-Qing; Pelletier, Yvan

    2011-06-01

    Plant resistance to aphids can be improved by introgressing resistant traits from wild Solanum species into the potato germplasm. Breeding parents are commonly selected from the different accessions of each species. Accessions originate from several seeds collected in a restricted area and are conserved as seeds in genebanks. Genetic heterogeneity may be expected between genotypes from the same accession and could influence resistance level. Working with the potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), and the accession PI243340 of Solanum chomatophilum (Bitter), which has been previously rated as resistant to M. euphorbiae, we genetically identified and assessed the resistance level of genotypes within the accession. A combination of two multilplex polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) discriminated the 13 plant genotypes assessed. Survival of M. euphorbiae, measured using clip cages, varied significantly between five genotypes, randomly selected among the 13 previously assessed, but did not differ between same-genotype plants. Survival among genotypes ranged from 0 to > 60% 12 d after adult molt, and the least resistant genotype exhibited survival close to the susceptible standard, Solanum tuberosum L. Our results support the use of PCR multiplex methods to assess genetic heterogeneity in wild Solanum, and suggest that within accession genetic heterogeneity is sufficient to influence resistance level to aphids. Fine screening at the genotype level is preferable when assessing resistance to aphids.

  13. The carry-through of residues of thiabendazole, tecnazene and chlorpropham from potatoes following manufacture into potato crisps and jacket potato crisps.

    PubMed

    Lewis, D J; Thorpe, S A; Reynolds, S L

    1996-01-01

    Potatoes, commercially treated with thiabendazole, tecnazene and chlorpropham, were processed into potato crisps and jacket potato crisps at a crisp factory using standard manufacturing conditions. A multi-residue method based on gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection was developed and used to determine pesticide residue levels in the potatoes and potato crisps. Results showed that the residues of all three pesticides were significantly reduced to less than 2% and less than 10% of the maximum theoretical residue carry-through level for potato crisps and jacket potato crisps respectively.

  14. Characterising root trait variability in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) germplasm.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yinglong; Ghanem, Michel Edmond; Siddique, Kadambot Hm

    2017-04-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important grain legume crop but its sustainable production is challenged by predicted climate changes, which are likely to increase production limitations and uncertainty in yields. Characterising the variability in root architectural traits in a core collection of chickpea germplasm will provide the basis for breeding new germplasm with suitable root traits for the efficient acquisition of soil resources and adaptation to drought and other abiotic stresses. This study used a semi-hydroponic phenotyping system for assessing root trait variability across 270 chickpea genotypes. The genotypes exhibited large variation in rooting patterns and branching manner. Thirty root-related traits were characterised, 17 of which had coefficients of variation ≥0.3 among genotypes and were selected for further examination. The Pearson correlation matrix showed a strong correlation among most of the selected traits (P≤0.05). Principal component analysis revealed three principal components with eigenvalues >1 capturing 81.5% of the total variation. An agglomerative hierarchical clustering analysis, based on root trait variation, identified three genotype homogeneous groups (rescaled distance of 15) and 16 sub-groups (rescaled distance of 5). The chickpea genotypes characterised in this study with vastly different root properties could be used for further studies in glasshouses and field trials, and for molecular marker studies, gene mapping, and modelling simulations, ultimately aimed at breeding germplasm with root traits for improved adaptation to drought and other specific environments. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  15. Genetic diversity analysis of fruit characteristics of hawthorn germplasm.

    PubMed

    Su, K; Guo, Y S; Wang, G; Zhao, Y H; Dong, W X

    2015-12-07

    One hundred and six accessions of hawthorn intraspecific resources, from the National Germplasm Repository at Shenyang, were subjected to genetic diversity and principal component analysis based on evaluation data of 15 fruit traits. Results showed that the genetic diversity of hawthorn fruit traits varied. Among the 15 traits, the fruit shape variable coefficient had the most obvious evaluation, followed by fruit surface state, dot color, taste, weight of single fruit, sepal posture, peduncle form, and metula traits. These are the primary traits by which hawthorn could be classified in the future. The principal component demonstrated that these traits are the most influential factors of hawthorn fruit characteristics.

  16. An extreme cytoplasmic bottleneck in the modern European cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) is not reflected in decreased levels of nuclear diversity

    PubMed Central

    Provan, J.; Powell, W; Dewar, H.; Bryan, G.; Machray, G. C.; Waugh, R.

    1999-01-01

    We have used the polymorphic chloroplast (cp) and nuclear simple sequence repeats (SSRs) to analyse levels of cytoplasmic and nuclear diversity in the gene pool of the European cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum). Primers designed from the complete chloroplast sequence of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) were used to amplify polymorphic products in a range of potato cultivars. Combining the data from seven polymorphic cpSSR loci gave 26 haplotypes, one of which (haplotype A) accounted for 151 out of the 178 individuals studied and corresponded to the T-type cytoplasm previously identified in cultivated potatoes using chloroplast restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Phylogenetic and diversity analyses of the relationships between cpSSR haplotypes confirmed much higher levels of cytoplasmic diversity outwith the T-type group. Diversity levels at eight nuclear SSR loci, however, were not significantly different between cytoplasmic groups, suggesting a severe maternal bottleneck in the evolution of the modern cultivated potato. These results highlight the importance in quantifying levels of cytoplasmic as well as nuclear diversity and confirm the need for a change in breeding practices to increase levels of non-T-type cytoplasm in the cultivated gene pool, thus helping reduce problems associated with pollen sterility. This may be facilitated by germplasm analysis using cpSSRs, which will allow efficient selection of diverse cytoplasm donors.

  17. Preparation of potato starch microfibers obtained by electro wet spinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cárdenas, W.; Gómez-Pachon, E. Y.; Muñoz, E.; Vera-Graziano, R.

    2016-07-01

    Starch is one of the most abundant biopolymer in nature. It has been primarily used as a thickener in the food industry. Starch is found in greater amounts in the potato tubers, which is one of the largest food productions in the region of Boyacá-Colombia. Thus, potatoes are a viable source of starch. The main objective of this study is the preparation and characterization of native starch's microfiber by electro wet-spinning technique. The parameters that were changed for each treatment were as follows: the amount of potential applied to the solution, the distance between the needle and the collector and the rate of injection of the solution in order to determine the physical and chemical properties of the membranes, conformed by potatoes starch microfiber. Diverse instrumental analysis techniques were applied. They were: Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to determine the morphologies and diameters of microfibers, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to determine the chemical changes, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Calorimetry Scanning (DSC) to obtain the thermal transitions and the temperatures of useful. The microfibers were analysed in order to determine their structural properties and thus define the range of application. In conclusion, potatoes starch microfibers were obtained with average diameters of 15, 17, 23 and 25 micrometres, besides the fibers presented a degradation temperature of 304 °C, indicating that fibers are available with diameters of small scale, with good thermal properties. This study will enable the implementation of the microfibers to obtain bio packaging for food products and other applications.

  18. Fingerprinting Soybean Germplasm and Its Utility in Genomic Research

    PubMed Central

    Song, Qijian; Hyten, David L.; Jia, Gaofeng; Quigley, Charles V.; Fickus, Edward W.; Nelson, Randall L.; Cregan, Perry B.

    2015-01-01

    The United States Department of Agriculture, Soybean Germplasm Collection includes 18,480 domesticated soybean and 1168 wild soybean accessions introduced from 84 countries or developed in the United States. This collection was genotyped with the SoySNP50K BeadChip containing greater than 50K single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Redundant accessions were identified in the collection, and distinct genetic backgrounds of soybean from different geographic origins were observed that could be a unique resource for soybean genetic improvement. We detected a dramatic reduction of genetic diversity based on linkage disequilibrium and haplotype structure analyses of the wild, landrace, and North American cultivar populations and identified candidate regions associated with domestication and selection imposed by North American breeding. We constructed the first soybean haplotype block maps in the wild, landrace, and North American cultivar populations and observed that most recombination events occurred in the regions between haplotype blocks. These haplotype maps are crucial for association mapping aimed at the identification of genes controlling traits of economic importance. A case-control association test delimited potential genomic regions along seven chromosomes that most likely contain genes controlling seed weight in domesticated soybean. The resulting dataset will facilitate germplasm utilization, identification of genes controlling important traits, and will accelerate the creation of soybean varieties with improved seed yield and quality. PMID:26224783

  19. Molecular identity of ramie germplasms using simple sequence repeat markers.

    PubMed

    Luan, M B; Chen, B F; Zou, Z Z; Zhu, J J; Wang, X F; Xu, Y; Sun, Z M; Chen, J H

    2015-03-27

    DNA identity is highly effective and efficient for distinguishing crop varieties regardless of their phenotypic similarities. To establish DNA identity in ramie, 21 simple sequence repeat primers were amplified in 108 accessions of domestic and exotic ramie germplasms. Sixty polymorphic bands were obtained, with an average of 2.9 bands per locus and 2-8 band types per primer locus (average of 5.19 band types). The Simpson's diversity index of the 21 simple sequence repeat loci ranged from 0.158 to 0.808 with an average of 0.612. There was large difference in the specific index in the germplasm tested, from 44.082 to 218.163, with an average of 83.620. Based on allele band type, 8 primer pairs were selected for DNA fingerprinting of the 108 genotypes. The combination of the 8 primer pairs were found to be very effective for distinguishing these genotypes, indicating that they can be used in the molecular DNA identity of ramie.

  20. Dietary antioxidant activities in different germplasms of Mucuna.

    PubMed

    Uma, Sundaram; Gurumoorthi, Parameswaran

    2013-07-01

    Mucuna pruriens, an underutilized native legume of South India has been reported to have high levels of L-Dopa, and used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Cellular damage arising from reactive oxygen and nitrogen species is said to cause neurodegenerative disorders. Antioxidants could assuage this oxidative damage of tissue directly and/or indirectly by enhancing natural defenses and also scavenging the free radicals. In this context, the antioxidative potential of different germplasm of Mucuna species was analyzed. Assays were performed to evaluate the enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants in the extracts. Methanolic extracts of Mucuna (black germplasm) yielded high levels dietary antioxidants viz., flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, steroids and phlobotannins qualitatively. Tannins, total phenols, flavanoids, and steroids accounted for 13.60±1.8 tannic acid equivalents, 58.47±3.19 gallic acid equivalents, 23.7±3.12 quercetin equivalents, and 20.3±1.0 mg per 100 mg β-sitosterol equivalents, respectively. Percentage of scavenging activity against hydroxyl, superoxide anion, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide radicals were 39.12%; 57.1%; 41.26%, and 25.68%, respectively. Reducing capacity (17.74%) was seen to concurrently increase with extract concentration. Catalase, glutathione reductase, and polyphenol oxidase activities were found to be 30.15; 26.6 and 42.5 μmol/mg of protein, respectively. The methanolic extract yielded the most potent levels of dietary antioxidants and exhibited high free-radical-scavenging activity.

