Sample records for potent analgesic effects

  1. Effect of potent endomorphin degradation blockers on analgesic and antidepressant-like responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Cravezic, Aurore; Fichna, Jakub; Gach, Katarzyna; Wyrebska, Anna; Perlikowska, Renata; Costentin, Jean; Bonnet, Jean-Jacques; Janecka, Anna; do Rego, Jean-Claude

    2011-12-01

    The biological effects of endomorphins (EMs) are short-lasting due to their rapid degradation by endogenous enzymes. Competing enzymatic degradation is an approach to prolong EM bioavailability. In the present study, a series of tetra- and tripeptides of similar to EMs structure was synthesized and tested in vitro and in vivo for their ability to inhibit degradation of EMs. The obtained results indicated that, among the series of analogs, the tetrapeptide Tyr-Pro-d-ClPhe-Phe-NH(2) and the tripeptide Tyr-Pro-Ala-NH(2), which did not bind to the μ-opioid receptors, were potent inhibitors of EM catabolism in rat brain homogenate. In vivo, these two peptides significantly prolonged the analgesic and antidepressant-like effects, induced by exogenous EMs, by blocking EM degrading enzymes. These new potent inhibitors may therefore increase the level and the half life of endogenous EMs and could be used in a new therapeutic strategy against pain and mood disorders, based on increasing of EM bioavailability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Truncated G protein-coupled mu opioid receptor MOR-1 splice variants are targets for highly potent opioid analgesics lacking side effects.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Susruta; Grinnell, Steven; Le Rouzic, Valerie; Burgman, Maxim; Polikar, Lisa; Ansonoff, Michael; Pintar, John; Pan, Ying-Xian; Pasternak, Gavril W

    2011-12-06

    Pain remains a pervasive problem throughout medicine, transcending all specialty boundaries. Despite the extraordinary insights into pain and its mechanisms over the past few decades, few advances have been made with analgesics. Most pain remains treated by opiates, which have significant side effects that limit their utility. We now describe a potent opiate analgesic lacking the traditional side effects associated with classical opiates, including respiratory depression, significant constipation, physical dependence, and, perhaps most important, reinforcing behavior, demonstrating that it is possible to dissociate side effects from analgesia. Evidence indicates that this agent acts through a truncated, six-transmembrane variant of the G protein-coupled mu opioid receptor MOR-1. Although truncated splice variants have been reported for a number of G protein-coupled receptors, their functional relevance has been unclear. Our evidence now suggests that truncated variants can be physiologically important through heterodimerization, even when inactive alone, and can comprise new therapeutic targets, as illustrated by our unique opioid analgesics with a vastly improved pharmacological profile.

  3. Truncated G protein-coupled mu opioid receptor MOR-1 splice variants are targets for highly potent opioid analgesics lacking side effects

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Susruta; Grinnell, Steven; Le Rouzic, Valerie; Burgman, Maxim; Polikar, Lisa; Ansonoff, Michael; Pintar, John; Pan, Ying-Xian; Pasternak, Gavril W.

    2011-01-01

    Pain remains a pervasive problem throughout medicine, transcending all specialty boundaries. Despite the extraordinary insights into pain and its mechanisms over the past few decades, few advances have been made with analgesics. Most pain remains treated by opiates, which have significant side effects that limit their utility. We now describe a potent opiate analgesic lacking the traditional side effects associated with classical opiates, including respiratory depression, significant constipation, physical dependence, and, perhaps most important, reinforcing behavior, demonstrating that it is possible to dissociate side effects from analgesia. Evidence indicates that this agent acts through a truncated, six-transmembrane variant of the G protein-coupled mu opioid receptor MOR-1. Although truncated splice variants have been reported for a number of G protein-coupled receptors, their functional relevance has been unclear. Our evidence now suggests that truncated variants can be physiologically important through heterodimerization, even when inactive alone, and can comprise new therapeutic targets, as illustrated by our unique opioid analgesics with a vastly improved pharmacological profile. PMID:22106286

  4. Differential analgesic effects of a mu-opioid peptide, [Dmt(1)]DALDA, and morphine.

    PubMed

    Shimoyama, Megumi; Szeto, Hazel H; Schiller, Peter W; Tagaito, Yugo; Tokairin, Hideyuki; Eun, Chong moon; Shimoyama, Naohito

    2009-01-01

    H-Dmt-D-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH(2) ([Dmt(1)]DALDA), a highly selective micro-opioid peptide, is potently analgesic after systemic and intrathecal administration but is less potent given intracerebroventricularly. This study was performed to further characterize the analgesic effects of [Dmt(1)]DALDA. We compared the effects of [Dmt(1)]DALDA and morphine after systemic administration in two different acute pain tests, the tail flick test and the paw withdrawal test, and examined how antagonizing the spinal opioid actions would affect their analgesic effects. [Dmt(1)]DALDA was markedly more potent in the tail flick test than in the hot plate test, while the potencies of morphine were similar in the two tests. Intrathecal naloxone completely blocked the effect of systemic [Dmt(1)]DALDA in the tail flick test, while it only partially blocked the effect of morphine. At higher doses that produced analgesia in the hot plate test, the effect of [Dmt(1)]DALDA in this test was only partially blocked by naloxone. Systemic [Dmt(1)]DALDA has a unique analgesic property clearly different from that of morphine and it has a propensity to produce spinal analgesia.

  5. Recent advances in the development of 14-alkoxy substituted morphinans as potent and safer opioid analgesics.

    PubMed

    Spetea, M; Schmidhammer, H

    2012-01-01

    Morphine and other opioid morphinans produce analgesia primarily through μ opioid receptors (MORs), which mediate beneficial but also non-beneficial actions. There is a continued search for efficacious opioid analgesics with reduced complications. The cornerstone in the development of 14-alkoxymorphinans as novel analgesic drugs was the synthesis of the highly potent MOR agonist 14-O-methyloxymorphone. This opioid showed high antinociceptive potency but also the adverse effects associated with morphine type compounds. Further developments represent the introduction of a methyl and benzyl group at position 5 of 14-O-methyloxymorphone leading to the strong opioid analgesics 14-methoxymetopon and its 5-benzyl analogue, which exhibited less pronounced side effects than morphine although interacting selectively with MORs. Introduction of arylalkyl substituents such as phenylpropoxy in position 14 led to a series of extremely potent antinociceptive agents with enhanced affinities at all three opioid receptor types. During the past years, medicinal chemistry and opioid research focused increasingly on exploring the therapeutic potential of peripheral opioid receptors by peripheralization of opioids in order to minimize the occurrence of centrally-mediated side effects. Strategies to reduce penetration to the central nervous system (CNS) include chemical modifications that increase hydrophilicity. Zwitterionic 6-amino acid conjugates of 14-Oalkyloxymorphones were developed in an effort to obtain opioid agonists that have limited access to the CNS. These compounds show high antinociceptive potency by interacting with peripheral MORs. Opioid drugs with peripheral site of action represent an important target for the treatment of severe and chronic pain without the adverse actions of centrally acting opioids.

  6. Synthesis of conolidine, a potent non-opioid analgesic for tonic and persistent pain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarselli, Michael A.; Raehal, Kirsten M.; Brasher, Alex K.; Streicher, John M.; Groer, Chad E.; Cameron, Michael D.; Bohn, Laura M.; Micalizio, Glenn C.

    2011-06-01

    Management of chronic pain continues to represent an area of great unmet biomedical need. Although opioid analgesics are typically embraced as the mainstay of pharmaceutical interventions in this area, they suffer from substantial liabilities that include addiction and tolerance, as well as depression of breathing, nausea and chronic constipation. Because of their suboptimal therapeutic profile, the search for non-opioid analgesics to replace these well-established therapeutics is an important pursuit. Conolidine is a rare C5-nor stemmadenine natural product recently isolated from the stem bark of Tabernaemontana divaricata (a tropical flowering plant used in traditional Chinese, Ayurvedic and Thai medicine). Although structurally related alkaloids have been described as opioid analgesics, no therapeutically relevant properties of conolidine have previously been reported. Here, we describe the first de novo synthetic pathway to this exceptionally rare C5-nor stemmadenine natural product, the first asymmetric synthesis of any member of this natural product class, and the discovery that (±)-, (+)- and (-)-conolidine are potent and efficacious non-opioid analgesics in an in vivo model of tonic and persistent pain.

  7. The Analgesic Activity of Bestatin as a Potent APN Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Mei-Rong; Wei, Tao; Xu, Wen-Fang

    2010-01-01

    Bestatin, a small molecular weight dipeptide, is a potent inhibitor of various aminopeptidases as well as LTA4 hydrolase. Various physiological functions of Bestatin have been identified, viz.: (1) an immunomodifier for enhancing the proliferation of normal human bone marrow granulocyte–macrophage progenitor cells to form CFU-GM colonies; Bestatin exerts a direct stimulating effect on lymphocytes via its fixation on the cell surface and an indirect effect on monocytes via aminopeptidase B inhibition of tuftsin catabolism; (2) an immunorestorator and curative or preventive agent for spontaneous tumor; Bestatin alone or its combination with chemicals can prolongate the disease-free interval and survival period in adult acute or chronic leukemia, therefore, it was primarily marketed in 1987 in Japan as an anticancer drug and servers as the only marketed inhibitor of Aminopeptidase N (APN/CD13) to cure leukemia to date; (3) a pan-hematopoietic stimulator and restorator; Bestatin promotes granulocytopoiesis and thrombocytopoiesis in vitro and restores them in myelo-hypoplastic men; (4) an inhibitor of several natural opioid peptides. Based on the knowledge that APN can cleave several bioactive neuropeptides such as Met-enkaphalins, Leu-enkaphalins, β-Endorphin, and so on, the anti-aminopeptidase action of Bestatin also allows it to protect endopeptides against their catabolism, exhibiting analgesic activity. Although many scientific studies and great accomplishments have been achieved in this field, a large amount of problems are unsolved. This article reviews the promising results obtained for future development of the analgesic activity of Bestatin that can be of vital interest in a number of severe and chronic pain syndromes. PMID:20631848

  8. Making the decision to stop pain: Probability and magnitude effects of expected pain relief on the choice of analgesics.

    PubMed

    Lin, C

    2013-04-01

    Pain is a major ailment that motivates individuals to look for treatment. Despite its enormous clinical relevance, very little is known about the factors that influence our preference of an analgesic (or pain-relieving treatment). The current study investigated the influence of the information regarding the probability and the magnitude of the expected analgesic effect on preference of analgesic options. Twenty-four healthy volunteers were instructed to imagine pain across different scenarios and choose between two hypothetical analgesics that differed in their probabilities to successfully relieve pain and the magnitude of their expected analgesic effects. The conservative analgesic was more reliable but less potent than the radical analgesic, whereas the radical analgesic was less reliable but more potent than the conservative analgesic. Consistent with the predictions of prospect theory, a larger proportion of the participants chose the radical analgesic when the overall probability of both analgesics decreased, and when the potency of the radical analgesic was expected to be stronger relative to the conservative analgesic. At the individual level, individuals' relative imagined pain relief (radical analgesic/conservative analgesic) predicted their preference for the radical analgesic. Our findings revealed that preference of analgesic options is mediated by the overall probability of analgesic effect and the relative potency of analgesics. The expected relief one imagines to obtain from analgesics would guide preference. The findings highlight the importance for clinicians to understand how patients subjectively frame the probability and magnitude factors related to decision making in medical context. © 2012 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  9. Potent analgesic effects of anticonvulsants on peripheral thermal nociception in rats

    PubMed Central

    Todorovic, Slobodan M; Rastogi, A J; Jevtovic-Todorovic, Vesna

    2003-01-01

    Anticonvulsant agents are commonly used to treat neuropathic pain conditions because of their effects on voltage- and ligand-gated channels in central pain pathways. However, their interaction with ion channels in peripheral pain pathways is poorly understood. Therefore, we studied the potential analgesic effects of commonly used anticonvulsant agents in peripheral nociception. We injected anticonvulsants intradermally into peripheral receptive fields of sensory neurons in the hindpaws of adult rats, and studied pain perception using the model of acute thermal nociception. Commonly used anticonvulsants such as voltage-gated Na+ channel blockers, phenytoin and carbamazepine, and voltage-gated Ca2+ channel blockers, gabapentin and ethosuximide, induced dose-dependent analgesia in the injected paw, with ED50 values of 0.30, 0.32 and 8, 410 μg per 100 μl, respectively. Thermal nociceptive responses were not affected in the contralateral, noninjected paws, indicating a lack of systemic effects with doses of anticonvulsants that elicited local analgesia. Hill slope coefficients for the tested anticonvulsants indicate that the dose–response curve was less steep for gabapentin than for phenytoin, carbamazepine and ethosuximide. Our data strongly suggest that cellular targets like voltage-gated Na+ and Ca2+ channels, similar to those that mediate the effects of anticonvulsant agents in the CNS, may exist in the peripheral nerve endings of rat sensory neurons. Thus, peripherally applied anticonvulsants that block voltage-gated Na+ and Ca2+ channels may be useful analgesics. PMID:12970103

  10. [Nootropic and analgesic effects of Semax following different routes of administration].

    PubMed

    Manchenko, D M; Glazova, N Iu; Levitskaia, N G; Andreeva, L A; Kamenskiĭ, A A; Miasoedov, N F

    2010-10-01

    Heptapeptide Semax (MEHFPGP) is the fragment of ACTH(4-10) analogue with prolonged neurotropic activity. The aim of the present work was to study the Semax effects on learning capability and pain sensitivity in white rats following intraperitoneal and intranasal administration in different doses. Semax nootropic effects were studied in the test of acquisition of passive avoidance task. Pain sensitivity was estimated in Randall-Selitto paw-withdrawal test. It was shown that Semax exerts nootropic and analgesic activities following intraperitoneal administration. Analysis of dependence of these effects on dose resulted in different dose-response curves. Following intranasal administration, Semax was more potent in learning improvement compared to intraperitoneal administration. The peptide failed to affect the animal pain sensitivity following intranasal administration as opposed to intraperitoneal administration. The data obtained suggest different mechanisms and brain structures involved in realization of the nootropic and analgesic effects of Semax.

  11. Development of a conformational search strategy for flexible ligands: A study of the potent μ-selective opioid analgesic fentanyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cometta-Morini, Chiara; Loew, Gilda H.

    1991-08-01

    An extensive conformational search of the potent opioid analgesic, fentanyl, was performed using the semiempirical quantum mechanical method AM1 and the CHARMm potential energy function. A combination of two procedures was used to search the conformational space for fentanyl, which included nested dihedral scans, geometry optimization and molecular dynamics simulation at different temperatures. In addition, the effect of a continuum solvent environment was taken into account by use of appropriate values for the dielectric constant in the CHARMm computations. The results of the conformational search allowed the determination of the probable conformation of fentanyl in polar and nonpolar solvents and of three candidate conformers for its bioactive form.

  12. DDD-028: a potent potential non-opioid, non-cannabinoid analgesic for neuropathic and inflammatory pain.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Parthasarathi; Tracey, Heather; Chen, Zhoumou; Bandyopadhyaya, Acintya; Veeraraghavan, Sridhar; Rajagopalan, Desikan R; Salvemini, Daniela; McPhee, Ian; Viswanadha, Srikant; Rajagopalan, Raghavan

    2014-07-15

    DDD-028 (4), a novel pentacyclic pyridoindolobenzazepine derivative was evaluated in vitro for receptor binding affinity and in vivo for analgesic activity using rodent models of neuropathic and inflammatory pain. DDD-028 does not bind to opioid, cannabinoid, dopamine, or histamine receptors. DDD-028 is very active even at the low oral dose of 1-5 mg/kg in both neuropathic, (spinal nerve ligation and chronic constriction injury) and inflammatory (Complete Freund's Adjuvant Induced) models of pain. DDD-028 appears to be about 6-fold more potent than pregabalin and indomethacin. Visual observation of all the animals used in these studies indicated that DDD-028 is well tolerated without any sedation. Thus, DDD-028 seems to be a promising candidate for the treatment of neuropathic and inflammatory pain without the possible side effects or abuse potential associated with opioid or cannabinoid activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative Rates of Mortality and Serious Adverse Effects Among Commonly Prescribed Opioid Analgesics.

    PubMed

    Murphy, David L; Lebin, Jacob A; Severtson, Stevan G; Olsen, Heather A; Dasgupta, Nabarun; Dart, Richard C

    2018-03-26

    The epidemic of prescription opioid overdose and mortality parallels the dispensing rates of prescription opioids, and the availability of increasingly potent opioid analgesics. The common assumption that more potent opioid analgesics are associated with higher rates of adverse outcomes has not been adequately substantiated. We compared the rate of serious adverse events among commonly prescribed opioid analgesics of varying potency. Serious adverse events (SAEs; defined as death, major medical effect, or hospitalization) resulting from exposure to tablets containing seven opioid analgesics (oxycodone, hydrocodone, morphine, hydromorphone, oxymorphone, tapentadol, and tramadol) captured by the Researched Abuse, Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS ® ) System Poison Center Program were evaluated from 2010 through 2016. Rates of SAEs were adjusted for availability through outpatient dispensing data and regressed on morphine milligram equivalents (MME). There were 19,480 cases of SAE during the 7-year study period. Hydrocodone and oxycodone contributed to 77% of SAE cases. Comparing rates of outcome by relative potency, a hierarchy was observed with hydromorphone (8.02 SAEs/100 kg) and tapentadol (0.27 SAE/100 kg) as the highest and lowest rates, reflecting a 30-fold difference among individual opioid products. SAE rate and potency were related linearly-SAEs increased 2.04 per 100 kg drug dispensed for each 1-unit rise in MME (p = 0.004). Linear regression of SAE/100 kg drug dispensed and drug potency identified that MME comprised 96% of the variation observed. In contrast, potency did not explain variation seen using other study denominators (prescriptions dispensed, dosage units dispensed, and the number of individuals filling a prescription). Potency of a prescription opioid analgesic demonstrates a significant, highly positive linear relationship with exposures resulting in SAEs per 100 kg drug dispensed reported to poison centers

  14. Development of 5-Substituted N-Methylmorphinan-6-ones as Potent Opioid Analgesics with Improved Side-Effect Profile.

    PubMed

    Schmidhammer, Helmut; Spetea, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important functions of the opioid system is the control of pain. Among the three main opioid receptor classes (μ, δ, κ), the μ (MOR) is the main type targeted for pharmacotherapy of pain. Opioid analgesics such as morphine, oxycodone and fentanyl are agonists at the MOR and are the mainstay for the treatment of moderate-to-severe pain. However, adverse effects related to opioid use are severe and often lead to early discontinuation and inadequate analgesia. The development of more effective and safer medications for the management of pain still remains a major direction in pharmaceutical research. Chemical approaches towards the identification of novel MOR analgesics with reduced side effects include structural modifications of 14-alkoxy-N-methylmorphinan-6-ones in key positions that are important for binding, selectivity, potency, and efficacy at opioid receptors. This paper describes a representative strategy to improve the therapeutic usefulness of opioid analgesics from the morphinan class of drugs by targeting position 5. The focus is on chemical and biological studies and structure-activity relationships of this series of ligands. We report on 14-alkoxymorphinan-6-ones having a methyl and benzyl group at position 5 as strong opioid antinociceptive agents with reduced propensity to cause undesired effects compared to morphine although interacting selectively with MORs.

  15. Adamantyl Analogues of Paracetamol as Potent Analgesic Drugs via Inhibition of TRPA1

    PubMed Central

    Fresno, Nieves; Pérez-Fernández, Ruth; Goicoechea, Carlos; Alkorta, Ibon; Fernández-Carvajal, Asia; de la Torre-Martínez, Roberto; Quirce, Susana; Ferrer-Montiel, Antonio; Martín, M. Isabel; Goya, Pilar; Elguero, José

    2014-01-01

    Paracetamol also known as acetaminophen, is a widely used analgesic and antipyretic agent. We report the synthesis and biological evaluation of adamantyl analogues of paracetamol with important analgesic properties. The mechanism of nociception of compound 6a/b, an analog of paracetamol, is not exerted through direct interaction with cannabinoid receptors, nor by inhibiting COX. It behaves as an interesting selective TRPA1 channel antagonist, which may be responsible for its analgesic properties, whereas it has no effect on the TRPM8 nor TRPV1 channels. The possibility of replacing a phenyl ring by an adamantyl ring opens new avenues in other fields of medicinal chemistry. PMID:25438056

  16. Targeting multiple opioid receptors - improved analgesics with reduced side effects?

    PubMed

    Günther, Thomas; Dasgupta, Pooja; Mann, Anika; Miess, Elke; Kliewer, Andrea; Fritzwanker, Sebastian; Steinborn, Ralph; Schulz, Stefan

    2017-04-05

    Classical opioid analgesics, including morphine, mediate all of their desired and undesired effects by specific activation of the μ-opioid receptor (μ receptor). The use of morphine for treating chronic pain, however, is limited by the development of constipation, respiratory depression, tolerance and dependence. Analgesic effects can also be mediated through other members of the opioid receptor family such as the κ-opioid receptor (κ receptor), δ-opioid receptor (δ receptor) and the nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide receptor (NOP receptor). Currently, a new generation of opioid analgesics is being developed that can simultaneously bind with high affinity to multiple opioid receptors. With this new action profile, it is hoped that additional analgesic effects and fewer side effects can be achieved. Recent research is mainly focused on the development of bifunctional μ/NOP receptor agonists, which has already led to novel lead structures such as the spiroindole-based cebranopadol and a compound class with a piperidin-4-yl-1,3-dihydroindol-2-one backbone (SR16835/AT-202 and SR14150/AT-200). In addition, the ornivol BU08028 is an analogue of the clinically well-established buprenorphine. Moreover, the morphinan-based nalfurafine exerts its effect with a dominant κ receptor-component and is therefore utilized in the treatment of pruritus. The very potent dihydroetorphine is a true multi-receptor opioid ligand in that it binds to μ, κ and δ receptors. The main focus of this review is to assess the paradigm of opioid ligands targeting multiple receptors with a single chemical entity. We reflect on this rationale by discussing the biological actions of particular multi-opioid receptor ligands, but not on their medicinal chemistry and design. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  17. Synthetic Neurotensin Analogues Are Nontoxic Analgesics for the Rabbit Cornea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Charles; Barbut, Denise; Heinemann, Murk H.; Pasternak, Gavril; Rosenblatt, Mark I.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To characterize the analgesic potency and toxicity of topical synthetic neurotensin analogues, and localize neurotensin receptors in the cornea and trigeminal ganglion. Methods. Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometry was performed on the rabbit cornea to test the analgesic dose response and duration of effect for two synthetic neurotensin analogues: NT71 and NT72. Receptors for neurotensin were localized in the murine cornea and trigeminal ganglion using quantitative PCR (qPCR), Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. In vitro toxicity of NT71, NT72, and sodium channel blockers was evaluated using cytotoxicity, single-cell migration, and scratch closure assays performed on rabbit corneal epithelial cells. In vivo toxicity of these agents was assessed using a rabbit laser phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) model and histology. Results. NT71 and NT72 induced potent analgesic effects on the rabbit cornea at concentrations between 1.0 and 2.5 mg/mL, lasting up to 180 minutes. A site-specific distribution of neurotensin receptors was observed in the murine cornea and trigeminal ganglion. NT71 and NT72 did not cause any significant in vitro or in vivo toxicity, in contrast to sodium channel blockers. Conclusions. Synthetic neurotensin analogues are potent analgesics that avoid the toxicities associated with established topical analgesic agents. Receptors for neurotensin are present in both the cornea and trigeminal ganglion. PMID:24825106

  18. Synthetic neurotensin analogues are nontoxic analgesics for the rabbit cornea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Charles; Barbut, Denise; Heinemann, Murk H; Pasternak, Gavril; Rosenblatt, Mark I

    2014-05-13

    To characterize the analgesic potency and toxicity of topical synthetic neurotensin analogues, and localize neurotensin receptors in the cornea and trigeminal ganglion. Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometry was performed on the rabbit cornea to test the analgesic dose response and duration of effect for two synthetic neurotensin analogues: NT71 and NT72. Receptors for neurotensin were localized in the murine cornea and trigeminal ganglion using quantitative PCR (qPCR), Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. In vitro toxicity of NT71, NT72, and sodium channel blockers was evaluated using cytotoxicity, single-cell migration, and scratch closure assays performed on rabbit corneal epithelial cells. In vivo toxicity of these agents was assessed using a rabbit laser phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) model and histology. NT71 and NT72 induced potent analgesic effects on the rabbit cornea at concentrations between 1.0 and 2.5 mg/mL, lasting up to 180 minutes. A site-specific distribution of neurotensin receptors was observed in the murine cornea and trigeminal ganglion. NT71 and NT72 did not cause any significant in vitro or in vivo toxicity, in contrast to sodium channel blockers. Synthetic neurotensin analogues are potent analgesics that avoid the toxicities associated with established topical analgesic agents. Receptors for neurotensin are present in both the cornea and trigeminal ganglion. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  19. Sex differences in analgesic, reinforcing, discriminative, and motoric effects of opioids.

    PubMed

    Craft, Rebecca M

    2008-10-01

    This review summarizes evidence for sex differences in behavioral effects of opioids, primarily in rats. Whereas micro agonists have been found to be more potent and in some cases more efficacious in producing analgesia and sedation in males than females, females are more sensitive than males to reinforcing and locomotor stimulant effects of opioids. Sex differences in motoric effects of opioids may contribute to sex differences in other behavioral effects of opioids; for example, sex differences in rats' ability to discriminate morphine from saline can be attributed entirely to greater morphine-induced sedation in males. Chronic estradiol blunts females' sensitivity to morphine's analgesic and sedative effects, but enhances females' sensitivity to the reinforcing and locomotor stimulant effects of micro opioids. The neurobiological basis for sex differences in and estradiol modulation of behavioral effects of opioids includes brain opioid receptor density (greater in males and under low-estradiol conditions in females) and dopaminergic function (greater in females and under high-estradiol conditions). Given the significant and growing use of opioids by women, both medicinally and recreationally, understanding how female biology influences analgesic and other effects of opioids is crucial. Copyright (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of loxoprofen sodium given intramuscularly in animals.

    PubMed

    Hyun, J E; Li, D W; Lee, E B; Jeong, C S

    2001-12-01

    The evaluation of the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of loxoprofen sodium given in intramuscular route was investigated as compared to oral application in rats and mice. The intramuscular ED50 values of loxoprofen sodium in carrageenan edema and vascular permeability tests are 1.15 and 7.8 mg/kg, respectively, which represent more potent than in case of oral application. Its therapeutic effects in adjuvant arthritis were shown at 6 mg/kg i.m. and 3mg/kg p.o. Analgesic effect was shown to be more potent as given intramuscularly. Similar potency of antipyretic effects was shown in both administration routes. Considerably weak gastric damages were observed in intramuscular application.

  1. Analgesic effects of the COX-2 inhibitor parecoxib on surgical pain through suppression of spinal ERK signaling.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ya-Jing; Shi, Xu-Dan; Fu, DI; Yang, Yong; Wang, Ya-Ping; Dai, Ru-Ping

    2013-07-01

    Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors are widely used for postoperative pain control in clinical practice. However, it is unknown whether spinal sensitization is involved in the analgesic effects of COX-2 inhibitors on surgical pain. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the spinal cord is implicated in various types of pain, including surgical pain. The present study investigated the role of spinal ERK signaling in the analgesic effect of the COX-2 inhibitor parecoxib on surgical pain. Surgical pain was produced in rats by surgical incision of the hind paw. Phosphorylated (p)-ERK1/2 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. Pain hypersensitivity was evaluated by measuring the paw withdrawal threshold using the von Frey test. The selective COX-2 inhibitor parecoxib was delivered 20 min before or 20 min after the incision by intraperitoneal injection. Pretreatment with parecoxib markedly attenuated the pain hypersensitivity induced by incision. However, post-treatment with parecoxib produced minimal analgesic effects. Parecoxib inhibited the increase in spinal p-ERK expression following surgical incision. The present study thus suggests that the COX-2 inhibitor parecoxib exerts its analgesic effect on surgical pain through the inhibition of neuronal ERK activation in the spinal cord. COX-2 inhibitor delivery prior to surgery has more potent analgesic effects, suggesting the advantage of preventive analgesia for post-operative pain control.

  2. Opioid analgesics: does potency matter?

    PubMed

    Passik, Steven D; Webster, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Prescription opioid analgesics with a wide range of potencies are currently used for the treatment of chronic pain. Yet understanding the clinical relevance and therapeutic consequences of opioid potency remains ill defined. Both patients and clinicians alike have misperceptions about opioid potency, expecting that less-potent opioids will be less effective or fearing that more-potent opioids are more dangerous or more likely to be abused. In this review, common myths about the potency of opioid analgesics will be discussed. Clinicians should understand that pharmacologic potency per se does not necessarily imply more effective analgesia or higher abuse liability. Published dose conversion tables may not accurately calculate the dose for effective and safe rotation from one opioid to another in patients receiving long-term opioid therapy because they are based on limited data that may not apply to chronic pain. Differences in pharmacologic potency are largely accounted for by the actual doses prescribed, according to individualized patient need. Factors for achieving effective analgesia and reducing the risks involved with opioid use include careful medication selection based on patient characteristics, appropriate dosing titration and opioid rotation practices, knowledge of product formulation characteristics (eg, extended release, immediate release, and tamper-resistant features), and an awareness of differences in opioid pharmacokinetics and metabolism. Clinicians should remain vigilant in monitoring patients on any opioid medication, regardless of classification along the opioid potency continuum.

  3. Synthetic Studies of Neoclerodane Diterpenes from Salvia divinorum: Identification of a Potent and Centrally Acting μ Opioid Analgesic with Reduced Abuse Liability.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Rachel Saylor; Riley, Andrew P; Sherwood, Alexander M; Groer, Chad E; Shivaperumal, Nirajmohan; Biscaia, Miguel; Paton, Kelly; Schneider, Sebastian; Provasi, Davide; Kivell, Bronwyn M; Filizola, Marta; Prisinzano, Thomas E

    2016-12-22

    Opioids are widely used to treat millions suffering from pain, but their analgesic utility is limited due to associated side effects. Herein we report the development and evaluation of a chemical probe exhibiting analgesia and reduced opioid-induced side effects. This compound, kurkinorin (5), is a potent and selective μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist (EC 50 = 1.2 nM, >8000 μ/κ selectivity). 5 is a biased activator of MOR-induced G-protein signaling over β-arrestin-2 recruitment. Metadynamics simulations of 5's binding to a MOR crystal structure suggest energetically preferred binding modes that differ from crystallographic ligands. In vivo studies with 5 demonstrate centrally mediated antinociception, significantly reduced rewarding effects, tolerance, and sedation. We propose that this novel MOR agonist may represent a valuable tool in distinguishing the pathways involved in MOR-induced analgesia from its side effects.

  4. Study of analgesic effect of earthworm extract

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wei; Deng, Zhen-han; Li, Rui; Cheng, Guo; Kotian, Ronak Naveenchandra

    2017-01-01

    Pain represents a major clinical problem and one which has exercised generations of healthcare professionals. Earthworms are used as a traditional Chinese medicine, and have been applied pharmacologically and clinically since a long time in China. However, the analgesic effects of earthworm extract (EE) are seldom studied. Hence, we evaluated the analgesic effects of EE in mice. The obtained data showed that EE increased pain threshold and exhibited peripheral but not central analgesic effects in mice; evidenced by increased inhibition ratio in acetic acid writhing test and formalin test, whereas only slight increase in inhibition ratio in hot plate test and tail immersion test. In addition, EE decreased serum norepinephrine (NE), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), and nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) concentration, similar to other analgesic drugs like morphine and aspirin. In a nutshell, the obtained data have demonstrated that EE has peripheral analgesic properties and could be used as a promising analgesic drug. PMID:29273677

  5. Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of Papaver libanoticum Extract in Mice: Involvement of Opioids Receptors.

    PubMed

    Hijazi, Mohamad Ali; El-Mallah, Ahmed; Aboul-Ela, Maha; Ellakany, Abdalla

    2017-01-01

    Papaver libanoticum is an endemic plant to Lebanese region (family Papaveraceae) that has not been investigated before. The present study aimed to explore the analgesic activity of dried ethanolic extract of Papaver libanoticum (PLE) using tail flick, hot plate, and acetic acid induced writhing models in mice. The involvement of opioid receptors in the analgesic mechanism was investigated using naloxone antagonism. Results demonstrated that PLE exhibited a potent dose dependent analgesic activity in all tested models for analgesia. The analgesic effect involved activation of opioid receptors in the central nervous system, where both spinal and supraspinal components might be involved. The time course for analgesia revealed maximum activity after three hours in both tail flick and hot plate methods, which was prolonged to 24 hours. Metabolites of PLE could be responsible for activation of opioid receptors. The EC50 of PLE was 79 and 50 mg/kg in tail flick and hot plate tests, respectively. The total coverage of analgesia by PLE was double that of morphine in both tests. In conclusion, PLE proved to have opioid agonistic activity with a novel feature of slow and prolonged effect. The present study could add a potential tool in the armaments of opioid drugs as a natural potent analgesic and for treatment of opioid withdrawal syndrome.

  6. Vasorelaxant effect of the analgesic clonixin on rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Morales, M A; Silva, A; Brito, G; Bustamante, S; Ponce, H; Paeile, C

    1995-03-01

    1. A novel vasorelaxant effect of clonixinate of L-lysine (Clx), analgesic and anti-inflammatory, was studied in rat aortic rings. 2. Clx completely relaxed aortic rings contracted by KCl 70 mM and together with its analog flunixin exhibited lesser potency but equal efficacy than verapamil. In comparison, indomethacin, which is a more potent cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor relaxed only about 40% of the maximal contraction of aortic rings. 3. Furthermore, Clx antagonized Ca2+ dependent aortic contraction and BAY K-8644 induced aortic contraction suggesting its calcium antagonist character. 4. From these results it can be concluded that the hypotensive effect seen in rats in vivo after Clx i.v. injection arises because of vasodilatory effect of Clx and gives further support to the proposal that the pharmacological mechanism of action of Clx should be calcium antagonism.

  7. Long-term effects of octreotide on pituitary gigantism: its analgesic action on cluster headache.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Fumio; Mizobuchi, Satoshi; Ogura, Toshio; Sato, Kenji; Yokoyama, Masataka; Makino, Hirofumi

    2004-10-01

    We report the case of 19-year-old man with pituitary gigantism due to growth hormone-producing pituitary macroadenoma. The patient complained of recurrent headache and excessive growth spurt since age 15. Octreotide administration was initiated following transsphenoidal pituitary adenomectomy. Octreotide injection for 4 years efficaciously reduced the size of remnant adenoma as well as serum growth hormone levels. Notably, octreotide exhibited a potent analgesic effect on his intractable cluster headache that has continued even after reduction of the adenoma volume. The analgesic effect lasted 2 to 6 hours after each injection and no tachyphylaxis to octreotide appeared during 4-year treatment. To characterize the headache and the pain intensity, analgesic drugs including octreotide, lidocaine, morphine and thiopental were tested using a visual analogue scale (VAS) evaluation, with the result that octreotide exhibited a prompt and complete disappearance of the headache. Headache relief was in part reproduced by morphine injection (56% reduction) but not by lidocaine or thiopental. The present case suggests that the intractable headache associated with pituitary gigantism is possibly related to the endogenous opioid system. Thus, the headache control by octreotide is clinically helpful for continuation of the self-injection regimen.

  8. The analgesic effect of tramadol in animal models of neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Kumi; Umehara, Masato; Homan, Takashi; Okamoto, Ken; Oka, Michiko; Oyama, Tatsuya

    2014-03-06

    (±)-Tramadol hydrochloride (tramadol) is a widely used analgesic for the treatment of cancer pain and chronic pain. Although many animal studies have shown antinociceptive effects of tramadol in both acute and chronic pain, little is known about the effect of tramadol in putative animal models of fibromyalgia. In this study, we compared the antiallodynic effects of oral administration of tramadol in two kinds of rat chronic pain models, neuropathic pain induced by partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSL) and reserpine-induced myalgia (RIM). In PSL rats, the threshold for responses induced by tactile stimulation with von Frey filaments was significantly decreased seven days after the operation, suggesting that the operation induced tactile allodynia. Orally administered tramadol showed a potent and dose-dependent antiallodynic effect on PSL-induced allodynia. In RIM rats, the threshold was significantly decreased five days after reserpine treatment. Orally administered tramadol also attenuated reserpine-induced tactile allodynia. To explore the mechanism of the antiallodynic effect of tramadol in RIM rats, we investigated the effect of the opioid antagonist naloxone on the tramadol-induced analgesic effect in these rats. The effect of tramadol was partially antagonized by naloxone, suggesting that the opioid receptor is involved at least in part in the antiallodynic effect of tramadol in RIM rats. These data indicate that orally administered tramadol produced improvement in both PSL rats and RIM rats at similar doses and provide evidence that the opioid system is partly involved in the analgesic effect of tramadol in RIM rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of Papaver libanoticum Extract in Mice: Involvement of Opioids Receptors

    PubMed Central

    El-Mallah, Ahmed; Aboul-Ela, Maha; Ellakany, Abdalla

    2017-01-01

    Papaver libanoticum is an endemic plant to Lebanese region (family Papaveraceae) that has not been investigated before. The present study aimed to explore the analgesic activity of dried ethanolic extract of Papaver libanoticum (PLE) using tail flick, hot plate, and acetic acid induced writhing models in mice. The involvement of opioid receptors in the analgesic mechanism was investigated using naloxone antagonism. Results demonstrated that PLE exhibited a potent dose dependent analgesic activity in all tested models for analgesia. The analgesic effect involved activation of opioid receptors in the central nervous system, where both spinal and supraspinal components might be involved. The time course for analgesia revealed maximum activity after three hours in both tail flick and hot plate methods, which was prolonged to 24 hours. Metabolites of PLE could be responsible for activation of opioid receptors. The EC50 of PLE was 79 and 50 mg/kg in tail flick and hot plate tests, respectively. The total coverage of analgesia by PLE was double that of morphine in both tests. In conclusion, PLE proved to have opioid agonistic activity with a novel feature of slow and prolonged effect. The present study could add a potential tool in the armaments of opioid drugs as a natural potent analgesic and for treatment of opioid withdrawal syndrome. PMID:28280516

  10. Factors influencing the postoperative use of analgesics in dogs and cats by Canadian veterinarians.

    PubMed

    Dohoo, S E; Dohoo, I R

    1996-09-01

    Four hundred and seventeen Canadian veterinarians were surveyed to determine their postoperative use of analgesics in dogs and cats following 6 categories of surgeries, and their opinion toward pain perception and perceived complications associated with the postoperative use of potent opioid analgesics. Three hundred and seventeen (76%) returned the questionnaire. An analgesic user was defined as a veterinarian who administers analgesics to at least 50% of dogs or 50% of cats following abdominal surgery, excluding ovariohysterectomy. The veterinarians responding exhibited a bimodal distribution of analgesic use, with 49.5% being defined as analgesic users. These veterinarians tended to use analgesics in 100% of animals following abdominal surgery. Veterinarians defined as analgesic nonusers rarely used postoperative analgesics following any abdominal surgery. Pain perception was defined as the average of pain rankings (on a scale of 1 to 10) following abdominal surgery, or the value for dogs or cats if the veterinarian worked with only 1 of the 2 species. Maximum concern about the risks associated with the postoperative use of potent opioid agonists was defined as the highest ranking assigned to any of the 7 risks evaluated in either dogs or cats. Logistic regression analysis identified the pain perception score and the maximum concern regarding the use of potent opioid agonists in the postoperative period as the 2 factors that distinguished analgesic users from analgesic nonusers. This model correctly classified 68% of veterinarians as analgesic users or nonusers. Linear regression analysis identified gender and the presence of an animal health technologist in the practice as the 2 factors that influenced pain perception by veterinarians. Linear regression analysis identified working with an animal health technologist, graduation within the past 10 years, and attendance at continuing education as factors that influenced maximum concern about the postoperative use

  11. Analgesic Effect of the Newly Developed S(+)-Flurbiprofen Plaster on Inflammatory Pain in a Rat Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis Model.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Masanori; Toda, Yoshihisa; Hori, Miyuki; Mitani, Akiko; Ichihara, Takahiro; Sekine, Shingo; Hirose, Takuya; Endo, Hiromi; Futaki, Nobuko; Kaku, Shinsuke; Otsuka, Noboru; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2016-02-01

    Preclinical Research This article describes the properties of a novel topical NSAID (Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug) patch, SFPP (S(+)-flurbiprofen plaster), containing the potent cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, S(+)-flurbiprofen (SFP). The present studies were conducted to confirm human COX inhibition and absorption of SFP and to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of SFPP in a rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) model. COX inhibition by SFP, ketoprofen and loxoprofen was evaluated using human recombinant COX proteins. Absorption of SFPP, ketoprofen and loxoprofen from patches through rat skin was assessed 24 h after application. The AIA model was induced by injecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis followed 20 days later by the evaluation of the prostaglandin PGE2 content of the inflamed paw and the pain threshold. SFP exhibited more potent inhibitory activity against COX-1 (IC50  = 8.97 nM) and COX-2 (IC50  = 2.94 nM) than the other NSAIDs evaluated. Absorption of SFP was 92.9%, greater than that of ketoprofen and loxoprofen from their respective patches. Application of SFPP decreased PGE2 content from 15 min to 6 h and reduced paw hyperalgesia compared with the control, ketoprofen and loxoprofen patches. SFPP showed analgesic efficacy, and was superior to the ketoprofen and loxoprofen patches, which could be through the potent COX inhibitory activity of SFP and greater skin absorption. The results suggested SFPP can be expected to exert analgesic effect clinically. © 2016 The Authors Drug Development Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Putative kappa opioid heteromers as targets for developing analgesics free of adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Le Naour, Morgan; Lunzer, Mary M; Powers, Michael D; Kalyuzhny, Alexander E; Benneyworth, Michael A; Thomas, Mark J; Portoghese, Philip S

    2014-08-14

    It is now generally recognized that upon activation by an agonist, β-arrestin associates with G protein-coupled receptors and acts as a scaffold in creating a diverse signaling network that could lead to adverse effects. As an approach to reducing side effects associated with κ opioid agonists, a series of β-naltrexamides 3-10 was synthesized in an effort to selectively target putative κ opioid heteromers without recruiting β-arrestin upon activation. The most potent derivative 3 (INTA) strongly activated KOR-DOR and KOR-MOR heteromers in HEK293 cells. In vivo studies revealed 3 to produce potent antinociception, which, when taken together with antagonism data, was consistent with the activation of both heteromers. 3 was devoid of tolerance, dependence, and showed no aversive effect in the conditioned place preference assay. As immunofluorescence studies indicated no recruitment of β-arrestin2 to membranes in coexpressed KOR-DOR cells, this study suggests that targeting of specific putative heteromers has the potential to identify leads for analgesics devoid of adverse effects.

  13. Evaluation of the antiulcerogenic and analgesic activities of Cordia verbenacea DC. (Boraginaceae).

    PubMed

    Roldão, Erika de Freitas; Witaicenis, Aline; Seito, Leonardo Noboru; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia Akiko; Di Stasi, Luiz Claudio

    2008-09-02

    Cordia verbenacea is a medicinal plant popularly used in Brazil as anti-inflammatory, antiulcer and anti-rheumatic agent without detailed pharmacological and toxicological studies. The study was aimed to investigate the effects of Cordia verbenacea in antiulcer, analgesic and antioxidant assays, as well as to evaluate its toxic effects and phytochemical profile. Antiulcer activity of plant extract was evaluated using ethanol/HCl, ethanol and piroxican-induced gastric lesions methods. The pH, volume and total acid of gastric juice were determined by pylorus-ligated assay. Analgesic activity was evaluated by writhing, tail-flick and hot-plate tests. Antioxidant activity was determined by in vitro lipoperoxidation assay. Acute toxicity and number of deaths were evaluated by Hippocratic screening. The ethanol leaf extract shows a potent antiulcer activity in the ethanol/HCl and absolute ethanol-induced gastric lesions. The IC(50) value of plant extract on the lipid peroxidation was 76.11mug/ml. Preliminary phytochemical tests were positive for flavonoids, steroids, saponins, fixed acids, alkaloids and phenols. In the analgesic models the extract did not present any activity. Cordial verbenaceae showed a potent antiulcer activity at the dose of 125mg/kg and this effect may be associated with an improvement in stomach antioxidant mechanisms.

  14. Analgesic Effect of the Newly Developed S(+)‐Flurbiprofen Plaster on Inflammatory Pain in a Rat Adjuvant‐Induced Arthritis Model

    PubMed Central

    Toda, Yoshihisa; Hori, Miyuki; Mitani, Akiko; Ichihara, Takahiro; Sekine, Shingo; Hirose, Takuya; Endo, Hiromi; Futaki, Nobuko; Kaku, Shinsuke; Otsuka, Noboru; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Preclinical Research This article describes the properties of a novel topical NSAID (Nonsteroidal anti‐inflammatory drug) patch, SFPP (S(+)‐flurbiprofen plaster), containing the potent cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, S(+)‐flurbiprofen (SFP). The present studies were conducted to confirm human COX inhibition and absorption of SFP and to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of SFPP in a rat adjuvant‐induced arthritis (AIA) model. COX inhibition by SFP, ketoprofen and loxoprofen was evaluated using human recombinant COX proteins. Absorption of SFPP, ketoprofen and loxoprofen from patches through rat skin was assessed 24 h after application. The AIA model was induced by injecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis followed 20 days later by the evaluation of the prostaglandin PGE2 content of the inflamed paw and the pain threshold. SFP exhibited more potent inhibitory activity against COX‐1 (IC50 = 8.97 nM) and COX‐2 (IC50 = 2.94 nM) than the other NSAIDs evaluated. Absorption of SFP was 92.9%, greater than that of ketoprofen and loxoprofen from their respective patches. Application of SFPP decreased PGE2 content from 15 min to 6 h and reduced paw hyperalgesia compared with the control, ketoprofen and loxoprofen patches. SFPP showed analgesic efficacy, and was superior to the ketoprofen and loxoprofen patches, which could be through the potent COX inhibitory activity of SFP and greater skin absorption. The results suggested SFPP can be expected to exert analgesic effect clinically. Drug Dev Res 76 : 20–28, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26763139

  15. Synthesis and evaluation of aryl-naloxamide opiate analgesics targeting truncated exon 11-associated mu opioid receptor (MOR-1) splice variants

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Susruta; Subrath, Joan; Le Rouzic, Valerie; Polikar, Lisa; Burgman, Maxim; Nagakura, Kuni; Ocampo, Julie; Haselton, Nathan; Pasternak, Anna R.; Grinnell, Steven; Pan, Ying-Xian; Pasternak, Gavril W.

    2012-01-01

    3-Iodobenzoylnaltrexamide 1 (IBNtxA) is a potent analgesic acting through a novel receptor target that lack many side-effects of traditional opiates composed, in part, of exon 11-associated truncated six transmembrane domain MOR-1 (6TM/E11) splice variants. To better understand the SAR of this drug target, a number of 4,5-epoxymorphinan analogs were synthesized. Results show the importance of a free 3-phenolic group, a phenyl ring at the 6 position, an iodine at the 3′ or 4′ position of the phenyl ring and an N-allyl or c-propylmethyl group to maintain high 6TM/E11 affinity and activity. 3-Iodobenzoylnaloxamide 15 (IBNalA) with a N-allyl group displayed lower delta opioid receptor affinity than its naltrexamine analog, was 10-fold more potent an analgesic than morphine, elicited no respiratory depression or physical dependence and only limited inhibition of gastrointestinal transit. Thus, the aryl-naloxamide scaffold can generate a potent analgesic acting through the 6TM/E11 sites with advantageous side-effect profile and greater selectivity. PMID:22734622

  16. Synthesis and evaluation of aryl-naloxamide opiate analgesics targeting truncated exon 11-associated μ opioid receptor (MOR-1) splice variants.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Susruta; Subrath, Joan; Le Rouzic, Valerie; Polikar, Lisa; Burgman, Maxim; Nagakura, Kuni; Ocampo, Julie; Haselton, Nathan; Pasternak, Anna R; Grinnell, Steven; Pan, Ying-Xian; Pasternak, Gavril W

    2012-07-26

    3-Iodobenzoylnaltrexamide 1 (IBNtxA) is a potent analgesic acting through a novel receptor target that lack many side-effects of traditional opiates composed, in part, of exon 11-associated truncated six transmembrane domain MOR-1 (6TM/E11) splice variants. To better understand the SAR of this drug target, a number of 4,5-epoxymorphinan analogues were synthesized. Results show the importance of a free 3-phenolic group, a phenyl ring at the 6 position, an iodine at the 3'or 4' position of the phenyl ring, and an N-allyl or c-propylmethyl group to maintain high 6TM/E11 affinity and activity. 3-Iodobenzoylnaloxamide 15 (IBNalA) with a N-allyl group displayed lower δ opioid receptor affinity than its naltrexamine analogue, was 10-fold more potent an analgesic than morphine, elicited no respiratory depression or physical dependence, and only limited inhibition of gastrointestinal transit. Thus, the aryl-naloxamide scaffold can generate a potent analgesic acting through the 6TM/E11 sites with advantageous side-effect profile and greater selectivity.

  17. Mediating Effect of Family Caregivers' Hesitancy to Use Analgesics on Homecare Cancer Patients' Analgesic Adherence.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bih-O; Liu, Yi; Wang, Yi-Hsien; Hsu, Hsin-Tien; Chen, Chien-Liang; Chou, Pi-Ling; Hsu, Wen-Chung

    2015-12-01

    Family caregivers play an increasingly critical role in cancer patients' symptom management as the number of cancer patients receiving home care grows. However, there is a lack of research measuring the impact of the family caregivers' hesitancy to use analgesics on analgesic adherence and the resulting influence on patient pain intensity. To examine whether family caregivers' hesitancy to use analgesics is a mediator that influences patient adherence and investigate how analgesic regimen adherence affects pain intensity. This study used a cross-sectional and descriptive design. One hundred seventy-six patient-family caregiver dyads (N = 352) were recruited from one local hospital in southern Taiwan. Instruments included the Short Version of the Barriers Questionnaire-Taiwan, the Morisky Medication Adherence Measure-Taiwan, the Brief Pain Inventory-Chinese, and demographic and illness questionnaires. A one-way analysis of variance and post hoc comparisons were performed to assess the influence of analgesic regimen adherence on pain intensity. Sobel tests were used to examine mediating effects. Family caregivers' hesitancy to use analgesics was a significant mediator between patient barriers to use analgesics and patient analgesic regimen adherence (P < 0.0001). Patients with low and moderate adherence levels reported significantly higher levels of pain severity (F = 3.83, P < 0.05). This study showed that family caregivers' hesitancy to use analgesics was a significant mediator associated with their hesitancy to use analgesics and the patients' analgesic adherence. It is important for health care providers to consider family caregivers' hesitancy to use analgesics when attempting to improve adherence to pain management regimens in clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Analgesic Effects of Toad Cake and Toad-cake-containing Herbal Drugs: Analgesic effects of toad cake.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Eiji; Shimizu, Yasuharu; Masui, Ryo; Usui, Tomomi; Sudoh, Keiichi

    2014-03-01

    This study was conducted to clarify the analgesic effect of toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs. We counted the writhing response of mice after the intraperitoneal administration of acetic acid as a nociceptive pain model and the withdrawal response after the plantar surface stimulation of the hind paw induced by partial sciatic nerve ligation of the mice as a neuropathic pain model to investigate the analgesic effect of toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs. A co-treatment study with serotonin biosynthesis inhibitory drug 4-chloro- DL-phenylalanine methyl ester hydrochloride (PCPA), the catecholamine biosynthesis inhibitory drug α-methyl- DL-tyrosine methyl ester hydrochloride (AMPT) or the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone hydrochloride was also conducted. Analgesic effects in a mouse model of nociceptive pain and neuropathic pain were shown by oral administration of toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs. The effects of toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs disappeared upon co-treatment with PCPA, but not with AMPT or naloxone in the nociceptive pain model; the analgesic effect of toad-cake-containing herbal drugs also disappeared upon co-treatment with PCPA in the neuropathic pain model. Toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs have potential for the treatments of nociceptive pain and of neuropathic pain, such as post-herpetic neuralgia, trigeminal neuralgia, diabetic neuralgia, and postoperative or posttraumatic pain, by activation of the central serotonin nervous system.

  19. Evaluation of acute toxicity, sedative and analgesic effects of Taverniera glabra methanolic extract on mice.

    PubMed

    Marvi, -; Iqbal, Javeid; Muhammad, Shafi; Ahmad, Mansoor

    2016-11-01

    Present study was conducted on crude methanolic extract of stem and root of Taverniera glabra. In Pakistan T. glabra is found in the region of Balochistan only. T. glabra has numerous therapeutic uses in traditional medicine and it is also used for the pain relief. Current study was carried out to evaluate acute toxicity, analgesic and CNS depressant activity of the plant. Acute toxicity was carried out by oral administration of the T. glabra extract from 250 to 2000mg/kg oral dose. Analgesic activity was carried out by acetic acid induced writhing test and formalin test. Central Nervous System (CNS) depressant activity was carried out by exploratory activities (open field activity, cage crossing activity, rearing test) and forced swimming test. Oral administration of the methanolic extract of T. glabra was nontoxic at the dose of 1500mg/kg in the acute toxicity test. Exploratory behavior of mice treated with the methanolic extract of T. glabra showed sedative effects (P<0.05) in open field, cage crossing, traction and rearing test, particularly at the dose of 500mg as compared with standard drug Diazepam. In forced swimming test, mobility time was significantly (P<0.05) increased at 500mg/kg oral dose, and results were significant as compared with control. Methanolic extract of T. glabra produced significant (P<0.05) analgesic effects at the dose of 500mg/kg in the acetic acid induced writhing test and the formalin test. In conclusion, results show that the crude methanolic extract of T. glabra possess sedative as well as potent analgesic effects. Present pharmacological studies are the first ever studies conducted on the methanolic extract of T. glabra.

  20. Analgesic effect of the neuropeptide cortistatin in murine models of arthritic inflammatory pain.

    PubMed

    Morell, Maria; Souza-Moreira, Luciana; Caro, Marta; O'Valle, Francisco; Forte-Lago, Irene; de Lecea, Luis; Gonzalez-Rey, Elena; Delgado, Mario

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the role of the antiinflammatory neuropeptide cortistatin in chronic pain evoked by joint inflammation. Thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia was evoked in mouse knee joints by intraplantar injection of tumor necrosis factor α and intraarticular infusion of Freund's complete adjuvant, and the analgesic effects of cortistatin, administered centrally, peripherally, and systemically, were assessed. In addition, the effects of cortistatin on the production of nociceptive peptides and the activation of pain signaling were assayed in dorsal root ganglion cultures and in inflammatory pain models. The role of endogenous cortistatin in pain sensitization and perpetuation of chronic inflammatory states was evaluated in cortistatin-deficient mice. Finally, the effect of noxious/inflammatory stimuli in the production of cortistatin by the peripheral nociceptive system was assayed in vitro and in vivo. Expression of cortistatin was observed in peptidergic nociceptors of the peripheral nociceptive system, and endogenous cortistatin was found to participate in the tuning of pain sensitization, especially in pathologic inflammatory conditions. Results showed that cortistatin acted both peripherally and centrally to reduce the tactile allodynia and heat hyperalgesia evoked by arthritis and peripheral tissue inflammation in mice, via mechanisms that were independent of its antiinflammatory action. These mechanisms involved direct action on nociceptive neurons and regulation of central sensitization. The analgesic effects of cortistatin in murine arthritic pain were linked to binding of the neuropeptide to somatostatin and ghrelin receptors, activation of the G protein subunit Gαi , impairment of ERK signaling, and decreased production of calcitonin gene-related peptide in primary nociceptors. These findings indicate that cortistatin is an antiinflammatory factor with potent analgesic effects that may offer a new approach to pain therapy in pathologic inflammatory

  1. Opioid Receptors: Toward Separation of Analgesic from Undesirable Effects

    PubMed Central

    Law, P.Y.; Reggio, Patricia H.; Loh, H.H.

    2013-01-01

    The use of opioid analgesics for pain has always been hampered by their many side effects; in particular, the addictive liability associated with chronic use. Recently, attempts to develop analgesic agents with reduced side effects have targeted either the putative opioid receptor splice variants or the receptor heterooligomers. This review discusses the potential for receptor splice variant- and the hetero-oligomer-based discovery of new opioid analgesics. We also examine an alternative approach of using receptor mutants for pain management. Finally, we discuss the role of the biased agonism observed and the recently reported opioid receptor crystal structures in guiding the future development of opioid analgesics PMID:23598157

  2. The analgesic effects of exogenous melatonin in humans.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Lars Peter Holst

    2016-10-01

    The hormone, melatonin is produced with circadian rhythm by the pineal gland in humans. The melatonin rhythm provides an endogenous synchronizer, modulating e.g. blood pressure, body temperature, cortisol rhythm, sleep-awake-cycle, immune function and anti-oxidative defence. Interestingly, a number of experimental animal studies demonstrate significant dose-dependent anti-nociceptive effects of exogenous melatonin. Similarly, recent experimental- and clinical studies in humans indicate significant analgesic effects. In study I, we systematically reviewed all randomized studies investigating clinical effects of perioperative melatonin. Meta-analyses demonstrated significant analgesic and anxiolytic effects of melatonin in surgical patients, equating reductions of 20 mm and 19 mm, respectively on a VAS, compared with placebo. Profound heterogeneity between the included studies was, however, present. In study II, we aimed to investigate the analgesic, anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of exogenous melatonin in a validated human inflammatory pain model, the human burn model. The study was performed as a randomized, double blind placebo-controlled crossover study. Primary outcomes were pain during the burn injury and areas of secondary hyperalgesia. No significant effects of exogenous melatonin were observed with respect to primary or secondary outcomes, compared to placebo. Study III and IV estimated the pharmacokinetic variables of exogenous melatonin. Oral melatonin demonstrated a t max value of 41 minutes. Bioavailability of oral melatonin was only 3%. Elimination t 1/2 were approximately 45 minutes following both oral and intravenous administration, respectively. High-dose intravenous melatonin was not associated with increased sedation, in terms of simple reaction times, compared to placebo. Similarly, no other adverse effects were reported. In Study V, we aimed to re-analyse data obtained from a randomized analgesic drug trial by a selection of

  3. The analgesic effect of orexin-A in a murine model of chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Toyama, Satoshi; Shimoyama, Naohito; Shimoyama, Megumi

    2017-02-01

    Orexins are neuropeptides that are localized to neurons in the lateral and dorsal hypothalamus but its receptors are distributed to many different regions of the central nervous system. Orexins are implicated in a variety of physiological functions including sleep regulation, energy homeostats, and stress reactions. Furthermore, orexins administered exogenously have been shown to have analgesic effects in animal models. A type of intractable pain in patients is pain due to chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). Several chemotherapeutic agents used for the treatment of malignant diseases induce dose-limiting neuropathic pain that compromises patients' quality of life. Here, we examined the analgesic effect of orexin-A in a murine model of CIPN, and compared it with the effect of duloxetine, the only drug recommended for the treatment of CIPN pain in patients. CIPN was induced in male BALB/c mice by repeated intraperitoneal injection of oxaliplatin, a platinum chemotherapeutic agent used for the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer. Neuropathic mechanical allodynia was assessed by the von Frey test, and the effect on acute thermal pain was assessed by the tail flick test. Intracerebroventricularly administered orexin-A dose-dependently attenuated oxaliplatin-induced mechanical allodynia and increased tail flick latencies. Oxaliplatin-induced mechanical allodynia was completely reversed by orexin-A at a low dose that did not increase tail flick latency. Duloxetine only partially reversed mechanical allodynia and had no effect on tail flick latency. The analgesic effect of orexin-A on oxaliplatin-induced mechanical allodynia was completely antagonized by prior intraperitoneal injection of SB-408124 (orexin type-1 receptor antagonist), but not by prior intraperitoneal injection of TCS-OX2-29 (orexin type-2 receptor antagonist). Our findings suggest that orexin-A is more potent than duloxetine in relieving pain CIPN pain and its analgesic effect is

  4. Analgesic tolerance to morphine is regulated by PPARγ

    PubMed Central

    de Guglielmo, Giordano; Kallupi, Marsida; Scuppa, Giulia; Stopponi, Serena; Demopulos, Gregory; Gaitanaris, George; Ciccocioppo, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Opioid drugs are potent analgesics. However, their chronic use leads to the rapid development of tolerance to their analgesic effects and subsequent increase of significant side effects, including drug dependence and addiction. Here, we investigated the role of PPARγ in the development of analgesic tolerance to morphine in mice. Experimental Approach We monitored analgesia on alternate days using the tail immersion test. Key Results Daily administration of morphine (30 mg·kg−1, bid) resulted in the rapid development of tolerance to thermal analgesia. Co-administration of pioglitazone (10 and 30 mg·kg−1, bid) significantly attenuated the development and expression of tolerance. However, pretreatment with GW-9662 (5 mg·kg−1, bid), a selective PPARγ antagonist, completely abolished this effect. Injection of GW-9662 and a lower dose of morphine (15 mg·kg−1, bid) accelerated the development of tolerance to its antinociceptive effect. Subsequently, we found that conditional neuronal PPARγ knockout (KO) mice develop a more rapid and pronounced tolerance to morphine antinociception compared with wild-type (WT) controls. Moreover, in PPARγ KO mice, pioglitazone was no longer able to prevent the development of morphine tolerance. Conclusions and Implications Overall, our results demonstrate that PPARγ plays a tonic role in the modulation of morphine tolerance, and its pharmacological activation may help to reduce its development. These findings provide new information about the role of neuronal PPARγ and suggest that combining PPARγ agonists with opioid analgesics may reduce the development of tolerance and possibly attenuate the potential for opioid abuse. PMID:25048682

  5. Analgesic Prodrugs for Combating their Side-Effects: Rational Approach.

    PubMed

    Ruchita; Sucheta; Nanda, Sanju; Pathak, Dharampal

    2017-01-01

    Analgesics are the drugs which bring insensibility to pain without loosing consciousness. Treatment strategy is generally based on the type of pain. Most of the analgesics are associated with serious side effects, such as NSAIDS can cause severe GI disturbance and opioids can cause addiction. There are various ways to reduce their side effects The analgesic prodrug approach is one of the several strategies used to attain the required pharmacological response with a considerable decrease in side effects. The aim of this paper is to introduce in depth the rational behind the use of the analgesic prodrug approach from past to present. Data is collected from online as well as from extensive literature survey which have appeared on this subject during the last decades. This review will map the origins and development of the most important of the analgesic prodrugs to date. This review indicates that, designing analgesic prodrugs represent successful strategy to gain the required pharmacological activity with a considerable decrease in side effects. However thorough knowledge of diverse biological phenomena is needed which enables scientists to invent and design superior, nontoxic and better-targeted prodrugs. The newly synthesized chemical entity or prodrugs may or may not have intrinsic pharmacological activity and also synthesizing novel molecules consume a lot of time and money than developing prodrugs of existing clinically used analgesic drugs which is surely an attractive and promising area of research now a days. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Correlation between synergistic action of Radix Angelica dahurica extracts on analgesic effects of Corydalis alkaloid and plasma concentration of dl-THP.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zheng-Gen; Liang, Xin-Li; Zhu, Jing-Yun; Zhao, Guo-Wei; Yang, Ming; Wang, Guang-Fa; Jiang, Qie-Ying; Chen, Xu-Long

    2010-05-04

    Yuanhu Zhitong prescription that consists of Corydalis yanhusuo and Radix Angelicae dahuricae has been used for the treatment of gastralgia, costalgia, headache and dysmenorrhea in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Our previous studies demonstrated that Corydalis alkaloid (CA, derived from the root of Corydalis yanhusu) had potent analgesic properties, and the total coumarins of Angelica dahurica (Cou) and volatile oil (VO) that derived from the root of Radix Angelicae dahuricae all could increase the analgesic effect of CA. The major objective of this paper was to investigate the mechanism that leading the analgesia of CA increased by Cou and (or) VO. The relationship between analgesic effect of CA and the plasma concentration of Dl-tetrahydropalmatine (dl-THP, active component of CA) was assayed in mice writhing test. The CA (34, 68 and 134 mg/kg) reduced the nociception by acetic acid intraperitoneal injection in a dose-dependent manner, and there was a significant linear relationship between the analgesic effect of CA and the plasma concentration of dl-THP. Then the plasma concentration of dl-THP at different time intervals in rats after oral administration of CA, CA-Cou, CA-VO and CA-Cou-VO were examined by using HPLC. The results indicated that Cou and (or) VO raised the plasma concentration of dl-THP prominently. In conclusion, the reason that Radix Angelica dahurica extracts reinforced the analgesic effects of Corydalis alkaloid was related to the improvement of the plasma concentration of dl-THP. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Analgesic effects of branding in treatment of headaches.

    PubMed Central

    Branthwaite, A; Cooper, P

    1981-01-01

    The effect of branding--that is, the labelling and marketing--of a well-known proprietary analgesic used to treat headaches was studied in a sample of women given a branded or unbranded form with either an inert or an active formulation. The sample was also divided according to whether the subjects were regular users of the brand or users of other brands. The findings showed that branded tablets were overall significantly more effective than unbranded tablets in relieving headaches. Differential effects were observed: the effects of branding were more noticeable one hour after the tablets were taken compared with 30 minutes; in the women given the placebo; and in the users of the brand compared with the users of other brands. It is hypothesised that these effects are due to increased confidence in obtaining relief with a well-known brand, and that branding has an analgesic effect that interacts with the analgesic effects of placebos and active ingredients. PMID:6786566

  8. Analgesic effects of branding in treatment of headaches.

    PubMed

    Branthwaite, A; Cooper, P

    1981-05-16

    The effect of branding--that is, the labelling and marketing--of a well-known proprietary analgesic used to treat headaches was studied in a sample of women given a branded or unbranded form with either an inert or an active formulation. The sample was also divided according to whether the subjects were regular users of the brand or users of other brands. The findings showed that branded tablets were overall significantly more effective than unbranded tablets in relieving headaches. Differential effects were observed: the effects of branding were more noticeable one hour after the tablets were taken compared with 30 minutes; in the women given the placebo; and in the users of the brand compared with the users of other brands. It is hypothesised that these effects are due to increased confidence in obtaining relief with a well-known brand, and that branding has an analgesic effect that interacts with the analgesic effects of placebos and active ingredients.

  9. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang).

    PubMed

    Garrido, G; González, D; Delporte, C; Backhouse, N; Quintero, G; Núñez-Sellés, A J; Morales, M A

    2001-02-01

    Vimang is an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica used in Cuba to improve the quality of life in patients suffering from elevated stress. To assess its possible analgesic and antiinflammatory effects, the results of a standard extract evaluation are presented. Analgesia was determined using acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction and formalin-induced licking. Antiinflammatory effects were evaluated using carrageenan- and formalin-induced oedema. Vimang (50-1000 mg/kg, p.o.) exhibited a potent and dose-dependent antinociceptive effect against acetic acid test in mice. The mean potency (DE(50)) was 54.5 mg/kg and the maximal inhibition attained was 94.4%. Vimang (20-1000 mg/kg, p.o.) dose-dependently inhibited the second phase of formalin-induced pain but not the first phase. The DE(50) of the second phase was 8.4 mg/kg and the maximal inhibition was 99.5%, being more potent than indomethacin at doses of 20 mg/kg. Vimang (20-1000 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly inhibited oedema formation (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05) of both carrageenan- and formalin-induced oedema in rat, guinea-pigs and mice (maximal inhibitions: 39.5, 45.0 and 48.6, respectively). The inhibitions were similar to those produced by indomethacin and sodium naproxen, p.o. The different polyphenols found in Vimang could account for the antinociceptive and antiinflammatory actions reported here for the first time for M. indica bark aqueous extract. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Piper nigrum L.

    PubMed

    Tasleem, Farhana; Azhar, Iqbal; Ali, Syed Nawazish; Perveen, Shaista; Mahmood, Zafar Alam

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate and compare the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of pure compound, piperine along with hexane and ethanol extracts of Piper nigrum L. fruit in mice and rats. The analgesic activity was determined by tail immersion method, analgesy-meter, hot plate and acetic acid induced writhing test. While the anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan-induced paw inflammation in rats. Piperine at a dose of 5 mg/kg and ethanol extract at a dose of 15 mg/kg after 120 min and hexane extract at a dose of 10 mg/kg after 60 min exhibited significant (P<0.05) analgesic activity by tail immersion method, in comparison to ethanol extract at a dose of 10 mg/kg using analgesy-meter in rats. However, with hotplate method, piperine produced significant (P<0.05) analgesic activity at lower doses (5 and 10 mg/kg) after 120 min. A similar analgesic activity was noted with hexane extract at 15 mg/kg. However, in writhing test, ethanol extract significantly (P<0.05) stopped the number of writhes at a dose of 15 mg/kg, while piperine at a dose of 10 mg/kg completely terminated the writhes in mice. In the evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect using plethysmometer, piperine at doses of 10 and 15 mg/kg started producing anti-inflammatory effect after 30 min, which lasted till 60 min, whereas hexane and ethanol extracts also produced a similar activity at a slightly low dose (10 mg/kg) but lasted for 120 min. It is concluded from the present study that Piper nigrum L possesses potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Structure-based discovery of opioid analgesics with reduced side effects.

    PubMed

    Manglik, Aashish; Lin, Henry; Aryal, Dipendra K; McCorvy, John D; Dengler, Daniela; Corder, Gregory; Levit, Anat; Kling, Ralf C; Bernat, Viachaslau; Hübner, Harald; Huang, Xi-Ping; Sassano, Maria F; Giguère, Patrick M; Löber, Stefan; Da Duan; Scherrer, Grégory; Kobilka, Brian K; Gmeiner, Peter; Roth, Bryan L; Shoichet, Brian K

    2016-09-08

    Morphine is an alkaloid from the opium poppy used to treat pain. The potentially lethal side effects of morphine and related opioids-which include fatal respiratory depression-are thought to be mediated by μ-opioid-receptor (μOR) signalling through the β-arrestin pathway or by actions at other receptors. Conversely, G-protein μOR signalling is thought to confer analgesia. Here we computationally dock over 3 million molecules against the μOR structure and identify new scaffolds unrelated to known opioids. Structure-based optimization yields PZM21-a potent G i activator with exceptional selectivity for μOR and minimal β-arrestin-2 recruitment. Unlike morphine, PZM21 is more efficacious for the affective component of analgesia versus the reflexive component and is devoid of both respiratory depression and morphine-like reinforcing activity in mice at equi-analgesic doses. PZM21 thus serves as both a probe to disentangle μOR signalling and a therapeutic lead that is devoid of many of the side effects of current opioids.

  12. Structure–based discovery of opioid analgesics with reduced side effects

    PubMed Central

    Manglik, Aashish; Lin, Henry; Aryal, Dipendra K.; McCorvy, John D.; Dengler, Daniela; Corder, Gregory; Levit, Anat; Kling, Ralf C.; Bernat, Viachaslau; Hübner, Harald; Huang, Xi-Ping; Sassano, Maria F.; Giguère, Patrick M.; Löber, Stefan; Duan, Da; Scherrer, Grégory; Kobilka, Brian K.; Gmeiner, Peter; Roth, Bryan L.; Shoichet, Brian K.

    2016-01-01

    Morphine is an alkaloid from the opium poppy used to treat pain. The potentially lethal side effects of morphine and related opioids—which include fatal respiratory depression—are thought to be mediated by μ-opioid-receptor (μOR) signalling through the β-arrestin pathway or by actions at other receptors. Conversely, G-protein μOR signalling is thought to confer analgesia. Here we computationally dock over 3 million molecules against the μOR structure and identify new scaffolds unrelated to known opioids. Structure-based optimization yields PZM21—a potent Gi activator with exceptional selectivity for μOR and minimal β-arrestin-2 recruitment. Unlike morphine, PZM21 is more efficacious for the affective component of analgesia versus the reflexive component and is devoid of both respiratory depression and morphine-like reinforcing activity in mice at equi-analgesic doses. PZM21 thus serves as both a probe to disentangle μOR signalling and a therapeutic lead that is devoid of many of the side effects of current opioids. PMID:27533032

  13. Biomedicine of Enkephalin-Derived Glycopeptide Analgesics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polt, Robin

    The incorporation of glycosides into peptide neurotransmitters imparts drug-like character to the neurotransmitter "message" via "membrane hopping". The importance of the glycopeptide-membrane interaction is emphasized, and the biousian theory is briefly explained. Application of this approach to enkephalins, the endogenous opioid peptides, leads to potent analgesic compounds capable of systemic delivery. The clinical applications of these compounds are advocated by the author.

