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Sample records for potato hornworm agrius

  1. Mitochondrial genome of the sweet potato hornworm, Agrius convolvuli (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), and comparison with other Lepidoptera species.

    PubMed

    Dai, Li-Shang; Li, Sheng; Yu, Hui-Min; Wei, Guo-Qing; Wang, Lei; Qian, Cen; Zhang, Cong-Fen; Li, Jun; Sun, Yu; Zhao, Yue; Zhu, Bao-Jian; Liu, Chao-Liang

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Agrius convolvuli (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) and compared it with previously sequenced mitogenomes of lepidopteran species. The mitogenome was a circular molecule, 15 349 base pairs (bp) long, containing 37 genes. The order and orientation of genes in the A. convolvuli mitogenome were similar to those in sequenced mitogenomes of other lepidopterans. All 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) were initiated by ATN codons, except for the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene, which seemed to be initiated by the codon CGA, as observed in other lepidopterans. Three of the 13 PCGs had the incomplete termination codon T, while the remainder terminated with TAA. Additionally, the codon distributions of the 13 PCGs revealed that Asn, Ile, Leu2, Lys, Phe, and Tyr were the most frequently used codon families. All transfer RNAs were folded into the expected cloverleaf structure except for tRNA(Ser)(AGN), which lacked a stable dihydrouridine arm. The length of the adenine (A) + thymine (T)-rich region was 331 bp. This region included the motif ATAGA followed by a 19-bp poly-T stretch and a microsatellite-like (TA)8 element next to the motif ATTTA. Phylogenetic analyses (maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods) showed that A. convolvuli belongs to the family Sphingidae.

  2. The Hornworm Assay: Useful in Mathematically-Based Biological Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Stanley A.; Griffin, Jennifer R.

    2004-01-01

    Hornworms are good assay organisms for leaf toxins, and can be raised on an artificial medium ("chow"), consisting of corn meal, soy flour, dry milk, yeast and other additives and preservatives. The hornworm assay is less useful in ecological and toxicological research, but is very useful in learning about experimental design and hypothesis…

  3. Morphology and physiology of antennal lobe projection neurons in the hawkmoth Agrius convolvuli.

    PubMed

    Nirazawa, Takuya; Fujii, Takeshi; Seki, Yoichi; Namiki, Shigehiro; Kazawa, Tomoki; Kanzaki, Ryohei; Ishikawa, Yukio

    2017-04-01

    The neuronal pathways involved in the processing of sex pheromone information were investigated in the hawkmoth Agrius convolvuli (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), which uses (E,E)-11,13-hexadecadienal (E11,E13-16:Ald) as the single sex pheromone component. We first clarified the anatomical organization of the antennal lobe of A. convolvuli. Subsequently, central neurons in the antennal lobe that responded to E11,E13-16:Ald were identified. The dendritic processes of these neurons were confined within a specific glomerulus (cumulus) in the antennal lobe. The axons of these neurons projected to the inferior lateral protocerebrum and mushroom body calyx. Although the anatomical organization and morphology of individual neurons in A. convolvuli were similar to other species in the superfamily Bombycoidea, the use of cumulus as the single pathway for sex pheromone information processing was characteristic to this species.

  4. A dual-channel FM transmitter for acquisition of flight muscle activities from the freely flying hawkmoth, Agrius convolvuli.

    PubMed

    Ando, N; Shimoyama, I; Kanzaki, R

    2002-04-15

    Moths can perform various flight maneuvers by the contraction of some direct and indirect flight muscles. Multi-channel recording from these flight muscles and analysis of their interaction is very important for understanding insect flight motor system. In this study, we developed a dual-channel FM transmitter for acquisition of muscle potentials, with which a male hawkmoth (Agrius convolvuli) could fly freely and perform pheromone triggered zigzag flight in a wind tunnel. The transmitter weighs only 0.25 g including single battery, has a 5 m receivable range and works for more than 30 min. Doubling channels was achieved by providing two oscillators (the carrier frequencies were 82 and 85 MHz), and interference between them was overcome by buffer amplifiers and independent reference electrodes for each channel. With this transmitter, we could acquire muscle potentials from some direct and indirect muscles during free flight. Combined with simultaneous high-speed video analysis, we observed distinct changes of motor patterns during takeoff. Our radio-telemetric system allows acquisition of actual information from freely flying moths; such information will lead to further progress in the study of insect flight.

  5. High temperature slows down growth in tobacco hornworms (Manduca sexta larvae) under food restriction.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Matthew B; Jiao, Lihong; Tsao, Tsu-hsuan; King, Ian; Jennings, Michael; Hou, Chen

    2015-03-01

    When fed ad libitum (AL), ectothermic animals usually grow faster and have higher metabolic rate at higher ambient temperature. However, if food supply is limited, there is an energy tradeoff between growth and metabolism. Here we hypothesize that for ectothermic animals under food restriction (FR), high temperature will lead to a high metabolic rate, but growth will slow down to compensate for the high metabolism. We measure the rates of growth and metabolism of 4 cohorts of 5th instar hornworms (Manduca sexta larvae) reared at 2 levels of food supply (AL and FR) and 2 temperatures (20 and 30 °C). Our results show that, compared to the cohorts reared at 20 °C, the ones reared at 30 °C have high metabolic rates under both AL and FR conditions, but a high growth rate under AL and a low growth rate under FR, supporting this hypothesis.

  6. Potato Flavor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato is one of the most popular vegetables worldwide and is the most important vegetable crop in the United States, accounting for nearly one-third of per-capita vegetable consumption. Potatoes can be prepared in many ways, including baking, boiling, roasting, frying, and microwaving, allowin...

  7. Food restriction alters energy allocation strategy during growth in tobacco hornworms (Manduca sexta larvae).

    PubMed

    Jiao, Lihong; Amunugama, Kaushalya; Hayes, Matthew B; Jennings, Michael; Domingo, Azriel; Hou, Chen

    2015-08-01

    Growing animals must alter their energy budget in the face of environmental changes and prioritize the energy allocation to metabolism for life-sustaining requirements and energy deposition in new biomass growth. We hypothesize that when food availability is low, larvae of holometabolic insects with a short development stage (relative to the low food availability period) prioritize biomass growth at the expense of metabolism. Driven by this hypothesis, we develop a simple theoretical model, based on conservation of energy and allometric scaling laws, for understanding the dynamic energy budget of growing larvae under food restriction. We test the hypothesis by manipulative experiments on fifth instar hornworms at three temperatures. At each temperature, food restriction increases the scaling power of growth rate but decreases that of metabolic rate, as predicted by the hypothesis. During the fifth instar, the energy budgets of larvae change dynamically. The free-feeding larvae slightly decrease the energy allocated to growth as body mass increases and increase the energy allocated to life sustaining. The opposite trends were observed in food restricted larvae, indicating the predicted prioritization in the energy budget under food restriction. We compare the energy budgets of a few endothermic and ectothermic species and discuss how different life histories lead to the differences in the energy budgets under food restriction.

  8. Food restriction alters energy allocation strategy during growth in tobacco hornworms ( Manduca sexta larvae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Lihong; Amunugama, Kaushalya; Hayes, Matthew B.; Jennings, Michael; Domingo, Azriel; Hou, Chen

    2015-08-01

    Growing animals must alter their energy budget in the face of environmental changes and prioritize the energy allocation to metabolism for life-sustaining requirements and energy deposition in new biomass growth. We hypothesize that when food availability is low, larvae of holometabolic insects with a short development stage (relative to the low food availability period) prioritize biomass growth at the expense of metabolism. Driven by this hypothesis, we develop a simple theoretical model, based on conservation of energy and allometric scaling laws, for understanding the dynamic energy budget of growing larvae under food restriction. We test the hypothesis by manipulative experiments on fifth instar hornworms at three temperatures. At each temperature, food restriction increases the scaling power of growth rate but decreases that of metabolic rate, as predicted by the hypothesis. During the fifth instar, the energy budgets of larvae change dynamically. The free-feeding larvae slightly decrease the energy allocated to growth as body mass increases and increase the energy allocated to life sustaining. The opposite trends were observed in food restricted larvae, indicating the predicted prioritization in the energy budget under food restriction. We compare the energy budgets of a few endothermic and ectothermic species and discuss how different life histories lead to the differences in the energy budgets under food restriction.

  9. Purification and characterization of a small cationic protein from the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Ling, Erjun; Rao, Xiang-Jun; Ao, Jing-Qun; Yu, Xiao-Qiang

    2009-04-01

    The prophenoloxidase (proPO) activation system is an important defense mechanism in arthropods, and activation of proPO to active phenoloxidase (PO) involves a serine proteinase cascade. Here, we report the purification and characterization of a small cationic protein CP8 from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, which can stimulate proPO activation. BLAST search showed that Manduca CP8 is similar to a fungal proteinase inhibitor-1 (AmFPI-1), an inducible serine proteinase inhibitor-1 (ISPI-1), and other small cationic proteins with unknown functions. However, we showed that Manduca CP8 did not inhibit proteinase activity, but stimulated proPO activation in plasma. When small amount (0.1 microg) of purified native CP8 or BSA was added to cell-free plasma samples and incubated for 20 min, low PO activity was observed in both groups. But significantly higher PO activity was observed in the CP8-group than in the BSA-group when more proteins (0.5 microg) were added and incubated for 20 min. However, when the plasma samples were incubated with proteins for 30 min, high PO activity was observed in both the CP8 and BSA groups regardless of the amount of proteins added. Moreover, when PO in the plasma was pre-activated with Micrococcus luteus, addition of CP8 did not have an effect on PO activity, and CP8/bacteria mixture did not stimulate PO activity to a higher level than did BSA/bacteria. These results suggest that CP8 helps activate proPO more rapidly at the initial stage. CP8 mRNA was specifically expressed in fat body and its mRNA level decreased when larvae were injected with saline or bacteria. However, CP8 protein concentration in hemolymph did not change significantly in larvae injected with saline or microorganisms.

  10. Multifaceted biological insights from a draft genome sequence of the tobacco hornworm moth, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Kanost, Michael R; Arrese, Estela L; Cao, Xiaolong; Chen, Yun-Ru; Chellapilla, Sanjay; Goldsmith, Marian R; Grosse-Wilde, Ewald; Heckel, David G; Herndon, Nicolae; Jiang, Haobo; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Qu, Jiaxin; Soulages, Jose L; Vogel, Heiko; Walters, James; Waterhouse, Robert M; Ahn, Seung-Joon; Almeida, Francisca C; An, Chunju; Aqrawi, Peshtewani; Bretschneider, Anne; Bryant, William B; Bucks, Sascha; Chao, Hsu; Chevignon, Germain; Christen, Jayne M; Clarke, David F; Dittmer, Neal T; Ferguson, Laura C F; Garavelou, Spyridoula; Gordon, Karl H J; Gunaratna, Ramesh T; Han, Yi; Hauser, Frank; He, Yan; Heidel-Fischer, Hanna; Hirsh, Ariana; Hu, Yingxia; Jiang, Hongbo; Kalra, Divya; Klinner, Christian; König, Christopher; Kovar, Christie; Kroll, Ashley R; Kuwar, Suyog S; Lee, Sandy L; Lehman, Rüdiger; Li, Kai; Li, Zhaofei; Liang, Hanquan; Lovelace, Shanna; Lu, Zhiqiang; Mansfield, Jennifer H; McCulloch, Kyle J; Mathew, Tittu; Morton, Brian; Muzny, Donna M; Neunemann, David; Ongeri, Fiona; Pauchet, Yannick; Pu, Ling-Ling; Pyrousis, Ioannis; Rao, Xiang-Jun; Redding, Amanda; Roesel, Charles; Sanchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Schaack, Sarah; Shukla, Aditi; Tetreau, Guillaume; Wang, Yang; Xiong, Guang-Hua; Traut, Walther; Walsh, Tom K; Worley, Kim C; Wu, Di; Wu, Wenbi; Wu, Yuan-Qing; Zhang, Xiufeng; Zou, Zhen; Zucker, Hannah; Briscoe, Adriana D; Burmester, Thorsten; Clem, Rollie J; Feyereisen, René; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Hamodrakas, Stavros J; Hansson, Bill S; Huguet, Elisabeth; Jermiin, Lars S; Lan, Que; Lehman, Herman K; Lorenzen, Marce; Merzendorfer, Hans; Michalopoulos, Ioannis; Morton, David B; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Oakeshott, John G; Palmer, Will; Park, Yoonseong; Passarelli, A Lorena; Rozas, Julio; Schwartz, Lawrence M; Smith, Wendy; Southgate, Agnes; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Vogt, Richard; Wang, Ping; Werren, John; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Brown, Susan J; Scherer, Steven E; Richards, Stephen; Blissard, Gary W

    2016-09-01

    Manduca sexta, known as the tobacco hornworm or Carolina sphinx moth, is a lepidopteran insect that is used extensively as a model system for research in insect biochemistry, physiology, neurobiology, development, and immunity. One important benefit of this species as an experimental model is its extremely large size, reaching more than 10 g in the larval stage. M. sexta larvae feed on solanaceous plants and thus must tolerate a substantial challenge from plant allelochemicals, including nicotine. We report the sequence and annotation of the M. sexta genome, and a survey of gene expression in various tissues and developmental stages. The Msex_1.0 genome assembly resulted in a total genome size of 419.4 Mbp. Repetitive sequences accounted for 25.8% of the assembled genome. The official gene set is comprised of 15,451 protein-coding genes, of which 2498 were manually curated. Extensive RNA-seq data from many tissues and developmental stages were used to improve gene models and for insights into gene expression patterns. Genome wide synteny analysis indicated a high level of macrosynteny in the Lepidoptera. Annotation and analyses were carried out for gene families involved in a wide spectrum of biological processes, including apoptosis, vacuole sorting, growth and development, structures of exoskeleton, egg shells, and muscle, vision, chemosensation, ion channels, signal transduction, neuropeptide signaling, neurotransmitter synthesis and transport, nicotine tolerance, lipid metabolism, and immunity. This genome sequence, annotation, and analysis provide an important new resource from a well-studied model insect species and will facilitate further biochemical and mechanistic experimental studies of many biological systems in insects.

  11. Purification and Characterization of a Small Cationic Protein from the Tobacco Hornworm Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Erjun; Rao, Xiang-Jun; Ao, Jing-Qun; Yu, Xiao-Qiang

    2009-01-01

    The prophenoloxidase (proPO) activation system is an important defense mechanism in arthropods, and activation of proPO to active phenoloxidase (PO) involves a serine proteinase cascade. Here, we report the purification and characterization of a small cationic protein CP8 from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, which can stimulate proPO activation. BLAST search showed that Manduca CP8 is similar to a fungal proteinase inhibitor-1 (AmFPI-1), an inducible serine proteinase inhibitor-1 (ISPI-1), and other small cationic proteins with unknown functions. However, we showed that Manduca CP8 did not inhibit proteinase activity, but stimulated proPO activation in plasma. When small amount (0.1μg) of purified native CP8 or BSA was added to cell-free plasma samples and incubated for 20 min, low PO activity was observed in both groups. But significantly higher PO activity was observed in the CP8-group than in the BSA-group when more proteins (0.5μg) were added and incubated for 20 min. However, when the plasma samples were incubated with proteins for 30 min, high PO activity was observed in both the CP8 and BSA groups regardless the amount of proteins added. Moreover, when PO in the plasma was pre-activated with Micrococcus luteus, addition of CP8 did not have an effect on PO activity, and CP8/bacteria mixture did not stimulate PO activity to a higher level than did BSA/bacteria. These results suggest that CP8 helps activate proPO more rapidly at the initial stage. CP8 mRNA was specifically expressed in fat body and its mRNA level decreased when larvae were injected with saline or bacteria. However, CP8 protein concentration in hemolymph did not change significantly in larvae injected with saline or microorganisms. PMID:19162182

  12. Annotation and expression analysis of cuticular proteins from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Dittmer, Neal T; Tetreau, Guillaume; Cao, Xiaolong; Jiang, Haobo; Wang, Ping; Kanost, Michael R

    2015-07-01

    The insect cuticle is a unique material that covers the exterior of the animal as well as lining the foregut, hindgut, and tracheae. It offers protection from predators and desiccation, defines body shape, and serves as an attachment site for internal organs and muscle. It has demonstrated remarkable variations in hardness, flexibility and elasticity, all the while being light weight, which allows for ease of movement and flight. It is composed primarily of chitin, proteins, catecholamines, and lipids. Proteomic analyses of cuticle from different life stages and species of insects has allowed for a more detailed examination of the protein content and how it relates to cuticle mechanical properties. It is now recognized that several groups of cuticular proteins exist and that they can be classified according to conserved amino acid sequence motifs. We have annotated the genome of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, for genes that encode putative cuticular proteins that belong to seven different groups: proteins with a Rebers and Riddiford motif (CPR), proteins analogous to peritrophins (CPAP), proteins with a tweedle motif (CPT), proteins with a 44 amino acid motif (CPF), proteins that are CPF-like (CPFL), proteins with an 18 amino acid motif (18 aa), and proteins with two to three copies of a C-X5-C motif (CPCFC). In total we annotated 248 genes, of which 207 belong to the CPR family, the most for any insect genome annotated to date. Additionally, we discovered new members of the CPAP family and determined that orthologous genes are present in other insects. We established orthology between the M. sexta and Bombyx mori genes and identified duplication events that occurred after separation of the two species. Finally, we utilized 52 RNAseq libraries to ascertain gene expression profiles that revealed commonalities and differences between different tissues and developmental stages.

  13. Purification of a cysteine protease inhibitor from larval hemolymph of the Tobacco Hornworm (Manduca sexta) and functional expression of the recombinant protein.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cysteine protease inhibitor (CPI) with an apparent molecular mass of 11.5 kDa was purified from larval hemolymph of the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) by gel filtration of Sephadex G-50 followed by hydrophobic and ion-exchange column chromatographies. The purified cysteine proteinase inhibitor, ...

  14. Expression and evolution of hexamerins from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, and other Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Burmester, Thorsten

    2015-07-01

    Hexamerins are large hemolymph-proteins that accumulate during the late larval stages of insects. Hexamerins have emerged from hemocyanin, but have lost the ability to bind oxygen. Hexamerins are mainly considered as storage proteins for non-feeding stages, but may also have other functions, e.g. in cuticle formation, transport and immune response. The genome of the hornworm Manduca sexta harbors six hexamerin genes. Two of them code for arylphorins (Msex2.01690, Msex2.15504) and two genes correspond to a methionine-rich hexamerin (Msex2.10735) and a moderately methionine-rich hexamerin (Msex2.01694), respectively. Two other genes do not correspond to any known hexamerin and distantly resemble the arylphorins (Msex2.01691, Msex2.01693). Five of the six hexamerin genes are clustered within ∼45 kb on scaffold 00023, which shows conserved synteny in various lepidopteran genomes. The methionine-rich hexamerin gene is located at a distinct site. M. sexta and other Lepidoptera have lost the riboflavin-binding hexamerin. With the exception of Msex2.01691, which displays low mRNA levels throughout the life cycle, all hexamerins are most highly expressed during pre-wandering phase of the 5th larval instar of M. sexta, supporting their role as storage proteins. Notably, Msex2.01691 is most highly expressed in the brain, suggesting a divergent function. Phylogenetic analyses showed that hexamerin evolution basically follows insect systematics. Lepidoptera display an unparalleled diversity of hexamerins, which exceeds that of other hexapod orders. In contrast to previous analyses, the lepidopteran hexamerins were found monophyletic. Five distinct types of hexamerins have been identified in this order, which differ in terms of amino acid composition and evolutionary history: i. the arylphorins, which are rich in aromatic amino acids (∼20% phenylalanine and tyrosine), ii. the distantly related arylphorin-like hexamerins, iii. the methionine-rich hexamerins, iv. the

  15. Effect of Altered Gravity Environment on Tobacco Hornworm (Manduca Sexta) Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, Marc E.

    1996-01-01

    Metamorphosis provides a unique condition for studying the role of gravity in development. Formation of new organs in a previously existing organism requires a highly active period of turnover of amino acids and proteins, and of changes in the endocrine profile. Furthermore, metamorphosis offers the advantage of studying a self-contained biological system. The tobacco hornworm provides a suitable species to study the effect of altered gravitational environment on invertebrate development. This species has been one of the most thoroughly investigated organisms in a variety of aspects of insect biology. M. sexta pharate adults can provide significant amounts of material with which to work, thus facilitating the study of metabolic aspects of adult development. During wandering, the period immediately following cessation of larval feeding, the larva burrows into the soil to form a pupation chamber. Despite burrowing down 25 to 30 cm, the insects reorient themselves to a slightly head-up (10 +/- 1 degree) position. Since light and temperature are not factors in this process, the larvae must sense the gravity vector. In our ground-based studies we had assessed whether developing adults might be sensitive to their gravitational environment by orienting pupae in a vertical head-up position within 24 to 48 h after pupal ecdysis. Our ground-based findings formed the foundation for determining which parameters would be evaluated in developing Manduca following spaceflight. Measurements were to include: (1) extent of development by all of the insects, (2) analysis of hemolymph obtained from half of the insects postflight for ecdysteroid, amino acid, urea, ammonia and trehalose concentrations, (3) further development of the other half of the insects to adult (moths), (4) analysis of the flight muscle protein content of the adults. Based on the first flight attempt in July, 1995, we modified the BRIC hardware to accommodate the insects. Our studies after BRIC-04 showed that

  16. Effect of nitrogen and water treatment on leaf chemistry in horsenettle (Solanum carolinense), and relationship to herbivory by flea beetles (Epitrix spp.) and tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta).

    PubMed

    Cipollini, Martin L; Paulk, Eric; Cipollini, Donald F

    2002-12-01

    We studied the interaction between plants (horsenettle; Solanum carolinense) and herbivorous insects (flea beetles; Epitrix spp., and tobacco hornworm; Manduca sexta) by focusing on three questions: (1) Does variation in nitrogen availability affect leaf chemistry as predicted by the carbon-nutrient balance (CNB) hypothesis? (2) Does variation in plant treatment and leaf chemistry affect insect feeding? (3) Is there an interaction between the insect herbivores that is mediated by variation in leaf chemistry? For three successive years (1998-2001), we grew a set of clones of 10 maternal plants under two nitrogen treatments and two water treatments. For each plant in the summer of 2000, we assayed herbivory by hornworms in both indoor (detached leaf) and outdoor (attached leaf) assays, as well as ambient flea beetle damage. Estimates of leaf material consumed were made via analysis of digitized leaf images. We also assayed leaves for total protein, phenolic, and glycoalkaloid content, and for trypsin inhibitor, polyphenol oxidase, and peroxidase activity. Despite strong effects of nitrogen treatment on growth and reproduction, only total protein responded as predicted by CNB. Leaf phenolic levels were increased by nitrogen treatment, polyphenol oxidase activity was decreased, and other leaf parameters were unaffected. Neither hornworm nor flea beetle herbivory could be related to plant treatment or genotype or to variation in any of the six leaf chemical parameters. A negative relationship between flea beetle and hornworm herbivory was found, but was not apparently mediated by any of the measured leaf chemicals. Because leaf resistance was maintained in low nitrogen plants at the apparent expense of growth and reproduction, our results support the concept of a fitness cost of defense, as predicted by the optimal defense hypothesis.

  17. Potato production in Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato production has increased dramatically in recent years in Thailand. Consumer demand for fresh and processed potatoes has driven this trend. Most potatoes are produced in northern Thailand in either double cropping highland zones or as a single winter crop following rice in lowland regions. Maj...

  18. Co-expression of Dorsal and Rel2 Negatively Regulates Antimicrobial Peptide Expression in the Tobacco Hornworm Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Xue; Rao, Xiang-Jun; Yi, Hui-Yu; Lin, Xin-Yu; Huang, Xiao-Hong; Yu, Xiao-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) plays an essential role in regulation of innate immunity. In mammals, NF-κB factors can form homodimers and heterodimers to activate gene expression. In insects, three NF-κB factors, Dorsal, Dif and Relish, have been identified to activate antimicrobial peptide (AMP) gene expression. However, it is not clear whether Dorsal (or Dif) and Relish can form heterodimers. Here we report the identification and functional analysis of a Dorsal homologue (MsDorsal) and two Relish short isoforms (MsRel2A and MsRel2B) from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Both MsRel2A and MsRel2B contain only a Rel homology domain (RHD) and lack the ankyrin-repeat inhibitory domain. Overexpression of the RHD domains of MsDorsal and MsRel2 in Drosophila melanogaster S2 and Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells can activate AMP gene promoters from M. sexta and D. melanogaster. We for the first time confirmed the interaction between MsDorsal-RHD and MsRel2-RHD, and suggesting that Dorsal and Rel2 may form heterodimers. More importantly, co-expression of MsDorsal-RHD with MsRel2-RHD suppressed activation of several M. sexta AMP gene promoters. Our results suggest that the short MsRel2 isoforms may form heterodimers with MsDorsal as a novel mechanism to prevent over-activation of antimicrobial peptides. PMID:26847920

  19. Characterization and cDNA cloning of the pheromone-binding protein from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta: a tissue-specific developmentally regulated protein.

    PubMed Central

    Györgyi, T K; Roby-Shemkovitz, A J; Lerner, M R

    1988-01-01

    cDNA encoding pheromone-binding protein (PBP), the major soluble protein in olfactory sensilla of male moths, has been cloned from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. A study of the developmental time course of PBP reveals that it is first synthesized just prior to eclosion and that the percentage of antennal mRNA encoding PBP shifts from zero to about 20% at that time. PBP is also found in sensilla from female M. sexta antennae. No amino acid sequence homology is observed between PBP and the vertebrate odorant-binding protein. Images PMID:3200861

  20. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Chetty, Venkateswari J; Narváez-Vásquez, Javier; Orozco-Cárdenas, Martha L

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is the most common method for the incorporation of foreign genes into the genome of potato as well as many other species in the Solanaceae family. This chapter describes protocols for the genetic transformation of three species of potato: Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum (Desiréé), S. tuberosum subsp. andigenum (Blue potato), and S. tuberosum subsp. andigena using internodal segments as explants.

  1. Cellular oxidative damage is more sensitive to biosynthetic rate than to metabolic rate: A test of the theoretical model on hornworms (Manduca sexta larvae).

    PubMed

    Amunugama, Kaushalya; Jiao, Lihong; Olbricht, Gayla R; Walker, Chance; Huang, Yue-Wern; Nam, Paul K; Hou, Chen

    2016-09-01

    We develop a theoretical model from an energetic viewpoint for unraveling the entangled effects of metabolic and biosynthetic rates on oxidative cellular damage accumulation during animal's growth, and test the model by experiments in hornworms. The theoretical consideration suggests that most of the cellular damages caused by the oxidative metabolism can be repaired by the efficient maintenance mechanisms, if the energy required by repair is unlimited. However, during growth a considerable amount of energy is allocated to the biosynthesis, which entails tradeoffs with the requirements of repair. Thus, the model predicts that cellular damage is more influenced by the biosynthetic rate than the metabolic rate. To test the prediction, we induced broad variations in metabolic and biosynthetic rates in hornworms, and assayed the lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl. We found that the increase in the cellular damage was mainly caused by the increase in biosynthetic rate, and the variations in metabolic rate had negligible effect. The oxidative stress hypothesis of aging suggests that high metabolism leads to high cellular damage and short lifespan. However, some empirical studies showed that varying biosynthetic rate, rather than metabolic rate, changes animal's lifespan. The conflicts between the empirical evidence and the hypothesis are reconciled by this study.

  2. [Accidents affecting potato harvesters].

    PubMed

    Hansen, J U

    1993-09-27

    During industrialization in agriculture, many farming machines have been introduced. It is well-known that farming is a dangerous workplace and that farm machinery cause many serious accidents every year. Four cases of accidents with potato harvesters are discussed. In three of four cases the farmers were injured while cleaning the machine without stopping it, which probably was the main cause of the accidents. Farmers are in general not careful enough when using farm machinery. Every year, farmers in Denmark are severely invalided in accidents with potato harvesters. A strategy to lower the accidents is proposed: 1. Information of farmers, farmer schools, machine constructors and importers about mechanisms of injury. 2. A better education of farmers in using potato harvesters (and other farming machines). 3. Better fencing of the potato harvesters. 4. If possibly constructional changes in the potato harvesters so things will not get stuck, or so that the machine will stop if things stuck. 5. Installation of switches on potato harvesters, which can be reached from all positions, stopping the machines immediately, or a remote switch control carried by the farmer.

  3. The effect of some Solanum steroidal alkaloids and glycoalkaloids on larvae of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Weissenberg, M; Levy, A; Svoboda, J A; Ishaaya, I

    1998-01-01

    Evaluation of the inhibitory effect of a series of secondary plant compounds including steroidal alkaloids and glycoalkaloids on larvae of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, was investigated. Larval growth was inhibited on artificial diets containing 1 mumol g-1 diet of the glycoalkaloids solamargine, solasonine and tomatine, whereas the corresponding aglycones solasodine and tomatidine, and also tomatidenol, were inactive. The inhibitory effect of solamargine and tomatine, but not of solasonine, was completely abolished by addition of 1 mumol g-1 diet cholesterol and/or sitosterol. Nonetheless, synthetic cholesteryl tomatide displayed significant activity at 2 mumol g-1 diet. Parallel studies with the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, showed marked inhibitory activity of tomatine at a dietary concentration of 1 mumol g-1, whereas the other compounds did not affect sterol metabolism or larval development. An appraisal of the factors influencing the mode of action of the active steroidal glycoalkaloids is attempted.

  4. Potato Science for the Poor, International Potato Center

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cultivated potato of world commerce, Solanum tuberosum, is one of the primary crops worldwide, forming a basic food and source of primary income for many societies. Wild and cultivated potatoes form the germplasm base for international breeding efforts to improve potato in the face of variety o...

  5. Achieving sustainable cultivation of potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Every phase of the production cycle impacts the sustainability of potato. Potato physiology determines how genetically encoded developmental attributes interact with local environmental conditions as modified through agricultural practice to produce a perishable crop. In this chapter we highlight ho...

  6. The potato psyllid genome project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli) is a Hemipteran pest of solanaceous plants and limits potato and tomato production by the transmission of Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum. Genomic information on the potato psyllid is limited but is vital in developing appropriate management strategi...

  7. Potato genetics, genomics, and applications

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Potato has a variety of reproductive uniquenesses besides its clonal propagation by tubers. These traits are controlled by a different kind of genetic control. The reproductive information has been applied to enable interspecific hybridization to enhance valuable traits, such as disease and pest resistances, from the tuber-bearing Solanum gene pool. While progress has been made in potato breeding, many resources have been invested due to the requirements of large populations and long time frame. This is not only due to the general pitfalls in plant breeding, but also due to the complexity of polyploid genetics. Tetraploid genetics is the most prominent aspect associated with potato breeding. Genetic maps and markers have contributed to potato breeding, and genome information further elucidates questions in potato evolution and supports comprehensive potato breeding. Challenges yet remain on recognizing intellectual property rights to breeding and germplasm, and also on regulatory aspects to incorporate modern biotechnology for increasing genetic variation in potato breeding. PMID:25931980

  8. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  9. 7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potatoes. 946.5 Section 946.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown...

  10. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  11. 7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potatoes. 947.5 Section 947.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU... Definitions § 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the...

  12. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  13. 7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potatoes. 946.5 Section 946.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown...

  14. 7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potatoes. 946.5 Section 946.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown...

  15. 7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.306 Potatoes. Potatoes means any or all...

  16. 7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.306 Potatoes. Potatoes means any or all...

  17. 7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.306 Potatoes. Potatoes means any or all...

  18. 7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.306 Potatoes. Potatoes means any or all...

  19. 7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potatoes. 947.5 Section 947.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU... Definitions § 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the...

  20. 7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potatoes. 947.5 Section 947.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU... Definitions § 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the...

  1. 7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potatoes. 946.5 Section 946.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown...

  2. 7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potatoes. 947.5 Section 947.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU... Definitions § 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the...

  3. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  4. 7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 946.5 Section 946.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown...

  5. 7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.306 Potatoes. Potatoes means any or all...

  6. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  7. 7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 947.5 Section 947.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU... Definitions § 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the...

  8. [Teratogenic effect of potato glycoalkaloids].

    PubMed

    Wang, X G

    1993-02-01

    Potato glycoalkaloids were extracted from potato sprout and then analyzed to determine their purity by using TLC and HPLC methods and compare with pure alpha-Solanine and alpha-Chaconine of Sigma. The result indicated that the purity of potato glycoalkaloids is 78. 31%, which contains 73.64% alpha-Solanine and 4.67% alpha-Chaconine. The LD50 of mice was 44.721 +/- 5.860 4 mg/kg. In order to determine the toxicity and teratogenicity of potato glycoalkaloids, the effect of potato glycoalkaloids on Kunming pregnant mice were studied. The results showed that: (1) potato glycoalkaloids have teratogenic effects on embryos of mice. It could induce neural tube defects (NTDs), and may be an important teratogen of NTDs. (2) potato glycoalkaloids have embryo toxicity. It could cause the death of embryos and result in absorbed and dead fetuses. (3) potato glycoalkaloids could evidently affect the development of embryos and lead to intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). An interesting phenomena which just like the clinical manifestation of miscarriage in human being was noticed. If potato glycoalkaloids were given to the pregnant mice on the 5th or 6th day of gestation intraabdominally, vaginal bleeding and abortion would occur, and this has not been reported yet. The animal model of NTDs in this experiments supported our hypothesis that sprouted potato could be a teratogen of NTDs.

  9. Potato poisoning - green tubers and sprouts

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/002875.htm Potato plant poisoning - green tubers and sprouts To use the sharing features ... Potato plant poisoning occurs when someone eats the green tubers or new sprouts of the potato plant. ...

  10. Purification of a cysteine protease inhibitor from larval hemolymph of the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) and functional expression of the recombinant protein.

    PubMed

    Miyaji, Takayuki; Kouzuma, Yoshiaki; Yaguchi, Jun; Matsumoto, Rika; Kanost, Michael R; Kramer, Karl J; Yonekura, Masami

    2007-09-01

    A cysteine protease inhibitor (CPI) with an apparent molecular mass of 11.5kDa was purified from larval hemolymph of the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) by gel filtration on Sephadex G-50 followed by hydrophobic and ion-exchange column chromatographies. The purified cysteine proteinase inhibitor, denoted as MsCPI, strongly inhibited the plant cysteine protease, papain, with a K(i) value of 5.5 x 10(-9)M. Nucleotide sequence analysis of a partial cDNA encoding MsCPI indicated that MsCPI consists of 105 amino acid residues in a sequence that is similar to sarcocystatin A from Sarcophaga peregrina. However, northern blotting and PCR analyses using the specific primers of MsCPI suggested that the mRNA encoding MsCPI had a size of more than 12 kilobases, which included at least six tandemly repeated MsCPI segments. MsCPI was expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein effectively inhibited cysteine proteases from plants as well as from animals such as cathepsins B (K(i), 6.8 nM), H (3.0 nM), and L (0.87 nM). There was no inhibition exhibited toward trypsin, chymotrypsin, subtilisin, pepsin or themolysin.

  11. The mysterious potato.

    PubMed

    Spoerke, D

    1994-08-01

    Even though it comes from a potentially toxic family and may contain solanine-type alkaloids, the potato has risen from a wild food stuff of South American Indians to one of the world's most useful plants and important food source. Toxicity of the tuber commonly seen today is low, with the sprouts and green skin most often involved in toxic exposures. New cultivars may bring about more disease resistance, new tastes, and possibly a smaller solanine content.

  12. The contribution of traditional potato breeding to scientific potato improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional potato breeding refers to development of new cultivars from sexual crosses followed by clonal propagation and selection. Nearly all new varieties of potato still emerge from this process free from modern technologies of gene insertion. Conventional breeding remains the most important ...

  13. The naming of Potato virus Y strains infecting potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato virus Y (PVY) strain groups are based on host-response and resistance-gene interactions. The strain groups PVYO, PVYC and PVYN are well-established for the isolates infecting potato in the field. A switch in the emphasis from host response to nucleotide sequence differences in the virus genom...

  14. Hybrid origins of cultivated potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild and cultivated potatoes, Solanum section Petota, is taxonomically difficult, partly because of interspecific hybridization at both the diploid and polyploid levels. The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes is particularly controversial. With DNA sequence data of the GBSSI (waxy) gene we here infer r...

  15. Potato Phytonutrient Analysis and Engineering

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potatoes have the highest per capita consumption of any vegetable, a fact which emphasizes their potential to be a key dietary source of health-promoting compounds. Only a fraction of the genetic diversity available in potato wild-species has been incorporated into modern cultivars. LCMS analysis of...