  1. Genetic Diversity and Molecular Evolution of Chinese Waxy Maize Germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hongjian; Wang, Hui; Yang, Hua; Wu, Jinhong; Shi, Biao; Cai, Run; Xu, Yunbi; Wu, Aizhong; Luo, Lijun

    2013-01-01

    Waxy maize (Zea mays L. var. certaina Kulesh), with many excellent characters in terms of starch composition and economic value, has grown in China for a long history and its production has increased dramatically in recent decades. However, the evolution and origin of waxy maize still remains unclear. We studied the genetic diversity of Chinese waxy maize including typical landraces and inbred lines by SSR analysis and the results showed a wide genetic diversity in the Chinese waxy maize germplasm. We analyzed the origin and evolution of waxy maize by sequencing 108 samples, and downloading 52 sequences from GenBank for the waxy locus in a number of accessions from genus Zea. A sharp reduction of nucleotide diversity and significant neutrality tests (Tajima’s D and Fu and Li’s F*) were observed at the waxy locus in Chinese waxy maize but not in nonglutinous maize. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Chinese waxy maize originated from the cultivated flint maize and most of the modern waxy maize inbred lines showed a distinct independent origin and evolution process compared with the germplasm from Southwest China. The results indicated that an agronomic trait can be quickly improved to meet production demand by selection. PMID:23818949

  2. Evaluation of high yielding soybean germplasm under water limitation.

    PubMed

    Prince, Silvas J; Murphy, Mackensie; Mutava, Raymond N; Zhang, Zhengzhi; Nguyen, Na; Kim, Yoon Ha; Pathan, Safiullah M; Shannon, Grover J; Valliyodan, Babu; Nguyen, Henry T

    2016-05-01

    Limited information is available for soybean root traits and their plasticity under drought stress. To date, no studies have focused on examining diverse soybean germplasm for regulation of shoot and root response under water limited conditions across varying soil types. In this study, 17 genetically diverse soybean germplasm lines were selected to study root response to water limited conditions in clay (trial 1) and sandy soil (trial 2) in two target environments. Physiological data on shoot traits was measured at multiple crop stages ranging from early vegetative to pod filling. The phenotypic root traits, and biomass accumulation data are collected at pod filling stage. In trial 1, the number of lateral roots and forks were positively correlated with plot yield under water limitation and in trial 2, lateral root thickness was positively correlated with the hill plot yield. Plant Introduction (PI) 578477A and 088444 were found to have higher later root number and forks in clay soil with higher yield under water limitation. In sandy soil, PI458020 was found to have a thicker lateral root system and higher yield under water limitation. The genotypes identified in this study could be used to enhance drought tolerance of elite soybean cultivars through improved root traits specific to target environments. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  3. Molecular characterization of potato leafroll virus, potato virus A, and potato virus X isolates from potatoes in Alaskan cities and villages

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Commercialized potatoes in Alaska are mainly grown in the Matanuska Valley, Tanana Valley and Delta Junction, and are routinely monitored for viruses and pests. In contrast, non-commercial potato production sites occurring throughout Alaska are rarely scrutinized for diseases. In addition, virtually...

  4. Improved genetic disease resistance solutions for potato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Halterman Lab research program is focused on understanding the genetic basis of disease resistance in potato. Several diseases, such as late blight, early blight, potato virus Y, and verticillium wilt, are particularly problematic in Wisconsin. With the exception of early blight, major genes hav...

  5. Ensuring the genetic diversity of potatoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Opportunities for advances in the potato crop through genetics are great, since potato has many needs for improvement, and many related species with the traits required are available. Genebanks provide a centralized and specialized resource for providing the services of acquisition, classification, ...

  6. Assessing reproduction of potato psyllid haplotypes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a serious pest of solanaceous crops in North and Central America and New Zealand. This insect vectors the bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” that causes zebra chip disease of potato. So far, four distinct genetic ...

  7. Developing the Nutritional Potential of Potato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potatoes are the most consumed vegetable in the developed world and consumption is increasing in the developing world. Consequently, the phytonutrient content of potato can have a large impact on public health. Moreover, because of the high consumption even modest increases in tuber phytonutrient co...

  8. Potato cyst nematodes: pests of national importance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potato cyst nematodes (PCN; G. rostochiensis and G. pallida) are internationally-recognized quarantine pests and considered the most devastating pests of potatoes due to annual worldwide yield losses estimated at 12.2%. PCNs continue to spread throughout North America and were recently detected in I...

  9. [The inhibition of potato tubers wound reparation].

    PubMed

    Chalenko, G I; Vasiukova, N I; Gerasimova, N G; Ozeretskovskaia, O l

    2009-01-01

    The multiple washing of the wound surface of potato tubers by water adversely affected the protective properties of wound periderm. Immune inhibitor beta-1,3-beta-1,6 glucan had a property of local effect and inhibited the process of wound healing. The pentasaccharide of xyloglucan caused necrosis of potato tuber tissue and prevented the wound reparation process.

  10. Rapid cycling with true potato seed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rapid generation cycling via true seed production can increase the efficiency of potato breeding programs and genetics studies. This study was carried out to determine the fruit ripening and seed treatment conditions needed for generating true potato seed (TPS) with a high germination rate in a shor...

  11. Sweet potato in gluten-free pancakes.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gluten-free pancakes were prepared using rice flour, and rice flour replaced with various amounts, at 10, 20, and 40% of sweet potato flour. At 40% sweet potato, the apparent viscosity became comparable to that of the traditional wheat pancake batter. Texture properties of the cooked pancakes, such...

  12. Potato tuber dormancy and postharvest sprout control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    For an indeterminate period of time following harvest, potatoes will not sprout and are physiologically dormant. Dormancy is gradually lost during postharvest storage and the resultant sprouting is detrimental to the nutritional and processing qualities of potatoes. Because of this, sprouting resu...

  13. The changing face of Potato virus Y

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This presentation will help growers, seed certification and regulatory officials, consultants, and other practitioners in the United States understand how and why Potato virus Y (PVY) is affecting the seed potato crop and if left unchecked why it will become a major disease issue for the food sector...

  14. Potato zebra chip disease: a phytopathological tale

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potato zebra chip (ZC) disease is a relative newcomer to the world of important potato diseases. First reported in Mexico in the 1990s, by 2004-2005 the disease was causing serious economic damage in parts of Texas. ZC is now widespread in the western United States, Mexico, Central America, and wa...

  15. Reinventing potato at the diploid level

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The outcrossing polyploidy nature of cultivated potato has hindered the use of genomics resources to dissect the genetic basis of agronomically important traits. Reversion to the diploid level allows us to apply powerful tools toward this effort. Parthenogenesis generates diploid cultivated potato, ...

  16. Glycoalkaloids and calystegine alkaloids in potatoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potatoes contain two classes of alkaloids: the glycoalkaloids and the calystegines. The presence of glycoalkaloids in potatoes and their toxicity has been known for more than a century and much has been written about them. Discovery of the nortropane calystegine alkaloids is more recent, and the k...

  17. Technical note: determination of corn hardness in diverse corn germplasm using near-infrared reflectance baseline shift as a measure of grinding resistance.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, P C; Ngonyamo-Majee, D; Shaver, R D

    2010-04-01

    Vitreousness and Stenvert kernel hardness characteristics in corn germplasm have been related to in situ and in vivo starch digestibility in lactating dairy cows. Because of the tedious nature of determining vitreousness by manual dissection or conducting Stenvert hardness measurements, it is challenging to screen corn germplasm for animal performance potential. The resistance of corn to grinding is typically measured in a Stenvert mill and quantified by grinding time and column height. The baseline shift (BLS) of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, which is a normal artifact of grinding-induced particle size differentiation, was calculated and evaluated as an alternative measure of grinding resistance. Stenvert grind time, column height, BLS, and ruminal DM degradability (RDMD) of 31 diverse corn germplasm harvested in triplicate at 2 maturities were made. After grinding, total and 6 partial (100 nm) BLS were calculated [Sigma x(i)+x(j)..., where x(i)=log(10)(1/R) at the ith nanometer and R=reflectance] and compared with vitreousness, Stenvert grinding time, column height, or RDMD of corns using correlation and regression procedures. Total and all partial BLS were correlated with vitreousness, Stenvert measures, and RDMD. Relationships between BLS and vitreousness, Stenvert measures, or RDMD were stronger for partial BLS at shorter near-infrared wavelengths (1,080-1,180 nm) than at longer wavelengths (i.e., 2,280-2,380 nm) or total near-infrared BLS (1,000-2,498 nm). The partial BLS from 1,080 to 1,180 nm and vitreousness were better related to RDMD of corn germplasm than Stenvert grind time or column height.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of a novel potato starch derivative with cationic acetylcholine groups.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; Ni, Boli; Lü, Shaoyu; Cui, Dapeng; Liu, Mingzhu; Gong, Honghong; Han, Fei

    2012-04-01

    A novel substance, cationic acetylcholine potato starch (CAPS), was developed for the first time. The synthesis process had three steps: first, carboxymethyl potato starch (CMPS) was synthesized under sodium hydroxide alkaline condition and in isopropyl alcohol organic media; second, bromocholine chloride (BCC) was synthesized with sulphuric acid as a catalytic agent; finally, CAPS was synthesized by the reaction of CMPS with BCC in N,N'-dimethylformamide (DMF). The degree of substitution (DS) of CAPS was determined by ammonia gas-sensing electrode and elemental analysis. CAPS was characterized by Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) and near infrared (FTNIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).

  19. Variation in Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) oviposition, survival, and development on Solanum bulbocastanum germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli, is a key pest of potato and important vector of the pathogen that causes zebra chip disease. Control of zebra chip relies entirely on the use of insecticides to reduce populations of this vector. The development of potato varieties resistant to B. cocker...

  20. Biobanking genetic resources: challenges and implementation at the USDA National Animal Germplasm Program.

    PubMed

    Purdy, P H; Wilson, C S; Spiller, S F; Blackburn, H D

    2015-12-18

    There is adequate infrastructure in the US to identify and acquire germplasm from the major beef and dairy cattle and swine breeds. However, when we venture outside these species, the same tasks become more difficult because of a lack of breed associations, databases that include genotypic and phenotypic data and low numbers of animals. Furthermore, acquisition of germplasm from non-cattle and non-swine species can be difficult because these animals are often not located near the National Animal Germplasm Program, which makes collection and preservation of the samples in a timely manner that much more complicated. This problem is compounded because not all preservation protocols are optimised for field collection conditions or for all types of germplasm. Since 1999, the USDA National Animal Germplasm Program has worked to overcome these obstacles by developing policies, procedures and techniques in order to create a germplasm repository for all agricultural species (wild and domesticated) in the US. Herein, we describe these activities and illustrate them via a case study on how our efforts collecting Navajo-Churro sheep have created a secure backup of germplasm and how we specifically overcome these issues as they relate to rare and minor breeds of agricultural species.