  14. Alkylsulfanyl analogs as potent α2δ ligands.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Kousei; Ohata, Yasuo; Kobayashi, Jun; Onishi, Yoshiyuki; Kawamura, Asuka; Domon, Yuki; Arakawa, Naohisa; Inoue, Tatsuya; Kitano, Yutaka; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Abe, Yuki; Deguchi, Tsuneo

    2018-06-15

    We identified novel (3R, 5S)-3-aminomethyl-5-methanesulfanyl hexanoic acid (5a: DS75091588) and (3R, 5S)-3-aminomethyl-5-ethanesulfanyl hexanoic acid (6a: DS18430756) as sulfur-containing γ-amino acid derivatives that were useful for the treatment of neuropathic pain. These two compounds exhibited a potent analgesic effect in animal models of both type I diabetes and type II diabetes, and good pharmacokinetics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Opioid glycopeptide analgesics derived from endogenous enkephalins and endorphins

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yingxue; Lefever, Mark R; Muthu, Dhanasekaran; Bidlack, Jean M; Bilsky, Edward J; Polt, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, potent and selective analgesics have been developed from endogenous opioid peptides. Glycosylation provides an important means of modulating interaction with biological membranes, which greatly affects the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the resulting glycopeptide analogues. Furthermore, manipulation of the membrane affinity allows penetration of cellular barriers that block efficient drug distribution, including the blood–brain barrier. Extremely potent and selective opiate agonists have been developed from endogenous peptides, some of which show great promise as drug candidates. PMID:22300099

  16. The effectiveness of national guidance in changing analgesic prescribing in primary care from 2002 to 2009: An observational database study

    PubMed Central

    Bedson, J; Belcher, J; Martino, OI; Ndlovu, M; Rathod, T; Walters, K; Dunn, KM; Jordan, KP

    2013-01-01

    Background Numerous national guidelines have been issued to assist general practitioners’ safe analgesic prescribing. Their effectiveness is unclear. The objective of this study was to examine trends in general practitioners’ prescribing behaviour in relation to national guidelines. Methods This was a retrospective observational database study of registered adult patients prescribed an analgesic (2002–2009) from the Consultations in Primary Care Archive – 12 North Staffordshire general practices. Prescribing guidance from the UK Medicines Regulatory Health Authority (MHRA) regarding non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and co-proxamol, and the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) osteoarthritis (OA) management guidelines were considered. Analgesic prescribing rates were examined, arranged according to a classification of six equipotent medication groups: (1) basic analgesics; (2)–(5) increasingly potent opioids and (6) NSAIDs. In each quarter from 2002 to 2009, the number of patients per 10,000 registered population receiving a prescription for the first time from each group was determined. Quarters associated with significant changes in the underlying prescribing trend were determined using joinpoint regression. Results A significant decrease in incident co-proxamol and Cox-2 prescribing occurred around the time of the first MHRA advice to stop using them and were rarely prescribed thereafter. The new prescribing of weak analgesics (e.g., co-codamol 8/500) increased at this same time. Initiating topical NSAIDs significantly increased around the time of the NICE OA guidelines. Conclusions Significant prescribing changes occurred when national advice and guidelines were issued. The effectiveness of this advice may vary depending upon the content and method of dissemination. Further evaluation of the optimal methods for delivering prescribing guidance is required. PMID:22865816

  17. Antipyretic and analgesic activities of Caesalpinia bonducella seed kernel extract.

    PubMed

    Archana, P; Tandan, S K; Chandra, S; Lal, J

    2005-05-01

    Ethanolic extract (70%) of Caesalpinia bonducella seed kernel has been subjected for its antipyretic and antinociceptive activities in adult albino rats or mice of either sex at 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg orally. The extract demonstrated marked antipyretic activity against Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The extract had significant central analgesic activity in hot plate and tail flick methods. It also exhibited marked peripheral analgesic effect in both acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice and Randall-Selitto assay in rats. It also significantly inhibited the formalin-induced hind paw licking in mice. In conclusion, the present study suggests that the ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia bonducella seed kernel possesses potent antipyretic and antinociceptive activities and thus, validates its use in the treatment of pain and pyretic disorders. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Effect of antipyretic analgesics on immune responses to vaccination.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Ezzeldin; Moody, M Anthony; Walter, Emmanuel B

    2016-09-01

    While antipyretic analgesics are widely used to ameliorate vaccine adverse reactions, their use has been associated with blunted vaccine immune responses. Our objective was to review literature evaluating the effect of antipyretic analgesics on vaccine immune responses and to highlight potential underlying mechanisms. Observational studies reporting on antipyretic use around the time of immunization concluded that their use did not affect antibody responses. Only few randomized clinical trials demonstrated blunted antibody response of unknown clinical significance. This effect has only been noted following primary vaccination with novel antigens and disappears following booster immunization. The mechanism by which antipyretic analgesics reduce antibody response remains unclear and not fully explained by COX enzyme inhibition. Recent work has focused on the involvement of nuclear and subcellular signaling pathways. More detailed immunological investigations and a systems biology approach are needed to precisely define the impact and mechanism of antipyretic effects on vaccine immune responses.

  19. Innovative Opioid Peptides and Biased Agonism: Novel Avenues for More Effective and Safer Analgesics to Treat Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Bedini, Andrea; Spampinato, Santi Mario

    2017-02-15

    Chronic pain is a clinically relevant and yet unsolved conditions that is poorly treated with the currently available drugs, thus highlighting the urgent need of innovative analgesics. Although opiates are not very effective in the treatment of inflammatory and neuropathic pain, developing novel opioid receptor peptide agonists, as well as modulating the opioid receptor-mediated responses in a ligand-specific fashion, may represent an innovative and promising strategy to identify more efficacious and safer antalgic drugs. In this review, novel analogues of endomorphin 1 (a mu opioid receptor selective agonist able to induce analgesia in different animal models of pain - including neuropathic pain) and dermorphin (one of the most potent opioid peptide existing in nature) will be discussed as they are emerging as a promising starting point to develop novel opioid agonists: endomorphin 1 analogues, in fact, may determine antinociception in different models of neuropathic pain with reduced side effects as compared to classic opiates as morphine; dermorphin analogues may elicit analgesia in animal models of both inflammatory and neuropathic pain and with less severe adverse effects. Furthermore, such opioid peptides may allow to explore unprecedented modalities of ligand-receptor interactions, helping to characterize biased agonism at opioid receptors: exploiting functional selectivity at opioid receptor may lead to identify innovative analgesic with improved pharmacological responses and optimized side effects. Thus, innovative opioid peptides, as those outlined in this review, are promising candidates to develop more effective opioid analgesics to be employed as medications for chronic pain states, as inflammatory or neuropathic pain. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Clinically Employed Opioid Analgesics Produce Antinociception via μ-δ Opioid Receptor Heteromers in Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Morphine and related drugs are widely employed as analgesics despite the side effects associated with their use. Although morphine is thought to mediate analgesia through mu opioid receptors, delta opioid receptors have been implicated in mediating some side effects such as tolerance and dependence. Here we present evidence in rhesus monkeys that morphine, fentanyl, and possibly methadone selectively activate mu-delta heteromers to produce antinociception that is potently antagonized by the delta opioid receptor antagonist, naltrindole (NTI). Studies with HEK293 cells expressing mu-delta heteromeric opioid receptors exhibit a similar antagonism profile of receptor activation in the presence of NTI. In mice, morphine was potently inhibited by naltrindole when administered intrathecally, but not intracerebroventricularly, suggesting the possible involvement of mu-delta heteromers in the spinal cord of rodents. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that, in primates, mu-delta heteromers are allosterically coupled and mediate the antinociceptive effects of three clinically employed opioid analgesics that have been traditionally viewed as mu-selective. Given the known involvement of delta receptors in morphine tolerance and dependence, our results implicate mu-delta heteromers in mediating both antinociception and these side effects in primates. These results open the door for further investigation in humans. PMID:23019498

  1. Clinically employed opioid analgesics produce antinociception via μ-δ opioid receptor heteromers in Rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Yekkirala, Ajay S; Banks, Matthew L; Lunzer, Mary M; Negus, Stevens S; Rice, Kenner C; Portoghese, Philip S

    2012-09-19

    Morphine and related drugs are widely employed as analgesics despite the side effects associated with their use. Although morphine is thought to mediate analgesia through mu opioid receptors, delta opioid receptors have been implicated in mediating some side effects such as tolerance and dependence. Here we present evidence in rhesus monkeys that morphine, fentanyl, and possibly methadone selectively activate mu-delta heteromers to produce antinociception that is potently antagonized by the delta opioid receptor antagonist, naltrindole (NTI). Studies with HEK293 cells expressing mu-delta heteromeric opioid receptors exhibit a similar antagonism profile of receptor activation in the presence of NTI. In mice, morphine was potently inhibited by naltrindole when administered intrathecally, but not intracerebroventricularly, suggesting the possible involvement of mu-delta heteromers in the spinal cord of rodents. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that, in primates, mu-delta heteromers are allosterically coupled and mediate the antinociceptive effects of three clinically employed opioid analgesics that have been traditionally viewed as mu-selective. Given the known involvement of delta receptors in morphine tolerance and dependence, our results implicate mu-delta heteromers in mediating both antinociception and these side effects in primates. These results open the door for further investigation in humans.

  2. Effect of antipyretic analgesics on immune responses to vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Ezzeldin; Moody, M. Anthony; Walter, Emmanuel B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT While antipyretic analgesics are widely used to ameliorate vaccine adverse reactions, their use has been associated with blunted vaccine immune responses. Our objective was to review literature evaluating the effect of antipyretic analgesics on vaccine immune responses and to highlight potential underlying mechanisms. Observational studies reporting on antipyretic use around the time of immunization concluded that their use did not affect antibody responses. Only few randomized clinical trials demonstrated blunted antibody response of unknown clinical significance. This effect has only been noted following primary vaccination with novel antigens and disappears following booster immunization. The mechanism by which antipyretic analgesics reduce antibody response remains unclear and not fully explained by COX enzyme inhibition. Recent work has focused on the involvement of nuclear and subcellular signaling pathways. More detailed immunological investigations and a systems biology approach are needed to precisely define the impact and mechanism of antipyretic effects on vaccine immune responses. PMID:27246296

  3. Comparative analgesic effect of Ligusticum chuanxiong pieces and its products in mice

    PubMed Central

    GAO, Demin; XU, Lingchuan

    2010-01-01

    The present study was undertaken with the objective of finding out the comparative analgesic effect of Ligusticum chuanxiong (LC) pieces decoction, LC formula granule decoction, liquored LC pieces decoction and liquored LC formula granule decoction. The analgesic effects were analyzed using the hot plate and acetic-induced writhing test in mice, and antidysmenorrheic effect was observed with primary dysmenorrhea model. The results showed that four kinds of LC decoction had definite effect in delaying incubation period and decreasing the writhing frequency within 30 min. They also effectively relieved dysmenorrhea. Moreover, liquored LC had better analgesic effect than crude LC in four decoctions. PMID:20668580

  4. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects of Lepidagathis anobrya Nees (Acanthaceae).

    PubMed

    Richard, Sawadogo Wamtinga; Marius, Lompo; Noya, Somé; Innocent Pierre, Guissou; Germaine, Nacoulma-Ouedraogo Odile

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the general acute, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects of methanol extract of Lepidagathis anobrya Nees (Acanthaceae). Carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and croton oil-induced ear edema in rats were used for the evaluation of general acute anti-inflammatory effects. Acetic acid-induced writhing response and yeast-induced hyperpyrexia in mice were used to evaluate the analgesic and antipyretic activities respectively. The extract at doses of 10, 25, 50 and 100 mgkg(-1) for carrageenan test and doses of 0.5 mg/ear for croton oil test induced a significant reduction (p < 0.001) of paw and ear edemas in rats. In the analgesic and antipyretic tests, the extract has shown a significant inhibition of writhes and hyperpyrexia with all the doses used when compared to the untreated control group. These results clearly show the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects of the methanol extract of Lepidagathis anobrya and give the scientific basis for its traditional use. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanism of action and the components responsible for these pharmacological effects.

  5. Pain and Poppies: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly of Opioid Analgesics.

    PubMed

    Trang, Tuan; Al-Hasani, Ream; Salvemini, Daniela; Salter, Michael W; Gutstein, Howard; Cahill, Catherine M

    2015-10-14

    Treating pain is one of the most difficult challenges in medicine and a key facet of disease management. The isolation of morphine by Friedrich Sertürner in 1804 added an essential pharmacological tool in the treatment of pain and spawned the discovery of a new class of drugs known collectively as opioid analgesics. Revered for their potent pain-relieving effects, even Morpheus the god of dreams could not have dreamt that his opium tincture would be both a gift and a burden to humankind. To date, morphine and other opioids remain essential analgesics for alleviating pain. However, their use is plagued by major side effects, such as analgesic tolerance (diminished pain-relieving effects), hyperalgesia (increased pain sensitivity), and drug dependence. This review highlights recent advances in understanding the key causes of these adverse effects and explores the effect of chronic pain on opioid reward. Chronic pain is pervasive and afflicts >100 million Americans. Treating pain in these individuals is notoriously difficult and often requires opioids, one of the most powerful and effective classes of drugs used for controlling pain. However, their use is plagued by major side effects, such as a loss of pain-relieving effects (analgesic tolerance), paradoxical pain (hyperalgesia), and addiction. Despite the potential side effects, opioids remain the pharmacological cornerstone of modern pain therapy. This review highlights recent breakthroughs in understanding the key causes of these adverse effects and explores the cellular control of opioid systems in reward and aversion. The findings will challenge traditional views of the good, the bad, and the ugly of opioids. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3513879-10$15.00/0.

  6. Pain and Poppies: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly of Opioid Analgesics

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hasani, Ream; Salvemini, Daniela; Salter, Michael W.; Gutstein, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Treating pain is one of the most difficult challenges in medicine and a key facet of disease management. The isolation of morphine by Friedrich Sertürner in 1804 added an essential pharmacological tool in the treatment of pain and spawned the discovery of a new class of drugs known collectively as opioid analgesics. Revered for their potent pain-relieving effects, even Morpheus the god of dreams could not have dreamt that his opium tincture would be both a gift and a burden to humankind. To date, morphine and other opioids remain essential analgesics for alleviating pain. However, their use is plagued by major side effects, such as analgesic tolerance (diminished pain-relieving effects), hyperalgesia (increased pain sensitivity), and drug dependence. This review highlights recent advances in understanding the key causes of these adverse effects and explores the effect of chronic pain on opioid reward. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Chronic pain is pervasive and afflicts >100 million Americans. Treating pain in these individuals is notoriously difficult and often requires opioids, one of the most powerful and effective classes of drugs used for controlling pain. However, their use is plagued by major side effects, such as a loss of pain-relieving effects (analgesic tolerance), paradoxical pain (hyperalgesia), and addiction. Despite the potential side effects, opioids remain the pharmacological cornerstone of modern pain therapy. This review highlights recent breakthroughs in understanding the key causes of these adverse effects and explores the cellular control of opioid systems in reward and aversion. The findings will challenge traditional views of the good, the bad, and the ugly of opioids. PMID:26468188

  7. Analgesic activity of piracetam: effect on cytokine production and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Suelen A; Serafim, Karla G G; Mizokami, Sandra S; Hohmann, Miriam S N; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2013-04-01

    Piracetam is a prototype of nootropic drugs used to improve cognitive impairment. However, recent studies suggest that piracetam can have analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. Inflammatory pain is the result of a process that depends on neutrophil migration, cytokines and prostanoids release and oxidative stress. We analyze whether piracetam has anti-nociceptive effects and its mechanisms. Per oral pretreatment with piracetam reduced in a dose-dependent manner the overt pain-like behavior induced by acetic acid, phenyl-p-benzoquinone, formalin and complete Freund's adjuvant. Piracetam also diminished carrageenin-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia, myeloperoxidase activity, and TNF-α-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. Piracetam presented analgesic effects as post-treatment and local paw treatment. The analgesic mechanisms of piracetam were related to inhibition of carrageenin- and TNF-α-induced production of IL-1β as well as prevention of carrageenin-induced decrease of reduced glutathione, ferric reducing ability and free radical scavenging ability in the paw. These results demonstrate that piracetam presents analgesic activity upon a variety of inflammatory stimuli by a mechanism dependent on inhibition of cytokine production and oxidative stress. Considering its safety and clinical use for cognitive function, it is possible that piracetam represents a novel perspective of analgesic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of A-286501, a novel orally active adenosine kinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Michael F; Yu, Haixia; McGaraughty, Steve; Wismer, Carol T; Mikusa, Joe; Zhu, Chang; Chu, Katharine; Kohlhaas, Kathy; Cowart, Marlon; Lee, Chih Hung; Stewart, Andrew O; Cox, Bryan F; Polakowski, James; Kowaluk, Elizabeth A

    2002-03-01

    Adenosine (ADO) is an inhibitory neuromodulator that can increase nociceptive thresholds in response to noxious stimulation. Inhibition of the ADO-metabolizing enzyme, adenosine kinase (AK) increases extracellular ADO concentrations at sites of tissue trauma and AK inhibitors may have therapeutic potential as analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents. N7-((1'R,2'S,3'R,4'S)-2',3'-dihydroxy-4'-amino-cyclopentyl)-4-amino-5-bromo-pyrrolo[2,3-a]pyrimidine (A-286501) is a novel and potent (IC50=0.47 nM) carbocyclic nucleoside AK inhibitor that has no significant activity (IC50 >100 microM) at other sites of ADO interaction (A1, A2A, A3 receptors, ADO transporter, and ADO deaminase) or other (IC50 value >10 microM) neurotransmitter and peptide receptors, ion channel proteins, neurotransmitter reuptake sites and enzymes, including cyclooxygenases-1 and -2. A-286501 showed equivalent potency to inhibit AK from several mammalian species and kinetic studies revealed that A-286501 was a reversible and competitive inhibitor with respect to ADO and non-competitive with respect to MgATP2-. A-286501 was orally effective to reduce nociception in animal models of acute (thermal), inflammatory (formalin and carrageenan), and neuropathic (L5/L6 nerve ligation and streptozotocin-induced diabetic) pain. A-286501 was particularly potent (ED50=1 micromol/kg, p.o.) to reduce carrageenan-induced inflammatory thermal hyperalgesia as compared to its analgesic actions in other pain models (acute and neuropathic) and its ability to alter hemodynamic function and motor performance. A-286501 was also effective to reduce carrageenan-induced paw edema and myeloperoxidase activity, a measure of neutrophil influx (ED50=10 micromol/kg, p.o.), in the injured paw. The anti-nociceptive effects of A-286501 in the L5/L6 nerve injury model of neuropathic pain (ED50=20 micromol/kg, p.o.) were not blocked by the opioid antagonist naloxone, but were blocked by the ADO receptor antagonist, theophylline. Following

  9. Enhanced analgesic effects of tramadol and common trace element coadministration in mice.

    PubMed

    Alexa, Teodora; Marza, Aurelia; Voloseniuc, Tudor; Tamba, Bogdan

    2015-10-01

    Chronic pain is managed mostly by the daily administration of analgesics. Tramadol is one of the most commonly used drugs, marketed in combination with coanalgesics for enhanced effect. Trace elements are frequent ingredients in dietary supplements and may enhance tramadol's analgesic effect either through synergic mechanisms or through analgesic effects of their own. Swiss Weber male mice were divided into nine groups and were treated with a combination of the trace elements Mg, Mn, and Zn in three different doses and a fixed dose of tramadol. Two groups served as positive (tramadol alone) and negative (saline) controls. Nociceptive assessment by tail-flick (TF) and hot-plate (HP) tests was performed at baseline and at 15, 30, 45, and 60 min after intraperitoneal administration. Response latencies were recorded and compared with the aid of ANOVA testing. All three trace elements enhanced tramadol's analgesic effect, as assessed by TF and HP test latencies. Coadministration of these trace elements led to an increase of approximately 30% in the average pain inhibition compared with the tramadol-alone group. The most effective doses were 0.6 mg/kg b.w. for Zn, 75 mg/kg b.w. for Mg, and 7.2 mg/kg b.w. for Mn. Associating trace elements such as Zn, Mg, and Mn with the standard administration of tramadol increases the drug's analgesic effect, most likely a consequence of their synergic action. These findings impact current analgesic treatment because the addition of these trace elements may reduce the tramadol dose required to obtain analgesia. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Mitragynine/Corynantheidine Pseudoindoxyls As Opioid Analgesics with Mu Agonism and Delta Antagonism, Which Do Not Recruit β-Arrestin-2.

    PubMed

    Váradi, András; Marrone, Gina F; Palmer, Travis C; Narayan, Ankita; Szabó, Márton R; Le Rouzic, Valerie; Grinnell, Steven G; Subrath, Joan J; Warner, Evelyn; Kalra, Sanjay; Hunkele, Amanda; Pagirsky, Jeremy; Eans, Shainnel O; Medina, Jessica M; Xu, Jin; Pan, Ying-Xian; Borics, Attila; Pasternak, Gavril W; McLaughlin, Jay P; Majumdar, Susruta

    2016-09-22

    Natural products found in Mitragyna speciosa, commonly known as kratom, represent diverse scaffolds (indole, indolenine, and spiro pseudoindoxyl) with opioid activity, providing opportunities to better understand opioid pharmacology. Herein, we report the pharmacology and SAR studies both in vitro and in vivo of mitragynine pseudoindoxyl (3), an oxidative rearrangement product of the corynanthe alkaloid mitragynine. 3 and its corresponding corynantheidine analogs show promise as potent analgesics with a mechanism of action that includes mu opioid receptor agonism/delta opioid receptor antagonism. In vitro, 3 and its analogs were potent agonists in [(35)S]GTPγS assays at the mu opioid receptor but failed to recruit β-arrestin-2, which is associated with opioid side effects. Additionally, 3 developed analgesic tolerance more slowly than morphine, showed limited physical dependence, respiratory depression, constipation, and displayed no reward or aversion in CPP/CPA assays, suggesting that analogs might represent a promising new generation of novel pain relievers.

  11. [Hemostatic and analgesic effect of Gonghuan Zhixue Tablet on mice].

    PubMed

    Fu, Ling-Mei; You, Zhao-Ling; Lei, Lei; Wen, Le-Xi; Chen, Huan-Ming

    2004-03-01

    To explore the hemostatic and analgesic effect of Gonghuan Zhixue Tablet (GHZXT) on mice and to produce experimental evidence for exploiting new drug for endometrorrhagia caused by Cu-intrauterine contraceptive device (Cu-IUD). Compared with 6-aminocaproic acid and notoginseng, the effects of GHZXT on clotting and bleeding time of mice with capillary method and severed tail were investigated; and compared with aspirin, the analgesic effects of GHZXT on mice were investigated with hot plate and torsive body method. The clotting time of mice was remarkably shortened with a rising of the dosage of GHZXT and the difference between each therapeutic group and distilled water group was remarkable. As compared with distilled water group, the bleeding time of each dosage group of GHZXT was obviously shortened; and each dosage of GHZXT could prolong the time of pain reaction to hot plate and decrease the degree of torsive body of the mice. Pharmacological experiment has proved that GHZXT has evident hemostatic and analgesic function.

  12. Chemical probes to potently and selectively inhibit endocannabinoid cellular reuptake.

    PubMed

    Chicca, Andrea; Nicolussi, Simon; Bartholomäus, Ruben; Blunder, Martina; Aparisi Rey, Alejandro; Petrucci, Vanessa; Reynoso-Moreno, Ines Del Carmen; Viveros-Paredes, Juan Manuel; Dalghi Gens, Marianela; Lutz, Beat; Schiöth, Helgi B; Soeberdt, Michael; Abels, Christoph; Charles, Roch-Philippe; Altmann, Karl-Heinz; Gertsch, Jürg

    2017-06-20

    The extracellular effects of the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol are terminated by enzymatic hydrolysis after crossing cellular membranes by facilitated diffusion. The lack of potent and selective inhibitors for endocannabinoid transport has prevented the molecular characterization of this process, thus hindering its biochemical investigation and pharmacological exploitation. Here, we report the design, chemical synthesis, and biological profiling of natural product-derived N -substituted 2,4-dodecadienamides as a selective endocannabinoid uptake inhibitor. The highly potent (IC 50 = 10 nM) inhibitor N -(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl amide (WOBE437) exerted pronounced cannabinoid receptor-dependent anxiolytic, antiinflammatory, and analgesic effects in mice by increasing endocannabinoid levels. A tailored WOBE437-derived diazirine-containing photoaffinity probe (RX-055) irreversibly blocked membrane transport of both endocannabinoids, providing mechanistic insights into this complex process. Moreover, RX-055 exerted site-specific anxiolytic effects on in situ photoactivation in the brain. This study describes suitable inhibitors to target endocannabinoid membrane trafficking and uncovers an alternative endocannabinoid pharmacology.

  13. The toxic effect of opioid analgesics on human sperm motility in vitro.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bo; Wang, Zhi-Ping; Wang, Yan-Juan; Lu, Pei-Hua; Wang, Li-Jun; Wang, Xiao-Hai

    2013-04-01

    Opioid analgesics are the most common therapeutic analgesic for acute pain. In this study, the toxicological and pharmacological features of a group of opioid analgesics were characterized by the motility of human sperm. Aliquots of sperm were incubated with various concentrations of opioid analgesics in vitro. Computer-assisted sperm analysis was used to assess sperm motility at 15 minutes, 2 hours, and 4 hours after drug addition to the medium. Butorphanol and dezocine showed marked reduction of motility after incubation with sperm for 15 minutes. Butorphanol was more effective than dezocine in immobilizing sperm. Other opioids studied, such as fentanyl, alfentanil, and sufentanil, showed only partial inhibitory activity. Based on the data reported herein, we have found that butorphanol and dezocine exert a sperm-immobilizing effect. However, fentanyl, alfentanil, and sufentanil exhibit only partial inhibition of sperm motility. Given the increasing use of opioids and their potential effect on sperm motility, these findings are greatly relevant to male reproductive health.

  14. Discovery of 2-(3,5-difluoro-4-methylsulfonaminophenyl)propanamides as potent TRPV1 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Kim, Changhoon; Ann, Jihyae; Lee, Sunho; Sun, Wei; Blumberg, Peter M; Frank-Foltyn, Robert; Bahrenberg, Gregor; Stockhausen, Hannelore; Christoph, Thomas; Lee, Jeewoo

    2018-05-23

    A series of A-region analogues of 2-(3-fluoro-4-methylsufonamidophenyl) propanamide 1 were investigated as TRPV1 antagonists. The analysis of structure-activity relationship indicated that a fluoro group at the 3- (or/and) 5-position and a methylsulfonamido group at the 4-position were optimal for antagonism of TRPV1 activation by capsaicin. The most potent antagonist 6 not only exhibited potent antagonism of activation of hTRPV1 by capsaicin, low pH and elevated temperature but also displayed highly potent antagonism of activation of rTRPV1 by capsaicin. Further studies demonstrated that antagonist 6 blocked the hypothermic effect of capsaicin in vivo, consistent with its in vitro mechanism, and it showed promising analgesic activity in the formalin animal model. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Analgesic effects of glycoproteins from Panax ginseng root in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Chen, Yinghong; Xu, Hong; Luo, Haoming; Jiang, Ruizhi

    2013-07-30

    The root of Panax ginseng C.A. Mey has various beneficial pharmacological effects. The present study aimed to evaluate the analgesic activities of glycoproteins from the root of Panax ginseng C.A. Mey in mice. Glycoproteins were isolated and purified from the root of Panax ginseng C.A. Mey. Physicochemical properties and molecular mass were determined by chemical assay and HPLC. Acetic acid-induced writhing and hot-plate tests were employed to study the analgesic effect of glycoproteins and compared with that of aspirin or morphine. The locomotor activity was tested in mice by using actophometer. Four glycoproteins were obtained. The glycoproteins which protein content was the highest (73.04%) displayed dose-dependent analgesic effect. In writhing test, the glycoproteins significantly inhibited writhes (P<0.001) at the dose of 20 mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection. In hot-plate test, only at the dose of 20 mg/kg prolong the hot-plate latency (P<0.05, at 30 min). In the locomotor activity test, the glycoproteins were significant decrease of motility counts at the dose of 20 and 40 mg/kg. These findings collectively indicate that the glycoproteins from the root of Panax ginseng C.A. Mey exhibited significant analgesic activities and the proteins were the active site, providing evidence for its pharmacal use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of analgesics on olfactory function and the perception of intranasal trigeminal stimuli.

    PubMed

    Mizera, L; Gossrau, G; Hummel, T; Haehner, A

    2017-01-01

    There is some evidence suggesting that analgesics have an impact on human chemosensory function, especially opioids and cannabinoids are known to interfere with olfactory function. However, largely unknown is the effect of a long-term use of analgesics on the intranasal trigeminal system so far. Here, we investigated olfactory function and the perception of intranasal trigeminal stimuli in pain patients with long-term use of analgesics compared to age-matched healthy controls. For this purpose, a psychophysical approach was chosen to measure these sensory functions in 100 chronic pain patients and 95 controls. Olfactory testing was performed using the 'Sniffin' Sticks' test kit, which involves tests for odour threshold, odour discrimination and odour identification. Further, participants were asked to rate the intensity of trigeminal stimuli by using a visual analogue scale. We observed that the chronic use of pain medication was associated with significantly reduced perception of intranasal trigeminal stimuli and olfactory function compared to age-matched controls without intake of analgesics. Results indicate that non-opioid and opioid drugs, or a combination of both did not differ in their effects on chemosensory function. Further, after eliminating the effect of a co-existing depression and the use of co-analgesics, the negative influence of analgesics on olfactory function and trigeminal perception was still evident. The observed effect might be mediated due to interaction with opioid receptors in trigeminal ganglia and nuclei or due to trigeminal/olfactory interaction. As a practical consequence, patients should be made aware of a possible impairment of their olfactory and trigeminal function under long-term analgesic treatment. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY ADD?: We observed that the chronic use of pain medication was associated with significantly reduced olfactory function and perception of intranasal trigeminal stimuli compared to age-matched controls without

  17. Celecoxib: a potent cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor in cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Kismet, Kemal; Akay, M Turan; Abbasoglu, Osman; Ercan, Aygün

    2004-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most widely used therapeutic agents in the treatment of pain, inflammation and fever. They may also have a role in the management of cancer prevention, Alzheimer's disease and prophylaxis against cardiovascular disease. These drugs act primarily by inhibiting cyclooxygenase enzyme, which has two isoforms, cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Selective COX-2 inhibitors provide potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects without the side effects of gastric and renal toxicity and inhibition of platelet function. Celecoxib is a potent COX-2 inhibitor being developed for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Chemoprevention is the use of pharmacological or natural agents to prevent, suppress, interrupt or reverse the process of carcinogenesis. For this purpose, celecoxib is being used for different cancer types. The effects of NSAIDs on tumor growth remain unclear, but are most likely to be multifocal. In this article, we reviewed COX-2 selectivity, the pharmacological properties of celecoxib, the use of celecoxib for cancer prevention and the mechanisms of chemoprevention.

  18. Rational use of analgesic combinations.

    PubMed

    Phero, James C; Becker, Daniel

    2002-10-01

    Careful selection of an effective analgesic regimen based on the amount and type of pain the patient is expected to have can prevent the stress and anxiety associated with breakthrough pain. When analgesics fail, it is not unusual for patients to go to desperate lengths to seek relief. The clinician can and should develop a variety of effective, safe analgesic regimens based on estimates of anticipated pain intensity that apply sound pharmacologic principles.

  19. Involvement of peripheral TRPV1 channels in the analgesic effects of thalidomide.

    PubMed

    Song, Tieying; Wang, Liwen; Gu, Kunfeng; Yang, Yunliang; Yang, Lijun; Ma, Pengyu; Ma, Xiaojing; Zhao, Jianhui; Yan, Ruyv; Guan, Jiao; Wang, Chunping; Qi, Yan; Ya, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Thalidomide was introduced to the market in 1957 as a sedative and antiemetic agent, and returned to the market for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome and multiple myeloma. There are reports and studies of thalidomide as an analgesic or analgesic adjuvant in clinic. However, the underlying mechanism is quite elusive. Many studies suggest that the analgesic effect of thalidomide may be due to its immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties as it suppresses the production of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) selectively. However, it is not clear whether any other mechanisms are implicated in the pain relief. In this study, we demonstrated that the peripheral vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) channel was also involved in the analgesic effect of thalidomide in different cell and animal models. During the activation by its agonist capsaicin, the cation inward influx through TRPV1 channels and the whole-cell current significantly decreased after TRPV1-overexpressed HEK293 cells or dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons were pre-treated with thalidomide for 20 minutes. And such attenuation in the TRPV1 activity was in a dose-dependent manner of thalidomide. In an acetic acid writhing test, pre-treatment of thalidomide decreased the writhing number in the wild type mice, while it did not happen in TRPV1 knockout mice, suggesting that the TRPV1 channel was involved in the pain relief by thalidomide. Taken together, the study showed that TRPV1 channels were involved in the analgesic effects of thalidomide. Such alteration in the action of TRPV1 channels by thalidomide may help understand how thalidomide takes analgesic effect in the body in addition to its selective inhibition of TNF-α production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Differential Effectiveness of Clinically-Relevant Analgesics in a Rat Model of Chemotherapy-Induced Mucositis.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Alexandra L; Lymn, Kerry A; Wallace, Georgia L; Howarth, Gordon S

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucositis is characterized by pain and a pro-inflammatory tissue response. Rat models are frequently used in mucositis disease investigations yet little is known about the presence of pain in these animals, the ability of analgesics to ameliorate the condition, or the effect that analgesic administration may have on study outcomes. This study investigated different classes of analgesics with the aim of determining their analgesic effects and impact on research outcomes of interest in a rat model of mucositis. Female DA rats were allocated to 8 groups to include saline and chemotherapy controls (n = 8). Analgesics included opioid derivatives (buprenorphine; 0.05mg/kg and tramadol 12.5mg/kg) and NSAID (carprofen; 15mg/kg) in combination with either saline or 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU; 150mg/kg). Research outcome measures included daily clinical parameters, pain score and gut histology. Myeloperoxidase assay was performed to determine gut inflammation. At the dosages employed, all agents had an analgesic effect based on behavioural pain scores. Jejunal myeloperoxidase activity was significantly reduced by buprenorphine and tramadol in comparison to 5-FU control animals (53%, p = 0.0004 and 58%, p = 0.0001). Carprofen had no ameliorating effect on myeloperoxidase levels. None of the agents reduced the histological damage caused by 5-FU administration although tramadol tended to increase villus length even when administered to healthy animals. These data provide evidence that carprofen offers potential as an analgesic in this animal model due to its pain-relieving efficacy and minimal effect on measured parameters. This study also supports further investigation into the mechanism and utility of opioid agents in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced mucositis.

  1. Analgesic Effects of Toad Cake and Toad-cake-containing Herbal Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Eiji; Shimizu, Yasuharu; Masui, Ryo; Usui, Tomomi; Sudoh, Keiichi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study was conducted to clarify the analgesic effect of toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs. Methods: We counted the writhing response of mice after the intraperitoneal administration of acetic acid as a nociceptive pain model and the withdrawal response after the plantar surface stimulation of the hind paw induced by partial sciatic nerve ligation of the mice as a neuropathic pain model to investigate the analgesic effect of toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs. A co-treatment study with serotonin biosynthesis inhibitory drug 4-chloro- DL-phenylalanine methyl ester hydrochloride (PCPA), the catecholamine biosynthesis inhibitory drug α-methyl- DL-tyrosine methyl ester hydrochloride (AMPT) or the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone hydrochloride was also conducted. Results: Analgesic effects in a mouse model of nociceptive pain and neuropathic pain were shown by oral administration of toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs. The effects of toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs disappeared upon co-treatment with PCPA, but not with AMPT or naloxone in the nociceptive pain model; the analgesic effect of toad-cake-containing herbal drugs also disappeared upon co-treatment with PCPA in the neuropathic pain model. Conclusion: Toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs have potential for the treatments of nociceptive pain and of neuropathic pain, such as post-herpetic neuralgia, trigeminal neuralgia, diabetic neuralgia, and postoperative or posttraumatic pain, by activation of the central serotonin nervous system. PMID:25780693

  2. Endomorphin-2 analogs with C-terminal esterification produce potent systemic antinociception with reduced tolerance and gastrointestinal side effects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chang-Lin; Qiu, Ting-Ting; Yang, Dai-Jun; Yuan, Bi-Yu; Han, Feng-Tong; Li, Li; Gu, Ning

    2017-04-01

    C-terminal esterification of opioid peptides may change their opioid activities due to the modified physicochemical properties. In the present study, the pharmacological activities of C-terminal esterified endomorphin-2 (EM-2) analogs 1-3 were characterized by in vitro metabolic stability and octanol/buffer distribution assays. Also, the antinociceptive profiles in the radiant heat paw withdrawal test and related side effects of these analogs were determined. Our results showed that all three analogs significantly increased the metabolic stability and lipophilicity. Moreover, analogs 1-3 displayed potent antinociceptive activities after intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration. Analogs 1 and 3 exhibited about 2-fold higher antinociception than EM-2, and differential opioid mechanisms were involved. In addition, EM-2 at 50 μmol/kg failed to produce any significant antinociceptive activity after subcutaneous (s.c.) administration, whereas equimolar dose of analogs 1-3 produced significant analgesic effects. Analog 3 showed the highest antinociceptive activity after systemic administration, which was consistent with its in vitro stability and lipophilicity. We further evaluated the antinociceptive tolerance of analogs 1-3. In acute tolerance test, analogs 1-3 shifted the dose-response curves rightward by only 1.4-3.2 fold as determined by tolerance ratio, whereas EM-2 by 5.6-fold, demonstrating reduced antinociceptive tolerance. Also, analogs 1 and 2 decreased chronic antinociceptive tolerance by central and peripheral administration of drugs. In particular, analogs 3 displayed insignificant chronic antinociceptive tolerance. Furthermore, analogs 1-3 were less prone to induce gastrointestinal side effects at analgesic doses. The present investigation gave the evidence that C-terminal esterified modifications of EM-2 will facilitate the development of novel opioid analgesics with reduced side effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Electroencephalography and analgesics.

    PubMed

    Malver, Lasse Paludan; Brokjaer, Anne; Staahl, Camilla; Graversen, Carina; Andresen, Trine; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2014-01-01

    To assess centrally mediated analgesic mechanisms in clinical trials with pain patients, objective standardized methods such as electroencephalography (EEG) has many advantages. The aim of this review is to provide the reader with an overview of present findings in analgesics assessed with spontaneous EEG and evoked brain potentials (EPs) in humans. Furthermore, EEG methodologies will be discussed with respect to translation from animals to humans and future perspectives in predicting analgesic efficacy. We searched PubMed with MeSH terms 'analgesics', 'electroencephalography' and 'evoked potentials' for relevant articles. Combined with a search in their reference lists 15 articles on spontaneous EEG and 55 papers on EPs were identified. Overall, opioids produced increased activity in the delta band in the spontaneous EEG, but increases in higher frequency bands were also seen. The EP amplitudes decreased in the majority of studies. Anticonvulsants used as analgesics showed inconsistent results. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist ketamine showed an increase in the theta band in spontaneous EEG and decreases in EP amplitudes. Tricyclic antidepressants increased the activity in the delta, theta and beta bands in the spontaneous EEG while EPs were inconsistently affected. Weak analgesics were mainly investigated with EPs and a decrease in amplitudes was generally observed. This review reveals that both spontaneous EEG and EPs are widely used as biomarkers for analgesic drug effects. Methodological differences are common and a more uniform approach will further enhance the value of such biomarkers for drug development and prediction of treatment response in individual patients. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  4. Bioactivity-guided fractionation for anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties and constituents of Xanthium strumarium L.

    PubMed

    Han, T; Li, H-L; Zhang, Q-Y; Han, P; Zheng, H-C; Rahman, K; Qin, L-P

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to fractionate an extract of Xanthium strumarium L. (EXS) and to investigate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of the extract and its fractions. The ethanol extract of X. strumarium (EXS) was fractionated on the basis of polarity. Among the different fractions, the n-butanol fraction showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity in the croton-oil-induced ear edema test and furthermore reduced the number of writhings induced by acetic acid in mice in a dose-dependent manner. This indicates that the n-butanol fraction of X. strumarium possesses potent analgesic effects which are likely to be mediated by its anti-inflammatory activity. Bioassay-guided fractionation of EXS led to the isolation and identification of ten caffeoylquinic acids and three heterocyclics by HPLC-DAD-MS(n) from the active n-butanol fraction, implying that the active compounds are polar in nature. The isolated caffeoylquinic acids could partially explain the antinociceptive effect of X. strumarium polar extract.

  5. Antiinflammatory, analgesic and hypoglycemic effects of Mangifera indica Linn. (Anacardiaceae) stem-bark aqueous extract.

    PubMed

    Ojewole, J A O

    2005-10-01

    Previous studies in our laboratories and elsewhere have shown that some members of Anacardiaceae family possess antiinflammatory, analgesic and hypoglycemic effects in man and mammalian experimental animals. The present study was, therefore, undertaken to examine the antiinflammatory, analgesic and antidiabetic properties of the stem-bark aqueous extract of Mangifera indica Linn., M. indica a member of the Anacardiaceae family, in rats and mice. The stem-bark powder of M. indica was Soxhlet extracted with distilled water and used. The analgesic effect of the plant's extract was evaluated by the hot-plate and acetic acid test models of pain in mice, while the antiinflammatory and antidiabetic effects of the stem-bark extract were investigated in rats, using fresh egg albumin-induced paw edema, and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus, respectively. Morphine (MPN, 10 mg/kg i.p.), diclofenac (DIC, 100 mg/kg i.p.), and chlorpropamide (250 mg/kg p.o.) were used respectively as reference analgesic, antiinflammatory, and hypoglycemic agents for comparison. M. indica stem-bark aqueous extract (MIE, 50-800 mg/kg i.p.) produced dose-dependent and significant (p<0.05-0.001) analgesic effects against thermally and chemically induced nociceptive pain stimuli in mice. MIE (50-800 mg/kg i.p.) also significantly (p<0.05-0.001) inhibited fresh egg albumin-induced paw edema, and caused significant (p<0.05-0.001) hypoglycemic effects in rats. It is suggested that the analgesic effects of MIE (50-800 mg/kg i.p.) may be peripherally and centrally mediated. The different chemical constituents of the plant, especially the polyphenolics, flavonoids, triterpenoids, mangiferin, and other chemical compounds present in the plant may be involved in the observed antiinflammatory, analgesic, and hypoglycemic effects of the plant's extract. However, the results of this experimental animal study lend pharmacological credence to the suggested folkloric uses of the plant in the management

  6. Analgesic principle from Curcuma amada.

    PubMed

    Faiz Hossain, Chowdhury; Al-Amin, Mohammad; Rahman, Kazi Md Mahabubur; Sarker, Aurin; Alam, Md Mahamudul; Chowdhury, Mahmudul Hasan; Khan, Shamsun Nahar; Sultana, Gazi Nurun Nahar

    2015-04-02

    The rhizome of Curcuma amada has been used as a folk medicine for the treatment of rheumatic disorders in the northern part of Bangladesh and has also used for the treatment of inflammation and fever in the Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine. Aim of the study was to investigate the analgesic principle of the MeOH extract of the rhizome of Curcuma amada by an in vivo bioassay guided chromatographic separation and purification, and the structure elucidation of the purified compound by spectroscopic methods. Dried powder of Curcuma amada rhizomes was extracted with MeOH. The analgesic activity of the crude extract and its chromatographic fractions as well as the purified compound itself was evaluated by the acetic acid induced writhing method and the formalin induced licking test in Swiss albino mice. The MeOH extract was separated by chromatographic methods and the pure active compound was purified by crystallization in hexanes. The structure of the pure compound was then elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The MeOH extract of Curcuma amada exhibited 41.63% and 45.53% inhibitions in the acetic acid induced writhing method at doses of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg, respectively. It also exerted 20.43% and 28.50% inhibitions in early phase at doses of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg, respectively, and 30.41% and 42.95% inhibitions in late phase at doses of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg, respectively in the formalin induced licking test. Vacuum Liquid Chromatography (VLC) of crude extract yielded five fractions and Fr. 1 was found to have the most potent analgesic activity with inhibitions of 36.96% in the acetic acid induced writhing method and 47.51% (early phase), 39.50% (late phase) in the formalin induced licking test at a dose of 200mg/kg. Column chromatography of Fr. 1 on silica gel generated seven fractions (SF. 1-SF. 7). SF. 2 showed the most potent activity with inhibition of 49.81% in the acetic acid induced writhing method at a dose of 100mg/kg. Crystallization of SF. 2 yielded

  7. Evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Rubia cordifolia L. by spectrum-effect relationships.

    PubMed

    Shen, Cai-Hong; Liu, Cui-Ting; Song, Xiao-Juan; Zeng, Wei-Ya; Lu, Xiao-Ying; Zheng, Zuo-Liang; Jie-Pan; Zhan, Ruo-Ting; Ping-Yan

    2018-07-15

    The objective of the current work was to evaluate the spectrum-effect relationships between high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprints and analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Rubia cordifolia L. extract (RCE), and to identify active components of RCE. Chemical fingerprints of ten batches of RC from various sources were obtained by HPLC, and similarity and hierarchical clustering analyses were carried out. Pharmacodynamic assays were performed in adjuvant-induced arthritis rat model to assess the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of RCE. The spectrum-effect relationships between chemical fingerprints and the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of RCE were established by gray correlation analysis. UPLC-ESI-MS was used to identify the structures of potential active components, by reference standards comparison. The results showed that a close correlation existed between chemical fingerprints with analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities, and alizarin, 6-hydroxyrubiadin, purpurin and rubiadin might be the active constituents of RCE. In addition, RCE attenuated pathological changes in adjuvant-induced arthritis. The current findings provide a strong basis for combining chemical fingerprints with analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in assessing the spectrum-effect relationships of RCE. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Antioedematous and Analgesic Properties of Fertile Fronds of Drynaria quercifolia

    PubMed Central

    Anuja, G. I.; Latha, P. G.; Shine, V. J.; Suja, S. R.; Shikha, P.; Satheesh Kumar, K.; Rajasekharan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is a complex biological response of tissue cells to harmful stimuli including trauma, tissue necrosis, and infections which plays a key role in the pathophysiology of many deadly diseases. In ethnomedicine Drynaria quercifolia fronds are used to treat inflammation as poultice on swellings and as antibacterial, hepatoprotective, and antipyretic agent. Herein, we have evaluated the antioedematous, antiproliferative, and analgesic properties of the ethanolic extract of fertile fronds of D. quercifolia (FF) by standard procedures. Oral administration of FF produced significant inhibition of carrageenan and histamine induced paw oedema in Wistar rats. FF significantly reduced both wet weight and dry weight of granuloma tissue which shows the inhibitory effect on exudative and proliferative phases of inflammation. FF significantly attenuated acute and delayed phases of formalin induced pain, acetic acid-induced writhing, capsaicin-induced nociception, and hot plate test in mice. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of coumarins, flavonoids, glycosides, phenolics, saponins, steroids, tannins, and terpenoids. Total phenolic content was 186 mg/g equivalent of gallic acid. The HPLC estimation showed flavanone glycoside naringin (1.2%) and its aglycone naringenin (0.02%). The presence of potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic principles in FF and their synergistic action may be the reason for the proposed therapeutic effects. PMID:24575313

  9. Analgesic Effect of Oral Glucose in Neonates.

    PubMed

    Jatana, S K; Dalal, S S; Wilson, C G

    2003-04-01

    The International Association for the Study of Pain, has defined pain as "an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience connected with actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage". It was thought that the newborn baby does not experience pain because of incompletely developed nervous system. However, it has been shown that neurological system known to be associated with pain transmission and modulation, is intact and functional. A study was conducted in our center to study the analgesic effect of administration of oral glucose in various concentrations, in neonates undergoing heel punctures, for collection of blood for investigations. This was compared with the analgesic effects of breast milk (which contains lactose). 125 full term normal neonates with no history of birth asphyxia or underlying neurological abnormality, requiring heel punctures for collection of blood for various investigations were selected for the study. They were matched for gestational age, birth weight and sex distribution and divided into 5 groups of 25 each. One group comprised control subjects and was administered sterile water. 3 groups were administered 1 ml of varying strengths of glucose solutions i.e. 10%, 25% and 50% respectively. The last group was given 1 ml of expressed breast milk (EBM). Prior to heel pricks, state of arousal, baseline heart rate (HR) and transcutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2) were recorded by pulse oximeter in each neonate. Autolet, a mechanical device for capillary sampling, was used for heel pricks to give equal strength of painful stimulus in each procedure. Audio tape recorder was used to record the cry. The oral solution was administered slowly over 30 seconds by means of a syringe placed in the mouth. Heel puncture was done after 2 minutes, taking all aseptic precautions. HR and SpO2 were monitored using pulse oximeter. Pain response was assessed, by recording duration of crying, change in HR, change in SpO2 and facial action

  10. Analgesic Effects of Duloxetine on Formalin-Induced Hyperalgesia and Its Underlying Mechanisms in the CeA

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lie; Yin, Jun-Bin; Hu, Wei; Zhao, Wen-Jun; Fan, Qing-Rong; Qiu, Zhi-Chun; He, Ming-Jie; Ding, Tan; Sun, Yan; Kaye, Alan D.; Wang, En-Ren

    2018-01-01

    In rodents, the amygdala has been proposed to serve as a key center for the nociceptive perception. Previous studies have shown that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling cascade in the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) played a functional role in inflammation-induced peripheral hypersensitivity. Duloxetine (DUL), a serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, produced analgesia on formalin-induced spontaneous pain behaviors. However, it is still unclear whether single DUL pretreatment influences formalin-induced hypersensitivity and what is the underlying mechanism. In the current study, we revealed that systemic pretreatment with DUL not only dose-dependently suppressed the spontaneous pain behaviors, but also relieved mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity induced by formalin hindpaw injection. Consistent with the analgesic effects of DUL on the pain behaviors, the expressions of Fos and pERK that were used to check the neuronal activities in the spinal cord and CeA were also dose-dependently reduced following DUL pretreatment. Meanwhile, no emotional aversive behaviors were observed at 24 h after formalin injection. The concentration of 5-HT in the CeA was correlated with the dose of DUL in a positive manner at 24 h after formalin injection. Direct injecting 5-HT into the CeA suppressed both the spontaneous pain behaviors and hyperalgesia induced by formalin injection. However, DUL did not have protective effects on the formalin-induced edema of hindpaw. In sum, the activation of CeA neurons may account for the transition from acute pain to long-term hyperalgesia after formalin injection. DUL may produce potent analgesic effects on the hyperalgesia and decrease the expressions of p-ERK through increasing the concentration of serotonin in the CeA. PMID:29692727

  11. Analgesic Effects of Duloxetine on Formalin-Induced Hyperalgesia and Its Underlying Mechanisms in the CeA.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lie; Yin, Jun-Bin; Hu, Wei; Zhao, Wen-Jun; Fan, Qing-Rong; Qiu, Zhi-Chun; He, Ming-Jie; Ding, Tan; Sun, Yan; Kaye, Alan D; Wang, En-Ren

    2018-01-01

    In rodents, the amygdala has been proposed to serve as a key center for the nociceptive perception. Previous studies have shown that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling cascade in the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) played a functional role in inflammation-induced peripheral hypersensitivity. Duloxetine (DUL), a serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, produced analgesia on formalin-induced spontaneous pain behaviors. However, it is still unclear whether single DUL pretreatment influences formalin-induced hypersensitivity and what is the underlying mechanism. In the current study, we revealed that systemic pretreatment with DUL not only dose-dependently suppressed the spontaneous pain behaviors, but also relieved mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity induced by formalin hindpaw injection. Consistent with the analgesic effects of DUL on the pain behaviors, the expressions of Fos and pERK that were used to check the neuronal activities in the spinal cord and CeA were also dose-dependently reduced following DUL pretreatment. Meanwhile, no emotional aversive behaviors were observed at 24 h after formalin injection. The concentration of 5-HT in the CeA was correlated with the dose of DUL in a positive manner at 24 h after formalin injection. Direct injecting 5-HT into the CeA suppressed both the spontaneous pain behaviors and hyperalgesia induced by formalin injection. However, DUL did not have protective effects on the formalin-induced edema of hindpaw. In sum, the activation of CeA neurons may account for the transition from acute pain to long-term hyperalgesia after formalin injection. DUL may produce potent analgesic effects on the hyperalgesia and decrease the expressions of p-ERK through increasing the concentration of serotonin in the CeA.

  12. An update on analgesics.

    PubMed

    Power, I

    2011-07-01

    Recent introduction of new analgesics into the clinic is best described as a slow process with activity classified into two main areas: improving analgesic efficacy/potency and reducing side-effect profile. This review article describes some of the recent advances with an emphasis on use in the acute setting. In this respect, opioids continue to be the mainstay (but not the only) analgesic and there have been important improvements in their clinical effect profile. For example, tapentadol has been introduced as a mixed opioid and norepinephrine uptake inhibitor which, unlike tramadol, does not require metabolic activation and does not suffer from isomer-dependent pharmacodynamics. Opioid antagonists have received much attention recently either used alone, methylnaltrexone (s.c) or alvimopan (p.o), or in combination, Targinact (oxycodone/naloxone), and appear to be effective in reducing opioid side-effects such as those in the gastrointestinal tract. Other agents where there has been recent development include the use of gabapentin, methylxanthines, and local anaesthetics. An interesting area of translation of basic research is in the inhibition of breakdown of endogenous opioids with opiorphin, targeting of the endocannabinoid system, and the use of ampakines to obtund opioid-induced side-effects. It is clear that there is still much work to be done, but the need for highly efficacious analgesics with good side-effect profile remains.

  13. Analgesic Activity.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Analgesics are agents which selectively relieve pain by acting in the CNS and peripheral pain mediators without changing consciousness. Analgesics may be narcotic or non-narcotic. The study of pain in animals raises ethical, philosophical, and technical problems. Both peripheral and central pain models are included to make the test more evident for the analgesic property of the plant. This chapter highlights methods such as hot plate and formalin and acetic acid-induced pain models to check the analgesic activity of medicinal plants.

  14. Electroencephalography and analgesics

    PubMed Central

    Malver, Lasse Paludan; Brokjær, Anne; Staahl, Camilla; Graversen, Carina; Andresen, Trine; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2014-01-01

    To assess centrally mediated analgesic mechanisms in clinical trials with pain patients, objective standardized methods such as electroencephalography (EEG) has many advantages. The aim of this review is to provide the reader with an overview of present findings in analgesics assessed with spontaneous EEG and evoked brain potentials (EPs) in humans. Furthermore, EEG methodologies will be discussed with respect to translation from animals to humans and future perspectives in predicting analgesic efficacy. We searched PubMed with MeSH terms ‘analgesics’, ‘electroencephalography’ and ‘evoked potentials’ for relevant articles. Combined with a search in their reference lists 15 articles on spontaneous EEG and 55 papers on EPs were identified. Overall, opioids produced increased activity in the delta band in the spontaneous EEG, but increases in higher frequency bands were also seen. The EP amplitudes decreased in the majority of studies. Anticonvulsants used as analgesics showed inconsistent results. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist ketamine showed an increase in the theta band in spontaneous EEG and decreases in EP amplitudes. Tricyclic antidepressants increased the activity in the delta, theta and beta bands in the spontaneous EEG while EPs were inconsistently affected. Weak analgesics were mainly investigated with EPs and a decrease in amplitudes was generally observed. This review reveals that both spontaneous EEG and EPs are widely used as biomarkers for analgesic drug effects. Methodological differences are common and a more uniform approach will further enhance the value of such biomarkers for drug development and prediction of treatment response in individual patients. PMID:23593934

  15. [Analgesic effect of ferulic acid on CCI mice: behavior and neurobiological analysis].

    PubMed

    Lv, Wei-Hong; Zhang, Lu; Wu, Shu-Juan; Chen, Sai-Zhen; Zhu, Xin-Bo; Pan, Jian-Chun

    2013-11-01

    To study the analgesic effect of chronic administration with ferulic acid, and preliminarily discuss its mechanism. Thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia tests were conducted to observe the analgesic effect of chronic administration with ferulic acid on CCI mice. The neurochemical detection method was applied to observe the effect chronic administration with ferulic acid on monoamine neurotransmitter and monoamine oxidase activity. Compared with the normal group, CCI mice showed notable reduction in heat sensation and nociceptive threshold in and mechanical allodynia. Ferulic acid (10, 20, 40 and 80 mg x kg(-1), po) could significantly reverse the situations. In an in-depth study, we found that the reason for these results was that ferulic acid was dose-dependent in increasing 5-HT and NE levels in hippocampus, frontal cortex and amygdale and could inhibit MAO-A activity in mouse brains. These results showed that ferulic acid has the analgesic effect. Its mechanism may be related to the inhibition of monoamine oxidase activity and the increase in monoamine neurotransmitter in mouse brains.

  16. Synthesis, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcerogenic activities of certain novel Schiff's bases as fenamate isosteres.

    PubMed

    Alafeefy, Ahmed M; Bakht, Mohammed A; Ganaie, Majid A; Ansarie, Mohd N; El-Sayed, Nahed N; Awaad, Amani S

    2015-01-15

    A series of certain novel Schiff bases as fenamate isosteres (VI:a-k) were synthesized to locate analgesic, anti-inflammatory agent with minimal ulcerogenic potential. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were elucidated on the basis of their elemental analysis as well as IR, and NMR and mass spectroscopic data. All the compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan induced paw oedema method. The compounds possessing good anti-inflammatory activity were further tested for analgesic, ulcerogenic, lipid peroxidation potentials and liver toxicity. Compounds (VI-c), (VI-f), (VI-h) and (VI-i) showed the best anti-inflammatory and significant analgesic activities at doses comparable to that of the standard drug Indomethacin. However, compounds (VI-c) and (VI-f) could be considered the most potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic molecules with maximum reduction in gastro-intestinal ulceration with no hepatocyte necrosis or liver degeneration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of 12-monoketocholic acid on modulation of analgesic action of morphine and tramadol.

    PubMed

    Kuhajda, Ivan; Posa, Mihalj; Jakovljević, Vida; Ivetić, Vesna; Mikov, Momir

    2009-01-01

    This work is concerned with the potential promotive action of 12-monoketocholic acid (12-MKC) on the analgesic effect of morphine and tramadol. The investigation was carried out on laboratory Wistar rats divided into five test groups, each treated with either morphine (2 mg/kg), tramadol (9.6 mg/kg), 12-MKC (2 mg/kg), morphine + 12-MKC, or tramadol + 12-MKC, the control group receiving physiological solution (2 mg/kg). The effect of 12-MKC on the analgesic action of morphine and tramadol was determined by radiation heat method. Morphine and tramadol, given in equimolar doses, did not show significant difference in the degree of analgesia. In combination with morphine, 12-MKC increased significantly the analgesic effect compared with the group treated with morphine alone. However, 12-MKC caused no change in the action of tramadol. The 5-day intravenous application of 12-MKC in combination with the two analgesics caused no changes in the biochemical parameters nor pathohistological changes in the liver parenchyma of tested animals.

  18. Pharmacokinetics and analgesic effect of ketorolac floating delivery system.

    PubMed

    Radwan, Mahasen A; Abou El Ela, Amal El Sayeh F; Hassan, Maha A; El-Maraghy, Dalia A

    2015-05-01

    The efficacy of ketorolac tromethamine (KT) floating alginate beads as a drug delivery system for better control of KT release was investigated. The formulation with the highest drug loading, entrapment efficiency, swelling, buoyancy, and in vitro release would be selected for further in vivo analgesic effect in the mice and pharmacokinetics study in rats compared to the tablet dosage form. KT floating alginate beads were prepared by extrusion congealing technique. KT in plasma samples was analyzed using a UPLC MS/MS assay. The percentage yield, drug loading and encapsulation efficiency were increased proportionally with the hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) polymer amount in the KT floating beads. A reverse relationship was observed between HPMC amount in the beads and the KT in vitro release rate. F3-floating beads were selected, due to its better in vitro results (continued floating for >8 h) than others. A longer analgesic effect was observed for F3 in fed mice as compared to the tablets. After F3 administration to rats, the Cmax (2.2 ± 0.3 µg/ml) was achieved at ∼2 h and the decline in KT concentration was slower. F3 showed a significant increase in the AUC (1.89 fold) in rats as compared to the tablets. KT was successfully formulated as floating beads with prolonged in vitro release extended to a better in vivo characteristic with higher bioavailability in rats. KT in floating beads shows a superior analgesic effect over tablets, especially in fed mice.

  19. Preventability of adverse effects of analgesics: analysis of spontaneous reports.

    PubMed

    Cazacu, Irina; Miremont-Salamé, Ghada; Mogosan, Cristina; Fourrier-Réglat, Annie; Loghin, Felicia; Haramburu, Françoise

    2015-05-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the patterns of analgesic adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and to assess their preventability and contributing factors. This is a retrospective, descriptive study conducted on ADRs of analgesics and other drugs indicated as analgesics, spontaneously reported to the Bordeaux pharmacovigilance center from January 2011 to June 2012. The 141 cases selected for the analysis included 16 cases of medication errors (11.3%) and 15 addiction cases (10.6%). In total, 214 ADRs were registered, for which 173 analgesic medicines were suspected. The most frequent ADRs reported were nervous system disorders (26.6%), psychiatric disorders (15.0%), and skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders (12.1%). Tramadol alone or in combination (17.3%), followed by morphine (15%), fentanyl (9.8%), and paracetamol (8.7%) were the most frequently involved analgesics. More than half of the cases (54.6%) were serious and led to hospitalization or prolonged hospitalization. Preventability was determined for 134 cases (95%): 51.5% were considered as preventable, 26.1% not preventable, and 22.4% not assessable. The main contributing factors for the preventable cases included negligence of recommendations for analgesic use and failure to consider patients' risk factors when prescribing. A significant number of analgesic ADRs could be prevented, and being aware of their contributing factors promotes efficient analgesia with minimum risks to the patients.

  20. Exploring pharmacological activities and signaling of morphinans substituted in position 6 as potent agonists interacting with the μ opioid receptor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Opioid analgesics are the most effective drugs for the treatment of moderate to severe pain. However, they also produce several adverse effects that can complicate pain management. The μ opioid (MOP) receptor, a G protein-coupled receptor, is recognized as the opioid receptor type which primarily mediates the pharmacological actions of clinically used opioid agonists. The morphinan class of analgesics including morphine and oxycodone are of main importance as therapeutically valuable drugs. Though the natural alkaloid morphine contains a C-6-hydroxyl group and the semisynthetic derivative oxycodone has a 6-carbonyl function, chemical approaches have uncovered that functionalizing position 6 gives rise to a range of diverse activities. Hence, position 6 of N-methylmorphinans is one of the most manipulated sites, and is established to play a key role in ligand binding at the MOP receptor, efficacy, signaling, and analgesic potency. We have earlier reported on a chemically innovative modification in oxycodone resulting in novel morphinans with 6-acrylonitrile incorporated substructures. Results This study describes in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities and signaling of new morphinans substituted in position 6 with acrylonitrile and amido functions as potent agonists and antinociceptive agents interacting with MOP receptors. We show that the presence of a 6-cyano group in N-methylmorphinans has a strong influence on the binding to the opioid receptors and post-receptor signaling. One 6-cyano-N-methylmorphinan of the series was identified as the highest affinity and most selective MOP agonist, and very potent in stimulating G protein coupling and intracellular calcium release through the MOP receptor. In vivo, this MOP agonist showed to be greatly effective against thermal and chemical nociception in mice with marked increased antinociceptive potency than the lead molecule oxycodone. Conclusion Development of such novel chemotypes by targeting

  1. Adherence to Analgesics in Oncology Outpatients: Focus on Taking Analgesics on Time.

    PubMed

    Oldenmenger, Wendy H; Sillevis Smitt, Peter A E; de Raaf, Pleun J; van der Rijt, Carin C D

    2017-06-01

    Inadequate adherence to prescribed analgesics may be one of the reasons why patients with cancer experience unrelieved pain. Adherence is directly influenced by patients' barriers about pain management. Patient pain education programs (PEPs) have been developed to reduce patients' barriers and increase patients' adherence to their analgesics. The purpose of this article was to evaluate patients' adherence in patients receiving a pain consult and patient pain education in comparison with patients receiving standard pain treatment (standard care [SC]), to better explore the difficulties in medication adherence in cancer-related pain and the effects of PEP. In 54 adult outpatients with cancer-related pain, patients' adherence to the prescribed around-the-clock analgesics was measured with a Medication Event Monitoring System, in the following time intervals: weeks 1 and 2, weeks 3 and 4, and weeks 7 and 8 after randomization. Adherence was differentiated into taking adherence, taking the correct dose, and taking analgesics at the right time intervals. Taking adherence increased in the intervention group compared to baseline (from 91% to 93%) and decreased in the SC group (from 85% to 78%; P < 0.05). At the end of the study, more patients in the intervention group took their analgesics at the right intervals (78%) than did patients in the SC group (64%, P < 0.05). During the study, patients were more adherent to opioids than to World Health Organization step 1 analgesics. The combined intervention can increase adherence. The true problem in pain management is that patients do not take their prescribed analgesics at the right time intervals. With the detailed adherence information from this study, it is possible to further tailor patient education to the individual patient. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.

  2. From pulses to pain relief: an update on the mechanisms of rTMS-induced analgesic effects.

    PubMed

    Moisset, X; de Andrade, D C; Bouhassira, D

    2016-05-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive technique that allows cortical stimulation. Recent studies have shown that rTMS of the primary motor cortex or dorsolateral prefrontal cortex decreases pain in various pain conditions. The aim of this review was to summarize the main characteristics of rTMS-induced analgesic effects and to analyse the current data on its mechanisms of action. Medline, PubMed and Web of Science were searched for studies on the analgesic effects and mechanisms of rTMS-induced analgesic effects. Studies on epidural motor cortex stimulation (EMCS) were also included when required, as several mechanisms of action are probably shared between both techniques. Stimulation site and stimulation parameters have a major impact on rTMS-related analgesic effects. Local cortical stimulation is able to elicit changes in the functioning of distant brain areas. These modifications outlast the duration of the rTMS session and probably involve LTP-like mechanisms via its influence on glutamatergic networks. Analgesic effects seem to be correlated to restoration of normal cortical excitability in chronic pain patients and depend on pain modulatory systems, in particular endogenous opioids. Dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine and GABAergic circuitry may also be involved in its effects, as well as rostrocaudal projections. rTMS activates brain areas distant from the stimulation site. LTP-like mechanisms, dependence on endogenous opioids and increase in concentration of neurotransmitters (monoamines, GABA) have all been implicated in its analgesic effects, although more studies are needed to fill in the still existing gaps in the understanding of its mechanisms of action. © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  3. Analgesic effects of oligonol, acupuncture and quantum light therapy on chronic nonbacterial prostatitis.

    PubMed

    Akdere, Hakan; Oztekin, Ilhan; Arda, Ersan; Aktoz, Tevfik; Turan, Fatma Nesrin; Burgazli, Kamil Mehmet

    2015-04-01

    Chronic Nonbacterial Prostatitis (CNBP) is a condition that frequently causes long-term pain and a significant decrease in the quality of life. The present study aimed to examine the analgesic effects of oligonol, acupuncture, quantum light therapy and their combinations on estrogen-induced CNBP in rats. This experimental study was conducted in Edirne, Turkey, using a simple randomized allocation. A total of 90 adult male Wistar rats were randomized into 9 groups of 10 rats each: Group I, control; Group II, CNBP, Group III, oligonol only, Group IV, acupuncture only; Group V, quantum only; Group VI, oligonol + quantum; Group VII, acupuncture + oligonol; Group VIII, quantum + acupuncture; Group IX, acupuncture + quantum + oligonol. Oligonol treatment was given at a dose of 60 mg/day for 6 weeks. Conceptual vessels (CV) 3 and 4, and bilaterally urinary bladder (Bl) 32 and 34 points were targeted with 1-hour acupuncture stimulation. The quantum light therapy was applied in 5-minute sessions for 6 weeks (3-times/a week). For pain measurements, mechanical pressure was applied to a point 2 cm distal to the root of the tail to elicit pain and consequent parameters (peak force, latency time of response and total length of measurement) were assessed. Analgesic effects were observed with all treatment regimens; however, the most prominent median analgesic effect was shown in the quantum light therapy in combination with acupuncture for estrogen-induced CNBP (PF1 = 663.9, PF2 = 403.4) (P = 0.012). Furthermore, we observed that monotherapy with quantum light showed a better analgesic efficacy as compared to oligonol and acupuncture monotherapies (PF1 = 1044.6, PF2 = 661.2) (P = 0.018, P = 0.008, P = 0.018; respectively). All treatment modalities showed a significant analgesic effect on CNBP in rats, being most prominent with the quantum light therapy.

  4. Analgesic effects of breast-feeding or pacifier use with maternal holding in term infants.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Raylene M; Chantry, Caroline J; Gallagher, Michael P

    2005-01-01

    First, to compare analgesic effects of breast-feeding versus pacifier use in newborn infants undergoing blood collection via heel sticks. Second, to compare analgesic effects of pacifier use with maternal holding versus nonmaternal holding. A prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Normal newborn nursery at academic teaching hospital. Full-term breast-feeding infants scheduled for routine newborn screening blood test via heel stick (n = 96). Interventions.-Infants randomized to 3 groups for analgesia: 1) breast-feeding, 2) pacifier use while held by mothers, 3) pacifier use while held by research assistants (nonmothers). Primary outcome was crying (percent of infants who cried during the procedure and mean percent of procedure time that infants cried). Secondary outcomes were physiologic measures. Fewer breast-feeding infants cried than infants using a pacifier while held by nonmothers both during the procedure (69% vs 100%, P < .01) and after the procedure (28% vs 60%, P = .03). Those infants crying during the procedure cried for less time if held by their mothers either breast-feeding (33%, P < .01) or using a pacifier (45%, P = .03) than those using a pacifier while being held by nonmothers (66%). Breast-feeding is more analgesic than pacifier use with nonmaternal holding. Maternal holding with either breast-feeding or pacifier use is more analgesic than nonmaternal holding with pacifier use, suggesting that maternal holding itself has an analgesic effect. Breast-feeding and maternal holding should be considered as pain-control measures for the neonate during heel-stick procedures.

  5. Spinal Reflexes and Windup In Vitro: Effects of Analgesics and Anesthetics.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Arconada, Ivan; Roza, Carolina; Lopez-Garcia, Jose A

    2016-02-01

    The spinal cord is the first relay center for nociceptive information. Following peripheral injury, the spinal cord sensitizes. A sign of spinal sensitization is the hyper-reflexia which develops shortly after injury and can be detected in the isolated spinal cord as a "memory of pain." In this context, it is easy to understand that many analgesic compounds target spinally located sites of action to attain analgesia. In vitro isolated spinal cord preparations have been used for a number of years, and experience on the effects of compounds of diverse pharmacological families on spinal function has accumulated. Recently, we have proposed that the detailed study of spinal segmental reflexes in vitro may produce data relevant to the evaluation of the analgesic potential of novel compounds. In this review, we describe the main features of segmental reflexes obtained in vitro and discuss the effects of compounds of diverse chemical nature and pharmacological properties on such reflexes. Our aim was to compare the different profiles of action of the compounds on segmental reflexes in order to extract clues that may be helpful for pharmacological characterization of novel analgesics. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Nitrous Oxide During Labor: Maternal Satisfaction Does Not Depend Exclusively on Analgesic Effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Michael G; Lopez, Brandon M; Baysinger, Curtis L; Shotwell, Matthew S; Chestnut, David H

    2017-02-01

    Evidence on the analgesic effectiveness of nitrous oxide for labor pain is limited. Even fewer studies have looked at patient satisfaction. Although nitrous oxide appears less effective than neuraxial analgesia, it is unclear whether labor analgesic effectiveness is the most important factor in patient satisfaction. We sought to compare the relationship between analgesic effectiveness and patient satisfaction with analgesia in women who delivered vaginally using nitrous oxide, neuraxial analgesia (epidural or combined spinal-epidural [CSE]), or both (neuraxial after a trial of nitrous oxide). A standardized survey was recorded on the first postpartum day for all women who received anesthetic care for labor and delivery. Data were queried for women who delivered vaginally with nitrous oxide and/or neuraxial labor analgesia over a 34-month period in 2011 to 2014. Parturients with complete data for analgesia quality and patient satisfaction were included. Analgesia and satisfaction scores were grouped into 8 to 10 high, 5 to 7 intermediate, and 0 to 4 low. These scores were compared with the use of ordinal logistic regression across 3 groups: nitrous oxide alone, epidural or CSE alone, or nitrous oxide followed by neuraxial (epidural or CSE) analgesia. A total of 6507 women received anesthesia care and delivered vaginally. Complete data were available for 6242 (96%) women; 5261 (81%) chose neuraxial analgesia and 1246 (19%) chose nitrous oxide. Of the latter, 753 (60%) went on to deliver with nitrous oxide alone, and 493 (40%) switched to neuraxial analgesia. Most parturients who received neuraxial analgesia (>90%) reported high analgesic effectiveness. Those who used nitrous oxide alone experienced variable analgesic effectiveness, with only one-half reporting high effectiveness. Among all women who reported poor analgesia effectiveness (0-4; n = 257), those who received nitrous oxide alone were more likely to report high satisfaction (8-10) than women who received

  7. Rubus occidentalis analgesic effect in a rat model of incisional pain.

    PubMed

    Choi, Geun Joo; Kang, Hyun; Kim, Won Joong; Kwon, Ji Wung; Kim, Beom Gyu; Choi, Yoo Shin; Cha, Young Joo; Ko, Jin Soo

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the analgesic effect of Rubus occidentalis extract (ROE) in a rat model of incisional pain. The involved mechanisms and proinflammatory cytokine response were also examined. To investigate the analgesic effect, rats were intraperitoneally administered with normal saline or various doses of ROE before or after a plantar incision. To evaluate the involved mechanism, rats were intraperitoneally administered yohimbine, dexmedetomidine, prazosin, naloxone, atropine, or mecamylamine after a plantar incision; ROE was then administered intraperitoneally. The mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) was tested with von Frey filaments at various time points. To determine the inflammatory response, serum levels of interleukin (IL)-1β or IL-6 were measured. The MWTs significantly increased at 15 min after postincisional administration of 300 mg/kg ROE when compared with those in the control group. This elevation was observed for up to 45 min. Overall, MWTs increased in proportion to ROE dosage; however, ROEs administered before the incision produced no significant change in the MWT. The analgesic effect of ROE was significantly antagonized by mecamylamine, naloxone, and yohimbine, and agonized by dexmedetomidine. Administration of ROE inhibited the postincisional increase in serum IL-1β and IL-6. Intraperitoneal administration of ROE after surgery induces antinociceptive effects in a rat model of postoperative pain, and its effects on mechanical hyperalgesia may be associated with α 2 -adrenergic, nicotinic cholinergic, and opioid receptors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Adjuvant Analgesics on Cerebral Ischemia-Induced Mechanical Allodynia.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Wataru; Harada, Shinichi; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2016-01-01

    Central post-stroke pain (CPSP), a potential sequela of stroke, is classified as neuropathic pain. Although we recently established a CPSP-like model in mice, the effects of adjuvant analgesics as therapeutic drugs for neuropathic pain in this model are unknown. Hence, the aim of the present study was to assess the usefulness of our model by evaluating the effects of adjuvant analgesics used for treating neuropathic pain in this mouse model of CPSP. Male ddY mice were subjected to 30 min of bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCAO). The development of hind paw mechanical allodynia was measured after BCAO using the von Frey test. The mechanical allodynia was significantly increased on day 3 after BCAO compared with that during the pre-BCAO assessment. BCAO-induced mechanical allodynia was significantly decreased by intraperitoneal injections of imipramine (a tricyclic antidepressant), mexiletine (an antiarrhythmic), gabapentin (an antiepileptic), or a subcutaneous injection of morphine (an opioid receptor agonist) compared with that following vehicle treatment in BCAO-mice. By contrast, milnacipran (a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor), paroxetine (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor), carbamazepine (antiepileptic), and indomethacin (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug) did not affect the BCAO-induced mechanical allodynia. Our results show that BCAO in mice may be useful as an animal model of CPSP. In addition, BCAO-induced mechanical allodynia may be suppressed by some adjuvant analgesics used to treat neuropathic pain.