  16. Acrylamide in processed potato products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trace amounts of acrylamide are found in many foods cooked at high temperatures. Acrylamide in processed potato products is formed from reducing sugars and asparagine and is a product of the Maillard reaction. Processed potato products including fries and chips are relatively high in acrylamide comp...

  17. Russet Burbank, no ordinary potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Russet Burbank potato variety currently occupies first place in acreage planted in North America and is worth in the United States 1.4 billion dollars annually. It is a sport of the Burbank potato which was selected by Luther Burbank in 1873. The ancestry of Burbank stems from a plant introduc...

  18. 21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potato chips made from dried potatoes. 102.41... Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it...

  19. 21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potato chips made from dried potatoes. 102.41... Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it...

  20. 21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potato chips made from dried potatoes. 102.41... Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it...

  1. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes...

  2. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any...

  3. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any...

  4. 7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 948.5 Section 948.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and includes all varieties of Irish...

  5. 7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potatoes. 948.5 Section 948.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and includes all varieties of Irish...

  6. 7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potatoes. 953.5 Section 953.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish...

  7. 7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 953.5 Section 953.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish...

  8. 7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potatoes. 953.5 Section 953.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish...

  9. 7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potatoes. 953.5 Section 953.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish...

  10. 7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potatoes. 953.5 Section 953.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish...

  11. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes...

  12. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any...

  13. 7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potatoes. 948.5 Section 948.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and includes all varieties of Irish...

  14. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any...

  15. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes...

  16. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any...

  17. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes...

  18. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes...

  19. 7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potatoes. 948.5 Section 948.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and includes all varieties of Irish...

  20. 7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potatoes. 948.5 Section 948.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and includes all varieties of Irish...

  1. Leafhopper and psyllid pests of potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafhoppers and psyllids are important pests of potato worldwide. These insects cause damage to potato by direct feeding or by acting as vectors of potato pathogens. Economically important leafhoppers that attack potato include Empoasca fabae, Macrosteles fascifrons, and Circulifer tenellus. E. faba...

  2. Potatoes in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Astroculture is a suite of technologies used to produce and maintain a closed controlled environment for plant growth. The two most recent missions supported growth of potato, dwarf wheat, and mustard plants and provided scientists with the first opportunity to conduct true plant research in space. Light emitting diodes have particular usefulness for plant growth lighting because they emit a much smaller amount of radiant heat than do conventional lighting sources and because they have potential of directing a higher percentage of the emitted light onto plants surfaces. Furthermore, the high output LED's have emissions in the 600-700 nm waveband, which is of highest efficiency for photosynthesis by plants.

  3. Potato Tuber Callus

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Roy; Varns, Jerry L.; Miller, Karon A.; Talley, Eugene A.

    1976-01-01

    Callus was initiated from explants of tubers of the Norchip cultivar of Solanum tuberosum L. and grown on medium with a single carbon source and without addition of coconut milk, protein hydrolysate, or amino acid. Callus samples were harvested at intervals and compared to mature tubers for which there was good biochemical knowledge. The amino acid spectrum, the glycoalkaloid content, and the properties of the isolated invertase and sucrose synthetase were similar in callus and in tuber. Significantly the level of sucrose synthetase varied with the age of the developing callus just as it did with the age of the developing tuber. Of greater significance, levels of reducing sugars and invertase varied with the age of developing callus and also with time and temperature of storage after the callus has ceased growth. Similar changes occur in intact tubers. Callus and tuber biochemistry differed in the amount of deposited starch and in the absence of potato invertase inhibitor. PMID:16659698

  4. Genetic fingerprinting of potato varieties from the Northwest Potato Variety Development Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Northwest Potato Variety Development Program using conventional breeding has successfully released more than 40 improved varieties of potato since its inception in 1983. Potato breeders rely primarily on morphological and phenotypic data for selection and breeding of potato cultivars. With the a...

  5. 21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... largest type used in the words “potato chips.” ... Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it...

  6. 21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... largest type used in the words “potato chips.” ... Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it...

  7. Potato Types: Their Characteristics and Uses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlista, Alexander D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents material for a talk and demonstration about the relationship of potato types to their different uses by consumers and processors. Includes background information for the instructor and discussions to accompany classroom exercises. Discusses the history of the potato, potato types and external characteristics, and internal characteristics…

  8. Effects of plastic mulch on potato growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Northern China is a major potato production region, and water-saving measures that can enhance both potato yield and quality play an important role in this region due to general water shortages. Plastic mulch has been used as an effective water-saving measure for potato cultivation in China. This ch...

  9. Liberibacter transmission efficiency among potato psyllid haplotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a vector of the phloem-limited bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso), the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato. Little is known on the mechanisms by which the potato psyllid transmits Lso t...

  10. Acoustic Measurement of Potato Cannon Velocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Michael; Courtney, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Potato cannon velocity can be measured with a digitized microphone signal. A microphone is attached to the potato cannon muzzle, and a potato is fired at an aluminum target about 10 m away. Flight time can be determined from the acoustic waveform by subtracting the time in the barrel and time for sound to return from the target. The potato…

  11. Sustainable potato production: global case studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is grown in over 100 countries throughout the world. As a staple food, potato is the fourth most important crop after rice, wheat, and maize, and has historically contributed to food and nutrition security in the world. Global interest in potato increased sharply in 200...

  12. Reinventing potato at the diploid level

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are positioned to revolutionize potato by reconstructing it as a diploid inbred-line based crop. Currently, potato is an asexually propagated cross-pollinated tetraploid crop, for which breeding methodologies have not changed substantially in 100 years. Current methods for creating new potato cul...

  13. Potato psyllid genome and metagenome project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli) is a Hemipteran pest of solanaceous plants and limits potato and tomato production by the transmission of Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum. Genomic information on the potato psyllid is limited but is vital in developing appropriate management strategi...

  14. Diversity of potato genetic resources

    PubMed Central

    Machida-Hirano, Ryoko

    2015-01-01

    A considerable number of highly diverse species exist in genus Solanum. Because they can adapt to a broad range of habitats, potato wild relatives are promising sources of desirable agricultural traits. Potato taxonomy is quite complex because of introgression, interspecific hybridization, auto- and allopolyploidy, sexual compatibility among many species, a mixture of sexual and asexual reproduction, possible recent species divergence, phenotypic plasticity, and the consequent high morphological similarity among species. Recent researchers using molecular tools have contributed to the identification of genes controlling several types of resistance as well as to the revision of taxonomical relationships among potato species. Historically, primitive forms of cultivated potato and its wild relatives have been used in breeding programs and there is still an enormous and unimaginable potential for discovering desirable characteristics, particularly in wild species Different methods have been developed to incorporate useful alleles from these wild species into the improved cultivars. Potato germplasm comprising of useful alleles for different breeding objectives is preserved in various gene banks worldwide. These materials, with their invaluable information, are accessible for research and breeding purposes. Precise identification of species base on the new taxonomy is essential for effective use of the germplasm collection. PMID:25931978

  15. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Millam, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a globally important crop plant producing high yields of nutritionally valuable food in the form of tubers. It has been the focus of substantial study because of its use both as a staple food crop and as a potentially significant source of compounds of interest. This has included the development and application of transgenic technology for introducing novel traits of fundamental and applied interest. This chapter describes a rapid, efficient, and cost-effective system for the routine transformation of this crop plant at rates above 40% efficiency, calculated as the mean number of Southern blot- confirmed independent transgenics per number of internodal explants originally plated. Internodal sections are co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens and subjected to a two-stage callus induction/shoot outgrowth system under kanamycin selection. Shoot regeneration rates are high using the described method, and excised independent shoots rooting from the cut end of the stem after two further subcultures on kanamycin are 95% certain to be transformed. The transgenic status can be confirmed by molecular analysis and the plants grown on for tuber production enabling a wide spectrum of further studies.

  16. Potato in the age of biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Ewen; Milbourne, Dan; Petti, Carlo; Doyle-Prestwich, Barbara M; Meade, Conor

    2006-05-01

    Biotechnology-based tools are now widely used to enhance and expand the traditional remit of potato in food production. By modifying its functionality, the capacity of the potato to produce, for example, therapeutic or industrial compounds is now a reality, and its ability to resist disease can also be radically improved. Two developments have been crucial to expanding the role of potato: the recent advances in the fields of structural and functional potato genomics and the ability to integrate genes of interest into the potato genome. In this review we discuss how both developments have diversified the remit of this crop.

  17. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  18. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  19. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  20. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  1. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  2. The evolution of potato breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato cultivars in most regions of the world are tetraploid and clonally propagated. For over a century, the breeding strategy has been phenotypic recurrent selection. However, the polyploid nature of the crop prevents breeders from eliminating deleterious alleles and assembling positive alleles fo...

  3. Growth of potatoes for CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T. W.; Cao, W.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes research on the utilization of white potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) for space life support systems at the University of Wisconsin-Madison over the period of 1984 to 1993. At full maturity the tuber productivity was 37.5 gm(exp -2) d(exp -1), equating to a growing area requirement for one human (2800 kcal d(exp -1)) of 10.1 m(exp -2). A recirculating nutrient system using slanted trays produced best potato growth and tuber yields when a 2-3 cm layer of gravel or arcillite media was utilized. Potato production was close to maximum under lighting levels of 400 micromol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) of photosynthetic photo flux (PPF) for 24 hours or 800 micromol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) for 12 hours, alternating diurnal temperatures of 22 C and 14 C, relative humidity of 85 percent, and a carbon dioxide level of 1000 micromol m(exp -1). The range of effective concentrations of each separate nutrient is reported. The extensive studies with potatoes in this project have demonstrated that this crop has high productivity of nutritous tubers with a high harvest index in controlled environments, and can fulfill a significant portion of the energy and protein requirements for humans in space.

  4. 78 FR 9629 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 948 Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area No. 2 AGENCY: Agricultural... membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area No. 2 (Committee). The Committee...

  5. Emerging diversity in Potato virus Y poses new challenges for the U.S. potato industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Until recently tobacco and potato tuber necrotic strains of Potato virus Y (PVY) were considered to be absent from the U.S., and seed certification programs were able to limit PVY incidence in seed potatoes. PVY has become more problematic in recent years and beginning in 2002, necrotic strains of P...

  6. Organic potato production – seed potato production and participatory variety trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potatoes are vegetatively propagated, thus many pathogens can be transmitted in seed potatoes and affect the subsequent crop. Certified seed potatoes, which are inspected to ensure that pathogen levels are below a specified threshold, provide effective control of most tuber-borne diseases. Organic g...

  7. The role of entanglement concentration on the hydrodynamic properties of potato and sweet potato starches.

    PubMed

    Guo, Li; Hu, Jian; Zhang, Juanjuan; Du, Xianfeng

    2016-12-01

    The hydrodynamic properties of potato starch and sweet potato starch in dilute and semi-dilute aqueous solutions were studied using a Ubbelohde viscometer, a transmission electron microscope, and steady shear rheological measurements. The results indicated that the potato starch solutions showed a linear shape of the ηred versus c curves. The sweet potato starch solutions presented a non-linear shape with a downturn in dilute solutions, or the concentrations were lower than entanglement concentration (ce). The ce values of the potato and sweet potato starch solutions were 0.43% and 0.54%, respectively. These findings indicated that the impact of the ce value on the network formation of the potato starch solutions was much more significant compared with the impact on the sweet potato starch solutions. The potato and sweet potato starch solutions showed shear thinning behaviour hardly occurs when the concentrations were less than ce, while shear thinning behaviour approached when the concentrations were equal to or greater than ce. Similarly, the potato and sweet potato starch solutions rarely resembled a pseudoplastic state when the concentrations were lower than or equal to ce, while the pseudoplastic behaviour developed when the concentrations were higher than ce.

  8. What is the source of potato psyllids colonizing Washington, Oregon, and Idaho potato fields?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managing zebra chip disease in the potato growing regions of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho is complicated by confusion about the geographic source of the insect vector (potato psyllid) as it colonizes potato fields in these growing regions. Not knowing the source of the vector makes it difficult fo...

  9. Assessing potato psyllid haplotypes in potato crops in the Pacific Northwestern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc), is a vector of the bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso) that has been linked to the economically devastating zebra chip disease of potato. To date, four haplotypes of the potato psyllid have been identified and include Central, We...

  10. An unexpected cause of anaphylaxis: potato.

    PubMed

    Eke Gungor, H; Uytun, S; Murat Sahiner, U; Altuner Torun, Y

    2016-07-01

    Immediate reactions against contact to raw potato has been reported in adults with generally being in the form of an oral contact dermatitis or contact urticaria, but it may also manifest as rhinitis symptoms, wheezing or even anaphylaxis. Cooked or raw potato allergy has been rarely reported in children as some is being immediate and others being late reactions, and it usually results from ingestion. Herein, we report two cases with a background of allergic diseases developed anaphylaxis one with cooked potato and the other one with raw potato.

  11. The carry-through of residues of thiabendazole, tecnazene and chlorpropham from potatoes following manufacture into potato crisps and jacket potato crisps.

    PubMed

    Lewis, D J; Thorpe, S A; Reynolds, S L

    1996-01-01

    Potatoes, commercially treated with thiabendazole, tecnazene and chlorpropham, were processed into potato crisps and jacket potato crisps at a crisp factory using standard manufacturing conditions. A multi-residue method based on gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection was developed and used to determine pesticide residue levels in the potatoes and potato crisps. Results showed that the residues of all three pesticides were significantly reduced to less than 2% and less than 10% of the maximum theoretical residue carry-through level for potato crisps and jacket potato crisps respectively.

  12. Developing the Nutritional Potential of Potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potatoes are the most consumed vegetable in the developed world and consumption is increasing in the developing world. Consequently, the phytonutrient content of potato can have a large impact on public health. Moreover, because of the high consumption even modest increases in tuber phytonutrient co...

  13. 7 CFR 945.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 945.5 Section 945.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.5...

  14. 7 CFR 945.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potatoes. 945.5 Section 945.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.5...

  15. 7 CFR 945.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potatoes. 945.5 Section 945.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.5...

  16. 7 CFR 945.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potatoes. 945.5 Section 945.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.5...

  17. 7 CFR 945.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potatoes. 945.5 Section 945.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.5...

  18. Potato tuber dormancy and postharvest sprout control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For an indeterminate period of time following harvest, potatoes will not sprout and are physiologically dormant. Dormancy is gradually lost during postharvest storage and the resultant sprouting is detrimental to the nutritional and processing qualities of potatoes. Because of this, sprouting resu...

  19. Molecular characterization of potato leafroll virus, potato virus A, and potato virus X isolates from potatoes in Alaskan cities and villages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercialized potatoes in Alaska are mainly grown in the Matanuska Valley, Tanana Valley and Delta Junction, and are routinely monitored for viruses and pests. In contrast, non-commercial potato production sites occurring throughout Alaska are rarely scrutinized for diseases. In addition, virtually...

  20. Reinventing potato at the diploid level

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The outcrossing polyploidy nature of cultivated potato has hindered the use of genomics resources to dissect the genetic basis of agronomically important traits. Reversion to the diploid level allows us to apply powerful tools toward this effort. Parthenogenesis generates diploid cultivated potato, ...

  1. The changing face of Potato virus Y

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation will help growers, seed certification and regulatory officials, consultants, and other practitioners in the United States understand how and why Potato virus Y (PVY) is affecting the seed potato crop and if left unchecked why it will become a major disease issue for the food sector...

  2. Potato cyst nematodes: pests of national importance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato cyst nematodes (PCN; G. rostochiensis and G. pallida) are internationally-recognized quarantine pests and considered the most devastating pests of potatoes due to annual worldwide yield losses estimated at 12.2%. PCNs continue to spread throughout North America and were recently detected in I...

  3. [The inhibition of potato tubers wound reparation].

    PubMed

    Chalenko, G I; Vasiukova, N I; Gerasimova, N G; Ozeretskovskaia, O l

    2009-01-01

    The multiple washing of the wound surface of potato tubers by water adversely affected the protective properties of wound periderm. Immune inhibitor beta-1,3-beta-1,6 glucan had a property of local effect and inhibited the process of wound healing. The pentasaccharide of xyloglucan caused necrosis of potato tuber tissue and prevented the wound reparation process.

  4. Potato zebra chip disease: a phytopathological tale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato zebra chip (ZC) disease is a relative newcomer to the world of important potato diseases. First reported in Mexico in the 1990s, by 2004-2005 the disease was causing serious economic damage in parts of Texas. ZC is now widespread in the western United States, Mexico, Central America, and wa...

  5. Improved genetic disease resistance solutions for potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Halterman Lab research program is focused on understanding the genetic basis of disease resistance in potato. Several diseases, such as late blight, early blight, potato virus Y, and verticillium wilt, are particularly problematic in Wisconsin. With the exception of early blight, major genes hav...

  6. Ensuring the genetic diversity of potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Opportunities for advances in the potato crop through genetics are great, since potato has many needs for improvement, and many related species with the traits required are available. Genebanks provide a centralized and specialized resource for providing the services of acquisition, classification, ...

  7. Glycoalkaloids and calystegine alkaloids in potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potatoes contain two classes of alkaloids: the glycoalkaloids and the calystegines. The presence of glycoalkaloids in potatoes and their toxicity has been known for more than a century and much has been written about them. Discovery of the nortropane calystegine alkaloids is more recent, and the k...

  8. 7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section 948.51... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The Colorado Potato...

  9. 7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948.151 Section... POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 948.151 Colorado Potato Committee membership. The Colorado Potato Committee shall be comprised of six members...

  10. 7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948.151 Section... POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 948.151 Colorado Potato Committee membership. The Colorado Potato Committee shall be comprised of six members...

  11. 7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948.151 Section... POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 948.151 Colorado Potato Committee membership. The Colorado Potato Committee shall be comprised of six members...

  12. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades...

  13. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade...

  14. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade...

  15. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade...

  16. 7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948.151 Section... POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 948.151 Colorado Potato Committee membership. The Colorado Potato Committee shall be comprised of six members...

  17. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades...

  18. A Brief History of the Potato in Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Provides historical information on the potato in Ireland focusing on how the potato arrived in Ireland and the advantages and disadvantages of the potato as a food crop. Discusses the Irish potato famine in Ireland, effects of the famine, and the government's laissez-faire response. Includes a list of questions. (CMK)

  19. 7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section 948.51... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The Colorado Potato...

  20. Soil phosphorus changes impacted by potato cropping management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato crops generally require high amounts of phosphorus (P) fertilizer to reach economically acceptable yields as the low root density of potato plants makes mobilization and acquisition of phosphate a key factor in potato plant growth. In this work, we evaluated soil P changes in 10 potato fields...

  1. 7 CFR 318.13-25 - Sweet potatoes from Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Hawaii. 318.13-25 Section 318.13... Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-25 Sweet potatoes from Hawaii. (a) Sweet potatoes may be... 5 Sweet potatoes may also be moved interstate from Hawaii with irradiation in accordance with §...

  2. Systematics, diversity, genetics, and evolution of wild and cultivated potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated potato, Solanum tuberosum L., is the third most important food crop and is grown and consumed worldwide. Indigenous primitive cultivated (landrace) potatoes, and wild potatoes, all classified as Solanum section Petota, are widely used for potato improvement. Members of section Petota are ...

  3. Storage performance of Taiwanese sweet potato cultivars.

    PubMed

    Huang, Che-Lun; Liao, Wayne C; Chan, Chin-Feng; Lai, Yung-Chang

    2014-12-01

    Three sweet potato cultivars (TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73), provided by the Taiwanese Agricultural Research Institute (TARI), were stored at either 15 °C or under ambient conditions (23.8 ~ 28.4 °C and 77.1 ~ 81.0 % of relative humidity). Sweet potato roots were randomly chosen from each replicate and evaluated for measurement of weight loss, sugar content analysis, and sprouting after 0, 14, 24, 48, 56, 70, 84, and 98 days of storage. Fresh sweet potato roots were baked at 200 °C for 60 min then samples were taken for sugar analysis. After 14 days of ambient condition storage, the sprouting percentages for TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73 were 100, 85, and 95 % respectively. When sweet potatoes were stored at 15 °C, the weight loss became less and no sweet potato root sprouted after 14 days of storage. Because manufacturers can store sweet potatoes at 15 °C for almost 2 month without other treatments, the supply capacity shortage in July and September can be reduced. The total sugar content slowly increased along with increasing the storage time. After baking, the total sugar content of sweet potatoes significantly increased due to the formation of maltose. Maltose became the major sugar of baked sweet potatoes. Raw sweet potatoes stored at 15 °C had higher total sugar contents after baking than those stored under ambient conditions. Raw sweet potatoes were recommended to be stored at 15 °C before baking.

  4. Fate of toxic potato glycoalkaloids in a potato field.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Pia H; Strobel, Bjarne W; Hansen, Hans Christian B; Jacobsen, Ole Stig

    2009-04-08

    The toxic glycoalkaloids, alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine, are present in all parts of the potato plant and are possibly transferred to the terrestrial environment. The amounts of glycoalkaloids in plant, soil, and groundwater were followed in a potato field to investigate their distribution and fate during the season. The amount of glycoalkaloids in the plants was up to 25 kg/ha during maturity and decreased to below 0.63 kg/ha during plant senescence. The glycoalkaloids were detected in the upper soil (up to 0.6 kg/ha); this amount accounted only for a minor fraction of the amount present in the plants. Maximum glycoalkaloid concentration of 2.8 mg/kg dry weight soil was detected in September. Dissipation during winter appeared to be slow because glycoalkaloids were still present in the soil in March. No traces of glycoalkaloids were detected in the groundwater (detection limit 0.2 microg/L). From these results, the leaching potential of the glycoalkaloids is evaluated to be small.

  5. Detection of sweet potato virus C, sweet potato virus 2 and sweet potato feathery mottle virus in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Varanda, Carla M R; Santos, Susana J; Oliveira, Mônica D M; Clara, Maria Ivone E; Félix, Maria Rosário F

    2015-06-01

    Field sweet potato plants showing virus-like symptoms, as stunting, leaf distortion, mosaic and chlorosis, were collected in southwest Portugal and tested for the presence of four potyviruses, sweet potato virus C (SPVC), sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2), sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), sweet potato virus G (SPVG), and the crinivirus sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). DsRNA fractions were extracted from symptomatic leaves and used as templates in single and multiplex RT-PCR assays using previously described specific primers for each analyzed virus. The amplified reaction products for SPVC, SPV2 and SPFMV were of expected size, and direct sequencing of PCR products revealed that they correspond to the coat protein gene (CP) and showed 98%, 99% and 99% identity, respectively, to those viruses. Comparison of the CP genomic and amino acid sequences of the Portuguese viral isolates recovered here with those of ten other sequences of isolates obtained in different countries retrieved from the GenBank showed very few differences. The application of the RT-PCR assays revealed for the first time the presence of SPVC and SPFMV in the sweet potato crop in Portugal, the absence of SPVG and SPCSV in tested plants, as well as the occurrence of triple virus infections under field conditions.

  6. Non-potato host plants of potato psyllid in the Pacific Northwest: a year-round complication?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managing zebra chip disease in the potato growing regions of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho is complicated by confusion about the source of the insect vector (potato psyllid) as it colonizes potato fields in these growing regions. Not knowing where the psyllid is before arriving in Washington potato...

  7. Standardized RT-PCR conditions for detection and identification of eleven viruses of potato and Potato spindle tuber viroid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Standardized RT-PCR procedures were developed and validated for detection of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV), Tobacco rattle virus (TRV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), Potato leaf roll virus (PLRV), Potato mop top virus (PMTV), Potato virus A (PVA), Potato viru...

  8. Control of sweet potato virus diseases.

    PubMed

    Loebenstein, Gad

    2015-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is ranked seventh in global food crop production and is the third most important root crop after potato and cassava. Sweet potatoes are vegetative propagated from vines, root slips (sprouts), or tubers. Therefore, virus diseases can be a major constrain, reducing yields markedly, often more than 50%. The main viruses worldwide are Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). Effects on yields by SPFMV or SPCSV alone are minor, or but in complex infection by the two or other viruses yield losses of 50%. The orthodox way of controlling viruses in vegetative propagated crops is by supplying the growers with virus-tested planting material. High-yielding plants are tested for freedom of viruses by PCR, serology, and grafting to sweet potato virus indicator plants. After this, meristem tips are taken from those plants that reacted negative. The meristems were grown into plants which were kept under insect-proof conditions and away from other sweet potato material for distribution to farmers after another cycle of reproduction.

  9. Characterization of potato leaf starch.

    PubMed

    Santacruz, Stalin; Koch, Kristine; Andersson, Roger; Aman, Per

    2004-04-07

    The starch accumulation-degradation process as well as the structure of leaf starch are not completely understood. To study this, starch was isolated from potato leaves collected in the early morning and late afternoon in July and August, representing different starch accumulation rates. The starch content of potato leaves varied between 2.9 and 12.9% (dry matter basis) over the night and day in the middle of July and between 0.6 and 1.5% in August. Scanning electron microscopy analyses of the four isolated starch samples showed that the granules had either an oval or a round shape and did not exceed 5 microm in size. Starch was extracted by successive washing steps with dimethyl sulfoxide and precipitated with ethanol. An elution profile on Sepharose CL-6B of debranched starch showed the presence of a material with a chain length distribution between that generally found for amylose and amylopectin. Amylopectin unit chains of low molecular size were present in a higher amount in the afternoon than in the morning samples. What remains at the end of the night is depleted in specific chain lengths, mainly between DP 15 and 24 and above DP 35, relative to the end of the day.

  10. Hybrid origins of cultivated potatoes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Flor; Ghislain, Marc; Clausen, Andrea M; Jansky, Shelley H; Spooner, David M

    2010-10-01

    Solanum section Petota is taxonomically difficult, partly because of interspecific hybridization at both the diploid and polyploid levels. The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes is particularly controversial. Using DNA sequence data of the waxy gene, we here infer relationships among the four species of cultivated potatoes accepted in the latest taxonomic treatment (S. ajanhuiri, S. curtilobum, S. juzepczukii and S. tuberosum, the latter divided into the Andigenum and Chilotanum Cultivar Groups). The data support prior ideas of hybrid origins of S. ajanhuiri from the S. tuberosum Andigenum Group (2x = S. stenotomum) × S. megistacrolobum; S. juzepczukii from the S. tuberosum Andigenum Group (2x = S. stenotomum) × S. acaule; and S. curtilobum from the S. tuberosum Andigenum Group (4x = S. tuberosum subsp. andigenum) × S. juzepczukii. For the tetraploid cultivar-groups of S. tuberosum, hybrid origins are suggested entirely within much more closely related species, except for two of three examined accessions of the S. tuberosum Chilotanum Group that appear to have hybridized with the wild species S. maglia. Hybrid origins of the crop/weed species S. sucrense are more difficult to support and S. vernei is not supported as a wild species progenitor of the S. tuberosum Andigenum Group.

  11. Potato chromosomes IX and XI carry genes for resistance to potato virus M.

    PubMed

    Marczewski, W; Strzelczyk-Zyta, D; Hennig, J; Witek, K; Gebhardt, C

    2006-05-01

    Two new loci for resistance to potato virus M (PVM), Gm and Rm, have been mapped in potato. The gene Gm was derived from Solanum gourlayi, whereas, Solanum megistacrolobum is the source of the gene Rm. Gm confers resistance to PVM infection after mechanical inoculation. Rm induces a hypersensitive response in potato plants. Two diploid populations segregating for Gm and Rm, bulked segregant analysis (BSA) using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), and available potato molecular maps were instrumental for mapping the resistance loci. The novel locus Gm was mapped to a central region on potato chromosome IX. The locus Rm was placed on the short arm of chromosome XI, close to the marker loci GP250 and GP283, where a hotspot for monogenic and polygenic resistance to diverse pathogens is located in the potato and tomato genome.

  12. Race nonspecific resistance for potato late blight.

    PubMed

    Staples, Richard C

    2004-01-01

    The late blight fungus (Phytophthora infestans) rots susceptible species of potato plants. None of the major varieties of potato (Solanum tuberosum) grown in the USA is resistant to US-8, the most prevalent genotype of the fungus. Now, Junqi Song, James Bradeen and colleagues have cloned the RB gene from the wild diploid potato species, Solanum bulbocastanum, using a map-based approach in combination with long-range PCR. Transgenic plants containing the gene, normally fully susceptible, displayed broad-spectrum late blight resistance.

  13. Lesions of potato sprout and extracted potato sprout alkaloid toxicity in Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Baker, D; Keeler, R; Gaffield, W

    1987-01-01

    Hamsters were gavaged either dried potato sprout material, alkaloid extract of potato sprouts, or the marc from which the alkaloid fraction was extracted and then were examined for gross and microscopic lesions. Nine of 10 hamsters receiving dried potato sprout material and 3 of 5 hamsters receiving alkaloid extract had severe gastric and intestinal mucosal necrosis which was most severe in the glandular stomach, duodenum and proximal jejunum. All control hamsters gavaged with water and all hamsters gavaged with the potato sprout marc survived to the time of euthanasia and did not have gross or microscopic lesions.

  14. Climate risks on potato yield in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xun; Lall, Upmanu

    2016-04-01

    The yield of potatoes is affected by water and temperature during the growing season. We study the impact of a suite of climate variables on potato yield at country level. More than ten climate variables related to the growth of potato are considered, including the seasonal rainfall and temperature, but also extreme conditions at different averaging periods from daily to monthly. A Bayesian hierarchical model is developed to jointly consider the risk of heat stress, cold stress, wet and drought. Future climate risks are investigated through the projection of future climate data. This study contributes to assess the risks of present and future climate risks on potatoes yield, especially the risks of extreme events, which could be used to guide better sourcing strategy and ensure food security in the future.

  15. Cooking Potatoes: Experimentation and Mathematical Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xiao Dong

    2002-01-01

    Describes a laboratory activity involving a mathematical model of cooking potatoes that can be solved analytically. Highlights the microstructure aspects of the experiment. Provides the key aspects of the results, detailed background readings, laboratory procedures and data analyses. (MM)

  16. "Hot potato voice" in peritonsillitis: a misnomer.

    PubMed

    Bhutta, Mahmood F; Worley, George A; Harries, Meredydd L

    2006-12-01

    The "hot potato voice" is widely recognized as a symptom of peritonsillar cellulitis or abscess; yet there have been no studies assessing the resonance characteristics of the vocal tract in peritonsillitis. Analysis was undertaken of formant frequencies in the articulation of the vowels /i:/. /a:/ and /u:/ in six subjects with peritonsillitis and compared with articulation once the peritonsillitis had settled. Significant variation was found in F1 when articulating /i:/ and in F2 when articulating /a:/, which are explainable by dyskinesis of the peritonsillar musculature. These findings were compared with six subjects articulating the same vowels with and without a hot potato in their mouth. Variation was found in both F1 and F2 when articulating /i:/, which can be related to interference of the potato with movement of the anterior tongue. The changes in the vocal tract differ in these two cases and the title "hot potato voice" in peritonsillitis is a misnomer.

  17. Development of molecular resistance in potato against potato leaf roll virus and potato virus Y through Agrobacterium-mediated double transgenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) and potato virus Y (PVY) are the two major viral problems for the potato production all over the world. Transgenic approaches involving the expression of viral genes are being developed to provide protection for plants against viral diseases. The purpose of this study w...

  18. Salt release from potato crisps.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xing; Fisk, Ian D

    2012-04-01

    The rate of salt release in-mouth from salted potato crisps was evaluated. It was hypothesised that a slow steady release of sodium would occur on chewing and hydration; to test this a crisp was chewed and held in the oral cavity without swallowing for 60 s. Sodium release was measured over the entire holding period, after 20-30 s a peak in salivary sodium levels was recorded. A similar trend was observed with sensory perceived saltiness by trained panellists. The results suggest that a significant proportion of the crisp's salt flavouring is released in a pulse-type mechanism which would not be encountered when the crisp is exposed to normal eating patterns and would result in the consumption of a large proportion of unperceived sodium.

  19. Ethanol production from potato peel waste (PPW).

    PubMed

    Arapoglou, D; Varzakas, Th; Vlyssides, A; Israilides, C

    2010-10-01

    Considerable concern is caused by the problem of potato peel waste (PPW) to potato industries in Europe. An integrated, environmentally-friendly solution is yet to be found and is currently undergoing investigation. Potato peel is a zero value waste produced by potato processing plants. However, bio-ethanol produced from potato wastes has a large potential market. If Federal Government regulations are adopted in light of the Kyoto agreement, the mandatory blending of bio-ethanol with traditional gasoline in amounts up to 10% will result in a demand for large quantities of bio-ethanol. PPW contain sufficient quantities of starch, cellulose, hemicellulose and fermentable sugars to warrant use as an ethanol feedstock. In the present study, a number of batches of PPW were hydrolyzed with various enzymes and/or acid, and fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisae var. bayanus to determine fermentability and ethanol production. Enzymatic hydrolysis with a combination of three enzymes, released 18.5 g L(-1) reducing sugar and produced 7.6 g L(-1) of ethanol after fermentation. The results demonstrate that PPW, a by-product of the potato industry features a high potential for ethanol production.

  20. COSII-Based Mapping and Diversity in Potato, Tomato, Sweet Potato and Carrot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This poster presentation reports progress on a USDA NRI grant to enhance understanding of and access to the genetic diversity in wild and landrace relatives of tomato, potato, sweet potato, and carrot, and contribute to the same for other euasterid plant species. This is being done with Conserved Or...

  1. Breeding for improved potato nutrition: High amylose starch potatoes show promise as fiber source

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato starch is composed of approximately 75% amylopectin and 25% amylose. We are interested in breeding for higher amylose content, which would increase the fiber content of potato and decrease glycemic index. In order to make progress in a breeding program, we have developed a high throughput ass...

  2. Use and costs of insecticdes to control potato psyllids and zebra chip on potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zebra chip disease in potatoes has become a serious problem in North America. Researchers in Texas developed a sampling and reporting program for cooperating growers in three states. Data from this project enabled us to document insecticide use and costs for ZC control in commercial potato fields...

  3. Resistance of selected potato genotypes to the potato psyllid (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The characterization of resistance of selected potato, Solanum tuberosum L., breeding clones to the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) was investigated. Antixenosis was assessed in choice tests in which a single plant of each genotype was placed inside a rearing cag...

  4. Impact of Potato virus Y on long term storage of potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, Potato virus Y has reemerged as a serious disease problem in many potato production areas in the northern United States and eastern Canada. In Wisconsin, two widely grown cultivars, Russet Norkotah and Silverton, express mild or no symptoms when infected with PVY. The lack of sympto...

  5. First report of potato mop top virus on potatoes in North Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato mop-top virus (PMTV) is the type member of genus Pomovirus. PMTV is an important pathogen of potato, causing serious economic losses in Northern Europe, North and South America, and Asia. PMTV in the United States was first reported in Maine (2). PMTV is vectored by plasmodiophoromycete Sp...

  6. Biotech potatoes in the 21st century: 20 years since the first biotech potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato is the world's most important vegetable crop, with nearly 400 million tons produced worldwide every year, lending to stability in food supply and socioeconomics. In general, potato is an intensively managed crop, requiring irrigation, fertilization, and frequent pesticide applications in orde...

  7. Host plant preference in Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field and laboratory-choice tests were conducted to better understand host plant preference by the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), in Virginia. In laboratory olfactometer studies, L. decemlineata preferred potato over both tomato and eggplant foli...

  8. 7 CFR 980.1 - Import regulations; Irish potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., shoestrings, starch and flour. Processing does not include potatoes that are only peeled, or cooled, sliced..., shoestrings, starch and flour. Processing does not include potatoes that are only peeled, or cooled,...

  9. White Potatoes, Human Health, and Dietary Guidance12

    PubMed Central

    King, Janet C.; Slavin, Joanne L.

    2013-01-01

    The white potato is a concentrated source of carbohydrate, dietary fiber, and resistant starch and continues to be the staple food of choice for many cultures. The white potato is also a concentrated source of vitamin C and potassium. Two of the nutrients in white potatoes, dietary fiber and potassium, have been designated as nutrients of concern in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Potatoes are often maligned in nutrition circles because of their suspected link to obesity, and popular potato foods often contain more fat calories than carbohydrate calories. Some food guides do not include potatoes in the vegetable group because of their association with high-fat diets. However, potatoes should be included in the vegetable group because they contribute critical nutrients. All white vegetables, including white potatoes, provide nutrients needed in the diet and deserve a prominent position in food guides. PMID:23674809

  10. Taxonomy of Cultivated Potatoes (Solanum section Petota: Solanaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum tuberosum, the cultivated potato of world commerce, is a primary food crop worldwide. Wild and cultivated potatoes form the germplasm base for international breeding efforts to improve potato in the face of variety of disease, environmental, and agronomic constraints. A series of national an...