  1. Radiocaesium activity concentrations in potatoes in Croatia after the Chernobyl accident and dose assessment.

    PubMed

    Franić, Zdenko; Petrinec, Branko; Marović, Gordana; Franić, Zrinka

    2007-02-01

    Systematic investigations of (137)Cs and (134)Cs activity concentrations in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) for the post-Chernobyl period (1986-2005) in the Republic of Croatia are summarized. The correlation between (137)Cs activity concentrations in fallout and potatoes, has been found to be very good, the correlation coefficient being r = 0.88 with P(t) < 0.001 for 18 degrees of freedom. As the radiocaesium levels in potatoes decreased exponentially, the mean residence time of (137)Cs in potatoes was estimated by fitting the measured activity concentrations to the exponential curve. The mean residence time was found to be 6.8 +/- 1.1 years, the standard deviation being estimated by the Monte Carlo simulations. The initial observed (134)Cs:(137)Cs activity ratio in potatoes has been found to be quite variable, but slightly lesser than the theoretically predicted value of 0.5, calculated by applying the known inventory of these radionuclides in the Chernobyl reactor to the equation for the differential radioactive decay. This can be explained by presence of the pre-Chernobyl (137)Cs in soil that originated from nuclear fallout. The annual effective doses received by (134)Cs and (137)Cs intake due to consumption of potatoes estimated for an adult member of the Croatian population were found to be very small, as the per caput Dose for the entire 1986-2005 period was calculated to be about 2.9 microSv, (134)Cs accounting approximately for 1/3 of the entire dose. Therefore, after the Chernobyl accident consumption of potatoes was not the critical pathway for human intake of radiocaesium from the environment in Croatia.

  2. Systematics, diversity, genetics, and evolution of wild and cultivated potatoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cultivated potato, Solanum tuberosum L., is the third most important food crop and is grown and consumed worldwide. Indigenous primitive cultivated (landrace) potatoes, and wild potatoes, all classified as Solanum section Petota, are widely used for potato improvement. Members of section Petota are ...

  3. A Brief History of the Potato in Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Provides historical information on the potato in Ireland focusing on how the potato arrived in Ireland and the advantages and disadvantages of the potato as a food crop. Discusses the Irish potato famine in Ireland, effects of the famine, and the government's laissez-faire response. Includes a list of questions. (CMK)

  4. Soil phosphorus changes impacted by potato cropping management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potato crops generally require high amounts of phosphorus (P) fertilizer to reach economically acceptable yields as the low root density of potato plants makes mobilization and acquisition of phosphate a key factor in potato plant growth. In this work, we evaluated soil P changes in 10 potato fields...

  5. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades shall...

  6. 7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948.151 Section... POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 948.151 Colorado Potato Committee membership. The Colorado Potato Committee shall be comprised of six members and...

  7. 7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section 948.51... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The Colorado Potato Committee...

  8. 7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section 948.51... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The Colorado Potato Committee...

  9. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades shall...

  10. 7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948.151 Section... POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 948.151 Colorado Potato Committee membership. The Colorado Potato Committee shall be comprised of six members and...

  11. 7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section 948.51... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The Colorado Potato Committee...

  12. 7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section 948.51... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The Colorado Potato Committee...

  13. 7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section 948.51... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The Colorado Potato Committee...

  14. 7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948.151 Section... POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 948.151 Colorado Potato Committee membership. The Colorado Potato Committee shall be comprised of six members and...

  15. 7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948.151 Section... POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 948.151 Colorado Potato Committee membership. The Colorado Potato Committee shall be comprised of six members and...

  16. 7 CFR 318.13-25 - Sweet potatoes from Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Hawaii. 318.13-25 Section 318.13... Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-25 Sweet potatoes from Hawaii. (a) Sweet potatoes may be... 5 Sweet potatoes may also be moved interstate from Hawaii with irradiation in accordance with § 305...

  17. A Brief History of the Potato in Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Provides historical information on the potato in Ireland focusing on how the potato arrived in Ireland and the advantages and disadvantages of the potato as a food crop. Discusses the Irish potato famine in Ireland, effects of the famine, and the government's laissez-faire response. Includes a list of questions. (CMK)

  18. Storage performance of Taiwanese sweet potato cultivars.

    PubMed

    Huang, Che-Lun; Liao, Wayne C; Chan, Chin-Feng; Lai, Yung-Chang

    2014-12-01

    Three sweet potato cultivars (TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73), provided by the Taiwanese Agricultural Research Institute (TARI), were stored at either 15 °C or under ambient conditions (23.8 ~ 28.4 °C and 77.1 ~ 81.0 % of relative humidity). Sweet potato roots were randomly chosen from each replicate and evaluated for measurement of weight loss, sugar content analysis, and sprouting after 0, 14, 24, 48, 56, 70, 84, and 98 days of storage. Fresh sweet potato roots were baked at 200 °C for 60 min then samples were taken for sugar analysis. After 14 days of ambient condition storage, the sprouting percentages for TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73 were 100, 85, and 95 % respectively. When sweet potatoes were stored at 15 °C, the weight loss became less and no sweet potato root sprouted after 14 days of storage. Because manufacturers can store sweet potatoes at 15 °C for almost 2 month without other treatments, the supply capacity shortage in July and September can be reduced. The total sugar content slowly increased along with increasing the storage time. After baking, the total sugar content of sweet potatoes significantly increased due to the formation of maltose. Maltose became the major sugar of baked sweet potatoes. Raw sweet potatoes stored at 15 °C had higher total sugar contents after baking than those stored under ambient conditions. Raw sweet potatoes were recommended to be stored at 15 °C before baking.

  19. Effects of chitin nano-whiskers on the gelatinization and retrogradation of maize and potato starches.

    PubMed

    Ji, Na; Liu, Chengzhen; Zhang, Shuangling; Yu, Jing; Xiong, Liu; Sun, Qingjie

    2017-01-01

    Starch is very prone to retrogradation after gelatinization. Inhibition of starch retrogradation has been an important factor in improving the quality of food. For the first time, we investigated the effect of nano-materials, represented by chitin nano-whiskers (CNWs), on the short- and long-term retrogradation of maize and potato starches. Rapid Visco-Analyser results showed that the addition of CNWs significantly decreased the setback values of maize and potato starches, which suggested that CNWs could retard the short-term retrogradation of starch. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction results showed that the percentage of retrogradation of maize and potato starches significantly decreased (P<0.05), suggesting the inhibition of long-term retrogradation. The CNWs could be used as a new inhibitor of starch retrogradation to develop starch-based food with longer shelf life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Novel candidate genes influencing natural variation in potato tuber cold sweetening identified by comparative proteomics and association mapping.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Matthias; Schreiber, Lena; Colby, Thomas; Kuckenberg, Markus; Tacke, Eckhard; Hofferbert, Hans-Reinhard; Schmidt, Jürgen; Gebhardt, Christiane

    2013-08-07

    Higher plants evolved various strategies to adapt to chilling conditions. Among other transcriptional and metabolic responses to cold temperatures plants accumulate a range of solutes including sugars. The accumulation of the reducing sugars glucose and fructose in mature potato tubers during exposure to cold temperatures is referred to as cold induced sweetening (CIS). The molecular basis of CIS in potato tubers is of interest not only in basic research on plant adaptation to environmental stress but also in applied research, since high amounts of reducing sugars affect negatively the quality of processed food products such as potato chips. CIS-tolerance varies considerably among potato cultivars. Our objective was to identify by an unbiased approach genes and cellular processes influencing natural variation of tuber sugar content before and during cold storage in potato cultivars used in breeding programs. We compared by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis the tuber proteomes of cultivars highly diverse for CIS. DNA polymorphisms in genomic sequences encoding differentially expressed proteins were tested for association with tuber starch content, starch yield and processing quality. Pronounced natural variation of CIS was detected in tubers of a population of 40 tetraploid potato cultivars. Significant differences in protein expression were detected between CIS-tolerant and CIS-sensitive cultivars before the onset as well as during cold storage. Identifiable differential proteins corresponded to protease inhibitors, patatins, heat shock proteins, lipoxygenase, phospholipase A1 and leucine aminopeptidase (Lap). Association mapping based on single nucleotide polymorphisms supported a role of Lap in the natural variation of the quantitative traits tuber starch and sugar content. The combination of comparative proteomics and association genetics led to the discovery of novel candidate genes for influencing the natural variation of quantitative traits

  1. Fate of toxic potato glycoalkaloids in a potato field.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Pia H; Strobel, Bjarne W; Hansen, Hans Christian B; Jacobsen, Ole Stig

    2009-04-08

    The toxic glycoalkaloids, alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine, are present in all parts of the potato plant and are possibly transferred to the terrestrial environment. The amounts of glycoalkaloids in plant, soil, and groundwater were followed in a potato field to investigate their distribution and fate during the season. The amount of glycoalkaloids in the plants was up to 25 kg/ha during maturity and decreased to below 0.63 kg/ha during plant senescence. The glycoalkaloids were detected in the upper soil (up to 0.6 kg/ha); this amount accounted only for a minor fraction of the amount present in the plants. Maximum glycoalkaloid concentration of 2.8 mg/kg dry weight soil was detected in September. Dissipation during winter appeared to be slow because glycoalkaloids were still present in the soil in March. No traces of glycoalkaloids were detected in the groundwater (detection limit 0.2 microg/L). From these results, the leaching potential of the glycoalkaloids is evaluated to be small.

  2. Detection of sweet potato virus C, sweet potato virus 2 and sweet potato feathery mottle virus in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Varanda, Carla M R; Santos, Susana J; Oliveira, Mônica D M; Clara, Maria Ivone E; Félix, Maria Rosário F

    2015-06-01

    Field sweet potato plants showing virus-like symptoms, as stunting, leaf distortion, mosaic and chlorosis, were collected in southwest Portugal and tested for the presence of four potyviruses, sweet potato virus C (SPVC), sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2), sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), sweet potato virus G (SPVG), and the crinivirus sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). DsRNA fractions were extracted from symptomatic leaves and used as templates in single and multiplex RT-PCR assays using previously described specific primers for each analyzed virus. The amplified reaction products for SPVC, SPV2 and SPFMV were of expected size, and direct sequencing of PCR products revealed that they correspond to the coat protein gene (CP) and showed 98%, 99% and 99% identity, respectively, to those viruses. Comparison of the CP genomic and amino acid sequences of the Portuguese viral isolates recovered here with those of ten other sequences of isolates obtained in different countries retrieved from the GenBank showed very few differences. The application of the RT-PCR assays revealed for the first time the presence of SPVC and SPFMV in the sweet potato crop in Portugal, the absence of SPVG and SPCSV in tested plants, as well as the occurrence of triple virus infections under field conditions.