  9. Identification of a Potent Tryptophan-based TRPM8 Antagonist With in vivo Analgesic Activity.

    PubMed

    Bertamino, Alessia; Iraci, Nunzio; Ostacolo, Carmine; Ambrosino, Paolo; Musella, Simona; Di Sarno, Veronica; Ciaglia, Tania; Pepe, Giacomo; Sala, Marina; Soldovieri, Maria Virginia; Mosca, Ilaria; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Sara; Fernández-Carvajal, Asia; Ferrer-Montiel, Antonio; Novellino, Ettore; Taglialatela, Maurizio; Campiglia, Pietro; Gomez-Monterrey, Isabel M

    2018-06-25

    TRPM8 has been implicated in nociception and pain and is currently regarded as an attractive target for the pharmacological treatment of neuropathic pain syndromes. A series of analogues of N,N'-dibenzyl tryptamine 1, a potent TRPM8 antagonist, were prepared and screened using a fluorescence-based in vitro assay based on menthol-evoked calcium influx in TRPM8 stably-transfected HEK293 cells. The tryptophan derivative 14 was identified as a potent (IC 50 0.2±0.2 nM) and selective TRPM8 antagonist. In vivo, 14 showed significant target coverage in both an icilin-induced WDS (at 1-30 mg/kg s.c.) and oxaliplatin-induced cold allodynia (at 0.1-1 μg s.c.) mice models. Molecular modeling studies identified the putative binding mode of these antagonists, suggesting that they could influence an interaction network between the S1-4 transmembrane segments and the TRP domains of the channel subunits. The tryptophan moiety provides a new pharmacophoric scaffold for the design of highly potent modulators of TRPM8-mediated pain.

  10. Pharmacogenetics of new analgesics

    PubMed Central

    Lötsch, Jörn; Geisslinger, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    Patient phenotypes in pharmacological pain treatment varies between individuals, which could be partly assigned to their genotypes regarding the targets of classical analgesics (OPRM1, PTGS2) or associated signalling pathways (KCNJ6). Translational and genetic research have identified new targets, for which new analgesics are being developed. This addresses voltage-gated sodium, calcium and potassium channels, for which SCN9A, CACNA1B, KCNQ2 and KCNQ3, respectively, are primary gene candidates because they code for the subunits of the respective channels targeted by analgesics currently in clinical development. Mutations in voltage gated transient receptor potential (TRPV) channels are known from genetic pain research and may modulate the effects of analgesics under development targeting TRPV1 or TRPV3. To this add ligand-gated ion channels including nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, ionotropic glutamate-gated receptors and ATP-gated purinergic P2X receptors with most important subunits coded by CHRNA4, GRIN2B and P2RX7. Among G protein coupled receptors, δ-opioid receptors (coded by OPRD1), cannabinoid receptors (CNR1 and CNR2), metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR5 coded by GRM5), bradykinin B1 (BDKRB1) and 5-HT1A (HTR1A) receptors are targeted by new analgesic substances. Finally, nerve growth factor (NGFB), its tyrosine kinase receptor (NTRK1) and the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) have become targets of interest. For most of these genes, functional variants have been associated with neuro-psychiatric disorders and not yet with analgesia. However, research on the genetic modulation of pain has already identified variants in these genes, relative to pain, which may facilitate the pharmacogenetic assessments of new analgesics. The increased number of candidate pharmacogenetic modulators of analgesic actions may open opportunities for the broader clinical implementation of genotyping information. PMID:20942817

  11. Analgesic Effect of Xenon in Rat Model of Inflammatory Pain.

    PubMed

    Kukushkin, M L; Igon'kina, S I; Potapov, S V; Potapov, A V

    2017-02-01

    The analgesic effects of inert gas xenon were examined on rats. The formalin model of inflammatory pain, tail-flick test, and hot-plate test revealed the antinociceptive effects of subanesthetizing doses of inhalation anesthetic xenon. Inhalation of 50/50 xenon/oxygen mixture moderated the nociceptive responses during acute and tonic phases of inflammatory pain.

  12. Analgesic effects of intrathecally-administered 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one in a rat mechanical visceral pain model.

    PubMed

    Winfree, C J; Coombs, D W; DeLeo, J A; Colburn, R W

    1992-01-01

    Recent studies in animals have demonstrated that the steroid, 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one (3A5P), is a potent analgesic when given intracerebroventricularly. Several studies in humans report that spinal steroids are effective in the treatment of chronic low-back pain when given in combination with morphine. The spinal antinociceptive effect of steroids, in particular a progesterone metabolite has not been studied in a visceral pain model. The experiments in the following study were designed to test, first, if the intrathecally-administered (i.t.) steroid, 3A5P, has analgesic properties in a mechanical visceral nociceptive assay, and second, if the intrathecal coadministration of this steroid and morphine is more effective than either therapy alone. Our mechanical visceral pain model (VPM) consists of a chronic indwelling duodenal balloon catheter implanted in the rat. The balloon is inflated to elicit a writhing response. Protection values are defined as the percentage of rats in each group which did not writhe. In this model, 3A5P was found to provide a dose-independent, though significant (p less than 0.01), antinociception when administered alone (33-67% protection vs. 0-25% for controls). Yet, protection offered by the coadministration of 3A5P and morphine (79%) was not significantly greater than that offered by morphine alone (85%). Unlike a dose and time-dependent response observed in a thermal cutaneous nociceptive assay, the antinociception of 3A5P was not dose-dependent when challenged with a mechanical visceral noxious stimulus.

  13. Superior analgesic effect of H-Dmt-D-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH2 ([Dmt1]DALDA), a multifunctional opioid peptide, compared to morphine in a rat model of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Shimoyama, Megumi; Schiller, Peter W; Shimoyama, Naohito; Toyama, Satoshi; Szeto, Hazel H

    2012-11-01

    H-Dmt-D-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH(2) ([Dmt(1)]DALDA) is a synthetic tetrapeptide with extraordinary selectivity for the mu-opioid receptor and is an extremely potent analgesic. [Dmt(1) ]DALDA is unusual in the way that the greater part of its analgesic potency appears to be produced by its actions in the spinal cord. Furthermore, [Dmt(1) ]DALDA inhibits norepinephrine re-uptake and is a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant. Such characteristics may make [Dmt(1)]DALDA particularly effective against neuropathic pain. The present study was designed to compare the effects of [Dmt(1)]DALDA and morphine on thermal hyperalgesia in an experimental neuropathic pain model. Neuropathic pain was induced in rats by surgical ligation of the L5 spinal nerve, and thermal pain thresholds were assessed by latencies of paw withdrawal to radiant heat. The increase in paw withdrawal latency was greater after the administration of [Dmt(1) ]DALDA than that of morphine in neuropathic rats at doses that were equianalgesic in naïve animals. We conclude that [Dmt(1)]DALDA is more effective than morphine against thermal hyperalgesia in this experimental model of neuropathic pain. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. A study of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of new 2,4,6-trisubstituted pyrimidines.

    PubMed

    Yejella, Rajendra Prasad; Atla, Srinivasa Rao

    2011-01-01

    Chalcone derivatives (3a-m) were prepared by condensing 4-aminoacetophenone with various substituted aromatic and hetero aromatic aldehydes according to Claisen-Schmidt condensation. These chalcones, on reaction with guanidine hydrochloride under basic alcoholic conditions gave 2,4,6-trisubstituted pyrimidines (5a-m) in quantitative yields. All the newly synthesized pyrimidines were characterized by means of IR, ¹H- and ¹³C-NMR, Electron Ionization (EI)-mass and elemental analyses and screened for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities by in vivo. 2-amino-4-(4-aminophenyl)-6-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)pyrimidine (5b) and 2-amino-4-(4-aminophenyl)-6-(3-bromophenyl) pyrimidine (5d) were found to be the most potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity compared with ibuprofen, reference standard. And also it was found that compound 5b identified as lead structure among all in both the activities. Pyrimidines which showed good anti-inflammatory activity also displayed better analgesic activity.

  15. Avicenna's Canon of Medicine: a review of analgesics and anti-inflammatory substances

    PubMed Central

    Mahdizadeh, Shahla; Khaleghi Ghadiri, Maryam; Gorji, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Naturally occurring substances mentioned in medieval medical literatures currently have, and will continue to have, a crucial place in drug discovery. Avicenna was a Persian physician who is known as the most influential medical writers in the Middle ages. Avicenna`s Canon of Medicine, the most famous books in the history of medicine, presents a clear and organized summary of all the medical knowledge of the time, including a long list of drugs. Several hundred substances and receipts from different sources are mentioned for treatment of different illnesses in this book. The aim of the present study was to provide a descriptive review of all anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs presented in this comprehensive encyclopedia of medicine. Data for this review were provided by searches of different sections of this book. Long lists of anti-inflammatory and analgesic substances used in the treatment of various diseases are provided. The efficacy of some of these drugs, such as opium, willow oil, curcuma, and garlic, was investigated by modern medicine; pointed to their potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. This review will help further research into the clinical benefits of new drugs for treatment of inflammatory diseases and pain. PMID:26101752

  16. Some patients don't need analgesics after surgery.

    PubMed Central

    McQuay, H J; Bullingham, R E; Moore, R A; Evans, P J; Lloyd, J W

    1982-01-01

    Postoperative analgesic requirements of 410 patients undergoing elective orthopaedic limb surgery were studied. Premedication and anaesthetic were standardized with no narcotic. Twenty-three patients required no analgesic at all during their hospital stay. The importance of acknowledging the existence of this group of patients is discussed. The distribution of time to first analgesic requirement for the other patients was obtained. The importance of knowing the distribution for particular operative procedures and the effect of analgesic interventions such as premedication is discussed. PMID:7120254

  17. The recent progress in research on effects of anesthetics and analgesics on G protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Minami, Kouichiro; Uezono, Yasuhito

    2013-04-01

    The exact mechanisms of action behind anesthetics and analgesics are still unclear. Much attention was focused on ion channels in the central nervous system as targets for anesthetics and analgesics in the 1980s. During the 1990s, major advances were made in our understanding of the physiology and pharmacology of G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling. Thus, several lines of studies have shown that G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are one of the targets for anesthetics and analgesics and especially, that some of them inhibit the functions of GPCRs, i.e,, muscarinic receptors and substance P receptors. However, these studies had been focused on only G(q) coupled receptors. There has been little work on G(s)- and G(i)-coupled receptors. In the last decade, a new assay system, using chimera G(i/o)-coupled receptor fused to Gq(i5), has been established and the effects of anesthetics and analgesics on the function of G(i)-coupled receptors is now more easily studied. This review highlights the recent progress of the studies regarding the effects of anesthetics and analgesics on GPCRs.

  18. The Analgesic Potential of Cannabinoids

    PubMed Central

    Elikottil, Jaseena; Gupta, Pankaj; Gupta, Kalpna

    2013-01-01

    Historically and anecdotally cannabinoids have been used as analgesic agents. In recent years, there has been an escalating interest in developing cannabis-derived medications to treat severe pain. This review provides an overview of the history of cannabis use in medicine, cannabinoid signaling pathways, and current data from preclinical as well as clinical studies on using cannabinoids as potential analgesic agents. Clinical and experimental studies show that cannabis-derived compounds act as anti-emetic, appetite modulating and analgesic agents. However, the efficacy of individual products is variable and dependent upon the route of administration. Since opioids are the only therapy for severe pain, analgesic ability of cannabinoids may provide a much-needed alternative to opioids. Moreover, cannabinoids act synergistically with opioids and act as opioid sparing agents, allowing lower doses and fewer side effects from chronic opioid therapy. Thus, rational use of cannabis based medications deserves serious consideration to alleviate the suffering of patients due to severe pain. PMID:20073408

  19. Influence of serotonin on the analgesic effect of granisetron on temporomandibular joint arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Voog, Ulle; Alstergren, Per; Leibur, Edvitar; Kallikorm, Riina; Kopp, Sigvard

    2004-01-01

    The influence of circulating serotonin (5-HT) on the effects of intra-articular administration of granisetron on temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain was investigated in 11 patients with chronic polyarthritides. An analgesic effect superior to placebo has been shown previously. The change in TMJ movement pain intensity was negatively correlated to circulating 5-HT; that is, the higher the 5-HT before injection, the greater the reduction of pain intensity. The resting pain intensity reduction was not related to 5-HT. In conclusion, this study indicates a stronger short-term analgesic effect on TMJ movement pain by intra-articular administration of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist granisetron in patients with high levels of circulating 5-HT. PMID:15770056

  20. ANALGESIC EFFECT OF INTRATHECAL BACLOFEN BOLUS ON NEUROPATHIC PAIN IN SPINAL CORD INJURY PATIENTS.

    PubMed

    Kumru, Hatice; Benito-Penalva, Jesus; Kofler, Markus; Vidal, Joan

    2018-05-18

    GABA-ergic neurons are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system, including the spinal cord which is important for the transmission of pain impulses to the brain. Here we hypothesized that intrathecal baclofen (ITB) which is a GABA analogue might exert analgesic effects on neuropathic pain, which could be related to subtypes of pain in spinal cord injury (SCI). SCI patients with a cervical or thoracic lesion and neuropathic pain were randomized to receive either a single ITB bolus or placebo. Numerical Rating Scale (NRS), Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory (NPSI), and Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) were obtained for assessment of neuropathic pain. Spasticity was assessed using Modified Ashworth Scale and visual analogue scale. Evaluations were performed at baseline, and 4, 8, and 24 hours after application of ITB or placebo. Eight patients received ITB, 5 placebo. Neuropathic pain improved significantly in the ITB group based on NRS, BPI, and NPSI, which revealed an effect on all subtypes of pain. Spasticity declined significantly. In the placebo group, there was neither significant change in pain nor in spasticity. An ITB bolus exerted a significant analgesic effect on all subtypes of neuropathic pain in SCI patients. ITB has analgesic effects on all subtypes of neuropathic pain and can improve interference of neuropathic pain with activities of daily living. ITB might be a promising analgesic treatment to control neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. [The Analgesic Sparing Effect of Ketamine for Postoperative Pain Management after Pediatric Surgery on the Body Surface].

    PubMed

    Urabe, Tomoaki; Nakanuno, Ryuichi; Hayase, Kazuma; Sasada, Shogo; Iwamitsu, Reimi; Senami, Masaki

    2016-04-01

    It is reported that ketamine, a N-methyl-D-aspertate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, can provide analgesic effect improving postoperative pain management and decrease the supplementary analgesic requirement. We investigated the analgesic sparing effect of ketamine for postoperative pain in children undergoing surgery of body surface. Fifty eight patients (0-9 yrs) who had surgery of body surface were divided into two groups (ketamine : n = 27, Group K or control : n = 31, Group N). Postoperative analgesia extracted from charts was retrospectively evaluated by the times patients used analgesics until discharge after the operations. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for statistical analysis. Results : The ketamine group received an intrave- nous bolus of ketamine (1 mg - kg-1) before surgical skin incision. However, there were no significant differ- ences of usage (Group K vs Group N : 4/27 vs 7/31, P=0.45) and frequency of supplementary analgesic us- ages (P=0.85) among groups. In addition, there were also no significant demographic differences between the two groups. Conclusions : Our investigation suggests that the intravenous bolus of ketamine (1 mg - kg-1) before surgical skin incision does not decrease the supple- mentary analgesic requirements on postoperative pain management in pediatric surgery of the body surface.

  2. THE EFFECT OF AN ANALGESIC AGENT ON MUSCULAR WORK DECREMENT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    observations might lead to the conclusion that the pain caused by ischemia limits the endurance of the muscle contraction . An analgesic agent, known to...reduce ischemic pain was shown to have no effect on the endurance or strength of a tonic muscle contraction . This was interpreted as demonstrating a lack

  3. [Analgesic effect of acupuncture at Neimadian(Extra) in postoperation of abdominal surgery].

    PubMed

    Ding, Liu-Xin; Xing, Qun-Zhi; Sun, Jun-Jun; Li, Yu

    2011-08-01

    To observe the analgesia effectiveness and safety of electroacupuncture at Neimadian(Extra) for postoperation of abdominal surgery. One hundred and twenty patients with routine abdominal surgery were randomly divided into an acupuncture group and a medication group, 60 cases in each group. The acupuncture group was treated with electroacupuncture at Neimadian(Extra), which was located on the inside of lower leg, 7 cun above the internal malleolus and 0.5 cun from post edge of tibial. The medication group was treated with patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) with Sufentanil. After the treatment, the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), the security, the analgesic effect and beta-endorphin content were compared. The postoperative VAS score at 2, 4, 8, 16, 24 and 48 h in the acupuncture group was lower than those in the medication group (all P < 0.05). The analgesic effect at 2, 4, 16 and 24 h after surgery in the acupuncture group were superior to those in the medication group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). The beta-endorphin content at 0, 8, 16 and 48 h after surgery in both groups were increased, and the acupuncture group was superior to the medication group (all P < 0.05). The security class after surgery in the acupuncture group was higher than that in the medication group (P < 0.05). The analgesic effect and safety of electroacupuncture at Neimadian(Extra) in postoperation of abdominal surgery are superior to those of the PCIA with Sufentanil.

  4. An evaluation of analgesic regimens for abdominal surgery in mice.

    PubMed

    Hayes, K E; Raucci, J A; Gades, N M; Toth, L A

    2000-11-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of several analgesic regimens for use after intraperitoneal implantation of telemetry transmitters in mice. The lengths of time required for postoperative recovery of food and water intake, locomotor activity, and core temperature of mice that did not receive postsurgical analgesic medication were compared to those of mice that were given either an analgesic in the drinking water or buprenorphine injections. Many measured variables were not substantially altered by analgesic medications. However, ibuprofen-treated mice demonstrated significantly greater locomotor activity on days 2 through 5 after surgery and a more rapid return to stable postsurgical levels of activity and water intake as compared to those in untreated mice. These changes are consistent with potential analgesic efficacy of the ibuprofen treatment regimen. Buprenorphine injections elicited hyperactivity, hyperthermia, and reduced food and water intake during both the immediate postsurgical recovery period and after apparent recuperation from surgery, as compared to effects observed in saline-treated mice. Evaluating the effect of analgesic regimens on postsurgical changes in physiologic and behavioral variables can be useful in assessing the efficacy of analgesic treatments, but some changes may indicate pharmacologic effects that do not reflect pain relief.

  5. Additive effect of combined application of magnesium and MK-801 on analgesic action of morphine.

    PubMed

    Bujalska-Zadrożny, Magdalena; Duda, Kamila

    2014-01-01

    As previously reported, magnesium ions (Mg(2+)) administered in relatively low doses markedly potentiated opioid analgesia in neuropathic pain, in which the effectiveness of opioids is limited. Considering that Mg(2+) behaves like an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, the effect of this ion on the analgesic action of morphine was compared with that of MK-801. Acute pain was evoked by mechanical or thermal stimuli, whereas neuropathic hyperalgesia was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) administration. Magnesium sulphate (40 mg/kg i.p.) or MK-801 (0.05 mg/kg s.c.) administered alone did not modify the nociceptive threshold to acute stimuli or the streptozotocin hyperalgesia but significantly augmented the analgesic action of morphine (5 mg/kg i.p.). Furthermore, if these drugs (i.e. magnesium sulphate and MK-801) were applied concomitantly, a clear additive effect on the analgesic action of morphine occurred in both models of pain. Possible explanations of these observations are discussed. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Analgesic effect of butorphanol and levomethadone in detomidine sedated horses.

    PubMed

    Schatzman, U; Armbruster, S; Stucki, F; Busato, A; Kohler, I

    2001-08-01

    The analgesic potency of butorphanol 25 microg/kg bodyweight (BW) and levomethadone 100 microg/kg BW, administered together with detomidine 10 microg/kg BW, was measured in twelve Warmblood horses in a randomized, blinded cross-over study. Detomidine with saline 10 ml 0.9% was used as placebo. The nociceptive threshold was determined using a constant current and a pneumatic pressure model for somatic pair Detomidine alone and in combination with butorphanol or levomethadone caused a significant temporary increase (P < 0.05) of the nociceptive threshold with a maximum effect within 15 min and a return to baseline levels within 90 min. Butorphanol and levomethadone increased the nociceptive threshold and prolonged the duration of anti-nociception significantly from 15 to 75 min (P < 0.05) after drug administration compared with detomidine alone to both test methods. No significant difference between butorphanol and levomethadone was registered. It is concluded that the addition of butorphanol or levomethadone to detomidine increases the nociceptive threshold to somatic pain and prolongs the analgesic effect of detomidine in the horse.

  7. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and ulcerogenic properties of S-(+)-ibuproxam, racemic ibuproxam-beta-cyclodextrin and S-(+)-ibuproxam-beta-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Bole-Vunduk, B; Verhnjak, K; Zmitek, J

    1996-11-01

    The anti-inflammatory, analgesic and gastric mucosal damage-inducing activities of S-(+)-ibuproxam, and S-(+)-ibuproxam-beta-cyclodextrin, new propionic acid derivatives, and racemic ibuproxam-beta-cyclodextrin were investigated in three animal models and compared with those of racemic ibuproxam, racemic ibuprofen and its optical enantiomer S-(+)-ibuprofen. The anti-inflammatory activities of racemic ibuprofen, S-(+)-ibuprofen and racemic ibuproxam in carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats were almost equipotent and slightly greater than those of S-(+)-ibuproxam and S-(+)-ibuproxam-beta-cyclodextrin, and significantly greater than that of racemic ibuproxam-beta-cyclodextrin. In abdominal constriction tests in mice, the analgesic effects of racemic ibuproxam, S-(+)-ibuproxam, racemic ibuproxam-beta-cyclodextrin and S-(+)-ibuproxam-beta-cyclodextrin were significantly less pronounced than those of racemic ibuprofen and S-(+)-ibuprofen. Ulcerogenic activity of S-(+)-ibuproxam-beta-cyclodextrin in rats was found to be significantly weaker than that of racemic ibuproxam-beta-cyclodextrin, racemic ibuproxam and S-(+)-ibuproxam and, most notably, weaker than those of racemic ibuprofen and S-(+)ibuprofen. These results indicate that S-(+)-ibuproxam-beta-cyclodextrin could be a novel potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic agent with a therapeutic index more favourable than that of the classical non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs ibuprofen and ibuproxam.

  8. Antiinflammatory and analgesic effects of Psidium guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae) leaf aqueous extract in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Ojewole, J A O

    2006-09-01

    In many parts of Africa, the leaf, stem-bark, and roots of Psidium guajava Linn. (Family: Myrtaceae) are used traditionally for the management, control, and/or treatment of an array of human disorders. In an effort to scientifically appraise some of the ethnomedical properties of P. guajava leaf, and probe its efficacy and safety, the present study was undertaken to examine the antiinflammatory and analgesic properties of the plant's leaf aqueous extract in some experimental animal paradigms. The antiinflammatory property of the aqueous leaf extract was investigated in rats, using fresh egg albumin-induced pedal (paw) edema, while the analgesic effect of the plant extract was evaluated by the "hot-plate" and "acetic acid" test models of pain in mice. Diclofenac (100 mg/kg, i.p.) and morphine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) were used respectively as standard, reference antiinflammatory and analgesic agents for comparison. P. guajava leaf aqueous extract (PGE, 50-800 mg/kg, i.p.) produced dose-dependent and significant (p < 0.05-0.001) inhibition of fresh egg albumin-induced acute inflammation (edema) in rats. The plant extract (PGE, 50-800 mg/kg, i.p.) also produced dose-dependent and significant (p < 0.05-0.001) analgesic effects against thermally and chemically induced nociceptive pain in mice. The numerous tannins, polyphenolic compounds, flavonoids, ellagic acid, triterpenoids, guiajaverin, quercetin, and other chemical compounds present in the plant are speculated to account for the observed antiinflammatory and analgesic effects of the plant's leaf extract. In summary, the findings of this experimental animal study indicate that the leaf aqueous extract of P. guajava possesses analgesic and antiinflammatory properties, and thus lend pharmacological credence to the suggested ethnomedical, folkloric uses of the plant in the management and/or control of painful, arthritic and other inflammatory conditions in some rural communities of Africa. (c) 2006 Prous Science. All rights

  9. Analgesic use in pregnancy and male reproductive development

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado-Gonzalez, Pablo; Mitchell, Rod T.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Male reproductive disorders are common and increasing in incidence in many countries. Environmental factors (including pharmaceuticals) have been implicated in the development of these disorders. This review aims to summarise the emerging epidemiological and experimental evidence for a potential role of in-utero exposure to analgesics in the development of male reproductive disorders. Recent findings A number of epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between in-utero exposure to analgesics and the development of cryptorchidism, although these findings are not consistent across all studies. Where present, these associations primarily relate to exposure during the second trimester of pregnancy. In-vivo and in-vitro experimental studies have demonstrated variable effects of exposure to analgesics on Leydig cell function in the fetal testis of rodents, particularly in terms of testosterone production. These effects frequently involve exposures that are in excess of those to which humans are exposed. Investigation of the effects of analgesics on human fetal testis have also demonstrated effects on Leydig cell function. Variation in species, model system, dosage and timing of exposure is likely to contribute to differences in the findings between studies. Summary There is increasing evidence for analgesic effects on the developing testis that have the potential to impair reproductive function. However, the importance of these findings in relation to human-relevant exposures and the risk of male reproductive disorders remains unclear. PMID:28277341

  10. Intravenous flurbiprofen axetil can increase analgesic effect in refractory cancer pain

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hongyang; Chen, Zhendong; Sun, Guoping; Gu, Kangsheng; Pan, Yueyin; Hao, Jiqing; Du, Yingying; Ning, Jie

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic effects of intravenous flurbiprofen axetil for the refractory pain in cancer patients. Methods 2109 patients were screened from the department of medical oncology, the first affiliated hospital of Anhui medical university in China between October of 2007 and October of 2008. Thirty-seven cases of cancer patients who had bad effect from anaesthetic drugs were received administration of intravenous flurbiprofen axetil with dose of 50 mg/5 ml/day. The pain score was evaluated for pre- and post- treatment by Pain Faces Scale criteria, and the side effects were also observed. Results Intravenous flurbiprofen axetil increased the analgesic effects. The total effective rate was 92%. The side effects, such as abdominal pain, alimentary tract bleeding which were found in using NSAIDs or constipation, nausea, vomit, sleepiness which were found in using opioid drugs did not be found. Conclusion Intravenous flurbiprofen axetil could provide better analgesia effects and few side effects to patients with refractory cancer pain. It could also increase analgesia effects when combining with anesthetic drugs in treatment of moderate or severe pain, especially breakthrough pain, and suit to patients who can not take oral drugs for the reason of constipation and psychosomatic symptoms. PMID:19267934

  11. Opioid analgesics and P-glycoprotein efflux transporters: a potential systems-level contribution to analgesic tolerance.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Susan L; Coop, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Chronic clinical pain remains poorly treated. Despite attempts to develop novel analgesic agents, opioids remain the standard analgesics of choice in the clinical management of chronic and severe pain. However, mu opioid analgesics have undesired side effects including, but not limited to, respiratory depression, physical dependence and tolerance. A growing body of evidence suggests that P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an efflux transporter, may contribute a systems-level approach to the development of opioid tolerance. Herein, we describe current in vitro and in vivo methodology available to analyze interactions between opioids and P-gp and critically analyze P-gp data associated with six commonly used mu opioids to include morphine, methadone, loperamide, meperidine, oxycodone, and fentanyl. Recent studies focused on the development of opioids lacking P-gp substrate activity are explored, concentrating on structure-activity relationships to develop an optimal opioid analgesic lacking this systems-level contribution to tolerance development. Continued work in this area will potentially allow for delineation of the mechanism responsible for opioid-related P-gp up-regulation and provide further support for evidence based medicine supporting clinical opioid rotation.

  12. Analgesic effects of ultrasound-guided transverse abdominis plane block using different volumes and concentrations of local analgesics after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Şahin, Ayça Sultan; Ay, Necmiye; Şahbaz, Nuri Alper; Akay, Mehlika Kocabaş; Demiraran, Yavuz; Derbent, Abdurrahim

    2017-02-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of an ultrasound-guided transverse abdominis plane (US-TAP) block used for postoperative pain relief by comparing the efficacy of two different volumes/concentrations of the local anaesthetic bupivacaine in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomies. Methods This randomized study enrolled patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomies. They were randomized to two groups: group A received a 20 ml US-TAP block (50 mg bupivacaine +10 ml saline solution) and group B received a 30 ml US-TAP block (50 mg bupivacaine + 20 ml saline solution). The intraoperative consumption of remifentanil, the requirement for postoperative rescue analgesics, patient satisfaction scores, postoperative complications, and postoperative pain as measured by a visual analogue scale at 20 min, 12 h, and 24 h were recorded. Results A total of 60 patients enrolled in the study. There were no differences between the two groups with respect to demographic characteristics, duration of anaesthesia and patient satisfaction scores. The intraoperative consumption of remifentanil, postoperative VAS scores (20 min, 12 h and 24 h) and the requirement for postoperative analgesics were all significantly lower in group B who received a larger volume but a lower concentration of local anaesthetic solution compared with group A. Conclusion A US-TAP block can form part of a balanced postoperative analgesic regimen following laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  13. Adverse effects of analgesics commonly used by older adults with osteoarthritis: focus on non-opioid and opioid analgesics.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Christine K; Hanlon, Joseph T; Marcum, Zachary A

    2012-12-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common cause of disability in older adults, and although analgesic use can be helpful, it can also result in adverse drug events. To review the recent literature to describe potential adverse drug events associated with analgesics commonly used by older adults with OA. To identify articles for this review, a systematic search of the English-language literature from January 2001 to June 2012 was conducted using PubMed, MEDLINE, EBSCO, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for publications related to the medical management of OA. Search terms used were "analgesics," "acetaminophen," "nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs" (NSAIDs), "opioids," "pharmacokinetics," "pharmacodynamics," and "adverse drug events." The search was restricted to those articles that concerned humans aged ≥65 years. A manual search of the reference lists from identified articles and the authors' article files, book chapters, and recent reviews was conducted to identify additional articles. From these, the authors identified those studies that examined analgesic use in older adults. There are limited data to suggest that non-frail elders are more likely than their younger counterparts to develop acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. However, decreased hepatic phase II metabolism in frail elders may result in increased risk of hepatotoxicity. It is now well established that older adults are at higher risk of NSAID-induced gastrointestinal toxicity and renal insufficiency. Insofar as opioids, the data that suggest an increased risk of falls, fractures, or delirium need to be tempered by the potential risk of inadequately treating severe chronic OA-related pain. Acetaminophen is the mainstay frontline analgesic for treating OA-related pain in older adults. NSAIDs should be limited to short-term use only, and for moderate to severe OA-related pain, opioids may be preferable in individuals without substance abuse or dependence issues. Copyright © 2012

  14. Analgesic effect of the electromagnetic resonant frequencies derived from the NMR spectrum of morphine.

    PubMed

    Verginadis, Ioannis I; Simos, Yannis V; Velalopoulou, Anastasia P; Vadalouca, Athina N; Kalfakakou, Vicky P; Karkabounas, Spyridon Ch; Evangelou, Angelos M

    2012-12-01

    Exposure to various types of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) affects pain specificity (nociception) and pain inhibition (analgesia). Previous study of ours has shown that exposure to the resonant spectra derived from biologically active substances' NMR may induce to live targets the same effects as the substances themselves. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential analgesic effect of the resonant EMFs derived from the NMR spectrum of morphine. Twenty five Wistar rats were divided into five groups: control group; intraperitoneal administration of morphine 10 mg/kg body wt; exposure of rats to resonant EMFs of morphine; exposure of rats to randomly selected non resonant EMFs; and intraperitoneal administration of naloxone and simultaneous exposure of rats to the resonant EMFs of morphine. Tail Flick and Hot Plate tests were performed for estimation of the latency time. Results showed that rats exposed to NMR spectrum of morphine induced a significant increase in latency time at time points (p < 0.05), while exposure to the non resonant random EMFs exerted no effects. Additionally, naloxone administration inhibited the analgesic effects of the NMR spectrum of morphine. Our results indicate that exposure of rats to the resonant EMFs derived from the NMR spectrum of morphine may exert on animals similar analgesic effects to morphine itself.

  15. α-Pinene, linalool, and 1-octanol contribute to the topical anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of frankincense by inhibiting COX-2.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Jun; Yang, Yan-Jing; Li, Yu-Sang; Zhang, Wei Kevin; Tang, He-Bin

    2016-02-17

    Frankincense oil and water extracts (FOE, FWE) have long been used for external treatment of inflammation and pain. The present study was conducted to identify the active ingredients responsible for the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects and to determine the underlying mechanisms. The compositions of FOE and FWE were identified and compared by GC-MS. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the two extracts and their possible active ingredients (α-pinene, linalool, and 1-octanol) were evaluated and compared in a xylene-induced ear edema model and a formalin-inflamed hind paw model. Inflammatory infiltrates and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in hind paw skin were investigated by histological staining. The contents of α-pinene, linalool, and 1-octanol in FOE were much higher than those in FWE. Mice treated with FOE exhibited greater and faster lessening of swelling and pain than mice treated with FWE. The combination of the three components had more potent pharmacological effects on hind paw inflammation and COX-2 overexpression than the three components used alone. These findings suggest that topical application of FOE or its active ingredients (including α-pinene, linalool, and 1-octanol) exhibit significantly anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects through inhibiting nociceptive stimulus-induced inflammatory infiltrates and COX-2 overexpression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pharmacological validation of a novel nonhuman primate measure of thermal responsivity with utility for predicting analgesic effects.

    PubMed

    Vardigan, Joshua D; Houghton, Andrea K; Lange, Henry S; Adarayan, Emily D; Pall, Parul S; Ballard, Jeanine E; Henze, Darrell A; Uslaner, Jason M

    2018-01-01

    The development of novel analgesics to treat acute or chronic pain has been a challenge due to a lack of translatable measurements. Preclinical end points with improved translatability are necessary to more accurately inform clinical testing paradigms, which may help guide selection of viable drug candidates. In this study, a nonhuman primate biomarker which is sensitive to standard analgesics at clinically relevant plasma concentrations, can differentiate analgesia from sedation and utilizes a protocol very similar to that which can be employed in human clinical studies is described. Specifically, acute heat stimuli were delivered to the volar forearm using a contact heat thermode in the same manner as the clinical setting. Clinically efficacious exposures of morphine, fentanyl, and tramadol produced robust analgesic effects, whereas doses of diazepam that produce sedation had no effect. We propose that this assay has predictive utility that can help improve the probability of success for developing novel analgesics.

  17. Pharmacological validation of a novel nonhuman primate measure of thermal responsivity with utility for predicting analgesic effects

    PubMed Central

    Vardigan, Joshua D; Houghton, Andrea K; Lange, Henry S; Adarayan, Emily D; Pall, Parul S; Ballard, Jeanine E; Henze, Darrell A; Uslaner, Jason M

    2018-01-01

    Introduction The development of novel analgesics to treat acute or chronic pain has been a challenge due to a lack of translatable measurements. Preclinical end points with improved translatability are necessary to more accurately inform clinical testing paradigms, which may help guide selection of viable drug candidates. Methods In this study, a nonhuman primate biomarker which is sensitive to standard analgesics at clinically relevant plasma concentrations, can differentiate analgesia from sedation and utilizes a protocol very similar to that which can be employed in human clinical studies is described. Specifically, acute heat stimuli were delivered to the volar forearm using a contact heat thermode in the same manner as the clinical setting. Results Clinically efficacious exposures of morphine, fentanyl, and tramadol produced robust analgesic effects, whereas doses of diazepam that produce sedation had no effect. Conclusion We propose that this assay has predictive utility that can help improve the probability of success for developing novel analgesics. PMID:29692626

  18. Can quantitative sensory testing predict responses to analgesic treatment?

    PubMed

    Grosen, K; Fischer, I W D; Olesen, A E; Drewes, A M

    2013-10-01

    The role of quantitative sensory testing (QST) in prediction of analgesic effect in humans is scarcely investigated. This updated review assesses the effectiveness in predicting analgesic effects in healthy volunteers, surgical patients and patients with chronic pain. A systematic review of English written, peer-reviewed articles was conducted using PubMed and Embase (1980-2013). Additional studies were identified by chain searching. Search terms included 'quantitative sensory testing', 'sensory testing' and 'analgesics'. Studies on the relationship between QST and response to analgesic treatment in human adults were included. Appraisal of the methodological quality of the included studies was based on evaluative criteria for prognostic studies. Fourteen studies (including 720 individuals) met the inclusion criteria. Significant correlations were observed between responses to analgesics and several QST parameters including (1) heat pain threshold in experimental human pain, (2) electrical and heat pain thresholds, pressure pain tolerance and suprathreshold heat pain in surgical patients, and (3) electrical and heat pain threshold and conditioned pain modulation in patients with chronic pain. Heterogeneity among studies was observed especially with regard to application of QST and type and use of analgesics. Although promising, the current evidence is not sufficiently robust to recommend the use of any specific QST parameter in predicting analgesic response. Future studies should focus on a range of different experimental pain modalities rather than a single static pain stimulation paradigm. © 2013 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  19. Designing Safer Analgesics via μ-Opioid Receptor Pathways.

    PubMed

    Chan, H C Stephen; McCarthy, Dillon; Li, Jianing; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Yuan, Shuguang

    2017-11-01

    Pain is both a major clinical and economic problem, affecting more people than diabetes, heart disease, and cancer combined. While a variety of prescribed or over-the-counter (OTC) medications are available for pain management, opioid medications, especially those acting on the μ-opioid receptor (μOR) and related pathways, have proven to be the most effective, despite some serious side effects including respiration depression, pruritus, dependence, and constipation. It is therefore imperative that both academia and industry develop novel μOR analgesics which retain their opioid analgesic properties but with fewer or no adverse effects. In this review we outline recent progress towards the discovery of safer opioid analgesics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Designing Safer Analgesics via μ-Opioid Receptor Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chan, H.C. Stephen; McCarthy, Dillon; Li, Jianing; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Yuan, Shuguang

    2017-01-01

    Pain is both a major clinical and economic problem, affecting more people than diabetes, heart disease, and cancer combined. While a variety of prescribed or over-the-counter (OTC) medications are available for pain management, opioid medications, especially those acting on the μ-opioid receptor (μOR) and related pathways, have proven to be the most effective, despite some serious side effects including respiration depression, pruritus, dependence, and constipation. It is therefore imperative that both academia and industry develop novel μOR analgesics which retain their opioid analgesic properties but with fewer or no adverse effects. In this review we outline recent progress towards the discovery of safer opioid analgesics. PMID:28935293

  1. Genetic variation in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR, rs25531) influences the analgesic response to the short acting opioid Remifentanil in humans

    PubMed Central

    Kosek, Eva; Jensen, Karin B; Lonsdorf, Tina B; Schalling, Martin; Ingvar, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Background There is evidence from animal studies that serotonin (5-HT) can influence the antinociceptive effects of opioids at the spinal cord level. Therefore, there could be an influence of genetic polymorphisms in the serotonin system on individual variability in response to opioid treatment of pain. The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is a key regulator of serotonin metabolism and availability and its gene harbors several known polymorphisms that are known to affect 5-HTT expression (e.g. 5-HTTLPR, rs25531). The aim of this study was to investigate if the triallelic 5-HTTLPR influences pain sensitivity or the analgesic effect of opioids in humans. 43 healthy volunteers (12 men, 31 women, mean age 26 years) underwent heat pain stimulations before and after intravenous injection of Remifentanil; a rapid and potent opioid drug acting on μ-type receptors. Subjects rated their perceived pain on a visual analogue scale (VAS). All participants were genotyped for the 5-HTTLPR and the rs25531 polymorphism. We recruited by advertising, with no history of drug abuse, chronic pain or psychiatric disorders. Results At baseline, there was no difference in pain ratings for the different triallelic 5-HTTLPR genotype groups. However, the opiod drug had a differential analgesic effect depending on the triallelic 5-HTTLPR genotype. Remifentanil had a significantly better analgesic effect in individuals with a genotype coding for low 5-HTT expression (SA/SA and SA/LG) as compared to those with high expression(LA/LA), p < 0.02. The analgesic effect for the three different genotype groups was linear to degree of 5-HTT expression. Conclusion This is the first report showing an influence of the triallelic 5-HTTLPR on pain sensitivity or the analgesic effect of opioids in humans. Previously the 5-HTTLPR s-allele has been associated with higher risk of developing chronic pain conditions but in this study we show that the genotype coding for low 5-HTT expression is associated with a

  2. Genetic variation in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR, rs25531) influences the analgesic response to the short acting opioid Remifentanil in humans.

    PubMed

    Kosek, Eva; Jensen, Karin B; Lonsdorf, Tina B; Schalling, Martin; Ingvar, Martin

    2009-07-01

    There is evidence from animal studies that serotonin (5-HT) can influence the antinociceptive effects of opioids at the spinal cord level. Therefore, there could be an influence of genetic polymorphisms in the serotonin system on individual variability in response to opioid treatment of pain. The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is a key regulator of serotonin metabolism and availability and its gene harbors several known polymorphisms that are known to affect 5-HTT expression (e.g. 5-HTTLPR, rs25531). The aim of this study was to investigate if the triallelic 5-HTTLPR influences pain sensitivity or the analgesic effect of opioids in humans. 43 healthy volunteers (12 men, 31 women, mean age 26 years) underwent heat pain stimulations before and after intravenous injection of Remifentanil; a rapid and potent opioid drug acting on micro-type receptors. Subjects rated their perceived pain on a visual analogue scale (VAS). All participants were genotyped for the 5-HTTLPR and the rs25531 polymorphism. We recruited by advertising, with no history of drug abuse, chronic pain or psychiatric disorders. At baseline, there was no difference in pain ratings for the different triallelic 5-HTTLPR genotype groups. However, the opiod drug had a differential analgesic effect depending on the triallelic 5-HTTLPR genotype. Remifentanil had a significantly better analgesic effect in individuals with a genotype coding for low 5-HTT expression (SA/SA and SA/LG) as compared to those with high expression(LA/LA), p < 0.02. The analgesic effect for the three different genotype groups was linear to degree of 5-HTT expression. This is the first report showing an influence of the triallelic 5-HTTLPR on pain sensitivity or the analgesic effect of opioids in humans. Previously the 5-HTTLPR s-allele has been associated with higher risk of developing chronic pain conditions but in this study we show that the genotype coding for low 5-HTT expression is associated with a better analgesic effect of an

  3. Citrus fruit and fabacea secondary metabolites potently and selectively block TRPM3

    PubMed Central

    Straub, I; Mohr, F; Stab, J; Konrad, M; Philipp, SE; Oberwinkler, J; Schaefer, M

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose The melastatin-related transient receptor potential TRPM3 is a calcium-permeable nonselective cation channel that can be activated by the neurosteroid pregnenolone sulphate (PregS) and heat. TRPM3-deficient mice show an impaired perception of noxious heat. Hence, drugs inhibiting TRPM3 possibly get in focus of analgesic therapy. Experimental Approach Fluorometric methods were used to identify novel TRPM3-blocking compounds and to characterize their potency and selectivity to block TRPM3 but not other sensory TRP channels. Biophysical properties of the block were assessed using electrophysiological methods. Single cell calcium measurements confirmed the block of endogenously expressed TRPM3 channels in rat and mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurones. Key Results By screening a compound library, we identified three natural compounds as potent blockers of TRPM3. Naringenin and hesperetin belong to the citrus fruit flavanones, and ononetin is a deoxybenzoin. Eriodictyol, a metabolite of naringenin and hesperetin, was still biologically active as a TRPM3 blocker. The compounds exhibited a marked specificity for recombinant TRPM3 and blocked PregS-induced [Ca2+]i signals in freshly isolated DRG neurones. Conclusion and Implications The data indicate that citrus fruit flavonoids are potent and selective blockers of TRPM3. Their potencies ranged from upper nanomolar to lower micromolar concentrations. Since physiological functions of TRPM3 channels are still poorly defined, the development and validation of potent and selective blockers is expected to contribute to clarifying the role of TRPM3 in vivo. Considering the involvement of TRPM3 in nociception, TRPM3 blockers may represent a novel concept for analgesic treatment. PMID:23190005

  4. Citrus fruit and fabacea secondary metabolites potently and selectively block TRPM3.

    PubMed

    Straub, I; Mohr, F; Stab, J; Konrad, M; Philipp, S E; Oberwinkler, J; Schaefer, M

    2013-04-01

    The melastatin-related transient receptor potential TRPM3 is a calcium-permeable nonselective cation channel that can be activated by the neurosteroid pregnenolone sulphate (PregS) and heat. TRPM3-deficient mice show an impaired perception of noxious heat. Hence, drugs inhibiting TRPM3 possibly get in focus of analgesic therapy. Fluorometric methods were used to identify novel TRPM3-blocking compounds and to characterize their potency and selectivity to block TRPM3 but not other sensory TRP channels. Biophysical properties of the block were assessed using electrophysiological methods. Single cell calcium measurements confirmed the block of endogenously expressed TRPM3 channels in rat and mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurones. By screening a compound library, we identified three natural compounds as potent blockers of TRPM3. Naringenin and hesperetin belong to the citrus fruit flavanones, and ononetin is a deoxybenzoin. Eriodictyol, a metabolite of naringenin and hesperetin, was still biologically active as a TRPM3 blocker. The compounds exhibited a marked specificity for recombinant TRPM3 and blocked PregS-induced [Ca(2+)]i signals in freshly isolated DRG neurones. The data indicate that citrus fruit flavonoids are potent and selective blockers of TRPM3. Their potencies ranged from upper nanomolar to lower micromolar concentrations. Since physiological functions of TRPM3 channels are still poorly defined, the development and validation of potent and selective blockers is expected to contribute to clarifying the role of TRPM3 in vivo. Considering the involvement of TRPM3 in nociception, TRPM3 blockers may represent a novel concept for analgesic treatment. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of a dual kappa-delta opioid receptor agonist analgesic blocking cocaine reward behavior.

    PubMed

    Váradi, András; Marrone, Gina F; Eans, Shainnel O; Ganno, Michelle L; Subrath, Joan J; Le Rouzic, Valerie; Hunkele, Amanda; Pasternak, Gavril W; McLaughlin, Jay P; Majumdar, Susruta

    2015-11-18

    3-Iodobenzoyl naltrexamine (IBNtxA) is a potent analgesic belonging to the pharmacologically diverse 6β-amidoepoxymorphinan group of opioids. We present the synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of five analogs of IBNtxA. The scaffold of IBNtxA was modified by removing the 14-hydroxy group, incorporating a 7,8 double bond and various N-17 alkyl substituents. The structural modifications resulted in analogs with picomolar affinities for opioid receptors. The lead compound (MP1104) was found to exhibit approximately 15-fold greater antinociceptive potency (ED50 = 0.33 mg/kg) compared with morphine, mediated through the activation of kappa- and delta-opioid receptors. Despite its kappa agonism, this lead derivative did not cause place aversion or preference in mice in a place-conditioning assay, even at doses 3 times the analgesic ED50. However, pretreatment with the lead compound prevented the reward behavior associated with cocaine in a conditioned place preference assay. Together, these results suggest the promise of dual acting kappa- and delta-opioid receptor agonists as analgesics and treatments for cocaine addiction.

  6. Opioid Analgesics and P-glycoprotein Efflux Transporters: A Potential Systems-Level Contribution to Analgesic Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Susan L.; Coop, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Chronic clinical pain remains poorly treated. Despite attempts to develop novel analgesic agents, opioids remain the standard analgesics of choice in the clinical management of chronic and severe pain. However, mu opioid analgesics have undesired side effects including, but not limited to, respiratory depression, physical dependence and tolerance. A growing body of evidence suggests that P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an efflux transporter, may contribute a systems-level approach to the development of opioid tolerance. Herein, we describe current in vitro and in vivo methodology available to analyze interactions between opioids and P-gp and critically analyze P-gp data associated with six commonly used mu opioids to include morphine, methadone, loperamide, meperidine, oxycodone, and fentanyl. Recent studies focused on the development of opioids lacking P-gp substrate activity are explored, concentrating on structure-activity relationship development to develop an optimal opioid analgesic lacking this systems-level contribution to tolerance development. Continued work in this area will potentially allow for delineation of the mechanism responsible for opioid-related P-gp up-regulation and provide further support for evidence based medicine supporting clinical opioid rotation. PMID:21050174

  7. Analgesic properties of Capraria biflora leaves aqueous extract.

    PubMed

    Acosta, S L; Muro, L V; Sacerio, A L; Peña, A R; Okwei, S N

    2003-12-01

    The analgesic properties of dried leaves of Capraria biflora were investigated. The aqueous extract (50-200 mg kg(-1)) produced moderate inhibition of acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. At the same doses, a better analgesic effect was observed on the hot plate test.

  8. On subclasses of opioid analgesics.

    PubMed

    Raffa, Robert B

    2014-12-01

    The history of discovery of analgesic drugs has followed a trajectory from original serendipitous discovery of plant-derived substances to laboratory creation of customized molecules that are intentionally designed to interact with specific receptors of neurotransmitters involved in either the transmission of the pain signal or the attenuation of such a signal. The drugs most recently developed have been designed to provide incremental greater separation between pain relief and adverse effects. The result has been drugs that have individualized pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic characteristics that represent specific advances in basic science and translate into unique clinical profiles. Several of the drugs include non-opioid components. They retain some of the features of opioids, but have distinct clinical characteristics that differentiate them from traditional opioids. Thus they defy simple classification as opioids. A summary is provided of the development of the modern view of multi-mechanistic pain and its treatment using analgesics that have multi-mechanisms of action (consisting of both opioid and non-opioid components). Descriptions of examples of such current analgesics and of those that have pharmacokinetic characteristics that result in atypical opioid clinical profiles are given. By serendipity or design, several current strong analgesics have opioid components of action, but have an additional non-opioid mechanism of action or some pharmacokinetic feature that gives them an atypical opioid clinical profile and renders them not easily classified as classical opioids. An appreciation that there are now opioid analgesics that differentiate from classical opioids in ways that defy their simplistic classification as opioids suggests that recognition of subclasses of opioid analgesics would be more accurate scientifically and would be more informative for healthcare providers and regulators. This would likely lead to positive outcomes for the clinical

  9. [Observation on the transient analgesic effect of abdominal acupuncture TENS on pain of neck, shoulder, loin and legs].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhang-lian; Chen, Li-fang; Zhu, Wei-ming

    2007-09-01

    To observe on the transient analgesic effect of abdominal points transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) combined with abdominal acupuncture according to the holographic theory on pain of neck, shoulder, loin and legs. One hundred and twenty cases of pain of neck, shoulder, loin and legs were randomly divided into 4 groups: abdominal acupuncture TENS group, acupoints TENS group, electroacupuneture (EA) group, non-abdominal acupuncture TENS group, 30 cases in each group. All the cases were treated by the same stimulation parameters, but different stimulation points. The VAS scores were recorded before and after treatment. The VAS scores were significantly different before and after treatment in abdominal acupuncture TENS group (P < 0.01); the total effective rate of the transient analgesic effec t was 96.7% in the abdominal acupuncture TENS group, 93.3% in the acupoints TENS group, 96.7% in the EA group with no significant difference among the 3 groups, but with a very significant difference between the abdominal acupuncture TENS group and the non-abdominal acupunctureTENS group (10.0%), P < 0.01. Abdominal acupuncture TENS has a better transient analgesic effect and can use less stimulation points to increase the analgesic effect.

  10. Analgesic Effect of Intra-Articular Injection of Temperature-Responsive Hydrogel Containing Bupivacaine on Osteoarthritic Pain in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Taemin; Seol, Dong Rim; Hahm, Suk-Chan; Ko, Cheolwoong; Kim, Eun-Hye; Chun, Keyoungjin; Kim, Junesun; Lim, Tae-Hong

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the analgesic effects of slow-releasing bupivacaine from hydrogel on chronic arthritic pain in rats. Osteoarthritis (OA) was induced by monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) injection into the right knee joint. Hydrogel (HG: 20, 30, and 50 μL) and temperature-sensitive hydrogel containing bupivacaine (T-gel: 20, 30, and 50 μL) were injected intra-articularly 14 days after MIA injection. Behavioral tests were conducted. The rats showed a significant decrease in weight load and paw withdrawal threshold (PWT). Intra-articular 0.5% bupivacaine (10 and 20 μL) significantly reversed MIA-induced decreased PWT, with no effect on weight load. In normal rats, hydrogel did not produce significant changes in PWT but at 30 and 50 μL slightly decreased weight bearing; T-gel did not cause any changes in both the weight load and PWT. In OA rats, T-gel at 20 μL had a significant analgesic effect for 2 days, even though T-gel at 50 μL further reduced the weight load, demonstrating that intra-articular T-gel (20 μL) has long-lasting analgesic effects in OA rats. Thus, T-gel designed to deliver analgesics into the joint cavity could be an effective therapeutic tool in the clinical setting. PMID:26881207

  11. THE EFFECTS OF INTRATHECAL NEOSTIGMINE ADDED TO BUPIVACAINE ON POSTOPERATIVE ANALGESIC REQUIREMENT IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING LOWER LIMB ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY.

    PubMed

    Kayalha, Hamid; Mousavi, Zinat; Sadat Barikani, Ameneh; Yaghoobi, Siamak; Khezri, Marzieh Beigom

    2015-06-01

    Several additives have been suggested to enhance analgesic effect of local anesthetic agents to decrease the adverse effects of them and increase the degree of satisfaction. We designed this randomized double-blind controlled study to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of the neostigmine added to bupivacaine using spinal anesthesia in patients undergoing lower limb orthopedic surgery. Sixty patients 18-80 yr old American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I or II, scheduled for femur surgery under spinal anesthesia, were recruited in a prospective, double-blinded, randomized way. The patients were randomly allocated to one of two groups of 30 each. The neostigmine group (group N) received bupivacaine 20 mg combined with 25 µg neostigmine, and the placebo group (group C) received bupivacaine 20 mg combined with 0.5ml distilled water (intrathecally) 5 minutes prior to surgery. The time to the first analgesic request, analgesic requirement in the first 12 hours after surgery, the duration of sensory and motor blockade, the incidence of adverse effects such as nausea,vomiting,hypotension, ephedrine requirements, bradycardia, and hypoxemia were recorded. Patients receiving neostigmine had a significantly prolonged duration of motor block (C95% CI 30.27 to 87.65; P < 0.001) and sensory block (C95% CI 101.04 to 224.64; P < 0.001) compared to the control group. The difference of the mean time to the first analgesic request was also significantly longer in neostigmine group (C95% CI 83.139 to 208.526; P < 0.001). The total analgesic consumption during the first 12 hours after surgery was devoid of any significant difference between groups N and C (p = 0.41).The two groups were not significantly different in terms of intraoperative and postoperative side effects. Intrathecal neostigmine 25 µg with bupivacaine caused a prolonged time to the first analgesic request and its use was not associated with any side effects.

  12. Analgesic effect of clobazam in chronic low-back pain but not in experimentally induced pain.

    PubMed

    Schliessbach, J; Vuilleumier, P H; Siegenthaler, A; Bütikofer, L; Limacher, A; Juni, P; Zeilhofer, H U; Arendt-Nielsen, L; Curatolo, M

    2017-09-01

    Chronic pain is frequently associated with hypersensitivity of the nervous system, and drugs that increase central inhibition are therefore a potentially effective treatment. Benzodiazepines are potent modulators of GABAergic neurotransmission and are known to exert antihyperalgesic effects in rodents, but translation into patients are lacking. This study investigates the effect of the benzodiazepine clobazam in chronic low-back pain in humans. The aim of this study is to explore the effect of GABA modulation on chronic low-back pain and on quantitative sensory tests. In this double-blind cross-over study, 49 patients with chronic low-back pain received a single oral dose of clobazam 20 mg or active placebo tolterodine 1 mg. Pain intensity on the 0-10 numeric rating scale and quantitative sensory tests were assessed during 2 h after drug intake. Pain intensity in the supine position was significantly reduced by clobazam compared to active placebo (60 min: 2.9 vs. 3.5, p = 0.008; 90 min: 2.7 vs. 3.3, p = 0.024; 120 min: 2.4 vs. 3.1, p = 0.005). Pain intensity in the sitting position was not significantly different between groups. No effects on quantitative sensory tests were observed. This study suggests that clobazam has an analgesic effect in patients with chronic low-back pain. Muscle relaxation or sedation may have contributed to the effect. Development of substances devoid of these side effects would offer the potential to further investigate the antihyperalgesic action of GABAergic compounds. Modulation of GABAergic pain-inhibitory pathways may be a potential future therapeutic target. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  13. Endogenous analgesic effect of pregabalin: A double-blind and randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sugimine, S; Saito, S; Araki, T; Yamamoto, K; Obata, H

    2017-07-01

    Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) is widely used to measure endogenous analgesia, and a recent study indicated that drugs that act on endogenous analgesia are more effective in individuals with lower CPM. Recent animal studies have indicated that pregabalin activates endogenous analgesia by stimulating the descending pain inhibitory system. The present study examined whether the analgesic effect of pregabalin is greater in individuals with lower original endogenous analgesia using CPM. Fifty-nine healthy subjects were randomly assigned to either a pregabalin group or a placebo group, and 50 of them completed the study. CPM was measured before and after pregabalin or placebo administration. The correlation of initial CPM to change in CPM was compared between the pregabalin and placebo groups. Initial CPM was significantly correlated with the change in CPM in the pregabalin group (r = -0.73, p < 0.0001) but not in the placebo group (p = 0.56) (difference in correlation coefficients between groups; p = 0.004). Furthermore, the initial CPM significantly affected the change in CPM in the pregabalin group but not in the placebo group (pregabalin group: adj R 2  = 0.51, p < 0.001, y = -0.54x + 2.98; placebo group: p = 0.56, significant difference in regression slopes; p = 0.015). These results indicate that pregabalin has a higher endogenous analgesic effect in individuals with lower original endogenous analgesia. The analgesic effect of pregabalin depends on the original endogenous analgesia status. Its effect on conditioned pain modulation (CPM) was stronger for subjects with lower original endogenous analgesia, suggesting that the mechanism of pregabalin involves the improvement of endogenous analgesia. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  14. Anti-dermatitis, anxiolytic and analgesic effects of Rhazya stricta from Balochistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mansoor; Muhammed, Shafi; Mehjabeen; Jahan, Noor; Jan, Syed Umer; Qureshi, Zia-Ul-Rehaman

    2014-05-01

    Current study was carried out on Rhazya stricta. Plant material was collected from Jhalmagsi Dist. Balochistan, Pakistan. Methanolic extract of Rhazya stricta was tested for anti-dermatitis, analgesic, anxiolytic effects, insecticidal activity and Brine shrimp Bioassay. Crude extract showed significant anti-dermatitis activity, as the results of intensity score showed mild Excoriation or erosion, moderate Edema or populations and absence of Erythema or hemorrhage, Scratching time was decreased to 1.45 and histological observations of mice treated with crude extract showed mild changes and few inflammatory cells in several microscopic fields. The results of analgesic activity were significant and the percentage inhibition of writhes were 73.54% and 69.38% at 300mg/kg and 500mg/kg respectively. The overall response of crude extract in anxiolytic activities were depressive and crude extract showed sedative effects. In Brine shrimp (Artemsia salina) lethality bioassay crude extract showed dose depended significant activity, and showed positive lethality with LD(50) 3.3004μg/ml. Insecticidal activity was positive against Callosbruchus analis, the percent mortality was 40%.

  15. Over-the-counter analgesics: a toxicology perspective.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alison

    2002-01-01

    The decision to use any analgesic is a balance of benefit and risk. In the case of analgesics, it is important to balance the therapeutic benefit against both the risk in therapeutic use and the risk (and ease of treatment) in overdose. Paracetamol in therapeutic dose carries little risk of adverse events. Less than 0.1% of the estimated 30 million paracetamol users in the United Kingdom attend hospital with a paracetamol overdose each year, and approximately 200 people die, most of whom presented late or did not receive antidote, N-acetylcysteine, within 12 hours. Nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have greater adverse effects in therapeutic use than paracetamol but also have a lower incidence of severe features or death in overdose. There is no antidote available for NSAID poisoning. Aspirin carries both significant adverse effects in therapeutic dose and a substantial risk in overdose, for which there is no antidote. Its risk-benefit profile is probably the poorest of all analgesics currently available over-the-counter (OTC); this is reflected in current trends both in analgesic use and overdose figures. Although a number of options to reduce deaths from poisoning by OTC analgesics have been considered, few are practical, and all must take account of the public health benefits provided by these drugs. A perspective should be retained that the vast majority of the population in Australia, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Denmark derive therapeutic benefit from OTC analgesics and do not take them in overdose. The majority of those who do take overdoses come to little or no harm. Management of serious poisoning by paracetamol, aspirin, or NSAIDs remains a medical challenge.

  16. Prolonged analgesic effect of PLGA-encapsulated bee venom on formalin-induced pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Injae; Kim, Beom-Soo; Lee, Hyejung; Lee, Kang-Min; Shim, Insop; Kang, Sung-Keel; Yin, Chang-Shick; Hahm, Dae-Hyun

    2009-10-01

    To enhance the medicinal activity of bee venom (BV) acupuncture, bee venom was loaded into biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles (BV-PLGA-NPs) by a water-in-oil-in-water-emulsion/solvent-evaporation technique. Rat formalin tests were performed after subcutaneous injection of BV-PLGA-NPs to the Zusanli acupuncture point (ST36) at 0.5, 1, 2, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h before plantar injection of 2% formalin. BV-PLGA-NPs treatment showed comparable analgesic activity to typical BV acupuncture during the late phase, compared with saline-treated controls, and the analgesic effect lasted for 12h. PLGA-encapsulation was also effective in alleviating the edema induced by allergens in bee venom. These results indicate that PLGA-encapsulation provided a more prolonged effect of BV acupuncture treatment, while maintaining a comparable therapeutic effect.

  17. Efficacy of Common Analgesics for Postsurgical Pain in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Waite, Megan E; Tomkovich, Ashleigh; Quinn, Tammie L; Schumann, Alan P; Dewberry, L Savannah; Totsch, Stacie K; Sorge, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Each year, millions of rats undergo surgery for research purposes and receive analgesics to alleviate pain. We sought to evaluate the efficacy of common analgesics in tests of hot-plate nociception and postsurgical pain by using the Rat Grimace Scale. Rats received a single dose of one of several drug–dose combinations and were tested by using the hot-plate test (acute pain) or after laparotomy (with either prophylactic or intraoperative analgesic). The efficacy of analgesics for hot-plate pain was generally not predictive of efficacy for surgical pain. Carprofen and ketoprofen were rarely effective in any of the conditions tested. With the exception of the opioid buprenorphine, several of the drugs we tested required higher-than-recommended doses to alleviate pain. Taken together, our data suggest that current analgesic use frequently is insufficient, and many rats may experience significant postsurgical pain even when analgesics are used in commonly recommended doses. PMID:26224443

  18. Guaifenesin enhances the analgesic potency of paracetamol in mice.

    PubMed

    Dolezal, T; Krsiak, M

    2002-12-01

    Guaifenesin is used as an expectorant and it has been reported to possess muscle relaxant and sedative activity. Guaifenesin has been used as a component of composite OTC analgesics containing paracetamol for many years. The aim of our study was to ascertain effects of guaifenesin on paracetamol analgesic activity and locomotor performance. Antinociceptive efficacy was tested in mice using an acetic acid (0.7%) writhing test. Locomotor performance was tested in rota-rod test and activity cage. All drugs were given orally and tested in mice. In combination with a subeffective dose of guaifenesin (200 mg/kg), the ED(50) for paracetamol in the writhing test was significantly lower (82.2 mg/kg) than that of paracetamol administered alone (233.7 mg/kg). Guaifenesin alone did not show an analgesic effect. Guaifenesin did not produce statistically significant locomotor impairment in the rota-rod test at doses enhancing analgesic activity of paracetamol, although there was a trend for decreased locomotor activity in activity cage. The present results indicate that guaifenesin may enhance analgesic activity of paracetamol.

  19. [Advance in studies on TRPV1 and analgesic effect of traditional Chinese medicines].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Li; Lv, Cui; Zhang, Wen-Sheng

    2014-05-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective positive ion channel that is mainly expressed in sensory neurons and a member of transient receptor potential (TRP) family. The receptor could be activated by mechanical irritation, chemical irritation or endogenous ligand to mediate pains and cause injury to body functions. Traditional Chinese medicine believes that the mechanism of pain is that "stagnation leads to pain". Specifically, both of the contracture and tautness caused by cold and the blood stasis could result in blood impassability and pain. Most of traditional Chinese medicines for clearing heat and removing toxicity have the anti-inflammatory effect, while those for warming interior, and promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis have the effect in smoothening blood vessels. Therefore, either with the anti-inflammatory effect or the effect in smoothening blood vessels, traditional Chinese medicines for clearing heat and removing toxicity, warming interior, and promoting blood circulation have the analgesic effect In this paper, the authors summarize the analgesic effect of the above three traditional Chinese medicines, with TRPV1 as the target.

  20. Does ketorolac have a preemptive analgesic effect? A randomized, double-blind, control study.

    PubMed

    Gutta, Rajesh; Koehn, Christopher R; James, Laura E

    2013-12-01

    To examine the effect of ketorolac used as preemptive analgesia on the intensity of pain and analgesic requirements in the postoperative period. The present study was a randomized, double-blind, control study involving human subjects who underwent extraction of the mandibular third molars under intravenous anesthesia. The study group received 30 mg of intravenous ketorolac preoperatively, and the control group received a placebo. The pain intensity was measured using a visual analog scale. The decrease in postoperative pain was measured as the primary outcome variable. The interval to the first dose of analgesic, total analgesic requirements, and the global assessment were measured as secondary outcomes. The data were analyzed using the Student t test, Wilcoxon rank sum test, and χ(2) test. A total of 85 adult subjects, American Society of Anesthesiologists class I and II, participated in the present study. Randomization was effective, as shown by the absence of differences in the study variables between the 2 groups. Of the 85 patients, 29 were men and 56 were women. The average patient age was 22.6 years in the study group and 24 years in the control group. Those in the ketorolac group recorded lower visual analog scale pain scores at all intervals. However, the difference was statistically significant at the 4-hour interval (P = .01). The median interval to the use of rescue medication in the ketorolac group was 9.5 hours compared with 7 hours in the control group. However, no statistically significant difference was found in the interval to the rescue analgesic between the 2 groups (P = .39). No statistically significant difference was noted in the total amount of postoperative analgesics required in the first 72 hours between the 2 groups (P = .54). Also, no difference was seen in the global assessment between the 2 groups (P = .22). Those who received 30 mg of intravenous ketorolac preoperatively had less pain in the early (8-hour) postoperative period. The

  1. Impact of Internet pharmacy regulation on opioid analgesic availability.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Edward W; Wines, James D

    2008-09-01

    Access to prescription opioid analgesics has made Internet pharmacies the object of increased regulatory scrutiny, but the effectiveness of regulatory changes in curtailing availability of opioid analgesics from online sources has been not assessed. As part of an ongoing investigation into the relationship between the Internet and substance abuse, we examined the availability of prescription opioid analgesics from online pharmacies. From a pharmacy watch Web site, we constructed a data set of postings entered every 3 months beginning November 1, 2005, that were related to the purchase of prescription opioid analgesics. Trained examiners assessed whether the final post described accessibility of pain medications that was increasing or decreasing. We identified 45 threads related to the availability of opioid analgesics from Internet pharmacies. Of the 41 (91%) threads describing the declining availability of opioid analgesic agents from Internet pharmacies, 34 (82%) received posts on November 1, 2007. Despite the subjective nature of the research question, there was high interobserver agreement between coders (kappa= .845) that availability of opioid analgesics from online pharmacies had decreased. This finding was supported by a dramatic rise in the number of pageviews (an accepted measure of Web site visitor interest in a page's content) of Web pages describing decreased availability of opioid analgesics. These data suggest striking decreases in the availability of prescription opioid analgesic pharmaceuticals. This self-reported change in drug availability may be related to increased regulation of and law enforcement operations directed against Internet pharmacies.

  2. Black Cumin (Nigella sativa) and Its Active Constituent, Thymoquinone: An Overview on the Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Effects.

    PubMed

    Amin, Bahareh; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    For many centuries, seeds of Nigella sativa (black cumin), a dicotyledon of the Ranunculaceae family, have been used as a seasoning spice and food additive in the Middle East and Mediterranean areas. Traditionally, the plant is used for asthma, hypertension, diabetes, inflammation, cough, bronchitis, headache, eczema, fever, dizziness, and gastrointestinal disturbances. The literature regarding the biological activities of seeds of this plant is extensive, citing bronchodilative, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antibacterial, hypotensive, hypolipidemic, cytotoxic, antidiabetic, and hepatoprotective effects. The active ingredients of N. sativa are mainly concentrated in the fixed or essential oil of seeds, which are responsible for most health benefits. This review will provide all updated reported activities of this plant with an emphasis on the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. Results of various studies have demonstrated that the oil, extracts, and their active ingredients, in particular, thymoquinone, possess antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects, supporting the common folk perception of N. Sativa as a potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent. Many protective properties are attributed to reproducible radical scavenging activity as well as an interaction with numerous molecular targets involved in inflammation, including proinflammatory enzymes and cytokines. However, there is a need for further investigations to find out the precise mechanisms responsible for the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of this plant and its active constituents. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Higher pain scores, similar opioid doses and side effects associated with antipyretic analgesics in specialised tertiary pain care.

    PubMed

    Lötsch, Jörn; Freynhagen, Rainer; von Hentig, Nils; Griessinger, Norbert; Zimmermann, Michael; Sittl, Reinhard; Geisslinger, Gerd

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate whether non-opioid antipyretic analgesics are associated with lower pain scores, opioid doses and side effects in pain patients in tertiary care. In a cross-sectional observational study, data from 519 Caucasians (197 men, 322 women; mean age 55.6 ± 15 years) who had undertaken pain therapy for various causes for 77.5 ± 90.8 months, obtained in three separate study centres, was analysed for actual 24-h pain scores, daily opioid doses and the occurrence of side effects. Of the 519 patients, 352 received opioids and 260 antipyretic analgesics, from whom 154 received both classes and 304 only either class. The administration of non-opioid antipyretic analgesics was associated with higher average pain scores (4.6 ± 2.5 vs 3.9 ± 2.6; P = 0.01), tendentially higher average oral morphine equivalent doses (121.8 ± 162.2 vs 146.7 ± 242.4 mg/d; P = 0.25) and a similar incidence of side effects (P = 0.21). These results were correspondingly seen when analysing the three study centres separately as independent cohorts. With the caution advised for cross-sectional data, the results dispute a clinical benefit of non-opioid antipyretic analgesics for most chronic pain patients in tertiary care and draw attention towards prospectively re-evaluating the utility of non-opioid antipyretic analgesics in tertiary pain care in a randomised placebo controlled trial.

  4. The analgesic effect of therapeutic rTMS is not mediated or predicted by comorbid psychiatric or sleep disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lindholm, Pauliina; Lamusuo, Salla; Taiminen, Tero; Virtanen, Arja; Pertovaara, Antti; Forssell, Heli; Hagelberg, Nora; Jääskeläinen, Satu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Mechanisms underlying alleviation of neuropathic pain by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of primary motor cortex (M1) and right secondary somatosensory cortex (S2) are only partly known. Patients with chronic neuropathic pain often have comorbidities like depression and sleep problems. Through functional connectivity, rTMS of M1 and S2 may activate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the target for treating depression with rTMS. Thus, the analgesic effect of rTMS could be mediated indirectly via improvement of psychiatric comorbidities or sleep. We examined whether rTMS has an independent analgesic effect or whether its clinical benefits depend on effects on mood or sleep. We also evaluated if comorbid psychiatric or sleep disorders predict the treatment outcome. Methods: Sixteen patients with chronic drug-resistant neuropathic orofacial pain participated in this randomized controlled crossover rTMS study. Patients’ psychiatric history was evaluated by a specialist in psychiatry. Intensity and interference of pain, mood, and the quality of sleep and life were evaluated at baseline and after 2 active (primary somatosensory cortex [S1]/M1 and S2) and placebo rTMS treatments. A logistic regression analysis was done to investigate predictors of treatment outcome. Results: The analgesic effect of the right S2 stimulation was not associated with improvement of psychiatric conditions or sleep, whereas S1/M1 stimulation improved sleep without significant analgesic effect (P = 0.013–0.046 in sleep scores). Psychiatric and sleep disorders were more common in patients than in the general population (P = 0.000–0.001 in sleep scores), but these comorbidities did not predict the rTMS treatment outcome. Conclusion: We conclude that rTMS to the right S2 does not exert its beneficial analgesic effects in chronic neuropathic orofacial pain via indirect improvement of comorbid psychiatric or sleep disorders. PMID:27858874

  5. The analgesic effect of wound infiltration with local anaesthetics after breast surgery: a qualitative systematic review.