  11. Taxonomy of cultivated potatoes (solanum section petota: solanaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum tuberosum, the cultivated potato of world commerce, is a primary food crop worldwide. Wild and cultivated potatoes form the germplasm base for international breeding efforts to improve potato in the face of variety of disease, environmental, and agronomic constraints. A series of national an...

  12. Genomic origins of potato polyploids: GBSSI gene sequencing data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The common potato of world commerce, Solanum tuberosum, has a rich genepool of about 190 wild and cultivated species (Solanum section Petota) that are of great importance in potato improvement. About 70% of the wild potato species are diploid at 2n = 2x = 24, and the rest form a polyploid series of ...

  13. 75 FR 22707 - United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... characteristic requirement to allow mixed colors and/or types of potatoes when designated as a mixed or specialty... inserting language into the standard to allow mixed colors and/or types of potatoes when designated as a... proposed standard to allow for mixed colors and/or types of potatoes when designated as a mixed...

  14. 7 CFR 980.1 - Import regulations; Irish potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., shoestrings, starch and flour. Processing does not include potatoes that are only peeled, or cooled, sliced... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Import regulations; Irish potatoes. 980.1 Section 980...; IMPORT REGULATIONS § 980.1 Import regulations; Irish potatoes. (a) Findings and determinations...

  15. 7 CFR 980.1 - Import regulations; Irish potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., shoestrings, starch and flour. Processing does not include potatoes that are only peeled, or cooled, sliced... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Import regulations; Irish potatoes. 980.1 Section 980...; IMPORT REGULATIONS § 980.1 Import regulations; Irish potatoes. (a) Findings and determinations...

  16. Amylose content decreases during tuber development in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato starch is composed of amylopectin and amylose in an approximately three to one ratio. Amylose is considered to be nutritionally desirable, so there is interest in finding strategies to increase the amylose content of potatoes. There is also interest in marketing “baby” potatoes, which are har...

  17. 7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section 948.51... Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The Colorado Potato Committee... selected from each area committee. Committeemen shall be selected by the Secretary from nominations of...

  18. 7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section 948.51... Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The Colorado Potato Committee... selected from each area committee. Committeemen shall be selected by the Secretary from nominations of...

  19. 7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section 948.51... Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The Colorado Potato Committee... selected from each area committee. Committeemen shall be selected by the Secretary from nominations of...

  20. Sensory evaluation of pigmented flesh potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigmented potato cultivars were ranked by a consumer panel for overall acceptance, and acceptance of aroma, appear- ance, and flavor. Potatoes were analyzed for total phenolics, anthocyanins and carotenoids. Concentrations of total phenolics in yellow and purple potato cultivars were 2-fold greate...

  1. Economic assessments of potato production systems in Maine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using an integrated enterprise and whole-farm budget model for a 324-ha medium-sized potato farm, the profitability of potatoes grown in combination with fifteen common potato rotation crops in Maine are evaluated. Enterprise budgets for all sixteen crops are calculated while a whole-farm budget syn...

  2. 7 CFR 980.1 - Import regulations; Irish potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Therefore it is hereby determined that: (i) Imports of red-skinned, round type potatoes during each month of...), applicable to potatoes of the red-skinned, round type shall be the respective grade, size, quality, and maturity requirements for all imported red-skinned, round type potatoes. (2) Through the entire year,...

  3. 7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948.151 Section 948.151 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... Potato Committee membership. The Colorado Potato Committee shall be comprised of six members...

  4. Memristors: Memory elements in potato tubers.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Alexander G; Nyasani, Eunice K; Blockmon, Avery L; Volkova, Maya I

    2015-01-01

    A memristor is a nonlinear element because its current-voltage characteristic is similar to that of a Lissajous pattern for nonlinear systems. This element was postulated recently and researchers are looking for it in different biosystems. We investigated electrical circuitry of red Irish potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.). The goal was to discover if potato tubers might have a new electrical component - a resistor with memory. The analysis was based on a cyclic current-voltage characteristic where the resistor with memory should manifest itself. We found that the electrostimulation by bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic waves induces electrical responses in the potato tubers with fingerprints of memristors. Tetraethylammonium chloride, an inhibitor of voltage gated K(+) channels, transforms a memristor to a resistor in potato tubers. Our results demonstrate that a voltage gated K(+) channel in the excitable tissue of potato tubers has properties of a memristor. Uncoupler carbonylcyanide-4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl hydrazone decreases the amplitude of electrical responses at low and high frequencies of bipolar periodic sinusoidal or triangle electrostimulating waves. The discovery of memristors in plants creates a new direction in the understanding of electrical phenomena in plants.

  5. Memristors: Memory elements in potato tubers

    PubMed Central

    Volkov, Alexander G; Nyasani, Eunice K; Blockmon, Avery L; Volkova, Maya I

    2015-01-01

    A memristor is a nonlinear element because its current-voltage characteristic is similar to that of a Lissajous pattern for nonlinear systems. This element was postulated recently and researchers are looking for it in different biosystems. We investigated electrical circuitry of red Irish potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.). The goal was to discover if potato tubers might have a new electrical component - a resistor with memory. The analysis was based on a cyclic current-voltage characteristic where the resistor with memory should manifest itself. We found that the electrostimulation by bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic waves induces electrical responses in the potato tubers with fingerprints of memristors. Tetraethylammonium chloride, an inhibitor of voltage gated K+ channels, transforms a memristor to a resistor in potato tubers. Our results demonstrate that a voltage gated K+ channel in the excitable tissue of potato tubers has properties of a memristor. Uncoupler carbonylcyanide-4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl hydrazone decreases the amplitude of electrical responses at low and high frequencies of bipolar periodic sinusoidal or triangle electrostimulating waves. The discovery of memristors in plants creates a new direction in the understanding of electrical phenomena in plants. PMID:26237427

  6. Involvement of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) MKK6 in response to potato virus Y.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Ana; Coll, Anna; Dobnik, David; Baebler, Spela; Bedina-Zavec, Apolonija; Zel, Jana; Gruden, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades have crucial roles in the regulation of plant development and in plant responses to stress. Plant recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or pathogen-derived effector proteins has been shown to trigger activation of several MAPKs. This then controls defence responses, including synthesis and/or signalling of defence hormones and activation of defence related genes. The MAPK cascade genes are highly complex and interconnected, and thus the precise signalling mechanisms in specific plant-pathogen interactions are still not known. Here we investigated the MAPK signalling network involved in immune responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to Potato virus Y, an important potato pathogen worldwide. Sequence analysis was performed to identify the complete MAPK kinase (MKK) family in potato, and to identify those regulated in the hypersensitive resistance response to Potato virus Y infection. Arabidopsis has 10 MKK family members, of which we identified five in potato and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and eight in Nicotiana benthamiana. Among these, StMKK6 is the most strongly regulated gene in response to Potato virus Y. The salicylic acid treatment revealed that StMKK6 is regulated by the hormone that is in agreement with the salicylic acid-regulated domains found in the StMKK6 promoter. The involvement of StMKK6 in potato defence response was confirmed by localisation studies, where StMKK6 accumulated strongly only in Potato-virus-Y-infected plants, and predominantly in the cell nucleus. Using a yeast two-hybrid method, we identified three StMKK6 targets downstream in the MAPK cascade: StMAPK4_2, StMAPK6 and StMAPK13. These data together provide further insight into the StMKK6 signalling module and its involvement in plant defence.

  7. Involvement of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) MKK6 in Response to Potato virus Y

    PubMed Central

    Lazar, Ana; Coll, Anna; Dobnik, David; Baebler, Špela; Bedina-Zavec, Apolonija; Žel, Jana; Gruden, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades have crucial roles in the regulation of plant development and in plant responses to stress. Plant recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or pathogen-derived effector proteins has been shown to trigger activation of several MAPKs. This then controls defence responses, including synthesis and/or signalling of defence hormones and activation of defence related genes. The MAPK cascade genes are highly complex and interconnected, and thus the precise signalling mechanisms in specific plant–pathogen interactions are still not known. Here we investigated the MAPK signalling network involved in immune responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to Potato virus Y, an important potato pathogen worldwide. Sequence analysis was performed to identify the complete MAPK kinase (MKK) family in potato, and to identify those regulated in the hypersensitive resistance response to Potato virus Y infection. Arabidopsis has 10 MKK family members, of which we identified five in potato and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and eight in Nicotiana benthamiana. Among these, StMKK6 is the most strongly regulated gene in response to Potato virus Y. The salicylic acid treatment revealed that StMKK6 is regulated by the hormone that is in agreement with the salicylic acid-regulated domains found in the StMKK6 promoter. The involvement of StMKK6 in potato defence response was confirmed by localisation studies, where StMKK6 accumulated strongly only in Potato-virus-Y-infected plants, and predominantly in the cell nucleus. Using a yeast two-hybrid method, we identified three StMKK6 targets downstream in the MAPK cascade: StMAPK4_2, StMAPK6 and StMAPK13. These data together provide further insight into the StMKK6 signalling module and its involvement in plant defence. PMID:25111695

  8. Plastid transformation in potato: Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Valkov, Vladimir T; Gargano, Daniela; Scotti, Nunzia; Cardi, Teodoro

    2014-01-01

    Although plastid transformation has attractive advantages and potential applications in plant biotechnology, for long time it has been highly efficient only in tobacco. The lack of efficient selection and regeneration protocols and, for some species, the inefficient recombination using heterologous flanking regions in transformation vectors prevented the extension of the technology to major crops. However, the availability of this technology for species other than tobacco could offer new possibilities in plant breeding, such as resistance management or improvement of nutritional value, with no or limited environmental concerns. Herein we describe an efficient plastid transformation protocol for potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum). By optimizing the tissue culture system and using transformation vectors carrying homologous potato flanking sequences, we obtained up to one transplastomic shoot per bombardment. Such efficiency is comparable to that usually achieved in tobacco. The method described in this chapter can be used to regenerate potato transplastomic plants expressing recombinant proteins in chloroplasts as well as in amyloplasts.

  9. Protein synthesis inhibitor from potato tuber

    SciTech Connect

    Romaen, R. )

    1989-04-01

    A protein fraction capable of inhibit in vitro protein synthesis was found in potato tubers in fresh and wounded tissue. Inhibitor activity from fresh tissue decays with wounding. Inhibition activity was detected absorbed to ribsomal fraction and cytosol of potato tuber tissue by a partially reconstituted in vitro system from potato tuber and wheat germ. Adsorbed ribosomal fraction was more suitable of purification. This fraction was washed from ribosomes with 0.3M KCl, concentrated with ammonium sulfate precipitation and purified through sephadex G100 and sephadex G-75 columns chromatography. After 61 fold purification adsorbed protein fraction can inhibit germination of maize, wheat and sesame seeds, as well as {sup 3}H-leucine incorporation into protein by imbibed maize embryos. Inhibition activity was lost by temperature, alkali and protease-K hydrolysis. Preliminar analysis could not show presence of reductor sugars. Physiological role of this inhibitor in relation to rest and active tissue remains to be studied.

  10. Studies on potato irradiation in the G.D.R.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luther, Th.; Hübner, G.; Grahn, Ch.; Döllstädt, R.

    The studies of potato irradiation have been conducted in the framework of the National Food Irradiation Research Project for 4 years. Although in the G.D.R. the use of chemical sprout inhibitors is allowed, potato irradiation can be an alternative technique for potato processing. Before irradiation a wound healing period of approx. 2 weeks is absolutely necessary to protect the potatoes from Fusarium. The method that presents the minimum risk of damage is irradiation in containers. Economic evaluations for the irradiation of potatoes are also made.

  11. Structure, processing, and properties of potatoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd, Isabel K.; Kolos, Kimberly R.; Menegaux, Edmond C.; Luo, Huy; Mccuen, Richard H.; Regan, Thomas M.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this experiment and lesson intended for high school students in an engineering or materials science course or college freshmen is to demonstrate the relation between processing, structure, and thermodynamic and physical properties. The specific objectives are to show the effect of structure and structural changes on thermodynamic properties (specific heat) and physical properties (compressive strength); to illustrate the first law of thermodynamics; to compare boiling a potato in water with cooking it in a microwave in terms of the rate of structural change and the energy consumed to 'process' the potato; and to demonstrate compression testing.

  12. Field and storage testing Bt potatoes for resistance to potato tuberworm (Lepidoptera: Gelichiidae).

    PubMed

    Douches, D S; Pett, W; Santos, F; Coombs, J; Grafius, E; Li, W; Metry, E A; el-Din, T Nasr; Madkour, M

    2004-08-01

    Potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), is the most serious insect pest of potatoes worldwide. The introduction of the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin gene through genetic engineering offers host plant resistance for the management of potato tuberworm. We report on the field and storage studies to evaluate Bt-cry5 potato lines for resistance to potato tuberworm in Egypt under natural infestations and their agronomic performance in both Egypt and Michigan. From 1997 to 2001, field experiments were conducted at the International Potato Center (CIP) Research Station, Kafr El-Zyat, Egypt, and/or Agricultural Genetic Engineering Institute (AGERI), Giza, Egypt, to evaluate resistance to tuberworm. A total of 27 Bt-transgenic potato lines from six different Bt constructs were evaluated over a 5-yr period. After harvest and evaluation of the agronomic trials, storage evaluation of potato tuberworm damage was done at the CIP Research Station. The 1997 field trial was the first field test of genetically engineered crops in Egypt. Field tests to assess potato tuberworm resistance in Egypt were able to differentiate between the Bt-transgenic lines and the nontransgenic lines/cultivars in 1999, 2000, and 2001. The Bt-cry5-Spunta lines (Spunta-G2, Spunta-G3, and Spunta-6a3) were the most resistant lines in field with 99-100% of tubers free of damage. In the 2001 storage study, these lines were also over 90% free of tuberworm damage after 3 mo. NYL235-4.13, which combines glandular trichomes with the Bt-cry5/gus fusion construct, also had a high percentage of clean tubers in the field studies. In agronomic field trials in Michigan from 1997 to 2001, the Bt-transgenic lines in most instances performed similar to the nontransgenic line in the agronomic trials; however, in Egypt (1998-1999), the yields were less than one-half of those in Michigan. Expression of the Bt-cry5 gene in the potato tuber and foliage will provide the seed producer and grower a tool in which to

  13. Influence of fertilization on the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, in organic potato production.

    PubMed

    Boiteau, G; Lynch, D H; Martin, R C

    2008-04-01

    The abundance of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), in organically grown potato did not change significantly in response to increasing rates of dehydrated poultry manure. However, peaks of abundance of larvae were shifted forward in time in response to the high rate of organic fertilizer. Tests using excised foliage showed that the shift was not caused by differential larval mortality or longer developmental times. Time allocation to resting, walking, and feeding by adults was similar regardless of fertilizer rate. Adult foliage consumption was unaffected by organic fertilizer rates in no choice tests and significantly affected in few choice tests. A 22% longer larval development time on plants treated with low fertilizer rate than on plants with high rate was the most significant effect. Even though maximum plant height, canopy, biomass, and yield were significantly smaller in the organic than in conventional plots, the suitability of the plants was not affected except for reduced feeding by summer beetles. Summer adults spent less time feeding and consumed two to five times less foliage on organic potato than on inorganically fertilized and conventionally produced plants. The overall influence of fertilizer on Colorado potato beetle populations was limited and therefore can only play a secondary role in management strategies for organic potato. Avoidance of excessive organic fertilizer that promotes short larval development time and extension of the period over which large Colorado potato beetle larvae are present should be recommended.

  14. Expressing the sweet potato orange gene in transgenic potato improves drought tolerance and marketable tuber production.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kwang-Soo; Han, Eun-Heui; Kwak, Sang-Soo; Cho, Ji-Hong; Im, Ju-Seong; Hong, Su-Young; Sohn, Hwang-Bae; Kim, Yun-Hee; Lee, Shin-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is generally considered to be sensitive to drought stress. Even short periods of water shortage can result in reduced tuber production and quality. We previously reported that transgenic potato plants expressing the sweet potato orange gene (IbOr) under the control of the stress-inducible SWPA2 promoter (referred to as SOR plants) showed increased tolerance to methyl viologen-mediated oxidative stress and high salinity, along with increased carotenoid contents. In this study, in an effort to improve the productivity and environmental stress tolerance of potato, we subjected transgenic potato plants expressing IbOr to water-deficient conditions in the greenhouse. The SOR plants exhibited increased tolerance to drought stress under greenhouse conditions. IbOr expression was associated with slightly negative phenotypes, including reduced tuber production. Controlling IbOr expression imparted the same degree of drought tolerance while ameliorating these negative phenotypic effects, leading to levels of tuber production similar to or better than those of wild-type plants under drought stress conditions. In particular, under drought stress, drought tolerance and the production of marketable tubers (over 80g) were improved in transgenic plants compared with non-transgenic plants. These results suggest that expressing the IbOr transgene can lead to significant gains in drought tolerance and tuber production in potato, thereby improving these agronomically important traits.

  15. Preliminary survey of potato virus Y (PVy) strains in potato samples from Kurdistan (Iran).

    PubMed

    Bahrami-Kamangar, S; De Jonghe, K; Kamangar, S; Maes, M; Smagghe, G

    2010-01-01

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is the type species in the potyvirus genus of the family potyviridae. This plant pathogenic virus is transmitted through plant sap inoculation by stem and core grafting and by at least 25 aphid species in a non-persistent manner. According to potato specialists in most parts of the world, PVY is currently considered as the most harmful virus in cultivated potatoes. This is also the case for potato production in Iran. In this project we investigated potato leaves that were collected in the Kurdistan province in Iran for the presence of PVY with use of different biochemical/molecular techniques as ELISA, RT-PCR and qPCR. The different PVY strains, including PVY-O, PVY-N, PVYN-TN, PVY-NWi, were determined by using a triplex RT-PCR. In conclusion, the results demonstrated the presence of PVY-NWi strains in the potato leaf samples from Kurdistan (Iran). The data are discussed in relation to prevalence of PVY strains in Iran.

  16. Potato Types and Characteristics: Laboratory Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlista, Alexander D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a number of simple exercises that demonstrate potato tuber characteristics and are designed for high school biology students and teachers. Exercises include Typing, Grading, Shape, Eye Characteristics, Defects, Specific Gravity, Dry Matter Content, Glucose Content, Baking, Frying/Chipping, and Taste Testing. (JRH)

  17. Internal Ballistics of a Pneumatic Potato Cannon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2009-01-01

    Basic laws of thermodynamics and mechanics are used to analyse an air gun. Such devices are often employed in outdoor physics demonstrations to launch potatoes using compressed gas that is here assumed to expand reversibly and adiabatically. Reasonable agreement is found with reported muzzle speeds for such homebuilt cannons. The treatment is…

  18. Hormone Metabolism During Potato Tuber Dormancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At harvest and for an indeterminate period thereafter potato tubers will not sprout and are physiologically dormant. The length of tuber dormancy is dependent on cultivar and pre- and postharvest environmental conditions. Plant hormones have been shown to be involved in all phases of dormancy prog...

  19. Potato Response to Tillage and Nitrogen Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato responses to different rates of pre-plant and in-season N management are evaluated under reduced and conventional tillage under center pivot irrigation. Tuber yield, tuber size distribution, and tuber specific gravity were largely similar across different tillage and N management practices. P...

  20. Studies of Amylose Content in Potato Starch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato starch is typically low in amylose (~20-25%), but high amylose starch has superior nutritional qualities. The ratio between amylose and amylopectin is the most important property influencing the physical properties of starch. There is a strong case to be made for the development of food crops...

  1. Alcohol production from fermentation of sweet potatoes

    SciTech Connect

    Egg, R.P.; Coble, C.G.; O'Neal, H.P.; Sweeten, J.M.

    1982-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the ethanol production characteristics of sweet potatoes. Ethanol yields were as high as 137 liters per tonne of feedstock using procedures developed for grain. Major problems encountered were low ethanol concentrations in the beer and poor stillage dewatering properties.

  2. Light-colored, Low Acrylamide Potato Chips

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato tubers are stored at cold temperatures to prevent sprouting, minimize disease losses and increase the marketing window. Cold storage also causes an accumulation of reducing sugars, a phenomenon referred to as cold-induced sweetening. Unacceptable, dark colored chips and fries are formed durin...

  3. Grower price effects of Innate™ potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The revival of biotechnology applications for potato raises interesting economic questions that we examine here. Technologies of this sort increase supply by decreasing waste and reducing percentage of off-grade product. Increased supply leads, eventually, to reductions in the market price, so that ...

  4. Potato Processing from Low Temperature Storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Everyone who grows or stores potatoes for chips or fries knows how challenging it is to deliver tubers that consistently produce light-colored fried products that meet processor and consumer expectations. Many factors contribute to dark color formation, including heat and water stress during tuber d...

  5. Yellow Nutsedge control in Potato with Imazosulfuron

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow nutsedge control in potato with imazosulfuron was evaluated in trials conducted on a sandy loam soil near Pasco, WA and on a silt loam soil near Ontario, OR in 2007. Imazosulfuron was tested at 0.34, 0.45, and 0.56 kg ai/ha applied preemergence (PRE), PRE followed by postemergence (POST), and...

  6. Sustainable potato production and global food security

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato (Solanum spp.) is currently the leading non-grain commodity in the global food system with production exceeding 329 million metric tonnes in 2009. The extraordinary adaptive range of this species complex combined with ease of cultivation and high nutritional content have promoted steady i...

  7. Potential impacts of bioprocessing of sweet potato: Review.

    PubMed

    El Sheikha, Aly Farag; Ray, Ramesh C

    2017-02-11

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is among the major food crops in the world and is cultivated in all tropical and subtropical regions particularly in Asia, Africa, and the Pacific. Asia and Africa regions account for 95% of the world's production. Among the root and tuber crops grown in the world, sweet potato ranks second after cassava. In previous decades, sweet potato represented food and feed security, now it offers income generation possibilities, through bioprocessing products. Bioprocessing of sweet potato offers novel opportunities to commercialize this crop by developing a number of functional foods and beverages such as sour starch, lacto-pickle, lacto-juice, soy sauce, acidophilus milk, sweet potato curd and yogurt, and alcoholic drinks through either solid state or submerged fermentation. Sweet potato tops, especially leaves are preserved as hay or silage. Sweet potato flour and bagassae are used as substrates for production of microbial protein, enzymes, organic acids, monosodium glutamate, chitosan, etc. Additionally, sweet potato is a promising candidate for production of bioethanol. This review deals with the development of various products from sweet potato by application of bioprocessing technology. To the best of our knowledge, there is no review paper on the potential impacts of the sweet potato bioprocessing.

  8. Zinc enrichment of whole potato tuber by vacuum impregnation.

    PubMed

    Erihemu; Hironaka, Kazunori; Koaze, Hiroshi; Oda, Yuji; Shimada, Kenichiro

    2015-04-01

    Zinc is a nutritionally essential truce element, and thus zinc deficiency (ZD) severely affects human health. More than 25% of the world's population is at risk of ZD. This study was initiated to examine the use of the vacuum impregnation (VI) technique for enriching zinc content of whole potatoes; the effect of vacuum time, restoration time, steam-cooking and storage at 4 °C on the zinc content of VI whole potatoes was evaluated. Whole potato tubers were immersed in a 9 g/100 g zinc (zinc gluconate) solution. Vacuum pressure of 1,000 Pa was applied for 0-120 min, and atmospheric pressure restoration for 0-4 h. Experimental results showed that the zinc content of VI potatoes increased with vacuum and restoration time. Moreover, VI-cooked unpeeled or peeled potatoes had 63-94 times and 47-75 times higher zinc contents than un-VI-cooked unpeeled or peeled potatoes, respectively. The world daily potato consumption (86 g) of the VI-cooked unpeeled and peeled potatoes provided adult men with 130-148% and 100-135% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) of zinc, respectively. Also, the daily potato consumption of the unpeeled and peeled potatoes supplied adult women with 178-203% and 137-185% of the RDA level, respectively. In addition, the VI potatoes had 40 times higher zinc contents through 30 days of storage at 4 °C, compared with un-VI-treated potatoes. This study indicated that VI treatment of whole potatoes was useful for enriching the zinc content.

  9. Use of Electrical Penetration Graph Technology to Examine Transmission of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ to Potato by Three Haplotypes of Potato Psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli; Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a vector of the phloem-limited bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso), the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato. Little is known about how potato psyllid transmits Lso to potato. We used ele...

  10. Phylogenetic relationships of closely related potyviruses infecting sweet potato determined by genomic characterizaiton of Sweet potato virus G and Sweet potato virus 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complete nucleotide sequences of Sweet potato virus G (SPVG) and Sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2) were determined to be 10,800 and 10,731 nucleotides, respectively, excluding the 3’-poly(A) tail in this study. Their genomic organization is typical of potyviruses, encoding a polyprotein which is likely cl...

  11. Acetic acid pretreatment improves the hardness of cooked potato slices.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenlin; Shehzad, Hussain; Yan, Shoulei; Li, Jie; Wang, Qingzhang

    2017-08-01

    The effects of acetic acid pretreatment on the texture of cooked potato slices were investigated in this work. Potato slices were pretreated with acetic acid immersion (AAI), distilled water immersion (DWI), or no immersion (NI). Subsequently, the cell wall material of the pretreated samples was isolated and fractioned to evaluate changes in the monosaccharide content and molar mass (MM), and the hardness and microscopic structure of the potato slices in different pretreatments before and after cooking were determined. The results showed that the highest firmness was obtained with more intact structure of the cell wall for cooked potato slices with AAI pretreatment. Furthermore, the MM and sugar ratio demonstrated that the AAI pretreated potato slices contained a higher content of the small molecular polysaccharides of cell walls, especially in the hemicellulose fraction. This work may provide a reference for potato processing.

  12. Energy consumption evaluation of fuel bioethanol production from sweet potato.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Mario Daniel; Guigou, Mairan; Lareo, Claudia

    2013-05-01

    The energy consumption for different operative conditions and configurations of the bioethanol production industrial process from an experimental variety of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) K 9807.1 was evaluated. A process simulation model was developed using SuperPro Designer® software. The model was based on experimental data gathered from our laboratory experiments and technology and equipment suppliers. The effects of the dry matter ratio of sweet potato to water, the fermentation efficiency, and sweet potato sugar content, on the energy consumption (steam and electricity) were respectively evaluated. All factors were significant. The best ratio of dry matter to total water to work with fresh sweet potato was 0.2 kg dry sweet potato/kg water, as for greater ratios was not found a significant reduction in energy consumption. Also, the drying of the sweet potato previous its processing was studied. It presented an energy consumption greater than the energetic content of the bioethanol produced.

  13. Simultaneous detection and differentiation of four closely related sweet potato potyviruses by a multiplex one-step RT-PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four closely related potyviruses, Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), Sweet potato virus C (SPVC), Sweet potato virus G (SPVG) and/or Sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2), are involved in Sweet Potato Viral Disease, the most devastating disease of sweet potato worldwide. Identification and detection ...

  14. Applications of biotechnology and genomics in potato improvement.

    PubMed

    Barrell, Philippa J; Meiyalaghan, Sathiyamoorthy; Jacobs, Jeanne M E; Conner, Anthony J

    2013-10-01

    Potato is the third most important global food crop and the most widely grown noncereal crop. As a species highly amenable to cell culture, it has a long history of biotechnology applications for crop improvement. This review begins with a historical perspective on potato improvement using biotechnology encompassing pathogen elimination, wide hybridization, ploidy manipulation and applications of cell culture. We describe the past developments and new approaches for gene transfer to potato. Transformation is highly effective for adding single genes to existing elite potato clones with no, or minimal, disturbances to their genetic background and represents the only effective way to produce isogenic lines of specific genotypes/cultivars. This is virtually impossible via traditional breeding as, due to the high heterozygosity in the tetraploid potato genome, the genetic integrity of potato clones is lost upon sexual reproduction as a result of allele segregation. These genetic attributes have also provided challenges for the development of genetic maps and applications of molecular markers and genomics in potato breeding. Various molecular approaches used to characterize loci, (candidate) genes and alleles in potato, and associating phenotype with genotype are also described. The recent determination of the potato genome sequence has presented new opportunities for genomewide assays to provide tools for gene discovery and enabling the development of robustly unique marker haplotypes spanning QTL regions. The latter will be useful in introgression breeding and whole-genome approaches such as genomic selection to improve the efficiency of selecting elite clones and enhancing genetic gain over time.

  15. New qualitative detection methods of genetically modified potatoes.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takahiro; Kuribara, Hideo; Mishima, Takashi; Kikuchi, Hiroyuki; Kodama, Takashi; Futo, Satoshi; Kasama, Kikuko; Toyota, Akie; Nouno, Masanori; Saita, Ayako; Takahashi, Kunihiko; Hino, Akihiro; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Maitani, Tamio; Kubo, Misao

    2004-09-01

    In Japan, 8 lines of genetically modified (GM) potato (2 lines of NewLeaf potato; NL, 3 lines of NewLeaf Plus potato; NLP, and 3 lines of NewLeaf Y potato; NLY) have already been authorized as safe for use in foods and feeds. We have developed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods for the qualitative detection of the GM potatoes for the screening and the identification of NL, NLP and NLY. The gene encoding uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGPase) was used as a taxon specific gene. We designed the primer pair to detect the cryIIIA genes as a screening method for GM potatoes because the gene should be inserted in all 8 lines of the GM potatoes. For identification of NL, NLP and NLY, we further designed three specific primer pairs for the different recombinant DNAs (r-DNA) specifically introduced into NL, NLP, or NLY. In addition, to identify the 3 lines of NLY that have been introduced with the same r-DNA, the three line-specific primer pairs for the border sequence between the r-DNA and genomic DNA of NLY 3 lines were designed. Six lines of GM potato used as the test material were specifically identified using the each primer pair under the same PCR condition. The detection limits of all the GM potatoes should be approximately 0.1%. Furthermore, the specificity and reproducibility of the methods were confirmed in a six-laboratory collaborative study.

  16. Naturally occurring allele diversity allows potato cultivation in northern latitudes.

    PubMed

    Kloosterman, Bjorn; Abelenda, José A; Gomez, María del Mar Carretero; Oortwijn, Marian; de Boer, Jan M; Kowitwanich, Krissana; Horvath, Beatrix M; van Eck, Herman J; Smaczniak, Cezary; Prat, Salomé; Visser, Richard G F; Bachem, Christian W B

    2013-03-14

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) originates from the Andes and evolved short-day-dependent tuber formation as a vegetative propagation strategy. Here we describe the identification of a central regulator underlying a major-effect quantitative trait locus for plant maturity and initiation of tuber development. We show that this gene belongs to the family of DOF (DNA-binding with one finger) transcription factors and regulates tuberization and plant life cycle length, by acting as a mediator between the circadian clock and the StSP6A mobile tuberization signal. We also show that natural allelic variants evade post-translational light regulation, allowing cultivation outside the geographical centre of origin of potato. Potato is a member of the Solanaceae family and is one of the world's most important food crops. This annual plant originates from the Andean regions of South America. Potato develops tubers from underground stems called stolons. Its equatorial origin makes potato essentially short-day dependent for tuberization and potato will not make tubers in the long-day conditions of spring and summer in the northern latitudes. When introduced in temperate zones, wild material will form tubers in the course of the autumnal shortening of day-length. Thus, one of the first selected traits in potato leading to a European potato type is likely to have been long-day acclimation for tuberization. Potato breeders can exploit the naturally occurring variation in tuberization onset and life cycle length, allowing varietal breeding for different latitudes, harvest times and markets.

  17. Cryopreservation for preservation of potato genetic resources

    PubMed Central

    Niino, Takao; Arizaga, Miriam Valle

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation is becoming a very important tool for the long-term storage of plant genetic resources and efficient cryopreservation protocols have been developed for a large number of plant species. Practical procedures, developed using in vitro tissue culture, can be a simple and reliable preservation option of potato genetic resources rather than maintaining by vegetative propagation in genebanks due their allogamous nature. Cryopreserved materials insure a long-term backup of field collections against loss of plant germplasm. Occurrence of genetic variation, in tissue culture cells during prolonged subcultures, can be avoided with suitable cryopreservation protocols that provide high regrowth, leading and facilitating a systematic and strategic cryo-banking of plant genetic resources. Cryopreservation protocols for potato reviewed here, can efficiently complement field and in vitro conservation, providing for preservation of genotypes difficult to preserve by other methods, wild types and other species decided as priority collections. PMID:25931979

  18. Electron transport fluxes in potato plateau regime

    SciTech Connect

    Shaing, K.C.; Hazeltine, R.D.

    1997-12-01

    Electron transport fluxes in the potato plateau regime are calculated from the solutions of the drift kinetic equation and fluid equations. It is found that the bootstrap current density remains finite in the region close to the magnetic axis, although it decreases with increasing collision frequency. This finite amount of the bootstrap current in the relatively collisional regime is important in modeling tokamak startup with 100{percent} bootstrap current. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Potato growth in response to relative humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Tibbitts, T. W.; Fitzpatrick, A. H.

    1989-01-01

    Potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. cvs. Russet Burbank, Norland, and Denali) were grown for 56 days in controlled-environment rooms under continuous light at 20C and 50% or 85% RH. No significant differences in total plant dry weight were measured between the humidity treatments, but plants grown under 85% RH produced higher tuber yields. Leaf areas were greater under 50% RH and leaves tended to be larger and darker green than at 85% RH.

  20. A human dietary risk assessment associated with glycoalkaloid responses of potato to Colorado potato beetle defoliation.

    PubMed

    Dinkins, Courtney L Pariera; Peterson, Robert K D

    2008-08-01

    A quantitative human dietary risk assessment was conducted using the glycoalkaloid concentrations measured from tubers of plants defoliated by Colorado potato beetles and undefoliated (control). There was a significantly greater production of glycoalkaloids for defoliated plants compared to control plants for both skin and inner tissue of tubers. The dietary risk posed to different human subgroups associated with the consumption of potatoes was estimated for the 50th, 95th, and 99.9th percentile US national consumption values. Exposures were compared to a toxic threshold of 1.0mg/kg body weight. Defoliation by Colorado potato beetles increased dietary risk by approximately 48%. Glycoalkaloid concentrations within the inner tissue of tubers, including undefoliated controls, exceeded the toxic threshold for all human subgroups at less than the 99.9th percentile of exposure, but not the 95th percentile.

  1. Studies for Somatic Embryogenesis in Sweet Potato

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, J. Rasheed; Prakash, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the somatic embryo (SE) system for plant production of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L(Lam)). Explants isolated from SE-derived sweet potato plants were compared with control (non SE-derived) plants for their competency for SE production. Leaf explants were cultured on Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (0.2 mg/L) and 6-benzylaminopurine (2.5 mg/L) for 2 weeks in darkness and transferred to MS medium with abscisic acid (2.5 mg/L). Explants isolated from those plants developed through somatic embryogenesis produced new somatic embryos rapidly and in higher frequency than those isolated from control plants They also appeared to grow faster in tissue culture than the control plants. Current studies in the laboratory are examining whether plants derived from a cyclical embryogenesis system (five cycles) would have any further positive impact on the rapidity and frequency of somatic embryo development. More detailed studies using electron microscopy are expected to show the point of origin of the embryos and to allow determination of their quality throughout the cyclical process. This study may facilitate improved plant micropropagation, gene transfer and germplasm conservation in sweet potato.

  2. Resistance in Potato to Pratylenchus penetrans

    PubMed Central

    Brodie, B. B.; Plaisted, R. L.