  3. Standardized RT-PCR conditions for detection and identification of eleven viruses of potato and Potato spindle tuber viroid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Standardized RT-PCR procedures were developed and validated for detection of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV), Tobacco rattle virus (TRV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), Potato leaf roll virus (PLRV), Potato mop top virus (PMTV), Potato virus A (PVA), Potato viru...

  4. Non-potato host plants of potato psyllid in the Pacific Northwest: a year-round complication?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Managing zebra chip disease in the potato growing regions of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho is complicated by confusion about the source of the insect vector (potato psyllid) as it colonizes potato fields in these growing regions. Not knowing where the psyllid is before arriving in Washington potato...

  5. Disentangling the origins of cultivated sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.).

    PubMed

    Roullier, Caroline; Duputié, Anne; Wennekes, Paul; Benoit, Laure; Fernández Bringas, Víctor Manuel; Rossel, Genoveva; Tay, David; McKey, Doyle; Lebot, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., Convolvulaceae) counts among the most widely cultivated staple crops worldwide, yet the origins of its domestication remain unclear. This hexaploid species could have had either an autopolyploid origin, from the diploid I. trifida, or an allopolyploid origin, involving genomes of I. trifida and I. triloba. We generated molecular genetic data for a broad sample of cultivated sweet potatoes and its diploid and polyploid wild relatives, for noncoding chloroplast and nuclear ITS sequences, and nuclear SSRs. Our data did not support an allopolyploid origin for I. batatas, nor any contribution of I. triloba in the genome of domesticated sweet potato. I. trifida and I. batatas are closely related although they do not share haplotypes. Our data support an autopolyploid origin of sweet potato from the ancestor it shares with I. trifida, which might be similar to currently observed tetraploid wild Ipomoea accessions. Two I. batatas chloroplast lineages were identified. They show more divergence with each other than either does with I. trifida. We thus propose that cultivated I. batatas have multiple origins, and evolved from at least two distinct autopolyploidization events in polymorphic wild populations of a single progenitor species. Secondary contact between sweet potatoes domesticated in Central America and in South America, from differentiated wild I. batatas populations, would have led to the introgression of chloroplast haplotypes of each lineage into nuclear backgrounds of the other, and to a reduced divergence between nuclear gene pools as compared with chloroplast haplotypes.

  6. Disentangling the Origins of Cultivated Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.)

    PubMed Central

    Roullier, Caroline; Duputié, Anne; Wennekes, Paul; Benoit, Laure; Fernández Bringas, Víctor Manuel; Rossel, Genoveva; Tay, David; McKey, Doyle; Lebot, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., Convolvulaceae) counts among the most widely cultivated staple crops worldwide, yet the origins of its domestication remain unclear. This hexaploid species could have had either an autopolyploid origin, from the diploid I. trifida, or an allopolyploid origin, involving genomes of I. trifida and I. triloba. We generated molecular genetic data for a broad sample of cultivated sweet potatoes and its diploid and polyploid wild relatives, for noncoding chloroplast and nuclear ITS sequences, and nuclear SSRs. Our data did not support an allopolyploid origin for I. batatas, nor any contribution of I. triloba in the genome of domesticated sweet potato. I. trifida and I. batatas are closely related although they do not share haplotypes. Our data support an autopolyploid origin of sweet potato from the ancestor it shares with I. trifida, which might be similar to currently observed tetraploid wild Ipomoea accessions. Two I. batatas chloroplast lineages were identified. They show more divergence with each other than either does with I. trifida. We thus propose that cultivated I. batatas have multiple origins, and evolved from at least two distinct autopolyploidization events in polymorphic wild populations of a single progenitor species. Secondary contact between sweet potatoes domesticated in Central America and in South America, from differentiated wild I. batatas populations, would have led to the introgression of chloroplast haplotypes of each lineage into nuclear backgrounds of the other, and to a reduced divergence between nuclear gene pools as compared with chloroplast haplotypes. PMID:23723970

  7. Hazardous effects of fried potato chips on the development of retina in albino rats.

    PubMed

    El-Sayyad, Hassan I; Sakr, Saber A; Badawy, Gamal M; Afify, Hanaa S

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate the hazardous effects of fried potato chips upon the retina of two developmental stages of the albino rats aged 7 and 14 days from parturition. PREGNANT RATS WERE ARRANGED INTO TWO GROUPS: control pregnant rats and consequently their delivered newborns until reaching 7 and 14 days old from parturition and fried potato chips group in which pregnant rats at the 6th day of gestation maintained on diet formed of fried potato chips supplied from the market mixed with standard diet at a concentration of 50% per each till 7 and 14 post-partum. Three fold integrated approaches were adopted, namely, histological, ultrastructural and proteomic analysis. Histological examination of the retina of the experimental offsprings revealed many histopathological changes, including massive degeneration, vacuolization and cell loss in the ganglion cell layer, as well as general reduction in retinal size. At the ultrastructural level, the retina of experimental offsprings exhibited number of deformities, including ill differentiated and degenerated nuclear layer, malformed and vacuolated pigment epithelium with vesiculated and fragmented rough endoplasmic reticulum, degenerated outer segment of photoreceptors, as well as swollen choriocapillaris and loss of neuronal cells. Proteomic analysis of retina of the two experimental developmental stages showed variations in the expressed proteins as a result of intoxication which illustrated the adverse toxic effects of fried potato chips upon the retina. It can be concluded that the effect of fried potato chips on the development of retina in rats may be due to the presence of acrylamide or its metabolite.

  8. Control of sweet potato virus diseases.

    PubMed

    Loebenstein, Gad

    2015-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is ranked seventh in global food crop production and is the third most important root crop after potato and cassava. Sweet potatoes are vegetative propagated from vines, root slips (sprouts), or tubers. Therefore, virus diseases can be a major constrain, reducing yields markedly, often more than 50%. The main viruses worldwide are Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). Effects on yields by SPFMV or SPCSV alone are minor, or but in complex infection by the two or other viruses yield losses of 50%. The orthodox way of controlling viruses in vegetative propagated crops is by supplying the growers with virus-tested planting material. High-yielding plants are tested for freedom of viruses by PCR, serology, and grafting to sweet potato virus indicator plants. After this, meristem tips are taken from those plants that reacted negative. The meristems were grown into plants which were kept under insect-proof conditions and away from other sweet potato material for distribution to farmers after another cycle of reproduction. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hybrid origins of cultivated potatoes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Flor; Ghislain, Marc; Clausen, Andrea M; Jansky, Shelley H; Spooner, David M

    2010-10-01

    Solanum section Petota is taxonomically difficult, partly because of interspecific hybridization at both the diploid and polyploid levels. The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes is particularly controversial. Using DNA sequence data of the waxy gene, we here infer relationships among the four species of cultivated potatoes accepted in the latest taxonomic treatment (S. ajanhuiri, S. curtilobum, S. juzepczukii and S. tuberosum, the latter divided into the Andigenum and Chilotanum Cultivar Groups). The data support prior ideas of hybrid origins of S. ajanhuiri from the S. tuberosum Andigenum Group (2x = S. stenotomum) × S. megistacrolobum; S. juzepczukii from the S. tuberosum Andigenum Group (2x = S. stenotomum) × S. acaule; and S. curtilobum from the S. tuberosum Andigenum Group (4x = S. tuberosum subsp. andigenum) × S. juzepczukii. For the tetraploid cultivar-groups of S. tuberosum, hybrid origins are suggested entirely within much more closely related species, except for two of three examined accessions of the S. tuberosum Chilotanum Group that appear to have hybridized with the wild species S. maglia. Hybrid origins of the crop/weed species S. sucrense are more difficult to support and S. vernei is not supported as a wild species progenitor of the S. tuberosum Andigenum Group.

  10. Characterization of potato leaf starch.

    PubMed

    Santacruz, Stalin; Koch, Kristine; Andersson, Roger; Aman, Per

    2004-04-07

    The starch accumulation-degradation process as well as the structure of leaf starch are not completely understood. To study this, starch was isolated from potato leaves collected in the early morning and late afternoon in July and August, representing different starch accumulation rates. The starch content of potato leaves varied between 2.9 and 12.9% (dry matter basis) over the night and day in the middle of July and between 0.6 and 1.5% in August. Scanning electron microscopy analyses of the four isolated starch samples showed that the granules had either an oval or a round shape and did not exceed 5 microm in size. Starch was extracted by successive washing steps with dimethyl sulfoxide and precipitated with ethanol. An elution profile on Sepharose CL-6B of debranched starch showed the presence of a material with a chain length distribution between that generally found for amylose and amylopectin. Amylopectin unit chains of low molecular size were present in a higher amount in the afternoon than in the morning samples. What remains at the end of the night is depleted in specific chain lengths, mainly between DP 15 and 24 and above DP 35, relative to the end of the day.

  11. Potato chromosomes IX and XI carry genes for resistance to potato virus M.

    PubMed

    Marczewski, W; Strzelczyk-Zyta, D; Hennig, J; Witek, K; Gebhardt, C

    2006-05-01

    Two new loci for resistance to potato virus M (PVM), Gm and Rm, have been mapped in potato. The gene Gm was derived from Solanum gourlayi, whereas, Solanum megistacrolobum is the source of the gene Rm. Gm confers resistance to PVM infection after mechanical inoculation. Rm induces a hypersensitive response in potato plants. Two diploid populations segregating for Gm and Rm, bulked segregant analysis (BSA) using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), and available potato molecular maps were instrumental for mapping the resistance loci. The novel locus Gm was mapped to a central region on potato chromosome IX. The locus Rm was placed on the short arm of chromosome XI, close to the marker loci GP250 and GP283, where a hotspot for monogenic and polygenic resistance to diverse pathogens is located in the potato and tomato genome.

  12. An integrated badnavirus is prevalent in fig germplasm.

    PubMed

    Laney, Alma G; Hassan, Mohamed; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E

    2012-12-01

    Fig mosaic occurs worldwide and is the most common and important viral disease of fig. In the quest to identify the causal agent of the disease, several new viruses have been identified, including a new DNA virus, the subject of this communication. Phylogenetic analysis placed the virus, provisionally named Fig badnavirus-1 (FBV-1), in the genus Badnavirus, family Caulimoviridae. The experimental host range of FBV-1 was evaluated and the virus was mechanically transmitted to several herbaceous hosts. FBV-1 was detected in the National Clonal Germplasm Repository fig collection and additional samples from Arkansas, California, Florida, Michigan, Ohio, Oregon, and South Carolina, suggesting its wide distribution in the United States. Further tests revealed the presence of FBV-1 in seedlings and meristem tissue culture plants. Forty-four isolates were used in a study evaluating the population structure of the virus in the United States. Evidence that FBV-1 is integrated in the fig genome is presented and discussed.