    PubMed

    Byager, N; Hansen, M S; Mathiesen, O; Dahl, J B

    2014-04-01

    Wound infiltration with local anaesthetics is commonly used during breast surgery in an attempt to reduce post-operative pain and opioid consumption. The aim of this review was to evaluate the effect of wound infiltration with local anaesthetics compared with a control group on post-operative pain after breast surgery. A systematic review was performed by searching PubMed, Google Scholar, the Cochrane database and Embase for randomised, blinded, controlled trials of wound infiltration with local anaesthetics for post-operative pain relief in female adults undergoing breast surgery. The analgesic effect was evaluated in a qualitative analysis by assessment of significant difference between groups (P < 0.05) in pain scores and supplemental analgesic consumption. Ten trials including 699 patients were included in the final analysis. Three trials investigated mastectomy, four trials partial or segmental mastectomy, and three trials breast reduction, excision of benign lump and unspecified breast surgery, respectively. Six trials demonstrated a small and short-lasting, but statistically significant reduction of post-operative pain scores, and four trials observed a statistically significant reduction in post-operative, supplemental opioid consumption that was, however, of limited clinical relevance. Wound infiltration with local anaesthetics may have a modest analgesic effect in the first few hours after surgery. Pain after breast surgery is, however, generally mild to moderate, and other non-invasive analgesic methods may be preferable in this surgical population. © 2014 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Down-regulation of NR2B receptors partially contributes to analgesic effects of Gentiopicroside in persistent inflammatory pain.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Liu, Jin-cheng; Zhang, Xiao-nan; Guo, Yan-yan; Xu, Zhao-hui; Cao, Wei; Sun, Xiao-li; Sun, Wen-ji; Zhao, Ming-Gao

    2008-06-01

    Gentiopicroside is one of the secoiridoid compound isolated from Gentiana lutea. It exhibits analgesic activities in the mice. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is a forebrain structure known for its roles in pain transmission and modulation. Painful stimuli potentiate the prefrontal synaptic transmission and induce glutamate NMDA NR2B receptor expression in the ACC. But little is known about Gentiopicroside on the persistent inflammatory pain and chronic pain-induced synaptic transmission changes in the ACC. The present study was undertaken to investigate its analgesic activities and central synaptic modulation to the peripheral painful inflammation. Gentiopicroside produced significant analgesic effects against persistent inflammatory pain stimuli in mice. Systemic administration of Gentiopicroside significantly reversed NR2B over-expression during the chronic phases of persistent inflammation caused by hind-paw administration of complete Freunds adjuvant (CFA) in mice. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings revealed that Gentiopicroside significantly reduced NR2B receptors mediated postsynaptic currents in the ACC. Our findings provide strong evidence that analgesic effects of Gentiopicroside involve down-regulation of NR2B receptors in the ACC to persistent inflammatory pain.

  7. Ketoprofen is more effective than diclofenac after oral surgery when used as a preemptive analgesic: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Velásquez, Grace Carolaine Esquivel; Santa Cruz, Luis A German; Espinoza, Mario Alberto Isiordia

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the preemptive analgesia of ketoprofen in comparison with diclofenac after mandibular third molar surgery. This study was a double-blind, randomized clinical trial. Forty patients were randomized into two treatment groups (each with 20 patients) by using a series of random numbers: group A received ketoprofen 100 mg and group B received diclofenac 75 mg, all intramuscularly. Surgery was done 30 minutes after analgesic treatments. The durations of analgesia, pain intensity, analgesic consumption, and side effects were evaluated. The statistical analysis was done using the chi-square, Student t, Mann-Whitney U, and Log-Rank tests. The duration of analgesia was longer in the ketoprofen group when compared with the diclofenac group. The number of patients taking the first rescue analgesic at 6 hours was lower in the ketoprofen group in comparison with the diclofenac group. Patients who received ketoprofen had lower pain intensity compared with patients who received diclofenac. Intramuscular ketoprofen 100 mg is more effective than intramuscular diclofenac 75 mg after mandibular third molar extraction when used as a preemptive analgesic.

  8. Analgesic effects of β-phenylethylamine and various methylated derivatives in mice.

    PubMed

    Mosnaim, Aron D; Hudzik, Thomas; Wolf, Marion E

    2014-09-01

    Administration of β-phenylethylamine (PEA), the simplest endogenous neuroamine, and various methylated PEA derivatives including α-methyl PEA (amphetamine, AMP) elicits analgesia in mice. Five or 20 min after intraperitoneal PEA injection of as little as 6 mg/kg resulted in an increased latency response time (from 2.4 ± 0.4 to 8.5 ± 2.3 or 7.0 ± 3.0 s, respectively) to the thermal stimulus (hot-plate test), which reached statistical significance at the 15 mg/kg (20 min; 13.1 ± 0.4 s) or 25 mg/kg dose (5 min; 15.3 ± 4.1 s). This PEA effect, was dose-dependent (albeit non-linear: 6, 12, 15, 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg), reached the cut-off time of 45 s at the upper PEA dose (5 min), and it was consistently enhanced by pretreatment with the monoamine oxidase inhibitor pargyline (P). Methylated PEA derivatives (15 and 100 mg/kg dose) produced various degrees of analgesia (in decreasing order p-Me PEA > PEA > N,N-diMe PEA > N-Me PEA) which, likewise to PEA itself, were consistently increased by P and declined over time (mice tested 5, 20 and 60 min after amine injection); small but statistically significant o- and β-Me PEA antinociceptive effects (5 min) were observed only at the higher dose (in the presence of P for β-Me PEA). A small analgesic effect was observed after the administration of AMP (5 or 10 mg/kg) which failed, even after P, to reach statistically significance. Independent of the amine and concentration tested, individual compound's antinociceptive properties were reliably increased by P (exception of AMP), decreased by reserpine (R) or haloperidol (H), and remained essentially unchanged after naloxone (N) administration suggesting the involvement of catecholamines, but not opioid peptides, in their observed analgesic effects. Injection of P + N produced results similar to those seen after P alone. Under the experimental conditions described neither P, R, H or N had any effects by themselves. These findings suggest additional understanding of the

  9. Computational design of environmental sensors for the potent opioid fentanyl

    DOE PAGES

    Bick, Matthew J.; Greisen, Per J.; Morey, Kevin J.; ...

    2017-09-19

    Here, we describe the computational design of proteins that bind the potent analgesic fentanyl. Our approach employs a fast docking algorithm to find shape complementary ligand placement in protein scaffolds, followed by design of the surrounding residues to optimize binding affinity. Co-crystal structures of the highest affinity binder reveal a highly preorganized binding site, and an overall architecture and ligand placement in close agreement with the design model. We also use the designs to generate plant sensors for fentanyl by coupling ligand binding to design stability. The method should be generally useful for detecting toxic hydrophobic compounds in the environment.

  10. Computational design of environmental sensors for the potent opioid fentanyl

    PubMed Central

    Morey, Kevin J; Antunes, Mauricio S; La, David; Sankaran, Banumathi; Reymond, Luc; Johnsson, Kai; Medford, June I

    2017-01-01

    We describe the computational design of proteins that bind the potent analgesic fentanyl. Our approach employs a fast docking algorithm to find shape complementary ligand placement in protein scaffolds, followed by design of the surrounding residues to optimize binding affinity. Co-crystal structures of the highest affinity binder reveal a highly preorganized binding site, and an overall architecture and ligand placement in close agreement with the design model. We use the designs to generate plant sensors for fentanyl by coupling ligand binding to design stability. The method should be generally useful for detecting toxic hydrophobic compounds in the environment. PMID:28925919

  11. Computational design of environmental sensors for the potent opioid fentanyl

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bick, Matthew J.; Greisen, Per J.; Morey, Kevin J.

    Here, we describe the computational design of proteins that bind the potent analgesic fentanyl. Our approach employs a fast docking algorithm to find shape complementary ligand placement in protein scaffolds, followed by design of the surrounding residues to optimize binding affinity. Co-crystal structures of the highest affinity binder reveal a highly preorganized binding site, and an overall architecture and ligand placement in close agreement with the design model. We also use the designs to generate plant sensors for fentanyl by coupling ligand binding to design stability. The method should be generally useful for detecting toxic hydrophobic compounds in the environment.

  12. Advanced Analgesic Drug Delivery and Nanobiotechnology.

    PubMed

    Stoicea, Nicoleta; Fiorda-Diaz, Juan; Joseph, Nicholas; Shabsigh, Muhammad; Arias-Morales, Carlos; Gonzalez-Zacarias, Alicia A; Mavarez-Martinez, Ana; Marjoribanks, Stephen; Bergese, Sergio D

    2017-07-01

    Transdermal administration of analgesic medications offers several benefits over alternative routes of administration, including a decreased systemic drug load with fewer side effects, and avoidance of drug degradation by the gastrointestinal tract. Transdermal administration also offers a convenient mode of drug administration over an extended period of time, particularly desirable in pain medicine. A transdermal administration route may also offer increased safety for drugs with a narrow therapeutic window. The primary barrier to transdermal drug absorption is the skin itself. Transdermal nanotechnology offers a novel method of achieving enhanced dermal penetration with an extended delivery profile for analgesic drugs, due to their small size and relatively large surface area. Several materials have been used to enhance drug duration and transdermal penetration. The application of nanotechnology in transdermal delivery of analgesics has raised new questions regarding safety and ethical issues. The small molecular size of nanoparticles enables drug delivery to previously inaccessible body sites. To ensure safety, the interaction of nanoparticles with the human body requires further investigation on an individual drug basis, since different formulations have unique properties and side effects.

  13. Analgesic Activity of Tramadol and Buprenorphine after Voluntary Ingestion by Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Bryan F; Ramirez, Harvey E; Battles, August H; Andrutis, Karl A; Neubert, John K

    2016-01-01

    Effective pain management for rats and mice is crucial due to the continuing increase in the use of these species in biomedical research. Here we used a recently validated operant orofacial pain assay to determine dose–response curves for buprenorphine and tramadol when mixed in nut paste and administered to male and female rats. Statistically significant analgesic doses of tramadol in nut paste included doses of 20, 30, and 40 mg/kg for female rats but only 40 mg/kg for male rats. For male rats receiving buprenorphine mixed in nut paste, a significant analgesic response was observed at 0.5 and 0.6 mg/kg. None of the doses tested produced a significant analgesic response in female rats. Our results indicate that at the doses tested, tramadol and buprenorphine produced an analgesic response in male rats. In female rats, tramadol shows a higher analgesic effect than buprenorphine. The analgesic effects observed 60 min after administration of the statistically significant oral doses of both drugs were similar to the analgesic effects of 0.03 mg/kg subcutaneous buprenorphine 30 min after administration. The method of voluntary ingestion could be effective, is easy to use, and would minimize stress to the rats during the immediate postoperative period. PMID:26817983

  14. Impact of Internet Pharmacy Regulation on Opioid Analgesic Availability*

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Edward W.; Wines, James D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Access to prescription opioid analgesics has made Internet pharmacies the object of increased regulatory scrutiny, but the effectiveness of regulatory changes in curtailing availability of opioid analgesics from online sources has been not assessed. As part of an ongoing investigation into the relationship between the Internet and substance abuse, we examined the availability of prescription opioid analgesics from online pharmacies. Method: From a pharmacy watch Web site, we constructed a data set of postings entered every 3 months beginning November 1, 2005, that were related to the purchase of prescription opioid analgesics. Trained examiners assessed whether the final post described accessibility of pain medications that was increasing or decreasing. Results: We identified 45 threads related to the availability of opioid analgesics from Internet pharmacies. Of the 41 (91%) threads describing the declining availability of opioid analgesic agents from Internet pharmacies, 34 (82%) received posts on November 1, 2007. Despite the subjective nature of the research question, there was high interobserver agreement between coders (κ = .845) that availability of opioid analgesics from online pharmacies had decreased. This finding was supported by a dramatic rise in the number of pageviews (an accepted measure of Web site visitor interest in a page's content) of Web pages describing decreased availability of opioid analgesics. Conclusions: These data suggest striking decreases in the availability of prescription opioid analgesic pharmaceuticals. This self-reported change in drug availability may be related to increased regulation of and law enforcement operations directed against Internet pharmacies. PMID:18781245

  15. Role of Dentists in Prescribing Opioid Analgesics and Antibiotics: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Dana, Ralph; Azarpazhooh, Amir; Laghapour, Nima; Suda, Katie J; Okunseri, Christopher

    2018-04-01

    Opioid analgesics and antibiotics prescribed by dentists is a useful and cost-effective measure when prescribed appropriately. Common dental conditions are best managed by extracting the offending tooth, restoring the tooth with an appropriate filling material, performing root canal therapy, and/or fabricating a prosthesis for the edentulous space. Unnecessary prescription of opioid analgesics and antibiotics to treat dental pain and bacterial infection is a growing public health concern. This article highlights the state of the literature on opioid analgesic and antibiotic prescribing practices in dentistry, the impact of opioid analgesic overdose, and prevention strategies to reduce opioid analgesics and antibiotic overprescription. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Immediate analgesic effect of wrist-ankle acupuncture for acute lumbago: a randomized controlled trial].

    PubMed

    Su, Jiang-tao; Zhou, Qing-hui; Li, Rui; Zhang, Jie; Li, Wei-hong; Wang, Qiong

    2010-08-01

    To assess the immediate analgesic effect of wrist-ankle acupuncture on acute lumbago and the relationship between the analgesic effect and the expectation of patients. A randomized, single-blind, sham-controlled trial was designed. Sixty cases of acute lumbago were randomly divided into two groups, 30 cases in each one. In observation group, wrist-ankle acupuncture was adopted to the Lower 5 and Lower 6 bilaterally, no requirement of Deqi (arrival of qi). In control group, sham acupuncture was adopted. The treatment was applied once in either group, with the needles retained for 30 min. The Short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) and the Modified-Modified Schober (MMS) test were used to assess the motion related pain and the situation of spinal flexion in 3 min before treatment and 5 min, 10 min, 15 min, during treatment and 30 min (needle removed), respectively. The Expectation and Treatment Credibility Scale (ETCS) was applied to analyze the relationship between the expectation of patients and the analgesic effect. The adverse reaction was recorded. There were no statistically significant differences in SF-MPQ, MMS and ETCS before treatment between two groups (all P>0.05). In 5 min after needles insertion, the scores of the items in SF-MPQ in observation group were lower than those in control group (P<0.05, P<0.01). In 10 min after needles insertion, the scores of SF-MPQ in observation group were lower than those in control group and the scores of MMS were higher than those in control group (P<0.05). In 15 min after needles insertion, except the sensory pain rating index, the scores of the rest items in SF-MPQ in observation group were all lower than those in control group (P<0.05, P<0.01). In 30 min (needles removed), the scores of affective pain rating index of SF-MPQ and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) in observation group were lower than those in control group (P<0.05, P<0.01). The expectation before treatment was negatively correlated with VAS scores in 5

  17. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of virgin coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Intahphuak, S; Khonsung, P; Panthong, A

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated some pharmacological properties of virgin coconut oil (VCO), the natural pure oil from coconut [Cocos nucifera Linn (Palmae)] milk, which was prepared without using chemical or high-heat treatment. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of VCO were assessed. In acute inflammatory models, VCO showed moderate anti-inflammatory effects on ethyl phenylpropiolate-induced ear edema in rats, and carrageenin- and arachidonic acid-induced paw edema. VCO exhibited an inhibitory effect on chronic inflammation by reducing the transudative weight, granuloma formation, and serum alkaline phosphatase activity. VCO also showed a moderate analgesic effect on the acetic acid-induced writhing response as well as an antipyretic effect in yeast-induced hyperthermia. The results obtained suggest anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic properties of VCO.

  18. Synergetic analgesic effect of the combination of arnica and hydroxyethyl salicylate in ethanolic solution following cutaneous application by transcutaneous electrostimulation.

    PubMed

    Kucera, Miroslav; Horácek, Ondrej; Kálal, Jan; Kolár, Pavel; Korbelar, Peter; Polesná, Zora

    2003-01-01

    A combination of the active agents arnica and hydroxyethyl salicylate (HES) in ethanolic solution (Sportino Acute Spray) is cutaneously applied for the treatment of sports injuries and diseases of the locomotor apparatus. The aim was to examine the efficacy and synergism of the single substances and the combination with regard to the analgesic effect after cutaneous application as well as to validate the method of transcutaneous electronic stimulation as a method of measuring the analgesic effect. In the present article, the method of transcutaneous electrostimulation was used in a randomized, controlled, single-blind trial on healthy volunteers to provide objective evidence that the combination of active agents displays a significantly greater analgesic effect than the individual active agents. Thus there is synergy between the active agents arnica and hydroxyethyl salicylate in the combination preparation. In addition, the effect of the vehicle ethanol and the reference substance water could be determined within the framework of these comparative experiments and the difference between the combination preparation and the individual substances arnica and HES could be shown. The method of transcutaneous electrostimulation used for the objective measurement of the analgesic effect was validated.

  19. Increasing Use of Nonmedical Analgesics Among Younger Cohorts in the United States: A Birth Cohort Effect

    PubMed Central

    Miech, Richard; Bohnert, Amy; Heard, Kennon; Boardman, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Nonmedical use of prescription pain drugs (hereafter ‘analgesics’) has increased substantially in recent years. It is not known whether today’s youth are disproportionately driving this increase or, instead, the trend is a general one that has affected cohorts of all ages similarly. To address this question we present the first age-period-cohort analysis of nonmedical use of analgesics. Methods Data come from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, a series of annual, nationally-representative, cross-sectional surveys of the U.S. civilian, non-institutionalized population. The analysis focuses on the years 1985 to 2009 and uses the recently developed ‘intrinsic estimator’ algorithm to disentangle age-period-cohort effects. Results Substantial increases in the prevalence of nonmedical analgesics use have occurred across all cohorts and ages in recent years, but this increase is significantly amplified among today’s adolescents. The odds of past-year, nonmedical analgesics use for today’s youngest cohort (born 1980–1994) are higher than would be expected on the basis of their age and broad, historical period influences that have increased use across people of all ages and cohorts. The independent influence of cohort on past-year, nonmedical analgesics use is about 40% higher for today’s youth cohort than any of the cohorts that came before them. This finding is present among men, women, non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Hispanics. Conclusions Although nonmedical use of analgesics is evident among all ages, cohorts, and periods, today’s younger cohorts warrant special attention for substance abuse policies and interventions targeted at reversing the increase in nonmedical analgesics use. PMID:23260832

  20. The cumulative analgesic effect of repeated electroacupuncture involves synaptic remodeling in the hippocampal CA3 region☆

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qiuling; Liu, Tao; Chen, Shuping; Gao, Yonghui; Wang, Junying; Qiao, Lina; Liu, Junling

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the analgesic effect of repeated electroacupuncture at bilateral Zusanli (ST36) and Yanglingquan (GB34) once a day for 14 consecutive days in a rat model of chronic sciatic nerve constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain. In addition, concomitant changes in calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II expression and synaptic ultrastructure of neurons in the hippocampal CA3 region were examined. The thermal pain threshold (paw withdrawal latency) was increased significantly in both groups at 2 weeks after electroacupuncture intervention compared with 2 days of electroacupuncture. In ovariectomized rats with chronic constriction injury, the analgesic effect was significantly reduced. Electroacupuncture for 2 weeks significantly diminished the injury-induced increase in synaptic cleft width and thinning of the postsynaptic density, and it significantly suppressed the down-regulation of intracellular calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II expression in the hippocampal CA3 region. Repeated electroacupuncture intervention had a cumulative analgesic effect on injury-induced neuropathic pain reactions, and it led to synaptic remodeling of hippocampal neurons and upregulated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II expression in the hippocampal CA3 region. PMID:25657670

  1. Analgesic activity of diterpene alkaloids from Aconitum baikalensis.

    PubMed

    Nesterova, Yu V; Povet'yeva, T N; Suslov, N I; Zyuz'kov, G N; Pushkarskii, S V; Aksinenko, S G; Schultz, E E; Kravtsova, S S; Krapivin, A V

    2014-08-01

    We compared analgesic activities of individual alkaloids extracted from Baikal aconite (Aconitum baikalensis): napelline, hypaconitine, songorine, mesaconitine, 12-epinapelline N-oxide. The detected analgesic activity was comparable to that of sodium metamizole. The mechanisms of analgesia were different in diterpene alkaloids of different structure. The antinociceptive effect of atisine alkaloids (12-epinapelline N-oxide, songorine) was naloxonedependent and realized via opioid receptor modulation.

  2. Comparison of the analgesic effects of dronabinol and smoked marijuana in daily marijuana smokers.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Ziva D; Comer, Sandra D; Haney, Margaret

    2013-09-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids to treat pain, yet none have compared the analgesic effectiveness of smoked marijuana to orally administered Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; dronabinol). This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-dummy, double-blind study compared the magnitude and duration of analgesic effects of smoked marijuana and dronabinol under well-controlled conditions using a validated experimental model of pain. Healthy male (N=15) and female (N=15) daily marijuana smokers participated in this outpatient study comparing the analgesic, subjective, and physiological effects of marijuana (0.00, 1.98, or 3.56% THC) to dronabinol (0, 10, or 20 mg). Pain response was assessed using the cold-pressor test (CPT): participants immersed their left hand in cold water (4 °C), and the time to report pain (pain sensitivity) and withdraw the hand from the water (pain tolerance) were recorded. Subjective pain and drug effect ratings were also measured as well as cardiovascular effects. Compared with placebo, marijuana and dronabinol decreased pain sensitivity (3.56%; 20 mg), increased pain tolerance (1.98%; 20 mg), and decreased subjective ratings of pain intensity (1.98, 3.56%; 20 mg). The magnitude of peak change in pain sensitivity and tolerance did not differ between marijuana and dronabinol, although dronabinol produced analgesia that was of a longer duration. Marijuana (1.98, 3.56%) and dronabinol (20 mg) also increased abuse-related subjective ratings relative to placebo; these ratings were greater with marijuana. These data indicate that under controlled conditions, marijuana and dronabinol decreased pain, with dronabinol producing longer-lasting decreases in pain sensitivity and lower ratings of abuse-related subjective effects than marijuana.

  3. Use and abuse of opioid analgesics in chronic pain.

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, B.

    1993-01-01

    Primary care physicians are frequently required to treat patients with chronic debilitating pain. Opioid analgesics can successfully manage chronic pain. To prescribe opioid analgesics effectively, physicians must identify appropriate patients. Several methods can be used to identify and distinguish appropriate patients, addicted patients, and for-profit drug seekers. PMID:8097128

  4. The analgesic effect of clonixine is not mediated by 5-HT3 subtype receptors.

    PubMed

    Paeile, C; Bustamante, S E; Sierralta, F; Bustamante, D; Miranda, H F

    1995-10-01

    1. The analgesic effect of clonixinate of L-lysine (Clx) in the nociceptive C-fiber reflex in rat and in the writhing test in mice is reported. 2. Clx was administered by three routes, i.v., i.t. and i.c.v., inducing a dose-dependent antinociception. 3. The antinociceptive effect of Clx was 40-45% with respect to the control integration values in the nociceptive C-fiber reflex method. 4. The writhing test yielded ED50 values (mg/kg) of 12.0 +/- 1.3 (i.p.), 1.8 +/- 0.2 (i.t.) and 0.9 +/- 0.1 (i.c.v.) for Clx administration. 5. Ondansetron was not able to antagonize the antinociception response of Clx in the algesiometric tests used. 6. Chlorophenilbiguanide did not produce any significative change in the analgesic effect of Clx in the nociceptive C-fiber reflex method. 7. It is suggested that the mechanism of action of the central analgesia of Clx is not mediated by 5-HT3 subtype receptors.

  5. Efficacy, Tolerability, and Dose-Dependent Effects of Opioid Analgesics for Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Abdel Shaheed, Christina; Maher, Chris G; Williams, Kylie A; Day, Richard; McLachlan, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    Opioid analgesics are commonly used for low back pain, however, to our knowledge there has been no systematic evaluation of the effect of opioid dose and use of enrichment study design on estimates of treatment effect. To evaluate efficacy and tolerability of opioids in the management of back pain; and investigate the effect of opioid dose and use of an enrichment study design on treatment effect. Medline, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, and PsycINFO (inception to September 2015) with citation tracking from eligible randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Placebo-controlled RCTs in any language. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Data were pooled using a random effects model with strength of evidence assessed using the grading of recommendations assessment, development, and evaluation (GRADE). The primary outcome measure was pain. Pain and disability outcomes were converted to a common 0 to 100 scale, with effects greater than 20 points considered clinically important. Of 20 included RCTs of opioid analgesics (with a total of 7925 participants), 13 trials (3419 participants) evaluated short-term effects on chronic low back pain, and no placebo-controlled trials enrolled patients with acute low back pain. In half of these 13 trials, at least 50% of participants withdrew owing to adverse events or lack of efficacy. There was moderate-quality evidence that opioid analgesics reduce pain in the short term; mean difference (MD), -10.1 (95% CI, -12.8 to -7.4). Meta-regression revealed a 12.0 point greater pain relief for every 1 log unit increase in morphine equivalent dose (P = .046). Clinically important pain relief was not observed within the dose range evaluated (40.0-240.0-mg morphine equivalents per day). There was no significant effect of enrichment study design. For people with chronic low back pain who tolerate the medicine, opioid analgesics provide modest short-term pain relief but the effect is not likely to be clinically important

  6. Role of preemptive tapentadol in reduction of postoperative analgesic requirements after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Ghanshyam; Jain, Gaurav; Samprathi, Abhishek; Baghel, Annavi; Singh, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Poorly managed acute postoperative pain may result in prolonged morbidity. Various pharmacotherapies have targeted this, but research on an ideal preemptive analgesic continues, taking into account drug-related side effects. Considering the better tolerability profile of tapentadol, we assessed its role as a preemptive analgesic in the reduction of postoperative analgesic requirements, after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Material and Methods: In a prospective-double-blinded fashion, sixty patients posted for above surgery, were randomized to receive tablet tapentadol 75 mg (Group A) or starch tablets (Group B) orally, an hour before induction of general anesthesia. Perioperative analgesic requirement, time to first analgesia, pain, and sedation score were compared for first 24 h during the postoperative period and analyzed by one-way analysis of variance test. A P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Sixty patients were analyzed. The perioperative analgesic requirement was significantly lower in Group A. Verbal numerical score was significantly lower in Group A at the time point, immediately after shifting the patient to the postanesthesia care unit. Ramsay sedation scores were similar between the groups. No major side effects were observed except for nausea and vomiting in 26 cases (10 in Group A, 16 in Group B). Conclusion: Single preemptive oral dose of tapentadol (75 mg) is effective in reducing perioperative analgesic requirements and acute postoperative pain, without added side effects. It could be an appropriate preemptive analgesic, subjected to future trials concentrating upon its dose-response effects. PMID:28096581

  7. Comparison of the Analgesic Effects of Dronabinol and Smoked Marijuana in Daily Marijuana Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Ziva D; Comer, Sandra D; Haney, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids to treat pain, yet none have compared the analgesic effectiveness of smoked marijuana to orally administered Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; dronabinol). This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-dummy, double-blind study compared the magnitude and duration of analgesic effects of smoked marijuana and dronabinol under well-controlled conditions using a validated experimental model of pain. Healthy male (N=15) and female (N=15) daily marijuana smokers participated in this outpatient study comparing the analgesic, subjective, and physiological effects of marijuana (0.00, 1.98, or 3.56% THC) to dronabinol (0, 10, or 20 mg). Pain response was assessed using the cold-pressor test (CPT): participants immersed their left hand in cold water (4 °C), and the time to report pain (pain sensitivity) and withdraw the hand from the water (pain tolerance) were recorded. Subjective pain and drug effect ratings were also measured as well as cardiovascular effects. Compared with placebo, marijuana and dronabinol decreased pain sensitivity (3.56% 20 mg), increased pain tolerance (1.98% 20 mg), and decreased subjective ratings of pain intensity (1.98, 3.56% 20 mg). The magnitude of peak change in pain sensitivity and tolerance did not differ between marijuana and dronabinol, although dronabinol produced analgesia that was of a longer duration. Marijuana (1.98, 3.56%) and dronabinol (20 mg) also increased abuse-related subjective ratings relative to placebo; these ratings were greater with marijuana. These data indicate that under controlled conditions, marijuana and dronabinol decreased pain, with dronabinol producing longer-lasting decreases in pain sensitivity and lower ratings of abuse-related subjective effects than marijuana. PMID:23609132

  8. Peripheral analgesic sites of action of anti-inflammatory drugs.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, S H

    2002-07-01

    Inflammatory signs and symptoms of redness, swelling, heat and pain are due to the effects of inflammatory mediators released during the inflammatory response. Depending on the type of injurious stimuli and the tissue involved, the array of mediators may differ but eicosanoids are involved in the genesis of inflammatory pain. They are responsible for the hypersensitisation of the nociceptors (allodynialhyperalgesia). The basic mechanism of analgesic action of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs results from the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis (prostacyclin or PGE2), thus preventing nociceptor threshold lowering. Because there is a temporal hierarchy in the release of inflammatory mediators, there are several targets for the action of peripheral acting analgesics before and after the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. Blockade of the release and inhibition of inducible cyclooxygenase explain the analgesic action of glucocorticoids. Nimesulide also has an inhibitory action on the cascade of hypersensitising cytokines. Some analgesics, such as dipyrone, flurbiprofen or diclofenac, act directly upon ongoing inflammatory hypersensitisation. Those analgesics restore the nociceptor by stimulating the arginine/NO/cGMP/K(ATP) channel pathway.

  9. The Pharmacological Heterogeneity of Nepenthone Analogs in Conferring Highly Selective and Potent κ-Opioid Agonistic Activities.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Long, Jian-Dong; Qian, Yuan-Yuan; Long, Yu; Xu, Xue-Jun; Wang, Yu-Jun; Shen, Qing; Wang, Zuo-Neng; Yang, Xi-Cheng; Xiao, Li; Sun, Hong-Peng; Xu, Yu-Long; Chen, Yi-Yi; Xie, Qiong; Wang, Yong-Hui; Shao, Li-Ming; Liu, Jing-Gen; Qiu, Zhui-Bai; Fu, Wei

    2017-04-19

    To develop novel analgesics with no side effects or less side effects than traditional opioids is highly demanded to treat opioid receptor mediated pain and addiction issues. Recently, κ-opioid receptor (KOR) has been established as an attractive target, although its selective agonists could bear heterogeneous pharmacological activities. In this study, we designed and synthesized two new series of nepenthone derivatives by inserting a spacer (carbonyl) between 6α,14α-endo-ethenylthebaine and the 7α-phenyl substitution of the skeleton and by substituting the 17-N-methyl group with a cyclopropylmethyl group. We performed in vitro tests (binding and functional assays) and molecular docking operations on our newly designed compounds. The results of wet-experimental measures and modeled binding structures demonstrate that these new compounds are selective KOR agonists with nanomolar level affinities. Compound 4 from these new derivatives showed the highest affinity (K i = 0.4 ± 0.1 nM) and the highest selectivity (μ/κ = 339, δ/κ = 2034) toward KOR. The in vivo tests revealed that compound 4 is able to induce stronger (ED 50 = 2.1 mg/kg) and much longer antinociceptive effect than that of the typical KOR agonist U50488H (ED 50 = 4.4 mg/kg). Therefore, compound 4 can be used as a perfect lead compound for future design of potent analgesics acting through KOR.

  10. Analgesic effect of simultaneous exposure to infrared laser radiation and μT magnetic field in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieslar, Grzegorz; Mrowiec, Janina; Kasperczyk, Slawomir; Sieron-Stoltny, Karolina; Sieron, Aleksander

    2008-03-01

    The aim of the experiment was to estimate the effect of repeated simultaneous exposures to infrared laser radiation and μT variable magnetic field used in magnetostimulation on pain perception in rats, as well as the involvement of endogenous opioid system in the mechanism of this effect. In experimental group clean-shaven scull of male Wistar rats placed individually in a specially designed plastic chamber were simultaneously exposed to infrared laser radiation (wavelength - 855 nm, mean power - 4,1 mW, energy density - 30 J/cm2) and variable magnetic field of saw-like shape of impulse, at a frequency of basic impulse 180-195 Hz and mean induction value of 120 μT generated by magneto-laser applicator of device for magnetostimulation Viofor JPS (Med & Life, Poland) 12 minutes daily for 2 periods of 5 consecutive days, with 2 days-lasting break between them, while control animals were sham-exposed. The pain perception was determined by means of "hot plate" test on the basis of calculated analgesic index. As a result of repeated exposures a significant increase in analgesic index persisting also till 14 th day after the end of a cycle of exposures was observed. This analgesic effect was inhibited by prior i.p. injection of opioid antagonist - Naloxone.

  11. Comparison of the analgesic effects of cryoanalgesia vs. parecoxib for lung cancer patients after lobectomy.

    PubMed

    Ba, Yu-Feng; Li, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Xiaofei; Ning, Zhong-Hua; Zhang, Hanze; Liu, Yi-Ning; He, Shan-Hong; Zhu, Yu; Li, Chang-Sheng; Wang, Quan-Hui; Li, Yin

    2015-10-01

    This study was designed to compare the analgesic effects of cryoanalgesia and parecoxib in lung cancer patients after lobectomy. A total of 178 lung cancer patients awaiting large-sized lobectomy were enrolled in the study. The patients were randomly divided into Group A (intercostal nerve cryoanalgesia) and Group B (parecoxib). The analgesic and adverse effects were compared between the two groups. The pain score of Group A was significantly lower than that of Group B (P < 0.05). The patients in Group A used significantly less morphine than those in Group B (P < 0.05). There were also significantly fewer complications in Group A than in Group B (P < 0.05). Cryoanalgesia of the intercostal nerves can be considered an economical, safe and simple technique for the long-term management of post-lobectomy pain.

  12. Massage therapy plus topical analgesic is more effective than massage alone for hand arthritis pain.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Solien-Wolfe, Lynda

    2014-07-01

    20 adults were randomly assigned to a massage therapy or a massage therapy plus a topical analgesic application group. Both groups received a weekly massage from a therapist and were taught self-massage (same procedure) to be done by each participant once daily over a four-week period. The massage plus topical analgesic group as compared to the massage group had greater improvement in hand function as measured by a digital hand exerciser following the first session and across the four-week period. That group also had a greater increase in perceived grip strength and a greater decrease in hand pain, depressed mood and sleep disturbances over the four-week period. Massage therapy has been effective for several pain syndromes including migraine headaches (Lawle and Cameron, 2006)), lower back pain (Hsieh et al., 2004), fibromyalgia (Kalichman, 2010), neck and shoulder pain (Kong et al., 2013), carpal tunnel syndrome (Elliott and Burkett, 2013), and pain related to upper limb arthritis (Field et al., 2013). The purpose of the current study was to determine whether applying a topical analgesic following massage might be more effective than massage alone in treating pain associated with hand arthritis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cycloartanes from Oxyanthus pallidus and derivatives with analgesic activities.

    PubMed

    Piegang, Basile Nganmegne; Tigoufack, Ignas Bertrand Nzedong; Ngnokam, David; Achounna, Angèle Sorel; Watcho, Pierre; Greffrath, Wolfgang; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Nguelefack, Télesphore Benoît

    2016-03-09

    The leaves of Oxyanthus pallidus Hiern (Rubiaceae) are extensively used in the west region of Cameroon as analgesic. These leaves are rich in cycloartanes, a subclass of triterpenes known to possess analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study aimed at evaluating the analgesic properties of three cycloartanes isolated from Oxyanthus pallidus leaves as well as their aglycones and acetylated derivatives. Three cycloartanes OP3, OP5 and OP6 obtained by successive chromatography of the crude methanol extract of the leaves were hydrolysed to yield respective aglycone AOP1, AOP2, AOP3 and acetylated to HOP1, HOP2 and HOP3 respectively. Formalin-induced pain model was used to evaluate the acute anti-nociceptive properties of these cycloartanes (5 mg/kg, p.o) in mice and to determine the structure-activity relationship. Acute (24 h) and chronic (10 days) anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of OP5 were evaluated at the doses of 2.5 and 5 mg/kg/day administered orally. OP6 was also evaluated in acute experiments. The antioxidant and hepato-protective activities of OP5 were evaluated at the end of the chronic treatment. The mixture and the individual isolated cycloartanes significantly inhibited both phases of formalin-induced pain with percentage inhibition ranging from 13 to 78%. Acid hydrolysis did not significantly affect their antinociceptive activities while acetylation significantly reduced the effects of these compounds during the second phase of pain. OP5 and OP6 induced acute anti-hyperalgesic activity in formalin-induced mechanical hyperalgesia but not an anti-inflammatory effect. Repeated administration of OP5 for 10 days did not induce any anti-hyperalgesic effect. The evaluation of in vivo antioxidant properties showed that OP5 significantly reduced malondialdehyde and increased superoxide dismutase levels in liver without significantly affecting other oxidative stress and hepatotoxic parameters. Chronic administration of OP5 did

  14. Analgesic Effect of Maternal Human Milk Odor on Premature Neonates: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Baudesson de Chanville, Audrey; Brevaut-Malaty, Véronique; Garbi, Aurélie; Tosello, Barthelemy; Baumstarck, Karine; Gire, Catherine

    2017-05-01

    Two studies have demonstrated an analgesic effect of maternal milk odor in preterm neonates, without specifying the method of olfactory stimulation. Research aim: This study aimed to assess the analgesic effect of maternal milk odor in preterm neonates by using a standardized method of olfactory stimulation. This trial was prospective, randomized, controlled, double blinded, and centrally administered. The inclusion criteria for breastfed infants included being born between 30 and 36 weeks + 6 days gestational age and being less than 10 days postnatal age. There were two groups: (a) A maternal milk odor group underwent a venipuncture with a diffuser emitting their own mother's milk odor and (2) a control group underwent a venipuncture with an odorless diffuser. The primary outcome was the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) score, with secondary outcomes being the French scale of neonatal pain-Douleur Aiguë du Nouveau-né (DAN) scale-and crying duration. All neonates were given a dummy. Our study included 16 neonates in the maternal milk odor group and 17 in the control group. Neonates exposed to their own mother's milk odor had a significantly lower median PIPP score during venipuncture compared with the control group (6.3 [interquartile range (IQR) = 5-10] versus 12.0 [IQR = 7-13], p = .03). There was no significant difference between the DAN scores in the two groups ( p = .06). Maternal milk odor significantly reduced crying duration after venipuncture (0 [IQR = 0-0] versus 0 [IQR = 0-18], p = .04). Maternal milk odor has an analgesic effect on preterm neonates.

  15. Perioperative analgesic use by Ontario veterinarians, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Reimann, Jessica; Dewey, Cate; Bateman, Shane W.; Kerr, Carolyn; Johnson, Ron

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the routine use of analgesics by Ontario veterinarians for common surgeries in dogs and cats, and to compare routine use of analgesics between species and surgeries, using Chi-square analyses. In total, 239 veterinarians responded to the questionnaires; a response rate of 13.1%. Fifty-two percent to 79% of veterinarians used meloxicam for both species and all surgeries. Approximately 9% of veterinarians did not use analgesics for dog ovariohysterectomy and castration, while 16% to 22% did not use analgesics for these surgeries in cats. Veterinarians used and dispensed analgesics to dogs more often than to cats (P < 0.05). Many (60% or more) veterinarians administered analgesics pre-emptively to both dogs and cats for all surgeries. Continuing education for veterinarians needs to focus on understanding of pre-emptive analgesia, preventive analgesia, and the importance of dispensing analgesic drugs after surgery for all surgeries. PMID:28216684

  16. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants with narcotic, sedative and analgesic effects in west of Iran.

    PubMed

    Saki, K; Bahmani, M; Rafieianb-Kopaei, M D; Asadollahi, K; Emaneini, M; Taherikalani, M

    2016-01-01

    The first step for identification of medicinal plants and their therapeutic effects is to determine their use by local people, traditional medicine books and personal experiences. The aim of this study was to document the medicinal plants used as analgesic, sedative or narcotic agents by local residents of Dehloran, Iran. Interviews conducted with 53 informants (38 male and 15 female) revealed that a total of 32 medicinal plants belonging to 22 families are used in Dehloran as narcotic, sedative and analgesic agents. The most utilized plant families were Asteraceae, Rosaceae and Fabaceae. Approximately 74% of the utilized plants was attributed to herbs, followed by trees (13%) and shrubs (13%). Sixty-six percent of the medicinal plants used in the study area were perennial and the rest were annual or biannual. The most widely used plant parts were flowers (34%) followed by leaves (24%) and fruits (14%). Thirty-nine percent of the medicinal plants were used as sedatives, 39% as analgesics, and 24% as narcotics. Recommended plants in this study can be good candidates for further clinical and laboratory trials on diseases that are associated with pain, suffering, stress and depression. They also can be used to develop new sedative, narcotic and analgesic drugs.

  17. Do caffeine-containing analgesics promote dependence? A review and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, A R; Heinemann, L A; Dalessio, D; Fox, J M; Goldstein, J; Haag, G; Ladewig, D; O'Brien, C P

    2000-11-01

    Debates about the suspected association between kidney disease and use of analgesics have led to concern about whether caffeine could stimulate an undesirable overuse of phenacetin-free combined analgesics. A committee was asked to critically review the pertinent literature and to suggest guides for clinical practice and for consideration of international regulatory authorities. A group of international scientists, jointly selected by the regulatory authorities of Germany, Switzerland, and Austria and the pharmaceutical industry. All invited experts evaluated relevant literature and reports and added further information and comments. Caffeine has a synergistic effectiveness with analgesics. Although caffeine has a dependence potential, the potential is low. Experimental data regarding dependence potential for caffeine alone may not correspond to the conditions in patients with pain. Withdrawal is not likely to cause stimulation or sustainment of analgesic intake. For drug-induced headache, no single or combined analgesic was consistently identified as causative, and no evidence exists for a special role of caffeine. Strong dependence behavior was observed only in patients using phenacetin-containing preparations, coformulated with antipyretics/analgesics and caffeine. This finding may have led to the impression that caffeine stimulates overuse of analgesics. Although more experimental and long-term data would be desirable to show possible mechanisms of dependence and to offer unequivocal proof of safety, the committee concluded that the available evidence does not support the claim that analgesics coformulated with caffeine, in the absence of phenacetin, stimulate or sustain overuse.

  18. Comparable effects of exercise and analgesics for pain secondary to knee osteoarthritis: a meta-analysis of trials included in Cochrane systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, Marius; Hansen, Julie B; Klokker, Louise; Bliddal, Henning; Christensen, Robin

    2016-07-01

    Evidence of comparative effectiveness of different treatment approaches is important for clinical decision-making, yet absent for most recommended treatments of knee osteoarthritis pain. The objective of this study was to estimate the comparative effectiveness of exercise versus orally administered analgesics for pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis. The Cochrane Database of systematic reviews was searched for meta-analyses of randomized controlled studies comparing exercise or analgesics with a control group (placebo or usual care) and with pain as an outcome. Individual study estimates were identified and effect sizes were calculated from group differences. We combined study-level effects on pain with a random effects meta-analysis and compared effect sizes between exercise trials and trials with analgesic interventions. We included six Cochrane reviews (four pharmacology, two exercise). From these, 54 trials were eligible (20 pharmacology, 34 exercise), with 9806 participants (5627 pharmacology, 4179 exercise). The pooled effect size of pharmacological pain interventions was 0.41 (95% CI: 0.23-0.59) and for exercise 0.46 standardized mean difference (95% CI: 0.34-0.59). There was no statistically significant difference between the two types of intervention (difference: 0.06 standardized mean difference [95% CI: -0.28-0.16; p = 0.61]). This meta-epidemiological study provides indirect evidence that for knee osteoarthritis pain, the effects from exercise and from oral analgesics are comparable. These results may support shared decision-making where a patient for some reason is unable to exercise or who consider exercise as unviable and analgesics as a more feasible choice. PROSPERO registration: CRD42013006924.

  19. Factors influencing use of analgesics among construction workers in the Ga-Eastmunicipality of the Greater Accra region, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Badzi, Caroline D; Ackumey, Mercy M

    2017-12-01

    Analgesics also known as painkillers are widely used for pain relief. There are severe health implications associated with excessive use of analgesics. This paper examines factors influencing the use of analgesics among construction workers in the Ga-East Municipality (GEM) of the Greater Accra region of Ghana. This is a cross-sectional study involving 206 construction workers randomly sampled from 7 construction sites in the GEM. A structured questionnaire was used to elicit responses on knowledge of analgesics, types of analgesics used and factors influencing the use of analgesics. Chi-square test analysis was used to examine factors influencing analgesic use. The majority of workers were aged between 15 to 44 years (89.8%) and 51.9 percent of respondents had completed Junior high school. Many respondents (68.0%) used Brand 1 a locally manufactured analgesic with paracetamol, aspirin and caffeine as the active ingredients and 31.6 percent of respondents had no knowledge of possible side effects of continuous use of analgesics. Chi square analysis showed that age was significantly associated with use of analgesics (p<0.01). Knowledge of the types of analgesics, dosage and side effects did not influence use (p>0.05). Television and radio advertisements influenced use of analgesics (p<0.01). Knowledge on analgesic use and knowledge of probable serious side effects was inadequate. Pharmacists and chemists involvement in education of clients of the side effects of analgesics is highly recommended to minimise misuse. The Food and Drugs Authority should regulate the proliferation of advertisements for analgesics in the media. None declared.

  20. Registered Nurses' Knowledge about Adverse Effects of Analgesics when Treating Postoperative Pain in Patients with Dementia.

    PubMed

    Rantala, Maija; Hartikainen, Sirpa; Kvist, Tarja; Kankkunen, Päivi

    2015-08-01

    Registered nurses (RNs) play a pivotal role in treating pain and preventing and recognizing the adverse effects (AEs) of analgesics in patients with dementia. The purpose of this study was to determine RNs' knowledge of potentially clinically relevant AEs of analgesics. A descriptive, cross-sectional study design was used. In all, 267 RNs treating orthopedic patients, including patients with dementia, in 7 university hospitals and 10 central hospitals in Finland, completed a questionnaire. Analgesics were defined according to the Anatomic Therapeutic Classification as strong opioids, weak opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory analgesics (NSAIDs), and paracetamol. Definitions of AEs were based on the literature. Logistic regression analysis was applied to analyze which variables predicted nurses' knowledge. The RNs had a clear understanding of the AEs of paracetamol and strong opioids. However, the AEs of NSAIDs, especially renal and cardiovascular AEs, were less well known. The median percentage of correct answers was 87% when asked about strong opioids, 73% for weak opioids, and 60% for NSAIDs. Younger RNs had better knowledge of opioid-related AEs (odds ratio [OR] per 1-year increase, 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94-1.00) and weak opioids (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93-0.99). This study provides evidence of a deficiency in RNs' knowledge, especially regarding the adverse renal and cardiovascular effects of NSAIDs. Such lack of knowledge indicates that hospitals may need to update the knowledge of older RNs, especially those who treat vulnerable patients with dementia. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Pharmacological study on hemostasis, analgesic and anti inflammation effects of the alcohol extract of Hibiscus tiliaceus].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Fen; Tian, Hui; Zhang, Zhi; Yuan, Xian-Ling; Tan, Yuan-Feng; Ning, Xiao-Qing

    2013-10-01

    To study the effects of hemostasis, analgesic and anti inflammation of the alcohol extract of Hibiscus tiliaceus and offer pharmacological and experimental basis for its safe and effective use in clinic. The effects of hemostasist were observed with tail breaking method, capillary tube method and slide method; Hot board and body distortion induced by acetic acid methods were applied in mice analgesia experiment, the mice model of acute auricle swelling induced by dmi ethylbenzene and capillary permeability induced by acetic acid were applied to observe the anti inflammatory effects. The alcohol extract of Hibiscus tiliaceus could significantly reduce the bleeding time and the clotting time, delay the plant reaction time and reduce the writhing times of the mice, and it also had effect on inhibiting swelling of mice ear and the permeability of the capillary. These results suggest that the alcohol extract of Hibiscus tiliaceus has the effects of hemostasis, analgesic and anti inflammation.

  2. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of 80% Methanol Extract of Leonotis ocymifolia (Burm.f.) Iwarsson Leaves in Rodent Models

    PubMed Central

    Alemu, Asnakech

    2018-01-01

    Background Pain and inflammation are the major health problems commonly treated with traditional remedies mainly using medicinal plants. Leonotis ocymifolia is one of such medicinal plants used in folkloric medicine of Ethiopia. However, the plant has not been scientifically evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the 80% methanol leaves extract of Leonotis ocymifolia using rodent models. Method The central and peripheral analgesic effect of the extract at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg dose levels was evaluated using hot plate and acetic acid induced writhing rodent models, whereas carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma methods were used to screen anti-inflammatory effect of the extract at the same dose levels. Acute toxicity test was also done. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test and p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results The extract did not produce mortality up to 2000 mg/kg. All tested doses of the extract showed significant analgesic effect with maximum latency response of 62.8% and inhibition of acetic acid induced writhing. Maximum anti-inflammatory effect was recorded at 6 h after induction, with 75.88% reduction in carrageenan induced paw edema. Moreover, all tested doses of extract significantly inhibited the formation of inflammatory exudates and granuloma formation (p < 0.001). Conclusion The study indicated that the extract was safe in mice and it has both analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect in rodent models. PMID:29675050

  3. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of honey: the involvement of autonomic receptors.

    PubMed

    Owoyele, Bamidele Victor; Oladejo, Rasheed Olajiire; Ajomale, Kayode; Ahmed, Rasheedat Omotayo; Mustapha, Abdulrasheed

    2014-03-01

    The use of honey for therapeutic purposes is on the increase and many studies have shown that honey has the ability to influence biological systems including pain transmission. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of honey and the effects of concurrent administration of autonomic nervous system blocking drugs. Studies on analgesic activities was carried out using hotplate and formalin-induced paw licking models while the anti-inflammatory activity was by the carrageenan paw oedema method. Animals were distributed into six groups consisting of five animals each. They were administered saline, honey (600 mg/kg), indomethacin (5 mg/kg), autonomic blockers (3 μg/kg of tamsulosin, 20 mg/kg (intraperitoneally) of propranolol, 2 ml/kg of atropine or 10 mg/kg (intra muscularly) of hexamethonium) or honey (200 and 600 mg/kg) with one of the blockers. The results showed that honey reduced pain perception especially inflammatory pain and the administration of tamsulosin and propranolol spared the effect of honey. Hexamethonium also spared the effects of honey at the early and late phases of the test while atropine only inhibited the early phase of the test. However, atropine and hexamethonium spared the anti-inflammatory effects of honey but tamsulosin abolished the effects while propranolol only abolished the anti-inflammatory effects at the peak of the inflammation. The results suggest the involvement of autonomic receptors in the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of honey although the level of involvement depends on the different types of the receptors.

  4. The Analgesic Effects of Different Extracts of Aerial Parts of Coriandrum Sativum in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fatemeh Kazempor, Seyedeh; Vafadar langehbiz, Shabnam; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Naser Shafei, Mohammad; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Pourganji, Masoomeh

    2015-01-01

    Regarding the effects of Coriandrum sativum (C. sativum) on central nervous system, in the present study analgesic properties of different extracts of C. sativum aerial partswere investigated. The mice were treated by saline, morphine, three doses (20, 100 and 500 mg/kg) of aqueous, ethanolic, choloroformic extracts of C. sativum and one dose (100 mg/kg) of aqueous, two doses of ethanolic (100 and 500 mg/kg) and one dose of choloroformic (20 mg/kg) extracts of C. sativum pretreated by naloxone. Recording of the hot plate test was performed 10 min before injection of the drugs as a base and it was consequently repeated every 10 minutes after the extracts injection. The maximal percent effect (MPE) in the groups treated by three doses of aqueous, ethanolic and chloroformic extracts were significantly higher than saline group which were comparable to the effect of morphine. The effects of most effective doses of extracts were reversed by naloxone. The results of present study showed analgesic effect of aqueous, ethanolic and chloroformic extracts of C. sativum extract. These effects of the extracts may be mediated by opioid system. However, more investigations are needed to elucidate the exact responsible mechanism(s) and the effective compound(s).

  5. Dose-dependency of dexamethasone on the analgesic effect of interscalene block for arthroscopic shoulder surgery using ropivacaine 0.5%: A randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jae Hee; Kim, Youn Jin; Kim, Dong Yeon; Cho, Sooyoung

    2015-09-01

    Dexamethasone prolongs the duration of single-shot interscalene brachial plexus block (SISB). However, dose-dependency of dexamethasone as an adjuvant for SISB remains insufficiently understood. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of different doses of dexamethasone on the duration of SISB using ropivacaine 0.5%. A randomised, double-blind controlled trial. Single university tertiary care centre. One hundred and forty-four patients scheduled for elective arthroscopic shoulder surgery were allocated randomly to one of four groups. Patients received 12 ml of ropivacaine 0.5% in 0.9% saline (control group), or containing dexamethasone 2.5, 5.0 or 7.5 mg for SISB. The primary endpoint was the time to the first analgesic request. Pain scores and adverse effects were also assessed up to 48 h postoperatively. Inclusion of dexamethasone 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 mg resulted in significant (P < 0.001) increases in time to the first analgesic request by factors of 1.6, 2.2 and 1.8, respectively. The percentages of patients not requiring analgesics in the first 48 h postoperatively with dexamethasone 0.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 mg were 3, 22, 39 and 33%, respectively (P < 0.001). There were no significant effects on pain scores or incidences of adverse effects. Dexamethasone demonstrated significant beneficial dose-dependent effects on duration to the first analgesic request, the number of patients not requiring analgesics and analgesic use in the first 48 h after SISB for arthroscopic shoulder surgery. There were no significant effects on pain scores or incidences of adverse effects. the trial was registered with the Clinical Trial Registry of Korea: https://cris.nih.go.kr/cris/index.jsp. Identifier: KCT0001078.

  6. A novel analgesic Isolated from a Traditional Chinese Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Chaoran; Wang, Lien; Parks, Gregory Scott; Zhang, Xiuli; Guo, Zhimou; Ke, Yanxiong; Li, Kang-Wu; Kim, Mi Kyeong; Vo, Benjamin; Borrelli, Emiliana; Ge, Guangbo; Yang, Ling; Wang, Zhiwei; Garcia-Fuster, M. Julia; Luo, Z. David; Liang, Xinmiao; Civelli, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Current pain management is limited, in particular, with regard to chronic pain. In an attempt to discover novel analgesics, we combined the approach developed to characterize traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), as part of the “herbalome” project, with the reverse pharmacology approach aimed at discovering new endogenous transmitters and hormones. Results In a plant used for centuries for its analgesic properties, we identify a compound, dehydrocorybulbine (DHCB) that is effective at alleviating thermally induced acute pain. We synthesize DHCB and show that it displays moderate dopamine receptor antagonist activities. By using selective pharmacological compounds and dopamine receptor knockout (KO) mice, we show that DHCB antinociceptive effect is primarily due to its interaction with D2 receptors, at least at low doses. We further show that DHCB is effective against inflammatory pain and injury-induced neuropathic pain and furthermore causes no antinociceptive tolerance. Conclusion Our study casts DHCB as a different type of analgesic compound and as a promising lead in pain management. PMID:24388848

  7. OTC analgesics and drug interactions: clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Fendrick, A Mark; Pan, Deborah E; Johnson, Grace E

    2008-01-01

    The risk of drug interactions with concurrent use of multiple medications is a clinically relevant issue. Many patients are unaware that over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics can cause potentially serious adverse effects when used in combination with other common medications such as anticoagulants, corticosteroids, or antihypertensive agents. Of particular significance is the increased risk of upper abdominal gastrointestinal adverse events in patients who take traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). This risk is dose dependent and further increased in patients who take more than one NSAID or use NSAIDs in combination with certain other medications. Some NSAIDs may also mitigate the antiplatelet benefits of aspirin and may increase blood pressure in patients with hypertension. Clinicians should be aware of potential drug interactions with OTC analgesics when prescribing new medications. Additionally, patients should be properly counseled on the appropriate and safe use of OTC analgesics. PMID:18257920

  8. Individual variability in clinical effect and tolerability of opioid analgesics - Importance of drug interactions and pharmacogenetics.

    PubMed

    Solhaug, Vigdis; Molden, Espen

    2017-10-01

    As pain is often a comorbid condition, many patients use opioid analgesics in combination with several other drugs. This implies a generally increased risk of drug interactions, which along with inherent pharmacogenetic variability and other factors may cause differences in therapeutic response of opioids. To provide an overview of interactions and pharmacogenetic variability of relevance for individual differences in effect and tolerability of opioid analgesics, which physicians and other healthcare professionals should be aware of in clinical practice. The article was based on unsystematic searches in PubMed to identify literature highlighting the clinical impact of drug interactions and pharmacogenetics as sources of variable response of opioid analgesics. Cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated metabolism is an important process for both clinically relevant interactions and pharmacogenetic variability of several opioids. Concomitant use of CYP inhibitors (e.g. paroxetine, fluoxetine and bupropion) or inducers (e.g. carbamazepine, phenobarbital and phenytoin) could counteract the clinical effect or trigger side effects of analgesics in the same manner as genetically determined differences in CYP2D6-mediated metabolism of many opioids. Moreover, combination treatment with drugs that inhibit or induce P-glycoprotein (ABCB1), a blood-brain barrier efflux transporter, may alter the amount ('dose') of opioids distributed to the brain. At the pharmacodynamic level, it is crucial to be aware of the potential risk of interaction causing serotonergic syndrome when combining opioids and serotonergic drugs, in particular antidepressants inhibiting serotonin reuptake (SSRIs and SNRIs). Regarding pharmacogenetics at the receptor level of pain treatment, the knowledge is currently scarce, but an allelic variant of the μ1 opioid receptor (OPRM1) gene has been associated with higher dosage requirement to achieve analgesia. Drug interactions and pharmacogenetic differences may lead to

  9. Suppressive Effects of Bee Venom Acupuncture on Paclitaxel-Induced Neuropathic Pain in Rats: Mediation by Spinal α2-Adrenergic Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jiho; Jeon, Changhoon; Jang, Jo Ung; Quan, Fu Shi; Lee, Kyungjin; Kim, Woojin

    2017-01-01

    Paclitaxel, a chemotherapy drug for solid tumors, induces peripheral painful neuropathy. Bee venom acupuncture (BVA) has been reported to have potent analgesic effects, which are known to be mediated by activation of spinal α-adrenergic receptor. Here, we investigated the effect of BVA on mechanical hyperalgesia and spinal neuronal hyperexcitation induced by paclitaxel. The role of spinal α-adrenergic receptor subtypes in the analgesic effect of BVA was also observed. Administration of paclitaxel (total 8 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) on four alternate days (days 0, 2, 4, and 6) induced significant mechanical hyperalgesic signs, measured using a von Frey filament. BVA (1 mg/kg, ST36) relieved this mechanical hyperalgesia for at least two hours, and suppressed the hyperexcitation in spinal wide dynamic range neurons evoked by press or pinch stimulation. Both melittin (0.5 mg/kg, ST36) and phospholipase A2 (0.12 mg/kg, ST36) were shown to play an important part in this analgesic effect of the BVA, as they significantly attenuated the pain. Intrathecal pretreatment with the α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist (idazoxan, 50 µg), but not α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist (prazosin, 30 µg), blocked the analgesic effect of BVA. These results suggest that BVA has potent suppressive effects against paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain, which were mediated by spinal α2-adrenergic receptor. PMID:29088102

  10. Personalized Medicine and Opioid Analgesic Prescribing for Chronic Pain: Opportunities and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Bruehl, Stephen; Apkarian, A. Vania; Ballantyne, Jane C.; Berger, Ann; Borsook, David; Chen, Wen G.; Farrar, John T.; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A.; Horn, Susan D.; Iadarola, Michael J.; Inturrisi, Charles E.; Lao, Lixing; Mackey, Sean; Mao, Jianren; Sawczuk, Andrea; Uhl, George R.; Witter, James; Woolf, Clifford J.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Lin, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Use of opioid analgesics for pain management has increased dramatically over the past decade, with corresponding increases in negative sequelae including overdose and death. There is currently no well-validated objective means of accurately identifying patients likely to experience good analgesia with low side effects and abuse risk prior to initiating opioid therapy. This paper discusses the concept of data-based personalized prescribing of opioid analgesics as a means to achieve this goal. Strengths, weaknesses, and potential synergism of traditional randomized placebo-controlled trial (RCT) and practice-based evidence (PBE) methodologies as means to acquire the clinical data necessary to develop validated personalized analgesic prescribing algorithms are overviewed. Several predictive factors that might be incorporated into such algorithms are briefly discussed, including genetic factors, differences in brain structure and function, differences in neurotransmitter pathways, and patient phenotypic variables such as negative affect, sex, and pain sensitivity. Currently available research is insufficient to inform development of quantitative analgesic prescribing algorithms. However, responder subtype analyses made practical by the large numbers of chronic pain patients in proposed collaborative PBE pain registries, in conjunction with follow-up validation RCTs, may eventually permit development of clinically useful analgesic prescribing algorithms. Perspective Current research is insufficient to base opioid analgesic prescribing on patient characteristics. Collaborative PBE studies in large, diverse pain patient samples in conjunction with follow-up RCTs may permit development of quantitative analgesic prescribing algorithms which could optimize opioid analgesic effectiveness, and mitigate risks of opioid-related abuse and mortality. PMID:23374939

  11. Do Resting Plasma β-Endorphin Levels Predict Responses to Opioid Analgesics?

    PubMed

    Bruehl, Stephen; Burns, John W; Gupta, Rajnish; Buvanendran, Asokumar; Chont, Melissa; Orlowska, Daria; Schuster, Erik; France, Christopher R

    2017-01-01

    Clinically feasible predictors of opioid analgesic responses for use in precision pain medicine protocols are needed. This study evaluated whether resting plasma β-endorphin (BE) levels predicted responses to an opioid analgesic, and whether chronic pain status or sex moderated these effects. Participants included 73 individuals with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and 88 pain-free controls, all using no daily opioid analgesics. Participants attended 2 identical laboratory sessions during which they received either intravenous morphine (0.08 mg/kg) or saline placebo, with blood samples obtained before drug administration to assay resting plasma BE levels. Once peak drug activity was achieved in each session, participants engaged in an ischemic forearm pain task (ISC) and a heat pain task. Morphine analgesic effects were derived reflecting the difference in pain outcomes between placebo and morphine conditions. In hierarchical regressions, significant Type (CLBP vs. control)×BE interactions (Ps<0.05) were noted for morphine effects on ISC tolerance, ISC intratask pain ratings, and thermal VAS unpleasantness ratings. These interactions derived primarily from associations between higher BE levels and smaller morphine effects restricted to the CLBP subgroup. All other BE-related effects, including sex interactions, for predicting morphine analgesia failed to reach statistical significance. BE was a predictor of morphine analgesia for only 3 out of 9 outcomes examined, with these effects moderated by chronic pain status but not sex. On the whole, results do not suggest that resting plasma BE levels are likely to be a clinically useful predictor of opioid analgesic responses.

  12. Intervertebral Foramen Injection of Ozone Relieves Mechanical Allodynia and Enhances Analgesic Effect of Gabapentin in Animal Model of Neuropathic Pain.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wen-Jun; Yang, Fan; Yang, Fei; Sun, Wei; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Xiao-Liang; Wu, Fang-Fang; Wang, Jiang-Lin; Wang, Jia-Shuang; Guan, Su-Min; Chen, Jun

    2017-07-01

    In a 5-year follow-up study in a hospital in southern China, it was shown that intervertebral foramen (IVF) injection of ozone at the involved segmental levels could significantly alleviate paroxysmal spontaneous pain and mechanical allodynia in patients with chronic, intractable postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) and improve the quality of life. However, so far no proof-of-concept studies in animals have been available. This study was designed to investigate whether IVF ozone has an analgesic effect on animal models of neuropathic and inflammatory pain. Experimental trial in rats. Institute for Biomedical Sciences of Pain. By IVF injection, a volume of 50 µl containing 30 µg/mL ozone-oxygen mixture or 50 µl air was carried out on male Sprague-Dawley rats of naïve, inflammatory pain states produced by injections of either bee venom or complete Freud's adjuvant, and neuropathic pain state produced by spared nerve injury, respectively. The effects of IVF ozone on pain-related behaviors were evaluated for 2 weeks or one month. Then combined use of gabapentin (100 mg/1 kg body weight) with IVF ozone was evaluated in rats with neuropathic pain by intraperitoneal administration 5 days after the ozone treatment. Finally, the analgesic effects of another 4 drugs, AMD3100 (a CXCR4 antagonist), A-803467 (a selective Nav1.8 blocker), rapamycin (the mTOR inhibitor), and MGCD0103 (a selective histone deacetylase inhibitor) were evaluated for long term through IVF injection, respectively. (1) IVF injection of ozone at L4-5 was only effective in suppression of mechanical allodynia in rats with neuropathic pain but not with inflammatory pain; (2) the analgesic effects of IVF ozone lasted much longer (> 14 days) than other selective molecular target drugs (< 48 hours) inhibiting or antagonizing at Nav1.8 (A-803467), CXCR4 (AMD3100), mTOR (rapamycin), and histone deacetylase (MGCD0103); (3) combined use of systemic gabapentin and IVF ozone produced a synergistic analgesic effect in

  13. Effects of centrally acting analgesics on spinal segmental reflexes and wind-up.

    PubMed

    Mazo, I; Roza, C; Zamanillo, D; Merlos, M; Vela, J M; Lopez-Garcia, J A

    2015-08-01

    The spinal cord is a prime site of action for analgesia. Here we characterize the effects of established analgesics on segmental spinal reflexes. The aim of the study was to look for the pattern of action or signature of analgesic effects on these reflexes. We used a spinal cord in vitro preparation of neonate mice to record ventral root responses to dorsal root stimulation. Pregabalin, clonidine, morphine and duloxetine and an experimental sigma-1 receptor antagonist (S1RA) were applied to the preparation in a cumulative concentration protocol. Drug effects on the wind-up produced by repetitive stimulation of C-fibres and on responses to single A- and C-fibre intensity stimuli were analysed. All compounds produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of total spikes elicited by repetitive stimulation. Concentrations producing ∼50% reduction in this parameter were (in μM) clonidine (0.01), morphine (0.1), pregabalin (1), duloxetine (10) and S1RA (30). At these concentrations clonidine, pregabalin and S1RA had significant effects on the wind-up index and little depressant effects on responses to single stimuli. Morphine and duloxetine did not depress wind-up index and showed large effects on responses to single stimuli. None of the compounds had strong effects on the amplitude of the non-nociceptive monosynaptic reflex. morphine and duloxetine had general depressant effects on spinal reflexes, whereas the effects of clonidine, pregabalin and S1RA appeared to be restricted to signals originated by strong repetitive activation of C-fibres. Results are discussed in the context of reported behavioural effects of the compounds studied. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  14. (-)-Norpseudoephedrine, a metabolite of cathinone with amphetamine-like stimulus properties, enhances the analgesic and rate decreasing effects of morphine, but inhibits its discriminative properties.

    PubMed

    Nencini, P; Fraioli, S; Pascucci, T; Nucerito, C V

    1998-04-01

    Like psychomotor stimulants, a weak amphetamine-like agent, such as phenylpropanolamine, enhances the analgesic effects of morphine (MOR). Thus, it is possible that full psychomotor stimulant potency is not required to increase the analgesic action of opiates. The validity of this assumption is here tested by studying the ability of (-)-norpseudoephedrine (NPE), an enantiomer of phenylpropanolamine and a metabolite of cathinone, to influence both the analgesic effects of MOR and its discriminative stimulus properties. In mice NPE (5.6-10.0-17.0 mg/kg i.p.) did not prolong the latency to lick or to remove paws from a plate warmed at 54 degrees C. However, it significantly potentiated the analgesic effect of 3.2 mg/kg of MOR. These results were replicated in rats by use of the formalin test, which measures the numbers of hind paw flinches produced by injecting 50 microl of formalin into the dorsal surface of the paw. The higher dose of NPE (17 mg/kg) increased the effect of sub-analgesic doses of MOR (0.56 and 1.0 mg/kg). In rats trained to discriminate between 0.5 mg/kg of amphetamine and solvent in a two-lever operant behavior reinforced by water access. NPE induced a dose-dependent increment of drug lever responding from 0% at 1.0 mg/kg to 100% at 32.0 mg/kg. In contrast, NPE did not generalize for the MOR cue up to the dose of 56.0 mg/kg, which produced a substantial reduction of the response rate. However, when given in combination, NPE attenuated the discriminative effects of MOR and potentiated its inhibitory action on the response rate. These results exclude a direct action of NPE on the mu opiate system. In conclusion, NPE preserves amphetamine-like properties and these properties are probably responsible for the interaction of the drug with the analgesic and discriminative effects of MOR. Therefore, this study contradicts the assumption that the analgesic effects of MOR can be enhanced by a sympathomimetic drug that lacks significant psychostimulant actions.

  15. The impact of genetic variation on sensitivity to opioid analgesics in patients with postoperative pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhen-Yu; Xu, Xiao-Qing; Bao, Yan-Ping; He, Jie; Shi, Le; Deng, Jia-Hui; Gao, Xue-Jiao; Tang, Hui-Lin; Wang, Yu-Mei; Lu, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Individual response to opioid analgesics varies among patients. This study sought to clarify the impact of distinct genetic variations on pain, opioid consumption, and opioid side effects in patients with postoperative pain. A systematic review and meta-analysis of associations between genetic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and opioids used for acute postoperative pain. This meta-analysis examined all studies involving an association between genetic polymorphisms and the analgesic efficacy or clinical outcome of opioid analgesics for postoperative pain. A literature search was performed up to January 31, 2014, using the PubMed, EMBase, ISI Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases. Fifty-nine studies were included in this systematic review, and 23 studies (a total of 5,902 patients) were included in the final meta-analysis. The results showed that human μ-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) 118G allele variant carriers consumed more opioids for analgesia (SMD = -0.17, 95% CI = [-0.25, -0.10], P < 0.00001), but reported higher pain scores (MD = -0.11, 95% CI = [-0.17, -0.04], P = 0.002) and less nausea and vomiting (odds ratio = 1.30, 95% CI = [1.08, 1.55], P = 0.005) than the homozygous 118AA patients during the first 24 hour but not the 48 hour postoperative period. Moreover, CYP3A4*1G carriers consumed less opioids than homozygous CYP3A4*1/*1 patients during the first 24 hours postoperative period (MD = 45.12, 95% CI = [36.17, 54.06], P < 0.00001). No significant differences were found in CYP3A5*3, ABCB1 C3435T, and G2477T/A genetic polymorphisms. Some potential non-genetic factors can modify the effects of gene SNP on pain and opioid consumption during the postoperative period, such as age, gender, mood, anxiety, and drug-drug interactions. But further analyses could not be performed in the present meta-analysis due to limited information. The results indicate that among the genetic SNPs we studied which include those affecting analgesic drug metabolism

  16. Analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory effects of methanol, chloroform and ether extracts of Vernonia cinerea less leaf.

    PubMed

    Iwalewa, E O; Iwalewa, O J; Adeboye, J O

    2003-06-01

    The chloroform, methanolic and ether extracts of Vernonia cinerea (Asteraceae; Less) leaf (100, 200 and 400mg/kg intraperitoneally) were tested in: acetic acid-induced writhing in mice, carrageenin-induced oedema and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats to assess their analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and behavioral activities, respectively. The changes in writhings and behavioural activities in mice, the pyrexia and paw volumes in rats were reduced significantly (P<0.05) compared to the control. There was an increase in pain threshold on the oedematous right hind limb paw of the rats. These results indicate that the extracts could possess analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties. All these effects and the changes in the behavioural activities could be suggested as contributory effects to the use of V. cinerea leaf in the treatment of malaria.

  17. Aerosol Stable Peptide-Coated Liposome Nanoparticles: A Proof-of-Concept Study with Opioid Fentanyl in Enhancing Analgesic Effects and Reducing Plasma Drug Exposure

    PubMed Central

    HOEKMAN, JOHN D; SRIVASTAVA, PRAMOD; HO, RODNEY J Y

    2014-01-01

    Previous we reported a novel pressurized olfactory drug (POD) delivery device that deposit aerosolized drug preferentially to upper nasal cavity. This POD device provided sustained CNS levels of soluble morphine analgesic effects. However, analgesic onset of less soluble fentanyl was more rapid but brief, likely due to hydrophobic fentanyl redistribution readily back to blood. To determine whether fentanyl incorporated into an aerosol stable liposome that binds to nasal epithelial cells will enhance CNS drug exposure and analgesic effects and reduce plasma exposure, we constructed RGD liposomes anchored with acylated integrin binding peptides (palmitoyl-GRGDS). The RGD liposomes, which assume gel-phase membrane structure at 25°C were stable under the stress of aerosolization as only 2.2 ± 0.5 % calcein leakage detected. The RGD mediated integrin binding of liposome is also verified to be unaffected by aerosolization. Rats treated with fentanyl in RGD-liposome and POD device exhibited greater analgesic effect, compared to the free drug counterpart (AUCeffect = 1387.l vs. 760.1 %MPE*min); while ~20% reduced plasma drug exposure was noted (AUC0-120 = 208.2 vs 284.8 ng*min/ml). Collectively, fentanyl incorporated in RGD-liposomes are physically and biologically stable under aerosolization, enhanced the overall analgesic effects and reduced plasma drug exposure for the first 2 hours. PMID:24909764

  18. Emerging analgesic drugs for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Perez-Lloret, Santiago; Rey, María Verónica; Dellapina, Estelle; Pellaprat, Jean; Brefel-Courbon, Christine; Rascol, Olivier

    2012-06-01

    Pain affects between 40 and 85% of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. It is a frequently disabling and overlooked feature, which can significantly reduce health-related quality of life. Unfortunately, there are no universally recommended treatments for this condition. Evidence about the efficacy and safety of available analgesic treatments is summarized in this review. Potential targets for upcoming therapies are then discussed in light of what is currently known about the physiopathology of pain in PD. Protocols for efficacy and safety assessment of novel analgesic therapies are discussed. Finally, critical aspects of study protocol design such as patient selection or outcomes to be evaluated are discussed. Preliminary results indicate that duloxetine, cranial electrotherapy stimulation, rotigotine, subthalamic or pallidum nuclei stimulation or lesion or levodopa could be effective for treating pain in PD. Similarly, some case reports indicate that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) or apomorphine could be effective for relieving painful off-period dystonia. Clinical trials with rTMS or oxycodone/naloxone prolonged-release tablets for neuropathic pain or botulinum toxin for off-period dystonia are underway. Success of clinical trials about analgesic strategies in PD will depend on the selection of the right PD population to be treated, according to the type of pain, and the proper selection of study outcomes and follow-up of international recommendations.