    1993-01-01

    Potato clones from five different breeding populations were evaluated for their relative resistance and susceptibility to Pratylenchus penetrans. Resistance and susceptibility were distinguished by an index of susceptibility (SI) calculated from the numbers of P. penetrans (including eggs) per g of root of individual clones in relation to that of a susceptible control at 30 or 70 days after inoculation. Evaluations were carried out using 7.5-cm clay pots in a growth chamber at 24 C with 15-hour day length. In the initial evaluation, 70 days after inoculation, the SI of individual clones ranged from 0.01 to 0.75. Clones that supported the least P. penetrans were from a breeding population derived from Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena that was originally selected for its resistance to the potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida. In succeeding tests, these clones had a significantly low SI than did susceptible controls or cultivars that were previously reported to possess resistance to P. penetrans, except cv. Hudson. Resistance to P. penetrans from the Pallida-resistant breeding population was incorporated into potato germplasm better adapted to North American growing conditions. PMID:19279796

  3. Subtilisin protein inhibitor from potato tubers.

    PubMed

    Revina, T A; Speranskaya, A S; Kladnitskaya, G V; Shevelev, A B; Valueva, T A

    2004-10-01

    A protein with molecular weight of 21 kD denoted as PKSI has been isolated from potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Istrinskii). The isolation procedure includes precipitation with (NH4)2SO4, gel chromatography on Sephadex G-75, and ion-exchange chromatography on CM-Sepharose CL-6B. The protein effectively inhibits the activity of subtilisin Carlsberg (Ki = 1.67 +/- 0.2 nM) by stoichiometric complexing with the enzyme at the molar ratio of 1 : 1. The inhibitor has no effect on trypsin, chymotrypsin, and the cysteine proteinase papain. The N-terminal sequence of the protein consists of 19 amino acid residues and is highly homologous to sequences of the known inhibitors from group C of the subfamily of potato Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitors (PKPIs-C). By cloning PCR products from the genomic DNA of potato, a gene denoted as PKPI-C2 was isolated and sequenced. The N-terminal sequence (residues from 15 to 33) of the protein encoded by the PKPI-C2 gene is identical to the N-terminal sequence (residues from 1 to 19) of the isolated protein PKSI. Thus, the inhibitor PKSI is very likely encoded by this gene.

  4. Guatemalan potato moth Tecia solanivora distinguish odour profiles from qualitatively different potatoes Solanum tuberosum L.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Miriam Frida; Birgersson, Göran; Witzgall, Peter; Lekfeldt, Jonas Duus Stevens; Nimal Punyasiri, P A; Bengtsson, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Guatemalan potato moth, Tecia solanivora, lay eggs in the soil nearby potato Solanum spp. and larvae feed on the tubers. We investigated the oviposition behaviour of T. solanivora females and the survival of larval offspring on healthy vs. stressed, i.e. light exposed and/or damaged potato tubers. In choice tests, females laid significantly more eggs in response to potato odour of healthy tubers and female oviposition preference correlated with higher larval survival. Survival of larvae was negatively correlated with the tuber content of the steroid glycoalkaloids α-solanine and α-chaconine: healthy potatoes contained lower amounts than stressed tubers, ranging from 25 to 500 μg g⁻¹ and from 30 to 600 μg g⁻¹, respectively. Analysis of volatile compounds emitted by potato tubers revealed that stressed tubers could clearly be distinguished from healthy tubers by the composition of their volatile profiles. Compounds that contributed to this difference were e.g. decanal, nonanal, isopropyl myristate, phenylacetaldehyde, benzothiazole, heptadecane, octadecane, myristicin, E,E-α-farnesene and verbenone. Oviposition assays, when female moths were not in contact with the tubers, clearly demonstrated that volatiles guide the females to lay fewer eggs on stressed tubers that are of inferior quality for the larvae. We propose that volatiles, such as sesquiterpenes and aldehydes, mediate oviposition behaviour and are correlated with biosynthetically related, non-volatile compounds, such as steroidal glycoalkaloids, which influence larval survival. We conclude that the oviposition response and larval survival of T. solanivora on healthy vs. stressed tubers supports the preference performance hypothesis for insect herbivores.

  5. The potato amylase inhibitor gene SbAI regulates cold-induced sweetening in potato tubers by modulating amylase activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huiling; Liu, Jun; Hou, Juan; Yao, Ying; Lin, Yuan; Ou, Yongbin; Song, Botao; Xie, Conghua

    2014-09-01

    Potato cold-induced sweetening (CIS) is critical for the postharvest quality of potato tubers. Starch degradation is considered to be one of the key pathways in the CIS process. However, the functions of the genes that encode enzymes related to starch degradation in CIS and the activity regulation of these enzymes have received less attention. A potato amylase inhibitor gene known as SbAI was cloned from the wild potato species Solanum berthaultii. This genetic transformation confirmed that in contrast to the SbAI suppression in CIS-resistant potatoes, overexpressing SbAI in CIS-sensitive potatoes resulted in less amylase activity and a lower rate of starch degradation accompanied by a lower reducing sugar (RS) content in cold-stored tubers. This finding suggested that the SbAI gene may play crucial roles in potato CIS by modulating the amylase activity. Further investigations indicated that pairwise protein-protein interactions occurred between SbAI and α-amylase StAmy23, β-amylases StBAM1 and StBAM9. SbAI could inhibit the activities of both α-amylase and β-amylase in potato tubers primarily by repressing StAmy23 and StBAM1, respectively. These findings provide the first evidence that SbAI is a key regulator of the amylases that confer starch degradation and RS accumulation in cold-stored potato tubers.

  6. Induction mechanism of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase in potato tuber and sweet potato root tissues.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Katsuyoshi; Uritani, Ikuzo; Oba, Kazuko

    2003-05-01

    3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR, EC1.1.1.34), the key enzyme in isoprenoid biosynthesis, was purified from microsomes of potato tuber tissue, and a polyclonal antibody and two monoclonal antibodies against the purified enzyme were prepared. HMGR protein content was measured by immunotitration and radioimmunoassay using these antibodies. HMGR activity was very low in the fresh tissues of both potato tuber and sweet potato root. The activity in potato tuber was increased by cutting and further by additional fungal infection of the cut tissues. In sweet potato root tissue, the activity was scarcely increased after cutting alone, but was markedly increased by additional fungal infection or chemical treatment. The HMGR protein contents in both fresh potato tuber and sweet potato root tissues were also very low, and increased markedly in response to cutting and fungal infection. From these results, we proposed a hypothesis on the induction mechanism of HMGR after cutting and fungal infection in potato tuber and sweet potato root tissues.

  7. Zeaxanthin is bioavailable from genetically modified zeaxanthin-rich potatoes.

    PubMed

    Bub, Achim; Möseneder, Jutta; Wenzel, Gerhard; Rechkemmer, Gerhard; Briviba, Karlis

    2008-03-01

    The carotenoid zeaxanthin accumulates in the human macula lutea and protects retinal cells from blue light damage. However, zeaxanthin intake from food sources is low. Increasing zeaxanthin in common foods such as potatoes by traditional plant breeding or by genetic engineering could contribute to an increased intake of this carotenoid and, consequently, to a decreased risk of age-related macular degeneration. Our aim was to investigate whether zeaxanthin from genetically modified zeaxanthin-rich potatoes is bioavailable in humans. Three men participated in this randomized, controlled double-blinded, crossover pilot study. All subjects consumed 1,100 g of mashed potatoes, either genetically modified (Solanum tuberosum L. var. Baltica GM47/18; 3 mg zeaxanthin) or wild-type control potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. var. Baltica; 0.14 mg zeaxanthin). A second treatment was followed after a 7-day wash-out period. The concentration of zeaxanthin was significantly increased in chylomicrons after consumption of genetically modified potatoes and 0.27 mg of the 3 mg zeaxanthin dose could be detected in chylomicrons. Consumption of control potatoes had no effect on concentrations of zeaxanthin in chylomicrons. After normalization of chylomicron zeaxanthin for plasma triacylglycerol, the time course of zeaxanthin concentrations peaked at 7 h after consumption of genetically modified potatoes. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of other major potato carotenoids such as lutein and beta-carotene in chylomicrons after consumption of genetically modified and wild type control potatoes. Thus, consumption of zeaxanthin-rich potatoes significantly increases chylomicron zeaxanthin concentrations suggesting that potentially such potatoes could be used as an important dietary source of zeaxanthin.

  8. The carry-through of residues of maleic hydrazide from treated potatoes, following manufacture into potato crisps and 'jacket' potato crisps.

    PubMed

    Lewis, D J; Thorpe, S A; Wilkinson, K; Reynolds, S L

    1998-07-01

    Potatoes, which had been treated 'in the field' with a commercial formulation of maleic hydrazide, were processed into potato crisps and jacket potato crisps on a factory production line using standard manufacturing conditions. Samples were taken at strategic points throughout the process and analysed to determine the degree of carry-through of residues. Results demonstrated that ca 56% of the maleic hydrazide residue in a potato could be carried through into the potato crisps, irrespective of which type of crisp was being manufactured. Results from a similarly constructed study investigating the fate of pesticides applied post-harvest showed that carry-through was less than 10%. This difference is explained in terms of the different modes of action of the two classes of pesticides being investigated. It is known that, as maleic hydrazide is a systemic pesticide, it will be located within the flesh of the potato tuber and is therefore likely to be protected from the various stages of the crisping process. However, the post-harvest non-systemic pesticides are applied to the exterior surface of the tuber and are therefore not likely to be protected in the same way. The results also showed that, due to the concentration effect caused by the loss of moisture during crisp manufacture, the levels of maleic hydrazide residues in crisps (on a mg/kg product basis) were approximately twice those measured in the original potatoes.

  9. Storage and processing evaluation of advanced potato breeding clones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. Most, but not all, currently used potato cultivars are susceptible to Acold sweetening and are therefore stored at warmer temperatures that can accelerate disease p...

  10. Advanced potato breeding clones: Storage and processing evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. Most, but not all, currently used potato cultivars are susceptible to Acold sweetening and are therefore stored at warmer temperatures that can accelerate disease p...

  11. Amylose Content in Tuber Starch of Potato Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato tuber is mostly water and starch. Approximately 20% of fresh tuber weight is the starch and the remainder is water. Most of the starch in the tuber, approximately 75%, is amylopectin and 25% amylose, but can vary depending on the cultivar. A total of 162 American (85) and foreign (77) potato ...

  12. In vitro technology at the US Potato Genebank

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US Potato Genebank at Sturgeon Bay, WI, is the active national germplasm collection for the world's most important vegetable crop. It contains about 6,000 accessions of 100 species of tuber-bearing relatives of Solanum tuberosum. The potato of commerce is a clonal crop susceptible to many syste...

  13. In vitro technology at the US Potato Genebank

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US Potato Genebank at Sturgeon Bay, WI, is the active national germplasm collection for the world's most important vegetable crop. It contains 6,000 accessions of 100 species of tuber-bearing relatives of Solanum tuberosum. The potato of commerce is a clonal crop susceptible to many systemic pa...

  14. Genetic diversity of wild potato of the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato of commerce has two wild relatives in the USA, Solanum jamesii (jam) and S. fendleri (fen). The authors have collected samples at the natural habitats since 1992 (new), greatly increasing the geographic coverage and number of populations compared to what was in the US Potato Genebank avai...

  15. 33 CFR 117.167 - Little Potato Slough.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Little Potato Slough. 117.167 Section 117.167 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.167 Little Potato Slough. The draw...

  16. 33 CFR 117.167 - Little Potato Slough.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Little Potato Slough. 117.167 Section 117.167 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.167 Little Potato Slough. The draw...

  17. 33 CFR 117.167 - Little Potato Slough.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Little Potato Slough. 117.167 Section 117.167 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.167 Little Potato Slough. The draw...

  18. 33 CFR 117.167 - Little Potato Slough.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Little Potato Slough. 117.167 Section 117.167 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.167 Little Potato Slough. The draw...

  19. 33 CFR 117.167 - Little Potato Slough.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Little Potato Slough. 117.167 Section 117.167 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.167 Little Potato Slough. The draw...

  20. Phenolic Compounds in the Potato and Its Byproducts: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Akyol, Hazal; Riciputi, Ylenia; Capanoglu, Esra; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Verardo, Vito

    2016-05-27

    The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a tuber that is largely used for food and is a source of different bioactive compounds such as starch, dietary fiber, amino acids, minerals, vitamins, and phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds are synthetized by the potato plant as a protection response from bacteria, fungi, viruses, and insects. Several works showed that these potato compounds exhibited health-promoting effects in humans. However, the use of the potato in the food industry submits this vegetable to different processes that can alter the phenolic content. Moreover, many of these compounds with high bioactivity are located in the potato's skin, and so are eliminated as waste. In this review the most recent articles dealing with phenolic compounds in the potato and potato byproducts, along with the effects of harvesting, post-harvest, and technological processes, have been reviewed. Briefly, the phenolic composition, main extraction, and determination methods have been described. In addition, the "alternative" food uses and healthy properties of potato phenolic compounds have been addressed.

  1. Potato Early Dying: Molecular Perspectives on Pathogenicity and Host Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato early dying has not received the reputation of being a particularly devastating disease of potato. However, the interaction between the vascular fungus Verticillium dahliae and the root lesion nematode Pratylenchus penetrans to form the early dying complex makes studying this disease very in...

  2. Progress toward the development of recombinant inbred lines in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complexities due to tetraploid genetics limit breeding progress in potato. Diploids offer more simple genetics. Homozygous populations such as recombinant inbred lines are powerful resources for genetic mapping and the subsequent development of markers for marker-assisted selection. Most potato dipl...

  3. Amylose Content in Tuber Starch of Wild Potato Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Approximately 20% of potato tuber fresh weight is starch, which is composed of amylose (straight chains of glucose) and amylopectin (branched chains). Potato starch is low in amylose (~25%), but high amylose starch has superior nutritional qualities. Amylose content has been determined in tuber samp...

  4. Ecogeography of ploidy variation in cultivated potato (Solanum sect. Petota)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes has been highly controversial, with estimates of species numbers ranging from 3 to 17. Ploidy level has been one of the most important taxonomic characters to recognize cultivated potato species, containing diploid (2 n = 2 x = 24), triploid (2 n = 3 x = 36), tetr...

  5. Ecogeography of Ploidy Variation in Cultivated Potato (Solanum Sect. Petota)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes has been highly controversial, with estimates of species numbers ranging from 3-18. Ploidy level has been one of the most important taxonomic characters to recognize cultivated potato species, with diploid (2n = 2x = 24), triploid (2n = 3x = 36), tetraploid (2n = ...

  6. Effect of irrigation system uniformity and method on potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato growth, yield, and quality under improved irrigation methods and water uniformity is important to enhance water management in arid regions. A field experiment was conducted in 2014 spring and fall growing seasons using potato (Solanum tuberosum) grown in northern Egypt at Shibin El Kom, Menof...

  7. Removing potatoes from children's diets may compromise potassium intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White potatoes are a forgotten source of nutrients. The goal of this study was to identify the nutritional implications of replacing a composite of white potatoes with a composite of vegetables commonly consumed by children aged 2–18 y (n = 3460) in a nationally representative sample. The NHANES 200...

  8. THE POTATO SYSTEMS PLANNER: A CASE OF INDUSTRY DRIVEN RESEARCH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developing profitable crop rotations is a top research priority for the potato industry. An interdisciplinary team of ARS scientists from the New England Plant, Soil, & Water Laboratory evaluated 14 rotations for their impacts on potato yield and quality, nutrient availability, plant diseases, soil ...

  9. Developing resources for diploid potato breeding and genetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum Gp. tuberosum) is an asexually propagated cross-pollinated autotetraploid crop, for which breeding methodology has not changed in 100 years. Current methods for breeding potato cultivars are genetically inefficient due to polyploidy, resource intensive due to...

  10. Genetic diversity and population structure of begomoviruses infecting sweet potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Begomoviruses infecting sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) exhibit high genetic diversity, and approximately eight species including Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) have been described from different regions around the world. In this study, the complete genomic sequences of 17 geographically dist...

  11. Fatty Acids and Bioactive Lipids of Potato Cultivars: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy; Oraby, Hesahm Farouk

    2016-01-01

    Potato tuber is a highly nutritious, wherein genotype and environmental differences are known to exist in the shape, size and nutritional value of potatoes. Owing to its high consumption, potato could be an ideal carrier of health-promoting phytochemicals. Potato cultivars contain many bioactive lipidic compounds such as fatty acids, glycolipids, phospholipids, sterols, tocols and carotenoids, which are highly desirable in diet because of their health-promoting effects. In the scientific literature, information on the content and profile of bioactive lipidic compounds in potato cultivars are few. The concentration and stability of bioactive lipids are affected by many factors such as genotype, agronomic factors, postharvest storage, cooking and processing conditions. In this review levels and composition of bioactive lipids in terms of lipid classes, fatty acids, phytosterols, tocopherols, and caroteinoids distribution in different potato cultivars including genetically modified potato (GMP) were highlighted and discussed. In addition, factors affecting bioactive lipids levels, stability and health benefits are reviewed. In consideration of potential nutritional value, detailed knowledge on lipids of potato cultivars is of major importance.

  12. Potato stem density effects on canopy development and production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlled environment studies with potato frequently assume responses from single-stem potato plants can be extrapolated to the field where multiple-stem plants are common. Two controlled environment studies were conducted in order to characterize differences in canopy growth, development, and dry...

  13. 78 FR 59628 - Importation of Potatoes From Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... this document. Rosellinia bunodes (Berk. & Broome) Sacc., a pathogenic fungus. R. pepo Pat., a pathogenic fungus. Synchytrium endobioticum (Schilb.) Percival, a pathogenic fungus that causes potato wart disease. Thecaphora solani (Thirum. & M. O'Brien) Mordue, a pathogenic fungus that causes potato smut....

  14. 75 FR 14491 - Potato Research and Promotion Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 1207 Potato Research and Promotion Plan AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA... Potato Research and Promotion plan regulations to reflect the modification of the Harmonized Tariff...: Deborah Simmons, Marketing Specialist, Research and Promotion Branch, Fruit and Vegetable Programs,...

  15. 7 CFR 1207.514 - Exemption for organic potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exemption for organic potatoes. 1207.514 Section 1207... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1207.514 Exemption for organic potatoes. (a) A producer who operates under an approved National Organic Program (NOP) (7 CFR part 205)...

  16. 7 CFR 1207.514 - Exemption for organic potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exemption for organic potatoes. 1207.514 Section 1207... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1207.514 Exemption for organic potatoes. (a) A producer who operates under an approved National Organic Program (NOP) (7 CFR part 205)...

  17. 7 CFR 1207.514 - Exemption for organic potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exemption for organic potatoes. 1207.514 Section 1207... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1207.514 Exemption for organic potatoes. (a) A producer who operates under an approved National Organic Program (NOP) (7 CFR part 205)...

  18. 7 CFR 1207.514 - Exemption for organic potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exemption for organic potatoes. 1207.514 Section 1207... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1207.514 Exemption for organic potatoes. (a) A producer who operates under an approved National Organic Program (NOP) (7 CFR part 205)...

  19. 7 CFR 1207.514 - Exemption for organic potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemption for organic potatoes. 1207.514 Section 1207... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1207.514 Exemption for organic potatoes. (a) A producer who operates under an approved National Organic Program (NOP) (7 CFR part 205)...

  20. Potato Bean: Potential Forage/Dietary Supplement for Small Ruminants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato bean (Apios americana Medikus) is a nitrogen-fixing, perennial, leguminous vine indigenous to the eastern half of the United States. This vine climbs on plants and objects making its foliage accessible to browsing animals. We have observed deer eating potato bean foliage. Both deer and goa...

  1. Potato Production, Usage, and Nutrition--A Review.

    PubMed

    Zaheer, Khalid; Akhtar, M Humayoun

    2016-01-01

    Potato is an economically important staple crop prevailing all across the world with successful large-scale production, consumption, and affordability with easy availability in the open market. Potatoes provide basic nutrients such as-carbohydrates, dietary fiber (skin), several vitamins, and minerals (e.g., potassium, magnesium, iron). On occasion exposures to raw and cooked potatoes impart allergic reactions. Dietary intake of potatoes, especially colored potatoes, play an important role in the production of antioxidant defense system by providing essential nutrient antioxidants, such as vitamins, β-carotene, polyphenols, and minerals. This may help lower the incidence of wide range of chronic and acute disease processes (like hypertension, heart diseases, cancer, neurodegenerative, and other diseases). However, retention of nutrients in potatoes is affected by various cooking and processing methods. Cooking at elevated temperature also produces acrylamide-a suspected carcinogen. Independent and/or collaborative studies have been conducted and reported on the various pathways leading to the formation of acrylamide in heat processed foods. This article reviews the latest research on potato production, consumption, nature of phytochemicals and their health benefits, and allergic reactions to children. Also included is the discovery of acrylamide in processed starch-rich foods including potatoes, mechanism of formation, detection methodologies, and mitigation steps to reduce acrylamide content in food.

  2. Potato development and skin set in fresh market red varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A bright, attractive, uniformly pigmented skin is critically important for fresh market red-skinned potatoes. We will summarize what is known about the potato skin development, with an emphasis on pigment accumulation and loss. We will provide some insight into what may be responsible for changes in...

  3. Pasta Fortified with Potato Juice: Structure, Quality, and Consumer Acceptance.

    PubMed

    Kowalczewski, Przemysław; Lewandowicz, Grażyna; Makowska, Agnieszka; Knoll, Ismena; Błaszczak, Wioletta; Białas, Wojciech; Kubiak, Piotr

    2015-06-01

    The potential of potato juice in relieving gastrointestinal disorders has already been proven. Work continues on implementation of this active component into products that are widely consumed. In this article, results of an attempt to fortify pasta with potato juice are presented and discussed. Fortification is performed using fresh and dried juice. The influence of the addition on culinary properties of the final product, such as cooking weight and cooking loss, as well as microstructure, color, texture, and consumer acceptance were evaluated. It was found that potato juice can be used for fortification of pasta both in its fresh and dried forms, however the effects on different responses depend on the potato juice form used. The addition of potato juice influenced the color of the product reducing its lightness and shifting color balances from green to red, yellow color saturation was decreased as well. Changes in color were more significant in the case of fresh juice addition. The firmness and microstructure of pasta was also influenced. The surface microstructure of pasta containing fresh potato juice was different from that of the other 2 products being a likely explanation of the lower cooking loss observed in its case. In contrast, the consistency of dough was strengthened by addition of dried potato juice. Principal components analysis indicated that the color change had the most pronounced effect on consumer acceptance. Other physicochemical changes were slightly less significant. Nevertheless, sensory evaluation proved that functional pasta produced with fresh potato juice finds consumer acceptance comparable with that of classic pasta.

  4. Accumulation of genetic diversity in the US Potato Genebank

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efficient management of ex-situ collections includes understanding how conservation technologies impact the genetic diversity and integrity of these collections. For over 60 years, research at the US Potato Genebank has produced helpful scientific insights on diverse aspects of potato conservation. ...

  5. Senescence sweetening of chip and fry processing potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato storage makes the crop available over an extended time period, but increases financial risk to growers and end users. Senescence sweetening limits storage duration for chip and fry processing potatoes because it results in an unacceptable accumulation of reducing sugars that result in dark-co...

  6. The Effects of High Temperature on Infection by Potato virus Y, Potato virus A, and Potato leafroll virus

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Bong Nam; Canto, Tomas; Tenllado, Francisco; Choi, Kyung San; Joa, Jae Ho; Ahn, Jeong Joon; Kim, Chun Hwan; Do, Ki Seck

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of temperature on acquisition of Potato virus Y-O (PVY-O), Potato virus A (PVA), and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) by Myzus persicae by performing transmission tests with aphids that acquired each virus at different temperatures. Infection by PVY-O/PVA and PLRV increased with increasing plant temperature in Nicotiana benthamiana and Physalis floridana, respectively, after being transmitted by aphids that acquired them within a temperature range of 10–20°C. However, infection rates subsequently decreased. Direct qRT-PCR of RNA extracted from a single aphid showed that PLRV infection increased in the 10–20°C range, but this trend also declined shortly thereafter. We examined the effect of temperature on establishment of virus infection. The greatest number of plants became infected when N. benthamiana was held at 20°C after inoculation with PVY-O or PVA. The largest number of P. floridana plants became infected with PLRV when the plants were maintained at 25°C. PLRV levels were highest in P. floridana kept at 20–25°C. These results indicate that the optimum temperatures for proliferation of PVY-O/PVA and PLRV differed. Western blot analysis showed that accumulations of PVY-O and PVA coat proteins (CPs) were lower at 10°C or 15°C than at 20°C during early infection. However, accumulation increased over time. At 25°C or 30°C, the CPs of both viruses accumulated during early infection but disappeared as time passed. Our results suggest that symptom attenuation and reduction of PVY-O and PVA CP accumulation at higher temperatures appear to be attributable to increased RNA silencing. PMID:27493607

  7. Transmission of potato purple top phytoplasma to potato tubers and daughter plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006, 2007, and 2008, Alturas, Russet Burbank, FL1867, FL1879, Russet Norkotah, Ranger Russet, Shepody, and Umatilla Russet potatoes were planted at a research farm near Moxee, WA. Plants were allowed to become infested with native populations of the beet leafhopper which are known vectors of t...

  8. A Model to Explain Temperature Dependent Systemic Infection of Potato Plants by Potato virus Y

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyung San; del Toro, Francisco; Tenllado, Francisco; Canto, Tomas; Chung, Bong Nam

    2017-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the rate of systemic infection of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Chu-Baek) by Potato virus Y (PVY) was studied in growth chambers. Systemic infection of PVY was observed only within the temperature range of 16°C to 32°C. Within this temperature range, the time required for a plant to become infected systemically decreased from 14 days at 20°C to 5.7 days at 28°C. The estimated lower thermal threshold was 15.6°C and the thermal constant was 65.6 degree days. A systemic infection model was constructed based on experimental data, using the infection rate (Lactin-2 model) and the infection distribution (three-parameter Weibull function) models, which accurately described the completion rate curves to systemic infection and the cumulative distributions obtained in the PVY-potato system, respectively. Therefore, this model was useful to predict the progress of systemic infections by PVY in potato plants, and to construct the epidemic models. PMID:28381967

  9. Physical properties of acetylated and enzyme-modified potato and sweet potato flours.

    PubMed

    Yadav, A R; Guha, M; Reddy, S Y; Tharanathan, R N; Ramteke, R S

    2007-06-01

    Textural profile, pasting behavior, gelatinization characteristics, sedimentation volume, and gel consistency of acetylated (Ac) and enzyme (glucoamylase)-modified (EM) potato and sweet potato flours have been investigated to determine their suitability in products such as baked goods, soup, and pudding. Dough hardness of Ac and EM samples was significantly higher than their native samples (P < 0.01). Dough cohesiveness of modified potato did not change, while it decreased in modified sweet potato. With increase in moisture, textural properties of modified samples, in general, showed reduced values. Rapid Visco Analyser showed least pasting viscosities of Ac flours due to restricted swelling of starch granules while EM flours exhibited high viscosities. Acetylated samples showed reduced gelatinization temperature (GT), and enthalpy (DeltaH) compared to native samples, whereas enzyme-treated samples showed no significant changes in GT, indicating their comparable crystallinity values with those of native samples. Modified flour samples had lower sediment volumes and gel consistency, and the gel consistency of EM flour correlated with its cold paste viscosity.

  10. Dynamics of Responses in Compatible Potato - Potato virus Y Interaction Are Modulated by Salicylic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Baebler, Špela; Stare, Katja; Kovač, Maja; Blejec, Andrej; Prezelj, Nina; Stare, Tjaša; Kogovšek, Polona; Pompe-Novak, Maruša; Rosahl, Sabine; Ravnikar, Maja; Gruden, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the dynamics of the potatoPotato virus Y (PVY) compatible interaction in relation to salicylic acid - controlled pathways we performed experiments using non-transgenic potato cv. Désirée, transgenic NahG-Désirée, cv. Igor and PVYNTN, the most aggressive strain of PVY. The importance of salicylic acid in viral multiplication and symptom development was confirmed by pronounced symptom development in NahG-Désirée, depleted in salicylic acid, and reversion of the effect after spraying with 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (a salicylic acid - analogue). We have employed quantitative PCR for monitoring virus multiplication, as well as plant responses through expression of selected marker genes of photosynthetic activity, carbohydrate metabolism and the defence response. Viral multiplication was the slowest in inoculated potato of cv. Désirée, the only asymptomatic genotype in the study. The intensity of defence-related gene expression was much stronger in both sensitive genotypes (NahG-Désirée and cv. Igor) at the site of inoculation than in asymptomatic plants (cv. Désirée). Photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism gene expression differed between the symptomatic and asymptomatic phenotypes. The differential gene expression pattern of the two sensitive genotypes indicates that the outcome of the interaction does not rely simply on one regulatory component, but similar phenotypical features can result from distinct responses at the molecular level. PMID:22194976

  11. Properties of starch from potatoes differing in glycemic index.

    PubMed

    Lin Ek, Kai; Wang, Shujun; Brand-Miller, Jennie; Copeland, Les

    2014-10-01

    Potatoes are a popular source of dietary carbohydrate worldwide and are generally considered to be a high glycemic index (GI) food. Potato starch characteristics play a key role in determining their rate of digestion and resulting glycemic response. Starches isolated from seven potato cultivars with different GI values, including a low GI cultivar (Carisma), were examined for relative crystallinity, granule size distribution, amylopectin chain length, and thermal and pasting properties. Starch from the Carisma cultivar was more thermally stable and more resistant to gelatinization, with significantly higher (p < 0.05) pasting temperature and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) gelatinization onset, peak and conclusion temperatures, compared to the other cultivars. Differences between the potatoes in the other properties measured did not align with the GI ranking. Thermal analysis and starch pasting properties may be useful indicators for preliminary identification of potato cultivars that are digested slowly and have a lower GI.

  12. Cloning and expression of the potato alternative oxidase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Hiser, C.; McIntosh, L. Michigan State Univ., East Lansing )

    1990-05-01

    Mitochondria from 24-hour-aged potato slices possess an alternative path capacity and a 36kD protein not present in fresh potato mitochondria. This 36kD protein was identified by a monoclonal antibody against the Sauromatum guttatum alternative oxidase. These results suggest de novo synthesis of the 36kD protein during the aging process. To investigate this phenomenon, a clone containing a potato alternative oxidase gene was isolated from a cDNA library using the S. guttatum gene as a probe. This clone shows areas of high homology to the S. guttatum gene. Norther blots of RNA from fresh and 24-hour-aged potato slices are being probed with the potato gene to examine its expression in relation to the appearance of the 36kD protein.

  13. 7 CFR 457.143 - Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement... Northern potato crop insurance—quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement...) Both FCIC and reinsured policies: Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement 1....

  14. 78 FR 48285 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 946 Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate... decreased the assessment rate established for the State of Washington Potato Committee (Committee) for the... potatoes handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order for Irish potatoes grown...

  15. 7 CFR 457.143 - Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement... Northern potato crop insurance—quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement...) Both FCIC and reinsured policies: Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement 1....

  16. 7 CFR 457.143 - Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement... Northern potato crop insurance—quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement...) Both FCIC and reinsured policies: Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement 1....

  17. 7 CFR 457.143 - Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement... Northern potato crop insurance—quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement...) Both FCIC and reinsured policies: Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement 1....

  18. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  19. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  20. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  1. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  2. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  3. Inferred origin of several Native American potatoes from the Pacific Northwest using SSR markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Certain Native Americans from the Pacific Northwest and Alaska of the USA have grown potatoes in their gardens for many generations. However, the origin of these potatoes was unclear. In this study, the origin of several potatoes collected from Native gardens, including two potatoes, “Ozette” (fro...

  4. 7 CFR 318.13-24 - Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. 318.13-24 Section 318... Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-24 Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. Sweet potatoes from... met: (a) The sweet potatoes must be certified by an inspector of Puerto Rico as having been...

  5. 7 CFR 318.13-24 - Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. 318.13-24 Section 318... Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-24 Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. Sweet potatoes from... met: (a) The sweet potatoes must be certified by an inspector of Puerto Rico as having been...

  6. 7 CFR 318.13-24 - Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. 318.13-24 Section 318... Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-24 Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. Sweet potatoes from... met: (a) The sweet potatoes must be certified by an inspector of Puerto Rico as having been...

  7. 7 CFR 318.13-24 - Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. 318.13-24 Section 318... Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-24 Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. Sweet potatoes from... met: (a) The sweet potatoes must be certified by an inspector of Puerto Rico as having been...

  8. 7 CFR 318.13-24 - Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. 318.13-24 Section 318... Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-24 Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. Sweet potatoes from... met: (a) The sweet potatoes must be certified by an inspector of Puerto Rico as having been...

  9. Impact of food processing on the glycemic index (GI) of potato products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potatoes are one of the most popular carbohydrate foods in industrialized and some developing countries. However, contradicting arguments and misconceptions on potatoes as a high glycemic index (GI) food is directly affecting potato consumption during the past years. Potato varieties, maturity level...

  10. Hairy nightshade is an alternative host of Spongospora subterranea, the potato powdery scab pathogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root galls possibly caused by Spongospora subterranea were observed on hairy nightshade (Solanum sarrachoides; HNS). HNS galls and galls from potato were used to artificially inoculate potato and HNS. Eighty-three and 52% potato and HNS plants inoculated with potato inoculum had root galls, respecti...

  11. Detection of sweet potato viruses in Yunnan and genetic diversity analysis of the common viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two hundred seventy-nine samples with virus-like symptoms collected from 16 regions in Yunnan Province were tested by RT-PCR/PCR using virus-specific primers for 8 sweet potato viruses. Six viruses, Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV), Sweet Potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), Sweet potato ...

  12. Matrimony vine and potato psyllid in the Pacific Northwest: a worrisome marriage?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managing zebra chip disease in the potato growing regions of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho is complicated by confusion about the source of the insect vector (potato psyllid) as it colonizes potato fields in these growing regions. Not knowing where the psyllid is before arriving in Washington potato...

  13. Epitope mapping for monoclonal antibodies recognizing tuber necrotic isolates of Potato virus Y

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is an important viral pathogen of potato responsible for reducing tuber yield and quality across the globe. The PVYN and PVYNTN strains, the latter of which induces potato tuber necrotic ringspot disease (PTNRD), are regulated for international potato trade, and have been routin...

  14. Identification and definitions of Electrical Penetration Graph (EPG) waveforms for the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli, on susceptible potato.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli, is the vector of Ca. Liberibacter psyllaurous/solanacearum, a bacterium associated with a lethal potato disease with tuber-striping symptoms, termed Zebra Chip (ZC). Presently, there are no effective management tactics for ZC, although research to aid de...

  15. Impact of potato planting timing on potato zebra chip disease incidence in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zebra Chip (ZC), a new and economically important disease of potato in the United States, Mexico, Central America, and New Zealand has caused losses of millions of dollars to the potato industry. The disease is associated with the bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” (Lso) transmitted to...

  16. Palisade Russet and Teton Russet: Two New Potato Cultivars from the Northwest (Tri-State) Potato Variety Development Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Tri-State Potato Variety Development Program released two potato cultivars in 2011: Palisade Russet and Teton Russet. Palisade Russet (PR) is notable for having resistance to foliar and tuber late blight. PR is also resistant to Verticillium wilt, black dot, and pink rot, and has a moderate re...

  17. Comparative BAC end sequence analysis of tomato and potato reveals overrepresentation of specific gene families in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tomato genome has a higher repeat content than the potato genome, which is primarily the result of a higher amount of retrotransposons in the tomato genome. Potato has a higher abundance of simple sequence repeats than tomato, and the distribution of motifs also differs between these species. Fu...

  18. Behavioral responses of adult potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae), to potato germplasm and transmission of Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a major pest of potatoes that can cause yield loss by direct feeding on crop plants and by vectoring a bacterial pathogen, Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous (a.k.a. Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum). In recent years, ...

  19. Comparative Life Tables of the Potato Tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella, on Leaves and Tubers of Different Potato Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Golizadeh, Ali; Esmaeili, Nader; Razmjou, Jabraeil; Rafiee-Dastjerdi, Hooshang

    2014-01-01

    The potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a serious pest of the potato, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), in both fields and stores in tropical and subtropical regions. In the present study, the susceptibility of different potato cultivars to P. operculella was evaluated by measuring life table parameters. Tests were undertaken with leaves and tubers of 10 potato cultivars in the laboratory: Agria, Agata, Almera, Arinda, Baneba, Fiana, Marfona, Ramus, Satina, and Volvox. All parameters showed significant differences among tested cultivars. The longest mean generation times were observed on Marfona and Satina cultivars in the experiments on potato leaves and tubers, respectively. The lowest reproductive rate was observed on leaves and tubers of Marfona cultivar. Correspondingly, the lowest values of intrinsic rate of increase and the lowest finite rate of increase were also obtained on Marfona cultivar in tests on potato leaves and tubers. The highest intrinsic rate of incrase values were observed on Arinda and Baneba in the tests on leaves and tubers, respectively. The intrinsic rates of increase were significantly higher on potato leaves than on potato tubers. The lower performance of P. operculella on Marfona cultivar indicated that this cultivar is relatively less susceptible this pest and could be used in integrated pest management programs of P. operculella. PMID:25373189

  20. First report of association of potato virus X and potato virus Y and 'Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii' in brinjal in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manish; Katiyar, Akshay; Madhupriya; Rao, G P

    2016-06-01

    Symptoms of little leaf, leaf chlorosis and leaf malformations with mosaic mottling symptoms were observed in two brinjal varieties (Pusa Shyamla and Pusa Purple Cluster) in fields of IARI, New Delhi, India during 2014-2015. Electron microscopy, PCR and sequence analysis first time provided evidence of association of Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii with potato virus X and potato virus Y in brinjal in India.