  13. Chemical Diversity in Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Brown Germplasm.

    PubMed

    Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Camêlo, Lídia Cristina Alves; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; Pinheiro, José Baldin; Andrade, Thiago Matos; Niculau, Edenilson dos Santos; Alves, Péricles Barreto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform chemical characterization of Lippia alba accessions from the Active Germplasm Bank of the Federal University of Sergipe. A randomized block experimental design with two replications was applied. The analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oils was conducted using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The chemical composition of the essential oils allowed the accessions to be allocated to the following six groups: group 1: linalool, 1,8-cineole, and caryophyllene oxide; group 2: linalool, geranial, neral, 1,8-cineol, and caryophyllene oxide; group 3: limonene, carvone, and sabinene; group 4: carvone, limonene, g-muurolene, and myrcene; group 5: neral, geranial, and caryophyllene oxide; and group 6: geranial, neral, o-cymene, limonene, and caryophyllene oxide.

  14. Chemical Diversity in Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Brown Germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Camêlo, Lídia Cristina Alves; Pinheiro, José Baldin; Andrade, Thiago Matos; Alves, Péricles Barreto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform chemical characterization of Lippia alba accessions from the Active Germplasm Bank of the Federal University of Sergipe. A randomized block experimental design with two replications was applied. The analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oils was conducted using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The chemical composition of the essential oils allowed the accessions to be allocated to the following six groups: group 1: linalool, 1,8-cineole, and caryophyllene oxide; group 2: linalool, geranial, neral, 1,8-cineol, and caryophyllene oxide; group 3: limonene, carvone, and sabinene; group 4: carvone, limonene, g-muurolene, and myrcene; group 5: neral, geranial, and caryophyllene oxide; and group 6: geranial, neral, o-cymene, limonene, and caryophyllene oxide. PMID:26075292

  15. Manipulating corn germplasm to increase recombinant protein accumulation.

    PubMed

    Hood, Elizabeth E; Devaiah, Shivakumar P; Fake, Gina; Egelkrout, Erin; Teoh, Keat Thomas; Requesens, Deborah Vicuna; Hayden, Celine; Hood, Kendall R; Pappu, Kameshwari M; Carroll, Jennifer; Howard, John A

    2012-01-01

    Using plants as biofactories for industrial enzymes is a developing technology. The application of this technology to plant biomass conversion for biofuels and biobased products has potential for significantly lowering the cost of these products because of lower enzyme production costs. However, the concentration of the enzymes in plant tissue must be high to realize this goal. We describe the enhancement of the accumulation of cellulases in transgenic maize seed as a part of the process to lower the cost of these dominant enzymes for the bioconversion process. We have used breeding to move these genes into elite and high oil germplasm to enhance protein accumulation in grain. We have also explored processing of the grain to isolate the germ, which preferentially contains the enzymes, to further enhance recovery of enzyme on a dry weight basis of raw materials. The enzymes are active on microcrystalline cellulose to release glucose and cellobiose.

  16. Conservation of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) germplasm at sub-zero temperature.

    PubMed

    Sisunandar; Sopade, Peter A; Samosir, Yohannes M S; Rival, Alain; Adkins, Steve W

    2012-01-01

    Protocols are proposed for the low (-20 degree C) and ultra-low (-80 degree C) temperature storage of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) embryos. A tissue dehydration step prior to storage, and a rapid warming step upon recovery optimized the protocol. The thermal properties of water located within embryos were monitored using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In the most efficient version of the protocol, embryos were dehydrated under a sterile air flow in a dehydration solution containing glucose (3.33 M) and glycerol (15 percent) for 16 hours. This protocol decreased the embryo water content from 77 to 29 percent FW and at the same time reduced the amount of freezable water down to 0.03 percent. The dehydrated embryos could be stored for up to 3 weeks at -20 degree C (12 percent producing normal plants upon recovery) or 26 weeks at -80 degree C (28 percent producing normal plants upon recovery). These results indicate that it is possible to store coconut germplasm on a medium term basis using an ultra-deep freezer unit. However for more efficient, long term storage, cryopreservation remains the preferred option.

  17. Whole-Genome Analysis of Diversity and SNP-Major Gene Association in Peach Germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Micheletti, Diego; Dettori, Maria Teresa; Micali, Sabrina; Aramini, Valeria; Pacheco, Igor; Da Silva Linge, Cassia; Foschi, Stefano; Banchi, Elisa; Barreneche, Teresa; Quilot-Turion, Bénédicte; Lambert, Patrick; Pascal, Thierry; Iglesias, Ignasi; Carbó, Joaquim; Wang, Li-rong; Ma, Rui-juan; Li, Xiong-wei; Gao, Zhong-shan; Nazzicari, Nelson; Troggio, Michela; Bassi, Daniele; Rossini, Laura; Verde, Ignazio; Laurens, François; Arús, Pere; Aranzana, Maria José

    2015-01-01

    Peach was domesticated in China more than four millennia ago and from there it spread world-wide. Since the middle of the last century, peach breeding programs have been very dynamic generating hundreds of new commercial varieties, however, in most cases such varieties derive from a limited collection of parental lines (founders). This is one reason for the observed low levels of variability of the commercial gene pool, implying that knowledge of the extent and distribution of genetic variability in peach is critical to allow the choice of adequate parents to confer enhanced productivity, adaptation and quality to improved varieties. With this aim we genotyped 1,580 peach accessions (including a few closely related Prunus species) maintained and phenotyped in five germplasm collections (four European and one Chinese) with the International Peach SNP Consortium 9K SNP peach array. The study of population structure revealed the subdivision of the panel in three main populations, one mainly made up of Occidental varieties from breeding programs (POP1OCB), one of Occidental landraces (POP2OCT) and the third of Oriental accessions (POP3OR). Analysis of linkage disequilibrium (LD) identified differential patterns of genome-wide LD blocks in each of the populations. Phenotypic data for seven monogenic traits were integrated in a genome-wide association study (GWAS). The significantly associated SNPs were always in the regions predicted by linkage analysis, forming haplotypes of markers. These diagnostic haplotypes could be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in modern breeding programs. PMID:26352671

  18. Molecular and chemical characterization of vetiver, Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty, germplasm.

    PubMed

    Celestino, R S; Zucchi, M I; Pinheiro, J B; Campos, J B; Pereira, A A; Bianchini, F G; Lima, R N; Arrigoni-Blank, M F; Alves, P B; Blank, A F

    2015-08-14

    Due to the economic interests in vetiver, Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty, molecular and chemical studies are essential to generate information for its sustainable exploitation. The aim of this study was to undertake a molecular and chemical characterization of vetiver accessions of the active germplasm bank of the Universidade Federal de Sergipe. The molecular characteristics of the accessions were studied using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, with a total of 14 primer combinations that generated 442 loci, allowing us to observe that these accessions have similar genomes. The vetiver accessions were divided into three distinct groups, where accession UFS-VET005 was the most differentiated and accession UFS-VET004 had the lowest essential oil content (0.70%). The content of the chemical constituents of the essential oils was observed to vary, with a predominance of khusimol, which ranged from 18.97 to 25.02%. It was possible to divide the vetiver accessions into two groups based on chemical composition, and these groups do not correlate with the molecular grouping. Therefore, it is necessary to perform molecular and chemical analyses to characterize vetiver accessions.

  19. Resistance to Meloidogyne arenaria in Arachis spp. Germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, S. C.; Simpson, C. E.; Starr, J. L.

    1989-01-01

    Field and greenhouse evaluations of 116 wild Arachis spp. genotypes demonstrated the presence of resistance to reproduction of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne arenaria race 1. Resistance in greenhouse tests was based on test lines having ≤ 2.5% of the number of eggs per gram of roots as did the susceptible A. hypogaea cv. Tamnut 74. In field tests, resistant genotypes were identified on the basis of having lower (P = 0.05) final nematode population densities than did Tamnut 74. Resistance was identified in genotypes from 11 of 15 wild species tested and in 10 of 20 genotypes belonging to undescribed species. Results of field and greenhouse experiments were similar; 26 of 31 genotypes common to both tests gave similar responses in both tests. Resistance to M. arenaria was identified in the complex hybrid TP-135, which was derived from A. hypogaea cv. Florunner x (A. batizocoi K 9484 x [A. cardenasii GKP 10017 x A. chacoensis GKP 10602])⁴x. In a single greenhouse test, three of six genotypes resistant to M. arenaria were also resistant to M. hapla. These data indicate that the Arachis spp. germplasm contains several sources of resistance to M. arenaria and possibly M. hapla. Some of this resistance is in germplasm that is genetically compatible with A. hypogaea. The complex hybrid TP-135 incorporates resistance from wild species into the genetic background of A. hypogaea. On the basis of these data, we believe it may be possible to develop peanut cultivars with high levels of resistance to M. arenaria and M. hapla. PMID:19287667

  20. Regulation, overexpression, and target gene identification of Potato Homeobox 15 (POTH15) – a class-I KNOX gene in potato

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Ameya S.; Kondhare, Kirtikumar R.; Rajabhoj, Mohit P.; Kumar, Amit; Ghate, Tejashree; Ravindran, Nevedha; Habib, Farhat; Siddappa, Sundaresha; Banerjee, Anjan K.

    2016-01-01

    Potato Homeobox 15 (POTH15) is a KNOX-I (Knotted1-like homeobox) family gene in potato that is orthologous to Shoot Meristemless (STM) in Arabidopsis. Despite numerous reports on KNOX genes from different species, studies in potato are limited. Here, we describe photoperiodic regulation of POTH15, its overexpression phenotype, and identification of its potential targets in potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena). qRT-PCR analysis showed a higher abundance of POTH15 mRNA in shoot tips and stolons under tuber-inducing short-day conditions. POTH15 promoter activity was detected in apical and axillary meristems, stolon tips, tuber eyes, and meristems of tuber sprouts, indicating its role in meristem maintenance and leaf development. POTH15 overexpression altered multiple morphological traits including leaf and stem development, leaflet number, and number of nodes and branches. In particular, the rachis of the leaf was completely reduced and leaves appeared as a bouquet of leaflets. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of 35S::GUS and two POTH15 overexpression lines identified more than 6000 differentially expressed genes, including 2014 common genes between the two overexpression lines. Functional analysis of these genes revealed their involvement in responses to hormones, biotic/abiotic stresses, transcription regulation, and signal transduction. qRT-PCR of selected candidate target genes validated their differential expression in both overexpression lines. Out of 200 randomly chosen POTH15 targets, 173 were found to have at least one tandem TGAC core motif, characteristic of KNOX interaction, within 3.0kb in the upstream sequence of the transcription start site. Overall, this study provides insights to the role of POTH15 in controlling diverse developmental processes in potato. PMID:27217546

  1. Race nonspecific resistance for potato late blight.

    PubMed

    Staples, Richard C

    2004-01-01

    The late blight fungus (Phytophthora infestans) rots susceptible species of potato plants. None of the major varieties of potato (Solanum tuberosum) grown in the USA is resistant to US-8, the most prevalent genotype of the fungus. Now, Junqi Song, James Bradeen and colleagues have cloned the RB gene from the wild diploid potato species, Solanum bulbocastanum, using a map-based approach in combination with long-range PCR. Transgenic plants containing the gene, normally fully susceptible, displayed broad-spectrum late blight resistance.