  19. Correlation between the cumulative analgesic effect of electroacupuncture intervention and synaptic plasticity of hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus neurons in rats with sciatica☆

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qiuling; Liu, Tao; Chen, Shuping; Gao, Yonghui; Wang, Junying; Qiao, Lina; Liu, Junling

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, a rat model of chronic neuropathic pain was established by ligation of the sciatic nerve and a model of learning and memory impairment was established by ovariectomy to investigate the analgesic effect of repeated electroacupuncture stimulation at bilateral Zusanli (ST36) and Yanglingquan (GB34). In addition, associated synaptic changes in neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus were examined. Results indicate that the thermal pain threshold (paw withdrawal latency) was significantly increased in rats subjected to 2-week electroacupuncture intervention compared with 2-day electroacupuncture, but the analgesic effect was weakened remarkably in ovariectomized rats with chronic constrictive injury. 2-week electroacupuncture intervention substantially reversed the chronic constrictive injury-induced increase in the synaptic cleft width and thinning of the postsynaptic density. These findings indicate that repeated electroacupuncture at bilateral Zusanli and Yanglingquan has a cumulative analgesic effect and can effectively relieve chronic neuropathic pain by remodeling the synaptic structure of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. PMID:25206591

  20. [Analgesic efficacy and clinical safety of intraperitoneal instillation combined with rectus sheath block using ropivacaine for pain relief after laparoscopic gynecological surgery].

    PubMed

    Yakoshi, Chihiro; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Niwa, Hidetomo; Kitayama, Masatou; Kudo, Tsuyoshi; Kudo, Mihoko; Hirota, Kazuyoshi

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic efficacy and safety of rectus sheath block combined with intraperitoneal instillation using two doses of ropivacaine in patients undergoing laparoscopic gynecological surgery. Altogether 53 consenting women were randomized to receive intraperitoneal infiltration with 0.25% ropivacaine or 0.5% ropivacaine followed by rectus sheath block with 0.375% ropivacaine. The outcomes of clinical safety were measured using plasma concentration of local anesthetics and occurrence of toxic symptoms. The analgesic efficacy was assessed using numerical rating scales for pain and morphine consumption up to 24 hours after surgery. Patients' baseline characteristics, surgical factors, and analgesic outcomes were comparable between the two groups. Although peak plasma concentration of ropivacaine was significantly higher in patients receiving 0.5% ropivacaine, none of analyzed concentrations was above the toxic ones. Besides, no patients showed any symptoms of local anesthetic toxicity. The present study showed that the combination of rectus sheath block with intraperitoneal instillation of ropivacaine was safe and potent enough to relieve pain after laparoscopic surgery.

  1. The influence of women's attachment style on the chronobiology of labour pain, analgesic consumption and pharmacological effect.

    PubMed

    Costa-Martins, José Manuel; Pereira, Marco; Martins, Henriqueta; Moura-Ramos, Mariana; Coelho, Rui; Tavares, Jorge

    2014-07-01

    Circadian variation in biological rhythms has been identified as affecting both labour pain and the pharmacological properties of analgesics. In the context of pain, there is also a growing body of evidence suggesting the importance of adult attachment. The purpose of this study was to examine whether labour pain, analgesic consumption and pharmacological effect are significantly affected by the time of day and to analyse whether this circadian variation is influenced by women's attachment style. This prospective observational study included a sample of 81 pregnant women receiving patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA). Attachment was assessed with the Adult Attachment Scale - Revised. The perceived intensity of labour pain in the early stage of labour (3 cm of cervical dilatation and before the administration of PCEA) was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Pain was also indirectly assessed by measuring the consumption of anaesthetics. The latency period and the duration of effect were recorded for a chronopharmacology characterisation. Pain, as assessed with the VAS, was significantly higher in the night-time group than in the daytime group. An insecure attachment style was significantly associated with greater labour pain at 3 cm of cervical dilatation (p < 0.001) and before the beginning of analgesia (p < 0.001) as well as with higher analgesic consumption and lower pharmacological efficacy (p < 0.05). The time of day was significantly associated with the pharmacological effect: the latency period was longer at night, and the duration of the pharmacological effect was longer during the daytime. The interaction between time of day and attachment style was not significant for any of the study variables. Our results provide evidence of the importance of circadian variation in studying labour pain and the pharmacological effect of labour analgesia involving epidural blockage with a PCEA regimen. Moreover, although there was no

  2. Toward an effective peripheral visceral analgesic: responding to the national opioid crisis.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, Michael

    2018-06-01

    This minireiew summarizes recent new developments in visceral analgesics. This promising field is important, as a new approach to address abdominal pain with peripheral visceral analgesics is considered a key approach to addressing the current opioid crisis. Some of the novel compounds address peripheral pain mechanisms through modulation of opioid receptors via biased ligands, nociceptin/orphanin FQ opioid peptide (NOP) receptor, or dual action on NOP and μ-opioid receptor, buprenorphine and morphiceptin analogs. Other compounds target nonopioid mechanisms, including cannabinoid (CB2), N-methyl-d-aspartate, calcitonin gene-related peptide, estrogen, and adenosine A 2B receptors and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels (TRPV1, TRPV4, and TRPM8). Although current evidence is based predominantly on animal models of visceral pain, early human studies also support the evidence from the basic and animal research. This augurs well for the development of nonaddictive, visceral analgesics for treatment of chronic abdominal pain, an unmet clinical need.

  3. Characteristics of methadone maintenance treatment patients prescribed opioid analgesics.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Matthew C; Sohler, Nancy L; Starrels, Joanna L; Maradiaga, Jeronimo; Jost, John J; Arnsten, Julia H; Cunningham, Chinazo O

    2016-01-01

    Opioid analgesic use and disorders have dramatically increased among the general American population and those receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Most research among MMT patients focuses on opioid analgesics misuse or disorders; few studies focus on MMT patients prescribed opioid analgesics. We describe demographic, clinical, and substance use characteristics of MMT patients prescribed opioid analgesics and compare them with MMT patients not prescribed opioid analgesics. We conducted a cross-sectional secondary data analysis using screening interviews from a parent study. From 2012 to 2015, we recruited adults from 3 MMT Bronx clinics. Questionnaire data included patterns of opioid analgesic use, substance use, comorbid illnesses, and demographic characteristics. Our main dependent variable was patients' report of currently taking prescribed opioid analgesics. To compare characteristics between MMT patients prescribed and not prescribed opioid analgesics, we conducted chi-square tests, t tests, and Mann-Whitney U tests. Of 611 MMT patients, most reported chronic pain (62.0%), hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (52.1%), and current use of illicit substances (64.2%). Of the 29.8% who reported currently taking prescribed opioid analgesics, most misused their opioid analgesics (57.5%). Patients prescribed (versus not prescribed) opioid analgesics were more likely to report human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-2.3) and chronic pain (aOR = 7.6, 95% CI: 4.6-12.6). Among MMT patients primarily in 3 Bronx clinics, nearly one third reported taking prescribed opioid analgesics. Compared with patients not prescribed opioid analgesics, those prescribed opioid analgesics were more likely to report chronic pain and HIV infection. However, between these patients, there was no difference in illicit substance use. These findings highlight the complexity of addressing chronic pain in MMT patients.

  4. Characteristics of methadone maintenance treatment patients prescribed opioid analgesics

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Matthew C.; Sohler, Nancy L.; Starrels, Joanna L.; Maradiaga, Jeronimo; Jost, John J.; Arnsten, Julia H.; Cunningham, Chinazo O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Opioid analgesic use and disorders have dramatically increased among the general American population and those receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Most research among MMT patients focuses on opioid analgesics misuse or disorders; few studies focus on MMT patients prescribed opioid analgesics. We describe demographic, clinical, and substance use characteristics of MMT patients prescribed opioid analgesics and compare them to MMT patients not prescribed opioid analgesics. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional secondary data analysis using screening interviews from a parent study. From 2012–2015, we recruited adults from 3 MMT Bronx clinics. Questionnaire data included: patterns of opioid analgesic use, substance use, comorbid illnesses, and demographic characteristics. Our main dependent variable was patients’ report of currently taking prescribed opioid analgesics. To compare characteristics between MMT patients prescribed and not prescribed opioid analgesics, we conducted chi-squared tests, t-tests, and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results Of 611 MMT patients, most reported chronic pain (62.0%), HCV infection (52.1%), and currently using illicit substances (64.2%). Of the 29.8% who reported currently taking prescribed opioid analgesics, most misused their opioid analgesics (57.5%). Patients prescribed (versus not prescribed) opioid analgesics were more likely to report HIV infection (aOR=1.6, 95% CI: 1.1–2.3) and chronic pain (aOR=7.6, 95% CI: 4.6–12.6). Conclusion Among MMT patients primarily in three Bronx clinics, nearly one-third reported taking prescribed opioid analgesics. Compared to patients not prescribed opioid analgesics, those prescribed opioid analgesics were more likely to report chronic pain and HIV infection. However, between these patients, there was no difference in illicit substance use. These findings highlight the complexity of addressing chronic pain in MMT patients. PMID:26731299

  5. A Bacterial Toxin with Analgesic Properties: Hyperpolarization of DRG Neurons by Mycolactone.

    PubMed

    Song, Ok-Ryul; Kim, Han-Byul; Jouny, Samuel; Ricard, Isabelle; Vandeputte, Alexandre; Deboosere, Nathalie; Marion, Estelle; Queval, Christophe J; Lesport, Pierre; Bourinet, Emmanuel; Henrion, Daniel; Oh, Seog Bae; Lebon, Guillaume; Sandoz, Guillaume; Yeramian, Edouard; Marsollier, Laurent; Brodin, Priscille

    2017-07-18

    Mycolactone, a polyketide molecule produced by Mycobacterium ulcerans , is the etiological agent of Buruli ulcer. This lipid toxin is endowed with pleiotropic effects, presents cytotoxic effects at high doses, and notably plays a pivotal role in host response upon colonization by the bacillus. Most remarkably, mycolactone displays intriguing analgesic capabilities: the toxin suppresses or alleviates the pain of the skin lesions it inflicts. We demonstrated that the analgesic capability of mycolactone was not attributable to nerve damage, but instead resulted from the triggering of a cellular pathway targeting AT₂ receptors (angiotensin II type 2 receptors; AT₂R), and leading to potassium-dependent hyperpolarization. This demonstration paves the way to new nature-inspired analgesic protocols. In this direction, we assess here the hyperpolarizing properties of mycolactone on nociceptive neurons. We developed a dedicated medium-throughput assay based on membrane potential changes, and visualized by confocal microscopy of bis-oxonol-loaded Dorsal Root Ganglion (DRG) neurons. We demonstrate that mycolactone at non-cytotoxic doses triggers the hyperpolarization of DRG neurons through AT₂R, with this action being not affected by known ligands of AT₂R. This result points towards novel AT₂R-dependent signaling pathways in DRG neurons underlying the analgesic effect of mycolactone, with the perspective for the development of new types of nature-inspired analgesics.

  6. Antihyperalgesic/antinociceptive effects of ceftriaxone and its synergistic interactions with different analgesics in inflammatory pain in rodents.

    PubMed

    Stepanovic-Petrovic, Radica M; Micov, Ana M; Tomic, Maja A; Kovacevic, Jovana M; Boškovic, Bogdan D

    2014-03-01

    The β-lactam antibiotic ceftriaxone stimulates glutamate transporter GLT-1 expression and is effective in neuropathic and visceral pain models. This study examined the effects of ceftriaxone and its interactions with different analgesics (ibuprofen, celecoxib, paracetamol, and levetiracetam) in somatic and visceral pain models in rodents. The effects of ceftriaxone (intraperitoneally/intraplantarly), analgesics (orally), and their combinations were examined in the carrageenan-induced paw inflammatory hyperalgesia model in rats (n = 6-12) and in the acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice (n = 6-10). The type of interaction between ceftriaxone and analgesics was determined by isobolographic analysis. Pretreatment with intraperitoneally administered ceftriaxone (10-200 mg/kg per day) for 7 days produced a significant dose-dependent antihyperalgesia in the somatic inflammatory model. Acute administration of ceftriaxone, via either intraperitoneal (10-200 mg/kg) or intraplantar (0.05-0.2 mg per paw) routes, produced a significant and dose-dependent but less efficacious antihyperalgesia. In the visceral pain model, significant dose-dependent antinociception of ceftriaxone (25-200 mg/kg per day) was observed only after the 7-day pretreatment. Isobolographic analysis in the inflammatory hyperalgesia model revealed approximately 10-fold reduction of doses of both drugs in all examined combinations. In the visceral nociception model, more than 7- and 17-fold reduction of doses of both drugs was observed in combinations of ceftriaxone with ibuprofen/paracetamol and celecoxib/levetiracetam, respectively. Ceftriaxone exerts antihyperalgesia/antinociception in both somatic and visceral inflammatory pain. Its efficacy is higher after a 7-day pretreatment than after acute administration. The two-drug combinations of ceftriaxone and the nonsteroidal analgesics/levetiracetam have synergistic interactions in both pain models. These results suggest that ceftriaxone, particularly

  7. Novel polymeric bioerodable microparticles for prolonged-release intrathecal delivery of analgesic agents for relief of intractable cancer-related pain.

    PubMed

    Han, Felicity Y; Thurecht, Kristofer J; Lam, Ai-Leen; Whittaker, Andrew K; Smith, Maree T

    2015-07-01

    Intractable cancer-related pain complicated by a neuropathic component due to nerve impingement is poorly alleviated even by escalating doses of a strong opioid analgesic. To address this unmet medical need, we developed sustained-release, bioerodable, hydromorphone (potent strong opioid)- and ketamine (analgesic adjuvant)-loaded microparticles for intrathecal (i.t.) coadministration. Drug-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles were prepared using a water-in-oil-in-water method with evaporation. Encapsulation efficiency of hydromorphone and ketamine in PLGA (50:50) microparticles was 26% and 56%, respectively. Microparticles had the desired size range (20-60 μm) and in vitro release was prolonged at ≥28 days. Microparticles were stable for ≥6 months when stored refrigerated protected from light in a desiccator. Desirably, i.t. injected fluorescent dye-labeled PLGA microparticles in rats remained in the lumbar region for ≥7 days. In a rat model of neuropathic pain, i.t. coinjection of hydromorphone- and ketamine-loaded microparticles (each 1 mg) produced analgesia for 8 h only. Possible explanations include inadequate release of ketamine and/or hydromorphone into the spinal fluid, and/or insufficient ketamine loading to prevent development of analgesic tolerance to the released hydromorphone. As sub-analgesic doses of i.t. ketamine at 24-48 h intervals restored analgesia on each occasion, insufficient ketamine loading appears problematic. We will investigate these issues in future work. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  8. Compliance, analgesic use and side-effect protection within a German cohort of the TEAM trial.

    PubMed

    Bossart, Michaela; Becker, Meike; Hadji, Peyman; Kieback, Dirk G; Hasenburg, Annette

    2012-09-01

    Compliance is an essential aspect for the success of any medical intervention. Adverse events (AEs) contribute significantly to non-compliance with endocrine treatment. The Tamoxifen Exemestane Adjuvant Multinational (TEAM) trial compared five years of adjuvant exemestane therapy with the sequence of tamoxifen followed by exemestane. A retrospective analysis of the German cohort of TEAM was conducted to determine the effects of prior tamoxifen on the tolerability profile of exemestane in both treatment arms. Fracture incidence was significantly higher during the first 30 months of exemestane versus the 30 months of exemestane following tamoxifen for 2-3 years; however, the incidence of AEs was not significantly different. With regard to compliance, the use of analgesics did not influence overall or disease-free survival (DFS) nor the incidence of distant recurrence in both treatment groups. Tamoxifen has a boneprotective effect when applied before exemestane treatment. Intake of analgesics (or pain medication) does not influence compliance or treatment outcome.

  9. Analgesic effect of Minocycline in rat model of inflammation-induced visceral pain

    PubMed Central

    Kannampalli, Pradeep; Pochiraju, Soumya; Bruckert, Mitchell; Shaker, Reza; Banerjee, Banani; Sengupta, Jyoti N.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the analgesic effect of minocycline, a semi-synthetic tetracycline antibiotic, in a rat model of inflammation-induced visceral pain. Inflammation was induced in male rats by intracolonic administration of tri-nitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS). Visceral hyperalgesia was assessed by comparing the viscero-motor response (VMR) to graded colorectal distension (CRD) prior and post 7 days after TNBS treatment. Electrophysiology recordings from CRD-sensitive pelvic nerve afferents (PNA) and lumbo-sacral (LS) spinal neurons were performed in naïve and inflamed rats. Colonic inflammation produced visceral hyperalgesia characterized by increase in the VMRs to CRD accompanied with simultaneous activation of microglia in the spinal cord and satellite glial cells (SGCs) in the dorsal root ganglions (DRGs). Selectively inhibiting the glial activation following inflammation by araC (Arabinofuranosyl Cytidine) prevented the development of visceral hyperalgesia. Intrathecal minocycline significantly attenuated the VMR to CRD in inflamed rats, whereas systemic minocycline produced a delayed effect. In electrophysiology experiments, minocycline significantly attenuated the mechanotransduction of CRD-sensitive PNAs and the responses of CRD-sensitive LS spinal neurons in TNBS-treated rats. While the spinal effect of minocycline was observed within 5 min of administration, systemic injection of the drug produced a delayed effect (60 min) in inflamed rats. Interestingly, minocycline did not exhibit analgesic effect in naïve, non-inflamed rats. The results demonstrate that intrathecal injection of minocycline can effectively attenuate inflammation-induced visceral hyperalgesia. Minocycline might as well act on neuronal targets in the spinal cord of inflamed rats, in addition to the widely reported glial inhibitory action to produce analgesia. PMID:24485889

  10. Analgesic effect of bupivacaine on extraperitoneal laparoscopic hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Saff, G N; Marks, R A; Kuroda, M; Rozan, J P; Hertz, R

    1998-08-01

    Local anesthetics decrease postoperative pain when placed at the surgical site. Patients benefit from laparoscopic extraperitoneal hernia repair because this allows earlier mobilization than the more classical open surgical approach. The purpose of this study was to determine the pain-sparing efficacy of local anesthetics placed in the preperitoneal fascial plane during extraperitoneal laparoscopic inguinal hernia surgery. Forty-two outpatients were included in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, institutional review board-approved study. At the conclusion of a standardized general anesthetic, 21 patients received 60 mL of 0.125% bupivacaine into the preperitoneal fascial plane before incisional closure, whereas the other 21 patients received 60 mL of the isotonic sodium chloride solution placebo. Postoperative pain was assessed 1, 4, 8, 24, and 72 h postoperatively. In addition, postoperative fentanyl and outpatient acetaminophen 500 mg/hydrocodone 5 mg requirements were recorded. All hernia repairs were performed by the same surgeon. Appropriate statistical analyses were used. There were no significant differences between the bupivacaine and isotonic sodium chloride solution groups with regard to postoperative pain scores, length of postanesthesia care unit stay, or analgesic requirements. Furthermore, neither unilateral versus bilateral repair nor operative time affected the measured parameters. The addition of 60 mL of 0.125% bupivacaine into the preperitoneal fascial plane during extraperitoneal laparoscopic hernia repair did not significantly alter pain scores, supplementary analgesic requirements, or recovery room length of stay. The placement of 60 mL of 0.125% bupivacaine into the preperitoneal fascial plane during extraperitoneal laparoscopic hernia repair did not significantly alter pain scores, supplementary analgesic requirements, or recovery room length of stay.

  11. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of podophyllotoxin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Estela; Abad, Andrés; Montenegro, Gisela; Del Olmo, Esther; López-Pérez, José Luis; San Feliciano, Arturo

    2013-05-01

    Podophyllotoxin is a natural product that inhibits the polymerization of tubulin and has served as a prototype for the development of diverse antitumor agents in clinical use, such as etoposide, teniposide and etopophos. Reumacon, another semisynthetic derivative, reached its clinical phase for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This study investigated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of three compound derivatives from podophyllotoxin. During a phytochemical study performed on Juniperus thurifera Linne (Cupressaceae) leaves, among other products, several cyclolignans, such as podophyllotoxin, deoxypodophyllotoxin, deoxypicropodophyllotoxin and thuriferic acid were isolated. These compounds, obtained afterwards through semisynthesis, were assayed as analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents. Additionally, the cytotoxic activity of thuriferic acid was evaluated in three cancer cell lines, P-388, A-549 and HT-29, and these data were compared with previous cytotoxicity results obtained for the other three compounds. Analgesic activity results showed that deoxypicropodophyllin is as effective as deoxypodophyllotoxin to inhibit nociceptive perception induced by acetic acid in mice (77.8% ± 4.1% and 71.3% ± 6.5%, respectively), while its cytotoxicity [1.01 × 10(-7) (GI50 M)] is 100-fold less. Other set of experiments showed that thuriferic acid, a derivative of podophyllotoxin a thousand times less citotoxic [1.21 × 10(-5) (GI50 M)] than deoxypodophyllotoxin, caused significant inhibition of paw edema development in the carrageenan-induced inflammation test (63.4% ± 3.3%), effect comparable to those of deoxypodophyllotoxin (66.3% ± 4.4%), and the standard drug indomethacin (61.5% ± 2.5%). We conclude that deoxypicropodophyllotoxin and thuriferic acid are effective in reducing edema formation. However, deoxypicropodophyllin is more related with analgesic activity than anti-inflammatory effect.

  12. [Pain patients in street traffic. Do analgesics impair driving safety?].

    PubMed

    Sohn, W

    2003-06-05

    Analgesics--in particular when self-prescribed or taken over the long term--may have a negative effect on safety on the road. This applies not only to vehicle drivers, but also to cyclists and pedestrians. Psychotropic effects of analgesics of all three WHO categories play a major causal role. Impairments may take the form of sleepiness, impaired vision, giddiness, loss of muscular tone or cardiovascular reactions. On the other hand, untreated severe pain has a high risk potential, since it may reduce both cognitive and psychomotoric performance. During the stabilization phase or dose adjustment of opioids, the patient must cautioned not to drive, and particular care must be taken in patients on concomitant or long-term medication or drinking excessive alcohol. In the last resort, the prescription of an analgesic is an individual decision involving both physician and patient.

  13. The effect of stimulus frequency on the analgesic response to percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in patients with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Ghoname, E S; Craig, W F; White, P F; Ahmed, H E; Hamza, M A; Gajraj, N M; Vakharia, A S; Noe, C E

    1999-04-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common medical problems in our society. Increasingly, patients are turning to nonpharmacologic analgesic therapies such as percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (PENS). We designed this sham-controlled study to compare the effect of three different frequencies of electrical stimulation on the analgesic response to PENS therapy. Sixty-eight consenting patients with LBP secondary to degenerative lumbar disc disease were treated with PENS therapy at 4 Hz, alternating 15 Hz and 30 Hz (15/30 Hz), and 100 Hz, as well as sham-PENS (0 Hz), according to a randomized, cross-over study design. Each treatment was administered for a period of 30 min three times per week for 2 wk. The pre- and posttreatment assessments included the health status survey short form and visual analog scales for pain, physical activity, and quality of sleep. After receiving all four treatments, patients completed a global assessment questionnaire. The sham-PENS treatments failed to produce changes in the degree of pain, physical activity, sleep quality, or daily intake of oral analgesic medications. In contrast, 4-Hz, 15/30-Hz, and 100-Hz stimulation all produced significant decreases in the severity of pain, increases in physical activity, improvements in the quality of sleep, and decreases in oral analgesic requirements (P < 0.01). Of the three frequencies, 15/30 Hz was the most effective in decreasing pain, increasing physical activity, and improving the quality of sleep (P < 0.05). In the global assessment, 40% of the patients reported that 15/30 Hz was the most desirable therapy, and it was also more effective in improving the patient's sense of well-being. We conclude that the frequency of electrical stimulation is an important determinant of the analgesic response to PENS therapy. Alternating stimulation at 15-Hz and 30-Hz frequencies was more effective than either 4 Hz or 100 Hz in improving outcome measures in patients with LBP. The frequency of

  14. Absence of the preemptive analgesic effect of dextromethorphan in total knee replacement under epidural anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Yeh, C C; Ho, S T; Kong, S S; Wu, C T; Wong, C S

    2000-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that dextromethorphan (DM), a N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, produces a preemptive analgesic effect on post-operative pain. The aim of this study was to further examine the preemptive analgesic effect of intramuscular (i.m.) DM injection on unilateral total knee replacement (TKR). Sixty-four ASA I-III patients scheduled for unilateral TKR surgery were randomly allocated into three groups in a prospective double-blind manner. All patients received epidural anesthesia without any premedication. An initial bolus dose of 2% lidocaine (15-20 mL) followed by a maintenance dose of 8-10 mL/h was decided. Fentanyl (1.5 micrograms/kg) and diazepam (2 mg) were given i.v. before epidural catheter insertion. The epidural catheter was placed via the L2-L3 or L3-L4 interspace and advanced for 5 cm cephalad [corrected]. Patients received i.m. injection of 20 mg chlorpheniramine (CPM) before surgery as control (group C, n = 22). For the study groups, patients were given an i.m. injection containing 40 mg DM and 20 mg CPM, before (group B, n = 22) or after surgery (group A, n = 20), respectively. Postoperation, patients received intravenous morphine by means of a patient controlled analgesia (PCA) device for pain relief. The time to the first pull of PCA trigger, morphine consumption, worse pain scores (resting and incidental), and analgesics related side effects were recorded at 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48 and 72 h after surgery. The time from the end of operation to the first PCA trigger were 31.2 +/- 5.2 min in group C, 67.3 +/- 11.1 min in group B (P < 0.05, compared with group C) and 61.8 +/- 7.2 min in group A (P < 0.05, compared with group C) respectively. The relevant pain score at resting, observed at the 8 h postoperatively was respectively 4.2 +/- 0.1 in group C, 3.7 +/- 0.2 in group B (P < 0.05, compared with group C) and 3.4 +/- 0.2 in group A (P < 0.05, compared with group C); and at the 24 h was 3.1 +/- 0.2 in group C, 2.4 +/- 0

  15. [Analgesic abuse and psychiatric comorbidity in headache patients].

    PubMed

    Radat, F; Irachabal, S; Swendsen, J; Henry, P

    2002-01-01

    Headache patients frequently overuse analgesic medications: 20% of the patients from headache centers is concerned by this problem, which has been estimated to occur in four percent of the community migrainers. Frequent use of various types of headache medication may paradoxically cause an increase in headache attack frequency as well as their chronicisation due to potentially complex mechanisms of sensitization. Patients will enter into a self- perpetuating cycle of daily headaches and use of symptomatic medications which can lead to addiction and to social and occupational impairement. Indeed, many patients will experience pharmacological tolerance and dependence but also by some kind of craving. International Headache Society qualify these patients as abusers referring mostly to the amount of substance ingested. Hence patients are labelled analgesic abusers . However, as many of these analgesic medications contained psychotropic substances (i.e. caffeine, codeine.), these patients may fulfill DSM IV criteria of dependance. Nevertheless, the dependance criteria should be adapted to chronic pain patients. Indeed, if pharmacological dependence and tolerance criteria are easy to apply in such patients, it is not the case for the criteria a great deal of time spent to obtain substances, to use substances or to recover from substances effects . As analgesic medications are legally obtained from medical practitioners, drug seeking behaviours are mostly: obtaining medications from multiple providers, repeating episodes of prescription loss and multiplying requests for early refills. Moreover the detrimental effects of analgesic abuse on psychosocial functioning is likely to be related to pain rather than to medication overuse. Finally the best indicator of addictive behaviors in such patients, is the loss of control over the use of analgesic medication despite the adverse consequences over pain. Comorbidity with addiction to other substances has never been specifically

  16. Analgesic efficacy of preoperative dexketoprofen trometamol: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Esparza-Villalpando, Vicente; Pozos-Guillén, Amaury; Masuoka-Ito, David; Gaitán-Fonseca, César; Chavarría-Bolaños, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    Post-Market Research Clinical evidence supports the use of dexketoprofen trometamol (DEX) to manage acute postoperative pain. However, controversies surround the impact of the use of this drug in preoperative analgesic protocols. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to evaluate the effectiveness of the preoperative administration of DEX under postoperative pain conditions. Electronic and manual searches were conducted through diverse electronic databases. A systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of the preoperative administration of DEX was performed including Randomized Clinical Trials (RCTs) published between 2002 and 2017. Suitable individual studies were evaluated through a quality system, and the data were extracted and analyzed. Fourteen RTCs were included (12 parallel trials and 2 cross-over trials), published in the English and Turkish languages. Follow-up periods ranged from 4, 6, 8, 24, and 48 hr. All trials measured the outcome result as Acute Pain Level (APL) (VAS, NRS, VRS), time to requiring a second dose of DEX or analgesic emergency and consumption of opioids via patient-controlled analgesia. When the comparators were other drugs - paracetamol, Lornoxicam or placebo during the preoperative time, preoperative administration of DEX was superior. When the comparison comprised preoperative and postoperative DEX, both alternatives exhibited comparable analgesic effects. The analgesic efficacy of the preoperative administration of DEX when compared to placebo, lornoxicam, and paracetamol on postoperative pain was evident. Preoperative administration of DEX compared to its immediate postoperative administration showed a similar analgesic effect. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Letter: The clinical course of patients with analgesic nephropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Gault, M. H.

    1975-01-01

    Thirty-four patients with analgesic nephropathy were followed at intervals of 1 to 3 months with measurements of creatinine clearance and serum concentration of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) for a total of 105 patient-years. Diagnostic criteria included total consumption of at least 2 kg of phenacetin and 3 kg of ASA, compatible tissue abnormality on biopsy and evidence of papillary necrosis on an intravenous pyelogram. Nephropathy was induced by the same compound analgesic containing ASA, pehnacetin, caffeine and codeine (APC&C) in 30. Phenacetin was removed from this preparation in 1970 and replaced by an approximately equal amount of ASA (ACC). Creatinine clearance remained unchanged or improved in 11 of 15 patients who stopped taking analgesics containing phenacetin or ASA and in 10 of 11 of those who continued to take the ACC preparation. In contrast, renal function deteriorated in seven of eight patients who continued to abuse APC&C analgesics. The results suggest that phenacetin is necessary for the major nephrotoxic effect of this APC&C combination, but that ASA is not absolved of some nephrotoxicity. PMID:1139519

  18. [Analgesic effects of ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists MK-801 and NBQX on collagen-induced arthritis rats].

    PubMed

    Zhu, H; Zhu, R; Deng, Z D; Feng, Y C; Shen, H L

    2016-12-18

    The ionotropic glutamate receptorantagonists include two types: MK-801, antagonist of N-methyl-D-asparticacid (NMDA) receptor, and NBQX, antagonist of non-NMDA receptor.The above-mentioned ionotropic antagonists can block the glutamate and its corresponding receptor binding to produce analgesic effect. The objective of this research was to study two antagonists in analgesic effect on rat behavior,as well as to investigate the down-regulation and up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and Janus-activated kinase (Jak3) in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rat serum and tissue fluid after the application of these antagonists, that is, the effect on molecular biology. This study used the ionotropic glutamate receptors as the target and established CIA rat model. Vivo studies were used to observe changes in behavior and molecular biology of the CIA rat.Behavioral assessment includedmechanical allodynia and joint swelling in the CIA rat,where themechanical allodynia was measured using the paw-withdrawal threshold (PWT) with VonFrey filaments according to the "Up-Down" method,and the drainage volume was used to assess joint swelling. Then the blood samples taken from the heart of the rat and the tissue homogenate were collected to detect the down-regulation and up-regulation of COX-2 and Jak3 in the serum and tissue fluid after the antagonists wereused. Using MK-801, NBQX alone or using the combination of these two antagonists,these three methods all could alleviate pain(P<0.01).The analgesic effect lasted more than 24 h.Both antagonists reached the peak of analgesia at the end of 4 hours post-injection. NBQX had stronger analgesic effect than MK-801 (P<0.05).Whether alone or combined use of these two antagonists,could not change the CIA rats' swelling of the joint (P>0.05). MK-801 could decrease the expression of COX-2 (P<0.01).At the same time, NBQX did not have this effect (P>0.05). Using MK-801, NBQX alone or combination of these two antagonists could not affect the

  19. Tetrodotoxin, an Extremely Potent Marine Neurotoxin: Distribution, Toxicity, Origin and Therapeutical Uses

    PubMed Central

    Lago, Jorge; Rodríguez, Laura P.; Blanco, Lucía; Vieites, Juan Manuel; Cabado, Ana G.

    2015-01-01

    Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin responsible for many human intoxications and fatalities each year. The origin of TTX is unknown, but in the pufferfish, it seems to be produced by endosymbiotic bacteria that often seem to be passed down the food chain. The ingestion of contaminated pufferfish, considered the most delicious fish in Japan, is the usual route of toxicity. This neurotoxin, reported as a threat to human health in Asian countries, has spread to the Pacific and Mediterranean, due to the increase of temperature waters worldwide. TTX, for which there is no known antidote, inhibits sodium channel producing heart failure in many cases and consequently death. In Japan, a regulatory limit of 2 mg eq TTX/kg was established, although the restaurant preparation of “fugu” is strictly controlled by law and only chefs qualified are allowed to prepare the fish. Due to its paralysis effect, this neurotoxin could be used in the medical field as an analgesic to treat some cancer pains. PMID:26492253

  20. [Analgesic efficacy of magnetoledotherapy in patients with low back pain syndromes].

    PubMed

    Krukowska, Jolanta; Woldańska-Okońska, Marta; Jankowska, Katarzyna; Kwiecień-Czerwieniec, Ilona; Czernicki, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Low back pain syndromes most often occur due to overloading of the musculoskeletal system. The cause is a frequent, improper lifting of heavy objects, most commonly by those working physically, with repetitive movements of bending and straightening of the trunk (turning and bending with load). This problem affects not only adults but also children and adolescents. There is a growing interest in new forms of analgesic therapy nowadays, especially in those that exhibit synergistic therapeutic effects. The aim of this work is to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of magnetoledotherapy in patients with lumbar--sacrum spinal pain syndromes caused by joints degenerative changes. The examination was carried out in 66 patients of both sexes aged 30 to 76 (average 54.7 +/- 13.8) with low back pain syndrome caused by spinal degenerative changes. The patients were divided into three groups according to the applied analgesic therapy (magnetoledotherapy, magnetostimulation, TENS currents). Level of pain has been evaluated four times in all patients--before the start of therapy and after 5, 10 and 15 applications with the use of the modified Laitinen Questionnaire and Visual-Analoque Scale (VAS). Post therapy levels of pain in the studied patients decreased significantly. According to Laitinen questionnaire, the greatest improvement was observed in the group treated with magnetoledotherapy and TENS currents and the smallest improvement was observed in the group treated with magnetostimulation. 1. Magnetoledotherapy shows significant analgesic efficacy in patients with low back pain syndrome and shows no side effects. 2. Concurrent application of both the infrared radiation generated by LED's and magnetostimulation synergistically reinforces analgesic effect in patients with low back pain syndrome, especially in level of pain and frequency of its occurrence, which results in the increase of movement activity and decrease in administration of analgesics.

  1. Comparison of the analgesic effects of robenacoxib, buprenorphine and their combination in cats after ovariohysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Staffieri, F; Centonze, P; Gigante, G; De Pietro, L; Crovace, A

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the postoperative analgesic effects of robenacoxib and buprenorphine alone or in combination, in cats after ovariohysterectomy. Thirty healthy cats were randomly assigned to receive buprenorphine (0.02 mg/kg, n=10; GB), robenacoxib (2mg/kg, n=10; GR) or their combination at the same dosages (n=10; GBR) SC. After 30 min cats were sedated with an IM administration of medetomidine (0.02 mg/kg) and ketamine (5mg/kg). General anaesthesia was induced with propofol and after intubation was maintained with isoflurane. Before premedication and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24h after extubation, pain and sedation were assessed using a simple descriptive pain scale, ranging from 0 (no pain/no sedation) to 4 (intense pain/ deep sedation). If the pain score was ≥ 3, rescue analgesia was provided using buprenorphine (0.02 mg/kg) administered IM. Pain score was higher in GB at 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8h compared to baseline and compared to GBR at the same study times. Moreover, the pain score was also higher in GB compared to GR at 2, 3, 4 and 6h. Pain score was similar at all study times between GR and GBR. Sedation at 1 and 2h was higher than baseline values in all groups. Cats in GB received rescue analgesia more often than cats assigned to GR or GBR. Robenacoxib was an effective analgesic drug in cats up to 24h after ovariohysterectomy. The addition of buprenorphine did not provide any additional analgesic effects compared to robenacoxib alone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Potent anti-seizure effects of D-leucine

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Adam L.; Santos, Polan; O’Riordan, Kenneth J.; Stafstrom, Carl E.; Hardwick, J. Marie

    2015-01-01

    There are no effective treatments for millions of patients with intractable epilepsy. High-fat ketogenic diets may provide significant clinical benefit but are challenging to implement. Low carbohydrate levels appear to be essential for the ketogenic diet to work, but the active ingredients in dietary interventions remain elusive, and a role for ketogenesis has been challenged. A potential antiseizure role of dietary protein or of individual amino acids in the ketogenic diet is understudied. We investigated the two exclusively ketogenic amino acids, L-leucine and L-lysine, and found that only L-leucine potently protects mice when administered prior to the onset of seizures induced by kainic acid injection, but not by inducing ketosis. Unexpectedly, the D-enantiomer of leucine, which is found in trace amounts in the brain, worked as well or better than L-leucine against both kainic acid and 6 Hz electroshock-induced seizures. However, unlike L-leucine, D-leucine potently terminated seizures even after the onset of seizure activity. Furthermore, D-leucine, but not L-leucine, reduced long-term potentiation but had no effect on basal synaptic transmission in vitro. In a screen of candidate neuronal receptors, D-leucine failed to compete for binding by cognate ligands, potentially suggesting a novel target. Even at low doses, D-leucine suppressed ongoing seizures at least as effectively as diazepam but without sedative effects. These studies raise the possibility that D-leucine may represent a new class of anti-seizure agents, and that D-leucine may have a previously unknown function in eukaryotes. PMID:26054437

  3. Effect of music on labor pain relief, anxiety level and postpartum analgesic requirement: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Simavli, Serap; Gumus, Ilknur; Kaygusuz, Ikbal; Yildirim, Melahat; Usluogullari, Betul; Kafali, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    The control of labor pain and the prevention of suffering are major concerns of clinicians and their patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of music on labor pain and anxiety, maternal hemodynamics, fetal-neonatal parameters and postpartum analgesic requirement in primiparous women. Overall, 156 primiparous women who expected vaginal delivery were recruited and randomly assigned to a music group (n = 77) or a control group (n = 79). Women in the music group listened to music during labor. Pain intensity and anxiety level were measured using a visual analogue scale (0-10 cm). The two groups were compared in terms of pain severity, anxiety level, maternal hemodynamics, fetal-neonatal parameters and postpartum analgesic requirement. Mothers in the music therapy group had a lower level of pain and anxiety compared with those in the control group at all stages of labor (p < 0.001). A significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of maternal hemodynamics and fetal heart rate after intervention (p < 0.01). Postpartum analgesic requirement significantly decreased in the music therapy group (p < 0.01). Listening to music during labor has a positive impact on labor pain and anxiety, maternal-fetal parameters and analgesic requirement. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. A Bacterial Toxin with Analgesic Properties: Hyperpolarization of DRG Neurons by Mycolactone

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ok-Ryul; Kim, Han-Byul; Jouny, Samuel; Ricard, Isabelle; Vandeputte, Alexandre; Deboosere, Nathalie; Marion, Estelle; Queval, Christophe J.; Lesport, Pierre; Henrion, Daniel; Oh, Seog Bae; Lebon, Guillaume; Sandoz, Guillaume; Yeramian, Edouard; Marsollier, Laurent; Brodin, Priscille

    2017-01-01

    Mycolactone, a polyketide molecule produced by Mycobacterium ulcerans, is the etiological agent of Buruli ulcer. This lipid toxin is endowed with pleiotropic effects, presents cytotoxic effects at high doses, and notably plays a pivotal role in host response upon colonization by the bacillus. Most remarkably, mycolactone displays intriguing analgesic capabilities: the toxin suppresses or alleviates the pain of the skin lesions it inflicts. We demonstrated that the analgesic capability of mycolactone was not attributable to nerve damage, but instead resulted from the triggering of a cellular pathway targeting AT2 receptors (angiotensin II type 2 receptors; AT2R), and leading to potassium-dependent hyperpolarization. This demonstration paves the way to new nature-inspired analgesic protocols. In this direction, we assess here the hyperpolarizing properties of mycolactone on nociceptive neurons. We developed a dedicated medium-throughput assay based on membrane potential changes, and visualized by confocal microscopy of bis-oxonol-loaded Dorsal Root Ganglion (DRG) neurons. We demonstrate that mycolactone at non-cytotoxic doses triggers the hyperpolarization of DRG neurons through AT2R, with this action being not affected by known ligands of AT2R. This result points towards novel AT2R-dependent signaling pathways in DRG neurons underlying the analgesic effect of mycolactone, with the perspective for the development of new types of nature-inspired analgesics. PMID:28718822

  5. Effect of preoperative oral analgesics on pulpal anesthesia in patients with irreversible pulpitis-a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shirvani, Armin; Shamszadeh, Sayna; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar; Marvasti, Laleh Alim; Asgary, Saeed

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the efficacy of preemptive oral administration of single dose of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and acetaminophen on the local anesthetic success in adults with irreversible pulpitis and to find the possible covariates that could predict treatment effect. A systematic search using electronic databases up to March 2015 was conducted. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using random and fixed-effect inverse variance method. Subgroup and meta-regression analyses were conducted to assess the potential source of heterogeneity. Results showed that preemptive analgesics are more effective than placebo in increasing anesthetic success (OR = 0.30, CI% 0.24-0.39, p = 0.000) [Q = 55.860 (p = 0.001)]. In the subgroup analysis, administration of NSAIDs as monotherapy, ibuprofen as mono- vs. combination therapy, oxicam type drugs as monotherapy, and acetaminophen as combination therapy were significantly more effective in increasing anesthetic success OR = 0.25, CI% 0.16-0.38, p = 0.00, Q = 40.539 (p = 0.003); OR = 0.44, CI% 0.26-0.75, p = 0.00, Q = 12.833 (p = 0.011); OR = 0.48, CI% 0.30-0.74, p = 0.002, Q = 15.898 (p = 0.14); OR = 0.30, CI% 0.16-0.38, p = 0.001, Q = 7.506 (p = 0.02); OR = 0.10, CI% 0.16 0.38, p = 0.001, Q = 5.075 (p = 0.07), respectively. However, there was no significant difference in increasing anesthetic success between treatment and placebo arms when acetaminophen was administrated alone. In meta-regression analysis, an association between different types of NSAIDs (indomethacin, diclofenac potassium, and oxicam-type drugs) and articaine with treatment effect was observed. The administration of preemptive analgesics can induce superior intraoperative analgesia for patients with irreversible pulpitis. However, strategies such as co-administration of certain types of analgesics and anesthetic solution might be predictors

  6. Clinical pharmacology of analgesics assessed with human experimental pain models: bridging basic and clinical research

    PubMed Central

    Oertel, Bruno Georg; Lötsch, Jörn

    2013-01-01

    The medical impact of pain is such that much effort is being applied to develop novel analgesic drugs directed towards new targets and to investigate the analgesic efficacy of known drugs. Ongoing research requires cost-saving tools to translate basic science knowledge into clinically effective analgesic compounds. In this review we have re-examined the prediction of clinical analgesia by human experimental pain models as a basis for model selection in phase I studies. The overall prediction of analgesic efficacy or failure of a drug correlated well between experimental and clinical settings. However, correct model selection requires more detailed information about which model predicts a particular clinical pain condition. We hypothesized that if an analgesic drug was effective in an experimental pain model and also a specific clinical pain condition, then that model might be predictive for that particular condition and should be selected for development as an analgesic for that condition. The validity of the prediction increases with an increase in the numbers of analgesic drug classes for which this agreement was shown. From available evidence, only five clinical pain conditions were correctly predicted by seven different pain models for at least three different drugs. Most of these models combine a sensitization method. The analysis also identified several models with low impact with respect to their clinical translation. Thus, the presently identified agreements and non-agreements between analgesic effects on experimental and on clinical pain may serve as a solid basis to identify complex sets of human pain models that bridge basic science with clinical pain research. PMID:23082949

  7. Screening of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities

    PubMed Central

    Shreedhara, C.S.; Vaidya, V.P.; Vagdevi, H.M.; Latha, K.P.; Muralikrishna, K.S.; Krupanidhi, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Ethanol extract of the stem of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. was subjected to analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in animal models. Materials and Methods: Albino Wistar rats and mice were the experimental animals respectively. Different CNS depressant paradigms like analgesic activity (determined by Eddy's hot plate method and acetic acid writhing method) and anti-inflammatory activity determined by carrageenan induced paw edema using plethysmometer in albino rats) were carried out, following the intra-peritoneal administration of ethanol extract of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. (BP) at the dose level of 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg. Results: The analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extracts of BP were significant (P < 0.001). The maximum analgesic effect was observed at 120 min at the dose of 100 mg/kg (i.p.) and was comparable to that of standard analgin (150 mg/kg) and the percentage of edema inhibition effect was 46.4% and 77% for 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg (i.p) respectively. Anti-inflammatory activity was compared with standard Diclofenac sodium (5 mg/kg). Conclusion: Ethanol extract of Bauhinia purpurea has shown significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities at the dose of 100 mg/kg and was comparable with corresponding standard drugs. The activity was attributed to the presence of phytoconstituents in the tested extract. PMID:20336222

  8. Overexpression of GDNF in the uninjured DRG exerts analgesic effects on neuropathic pain following segmental spinal nerve ligation in mice.

    PubMed

    Takasu, Kumiko; Sakai, Atsushi; Hanawa, Hideki; Shimada, Takashi; Suzuki, Hidenori

    2011-11-01

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), a survival-promoting factor for a subset of nociceptive small-diameter neurons, has been shown to exert analgesic effects on neuropathic pain. However, its detailed mechanisms of action are still unknown. In the present study, we investigated the site-specific analgesic effects of GDNF in the neuropathic pain state using lentiviral vector-mediated GDNF overexpression in mice with left fifth lumbar (L5) spinal nerve ligation (SNL) as a neuropathic pain model. A lentiviral vector expressing both GDNF and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was constructed and injected into the left dorsal spinal cord, uninjured fourth lumbar (L4) dorsal root ganglion (DRG), injured L5 DRG, or plantar skin of mice. In SNL mice, injection of the GDNF-EGFP-expressing lentivirus into the dorsal spinal cord or uninjured L4 DRG partially but significantly reduced the mechanical allodynia in association with an increase in GDNF protein expression in each virus injection site, whereas injection into the injured L5 DRG or plantar skin had no effects. These results suggest that GDNF exerts its analgesic effects in the neuropathic pain state by acting on the central terminals of uninjured DRG neurons and/or on the spinal cells targeted by the uninjured DRG neurons. This article shows that GDNF exerts its analgesic effects on neuropathic pain by acting on the central terminals of uninjured DRG neurons and/or on the spinal cells targeted by these neurons. Therefore, research focusing on these GDNF-dependent neurons in the uninjured DRG would provide a new strategy for treating neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2011 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The evidence of neuraxial administration of analgesics for cancer-related pain: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kurita, G P; Benthien, K S; Nordly, M; Mercadante, S; Klepstad, P; Sjøgren, P

    2015-10-01

    The present systematic review analysed the existing evidence of analgesic efficacy and side effects of opioids without and with adjuvant analgesics delivered by neuraxial route (epidural and subarachnoid) in adult patients with cancer. Search strategy was elaborated with words related to cancer, pain, neuraxial route, analgesic and side effects. The search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane for the period until February 2014. Studies were analysed according to methods, results, quality of evidence, and strength of recommendation. The number of abstracts retrieved was 2147, and 84 articles were selected for full reading. The final selection comprised nine articles regarding randomised controlled trials (RCTs) divided in four groups: neuraxial combinations of opioid and adjuvant analgesic compared with neuraxial administration of opioid alone (n = 4); single neuraxial drug in bolus compared with continuous administration (n = 2); single neuraxial drug compared with neuraxial placebo (n = 1); and neuraxial opioid combined with or without adjuvant analgesic compared with other comprehensive medical management than neuraxial analgesics (n = 2). The RCTs presented clinical and methodological diversity that precluded a meta-analysis. They also presented several limitations, which reduced study internal validity. However, they demonstrated better pain control for all interventions analysed. Side effects were described, but there were few significant differences in favour of the tested interventions. Heterogeneous characteristics and several methodological limitations of the studies resulted in evidence of low quality and a weak recommendation for neuraxial administration of opioids with or without adjuvant analgesics in adult patients with cancer. © 2015 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Identification and Functional Characterization of a Stable, Centrally Active Derivative of the Neurotensin (8–13) Fragment as a Potential First-in-Class Analgesic

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Francis M.; Shaner, Brooke E.; May, Lisa A.; Zotian, Lyndsay; Brower, Justin O.; Woods, R. Jeremy; Cash, Michael; Morrow, Dustin; Massa, Fabienne; Mazella, Jean; Dix, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    The neurotensin hexapapetide fragment NT(8–13) is a potent analgesic when administered directly to the central nervous system, but does not cross the blood brain barrier. A total of 43 novel derivatives of NT(8–13) were evaluated with one, ABS212 (1), being most active in four rat models of pain when administered peripherally. Compound 1 binds to human neurotensin receptors 1 and 2 with IC50s of 10.6 and 54.2 nM, respectively and tolerance to the compound in a rat pain model did not develop after 12 days of daily administration. When administered peripherally, serum levels and neurotensin receptor binding potency of 1 peaked within 5 min and returned to baseline within 90–120 min, however analgesic activity remained near maximum for >240 min. This could be due to its metabolism into an active fragment; however, all 4- and 5-mer hydrolysis products were inactive. This pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic dichotomy is discussed. Compound 1 is a candidate for development as a first-in-class analgesic. PMID:20481538

  11. Three Newly Approved Analgesics: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Saraghi, Mana; Hersh, Elliot V.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2008, three new analgesic entities, tapentadol immediate release (Nucynta) diclofenac potassium soft gelatin capsules (Zipsor), and bupivacaine liposome injectable suspension (EXPAREL) were granted US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval to treat acute pain. Tapentadol immediate-release is a both a mu-opioid agonist and a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, and is indicated for the treatment of moderate to severe pain. Diclofenac potassium soft gelatin capsules are a novel formulation of diclofenac potassium, which is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), and its putative mechanism of action is through inhibition of cyclooxygenase enzymes. This novel formulation of diclofenac allows for improved absorption at lower doses. Liposomal bupivacaine is a new formulation of bupivacaine intended for single-dose infiltration at the surgical site for postoperative analgesia. Bupivacaine is slowly released from this liposomal vehicle and can provide prolonged analgesia at the surgical site. By utilizing NSAIDs and local anesthetics to decrease the transmission of afferent pain signals, less opioid analgesics are needed to achieve analgesia. Since drug-related adverse events are frequently dose related, lower doses from different drug classes may be employed to reduce the incidence of adverse effects, while producing synergistic analgesia as part of a multimodal analgesic approach to acute pain. PMID:24423420

  12. The analgesic effects of oxytocin in the peripheral and central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Xin, Qing; Bai, Bo; Liu, Wenyan

    2017-02-01

    Pain is a ubiquitously unpleasant feeling among humans as well as many animal species often caused by actual and potential tissue damage. However, it is absolutely crucial for our survival in many ways. Acute pain can signal the presence of danger or life-threatenting events, which help escape noxious stimuli. By contrast, when pain becomes chronic or persistent, it becomes an encumbrance and exerts deleterious effects to the body and mind, often co-occured with anxiety and depression. Additionaly, chronic pain is more or less an economic burden for the patients because it requires immediate medical treatments and seriously hinders pepople in their work. To date, there has been a lack of breakthrough progress in the pain field, despite huge gains in basic science knowledge obtained using animal models, it is still difficult to develop many new clinically effective analgesic drugs to control pain with long-term effectiveness. Opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were introduced for pain management more than a century ago. Those drugs do have proven efficacy in the treatment of pain but the use of them are also significantly limited due to the multiple serious adverse effects (e.g., drug resistance, addiction and gastrointestinal bleeding). In the field of pain relief and treatment, there is a strong impetus to develop and establish novel analgesics that must be safer and more effective to offer significant pain relief for a wide variety of painful conditions. Preliminary evidence suggests that oxytocin might be the ideal candidate as a target for reducing the severity of pain. In this review, we present a summary of the total literature related to the effects of oxytocin on pain modulation in both animals and humans. Better understanding the fundamental physiopharmacology of the actions of oxytocin in pain may highlight novel mechanisms associated with analgesia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cyclodextrins: improving the therapeutic response of analgesic drugs: a patent review.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Makson G B; Guimarães, Adriana G; Araújo, Adriano A S; Quintans, Jullyana S S; Santos, Márcio R V; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J

    2015-01-01

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) are cyclic oligosaccharides that have recently been recognized as useful tools for optimizing the delivery of such problematic drugs. CDs can be found in at least 35 pharmaceutical products, such as anticancer agents, analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs. Besides, several studies have demonstrated that CD-complexed drugs could provide benefits in solubility, stability and also improve pharmacological response when compared with the drug alone. The patent search was conducted in the databases WIPO, Espacenet, USPTO, Derwent and INPI, using the keywords cyclodextrin, pain and its related terms (analgesia, hyperalgesia, hypernociception, nociception, antinociception, antinociceptive). We found 442 patents. Criteria such as the complexation of analgesic agents and evidence of improvement of the therapeutic effect were indispensable for the inclusion of the patent. So, 18 patents were selected. We noticed that some patents are related to the complexation of opioids, NSAIDs, as well as natural products, in different types of CDs. The use of CDs creates the prospect of developing new therapeutic options for the most effective treatment of painful conditions, allowing a reduction of dosage of analgesic drugs and the occurrence of side effects. Thus, CDs can be an important tool to improve the efficacy and pharmacological profile of analgesic drugs.

  14. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the left premotor/dorsolateral prefrontal cortex does not have analgesic effect on central poststroke pain.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Rogério Adas Ayres; de Andrade, Daniel Ciampi; Mendonça, Melina; Barros, Rafael; Luvisoto, Tatiana; Myczkowski, Martin Luiz; Marcolin, Marco Antonio; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen

    2014-12-01

    Central poststroke pain (CPSP) is caused by an encephalic vascular lesion of the somatosensory pathways and is commonly refractory to current pharmacologic treatments. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the premotor cortex/dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PMC/DLPFC) can change thermal pain threshold toward analgesia in healthy subjects and has analgesic effects in acute postoperative pain as well as in fibromyalgia patients. However, its effect on neuropathic pain and in CPSP, in particular, has not been assessed. The aim of this prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate the analgesic effect of PMC/DLPFC rTMS in CPSP patients. Patients were randomized into 2 groups, active (a-) rTMS and sham (s-) rTMS, and were treated with 10 daily sessions of rTMS over the left PMC/DLPFC (10 Hz, 1,250 pulses/d). Outcomes were assessed at baseline, during the stimulation phase, and at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after the last stimulation. The main outcome was pain intensity changes measured by the visual analog scale on the last stimulation day compared to baseline. Interim analysis was scheduled when the first half of the patients completed the study. The study was terminated because of a significant lack of efficacy of the active arm after 21 patients completed the whole treatment and follow-up phases. rTMS of the left PMC/DLPFC did not improve pain in CPSP. The aim of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate the analgesic effects of rTMS to the PMC/DLPFC in CPSP patients. An interim analysis showed a consistent lack of analgesic effect, and the study was terminated. rTMS of the PMC/DLPFC is not effective in relieving CPSP. Copyright © 2014 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Prehospital and En Route Analgesic Use in the Combat Setting: A Prospectively Designed, Multicenter, Observational Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    combat medic has access to both opioid and nonopioid analgesics.3 Morphine and fentanyl are effective opioid analgesics and are commonly used...transmucosal (TM) fentanyl8,9 or parenteral ketamine. YM fentanyl has been shown to be a safe, effective, and easy method of administer- ing analgesics in a...a subsequent different drug, or the same drug via an alternative route). Ketamine was most frequently administered, followed by fentanyl , mor- phine

  16. The bifunctional μ opioid agonist/antioxidant [Dmt(1)]DALDA is a superior analgesic in an animal model of complex regional pain syndrome-type i.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Peter W; Nguyen, Thi M-D; Saray, Amy; Poon, Annie Wing Hoi; Laferrière, André; Coderre, Terence J

    2015-11-18

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the development of complex regional pain syndrome-Type I (CRPS-I), as also demonstrated with the chronic post ischemia pain (CPIP) animal model of CRPS-I. We show that morphine and the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) act synergistically to reduce mechanical allodynia in CPIP rats. The tetrapeptide amide [Dmt(1)]DALDA (H-Dmt-d-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH2) is a potent and selective μ opioid receptor (MOR) agonist with favorable pharmacokinetic properties and with antioxidant activity due to its N-terminal Dmt (2',6'-dimethyltyrosine) residue. In the CPIP model, [Dmt(1)]DALDA was 15-fold more potent than morphine in reversing mechanical allodynia and 4.5-fold more potent as analgesic in the heat algesia test. The results indicate that bifunctional compounds with MOR agonist/antioxidant activity have therapeutic potential for the treatment of CRPS-I.

  17. Analgesics in postoperative care in hip fracture patients with dementia - reported by nurses.

    PubMed

    Rantala, Maija; Hartikainen, Sirpa; Kvist, Tarja; Kankkunen, Päivi

    2014-11-01

    To describe the analgesic use in hip fracture patients with dementia during the first two postoperative days as reported by nurses. Nurses play a pivotal role in treating postoperative pain in patients with dementia and monitoring the effects of administered analgesics. Cross-sectional descriptive questionnaire study in seven university hospitals and 10 central hospitals in Finland. The study was conducted from March until May in 2011 in Finland. For this analysis, the focus was on the sample of nurses (n = 269) who were working in orthopaedic units. Analgesics were classified according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. Nonparametric tests were applied to find out the significant differences between analgesic use and different hospitals. Paracetamol and strong opioids administered orally or parenterally seemed to be the most typical of postoperatively used types of analgesics in patients with dementia. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory analgesics and weak opioids were also commonly reported to be in use. There were no statistically significant differences between hospitals in typical daily doses. The majority of the nurses reported that the primary aim of postoperative pain management in hip fracture patients with dementia was 'slight pain, which does not prevent normal functioning' (72%). The pharmacological postoperative pain treatment in acute care was commonly based on the use of strong opioids and paracetamol in hip fracture patients with dementia. The reported use of transdermal opioids and codeine combination warrants further examination. Further studies are also needed to find out whether the pain is appropriately and adequately treated. Transdermal opioids and codeine combination may not be relevant analgesics for acute pain management in older adults. It is important to create a balance between sufficient pain relief and adverse effects of analgesics to allow early mobilisation and functional recovery. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons

  18. Levetiracetam interacts synergistically with nonsteroidal analgesics and caffeine to produce antihyperalgesia in rats.

    PubMed

    Tomić, Maja A; Micov, Ana M; Stepanović-Petrović, Radica M

    2013-11-01

    Levetiracetam is a novel anticonvulsant with antihyperalgesic efficacy in inflammatory pain. Nonsteroidal analgesics and caffeine, as analgesic adjuvant, are widely used against inflammatory pain. This study characterized the manner in which levetiracetam interacts with analgesics (ibuprofen, celecoxib, and paracetamol) and caffeine to suppress hyperalgesia in a model of localized inflammation. Rat paw inflammation was induced by intraplantar carrageenan (.1 mL, 1%). Hyperalgesia and antihyperalgesic effects of levetiracetam (orally), analgesics (orally), and caffeine (intraperitoneally) alone and 2-drug combinations of levetiracetam with analgesics or caffeine were examined by a modified paw pressure test. The type of interaction between components was determined by isobolographic analysis or by analysis of the log dose-response curves for drug combination and drugs alone. Levetiracetam (10-200 mg/kg), ibuprofen (12.5-100 mg/kg), celecoxib (3.75-30 mg/kg), paracetamol (50-200 mg/kg), caffeine (15-100 mg/kg), and 2-drug combinations of levetiracetam with analgesics/caffeine produced a significant, dose-dependent reduction of inflammatory hyperalgesia. Isobolographic analysis revealed that levetiracetam exerts a synergistic interaction with analgesics, with approximately 7-, 9-, and 11-fold reduction of doses of both drugs in combination of levetiracetam with paracetamol, celecoxib, and ibuprofen, respectively. Analysis of the log dose-response curves for levetiracetam (1-50 mg/kg) in the presence of caffeine (10 mg/kg) and levetiracetam applied alone also revealed a synergistic interaction. Levetiracetam's ED50 in the presence of caffeine was reduced approximately 11-fold. The presented data suggest that 2-drug combinations of levetiracetam and nonsteroidal analgesics or caffeine could be useful in treatment of inflammatory pain. The efficacy and the adverse effects of those mixtures should be explored further in clinical settings. Copyright © 2013

  19. Effects of over-the-counter analgesic use on reproductive hormones and ovulation in healthy, premenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Matyas, R.A.; Mumford, S.L.; Schliep, K.C.; Ahrens, K.A.; Sjaarda, L.A.; Perkins, N.J.; Filiberto, A.C.; Mattison, D.; Zarek, S.M.; Wactawski-Wende, J.; Schisterman, E.F.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Does use of commonly used over-the-counter (OTC) pain medication affect reproductive hormones and ovulatory function in premenopausal women? SUMMARY ANSWER Few associations were found between analgesic medication use and reproductive hormones, but use during the follicular phase was associated with decreased odds of sporadic anovulation after adjusting for potential confounders. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Analgesic medications are the most commonly used OTC drugs among women, but their potential effects on reproductive function are unclear. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION The BioCycle Study was a prospective, observational cohort study (2005–2007) which followed 259 women for one (n = 9) or two (n = 250) menstrual cycles. PARTICIPANTS, SETTING, METHODS Two hundred and fifty-nine healthy, premenopausal women not using hormonal contraception and living in western New York state. Study visits took place at the University at Buffalo. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE During study participation, 68% (n = 175) of women indicated OTC analgesic use. Among users, 45% used ibuprofen, 33% acetaminophen, 10% aspirin and 10% naproxen. Analgesic use during the follicular phase was associated with decreased odds of sporadic anovulation after adjusting for age, race, body mass index, perceived stress level and alcohol consumption (OR 0.36 [0.17, 0.75]). Results remained unchanged after controlling for potential confounding by indication by adjusting for ‘healthy’ cycle indicators such as amount of blood loss and menstrual pain during the preceding menstruation. Moreover, luteal progesterone was higher (% difference = 14.0, −1.6–32.1, P = 0.08 adjusted) in cycles with follicular phase analgesic use, but no associations were observed with estradiol, LH or FSH. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION Self-report daily diaries are not validated measures of medication usage, which could lead to some classification error of medication use. We were also limited in our

  20. Enteral Docosahexaenoic Acid Reduces Analgesic Administration in Neonates Undergoing Cardiovascular Surgery.

    PubMed

    Bernabe-Garcia, Mariela; López-Alarcon, Mardia; Salgado-Sosa, Alfredo; Villegas-Silva, Raul; Maldonado-Hernandez, Jorge; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Rivas-Ruiz, Rodolfo; Chavez-Sanchez, Luis; Blanco-Favela, Francisco A; Mancilla-Ramirez, Javier; Gordillo-Alvarez, Virginia; Madrigal-Muñiz, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    Neonates undergoing surgery require analgesic medication to ameliorate acute pain. These medications produce negative side effects. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has an antinociceptive effect in animals, but this has not been evaluated in human neonates. We evaluated the DHA effect on cumulative dose and duration of analgesics administered to neonates undergoing cardiovascular surgery. A secondary analysis was performed with data from a clinical trial, in which enteral DHA was administered perioperatively compared with sunflower oil (SO). Present study assessed the antinociceptive effect of DHA by measuring the cumulative dose and duration of analgesics administered during postoperative stay in a neonatal intensive care unit. Multivariate linear regression models were performed. Seventeen neonates received DHA and 18 received SO in the control group. Compared with the control group, the DHA group received lower cumulative dose (14.6 ± 2.2 vs. 25.2 ± 4.8 μg/kg, p = 0.029) and shorter duration of buprenorphine (2 days (1-8) vs. 4.5 days (1-12); p = 0.053). After adjusting for confounders, the DHA group received significantly lesser buprenorphine (β = -27 μg/kg, p = 0.028; R2 model = 0.90) for shorter duration (β = -9 days, p = 0.003; R2 model = 0.94). No differences in fentanyl or ketorolac were detected. Buprenorphine administration was reduced in neonates who received DHA, suggesting that DHA likely has analgesic effects. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Assessment of the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and sedative effects of the dichloromethanol extract of Schinus molle.

    PubMed

    Taylor, A; Oyedeji, O O; Aremu, O; Oyemitan, I; Gwebu, E T; Oyedeji, A O; Nkeh-Chungag, B N

    2016-01-01

    Determination of the active fraction and compounds of the dichloromethanol extract of Schinus molle seeds and evaluation of their biological effects. Dried seeds of Schinus molle were sequentially extracted in hexane, acetyl acetate and dichloromethane. The dichloromethane extract was separated into two fractions (1 and 2) by column chromatography. Fraction 2 was further separated into its two constituent compounds which were characterized as belonging to the lanosteroid group of compounds. Both factions were tested for their analgesic, anti-inflammatory and sedative effects. The two fractions significantly increased (p<0.05) the tail flick latency though fraction 2 provided better and more long lasting protection against thermal pain. On the other hand, the anti-inflammatory effect of ibuprofen, though inferior to the anti-inflammatory effect of fraction 2 was better than the effects of fraction 1. Fraction 2 significantly (p<0.01) reduced rat paw oedema compared to the saline treatment group throughout the experiments while fraction 2 compared to fraction 1 showed significantly (p<0.01) greater inflammatory effects. On the other hand both fractions lacked significant sedative effects. Given that fraction 2 had only two constituent compounds (isomasticadienonic and Masticatrienonate), one or both of these compounds should be contributing to the observed analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects.

  2. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the dry matter of culture broth of Termitomyces albuminosus and its extracts.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi-Yu; Ao, Zong-Hua; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Xu, Hong-Yu; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Dou, Wen-Fang; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2008-12-08

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the dry matter of culture broth (DMCB) of Termitomyces albuminosus in submerged culture and its crude saponin extract (CSE) and crude polysaccharide extract (CPE). The analgesic effects of DMCB, CSE and CPE were evaluated with models of acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin test in mouse. The anti-inflammatory effects of DMCB, CSE and CPE were evaluated by using models of xylene-induced mouse ear swelling and carrageen-induced mouse paw edema. The DMCB, CSE and CPE significantly decreased the acetic acid-induced writhing response and the licking time on the late phase in the formalin test. Treatment of DMCB (1000mg/kg), CSE (200mg/kg) or CPE (200mg/kg) inhibited the mouse ear swelling by 61.8%, 79.0% and 81.6%, respectively. In the carrageen-induced mouse paw edema test, the group treated with indomethacin showed the strongest inhibition of edema formation by 77.8% in the third hour after carrageenan administration, while DMCB (1000mg/kg), CSE (200mg/kg) and CPE (200mg/kg) showed 48.4%, 55.6% and 40.5%, respectively. The results suggested that DMCB of Termitomyces albuminosus possessed the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Saponins and polysaccharides were proposed to be the major active constituents of Termitomyces albuminosus in submerged culture.

  3. Imaging drugs with and without clinical analgesic efficacy.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Jaymin; Anderson, Julie; Schwarz, Adam J; Coimbra, Alexandre; Baumgartner, Richard; Pendse, G; George, Edward; Nutile, Lauren; Wallin, Diana; Bishop, James; Neni, Saujanya; Maier, Gary; Iyengar, Smriti; Evelhoch, Jeffery L; Bleakman, David; Hargreaves, Richard; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2011-12-01

    The behavioral response to pain is driven by sensory and affective components, each of which is mediated by the CNS. Subjective pain ratings are used as readouts when appraising potential analgesics; however, pain ratings alone cannot enable a characterization of CNS pain circuitry during pain processing or how this circuitry is modulated pharmacologically. Having a more objective readout of potential analgesic effects may allow improved understanding and detection of pharmacological efficacy for pain. The pharmacological/functional magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI/fMRI) methodology can be used to objectively evaluate drug action on the CNS. In this context, we aimed to evaluate two drugs that had been developed as analgesics: one that is efficacious for pain (buprenorphine (BUP)) and one that failed as an analgesic in clinical trials aprepitant (APREP). Using phMRI, we observed that activation induced solely by BUP was present in regions with μ-opioid receptors, whereas APREP-induced activation was seen in regions expressing NK(1) receptors. However, significant pharmacological modulation of functional connectivity in pain-processing pathways was only observed following BUP administration. By implementing an evoked pain fMRI paradigm, these drugs could also be differentiated by comparing the respective fMRI signals in CNS circuits mediating sensory and affective components of pain. We report a correlation of functional connectivity and evoked pain fMRI measures with pain ratings as well as peak drug concentration. This investigation demonstrates how CNS-acting drugs can be compared, and how the phMRI/fMRI methodology may be used with conventional measures to better evaluate candidate analgesics in small subject cohorts.

  4. Imaging Drugs with and without Clinical Analgesic Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Jaymin; Anderson, Julie; Schwarz, Adam J; Coimbra, Alexandre; Baumgartner, Richard; Pendse, G; George, Edward; Nutile, Lauren; Wallin, Diana; Bishop, James; Neni, Saujanya; Maier, Gary; Iyengar, Smriti; Evelhoch, Jeffery L; Bleakman, David; Hargreaves, Richard; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2011-01-01

    The behavioral response to pain is driven by sensory and affective components, each of which is mediated by the CNS. Subjective pain ratings are used as readouts when appraising potential analgesics; however, pain ratings alone cannot enable a characterization of CNS pain circuitry during pain processing or how this circuitry is modulated pharmacologically. Having a more objective readout of potential analgesic effects may allow improved understanding and detection of pharmacological efficacy for pain. The pharmacological/functional magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI/fMRI) methodology can be used to objectively evaluate drug action on the CNS. In this context, we aimed to evaluate two drugs that had been developed as analgesics: one that is efficacious for pain (buprenorphine (BUP)) and one that failed as an analgesic in clinical trials aprepitant (APREP). Using phMRI, we observed that activation induced solely by BUP was present in regions with μ-opioid receptors, whereas APREP-induced activation was seen in regions expressing NK1 receptors. However, significant pharmacological modulation of functional connectivity in pain-processing pathways was only observed following BUP administration. By implementing an evoked pain fMRI paradigm, these drugs could also be differentiated by comparing the respective fMRI signals in CNS circuits mediating sensory and affective components of pain. We report a correlation of functional connectivity and evoked pain fMRI measures with pain ratings as well as peak drug concentration. This investigation demonstrates how CNS-acting drugs can be compared, and how the phMRI/fMRI methodology may be used with conventional measures to better evaluate candidate analgesics in small subject cohorts. PMID:21849979

  5. Perioperative Opioid Analgesics and Hip Arthroscopy: Trends, Risk Factors for Prolonged Use, and Complications.

    PubMed

    Anciano Granadillo, Victor; Cancienne, Jourdan M; Gwathmey, F Winston; Werner, Brian C

    2018-05-02

    postoperative opioid analgesic use was associated with a higher likelihood of several adverse effects/complications. Level III, retrospective comparative study. Copyright © 2018 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic Properties, and Phytochemical Characterization of Stem Bark Extract and Fractions of Anthocleista nobilis

    PubMed Central

    Ngwoke, Kenneth Gerald; Akwagbulam, Amaka Godsaveus; Erhirhie, Ernest Oghenesuvwe; Ajaghaku, Daniel Lotanna; Okoye, Festus Basden Chiedu; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu

    2018-01-01

    Background: Anthocleista nobilis (Loganiaceae) is used by Mbano people of Imo State, Nigeria, for the treatment of various ailments Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic properties of the methanol extract, fractions, and subfractions of A. nobilis. Materials and Methods: The powdered stem bark was extracted with methanol and sequentially fractionated into n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and butanol fractions. The constituents of the fractions were analyzed using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the components were identified by dereplication. Antioxidant potential of the extracts and fractions was investigated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free-radical scavenging method. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the extract and fractions were also investigated using xylene-induced inflammation and acetic acid-induced writhing models, respectively. Results: A total of five compounds isovitexin (Rt = 18.77 min), isovitexin-2''-O-xyl (Rt = 19.68 min), p-Hydroxybenzoic acid (Rt = 11.88 min), Sarasinoside L (Rt = 19.64 min), isovitexin (Rt = 18.77), and apigenin monoglycoside (Rt = 19.64 min) were identified by HPLC analysis and dereplication. The ethyl acetate fraction and subfraction elicited the best anti-inflammatory activity. The ethyl acetate subfraction also inhibited acetic acid-induced pain by 79% and 85.0% at the doses of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, respectively, which was better than 71.1% and 81.3% observed for diclofenac at similar doses. Conclusion: A. nobilis could be a potential source of anti-inflammatory and analgesic lead compounds. SUMMARY The extract, fractions and subfractions of Anthocleista nobilis were screened or antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and Analgesic properties in vitro and in mice models. Some of the components were identified by dereplication after HPLC analysis. The results demonstrated potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic property of the extracts and

  7. Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic Properties, and Phytochemical Characterization of Stem Bark Extract and Fractions of Anthocleista nobilis.