  1. Potato field colonization by low-density populations of Colorado potato beetle as a function of crop rotation distance.

    PubMed

    Boiteau, Gilles; Picka, J D; Watmough, James

    2008-10-01

    Monitoring of 10 and 12 commercial potato, Solanum tuberosum L., fields in 2004 and 2005, respectively, confirmed for a low-density population of Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), that potato fields nearest to the previous year's potato fields are significantly more colonized by this beetle than more distant fields. This pattern is partially explained by the presence of a reservoir of colonizers estimated at 35% of the season-long colonizing population in 2004 and 2005. These beetles, which emerged before potato plants broke the ground, were ready to establish themselves on nearby potato plants. The colonizing Colorado potato beetles dispersed within the maximum range of 1.5 km over a season, and the colonization risk for the new crop decreased with distance from the previous year's crop. There was no evidence that rotation distance delayed colonization. In terms of pest management, although the findings confirm that only long 1.5-km rotations can prevent Colorado potato beetle colonization, they also demonstrate that short rotations of 100 m or more can make substantial contributions to pest management programs for low-density beetle populations.

  2. Squeezed potato orbits in a magnetic well

    SciTech Connect

    Shaing, K. C.

    2001-09-01

    It is shown that potato orbits in the near-axis region of a high beta tokamak are squeezed in a magnetic well. The squeezing factor is the same as that for the banana orbits derived in an earlier work [Phys. Plasmas 3, 2843 (1996)]. It depends on the energy of the particle. For high-energy particles, the size of the squeezed orbits is independent of their energy. This implies improved confinement for high-energy particles and for high beta tokamaks with advanced fuels.

  3. Cultural systems for growing potatoes in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T.; Bula, R.; Corey, R.; Morrow, R.

    1988-01-01

    Higher plants are being evaluated for life support to provide needed food, oxygen and water as well as removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The successful utilization of plants in space will require the development of not only highly productive growing systems but also highly efficient bioregenerative systems. It will be necessary to recycle all inedible plant parts and all human wastes so that the entire complement of elemental compounds can be reused. Potatoes have been proposed as one of the desirable crops because they are 1) extremely productive, yielding more than 100 metric tons per hectare from field plantings, 2) the edible tubers are high in digestible starch (70%) and protein (10%) on a dry weight basis, 3) up to 80% of the total plant production is in tubers and thus edible, 4) the plants are easily propagated either from tubers or from tissue culture plantlets, 5) the tubers can be utilized with a minimum of processing, and 6) potatoes can be prepared in a variety of different forms for the human diet (Tibbitts et al., 1982). However potatoes have a growth pattern that complicates the development of growing the plants in controlled systems. Tubers are borne on underground stems that are botanically termed 'rhizomes', but in common usage termed 'stolons'. The stolons must be maintained in a dark, moist area with sufficient provision for enlargement of tubers. Stems rapidly terminate in flowers forcing extensive branching and spreading of plants so that individual plants will cover 0.2 m2 or more area. Thus the growing system must be developed to provide an area that is darkened for tuber and root growth and of sufficient size for plant spread. A system developed for growing potatoes, or any plants, in space will have certain requirements that must be met to make them a useful part of a life support system. The system must 1) be constructed of materials, and involve media, that can be reused for many successive cycles of plant growth, 2

  4. Cultural systems for growing potatoes in space.

    PubMed

    Tibbitts, T; Bula, R; Corey, R; Morrow, R

    1988-01-01

    Higher plants are being evaluated for life support to provide needed food, oxygen and water as well as removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The successful utilization of plants in space will require the development of not only highly productive growing systems but also highly efficient bioregenerative systems. It will be necessary to recycle all inedible plant parts and all human wastes so that the entire complement of elemental compounds can be reused. Potatoes have been proposed as one of the desirable crops because they are 1) extremely productive, yielding more than 100 metric tons per hectare from field plantings, 2) the edible tubers are high in digestible starch (70%) and protein (10%) on a dry weight basis, 3) up to 80% of the total plant production is in tubers and thus edible, 4) the plants are easily propagated either from tubers or from tissue culture plantlets, 5) the tubers can be utilized with a minimum of processing, and 6) potatoes can be prepared in a variety of different forms for the human diet (Tibbitts et al., 1982). However potatoes have a growth pattern that complicates the development of growing the plants in controlled systems. Tubers are borne on underground stems that are botanically termed 'rhizomes', but in common usage termed 'stolons'. The stolons must be maintained in a dark, moist area with sufficient provision for enlargement of tubers. Stems rapidly terminate in flowers forcing extensive branching and spreading of plants so that individual plants will cover 0.2 m2 or more area. Thus the growing system must be developed to provide an area that is darkened for tuber and root growth and of sufficient size for plant spread. A system developed for growing potatoes, or any plants, in space will have certain requirements that must be met to make them a useful part of a life support system. The system must 1) be constructed of materials, and involve media, that can be reused for many successive cycles of plant growth, 2

  5. Alkyl ferulates in wound healing potato tubers.

    PubMed

    Bernards, M A; Lewis, N G

    1992-10-01

    Seven ferulic acid esters of 1-alkanols ranging in carbon length from C16 to C28 were synthesized and an HPLC protocol for their separation developed. Extracts prepared from wound healing potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers and analysed by HPLC indicated that alkyl ferulate esters begin to accumulate 3-7 days after wound treatment. Of the nine esters identified by EIMS, (including two esters of odd chain length alkanols) hexadecyl and octadecyl ferulates were predominant. Alkyl ferulate esters were restricted to the wound periderm.

  6. Bioavailability of a potato chromium complex to the laboratory rat

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, H.K.

    1985-01-01

    Research objectives were to study the effect of food source, preparation method and chemical form on bioavailability of chromium. Chromium concentration in potatoes was determined and tubers labeled either intrinsically or extrinsically with radioactive chromate. A labeled chromium complexes was isolated from preparations of raw, baked or fried potatoes and chromatographed on gel permeation media. Availability of the potato chromium complex to the rat was examined in three feeding studies. Animals were dosed with radioactive extrinsically or intrinsically labeled potato extract or with chromate. A labeled chromium complex was isolated from gastrointestinal contents of rats and chromatographed. Potato pulp and peel contained 1.63 and 2.70 ..mu..g Cr/g tissue respectively. True and apparent absorption from extrinsically labeled feedings were 33.4 +/- 4.7 and 29.8 +/- 11.2% respectively, and no differences existed between absorption from raw and cooked potatoes. Absorption from the extrinsic labeled potatoes differed significantly from absorption of inorganic chromatium. Apparent absorption of raw (11.1 +/- 7.9%) and cooked (-0.7 +/- 2.8%) intrinsically labeled feedings differed significantly. Absorption of inorganic chromium was 17.8% (true) and 11.5% (apparent). Examination of the chromium complex isolated from gastrointestinal tract contents showed enlargement of the complex in the stomach after consumption.

  7. Phenolic Compounds in the Potato and Its Byproducts: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Akyol, Hazal; Riciputi, Ylenia; Capanoglu, Esra; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Verardo, Vito

    2016-01-01

    The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a tuber that is largely used for food and is a source of different bioactive compounds such as starch, dietary fiber, amino acids, minerals, vitamins, and phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds are synthetized by the potato plant as a protection response from bacteria, fungi, viruses, and insects. Several works showed that these potato compounds exhibited health-promoting effects in humans. However, the use of the potato in the food industry submits this vegetable to different processes that can alter the phenolic content. Moreover, many of these compounds with high bioactivity are located in the potato’s skin, and so are eliminated as waste. In this review the most recent articles dealing with phenolic compounds in the potato and potato byproducts, along with the effects of harvesting, post-harvest, and technological processes, have been reviewed. Briefly, the phenolic composition, main extraction, and determination methods have been described. In addition, the “alternative” food uses and healthy properties of potato phenolic compounds have been addressed. PMID:27240356

  8. Effect of preheating on potato texture.

    PubMed

    Andersson, A; Gekas, V; Lind, I; Oliveira, F; Oste, R

    1994-01-01

    Preheating potatoes at 50 to 80 degrees C has a firming effect on the cooked potato tissue. This effect is particularly pronounced at a preheating temperature of 60 to 70 degrees C followed by cooling. Several theories have been presented in the literature to explain this firming effect: retrogradation of starch, leaching of amylose, stabilization of the middle lamellae and cell walls by the activation of the pectin methylesterase (PME) enzyme, and by the release of calcium from gelatinized starch and the formation of calcium bridges between pectin molecules. Most probably, none of these theories alone can explain the phenomenon and more than one mechanism seems to be involved. Some of these mechanisms seem to be interdependent. As an example, calcium could be considered as a link all the way through release after starch gelatinization to cross-linking pectin substances in the cell wall and the middle lamellae, which has been demethylated by the PME enzyme. More research and "clear cut" experiments are needed in order to elucidate the role of each mechanism, especially which of them is the main contributor to the process of firming. Most probably, the calcium-pectin-PME mechanism plays a secondary role, that is, it only retards the collapse of the tissue structure that would otherwise occur during the final heating without preheating, and it is not the main factor of firmness.

  9. The impact of in vitro digestion on bioaccessibility of polyphenols from potatoes and sweet potatoes and their influence on iron absorption by human intestinal cells.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Lisa; Deußer, Hannah; Evers, Danièle

    2013-11-01

    The composition of potatoes as determined by chemical extraction has been described extensively. It is thus quite well known that, among other compounds, potato is rich in polyphenols, vitamins and in some minerals. This paper underlines the important role of simulated gastro-intestinal in vitro digestion in the bioaccessibility of polyphenols (chlorogenic acid and derivatives, and rutin) from potatoes and sweet potatoes and their impact on iron uptake. Concentrations of polyphenols in the flesh of two potato cultivars (Nicola, white potato, and Vitelotte, purple potato) and sweet potato were measured by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography after boiling and after in vitro digestion. Chemical extraction underestimates polyphenol amounts that can be released during digestion and that are actually bioaccessible. Iron uptake, as evaluated by a ferritin assay, by intestinal human cells was decreased after incubation with the intestinal phase of in vitro digestion, presumably due to the presence of polyphenols.

  10. Microbial Control of Potato Tuberworm in Potato Plants and Tuber Storage with Emphasis on Research Conducted in the Pacific Northwest of the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several natural enemies are reported from potato tuberworm (PTW) including insects (parasitoids and predators) and pathogens. Naturally occurring insect specific pathogens and inundatively applied biopesticides can significantly contribute to control of the potato tuberworm (PTW). The most researche...

  11. Utilization of potatoes in CELSS: Productivity and growing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T. W.

    1986-01-01

    The potato plant (solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the basic food crops that should be studied for use in NASA's closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). It offers high yields per unit area and time, with most of this production in the form of highly digestible carbohydrate. Potatoes, like wheat and rice, are particularly useful in human diets because of their nutritional versatility and ease of processing and preparation. The growth of the potato was studied and it was found to be a useful species for life support systems.

  12. Mechanical Properties of Isotactic Polypropylene Modified with Thermoplastic Potato Starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knitter, M.; Dobrzyńska-Mizera, M.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper selected mechanical properties of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) modified with potato starch have been presented. Thermoplastic starch (TPS) used as a modifier in the study was produced from potato starch modified with glycerol. Isotactic polypropylene/thermoplastic potato starch composites (iPP/TPS) that contained 10, 30, 50 wt.% of modified starch were examined using dynamic mechanical-thermal analysis, static tensile, Brinell hardness, and Charpy impact test. The studies indicated a distinct influence of a filler content on the mechanical properties of composites in comparison with non-modified polypropylene.

  13. Two-stage biohumus production from inedible potato biomass.

    PubMed

    Manukovsky, N S; Kovalev, V S; Gribovskaya, I V

    2001-07-01

    The feasibility of a two-stage bioconversion of inedible potato biomass into biohumus by oyster mushroom followed by worms was tested. As a raw material for biohumus production the inedible potato biomass in certain properties ranked below wheat straw. The most feasible method to convert the potato wastes into biohumus was to mix them with wheat straw at the mass ratio of 1:3 and then treat with mushrooms followed by worms. This gave a good yield of mushrooms. The biohumus produced from the mixture was suitable for use as a plant growth medium.

  14. Effects of varying the ratio of cooked to uncooked potato on the microbial fuel cell treatment of common potato waste.

    PubMed

    Du, Haixia; Li, Fusheng

    2016-11-01

    The effect of varying the ratio of cooked to uncooked potato in the performance of microbial fuel cell (MFC) treating common potato waste was investigated. Four MFCs were fed with a ratio of cooked (boiled) to uncooked (i.e. waste) potato of 0, 48.7, 67.3 and 85.6%. Respectively, the columbic efficiency was estimated as 53.5, 70.5, 92.7 and 71.1%, indicating significantly enhanced electricity generation and waste degradation at an initial feedstock mixing ratio of 2/3 cooked to 1/3 uncooked potato. The hydrolysis rate parameter (estimated using a first-order sequential hydrolysis and degradation model) increased from 0.061 to 0.191day(-1) as cooked potato was added which increased electricity generation efficiency from 24.6 to 278.9mA/m(2)/d and shortened the startup time for maximum current density from 25 to 5days. The potato slurries' chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased by 86.6, 83.9, 84.1 and 86.3%, respectively, indicating no relationship exists between the fraction of boiled potato and the amount of COD reduction.

  15. Diverse enzymatic specificities of digestive proteases, 'intestains', enable Colorado potato beetle larvae to counteract the potato defence mechanism.

    PubMed

    Gruden, Kristina; Popovic, Tatjana; Cimerman, Nina; Krizaj, Igor; Strukelj, Borut

    2003-02-01

    In response to insect attack, high levels of proteinase inhibitors are synthesised in potato leaves. This can cause inefficient protein digestion in insects, leading to reduced growth, delayed development and lower fecundity. It has been suggested that Colorado potato beetle overcomes this defence mechanism by inducing the production of a set of cysteine proteases that are resistant to potato proteinase inhibitors. Experiments with gut extracts showed that these proteases have unusual inhibition profiles as they are not inhibited by most of the cystatins but are strongly inhibited by thyropins. In this study we have isolated three cysteine proteases from adapted guts of Colorado potato beetle larvae, named intestains 1, 2 and 3, the first cysteine proteases known to be involved in extracellular protein digestion. The N-terminal sequences suggest their classification into the papain family. Intestains differ in substrate specificities and inhibitory profiles. Their substrate specificities suggest that intestains 1 and 2 are general digestive enzymes, while intestain 3 has a more specific function. The inhibitory profile of intestain 1 is similar to that of proteases of the papain family. However, the Ki values for the interaction of intestain 2 with the same set of inhibitors are several hundred fold higher, which would enable the enzyme to circumvent the potato defence mechanism characterised by high concentrations of protease inhibitors in attacked potato leaves. A further, different strategy of the Colorado potato beetle to avoid potato defence is exhibited by intestain 3, which is able to cleave off the N-terminus of model cystatin and thus inactivate the inhibitor. These results suggest that the Colorado potato beetle combines different strategies to counteract plant defence mechanisms.

  16. Role of nematodes, nematicides, and crop rotation on the productivity and quality of potato, sweet potato, peanut, and grain sorghum.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A W; Dowler, C C; Glaze, N C; Handoo, Z A

    1996-09-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of fenamiphos 15G and short-cycle potato (PO)-sweet potato (SP) grown continuously and in rotation with peanut (PE)-grain sorghum (GS) on yield, crop quality, and mixed nematode population densities of Meloidogyne arenaria, M. hapla, M. incognita, and Mesocriconema ornatum. Greater root-gall indices and damage by M. hapla and M. incognita occurred on potato than other crops. Most crop yields were higher and root-gall indices lower from fenamiphos-treated plots than untreated plots. The total yield of potato in the PO-SP and PO-SP-PE-GS sequences increased from 1983 to 1985 in plots infested with M. hapla or M. arenaria and M. incognita in combination and decreased in 1986 to 1987 when root-knot nematode populations shifted to M. incognita. The total yields of sweet potato in the PO-SP-PE-GS sequence were similar in 1983 and 1985, and declined each year in the PO-SP sequence as a consequence of M. incognita population density increase in the soil. Yield of peanut from soil infested with M. hapla increased 82% in fenamiphos-treated plots compared to untreated plots. Fenamiphos treatment increased yield of grain sorghum from 5% to 45% over untreated controls. The declining yields of potato and sweet potato observed with both the PO-SP and PO-SP-PE-GS sequences indicate that these crop systems should not be used longer than 3 years in soil infested with M. incognita, M. arenaria, or M. hapla. Under these conditions, these two cropping systems promote a population shift in favor of M. incognita, which is more damaging to potato and sweet potato than M. arenaria and M. hapla.

  17. Transgenic potato plants expressing cry3A gene confer resistance to Colorado potato beetle.

    PubMed

    Mi, Xiaoxiao; Ji, Xiangzhuo; Yang, Jiangwei; Liang, Lina; Si, Huaijun; Wu, Jiahe; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Di

    2015-07-01

    The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, CPB) is a fatal pest, which is a quarantine pest in China. The CPB has now invaded the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and is constantly spreading eastward in China. In this study, we developed transgenic potato plants expressing cry3A gene. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the cry3A gene expressed in leaves, stems and roots of the transgenic plants under the control of CaMV 35S promoter, while they expressed only in leaves and stems under the control of potato leaf and stem-specific promoter ST-LS1. The mortality of the larvae was higher (28% and 36%) on the transgenic plant line 35S1 on the 3rd and 4th days, and on ST3 (48%) on the 5th day after inoculation with instar larvae. Insect biomass accumulation on the foliage of the transgenic plant lines 35S1, 35S2 and ST3 was significantly lower (0.42%, 0.43% and 0.42%). Foliage consumption was lowest on transgenic lines 35S8 and ST2 among all plant foliage (7.47 mg/larvae/day and 12.46 mg/larvae/day). The different transgenic plant foliages had varied inhibition to larval growth. The survivors on the transgenic lines obviously were smaller than their original size and extremely weak. The transgenic potato plants with CPB resistance could be used to develop germplasms or varieties for controlling CPB damage and halting its spread in China.

  18. Insight on Genes Affecting Tuber Development in Potato upon Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) Infection.

    PubMed

    Katsarou, Konstantina; Wu, Yun; Zhang, Runxuan; Bonar, Nicola; Morris, Jenny; Hedley, Pete E; Bryan, Glenn J; Kalantidis, Kriton; Hornyik, Csaba

    2016-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L) is a natural host of Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) which can cause characteristic symptoms on developing plants including stunting phenotype and distortion of leaves and tubers. PSTVd is the type species of the family Pospiviroidae, and can replicate in the nucleus and move systemically throughout the plant. It is not well understood how the viroid can affect host genes for successful invasion and which genes show altered expression levels upon infection. Our primary focus in this study is the identification of genes which can affect tuber formation since viroid infection can strongly influence tuber development and especially tuber shape. In this study, we used a large-scale method to identify differentially expressed genes in potato. We have identified defence, stress and sugar metabolism related genes having altered expression levels upon infection. Additionally, hormone pathway related genes showed significant up- or down-regulation. DWARF1/DIMINUTO, Gibberellin 7-oxidase and BEL5 transcripts were identified and validated showing differential expression in viroid infected tissues. Our study suggests that gibberellin and brassinosteroid pathways have a possible role in tuber development upon PSTVd infection.

  19. Insight on Genes Affecting Tuber Development in Potato upon Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Runxuan; Bonar, Nicola; Morris, Jenny; Hedley, Pete E.; Bryan, Glenn J.; Kalantidis, Kriton; Hornyik, Csaba

    2016-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L) is a natural host of Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) which can cause characteristic symptoms on developing plants including stunting phenotype and distortion of leaves and tubers. PSTVd is the type species of the family Pospiviroidae, and can replicate in the nucleus and move systemically throughout the plant. It is not well understood how the viroid can affect host genes for successful invasion and which genes show altered expression levels upon infection. Our primary focus in this study is the identification of genes which can affect tuber formation since viroid infection can strongly influence tuber development and especially tuber shape. In this study, we used a large-scale method to identify differentially expressed genes in potato. We have identified defence, stress and sugar metabolism related genes having altered expression levels upon infection. Additionally, hormone pathway related genes showed significant up- or down-regulation. DWARF1/DIMINUTO, Gibberellin 7-oxidase and BEL5 transcripts were identified and validated showing differential expression in viroid infected tissues. Our study suggests that gibberellin and brassinosteroid pathways have a possible role in tuber development upon PSTVd infection. PMID:26937634

  20. Association of potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli; Hemiptera: Triozidae) with Lycium spp. (Solanaceae) in potato growing regions of Washington, Idaho, and Oregon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc), is a vector of the bacterium that causes zebra chip disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). When cultivated crops are not available, potato psyllid may often be found on non-crop hosts within the Solanaceae. This study determined that species of Lyci...

  1. The current incidence of viral disease in korean sweet potatoes and development of multiplex rt-PCR assays for simultaneous detection of eight sweet potato viruses.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Shin, Jun-Chul; Lee, Ye-Ji; Seo, Jang-Kyun; Lee, Hyeong-Un; Jung, Mi-Nam; Kim, Sun-Hyung; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2014-12-01

    Sweet potato is grown extensively from tropical to temperate regions and is an important food crop worldwide. In this study, we established detection methods for 17 major sweet potato viruses using single and multiplex RT-PCR assays. To investigate the current incidence of viral diseases, we collected 154 samples of various sweet potato cultivars showing virus-like symptoms from 40 fields in 10 Korean regions, and analyzed them by RT-PCR using specific primers for each of the 17 viruses. Of the 17 possible viruses, we detected eight in our samples. Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and sweet potato virus C (SPVC) were most commonly detected, infecting approximately 87% and 85% of samples, respectively. Furthermore, Sweet potato symptomless virus 1 (SPSMV-1), Sweet potato virus G (SPVG), Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV), Sweet potato virus 2 ( SPV2), Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV), and Sweet potato latent virus (SPLV) were detected in 67%, 58%, 47%, 41%, 31%, and 20% of samples, respectively. This study presents the first documented occurrence of four viruses (SPVC, SPV2, SPCFV, and SPSMV-1) in Korea. Based on the results of our survey, we developed multiplex RT-PCR assays for simple and simultaneous detection of the eight sweet potato viruses we recorded.

  2. Development of biomarkers and a diagnostic tool for investigation of coinfections by and interactions between potato purple top and potato witches’-broom phytoplasmas in tomato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Columbia Basin potato purple top (PPT) phytoplasma and Alaska potato witches’-broom (PWB) phytoplasma are two closely-related but mutually distinct pathogenic bacteria that infect potato and other vegetable crops. Inhabiting phloem sieve elements and being transmitted by phloem-feeding insect vecto...

  3. Comparison of the postprandial effects of purple-fleshed and yellow-fleshed potatoes in healthy males with chemical characterization of the potato meals.

    PubMed

    Linderborg, Kaisa M; Salo, Johanna E; Kalpio, Marika; Vuorinen, Anssi L; Kortesniemi, Maaria; Griinari, Mikko; Viitanen, Matti; Yang, Baoru; Kallio, Heikki

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the current study was to characterize the anthocyanin content and composition of a purple potato landrace cultivar (Solanum tuberosum 'Synkeä Sakari') and to compare the postprandial effects of purple-fleshed potatoes, yellow-fleshed potatoes and bilberries in potato starch on postprandial glycemia and insulinemia in healthy males. The purple potato meal caused smaller insulinemia than the yellow potato meal (iAUC 120 min 1347 and 2226, respectively, p = 0.012 and iAUC 240 min 1448 and 2403, p = 0.007) or the bilberry meal (iAUC 120 min 1920, p = 0.027). The purple potato meal caused a smaller plasma glucose at 40 min postprandially compared with the yellow potato meal (p = 0.044). The results of this study suggest that anthocyanin-containing purple-fleshed potatoes influence the postprandial insulinemia positively. Since potatoes are the world's largest non-grain commodity, replacing yellow-fleshed potatoes with purple-fleshed potatoes as staple food could have large potential in maintaining public health.

  4. 76 FR 31787 - United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 51 United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule revises the United States.... The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) is amending the similar varietal characteristic...

  5. Whitefly transmission of the Sweet potato leaf curl virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is highly adaptive and polyphagous on taxonomically diverse species of plants on a global scale. This whitefly transmits numerous plant viruses, including Begomoviruses (Geminiviridae). We recently found the Sweet Potato Leaf Curl Virus (SPLCV) ...

  6. Anthocyanin and antioxidant activity of snacks with coloured potato.

    PubMed

    Nemś, Agnieszka; Pęksa, Anna; Kucharska, Alicja Z; Sokół-Łętowska, Anna; Kita, Agnieszka; Drożdż, Wioletta; Hamouz, Karel

    2015-04-01

    Coloured-fleshed potatoes of four varieties were used as raw material for coloured flour and fried snack production. The effects of thermal processes traditionally used in dried potato processing and in snack pellet manufacturing on anthocyanin profiles, total polyphenols and antioxidant properties of obtained half- and ready products were studied. There was a significant influence of potato variety on the experimental flour and snack properties. Flours with the highest antioxidant activities were obtained from Salad Blue and Herbie 26 potatoes; however, the flour prepared from the Blue Congo exhibited a much higher total polyphenol and anthocyanin content. Snacks produced with coloured flour had 2-3 times higher antioxidant activities, 40% higher contents of polyphenols, attractive colour and better expansion compared to control samples. The lowest losses of anthocyanins during snack processing were in snacks with flour from the purple-fleshed Blue Congo and red-fleshed Herbie 26.

  7. Energy conservation study on Simplot potato processing plant, Heyburn, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-01

    This report presents the findings of an energy study done at the Simplot potato processing plant in Heyburn, Idaho. The study includes all electrical energy using systems at the plant but does not address specific modifications to process equipment. The plant receives raw potatoes and produces a mixture of pre-fried and frozen potato products including french fries and pre-formed patties, a dehydrated frozen product, starch, and processes and ships raw potatoes. The plant also contains a box line that makes cardboard cartons for all Simplot plants. The plant contains all necessary equipment and processes to produce a finished product and has long-term cold storage. 13 figs., 16 tabs.

  8. [Active crop canopy sensor-based nitrogen diagnosis for potato].

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; Li, Fei; Qin, Yong-Lin; Fan, Ming-Shou

    2013-11-01

    In the present study, two potato experiments involving different N rates in 2011 were conducted in Wuchuan County and Linxi County, Inner Mongolia. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was collected by an active GreenSeeker crop canopy sensor to estimate N status of potato. The results show that the NDVI readings were poorly correlated with N nutrient indicators of potato at vegetative Growth stage due to the influence of soil background. With the advance of growth stages, NDVI values were exponentially related to plant N uptake (R2 = 0.665) before tuber bulking stage and were linearly related to plant N concentration (R2 = 0.699) when plant fully covered soil. In conclusion, GreenSeeker active crop sensor is a promising tool to estimate N status for potato plants. The findings from this study may be useful for developing N recommendation method based on active crop canopy sensor.

  9. Reproductive status of overwintering potato psyllid: absence of photoperiod effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the effects of photoperiod on reproductive diapause of three haplotypes of potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae), collected from three geographic locations: south Texas (Central haplotype), California (Western haplotype), and Washington State (Northwestern haploty...

  10. Comparative anaylsis of Asian citrus psyllid and potato psyllid antennae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The comparative investigation of the morphological basis for olfactory reception in the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) and the potato/tomato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) was performed using scanning electron microscopy to elucidate the antennal sensory arrays being...

  11. Neonicotinoids as seed potato treatments to control wireworms.

    PubMed

    Huiting, H F; Ester, A

    2009-01-01

    A series of field trials were carried out from 2000 to 2003. Neonicotinoid insecticides applied as seed potato treatments at planting were tested to control wireworms in potato crops. Compounds were applied as drench or spray. Neonicotinoids tested were imidacloprid at rates of 35, 70, 88, and 175 g a.i.; thiamethoxam at 17.5, 35, 50, 70, and 140 g a.i.; and thiacloprid at 72 and 144 g a.i. per metric ton seed potatoes. Treatment with imidacloprid at 70 g/ton seed and thiamethoxam at 50 g/ton seed showed significant control of wireworms at harvest but thiacloprid showed insufficient protection. No phytotoxicity was recorded at harvest. Prospects and benefits of seed potato treatments with neonicotinoids are discussed, including lowering of the amount of insecticide needed for adequate protection.

  12. Alcohol fermentation of sweet potato. Membrane reactor in enzymatic hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Azhar, A.; Hamdy, M.K.

    1981-06-01

    Use of ultrafiltration membrane systems in stirred cell and in thin-channel systems for immobilizing enzyme (sweet potato intrinsic and crystalline /beta/-amylase) in hydrolysis of sweet potato through a continuous operation mode were studied. Both the filtration rate and reducing sugars, produced as the result of enzymatic hydrolysis, decreased with the filtration time. THe immobilized enzymes in the thin-channel system showed a much better performance compared to that in the stirred cell system. Addition of crystalline sweet potato /beta/-amylase to the sweet potato increased both the filtration rate and reducing-sugars content. Alcoholic fermentation of the filtrate resulted in an alcohol content of 4.2%. This represented fermentation of 95% of the sugars with an efficiency of 88%. 17 refs.

  13. Alcohol fermentation of sweet potato. Membrane reactor in enzymic hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Azhar, A.; Hamdy, M.K.

    1981-01-01

    Use of ultrafiltration membrane systems in stirred cell and in thin-channel systems for immobilizing enzyme (sweet potato intrinsic and crystalline beta-amylase) in hydrolysis of sweet potato through a continuous operation mode were studied. Both the filtration rate and reducing sugars, produced as the result of enzymic hydrolysis, decreased with the filtration time. The immobilized enzymes in the thin-channel system showed a much better performance compared to that in the stirred cell system. Addition of crystalline sweet potato beta-amylase to the sweet potato increased both the filtration rate and reducing-sugars content. Alcohol fermentation of the filtrate resulted in an alcohol content of 4.2%. This represented fermentation of 95% of the sugars with an efficiency of 88%.

  14. Effects of gamma radiation on the sweet potato weevil, Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers). Progress report, June 1984-August 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Dawes, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    The following tests are reported: with eggs, with larvae in sweet potato roots, with larvae in sweet potato slices, with pupae in sweet potato roots, with adults, and sterility studies. Data are presented. (MHR)

  15. Rheological behaviour of heated potato starch dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juszczak, L.; Witczak, M.; Ziêba, T.; Fortuna, T.

    2012-10-01

    The study was designed to investigate the rheological properties of heated potato starch dispersions. Water suspensions of starch were heated at 65, 80 or 95°C for 5, 15, 30 or 60 min. The dispersions obtained were examined for granule size distribution and rheology. It was found that the starch dispersions significantly differed in both respects. The mean diameters of starch granules were largest for the dispersion heated at 65°C and smallest for that heated at 95°C. As the heating temperature was raised, the yield stresses and consistency coefficients decreased, while the flow behaviour indexes and Casson plastic viscosities increased. There were also differences in the viscoelastic properties of the dispersions: for those heated at 65°C the storage and loss moduli increased with heating time whereas for those heated at 80°C both moduli decreased.

  16. Wastewater purification in the potato starch industry

    SciTech Connect

    Wijbenga, D.J.; Meiberg, J.B.M.; Brunt, K.

    1984-01-01

    Deproteinized and protein-containing wastewater from the potato starch industry was purified by anaerobic digestion followed by aerobic treatment. Inhibition of methanation by NH3 in concentrated deproteinized wastewater can be prevented by lowering the pH. SO32- was removed by reduction in an acidification-reactor. SO42- reduction was hydraulic retention time-dependent during acidification. Further elimination of SO42- can take place in the CH4 reactor. With both deproteinized and protein-containing wastewater, high CH4 production rates were obtained (more than or equal to 26 kg COD/cubic m-day). Aerobic treatment of the anaerobic effluent resulted in extensive deodorization and concomitant elimination of BOD and PO4(-3).

  17. Development of potato minitubers in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Kordyum, E; Baranenko, V; Nedukha, E; Samoilov, V

    1997-10-01

    Stem segments of aseptically grown potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Zarevo) were cultivated for 4 weeks under laboratory conditions and were then grown for 8 d on board the "Mir" orbital space station. Timing was such that minitubers initiated and developed during the 8 d on the "Mir". Under space flight and stationary conditions, spherical minitubers were formed with no statistically significant differences in either the frequency of tuber formation or tuber size. These observations are the first to document the formation of vegetative reproductive organs and of well developed amylogenic storage tissue during the microgravity conditions of orbital space flight. In these minitubers, a majority of the starch was stored in parenchyma, with numerous amyloplasts per cell. In space flight tissue, however, grain size of starch was decreased and lamellae within the amyloplasts was locally enlarged. Furthermore, mitochondria of these tissues were characterized by increased matrix density and well developed cristae.

  18. Mechanical transmission of Potato leafroll virus.

    PubMed

    Mayo, M; Ryabov, E; Fraser, G; Taliansky, M

    2000-11-01

    Like typical luteoviruses, Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) cannot be transmitted mechanically by rubbing plants with solutions containing virus particles. However, PLRV was found to be mechanically transmissible from extracts of plants that had been inoculated by viruliferous aphids and then post-inoculated with Pea enation mosaic virus-2 (PEMV-2). Unlike the asymptomatic infections induced by either virus alone, double infections in Nicotiana benthamiana induced necrotic symptoms with some line patterning and vein yellowing. Infective PLRV was recovered from a purified virus preparation by inoculating plants mechanically with purified virus particles mixed with PEMV-2. Similarly, Beet mild yellowing virus was readily transmitted mechanically from mixtures containing PEMV-2. PLRV was also transmissible from mixtures made with extracts of plants infected with Groundnut rosette virus, although less efficiently than from mixtures containing PEMV-2. This novel means of transmitting PLRV, and perhaps other poleroviruses, should prove very useful in a number of fields of luteovirus research.

  19. Prebiotic properties of potato starch dextrins.

    PubMed

    Barczyńska, Renata; Śliżewska, Katarzyna; Libudzisz, Zdzisława; Kapuśniak, Kamila; Kapuśniak, Janusz

    2015-09-08

    The objective of the present study was to compare the prebiotic properties of starch dextrins, that is, resistant dextrins obtained from potato starch in the process of simultaneous thermolysis and chemical modification, which were selected based on previous research. Both prepared dextrins met the definition criterion of dietary fiber and also the basic prebiotic criterion - they were not degraded by the digestive enzymes of the initial sections of the gastrointestinal tract. The growth of probiotic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, as well as Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, Bacteroides, and Clostridium strains isolated from feces of healthy people, showed that both studied dextrins were utilized as a source of assimilable carbon and energy by the strains. Furthermore, better growth (higher numbers of cells) counts of probiotic bacteria than those of fecal isolates indicated that the studied resistant dextrins showed a selective effect. Both dextrins might be considered as substances with prebiotic properties due to their chemical and physical properties and selectivity towards the studied probiotic bacterial strains.

  20. Glycemic response of mashed potato containing high-viscocity hydroxypropylmethylcellulose.

    PubMed

    Lightowler, Helen J; Henry, C Jeya K

    2009-08-01

    Potatoes generally have one of the highest glycemic index values of any food. Relatively small differences in the glycemic response (GR) of regularly consumed starch foods have shown beneficial effects on health. Lowering the GR of a potato-based meal has potentially wide-reaching health benefits. High-viscosity hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HV-HPMC) is a modified cellulose dietary fiber extensively used in the food industry. We hypothesized that the GR of a high-glycemic index product such as mashed potato would be lower with the addition of HV-HPMC. In a nonblind, randomized, repeat-measure, crossover controlled trial, 15 healthy adults consumed portions of mashed potato with different doses (0%, 1%, 2%, and 4%) of a specially selected and optimized HV-HPMC and a reference food (glucose) on separate occasions. Five subjects were excluded from the final analysis due to noncompliance with study procedures. Capillary blood glucose was measured in fasted subjects and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after starting to eat. For each sample, the incremental area under the blood glucose response curve was calculated and the GR determined. There was a significant lowering effect of HV-HPMC on GR (P < .001) of mashed potato. Glycemic responses for all mashed potato samples with the HV-HPMC were significantly lower than the standard mashed potato: 1% level (P < .05), 2% level (P < .05), and 4% level (P < .05). However, there was no significant effect of the HV-HPMC dose on GR. We conclude that addition of select HV-HPMC to mashed potato blunts GR.