  2. Evaluation and characterization of a genetically diverse Musa germplasm core subset.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA-ARS, Tropical Agriculture Research Station is responsible for curating germplasm of several regionally and internationally important agricultural crops. Evaluation and characterization of Musa (bananas) genetic resources are an important component of programmed research. In a global coll...

  3. Cryopreservation and maintenance of hop material in the USDA germplasm collection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) has the responsibility for conservation of the hop (Humulus L.) genetic resources. The collection includes about 530 accessions representing 7 taxa (species and subspecies) from 21 countries....

  4. Lesions of potato sprout and extracted potato sprout alkaloid toxicity in Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Baker, D; Keeler, R; Gaffield, W

    1987-01-01

    Hamsters were gavaged either dried potato sprout material, alkaloid extract of potato sprouts, or the marc from which the alkaloid fraction was extracted and then were examined for gross and microscopic lesions. Nine of 10 hamsters receiving dried potato sprout material and 3 of 5 hamsters receiving alkaloid extract had severe gastric and intestinal mucosal necrosis which was most severe in the glandular stomach, duodenum and proximal jejunum. All control hamsters gavaged with water and all hamsters gavaged with the potato sprout marc survived to the time of euthanasia and did not have gross or microscopic lesions.

  5. Molecular diversity and association mapping of fiber quality traits in exotic G. hirsutum L. germplasm.

    PubMed

    Abdurakhmonov, I Y; Kohel, R J; Yu, J Z; Pepper, A E; Abdullaev, A A; Kushanov, F N; Salakhutdinov, I B; Buriev, Z T; Saha, S; Scheffler, B E; Jenkins, J N; Abdukarimov, A

    2008-12-01

    The narrow genetic base of cultivated cotton germplasm is hindering the cotton productivity worldwide. Although potential genetic diversity exists in Gossypium genus, it is largely 'underutilized' due to photoperiodism and the lack of innovative tools to overcome such challenges. The application of linkage disequilibrium (LD)-based association mapping is an alternative powerful molecular tool to dissect and exploit the natural genetic diversity conserved within cotton germplasm collections, greatly accelerating still 'lagging' cotton marker-assisted selection (MAS) programs. However, the extent of genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) has not been determined in cotton. We report the extent of genome-wide LD and association mapping of fiber quality traits by using a 95 core set of microsatellite markers in a total of 285 exotic Gossypium hirsutum accessions, comprising of 208 landrace stocks and 77 photoperiodic variety accessions. We demonstrated the existence of useful genetic diversity within exotic cotton germplasm. In this germplasm set, 11-12% of SSR loci pairs revealed a significant LD. At the significance threshold (r(2)>/=0.1), a genome-wide average of LD declines within the genetic distance at <10 cM in the landrace stocks germplasm and >30 cM in variety germplasm. Genome wide LD at r(2)>/=0.2 was reduced on average to approximately 1-2 cM in the landrace stock germplasm and 6-8 cM in variety germplasm, providing evidence of the potential for association mapping of agronomically important traits in cotton. We observed significant population structure and relatedness in assayed germplasm. Consequently, the application of the mixed liner model (MLM), considering both kinship (K) and population structure (Q) detected between 6% and 13% of SSR markers associated with the main fiber quality traits in cotton. Our results highlight for the first time the feasibility and potential of association mapping, with consideration of the population structure and

  6. Assessment of genetic diversity among Indian potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) collection using microsatellite and retrotransposon based marker systems.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vishakha; Nandineni, Madhusudan R

    2014-04-01

    .905 were observed for REMAP, IRAP and SSR, respectively. The widespread presence and distinct DNA profiles for copia-like and gypsy-like RTNs in the examined genotypes indicate that these elements are active in the genome and may have even contributed to the potato genome organization. Although the three marker systems were capable of distinguishing all the 47 varieties; high reproducibility, low cost and ease of DNA profiling data collection make IRAP and REMAP markers highly efficient whole-genome scanning molecular probes for population genetic studies. Information obtained from the present study regarding the genetic association and distinctiveness provides an useful guide for selection of germplasm for plant breeding and conservation efforts.

  7. Potato virus Y infection hinders potato defence response and renders plants more vulnerable to Colorado potato beetle attack

    PubMed Central

    Petek, Marko; Rotter, Ana; Kogovšek, Polona; Baebler, Špela; Mithöfer, Axel; Gruden, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    In the field, plants are challenged by more than one biotic stressor at the same time. In this study, the molecular interactions between potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say; CPB) and Potato virus YNTN (PVYNTN) were investigated through analyses of gene expression in the potato leaves and the gut of the CPB larvae, and of the release of potato volatile compounds. CPB larval growth was enhanced when reared on secondary PVYNTN-infected plants, which was linked to decreased accumulation of transcripts associated with the antinutritional properties of potato. In PVYNTN-infected plants, ethylene signalling pathway induction and induction of auxin response transcription factors were attenuated, while no differences were observed in jasmonic acid (JA) signalling pathway. Similarly to rearing on virus-infected plants, CPB larvae gained more weight when reared on plants silenced in JA receptor gene (coi1). Although herbivore-induced defence mechanism is regulated predominantly by JA, response in coi1-silenced plants only partially corresponded to the one observed in PVYNTN-infected plants, confirming the role of other plant hormones in modulating this response. The release of β-barbatene and benzyl alcohol was different in healthy and PVYNTN-infected plants before CPB larvae infestation, implicating the importance of PVYNTN infection in plant communication with its environment. This was reflected in gene expression profiles of neighbouring plants showing different degree of defence response. This study thus contributes to our understanding of plant responses in agro-ecosystems. PMID:25251011

  8. Alteration of secondary metabolites' profiles in potato leaves in response to weakly and highly aggressive isolates of Phytophthora infestans.

    PubMed

    Henriquez, Maria A; Adam, Lorne R; Daayf, Fouad

    2012-08-01

    Phytophthora infestans is the cause of late blight, a devastating disease in potato and tomato. Many of the mechanisms underlying P. infestans pathogenesis and defense responses in potato are still unclear. We investigated the effects of P. infestans on the changes in the accumulation of secondary metabolites in potato cultivars using whole plants. Four preformed flavonoids and one terpenoid compound produced in potato tissues were differentially affected by the P. infestans inoculation. In Russet Burbank, the accumulation of catechin and rutin was suppressed by both P. infestans isolates US-11 and US-8, while the flavanone P3 was associated with susceptibility to this pathogen. On the other hand, catechin, flavonol-glycoside P2, and an unidentified terpenoid (T1), may be involved in the defense of cultivar Defender to both tested P. infestans isolates, providing new evidence that different preformed flavonoids and terpenoids in potato may play important roles in its defense or susceptibility to P. infestans. These results add to the pool of data showing the involvement of other phenolics and terpenes in potato resistance to microbial pathogens.

  9. Late blight resistance linkages in a novel cross of the wild potato species Solanum paucissectum (series Piurana).

    PubMed

    Villamon, F G; Spooner, D M; Orrillo, M; Mihovilovich, E; Pérez, W; Bonierbale, M

    2005-10-01

    The cultivated potato, Solanum tuberosum, is affected by a variety of diseases with late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, being the most severe. Wild potato species have proven to be a continuing source of resistance, sometimes of an extreme type, to this disease. The present study constructs the first late blight linkage map of a member of series Piurana, S. paucissectum, a tuber-bearing relative of potato, using probes for conserved sequences from potato and tomato. Eight probes mapped to unexpected linkage groups, but syntenic differences with prior maps of potato were not supported by any blocks of rearranged chromosome segments. All 12 linkage groups were resolved and significant associations with late blight resistance were found on chromosomes 10, 11 and 12. A major quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 11 accounts for more than 25% of the phenotypic variance measured in a field trial. Crossing of S. paucissectum with cultivated potato resulted in very few seeds indicating partial reproductive barriers. Differential reactions of accessions of this potential donor species with simple and complex isolates of P. infestans suggest that it carries major resistance genes that are not those previously described from the Mexican species, S. demissum. However, the additivity of the QTL effects argues for the quantitative nature of resistance in this cross.

  10. The influence of maturity and variety of potato plants on oviposition and probing of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae).

    PubMed

    Prager, Sean M; Lewis, O Milo; Michels, Jerry; Nansen, Christian

    2014-04-01

    The ecological theory on host plant choice by herbivores suggests that mothers should choose plants that will maximize their offspring's success. In annual host plants, physiology (and therefore host suitability) is sometimes influenced by maturity and growth stage, which may influence female choice. Potato plants were grown under greenhouse conditions and used in choice and no-choice bioassays to determine the effect of plant maturity and variety on oviposition and number of stylet sheaths (which approximate stylet insertions) by tomato/potato psyllids. No-choice bioassays suggested that maturity (time since planting) did not influence oviposition behavior, but oviposition varied significantly among potato plant varieties. There was a significant effect of both maturity and variety on the number of stylet sheaths, which peak toward the middle of the growing season. We also examined tomato/potato psyllid responses to plants grown in a commercial field and again found no effect on oviposition but differences in stylet sheaths. The results suggest that differential susceptibility to zebra chip disease may be associated with unequal feeding rates. Future studies should examine whether the maturity of plants influences larval fitness. Finally, potato variety has an influence on both oviposition and "probing," and has implications for management strategies and the development of resistant potato varieties.

  11. A Next-Generation Sequencing Method for Genotyping-by-Sequencing of Highly Heterozygous Autotetraploid Potato

    PubMed Central

    Uitdewilligen, Jan G. A. M. L.; Wolters, Anne-Marie A.; D’hoop, Bjorn B.; Borm, Theo J. A.; Visser, Richard G. F.; van Eck, Herman J.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of genomic DNA sequence variation and genotype calling in autotetraploids implies the ability to distinguish among five possible alternative allele copy number states. This study demonstrates the accuracy of genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) of a large collection of autotetraploid potato cultivars using next-generation sequencing. It is still costly to reach sufficient read depths on a genome wide scale, across the cultivated gene pool. Therefore, we enriched cultivar-specific DNA sequencing libraries using an in-solution hybridisation method (SureSelect). This complexity reduction allowed to confine our study to 807 target genes distributed across the genomes of 83 tetraploid cultivars and one reference (DM 1–3 511). Indexed sequencing libraries were paired-end sequenced in 7 pools of 12 samples using Illumina HiSeq2000. After filtering and processing the raw sequence data, 12.4 Gigabases of high-quality sequence data was obtained, which mapped to 2.1 Mb of the potato reference genome, with a median average read depth of 63× per cultivar. We detected 129,156 sequence variants and genotyped the allele copy number of each variant for every cultivar. In this cultivar panel a variant density of 1 SNP/24 bp in exons and 1 SNP/15 bp in introns was obtained. The average minor allele frequency (MAF) of a variant was 0.14. Potato germplasm displayed a large number of relatively rare variants and/or haplotypes, with 61% of the variants having a MAF below 0.05. A very high average nucleotide diversity (π = 0.0107) was observed. Nucleotide diversity varied among potato chromosomes. Several genes under selection were identified. Genotyping-by-sequencing results, with allele copy number estimates, were validated with a KASP genotyping assay. This validation showed that read depths of ∼60–80× can be used as a lower boundary for reliable assessment of allele copy number of sequence variants in autotetraploids. Genotypic data were associated with traits, and

  12. Changes in potato phenylpropanoids during tuber development

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phenylpropanoid metabolite and transcript expression during different developmental stages were examined in field grown potatoes. Carbohydrate and shikimic acid metabolism was assessed to determine how tuber primary metabolism influences phenylpropanoid metabolism. Phenylpropanoid concentrations wer...