    PubMed

    Ngwoke, Kenneth Gerald; Akwagbulam, Amaka Godsaveus; Erhirhie, Ernest Oghenesuvwe; Ajaghaku, Daniel Lotanna; Okoye, Festus Basden Chiedu; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu

    2018-01-01

    Anthocleista nobilis ( Loganiaceae ) is used by Mbano people of Imo State, Nigeria, for the treatment of various ailments. The aim of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic properties of the methanol extract, fractions, and subfractions of A. nobilis . The powdered stem bark was extracted with methanol and sequentially fractionated into n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and butanol fractions. The constituents of the fractions were analyzed using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the components were identified by dereplication. Antioxidant potential of the extracts and fractions was investigated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free-radical scavenging method. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the extract and fractions were also investigated using xylene-induced inflammation and acetic acid-induced writhing models, respectively. A total of five compounds isovitexin ( R t = 18.77 min), isovitexin-2''-O-xyl ( R t = 19.68 min), p-Hydroxybenzoic acid ( R t = 11.88 min), Sarasinoside L ( R t = 19.64 min), isovitexin ( R t = 18.77), and apigenin monoglycoside ( R t = 19.64 min) were identified by HPLC analysis and dereplication. The ethyl acetate fraction and subfraction elicited the best anti-inflammatory activity. The ethyl acetate subfraction also inhibited acetic acid-induced pain by 79% and 85.0% at the doses of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, respectively, which was better than 71.1% and 81.3% observed for diclofenac at similar doses. A. nobilis could be a potential source of anti-inflammatory and analgesic lead compounds. The extract, fractions and subfractions of Anthocleista nobilis were screened or antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and Analgesic properties in vitro and in mice models. Some of the components were identified by dereplication after HPLC analysis. The results demonstrated potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic property of the extracts and fractions. The dereplication analysis also identified vitexin and

  8. Accounting for the sedative and analgesic effects of medication changes during patient participation in clinical research studies: measurement development and application to a sample of institutionalized geriatric patients.

    PubMed

    Sloane, Philip; Ivey, Jena; Roth, Mary; Roederer, Mary; Williams, Christianna S

    2008-03-01

    To date, no system has been published that allows investigators to adjust for the overall sedative and/or analgesic effects of medications, or changes in medications, in clinical trial participants for whom medication use cannot be controlled. This is common in clinical trials of behavioral and complementary/alternative therapies, and in research involving elderly or chronically ill patients for whom ongoing medical care continues during the trial. This paper describes the development, and illustrates the use, of a method we developed to address this issue, in which we generate single continuous variables to represent the daily sedative and analgesic loads of multiple medications. Medications for 90 study participants in a clinical trial of a nonpharmacological intervention were abstracted from medication administration records across multiple treatment periods. An expert panel of three academic clinical pharmacists and a geriatrician met to develop a system by which each study medication could be assigned a sedative and analgesic effect rating. The two measures, when applied to data on 90 institutionalized persons with Alzheimer's disease, resulted in variables with moderately skewed distributions that are consistent with the clinical profile of analgesia and sedation use in long-term care populations. The average study participant received 1.89 analgesic medications per day and had a daily analgesic load of 2.96; the corresponding figures for sedation were 2.07 daily medications and an average daily load of 11.41. A system of classifying the sedative and analgesic effects of non-study medications was created that divides drugs into categories based on the strength of their effects and assigns a rating to express overall sedative and analgesic effects. These variables may be useful in comparing patients and populations, and to control for drug effects in future studies.

  9. S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) attenuates the development of tolerance to analgesic activity of morphine in rats.

    PubMed

    Katyal, Jatinder; Kumar, Hemant; Joshi, Dinesh; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar

    2017-04-03

    Development of tolerance to analgesic effect, on chronic administration of morphine, limits its clinical usefulness in pain management. S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) used for arthritis and approved as a supplement in many countries including United States was evaluated for reducing morphine tolerance. Male 'Wistar' rats were used. The analgesic activity was determined using tail flick analgesiometer (Columbus Instruments, USA). Rats given morphine (7mg/kg), intraperitoneally (i.p.), once daily for 5days developed tolerance to analgesic effect. To evaluate the effect of SAM on morphine tolerance, SAM 800mg/kg was administered orally (p.o.), 45min prior to each dose of morphine. The analgesic activity of SAM and opioidergic component in its activity was also evaluated. Co-administration of morphine and SAM reversed morphine tolerance. SAM exhibited analgesic effect after repeated administration which was reversed by naloxone administration. Since safety of SAM on chronic use is documented it can be a good option in morphine tolerance. Role in drug addiction and withdrawal should also be evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. IL4-10 fusion protein has chondroprotective, anti-inflammatory and potentially analgesic effects in the treatment of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Steen-Louws, C; Popov-Celeketic, J; Mastbergen, S C; Coeleveld, K; Hack, C E; Eijkelkamp, N; Tryfonidou, M; Spruijt, S; van Roon, J A G; Lafeber, F P J G

    2018-05-26

    Effective disease-modifying drugs for osteoarthritis (DMOAD) should preferably have chondroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activity combined in a single molecule. We developed a fusion protein of IL4 and IL10 (IL4-10 FP), in which the biological activity of both cytokines is preserved. The present study evaluates the chondroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activity of IL4-10 FP in in vitro and in vivo models of osteoarthritis. Human osteoarthritic cartilage tissue and synovial tissue were cultured with IL4-10 FP. Cartilage proteoglycan turnover and release of pro-inflammatory, catabolic, and pain mediators by cartilage and synovial tissue were measured. The analgesic effect of intra-articularly injected IL4-10 FP was evaluated in a canine model of osteoarthritis by force-plate analysis. IL4-10 FP increased synthesis (P = 0.018) and decreased release (P = 0.018) of proteoglycans by osteoarthritic cartilage. Release of pro-inflammatory IL6 and IL8 by cartilage and synovial tissue was reduced in the presence of IL4-10 FP (all P < 0.05). The release of MMP3 by osteoarthritic cartilage and synovial tissue was decreased (P = 0.018 and 0.028) whereas TIMP1 production was not significantly changed. Furthermore, IL4-10 FP protected cartilage against destructive properties of synovial tissue mediators shown by the increased cartilage proteoglycan synthesis (P = 0.0235) and reduced proteoglycan release (P = 0.0163). Finally, intra-articular injection of IL4-10 FP improved the deficient joint loading in dogs with experimentally induced osteoarthritis. The results of current preliminary study suggest that IL4-10 FP has DMOAD potentials since it shows chondroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects in vitro, as well as potentially analgesic effect in a canine in vivo model of osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2018 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Analgesic use and the risk of kidney cancer: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Choueiri, Toni K; Je, Youjin; Cho, Eunyoung

    2014-01-15

    Analgesics are the most commonly used over-the-counter drugs worldwide with certain analgesics having cancer prevention effect. The evidence for an increased risk of developing kidney cancer with analgesic use is mixed. Using a meta-analysis design of available observational epidemiologic studies, we investigated the association between analgesic use and kidney cancer risk. We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases to identify eligible case-control or cohort studies published in English until June 2012 for three categories of analgesics: acetaminophen, aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Study-specific effect estimates were pooled to compute an overall relative risk (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) using a random-effects model for each category of the analgesics. We identified 20 studies (14 with acetaminophen, 13 with aspirin and five with other NSAIDs) that were performed in six countries, including 8,420 cases of kidney cancer. Use of acetaminophen and non-aspirin NSAIDs were associated with an increased risk of kidney cancer (pooled RR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.15-1.44 and 1.25; 95% CI: 1.06-1.46, respectively). For aspirin use, we found no overall increased risk (pooled RR: 1.10; 95% CI: 0.95-1.28), except for non-US studies (five studies, pooled RR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.04-1.33). Similar increases in risks were seen with higher analgesic intake. In this largest meta-analysis to date, we found that acetaminophen and non-aspirin NSAIDs are associated with a significant risk of developing kidney cancer. Further work is needed to elucidate biologic mechanisms behind these findings. © 2013 UICC.

  12. Methadone Reverses Analgesic Tolerance Induced by Morphine Pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    Posa, Luca; Accarie, Alison; Marie, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Opiates such as morphine are the most powerful analgesics, but their protracted use is restrained by the development of tolerance to analgesic effects. Recent works suggest that tolerance to morphine might be due to its inability to promote mu opioid receptor endocytosis, and the co-injection of morphine with a mu opioid receptor internalizing agonist like [D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly-ol5]enkephalin reduces tolerance to morphine. So far, no studies have been conducted to evaluate the ability of methadone to reduce morphine tolerance in morphine-pretreated animals, a treatment sequence that could be encountered in opiate rotation protocol. We investigated the ability of methadone (a mu opioid receptor internalizing agonist used in therapy) to reverse morphine tolerance and the associated cellular mechanisms in the periaqueductal gray matter, a region involved in pain control. Methods: We measured analgesic response following a challenge dose of morphine in the hot plate test and investigated regulation of mu opioid receptor (coupling and endocytosis) and some cellular mechanisms involved in tolerance such as adenylate cyclase superactivation and changes in N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunits expression and phosphorylation state. Results: A chronic treatment with morphine promoted tolerance to its analgesic effects and was associated with a lack of mu opioid receptor endocytosis, adenylate cyclase overshoot, NR2A and NR2B downregulation, and phosphorylation of NR1. We reported that a methadone treatment in morphine-treated mice reversed morphine tolerance to analgesia by promoting mu opioid receptor endocytosis and blocking cellular mechanisms of tolerance. Conclusions: Our data might lead to rational strategies to tackle opiate tolerance in the frame of opiate rotation. PMID:26390873

  13. Analgesic effects in dogs of carprofen and pethidine together compared with the effects of either drug alone.

    PubMed

    Slingsby, L S; Waterman-Pearson, A E

    2001-04-07

    Thirty bitches undergoing routine neutering were used in an assessor-blinded trial of the postoperative analgesic effects of pethidine and carprofen administered either together or singly. The level of analgesia was assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS) scores for pain and sedation and by nociceptive mechanical threshold testing. The two drugs administered together, and carprofen alone, provided good postoperative analgesia as assessed by VAS scoring. Pethidine alone did not provide postoperative analgesia of sufficient duration.

  14. Acute administration of tramadol and tapentadol at effective analgesic and maximum tolerated doses causes hepato- and nephrotoxic effects in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Joana; Faria, Juliana; Leal, Sandra; Afonso, Luís Pedro; Lobo, João; Queirós, Odília; Moreira, Roxana; Carvalho, Félix; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge

    2017-08-15

    Tramadol and tapentadol are two atypical synthetic opioid analgesics, with monoamine reuptake inhibition properties. Mainly aimed at the treatment of moderate to severe pain, these drugs are extensively prescribed for multiple clinical applications. Along with the increase in their use, there has been an increment in their abuse, and consequently in the reported number of adverse reactions and intoxications. However, little is known about their mechanisms of toxicity. In this study, we have analyzed the in vivo toxicological effects in liver and kidney resulting from an acute exposure of a rodent animal model to both opioids. Male Wistar rats were intraperitoneally administered with 10, 25 and 50mg/kg tramadol and tapentadol, corresponding to a low, effective analgesic dose, an intermediate dose and the maximum recommended daily dose, respectively, for 24h. Toxicological effects were assessed in terms of oxidative stress, biochemical and metabolic parameters and histopathology, using serum and urine samples, liver and kidney homogenates and tissue specimens. The acute exposure to tapentadol caused a dose-dependent increase in protein oxidation in liver and kidney. Additionally, exposure to both opioids led to hepatic commitment, as shown by increased serum lipid levels, decreased urea concentration, increased alanine aminotransferase and decreased butyrylcholinesterase activities. It also led to renal impairment, as reflected by proteinuria and decreased glomerular filtration rate. Histopathological findings included sinusoidal dilatation, microsteatosis, vacuolization, cell infiltrates and cell degeneration, indicating metabolic changes, inflammation and cell damage. In conclusion, a single effective analgesic dose or the maximum recommended daily dose of both opioids leads to hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity, with tapentadol inducing comparatively more toxicity. Whether these effects reflect risks during the therapeutic use or human overdoses requires focused

  15. New Opioid Analgesic Approvals and Outpatient Utilization of Opioid Analgesics in the United States, 1997 through 2015.

    PubMed

    Chai, Grace; Xu, Jing; Osterhout, James; Liberatore, Mark A; Miller, Kathleen L; Wolff, Carolyn; Cruz, Marisa; Lurie, Peter; Dal Pan, Gerald

    2018-05-01

    The opioid epidemic, driven in part by increased prescribing, is a public health emergency. This study examines dispensed prescription patterns and approvals of new opioid analgesic products to investigate whether the introduction of these new drugs increases prescribing. Prescribing patterns based on dispensed prescription claims from the U.S. retail setting were assessed with new brand and generic opioid analgesic products approved in the United States from 1997 through 2015. From 1997 through 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (Silver Spring, Maryland) approved 263 opioid analgesic products, including 33 brand products. Dispensed prescriptions initially increased 80% from 145 million prescriptions in 1997 to a peak of 260 million prescriptions in 2012 before decreasing by 12% to 228 million prescriptions in 2015. Morphine milligram equivalents dispensed per prescription increased from 486 in 1997 to a peak of 950 in 2010, before decreasing to 905 in 2015. In 2015, generic products accounted for 96% (218/228 million prescriptions) of all opioid analgesic prescriptions dispensed. The remaining prescriptions were dispensed for brand products, of which nearly half were dispensed for one brand product (OxyContin, Purdue, USA). There has been a dramatic increase in prescriptions dispensed for opioid analgesics since 1997 and an increasing number of opioid analgesic approvals; however, the number of prescriptions dispensed has declined since 2012 despite an increasing number of approvals. Examination of dispensed prescriptions shows a shifting and complex market where multiple factors likely influence prescribing; the approval of new products alone may not be sufficient to be a primary driver of increased prescribing. An online visual overview is available for this article at http://links.lww.com/ALN/B705.

  16. Benzodiazepines: a major component in unintentional prescription drug overdoses with opioid analgesics.

    PubMed

    Jann, Michael; Kennedy, William Klugh; Lopez, Gaylord

    2014-02-01

    The misuse and abuse of prescription medications in the United States continues to increase despite interventions by health care professionals, regulatory, and law enforcement agencies. Opioid analgesics are the leading class of prescription drugs that have caused unintentional overdose deaths. Benzodiazepines when taken alone are relatively safe agents in overdose. However, a 5-fold increase in deaths attributed to benzodiazepines occurred from 1999 to 2009. Emergency department visits related to opioid analgesics increased by 111% followed by benzodiazepines 89%. During 2003 to 2009, the 2 prescriptions drugs with the highest increase in death rates were oxycodone 264.6% and alprazolam 233.8%. Therefore, benzodiazepines have a significant impact on prescription drug unintentional overdoses second only to the opioid analgesics. The combination prescribing of benzodiazepines and opioid analgesics commonly takes place. The pharmacokinetic drug interactions between benzodiazepines and opioid analgesics are complex. The pharmacodynamic actions of these agents differ as their combined effects produce significant respiratory depression. Physician and pharmacy shopping by patients occurs, and prescription drug-monitoring programs can provide important information on benzodiazepine and opioid analgesic prescribing patterns and patient usage. Health care professionals need to inform patients and work closely with regulatory agencies and legislatures to stem the increasing fatalities from prescription drug unintentional overdoses.

  17. Identification of 2,3-diaryl-pyrazolo[1,5-b]pyridazines as potent and selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Beswick, Paul; Bingham, Sharon; Bountra, Chas; Brown, Terry; Browning, Kerry; Campbell, Ian; Chessell, Iain; Clayton, Nick; Collins, Sue; Corfield, John; Guntrip, Stephen; Haslam, Claudine; Lambeth, Paul; Lucas, Fiona; Mathews, Neil; Murkit, Graham; Naylor, Alan; Pegg, Neil; Pickup, Elizabeth; Player, Hazel; Price, Helen; Stevens, Alexander; Stratton, Sharon; Wiseman, Joanne

    2004-11-01

    GW406381 (8), currently undergoing clinical evaluation for the treatment of inflammatory pain is a member of a novel series of 2,3-diaryl-pyrazolo[1,5-b]pyridazine based cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, which have been shown to be highly potent and selective. Several examples of the series, in addition to possessing favourable pharmacokinetic profiles and analgesic activity in vivo, have also demonstrated relatively high brain penetration in the rat compared with the clinically available compounds, which may ultimately prove beneficial in the treatment of pain.

  18. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Analgesics Use by Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Mulka-Gierek, Maria; Foroncewicz, Bartosz; Pączek, Leszek; Wawiórko, Elżbieta; Kamińska, Joanna; Kosieradzki, Maciej; Małkowski, Piotr; Małczuk, Bianka; Nazarewski, Sławomir; Mucha, Krzysztof

    2018-03-02

    BACKGROUND Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and analgesics are the most commonly used drugs and are increasingly available over-the-counter (OTC). In certain groups of patients, including kidney transplant recipients, their use may be complicated by adverse effects or drug interactions. The aim of our study was to assess the causes and frequency of OTC NSAIDs or analgesics use, as well as the awareness of related side effects. MATERIAL AND METHODS We enrolled 94 randomly selected kidney transplant recipients, who represented 5% of all kidney transplant recipients at our center. An anonymous survey consisting of 23 multiple-choice questions was administered voluntarily and anonymously. RESULTS In all, 63% of study patients confirmed taking the OTC painkillers; 22% of these patients took these drugs at least several times a week, and 4% took these drugs daily. For 38% of the study kidney transplant recipients, NSAIDs or analgesics were reported to be the only way to manage their pain. In addition, 30% of study patients were unaware of the risks associated with these drugs, despite the fact that 89% of the study patients consider physicians the best source of information. CONCLUSIONS Our study found that 63% of kidney transplant recipients regularly took OTC painkillers and 30% were unaware of the potential adverse effects. This necessitates continuous, ongoing education of kidney transplant recipients about the risks of OTC NSAIDs or analgesics use.

  19. Should continuous rather than single-injection interscalene block be routinely offered for major shoulder surgery? A meta-analysis of the analgesic and side-effects profiles.

    PubMed

    Vorobeichik, L; Brull, R; Bowry, R; Laffey, J G; Abdallah, F W

    2018-04-01

    Major shoulder surgery is associated with moderate-to-severe pain, but consensus on the optimal analgesic approach is lacking. Continuous catheter-based interscalene block (CISB) prolongs the analgesic benefits of its single-injection counterpart (SISB), but concerns over CISB complications and difficulties in interpreting comparative evidence examining major and minor shoulder procedures simultaneously, despite their differences in postoperative pain, have limited CISB popularity. This meta-analysis evaluates the CISB analgesic role and complications compared with SISB for major shoulder surgery. We retrieved randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effects of CISB to SISB on analgesic outcomes and side-effects after major shoulder surgery. Postoperative opioid consumption at 24 h was designated as the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included 24-48 h opioid consumption, postoperative rest and dynamic pain scores up to 72 h, time-to-first analgesic, recovery room and hospital stay durations, patient satisfaction, postoperative nausea and vomiting, respiratory function, and block-related complications. Data from 15 RCTs were pooled using random-effects modelling. Compared with SISB, CISB reduced 24- and 48-h oral morphine consumption by a weighted mean difference [95% confidence interval] of 50.9 mg [-81.6, -20.2], (P=0.001) and 44.7 mg [-80.9, -8.7], (P<0.0001), respectively. Additionally, CISB provided superior rest and dynamic pain control beyond 48 h, prolonged time-to-first analgesic, enhanced satisfaction, and reduced postoperative nausea and vomiting without complications. CISB caused an 11.0-11.7% decrease in respiratory indices. Result heterogeneity was successfully explained. High-level evidence indicates that CISB provides superior analgesia up to 48 h after major shoulder surgery, without increasing side-effects, compared with SISB. The importance of CISB-related changes in respiratory indices is questionable. Copyright © 2017 British

  20. Poisoning deaths involving opioid analgesics - New York State, 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Mark J; Melnik, Thomas A

    2015-04-17

    Deaths involving opioid analgesics have increased dramatically in the United States. Approximately 4,000 such deaths were documented in 1999, increasing to 16,235 in 2013, reflecting a nearly quadrupled death rate from 1.4 to 5.1 deaths per 100,000. To investigate this increase in New York state, trends in poisoning deaths involving opioid analgesics from 2003 to 2012 were examined. Data sources used were New York state vital statistics multiple-cause-of-death data, consisting of data from both the New York City (NYC)* and non-NYC reporting jurisdictions, as well as statewide Medicaid enrollment data. Deaths involving opioid analgesics increased both in number and as a percentage of all drug poisoning deaths, and rates were highest among men, whites, persons aged 45-64 years, persons residing outside of NYC, and Medicaid enrollees. The analysis found that, in 2012, 70.7% of deaths involving opioid analgesics also involved at least one other drug, most frequently a benzodiazepine. These results underscore the potential to mitigate the trend of increasing opioid analgesic-related mortality through initiatives such as New York state's Internet System for Tracking Over-Prescribing (I-STOP) law,† which took effect on August 27, 2013. Provisions under I-STOP include the requirements that providers consult the Prescription Monitoring Program (PMP) Registry when writing prescriptions for controlled substances, and that they use electronic prescribing.

  1. Intravenous flurbiprofen axetil enhances analgesic effect of opioids in patients with refractory cancer pain by increasing plasma β-endorphin.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting-Ting; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Ou, Wu-Ling; Wang, Jun; Yao, Guo-Qing; Yang, Bo; Rao, Zhi-Guo; Gao, Jian-Fei; Zhang, Bi-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the analgesic effect of a combination of intravenous flurbiprofen axetil and opioids, and evaluate the relationship between refractory pain relief and plasma β-endorphin levels in cancer patients. A total of 120 cancer patients was randomly divided into two groups, 60 patients took orally morphine sulfate sustained-release tablets in group A, and another 60 patients receiving the combination treatment of intravenous flurbiprofen axetil and opioid drugs in group B. After 7 days, pain relief, quality of life improvement and side effects were evaluated. Furthermore, plasma β-endorphin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. With the combination treatment of intravenous intravenous flurbiprofen axetil and opioids, the total effective rate of pain relief rose to 91.4%, as compared to 82.1% when morphine sulfate sustained-release tablet was used alone. Compared with that of group A, the analgesic effect increased in group B (p=0.031). Moreover, satisfactory pain relief was associated with a significant increase in plasma β-endorphin levels. After the treatment, plasma β-endorphin level in group B was 62.4±13.5 pg/ml, which was higher than that in group A (45.8±11.2 pg/ml) (p<0.05). Our results suggest the combination of intravenous flurbiprofen axetil and opioids can enhance the analgesic effect of opioid drugs by increasing plasma β-endorphin levels, which would offer a selected and reliable strategy for refractory cancer pain treatment.

  2. Analgesic use of inhaled methoxyflurane: Evaluation of its potential nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Dayan, A D

    2016-01-01

    Methoxyflurane is a volatile, halogenated analgesic, self-administered in a controlled low dose from the Penthrox(®) inhaler for short-term pain relief. It was formerly used in significantly higher doses to produce anaesthesia, when it caused a specific type of dose-related renal tubular damage. The pathogenesis of the renal damage and clinical use of methoxyflurane are discussed here with evidence that a low but effective analgesic dose is not associated with the risk of renal adverse effects. The maximum dose employed to produce analgesia is limited to methoxyflurane 6 mL/day and 15 mL/week, producing a minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of 0.59 MAC-hours. Renal damage is due to the metabolism of methoxyflurane and release of fluoride ions. Exposure of humans to methoxyflurane ≤2.0 MAC-hours, resulting in serum fluoride ≤40 µmol/L, has not been associated with renal tubular toxicity. The safety margin of analgesic use of methoxyflurane in the Penthrox ((®)) inhaler is at least 2.7- to 8-fold, based on methoxyflurane MAC-hours or serum fluoride level, with clinical experience suggesting it is higher. It is concluded from clinical experience in emergency medicine, surgical procedures and various experimental and laboratory investigations that the analgesic use of methoxyflurane in subanaesthetic doses in the Penthrox inhaler does not carry a risk of nephrotoxicity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Comparison of Electroacupuncture and Morphine-Mediated Analgesic Patterns in a Plantar Incision-Induced Pain Model

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Shih-Ying; Chen, Kuen-Bao; Hsu, Sheng-Feng; Chen, Julia Yi-Ru

    2014-01-01

    Electroacupuncture (EA) is a complementary therapy to improve morphine analgesia for postoperative pain, but underlying mechanism is not well-known. Herein, we investigated EA-induced analgesic effect in a plantar incision (PI) model in male Sprague-Dawley rats. PI was performed at the left hind paw. EA of 4 Hz and high intensity or sham needling was conducted at right ST36 prior to PI and repeated for another 2 days. Behavioral responses to mechanical and thermal stimuli, spinal phospho-ERK, and Fos expression were all analyzed. In additional groups, naloxone and morphine were administered to elucidate involvement of opioid receptors and for comparison with EA. EA pretreatment significantly reduced post-PI tactile allodynia for over 1 day; repeated treatments maintained analgesic effect. Intraperitoneal naloxone could reverse EA analgesia. Low-dose subcutaneous morphine (1 mg/kg) had stronger inhibitory effect on PI-induced allodynia than EA for 1 h. However, analgesic tolerance appeared after repeated morphine injections. Both EA and morphine could equally inhibit PI-induced p-ERK and Fos inductions. We conclude that though EA and morphine attenuate postincision pain through opioid receptor activations, daily EA treatments result in analgesic accumulation whereas daily morphine injections develop analgesic tolerance. Discrepant pathways and mechanisms underlying two analgesic means may account for the results. PMID:25530786

  4. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of Bi-yuan-ling granules.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Bing; Su, Han-Wen; Liu, Huan-Xiang; Yin, Xian; He, Feng; Ren, Yong-Shen; Dai, Kang; Xiang, Mei-Xian

    2016-06-01

    Bi-yuan-ling granule (BLG) is a traditional Chinese medicine compound composed mainly of baicalin and chlorogenic acid. It has been demonstrated to be clinically effective for various inflammatory diseases such as acute rhinitis, chronic rhinitis, atrophic rhinitis and allergic rhinitis. However, the underlying mechanisms of BLG against these diseases are not fully understood. This study aimed to explore the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of BLG, and examine its protective effects on mouse acute lung injury (ALI). The hot plate test and acetic acid-induced writhing assay in Kunming mice were adopted to evaluate the pain-relieving effects of BLG. The anti-inflammatory activities of BLG were determined by examining the effects of BLG on xylene-caused ear swelling in Kunming mice, the cotton pellet-induced granuloma in rats, carrageenan-induced hind paw edema and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. The results showed that BLG at 15.5 mg/g could significantly relieve the pain by 82.5% (P<0.01) at 1 h after thermal stimulation and 91.2% (P<0.01) at 2 h after thermal stimulation. BLG at doses of 7.75 and 15.5 mg/g reduced the writhing count up to 33.3% (P<0.05) and 53.4% (P<0.01), respectively. Additionally, the xylene-induced edema in mice was markedly restrained by BLG at 7.75 mg/g (P<0.05) and 15.5 mg/g (P<0.01). BLG at 5.35 and 10.7 mg/g significantly reduced paw edema by 34.8% (P<0.05) and 37.9% (P<0.05) at 5 h after carrageenan injection. The granulomatous formation of the cotton pellet was profoundly suppressed by BLG at 2.68, 5.35 and 10.7 mg/g by 15.4%, 38.2% (P<0.01) and 58.9% (P<0.001), respectively. BLG also inhibited lung W/D ratio and the release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in ALI mice. In addition, the median lethal dose (LD50), median effective dose (ED50) and half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of BLG were found to be 42.7, 3.2 and 12.33 mg/g, respectively. All the findings suggest that BLG has

  5. [Comparison of analgesic effect between locally vinegar-processed preparation of fresh rhizoma Corydalis and traditionally vinegar-processed rhizoma Corydalis].

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Li, G; Zhu, F; Wang, L; Wang, Y

    1990-11-01

    Hot plate and writhing methods were used in the comparison of the analgesic effect of vinegar-processed fresh tuber corydalis and the traditionally vinegar-processed Rhizoma Corydalis. The result shows that the effect of the former is stronger than that of the latter.

  6. The analgesic effects of oral paracetamol in two strains of mice undergoing vasectomy.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Amy L; Leach, Matthew C; Flecknell, Paul A

    2009-10-01

    As the production of transgenic mice increases, the need for vasectomized mice also increases. Currently, there is no accurate method of identifying pain in these mice which can be used routinely and therefore no acceptable analgesic regimens can be established. Sixteen male CBA/CaCrl and 16 male DBA/2JCrl mice were randomly allocated to one of four treatment groups (saline, low, medium and high dose oral paracetamol) and then underwent abdominal vasectomy. Their behaviour was videotaped (filmed) preoperatively and at one hour postoperatively and the data were analysed using an automated system - HomeCageScan. HomeCageScan detected significant changes in 16 behaviours following vasectomy. Such behaviours included twitching, rearing and grooming with varying levels of significance between the strains. No significant effects of drug treatment in any of the behaviours analysed by HomeCageScan were detected in the postoperative observation period. Strain-specific changes do occur in behaviour following abdominal vasectomy and HomeCageScan is capable of detecting these changes. The use of orally administered paracetamol was deemed to be an ineffective analgesic for CBA/CaCrl and DBA/2JCrl mice undergoing vasectomy.

  7. Pattern of Self Prescribed Analgesic Use in a Rural Area of Delhi: Exploring the Potential Role of Internet.

    PubMed

    Kochhar, Anjali; Gupta, Tanya

    2017-07-01

    Analgesics are the most common self prescribed drugs. Although considered to be relatively safe, side effects are often seen when these drugs are used for prolonged period, in high doses or used where contraindicated. Majority of the consumers are not aware of the side effects. These days ample amount of information is available on web, it is important to explore its role in educating the population regarding the safe use of self prescribed analgesics. To explore pattern of analgesic use, to identify population at risk of developing side effects related to analgesic use, awareness of side effects and potential role of internet to bring awareness about safe use of self prescribed analgesic drugs in a rural area of Delhi. A cross-sectional survey based study was done on 500 adults in the age group of 18-65 years of Madanpur Khadar area of South Delhi, India. Data collection was done by conducting visits to pharmacy shops from the people who were buying drugs without prescription and taking face to face interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using descriptive tests with Microsoft office excel 2007. Results of our study showed that among all the self prescribed analgesics paracetamol (57%) was used most frequently followed by aspirin and other NSAIDs. It was found that 9.6% of the consumers were having associated co-morbid illness, 11.4% were simultaneously taking other drugs and 15.2% were alcoholics. Majority (65.4%) of the buyers were not aware about any kind of side effects of the analgesics. Internet friendly consumers were found to be 44%. Ability to use internet and education level were found to be directly related (r=0.802). The pattern of analgesic consumption in the rural population of Delhi shows that a large number of consumers may be at risk of developing side effects of self prescribed analgesics. The awareness about the side effects is limited. A significant number of consumers are internet friendly. Hence

  8. Canadian veterinarians’ use of analgesics in cattle, pigs, and horses in 2004 and 2005

    PubMed Central

    Hewson, Caroline J.; Dohoo, Ian R.; Lemke, Kip A.; Barkema, Herman W.

    2007-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that many veterinarians may not use analgesics in livestock for routine surgical procedures or painful disease states. To investigate this, we conducted a national mail survey of a random sample of 1431 Canadian veterinarians (response rate, 50.1%). Questions primarily concerned veterinarians’ analgesic usage for common surgeries and medical conditions in beef and dairy cattle, pigs, and horses, and attitudes toward pain management. More than 90% of veterinarians used analgesic drugs for equine surgeries, for cesarean section in sows and cows, and for bovine claw amputation and omentopexy. However, in these and other categories, the analgesics used were often inadequate, and many veterinarians did not give analgesics to young animals. When castrated, < 0.001% of piglets received analgesia, compared with 6.9% of beef calves and 18.7% of dairy calves ≤ 6 mo of age, 19.9% of beef calves and 33.2% of dairy calves > 6 mo of age, and 95.8% of horses. Respondents largely agreed that there are no long-acting, cost-effective analgesics available for use in livestock (median rating 8/10; interquartile range 4–9), and that the long or unknown withdrawal periods of some drugs outweighed the benefits of using them (median rating 7/10; interquartile range 4–9). The results indicate an urgent need for veterinarians to manage pain in livestock better. Continuing education would help, as would an increase in the number of approved, cost-effective analgesic drugs with known withdrawal periods. PMID:17334029

  9. The effect of local/topical analgesics on incisional pain in a pig model.

    PubMed

    Castel, David; Sabbag, Itai; Meilin, Sigal

    2017-01-01

    Interest in the development of new topical/local drug administration for blocking pain at peripheral sites, with maximum drug activity and minimal systemic effects, is on the rise. In the review article by Kopsky and Stahl, four critical barriers in the process of research and development of topical analgesics were indicated. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and the formulation are among the major challenges. The road to the development of such drugs passes through preclinical studies. These studies, if planned correctly, should serve as guidance for choosing the right API and formulation. Although rodent models for pain continue to provide valuable data on the mechanisms driving pain, their use in developing topical and localized treatment approaches is limited for technical (intraplate injection area is small) as well as mechanical reasons (non-similarity to human skin and innervation). It has been previously shown that pigs are comparable to humans in ways that make them a better choice for evaluating topical and local analgesics. The aim of this study was to summarize several experiments that used pigs for testing postoperative pain in an incisional pain model (skin incision [SI] and skin and muscle incision [SMI]). At the end of the surgery, the animals were treated with different doses of bupivacaine solution (Marcaine ® ), bupivacaine liposomal formulation (Exparel ® ) or ropivacaine solution (Naropin). Von Frey testing demonstrated a decrease in the animals' sensitivity to mechanical stimulation expressed as an increase in the withdrawal force following local treatment. These changes reflect the clinical condition in the level as well as in the duration of the response. These data indicate a good resemblance between pig and human skin and suggest that use of these animals in the preclinical phase of developing topical analgesics can, to some extent, release the bottleneck.

  10. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities of Caesalpinia decapetala

    PubMed Central

    Parveen, Amna; Sajid Hamid Akash, Muhammad; Rehman, Kanwal; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qadir, Muhammad Imran

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In many pathological conditions, pain, inflammation and fever are interdependent to each other. Due to the use of synthetic drugs, many unwanted effects usually appear. Various studies have been conducted on Caesalpinia decapetala (C. decapetala) to evaluate its effects in the treatment of various diseases but no sufficient scientific literature is available online to prove its analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities. Methods: The analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities of 70% aqueous methanolic and n-hexane extracts of C. decapetala was evaluated using Swiss albino mice (20-30 g). Results: The results showed that aqueous methanolic extract of C. decapetala at the dose of 100 mg/kg exhibited significant (p< 0.05) activities in various pain models including acetic acid-induced writhing (18.4 ± 0.53), formalin-induced licking (275 ± 4.18) and hot plate method (2.3 ± 0.0328); whereas,  n-hexane extract showed its effects in acetic acid-induced writhing (20 ± 0.31), formalin-induced licking (293 ± 1.20) and hot plate method (2.224 ± 0.029) compared to the effects observed in control group animals. Similarly, the aqueous methanolic extract of C. decapetala after 2 h of treatment exhibited more significant anti-inflammatory (0.66 ± 0.06) and anti-pyretic (38.81 ± 0.05) activities compared to the control group animals. Conclusion: From the findings of our present study, we concluded that the aqueous methanolic extract of C. decapetala has stronger analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic effects than its n-hexane extract. Further studies are required to investigate the active constituents of C. decapetala that exhibit analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities. PMID:24790898

  11. A mutant of the Buthus martensii Karsch antitumor-analgesic peptide exhibits reduced inhibition to hNav1.4 and hNav1.5 channels while retaining analgesic activity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yijia; Meng, Xiangxue; Hou, Xue; Sun, Jianfang; Kong, Xiaohua; Sun, Yuqi; Liu, Zeyu; Ma, Yuanyuan; Niu, Ye; Song, Yongbo; Cui, Yong; Zhao, Mingyi; Zhang, Jinghai

    2017-11-03

    Scorpion toxins can kill other animals by inducing paralysis and arrhythmia, which limits the potential applications of these agents in the clinical management of diseases. Antitumor-analgesic peptide (AGAP), purified from Buthus martensii Karsch, has been proved to possess analgesic and antitumor activities. Trp 38 , a conserved aromatic residue of AGAP, might play an important role in mediating AGAP activities according to the sequence and homology-modeling analyses. Therefore, an AGAP mutant, W38G, was generated, and effects of both AGAP and the mutant W38G were examined by whole-cell patch clamp techniques on the sodium channels hNa v 1.4 and hNa v 1.5, which were closely associated with the biotoxicity of skeletal and cardiac muscles, respectively. The data showed that both W38G and AGAP inhibited the peak currents of hNa v 1.4 and hNa v 1.5; however, W38G induced a much weaker inhibition of both channels than AGAP. Accordingly, W38G exhibited much less toxic effect on both skeletal and cardiac muscles than AGAP in vivo The analgesic activity of W38G and AGAP were verified in vivo as well, and W38G retained analgesic activity similar to AGAP. Inhibition to both Na v 1.7 and Na v 1.8 was involved in the analgesic mechanism of AGAP and W38G. These findings indicated that Trp 38 was a key amino acid involved in the biotoxicity of AGAP, and the AGAP mutant W38G might be a safer alternative for clinical application because it retains the analgesic efficacy with less toxicity to skeletal and cardiac muscles. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Analgesic use and patterns of estrogen metabolism in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Fortner, Renée T; Oh, Hannah; Daugherty, Sarah E; Xu, Xia; Hankinson, Susan E; Ziegler, Regina G; Eliassen, A Heather

    2014-04-01

    Analgesic use has been hypothesized to reduce the risk of some cancers, with inverse associations between analgesics and colon cancer, and suggestive inverse associations for breast cancer. Estrogen metabolites (EM) have genotoxic and estrogenic potential; genotoxicity may differ by hydroxylation pathway. Analgesic use may impact patterns of estrogen metabolism; effects of analgesics on disease risk could be mediated through these patterns. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 603 premenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study II. Frequency of aspirin, non-aspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and acetaminophen use was reported via questionnaire; average frequency in 1997 and 1999 was calculated. Women provided urine samples between 1996 and 1999, collected during the mid-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Urinary EM were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We observed no association between analgesic use and estradiol, estrone, or specific pathways of estrogen metabolism. Women reporting more frequent aspirin use had lower methylated 2-catechols (e.g., 2-hydroxyestrone-3-methyl ether, 2+ days/week vs. non-use: 0.95 vs. 1.21 pmol/mg creatinine; p difference = 0.01, p trend = 0.07). Non-aspirin NSAID use was positively associated with 17-epiestriol (4+ days/week vs. non-use: 2.48 vs. 1.52 pmol/mg creatinine; p difference = 0.01, p trend = 0.11). Acetaminophen use was positively associated with total EM (2+ days/week vs. non-use: 236 vs. 198 pmol/mg creatinine; p difference = 0.02, p trend = 0.11), 2-hydroxyestrone-3-methyl ether (1.6 vs. 1.1 pmol/mg creatinine; p difference < 0.01, p trend = 0.02), and 16α-hydroxyestrone (17 vs. 12 pmol/mg creatinine; p difference = 0.01, p trend = 0.05). This study provides the first assessment of analgesic use and patterns of estrogen metabolism in women. While we observed some associations between analgesics and

  13. Use of opioid analgesics or sleeping medication and survival of cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Pei; Lin, Chia-Chin

    2015-06-01

    Pain and sleep disturbance have been shown to have a profound influence on the outcomes of cancer treatment. This study sought to determine whether administering opioid analgesics or sleeping medication to cancer patients during their first admission to a hospital is associated with poor prognoses. We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study by analyzing data obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. The study population comprised cancer patients whose first admission to a hospital for initial cancer treatment was in 2004. We collected data on 2302 cancer patients. To analyze the effect of opioid analgesic and sleeping medication usage on cancer patient survival, we compared the 3-year survival rates among 4 groups of patients (no use, sleeping medications-only, opioid analgesics-only, both used). The 3-year Kaplan-Meier plots for these 4 groups show that the difference was statistically significant (log rank 48.244, p < 0.001). The longevity of cancer patients was the greatest among the no-use group, followed by the sleeping medications-only group, then the opioid analgesics-only group, and finally, the group in which both sleeping medications and opioid analgesics were used. The use of opioid analgesics or sleeping medication was shown to be negatively correlated with the survival rate of cancer patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Use and potential risks of over-the-counter analgesics].

    PubMed

    Freytag, A; Quinzler, R; Freitag, M; Bickel, H; Fuchs, A; Hansen, H; Hoefels, S; König, H-H; Mergenthal, K; Riedel-Heller, S G; Schön, G; Weyerer, S; Wegscheider, K; Scherer, M; van den Bussche, H; Haefeli, W E; Gensichen, J

    2014-04-01

    We investigated the use of prescription and non-prescription (over-the-counter, OTC) analgesics and the associated risks in elderly patients with multiple morbidities. Pain medication use was evaluated from the baseline data (2008/2009) of the MultiCare cohort enrolling elderly patients with multiple morbidities who were treated by primary care physicians (trial registration: ISRCTN89818205). We considered opioids (N02A), other analgesics, and antipyretics (N02B) as well as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs; M01A). OTC use, duplicate prescription, dosages, and interactions were examined for acetylsalicylic acid, diclofenac, (dex)ibuprofen, naproxen, and acetaminophen. Of 3,189 patients with multiple morbidities aged 65-85 years, 1,170 patients reported to have taken at least one prescription or non-prescription analgesic within the last 3 months (36.7 %). Of these, 289 patients (24.7 % of 1,170) took at least one OTC analgesic. Duplicate prescription was observed in 86 cases; 15 of these cases took the analgesics regularly. In two cases, the maximum daily dose of diclofenac was exceeded due to duplicate prescription. In 235 cases, patients concurrently took a drug with a potentially clinically relevant interaction. In 43 cases (18.3 % of 235) an OTC analgesic, usually ibuprofen, was involved. About one third of the elderly patients took analgesics regularly or as needed. Despite the relatively high use of OTC analgesics, the proportions of duplicate prescription, medication overdoses, and adverse interactions due to OTC products was low.

  15. Antioxidant and analgesic activities of turpentine of Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallsiana (Lamb.) Holmboe.

    PubMed

    Gülçin, Ilhami; Büyükokuroglu, M Emin; Oktay, Münir; Küfrevioglu, O Irfan

    2003-05-01

    The aim of this study is to examine possible antioxidant and analgesic activities of turpentine exudes from Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallsiana (Lamb.) Holmboe (TPN). Total antioxidant activity, reducing power, superoxide anion radical scavenging, free radical scavenging, metal chelating, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities were studied. The total antioxidant activity increased with the increasing amount of extracts (100, 300, and 500 microg) added to linoleic acid emulsion. All of the doses of TPN showed higher antioxidant activity than alpha-tocopherol. The samples showed 49, 70, and 91% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion, respectively. On the other hand, the 300 microg of alpha-tocopherol showed 40% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion. There is correlation between antioxidant activity and the reducing power, superoxide anion radical scavenging, free radical scavenging, metal chelating, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities. Like antioxidant activity, the reducing power, superoxide anion radical scavenging, free radical scavenging, metal chelating, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities of TPN depending on concentration and increasing with increased concentration of TPN. These properties may be the major reasons for the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. The results obtained in the present study indicate that the TPN has a potential source of natural antioxidant. In addition, analgesic effect of TPN was investigated in present study and TPN had strong analgesic effect. The analgesic effect of TPN compared with metamizol as a standard analgesic compound.

  16. Bottlenecks in the development of topical analgesics: molecule, formulation, dose-finding, and phase III design.

    PubMed

    Keppel Hesselink, Jan M; Kopsky, David J; Stahl, Stephen M

    2017-01-01

    Topical analgesics can be defined as topical formulations containing analgesics or co-analgesics. Since 2000, interest in such formulations has been on the rise. There are, however, four critical issues in the research and development phases of topical analgesics: 1) The selection of the active pharmaceutical ingredient. Analgesics and co-analgesics differ greatly in their mechanism of action, and it is required to find the most optimal fit between such mechanisms of action and the pathogenesis of the targeted (neuropathic) pain. 2) Issues concerning the optimized formulation. For relevant clinical efficacy, specific characteristics for the selected vehicle (eg, cream base or gel base) are required, depending on the physicochemical characteristics of the active pharmaceutical ingredient(s) to be delivered. 3) Well-designed phase II dose-finding studies are required, and, unfortunately, such trials are missing. In fact, we will demonstrate that underdosing is one of the major hurdles to detect meaningful and statistically relevant clinical effects of topical analgesics. 4) Selection of clinical end points and innovatively designed phase III trials. End point selection can make or break a trial. For instance, to include numbness together with tingling as a composite end point for neuropathic pain seems stretching the therapeutic impact of an analgesic too far. Given the fast onset of action of topical analgesics (usually within 30 minutes), enrichment designs might enhance the chances for success, as the placebo response might decrease. Topical analgesics may become promising inroads for the treatment of neuropathic pain, once sufficient attention is given to these four key aspects.

  17. Treatment of renal colic by prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors and avafortan (analgesic antispasmodic).

    PubMed

    el-Sherif, A E; Foda, R; Norlen, L J; Yahia, H

    1990-12-01

    In a study of the pain-relieving effect of 3 drugs commonly used to treat acute renal colic in this hospital, intravenous indomethacin and intramuscular diclofenac (prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors) were compared with intravenous Avafortan (analgesic antispasmodic). As first-line analgesics, prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors, if given intravenously, offer an effective alternative to Avafortan. Of 145 patients studied, 32 required a second injection for complete relief of pain. Administering a second dose of prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors resulted in equally significant pain relief rate even though the route was intramuscular.

  18. Effect of analgesic therapy on clinical outcome measures in a randomized controlled trial using client-owned dogs with hip osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pain and impaired mobility because of osteoarthritis (OA) is common in dogs and humans. Efficacy studies of analgesic drug treatment of dogs with naturally occurring OA may be challenging, as a caregiver placebo effect is typically evident. However, little is known about effect sizes of common outcome-measures in canine clinical trials evaluating treatment of OA pain. Forty-nine client-owned dogs with hip OA were enrolled in a randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled prospective trial. After a 1 week baseline period, dogs were randomly assigned to a treatment (ABT-116 – transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) antagonist, Carprofen – non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), Tramadol - synthetic opiate, or Placebo) for 2 weeks. Outcome-measures included physical examination parameters, owner questionnaire, activity monitoring, gait analysis, and use of rescue medication. Results Acute hyperthermia developed after ABT-116 treatment (P < 0.001). Treatment with carprofen (P ≤ 0.01) and tramadol (P ≤ 0.001) led to improved mobility assessed by owner questionnaire. Nighttime activity was increased after ABT-116 treatment (P = 0.01). Kinetic gait analysis did not reveal significant treatment effects. Use of rescue treatment decreased with treatment in the ABT-116 and Carprofen groups (P < 0.001). Questionnaire score and activity count at the end of treatment were correlated with age, clinical severity at trial entry, and outcome measure baseline status (SR ≥ ±0.40, P ≤ 0.005). Placebo treatment effects were evident with all variables studied. Conclusion Treatment of hip OA in client-owned dogs is associated with a placebo effect for all variables that are commonly used for efficacy studies of analgesic drugs. This likely reflects caregiver bias or the phenomenon of regression to the mean. In the present study, outcome measures with significant effects also varied between groups, highlighting the value of using multiple outcome

  19. Effect of analgesic therapy on clinical outcome measures in a randomized controlled trial using client-owned dogs with hip osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Malek, Sarah; Sample, Susannah J; Schwartz, Zeev; Nemke, Brett; Jacobson, Peer B; Cozzi, Elizabeth M; Schaefer, Susan L; Bleedorn, Jason A; Holzman, Gerianne; Muir, Peter

    2012-10-04

    Pain and impaired mobility because of osteoarthritis (OA) is common in dogs and humans. Efficacy studies of analgesic drug treatment of dogs with naturally occurring OA may be challenging, as a caregiver placebo effect is typically evident. However, little is known about effect sizes of common outcome-measures in canine clinical trials evaluating treatment of OA pain. Forty-nine client-owned dogs with hip OA were enrolled in a randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled prospective trial. After a 1 week baseline period, dogs were randomly assigned to a treatment (ABT-116 - transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) antagonist, Carprofen - non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), Tramadol - synthetic opiate, or Placebo) for 2 weeks. Outcome-measures included physical examination parameters, owner questionnaire, activity monitoring, gait analysis, and use of rescue medication. Acute hyperthermia developed after ABT-116 treatment (P < 0.001). Treatment with carprofen (P ≤ 0.01) and tramadol (P ≤ 0.001) led to improved mobility assessed by owner questionnaire. Nighttime activity was increased after ABT-116 treatment (P = 0.01). Kinetic gait analysis did not reveal significant treatment effects. Use of rescue treatment decreased with treatment in the ABT-116 and Carprofen groups (P < 0.001). Questionnaire score and activity count at the end of treatment were correlated with age, clinical severity at trial entry, and outcome measure baseline status (SR ≥ ±0.40, P ≤ 0.005). Placebo treatment effects were evident with all variables studied. Treatment of hip OA in client-owned dogs is associated with a placebo effect for all variables that are commonly used for efficacy studies of analgesic drugs. This likely reflects caregiver bias or the phenomenon of regression to the mean. In the present study, outcome measures with significant effects also varied between groups, highlighting the value of using multiple outcome measures, as well as an a priori

  20. Antipyretic and analgesic effects of zaltoprofen for the treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infection: verification of a noninferiority hypothesis using loxoprofen sodium.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Arata; Kudoh, Shoji; Nakashima, Mitsuyoshi; Nagatake, Tsuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    A multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-dummy, randomized, parallel-group, double-blind study was conducted to verify the hypothesis of noninferiority for single-dose administration of zaltoprofen 160 mg, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, compared with loxoprofen sodium 60 mg (loxoprofen), in terms of antipyretic and analgesic effects in patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection. The eligible 330 patients were assigned to one of 3 groups: zaltoprofen 160 mg, loxoprofen 60 mg and placebo. The analysis set consisted of 322 patients. Antipyretic effects were assessed by measuring body temperature, and analgesic effects were evaluated using a visual analog scale (VAS) for 4 h under the control of study staff. A detection kit for influenza virus A and B antigens was used to determine the presence of influenza virus infection. Compared with immediately before administration and with the placebo group, significant decreases in body temperature and summary VAS pain scores were noted in both the zaltoprofen and loxoprofen groups at 4 h after drug administration. Based on the degree of decrease in body temperature and the summary VAS pain scores up to 4 h after administration, noninferiority in terms of antipyretic and analgesic effects of zaltoprofen compared with those of loxoprofen was confirmed after single administration. Similar antipyretic and analgesic effects were also confirmed in influenza virus antigen-positive patients (73 patients). No clinical concerns were identified regarding safety. Zaltoprofen and loxoprofen are confirmed to be safe and useful for patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection, including those with influenza infection. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. "Weak" opioid analgesics. Codeine, dihydrocodeine and tramadol: no less risky than morphine.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    So-called weak opioid analgesics are often used to treat severe pain, or when paracetamol or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) proves inadequate. But are weak opioids any more effective than paracetamol or NSAIDs on nociceptive pain, and are they better tolerated than morphine? To answer these questions, we conducted a review of literature using the standard Prescrire methodology. The potency of codeine and tramadol is strongly influenced by the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme CYP2D6 genotype, which varies widely from one person to another. This explains reports of overdosing or underdosing after administration of standard doses of the two drugs. The potency of morphine and that of buprenorphine, an opioid receptor agonist-antagonist, appears to be independent of CYP2D6 activity. All "weak" opioids can have the same dose-dependent adverse effects as morphine. There is no evidence that, at equivalent analgesic efficacy, weak opioids carry a lower risk of addiction than low-dose morphine. Respiratory depression can occur in ultrarapid metabolisers after brief exposure to standard doses of codeine or tramadol. Similar cases have been reported with dihydrocodeine in patients with renal failure. In addition, tramadol can cause a serotonin syndrome, hypoglycaemia, hyponatraemia and seizures. Several trials have compared different weak opioids in patients with post-operative pain. A single dose of a weak opioid, possibly combined with paracetamol, has greater analgesic efficacy than paracetamol alone but is not more effective than an NSAID alone. There is a dearth of evidence on weak opioids in patients with chronic pain. Available trials fail to show that a weak opioid has markedly superior analgesic efficacy to paracetamol or an NSAID. Sublingual buprenorphine at analgesic doses appears less likely to cause respiratory depression, but it seems to have weak analgesic efficacy. In practice, when opioid therapy is needed, there is no evidence that codeine

  2. The Effect of Skin Traction on Preoperative Pain and Need for Analgesics in Patients With Intertrochanteric Fractures: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Manafi Rasi, Alireza; Amoozadeh, Farzad; Khani, Salim; Kamrani Rad, Amin; Sazegar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preoperative skin traction is applied for many patients with hip fracture. However, the efficacy of this modality in pain relief is controversial. Objectives: The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of skin traction on pain in patients with intertrochanteric fractures. Patients and Methods: A total of 40 patients contributed in this randomized clinical trial. Patients were randomly allocated into two equal groups: the skin traction (3 kg) and control groups. The severity of pain was recorded at admission and 30 minutes, one, six, 12, and 24 hours after skin traction application utilizing a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). In addition, the number of requests for analgesics was recorded. Finally, the mean severity of pain in each measurement and the mean number of analgesic requests were compared between the two groups. Results: The severity of pain was significantly decreased in skin traction group only at the end of the first day after traction application (2.7 ± 0.8 vs. 3.3 ± 0.9; P = 0.042), while there was no significant difference between the two groups in other pain measurements. The number of requests for analgesics was the same between the two groups. Conclusions: Although skin traction had no effect on analgesic consumption, it significantly decreased the pain at the end of the first day. The application of skin traction in patients with intertrochanteric fractures is recommended. PMID:26401491

  3. Drug-poisoning Deaths Involving Opioid Analgesics: United States, 1999-2011.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li Hui; Hedegaard, Holly; Warner, Margaret

    2014-09-01

    Data from the National Vital Statistics System, Mortality File. The age-adjusted rate for opioid-analgesic poisoning deaths nearly quadrupled from 1.4 per 100,000 in 1999 to 5.4 per 100,000 in 2011. Although the opioid-analgesic poisoning death rates increased each year from 1999 through 2011, the rate of increase has slowed since 2006. Natural and semisynthetic opioid analgesics, such as hydrocodone, morphine, and oxycodone, were involved in 11,693 drug-poisoning deaths in 2011, up from 2,749 deaths in 1999. Benzodiazepines were involved in 31% of the opioid-analgesic poisoning deaths in 2011, up from 13% of the opioid-analgesic poisoning deaths in 1999. During the past decade, adults aged 55-64 and non-Hispanic white persons experienced the greatest increase in the rates of opioid-analgesic poisoning deaths. Poisoning is the leading cause of injury death in the United States (1). Drugs-both illicit and pharmaceutical-are the major cause of poisoning deaths, accounting for 90% of poisoning deaths in 2011. Misuse or abuse of prescription drugs, including opioid-analgesic pain relievers, is responsible for much of the recent increase in drug-poisoning deaths (2). This report highlights trends in drug-poisoning deaths involving opioid analgesics (referred to as opioid-analgesic poisoning deaths) and updates previous Data Briefs on this topic. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  4. Mechanisms of topical analgesics in relieving pain in an animal model of muscular inflammation.

    PubMed

    Duan, Wan-Ru; Lu, Jie; Xie, Yi-Kuan

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the possible mechanisms of topical analgesics in relieving pain in an animal model of muscular inflammation. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes were injected with complete Freund's adjuvant to induce inflammation in the anterior tibialis muscle of left hindlimb. One of two types of topical analgesics: Xiaotong Tiegao (XTT), a Tibetan herb compound, or Capzasin (CAP), a cream containing 0.1% capsaicin, was applied to the skin over the inflamed anterior tibialis muscle. The following experiments were performed: pain behavioral tests, evaluation of plasma extravasation in the affected limb, and electrophysiological recordings of afferent nerve fibers. The behavioral experiments demonstrated that applications of either type of topical analgesic to the skin over the inflamed muscle significantly reduced muscular inflammatory pain, as indicated by the increased weight bearing capacity on the affected hindlimb (with latencies of 10 minutes for XTT and 1-2 hours for CAP). Meanwhile, both analgesics caused plasma extravasation in the affected skin. Electrophysiological recordings from the afferent fibers in the related cutaneous nerve indicated that topical analgesics selectively activated C-fibers, but not A-fibers innervating the same region of receptive field. The latency and duration of C-fiber activation was similar to those of the reduction of muscular inflammatory pain. On the contrary, topical analgesics substantially decreased C-fiber afferent spontaneous firing in the nerve innervating the inflamed muscle. Moreover, denervation of the affected skin blocked the analgesic effects of both topical analgesics in muscular inflammatory pain. This study suggests that topical analgesics may reduce the nociceptive input from inflamed muscles via a reflex mechanism by activating the cutaneous nociceptive afferents. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Investigations on the 4-Quinolone-3-Carboxylic Acid Motif. 5. Modulation of the Physicochemical Profile of a Set of Potent and Selective Cannabinoid-2 Receptor Ligands through a Bioisosteric Approach

    PubMed Central

    Nocerino, Stefania; Pedani, Valentina; Pasquini, Serena; Tafi, Andrea; De Chiaro, Maria; Bellucci, Luca; Valoti, Massimo; Guida, Francesca; Luongo, Livio; Dragoni, Stefania; Ligresti, Alessia; Rosenberg, Avraham; Bolognini, Daniele; Cascio, Maria Grazia; Pertwee, Roger G.; Moaddel, Ruin; Maione, Sabatino; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Three heterocyclic systems were selected as potential surrogates of the amide linker for a series of 1,6-disubstituted-4-quinolone-3-carboxamides, potent and selective CB2 ligands exhibiting scarce water solubility, with the aim of improving their physicochemical profile and also of clarifying properties of importance for amide bond mimicry. Among the newly synthesized compounds, the 1,2,3-triazole derivative 11 emerged as the most promising in terms of both physicochemical and pharmacodynamic properties. When assayed in vitro, 11 exhibited inverse agonist activity, whereas, in vivo, in the formalin test in mice, it produced analgesic effects antagonized by a well established inverse agonist. Metabolic studies allowed the identification of the side chain hydroxylated derivative 32 as its only metabolite which, in its racemic form, showed still appreciable CB2 selectivity, but was 150-fold less potent than the parent compound. PMID:22383251

  6. Pharmacological Treatment of Pain in Cancer Patients: The Role of Adjuvant Analgesics, a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    van den Beuken-van Everdingen, Marieke H J; de Graeff, Alexander; Jongen, Joost L M; Dijkstra, Denise; Mostovaya, Irina; Vissers, Kris C

    2017-03-01

    In patients with cancer, pain is one of the most feared and burdensome symptoms. Adjuvant analgesics are an important cornerstone on which treatment of pain in patients with cancer is based. To update our guidelines for the treatment of pain in patients with cancer, we performed a systematic review on the use of adjuvant analgesics in pain in cancer. A systematic search of the literature was performed searching for articles that studied the effect of (1) antidepressants, (2) anti-epileptics, (3) N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists, and (4) other adjuvant analgesics in patients with cancer pain and described their effects on pain intensity and/or side effects. Based on the keywords and after reading the full papers, we could include 12 papers on anticonvulsants, 10 papers on antidepressants, four on NMDA receptor antagonists, and 10 papers on other adjuvant analgesics. The methodological quality of the included papers was graded as low to very low. Overall, there was a low quality of evidence that gabapentin, pregabalin, amitriptyline, and venlafaxine were effective in reducing pain intensity in patients with cancer pain. There was insufficient evidence on the effectiveness of lamotrigine, levetiracetam, NMDA antagonists, cannabinoids, corticosteroids, and local anesthetics on reducing pain intensity in patients with cancer pain. The quality of currently available evidence on the effectiveness of adjuvant analgesics in the treatment of cancer pain is low. The treatment of pain associated with cancer should be tailored to the patient's personal preferences. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.

  7. Analgesic Efficacy and Safety of Hydromorphone in Chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera).

    PubMed

    Evenson, Emily A; Mans, Christoph

    2018-05-01

    Limited information is available regarding the efficacy of opioid analgesics in chinchillas. Here we sought to evaluate the analgesic efficacy and safety of hydromorphone in chinchillas. In a randomized, controlled, blind, complete crossover design, hydromorphone was administered at 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/kg SC to 16 chinchillas. Analgesic efficacy was determined by measuring hindlimb withdrawal latencies after a thermal noxious stimulus (Hargreaves method) at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 h after drug administration. Changes in daily food intake and fecal output after hydromorphone administration were recorded. At 2 mg/kg SC, but not at lower dosages, hydromorphone increased withdrawal latencies for less than 4 h. Food intake was reduced after all 3 dosages, and fecal output decreased in the 1- and 2-mg/kg groups. The decreases in these parameters were dose-dependent, with the greatest reduction measured over the first 24 h. Our current results indicate that hydromorphone at 2 mg/kg SC is an effective, short-acting analgesic drug in chinchillas that transiently reduces food intake and fecal output. Further studies are needed to evaluate the safety of hydromorphone in animals undergoing surgical procedures and general anesthesia and to determine whether lower doses provide analgesia in different nociceptive models.

  8. Disambiguating Pharmacodynamic Efficacy from Behavior with Neuroimaging: Implications for Analgesic Drug Development.

    PubMed

    Wanigasekera, Vishvarani; Mezue, Melvin; Andersson, Jesper; Kong, Yazhuo; Tracey, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Attrition rates of new analgesics during drug development are high; poor assay sensitivity with reliance on subjective outcome measures being a crucial factor. The authors assessed the utility of functional magnetic resonance imaging with capsaicin-induced central sensitization, a mechanism relevant in neuropathic pain, for obtaining mechanism-based objective outcome measures that can differentiate an effective analgesic (gabapentin) from an ineffective analgesic (ibuprofen) and both from placebo. The authors used a double-blind, randomized phase I study design (N = 24) with single oral doses. Only gabapentin suppressed the secondary mechanical hyperalgesia-evoked neural response in a region of the brainstem's descending pain modulatory system (right nucleus cuneiformis) and left (contralateral) posterior insular cortex and secondary somatosensory cortex. Similarly, only gabapentin suppressed the resting-state functional connectivity during central sensitization between the thalamus and secondary somatosensory cortex, which was plasma gabapentin level dependent. A power analysis showed that with 12 data sets, when using neural activity from the left posterior insula and right nucleus cuneiformis, a statistically significant difference between placebo and gabapentin was detected with probability ≥ 0.8. When using subjective pain ratings, this reduced to less than or equal to 0.6. Functional imaging with central sensitization can be used as a sensitive mechanism-based assay to guide go/no-go decisions on selecting analgesics effective in neuropathic pain in early human drug development. We also show analgesic modulation of neural activity by using resting-state functional connectivity, a less challenging paradigm that is ideally suited for patient studies because it requires no task or pain provocation.

  9. Analysis of factors related to the use of opioid analgesics in regional cancer centers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Munetoshi; Miyashita, Mitsunori; Sato, Kazuki; Tsuneto, Satoru; Matoba, Motohiro; Sano, Motohiko; Shima, Yasuo

    2010-07-01

    The use of opioid analgesics and nonopioid medicines for the treatment of various symptoms in regional cancer centers is considered to be an index of the effectiveness of the structural plan for palliative care in such institutions. The present study aimed to establish an accurate representation of the actual use of opioid analgesics for palliative care in regional cancer centers. In November 2007, a questionnaire regarding the use of medications for palliative care was conducted in 288 regional cancer centers in Japan. Valid responses were received from 264 institutions (response rate, 91.4%). All regional cancer centers reported using both opioid analgesics and nonopioid medicines. However, regarding opioid analgesics, the use of each standard strength ranged from 7% to 100%. The total amount of opioid analgesics used was 1739.6 +/- 1216.5 g (mean +/- SD). Factors found to be significantly related to the total amount of opioid analgesics used in an institution were the number of opioid analgesic medicines in use (p = 0.008), the number of inpatients with cancer (p < 0.001), the number of deaths among patients with cancer (p < 0.001), and the number of beds (p < 0.001). Increase in the amount of opioid analgesics might improve the quality of palliative care at regional cancer centers.

  10. Preventing the development of chronic pain after orthopaedic surgery with preventive multimodal analgesic techniques.

    PubMed

    Reuben, Scott S; Buvanendran, Asokumar

    2007-06-01

    The prevalences of complex regional pain syndrome, phantom limb pain, chronic donor-site pain, and persistent pain following total joint arthroplasty are alarmingly high. Central nervous system plasticity that occurs in response to tissue injury may contribute to the development of persistent postoperative pain. Many researchers have focused on methods to prevent central neuroplastic changes from occurring through the utilization of preemptive or preventive multimodal analgesic techniques. Multimodal analgesia allows a reduction in the doses of individual drugs for postoperative pain and thus a lower prevalence of opioid-related adverse events. The rationale for this strategy is the achievement of sufficient analgesia due to the additive effects of, or the synergistic effects between, different analgesics. Effective multimodal analgesic techniques include the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, local anesthetics, alpha-2 agonists, ketamine, alpha(2)-delta ligands, and opioids.

  11. Analgesic effects of treatments for non-specific low back pain: a meta-analysis of placebo-controlled randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Machado, L A C; Kamper, S J; Herbert, R D; Maher, C G; McAuley, J H

    2009-05-01

    Estimates of treatment effects reported in placebo-controlled randomized trials are less subject to bias than those estimates provided by other study designs. The objective of this meta-analysis was to estimate the analgesic effects of treatments for non-specific low back pain reported in placebo-controlled randomized trials. Medline, Embase, Cinahl, PsychInfo and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched for eligible trials from earliest records to November 2006. Continuous pain outcomes were converted to a common 0-100 scale and pooled using a random effects model. A total of 76 trials reporting on 34 treatments were included. Fifty percent of the investigated treatments had statistically significant effects, but for most the effects were small or moderate: 47% had point estimates of effects of <10 points on the 100-point scale, 38% had point estimates from 10 to 20 points and 15% had point estimates of >20 points. Treatments reported to have large effects (>20 points) had been investigated only in a single trial. This meta-analysis revealed that the analgesic effects of many treatments for non-specific low back pain are small and that they do not differ in populations with acute or chronic symptoms.

  12. 14-Alkoxy- and 14-acyloxypyridomorphinans: μ agonist/δ antagonist opioid analgesics with diminished tolerance and dependence side effects.

    PubMed

    Ananthan, Subramaniam; Saini, Surendra K; Dersch, Christina M; Xu, Heng; McGlinchey, Nicholas; Giuvelis, Denise; Bilsky, Edward J; Rothman, Richard B

    2012-10-11

    In the search for opioid ligands with mixed functional activity, a series of 5'-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,5α-epoxypyridomorphinans possessing alkoxy or acyloxy groups at C-14 was synthesized and evaluated. In this series, the affinity and functional activity of the ligands were found to be influenced by the nature of the substituent at C-14 as well as by the substituent at N-17. Whereas the incorporation of a 3-phenylpropoxy group at C-14 on N-methylpyridomorhinan gave a dual MOR agonist/DOR agonist 17h, its incorporation on N-cyclopropylmethylpyridomorphinan gave a MOR agonist/DOR antagonist 17d. Interestingly, 17d, in contrast to 17h, did not produce tolerance or dependence effects upon prolonged treatment in cells expressing MOR and DOR. Moreover, 17d displayed greatly diminished analgesic tolerance as compared to morphine upon repeated administration, thus supporting the hypothesis that ligands with MOR agonist/DOR antagonist functional activity could emerge as novel analgesics devoid of tolerance, dependence, and related side effects.

  13. Papillary Necrosis in Experimental Analgesic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Saker, B. M.; Kincaid-Smith, Priscilla

    1969-01-01

    A proprietary aspirin, phenacetin, and caffeine preparation given to rats in a dose equivalent to that taken by patients with analgesic nephropathy produced papillary necrosis in 55%. There was a higher incidence in rats deprived of fluids overnight. Papillary necrosis was not noted in rats receiving twice as much phenacetin. These findings support the argument that phenacetin should not be singled out as the substance responsible for analgesic nephropathy in man. PMID:5762278

  14. Post-marketing withdrawal of analgesic medications because of adverse drug reactions: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Onakpoya, Igho J; Heneghan, Carl J; Aronson, Jeffrey K

    2018-01-01

    Many analgesics have been withdrawn from the market because of adverse drug reactions. Controversy still surrounds the use of some approved analgesics for pain management. However, the trends and reasons for withdrawal of analgesics when harms are attributed to their use have not been systematically assessed. Areas covered: We conducted searches in PubMed; Embase; Google Scholar; clinicaltrials.gov; WHO databases of withdrawn products; websites of the European Medicines Agency, the US Food and Drug Administration, the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency; Meyler's Side Effects of Drugs; Stephens' Detection of New Adverse Drug Reactions; the Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Encyclopedia; and the Merck Index. We included licensed analgesics that were withdrawn after marketing because of adverse reactions between 1950 and March 2017. We excluded herbal products, non-human medicines, and non-prescription medicines. We used the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine criteria to document the levels of evidence, and chi-squared tests to compare withdrawal patterns across geographical regions. Expert opinion: Pharmacovigilance systems in low-resource settings should be strengthened. Greater co-ordination across regulatory authorities in assessing and interpreting the benefit-harm balance of new analgesics should be encouraged. Future reporting of harms in clinical trials of analgesics should follow standardized guidelines.

  15. Conventional and microwave assisted synthesis of pyrazolone Mannich bases possessing anti-inflammatory, analgesic, ulcerogenic effect and antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Kullampalayam Krishnasamy; Rajasekaran, Aiyalu; Senthilkumar, Palaniappan; Wattamwar, Prasad P

    2014-07-01

    In the present study, an efficient synthesis of some Mannich base of 5-methyl-2-[(2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)carbonyl]-2,4-dihydro-3H-pyrazol-3-one (4a-j) have been described by using conventional and non-conventional (microwave) techniques. Microwave assisted reactions showed that require shorter reaction time and good yield. The newly synthesized compounds were screened for their anti-inflammatory, analgesic activity, antioxidant, and antibacterial effects were compared with standard drug. Among the compounds studied, compound (4f) showing nearly equipotent anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity than the standard drug (indomethacin), along with minimum ulcerogenic index. Compounds (4b and 4i) showing 1.06 times more active than ciprofloxacin against tested Gram-negative bacteria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of Pain Thresholds and Analgesic Effects of Parecoxib Sodium in Surgical Patients of Different Racial and Religious Backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Biao; Hu, Yu; Liu, Chao; Gu, Miao-Ning

    2015-06-01

    To explore the differences of the thresholds of pain and analgesic effects of parecoxib sodium among patients with different racial and religious backgrounds. A total of 48 male patients aged 18 to 38 years who had undergone elective laparoscopic appendectomy under general anesthesia in our centers were enrolled in our study and then divided into 6 groups(n=8 in each group)based on their racial backgrounds(three levels:Mongoloid,Negroid,and Europoid)and religious backgrounds(two levels:without religion background,with religion background).All subjects received the same anesthesia,surgical procedure,and postoperative analgesia with parecoxib sodium. The temperature pain threshold and electrical pain threshold were detected 1h before and after analgesia. The threshold of pain was higher in Europoids than in Negroids and Mongoloids before and after treatment. The temperature pain threshold and electrical pain threshold were not significantly different between subjects with or without religious background(before analgesic therapy:F=251.119,P=0.130,F=275.861,P=0.059;after analgesic therapy:F=308.531,P=0.086,F=180.062,P=0.078). Also,there was no interaction between the racial and religious backgrous in terms of temperature pain threshold and electrical pain threshold(F=13.553,P=0.091,F=22.001,P= 0.089;after analgesic therapy:F=4.624,P=0.089,F=15.935,P=0.094). The threshold of pain differs among individuals with different racial background:it is highest in Europoids,followed by Negroids and Mongoloids. It shows no obvious difference in people with different religious backgrounds.

  17. Purification and function of two analgesic and anti-inflammatory peptides from coelomic fluid of the earthworm, Eisenia foetida.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunlong; Chen, Mengrou; Li, Xiaojie; Yang, Meifeng; Wang, Ying; Yang, Xinwang

    2017-03-01

    The potential application of anti-inflammatory and analgesic compounds in medication and therapeutic care have become of increasing interest. We purified and characterized two novel analgesic and anti-inflammatory peptides, VQ-5 and AQ-5, from the coelomic fluid of the earthworm (Eisenia foetida). Their primary structures were determined as VSSVQ and AMADQ, respectively. Both peptides, especially AQ-5, exhibited analgesic activity in mouse models of persistent neuropathic pain and inflammation. AQ-5 also inhibited tumor necrosis factor alpha and cyclooxygenase-2 production. The mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway, which is involved in analgesic and anti-inflammatory functions, was inhibited by AQ-5. Thus, the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of these peptides, especially AQ-5, demonstrated their potential as candidates for the development of novel analgesic medicines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Management of opioid maintenance treatments when analgesic treatments are required].