  1. In Vitro Conservation of Sweet Potato Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; Tavares, Fernanda Ferreira; dos Santos, Maria Clézia; Menezes, Thays Saynara Alves; de Santana, Aléa Dayane Dantas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a protocol for the in vitro conservation of sweet potato genotypes using the slow growth technique. The first experiment was conducted in a 4 × 5 × 2 factorial scheme, testing four genotypes (IPB-007, IPB-052, IPB-072, and IPB-137), five concentrations of abscisic acid (ABA) (0.0, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 mg·L−1), and two temperatures (18 and 25°C). The second experiment was conducted in a 4 × 3 × 3 factorial scheme at 18°C, testing four genotypes (IPB-007, IPB-052, IPB-072, and IPB-137), three variations of MS salts (50, 75, and 100%), and three concentrations of sucrose (10, 20, and 30 g·L−1). Every three months, we evaluated the survival (%), shoot height, and shoot viability. In vitro conservation of the sweet potato genotypes IPB-052 and IPB-007 was obtained over three and six months, respectively, using MS medium plus 2.0 mg·L−1 of ABA at either 18 or 25°C. Genotypes IPB-072 and IPB-137 can be kept for three and six months, respectively, in MS medium without ABA at 18°C. It is possible to store IPB-052 and IPB-072 for six months and IPB-007 and IPB-137 for nine months using 30 g·L−1 of sucrose and 50% MS salts. PMID:24563627

  2. Mathematical modeling of laser based potato cutting and peeling.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, A Carlos O; Mittal, Gauri S; Bilanski, Walter K; Abdullah, Hussein A

    2007-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed and validated to predict the depth of cut in potato tuber slabs as a function of laser power and travel speed. The model considers laser processing parameters such as input power, spot size and exposure time as well as the properties of the material being cut such as specific heat, thermal conductivity, surface reflectance, etc. The model also considers the phase change of water in potato and the ignition temperature of the solid portion. The composition of the potato tuber is assumed to be of water and solid. The model also assumes that the ablation process is accomplished through ejection of liquid water, debris and water vapour, and combustion of solid. A CO(2) laser operating in c.w. mode was chosen for the experimental work because water absorbs laser energy highly at 10.6 microm, and CO(2) laser units with relatively high output power are available. Slabs of potato tuber were chosen to be laser processed since potato contains high moisture and large amounts of relatively homogeneous tissue. The results of the preliminary calculations and experiments concluded that the model is able to predict the depth of cut in potato tuber parenchyma when subjected to a CO(2) laser beam.

  3. Removing Potatoes from Children's Diets May Compromise Potassium Intake.

    PubMed

    Nicklas, Theresa A; Liu, Yan; Islam, Noemi; O'Neil, Carol E

    2016-01-01

    White potatoes are a forgotten source of nutrients. The goal of this study was to identify the nutritional implications of replacing a composite of white potatoes with a composite of vegetables commonly consumed by children aged 2-18 y (n = 3460) in a nationally representative sample. The NHANES 2005-2012 24-h dietary recall data were used to determine nutrient intake. Two replacement models were developed: one for potato consumers and another for those consuming vegetables other than potatoes. Analyses focused on 1) mean nutrient contributions per 1 cup equivalent vegetable composite (VC)/potato composite (PC) consumed by participants, and 2) mean daily nutrient intake when the nutrients per 1 cup equivalent PC replaced the nutrients per 1 cup equivalent VC. Covariate adjusted analysis was tested for statistical significance (P < 0.002). When 1 cup equivalent VC replaced 1 cup equivalent PC, significantly lower mean intakes were found for 20 of the 23 nutrients studied and higher mean intakes of total sugars, folate, and calcium. Differences were found including higher total intakes of monounsaturated fatty acids and potassium and lower total intakes of vitamins A and K. The percentage contribution of the PC to total daily nutrient intake was 6% for total energy, 8% for total fat, 5% for saturated fatty acids, 13% for dietary fiber, 4% for sodium, and 11% for potassium. Both composites contributed a variety of nutrients to the total diet; the consumption of white potatoes may be an important strategy to help meet the potassium recommendation.

  4. The quality of protein of coloured fleshed potatoes.

    PubMed

    Pęksa, A; Kita, A; Kułakowska, K; Aniołowska, M; Hamouz, K; Nemś, A

    2013-12-01

    Potatoes of purple varieties and red flesh colour were estimated as the important food product containing valuable protein. Amino acids concentration and protein nutritive value of coloured potatoes were analysed and compared with traditional yellow-fleshed varieties. Studies comprised potatoes of 13 varieties: 7 of purple-fleshed, four of red-fleshed and two of yellow-fleshed. There were observed differences between studied potatoes with respect to dry matter, starch and protein content as well as to amino acids concentration and protein quality independently on flesh colour. Potatoes of low as well of high content of total protein, independently on flesh colour, characterised similar protein quality, like for example varieties of Blaue Anneliese and Highland B. Red or Blue Congo and Salad Blue. Leucine limited the quality of majority of coloured fleshed potato varieties used for the experiment. The best amino acid profiles and protein quality confirmed by chemical scores and EAA index values characterised purple fleshed Vitelotte and Blaue Anneliese, yellow fleshed Verdi as well as red fleshed Herbie 26, Highland B. Red and Rosemarie.

  5. Removing Potatoes from Children's Diets May Compromise Potassium Intake123

    PubMed Central

    Nicklas, Theresa A; Liu, Yan; Islam, Noemi; O'Neil, Carol E

    2016-01-01

    White potatoes are a forgotten source of nutrients. The goal of this study was to identify the nutritional implications of replacing a composite of white potatoes with a composite of vegetables commonly consumed by children aged 2–18 y (n = 3460) in a nationally representative sample. The NHANES 2005–2012 24-h dietary recall data were used to determine nutrient intake. Two replacement models were developed: one for potato consumers and another for those consuming vegetables other than potatoes. Analyses focused on 1) mean nutrient contributions per 1 cup equivalent vegetable composite (VC)/potato composite (PC) consumed by participants, and 2) mean daily nutrient intake when the nutrients per 1 cup equivalent PC replaced the nutrients per 1 cup equivalent VC. Covariate adjusted analysis was tested for statistical significance (P < 0.002). When 1 cup equivalent VC replaced 1 cup equivalent PC, significantly lower mean intakes were found for 20 of the 23 nutrients studied and higher mean intakes of total sugars, folate, and calcium. Differences were found including higher total intakes of monounsaturated fatty acids and potassium and lower total intakes of vitamins A and K. The percentage contribution of the PC to total daily nutrient intake was 6% for total energy, 8% for total fat, 5% for saturated fatty acids, 13% for dietary fiber, 4% for sodium, and 11% for potassium. Both composites contributed a variety of nutrients to the total diet; the consumption of white potatoes may be an important strategy to help meet the potassium recommendation. PMID:26773033

  6. Antioxidant capacity of potato chips and snapshot trends in acrylamide content in potato chips and cereals on the Canadian market.

    PubMed

    Becalski, A; Stadler, R; Hayward, S; Kotello, S; Krakalovich, T; Lau, B P-Y; Roscoe, V; Schroeder, S; Trelka, R

    2010-09-01

    The concentration of acrylamide was measured in selected varieties of five brands of potato chips and breakfast cereals over a 5-year period. Most of the products were purchased in one locality in Canada. Samples were analysed by an isotope dilution ((13)C(3)) acrylamide method. They were extracted with water, partitioned with dichloromethane, filtered through a 5 kDa centrifuge filter, cleaned-up on HLB Oasis polymeric and Accucat mixed mode anion and cation exchange SPE columns, and analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The acrylamide concentration in potato chips varied from 106 to 4630 ng g(-1), while values in cereals varied from 50 to 347 ng g(-1). Wide variations were observed between brands, within brands over time, and between lots of the same brand. A subset of potato chip samples was analysed for in vitro antioxidant activity. No relationship was found between antioxidative capacity of potato chips and their acrylamide content.

  7. Genetic variation for potato tuber micronutrient content and implications for biofortification of potatoes to reduce micronutrient malnutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Micronutrients are crucial to healthy growth and development, yet a large proportion of the world’s population suffers from micronutrient deficiencies. Biofortification of staple foods has tremendous potential to alleviate these deficiencies. Potato production in developing countries is increasing...

  8. Life-history parameters of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, on seven commercial cultivars of potato, Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Fathi, Seyed Ali Asghar; Fakhr-Taha, Zoha; Razmjou, Jabraeil

    2013-01-01

    The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is an important pest of potato, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), crops in the Ardabil region of Iran. In this research, the life-history parameters of L. decemlineata were investigated on seven potato cultivars, namely Agria, Aozonia, Diamant, Cosmus, Kondor, Morene, and Savalan, in a greenhouse at 23 ± 1° C and 55 ± 5% RH under a natural photoperiod. The results indicated that the development time of larvae was longest on Savalan (18.3 days) among the tested potato cultivars. The survival rates (egg to adult) on Savalan and Morene were significantly lower than on the other studied cultivars. L. decemlineata reared on Savalan had the lowest fecundity (286.3 eggs/female) among the tested potato cultivars. The oviposition period of females was significantly shorter on Savalan and Diamant than on Kondor, Aozonia, Morene, Agria, and Cosmus. The values of intrinsic rate of natural increase and population growth rate were lowest on Savalan (0.055 and 1.056, respectively). The generation time and doubling time were significantly longest on Savalan (69.5 and 12.7 days, respectively). Based on these results, it can be concluded that Savalan is the least suitable cultivar for L. decemlineata among the ones tested. These results can be useful in integrated management of L. decemlineata in potato fields.

  9. Evaluation of potato tuber moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) resistance in tubers of Bt-cry5 transgenic potato lines.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, A; Douches, D S; Pett, W; Grafius, E; Coombs, J; Liswidowati; Li, W; Madkour, M A

    2000-04-01

    The potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), in tropical and subtropical countries, is the most destructive pest of potato, Solanum tuberosum L. The larvae attack foliage and tubers in the field and in storage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a Bt-cry5 transgene to control the potato tuber moth in tuber tissues. Tuber bioassays using stored (11-12 mo old) and newly harvested tubers of Bt-cry5-Lemhi Russet and Bt-cry5-Atlantic potato lines showed up to 100% mortality of 1st instars. Mortality was lowest in the newly harvested tubers of Bt-cry5-Atlantic lines (47.1-67.6%). Potato tuber moth mortality was 100% in the Bt-cry5-Spunta lines that were transformed with Bt-cry5 gene controlled by the CaMV 35S promoter (pBIML5 vector) and in 2 of 3 lines transformed with Bt-cry5 gene controlled by the Gelvin super promoter (pBIML1 vector). The transgenic Spunta lines expressing Bt-cry5 controlled by the patatin promoter (pBMIL2 vector) showed the lowest tuber moth mortality (25.6 and 31.1%). The Bt-cry5 transgenic lines with high tuber expression of B. thuringiensis have value in an integrated pest management system to control potato tuber moth.

  10. Construction of reference chromosome-scale pseudomolecules for potato: integrating the potato genome with genetic and physical maps.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar; Bolser, Daniel; de Boer, Jan; Sønderkær, Mads; Amoros, Walter; Carboni, Martin Federico; D'Ambrosio, Juan Martín; de la Cruz, German; Di Genova, Alex; Douches, David S; Eguiluz, Maria; Guo, Xiao; Guzman, Frank; Hackett, Christine A; Hamilton, John P; Li, Guangcun; Li, Ying; Lozano, Roberto; Maass, Alejandro; Marshall, David; Martinez, Diana; McLean, Karen; Mejía, Nilo; Milne, Linda; Munive, Susan; Nagy, Istvan; Ponce, Olga; Ramirez, Manuel; Simon, Reinhard; Thomson, Susan J; Torres, Yerisf; Waugh, Robbie; Zhang, Zhonghua; Huang, Sanwen; Visser, Richard G F; Bachem, Christian W B; Sagredo, Boris; Feingold, Sergio E; Orjeda, Gisella; Veilleux, Richard E; Bonierbale, Merideth; Jacobs, Jeanne M E; Milbourne, Dan; Martin, David Michael Alan; Bryan, Glenn J

    2013-11-06

    The genome of potato, a major global food crop, was recently sequenced. The work presented here details the integration of the potato reference genome (DM) with a new sequence-tagged site marker-based linkage map and other physical and genetic maps of potato and the closely related species tomato. Primary anchoring of the DM genome assembly was accomplished by the use of a diploid segregating population, which was genotyped with several types of molecular genetic markers to construct a new ~936 cM linkage map comprising 2469 marker loci. In silico anchoring approaches used genetic and physical maps from the diploid potato genotype RH89-039-16 (RH) and tomato. This combined approach has allowed 951 superscaffolds to be ordered into pseudomolecules corresponding to the 12 potato chromosomes. These pseudomolecules represent 674 Mb (~93%) of the 723 Mb genome assembly and 37,482 (~96%) of the 39,031 predicted genes. The superscaffold order and orientation within the pseudomolecules are closely collinear with independently constructed high density linkage maps. Comparisons between marker distribution and physical location reveal regions of greater and lesser recombination, as well as regions exhibiting significant segregation distortion. The work presented here has led to a greatly improved ordering of the potato reference genome superscaffolds into chromosomal "pseudomolecules".

  11. How-To-Do-It. A Beetle, a Bur, and the Potato: An Introduction to Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jantzen, Paul G.

    1983-01-01

    Describes how the interrelation of the potato beetle, the buffalo-bur, and the potato is used as an introduction to ecology. Methods of controlling the beetle and ecological principles illustrated in the interrelationship are discussed. (JN)

  12. Determination of thiabendazole residues in white and sweet potatoes by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Arenas, R V; Rahman, H; Johnson, N A

    1995-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic (LC) method was developed for determination of thiabendazole (TBZ) residues in or on whole, unwashed white potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) and sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas). TBZ is extracted from the potato homogenate with ethyl acetate and the extract purified and concentrated on a cation-exchange, solid-phase extraction column. The extract is analyzed for TBZ residues by column LC with a cation-exchange column and fluorescence detection. Recoveries of TBZ from whole white potatoes fortified with TBZ at 0.05-20 ppm and from whole sweet potatoes fortified with TBZ at 0.005-0.1 ppm averaged 100 and 94%, respectively. The method is also applicable for quantitation of TBZ residues in white potato waste (dried peel) used as an animal feed additive. The present method for monitoring TBZ residues in white and sweet potatoes and white potato waste (dried peel) is simple, rapid, and sensitive.

  13. Pigmented potato consumption improves immune response in men: a randomized controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigmented potatoes contain high concentrations of antioxidants including phenolic acids, anthocyanins and carotenoids; these bioactives have been implicated in the inhibition or prevention of cellular oxidative damage and chronic disease susceptibility. We studied the effects of pigmented potato c...

  14. Primary Metabolism, Phenylpropanoids and Antioxidant Pathways Are Regulated in Potato as a Response to Potato virus Y Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kogovšek, Polona; Pompe-Novak, Maruša; Petek, Marko; Fragner, Lena; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Gruden, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Potato production is one of the most important agricultural sectors, and it is challenged by various detrimental factors, including virus infections. To control losses in potato production, knowledge about the virus—plant interactions is crucial. Here, we investigated the molecular processes in potato plants as a result of Potato virus Y (PVY) infection, the most economically important potato viral pathogen. We performed an integrative study that links changes in the metabolome and gene expression in potato leaves inoculated with the mild PVYN and aggressive PVYNTN isolates, for different times through disease development. At the beginning of infection (1 day post-inoculation), virus-infected plants showed an initial decrease in the concentrations of metabolites connected to sugar and amino-acid metabolism, the TCA cycle, the GABA shunt, ROS scavangers, and phenylpropanoids, relative to the control plants. A pronounced increase in those metabolites was detected at the start of the strong viral multiplication in infected leaves. The alterations in these metabolic pathways were also seen at the gene expression level, as analysed by quantitative PCR. In addition, the systemic response in the metabolome to PVY infection was analysed. Systemic leaves showed a less-pronounced response with fewer metabolites altered, while phenylpropanoid-associated metabolites were strongly accumulated. There was a more rapid onset of accumulation of ROS scavengers in leaves inoculated with PVYN than those inoculated with PVYNTN. This appears to be related to the lower damage observed for leaves of potato infected with the milder PVYN strain, and at least partially explains the differences between the phenotypes observed. PMID:26727123

  15. Primary Metabolism, Phenylpropanoids and Antioxidant Pathways Are Regulated in Potato as a Response to Potato virus Y Infection.

    PubMed

    Kogovšek, Polona; Pompe-Novak, Maruša; Petek, Marko; Fragner, Lena; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Gruden, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Potato production is one of the most important agricultural sectors, and it is challenged by various detrimental factors, including virus infections. To control losses in potato production, knowledge about the virus-plant interactions is crucial. Here, we investigated the molecular processes in potato plants as a result of Potato virus Y (PVY) infection, the most economically important potato viral pathogen. We performed an integrative study that links changes in the metabolome and gene expression in potato leaves inoculated with the mild PVYN and aggressive PVYNTN isolates, for different times through disease development. At the beginning of infection (1 day post-inoculation), virus-infected plants showed an initial decrease in the concentrations of metabolites connected to sugar and amino-acid metabolism, the TCA cycle, the GABA shunt, ROS scavangers, and phenylpropanoids, relative to the control plants. A pronounced increase in those metabolites was detected at the start of the strong viral multiplication in infected leaves. The alterations in these metabolic pathways were also seen at the gene expression level, as analysed by quantitative PCR. In addition, the systemic response in the metabolome to PVY infection was analysed. Systemic leaves showed a less-pronounced response with fewer metabolites altered, while phenylpropanoid-associated metabolites were strongly accumulated. There was a more rapid onset of accumulation of ROS scavengers in leaves inoculated with PVYN than those inoculated with PVYNTN. This appears to be related to the lower damage observed for leaves of potato infected with the milder PVYN strain, and at least partially explains the differences between the phenotypes observed.

  16. The Potato ERF Transcription Factor StERF3 Negatively Regulates Resistance to Phytophthora infestans and Salt Tolerance in Potato.

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhendong; He, Qin; Wang, Haixia; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Ying; Shao, Fang; Xie, Conghua

    2015-05-01

    Ethylene response factors (ERFs) are unique to the plant kingdom and play crucial roles in plant response to various biotic and abiotic stresses. We show here that a potato StERF3, which contains an ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif in its C-terminal region, negatively regulates resistance to Phytophthora infestans and salt tolerance in potato. The StERF3 promoter responds to induction by salicylic acid, ABA ethylene and NaCl, as well as P. infestans, the causal agent of potato late blight disease. StERF3 could bind to the GCC box element of the HIS3 promoter and activate transcription of HIS3 in yeast cells. Importantly, silencing of StERF3 in potato produced an enhanced foliage resistance to P. infestans and elevated plant tolerance to NaCl stress accompanied by the activation of defense-related genes (PR1, NPR1 and WRKY1). In contrast, StERF3-overexpressing plants showed reduced expression of these defense-related genes and enhanced susceptibility to P. infestans, suggesting that StERF3 functions as a negative regulator of downstream defense- and/or stress-related genes in potato. StERF3 is localized to the nucleus. Interestingly, yeast two-hybrid assay and a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) test clarified that StERF3 could interact with other proteins in the cytoplasm which may lead to its re-localization between the nucleus and cytoplasm, revealing a novel means of StERF3 regulation. Taken together, these data provide new insights into the mechanism underlying how StERF3 negatively regulates late blight resistance and abiotic tolerance in potato and may have a potential use in engineering late blight resistance in potato.

  17. Development of late blight resistant potatoes by cisgene stacking

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Phytophthora infestans, causing late blight in potato, remains one of the most devastating pathogens in potato production and late blight resistance is a top priority in potato breeding. The introduction of multiple resistance (R) genes with different spectra from crossable species into potato varieties is required. Cisgenesis is a promising approach that introduces native genes from the crops own gene pool using GM technology, thereby retaining favourable characteristics of established varieties. Results We pursued a cisgenesis approach to introduce two broad spectrum potato late blight R genes, Rpi-sto1 and Rpi-vnt1.1 from the crossable species Solanum stoloniferum and Solanum venturii, respectively, into three different potato varieties. First, single R gene-containing transgenic plants were produced for all varieties to be used as references for the resistance levels and spectra to be expected in the respective genetic backgrounds. Next, a construct containing both cisgenic late blight R genes (Rpi-vnt1.1 and Rpi-sto1), but lacking the bacterial kanamycin resistance selection marker (NPTII) was transformed to the three selected potato varieties using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Gene transfer events were selected by PCR among regenerated shoots. Through further analyses involving morphological evaluations in the greenhouse, responsiveness to Avr genes and late blight resistance in detached leaf assays, the selection was narrowed down to eight independent events. These cisgenic events were selected because they showed broad spectrum late blight resistance due to the activity of both introduced R genes. The marker-free transformation was compared to kanamycin resistance assisted transformation in terms of T-DNA and vector backbone integration frequency. Also, differences in regeneration time and genotype dependency were evaluated. Conclusions We developed a marker-free transformation pipeline to select potato plants functionally expressing a

  18. Breeding for resistance to early blight in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early blight of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), caused by Alternaria solani, is a major cause of economic losses in many potato growing regions. We have identified two early blight resistant clones EB24-24 and EB24-3, which are hybrids between the cultivated (S. tuberosum) potato clone US-W4 (2x=24) ...

  19. Complete genomic sequence of a tobacco rattle virus isolate from Michigan-grown potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) causes stem mottle on potato leaves and necrotic arcs and rings in potato tubers, known as corky ringspot disease. Recently, TRV was reported in Michigan potato tubers cv. FL1879 exhibiting corky ringspot disease. Sequence analysis of the RNA-1-encoded 16 kDa gene of the...

  20. 76 FR 41589 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 946 Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural... rate established for the State of Washington Potato Committee (Committee) for the 2011-2012 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.0035 to $0.003 per hundredweight of potatoes handled. The Committee...

  1. 40 CFR 407.50 - Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... dehydrated potato products subcategory. 407.50 Section 407.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Dehydrated Potato Products Subcategory § 407.50 Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  2. 40 CFR 407.50 - Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... dehydrated potato products subcategory. 407.50 Section 407.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Dehydrated Potato Products Subcategory § 407.50 Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  3. 7 CFR 946.140 - Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Handling potatoes for commercial processing into... AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 946.140 Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products. Pursuant to §...

  4. 40 CFR 407.40 - Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... frozen potato products subcategory. 407.40 Section 407.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Frozen Potato Products Subcategory § 407.40 Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  5. 40 CFR 407.40 - Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... frozen potato products subcategory. 407.40 Section 407.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Frozen Potato Products Subcategory § 407.40 Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  6. 7 CFR 457.145 - Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement. 457... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.145 Potato crop insurance—certified seed endorsement. The Potato Crop Insurance Certified Seed Endorsement Provisions...

  7. 7 CFR 946.140 - Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Handling potatoes for commercial processing into... AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 946.140 Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products. Pursuant to §...

  8. 40 CFR 407.40 - Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... frozen potato products subcategory. 407.40 Section 407.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Frozen Potato Products Subcategory § 407.40 Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  9. 7 CFR 457.144 - Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality... Northern potato crop insurance—processing quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance.... Definitions Broker. Any business enterprise regularly engaged in the buying and selling of processing...

  10. 7 CFR 457.144 - Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality... Northern potato crop insurance—processing quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance.... Definitions Broker. Any business enterprise regularly engaged in the buying and selling of processing...

  11. 76 FR 71022 - Dicloran; Cancellation Order for Amendment To Terminate Use on Potatoes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... AGENCY Dicloran; Cancellation Order for Amendment To Terminate Use on Potatoes AGENCY: Environmental... terminate use on potatoes, voluntarily requested by the registrant and accepted by the Agency, of products... terminate DCNA use on potatoes for these product registrations. These are not the last products...

  12. 75 FR 1269 - Vegetable Import Regulations; Modification of Potato Import Regulations; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 980 Vegetable Import Regulations; Modification of Potato Import Regulations; Correction... rule modified the import regulations for Irish potatoes and made minor administrative changes to the potato, onion, and tomato import regulations to update informational references. This document...

  13. 7 CFR 946.140 - Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Handling potatoes for commercial processing into... AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 946.140 Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products. Pursuant to §...

  14. 40 CFR 407.50 - Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... dehydrated potato products subcategory. 407.50 Section 407.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Dehydrated Potato Products Subcategory § 407.50 Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  15. 7 CFR 457.145 - Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement. 457... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.145 Potato crop insurance—certified seed endorsement. The Potato Crop Insurance Certified Seed Endorsement Provisions...

  16. 7 CFR 457.144 - Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality... Northern potato crop insurance—processing quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance.... Definitions Broker. Any business enterprise regularly engaged in the buying and selling of processing...

  17. 7 CFR 457.145 - Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement. 457... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.145 Potato crop insurance—certified seed endorsement. The Potato Crop Insurance Certified Seed Endorsement Provisions...

  18. 7 CFR 457.145 - Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement. 457... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.145 Potato crop insurance—certified seed endorsement. The Potato Crop Insurance Certified Seed Endorsement Provisions...

  19. 7 CFR 457.145 - Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement. 457... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.145 Potato crop insurance—certified seed endorsement. The Potato Crop Insurance Certified Seed Endorsement Provisions...

  20. 40 CFR 407.50 - Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... dehydrated potato products subcategory. 407.50 Section 407.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Dehydrated Potato Products Subcategory § 407.50 Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  1. 40 CFR 407.40 - Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... frozen potato products subcategory. 407.40 Section 407.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Frozen Potato Products Subcategory § 407.40 Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  2. 7 CFR 457.144 - Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality... Northern potato crop insurance—processing quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance.... Definitions Broker. Any business enterprise regularly engaged in the buying and selling of processing...

  3. 40 CFR 407.50 - Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... dehydrated potato products subcategory. 407.50 Section 407.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Dehydrated Potato Products Subcategory § 407.50 Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  4. 7 CFR 946.140 - Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling potatoes for commercial processing into... AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 946.140 Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products. Pursuant to §...

  5. 7 CFR 946.140 - Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Handling potatoes for commercial processing into... AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 946.140 Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products. Pursuant to §...

  6. Fine screening for resistance to cold-induced sweetening in potato hybrids containing Solanum raphanifolium germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato is an indispensable part of human food. Many wild and cultivated potato relatives have been screened to find the best potato germplasm to improve productivity and quality, but only a small sample of the available biodiversity has been exploited. Most wild relatives are self-incompatible diplo...

  7. Developing cold-chipping potato varieties by silencing the vacuolar invertase gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage is a persistent and costly problem for the potato processing industry. High temperature processing of potato tubers with elevated amounts of reducing sugars results in potato chips, fries and other products that are unacceptable to consumers becaus...

  8. LC-MS analysis of solanidane glycoalkaloid diversity among four wild potato species and three cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Among the small molecules found in potato tubers are some that are phytonutrients or plant defense compounds. The extent of variation of these small molecules among different potato genotypes is not well characterized. LCMS analysis of tuber extracts from seven potato genotypes showed that one larg...

  9. Evaluation of potato anaerobic digestate as a renewable alternative to peat moss in horticultural substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato peels and other low-value wastes from potato processing are currently being used as cattle feed or fermented to produce fuel-grade ethanol. The anaerobic fermentation of food wastes, including potato processing wastes, produces biogas (principally methane), which can be used directly for heat...

  10. 7 CFR 457.144 - Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality...) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.144 Northern potato crop insurance—processing quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop...

  11. 7 CFR 457.143 - Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement... CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.143 Northern potato crop insurance—quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality...

  12. 7 CFR 457.146 - Northern potato crop insurance-storage coverage endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-storage coverage...) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.146 Northern potato crop insurance—storage coverage endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance...

  13. Use of gamma radiation as a form of preservation of sweet potatoes. Quarterly progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This progress report covers: harvest and conditioning following harvest; effects of ..gamma.. radiation on the sweet potato weevil, organoleptic properties of sweet potatoes, protein content of same, and sweet potato quality (vitamins, color, texture, and carbohydrates). Evaluation of preliminary results indicate that changes should be made in irradiation procedures/conditions and analyses. (DLC)

  14. Use of gamma radiation as a form of preservation of sweet potatoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The effects of (GAMMA) radiation on the sweet potato weevil, organoleptic properties of sweet potatoes, protein content of same, and sweet potato quality (vitamins, color, texture, and carbohydrates) are discussed. Evaluation of preliminary results indicate that changes should be made in irradiation procedures/conditions and analyses.

  15. RNA interference of effector gene 16D10 leads to broad meloidogyne resistance in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are a significant problem in potato (Solanum tuberosum) production. There is no known Meloidogyne resistance gene in cultivated potato, even though sources of resistance were identified in wild potato species. The objective of this study was to generate stable ...

  16. Non-destructive NIR detection of Zebra Chip disease in whole potatoes (abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potatoes are the 4th biggest food crop worldwide and the leading vegetable crop in the U.S., accounting for 15 percent of vegetable sales. Over 50% of potatoes are consumed as processed products such as French fries and chips. Zebra Chip (ZC) is a disease of potatoes that causes brown discoloration ...

  17. Characterization of management and environmental factors associated with regional variations in potato zebra chip occurrence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato zebra chip (ZC) disease, putatively caused by the bacterial pathogen ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’, which is vectored by the potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli), has caused widespread damage to the US potato production ever since its first discovery in south Texas in 2000. In t...

  18. Tuberization Response to Photoperiod in Potato Haploid-Wild Species Hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many useful quality and disease resistance traits for potato improvement come from wild Solanum relatives. Thus, an understanding of inheritance of tuberization in hybrid populations between wild and cultivated potatoes is important for the integration of good traits from wild potatoes. Four familie...

  19. 40 CFR 407.40 - Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... frozen potato products subcategory. 407.40 Section 407.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Frozen Potato Products Subcategory § 407.40 Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  20. Tuber blight development in potato cultivars in response to different genotypes of Phytophthora infestans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, is one of the most devastating diseases in potatoes, causing significant loses under disease-conducive conditions. Migrations or introduction of new genotypes to a specific region impose a different set of criteria for consideration for potato gr...

  1. Molecular diagnostics of potato cyst nematodes (PCN) from the national survey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato cyst nematodes (PCN) Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida are regulated pathogens of potato, a crop worth nearly $3.9 billion in the United States. Since the initial discovery of G. pallida in Idaho in 2006, extensive surveys of the major potato growing acreage have been carried out, to...

  2. Incidence, distribution and association of Spongospora subterranea and Potato mop-top virus in Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey was conducted in 39 potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) fields in Costa Rica to determine incidence and association of Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea and Potato mop-top pomovirus (PMTV). The fields were located in Costa Rica’s two major potato production regions, and were further char...

  3. 76 FR 27850 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Modification of the Rules and Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... potato industry to continue marketing russet potatoes without regard to the minimum quality, maturity... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 946 Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Modification of the Rules and Regulations AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule with request for...

  4. A new problem and old questions: potato psyllid in the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managing zebra chip disease in the potato growing regions of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho is complicated by confusion about the geographic source of the insect vector (potato psyllid) as it colonizes potato fields in these growing regions. Not knowing the source of the vector makes it difficult fo...

  5. Reducing the acrylamide content of processed potato products through germplasm improvement: opportunities, challenges and progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Processed potato products, including french fries and potato chips, make a substantial contribution to total dietary acrylamide. Health safety concerns raised by acrylamide in food increase financial risks to the potato industry and have encouraged industry to take a proactive response toward acryla...

  6. Comparing modeled productivity to historical data in New England potato production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato yields in Northern Maine have remained fairly constant for the last 70 years. Many long-term projects have sought to identify the limitations to potato yield, but identifying limiting factors is difficult without first identifying the upper limits of potato production. A simple, light-driven ...

  7. Potato psyllids and their bacterial allies: Two fronts in the war against zebra chip disease.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato psyllid is a major pest of potato in the western United States that transmits the pathogen that causes zebra chip disease. Potato psyllids, like all psyllids, have close associations with bacterial endosymbionts living within them. These endosymbionts may be obligate or facultative, and the...

  8. Aqueous ozone solutions for pesticide removal from potatoes.

    PubMed

    Heleno, Fernanda F; de Queiroz, Maria Eliana Lr; Faroni, Lêda Ra; Neves, Antônio A; de Oliveira, André F; Costa, Luiz Pl; Pimenta, Gustavo G

    2016-12-01

    The presence of pesticide residues in potatoes is of concern because of the potential impact to human health due to the high consumption of this vegetable. In this study, aqueous solutions with and without ozone saturation as postharvest wash treatment at pH 4.0, 7.0, and 9.0 were tested to remove chlorothalonil from potatoes. The method used for pesticide analysis has been validated, presenting recovery values of 94-103%, with variations in the repeatability coefficients of ≤10.6%, and a quantification limit of 0.05 mg kg(-1) Regardless of pH, treatment with aqueous ozone solutions removed 70-76% of the pesticide present in the potato. In the no-ozone treatments, the percentage average removal of chlorothalonil residues in potatoes was only 36%. Over 24 days of storage, the quality of potatoes washed with aqueous ozone solutions was not significantly different from those washed with pure water.

  9. Utilization of potatoes in bioregenerative life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T. W.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1987-01-01

    Data on the tuberization, harvest index, and morphology of 2 cvs of white potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) grown at 12, 16, 20, 24 and 28 C, 250, 400 and 550 micromol/s/m photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), 350, 1000 and 1600 microliter 1 sup -1 CO2 is presented. A productivity of 21.9 g/m day sup -1 of edible tubers from a solid stand of potatoes grown for 15 weeks with continuous irradiation at 400 micromol/s/m, 16 C and 1000 microliter 1 sup -1 CO2 was obtained. This equates to an area of 34.3 sq m being required to provide 2800 kcal of potatoes per day for a human diet. Separated plants receiving side lighting have produced 32.8 g/m day sup -1 which equates to an area of 23.6 sq m to provide 2800 kcal. Studies with side lighting indicate that productivities in this range should be realized from potatoes. Glycoalkaloid levels in tubers of controlled environment grown plants are within the range of levels found in tubers of field grown plants. The use and limitation of recirculating solution cultures for potato growth is discussed.

  10. Tribology of swollen starch granule suspensions from maize and potato.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Selway, Nichola; Shelat, Kinnari J; Dhital, Sushil; Stokes, Jason R; Gidley, Michael J

    2017-01-02

    The tribological properties of suspensions of cooked swollen starch granules are characterised for systems based on maize starch and potato starch. These systems are known as granule 'ghosts' due to the release (and removal) of polymer from their structure during cooking. Maize starch ghosts are less swollen than potato starch ghosts, resulting in a higher packing concentration and greater mechanical stability. In a soft-tribological contact, maize ghost suspensions reduce friction compared to the solvent (water), generate bell-shaped tribological profiles characteristic of particle entrainment and show a marked concentration dependence, whereas potato ghost suspensions exhibit lubrication behaviour similar to water. Microscopy analysis of the samples following tribological testing suggests that this is due to the rapid break-up of potato ghosts under the shear and rolling conditions within the tribological contact. A reduction in the small deformation moduli (associated with a weak gel structure) is also observed when the potato ghost suspensions are subjected to steady shear using parallel plate rheometry; both microscopy and particle size analysis show that this is accompanied by the partial shear-induced breakage of ghost particles. This interplay between particle microstructure and the resultant rheological and lubrication dynamics of starch ghost suspensions contributes to an enhanced mechanistic understanding of textural and other functional properties of cooked starches in food and other applications.

  11. The sweet potato sporamin promoter confers high-level phytase expression and improves organic phosphorus acquisition and tuber yield of transgenic potato.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ya-Fang; Liu, Chang-Yeu; Cheng, Kuo-Joan; Hour, Ai-Ling; Chan, Min-Tsair; Tseng, Tung-Hai; Chen, Kai-Yi; Shaw, Jei-Fu; Yu, Su-May

    2008-07-01

    The sweet potato sporamin promoter was used to control the expression in transgenic potato of the E. coli appA gene, which encodes a bifunctional enzyme exhibiting both acid phosphatase and phytase activities. The sporamin promoter was highly active in leaves, stems and different size tubers of transgenic potato, with levels of phytase expression ranging from 3.8 to 7.4% of total soluble proteins. Phytase expression levels in transgenic potato tubers were stable over several cycles of propagation. Field tests showed that tuber size, number and yield increased in transgenic potato. Improved phosphorus (P) acquisition when phytate was provided as a sole P source and enhanced microtuber formation in cultured transgenic potato seedlings when phytate was provided as an additional P source were observed, which may account for the increase in leaf chloroplast accumulation (important for photosynthesis) and tuber yield of field-grown transgenic potato supplemented with organic fertilizers. Animal feeding tests indicated that the potato-produced phytase supplement was as effective as a commercially available microbial phytase in increasing the availability of phytate-P to weanling pigs. This study demonstrates that the sporamin promoter can effectively direct high-level recombinant protein expression in potato tubers. Moreover, overexpression of phytase in transgenic potato not only offers an ideal feed additive for improving phytate-P digestibility in monogastric animals but also improves tuber yield, enhances P acquisition from organic fertilizers, and has a potential for phytoremediation.