  13. Climate risks on potato yield in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xun; Lall, Upmanu

    2016-04-01

    The yield of potatoes is affected by water and temperature during the growing season. We study the impact of a suite of climate variables on potato yield at country level. More than ten climate variables related to the growth of potato are considered, including the seasonal rainfall and temperature, but also extreme conditions at different averaging periods from daily to monthly. A Bayesian hierarchical model is developed to jointly consider the risk of heat stress, cold stress, wet and drought. Future climate risks are investigated through the projection of future climate data. This study contributes to assess the risks of present and future climate risks on potatoes yield, especially the risks of extreme events, which could be used to guide better sourcing strategy and ensure food security in the future.

  14. Cooking Potatoes: Experimentation and Mathematical Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xiao Dong

    2002-01-01

    Describes a laboratory activity involving a mathematical model of cooking potatoes that can be solved analytically. Highlights the microstructure aspects of the experiment. Provides the key aspects of the results, detailed background readings, laboratory procedures and data analyses. (MM)

  15. "Hot potato voice" in peritonsillitis: a misnomer.

    PubMed

    Bhutta, Mahmood F; Worley, George A; Harries, Meredydd L

    2006-12-01

    The "hot potato voice" is widely recognized as a symptom of peritonsillar cellulitis or abscess; yet there have been no studies assessing the resonance characteristics of the vocal tract in peritonsillitis. Analysis was undertaken of formant frequencies in the articulation of the vowels /i:/. /a:/ and /u:/ in six subjects with peritonsillitis and compared with articulation once the peritonsillitis had settled. Significant variation was found in F1 when articulating /i:/ and in F2 when articulating /a:/, which are explainable by dyskinesis of the peritonsillar musculature. These findings were compared with six subjects articulating the same vowels with and without a hot potato in their mouth. Variation was found in both F1 and F2 when articulating /i:/, which can be related to interference of the potato with movement of the anterior tongue. The changes in the vocal tract differ in these two cases and the title "hot potato voice" in peritonsillitis is a misnomer.

  16. Cooking Potatoes: Experimentation and Mathematical Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xiao Dong

    2002-01-01

    Describes a laboratory activity involving a mathematical model of cooking potatoes that can be solved analytically. Highlights the microstructure aspects of the experiment. Provides the key aspects of the results, detailed background readings, laboratory procedures and data analyses. (MM)

  17. Genetic structure and differentiation in cultivated fig (Ficus carica L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One hundred ninety-four germplasm accessions of fig representing the four fig types, Common, Smyrna, San Pedro, and Caprifig were analyzed for genetic diversity, structure, and differentiation using genetic polymorphism at 17 microsatellite loci. The collection showed considerable polymorphism with ...

  18. Contribution of Noncolonizing Aphids to Potato Virus Y Prevalence in Potato in Idaho.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Shaonpius; Wenninger, Erik J; Hutchinson, Pamela J S; Weibe, Monica A; Eigenbrode, Sanford D; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A

    2016-09-30

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is a major concern for potato production in the United States given its impact on both crop quality and yield. Although green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), is the most efficient PVY vector, it may be less abundant in potato-growing areas of Idaho relative to non-potato-colonizing aphid vectors of PVY that may disperse from nearby cereal fields and other crops. A field study was conducted during 2012-2013 to examine if noncolonizing aphids disperse to nearby potato fields as cereal crops dry down before harvest. The aphid fauna was sampled weekly in four different potato fields in south-central and southeastern Idaho using yellow sticky traps and yellow pan traps. Potato fields were chosen with an adjacent cereal field such that the prevailing westerly wind would facilitate aphid dispersal from cereal fields to potato. Non-potato-colonizing aphids sampled included 10 cereal aphid species, the most abundant of which were Rhopalosiphum padi L. and Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker). More than 35 species from noncereal hosts also were found. Overall, green peach aphid abundance was relatively low, ranging from 0.5-2.5% of the total aphid capture between years and among fields. In both years and all locations, cereal aphid abundance peaked in mid- to late July (cereal ripening stage) and decreased thereafter as cereal crops dried. PVY prevalence in the potato fields increased following these increases in aphid abundance. This study suggests that cereal aphids and other noncolonizing aphids are important contributors to PVY prevalence in potato in southern Idaho. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Contribution of Noncolonizing Aphids to Potato Virus Y Prevalence in Potato in Idaho.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Shaonpius; Wenninger, Erik J; Hutchinson, Pamela J S; Weibe, Monica A; Eigenbrode, Sanford D; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A

    2016-12-01

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is a major concern for potato production in the United States given its impact on both crop quality and yield. Although green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), is the most efficient PVY vector, it may be less abundant in potato-growing areas of Idaho relative to non-potato-colonizing aphid vectors of PVY that may disperse from nearby cereal fields and other crops. A field study was conducted during 2012-2013 to examine if noncolonizing aphids disperse to nearby potato fields as cereal crops dry down before harvest. The aphid fauna was sampled weekly in four different potato fields in south-central and southeastern Idaho using yellow sticky traps and yellow pan traps. Potato fields were chosen with an adjacent cereal field such that the prevailing westerly wind would facilitate aphid dispersal from cereal fields to potato. Non-potato-colonizing aphids sampled included 10 cereal aphid species, the most abundant of which were Rhopalosiphum padi L. and Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker). More than 35 species from noncereal hosts also were found. Overall, green peach aphid abundance was relatively low, ranging from 0.5-2.5% of the total aphid capture between years and among fields. In both years and all locations, cereal aphid abundance peaked in mid- to late July (cereal ripening stage) and decreased thereafter as cereal crops dried. PVY prevalence in the potato fields increased following these increases in aphid abundance. This study suggests that cereal aphids and other noncolonizing aphids are important contributors to PVY prevalence in potato in southern Idaho. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Salt release from potato crisps.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xing; Fisk, Ian D

    2012-04-01

    The rate of salt release in-mouth from salted potato crisps was evaluated. It was hypothesised that a slow steady release of sodium would occur on chewing and hydration; to test this a crisp was chewed and held in the oral cavity without swallowing for 60 s. Sodium release was measured over the entire holding period, after 20-30 s a peak in salivary sodium levels was recorded. A similar trend was observed with sensory perceived saltiness by trained panellists. The results suggest that a significant proportion of the crisp's salt flavouring is released in a pulse-type mechanism which would not be encountered when the crisp is exposed to normal eating patterns and would result in the consumption of a large proportion of unperceived sodium.

  1. Development of molecular resistance in potato against potato leaf roll virus and potato virus Y through Agrobacterium-mediated double transgenesis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) and potato virus Y (PVY) are the two major viral problems for the potato production all over the world. Transgenic approaches involving the expression of viral genes are being developed to provide protection for plants against viral diseases. The purpose of this study w...

  2. Strain-specific resistance to Potato virus Y (PVY) in potato and its effect on the relative abundance of PVY strains in commercial potato fields

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is a serious threat to potato production due to negative effects on tuber yield and quality, and in particular, due to induction of potato tuber necrotic ringspot disease (PTNRD). PTNRD is typically associated with recombinant strains of PVY. These recombinant strains have been ...

  3. Ethanol production from potato peel waste (PPW).

    PubMed

    Arapoglou, D; Varzakas, Th; Vlyssides, A; Israilides, C

    2010-10-01

    Considerable concern is caused by the problem of potato peel waste (PPW) to potato industries in Europe. An integrated, environmentally-friendly solution is yet to be found and is currently undergoing investigation. Potato peel is a zero value waste produced by potato processing plants. However, bio-ethanol produced from potato wastes has a large potential market. If Federal Government regulations are adopted in light of the Kyoto agreement, the mandatory blending of bio-ethanol with traditional gasoline in amounts up to 10% will result in a demand for large quantities of bio-ethanol. PPW contain sufficient quantities of starch, cellulose, hemicellulose and fermentable sugars to warrant use as an ethanol feedstock. In the present study, a number of batches of PPW were hydrolyzed with various enzymes and/or acid, and fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisae var. bayanus to determine fermentability and ethanol production. Enzymatic hydrolysis with a combination of three enzymes, released 18.5 g L(-1) reducing sugar and produced 7.6 g L(-1) of ethanol after fermentation. The results demonstrate that PPW, a by-product of the potato industry features a high potential for ethanol production.

  4. Scanning of Transposable Elements and Analyzing Expression of Transposase Genes of Sweet Potato [Ipomoea batatas

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Xiang; Lai, Xian-Jun; Zhang, Yi-Zheng; Tan, Xue-Mei; Wang, Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    Background Transposable elements (TEs) are the most abundant genomic components in eukaryotes and affect the genome by their replications and movements to generate genetic plasticity. Sweet potato performs asexual reproduction generally and the TEs may be an important genetic factor for genome reorganization. Complete identification of TEs is essential for the study of genome evolution. However, the TEs of sweet potato are still poorly understood because of its complex hexaploid genome and difficulty in genome sequencing. The recent availability of the sweet potato transcriptome databases provides an opportunity for discovering and characterizing the expressed TEs. Methodology/Principal Findings We first established the integrated-transcriptome database by de novo assembling four published sweet potato transcriptome databases from three cultivars in China. Using sequence-similarity search and analysis, a total of 1,405 TEs including 883 retrotransposons and 522 DNA transposons were predicted and categorized. Depending on mapping sets of RNA-Seq raw short reads to the predicted TEs, we compared the quantities, classifications and expression activities of TEs inter- and intra-cultivars. Moreover, the differential expressions of TEs in seven tissues of Xushu 18 cultivar were analyzed by using Illumina digital gene expression (DGE) tag profiling. It was found that 417 TEs were expressed in one or more tissues and 107 in all seven tissues. Furthermore, the copy number of 11 transposase genes was determined to be 1–3 copies in the genome of sweet potato by Real-time PCR-based absolute quantification. Conclusions/Significance Our result provides a new method for TE searching on species with transcriptome sequences while lacking genome information. The searching, identification and expression analysis of TEs will provide useful TE information in sweet potato, which are valuable for the further studies of TE-mediated gene mutation and optimization in asexual reproduction

  5. Pymetrozine causes a nontarget pest, the Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), to leave potato plants.