    PubMed

    Laprevote, Vincent; Geoffroy, Pierre A; Rolland, Benjamin; Leheup, Benoît F; Di Patrizio, Paolo; Cottencin, Olivier; Schwan, Raymund

    2013-01-01

    Opioid maintenance treatments (OMT) reduce illicit opiate use and its associated risks. They are often prescribed on a long-term basis. Physiological changes induced by long-term OMT may cause hyperalgesia and cross-tolerance to opioid agonists, which suggests that the dosage of analgesic treatment should be modified in cases of acute pain, especially when an opioid-based analgesia is required. When treatment with analgesics is necessary, OMT must be maintained, except in exceptional cases. If a split-dosing schedule is temporarily employed during OMT, the daily dosage should not be increased for analgesic purposes. Analgesic treatment must be managed differently in case of treatment with buprenorphine or methadone. With buprenorphine, non-opioid analgesics should be introduced first, if possible. If this strategy is inefficient or contraindicated, a temporary or definitive switch to methadone should be considered. In the case of methadone-based OMT, opioid analgesics should be added directly and the dosage should be adapted according to the level of pain reported by the patient. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. HDAC inhibitor TSA ameliorates mechanical hypersensitivity and potentiates analgesic effect of morphine in a rat model of bone cancer pain by restoring μ-opioid receptor in spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xinran; Weng, Yingqi; Ouyang, Bihan; Ding, Zhuofeng; Song, Zongbin; Zou, Wangyuan; Huang, Changsheng; Guo, Qulian

    2017-08-15

    Bone cancer pain (BCP) is a common complication with inadequate management in patients suffering from advanced cancer. Histone deacetylase inhibitors showed significant analgesic effect in multiple inflammatory and neuropathic pain models, but their effect in bone cancer pain has never been explored. In this study, we utilized a BCP rat model with intra-tibial inoculation of Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cells, which developed progressive mechanical hypersensitivity but not thermal hypersensitivity. Intrathecal application of trichostatin A (TSA), a classic pan-HDAC inhibitor, ameliorated tactile hypersensitivity and enhanced the analgesic effect of morphine in BCP rats. The analgesic effect of TSA was blocked by co-administration of CTAP, a specific MOR antagonist, confirming the involvement of mu-opioid receptor (MOR). A reduction of MOR expression was observed in the lumbar spinal cord of BCP rats and TSA treatment was able to partially reverse it. In vitro study in PC12 cells also demonstrated the dose-dependent enhancement of MOR expression by TSA treatment. Taking all into consideration, we could draw the conclusion that HDAC inhibitor TSA ameliorates mechanical hypersensitivity and potentiates analgesic effect of morphine in BCP rats, probably by restoring MOR expression in spinal cord. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Screening of analgesic activity of Tunisian Urtica dioica and analysis of its major bioactive compounds by GCMS.

    PubMed

    Dhouibi, Raouia; Moalla, Dorsaf; Ksouda, Kamilia; Ben Salem, Maryem; Hammami, Serria; Sahnoun, Zouheir; Zeghal, Khaled Mounir; Affes, Hanen

    2017-11-20

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the analgesic properties of Urtica dioica (UD) and to profile phytochemicals by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The ethanolic extracts were prepared by maceration method and extraction using rotary evaporator. The analgesic activity was analysed by hot plate method, formalin test, acetic acid-induced writhing test and the tail-flick test with different doses of the ethanolic extract. In all tests, the leaf's ethanolic extract exhibited significant analgesic activity (p < .001) at a dose of 400 mg/kg. Even with a low dose, we noticed an analgesic activity with many tests. The GC-MS analysis of the ethanol extract of leaf revealed many compounds; 2-methyltetradecane dodecane, 2,6,11-trimethyl-; 2,6,11-trimethyldodecane, and trimethylhexane which are pharmaceutically the most important. These findings justify that UD can be a valuable natural analgesic source which seemed to provide potential phototherapeutics against various ailments. The analysis of ethanolic extract of UD by GCMS revealed the presence of several compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, triterpenes which can explain the analgesic effect of UD and its mechanism of action. Hence, UD could be another therapeutic alternative for relieving pain and for minimising the use of drugs that have long-term secondary effects.

  1. A novel orvinol analog, BU08028, as a safe opioid analgesic without abuse liability in primates.

    PubMed

    Ding, Huiping; Czoty, Paul W; Kiguchi, Norikazu; Cami-Kobeci, Gerta; Sukhtankar, Devki D; Nader, Michael A; Husbands, Stephen M; Ko, Mei-Chuan

    2016-09-13

    Despite the critical need, no previous research has substantiated safe opioid analgesics without abuse liability in primates. Recent advances in medicinal chemistry have led to the development of ligands with mixed mu opioid peptide (MOP)/nociceptin-orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) receptor agonist activity to achieve this objective. BU08028 is a novel orvinol analog that displays a similar binding profile to buprenorphine with improved affinity and efficacy at NOP receptors. The aim of this preclinical study was to establish the functional profile of BU08028 in monkeys using clinically used MOP receptor agonists for side-by-side comparisons in various well-honed behavioral and physiological assays. Systemic BU08028 (0.001-0.01 mg/kg) produced potent long-lasting (i.e., >24 h) antinociceptive and antiallodynic effects, which were blocked by MOP or NOP receptor antagonists. More importantly, the reinforcing strength of BU08028 was significantly lower than that of cocaine, remifentanil, or buprenorphine in monkeys responding under a progressive-ratio schedule of drug self-administration. Unlike MOP receptor agonists, BU08028 at antinociceptive doses and ∼10- to 30-fold higher doses did not cause respiratory depression or cardiovascular adverse events as measured by telemetry devices. After repeated administration, the monkeys developed acute physical dependence on morphine, as manifested by precipitated withdrawal signs, such as increased respiratory rate, heart rate, and blood pressure. In contrast, monkeys did not show physical dependence on BU08028. These in vivo findings in primates not only document the efficacy and tolerability profile of bifunctional MOP/NOP receptor agonists, but also provide a means of translating such ligands into therapies as safe and potentially abuse-free opioid analgesics.

  2. A Prospective, Observational Study to Evaluate the Role of Gabapentin as Preventive Analgesic in Thyroidectomy under General Anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Hema, Vadakkoot Raghavan; Ramadas, Konnanath Thekkethil; Biji, Kannammadathy Poulose; Indu, Suseela; Arun, Aravind

    2017-01-01

    Effective management of postoperative pain is a part of well-organized perioperative care, which helps in reduced morbidity and improved patient satisfaction. Preventive analgesia can reduce acute and chronic pain by blocking the noxious inputs to pain pathways, preventing sensitization. Studies have reported efficacy of gabapentin as a preventive analgesic in perioperative pain. In this study, we aimed to determine whether preoperative gabapentin reduced postoperative pain and tramadol consumption after thyroidectomy under general anesthesia. Sixty patients scheduled for thyroidectomy were allocated to two groups of thirty each for this prospective, observational study. Patients in Group A and Group B received oral gabapentin 600 mg (6 × 10 -4 kg) and diazepam 10 mg (1 × 10 -5 kg), respectively, 2 h prior to surgery. Tramadol was given as rescue analgesic for postoperative pain with a verbal rating score of two. The analgesic efficacy of preoperative gabapentin was assessed in terms of postoperative pain scores at rest or swallowing, time to first rescue analgesic, and total tramadol consumption for 24 h. Ramsay sedation score and side effects of drug were also looked into. Postoperative pain scores and total tramadol consumption were significantly lower in Group A during 24 h ( P = 0.00). Time to first rescue analgesic was significantly prolonged in Group A ( P = 0.001). Side effects were comparable. Oral gabapentin is effective as a preventive analgesic in reducing postoperative pain and tramadol consumption after thyroidectomy under general anesthesia.

  3. Methoxyflurane and nitrous oxide as obstetric analgesics. II. A comparison by self-administered intermittent inhalation.

    PubMed

    Jones, P L; Rosen, M; Mushin, W W; Jones, E V

    1969-08-02

    Methoxyflurane (0.35%) in air and nitrous oxide/oxygen (50%/50%) self-administered intermittently in the usual way have been compared as analgesics for labour. There were 25 patients in each group. Objective assessment by an anaesthetist showed that methoxyflurane is the more effective analgesic, and this was supported by the opinion of the multiparae. Nausea and vomiting were significantly less with methoxyflurane. Fifty per cent. nitrous oxide in oxygen given intermittently does not appear to be the best analgesic concentration. Nevertheless, since a considerable variation in sensitivity exists, it would probably be unwise to consider the introduction of higher concentrations for use by unsupervised midwives.This trial confirms the predictions made by us using a method for screening inhalational analgesics, in which methoxyflurane and nitrous oxide were given continuously.

  4. Analgesics as Reinforcers with Chronic Pain: Evidence from Operant Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ewan, Eric E.; Martin, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Previously preclinical pain research has focused on simple behavioral endpoints to assess the efficacy of analgesics in acute and chronic pain models, primarily reflexive withdrawal from an applied mechanical or thermal stimulus. However recent research has been aimed at investigating other behavioral states in the presence of pain, including spontaneous, non-elicited pain. One approach is to investigate the reinforcing effects of analgesics in animals with experimental pain, which should serve as reinforcers by virtue of their ability to alleviate the relevant subjective states induced by pain. The gold standard for assessing drug reinforcement is generally accepted to be drug self-administration, and this review highlights the ability of drugs to serve as reinforcers in animals with experimental neuropathic pain, and the extent to which this behavior is altered in chronic pain states. Additionally, intracranial self-stimulation is an operant procedure that has been used extensively to study drug reinforcement mechanisms and the manner in which neuropathic pain alters the ability of drugs to serve as reinforcers in this paradigm will also be discussed. Drug self-administration and intracranial self-stimulation have promise as tools to investigate behavioral effects of analgesics in animals with chronic pain, particularly regarding the mechanisms through which these drugs motivate consumption in a chronic pain state. PMID:23973302

  5. The use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and analgesics by liver transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Mulka-Gierek, Maria; Foroncewicz, Bartosz; Florczak, Michał; Pączek, Leszek; Krawczyk, Marek; Mucha, Krzysztof

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to assess the reasons and the frequency of the use of over-the-counter (OTC) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or analgesics by liver transplant recipients (LTR). Patient awareness of possible drug-related side-effects was also assessed. NSAIDs and analgesics available without prescription belong to the most commonly used class of drugs. However, use of these drugs might be complicated by toxic adverse effects (AEs). Patients at risk for AEs include the transplant recipients. This was a descriptive study. An anonymous survey was carried out in 73 randomly selected LTR, who represented 10% of all LTR at our centre. There were 64% of the patients who confirmed taking NSAIDs or analgesics; 16% of these patients took these drugs at least several times a week and 10% took them daily. For 39% of patients, the only way to manage their pain were OTC NSAIDs or analgesics. As many as 36% of patients were unaware of the risks associated with the use of these drugs. Ninety per cent of LTR consider physicians the most trusted source of drugs information. Our study shows that two-thirds of LTR take OTC NSAIDs or analgesics and one-third are unaware of the AEs associated with these drugs. Therefore, both transplant nurses and doctors should educate their patients about the use and possible AE of these drugs. Considering the high NSAIDs consumption rates, the side effects of these drugs should always be suspected. Especially in patients taking these drugs and referring to medical advisors with specific symptoms, such as: abdominal pain, anaemia, elevated serum creatinine concentration or liver enzymes activity. Awareness of the scale of the problem enables health professionals to cooperate in educating patients. Such practices may reduce uncontrolled abuse of these drugs and related health care costs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. RgIA4 Potently Blocks Mouse α9α10 nAChRs and Provides Long Lasting Protection against Oxaliplatin-Induced Cold Allodynia.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Sean B; Hone, Arik J; Roux, Isabelle; Kniazeff, Julie; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Upert, Grégory; Servent, Denis; Glowatzki, Elisabeth; McIntosh, J Michael

    2017-01-01

    Transcripts for α9 and α10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits are found in diverse tissues. The function of α9α10 nAChRs is best known in mechanosensory cochlear hair cells, but elsewhere their roles are less well-understood. α9α10 nAChRs have been implicated as analgesic targets and α-conotoxins that block α9α10 nAChRs produce analgesia. However, some of these peptides show large potency differences between species. Additionally several studies have indicated that these conotoxins may also activate GABA B receptors (GABA B Rs). To further address these issues, we cloned the cDNAs of mouse α9 and α10 nAChR subunits. When heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes, the resulting α9α10 nAChRs had the expected pharmacology of being activated by acetylcholine and choline but not by nicotine. A conotoxin analog, RgIA4, potently, and selectively blocked mouse α9α10 nAChRs with low nanomolar affinity indicating that RgIA4 may be effectively used to study murine α9α10 nAChR function. Previous reports indicated that RgIA4 attenuates chemotherapy-induced cold allodynia. Here we demonstrate that RgIA4 analgesic effects following oxaliplatin treatment are sustained for 21 days after last RgIA4 administration indicating that RgIA4 may provide enduring protection against nerve damage. RgIA4 lacks activity at GABA B receptors; a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer assay was used to demonstrate that two other analgesic α-conotoxins, Vc1.1 and AuIB, also do not activate GABA B Rs expressed in HEK cells. Together these findings further support the targeting of α9α10 nAChRs in the treatment of pain.

  7. Anti-rheumatoid Arthritis Effect of Kaejadan via Analgesic and Antiinflammatory Activity in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jung Jae; Sohn, Eun Jung; Kim, Jung Hyo; Seo, Jai Wha; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2017-03-01

    Although Kaejadan (KJD), an herbal cocktail of three medicinal plants (Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Cinnamomum loureirii, and Salvia miltiorrhiza), has been traditionally used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, its scientific evidence is not fully understood. Hence, we investigated antiinflammatory and analgesic mechanism of KJD in vivo and in vitro. Kaejadan suppressed the number of writhing responses in mice treated by acetic acid and showed antinociceptive effect by tail-flick test. Kaejadan abrogated serotonin or carrageenan or Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA)-induced paw edema and also reduced the level of Evans Blue for vascular permeability. Furthermore, KJD effectively reduced the positive responses for C-reactive protein and rheumatoid arthritis test in FCA-treated rats. Of note, KJD inhibited the level of lipid peroxide malondialdehyde and enhanced the level of superoxide dismutase in the hepatic tissues of FCA-treated rats. Additionally, KJD abrogated the levels of IL-1β and IL-6 in lipopolysaccharide and IFN-γ-exposed RAW 264.7 cells. Also, KJD reduced the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 or inducible nitric oxide synthase at protein and mRNA levels in IFN-γ and lipopolysaccharide-exposed RAW 264.7 cells. Overall, our findings demonstrate that KJD exerts antiinflammatory and analgesic effects via enhancement of antioxidant activity and inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Analgesic and antiinflammatory activity of Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni) fruit.

    PubMed

    Basar, Simla; Uhlenhut, Klaus; Högger, Petra; Schöne, Florian; Westendorf, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    M. citrifolia is a tropical plant with a long tradition of medicinal use in Polynesia and tropical parts of eastern Asia and Australia. One of its favorite uses is the treatment of painful inflammatory conditions, such as arthritis. The analgesic activity of Noni fruit puree on mice was investigated using the hot plate test. A 10% solution of freeze concentrated Noni fruit puree in the drinking water of mice reduced the pain sensitivity comparably to the central analgesic drug tramadol. This effect was only partly reversed by the application of the morphine antagonist naloxone. An alcohol extract of noni fruit puree also caused an inhibition of MMP-9 release from human monocytes after stimulation with LPS. This effect was comparable to hydrocortisone (10(-5) m). The findings suggest that preparations of noni fruits are effective in decreasing pain and joint destruction caused by arthritis. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Regulation of opioid receptor signalling: Implications for the development of analgesic tolerance

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Opiate drugs are the most effective analgesics available but their clinical use is restricted by severe side effects. Some of these undesired actions appear after repeated administration and are related to adaptive changes directed at counteracting the consequences of sustained opioid receptor activation. Here we will discuss adaptations that contribute to the development of tolerance. The focus of the first part of the review is set on molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of opioid receptor signalling in heterologous expression systems and neurons. In the second part we assess how adaptations that take place in vivo may contribute to analgesic tolerance developed during repeated opioid administration. PMID:21663702

  10. Regular analgesic use and risk of multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Moysich, Kirsten B; Bonner, Mathew R; Beehler, Gregory P; Marshall, James R; Menezes, Ravi J; Baker, Julie A; Weiss, Joli R; Chanan-Khan, Asher

    2007-04-01

    Analgesic use has been implicated in the chemoprevention of a number of solid tumors, but to date no previous research has focused on the role of analgesics in the etiology of multiple myeloma (MM). We conducted a hospital-based case-control study of 117 patients with primary, incident MM and 483 age and residence matched controls without benign or malignant neoplasms. All participants received medical services at Roswell Park Cancer Institute in Buffalo, NY, and completed a comprehensive epidemiological questionnaire. Participants who reported analgesic use at least once a week for at least 6 months were classified as regular users; individuals who did not use analgesics regularly served as the reference group throughout the analyses. We used unconditional logistic regression analyses to compute crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Compared to non-users, regular aspirin users were not at reduced risk of MM (adjusted OR=0.99; 95% CI 0.65-1.49), nor were participants with the highest frequency or duration of aspirin use. A significant risk elevation was found for participants who were regular acetaminophen users (adjusted OR=2.95; 95% CI 1.72-5.08). Further, marked increases in risk of MM were noted with both greater frequency (>7 tablets weekly; adjusted OR=4.36; 95% CI 1.70-11.2) and greater duration (>10 years; adjusted OR=3.26; 95% CI 1.52-7.02) of acetaminophen use. We observed no evidence of a chemoprotective effect of aspirin on MM risk, but observed significant risk elevations with various measures of acetaminophen use. Our results warrant further investigation in population-based case-control and cohort studies and should be interpreted with caution in light of the limited sample size and biases inherent in hospital-based studies.

  11. Inequality in analgesic prescription in Spain. A gender development issue.

    PubMed

    Chilet-Rosell, Elisa; Ruiz-Cantero, M Teresa; Sáez, José Fernández; Alvarez-Dardet, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that sex differences in analgesic prescription are not merely the logical result of greater prevalence of pain in women, since this therapeutic variability is related to factors such as educational level or social class. This study aims to analyse the relationship between analgesic prescription and gender development in different regions of Spain. Cross-sectional study of sex-differences in analgesic prescription according to the gender development of the regions studied. Analgesic prescription, pain and demographic variables were obtained from the Spanish Health Interview Survey in 2006. Gender development was measured with the Gender Development Index (GDI). A logistic regression analysis was conducted to compare analgesic prescription by sex in regions with a GDI above or below the Spanish average. Once adjusted by pain, age and social class, women were more likely to be prescribed analgesics than men, odds ratio (OR) = 1.74 (1.59-1.91), as residents in regions with a lower GDI compared with those in region with a higher GDI: ORWomen = 1.26 (1.12-1.42), ORMen = 1.30 (1.13-1.50). Women experiencing pain in regions with a lower GDI were more likely than men to be treated by a general practitioner rather than by a specialist, OR = 1.32 (1.04-1.67), irrespective of age and social class. Gender bias may be one of the pathways by which inequalities in analgesic treatment adversely affect women's health. Moreover, research into the adequacy of analgesic treatment and the possible medicalisation of women should consider contextual factors, such as gender development. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Should topical opioid analgesics be regarded as effective and safe when applied to chronic cutaneous lesions?

    PubMed

    Farley, Peter

    2011-06-01

    The induction of analgesia for many chronic cutaneous lesions requires treatment with an opioid analgesic. In many patients suffering with these wounds such drugs are either contraindicated or shunned because of their association with death. There are now case reports involving over 100 patients with many different types of chronic superficial wounds, which suggest that the topical application of an opioid in a suitable gel leads to a significant reduction in the level of perceived pain. Some work has been undertaken to elucidate the mechanisms by which such a reduction is achieved. To date there have been no proven deleterious effects of such an analgesic system upon wound healing. Although morphine is not absorbed through the intact epidermis, an open wound provides no such barrier and for large wounds drug absorption can be problematic. However, for most chronic cutaneous lesions, where data has been gathered, the blood levels of the drug applied ranges from undetectable to below that required for a systemic effect. If proven, the use of opioids in this way would provide adequate analgesia for a collection of wounds, which are difficult to treat in patients who are often vulnerable. Proof of this concept is now urgently required. © 2011 The Author. JPP © 2011 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  13. 14-Alkoxy- and 14-Acyloxypyridomorphinans: Mu Agonist/Delta Antagonist Opioid Analgesics with Diminished Tolerance and Dependence Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Ananthan, Subramaniam; Saini, Surendra K.; Dersch, Christina M.; Xu, Heng; McGlinchey, Nicholas; Giuvelis, Denise; Bilsky, Edward J.; Rothman, Richard B.

    2012-01-01

    In the search for opioid ligands with mixed functional activity, a series of 5′-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,5α-epoxypyridomorphinans possessing alkoxy or acyloxy groups at C-14 was synthesized and evaluated. In this series, the affinity and functional activity of the ligands were found to be influenced by the nature of the substituent at C-14 as well as by the substituent at N-17. Whereas the incorporation of a 3-phenylpropoxy group at C-14 on N-methylpyridomorhinan gave a dual MOR agonist/DOR agonist 17h its incorporation on N-cyclopropylmethylpyridomorphinan gave a MOR agonist/DOR antagonist 17d. Interestingly, 17d, in contrast to 17h, did not produce tolerance or dependence effects on prolonged treatment in cells expressing MOR and DOR. Moreover, 17d displayed greatly diminished analgesic tolerance as compared to morphine on repeated administration, thus supporting the hypothesis that ligands with MOR agonist/DOR antagonist functional activity could emerge as novel analgesics devoid of tolerance, dependence and related side effects. PMID:23016952

  14. Wet cupping therapy improves local blood perfusion and analgesic effects in patients with nerve-root type cervical spondylosis.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiang-Wen; Wang, Ying; Piao, Sheng-Ai; Lv, Wen-Tao; Zhu, Cheng-Hui; Mu, Ming-Yuan; Li, Dan-Dan; Liu, Hua-Peng; Guo, Yi

    2018-01-15

    To observe wet cupping therapy (WCT) on local blood perfusion and analgesic effects in patients with nerve-root type cervical spondylosis (NT-CS). Fifty-seven NT-CS patients were randomly divided into WCT group and Jiaji acupoint-acupuncture (JA) group according a random number table. WCT group (30 cases) was treated with WCT for 10 min, and JA group (27 cases) was treated with acupuncture for 10 min. The treatment effificacies were evaluated with a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Blood perfusion at Dazhui (GV 14) and Jianjing (GB 21) acupoints (affected side) was observed with a laser speckle flflowmetry, and its variations before and after treatment in both groups were compared as well. In both groups, the VAS scores signifificantly decreased after the intervention (P<0.01), while the blood perfusion at the two acupoints signifificantly increased after intervention (P<0.05); however, the increasement magnitude caused by WCT was obvious compared with JA (P<0.05). WCT could improve analgesic effects in patients with NT-CS, which might be related to increasing local blood perfusion of acupunct points.

  15. Adverse drug reactions of non-opioid and opioid analgesics reported to Croatian national authority from 2007 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Sunara, Petra; Krnic, Darko; Puljak, Livia

    2017-11-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are commonly observed in the health services because of system weaknesses and individual errors. Analgesics are widely used and it can be expected that with the increased use one can expect increased number of ADRs of analgesics. The aim of this study was to analyze ADRs of non-opioid and opioid analgesics reported to the Croatian Agency for Medicinal Products and Medical Devices (HALMED) from 2007 to 2014. HALMED provided data on generic drug name, year of the ADR report, type of report, institution, reporting person, patient's age, sex and ADR type. In the analyzed period 796 ADRs of analgesics were reported, of which 367 (46%) were serious ADRs. Number of ADR reports was continuously increasing during the analyzed period. There were 20 analgesics that had ≥5 reports, making 597 (75%) of all ADR reports for analgesics. The most common adverse reaction reports of those 20 analgesics referred to individual drugs (n=16; 80%). Most of the ADR reports were filed by physicians (n=257; 43%), followed by pharmacists (n=252; 42%). Most side effects (n=572; 96%) were reported spontaneously through appropriate forms by patients or health professionals. ADRs were most commonly reported in women (n=352; 59%) and most of them have occurred in adults (n=354; 59%). The most common ADRs of opioid and non-opioid analgesics have been reported on the skin and mucous membranes. Most serious ADRs were result of action of opioid analgesics. Number of ADR reports in Croatia is continuously increasing and a considerable number of them refers to serious ADRs. To keep better track of medications and ADRs it is necessary to educate and encourage health professionals and patients in reporting side effects. Copyright © 2017 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  16. A comparison of the effects of two volumes of local analgesic solution in the distal interphalangeal joint of horses with lameness caused by solar toe or solar heel pain.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, J; Schumacher, J; de Graves, F; Steiger, R; Schramme, M; Smith, R; Coker, M

    2001-05-01

    The response of horses, with solar pain in the dorsal or palmar aspect of the foot, to 6 or 10 ml local analgesic solution administered into the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint was examined. Lameness was induced in 7 horses by creating solar pain in the dorsal aspect of one forefoot and, at another time, the palmar aspect of the other forefoot with set-screws inserted into a custom-made shoe. Horses were videotaped trotting before and after application of set-screws and, in separate trials, after 6 or 10 ml local analgesic solution was administered into the DIP joint. Lameness scores were assigned by examining videotaped gaits. Scores were significantly lower (P < 0.05) for horses with set-screws applied to the angles of the sole and receiving 10 ml, but not 6 ml, local analgesic solution into the DIP joint. Scores were significantly lower (P < 0.05) for all horses with set-screws in the dorsal margin of the sole receiving either volume of local analgesic solution. Analgesia of the DIP joint was less effective in desensitising the angles of the sole than in desensitising the dorsal margin of the sole, and 10 ml local analgesic solution was more effective than 6 ml in desensitising these regions. The response of horses with solar pain to local analgesic solution in the DIP joint was influenced by the volume administered and the region of sole affected.

  17. The pharmacological profile of CGP 28238, a novel highly potent anti-inflammatory compound.

    PubMed

    Wiesenberg-Boettcher, I; Schweizer, A; Green, J R; Mueller, K; Maerki, F; Pfeilschifter, J

    1989-01-01

    CGP 28238 (6-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-5-methylsulfonylamino-1-indanone ) exhibits very potent anti-inflammatory activity in rat adjuvant arthritis (ED40 = 0.05 mg/kg, p.o.) and pronounced analgesic and antipyretic activity in acute models in mice and rats (ED50 2-5 mg/kg, p.o.), but has clear advantages over reference NSAIDs with respect to gastro-intestinal tolerability. Threshold doses for gastro-intestinal ulcerogenicity in rats after single and repeated (10x) doses were found to be 30 mg/kg, p.o., and prostaglandin (PGE2) production in rat gastric and ileal mucosa was only marginally inhibited (ED50 greater than 30 mg/kg, p.o.). On the other hand, PGE2 production in rat inflammatory exudate and thromboxane synthesis in rat blood were inhibited with ED50 values of less than or equal to 2 mg/kg, p.o. Although CGP28238 does not inhibit cyclooxygenase in bovine seminal vesicle microsomal preparations (IC50 greater than 10(-3) mol/l), potent inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis was shown in various in vitro systems using human and animal cells with IC50 values of less than 10(-6) mol/l. IL-1-stimulated bone resorption and PGE2 production in murine calvarial cultures were inhibited with IC50 values of 3 x 10(-7) and 2 x 10(-8) mol/l, respectively. 5-Lipoxygenase (murine macrophages), phospholipase A2 (human PMN) and phospholipase C (human platelets) were not inhibited. CGP 28238 may represent a novel highly potent anti-inflammatory compound with improved gastro-intestinal safety.

  18. Per-capita consumption of analgesics: a nine-country survey over 20 years.

    PubMed

    Diener, H-C; Schneider, R; Aicher, B

    2008-08-01

    There are no reliable data at present on use of analgesics in various countries. We compared per-capita consumption in nine different countries during the period 1986-2005. The per-capita consumption was calculated on the basis of the sales figures of distributors to pharmacies and direct purchases by pharmaceutical companies in a sample of 1,000 pharmacies. The countries studied were: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, and the USA. In international comparison Austria, Switzerland, and Germany showed the lowest per-capita consumption of analgesics (approx. 40-50 Standard Units (SU) per capita per year), while in Sweden and France consumption was three times as high. The correlation analysis over the various countries and time points confirmed a significant correlation between use of single analgesics and overall use of analgesics. In Germany, where an allegedly particularly high and constantly rising analgesic use has been discussed controversially (Meiner, Pharm Ind 49:1247-1251, 1987), per-capita consumption of analgesics from 1980 to 2005 remained practically unchanged at approx. 50 SU per capita per year. The prevalence of conditions inducing analgesic use shows appropriate analgesics use on an overall population level.

  19. Effects of Analgesic Use on Inflammation and Hematology in a Murine Model of Venous Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Hish, Gerald A; Diaz, Jose A; Hawley, Angela E; Myers, Daniel D; Lester, Patrick A

    2014-01-01

    Venous thrombosis (VT) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in humans. Surgical animal models are crucial in studies investigating the pathogenesis of this disease and evaluating VT therapies. Because inflammation is critical to both the development and resolution of VT, analgesic medications have the potential to adversely affect multiple parameters of interest in VT research. The objective of this study was to determine how several common analgesics affect key variables in a murine ligation model of deep vein thrombosis. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to receive either local (bupivacaine) or systemic parenteral analgesia (buprenorphine, tramadol, or carprofen) or 0.9% NaCl (control). All mice underwent laparotomy and ligation of the inferior vena cava, and treatment was continued until euthanasia at 6 or 48 h after surgery. Analysis of harvested tissues and blood included: hematology, thrombus weight, serum and vein-wall cytokines (IL1β, IL6, IL10, TNFα), soluble P-selectin, and vein-wall leukocyte infiltration. Compared with 0.9% NaCl, all of the analgesics affected multiple parameters important to VT research. Carprofen and tramadol affected the most parameters and should not be used in murine models of VT. Although they affected fewer parameters, a single dose of bupivacaine increased thrombus weight at 6 h, and buprenorphine was associated with reduced vein wall macrophages at 48 h. Although we cannot recommend the use of any of the evaluated analgesic dosages in this mouse model of VT, buprenorphine merits additional investigation to ensure the highest level of laboratory animal care and welfare. PMID:25255071

  20. Analgesic effects of an ethanol extract of the fruits of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich (Annonaceae) and the major constituent, xylopic acid in murine models.

    PubMed

    Woode, Eric; Ameyaw, Elvis O; Boakye-Gyasi, Eric; Abotsi, Wonder K M

    2012-10-01

    Fruit extracts of Xylopia aethiopica are used traditionally in the management of pain disorders including rheumatism, headache, colic pain, and neuralgia. Little pharmacological data exists in scientific literature of the effect of the fruit extract and its major diterpene, xylopic acid, on pain. The present study evaluated the analgesic properties of the ethanol extract of X. aethiopica (XAE) and xylopic acid (XA), in murine models. XAE and XA were assessed in chemical (acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing and formalin tests), thermal (Tail-flick and Hargreaves thermal hyperalgesia tests), and mechanical (Randall-Selitto paw pressure test) pain models. XAE and XA exhibited significant analgesic activity in all the pain models used. XAE (30-300 mg kg(-1), p.o.) and XA (10-100 mg kg(-1), p.o.) inhibited acetic acid-induced visceral nociception, formalin- induced paw pain (both neurogenic and inflammatory), thermal pain as well as carrageenan-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in animals. Morphine (1-10 mg kg(-1), i.p.) and diclofenac (1-10 mg kg(-1), i.p.), used as controls, exhibited similar anti-nociceptive activities. XAE and XA did not induce tolerance to their respective anti-nociceptive effects in the formalin test after chronic administration. Morphine tolerance did not also cross-generalize to the analgesic effects of XAE or XA. These findings establish the analgesic properties of the ethanol fruit extract of X. aethiopica and its major diterpene, xylopic acid.

  1. Analgesic effects of an ethanol extract of the fruits of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich (Annonaceae) and the major constituent, xylopic acid in murine models

    PubMed Central

    Woode, Eric; Ameyaw, Elvis O.; Boakye-Gyasi, Eric; Abotsi, Wonder K. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Fruit extracts of Xylopia aethiopica are used traditionally in the management of pain disorders including rheumatism, headache, colic pain, and neuralgia. Little pharmacological data exists in scientific literature of the effect of the fruit extract and its major diterpene, xylopic acid, on pain. The present study evaluated the analgesic properties of the ethanol extract of X. aethiopica (XAE) and xylopic acid (XA), in murine models. Materials and Methods: XAE and XA were assessed in chemical (acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing and formalin tests), thermal (Tail-flick and Hargreaves thermal hyperalgesia tests), and mechanical (Randall-Selitto paw pressure test) pain models. Results: XAE and XA exhibited significant analgesic activity in all the pain models used. XAE (30-300 mg kg-1, p.o.) and XA (10-100 mg kg-1, p.o.) inhibited acetic acid-induced visceral nociception, formalin- induced paw pain (both neurogenic and inflammatory), thermal pain as well as carrageenan-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in animals. Morphine (1-10 mg kg-1, i.p.) and diclofenac (1-10 mg kg-1, i.p.), used as controls, exhibited similar anti-nociceptive activities. XAE and XA did not induce tolerance to their respective anti-nociceptive effects in the formalin test after chronic administration. Morphine tolerance did not also cross-generalize to the analgesic effects of XAE or XA. Conclusions: These findings establish the analgesic properties of the ethanol fruit extract of X. aethiopica and its major diterpene, xylopic acid. PMID:23248562

  2. A Prospective, Observational Study to Evaluate the Role of Gabapentin as Preventive Analgesic in Thyroidectomy under General Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Hema, Vadakkoot Raghavan; Ramadas, Konnanath Thekkethil; Biji, Kannammadathy Poulose; Indu, Suseela; Arun, Aravind

    2017-01-01

    Background: Effective management of postoperative pain is a part of well-organized perioperative care, which helps in reduced morbidity and improved patient satisfaction. Preventive analgesia can reduce acute and chronic pain by blocking the noxious inputs to pain pathways, preventing sensitization. Studies have reported efficacy of gabapentin as a preventive analgesic in perioperative pain. In this study, we aimed to determine whether preoperative gabapentin reduced postoperative pain and tramadol consumption after thyroidectomy under general anesthesia. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients scheduled for thyroidectomy were allocated to two groups of thirty each for this prospective, observational study. Patients in Group A and Group B received oral gabapentin 600 mg (6 × 10−4 kg) and diazepam 10 mg (1 × 10−5 kg), respectively, 2 h prior to surgery. Tramadol was given as rescue analgesic for postoperative pain with a verbal rating score of two. The analgesic efficacy of preoperative gabapentin was assessed in terms of postoperative pain scores at rest or swallowing, time to first rescue analgesic, and total tramadol consumption for 24 h. Ramsay sedation score and side effects of drug were also looked into. Results: Postoperative pain scores and total tramadol consumption were significantly lower in Group A during 24 h (P = 0.00). Time to first rescue analgesic was significantly prolonged in Group A (P = 0.001). Side effects were comparable. Conclusion: Oral gabapentin is effective as a preventive analgesic in reducing postoperative pain and tramadol consumption after thyroidectomy under general anesthesia. PMID:28928577

  3. Analgesic, Anti- inflammatory, Anti- lipoxygenase Activity and Characterization of Three Bioactive Compounds in the Most Active Fraction of Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.)Wight & Arn. – A Valuable Medicinal Plant

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Sudipta Kumar; Swamy, Mallappa Kumara; Middha, Sushil Kumar; Prakash, Lokesh; Subbanarashiman, Balasubramanya; Maniyam, Anuradha

    2015-01-01

    Leptadenia reticulata was reported to be used for several medicinal purposes. The present study was undertaken to evaluate anti-inflammatory, analgesic and lipid peroxidation inhibition activities of L. reticulata. The anti-inflammatory assay was performed by λ-carrageenan and formalin induced paw edema test. Pro inflammatory mediators (IL2, IL6, TNF-α) in serum of treated and control organism were analyzed by quantitative ELISA. Lipid peroxidation inhibition was measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. Analysis of the most active fraction revealed the presence of one phenolic compound (p-coumaric acid), two flavonoids (rutin and quercetin) which also determined quantitatively. The ethyl acetate fraction at 600 mg/Kg significantly inhibited λ-carrageenan and formalin induced paw edema by 60.59% and 59.24% respectively. Notable reduction in percentage of writhing (76.25%), induced by acetic acid signifies the potent analgesic activity. Lower level of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α) in serum at the 4th hour of λ-Carrageenan injection indicated the inhibition of cyclooxigenase-2 (Cox-2), Nitric oxide (NO) and release of prostaglandin to prevent inflammation. The study also demonstrated the decrease in malonaldehyde (MDA) concentration which revealed the lipid peroxidation inhibition potential of the plant. Our finding provides evidence for potent biological activities in tested model which is supported by its characterized bioactive compounds and ethnomedicinal relevance. PMID:26330883

  4. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of the Methanol Extract from Pogostemon cablin

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Tsung-Chun; Liao, Jung-Chun; Huang, Tai-Hung; Lin, Ying-Chih; Liu, Chia-Yu; Chiu, Yung-jia; Peng, Wen-Huang

    2011-01-01

    Pogostemon cablin (PC) is a herbal medicine traditionally applied to treat not only common cold, nausea and diarrhea but also headache and fever. The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of standardized PC methanol extract (PCMeOH) in vivo. Investigations were performed in mice with two analgesic models. One was acetic acid-induced writhing response and the other formalin-induced paw licking. The anti-inflammatory effect was tested by λ-carrageenan (Carr)-induced mice paw edema. These analgesic experimental results indicated that PCMeOH (1.0 g/kg) decreased the acetic acid-induced writhing responses and PCMeOH (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) decreased the licking time in the second phase of the formalin test. Moreover, Carr-induced paw edema inflammation was significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner when PCMeOH (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) was administered 3 and 4 h after the Carr injection. Mechanistic studies showed that PCMeOH decreased the levels of malondialdehyde in the edema paw by increasing the activities of anti-oxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, in the liver and decreasing the cyclooxygenase 2 and tumor necrosis factor-α activities in the edema paw. This study has demonstrated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of PCMeOH, thus verifying its popular use in traditional medicine. PMID:19933324

  5. Analgesic-Like Activity of Essential Oil Constituents: An Update

    PubMed Central

    de Cássia da Silveira e Sá, Rita; Lima, Tamires Cardoso; da Nóbrega, Flávio Rogério; de Brito, Anna Emmanuela Medeiros

    2017-01-01

    The constituents of essential oils are widely found in foods and aromatic plants giving characteristic odor and flavor. However, pharmacological studies evidence its therapeutic potential for the treatment of several diseases and promising use as compounds with analgesic-like action. Considering that pain affects a significant part of the world population and the need for the development of new analgesics, this review reports on the current studies of essential oils’ chemical constituents with analgesic-like activity, including a description of their mechanisms of action and chemical aspects. PMID:29232831

  6. Secoisolariciresinol diglycoside, a flaxseed lignan, exerts analgesic effects in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes: Engagement of antioxidant mechanism.

    PubMed

    Hu, Pei; Mei, Qi-Yong; Ma, Li; Cui, Wu-Geng; Zhou, Wen-Hua; Zhou, Dong-Sheng; Zhao, Qing; Xu, Dong-Ying; Zhao, Xin; Lu, Qin; Hu, Zhen-Yu

    2015-11-15

    Peripheral painful neuropathy is one of the most common complications in diabetes and necessitates improved treatment. Secoisolariciresinol diglycoside (SDG), a predominant lignan in flaxseed, has been shown in our previous studies to exert antidepressant-like effect. As antidepressant drugs are clinically used to treat chronic neuropathic pain, this work aimed to investigate the potential analgesic efficacy of SDG against diabetic neuropathic pain in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes. We subjected mice to diabetes by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 200 mg/kg), and Hargreaves test or von Frey test was used to assess thermal hyperalgesia or mechanical allodynia, respectively. Chronic instead of acute SDG treatment (3, 10 or 30 mg/kg, p.o., twice per day for three weeks) ameliorated thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in diabetic mice, and these analgesic actions persisted about three days when SDG treatment was terminated. Although chronic treatment of SDG to diabetic mice did not impact on the symptom of hyperglycemia, it greatly attenuated excessive oxidative stress in sciatic nerve and spinal cord tissues, and partially counteracted the condition of weight decrease. Furthermore, the analgesic actions of SDG were abolished by co-treatment with the reactive oxygen species donor tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH), but potentiated by the reactive oxygen species scavenger phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN). These findings indicate that chronic SDG treatment can correct neuropathic hyperalgesia and allodynia in mice with type 1 diabetes. Mechanistically, the analgesic actions of SDG in diabetic mice may be associated with its antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. The analgesic, anti-inflammatory and calcium antagonist potential of Tanacetum artemisioides.

    PubMed

    Bukhari, Ishfaq Ali; Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Gilani, Anwar-ul Hassan; Shah, Abdul Jabbar; Hussain, Javid; Ahmad, Viqar Uddin

    2007-03-01

    Several species of the genus Tanacetum are traditionally used in a variety of health conditions including pain, inflammation, respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders. In the current investigation, we evaluated the plant extract of T. artemisioides and some of its pure compounds (flavonoids) for analgesic, anti-inflammatory and calcium antagonist effects in various in-vivo and in vitro studies. Using the actetic acid induced writhing test, intraperitoneal (i.p) administration of the plant extract (25-50 mg/kg) and its flavonoid compounds TA-1 and TA-2 (1-5 mg/kg ) exhibited significant analgesic actvity. The maximum analgesic effect observed with the crude extract of the plant was 71% at 50 mg/kg, while that of compounds TA-1 and TA-2 (5 mg/kg i.p) was 75 and 47%, respectively. The plant extract and its pure compounds caused inhbition of formalin induced paw licking in mice predominatly in the second phase of the test. Diclofenac sodium, a standard reference compound, showed a simlar effect in these chemical induced pain models. In the carrgeenan induced rat paw edema assay, the plant extract (50-200 mg/kg i.p) demonstrated significant (P< 0.01) anti-inflammatory activity which was comparable to that obtained with diclofenac sodium and indomethacin. In isolated rabbit jejunum preprations the plant extract showed an atropine sensitive dose-dependent (0.10-1.0 mg/mL) spasmogenic activity followed by a spasmolytic effect at the next higher doses (3-5 mg/mL). The crude extract of the plant also inhibited the high K+-induced contractions, indicating a calcium channel blocking (CCB) activity, which was further confirmed when the plant extract caused a rightward shift in the Ca++ concentration response curves in the isolated rabbit jejunum preparations, similar to that seen with verapamil. The flavonoid compounds isolated from the plant were devoid of any activity in the isolated tissue preparations. These results indicate that the plant extract of T. artemisioides

  8. Topical Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of Multiple Applications of S(+)-Flurbiprofen Plaster (SFPP) in a Rat Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis Model.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Masanori; Toda, Yoshihisa; Hori, Miyuki; Mitani, Akiko; Ichihara, Takahiro; Sekine, Shingo; Kaku, Shinsuke; Otsuka, Noboru; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2016-06-01

    Preclinical Research The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of multiple applications of S(+)-flurbiprofen plaster (SFPP), a novel Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) patch, for the alleviation of inflammatory pain and edema in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) model as compared to other NSAID patches. The AIA model was induced by the injection of Mycobacterium butyricum and rats were treated with a patch (1.0 cm × 0.88 cm) containing each NSAID (SFP, ketoprofen, loxoprofen, diclofenac, felbinac, flurbiprofen, or indomethacin) applied to the paw for 6 h per day for 5 days. The pain threshold was evaluated using a flexion test of the ankle joint, and the inflamed paw edema was evaluated using a plethysmometer. cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 inhibition was evaluated using human recombinant proteins. Multiple applications of SFPP exerted a significant analgesic effect from the first day of application as compared to the other NSAID patches. In terms of paw edema, SFPP decreased edema from the second day after application, Multiple applications of SFPP were superior to those of other NSAID patches, in terms of the analgesic effect with multiple applications. These results suggest that SFPP may be a beneficial patch for providing analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects clinically. Drug Dev Res 77 : 206-211, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Drug Development Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors Drug Development Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Non-opioid analgesics: Novel approaches to perioperative analgesia for major spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Lauren K; Durieux, Marcel E; Nemergut, Edward C

    2016-03-01

    Perioperative pain management is a significant challenge following major spine surgery. Many pathways contribute to perioperative pain, including nociceptive, inflammatory, and neuropathic sources. Although opioids have long been a mainstay for perioperative analgesia, other non-opioid therapies have been increasingly used as part of a multimodal analgesic regimen to provide improved pain control while minimizing opioid-related side effects. Here we review the evidence supporting the use of novel analgesic approaches as an alternative to intravenous opioids for major spine surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Methoxyflurane and Nitrous Oxide as Obstetric Analgesics. II.—A Comparison by Self-administered Intermittent Inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Peter L.; Rosen, M.; Mushin, W. W.; Jones, E. V.

    1969-01-01

    Methoxyflurane (0·35%) in air and nitrous oxide/oxygen (50%/50%) self-administered intermittently in the usual way have been compared as analgesics for labour. There were 25 patients in each group. Objective assessment by an anaesthetist showed that methoxyflurane is the more effective analgesic, and this was supported by the opinion of the multiparae. Nausea and vomiting were significantly less with methoxyflurane. Fifty per cent. nitrous oxide in oxygen given intermittently does not appear to be the best analgesic concentration. Nevertheless, since a considerable variation in sensitivity exists, it would probably be unwise to consider the introduction of higher concentrations for use by unsupervised midwives. This trial confirms the predictions made by us using a method for screening inhalational analgesics, in which methoxyflurane and nitrous oxide were given continuously. PMID:4895339

  11. Design and Synthesis of Mannich bases as Benzimidazole Derivatives as Analgesic Agents.

    PubMed

    Datar, Prasanna A; Limaye, Saleel A

    2015-01-01

    Mannich bases were selected for 2D QSAR study to derive meaningful relationship between the structural features and analgesic activity. Using the knowledge of important features a novel series was designed to obtain improved analgesic activity. A series of novel Mannich bases 1-(N-substituted amino)methyl]-2-substituted benzimidazole derivatives were synthesized and were screened for analgesic activity. Some of these compounds showed promising analgesic activity when compared with the standard drug diclofenac sodium.

  12. Analgesics for orthopedic postoperative pain.

    PubMed

    Bourne, Michael H

    2004-03-01

    Postoperative pain management is critical for optimal care of orthopedic surgery patients. Opioids, administered intramuscularly, as epidurals, or IV as patient-controlled analgesia, are effective for severe pain. Adjunctive therapy and preemptive analgesia such as nerve blocks, and methods of delivery such as infusion pumps, may be used after total knee arthroplasty and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Oral opioids are effective for moderate to severe pain, and tramadol, with efficacy comparable to morphine but with fewer severe side effects, is selected for moderate to moderately severe pain. Opioid-sparing NSAIDs, such as ketorolac, and COX-2-specific NSAIDS have use in pain management of hip, knee, and ACL procedures. An individualized regimen of appropriate analgesics, combined with nonpharmacologic treatments such as physical therapy or cryotherapy and patient education, can aid orthopedic surgery patients' recovery.

  13. Analgesic and anticonvulsant effects of extracts from the leaves of Kalanchoe crenata (Andrews) Haworth (Crassulaceae).

    PubMed

    Nguelefack, T B; Nana, P; Atsamo, A D; Dimo, T; Watcho, P; Dongmo, A B; Tapondjou, L A; Njamen, D; Wansi, S L; Kamanyi, A

    2006-06-15

    Kalanchoe crenata Andr. (Crassulaceae) is a fleshy herbaceous plant used in the African traditional medicine as remedies against otitis, headache, inflammations, convulsions and general debility. In the present work, the analgesic effects of methylene chloride/methanol (1:1) (CH(2)Cl(2)/CH(3)OH) extract and its hexane, methylene chloride (CH(2)Cl(2)), ethyl acetate, n-butanol fractions and aqueous residue have been evaluated using acetic acid, formalin and pressure test. The anticonvulsant effects of the CH(2)Cl(2)/CH(3)OH extract were also investigated on seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ 70 mg/kg), strychnine sulphate (STN 2.5 mg/kg) and thiosemicarbazide (TSC 50 mg/kg). CH(2)Cl(2)/CH(3)OH extract and its fractions, administered orally at the doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg, exhibited protective effect of at least 30% on the pain induced by acetic acid. The CH(2)Cl(2) fraction at 300 mg/kg showed a maximal effect of 78.49%. The CH(2)Cl(2)/CH(3)OH extract and its CH(2)Cl(2) fraction at the doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg significantly reduced the first phase of pain induced by formalin while the second phase was completely inhibited. The CH(2)Cl(2) fraction produced more than 45% reduction in the sensitivity to pain induced by pressure. The CH(2)Cl(2)/CH(3)OH extract of Kalanchoe crenata significantly increased the latency period in seizures induced by PTZ and significantly reduced the duration of seizures induced by the three convulsant agents. The extract protected 20% of animals against death in seizures induced by TSC and STN. These results suggest a peripheral and central analgesic activities as well as an anticonvulsant effect of the leaves of Kalanchoe crenata.

  14. Effective analgesic doses of tramadol or tapentadol induce brain, lung and heart toxicity in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Faria, Juliana; Barbosa, Joana; Leal, Sandra; Afonso, Luís Pedro; Lobo, João; Moreira, Roxana; Queirós, Odília; Carvalho, Félix; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge

    2017-06-15

    Tramadol and tapentadol are extensively prescribed for the treatment of moderate to severe pain. Although these drugs are very effective in pain treatment, the number of intoxications and deaths due to both opioids is increasing, and the underlying toxic mechanisms are not fully understood. The present work aimed to study the potential biochemical and histopathological alterations induced by acute effective (analgesic) doses of tramadol and tapentadol, in Wistar rats. Forty-two male Wistar rats were divided into different groups: a control, administered with normal saline solution, and tramadol- or tapentadol-treated groups (10, 25 or 50mg/kg - typical effective analgesic dose, intermediate and maximum recommended doses, respectively). 24h after intraperitoneal administration, biochemical and oxidative stress analyses were performed in blood, and specimens from brain, lung and heart were taken for histopathological and oxidative stress studies. Both drugs caused an increase in the AST/ALT ratio, in LDH, CK and CK-MB activities in serum samples, and an increase in lactate levels in serum and brain samples. Oxidative damage, namely protein oxidation, was found in heart and lung tissues. In histological analyses, tramadol and tapentadol were found to cause alterations in cell morphology, inflammatory cell infiltrates and cell death in all tissues under study, although tapentadol caused more damage than tramadol. Our results confirmed the risks of tramadol exposure, and demonstrated the higher risk of tapentadol, especially at high doses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of the Effect of Reflexology on Pain Control and Analgesic Consumption After Appendectomy.

    PubMed

    Khorsand, Ali; Tadayonfar, Moosa Al-Reza; Badiee, Shapour; Aghaee, Monavar Afzal; Azizi, Hoda; Baghani, Sara

    2015-12-01

    Appendicitis is the most common cause of severe abdominal pain in the world, and the associated postsurgical pain, as occurs with other surgical procedures, is one of the most common problems. Today, there is a growing tendency toward nondrug methods and alternative medicine to reduce the adverse effects of drugs. Reflexology involves applying pressure on certain areas of the palms, feet, and ears in order to reduce stress and pain in certain areas of the body. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of reflexology massage on pain relief after appendectomy. This clinical trial was conducted at the surgical emergency unit of Imam Reza Hospital of Mashhad, Iran, in 2013. Pain intensity and analgesic consumption were compared between 105 patients before and immediately, 1 hour, 6 hours, and 24 hours after the intervention in three groups of intervention, control, and placebo. Patients in all three groups received analgesics, as required. The experimental group received pressure on a defined area of the right foot for about 10 minutes and the Shen Men point of the ear for 1 minute. This pressure in the placebo group was applied on the left foot and the left earlobe. Patients in the control group received routine care only. The results were evaluated at a 95% confidence level, and data were analyzed using SPSS software version 12 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL). At the beginning of the study, the mean pain intensity in different groups according to analysis of variance was not significantly different (p = 0.439); however, there was a notable difference in pain intensity between the intervention and other groups after reflexology therapy. In addition, methadone consumption was significantly lower in the reflexology group than in the other two groups (p ≤ 0.001). Reflexology is effective for reducing pain after appendectomy surgery.

  16. Temporal Trends in Analgesic Use in Long-Term Care Facilities: A Systematic Review of International Prescribing.

    PubMed

    La Frenais, Francesca L; Bedder, Rachel; Vickerstaff, Victoria; Stone, Patrick; Sampson, Elizabeth L

    2018-02-01

    To explore global changes in the prescription of analgesic drugs over time in the international long-term care (LTC) population. Systematic review. We included original research articles in English, published and unpublished, that included number of participants, country and year(s) of data collection, and prescription of analgesics (analgesics not otherwise specified, opioids, acetaminophen; scheduled only, or scheduled plus as needed (PRN)). LTC residents. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, PsycINFO, Cochrane, Web of Science, Google Scholar, using keywords for LTC facilities and analgesic medication; hand-searched references of eligible papers; correspondence. Studies were quality rated using an adapted Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Pearson correlation coefficients were generated between percentage of residents prescribed an analgesic and year of data collection. If available, we investigated changes in acetaminophen and opioid prescriptions. Forty studies met inclusion criteria. A moderate correlation (0.59) suggested that scheduled prescription rates for analgesics have increased over time. Similar findings were reflected in scheduled prescriptions for acetaminophen and opioids. No increase was seen when analyzing scheduled plus PRN analgesics. Use of opioids (scheduled plus PRN) appears to have increased over time. Worldwide, use of opioids and acetaminophen has increased in LTC residents. Research is needed to explore whether this reflects appropriate pain management for LTC residents and if PRN medication is used effectively. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American Geriatrics Society.

  17. Topical Anti‐Inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of Multiple Applications of S(+)‐Flurbiprofen Plaster (SFPP) in a Rat Adjuvant‐Induced Arthritis Model

    PubMed Central

    Toda, Yoshihisa; Hori, Miyuki; Mitani, Akiko; Ichihara, Takahiro; Sekine, Shingo; Kaku, Shinsuke; Otsuka, Noboru; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Preclinical Research The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of multiple applications of S(+)‐flurbiprofen plaster (SFPP), a novel Nonsteroidal anti‐inflammatory drug (NSAID) patch, for the alleviation of inflammatory pain and edema in rat adjuvant‐induced arthritis (AIA) model as compared to other NSAID patches. The AIA model was induced by the injection of Mycobacterium butyricum and rats were treated with a patch (1.0 cm × 0.88 cm) containing each NSAID (SFP, ketoprofen, loxoprofen, diclofenac, felbinac, flurbiprofen, or indomethacin) applied to the paw for 6 h per day for 5 days. The pain threshold was evaluated using a flexion test of the ankle joint, and the inflamed paw edema was evaluated using a plethysmometer. cyclooxygenase (COX)−1 and COX‐2 inhibition was evaluated using human recombinant proteins. Multiple applications of SFPP exerted a significant analgesic effect from the first day of application as compared to the other NSAID patches. In terms of paw edema, SFPP decreased edema from the second day after application, Multiple applications of SFPP were superior to those of other NSAID patches, in terms of the analgesic effect with multiple applications. These results suggest that SFPP may be a beneficial patch for providing analgesic and anti‐inflammatory effects clinically. Drug Dev Res 77 : 206–211, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Drug Development Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27241582

  18. The Efficacy and Clinical Safety of Various Analgesic Combinations for Post-Operative Pain after Third Molar Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Au, Alvin Ho Yeung; Choi, Siu Wai; Cheung, Chi Wai; Leung, Yiu Yan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To run a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials aiming to answer the clinical question “which analgesic combination and dosage is potentially the most effective and safe for acute post-operative pain control after third molar surgery?”. Materials and Methods A systematic search of computer databases and journals was performed. The search and the evaluations of articles were performed by 2 independent reviewers in 3 rounds. Randomized clinical trials related to analgesic combinations for acute post-operative pain control after lower third molar surgery that matched the selection criteria were evaluated to enter in the final review. Results Fourteen studies with 3521 subjects, with 10 groups (17 dosages) of analgesic combinations were included in the final review. The analgesic efficacy were presented by the objective pain measurements including sum of pain intensity at 6 hours (SPID6) and total pain relief at 6 hours (TOTPAR6). The SPID6 scores and TOTPAR6 scores of the reported analgesic combinations were ranged from 1.46 to 6.44 and 3.24 – 10.3, respectively. Ibuprofen 400mg with oxycodone HCL 5mg had superior efficacy (SPID6: 6.44, TOTPAR6: 9.31). Nausea was the most common adverse effect, with prevalence ranging from 0-55%. Ibuprofen 200mg with caffeine 100mg or 200mg had a reasonable analgesic effect with fewer side effects. Conclusion This systematic review and meta-analysis may help clinicians in their choices of prescribing an analgesic combination for acute post-operative pain control after lower third molar surgery. It was found in this systematic review Ibuprofen 400mg combined with oxycodone HCL 5mg has superior analgesic efficacy when compared to the other analgesic combinations included in this study. PMID:26053953

  19. Bivalent ligands that target μ opioid (MOP) and cannabinoid1 (CB1) receptors are potent analgesics devoid of tolerance.

    PubMed

    Le Naour, Morgan; Akgün, Eyup; Yekkirala, Ajay; Lunzer, Mary M; Powers, Mike D; Kalyuzhny, Alexander E; Portoghese, Philip S

    2013-07-11

    Given that μ opioid (MOP) and canabinoid (CB1) receptors are colocalized in various regions of the central nervous system and have been reported to associate as heteromer (MOP-CB1) in cultured cells, the possibility of functional, endogenous MOP-CB1 in nociception and other pharmacologic effects has been raised. As a first step in investigating this possibility, we have synthesized a series of bivalent ligands 1-5 that contain both μ agonist and CB1 antagonist pharmacophores for use as tools to study the functional interaction between MOP and CB1 receptors in vivo. Immunofluorescent studies on HEK293 cells coexpressing both receptors suggested 5 (20-atom spacer) to be the only member of the series that bridges the protomers of the heteromer. Antinociceptive testing in mice revealed 5 to be the most potent member of the series. As neither a mixture of monovalent ligands 9 + 10 nor bivalents 2-5 produced tolerance in mice, MOR-CB1 apparently is not an important target for reducing tolerance.

  20. Safety of lornoxicam in the treatment of postoperative pain: a post-marketing study of analgesic regimens containing lornoxicam compared with standard analgesic treatment in 3752 day-case surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Narinder; Krøner, Karsten; Simin-Geertsen, Marija; Hejl, Charlotte; Likar, Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Post-marketing surveillance studies can provide supplemental data on the safety of medications in the general population. This study aimed to evaluate the safety of analgesic regimens including the NSAID lornoxicam in the short-term treatment of postoperative pain in a clinically relevant population. Randomized, open-label, multicentre, multinational, observational cohort study of 4 days' duration. In-hospital postoperative setting, with discharge to home treatment within 24 hours of surgery. Adults aged > or =18 years expected to be in need of analgesic treatment after day-case surgery. Analgesic regimens containing lornoxicam were compared with a standard analgesic treatment, which was defined as the treatment that the patient would normally receive at the centre. Following day-case surgery, patients were provided with appropriate analgesic medication, and adverse events (AEs; defined as all recorded events with symptoms) were recorded by the investigator during the in-hospital stay and by the patient for the next 3 days using entries recorded morning and evening in a patient diary. Statistical analyses tested for between-treatment differences in AEs, adverse drug reactions (ADRs; defined as events probably, possibly or unlikely to be related to treatment) and gastrointestinal AEs (GI-AEs). A total of 4152 patients were randomized to treatment. Since 400 patients did not take any analgesic, the safety population consisted of 1838 patients for lornoxicam and 1914 patients for standard analgesic treatment. Demographic and disease characteristics were similar between the two treatment groups, as were the type of surgery and the anaesthesia used in surgery. In the safety population, 16.9% of patients received no analgesic in hospital, and when analgesics were provided they were often administered in combination. Similarly, approximately 17% of patients did not take any analgesics at home. AEs were reported in 27.1% and 29.4% of patients in the lornoxicam and standard

  1. The analgesic effect of trans-resveratrol is regulated by calcium channels in the hippocampus of mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weijie; Yu, Yingcong; Li, Jing; Wang, Lin; Li, Zhi; Zhang, Chong; Zhen, Linlin; Ding, Lianshu; Wang, Gang; Sun, Xiaoyang; Xu, Ying

    2017-08-01

    Resveratrol has been widely studied in terms of it's potential to slow the progression of many diseases. But little is known about the mechanism of action in neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain is the main type of chronic pain associated with tissue injury. Calcium channels and calcium/caffeine-sensitive pools are associated with analgesic pathway involving neuropathic pain. Our previous study suggested that the antinociceptive effect of resveratrol was involved in Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent signaling in the spinal cord of mice. The aim of this study was to explore the involvement of Ca 2+ in analgesic effects of trans-resveratrol in neuropathic pain and signal pathway in hippocampus. Hot plate test was used to assess antinociceptive response when mice were treated with trans-resveratrol alone or in combination with Mk 801, nimodipine, CaCl 2 , ryanodine or EGTA. The effects of trans-resveratrol and the combination on Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) expression in hippocampus were also investigated. The results showed that trans-resveratrol increased paw withdraw latency in the hot plate test. The effect of resveratrol was enhanced by Mk 801 and nimodipine. Central administration of Ca 2+ , however, abolished the antinociceptive effects of resveratrol. In contrast, centrally administered EGTA or ryanodine improved trans-resveratrol induced antinociception. There was a significant increase in p-CaMKII and BDNF expression in the hippocampus when resveratrol were combined with Mk 801, nimodipine, ryanodine and EGTA. Administration of CaCl 2 blocked changes in p-CaMKII and BDNF levels in the hippocampus. These findings suggest that trans-resveratrol exerts the effects of antinociception through regulation of calcium channels and calcium/caffeine-sensitive pools.

  2. Analgesic activity of Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng.root in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Mohaddesi, Behzad; Dwivedi, Ravindra; Ashok, B. K.; Aghera, Hetal; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Shukla, V. J.

    2013-01-01

    Present study was undertaken to evaluate analgesic activity of root of Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng, a folklore medicinal plant used as the one of the source plant of Rasna. Study was carried out at two dose levels (270 mg/kg and 540 mg/kg) in albino rats. Analgesic activity was evaluated in formalin induced paw licking, and tail flick methods whereas indomethacin and pentazocine were used as standard analgesic drugs, respectively. At both the dose levels, test drug non-significantly decreased paw licking response at both time intervals. In tail flick model, the administration of the test drug increased pain threshold response in a dose dependent manner. In therapeutically equivalent dose level, analgesic activity was observed only after 180 min while in TED ×2 treated group analgesia was observed at 30 min and lasted even up to 240 min. The results suggested that N.canescens root possess moderate analgesic activity. PMID:24250136

  3. Comparative antipyretic and analgesic activities of Cissampelos pareira Linn. and Cyclea peltata (Lam.) Hook. F. & Thomas.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suman G; Nishteswar, K; Patel, Bhupesh R; Nariya, Mukesh

    2016-01-01

    Cissampelos pareira Linn. is considered as an established source of Patha , whereas Cyclea peltata (Lam.) Hook. F. & Thomas is used as a source plant of Patha in the southern part of India. In classical texts, two different varieties of Patha , i.e. Rajpatha ( C. peltata ) and Laghupatha ( C. pareira ), are mentioned which possess almost similar properties. To compare antipyretic and analgesic activities of C. pareira and C. peltata in suitable experimental model. Powder (540 mg/kg) and ethanolic extract (200 mg/kg) of both the test drugs ( C. pareira and C. peltata ) were evaluated for antipyretic activity in Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia model in rats. Analgesic activity was evaluated by radiant heat model in rats and acetic acid-induced writhing syndrome in mice. Result of the present study had shown that powder of C. pareira (540 mg/kg) has moderate antipyretic activity as compared to the powder of C. peltata and extract of both test drugs. C. pareira powder showed better analgesic effect than ethanolic extract (200 mg/kg) of both the test drugs in radiant heat model in rats, while in acetic acid-induced writhing syndrome, ethanolic extract (280 mg/kg) of both drugs showed pronounced effect as compared to powder form (780 mg/kg) in mice. Both C. pareira and C. peltata exhibited analgesic effects in experimental animals. The effect is more significant in C. peltata treated group compared to C. pareira . Antipyretic effect was observed with the pretreatment of C. pareira .

  4. Analgesic ineffectiveness of lacosamide after spinal nerve ligation and its sodium channel activity in injured neurons.

    PubMed

    Hagenacker, T; Schäfer, N; Büsselberg, D; Schäfers, M

    2013-07-01

    Lacosamide is a novel anti-epileptic drug that enhances the slow- and not fast-inactivating state of voltage-gated sodium channels. Lacosamide has demonstrated analgesic efficacy in several animal studies but preclinical studies on neuropathic pain models are rare, and recent clinical trials showed no superior analgesic effects. Here, we examine whether an acute or chronic administration of lacosamide (3-60 mg/kg, i.p.) attenuates pain behaviour induced by spinal nerve ligation (SNL). To validate the inhibitory efficacy of lacosamide on voltage-gated sodium channels, sodium currents in naïve and SNL-injured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons were recorded using whole-cell patch clamping. Lacosamide only marginally attenuated thermal hyperalgesia, but not tactile allodynia when applied once 7 or 14 days after SNL and showed no analgesic effect when applied daily for 19 days. In naïve neurons, 100 μmol/L lacosamide inhibited sodium channel currents by 58% and enhanced the slow inactivation (87% for lacosamide vs. 47% for control). In contrast, lacosamide inhibited sodium currents in injured DRG neurons by only 15%, while the effects on slow inactivation were diminished. Isolated currents from the NaV 1.8 channel subtype were only marginally changed by lacosamide. The reduced effectiveness of lacosamide on voltage-gated sodium channel currents in injured DRG neurons may contribute to the reduced analgesic effect observed for the SNL model. © 2012 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  5. Co-delivery of evodiamine and rutaecarpine in a microemulsion-based hyaluronic acid hydrogel for enhanced analgesic effects on mouse pain models.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Tai; Li, Zhe; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Hong-Yu; He, Ze-Hui; Xia, Qing; Zhao, Ji-Hui; Feng, Nian-Ping

    2017-08-07

    The aim of this study was to improve the analgesic effect of evodiamine and rutaecarpine, using a microemulsion-based hydrogel (ME-Gel) as the transdermal co-delivery vehicle, and to assess hyaluronic acid as a hydrogel matrix for microemulsion entrapment. A microemulsion was formulated with ethyl oleate as the oil core to improve the solubility of the alkaloids and was loaded into a hyaluronic acid-structured hydrogel. Permeation-enhancing effects of the microemulsion enabled evodiamine and rutaecarpine in ME-Gel to achieve 2.60- and 2.59-fold higher transdermal fluxes compared with hydrogel control (p<0.01). The hyaluronic acid hydrogel-containing microemulsion exhibited good skin biocompatibility, whereas effective ME-Gel co-delivery of evodiamine and rutaecarpine through the skin enhanced the analgesic effect in mouse pain models compared with hydrogel. Notably, evodiamine and rutaecarpine administered using ME-Gel effectively down-regulated serum levels of prostaglandin E 2 , interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor α in formaldehyde-induced mouse pain models, possibly reflecting the improved transdermal permeability of ME-Gel co-delivered evodiamine and rutaecarpine, particularly with hyaluronic acid as the hydrogel matrix. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Analgesics use in competitive triathletes: its relationship to doping and on predicting its usage.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Pavel; Dalaker, Robert; Letzel, Stephan; Ulrich, Rolf; Simon, Perikles

    2016-10-01

    The two major objectives of this study were (i) to assess variables that predict the use of analgesics in competitive athletes and (ii) to test whether the use of analgesics is associated with the use of doping. A questionnaire primarily addressing the use of analgesics and doping was distributed among 2,997 triathletes. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to predict the use of analgesics. Moreover, the randomised response technique (RRT) was used to estimate the prevalence of doping in order to assess whether users of analgesics have a higher potential risk for doping than non-users. Statistical power analyses were performed to determine sample size. The bootstrap method was used to assess the statistical significance of the prevalence difference for doping between users and non-users of analgesics. Four variables from a pool of 16 variables were identified that predict the use of analgesics. These were: "version of questionnaire (English)", "gender (female)", "behaviour in case of pain (continue training)", and "hours of training per week (>12 h/week)". The 12-month prevalence estimate for the use of doping substances (overall estimate 13.0%) was significantly higher in athletes that used analgesics (20.4%) than in those athletes who did not use analgesics (12.4%). The results of this study revealed that athletes who use analgesics prior to competition may be especially prone to using doping substances. The predictors of analgesic use found in the study may be of importance to prepare education material and prevention models against the misuse of drugs in athletes.

  7. The synergistic effect of treatment with triptolide and MK-801 in the rat neuropathic pain model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Qiao, Yu; Yang, Ri-Sheng; Zhang, Chun-Kui; Wu, Huang-Hui; Lin, Jia-Ji; Zhang, Ting

    2017-01-01

    Triptolide (T10), an active component of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, is reported to have potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. Additionally, MK-801, a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, can reduce glutamate toxicity and has a significant analgesic effect on chronic pain. In this study, we tested the possible synergistic analgesic ability by intrathecal administration of T10 and MK-801 for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Single T10 (3, 10, or 30 µg/kg), MK-801 (10, 30, or 90 µg/kg), or a combination of them were intrathecally administrated in rats with spinal nerve ligation. We found that single administration of T10 caused a slow-acting but long-term analgesic effect, while single administration of MK-801 caused a fast-acting but short-term effect. Administration of their combination showed obviously synergic analgesia and the 1:3 ratio of T10 to MK-801 reached the peak effect. Furthermore, application of T10 and/or MK-801 significantly inhibited the activation of microglia and astrocyte and phosphorylation of STAT3 and NR2B in the spinal dorsal horn induced by chronic neuropathic pain. Our data suggest that the combination of T10 and MK-801 may be a potentially novel strategy for treatment of neuropathic pain. PMID:29166839

  8. Changes Over Time of Prescription and Nonprescription Analgesics for Headache With or Without Other Somatic Pain: Effects of Prescription Regulatory Changes.

    PubMed

    Halvorsen, Marianne Moe; Clench-Aas, Jocelyne; Patil, Grete; Lundqvist, Christofer

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association and changes over time between headaches with or without somatic pain and the self-reported use of pain medication. The study further examined whether the law amendment in 2003 in Norway releasing the sale of nonprescription drugs to shops has changed these relationships. The study is on the basis of repeated self-report cross-sectional studies from 1998 to 2012 in Norway. A total of 27,247 adults were included. As expected, there was a strong association between headache, especially headache with comorbid somatic pain and consumption of prescription versus nonprescription analgesics, although the overall consumption decreased slightly after 2003. We conclude that the strong association between especially headache, whether complicated by somatic pain or not, and the consumption of prescription-free analgesics did not seem to be negatively affected by the prescription regulatory changes. The very high use of nonprescription medication among headache patients suggests the need for continued observation and information regarding the risk of medication-overuse headache. In Norway, headache was strongly associated with use of over-the-counter analgesics, for other somatic pain prescription analgesics were equally common. Between 1998 and 2012 headache and related analgesic consumption was reduced and other somatic pain increased. Making over-the-counter analgesics available outside pharmacies in 2003 did not increase the self-reported intake. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the ability of analgesic drugs to reduce metastasis in experimental cancer models

    PubMed Central

    Hooijmans, Carlijn R.; Geessink, Florentine J.; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel; Scheffer, Gert-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Analgesics are commonly used to manage pain in cancer patients. It has been suggested that there might be a relation between analgesics and the outgrowth of metastases. Opioids might increase and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs decrease the risk of metastasis. Robust analysis of all preclinical evidence, however, has so far been lacking. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on the effect of treatment with analgesics on metastasis in experimental animal models. One hundred forty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Study characteristics, outcome data on the number, and incidence of metastases were extracted, and methodological quality was assessed. In the meta-analysis, we included 215 (±4000 animals) and 137 (±3000 animals) comparisons between analgesic vs control treatment, respectively, on the number and incidence of metastases. Overall, treatment with analgesics significantly decreases the number and risk of metastasis. This effect appears mainly to be the consequence of the efficacy of NSAIDs. Other factors that modify the efficacy are species, type of NSAIDs administered, timing, and duration of treatment. There is no evidence indicating that treatment with any analgesics increases the occurrence of metastases. Our findings appear robust for the various animal models and designs included in this review, which increases our confidence in the result and translatability to the clinical situation. PMID:26181303

  10. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Tunisian Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. immature fruit and seed organic extracts.

    PubMed

    Marzouk, B; Marzouk, Z; Fenina, N; Bouraoui, A; Aouni, M

    2011-06-01

    Inflammations and immune-related diseases including rheumatoid arthritis are widespread in the entire globe. The treatment of these illnesses is mainly based on the use of synthetic and biotechnological drugs, in recent years. Tunisian traditional medicine is a potential source of new remedies namely Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (Cucurbitaceae): endemic in southern Tunisia and used in folk medicine to treat many inflammation disorders. Our goal was to assess the in vivo analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Tunisian Citrullus colocynthis immature fruit and seed organic extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and finely methanol extract). Yields of prepared organic extracts are gravimetrically determined. For the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities, we have used respectively, the acetic acid writhing test in mice and the carrageenan-induced paw edema assay in rats. All extracts displayed an important analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities at different doses without inducing any side effects. This study has demonstrated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Citrullus colocynthis immature fruit and seed extracts. Experiment results provide scientific insight into the ancient practice of utilizing Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. as analgesic and as anti-inflammatory agents.

  11. Pharmacogenetics-guided analgesics in major abdominal surgery: Further benefits within an enhanced recovery protocol.