  12. [Acrylamide content in potato crisps in Poland].

    PubMed

    Mojska, Hanna; Gielecińska, Iwona; Szponar, Lucjan; Chajewska, Katarzyna

    2006-01-01

    The main source of acrylamide in the diet are thermally processed carbohydrate-rich products, mainly those obtained from potatoes. Acrylamide is a substance with neurotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic properties. The International Agency for Research on Cancer classified it as a potential human carcinogen in 1994. The purpose of this study was to assess acrylamide content in 24 samples of crisps randomly collected in Poland in 2004. Acrylamide was determined in the form of brominated derivatives by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The average acrylamide content in the crisp samples examined was 998 mg/kg of the product, ranging from 352 to 3647 microg/kg, depending on the type of the crisps. The factor determining the differences in acrylamide content in the product was also the manufacturer. The average content of acrylamide in the crisps produced by three different manufacturers (manufacturers 1-3) was ca. 600-900 microg/kg, and in the crisps produced by manufacturer 4 was ca. 3 times higher. Moreover, substantial differences were found between the same types of crisps produced by the same manufacturers but originating from different manufacturing batches. The results obtained suggest the effects of various technological processes and raw material types on the level of acrylamide in crisps.

  13. Sucrose synthesis in gamma irradiated sweet potato

    SciTech Connect

    Ailouni, S.; Hamdy, M.K.; Toledo, R.T.

    1987-01-01

    Effect of ..cap alpha..-irradiation carbohydrate metabolism was examined to elucidate mechanism of sucrose accumulation in sweet potato (SP). Enzymes examined were: ..beta..-amylase, phosphorylase, phosphoglucomutase, phosphoglucose isomerase, sucrose phosphate synthetase and sucrose synthetase. Irradiated SP (Red Jewell) sucrose was synthesized to yield 10.7% after 4 d PI. Activities of sugar synthesizing enzymes in irradiated SP were enhanced to different degrees using 100-200 Krad and 3 d PI at 24/sup 0/C. Phosphorylase and phosphoglucomutases specific activities reached 2.4 and 1.8 folds, respectively compared to control SP. ..beta..-amylase, phosphoglucose isomerase, sucrose synthetase and sucrose phosphate synthetase were also affected to yield 1.2, 1.3, 1.3 and 1.2 folds, respectively compared to controls. It is believed that amylase hydrolyzed starch to glucose which is converted to fructose by phosphoglucose isomerase. Sucrose is then formed by sucrose phosphate synthetase and/or sucrose synthetase leading to its accumulation. The irradiated SP was used for alcohol fermentation leading to 500 gal. of 200 proof ethanol/acre (from 500-600 bushels tuber/acre).

  14. Microbial products from sweet potato wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Nghiem, N.P.

    1982-01-01

    Microbial production of methane from alkaline sweet potato wastes was studied. Assessment of methane production potential was based on total COD of the wastes. A single-stage and a two-stage system were studied. In both systems, to ensure stable operation and high performance, methane fermenters had to be initially seeded with large quantities of methane formers. A 50% inoculum (based on total fermenter volume) was found to be most effective. Methane formers tended to aggregate to form spherical particles which had extremely high settling rates, this eliminated the requirement of cell recycle. In both single-stage and two-stage systems the rates of gas production was sufficiently fast to induce thorough mixing of the fermenter contents. At low residence times of two and four days the two-stage system achieved significantly higher conversions. Gas production started almost immediately after feeding the methane fermenter of the two-stage system. The conversions in the methane fermenter of a two-stage system could be predicted by a model based on Contois' kinetics. The composition of the gas produced in this fermenter could also be predicted from the distribution of the organic acids in the effluent from the acid fermenter. The acid formation stage was studied in a chemostat operated at a fixed residence time of 5.5 hours. The highest yield of 0.09 g protein/g glucose consumed was obtained at pH 5.5 and 37/sup 0/C.

  15. Soxhlet extraction of acrylamide from potato chips.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Jörgen R; Olsson, Jim O

    2003-04-01

    The problem of complete extraction of acrylamide from potato chips was investigated. A method was developed based on the Soxhlet extraction technique. A defatted sample was extracted continuously with methanol, for 10 days, in a Soxhlet extractor. After about 7 days, a constant concentration of acrylamide was reached. This indicates that all the acrylamide that could be removed from the sample had been extracted. Acrylamide was identified in the extract using GC-MS and scan mode. Total concentration was 14500 microg kg(-1) using GC-FID and standard additions. Complementary determinations, using an external standard (GC-FID and GC-MS) and an internal standard (GC-FID), showed results within +/- 5%. A previously published study, using a static extraction method and GC-MS and LC-MS-MS, showed concentrations of 2287 and 1993 microg kg(-1), respectively. The results are discussed in relation to a recent model and analogous experiments. The extracted amount of acrylamide is affected by several parameters: solvent properties, solvent volume, extraction time, temperature, particle size, and the microstructure of the sample.

  16. Structure of potato tubers formed during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croxdale, J.; Cook, M.; Tibbitts, T. W.; Brown, C. S.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1997-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Norland) explants, consisting of a leaf, axillary bud, and small stem segment, were used as a model system to study the influence of spaceflight on the formation of sessile tubers from axillary buds. The explants were flown on the space shuttle Columbia (STS-73, 20 October to 5 November 1995) in the ASTROCULTURE (TM) flight package, which provided a controlled environment for plant growth. Light and scanning electron microscopy were used to compare the precisely ordered tissues of tubers formed on Earth with those formed during spaceflight. The structure of tubers produced during spaceflight was similar to that of tubers produced in a control experiment. The size and shape of tubers, the geometry of tuber tissues, and the distribution of starch grains and proteinaceous crystals were comparable in tubers formed in both environments. The shape, surface texture, and size range of starch grains from both environments were similar, but a greater percentage of smaller starch grains formed in spaceflight than on Earth. Since explant leaves must be of given developmental age before tubers form, instructions regarding the regular shape and ordered tissue geometry of tubers may have been provided in the presence of gravity. Regardless of when the signalling occurred, gravity was not required to produce a tuber of typical structure.

  17. Pyrolytic characteristics of sweet potato vine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tipeng; Dong, Xiaochen; Jin, Zaixing; Su, Wenjing; Ye, Xiaoning; Dong, Changqing; Lu, Qiang

    2015-09-01

    To utilized biomass for optimum application, sweet potato vine (SPV) was studied on its pyrolytic characteristics by TGA and Py-GC/MS analysis as a representative of biomass with low lignin content and high extractives content. Results indicated that lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose and extractives contents were 7.85 wt.%, 33.01 wt.%, 12.25 wt.% and 37.12 wt.%, respectively. In bio-oil, sugars content firstly increased from 8.76 wt.% (350 °C) to 13.97 wt.% (400 °C) and then decreased to 9.19 wt.% (500 °C); linear carbonyls and linear acids contents decreased from 16.58 wt.% and 17.45 wt.% to 5.26 wt.% and 4.03 wt.%, respectively; furans content increased from 7.10 wt.% to 15.47 wt.%. The content 11.86 wt.% of levoglucose at 400 °C, 15.41 wt.% of acetic acid at 350 °C and 6.94 wt.% of furfural at 500 °C suggested good pyrolysis selectivity of SPV.

  18. Direct fermentation of potato starch and potato residues to lactic acid by Geobacillus stearothermophilus under non-sterile conditions

    PubMed Central

    Smerilli, Marina; Neureiter, Markus; Wurz, Stefan; Haas, Cornelia; Frühauf, Sabine; Fuchs, Werner

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lactic acid is an important biorefinery platform chemical. The use of thermophilic amylolytic microorganisms to produce lactic acid by fermentation constitutes an efficient strategy to reduce operating costs, including raw materials and sterilization costs. RESULTS A process for the thermophilic production of lactic acid by Geobacillus stearothermophilus directly from potato starch was characterized and optimized. Geobacillus stearothermophilus DSM 494 was selected out of 12 strains screened for amylolytic activity and the ability to form lactic acid as the major product of the anaerobic metabolism. In total more than 30 batches at 3–l scale were run at 60 °C under non-sterile conditions. The process developed produced 37 g L−1 optically pure (98%) L-lactic acid in 20 h from 50 g L−1 raw potato starch. As co-metabolites smaller amounts (<7% w/v) of acetate, formate and ethanol were formed. Yields of lactic acid increased from 66% to 81% when potato residues from food processing were used as a starchy substrate in place of raw potato starch. CONCLUSIONS Potato starch and residues were successfully converted to lactic acid by G. stearothermophilus. The process described in this study provides major benefits in industrial applications and for the valorization of starch-rich waste streams. © 2015 The Authors.Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:25937690

  19. Alternative oxidase expression in aged potato tuber slices

    SciTech Connect

    Hiser, C.; Herdies, L.; McIntosh, L. )

    1989-04-01

    Higher plant mitochondria posses a cyanide-resistant, hydroxamate-sensitive alternative pathway of electron transport that does not conserve energy. Aging of potato tuber slices for 24 hours leads to the development of an alternative pathway capacity. We have shown that a monoclonal antibody raised against the alternative pathway terminal oxidase of Sauromatum guttatum crossreacts with a protein of similar size in aged potato slice mitochondria. This protein was partially purified and characterized by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and its relative levels parallel the rise in cyanide-resistant respiration. We are using a putative clone of the S. guttatum alternative oxidase gene to isolate the equivalent gene from potato and to examine its expression.

  20. [Chymotrypsin and trypsin inhibitor isolated from potato tubers].

    PubMed

    Revina, T A; Parfenov, I A; Gvozdeva, E L; Gerasimova, N G; Valueva, T A

    2011-01-01

    Potato Kunitz-type chymotrypsin inhibitor (PKCI-23) was isolated from potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L., Zhukov's Jubilee breed) and purified to a homogenous state. The protein was purified by gel-filtration chromatography and ion-exchange chromatography using Sephadex G-75 and CM-Sepharose CL-6B, respectively. PKCI-23 protein has been shown to inhibit both chymotrypsin and trypsin with equal efficacy, forming equimolar complexes with these enzymes. However, much weaker inhibitory effect of PKCI-23 has been observed for Carlsberg subtilisin. The N-terminal 20 amino acid sequence of PKCI-23 has been sequenced. PKCI-23 has been shown to suppress, with different efficacy, the growth and development of pathogenic microorganisms Fusarium culmorum (Wm. G. Sm.) Sacc. and Phytophtora infestans (Mont.) de Bary that infect potato.

  1. 76 FR 53842 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the Handling Regulation for Area No. 3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 948 Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado... prescribed under the Colorado potato marketing order (order). The order regulates the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Colorado, and is administered locally by the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee...

  2. 76 FR 80211 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the Handling Regulation for Area No. 3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... CFR Part 948 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-11-0051; FV11-948-1 FR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification... rule. SUMMARY: This rule revises the size requirements for potatoes under the Colorado potato marketing order (order). The order regulates the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Colorado, and is...

  3. 78 FR 23829 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the Handling Regulation for Area No. 2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 948 Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the Handling Regulation for Area... rule that modified the grade requirements for potatoes handled under the Colorado potato marketing...\\-inch diameter round, red- skinned potatoes handled under the marketing order from U.S. No. 1 to...

  4. Integrated bioethanol and biomanure production from potato waste.

    PubMed

    Chintagunta, Anjani Devi; Jacob, Samuel; Banerjee, Rintu

    2016-03-01

    Disposal of potato processing waste and the problem of pollution associated with it is a vital issue that is being faced by the potato processing plants. The conventional peeling methods presently followed in the processing plants for removing the potato peel, also result in the loss of some portion of the mash which is rich in starch. Indiscriminate discharge of the waste causes detrimental effects in the environment, so this problem can be resolved by successful utilization of the waste for the generation of value added products. Hence, the present work focuses on integrated production of bioethanol and biomanure to utilize the waste completely leading to zero waste generation. The first part of the work describes a comparative study of ethanol production from potato peel and mash wastes by employing co-culture of Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae at various incubation time (24-120 h) instead of application of enzymes. The solid state fermentation of potato peel and mash inoculated with co-culture, resulted in bioethanol production of 6.18% (v/v) and 9.30% (v/v) respectively. In the second part of the work, the residue obtained after ethanol production was inoculated with seven different microorganisms (Nostoc muscorum, Fischerella muscicola, Anabaena variabilis, Aulosira fertilissima, Cylindrospermum muscicola, Azospirillium lipoferum, Azotobacter chroococcum) and mixture of all the organisms in equal ratio for nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) enrichment. Among them, A. variabilis was found to enrich N, P and K content of the residue by nearly 7.66, 21.66 and 15 fold than that of the initial content, ultimately leading to improved N:P:K ratio of approximately 2:1:1. The application of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) for the conversion of potato waste to ethanol and enrichment of residue obtained after ethanol production with microorganisms to be used as manure envisages environmental sustainability.

  5. Assessment of Genetic Diversity of Sweet Potato in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Bonilla, Lorraine; Cuevas, Hugo E.; Montero-Rojas, Milly; Bird-Pico, Fernando; Luciano-Rosario, Dianiris; Siritunga, Dimuth

    2014-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is the seventh most important food crop due to its distinct advantages, such as adaptability to different environmental conditions and high nutritional value. Assessing the genetic diversity of this important crop is necessary due to the constant increase of demand for food and the need for conservation of agricultural and genetic resources. In Puerto Rico (PR), the genetic diversity of sweet potato has been poorly understood, although it has been part of the diet since Pre-Columbus time. Thus, 137 landraces from different localities around PR were collected and subjected to a genetic diversity analysis using 23 SSR-markers. In addition, 8 accessions from a collection grown in Gurabo, PR at the Agricultural Experimental Station (GAES), 10 US commercial cultivars and 12 Puerto Rican accessions from the USDA repository collection were included in this assessment. The results of the analysis of the 23 loci showed 255 alleles in the 167 samples. Observed heterozygosity was high across populations (0.71) while measurements of total heterozygosity revealed a large genetic diversity throughout the population and within populations. UPGMA clustering method revealed two main clusters. Cluster 1 contained 12 PR accessions from the USDA repository collection, while cluster 2 consisted of PR landraces, US commercial cultivars and the PR accessions from GAES. Population structure analysis grouped PR landraces in five groups including four US commercial cultivars. Our study shows the presence of a high level of genetic diversity of sweet potato across PR which can be related to the genetic makeup of sweet potato, human intervention and out-crossing nature of the plant. The history of domestication and dispersal of sweet potato in the Caribbean and the high levels of genetic diversity found through this study makes sweet potato an invaluable resource that needs to be protected and further studied. PMID:25551388

  6. Monitoring of possible horizontal gene transfer from transgenic potatoes to soil microorganisms in the potato fields and the emergence of variants in Phytophthora infestans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Eun; Moon, Jae Sun; Kim, Jung Kyu; Yoo, Ran Hee; Choi, Won Sik; Lee, Eun Na; Lee, Sang Han; Kim, Sung Uk

    2010-06-01

    To examine the possibility of horizontal gene transfer between transgenic potatoes and microorganisms in potato fields, the gene flow from transgenic potatoes containing nucleoside diphosphate kinase 2 (NDPK2) gene to microorganisms in soils was investigated. The soil samples collected from the potato fields from March to October in 2007 were examined by PCR, Southern hybridization, and AFLP fingerprinting. The NDPK2 gene from soil genomic DNAs was not detected by both PCR and Southern hybridization, indicating that gene-transfer did not occur in the potato fields. In addition, no discrepancy was found in pathogenicity and noticeable changes for the appearance of variants of Phytophthora infestans in each generation when serial inoculations and the analysis of genomic DNAs by AFLP was conducted. Thus, these data suggest that transgenic potatoes do not give significant impacts on the communities of soil microorganisms and the emergence of variants although continued research efforts may be necessary to make a decisive conclusion.

  7. Advances in functional use of sweet potato, [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam].

    PubMed

    Barnes, Sandra L; Sanders, Sheila A

    2012-08-01

    This article reviews the patents that have been presented over the past two decades related to alternative functional use of the Sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. The major categories of available patents include alternative food products such as Sweet potato chips and fries, Sweet potato ornamental products, and fuel ethanol production from Sweet potato. The majority of recent patents fall under the category of ornamental products and alternative food products, with only a few fuel ethanol products. Figure 1 shows the major categories of patented alternative products from Sweet potato.

  8. Immunocytochemical localization of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase in developing potato tuber cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Woo Taek; Franceschi, V.R.; Okita, T.W. ); Robinson, N.L.; Morell, M.; Preiss, J. )

    1989-09-01

    The subcellular localization of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase, a key regulatory enzyme in starch biosynthesis, was determined in developing potato tuber cells by immunocytochemical localization techniques at the light microscopy level. Specific labeling of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase by either immunofluorescence or immunogold followed by silver enhancement was detected only in the amyloplasts and indicates that this enzyme is located exclusively in the amyloplasts in developing potato tuber cells. Labeling occurred on the starch grains and, in some instances, specific labeling patterns were evident which may be related to sites active in starch deposition.

  9. [Wound healing and induced resistance in potato tubers].

    PubMed

    Ozeretskovskaia, O L; Vasiukova, N I; Chalenko, G I; Gerasimova, N G; Revina, T A; Valueva, T A

    2009-01-01

    It was demonstrated that biogenic elicitors, arachidonic acid and chitosan, locally and systemically stimulated wound healing in potato tuber tissues by increasing the number of wound periderm layers, accelerating the development of cork cambium (phellogen), and inducing proteinase inhibitors. The signal molecules, jasmonic and salicylic acids, had different effects on the development of wound periderm: jasmonic acid locally and systemically stimulated potato wound healing and elevated the level of proteinase inhibitors, whereas salicylic acid did not have any effect on wound healing and even blocked the formation of proteinase inhibitors.

  10. Bioactive Compounds in Potato Tubers: Effects of Farming System, Cooking Method, and Flesh Color

    PubMed Central

    Czerko, Zbigniew; Zarzyńska, Krystyna; Borowska-Komenda, Monika

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of cultivation system (conventional or organic), cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of ascorbic acid (AA) and total phenolics (TPs), and on total antioxidant activity (Trolox equivalents, TE) in Solanum tuberosum (potato) tubers. The research material, consisting of 4 potato cultivars, was grown in experimental fields, using organic and conventional systems, at the experimental station in 2012 and 2013. The analysis showed that organically grown potatoes with creamy, light yellow, and yellow flesh had significantly higher TPs than did potatoes grown conventionally. Flesh color and cooking method also affected AA. The greatest losses of AA occurred in yellow-fleshed potatoes grown conventionally and cooked in the microwave; such losses were not observed in potatoes grown organically. A dry cooking method (baking in a microwave) increased the TP contents in potatoes by about 30%, regardless of the flesh color and the production system. TE was significantly higher in organically grown potatoes (raw and cooked in a steamer) than in conventionally grown potatoes. TE and AA contents showed a significant positive correlation, but only in potatoes from the organic system [R2 = 0.686]. By contrast, the positive correlation between TE and TPs was observed regardless of the production system. Therefore, we have identified the effects of farming system, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of bioactive compounds in potato tubers. PMID:27139188

  11. Enhanced salt stress tolerance in transgenic potato plants expressing IbMYB1, a sweet potato transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Jie; Kim, Myoung-Duck; Deng, Xi-Ping; Kwak, Sang-Soo; Chen, Wei

    2013-12-01

    IbMYB1, a transcription factor (TF) for R2R3-type MYB TFs, is a key regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis during storage of sweet potatoes. Anthocyanins provide important antioxidants of nutritional value to humans, and also protect plants from oxidative stress. This study aimed to increase transgenic potatoes' (Solanum tuberosum cv. LongShu No.3) tolerance to environmental stress and enhance their nutritional value. Transgenic potato plants expressing IbMYB1 genes under the control of an oxidative stress-inducible peroxidase (SWPA2) promoter (referred to as SM plants) were successfully generated through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Two representative transgenic SM5 and SM12 lines were evaluated for enhanced tolerance to salinity, UV-B rays, and drought conditions. Following treatment of 100 mM NaCl, seedlings of SM5 and SM12 lines showed less root damage and more shoot growth than control lines expressing only an empty vector. Transgenic potato plants in pots treated with 400 mM NaCl showed high amounts of secondary metabolites, including phenols, anthocyanins, and flavonoids, compared with control plants. After treatment of 400 mM NaCl, transgenic potato plants also showed high DDPH radical scavenging activity and high PS II photochemical efficiency compared with the control line. Furthermore, following treatment of NaCl, UV-B, and drought stress, the expression levels of IbMYB1 and several structural genes in the flavonoid biosynthesis such as CHS, DFR, and ANS in transgenic plants were found to be correlated with plant phenotype. The results suggest that enhanced IbMYB1 expression affects secondary metabolism, which leads to improved tolerance ability in transgenic potatoes.

  12. Detection of nitrogen deficiency in potatoes using unmanned aircraft systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS) are recognized as potentially important remote-sensing platforms for precision agriculture. We set up a nitrogen rate experiment in 2013 with ‘Ranger Russet’ potatoes by applying four rates of nitrogen fertilizer (112, 224, 337, and 449 kg N/ha) in a randomized...

  13. Apparent Amylose Determination in Wild and Cultivated Potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a storage organ, a potato tuber is mostly water and starch. Approximately 20% of fresh tuber weight is starch and the remainder is water. Most of the starch (around 70%) in the tuber is amylopectin; the remainder is amylose. The ratio between amylose and amylopectin is the most important property...

  14. Rational and Empirical Play in the Simple Hot Potato Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butts, Carter T.; Rode, David C.

    2007-01-01

    We define a "hot potato" to be a good that may be traded a finite number of times, but which becomes a bad if and when it can no longer be exchanged. We describe a game involving such goods, and show that non-acceptance is a unique subgame perfect Nash equilibrium for rational egoists. Contrastingly, experiments with human subjects show…

  15. Bioavailability of zinc from sweet potato roots and leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Baiden, H.N.; Ercanli-Huffman, F.G.

    1986-03-05

    Bioavailability of zinc from sweet potato (SP) roots and leaves were determined, by extrinsic labeling technique, in rats fed control and zinc deficient diets. Weanling male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats (60-75g) were divided into 4 groups, and fed laboratory chow, a control diet (ad libitum and pair fed) and a zinc deficient diet, for 4 weeks. Each group then was divided into at least 2 sub groups, containing 6 rats, which were intubated with one of 3 tubing solutions extrinsically labeled with /sup 65/Zn; baked sweet potato roots (BSPR), raw sweet potato leaves (RSPL) and cooked sweet potato leaves (CSPL). Five hours after intubation the rats were sacrificed, blood, liver, testes, spleen, heart, brain, thymus and lungs were removed. Feces, urine, and GI tract contents were collected and their /sup 65/Zn activity was determined in a gamma counter. In all treatment groups zinc bioavailability from BSPR, RSPL or CSPL were not significantly different. Zinc deficient rats absorbed significantly more (P < 0.01) /sup 65/Zn (86-90% of the dose), regardless of type of tubing solution than the pairfed or control animals (35-58% of the dose). The highest retention of /sup 65/Zn was found in the liver (12-20% of absorbed dose), GI tract (6-17% of absorbed dose), kidney (2-8% of absorbed dose), and blood (1-5% of absorbed dose). The lowest retention was found in the brain, heart, thymus and testes. (< 1% of absorbed dose).

  16. Extracellular Alkalinization as a Defense Response in Potato Cells

    PubMed Central

    Moroz, Natalia; Fritch, Karen R.; Marcec, Matthew J.; Tripathi, Diwaker; Smertenko, Andrei; Tanaka, Kiwamu

    2017-01-01

    A quantitative and robust bioassay to assess plant defense response is important for studies of disease resistance and also for the early identification of disease during pre- or non-symptomatic phases. An increase in extracellular pH is known to be an early defense response in plants. In this study, we demonstrate extracellular alkalinization as a defense response in potatoes. Using potato suspension cell cultures, we observed an alkalinization response against various pathogen- and plant-derived elicitors in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We also assessed the defense response against a variety of potato pathogens, such as protists (Phytophthora infestans and Spongospora subterranea) and fungi (Verticillium dahliae and Colletotrichum coccodes). Our results show that extracellular pH increases within 30 min in proportion to the number of pathogen spores added. Consistently with the alkalinization effect, the higher transcription level of several defense-related genes and production of reactive oxygen species was observed. Our results demonstrate that the alkalinization response is an effective marker to study early stages of defense response in potatoes. PMID:28174578

  17. Genetic Improvement of Potato for Tuber Calcium Uptake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tuber internal quality is a major limiting factor for the U.S. potato industry. Breeders invest time and money in producing advanced selections which, in the end, often fail because of tuber internal defects, tuber bruising, or storage quality issues. In-season fertilization with calcium is known to...

  18. Cyanide-resistant Respiration in Freshly Cut Potato Slices.

    PubMed

    Rychter, A; Janes, H W; Frenkel, C

    1978-04-01

    Treating intact white potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber with ethylene in air or O(2) made it possible to obtain freshly cut slices which exhibit cyanide-resistant respiration. The cyanide-resistant path requires induction in whole tubers. The data also indicate that high O(2) concentration is necessary for the full development of cyanide-resistant respiration.

  19. Looking ahead…how biotechnology may change potato storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have been growing, harvesting, storing and characterizing tubers from transgenic potato plants for the past four years. The plants have low expression of the vacuolar invertase gene and were produced for research purposes by Jiming Jiang’s group at UW-Madison. We’ve analyzed sugars from over 2400...

  20. Genetic and cultural management solutions to improve potato storage quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato storage quality is most easily described in terms of tuber attributes that maintain the value of the harvested crop. Among these attributes are attractive appearance, low shrink, low incidence of bruising and, for chip and fry processing varieties, specific gravity and reducing sugars appropr...

  1. Recommending soil copper thresholds for potato production in Idaho

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rising concern with the application of dairy wastes to agricultural fields is the accumulation of copper in the soil. Copper sulfate from cattle footbaths is washed out of dairy barns and into wastewater lagoons. Potato growers are concerned about this issue, as many of the predominant dairy produ...

  2. Reticulate Phylogenetics of Wild Potato Polyploids Inferred From Multilocus Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are approximately 190 wild potato (2n = 2x = 24), tetraploids (2n = 4x = 48), and hexaploids (2n = 6x = 72), as well as a few rare triploids and pentaploids. Previous studies using nuclear ortholog DNA sequences GBSSI (waxy) and nitrate reductase (NIA) indicated that the polyploids may have au...

  3. Calystegines in potatoes with genetically engineered carbohydrate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Richter, Ute; Sonnewald, Uwe; Dräger, Birgit

    2007-01-01

    Calystegines are hydroxylated nortropane alkaloids derived from the tropane alkaloid biosynthetic pathway. They are strong glycosidase inhibitors and occur in vegetables such as potatoes, tomatoes, and cabbage. Calystegine accumulation in root cultures was described to increase with carbohydrate availability. Whether this is indicative for the in planta situation is as yet unknown. Potatoes are model plants for the study of carbohydrate metabolism. Numerous transgenic potato lines with altered carbohydrate metabolism are available, but rarely were examined for alterations in secondary metabolism. In this study, calystegine accumulation and expression of biosynthetic enzymes were related to genetic modifications in carbohydrate metabolism in potato tubers. Tubers contained more soluble sugars due to overexpression of yeast invertase in the apoplast or in the cytosol, or due to antisense suppression of sucrose synthase. It is shown that the major part of calystegines in tubers originated from biosynthesis in plant roots. Yet, tuber calystegine levels responded to genetic alterations of carbohydrate metabolism in tubers. The strongest increase in calystegines was found in tubers with suppressed sucrose synthase activity. Transcripts and enzyme activities involved in calystegine biosynthesis largely concurred with product accumulation. Whole plant organs were examined similarly and displayed higher calystegines and corresponding enzyme activities in roots and stolons of plants with enhanced soluble sugars. Increases in calystegines appear to be linked to sucrose availability.

  4. Accumulation of vitamin E in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers.

    PubMed

    Crowell, Elizabeth F; McGrath, J Mitchell; Douches, David S

    2008-04-01

    Vitamin E (tocopherol) is a powerful antioxidant essential for human health and synthesized only by photosynthetic organisms. The effects of over-expression of tocopherol biosynthetic enzymes have been studied in leaves and seeds, but not in a non-photosynthetic, below-ground plant organ. Genetic and molecular approaches were used to determine if increased levels of tocopherols can be accumulated in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers through metabolic engineering. Two transgenes were constitutively over-expressed in potato: Arabidopsis thaliana p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (At-HPPD) and A. thaliana homogentisate phytyltransferase (At-HPT). alpha-Tocopherol levels in the transgenic plants were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. In potato tubers, over-expression of At-HPPD resulted in a maximum 266% increase in alpha-tocopherol, and over-expression of At-HPT yielded a 106% increase. However, tubers from transgenic plants still accumulated approximately 10- and 100-fold less alpha-tocopherol than leaves or seeds, respectively. The results indicate that physiological and regulatory constraints may be the most limiting factors for tocopherol accumulation in potato tubers. Studying regulation and induction of tocopherol biosynthesis should reveal approaches to more effectively engineer crops with enhanced tocopherol content.

  5. Herbicide residues and nitrate concentration in tubers of table potatoes.

    PubMed

    Zarzecka, Krystyna; Gugała, Marek; Mystkowska, Iwona

    2010-01-01

    This study examined Wiking-cultivar table potato tubers in a field experiment conducted between 2002 and 2004 using a rye complex soil. The experimental factors included (a) two methods of tillage, including traditional and simplified, as well as (b) seven methods of cultivation with the use of herbicides as follows: 1, control without herbicides; 2, Plateen 41.5 WG; 3, Plateen 41.5 WG + Fusilade Forte 150 EC; 4, Plateen 41.5 WG + Fusilade Forte 150 EC + adjuvant Atpolan 80 EC; 5, Barox 460 SL; 6, Barox 460 SL + Fusilade Forte 150 EC; and 7, Barox 460 SL + Fusilade Forte 150 EC + adjuvant Atpolan 80 EC. Determination of residues was performed using high-performance liquid and gas chromatography. Only trace quantities of bentazone (Barox 460 SL) were found in potato tubers, amounts that fell below the maximum residue limit (MRL). The nitrate content of potato tubers was determined using a nitrate ion-selective electrode and silver chloride reference electrode. The nitrate content in fresh matter of unpeeled and peeled tubers depended significantly only on weather conditions in the years of study. In contrast, agrotechnical procedures such as methods of tillage and cultivation did not significantly affect potato tuber nitrate content.

  6. PHYSIOLOGICAL STRAIN AMONG WOMEN POTATO CULTIVATORS IN WEST BENGAL, INDIA.

    PubMed

    Pal, Amitava; De, Sujaya; Sengupta, Piyali; Maity, Payel; Mahata, Hiranmoy; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Dhara, Prakash C

    2015-12-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate physiological strain among women cultivators engaged in potato cultivation. The cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 150 women participants in different districts of West Bengal State, India. The physiological strain was evaluated by working heart rate, blood lactate and oxygen consumption. The average working heart rate was 109.97 ± 9.94 beats/min when all tasks were considered together. According to the working heart rate, oxygen consumption and energy cost, the potato cultivation job was categorized as a moderate work category. Whereas, according to cardiovascular stress index (CSI), all tasks of potato cultivation were categorized into a stressful category. The more experienced workers were more productive than their less experienced counterparts, and this increased productivity appeared to be a combination of greater efficiency and greater physical exertion. Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses revealed that work pace and work experience had significant association with all the indices of physiological strain. Work pace had strongest significant impact on these indices even after controlling the effect of age, work experience and efficiency. It was concluded that during performing potato cultivation tasks the workers had a great extent of physiological strain.

  7. Genotyping by sequencing of a diploid potato F2 population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) of multiplexed, restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) libraries is an attractive technology for generating genome-wide markers because of its technical simplicity and low costs per sample. To investigate its feasibility for potato, a diploid F2 population (S. tuberosum...

  8. Potato model uncertainty across common datasets and varying climate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A potato crop multi-model assessment was conducted to quantify variation among models and evaluate responses to climate change. Nine modeling groups simulated agronomic and climatic responses at low- (Chinoli, Bolivia and Gisozi, Burundi) and high- (Jyndevad, Denmark and Washington, United States) ...

  9. Extracellular Alkalinization as a Defense Response in Potato Cells.

    PubMed

    Moroz, Natalia; Fritch, Karen R; Marcec, Matthew J; Tripathi, Diwaker; Smertenko, Andrei; Tanaka, Kiwamu

    2017-01-01

    A quantitative and robust bioassay to assess plant defense response is important for studies of disease resistance and also for the early identification of disease during pre- or non-symptomatic phases. An increase in extracellular pH is known to be an early defense response in plants. In this study, we demonstrate extracellular alkalinization as a defense response in potatoes. Using potato suspension cell cultures, we observed an alkalinization response against various pathogen- and plant-derived elicitors in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We also assessed the defense response against a variety of potato pathogens, such as protists (Phytophthora infestans and Spongospora subterranea) and fungi (Verticillium dahliae and Colletotrichum coccodes). Our results show that extracellular pH increases within 30 min in proportion to the number of pathogen spores added. Consistently with the alkalinization effect, the higher transcription level of several defense-related genes and production of reactive oxygen species was observed. Our results demonstrate that the alkalinization response is an effective marker to study early stages of defense response in potatoes.

  10. Botanicals to control soft rot bacteria of potato.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Khan, A A; Ali, M E; Mian, I H; Akanda, A M; Abd Hamid, S B

    2012-01-01

    Extracts from eleven different plant species such as jute (Corchorus capsularis L.), cheerota (Swertia chiraita Ham.), chatim (Alstonia scholaris L.), mander (Erythrina variegata), bael (Aegle marmelos L.), marigold (Tagetes erecta), onion (Allium cepa), garlic (Allium sativum L.), neem (Azadiracta indica), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) were tested for antibacterial activity against potato soft rot bacteria, E. carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) P-138, under in vitro and storage conditions. Previously, Ecc P-138 was identified as the most aggressive soft rot bacterium in Bangladeshi potatoes. Of the 11 different plant extracts, only extracts from dried jute leaves and cheerota significantly inhibited growth of Ecc P-138 in vitro. Finally, both plant extracts were tested to control the soft rot disease of potato tuber under storage conditions. In a 22-week storage condition, the treated potatoes were significantly more protected against the soft rot infection than those of untreated samples in terms of infection rate and weight loss. The jute leaf extracts showed more pronounced inhibitory effects on Ecc-138 growth both in in vitro and storage experiments.

  11. Potato tuber wounding induces responses associated with various healing processes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wounding induces an avalanche of biological responses involved in the healing and protection of internal tuber tissues exposed by mechanical damage and seed cutting. Collectively, our studies have framed a portrait of the mechanisms and regulation of potato tuber wound-healing, but much more is req...

  12. Engineering Potato Starch with a Higher Phosphate Content

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xuan; Huang, Xing-Feng; Visser, Richard G. F.