    PubMed

    Chang, G C; Snyder, W E

    2008-02-01

    Pymetrozine is a selective insecticide that targets aphids. Published assessments of the effects of pymetrozine on nontarget organisms focus mainly on predatory insects, and they rarely indicate toxicity. In a laboratory bioassay, survival of Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), larvae was not affected by pymetrozine exposure. We subsequently used pymetrozine to implement low-aphid-density treatments in a field experiment that involved separate manipulations of Colorado potato beetle density. Unexpectedly, the addition of Colorado potato beetle adults and eggs did not increase the densities of Colorado potato beetle larvae in plots that were sprayed with pymetrozine (applied with water and an adjuvant). In control plots sprayed with water and adjuvant (without pymetrozine), addition of Colorado potato beetles increased densities of their larvae. Data collected on a smaller scale suggest that a behavioral mechanism underlies the population-level pattern: Colorado potato beetle larvae become more active and are less likely to remain on a host plant after exposure to pymetrozine. Thus, potato, Solanum tuberosum L., growers who use pymetrozine against aphids also might benefit in terms of Colorado potato beetle control.

  6. Resistance of selected potato genotypes to the potato psyllid (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The characterization of resistance of selected potato, Solanum tuberosum L., breeding clones to the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) was investigated. Antixenosis was assessed in choice tests in which a single plant of each genotype was placed inside a rearing cag...

  7. First report of potato mop top virus on potatoes in North Dakota

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potato mop-top virus (PMTV) is the type member of genus Pomovirus. PMTV is an important pathogen of potato, causing serious economic losses in Northern Europe, North and South America, and Asia. PMTV in the United States was first reported in Maine (2). PMTV is vectored by plasmodiophoromycete Sp...

  8. Impact of Potato virus Y on long term storage of potato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In recent years, Potato virus Y has reemerged as a serious disease problem in many potato production areas in the northern United States and eastern Canada. In Wisconsin, two widely grown cultivars, Russet Norkotah and Silverton, express mild or no symptoms when infected with PVY. The lack of sympto...

  9. Use and costs of insecticdes to control potato psyllids and zebra chip on potatoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Zebra chip disease in potatoes has become a serious problem in North America. Researchers in Texas developed a sampling and reporting program for cooperating growers in three states. Data from this project enabled us to document insecticide use and costs for ZC control in commercial potato fields...

  10. Comparison of several methods for the extraction of DNA from potatoes and potato-derived products.

    PubMed

    Smith, Donna S; Maxwell, Philip W; De Boer, Solke H

    2005-12-28

    Eight methods were compared for the extraction of DNA from raw potato tubers, and nine methods were evaluated for the extraction of DNA from dehydrated potato slices, potato flakes, potato flour, potato starch, and two ready-to-eat potato snack foods. Extracts were assessed for yield using a fluorescence-based DNA quantification assay. Real-time amplification of an endogenous gene, sucrose synthase (sus), was used to assess extract and template quality. A CTAB-based method extracted the highest DNA yields from the tuber material. An in-house method, which utilized the Kingfisher magnetic particle processor, yielded the highest template quality from the tubers. For most of the tuber samples, the Kingfisher and CTAB methods recovered the highest levels of amplifiable sus. DNA yields for potato-derived foods generally decreased with the extent that the product had been processed. The methods that utilized the magnetic particle processor delivered the highest template quality from one of the snack products that was particularly high in fat. For most of the remaining processed products, the levels of amplifiable target DNA recovered were roughly correlated with total DNA recovery, indicating that overall yield had greater influence over sus amplification than template quality. The Wizard method was generally the best method for the extraction of DNA from most of the potato-derived foods.

  11. Potato virus Y transmission efficiency from different potato cultivars infected with single or multiple virus strains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There has been a shift in the prevalence of Potato virus Y (PVY) strains affecting the U.S. potato crop in recent years. The incidence of the ordinary strain, PVYO, is now significantly less than the emerging recombinant strains, e.g. PVYNTN, PVYN:O/NWi. It is not uncommon to find several PVY strai...

  12. COSII-Based Mapping and Diversity in Potato, Tomato, Sweet Potato and Carrot

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This poster presentation reports progress on a USDA NRI grant to enhance understanding of and access to the genetic diversity in wild and landrace relatives of tomato, potato, sweet potato, and carrot, and contribute to the same for other euasterid plant species. This is being done with Conserved Or...

  13. Breeding for improved potato nutrition: High amylose starch potatoes show promise as fiber source

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potato starch is composed of approximately 75% amylopectin and 25% amylose. We are interested in breeding for higher amylose content, which would increase the fiber content of potato and decrease glycemic index. In order to make progress in a breeding program, we have developed a high throughput ass...

  14. Incidence, transmission and molecular characterization of Potato virus S from selected potato cultivars in Washington State

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Washington State Potato Seed Lot Trials annually evaluates seed lots from several states for the incidence of various potato viruses and other growth compromising factors. During the 2005 and 2006 seasons, many plants within seed lots of cv. Defender displayed necrotic lesions, leaf malformati...

  15. Screening potato cultivars for new sources of resistance to Potato virus Y

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potato virus Y (PVY) strains have been defined based on genetic reactions in potato indicators expressing hypersensitive reaction (HR) response due to the presence of three different N genes, and also based on genomic information. Nine strains are known currently, with five PVY strains defined biol...

  16. Biotech potatoes in the 21st century: 20 years since the first biotech potato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potato is the world's most important vegetable crop, with nearly 400 million tons produced worldwide every year, lending to stability in food supply and socioeconomics. In general, potato is an intensively managed crop, requiring irrigation, fertilization, and frequent pesticide applications in orde...

  17. Genetic relationship and diversity in a sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) germplasm collection using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP).

    PubMed

    Laurentin, Hernán E; Karlovsky, Petr

    2006-02-16

    Sesame is an important oil crop in tropical and subtropical areas. Despite its nutritional value and historic and cultural importance, the research on sesame has been scarce, particularly as far as its genetic diversity is concerned. The aims of the present study were to clarify genetic relationships among 32 sesame accessions from the Venezuelan Germplasm Collection, which represents genotypes from five diversity centres (India, Africa, China-Korea-Japan, Central Asia and Western Asia), and to determine the association between geographical origin and genetic diversity using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Large genetic variability was found within the germplasm collection. A total of 457 AFLP markers were recorded, 93 % of them being polymorphic. The Jaccard similarity coefficient ranged from 0.38 to 0.85 between pairs of accessions. The UPGMA dendrogram grouped 25 of 32 accessions in two robust clusters, but it has not revealed any association between genotype and geographical origin. Indian, African and Chinese-Korean-Japanese accessions were distributed throughout the dendrogram. A similar pattern was obtained using principal coordinates analysis. Genetic diversity studies considering five groups of accessions according to the geographic origin detected that only 20 % of the total diversity was due to diversity among groups using Nei's coefficient of population differentiation. Similarly, only 5% of the total diversity was attributed to differences among groups by the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA). This small but significant difference was explained by the fact that the Central Asia group had a lower genetic variation than the other diversity centres studied. We found that our sesame collection was genetically very variable and did not show an association between geographical origin and AFLP patterns. This result suggests that there was considerable gene flow among diversity centres. Future germplasm collection strategies should focus on

  18. Genome-wide distribution of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium in elite sugar beet germplasm

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Characterization of population structure and genetic diversity of germplasm is essential for the efficient organization and utilization of breeding material. The objectives of this study were to (i) explore the patterns of population structure in the pollen parent heterotic pool using different methods, (ii) investigate the genome-wide distribution of genetic diversity, and (iii) assess the extent and genome-wide distribution of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in elite sugar beet germplasm. Results A total of 264 and 238 inbred lines from the yield type and sugar type inbreds of the pollen parent heterotic gene pools, respectively, which had been genotyped with 328 SNP markers, were used in this study. Two distinct subgroups were detected based on different statistical methods within the elite sugar beet germplasm set, which was in accordance with its breeding history. MCLUST based on principal components, principal coordinates, or lapvectors had high correspondence with the germplasm type information as well as the assignment by STRUCTURE, which indicated that these methods might be alternatives to STRUCTURE for population structure analysis. Gene diversity and modified Roger's distance between the examined germplasm types varied considerably across the genome, which might be due to artificial selection. This observation indicates that population genetic approaches could be used to identify candidate genes for the traits under selection. Due to the fact that r2 >0.8 is required to detect marker-phenotype association explaining less than 1% of the phenotypic variance, our observation of a low proportion of SNP loci pairs showing such levels of LD suggests that the number of markers has to be dramatically increased for powerful genome-wide association mapping. Conclusions We provided a genome-wide distribution map of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium for the elite sugar beet germplasm, which is useful for the application of genome-wide association

  19. Purification and properties of lectin from potato tubers and leaves; interaction with acid phosphatase from potato tuber.

    PubMed

    Wierzba-Arabska, E; Morawiecka, B

    1987-01-01

    The haemagglutination activity of lectin, (STA) was determined during vegetation of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum var. Uran). Traces of haemagglutination activity were found in young stalks and first leaves. In the next leaves the maximal activity appeared after 6-8 weeks of vegetation and, simultaneously with the decrease in leaves it appeared in young tubers (at the time of their differentiation from stolons), reaching the maximum in the 18th week of vegetation. Lectins from potato tubers and leaves were extracted with acetate buffer, pH 3.6, salted out with ammonium sulphate, and purified alternatively by affinity chromatography on GlcNAc-Spheron or by adsorption on trypsinated and glutaraldehyde-fixed rabbit erythrocytes. Chromatography on Sephadex G-200 was used for preparative separation of isomeric forms. In the tubers four isolectins were found, differeing in molecular mass, pI values, content of sugars and haemagglutination activity. Two of these forms were isolated in homogeneous form: a heavy dimeric form, Mr 130,000-142,000 containing 59.6% of sugars (including 28.8% arabinose, 6.9% galactose, 16.5% glucose, 1.6% xylose and 3.1% mannose), and a light monomeric form. of Mr 21,000-22,000, containing 20% of neutral sugars (2.5% of pentoses and 17.5% of hexoses). From leaves, a single heavy dimeric lectin of Mr 136,000, containing 14.3% of neutral sugars was isolated. The effect of tuber isolectin on the activity, pH optima and heat-stability of the potato acid phosphatase has been described.

  20. Genetic diversity and population structure of the Ethiopian sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] germplasm collection maintained by the USDA-ARS, National Plant Germplasm System using SSR markers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genetic diversity and population structure present in the Ethiopia sorghum collection maintained by the USDA-ARS, National Plant Germplasm System (USDA-ARS-NPGS) is unknown. In addition, passport information is absent for 83% of these accessions which limit its evaluation and utility. Therefor...