    PubMed

    Senagore, Anthony J; Champagne, Bradley J; Dosokey, Eslam; Brady, Justin; Steele, Scott R; Reynolds, Harry L; Stein, Sharon L; Delaney, Conor P

    2017-03-01

    Effective, narcotic sparing analgesia is a major component of Enhanced Recovery Protocols (ERP), however the risk of poor analgesia and opioid related side effects (ORADE) remains an issue related to poor outcomes and satisfaction, and is strongly related to the risk of narcotic dependence after surgery. A variety of genes can impact narcotic and non-steroidal (NSAID) drug efficacy including: the CYP family (drug metabolism-narcotics and NSAID), or COMT/ABCB1/OPRM1 (functional receptor and transport activity for analgesia vs side effects). The purpose of this study was to perform the first assessment of the impact of a pharmacogenetics (PGx) guided selection of analgesics following major abdominal surgery within an ERP. A consecutive series of open and laparoscopic colorectal resections or major ventral hernia repair (PGx group) had a guided analgesic protocol based upon assessment of CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, COMT, OPRM1, and ABCB1 genes. Study patients were compared to a recent historical series of patients (H group) managed using our well validated ERP. The primary outcome measure was the Overall Benefit of Analgesia Score (OBAS). Pain scores were also assessed. The data demonstrated a similar mix of procedures and gender between groups and more than half of the PGx group had revised analgesia from the standard ERP. The PGx group demonstrated significantly lower OBAS scores (p = 0.0.1) from POD1 (3.8 vs 5.4) through POD 5 (3.0 vs 4.5) Analgesia was also superior for the PGx group from POD1 through POD 5 (p = 0.04). Pharmacogenetics guidance resulted in frequent modifications of the analgesic program, resulting in excellent analgesia with a 50% reduction in narcotic consumption, and a reduced incidence of analgesic related side effects compared to our standard ERP. These data suggest further improvement in ERP resulting from a patient centric analgesic, reduced narcotic regimen which provides early and durable pain control with fewer

  12. A Novel Brucine Gel Transdermal Delivery System Designed for Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activities.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ping; Liang, Qin; Feng, Pei; Li, Chunyan; Yang, Chunguang; Liang, Hongsuo; Tang, Huaibo; Shuai, Cijun

    2017-04-03

    The seeds of Strychnos nux -vomica L., as a traditional Chinese medicine, have good anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. However, it usually leads to gastrointestinal irritation and systemic toxicity via oral administration. In the study, it was discovered that a novel gel transdermal delivery system contained brucine, the main effective component extracted from Strychnos nux - vomica . Results showed that the brucine gel system inhibited arthritis symptoms and the proliferation of the synoviocytes in the rat adjuvant arthritis model, which indicated its curative effect for rheumatoid arthritis. Meanwhile, it significantly relieved the xylene-induced ear edema in the mouse ear swelling test, which manifested its anti-inflammatory property. Moreover, the brucine gel eased the pain of paw formalin injection in the formalin test, which demonstrated its analgesic effects. In addition, the brucine significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production without affecting the viability of cell in vitro anti-inflammatory test, which proved that its anti-inflammatory and analgesic actions were related to inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. It is suggested that the brucine gel is a promising vehicle for transdermal delivery on the treatment of inflammatory disease.

  13. Post natal use of analgesics: comparisons between conventional postnatal wards and a maternity hotel.

    PubMed

    Nordeng, Hedvig; Eskild, Anne; Nesheim, Britt-Ingjerd

    2010-04-01

    To investigate factors related to analgesic use after delivery, and especially whether rates of analgesic use were different in a midwife-managed maternity hotel as compared to conventional postnatal wards. One maternity hotel and two conventional postnatal wards at Ullevål University Hospital in Oslo, Norway. Data were obtained from hospital records for 804 women with vaginal deliveries. Postnatal analgesic use. Overall, approximately half the women used analgesics after vaginal delivery in both conventional postnatal wards and maternity hotel. The factors that were significantly associated with use of analgesics postnatally in multivariate analysis were multiparity, having a non-Western ethnicity, smoking in pregnancy, younger age, instrumental delivery, analgesic use during labour, maternal complications post partum, and duration of postnatal stay 4 days or more. The use of analgesics is determined by socio-demographic and obstetric factors rather than the organisation of the ward.

  14. Medical cannabis laws and opioid analgesic overdose mortality in the United States, 1999-2010.

    PubMed

    Bachhuber, Marcus A; Saloner, Brendan; Cunningham, Chinazo O; Barry, Colleen L

    2014-10-01

    Opioid analgesic overdose mortality continues to rise in the United States, driven by increases in prescribing for chronic pain. Because chronic pain is a major indication for medical cannabis, laws that establish access to medical cannabis may change overdose mortality related to opioid analgesics in states that have enacted them. To determine the association between the presence of state medical cannabis laws and opioid analgesic overdose mortality. A time-series analysis was conducted of medical cannabis laws and state-level death certificate data in the United States from 1999 to 2010; all 50 states were included. Presence of a law establishing a medical cannabis program in the state. Age-adjusted opioid analgesic overdose death rate per 100 000 population in each state. Regression models were developed including state and year fixed effects, the presence of 3 different policies regarding opioid analgesics, and the state-specific unemployment rate. Three states (California, Oregon, and Washington) had medical cannabis laws effective prior to 1999. Ten states (Alaska, Colorado, Hawaii, Maine, Michigan, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Rhode Island, and Vermont) enacted medical cannabis laws between 1999 and 2010. States with medical cannabis laws had a 24.8% lower mean annual opioid overdose mortality rate (95% CI, -37.5% to -9.5%; P = .003) compared with states without medical cannabis laws. Examination of the association between medical cannabis laws and opioid analgesic overdose mortality in each year after implementation of the law showed that such laws were associated with a lower rate of overdose mortality that generally strengthened over time: year 1 (-19.9%; 95% CI, -30.6% to -7.7%; P = .002), year 2 (-25.2%; 95% CI, -40.6% to -5.9%; P = .01), year 3 (-23.6%; 95% CI, -41.1% to -1.0%; P = .04), year 4 (-20.2%; 95% CI, -33.6% to -4.0%; P = .02), year 5 (-33.7%; 95% CI, -50.9% to -10.4%; P = .008), and year 6 (-33.3%; 95% CI, -44.7% to

  15. Indolyl-isoxazolidines attenuate LPS-stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokines and increase survival in a mouse model of sepsis: Identification of potent lead.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gagandeep; Singh, Gurjit; Bhatti, Rajbir; Gupta, Mehak; Kumar, Ajay; Sharma, Ankita; Singh Ishar, Mohan Paul

    2018-06-10

    A library of indolyl-isoxazolidines (6-9) has been synthesized by regio- and stereoselective microwave irradiated 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions of C-(3-indolyl)-N-phenylnitrone (2') with variedly substituted dipolarophiles (3'-5') and screened for their anti-inflammatory activities through inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6. Amongst the evaluated compounds (6-9), bicyclic isoxazolidine (9a) was found to exhibit significant inhibitory potential against LPS induced human IL-6 and TNF-α in THP-1 cells. Compound 9a was further assessed for in vivo analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities via acetic acid induced writhing and carrageenan induced paw edema models in mice, respectively. The results showed that compound possesses potent anti-inflammatory-analgesic activity comparable to indomethacin and did not show toxicity up to a 2000 mg kg -1 dose as evidenced by histopathological studies. Consequently, the most active compound 9a was also evaluated against LPS-induced septic death and exhibited a significant protection in in vivo mouse model. Taken all together, the results suggest that the compound 9a is able to attenuate pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α; accelerate resolution of inflammation, and also increased survival rate of septic mice. Therefore, these "lead" isoxazolidines can be used as promising candidate for further analgesic/anti-inflammatory drug design and development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Use of analgesic and sedative drugs in the NICU: integrating clinical trials and laboratory data.

    PubMed

    Durrmeyer, Xavier; Vutskits, Laszlo; Anand, Kanwaljeet J S; Rimensberger, Peter C

    2010-02-01

    Recent advances in neonatal intensive care include and are partly attributable to growing attention for comfort and pain control in the term and preterm infant requiring intensive care.Limitation of painful procedures is certainly possible, but most critically ill infants require unavoidable painful or stressful procedures such as intubation, mechanical ventilation, or catheterization.Many analgesics (opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs)and sedatives (benzodiazepines and other anesthetic agents) are available but their use varies considerably among units. This review summarizes current experimental knowledge on the effects of sedative and analgesic drugs on brain development and reviews clinical evidence that speaks for or against the use of common analgesic and sedative drugs in the NICU but avoids any discussion of anesthesia during surgery. Risk/benefit ratios of intermittent boluses or continuous infusions for the commonly used sedative and analgesic agents are discussed in the light of clinical and experimental studies. The limitations of extrapolating experimental results from animals to humans must be considered while making practical recommendations based on the currently available evidence.

  17. Comparison of the analgesic effect of intravenous acetaminophen with that of flurbiprofen axetil on post-breast surgery pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Takahiro; Hara, Marie; Miyamoto, Chisato; Sugita, Michiko; Yamamoto, Tatsuo

    2016-06-01

    Acetaminophen is known to be a relatively weak analgesic with fewer side effects than nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). This study aimed to determine whether intravenous (iv) acetaminophen produces comparable analgesic effects to those of flurbiprofen (positive control drug), an intravenously injectable NSAID, after partial mastectomies. The primary outcome assessed was pain intensity during the first 24 h after the operation, and the secondary outcome was the satisfaction rating at discharge. After obtaining Institutional Ethics Committee approval, a series of 40 consecutive female patients who were scheduled for partial mastectomies were enrolled. Participants were randomly divided into two groups: an acetaminophen (1000 mg × 3) group (group A) and a flurbiprofen (50 mg × 3) group (group F). Each drug was administered 15 min before the end of surgery, and at 6 and 12 h after the operation. Postoperative pain was evaluated using a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) at 3, 6, and 24 h postoperatively. Satisfaction rating was evaluated on a 5-point scale (very good, good, well, bad, and very bad). VAS scores (mm) with movement in groups A and F at 3, 6, and 24 h after the surgery were 22 vs. 28, 14 vs. 24, and 12 vs. 20.5 (median), respectively, with no significant differences between the two groups. Eighteen of 20 patients in group A and 20 of 20 patients in group F expressed a satisfaction rating of greater than good. Acetaminophen produces an equivalent analgesic effect to flurbiprofen in post-partial mastectomy patients.

  18. Tolerance to the hypothermic but not to the analgesic effect of [D-Trp11]neurotensin during the semichronic intracerebroventricular infusion of the peptide in rats.

    PubMed

    Dubuc, I; Pain, C; Suaudeau, C; Costentin, J

    1994-01-01

    The peptidase-resistant derivative of neurotensin, [D-Trp11]neurotensin, has been continuously infused intracerebroventricularly (75 ng/h) with an osmotic minipump for 10 days. On several days during this infusion the locomotor activity, the body temperature, the food intake, the body weight, and the nociceptive response in the plantar test were measured. A nonsignificant decrease of body temperature and a sustained analgesic effect were observed at each time considered. The response to a test dose of [D-Trp11]neurotensin (75 ng per rat) injected intracerebroventricularly at the 10th day of the chronic infusion revealed a complete tolerance to its hypothermic effect. Thus, it appears that the analgesic effect of [D-Trp11]neurotensin is independent of a hypothermic or an incapacitating effect of the peptide and does not give rise to tolerance after a 10-day continuous administration, in contrast to the hypothermic effect.

  19. Tolerance to Non-Opioid Analgesics is Opioid Sensitive in the Nucleus Raphe Magnus.

    PubMed

    Tsagareli, Merab G; Nozadze, Ivliane; Tsiklauri, Nana; Gurtskaia, Gulnaz

    2011-01-01

    Repeated injection of opioid analgesics can lead to a progressive loss of effect. This phenomenon is known as tolerance. Several lines of investigations have shown that systemic, intraperitoneal administration or the microinjection of non-opioid analgesics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) into the midbrain periaqueductal gray matter induces antinociception with some effects of tolerance. Our recent study has revealed that microinjection of three drugs analgin, ketorolac, and xefocam into the central nucleus of amygdala produce tolerance to them and cross-tolerance to morphine. Here we report that repeated administrations of these NSAIDs into the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) in the following 4 days result in progressively less antinociception compare to the saline control, i.e., tolerance develops to these drugs in male rats. Special control experiments showed that post-treatment with the μ-opioid antagonist naloxone into the NRM significantly decreased antinociceptive effects of NSAIDs on the first day of testing in the tail-flick (TF) reflex and hot plate (HP) latency tests. On the second day, naloxone generally had trend effects in both TF and HP tests and impeded the development of tolerance to the antinociceptive effect of non-opioid analgesics. These findings strongly support the suggestion of endogenous opioid involvement in NSAIDs antinociception and tolerance in the descending pain-control system. Moreover, repeated injections of NSAIDs progressively lead to tolerance to them, cross-tolerance to morphine, and the risk of a withdrawal syndrome. Therefore, these results are important for human medicine too.

  20. Functional plasticity of the N/OFQ-NOP receptor system determines analgesic properties of NOP receptor agonists

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, W; Lambert, D G; Ko, M C; Koch, T

    2014-01-01

    Despite high sequence similarity between NOP (nociceptin/orphanin FQ opioid peptide) and opioid receptors, marked differences in endogenous ligand selectivity, signal transduction, phosphorylation, desensitization, internalization and trafficking have been identified; underscoring the evolutionary difference between NOP and opioid receptors. Activation of NOP receptors affects nociceptive transmission in a site-specific manner, with antinociceptive effects prevailing after peripheral and spinal activation, and pronociceptive effects after supraspinal activation in rodents. The net effect of systemically administered NOP receptor agonists on nociception is proposed to depend on the relative contribution of peripheral, spinal and supraspinal activation, and this may depend on experimental conditions. Functional expression and regulation of NOP receptors at peripheral and central sites of the nociceptive pathway exhibits a high degree of plasticity under conditions of neuropathic and inflammatory pain. In rodents, systemically administered NOP receptor agonists exerted antihypersensitive effects in models of neuropathic and inflammatory pain. However, they were largely ineffective in acute pain while concomitantly evoking severe motor side effects. In contrast, systemic administration of NOP receptor agonists to non-human primates (NHPs) exerted potent and efficacious antinociception in the absence of motor and sedative side effects. The reason for this species difference with respect to antinociceptive efficacy and tolerability is not clear. Moreover, co-activation of NOP and μ-opioid peptide (MOP) receptors synergistically produced antinociception in NHPs. Hence, both selective NOP receptor as well as NOP/MOP receptor agonists may hold potential for clinical use as analgesics effective in conditions of acute and chronic pain. PMID:24762001

  1. Prescription of opioid analgesics for nontraumatic dental conditions in emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Okunseri, Christopher; Dionne, Raymond A; Gordon, Sharon M; Okunseri, Elaye; Szabo, Aniko

    2015-11-01

    Opioid analgesics prescribed for nontraumatic dental conditions (NTDCs) by emergency physicians continue to receive attention because of the associated potential for misuse, abuse and addiction. This study examined rates of prescription of opioid analgesics and types of opioid analgesics prescribed for NTDC visits in U.S. emergency departments. Data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey from 2007 to 2010 were analyzed. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were performed and adjusted for the survey design. NTDCs made up 1.7% of all ED visits from 2007 to 2010. The prescription of opioid analgesics was 50.3% for NTDC and 14.8% for non-NTDC visits. The overall rate of opioid analgesics prescribed for NTDCs remained fairly stable from 2007 through 2010. Prescription of opioids was highest among patients aged 19-33 years (56.8%), self-paying (57.1%), and non-Hispanic Whites (53.2%). The probability of being prescribed hydrocodone was highest among uninsured patients (68.7%) and for oxycodone, it was highest among private insurance patients (33.6%). Compared to 34-52 year olds, children 0-4 years were significantly more likely to be prescribed codeine and less likely to be prescribed oxycodone. Compared to non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks had significantly higher odds of been prescribed codeine and somewhat lower odds of been prescribed oxycodone, but it was not statistically significant. There was no significant change in the rates of opioid analgesics prescribed over time for NTDC visits to EDs. Age, payer type and race/ethnicity were significant predictors for the prescription of different opioid analgesics by emergency physicians for NTDC visits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Usage of paracetamol-containing combination analgesics remains high in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Usher, Cara; Teeling, Mary; Bennett, Kathleen; McGowan, Bernie; Feely, John

    2005-01-01

    Aims Paracetamol-containing combination analgesics are widely prescribed but the use of paracetamol/dextropropoxyphene (co-proxamol) is particularly controversial. We aim to examine the prescribing patterns of the paracetamol-containing analgesics in Ireland. Methods A national primary care prescribing database was used to investigate patterns of usage. Twenty-six thousand three hundred and eighteen patients who were new to therapy with paracetamol and paracetamol-containing analgesics between January and June 2002 were identified as follows: no previous analgesic medication in the 6 months prior to enrolment into the study, and followed up for at least 12 months from the time of enrolment. Duration of therapy and the number of prescriptions received post enrolment were analyzed according to age. Odds ratios for receiving long-term (>1 month) compared with short-term (1 month) prescriptions for co-proxamol, paracetamol only or a paracetamol combination-type analgesic were calculated for women vs. men, and in those aged over 65 vs. those aged under 65 years. Results Co-proxamol was the most commonly prescribed analgesic, accounting for 42% of all prescriptions dispensed during 2003. Long-term use of paracetamol-containing analgesic preparations was uncommon, with 56.7% receiving only 1 month's prescription during the study period. However, women (OR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.07, 1.28, P < 0.0001) and those over 65 years (OR = 1.71, 95% CI 1.57, 1.86, P < 0.0001) were more likely to receive a follow-up prescription for co-proxamol, but also for paracetamol (women, OR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.16, 1.39; over 65 year olds, OR = 2.67, 95%CI 2.44, 2.93) and the paracetamol combinations (women, OR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.20, 1.47; over 65 year olds, OR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.53, 1.87). Conclusions Co-proxamol was the most commonly prescribed paracetamol-containing analgesic preparation in Ireland. The results may indicate inappropriate use in primary care. PMID:16305590

  3. Prevalence of Analgesic Prescriptions among Patients with Cancer in Japan: An Analysis of Health Insurance Claims Data

    PubMed Central

    Higashi, Takahiro; Yoshimoto, Tetsusuke; Matoba, Motohiro

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To promote effective management of cancer pain as a nationwide health policy, it is necessary to monitor the performance of health care providers in managing pain in their patients. To plan a system that monitors the performance of pain management, the exact methods of measurement, including the range of target patients, and estimate the resources must be defined. Performance in pain management can be evaluated either in all patients with cancer or restricted to patients with cancer who are already taking analgesics. Restricting the target patient group to patients on analgesics may be more efficient but the extent of that efficiency remains uncertain. Methods: Using insurance claims from eight employer-sponsored insurance companies, we analyzed data from patients (N = 2858) who had received anti-cancer treatment (ie, surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy) for the five major cancers in Japan (ie, breast, colorectal, liver, lung, and stomach cancers). Results: Overall, 22.9% of patients received some kind of analgesic prescription in the course of a month. Lung cancer patients were more likely to be prescribed analgesic prescriptions (any analgesics 34.8%; opioids 18.2%) than patients with the other four cancers. The observed percentage of patients who received analgesic prescriptions over the study period (ie, January 2005 to November 2009) decreased. Conclusion: If we limit the target patient group to patients with cancer already on analgesics, we can reduce the number of persons to be contacted by about three-fourths, compared to assessing pain in all patients with cancer. Although we do not wish to ignore the problem of undetected pain among patients with cancer, beginning our systematic evaluation with patients with cancer already on analgesics may be a realistic option. PMID:23121757

  4. 21 CFR 348.10 - Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients. 348.10 Section 348.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Active Ingredients § 348.10 Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients. The active...

  5. 21 CFR 346.16 - Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE ANORECTAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 346.16 Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients. The active ingredient of the...

  6. 21 CFR 348.10 - Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients. 348.10 Section 348.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Active Ingredients § 348.10 Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients. The active...

  7. 21 CFR 346.16 - Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE ANORECTAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 346.16 Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients. The active ingredient of the...

  8. 21 CFR 348.10 - Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients. 348.10 Section 348.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Active Ingredients § 348.10 Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients. The active...

  9. 21 CFR 346.16 - Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE ANORECTAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 346.16 Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients. The active ingredient of the...

  10. 21 CFR 348.10 - Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients. 348.10 Section 348.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Active Ingredients § 348.10 Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients. The active...

  11. 21 CFR 348.10 - Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients. 348.10 Section 348.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Active Ingredients § 348.10 Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients. The active...

  12. [Synergistic analgesic effect of choline and parecoxib sodium in mice and the mechanism].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Na; Feng, Ze-Guo; Wang, Ru-Huan; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Yu, Jun; DU, Chun-Yan; Wang, Hai

    2016-11-20

    To investigate the synergistic analgesic effect of choline and parecoxib sodium and study its mechanism. In male Kunming mice with acetic acid-induced writhing, the ED 50 of choline and parecoxib sodium (administered via the tail vein at 2 h and 30 min before modeling, respectively) and their combined use were determined. In saline (control) group, ED 50 choline (C) group, ED 50 parecoxib sodium (P) group, and 1/2ED 50 choline and parecoxib sodium (1/2[C+P]) group, blood samples were collected from the eyeball 10 min after intraperitoneal administration of acetic acid to detect the levels of IL-1, TNF-α, PGE2, NF-κB, and I-κB levels using ELISA kits. In the acetic acid-induced writhing model, the ED 50 of choline and parecoxib sodium was 8.64 and 6.33 mg/kg, and when combined, their ED50 was 2.13 and 1.56 mg/kg, respectively. The isobolograms of parecoxib sodium and choline showed that the measured ED 50 of the two drugs combined was below the theoretical ED 50 value (P<0.05) with a combination index (CI) of <0.9. Compared with the control group, C group, P group, and 1/2 (C+P) group all showed significantly lowered IL-1 and TNF-α levels (P<0.05), especially in 1/2 (C+P) group (P<0.05). PGE2 level was significantly lower in P group and 1/2 (C+P) group compared with the control group (P<0.05). NF-κB and I-κB levels were significantly lowered in C, P, and 1/2 (C+P) groups (P<0.05), and the reduction was the most obvious in 1/2 (C+P) group (P<0.05). Choline and parecoxib sodium has a synergistic analgesic effect, and their interactions may involve the in vivo expression of NF-κB.

  13. Analgesic drug use and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Hannibal, Charlotte G; Rossing, Mary Anne; Wicklund, Kristine G; Cushing-Haugen, Kara L

    2008-06-15

    Analgesic use may reduce ovarian cancer risk, possibly through antiinflammatory or antigonadotropic effects. The authors conducted a population-based, case-control study in Washington State that included 812 women aged 35-74 years who were diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer between 2002 and 2005 and 1,313 controls. Use of analgesics, excluding use within the previous year, was assessed via in-person interviews. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Overall, acetaminophen and aspirin were associated with weakly increased risks of ovarian cancer. These associations were stronger after more than 10 years of use (acetaminophen: odds ratio (OR) = 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3, 2.6; aspirin: OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.2) and were present for indications of headache, menstrual pain, and other pain/injury. Reduced risk was observed among aspirin users who began regular use within the previous 5 years (OR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4, 1.0) or used this drug for prevention of heart disease (OR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.5, 1.0). These results, in the context of prior findings, do not provide compelling evidence of a true increase in risk of ovarian cancer among women who use these drugs. However, they add to the weight of evidence that, in the aggregate, provides little support for the use of analgesic drugs as chemoprevention for this disease.

  14. Sustained analgesic effect of clonidine co-polymer depot in a porcine incisional pain model.

    PubMed

    Wilsey, Jared T; Block, Julie H

    2018-01-01

    Previous research suggests that the α 2 adrenergic agonist clonidine, a centrally acting analgesic and antihypertensive, may also have direct effects on peripheral pain generators. However, aqueous injections are limited by rapid systemic absorption leading to off target effects and a brief analgesic duration of action. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of a sustained-release clonidine depot, placed in the wound bed, in a pig incisional pain model. The depot was a 15 mm ×5 mm ×0.3 mm poly(lactide-co-caprolactone) polymer film containing 3% (w/w) clonidine HCl (MDT3). Fifty-two young adult mix Landrace pigs (9-11 kg) were divided into seven groups. All subjects received a 6 cm, full-thickness, linear incision into the left lateral flank. Group 1 served as a Sham control group (Sham, n=8). Group 2 received three placebo strips (PBO, n=8), placed end-to-end in the subcutaneous wound bed before wound closure. Group 3 received one MDT3 and two PBO (n=8), Group 4 received two MDT3 and one PBO (n=8), and Group 5 received three MDT3 (n=8). Positive control groups received peri-incisional injections of bupivacaine solution (Group 6, 30 mg/day bupivacaine, n=8) or clonidine solution (Group 7, 225 µg/day, n=4). The surgical procedure was associated with significant peri-incisional tactile allodynia. There was a dose-dependent effect of MDT3 in partially reversing the peri-incisional tactile allodynia, with maximum pain relief relative to Sham at 72 hours. Daily injections of bupivacaine (30 mg), but not clonidine (up to 225 µg), completely reversed allodynia within 48 hours. There was a statistically significant correlation between the dose of MDT3 and cumulative withdrawal threshold from 4 hours through the conclusion of the study on day 7. These data suggest that a sustained-release clonidine depot may be a viable nonopioid, nonamide anesthetic therapy for the treatment of acute postsurgical nociceptive sensitization.

  15. Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antiulcer properties of Porphyra vietnamensis.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Saurabh; Sharma, Kiran; Sharma, Ajay; Nagpal, Kalpana; Bera, Tanmoy

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the present work was to investigate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antiulcer effects of red seaweed Porphyra vietnamensis (P. vietnamenis). Aqueous (POR) and alcoholic (PE) fractions were successfully isolated from P. vietnamenis. Further biological investigations were performed using a classic test of paw edema induced by carrageenan, writhing induced by acetic acid, hot plate method and naproxen induced gastro-duodenal ulcer. Among the fractions POR showed better activity. POR and PE significantly (p < 0.05) reduced carrageenan induced paw edema in a dose dependent manner. In the writhing test POR significantly (p < 0.05) reduced abdominal writhes than PE. In hot plate method POR showed better analgesic activity than PE. POR showed comparable ulcers reducing potential (p<0.01) to that of omeprazole, and has more ulcer reducing potential then PE. The results of this study demonstrated that P. vietnamenis aqueous fraction possesses biological activity that is close to the standards taken for the treatment of peripheral painful or/and inflammatory and ulcer conditions.

  16. Levetiracetam synergises with common analgesics in producing antinociception in a mouse model of painful diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Micov, Ana; Tomić, Maja; Pecikoza, Uroš; Ugrešić, Nenad; Stepanović-Petrović, Radica

    2015-07-01

    Painful diabetic neuropathy is difficult to treat. Single analgesics often have insufficient efficacy and poor tolerability. Combination therapy may therefore be of particular benefit, because it might provide optimal analgesia with fewer adverse effects. This study aimed to examine the type of interaction between levetiracetam, a novel anticonvulsant with analgesic properties, and commonly used analgesics (ibuprofen, aspirin and paracetamol) in a mouse model of painful diabetic neuropathy. Diabetes was induced in C57BL/6 mice with a single high dose of streptozotocin, applied intraperitoneally (150 mg/kg). Thermal (tail-flick test) and mechanical (electronic von Frey test) nociceptive thresholds were measured before and three weeks after diabetes induction. The antinociceptive effects of orally administered levetiracetam, analgesics, and their combinations were examined in diabetic mice that developed thermal/mechanical hypersensitivity. In combination experiments, the drugs were co-administered in fixed-dose fractions of single drug ED50 and the type of interaction was determined by isobolographic analysis. Levetiracetam (10-100 mg/kg), ibuprofen (2-50 mg/kg), aspirin (5-75 mg/kg), paracetamol (5-100 mg/kg), and levetiracetam-analgesic combinations produced significant, dose-dependent antinociceptive effects in diabetic mice in both tests. In the tail-flick test, isobolographic analysis revealed 15-, and 19-fold reduction of doses of both drugs in the combination of levetiracetam with aspirin/ibuprofen, and paracetamol, respectively. In the von Frey test, approximately 7- and 9-fold reduction of doses of both drugs was detected in levetiracetam-ibuprofen and levetiracetam-aspirin/levetiracetam-paracetamol combinations, respectively. These results show synergism between levetiracetam and ibuprofen/aspirin/paracetamol in a model of painful diabetic neuropathy and might provide a useful approach to the treatment of patients suffering from painful diabetic neuropathy

  17. NKTR-181: A Novel Mu-Opioid Analgesic with Inherently Low Abuse Potential.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Takahiro; Choi, Irene Y; Rubas, Werner; Anand, Neel K; Ali, Cherie; Evans, Juli; Gursahani, Hema; Hennessy, Marlene; Kim, Grace; McWeeney, Daniel; Pfeiffer, Juergen; Quach, Phi; Gauvin, David; Riley, Timothy A; Riggs, Jennifer A; Gogas, Kathleen; Zalevsky, Jonathan; Doberstein, Stephen K

    2017-10-01

    The increasing availability of prescription opioid analgesics for the treatment of pain has been paralleled by an epidemic of opioid misuse, diversion, and overdose. The development of abuse-deterrent formulations (ADFs) of conventional opioids such as oxycodone and morphine represents an advance in the field and has had a positive but insufficient impact, as most opioids are still prescribed in highly abusable, non-ADF forms, and abusers can tamper with ADF medications to liberate the abusable opioid within. The abuse liability of mu-opioid agonists appears to be dependent on their rapid rate of entry into the central nervous system (CNS), whereas analgesic activity appears to be a function of CNS exposure alone, suggesting that a new opioid agonist with an inherently low rate of influx across the blood-brain barrier could mediate analgesia with low abuse liability, regardless of formulation or route of administration. NKTR-181 is a novel, long-acting, selective mu-opioid agonist with structural properties that reduce its rate of entry across the blood-brain barrier compared with traditional mu-opioid agonists. NKTR-181 demonstrated maximum analgesic activity comparable to that of oxycodone in hot-plate latency and acetic-acid writhing models. NKTR-181 was distinguishable from oxycodone by its reduced abuse potential in self-administration and progressive-ratio break point models, with behavioral effects similar to those of saline, as well as reduced CNS side effects as measured by the modified Irwin test. The in vitro and in vivo studies presented here demonstrate that NKTR-181 is the first selective mu-opioid agonist to combine analgesic efficacy and reduced abuse liability through the alteration of brain-entry kinetics. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  18. 21 CFR 346.16 - Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients. 346.16 Section 346.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Ingredients § 346.16 Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients. The active ingredient of the...

  19. 21 CFR 346.16 - Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients. 346.16 Section 346.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Ingredients § 346.16 Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients. The active ingredient of the...

  20. Analgesics use and ESRD in younger age: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    van der Woude, Fokke J; Heinemann, Lothar AJ; Graf, Helmut; Lewis, Michael; Moehner, Sabine; Assmann, Anita; Kühl-Habich, Doerthe

    2007-01-01

    Background An ad hoc peer-review committee was jointly appointed by Drug Authorities and Industry in Germany, Austria and Switzerland in 1999/2000 to review the evidence for a causal relation between phenacetin-free analgesics and nephropathy. The committee found the evidence as inconclusive and requested a new case-control study of adequate design. Methods We performed a population-based case-control study with incident cases of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) under the age of 50 years and four age and sex-matched neighborhood controls in 170 dialysis centers (153 in Germany, and 17 in Austria) from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2004. Data on lifetime medical history, risk factors, treatment, job exposure and intake of analgesics were obtained in a standardized face-to-face interview using memory aids to enhance accuracy. Study design, study performance, analysis plan, and study report were approved by an independent international advisory committee and by the Drug Authorities involved. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were performed. Results The analysis included 907 cases and 3,622 controls who had never used phenacetin-containing analgesics in their lifetime. The use of high cumulative lifetime dose (3rd tertile) of analgesics in the period up to five years before dialysis was not associated with later ESRD. Adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were 0.8 (0.7 – 1.0) and 1.0 (0.8 – 1.3) for ever- compared with no or low use and high use compared with low use, respectively. The same results were found for all analgesics and for mono-, and combination preparations with and without caffeine. No increased risk was shown in analyses stratifying for dose and duration. Dose-response analyses showed that analgesic use was not associated with an increased risk for ESRD up to 3.5 kg cumulative lifetime dose (98 % of the cases with ESRD). While the large subgroup of users with a lifetime dose up to 0.5 kg (278 cases and 1365 controls) showed a

  1. Analgesic activity of a triterpene isolated from Scoparia dulcis L. (Vassourinha).

    PubMed

    Freire, S M; Torres, L M; Roque, N F; Souccar, C; Lapa, A J

    1991-01-01

    Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of water (WE) and ethanolic (EE) extracts of Scoparia dulcis L. were investigated in rats and mice, and compared to the effects induced by Glutinol, a triterpene isolated by purification of EE. Oral administration (p.o.) of either WE or EE (up to 2 g/kg) did not alter the normal spontaneous activity of mice and rats. The sleeping time induced by sodium pentobarbital (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was prolonged by 2 fold in mice pretreated with 0.5 g/kg EE, p.o. Neither extract altered the tail flick response of mice in immersion test, but previous administration of EE (0.5 g/kg, p.o.) reduced writhings induced by 0.8% acetic acid (0.1 ml/10 g, i.p.) in mice by 47%. EE (0.5 and 1 g/kg, p.o.) inhibited the paw edema induced by carrageenan in rats by respectively 46% and 58% after 2 h, being ineffective on the paw edema induced by dextran. No significant analgesic or anti-edema effects were detected in animals pretreated with WE (1 g/kg, p.o.). Administration of Glutinol (30 mg/kg, p.o.) reduced writhing induced by acetic acid in mice by 40% and the carrageenan induced paw edema in rats by 73%. The results indicate that the analgesic activity of S. dulcis L. may be explained by an anti-inflammatory activity probably related to the triterpene Glutinol.

  2. Non-analgesic effects of opioids: opioids and the endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Jennifer A; Opper, Susan E; Agarwal, Sonali; Fibuch, Eugene E

    2012-01-01

    Opioids are among the oldest known and most widely used analgesics. The application of opioids has expanded over the last few decades, especially in the treatment of chronic non-malignant pain. This upsurge in opioid use has been accompanied by the increasingly recognized occurrence of opioid-associated endocrinopathy. This may arise after exposure to enteral, parenteral, or neuraxial opioids. Opioid-associated endocrinopathy consists primarily of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis or hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction and may manifest with symptoms of hypogonadism, adrenal dysfunction, and other hormonal disturbances. Additionally, opioid related endocrine dysfunction may be coupled with such disorders as osteoporosis and mood disturbances including depression. Undesirable changes in pain sensitivity such as opioid-induced hyperalgesia, and reduced potency of opioid analgesia may also be potential consequences of chronic opioid consumption. Few studies to date have been able to establish what degree of opioid exposure, in terms of dose or duration of therapy, may predispose patients to opioid-associated endocrinopathy. This article will review the currently available literature concerning opioid-associated endocrinopathy and will provide recommendations for the evaluation, monitoring, and management of opioid-associated endocrinopathy and its other accompanying undesired effects.

  3. Pharmacology of kratom: an emerging botanical agent with stimulant, analgesic and opioid-like effects.

    PubMed

    Prozialeck, Walter C; Jivan, Jateen K; Andurkar, Shridhar V

    2012-12-01

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a plant indigenous to Thailand and Southeast Asia. Kratom leaves produce complex stimulant and opioid-like analgesic effects. In Asia, kratom has been used to stave off fatigue and to manage pain, diarrhea, cough, and opioid withdrawal. Recently, kratom has become widely available in the United States and Europe by means of smoke shops and the Internet. Analyses of the medical literature and select Internet sites indicate that individuals in the United States are increasingly using kratom for the self-management of pain and opioid withdrawal. Kratom contains pharmacologically active constituents, most notably mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. Kratom is illegal in many countries. Although it is still legal in the United States, the US Drug Enforcement Administration has placed kratom on its "Drugs and Chemicals of Concern" list. Physicians should be aware of the availability, user habits, and health effects of kratom. Further research on the therapeutic uses, toxic effects, and abuse potential of kratom and its constituent compounds are needed.

  4. Supraspinally administered agmatine prevents the development of supraspinal morphine analgesic tolerance.

    PubMed

    Kitto, Kelley F; Fairbanks, Carolyn A

    2006-04-24

    We have determined the effect of intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered decarboxylated arginine (agmatine) on supraspinally induced chronic morphine analgesic tolerance. Mice pre-treated with a schedule of chronic i.c.v administration of morphine (10 nmol, b.i.d. 3 days) show a 12-fold reduction in the potency of acutely administered i.c.v morphine compared to saline injected controls. Co-administration of agmatine (10 nmol) with one of the two daily morphine injections completely prevents the reduction in i.c.v morphine analgesia. Mice injected with agmatine once daily (but no morphine) do not show a increase in morphine analgesic potency relative to saline controls, indicating that a mere potentiation of acute morphine analgesia cannot account for the agmatine-mediated anti-tolerance effect in those mice subjected to the morphine tolerance induction schedule. These observations agree with previous reports that systemically and intrathecally administered agmatine prevent opioid tolerance, and extend these results to include a supraspinal site of action.

  5. Analgesic, diuretic, and anti-inflammatory principle from Scoparia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, M; Shikha, H A; Sadhu, S K; Rahman, M T; Datta, B K

    2001-08-01

    Scoparinol, a diterpene, isolated from Scoparia dulcis showed significant analgesic (p < 0.001) and anti-inflammatory activity (p < 0.01) in animals. A sedative action of scoparinol was demonstrated by a marked potentiation of pentobarbital-induced sedation with a significant effect on both onset and duration of sleep (p < 0.05). Measurement of urine volume after administration of scoparinol indicated its significant diuretic action.

  6. A conservative method of testing whether combination analgesics produce additive or synergistic effects using evidence from acute pain and migraine.

    PubMed

    Moore, R A; Derry, C J; Derry, S; Straube, S; McQuay, H J

    2012-04-01

    Fixed-dose combination analgesics are used widely, and available both on prescription and over-the-counter. Combination drugs should provide more analgesia than with any single drug in the combination, but there is no evidence in humans about whether oral combinations have just additive effects, or are synergistic or even subadditive. We suggest that the measured result for the combination would be the summation of the absolute benefit increase (effect of active drug minus effect of placebo) of each component of a combination if effects were (merely) additive, and greater than the sum of the absolute benefits if they were synergistic. We tested measured effects of combination analgesics against the sum of the absolute benefits in acute pain and migraine using meta-analysis where individual components and combinations were tested against placebo in the same trials, and verified the result with meta-analyses where individual components and combinations were tested against placebo in different trials. Results showed that expected numbers needed to treat (NNT) for additive effects were generally within the 95% confidence interval of measured NNTs. This was true for combinations of paracetamol plus ibuprofen and paracetamol plus opioids in acute pain, and naproxen plus sumatriptan in migraine, but not where efficacy was very low or very high, nor combinations of paracetamol plus dextropropoxyphene. There was no evidence of synergy, defined as supra-additive effects. © 2011 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  7. Design, recruitment outcomes, and sample characteristics of the Strategies for Prescribing Analgesics Comparative Effectiveness (SPACE) trial.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Erin E; Jensen, Agnes C; Nugent, Sean; DeRonne, Beth; Rutks, Indulis; Leverty, David; Gravely, Amy; Noorbaloochi, Siamak; Bair, Matthew J; Kroenke, Kurt

    2017-11-01

    This manuscript describes the study protocol, recruitment outcomes, and baseline participant characteristics for the Strategies for Prescribing Analgesics Comparative Effectiveness (SPACE) trial. SPACE is a pragmatic randomized comparative effectiveness trial conducted in multiple VA primary care clinics within one VA health care system. The objective was to compare benefits and harms of opioid therapy versus non-opioid medication therapy over 12months among patients with moderate-to-severe chronic back pain or hip/knee osteoarthritis pain despite analgesic therapy; patients already receiving regular opioid therapy were excluded. Key design features include comparing two clinically-relevant medication interventions, pragmatic eligibility criteria, and flexible treat-to-target interventions. Screening, recruitment and study enrollment were conducted over 31months. A total of 4491 patients were contacted for eligibility screening; 53.1% were ineligible, 41.0% refused, and 5.9% enrolled. The most common reasons for ineligibility were not meeting pain location and severity criteria. The most common study-specific reasons for refusal were preference for no opioid use and preference for no pain medications. Of 265 enrolled patients, 25 withdrew before randomization. Of 240 randomized patients, 87.9% were male, 84.1% were white, and age range was 21-80years. Past-year mental health diagnoses were 28.3% depression, 17% anxiety, 9.4% PTSD, 7.9% alcohol use disorder, and 2.6% drug use disorder. In conclusion, although recruitment for this trial was challenging, characteristics of enrolled participants suggest we were successful in recruiting patients similar to those prescribed opioid therapy in usual care. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Analgesic efficacy of lysine clonixinate plus tramadol versus tramadol in multiple doses following impacted third molar surgery.

    PubMed

    Perez-Urizar, J; Martínez-Rider, R; Torres-Roque, I; Garrocho-Rangel, A; Pozos-Guillen, A

    2014-03-01

    This study compared the analgesic and anti-inflammatory efficacy, trismus control, and tolerability of the combination of lysine clonixinate and tramadol (LCT) versus tramadol (T) alone after surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars. This study was a double-blind, randomized clinical trial, including two study groups of 20 patients each, who exhibited acute pain subsequent to surgical extraction of two mandibular third molars. Pain intensity was quantified over a 96-h period using a visual analogue scale and a 5-point verbal rating scale. Secondary indicators of analgesic and anti-inflammatory efficacy, trismus control, and tolerability were determined. Patients administered LCT exhibited better therapeutic effects that those administered T. Fifty percent of patients in the LCT group rated this therapy as 'excellent analgesia' compared with only 10% in the T group. The onset of the analgesic effect of LCT was significantly faster, without any therapeutic failures. There were no significant differences between the groups with regard to anti-inflammatory effect or trismus. The results of this study suggest that the postsurgical analgesic efficacy of LCT in combination (LC 125 mg + T 25 mg) is superior to that obtained with T alone, administered at the standard dose of 50 mg, for up to 96 h after the extraction of both impacted mandibular third molars. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Analgesic Efficacy of Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Agents (NSAIDs) in Patients Undergoing Cesarean Deliveries: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Angela M; Nami, Nina F; Wu, Christopher L; Murphy, Jamie D

    Postoperative pain after cesarean delivery, which accounts for approximately 1 in 3 live births in the United States, can be severe in many patients. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) are potent analgesics that are effective in the treatment of postoperative pain. In this meta-analysis, we assessed the analgesic efficacy of NSAIDs in postoperative cesarean delivery patients. An electronic literature search of the Library of Medicine's PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL, Scopus, and EMBASE databases was conducted in May 2013 and updated in January 2015 (Appendix, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/AAP/A174). Searches were limited to randomized controlled trials. The primary outcome variable was visual analog scale or numerical rating scale pain scores. Secondary outcomes included cumulative postoperative opioid consumption and opioid-related adverse effects (drowsiness/sedation, nausea, and vomiting). Data extraction was performed independently by 2 reviewers. Extracted data were input into Review Manager. Twenty-two randomized controlled trials compared a NSAID (n = 639) to a control (n = 674). Patients in the NSAID group versus control reported lower pain scores at 12 hours (P = 0.003) and at 24 hours (P < 0.001). Subgroup analysis showed a significant difference in pain scores at 24 hours, with patients receiving NSAIDs via intravenous/intramuscular (P < 0.001) route, but not the oral (P = 0.39) or rectal routes (P = 0.99). Significantly lower average pain scores were reported for pain with movement at 24 hours in the NSAID group (P = 0.001). Patients in the NSAID group versus controls consumed significantly less opioids (P < 0.001) and had significantly less drowsiness/sedation (P = 0.03), but there was no significant difference between the groups with regard to nausea or vomiting (P = 0.48 and P = 0.17, respectively). The perioperative use of NSAIDs in cesarean delivery patients will result in a significantly lower pain scores, less opioid

  10. Evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of a combination of tramadol-ibuprofen in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Suthakaran, Chidambarann; Kayalvizhi, Muniyagounder K; Nithya, Karnam; Raja, Thozhudalangudy Ar

    2017-01-01

    Pain is the major concern of patients attending dental clinics, and satisfactory pain relief has always been difficult to achieve. Since the pathophysiology of pain is a complex, central and peripheral nervous system process, combined analgesic regimens with different mechanisms of action as a multimodal approach are becoming popular among the clinicians and dentists. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of ibuprofen and tramadol when used alone or in combination in animal models of pain and inflammation. The animals were divided into six groups with six animals in each group. Analgesic activity was assessed by hot plate method in rats and by acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice. Paw edema model in rats after induction with 0.1 mL of 1% carrageenan was used to assess the anti-inflammatory activity. Analysis of variance followed by Tukey's honestly significant difference post hoc test was used for statistical analysis. Combined use of tramadol and ibuprofen provided enhanced analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects in animal models of pain and inflammation.

  11. Bulgarian propolis induces analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects in mice and inhibits in vitro contraction of airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Paulino, Niraldo; Dantas, Andreia Pires; Bankova, Vassya; Longhi, Daniela Taggliari; Scremin, Amarilis; de Castro, Solange Lisboa; Calixto, João Batista

    2003-11-01

    Propolis is a bee product, which has long been used in folk medicine for the management of different diseases. In this study we evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of a standard ethanolic extract of Bulgarian propolis (Et-Blg) in mice and its in vitro effect on airway smooth muscle. Et-Blg inhibited acetic acid-induced abdominal contortions with an ID(50) = 7.4 +/- 0.7 mg. kg(-1). In the formalin test, the extract caused a significant reduction in pain in mice treated with 100 mg. kg(-1) Et-Blg during the neurogenic phase and for the inflammatory phase with all doses of the extract, with an ID(50) = 2.5 +/- 0.4 mg. kg(-1). Et-Blg inhibited also the capsaicin-induced ear edema in mice; however, this extract was ineffective when assessed in the tail-flick and hot-plate thermal assays. The analgesic effect of Et-Blg was associated with the inhibition of inflammatory responses and not to a simple irritation of nervous terminals. In vitro, this extract inhibited the contraction of trachea smooth muscle induced by histamine (IC(50) = 50 +/- 5 microg. mL(-1)), capsaicin (IC(50) = 26.8 +/- 3 microg. mL(-1)), 80 mM KCl (IC(50) = 27.8 +/- 3 microg. mL(-1)), and carbachol (IC(50) = 54 +/- 2 microg. mL(-1)).

  12. The association between adolescent and parental use of non-prescription analgesics for headache and other somatic pain - A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hasseleid, Synva Nesheim; Clench-Aas, Jocelyne; Raanaas, Ruth Kjærsti; Lundqvist, Christofer

    2017-07-01

    Over the last years, concern has been expressed about adolescents' possible liberal attitude towards - and use of - non-prescription analgesics. A high consumption of analgesics is unfortunate as it may lead to various harmful effects and worsening of headache. In order to address this challenge, it is necessary to achieve a more extensive knowledge about adolescent consumption. The main aim of this study was to examine the association between adolescent and parental use of non-prescription analgesics, taking into account headache as well as other somatic pain. The effects of parental prescription analgesics use was a secondary aim. The study is based on data from two cross-sectional health studies conducted in 2005 and 2012 in Norway, including 646 adolescents and an accompanying parent. By using sample weights, the final weighted sample used in the analysis was 1326. Data was collected through postal questionnaires to parents and adolescents as well as parental telephone interviews. Questionnaires included questions on different pain locations and the pain for each location was graded according to how troubling the pain was. Medication data on prescription and non-prescription analgesics was from telephone interviews and was quantified based on the pattern over the past 4 weeks. Multivariate logistic regression models and complex samples analyses were used. 20% of adolescents were reported as using non-prescription analgesics during the previous 4 weeks. Girls were more often reported to use non-prescription analgesics than boys. Headache and all other somatic pain locations except back pain were reported more frequently among girls while boys more frequently reported back pain. There was a clear association between the use of non-prescription analgesics and headache with 34% of adolescents with headache using non-prescription analgesics versus 19% of adolescents with other somatic pain and 14% of adolescents not reporting pain. Among adolescents reporting

  13. Analgesic, anticonvulsant and antioxidant activities of 3-[4-(3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-piperazin-1-yl]-dihydrofuran-2-one dihydrochloride in mice.

    PubMed

    Salat, Kinga; Moniczewski, Andrzej; Salat, Robert; Janaszek, Monika; Filipek, Barbara; Malawska, Barbara; Wieckowski, Krzysztof

    2012-03-01

    Recently we have shown that 3-[4-(3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-piperazin-1-yl]-dihydrofuran-2-one dihydrochloride (LPP1) is an antinociceptive and local anesthetic agent in rodents. Below an extended study of the pharmacological activity of LPP1 is described. In vitro LPP1 has no affinity for GABA(A), opioidergic μ and serotonergic 5-HT(1A) receptors. The total antioxidant capacity of LPP1 (1-10mM) measured as ABTS radical cation-scavenging activity showed that LPP1 has dose-dependent antioxidant properties in vitro. Low plasma concentration of this compound detected by means of HPLC method 30min after its intraperitoneal administration suggests a rapid conversion to metabolite(s) which may be responsible for its analgesic and anticonvulsant activities in vivo. In vivo the compound's influence on the electroconvulsive threshold and its activity in the maximal electroshock seizure test (MES) were evaluated. The results demonstrated that LPP1 had an anticonvulsant activity in the MES model (ED(50)=112mg/kg) and at a dose of 50mg/kg was able to elevate the electroconvulsive threshold for 8mA as compared to the vehicle-treated mice. The analgesic activity of LPP1 was investigated in the acetic acid-induced writhing test in two groups of mice: animals with sensory C-fibers ablated, and mice with C-fibers unimpaired. It proved the potent activity of this compound in both groups (approximately 85% as compared to the vehicle-treated mice). The adverse effects of LPP1 were evaluated as acute toxicity (LD(50)=747.8mg/kg) and motor coordination impairments in the rotarod and chimney tests. The results from these tests show that LPP1 at doses higher than 100mg/kg is likely to impair the motor performance of experimental animals. Concluding, LPP1 is an analgesic and anticonvulsant compound which has antioxidant properties in vitro. Further studies are necessary to assess whether the antioxidant activity and the receptor profiling demonstrated in vitro can be confirmed for its

  14. Type and location of fluorescent probes incorporated into the potent mu-opioid peptide [Dmt]DALDA affect potency, receptor selectivity and intrinsic efficacy.

    PubMed

    Schiller, P W; Berezowska, I; Weltrowska, G; Chen, H; Lemieux, C; Chung, N N

    2005-06-01

    The dermorphin-derived tetrapeptide H-Dmt-d-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH(2) (Dmt = 2',6'-dimethyltyrosine) ([Dmt(1)]DALDA) is a highly potent and selective mu-opioid agonist capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier and producing a potent, centrally mediated analgesic effect when given systemically. For the purpose of biodistribution studies by fluorescence techniques, [Dmt(1)]DALDA analogues containing various fluorescent labels [dansyl, anthraniloyl (atn), fluorescein, or 6-dimethylamino-2'-naphthoyl] in several different locations of the peptide were synthesized and characterized in vitro in the guinea-pig ileum and mouse vas deferens assays, and in mu-, delta- and kappa-opioid receptor-binding assays. The analogues showed various degrees of mu receptor-binding selectivity, but all of them were less mu-selective than the [Dmt(1)]DALDA parent peptide. Most analogues retained potent, full mu-agonist activity, except for one with fluorescein attached at the C-terminus (3a) (partial mu-agonist) and one containing beta-(6'-dimethylamino-2'-naphthoyl)alanine (aladan) in place of Phe(3) (4) (mu- and kappa-antagonist). The obtained data indicate that the receptor-binding affinity, receptor selectivity and intrinsic efficacy of the prepared analogues vary very significantly, depending on the type of fluorescent label used and on its location in the peptide. The results suggest that the biological activity profile of fluorescence-labeled peptide analogues should always be carefully determined prior to their use in biodistribution studies or other studies. One of the analogues containing the atn group (2a) proved highly useful in a study of cellular uptake and intracellular distribution by confocal laser scanning microscopy.

  15. Parameter-specific analgesic effects of electroacupuncture mediated by degree of regulation TRPV1 and P2X3 in inflammatory pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Fang, J Q; Du, J Y; Fang, J F; Xiao, T; Le, X Q; Pan, N F; Yu, J; Liu, B Y

    2018-05-01

    Observing the parameter-specific anti-hyperalgesic effects of EA with different stimulation times and frequencies on painful hyperalgesia mediated by the level of TRPV1 and P2X3 expression in DRG after CFA injection. The model was induced by the injection of CFA in each rat's right hind paw. EA treatment was applied to the bilateral ST36 and BL60. Paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) and paw withdrawal latency (PWL) were tested with Von Frey filaments and the radiant heat source of the test instrument, respectively. TRPV1 and P2X3 expressions were measured by immunofluorescence and western blot. αβ-meATP and capsaicine combined with EA were further utilized to investigate the change in PWL. Different stimulation times (20, 30, 45 min) combined with different frequencies (2 Hz, 100 Hz, 2/100 Hz) of EA have analgesic effects on the PWT and PWL; however, the level of the hypoalgesic efficacy of EA was primarily associated with EA frequency. The analgesic effect of EA was better at 100 Hz than at 2 Hz. The level of regulation of 100 Hz EA on TRPV1 and P2X3 in DRG was greater than that of 2 Hz. Furthermore, both TRPV1 agonist and P2X3 agonist may impair the level of EA analgesia. EA has a parameter-specific effect on chronic inflammatory pain relief, which primarily depend on the stimulation frequency and not on the stimulation time at a certain stimulation time. The parameter-specific analgesic effect of EA is at least partially related to mediation of the protein level of TRPV1 and P2X3 expression in DRG of CFA rats. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Role of Sigma-1 Receptor/p38 MAPK Inhibition in Acupoint Catgut Embedding-Mediated Analgesic Effects in Complete Freund's Adjuvant-Induced Inflammatory Pain.

    PubMed

    Du, Kairong; Wang, Xue; Chi, Laiting; Li, Wenzhi

    2017-08-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum chaperone protein Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1 R) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are involved in the mechanism of pain. Acupoint stimulation exerts an exact antihyperalgesic effect in inflammatory pain. However, whether Sig-1 R and MAPKs are associated with the acupoint stimulation-induced analgesic effects is not clear. This study investigated the analgesic effect of acupoint catgut embedding (ACE) and the inhibition of Sig-1 R and MAPKs in ACE analgesia. Rats were prepared with intrathecal catheter implantation. ACE was applied to bilateral "Kunlun" (BL60), "Zusanli" (ST36), and "Sanyinjiao" (SP6) acupoints in the rat model of inflammatory pain (complete Freund's adjuvant [CFA] intraplantar injection). Then, Sig-1R agonist PRE084 or saline was intrathecally given daily. The paw withdrawal thresholds and paw edema were measured before CFA injection and at 1, 3, and 5 day after CFA injection. Western bolt was used to evaluate the protein expression of spinal Sig-1R, p38MAPK, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and immunohistochemistry of Sig-1R was detected at 1, 3, and 5 days after CFA injection. ACE exhibited specific analgesic effects. ACE increased paw withdrawal thresholds and markedly decreased CFA-induced paw edema at 1, 3, and 5 days. ACE downregulated the protein expression of Sig-1R, which was increased significantly at 1, 3, and 5 days after CFA injection. ACE decreased the expression of p38 MAPK and ERK at 1 and 3 days but not at 5 days. However, an injection of Sig-1R agonist PRE084 markedly reversed these alterations, except ERK expression. The present study demonstrated that ACE exhibited antihyperalgesic effects via the inhibition of the Sig-1R that modulated p38 MAPK, but not ERK, expression in the CFA-induced inflammatory pain model in rats.

  17. Adverse selection? A multi-dimensional profile of people dispensed opioid analgesics for persistent non-cancer pain.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Kris D; Kemp, Anna; McLachlan, Andrew J; Blyth, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates utilisation patterns for prescription opioid analgesics in the Australian community and how these are associated with a framework of individual-level factors related to healthcare use. Self-reported demographic and health information from participants in the 45 and Up Study cohort were linked to pharmaceutical claims from 2006-2009. Participants comprised 19,816 people with ≥1 opioid analgesic dispensing in the 12-months after recruitment to the cohort and 79,882 people not dispensed opioid analgesics. All participants were aged ≥45 years, were social security pharmaceutical beneficiaries, with no history of cancer. People dispensed opioid analgesics were classified as having acute (dispensing period <90 days), episodic (≥90 days and <3 'authority' prescriptions for increased quantity supply) or long-term treatment (≥90 days and ≥3 authority prescriptions). Of participants dispensed opioid analgesic 52% received acute treatment, 25% episodic treatment and 23% long-term treatment. People dispensed opioid analgesics long-term had an average of 14.9 opioid analgesic prescriptions/year from 2.0 doctors compared with 1.5 prescriptions from 1.1 doctors for people receiving acute treatment. People dispensed opioid analgesics reported more need-related factors such as poorer physical functioning and higher psychological distress. Long-term users were more likely to have access-related factors such as low-income and living outside major cities. After simultaneous adjustment, association with predisposing health factors and access diminished, but indicators of need such as osteoarthritis treatment, paracetamol use, and poor physical function were the strongest predictors for all opioid analgesic users. People dispensed opioid analgesics were in poorer health, reported higher levels of distress and poorer functioning than people not receiving opioid analgesics. Varying dispensing profiles were evident among people dispensed opioid analgesics

  18. Adverse Selection? A Multi-Dimensional Profile of People Dispensed Opioid Analgesics for Persistent Non-Cancer Pain

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Kris D.; Kemp, Anna; McLachlan, Andrew J.; Blyth, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study investigates utilisation patterns for prescription opioid analgesics in the Australian community and how these are associated with a framework of individual-level factors related to healthcare use. Methods Self-reported demographic and health information from participants in the 45 and Up Study cohort were linked to pharmaceutical claims from 2006–2009. Participants comprised 19,816 people with ≥1 opioid analgesic dispensing in the 12-months after recruitment to the cohort and 79,882 people not dispensed opioid analgesics. All participants were aged ≥45 years, were social security pharmaceutical beneficiaries, with no history of cancer. People dispensed opioid analgesics were classified as having acute (dispensing period <90 days), episodic (≥90 days and <3 ‘authority’ prescriptions for increased quantity supply) or long-term treatment (≥90 days and ≥3 authority prescriptions). Results Of participants dispensed opioid analgesic 52% received acute treatment, 25% episodic treatment and 23% long-term treatment. People dispensed opioid analgesics long-term had an average of 14.9 opioid analgesic prescriptions/year from 2.0 doctors compared with 1.5 prescriptions from 1.1 doctors for people receiving acute treatment. People dispensed opioid analgesics reported more need-related factors such as poorer physical functioning and higher psychological distress. Long-term users were more likely to have access-related factors such as low-income and living outside major cities. After simultaneous adjustment, association with predisposing health factors and access diminished, but indicators of need such as osteoarthritis treatment, paracetamol use, and poor physical function were the strongest predictors for all opioid analgesic users. Conclusions People dispensed opioid analgesics were in poorer health, reported higher levels of distress and poorer functioning than people not receiving opioid analgesics. Varying dispensing profiles were

  19. Seeing an Embodied Virtual Hand is Analgesic Contingent on Colocation.

    PubMed

    Nierula, Birgit; Martini, Matteo; Matamala-Gomez, Marta; Slater, Mel; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V

    2017-06-01

    Seeing one's own body has been reported to have analgesic properties. Analgesia has also been described when seeing an embodied virtual body colocated with the real one. However, there is controversy regarding whether this effect holds true when seeing an illusory-owned body part, such as during the rubber-hand illusion. A critical difference between these paradigms is the distance between the real and surrogate body part. Colocation of the real and surrogate arm is possible in an immersive virtual environment, but not during illusory ownership of a rubber arm. The present study aimed at testing whether the distance between a real and a virtual arm can explain such differences in terms of pain modulation. Using a paradigm of embodiment of a virtual body allowed us to evaluate heat pain thresholds at colocation and at a 30-cm distance between the real and the virtual arm. We observed a significantly higher heat pain threshold at colocation than at a 30-cm distance. The analgesic effects of seeing a virtual colocated arm were eliminated by increasing the distance between the real and the virtual arm, which explains why seeing an illusorily owned rubber arm does not consistently result in analgesia. These findings are relevant for the use of virtual reality in pain management. Looking at a virtual body has analgesic properties similar to looking at one's real body. We identify the importance of colocation between a real and a surrogate body for this to occur and thereby resolve a scientific controversy. This information is useful for exploiting immersive virtual reality in pain management. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. A comparison of the effectiveness of an opioid analgesic and a nonpharmacologic intervention to improve incentive spirometry volumes.

    PubMed

    Edelen, Cheryl; Perlow, Michael

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of opioid analgesics and relaxation as interventions for incentive spirometry in postcardiovascular surgery patients. With the use of incentive spirometry change scores from pre- to posttreatment, 72 patients received either relaxation, opioid analgesia, or no intervention. Pre- to posttreatment differences in achieved spirometry volumes were significantly different for the 3 groups (F[2, 69] = 7.32; p =.002), whereas no difference in spirometry volume was found between the opioid and relaxation groups. Relaxation was as effective as opioid analgesia in permitting postcardiovascular surgical patients to deep breathe.

  1. Unmasking the Effect of Analgesics on Endodontic Diagnosis Using a Novel Bite Force Sensor Device: A Prospective, Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Kishnani, Sushil; Saha, Suparna Ganguly; Bhardwaj, Anuj; Dubey, Sandeep; Saha, Mainak; Kala, Shubham; Jain, Sohini; Narwani, Shweta

    2016-10-01

    A definitive diagnosis is of primary importance before initiating any endodontic treatment; yet, there are occasions when the dental professional is unable to accurately reproduce the patient's chief complaint, as it can pose a dilemma and may require consideration of multiple variables in order to reach an accurate diagnosis. So to overcome this problem, a methodical approach in providing endodontic treatment should be implemented which includes diagnosis, definitive dental treatment and adjunctive drug therapy, known as the "3D" strategy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible "masking" effect of these analgesics on endodontic diagnosis using a novel bite force sensor device. A total of 90 patients with endodontic pain were selected and they were given either a placebo or 400 mg ibuprofen (brufen) or 50mg diclofenac sodium (voveron). Both patients and operators were completely blinded to the drugs administered. Bite force tolerance values were noted before and one hour after administration of medication using the self designed bite force sensor. The pre- and post-bite force tolerance values were tabulated for both contralateral and affected tooth. For the affected tooth, there was statistically significant difference between pre- and post-bite force tolerance values in Group I (i.e., ibuprofen) and Group II (i.e., diclofenac sodium) (p<0.05) with no significant difference observed in Group III (placebo). The easily available over the counter self administered analgesics in addition to providing symptomatic relief to patients suffering from symptomatic apical periodontitis may also cloud the definitive diagnosis of the clinician, thus jeopardising the treatment plan. The self designed bite force sensor was effective in arriving at a definitive diagnosis in teeth with chronic irreversible pulpitis with symptomatic apical periodontitis, where the allodynia has been camouflaged by the use of analgesics like ibuprofen and diclofenac sodium.

  2. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of UP1304, a botanical composite containing standardized extracts of Curcuma longa and Morus alba.

    PubMed

    Yimam, Mesfin; Lee, Young-Chul; Moore, Breanna; Jiao, Ping; Hong, Mei; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Chu, Min; Brownell, Lidia; Jia, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Though the initial etiologies of arthritis are multifactorial, clinically, patients share the prime complaints of the disease, pain. Here the authors assessed the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of UP1304, a composite that contains a standardized blend of extracts from the rhizome of Curcuma longa and the root bark of Morus alba, on rats with carrageenan-induced paw edema. A plant library was screened for bradykinin receptor antagonists. In vivo, the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of the standardized composite, UP1304, were evaluated in rats with carrageenan-induced paw edema using oral dose ranges of 100-400 mg/kg. Ibuprofen, at a dose of 200 mg/kg, was used as a reference compound. In vitro, cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibition assays were performed to evaluate the degree of inflammation. Statistically significant improvements in pain resistance and paw edema suppression were observed in animals treated with UP1304, when compared to vehicle-treated rats. Results from the highest dose of UP1304 (400 mg/kg) were similar to those achieved by ibuprofen treatment at 200 mg/kg. In vitro, UP1304 showed dose-dependent inhibition of the enzymatic activities of COX and LOX. A half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 9.6 μg/mL for bradykinin B1 inhibition was calculated for the organic extract of C. longa. Curcumin showed Ki values of 2.73 and 58 μg/mL for bradykinin receptors B1 and B2, respectively. Data presented here suggest that UP1304, analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent of botanical origin, acted as a bradykinin receptor B1 and B2 antagonist, and inhibited COX and LOX enzyme activities. This compound should be considered for the management of symptoms associated with arthritis.

  3. Analgesic effects of tramadol, carprofen or multimodal analgesia in rats undergoing ventral laparotomy.

    PubMed

    Zegre Cannon, Coralie; Kissling, Grace E; Goulding, David R; King-Herbert, Angela P; Blankenship-Paris, Terry

    2011-03-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated the analgesic efficacy of tramadol (an opioid-like analgesic), carprofen (a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug) and a combination of both drugs (multimodal therapy) in a rat laparotomy model. The authors randomly assigned rats to undergo either surgery (abdominal laparotomy with visceral manipulation and anesthesia) or anesthesia only. Rats in each group were treated with tramadol (12.5 mg per kg body weight), carprofen (5 mg per kg body weight), a combination of tramadol and carprofen (12.5 mg per kg body weight and 5 mg per kg body weight, respectively) or saline (anesthesia control group only; 5 mg per kg body weight). The authors administered analgesia 10 min before anesthesia, 4 h after surgery or (for the rats that received anesthesia only) anesthesia and 24 h after surgery or anesthesia. They measured locomotor activity, running wheel activity, feed and water consumption, body weight and fecal corticosterone concentration of each animal before and after surgery. Clinical observations were made after surgery or anesthesia to evaluate signs of pain and distress. The authors found that carprofen, tramadol and a combination of carprofen and tramadol were all acceptable analgesia regimens for a rat laparotomy model.

  4. [Comparison of the analgesic effect of interferential current (IFC) and TENS in patients with low back pain].

    PubMed

    Grabiańska, Ewa; Leśniewicz, Joanna; Pieszyński, Ireneusz; Kostka, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Electrotherapy, including theTENS and interferential current (IFC) is one of the most frequently used treatments in physical therapy in patients with low back pain. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of TENS and IFC on pain relief and to compare the analgesic efficacy of the two currents. Sixty patients aged 53.5 ± 12.5, with low back pain, were randomly divided into two groups: IFC (gr. I) and TENS (gr. II). Depending on the groups, patients were given series of ten 20-minute sessions using either IF orTENS currents. In all patients VAS and Laitinen modified scale were taken before and after treatment. After 2-weeks therapy there was improvement in the VAS and Laitinen scale (all components) in both groups, except for the part of the Laitinen scale on the reduction of activity in the group II (TENS). There was no statistically significant difference between the TENS and IF groups in reducing the intensity and other aspects of pain (frequency, pain medication and activity limitation) under the influence of therapy (p > 0.05). Interferential current and TENS therapy are effective for pain relief in patients with low back pain. The study showed equal analgesic efficacy of both treatments.

  5. The analgesic effects of intrathecal xylazine and detomidine in sheep and their antagonism with systemic atipamezole.

    PubMed

    Christina Haerdi-Landerer, M; Schlegel, Urs; Neiger-Aeschbacher, Gina

    2005-09-01

    To evaluate the analgesic and adverse side effects of intrathecal (IT) xylazine (XYL) and detomidine (DET) and the subsequent effects of two doses of intravenous (IV) atipamezole (ATI). Prospective, randomized, cross-over. Five adult healthy female sheep with mean body mass of 55 +/- 2.3 kg. Material and methods Each sheep underwent four treatments: 1) 50 microg kg(-1) XYL IT and 5 microg kg(-1) ATI IV, 2) 50 microg kg(-1) XYL IT and 2.5 microg kg(-1) ATI IV, 3) 10 microg kg(-1) DET IT and 5 microg kg(-1) ATI IV, 4) 10 microg kg(-1) DET IT and 2.5 microg kg(-1) ATI IV. Pain threshold (TH) was tested by applying pulsed and stepwise incremental direct current to the skin overlying the pastern. The current at the point of foot lift was recorded as the TH. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure, arterial oxygen (PO(2)) and carbon dioxide (PCO(2)) tensions were monitored. Outcomes were derived as differences between baseline assessment and measurements after treatment. Two-way anova was used to analyse drug effects, treatment differences between groups were examined with an F-test or Wilcoxon's rank sum test in case of non-parametric data distribution. p was set at 0.05. Both drugs increased the pain TH, caused small increases in PCO(2), and small decreases in HR, the latter was only significant for XYL recipients. Xylazine produced a significantly higher TH, more rapidly and for longer than DET. Atipamezole only significantly affected PaCO(2) in the XYL group 2. The pain TH was not affected in either group after IV ATI. At the doses used, IT XYL, and to a lesser extent DET, induced pastern analgesia. Atipamezole 5 microg kg(-1) IV antagonized some side effects without affecting analgesia. Intrathecal XYL may be useful as an analgesic in sheep. Its safety is increased because IV ATI antagonizes side effects, but not analgesia.

  6. Reimbursement of analgesics for chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Line; Hansen, Anneli Borge; Svendsen, Kristian; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Borchgrevink, Petter C; Fredheim, Olav Magnus S

    2012-11-27

    The prevalence of chronic non-malignant pain in Norway is between 24% and 30%. The proportion of the population using opioids for non-malignant pain on a long-term basis is around 1%. The purpose of our study was to investigate how many were prescribed analgesics on reimbursable prescription under reimbursement code -71 (chronic non-malignant pain) in 2009 and 2010, which analgesics were prescribed and whether prescribing practices were in accordance with national guidelines. We retrieved pseudonymised data from the National Prescription Database on all those who received drugs with reimbursement code -71 in 2009 and 2010. The data contain information on drug, dosage, formulation, reimbursement code and date of issue. 90,731 patients received reimbursement for drugs indicated for chronic non-malignant pain in 2010. Of these, 6,875 were given opioids, 33,242 received paracetamol, 25,865 non-steroid inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), 20,654 amitryptiline and 16,507 gabapentin. Oxycodone was the most frequently prescribed opioid, followed by buprenorphine, tramadol and codeine/paracetamol. Of those who were prescribed opioids, 4,047 (59%) received mainly slow-release opioids, 2,631 (38%) also received benzodiazepines and 2,418 (35%) received benzodiazepine-like sleep medications. The number of patients who received analgesics and opioids on reimbursable prescriptions was low compared to the proportion of the population with chronic pain and the proportion using opioids long-term. 38% of those reimbursed for opioids also used benzodiazepines, which is contrary to official Norwegian guidelines.

  7. Cohort Study of the Impact of High-Dose Opioid Analgesics on Overdose Mortality.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Nabarun; Funk, Michele Jonsson; Proescholdbell, Scott; Hirsch, Annie; Ribisl, Kurt M; Marshall, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies examining opioid dose and overdose risk provide limited granularity by milligram strength and instead rely on thresholds. We quantify dose-dependent overdose mortality over a large spectrum of clinically common doses. We also examine the contributions of benzodiazepines and extended release opioid formulations to mortality. Prospective observational cohort with one year follow-up. One year in one state (NC) using a controlled substances prescription monitoring program, with name-linked mortality data. Residential population of North Carolina (n = 9,560,234), with 2,182,374 opioid analgesic patients. Exposure was dispensed prescriptions of solid oral and transdermal opioid analgesics; person-years calculated using intent-to-treat principles. Outcome was overdose deaths involving opioid analgesics in a primary or additive role. Poisson models were created, implemented using generalized estimating equations. Opioid analgesics were dispensed to 22.8% of residents. Among licensed clinicians, 89.6% prescribed opioid analgesics, and 40.0% prescribed ER formulations. There were 629 overdose deaths, half of which had an opioid analgesic prescription active on the day of death. Of 2,182,374 patients prescribed opioids, 478 overdose deaths were reported (0.022% per year). Mortality rates increased gradually across the range of average daily milligrams of morphine equivalents. 80.0% of opioid analgesic patients also received benzodiazepines. Rates of overdose death among those co-dispensed benzodiazepines and opioid analgesics were ten times higher (7.0 per 10,000 person-years, 95 percent CI: 6.3, 7.8) than opioid analgesics alone (0.7 per 10,000 person years, 95 percent CI: 0.6, 0.9). Dose-dependent opioid overdose risk among patients increased gradually and did not show evidence of a distinct risk threshold. There is urgent need for guidance about combined classes of medicines to facilitate a better balance between pain relief and overdose risk. Published by

  8. Evaluation of analgesic activity of various extracts of Sida tiagii Bhandari.

    PubMed

    Kumawat, Ram Kumar; Kumar, Suresh; Sharma, Sunil

    2012-01-01

    Sida tiagii Bhandari mostly found in India and Pakistan which belongs to family Malvaceae, is traditionally used as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, sedative, anxiolytic, anti-seizure and anti-platelet. The present study was done to explore the analgesic activity of various extracts of fruits of the plant Sida tiagii Bhandari. The grinded fruits were extracted with 90% ethanol and partitioned with n-hexane (n-hexane extract; HS) and ethyl acetate (ethyl acetate extract; EAS), successively. The residual ethanol fraction (residual ethanol extract; RES) was also prepared by drying on water bath separately. All three extracts were administered orally at a dose of 200 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of body weight. The analgesic activity of above extracts was evaluated by using acetic acid induced writhing, tail immersion and tail flick tests in Swiss albino mice. The EAS extract was found to reduce pain and RES extract of Sida tiagii B. was found to have good analgesic activity in comparison to other extracts.

  9. Prediction of Patient-Controlled Analgesic Consumption: A Multimodel Regression Tree Approach.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuh-Jyh; Ku, Tien-Hsiung; Yang, Yu-Hung; Shen, Jia-Ying

    2018-01-01

    Several factors contribute to individual variability in postoperative pain, therefore, individuals consume postoperative analgesics at different rates. Although many statistical studies have analyzed postoperative pain and analgesic consumption, most have identified only the correlation and have not subjected the statistical model to further tests in order to evaluate its predictive accuracy. In this study involving 3052 patients, a multistrategy computational approach was developed for analgesic consumption prediction. This approach uses data on patient-controlled analgesia demand behavior over time and combines clustering, classification, and regression to mitigate the limitations of current statistical models. Cross-validation results indicated that the proposed approach significantly outperforms various existing regression methods. Moreover, a comparison between the predictions by anesthesiologists and medical specialists and those of the computational approach for an independent test data set of 60 patients further evidenced the superiority of the computational approach in predicting analgesic consumption because it produced markedly lower root mean squared errors.

  10. Suppressive effect of electromagnetic field on analgesic activity of tramadol in rats.

    PubMed

    Bodera, P; Stankiewicz, W; Antkowiak, B; Paluch, M; Kieliszek,