    2017-01-01

    Phosphate esters are responsible for valuable and unique functionalities of starch for industrial applications. Also in the cell phosphate esters play a role in starch metabolism, which so far has not been well characterized in storage starch. Laforin, a human enzyme composed of a carbohydrate-binding module and a dual-specificity phosphatase domain, is involved in the dephosphorylation of glycogen. To modify phosphate content and better understand starch (de)phosphorylation in storage starch, laforin was engineered and introduced into potato (cultivar Kardal). Interestingly, expression of an (engineered) laforin in potato resulted in significantly higher phosphate content of starch, and this result was confirmed in amylose-free potato genetic background (amf). Modified starches exhibited altered granule morphology and size compared to the control. About 20–30% of the transgenic lines of each series showed red-staining granules upon incubation with iodine, and contained higher phosphate content than the blue-stained starch granules. Moreover, low amylose content and altered gelatinization properties were observed in these red-stained starches. Principle component and correlation analysis disclosed a complex correlation between starch composition and starch physico-chemical properties. Ultimately, the expression level of endogenous genes involved in starch metabolism was analysed, revealing a compensatory response to the decrease of phosphate content in potato starch. This study provides a new perspective for engineering starch phosphate content in planta by making use of the compensatory mechanism in the plant itself. PMID:28056069

  13. Comparative analyses of potato expressed sequence tag libraries.

    PubMed

    Ronning, Catherine M; Stegalkina, Svetlana S; Ascenzi, Robert A; Bougri, Oleg; Hart, Amy L; Utterbach, Teresa R; Vanaken, Susan E; Riedmuller, Steve B; White, Joseph A; Cho, Jennifer; Pertea, Geo M; Lee, Yuandan; Karamycheva, Svetlana; Sultana, Razvan; Tsai, Jennifer; Quackenbush, John; Griffiths, Helen M; Restrepo, Silvia; Smart, Christine D; Fry, William E; Van Der Hoeven, Rutger; Tanksley, Steve; Zhang, Peifen; Jin, Hailing; Yamamoto, Miki L; Baker, Barbara J; Buell, C Robin

    2003-02-01

    The cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) shares similar biology with other members of the Solanaceae, yet has features unique within the family, such as modified stems (stolons) that develop into edible tubers. To better understand potato biology, we have undertaken a survey of the potato transcriptome using expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from diverse tissues. A total of 61,940 ESTs were generated from aerial tissues, below-ground tissues, and tissues challenged with the late-blight pathogen (Phytophthora infestans). Clustering and assembly of these ESTs resulted in a total of 19,892 unique sequences with 8,741 tentative consensus sequences and 11,151 singleton ESTs. We were able to identify a putative function for 43.7% of these sequences. A number of sequences (48) were expressed throughout the libraries sampled, representing constitutively expressed sequences. Other sequences (13,068, 21%) were uniquely expressed and were detected only in a single library. Using hierarchal and k means clustering of the EST sequences, we were able to correlate changes in gene expression with major physiological events in potato biology. Using pair-wise comparisons of tuber-related tissues, we were able to associate genes with tuber initiation, dormancy, and sprouting. We also were able to identify a number of characterized as well as novel sequences that were unique to the incompatible interaction of late-blight pathogen, thereby providing a foundation for further understanding the mechanism of resistance.

  14. Wart (synchytrium endobioticum) resistance in cultivated potato species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato wart (Synchytrium endobioticum) is an obligate chytrid fungus parasite. It is included in the list of the quarantine objects in 55 countries. At the end of the nineteenth century, the disease spread outside of its original range in the Andeans of South America. More than 40 pathotypes of the ...

  15. Botanicals to Control Soft Rot Bacteria of Potato

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M. M.; Khan, A. A.; Ali, M. E.; Mian, I. H.; Akanda, A. M.; Abd Hamid, S. B.

    2012-01-01

    Extracts from eleven different plant species such as jute (Corchorus capsularis L.), cheerota (Swertia chiraita Ham.), chatim (Alstonia scholaris L.), mander (Erythrina variegata), bael (Aegle marmelos L.), marigold (Tagetes erecta), onion (Allium cepa), garlic (Allium sativum L.), neem (Azadiracta indica), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) were tested for antibacterial activity against potato soft rot bacteria, E. carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) P-138, under in vitro and storage conditions. Previously, Ecc P-138 was identified as the most aggressive soft rot bacterium in Bangladeshi potatoes. Of the 11 different plant extracts, only extracts from dried jute leaves and cheerota significantly inhibited growth of Ecc P-138 in vitro. Finally, both plant extracts were tested to control the soft rot disease of potato tuber under storage conditions. In a 22-week storage condition, the treated potatoes were significantly more protected against the soft rot infection than those of untreated samples in terms of infection rate and weight loss. The jute leaf extracts showed more pronounced inhibitory effects on Ecc-138 growth both in in vitro and storage experiments. PMID:22701096

  16. Differential induction of redox sensitive extracellular phenolic amides in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study focuses on the differential induction of extracellular phenolic amides that accumulate in potato cell suspensions during the first few hours of the interaction between these plant cells and bacterial pathogens or pathogen-related elicitors. Using suspension cells of Solanum tuberosum we ...

  17. Economic implications of alternative potato cropping systems in Maine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable cropping systems and management practices are needed to improve agricultural viability and rural economic vitality in Maine and the surrounding region. Research is being conducted to 1) identify the constraints to potato system sustainability and 2) develop practices and management strat...

  18. Comparative analysis of Asian citrus psyllid and Potato psyllid antennae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The comparative investigation of the morphological basis for olfactory reception in two psyllid species, Diaphorina citri (the Asian citrus psyllid), and Bacterocera cockerelli (the potato/tomato psyllid) (both species Hemiptera:Psyllidae) was performed using scanning electron microscopy to elucidat...

  19. Potato Peroxidase for the Study of Enzyme Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamaefsky, Brian R.

    1993-01-01

    Explains how the surface of a freshly sliced potato can be used for a variety of enzyme action experiments including the influence of pH on enzyme action, the enzyme denaturation potential of boiling water, the inhibition of enzymes by heavy metals, and the effects of salt concentration on enzyme effectiveness. (PR)

  20. Chemical Manipulation of Meristem Dormancy Alters Transcript Profiles in Potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dormancy status of potato tuber meristems can be manipulated by a variety of chemical treatments. The application of bromoethane (BE) results in dormancy cessation, while chlorpropham (CIPC), and 1,4-dimethyl naphthalene (DMN) are used commercially to prolong the dormant state. Transcript analys...

  1. Phosphorus uptake by potato from fertilizers recovered from anaerobic digestion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field experiments were conducted in the Columbia Basin of South Central Washington to assess the yield of potato (Solanum tuberosum) in response to application of phosphorus enriched materials recovered from anaerobic digestion of manure. The treatments were comprised of four rates (0, 56, 112 and ...

  2. Potato spindle tuber viroid: the simplicity paradox resolved?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Taxonomy: Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) is the type species of the genus Posipiviroid, family Pospiviroidae. An absence of hammerhead ribozymes and the presence of a 'central conserved region' distinguish PSTVd and related viroids from members of a second viroid family, the Avsunviroidae. ...

  3. Matryoshka: A new floral mutant in wild potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A population of the wild potato S. stoloniferum form fendleri (PI 660270) was collected as botanical seeds in the Santa Rita Mountains near Green Valley, Arizona, USA in fall 2010. Original seeds planted for multiplication at the genebank produced two plants with extra whorls of petals, sometimes fu...

  4. A matter of taste: Improving flavor of fresh potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breeding for improved potato flavor has not been a high priority in US breeding programs. It is a difficult trait to breed for because it cannot be done in a high throughput manner and it requires an understanding of the complex biochemistry of flavor compounds and effects of cooking on those compou...

  5. Core collections of potato (Solanum) species native to the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato has two wild relatives native to the USA, Solanum jamesii (jam) and S. fendleri (fen). Core collections are a useful tool for genebanks, identifying a ranked minimum number of samples that together encompass most of the total diversity. With diversity measured as presence of AFLP bands, core ...

  6. Screening tomato germplasm for resistance to potato spindle tuber viroid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, several outbreaks of a potentially devastating viroid disease on tomato in North America have caused serious concerns to tomato growers and vegetable seed industry. Several closely related viroids in the genus Pospiviroid have been identified on tomato. Among them, Potato spindle t...

  7. Did Francis Drake bring Chilean potatoes to the British Isles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    R.N Salaman, in 1937, speculated that the first potatoes cultivated in Great Britain and northern Europe were obtained by Francis Drake at Cartagena, Colombia and brought to the British Isles in the 1570-80’s. Presumably S. andigenum tubers would have been brought down the 500 miles from Bogotá to C...

  8. Response of Ranger Russet potato to simulated glyphosate drift

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies were conducted in 2008 at Ontario, OR, Paterson, WA, and Aberdeen, ID to determine the effect of simulated glyphosate drift on potato. Glyphosate was applied at 10-15cm height, stolon-hooking, tuber-initiation, and bulking stage. Glyphosate was applied at 0, 8.5, 54, 107, 215, and 423g...

  9. Geospatial evaluations of potato production systems in Maine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maine consistently ranks in the top ten potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production areas though yields are substantially lower than the mid- and western USA. Geospatial frameworks help resolve patterns and trends in production environments (at multiple scales) that may enable improvements in adaptive ...

  10. Transmission of Sweet Potato Leaf Curl Virus by Bemisia tabaci

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. (Solanales: Convolvulaceae), is an important world food crop, and Asia is the focal production region. Because it is vegetatively propagated, sweetpotato is especially prone to accumulate infections by several viruses. Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) (ss...

  11. Assessment of genetic diversity of sweet potato in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is the seventh most important food crop due to its distinct advantages, such as adaptability to different environmental conditions and high nutritional value. Assessing the genetic diversity of this important crop is necessary due to the constant increase of demand ...

  12. Entomopathogenic Fungi (Hypocreales) for Control of Potato Psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory and field trials of the four isolates of entomopathogenic fungi, Isaria fumosorosea and Metarhizium anisopliae were conducted to evaluate their potential for control of the potato psyllid. In the laboratory, 2 ml aqueous suspension of 107conidia/ml in a of each isolate applied in a Potte...

  13. Molecular determinants of pathogen recognition and defense elicitation in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato late blight pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, is able to rapidly evolve to overcome resistance genes. The pathogen accomplishes this by secreting an arsenal of proteins, termed effectors, that function to modify host cells. Although hundreds of candidate effectors have been identified in ...

  14. Prospects for advanced late blight resistance breeding in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato late blight pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, is able to rapidly evolve to overcome resistance genes. The pathogen accomplishes this by secreting an arsenal of proteins, termed effectors, that function to modify host cells. Although hundreds of candidate effectors have been identified in ...

  15. EAARL topography-Potato Creek watershed, Georgia, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Fredericks, Xan; Jones, J.W.; Wright, C.W.; Brock, J.C.; Nagle, D.B.

    2011-01-01

    This DVD contains lidar-derived first-surface (FS) and bare-earth (BE) topography GIS datasets of a portion of the Potato Creek watershed in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River basin, Georgia. These datasets were acquired on February 27, 2010.

  16. Reinventing potato as a diploid inbred line-based crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The third most important food crop worldwide, potato, is a tetraploid outcrossing species propagated from tubers. Breeders have long been challenged by polyploidy, heterozygosity, and asexual reproduction. It has been assumed that tetraploidy is essential for high yield, the creation of inbred potat...

  17. Genome sequence and analysis of the tuber crop potato.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xun; Pan, Shengkai; Cheng, Shifeng; Zhang, Bo; Mu, Desheng; Ni, Peixiang; Zhang, Gengyun; Yang, Shuang; Li, Ruiqiang; Wang, Jun; Orjeda, Gisella; Guzman, Frank; Torres, Michael; Lozano, Roberto; Ponce, Olga; Martinez, Diana; De la Cruz, Germán; Chakrabarti, S K; Patil, Virupaksh U; Skryabin, Konstantin G; Kuznetsov, Boris B; Ravin, Nikolai V; Kolganova, Tatjana V; Beletsky, Alexey V; Mardanov, Andrei V; Di Genova, Alex; Bolser, Daniel M; Martin, David M A; Li, Guangcun; Yang, Yu; Kuang, Hanhui; Hu, Qun; Xiong, Xingyao; Bishop, Gerard J; Sagredo, Boris; Mejía, Nilo; Zagorski, Wlodzimierz; Gromadka, Robert; Gawor, Jan; Szczesny, Pawel; Huang, Sanwen; Zhang, Zhonghua; Liang, Chunbo; He, Jun; Li, Ying; He, Ying; Xu, Jianfei; Zhang, Youjun; Xie, Binyan; Du, Yongchen; Qu, Dongyu; Bonierbale, Merideth; Ghislain, Marc; Herrera, Maria del Rosario; Giuliano, Giovanni; Pietrella, Marco; Perrotta, Gaetano; Facella, Paolo; O'Brien, Kimberly; Feingold, Sergio E; Barreiro, Leandro E; Massa, Gabriela A; Diambra, Luis; Whitty, Brett R; Vaillancourt, Brieanne; Lin, Haining; Massa, Alicia N; Geoffroy, Michael; Lundback, Steven; DellaPenna, Dean; Buell, C Robin; Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar; Marshall, David F; Waugh, Robbie; Bryan, Glenn J; Destefanis, Marialaura; Nagy, Istvan; Milbourne, Dan; Thomson, Susan J; Fiers, Mark; Jacobs, Jeanne M E; Nielsen, Kåre L; Sønderkær, Mads; Iovene, Marina; Torres, Giovana A; Jiang, Jiming; Veilleux, Richard E; Bachem, Christian W B; de Boer, Jan; Borm, Theo; Kloosterman, Bjorn; van Eck, Herman; Datema, Erwin; Hekkert, Bas te Lintel; Goverse, Aska; van Ham, Roeland C H J; Visser, Richard G F

    2011-07-10

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is the world's most important non-grain food crop and is central to global food security. It is clonally propagated, highly heterozygous, autotetraploid, and suffers acute inbreeding depression. Here we use a homozygous doubled-monoploid potato clone to sequence and assemble 86% of the 844-megabase genome. We predict 39,031 protein-coding genes and present evidence for at least two genome duplication events indicative of a palaeopolyploid origin. As the first genome sequence of an asterid, the potato genome reveals 2,642 genes specific to this large angiosperm clade. We also sequenced a heterozygous diploid clone and show that gene presence/absence variants and other potentially deleterious mutations occur frequently and are a likely cause of inbreeding depression. Gene family expansion, tissue-specific expression and recruitment of genes to new pathways contributed to the evolution of tuber development. The potato genome sequence provides a platform for genetic improvement of this vital crop.

  18. Modifying glycoalkaloid content in transgenic potato – Metabolome impacts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolite profiling has been used to assess the potential for unintended composition changes in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Desirée) tubers, which have been genetically modified (GM) to reduce glycoalkaloid content via the independent down-regulation of three genes SGT1, SGT2 and SGT3 known t...

  19. Analysis of leaf surface sesquiterpenes in potato varieties.

    PubMed

    Szafranek, Beata; Chrapkowska, Karolina; Pawińska, Maria; Szafranek, Janusz

    2005-04-20

    A comparative study of potato leaf sesquiterpenes was carried out. GC, GC-MS, and NMR analyses were used to identify and quantify the sesquiterpenes in the leaf surfaces of 10 potato (Solanum tuberosum) varieties. Two sesquiterpene alcohols and 17 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were identified and quantitatively determined. The distribution of the sesquiterpenes was found to be variety-specific. The sesquiterpene contents of the different potato varieties were subjected to cluster and principal component analyses. The eight potato varieties of the main chemotype cluster were dominated by beta-caryophyllene (9-148 ng/cm2), germacrene D (2-46 ng/cm2), germacrene D-4-ol (0.4-31 ng/cm2), beta-sesquiphellandrene (1-34 ng/cm2), and an unknown sesquiterpene alcohol III (0.2-37 ng/cm2). Chemometric classification distinguished two varieties, Mila and Vistula, from a major cluster. The Vistula variety was distinguished from the others by its high contents of beta-caryophyllene, alpha-humulene, germacrene D, and germacrene D-4-ol and the Mila variety by beta-elemene, trans-alpha-bergamotene, (Z)-beta-farnesene, (E)-beta-farnesene, trans-beta-bergamotene, beta-sesquiphellandrene, and unknown sesquiterpene alcohols I, II, III.

  20. High throughput sequencing of small RNAs in Potato Leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the role of small RNAs (sRNAs) in gene regulation, function and development is a rapidly evolving field. sRNAs result from transcript degradation and to regulatory micro RNA (miRNA) and small inhibitory RNA (siRNA) classes involved in gene regulation. The sRNAs from potato leaves were...

  1. Glycoalkaloid and calystegine contents of eight potato cultivars.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Mendel; Roitman, James N; Kozukue, Nobuyuki

    2003-05-07

    Diverse procedures have been reported for the separation and analysis by HPLC of the two major glycoalkaloids present in potatoes, alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine. To further improve the usefulness of the HPLC method, studies were carried out on the influence of several salient parameters on the analysis of the two potato glycoalkaloids. Effects on retention (elution, separation) times of the (a) composition and pH of the mobile phase (acetonitrile and phosphate buffer), (b) concentration of the phosphate buffer, (c) capacity values of column packing of four commercial HPLC amino columns, (d) column temperature were studied. Except for pH, all of the variables significantly influenced the retention times. The results make it possible to select analysis conditions that produce well-separated as well as symmetrical peaks of the two glycoalkaloids. This improved HPLC method (limit of detection of approximately 150 ng) was evaluated with extracts from the cortex of one whole potato variety (May Queen) grown in Japan and the freeze-dried peel and flesh from the following eight cultivars grown in the United States: Atlantic, Dark Red Norland, Ranger Russet, Red Lasoda, Russet Burbank, Russet Norkota, Shepody, and Snowden. In addition, the same samples were analyzed by GC-MS for the presence of two water-soluble nortropane alkaloids, calystegine A(3) and calystegine B(2), reported to be potent glycosidase inhibitors. The following ranges for the eight varieties of total glycoalkaloid and calystegine levels were observed: dry flesh, 5-592 and 6-316 mg/kg; dry peel, 84-2226 and 218-2581 mg/kg; dry whole potatoes, 40-883 and 34-326 mg/kg; wet flesh, 1-148 and 1-68 mg/kg; wet peel, 12-429 and 35-467 mg/kg; wet whole potatoes, 7-187 and 5-68 mg/kg. The possible significance of the results to plant and food sciences is discussed.

  2. Bee Community of Commercial Potato Fields in Michigan and Bombus impatiens Visitation to Neonicotinoid-Treated Potato Plants.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Amanda L; Gibbs, Jason; Komondy, Lidia; Szendrei, Zsofia

    2017-03-09

    We conducted a bee survey in neonicotinoid-treated commercial potato fields using bowl and vane traps in the 2016 growing season. Traps were placed outside the fields, at the field edges, and 10 and 30 m into the fields. We collected 756 bees representing 58 species, with Lasioglossum spp. comprising 73% of all captured bees. We found seven Bombus spp., of which B. impatiens was the only known visitor of potato flowers in our region. The majority of the bees (68%) were collected at the field edges and in the field margins. Blue vane traps caught almost four-times as many bees and collected 30% more species compared to bowl traps. Bee communities did not differ across trap locations but they were different among trap types. We tested B. impatiens visitation to neonicotinoid treated and untreated potato flowers in field enclosures. The amount of time bees spent at flowers and the duration of visits were not significantly different between the two treatments. Our results demonstrate that a diverse assemblage of bees is associated with an agroecosystem dominated by potatoes despite the apparent lack of pollinator resources provided by the crop. We found no difference in B. impatiens foraging behavior on neonicotinoid-treated compared to untreated plants.

  3. Growth and development of Colorado potato beetle larvae, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, on potato plants expressing the oryzacystatin II proteinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Cingel, Aleksandar; Savić, Jelena; Vinterhalter, Branka; Vinterhalter, Dragan; Kostić, Miroslav; Jovanović, Darka Šešlija; Smigocki, Ann; Ninković, Slavica

    2015-08-01

    Plant proteinase inhibitors (PIs) are attractive tools for crop improvement and their heterologous expression can enhance insect resistance in transgenic plants. PI oryzacystatin II (OCII), isolated from rice, showed potential in controlling pests that utilize cysteine proteinases for protein digestion. To evaluate the applicability of the OCII gene in enhancing plant defence, OCII-transformed potatoes were bioassayed for resistance to Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say). Feeding on transformed leaves of potato cultivars Desiree and Jelica significantly affected larval growth and development, but did not change mortality rates. During the L2 and L3 developmental stages larvae consumed the OCII-transformed foliage faster as compared to the nontransformed control. Also these larvae reached the prepupal stage (end of L4 stage) 2 days earlier than those fed on control leaves. However, the total amounts of consumed OCII-transformed leaves were up to 23% lower than of control, and the maximal weights of prepupal larvae were reduced by up to 18% as compared to larvae fed on nontransformed leaves. The reduction in insect fitness reported in this study in combination with other control measures, could lead to improved CPB resistance management in potato.

  4. Combining abilities for agronomic traits and marker-assisted selection for Potato virus X and Potato virus Y resistance.

    PubMed

    Guedes, M L; Pinto, C A B P; Ribeiro, G H M R; Lyra, D H; Carneiro, O L G

    2016-09-16

    Disease-resistant potato cultivars with good tuber appearance and desirable agronomic traits are essential for meeting the demands of producers and the market. Attaining these cultivars is the focus of potato breeding programs whose aim is to benefit the productive chain. The purpose of this study was to estimate combining abilities and evaluate potato clones based on tuber appearance, yield, and resistance to the PVY and PVX viruses. Crosses between four commercial cultivars of potato with good tuber appearance were performed, using eight clones with proven resistance to PVY and PVX from the breeding program of UFLA. The clones obtained were evaluated for agronomic traits, tuber appearance, and the presence of both Ryadg and Rx1 alleles, which confer extreme resistance to the PVY and PVX viruses, respectively. The independent culling level method was used to select genotypes of commercial interest, as well as to estimate the combining abilities of the parents. We identified clones carrying the Ryadg and Rx1 alleles with agronomic traits suitable for the fresh market and for processing. The BRS Ana cultivar and CMA-399 and CMA-385 clones showed positive effects on general combining ability (GCA) for tuber yield, while the Monalisa cultivar showed positive effects on GCA for general tuber appearance.

  5. Growth of Staphylococcus aureus in cooked potato and potato salad – A one-step kinetic analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive spherically-shaped bacterium capable of producing heat-stable enterotoxins that cause acute gastrointestinal diseases. The growth of this pathogen in food is a major threat to public health worldwide. Potato salad is a frequent vehicle for infection and foo...

  6. Potato tuber pectin structure is influenced by pectin methyl esterase activity and impacts on cooked potato texture

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Heather A.; Wright, Kathryn M.; McDougall, Gordon J.; Roberts, Alison G.; Chapman, Sean N.; Morris, Wayne L.; Hancock, Robert D.; Stewart, Derek; Tucker, Gregory A.; James, Euan K.; Taylor, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Although cooked potato tuber texture is an important trait that influences consumer preference, a detailed understanding of tuber textural properties at the molecular level is lacking. Previous work has identified tuber pectin methyl esterase activity (PME) as a potential factor impacting on textural properties. In this study, tuber PME isoform and gene expression profiles have been determined in potato germplasm with differing textural properties as assessed using an amended wedge fracture method and a sloughing assay, revealing major differences between the potato types. Differences in pectin structure between potato types with different textural properties were revealed using monoclonal antibodies specific for different pectic epitopes. Chemical analysis of tuber pectin clearly demonstrated that, in tubers containing a higher level of total PME activity, there was a reduced degree of methylation of cell wall pectin and consistently higher peak force and work done values during the fracture of cooked tuber samples, demonstrating the link between PME activity, the degree of methylation of cell wall pectin, and cooked tuber textural properties. PMID:20855456

  7. Bee Community of Commercial Potato Fields in Michigan and Bombus impatiens Visitation to Neonicotinoid-Treated Potato Plants

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, Amanda L.; Gibbs, Jason; Komondy, Lidia; Szendrei, Zsofia

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a bee survey in neonicotinoid-treated commercial potato fields using bowl and vane traps in the 2016 growing season. Traps were placed outside the fields, at the field edges, and 10 and 30 m into the fields. We collected 756 bees representing 58 species, with Lasioglossum spp. comprising 73% of all captured bees. We found seven Bombus spp., of which B. impatiens was the only known visitor of potato flowers in our region. The majority of the bees (68%) were collected at the field edges and in the field margins. Blue vane traps caught almost four-times as many bees and collected 30% more species compared to bowl traps. Bee communities did not differ across trap locations but they were different among trap types. We tested B. impatiens visitation to neonicotinoid treated and untreated potato flowers in field enclosures. The amount of time bees spent at flowers and the duration of visits were not significantly different between the two treatments. Our results demonstrate that a diverse assemblage of bees is associated with an agroecosystem dominated by potatoes despite the apparent lack of pollinator resources provided by the crop. We found no difference in B. impatiens foraging behavior on neonicotinoid-treated compared to untreated plants. PMID:28282931

  8. Identification of Potato virus Y Strains Associated with Tuber Damage During a Recent Virus Outbreak in Potato in Idaho

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato virus Y causes yield and quality loss due to the presence of necrotic strains (PVYN, PVYNTN, PVYN:O). During June and July, 2007, thirty-eight random samples from different commercial fields with disease symptoms were collected from fields near Idaho Falls, Idaho. Plants from cvs. Russet Burb...

  9. Potato tuber pectin structure is influenced by pectin methyl esterase activity and impacts on cooked potato texture.

    PubMed

    Ross, Heather A; Wright, Kathryn M; McDougall, Gordon J; Roberts, Alison G; Chapman, Sean N; Morris, Wayne L; Hancock, Robert D; Stewart, Derek; Tucker, Gregory A; James, Euan K; Taylor, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    Although cooked potato tuber texture is an important trait that influences consumer preference, a detailed understanding of tuber textural properties at the molecular level is lacking. Previous work has identified tuber pectin methyl esterase activity (PME) as a potential factor impacting on textural properties. In this study, tuber PME isoform and gene expression profiles have been determined in potato germplasm with differing textural properties as assessed using an amended wedge fracture method and a sloughing assay, revealing major differences between the potato types. Differences in pectin structure between potato types with different textural properties were revealed using monoclonal antibodies specific for different pectic epitopes. Chemical analysis of tuber pectin clearly demonstrated that, in tubers containing a higher level of total PME activity, there was a reduced degree of methylation of cell wall pectin and consistently higher peak force and work done values during the fracture of cooked tuber samples, demonstrating the link between PME activity, the degree of methylation of cell wall pectin, and cooked tuber textural properties.

  10. Intelligent pH indicator film composed of agar/potato starch and anthocyanin extracts from purple sweet potato.

    PubMed

    Choi, Inyoung; Lee, Jun Young; Lacroix, Monique; Han, Jaejoon

    2017-03-01

    A new colorimetric pH indicator film was developed using agar, potato starch, and natural dyes extracted from purple sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas. Both agar and potato starch are solid matrices used to immobilize natural dyes, anthocyanins. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrum of anthocyanin extract solutions and agar/potato starch films with anthocyanins showed color variations to different pH values (pH 2.0-10.0). Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and UV-vis region spectra showed compatibility between agar, starch, and anthocyanin extracts. Color variations of pH indicator films were measured by a colorimeter after immersion in different pH buffers. An application test was conducted for potential use as a meat spoilage sensor. The pH indicator films showed pH changes and spoilage point of pork samples, changing from red to green. Therefore, the developed pH indicator films could be used as a diagnostic tool for the detection of food spoilage.

  11. Nondestructive and rapid detection of potato black heart based on machine vision technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Fang; Peng, Yankun; Wei, Wensong

    2016-05-01

    Potatoes are one of the major food crops in the world. Potato black heart is a kind of defect that the surface is intact while the tissues in skin become black. This kind of potato has lost the edibleness, but it's difficult to be detected with conventional methods. A nondestructive detection system based on the machine vision technology was proposed in this study to distinguish the normal and black heart of potatoes according to the different transmittance of them. The detection system was equipped with a monochrome CCD camera, LED light sources for transmitted illumination and a computer. Firstly, the transmission images of normal and black heart potatoes were taken by the detection system. Then the images were processed by algorithm written with VC++. As the transmitted light intensity was influenced by the radial dimension of the potato samples, the relationship between the grayscale value and the potato radial dimension was acquired by analyzing the grayscale value changing rule of the transmission image. Then proper judging condition was confirmed to distinguish the normal and black heart of potatoes after image preprocessing. The results showed that the nondestructive system built coupled with the processing methods was accessible for the detection of potato black heart at a considerable accuracy rate. The transmission detection technique based on machine vision is nondestructive and feasible to realize the detection of potato black heart.

  12. Inactivation of trypsin inhibitors in sweet potato and taro tubers during processing.

    PubMed

    Kiran, K Sasi; Padmaja, G

    2003-01-01

    In order to understand the extent of elimination of trypsin inhibitors during processing of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and taro (Colocasia esculenta) tubers, a detailed study was conducted using tubers processed by oven drying, cooking, and microwave baking. Between 80 and 90% trypsin inhibitor (TI) activity was retained in sweet potato chips up to 2h at 70 degrees C. Among the four cultivars of sweet potatoes, RS-III-2 trypsin inhibitors were more heat labile. Heating at 100 degrees C led to rapid inactivation of TI of sweet potatoes. Varietal differences in thermal stability were more pronounced for the trypsin inhibitors of taro than sweet potatoes. Taro inhibitors were also more rapidly inactivated than sweet potato TI. Between 17 and 31% TI activity was retained in cooked tuber pieces of sweet potatoes, while only 3-10% were retained in taro cultivars. Very effective inactivation of trypsin inhibitors of sweet potatoes and taro could be obtained through microwave baking. Flour prepared from taro was devoid of TI activity, while 5-12% TI activity was retained in the flour prepared from sweet potatoes. The study clearly established that among the four techniques used, microwave baking and flour preparation were the best methods to eliminate TI from sweet potatoes and taro.

  13. Metabolic Biosynthesis of Potato (Solanum tuberosum l.) Antioxidants and Implications for Human Health.

    PubMed

    Lovat, Christie; Nassar, Atef M K; Kubow, Stan; Li, Xiu-Qing; Donnelly, Danielle J

    2016-10-25

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is common, affordable, readily stored, easily prepared for consumption, and nutritious. For these reasons, potato has become one of the top five crops consumed worldwide. Consequently, it is important to understand its contribution to both our daily and long-term health. Potato is one of the most important sources of antioxidants in the human diet. As such, it supports the antioxidant defense network in our bodies that reduces cellular and tissue toxicities that result from free radical-induced protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and DNA damage. In this way, potato antioxidants may reduce the risk for cancers, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and even radiation damage. A better understanding of these components of potato is needed by the food industry, health professionals, and consumers. This review provides referenced summaries of all of the antioxidant groups present in potato tubers and updated schematics including genetic regulation for the major antioxidant biosynthesis pathways. This review complements current knowledge on the role of potato in human health. We hope it will provide impetus toward breeding efforts to develop cultivars with increased antioxidant capacity as 'functional foods' and encourage potato consumers and processors to work toward preservation of antioxidant capacity in cooked potato and potato products.

  14. Comparison of waxy and normal potato starch remaining granules after chemical surface gelatinization: pasting behavior and surface morphology.

    PubMed

    Huang, Junrong; Chen, Zhenghong; Xu, Yalun; Li, Hongliang; Liu, Shuxing; Yang, Daqing; Schols, Henk A

    2014-02-15

    To understand the contribution of granule inner portion to the pasting property of starch, waxy potato starch and two normal potato starches and their acetylated starch samples were subjected to chemical surface gelatinization by 3.8 mol/L CaCl2 to obtain remaining granules. Native and acetylated, original and remaining granules of waxy potato starch had similar rapid visco analyzer (RVA) pasting profiles, while those of two normal potato starches behaved obviously different from each other. All remaining granules had lower peak viscosity than the corresponding original granules. Contribution of waxy potato starch granule's inner portion to the peak viscosity was significant more than those of normal potato starches. The shell structure appearing on the remaining granule surface for waxy potato starch was smoother and thinner than that for normal potato starches as observed by scanning electron microscopy, indicating a more regular structure of shell and a more ordered packing of shell for waxy potato starch granules. The blocklet size of waxy potato starch was smaller and more uniform than those of normal potato starches as shown by atomic force microscopy images of original and remaining granules. In general, our results provided the evidence for the spatial structure diversity between waxy and normal potato starch granules: outer layer and inner portion of waxy potato starch granule had similar structure, while outer layer had notably different structure from inner portion for normal potato starch granule.

  15. Management effects of disease-suppressive rotation crops on potato yield and soilborne disease and their economic implications in potato production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soilborne potato diseases are persistent problems in potato production. Use of disease-suppressive rotation crops, such as Brassica spp. (mustards, rapeseed) and sudangrass, has shown potential for management of soilborne diseases and enhanced yield. However, how to best implement these crops into p...

  16. Identification and evaluation of SNP and SCAR markers linked to the Rychc gene for resistance to Potato virus Y in diploid potato populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is the most significant cause of economic loss due to plant pathogens in seed potato production. With the emergence of PVY strains and infection phenotypes in the last decade, the need for varieties with broad resistance has increased in North America. Extreme resistance to PVY ...

  17. Payette Russet: A dual-purpose potato cultivar with cold-sweetening resistance, low acrylamide formation, and resistance to late blight and Potato Virus Y

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Payette Russet is a full season, russet-skinned potato cultivar notable for its cold-sweetening resistance and associated low acrylamide formation, making it a cultivar suitable for processing into French fries and other potato products. Low concentrations of asparagine and glucose in tubers of Pay...

  18. Twin Explosions In Gigantic Dusty Potato Crisp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-05-01

    ESO's Very Large Telescope, equipped with the multi-mode FORS instrument, took an image of NGC 3190, a galaxy so distorted that astronomers gave it two names. And as if to prove them right, in 2002 it fired off, almost simultaneously, two stellar explosions, a very rare event. This beautiful edge-on spiral galaxy with tightly wound arms and a warped shape that makes it resemble a gigantic potato crisp lies in the constellation Leo ('the Lion') [1] and is approximately 70 million light years away. It is the dominant member of a small group of galaxies known as Hickson 44, named after the Canadian astronomer, Paul Hickson. In addition to NGC 3190 [2], Hickson 44 consists of one elliptical and two spiral galaxies. These are, however, slightly out of the field of view and therefore not visible here. ESO PR Photo 17/06 ESO PR Photo 17/06 The Spiral Galaxy NGC 3190 In 1982, Hickson published a catalogue of over 400 galaxies found in compact, physically-related groups of typically 4 to 5 galaxies per group (see the image of Robert's Quartet in ESO PR Photo 34/05 as another example). Such compact groups allow astronomers to study how galaxies dynamically affect each other, and help them test current ideas on how galaxies form. One idea is that compact groups of galaxies, such as Hickson 44, merge to form a giant elliptical galaxy, such as NGC 1316 (see ESO PR 17/00). Indeed, signs of tidal interactions are visible in the twisted dust lane of NGC 3190. This distortion initially misled astronomers into assigning a separate name for the southwestern side, NGC 3189, although NGC 3190 is the favoured designation. NGC 3190 has an 'Active Galactic Nucleus', and as such, the bright, compact nucleus is thought to host a supermassive black hole. In March 2002, a new supernova (SN 2002bo) was found in between the 'V' of the dust lanes in the southeastern part of NGC 3190. It was discovered independently by the Brazilian and Japanese amateur astronomers, Paulo Cacella and Yoji Hirose

  19. Development of Marker-Free Transgenic Potato Tubers Enriched in Caffeoylquinic Acids and Flavonols.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Tang, Wenzhao; Chen, Jing; Jia, Ru; Ma, Lianjie; Wang, Shaoli; Wang, Jiao; Shen, Xiangling; Chu, Zhaohui; Zhu, Changxiang; Ding, Xinhua

    2016-04-13

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a major crop worldwide that meets human economic and nutritional requirements. Potato has several advantages over other crops: easy to cultivate and store, cheap to consume, and rich in a variety of secondary metabolites. In this study, we generated three marker-free transgenic potato lines that expressed the Arabidopsis thaliana flavonol-specific transcriptional activator AtMYB12 driven by the tuber-specific promoter Patatin. Marker-free potato tubers displayed increased amounts of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) (3.35-fold increases on average) and flavonols (4.50-fold increase on average). Concentrations of these metabolites were associated with the enhanced expression of genes in the CQA and flavonol biosynthesis pathways. Accumulation of CQAs and flavonols resulted in 2-fold higher antioxidant capacity compared to wild-type potatoes. Tubers from these marker-free transgenic potatoes have therefore improved antioxidant properties.

  20. Effects of charge-carrying amino acids on the gelatinization and retrogradation properties of potato starch.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenting; Zhou, Hongxian; Yang, Hong; Cui, Min

    2015-01-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of charge-carrying amino acids (lysine (Lys), arginine (Arg), aspartic acid (Asp) and glutamic acid (Glu)) on the gelatinization and retrogradation properties of potato starch. Acidic amino acids (Asp and Glu) showed a decreasing trend in swelling power and granule size of potato starch, but increased amylose leaching and gelatinization temperature. Alkaline amino acid (Arg) showed an increasing trend in swelling power and granule size of potato starch, but decreasing amylose leaching and gelatinization temperature. Lys had no effect on the swelling power of potato starch, except at a high content (0.2 mol/kg). Like other two acidic amino acids, Lys also increased gelatinization temperature. Moreover, the addition of alkaline amino acids (Arg) decreased syneresis value of potato starch but acidic amino acids (Asp and Glu) increased it. Compared to Arg, the syneresis of potato starch with Lys was similar to that of its native starch.